Mortality as a measure of spatial and social disparties in development

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Title:
Mortality as a measure of spatial and social disparties in development a Venezuelan case study
Physical Description:
x, 186 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Caudill, William W., 1944-
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Mortality -- Statistics -- Venezuela   ( lcsh )
Economic indicators -- Venezuela   ( lcsh )
Social indicators -- Venezuela   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1989.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 173-185).
Statement of Responsibility:
by William W. Caudill.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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notis - AGZ5980
oclc - 21052637
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Full Text










MORTALITY AS A MEASURE
AND SOCIAL DISPARITIES IN
A VENEZUELAN CASE


WILLIAM


OF SPATIAL
DEVELOPMENT:
STUDY


CAUDILL,


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


TThTTWDCDO TV


nF F7 ~b Tnll


.













parents


William


and


Helen


Caudill,


who


instilled


me at


very


early


insatiable


curiosity


about


every


inch


thi


fascinating


world.












ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


A number


scholars,


geographers


and


non-geographers,


have


provided


invaluable


ass


instance,


guidance


and


inspiration


during


doctoral


chairman


program.


graduate


Cesar


committee,


owe


Caviedes,


great


the


debt,


only


his


America,


many-faceted


but


perspectives


unwavering


support


on geography


and


and


confidence


Latin


during


the


conduct


of this


research.


Drs.


Edward Malecki


and Stephen


Golant


have


also


provided


welcome


assistance.


A special


note


of gratitude


whose


goes


unceasing


to Dr.


efforts


Raymond


to further


Crist,


explore


Professor


and


Emeritus,


comprehend


world


have


been


an inspiration


me.


am most


especially


grateful


to Dr.


Charles


Wood


of the


Department


of Sociology,


with


whom


worked


closely


this


project,


not


only


for his


most patient assistance,


but


for the


infectious


enthusiasm


imparts


those


who


have


the


privelege


of working


with


him.


Transportation


costs


and


from


Venezuela


obtain


the


data


this


research


were


paid by


a Tinker


Foundation


Field


Research


Grant


awarded


1984.


In Venezuela,


many persons


graciously


offered


their time


and


effort


assist


me.


Each


member


the


staff


the






Estadistica


Informatica


(OCEI)


aided


one


time


another


was


Among


absolutely


them,


critical


Professor


the


Emilio


conduct


Osorio


of thi


assistance


research.


Among my Venezuelan


friends


, I offer very personal


thanks


the


Azara


family:


. and


Mrs


SAzara,


Maria,


and


Elena


only made


their


ass


distance


available


whenever


needed,


but


offered


their


most


sincere


friendship


and


moral


support.


am most


especially


indebted


parents,


William


and


Helen


. Caudill,


without


whom


work


would


not


have


been


possible.












TABLE


OF CONTENTS


PAGE


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


LIST


LIST


OF TABLES


vii


OF FIGURES


viii


ABSTRACT


CHAPTERS


INTRODUCTION


.**.........***.......**.....*.......C 1


MORTALITY


AS A SOCIAL


INDICATOR


Introduction
Evolution
Leading Pa
Neoclassical
Theoretica
The Orthod
Dispar
Critique o
Political Ec
Paradi
Conceptual


Spat
Cont
Crit

Worl
Growth


ial
ribu
ique
Para
d-Sy
-Wit
Emph


Pertinent
Measuring
Economi
Other S
Demograph
Indicat
Mortali


of
rad
or
1 O
ox


the Concept of Development
igms of Development ...........
Orthodox Economic Paradigms ..
rigins and Conceptual Framework
Perspective and Regional


ities ....
f Orthodox
onomy or H
gms .. ...
Framework


Impli
tions
of E
digms
stems
h-Equ
asis
Featu
Devel
and


cations
of the
earlier


Th
ity
in
res
opm
Con


social Ind
ic Indice
or Requir
ty as a S


Determinants
Household


Paradigms
istorical-S


.e.c.....

tructural


for Development Proce
Dependency Paradigm .


Historical


..* c...
.......


......


-Structural


ea..rl............
eory ....................
Response and Human Needs


Developme
of Parad
ent: Use


sump
icat
s of
emen^-


t


nt Analyses
igm Evolutio]
of Indicator!
Measures ...


n .......
s ......
S C..C.... C
( o o o o Q


ors .......
Development


social Indicator ..
Mortality ........


income


r


I







Sanitation facility
environmental
Urban versus rural
Other mortality det
Demography and Sociospat
Development Dispar


es and
risk .............
residence .........
erminants .........
ial Expressions of
ities: A Summary ..


III.


DEVELOPMENT


IN VENEZUELA


Introduction
Geography an
General De
Geographic
Origins of
Early S
Major Regi
North Ce


d the Spatial Econ
scription ........
Diversity
the Spatial Econo
settlement Patterns
ons of Venezuela .
ntral Venezuela ..


omy


my


................
...........C et....
*.........*.te ......
*...............


* 0 C e.... c........ t
..* .........te......
....ec........C......


Andes ...
Llanos ..
Zulia ...
Guayana .
The admin
Petroleum and


.e.e.....


*........
istrative
the Econ


.I....
.i....

C.....
region


omic


ns . . . . ..

transformation of......
transformation of


Venezuela
Early Stages
Denna onren


Emergence
The new
Structur
work f
Transforma
"State
Social and S


* C C S
* S S C
....
....


of a New Venezuelan
technocratic and ma


change


and


........
Social
nagerial


remuneration


rce ......... .......
ion of the Economy and
apitalism" ...........
atial Inequities and N


.........
Structure
elite ..
to the


national
national


Poli
Regiona
Center
Spati
Public
Social
Educati
Agricul
Agra
Summary o
Life


anning....
anning


act.
and


alized economy
al planning ...
Health, Housing
Security ......
on ............
tural Problems,
rian Reform ...
f Venezuelan De


Conditions


Development ...
and government


and..
and


Sanitation


Rural


velo


of the


Poverty.....
Poverty


pment and
Population


and


Changing
c.ccc*....


METHODOLOGY,


DATA


SOURCE


AND


PROCEDURES


Morta
Ind

Wct


lity
irect
Proce
* A
t ra T-1


Estimation
Demograph
dures ....


Techniques
ic Technique
.. .. .


an...
s and

nf^


5....... c...
Brass-Type

Dnniil At'A nn


T:


.







Life


table


function


curves


Regi
Trussel
Chi
Data Sour
1981 XI
Hou
Sample


onal model life tables ..
1-Preston Techniques for Es
Idhood Mortality Covariates
ce ......... .............
Venezuelan Census of Popul


sing


and


Procedures
Creation
Analy
Variables
Use of th
Applicati
Popul
Applicati


.
0
o
s


Coverage ...

f the System
i e


File


....
for


Selected for Analyses
e Income Variable and
on of Brass Technique
nations ...............
on of Trussell-Preston


Covariate


SPATIAL AND SOCIAL
IN VENEZEULA ....


Estimation


PATTERNS


.timating
timating


*....
action


* *


*
and


Demographi


* .
*


Income Level
to Selected

Mortality


Procedures


OF MORTALITY


Disaggregated


Spatial
Social
Hous
lif
Regi
res
Regi
res
Educ
Childhood
The Signi


Brass


Inequalities
and Economic


ehold
e ....
onal 1
idence
onal 1
idence
action
Morta
ficanc


income
......
ife ex

ife ex


P
p

p


Mortality


Estimates


in Length
Determinant
differences

ectancy by

ectancy by


Covariates
Location .


f Life ......
of Mortality
and length of


income
income
S.....
income


* *
and
....
and


urban

rural


................. ..
.. S... S .


Summary


of Results


CONCLUSIONS


APPENDICES


1981 VENEZUELAN
WEIGHT FACTORS


CENSUS


SAMPLE


SIZE


AND


COEFFICIENTS FO
MULTIPLIERS,
CLASSIFIED BY


R ESTIMATION OF C
TRUSSELL VARIANT,
AGE OF MOTHER ..


!HILD
WHEN


MORTALITY
DATA ARE


REFERENCES


BIOGRAPHICAL


CITED


SKETCH













LIST


OF TABLES


TABLE


PAGE


Average


Annual


Remuneration


per


Worker


Economic


Sector


Percentage
To Gross


Contribution


National


of Agricultural


Sector


Product


Average


Number


of Years


of Life


Expected


at Birth


Region


Place


of Residence,


1981


. 137


Rural


and


Urban


Distribution


of Population


Region


Sample
....... 139


1981


Venez


uelan


Population


stribution


Administrative


Region


Life


Expectancy


All


Venezuela


at Birth
.......


Income


Level,
.......


1981


Life


Expectancy


Income


and


Urban-Rural


Residence


. . 143


Urban


Life


Expectancy


Region


and


Income


....... 145


Life


Expectancy


Advantage


: Capital


Andes


...... 147


Life


Expectancy


Income,


Education


and


Residence


S...... 149


Differences


Length


of Life


Education,


Res


idence


and


Income


. ...... 151


5.10


Regre


ssion


of Mortality


Index


of Children


Born


To Mothers


20-29


Years


of Age


on Selected


Socioeconomi


Variables


in Venezuela,


1981


152


5.11


Means


Standard


Regressed


on the


Deviation
Mortality


of Variables


Ratio


of Children


In Venezuela,


1981


.. 153


.. . 141


S........ 142













LIST


OF FIGURES


FIGURE


PAGE


Physical


Regions


of Venezuela


States


and


Major


Cities


Administrative


Regions


of Venezuela


V-I


Life


Expectancy
Residence


Region


and


Rural


-Urban


....... 138


Life


Expectancy b
Rural-Urban


Income,
Residence


Education


and


..... 150












Abstract


the


of Dissertation


University


Requirements


Presented


of Florida


the


Degree


to the


Partial F
of Doctor


Graduate


fulfillment


School


the


of Philosophy


MORTALITY


AS A MEASURE


OF SPATIAL


AND


SOCIAL


DISPARITIES


IN DEVELOPMENT:


A VENEZUELAN


CASE


STUDY


WILLIAM


May


CAUDILL,


1989


Chairman:


Major


Cesar


Department


N. Caviedes
: Geography


If judged only


in terms


of traditional


aggregate economic


indicators,


Venezuela


approach


development


under


democratic


governments


was


impressive


during


the


1960s


1970s.


Prior


the


fall


petroleum


prices


1982,


the


country


s per


capital


income


had


been


approaching


the


level


some developed countries and exceeded all


other


Latin American


and


some


European


nations


However,


the


social


and


economic


transformations


have been highly uneven


in their


impact


on the


country


regions,


urban


and


rural


populations,


and


socioeconomic


class


es.


The


aggregate


indices


economic


development


conceal


continuing


wide


disparities


income






distribution


services


and


between


access


socioeconomic


public

Groups


health

and g


and


sanitation


geographic


areas


This


research


assesses


the


spatial


and


social


patterns


uneven


development


Venezuela


1981


using


mortality


level


, expressed


as life


expectancy


at birth,


as an index


measure


variations


the


material


conditions


of life


within


the


country


Indirect


demographic


techniques


were


used


with


census


sample


data


estimate


differences


in length


of life


between


populations


differentiated


place


of residence


socioeconomic


characteristics.


Although


average


life


expectancy


quite


high


Venezuela,


approximately


years


1981,


development


social

were


and spatial di

clearly reflected


sparities


differential


Venezuela


mortality


rates.


the populations compared by


disaggregated mortality


estimates,


a maximum range of more than nine


years


' difference


life


expectancy


was


observed


between


Venezuela'


most


least


advantaged


groups.


second


technique


was


applied


investigation,


using


recently


developed


method


regress


selected


mortality


variable


against


the


mortality


ratios


of children


individual


mothers


control


simultaneously


the


variable


included


this


research.


Analyses


show


the


mother


level


education,


household


income,


housing


quality,


urban


or rural


residence,


and


region


res


idence


be statistically


significant


determinants


of mortality


among


the


Venezuelan


population.












CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


developing


nations,


mortality


rates


are


useful


indicators of


means of obtain:

complete and


a population


ng measures

accurate


s standard


of living.


of mortality

vital regist


require


:ration


Conventional


a system


statistics.


Improvements


in indirect methods


of estimating mortality


have


greatly

where


advanced


vital


mortality


registration


research


data


developing


frequently


countries


unreliable.


Indirect


demographic


techniques


use


survey


or census


sample


data,


simultaneously


avoiding vital


registration deficiencies


while


increasing


the


range


of variables


which


can


be included


mortality


research.


This


study


demonstrates


the


application


these


methods


Venezuela


using


the


1981


census


sample


of population


housing.


As Judith


Ewell


(1984,


p.l)


observed,


other


country


Latin


America


has


been


entirely


transformed


aspects


national


life


Venezuela


has


since


1900.


Revenues


from


petroleum


exports


transformed


the


country


from


one


the


poorer


nations


the


region


the


turn


the


century,


with


a predominantly


agricultural


economy


dependent


on North Atlantic markets


a largely


rural


population


with


high


mortality


rate,


into


highly


urbanized,









industrializing nation with the continent


s highest per capital


income


(Ewell,


1984;


Lombardi,


1982;


Brito,


1979).


Political


changes


were


comparably


dramatic,


breaking


137-year


tradition


civil


wars


and


military


dictatorships


establish


populist,


multi-party


democracy


which


presidents


of different


parties


have


now peacefully


succeeded


each


other


according


election


results


nearly


thirty


years.


broad-based


revolution


1958


deposed


the


last


dictator,


Perez-Jimenez,


and


a series


of elected


presidential


administrations,


beginning


with


Romulo


Betancourt


1959,


have


taken


increasingly


active


role


planning


and


participating


policies


the


intended


nation


s economic


diversify


and


growth.


decentralize


Programs


growth


and


and


provide


social


benefits


were high


among the


priorities


of the


new


government.


The


disparities


that


existed


the


end


the dictatorship


era between


Venezuela


s poorer


and


wealthier


regions


and


populations


were


pronounced.


In 1960,


two


years


after


the


revolution,


the


per


capital


income


in less


developed


areas


of the


country


was


approximately


45 percent


that


the


Caracas


Metropolitan


area


(Jones,


1982)


and


United


Nations


study


reported


that


Venezuela


the


early


1960s


had


one


the


most


unequal


income


distributions


the


world


(Ewell,


1984).


- -a-.--


*-


- e -- -





* a


_ -*








the


income


and


quality


life


the


population


and


the


spatial


imbalances


economic


development


(Jones,


1982


Lombardi,


1982;


CORDIPLAN,


1981;


Martz


Myers,


1977;


Friedmann,


1966) .


The


tool


which


the national


government used


efforts


achieve


those


goals


was


income


from


petroleum


exports.


The


substantial


size


the


revenues


derived


from


this


resource


meant


that


the


state


could


pursue


dual-track


approach


development


which


would


simultaneously


allow


to satisfy


more


demands


and


require


fewer


sacrifices


from


people


compared


most


developing


societies


(Tugwell,


1977).


The


strategy


development


pursued


Venezuela


could


most


aptly


be characterized


as a form


of "state


capitalism,


involving


extensive


active


participation


and


planning


national

leaders


government


and


development


key


economic


plans


from


sectors


planners


eclectic


of the

have


and


economy.

devised


pragmatic


Political

national


planning-


oriented


perspective


economic


development


which


still


orthodox


the


basic


views


the


processes


economic


growth.


Venezuela


fortunate


to have


not


only


an extraordinary


endowment


of petroleum


reserves


but


also


substantial


deposits


of other mineral


resources


including


iron


ore,


coal,


bauxite,


diamonds


and


gold.


With


relatively


small


population,


nation


has


had


the


resources t


spare


-


boldly


undertake


L


.








costly


errors


which


would


have


been


disastrous


other


developing


countries


(Stewart,


1977).


Because


the


rapid


growth


the


production


of petroleum,


steel


and


aluminum


the


dominant


components


the


economy,


economic


environment


the


has


landed


existed


elite


which


the


economic


al


traditional

nd social


opposition

reform, so


characteristic


other


Latin American


nations,


has


been


less


forceful.


At the national


level,


their


influence was


at least


partially


displaced through relegation to a less


powerful


role


the


nation's


affairs


as they


were


replaced


a new


elite


which


managed


the


new


industries


that


came


to dominate


economy.


The


sudden


increases


the


international


price


of oil


1973,


so devastating


many


other


developing


countries,


provided


government


terminating


Venezuela


coffers.


the


with


This


economic


even


event,


"miracle"


greater


partially


bonanza


responsible


Venezuela


neighbor,


Brazil,


pervasively


affected


national


life


with


mood


nearly


boundless


optimism


and


was


thought


that


last


Venezuela


could


buy


place


among


the


developed


countries


(Blank,


1984).


If judged only


in terms of traditional


aggregate economic


indicators,


certainly


the


successful,


Venezuelan


approach


at least until


development


the middle


1980s.


was


Growth


the


SfrlfffthU m WRG miItP.


ran i


va r-ni ft


1 R...Q nnrrnen.r nrV vo;


UJ *








1975-1979


(Lombardi,


1982) .


Prior


the


fall


petroleum


prices


1982


and


the


subsequent


devaluation


the


formerly


stable


bolivar,


per


capital


income


Venezuela


($2,910/year


1978)


had


been


approaching


the


level


some


developed


countries.


The


1970-75


per


capital


GNP


average


was


$2,171,


comparable


Latin


the


American


Soviet


and


Union


several


($2,380)


European


and


countries


exceeding


including


Greece,


Portugal


and


Yugoslavia


(Morris,


1979).


1983


GNP


per capital annual


income reached


$3,830,


over $1,300 more


than


Argentina,


the


next


most


prosperous


country


Latin


America


(Wilkie,


1987,


278).


However,


been

urban


highly

and


the


uneven

rural


social


and


their


areas,


economic


impact


and


on the


socioeconomic


trans format ions


country


have


s regions,


classes.


The


aggregate


indices


economic


development


conceal


continuing


wide disparities between households


in income distribution and


access


to public


services


and


health-related


infrastructural


improvements between households,


geographic areas and economic


sectors.


This


research


inquiry


measure


the


extent


of those


disparities


as reflected


demographic


measures


the


condition


the


population.


Martz

reformist


outside


and Myers

experiment


world


(1977)

had


because


noted

been


Cuba


that


Venezuela


little


developmental


s democratic


interest


socialism


Brazil'


s military


reformism


had


attracted


more


interest


and








The


same


could


perhaps


be said


more


recent


discussion


issues


concerning


the


region,


with


Chile


"Chicago


School"


style


orthodox

experiment


economic


development


developmental

appealing to


attracting


economists


ideologues


and


of the


the


the

left.


interest


Nicaraguan


Venezuela


brand


of "state


capitalism"


not


attractive


to the


purists


of either orientation.


The country's dependence on


the export


one


product--petroleum--mostly


the


developed


North


Atlantic


nations,


and


the


importation


the


life-style


and


institutions


those


countries


particularly


unappealing


dependency


theory


advocates.


the


same


time,


state


ownership


of the


largest


production


components


of the


economy


objectionable


orthodox


developmental


economists.


Although


capitalist


country,


the


Venezuelan


public


sector


more


important,


relative


to the


size


the


economy,


than


anywhere


Western


Hemisphere,


except


possibly


Cuba


(Tugwell,


1977).


one


author'


opinion,


"There


too


much


complexity


and


contradiction


Venezuela


justify


the


application


simplified


An examination


explanatory models,


of Venezuela


s experience


" (Blank,


with


1984).


efforts


improve


with


the


goals


l giving


conditions


national


the


economic


population


growth


and


concomitant

pluralistic


political


environment


pertinent


number


crucial


questions


in contemporary development research.


Evidence


from


~At ftl AI flf A .a f naA nnan a A~as~a


F1~~La L$Y:A


IY. *L l.- ArK3 -j-


r ir rrlrC


r*l-vkAk jufc-lit i-f


-hVIJ3


IIA*ICIAY*


*h








conditions


life


are


inevitable


consequences


economic


growth


economies


that


are


not


centrally


planned


(Chapter


II).


Venezuela has one of the


few elected national


governments


any


duration


development


pressures


factions


Latin


strategies


the


the


and


various


America.


policies

interest


population.


The


Consequently,


are subject

groups and


outcome


national


to political

socioeconomic


Venezuela


efforts to


"sow the petroleum" may provide some


insights


about


whether


and


how


any


new nations


can


achieve


a secure


place


the


developed


world


(Ewell,


1984).


The


objective


this


research


use


indirect


demographic


techniques


mortality


estimation


obtain


measureable


strategy


indices


the


of development


outcome


terms


Venezuela


of living


conditions


style


of the


population


they


vary


spatially


and


socially


1981.


Estimations of mortality


levels for specified populations will


be expressed

communicated


life


summary


expectancy


population


birth,


mortality.


easily

Several


distinct


topics are examined to build the conceptual


framework


this


study.


The


literature


pertinent


each


topic


included


the


appropriate


chapter


rather


than


reviewed


separately.


Chapter


II reviews the major development perspectives and


d svlI ons


*. II


rat(i nnal s


onr tms use


of mortar itv aa


an index









paradigms


in the


post-World


War


era


summarized and


their


respective means of


interpreting and assessing development are


examined.


Mortality,


expressed


as life


expectancy


at birth,


posited


as a useful


indicator


of a population


s quality


life


with


cross-cultural


applications.


In Chapter


III,


salient features of Venezuela


s geography


are


described


and


the


profound


economic


and


social


changes


occurring


recent


decades


are


reviewed,


with


emphasis


their


impacts


on the


life


conditions


the


population.


The


interplay


of geography,


politics


and


economic


examined


terms


their


resulting


spatial


and


social


disparities


material


well-being.


The


discussion


essential


understanding


social


and


economic


context


which


the


research


techniques


are


applied


and


interpreting


the


results.


The

estimation


logic


techniques


the

used


Brass-type


this


indirect


research


demographic


presented


Chapter


Combining


the


techniques


with


the


census


public


use


sample


survey


households


enables


the


researcher


derive


mortality


estimates


populations


specified


virtually


any


variable


included


the


census


data.


Because


information


about


the


geographic


location


the


surveyed


households


attached


the


individual


census


record,


the


indirect


demographic


methods


greatly


enhance


population


r 1


1








Substantive


findings


on spatial


and


social


differences


life


expectancy


and


the


relative


impact


of determinants


mortality


are


presented


Chapter


Patterns


of mortality


Venezuela


are


analyzed


and


summary


comments


attempt


place


the


results


perspective.


Some


comparisons


are


made


with


studies


Brazil,


where


the


same


techniques


have


been


employed.


Chapter VI


offers concluding comments about


the processes


social


and


economic


change


Venezuela


they


are


reflected

raises


the


questions


measures

for fu


obtained


trther


through


inquiry.


this

The


research

utility


and

and


application


the


techniques


employed


are


assessed


terms


the


extent


which


the


research


objectives


have


been


achieved.












CHAPTER


MORTALITY


AS A SOCIAL


INDICATOR


Introduction


This


chapter


establishes


the


rationale


introducing


indirect


population


demographic


geography


techniques


the


and


their


analysis


applications


development.


The


first


part


the


review


outlines


the


basic


features


the


two


leading


development


paradigms


they


pertain


this


research.


The


second


part


explains


the


need


for


a technique


with


the


capability


conducting


analyses


development


disaggregated


social


and


spatial


criteria


which


also


effectively


summarizes


the


impact


of development


processes


the


living


conditions


the


population.


The


advantages


life


expectancy


summary


indicator


cross-cultural,


international,


and


sub-national


comparative


analyses


the


life


conditions


selected


population


groups


are


posited.


Finally,


the selection of


determinants of mortality to be used


this


investigation


of mortality


patterns


Venezuela


explained.


Evolution


of the


Concept


Development


Inequalities


in the material


welfare of people within and


between


nations


are


not


a new


situation


(Cole,


1981)


but


wasf


nnot


Iunti 1


ths


and


World


Wa r


tha t


the_


rcnnnnt








"underdevelopment"


emerged


(Cole,


1981;


Gilbert,


1976)


Wilber


and


Jameson


stemming


(1984)


from


account


failure


this


world


recent


markets


awareness


alleviate


the


problems


poor


nations


as promised


orthodox


economics,


the


existence


socialism


as an alternative


development


model


and


the


large


number


former


colonies


which


had


become


politically


independent


after


the


end


the


war


began


press


In the


changes


decades


since


economic


, prodigious


relations


quantities


as well.


of research,


writing


and


money


have


been


devoted


the


analysis


and


promotion


development,


yet


there


generally


agreed


upon definition


of the concept or


explanation of


the


processes


involved


(Toye,


1987;


Preston,


1985;


Carley


and


Bustelo,


1984).


The


following


discussion


highlights


the


central


concepts


the


two


leading


categories


development


paradigms


view


of their


relevance


to the


selection


and


use


mortality


levels


social


indicator


describe


and


analyze


social


spatial


patterns


of quality


of life.


Leading


Paradicms


of Development


Mos


t perspectives and analyses of development are derived


from


one


two


principal


paradigms.


Each


has


a variety


label


and


there


considerable


disagreement


and


diversity


within


each


paradigm.


One


has


been


called


either


the


neoclassical


or the


"orthodox"


or the


"modernization"


view


development


(Apter,


1987).


This


group


includes


free


market








response


the


first


two.


The


second


group


of paradigms,


sometimes


called


either


the


historical-structural


political-economy


dependency sc

world-systems


perspective,


:hool, n<

theory.


includes


on-dependency


Embodied


the


Marxists


the


theorists


and


the


adherents


perspectives


these


two


leading


methods


and


paradigm


units


categories


analysis


are


definitions,


so different


that


theories,


communication


or comparison


research


results


between


them


difficult


or impossible


(Wood,


1981)


There


are,


however,


similarities


between


the


two


groups


their


shared


view


history


progressive


change.


According


that


view,


history


not


just


change


through


time


but


change


a certain


direction--a


linear


direction.


Preston


(1985)


and


Culbertson


(1984)


contend


that


"belief


progress"


a fundamental


view


of both


the


orthodox


economic


and


the historical-structural


paradigms


. Most


subscribers


each


set


of paradigms


presume


that


desirable


move


through proce


sses


self-reliant


or changes


the


case


to become


the


"developed"


dependency


or at


theorists).


least


The


two


views


begin


diverge


radically


their


respective


explanations of


development and underdevelopment to the extent


that


there


not


even


commonly


acceptable


definition


development nor agreement on what recent changes


in developing


countries


represent.


vast


amount


literature


has


been


crenerated by the vigorous debate between


the two paradiams and








summarizes


only


main


features


of the


two


perspectives


provides


critical


comments


they


pertain


this


investigation


of patterns


Neoclassical


of mortality


or Orthodox


Development


enezuela.


Paradiams


Theoretical


Oriains


and


Conceptual


Framework


Much


the


early


development


literature


originated


within


assumed


the


neoclassical


that


nature


economic


the


perspective


desirable


and


society


generally


or model


development


was


already


known


(Rostow,


1960) ,


usually


taken


to be


an ideal


version


of the


western


industrialized


nations.


High


per


capital


consumption


of material


goods


was


considered


the


objective


achieved


through


increasing


the


gross


national


product


and


per


capital


income


(Wilber


and


Jameson,


1984).


These


assumptions


are


evident


the


frequent


synonymous


use


"growth"


"development"


economic


discussion


although


they


technically


refer


two


different


but


sometimes


overlapping


concepts


(Kindleberger


and


Herrick,


1977) .


The


history


and


process


development


neoclassical


paradigms


are


viewed


almost


law-like


sequence


of events


which


nations


progress


from


a state


low productivity and consumption to successively higher


levels


of material

exemplified


consumption


Western


until ]

Europe,


reaching


the


or North


"developed"


America


(and


level

now--


--~~~~~~ a-- a


I


-~


I


1


t








view


conceptua.


Rostow'

L basis


(1960)


stage


"stages

theories


growth"


the


model.


proposition


The

that


development


a linear


historical


process


with


national


economies

posited


; being

"stages


located


(in Rostow'


that


process,


model)


ranging


at one of


from


the


the


five

least


developed


"traditional


societies"


the


most


developed


industrial


consumer


societies.


From


this


perspective,


the


economies


Latin


America


are


considered


developing


economies


some


point


one


the


transitional


pha


ses


between


the


"traditional"


and


"industrial"


stages


development.


The


explanation


underdevelopment,


this


most


orthodox


country's


the


position


underdeveloped


nation


neoclassical


the

has


sequence,


yet


views,


that


simply


the


through


the


particular


the


"stages"


of becoming


developed,


usually


receiving the


diffusion


"modernization"


from


the


more


developed


countries.


Another


implicit


assumption


regarding


development


evident


that


the


"developed"


"stages"


and


model


development:


"industrialized"


are


the


synonymous.


assumption


Use


the


industrialized nations as


the model


toward which all


other


countries


(presumed


to be in


a "lower


stage")


should


strive,


incorporated


the


industrialized-equals-developed


definition


into


the


paradigm,


which


subsequently


became


an integral


part


of analyses


the


problems


underdeveloped


nations.


The


problem


of achievinac


development


was


construed


as essentially








the


problem


how


become


industrialized


the


most


expedient


fashion.


Since


development


capitalism,


the


neoclassical


based


obstacles


the


explanation


model


to development


the


process


competitive


are


interpreted


market


mean


that


something


has


interfered


with


the


presumed


automatic,


self-regulating


market


mechanisms


which


otherwise


would


lead


inexorably,


the


course


time,


development


(Apter,


1987;


Eisenstadt,


1973) .


Consequently,


was


a logical


step


the


proposition


that


progress


toward


development


primarily


achieved


overcoming


obstacles


development


(Dicken,


1986).


Analysts


investigated


broad


and


diverse


range


obstacles


including


social,


cultural


psychological constraints of traditional societies


government


regulation


participation


the


economy


and


other


sources


of market


imperfections


(Apter, 1987;


McClelland,


1964,


1961).


Offshoots of the basic paradigm'


premise of


evolutionary


pha


ses


lines


inquiry


into


the


psychological


and


cultural


nature


the


"traditional"


societies


identify


cultural


and


processes.


psychological


his


article,


"blockages"


Psychological


development


Approach


Economic


Development,


" McClelland


(1964)


exemplified


the


view


writers


the


"psychological-behaviorist"


school


who


attempted


"traditional"


identify

attitudes


"backward"


responsible


more


impeding


benignly,


development.








Diffusion


of "modernization"


from


the


more


developed


the


less


developed


nations


and


"push"


the


form


technology,


large-scale


capital


investment


changing


the


cultural,


social


and


psychological


patterns


of the


population


or a combination


would


propel


the


society


further


toward


the


final


stage


of "industrial


maturity"


. The


question


of equity


the


benefits


derived


from


the


presumed


changes


was


left


the


"trickle-down"


mechanism which


would


presumably


solve


the


problem


income


distribution


after


the


initial


phases


economic


growth.


The


Orthodox


Perspective


Regional


Disparities


From


a spatial


perspective


development


processes,


the


concepts


neoclassical


economics


and


linear


development


embodied


the


stage


theories


have


influenced


the


evolution


of regional


growth


theory and policy,


particularly the


"growth


pole"


concept


(Perroux,


1988,


1955;


Polenske,


1988)


and


generated an extensive body of


literature


(Higgins and Savoie,


1988) .


Elements


which


have


become


components


the


growth


pole


concept


include


factor


mobility,


general


equilibrium


theory


and


the


process


of diffusion


(Richardson,


1988,


1973).


Underdevelopment


perceived


as a spatial


disequilibrium


the


allocation


resources.


productive


The scale of


this


factors


spatial


capital,


disparity may


labor


range


and


from


the


world


down


the


province


or even


the


urban


center


enrrmnnni nr


rnral 1


h ntfrl and


( Pri arimann -


1094F ._








orthodox


perspective,


the


disequilibrium


economic


factors


production


and


the


welfare


the


population


theoretically


always


the


process


of becoming


balanced


flows


labor


(migration)


and


capital


from


"surplus"


"deficit"


areas.


The


movement


population


and/or


capital


viewed


equilibrating


component,


hypothetically


reducing


the


wage/capital


ratio


differentials


between


regions,


thereby


evening


the


spatial


distribution


development


(Alonso,


1988;


Higgins


and


Savoie,


1988;


Pryor,


1975).


These


theoretical


assumptions


about


the


tendency


toward


equilibrium


have


been


linked


with


concept


spatial


diffusion


or essentially,


modernization" f<

the diffusion of


satures


innovation


economic


activity,


(Rondinelli,


1983;


Gilbert,


1975;


Babarovic,


1972).


one


the


earliest


formulations


this


view


spatial


development


processes,


Myrdal


(1957)


used


the


term


"spread


effects"


to describe


the


diffusion of development


from the growth centers and


"backwash


effects"


identify


both


the


positive


and


negative


impacts


of growth


centers


on the


economies


of surrounding


areas.


theory,


as industrialization


or modernization


(they


are


often


equated


the


development


neoclassical


stages


in growth


paradigm)


centers,


proceeds


those


through


centers


the


serve


facilitate


diffusion


modernization


outward


through


surrounding


smaller


cities


and


countryside


(Rondinelli,


1983;








concept


has


crossed


ideological


barriers


become


incorporated into development planning approaches used by both


socialist


developing


and


capitalist


countries


governments


(Rondinelli,


1983;


developed


Gilbert,


and


1975).


Advocates


areas


the


surrounding


growth


dynamic


center


centers


approach


are


postulate


accelerated


that


through


their


own


development


stages


and


become


more


effectively


incorporated

incorporation


into

into


the

the


national

national


economy.

(and ii


assumed


international)


that


economy


a beneficial


direct


process


opposition


to the


to the


"backward"


viewpoint


areas,


of dependent


a position

cy analysis


(Polenske,


1988).


Accumulating


evidence


increasing


inequality


and


unemployment


sparked


the


interest


some


theorists


working


within the neoclassical


paradigm,


some of whom began to devote


attention

economic


the


changes


social

which


and

were


economic i

occurring


nequalities


the

the


most


developing


countries


experiencing


rapid


aggregate


growth


rates.


Williamson


comprehensive


(1965)


study


concluded that region


regional diu

1 inequality


sparities,

increases


during the


early


stages


development


and


convergence


occurs


during


the


mature


phases


growth.


Extending


the


investigation

societal tral


include


information,


other 1

Alonso


features

(1980)


development


characterizes


and

the


course


those


changes


through


time


as conforming


to bell-








social


economic


change


according


the


bell-shape


representation:

3) regional inE


development


equality,


stages,


geographic


social


inequality,


concentration,


and


demographic


transition.


Reformulations


earlier


views


were


developed


but


much


of the

firmly


original


part


neoclassical


development


mnceptual

thinking


framework

r and te


remained


srminology


(Friedmann


and


Forest,


1988).


One


these


reformulations,


the


"counter-revolution"


development


theory


asserts


even


more


vigorously


the


principles


free


markets


and


non-


intervention


government


(Toye,


1987).


Critique


of Orthodox


Paradiams


At both


the


international


level


and


the


subnational


regional


level,


data


have


tended


not


support


the


predictions


the


orthodox


paradigm


which


assumed


declining


inequality


income


through


the


"trickle


down"


process


Growth


GNP


concurrent


with


increasing


unemployment


and


inequality


have


been


fairly


typical


and


largely unanticipated


features


of the


experience


of developing


countries


(Fields,


1980;


Nugent


Yotopoulos,


1979;


Todaro,


1977)


However,


Gilbert and Goodman


(1976,


119)


conclude


that


their


data


fails


support


either


convergence


divergence


regional


differentials


over


time.


Problems of unemployment,


unequal


income distribution and


Hr i nti arti


* Iu


rvni nnal


(10U0 I flflhft


ar e


rsrta inl v


nnr


in mis









industrialized economies of Europe,


with far-reaching policies


of national


level


government


planning,


the


economic


problems


some


regions,


such


southern


Italy,


and


the


continued


disparities


economic


and


social


well-being


between


areas


have


proven


very


persistent


(Gilbert


and


Goodman,


1976;


Sundquist,


1975).


was


number


the


underdeveloped


countries


where


the


most


surprising


phenomena


increasing


unemployment


and


inequality


were


occurring


the


same


time


that


their


economies


were


experiencing


unprecedented


high


rates


growth


(Nugent


and


Yotopoulos,


1979).


important


criticism


orthodox


approaches


development,


pertinent


this


research,


concerns


the


means


which


have


been


employed


measure


signify


development.


The


most


frequently


used


indicator


Gross


National


Product


(GNP)


per


capital


and/or


per


capital


income.


Use


GNP


per


capital


measure


development


performance


implicitly


incorporates


into research and discussion the development goal


the


neoclassical


paradigm:


economic


growth


and


the


attainment


high


mass


consumption


society.


The


limitations


of this


indicator


as a measure


of development


pertinent


to the


purpose


this


research


and


discussed


more


detail


later


this


chapter.


Another deficiency


of the early modernization


approaches








employed


Cole,


the


1981) ,


nation-state


thereby


as a discrete


aggregating the


unit


country'


(Lipshitz,


entire


1986;


economy


and


population


into


undifferentiated


mass


well


isolating


the


internal


features


the


nation


s development


from consideration of


external


influences


(Higgins and Savoie,


1988;


Toye,


1987).


Political


Economy


or Historical-Structural


Paradicms


Conceptual


Framework


reaction


number


the


shortcomings


earlier


development,


neoclassical


stage


theorists


the


and


equilibrium


political


economy


theories


schools


development


analysis,


particularly


from


Latin


America,


began


the


1960s


postulate


their


own


explanations


the


observed


processes.


The


two


leading


viewpoints


within


the


political


economy paradigm are the Marxists and


the dependency


theorists


who


differ


primarily


their


respective


identification


the


locus


power


which


seen


control


and


use


society


s economic


surplus


(Weaver


and


Berger,


1984;


Warren,


1979).


Two

statements


the


the


describe


relationship


earliest

,ng and


between


and


defining


the


most

;the


developed


influential of

exploitive nature


and


the


underdeveloped


nations


were


Paul


Baran


The


Political


Economy


Growth


(1962)


and


Andre


Gunder


Frank


(1969)


article,


"The








that underdeveloped countries and regions


(the periphery)


were


underdeveloped because of


their


relationship


to the


developed


nations


(the


metropolitan


center)


They were


later


joined


others


(Amin,


1976;


Wallerstein,


1974;


Cardoso,


1973,


1972;


Dos


Santos,


1970;


Furtado,


1965) ,


forming


the


basis


of what


has


become


known


as the


dependency


school.


Rather


than


taking


the


nation-state


the


unit


analysis


and


GNP


as the


measure


of performance,


the


foci


dependency


analyses


are


the


relationships


between


developed


and


underdeveloped


nations.


The


concept


of economic


surplus


and


extraction


and


exchange


used


explain


underdevelopment.


Dependency


theorists


emphasize


the


exploitive


relationship


the


economies


the


developed


nations


with


the


underdeveloped nations


through mechanisms


extracting


economic


surplus.


Exploitation


the


periphery


operates


through


mechanisms


of remittance


of profits


transnational


corporations


their


home


countries


(the


core)


and


the


unequal


terms


trade


through


which


commodities


are


exchanged


(Frank,


1969;


Baran,


1962).


The


basis


the


theorized


mechanism


the


extraction


surplus


through


unequal


terms


trade


was


the


work


of Raul


Prebisch


(1950)


and


other


analysts


from


the


Economic


Commission


Latin


America.


trade


They


data


used


between


orthodox

developed


economic

and unde


analyses


developed


historical


countries


reveal


the


increasing


comparative


market


advantage


the








products


the


developed


nations


compared


the


exported


primary


products


of the


underdeveloped


countries.


Dependency


advocates


contend


that


the


structure


the


economic


relationships


between


the


developed


"core"


and


the


underdeveloped "periphery" "creates underdevelopment" and does


not


result


movement


toward


developed


status


or trends


toward


equilibrium


predicted


conventional


economic


theories


of development.


From


the


dependency perspective,


argued


that


the


historical


process


of capitalist


expansion


throughout


development


world


and


simultaneously


underdevelopment


generates


(Brookfield,


both


1975,


economic


163).


Spatial


Implications


Development


Processes


Spatial


and


social


inequalities


development


within


and


between


nations


a primary


focus


of interest


within


the


dependency


perspective.


The


mechanisms


exploitation


and


unequal


development


proposed


the


dependency


paradigm


form


chain


satellite


relationships


which


extends


from


the


metropolitan core nations


to the urban cores of underdeveloped


nations.


The


chain


then


linked


to the


rural


and


peripheral


areas


the


underdeveloped


nations.


The


relationship


peripheral


areas


an underdeveloped


nation


to its


own


urban


core


frequently


1967)


this


termed


"internal


relationship,


colonialism"


wealth


(Frank,


extracted


from


peripheral


rural


areas


to the


metropolitan


centers


within


the


nrTiint rTl


anrA


frrm


rhnero


tn hho


Liovla1lflodi


na rni nnm_









the


conclusions


regional


(intra-national)


dependency


theory


level


regarding


of analysis,


trends


the

the


internal


spatial


patterns


unequal


development


within


country


(that


between


core


and


peripheral


areas)


are


again


contradictory


those


orthodox


neoclassical


equilibrium


theories.


From


the


dependency


perspective,


processes


which


tend


toward


increasing


rural-urban


and


interregional


imbalances


development


and


income


are


cumulative


rather


than


self-regulating.


The


theoretical


position


regarding


national


planning


development


underdeveloped countries,


especially through investment in and


expansion


growth


poles,


that


a deepening


the


dependent


relationship


the


center


with


the


periphery


through


further


expansion


the


international


capitalist


system


(Santos,


1977).


Contributions


Dependency


Paradiam


Theorists


the


dependency


paradigm


drew


attention


the


flaws


in the early neoclassical


stage theories,


especially


the


exclusive


focus


the


particular


nation-state


and


internal


processes,


observed


isolation


from


external


influences,


as the


unit


analysis


for


investigation


into


the


causes


underdevelopment.


The


dependency


theory


critique


emphasizes


the role and influence of the developed nations and


the


external


economic


forces


which


inhibited


the


indigeneous


Mn- -


-s -. -


1 _ __ -


-? A l_


.- _- "*


_____III_







which


confront


and


inhibit


the


development


processes


underdeveloped


nation


when


larger


industries


and


more


dynamic


sectors


of its


economy


are


under


foreign


control.


Expanding


the


scope


investigation


beyond


the


boundaries


structural


of specific countries


limitations


and


viewing


including


the


the


nature


concept


relations


between blocks of nations were dependency school


contributions


which


spread


varying


degrees


other


paradigms.


Dependency


theorists


also


focused


attention


the


unequal


results

inequali


of development

ty, disparities


processes


including


regional


increasing


development


and


income

further


concentration


of land


ownership.


They


viewed


these


outcomes


of capitalist


development


or "penetration"


which


were


clearly


contradictory


predicted


trends


toward


equilibrium


support


the


theory


of surplus


extraction


as the


cause


underdevelopment.


Critique


Earlier


Historical-Structural


Paradiams


most


dogmatic


expressions,


dependency


theory


presents


a determinist


view


of dominance


the


metropolitan


core


which


does


not


allow


the


possibility


of development


underdeveloped


countries


under


the


prevailing


economic


system


(Dicken,


1986;


Portes


and


Walton,


1981).


Completely


reversing


the


nation-centric


focus


earlier


orthodox


development


paradigms,


the


dependency


perspective


placed


the


locus


for the cause of


underdevelopment on external


forces and








were


not


posited


just


as part


a complex


web


of conditions


and


processes


explaining


differences


development


but


were


emphasized


factors


the


and


exclusion


other


explanations.


The


legitimate


contributing


explanations


became


generalizations,


many


improvement


ignoring


underdeveloped


living


cond.


specific

countries

itions is


differences

where dev


fact


and


outcomes


relopment


occurring,


and


a flaw


also


noted


non-dependency


Marxists


including


Weaver


and


Berger


(1984)


and


Warren


(1979).


Heterogeneity


among


Third


World


countries,


particularly variations


income


and


social


well-being,


greater


than


between


industrialized


nations


(Dicken,


1986).


Paul


Streeten


(1984)


points


out


that


many


the


problems


of developing


countries


are


common


problems


nations:


between


and


there


developed


developing


are


relations


countries


countries


Sand

are


of dominance


relations

replicated


and


between


the


dependence


industrial

relations


between


stronger


and


weaker


underdeveloped


nations.


Many


these


same


features


and


relationships


can


also


observed


socialist


nations.


Within


and


between


socialist


countries


there


also


exist


relations


dominance


and


dependency


(Cuba


and


the


Soviet


Union),


underdeveloped


countries


(Cambodia,


industrialized


Albania,


countries


Burma,


(Soviet


Ethiopia)


Union


and


and


most


developed


Eastern


Europe),


significant


spatial


disparities


level


of material


we 11-beinan


(Punch


and


nlmk -


19Q71


and


natterns


of migration









and


emigration


attributable


those


disparities


(Soviet


Union,


Yugoslavia,


China).


Difficulties


are


encountered


comparisons


of analyses


development


processes


between


dependency


theorists


and


those


the


orthodox


perspective


well


as non-dependency


Marxists)


because


there


no agreed-upon


definition


of what


constitutes


development


dependency.


"liberation"


cultural


autonomy


the


issue


(see Denis Goulet,


"Development


or Liberation?


" 1971


and


Worsley,


1984)


rather than


material


well-being,


then


the


terms


argument


have


shifted


that


"development"


become disconnected


from


consideration


the


level


of material


well-being.


Different


versions


what


development


and


dependency


mean


cause


difficulties


attempting


to make


any


comparative


measures


well


of development


between


within


dependency


the

and


dependency

orthodox


perspective

analyses.


underdevelopment


defined


terms


relations


comparative


may


international


be difficult


power


to capture


or influence,

quantifiable


these r

indices.


Relations

Canada


and


Australia,


example,


which


have


very


high


levels


direct


foreign


investment


as well


other


forms


foreign


influence


United


States


and


Japan,


respectively


could


be considered


"underdeveloped.


" On the other hand,


Burma,


one


the


world's


poorest


nations


the


material


level









years


and


has


virtually


foreign


investment


cultural


influence


Chance


to Meet Burma.


" The Economist,


July 30,


1988)


would


have


to be


considered


"developed.


World-Systems


Theory


World-systems


theory


has


contributed


the


perspective


stressing


the


need


analysis


of development


the


context


global


perspective.


this


view


development,


the


world


system


the


unit


of analysis


and


parts


of the


model,


whether groups of nations


(core,


periphery or semi-periphery),


nations


regions


are


observed


strictly


terms


their


relationship


the


global


economy


(Wallerstein,


1974).


Mechanisms


posited


world-systems


theorists


which


the


exploitation


periphery


the


core


takes


place


are


essentially


the


same


those


proposed


dependency


theorists:


extraction


surplus


profit


remittance


and


unequal


exchange


commodities.


However,


they


shared


with


earlier


modernization


theorists


the


tendency


focus


narrow


view


the


processes


involved.


Analyses


conducted


only


the


global


level


obscured


distinctions


between


the


conditions


processes


specific


individual


countries.


Furthermore,


ignoring


the


role


internal


factors,


important


features


the


type


and


operation


linkages


between


the


global


systems


and


the


local


conditions


are


not


examined


(Tilly,


1984).








Growth-With-Eouitv


Response


Development


and


Human


Needs


Emphasis


Analyses


Awareness

development st


crossed


the


rategies


paradigm


negative fe

(emphasized


boundaries


matures

in del


pende


stimulate


growth-oriented

ncy literature)


the


growth-with-


equity

and cr


response


eated


more


a widespread


orthodox

emphasis


analyses

on meeting


(Fields,


the


1980


needs


p.8)


of the


population


rather


than


simply


increasing


economic


output


(Hopkins


and


Van


Der


Hoeven,


1983


p.4;


UNRISD,


1976;


ILO,


1976) .


The


negative


results


described


earlier


included


increasing


income


inequality,


unemployment


and


spatial


economic


disparities


many


(though


not


all)


developing


countries.


some


cases,


the


income


the


poorest


strata


of the


population had


actually


fallen


absolutely


and


not


just


as a relative


percent


of the other


income


levels.


The


"growth


versus dis

separating


;tribution"


political


debate,

econon


an underlying

ly and orth


issue


odox


originally

development


paradigms


eventually


became


a dividing


issue


between


the


new


perspectives


emphasizing


growth


with


distribution


evolving


from


the


orthodox


school


and


the


"counter-revolution"


, a re-


statement


the


free


market


equilibrium


view


(Toye,


1987)


The growth-with-equity


approach


places


greater


emphasis


social


and political


variables to achieve economic growth with


equitable


distribution


rather


than


the


narrow


focus


economic


factors


of land,


labor


and


capital.


This


emphasis,









directly


rather


than


relying


on markets,


places


the


growth-


with-equity theorists closer to the political-economy paradigm


(Wilber


and


Jameson,


1984).


A wide variety


development strategies are


found within


the


perspective,


but


the


two


most


prominent


are


the


"New


International


Economic Order"


and


the


"basic


needs"


strategy.


turn,


these


two


approaches


have


number


interpretations,


causing


the


boundaries


between


paradigms


become


increasingly


blurred.


Advocates


the


New


International


Economic


Order


argue


for


the


necessity


restructuring


international


institutions


and


economic


relations


improve


conditions


within


developing


countries


(Hopkins


and


Van


Der


Hoeven,


1983;


Streeten,


1982).


Among


them


are


adherents


the


dependency


perspective,


including


Celso


Furtado


(1965).


The


"basic


needs"


approach


considers


the


goal


development


to be meeting


the


basic


needs


of people


including


food,


water,


shelter,


medical


care,


education


and


participation


decisionmaking


(Bunge,


1981).


Economic


growth


considered


a necessary


but


not


sufficient


element


meeting


the


desired


objectives


development


(Fields,


1980).


The


basic


needs


approach


has


gained


wide


acceptance


the


literature


on development


(Hopkins


and


Van


Der


Hoeven,


1983;


1982;


Martorell,


1982;


Drewnovski,


1974)


and


with


-~6 *


- -A 1--


a
- -A- -


,,,, *


1,,,,1,,,~


~,,,,1








development


considered


the


pursuit


obj ectives


beyond


levels


of economic output


(measured


in GNP per capital ,


some


means


measuring


movement


direction


those


goals


required.


Pertinent


Features


Paradium


Evolution


The pri

development


eceeding


discussion


emphasized


their


of theoretical

contrasting


perspectives

explanations


development


processes,


the


diversity


experiences


among


developing


statements


variables


the


countries


the


involved,


difficulty


their


leading


the


isolating


divergence


paradigms.


complexity


the


myriad


from


The


their


the


sheer


predictive


number


interaction


of social,


and


political


economic and geographic variables for comparative quantitative


analysis


are


largely


responsible


these


shortcomings


(Apter,


1987)


serious


difficulty


also


encountered


comparing


research


between


paradigms


because


of the


ideological


nature


of development


issues


and


concepts.


Assessing


a nation


s or


area


development


inherently


discussion


ideologies


, values,


semanti


and


definitions


(Apter,


1987


7-9;


Preston,


1985


p.24)


impossible


disentangle


explanations,


definitions


and


measures


development


from


implicit


not


assumptions


measured.


about


Those


what


assumption


desirable

is, shared


to be measured


researchers








legitimate


scientific


inquiry


(Kuhn,


1970)


and


even


what


constitutes


"facts"


analysis.


Theorists


of the


competing


paradigms


often


ignore


deny


the


terms


discussion


conceptual


validity


of the


other.


Development


paradigms


are


founded


implicit


value


systems


testing

system


which


defines


cannot


for exar

economic


be subjected


II


ple, a

growth


to falsifiable


development

or output a!


theoretical


theorist's


s the


value


objective


development,


only


the


means


of achieving


those


objectives


can


be empirically verified,


not


the


legitimacy


of the


underlying


assumptions


about


what


form


of development


desirable.


The


lack


consensus


on a conceptual


model


development


has


impeded


the


design


widely


accepted


system


social


indicators


(Carley


and


Bustelo,


1984,


199).


It is


therefore


necessary


to state


the


value


perspective


adopted


this


research.


That


point


view


closest


the


"basic


needs"


outlook


on development


and


perhaps


best


summarized


statement:


"The


ultimate


goal


economic


development


improve


the


well-being


of people


(Mahler,


1980,


p.67)


This


interpretation


development


the


underlying principle


behind


the


selection


mortality


levels


significant


measure


the


outcome


development


processes


The


they


rationale


affect


the


the


living


selection


and


conditions


people.


application


this


* .A. na4 .ai


a a .ew,..n4 t..aA S An4n4 1 A 4 -n..-- *1 -.n


~AA FI~: kA~


Ck n


~nA~A


k


rn








Throughout


the


literature


the


different


paradigms


there


have


been


at least


two


persistent


outcomes


or features


development


processes


noted


most


authors.


Spatial


disparities


development,


however


conceived,


explained


measured,


have


been


apparent


at all


levels


of observation--


international,


regional


and


rural


versus


urban.


The


other


noted


feature


the


inequality


distribution


benefits


social


economic


change


among


population


strata.


The


two


dimensions


unequal


development


are


frequently


different


ways


observing


the


same


phenomenon


economic


changes


often


have


different


impacts


populations


who


reside


different


locations.


To be useful


in comparative analyses of these processes,


an indicator which


reflects


living


conditions


should


have


flexible


potential


application


to populations


defined


and


disaggregated


spatial


and


social


criteria.


Measuring


Development:


Use


of Indicators


Economic


and


Consumption


Measures


The


earliest


and


most


widely


used


indicator


development,


one


long


favored


orthodox


development


economists,


Gross


National


Product


(GNP)


per


capital.


This


measure


economic


output


was


created


system


of national


accounts


which


was


developed


the


1930s


and


1940s


Great


Britain


and


the


U.S.


and


was


designed


to deal


with


resource









unemployment


highly


developed


economies


(Morris,


1979).


But when


the attention of


development economists


turned


to the


problems


of developing


nations


after


World


War


was


convenient,


though


ethnocentric,


response


use


an existing


analytical


tool


which


had


served


well


the


economies


where


it had originated.


As neoclassical


theorists began to compare


levels


living


and


analyze


regional


inequalities


developing


countries,


the


income


or GNP


per


capital


indicator


was extended to these


investigations under the assumption that


reflects


regional


economic


welfare


(Lipshitz,


1987;


Richardson,


1978).


number


difficulties


were


soon


encountered


analysts


attempted


use


average


GNP


figures


developing


societies


eventually


leading


widespread


dissatisfaction


with


utility


under


these


circumstances


(Carley


and


Bustelo,


1984;


Bunge,


1981;


World


Bank;


1982;


UNRISD,


1978;


Baster,


1972)


Morris


(1979)


has


summarized


the


major


drawbacks


GNP


per


capital


measure


the


level


social


and


economic well-being


underdeveloped


areas:


1)It


is a measure of


economic performance


founded on the assumption


almost


completely


market-oriented


economy


which


virtually


goods


and


services


have


price


tags


and


transactions


are


recorded.


The


assumption


obviously


inappropriate


in countries where much of the economic activity


at -


Sfl t~ r~A an w a snl. t- n I. -arILI nlrlw ... a


; a ---A


1^-.^^^


m a vllr AC


A\~~lk ~ II I*A


U


An


-J r |


qF









flawed


as a measure


of welfare.


an arithmetic


average,


does


not


capture


the


pattern


distribution


product.


There


are


serious


problems


attempting


to make


international


comparisons


because


of problems


the


currency


exchange


rate


method


used.


These


deficiencies


rejection


per


capital


average


income


growth


adequate


indicator


national


development


many


theorists


and


agencies


involved


development


research


assistance


programs


(Toye,


1987;


Bunge,


1981;


Fields,


1980;


ILO,


1977;


UNRISD,


1976) .


A long-


term


effort


the


United


Nations


International


Comparison


Proj ect


has


developed


a methodology


improving


cross-national


comparisons


incomes


(World


Bank,


1982,


23) .


Income


remains


an useful


indicator


in development analyses and policy


implementation


when


viewed


principal


determinant


welfare,


rather


than


as the


principal


outcome


(Fields,


1980,


p.9),


and


when


some


other


deficiencies


can


be avoided


the


context


of developing


nations.


Other


Social


Indicators


The


deficiencies


GNP


per


capital


measure


development


international


stimulated


various


organizations,


attempts,


utilize


other


especially


indicators


to develop


composite


indices


to capture


the


level


of welfare


populations


of developing


countries


(IBGE,


1979;


ILO,


a aaaeaa-a


r (I AC~


A n m 9


I


A m I


D~q


1111.


I


A ~I A









countries


were


beset


even


greater


problems


than


those


encountered


statistically


advanced


countries.


Carley


and


Bustelo


(1984)


list


some


the


difficulties


encountered:


lack


consensus


processes


(emphasized


conceptual


this


model


chapter);


development

failure of


development


social

composite


planning


indicator


models


systems


multiple


during

which


indices)


the

were


were


50's and


developed


highly


the


(usually


complicated


and


required

designed


large


(usually


volume


developed


information;

countries)


the


often


systems


failed


appreciate the difficulties


involved in obtaining the required


data


less


developed


nations;


unreliable


data


sources.


addition,


the


case


GNP


per


capital,


indicators served well


when attempting international


or cross-


cultural


comparisons.


The


types


indicators


selected


usually


measured


some


aspect


consumption


such


type


housing,


clothing


calorie


intake.


These


measures


are


extremely


nutritional


(Morris,


prone


ethnocentric


standards


1979).


are


value


subject


Average calorie


intake,


assumptions.


ethnocentric

for example,


Even


biases


does not


measure nutritional


well-being because of the vastly different


requirements


humans


of different


physical


structure


under


different


conditions


of activity


and


environment.


The


need


measure


results


and


not


inputs


remained










frequently


was


defective


because


the


tendency


include


include


mixture


indicators


measuring


both


inputs


quality


of life


and


results


(Morris,


1979).


In his


study


the


spatial


Gilbert


(197!


spread

5) used


development


multiple


around


indicators


urban


including


center,

housing


quality variables,


medical


facilities,


infant


mortality


rates


and


even


the


number


telephones.


Using


this


methodology,


determinants


of mortality,


or inputs,


were


being


mixed


with


outputs--levels


(telephones).


mortality,


Such


and


procedures


with


confuse


items


convenience


attempts


compare


results


replicate


the


studies


other


cultural


and


economic


contexts.


DemocraDhic


Indices


of Development


Indicator


Requirements


the


measuring


search


the


to develop


impact


a social


development


indicator


processes


capable


terms


meeting


human


needs,


Morris


devised


and


presented


such


composite


indicator


book,


Measuring


the


Condition


the


World


s Poor:


The


Physical


Quality


Life


Index,


(1979).


The


index,


which


labeled,


the


Physical


Quality


Life


Index


or PQLI,


was


intended


to meet a number


criteria


which


he suggested


such


a composite


indicator


should have.


The


criteria


he posited


were:


the


indicator


should


not


assume


. -


- t


. -8--. ~- A.


.


*


-


f q -


*









should


be unethnocentric);


should


measure


results


not


inputs;


should


able


to reflect


the


distribution


of results;


should


be simple


to construct


and


easy


comprehend;


comparison

Morris


(Morris

' PQLI


should


5,


1979,


lend


itself


international


21).


is a weighted composite of three


indicators:


the


infant


mortality


rate,


life


expectancy


age


one


and


the


literacy


rate.


The


rationale


and


method


weighting


and


combining


these


three


indicators


will


not


elaborated


here


but


the


criteria


posited


above


are


pertinent


to the


selection of mortality


as the social


indicator employed


this


research.


Mortality


as A Social


Indicator


Mortality


has


been


shown


a sensitive


indicator


the


level


and


the


distribution


the


physical


living


conditions


of a population


(United


Nations


1980)


and


has


gained


wide


acceptance


because


of its


validity


and


simplicity


(Williamson,


1987;


Young


al.,


1983).


Although


Morris


presented


index,


thorough


several


discussion


considerations


supporting


were


his


involved


composite


selecting


mortality,


specifically--life expectancy


at birth,


instead


the


PQLI.


One


the


criteria


was


the


same


as that


proposed


Morris


under number


5 in


the


preceding


discussion--that


should


simple


construct


and


easy


comprehend.


The








literacy.


Literacy


itself


a variable which


influences


life


expectancy


and


therefore


"input"


and


redundant


component


the


index


(Young


al.,


1983;


Larson


and


Wilford,


1979).


weighted


composite


measure,


comprehending

requires und


and


communicating


[erstanding


the


the


procedures


.gnificance

involved


PQLI

its


construction


and


accepting


the


arbitrary


weighting


the


dissimilar variables.


Without


knowledge


of the


nature


of its


construction,


the


PQLI


alone


not


meaningful


figure,


whereas


life


expectancy,


given


as the


average


number


years


of life


expected


at birth,


not


a composite


index


and


itself


a meaningful


easily


communicated


value.


Determinants


Mortality


There


a multitude


of interactive


factors


which


affect


mortality


levels.


Birdsall


(1980)


groups


these


factors


into


three


categories.


The


first


category


includes


public


health


services


which


affect


mortality


independently


the


behavior


of individuals


(e.g.,


mosquito


control


programs


which


reduce


malaria).


The


second


group


factors


are


those


health


and


environmental


services


which


make


better


health


conditions


possible

example,


but require

clean water


response


more


from


health


the

care


individual.

facilities


For

make


better


health


possible


but


require


response


terms


utilization


the


intended


recipients


the


services.


The


third set


>f factor


includes


those


characteristics


-


the


e








purchase

enables


better nu

individuals


trition


to better


housing,


utilize


and


the


education


available


means


improve


their


health


conditions.


The


interaction


between


mortality-influencing


variables


and


their


relative


influence


reducing


mortality,


both


historically


developed


countries


and,


more


recently,


underdeveloped


countries


has


been


the


subject


much


debate.


Considerable


discussion


centers


around


two


perspectives,


one


emphasizing


role


technological


advances


medicine


and


public


health,


and


the


other


attributing


the


greater


impact


mortality


decline


improvements


standard


living


(Woods,


1979)


Research


suggests


the


relative


weight


the


two


sets


factors


was


different


the


respective


time


frames


the


onset


mortality


level


decline


the


now


developed


nations


and


the


underdeveloped


areas


the


world


today.


McKeown


(1965)


contends that standard of living variables were more important


the


onset


mortality


decline


the


now


developed


countries


from


the


mid-nineteenth


century


while


Arriaga


and


Davis


(1969)


suggest


the


more


recent


decline


developing


Latin


American


countries,


at least


until


the


1960s,


was


more


strongly


associated


with


advances


in medical


technology.


The


steep


rate


of decline


mortality


levels


underdeveloped


countries


after


World


War


II slowed


considerably


the


late


1960s and


early


1970s


(Fleaa


I.


1982:


Gwatkin.


1980)


Gwatkin's


which









and


public


health


facilities


were


effective


reducing


certain types of


diseases


(malaria and smallpox,


for example),


other


diseases


such


as diarrhoea,


pneumonia


and


the


effects


of malnutrion


are


now


of greater


relative


importance.


These


kinds of


diseases are more


related to environmental


conditions


influenced


family


income


rather


than


the


number


physicians,


example


(Gwatkin,


1980).


time-series


study


the


relationship


between


mortality


that


and


rather


economic


than


development,


becoming


Preston


progressively


(1975)


concludes


dissociated


from


income,


mortality


rates


may


now


more


responsive


low-income


countries.


These


studies


indicate


that


the


structure


of mortality,


or the


patterns


of disease


observed


they


affect


mortality,


change


through


time


and


vary


according


technological


the


context.


particular


As the


social,


structure


economic,


mortality


and


changes


and


the


incidence


of certain


types


diseases


reduced


eliminated,


the


relative


influence


the


determinants


mortality


changes


as diminishing


returns


occur


with


respect


the


cures


' of


specific


diseases


(Flegg,


1982)


In this


investigation


of mortality


levels


Venez


uela,


determinants


mortality


representing


standard


living


factors,


public


characteristics


sanitation


are


used


services,


as variables


and


analysis


personal


employing







42

data permit the disaggregation of populations according to the

spatial and social distribution of selected mortality factors.


The


determinants


mortality


analyzed


this


study


were


suggested

influence


the

types


preceding


mortality


discussion


the


factors.


relative


general,


the


variables


were


chosen


the


basis


prior


research


suggests


they


are


significant


determinants


developing


countries,


and


capability


obtaining


data


the


variable


from


the


census


sample.


The


determinants


examined


and


the


rationale


their


selection


are


presented


below.


Household


income


Income


has


been


demonstrated


important


determinant


the


level


mortality


(Wood


and


Carvalho,


1988;


Rodgers,


1979


and


Preston,


1975).


A family'


financial


resources


has


obvious


and


direct


relationship


capacity to


purchase health-related


commodities


and


services,


including


better


nutrition,


quality


housing,


medical


care


and


items


which


permit


the


maintenance


personal


and


household


hygiene.


Income


strongly


associated


with


other


mortality


factors


such


as education


and


housing


quality


but


now


population


possible


into


introduce


subgroups


control


income


decomposing


categories


the


cross-


comparisons.

Education









lower


mortality


levels


(Hobcraft


et al.,


1984;


Young


et al.,


1983;


Flegg,


1982;


Caldwell


and McDonald,


1981).


On the basis


of his analysis


of Nigerian survey


data,


Caldwell


(1979)


makes


strong


case


his


conclusion


that


the


level


...maternal


determinant


education


these


the


marked


single


differentials


most


child


significant


mortality


suggests


three


reasons


for


the


importance


this


factor.


First,


more


educated


mothers


may


less


"fatalistic"


regarding


illness


and


more


likely


to adopt


many


the


newer


alternatives


child


care


and


treatment


illness.


Second,


the


educated


mother


s knowledge


of medical


facilities,


how


communicate


with


health


officials


and


manipulate


the


system


likely


superior


the


capacities


less


educated


mother.


The


third


reason


suggested


that,


with


increasing


level


education


women,


the


changed


traditional


ways


which


balance


of familial


positively


relationships


affect


child


are


care.


Educational


level


strongly


associated


with


other variables


such


income


and


stable


employment


which


affect


mortality


but


when


Caldwell


(1979)


controlled


those


factors,


strong


independent


effect


remained.


The


importance


this


mortality


determinant


supported


evidence


from


both


underdeveloped


(Wood


and


Carvalho,


1988;


Hobcraft


al.,


1984;


Flegg,


1982;


Palloni,


1981)


and


developed


countries









Sanitation


facilities


and


environmental


risk


Infrastructural


improvements


which


have


impact


mortality


include


provision


piped


water


from


treatment


plants


and


sewage


networks.


Piped


water


not


only


provides


safer


water


supply


but


also


facilitates


personal


hygiene


and


household


cleanliness


since


the


water


does


not


have


to be


carried


the


home.


Modern


sewage


networks


and


treatment


plants


prevent


contamination


of water


supplies


addition


removing


wastes


from


vicinity


of homes.


The


association


between


accessibility


water


and


sewage


facilities


and


reduced


mortality


has


been


demonstrated


Brazil


(Merrick,


1985;


Sawyer


and Soares,


1982)


and


other


developing


countries


(Hobcraft


et al.,


1984).


Urban


versus


rural


residence


The


importance


urban


rural


residence


influences mortality in today'


underdeveloped nations reveals


an interesting


reversal


compared


to the


historical


situation


of the


now


developed


countries


as they were


going


through


the


industrialization


process.


Analyses


mortality


the


history


the


now


developed


countries


indicate


that


urban


areas


were


markedly


inferior


compared


to rural


locations


the


environmental


conditions


encountered


which


affected


the


health


the


population.


In his


analysis


mortality


Britain,


covering


a time


span


from


1841


to 1922,


Glass


(1964)









rural


areas


still


maintained


as much


as a five-year


advantage


1922


The


rural-urban


gap


the


number


years


of life


expectancy


narrowed


developing


countries


overall


mortality


reduction


occurred


until


there


currently


ess


than a half year's difference between populations


urban and


rural


areas


some


European


countries


and


the


United


States


(Davis


, 1973)


In developing


countries


today,


the


reverse


more


often


true;


has


been


the


urban


areas


which


have


enjoyed


a marked


advantage


life


expectancy


over


the


rural


areas


(Behm,


1979)


The


imported


technologies


reducing mortality


were


introduced


earlier


and


are


more


available


the


cities.


Investment


medical


facilities,


water


and


sewage


infrastructure


also


more


concentrated


the


urban


areas.


Comparing


rural


and


urban


mortality


Brazil,


Wood


and


Carvalho


(1988)


initially


found


apparent


pattern


observed


differences.


However,


when


the mortality


rates


were


disaggregated


income


levels,


was


found


that


low-income


persons


urban


areas


had a


lower


life


expectancy than


people


the


reverse


same


was


(monetary)


true


income


persons


level


in the


rural


highest


areas.


income


The


category


These


results


suggest


one of the problems


of comparing


incomes


between


urban


rural


residents


Residents


of both


urban


and


rural


areas


with


apparently


the


same


income


may


actually


. -I-r S


1


*


I


14m


1


-









compared


the


same


amount


monetary


income


rural


locations


because of higher prices


in urban areas and


the need


pay


additional


goods


and


services


which


can


grown


(such


food)


locations.


acquired


Problems


some


associated


other


with


manner


use


the


rural


income


variable


are


discussed


more


detail


Chapter


Other


mortality


determinants


There


are,


course,


many


other


possible


determinants


mortality


addition


the


ones


reviewed


above.


particular,


access


to health


care


facilities


and


the


number


available


relationship


because


physicians


level


data


certain


health


limitations,


areas


care


these


bear


but


variables


obvious


unfortunately,


cannot


included


this


research.


Information


available


concerning


the


location


and


number


physicians


and


health


care


facilities


state)


but


unfortunately,


cannot


matched


quantifiable


manner


with


the


household


census


sample


survey


information


used


this


research


and


therefore


are


not


included


cross-comparisons


life


expectancy


the


Trussell-Preston


regression


analysis.


Differences


access


health


care


facilities


and


physicians


important


variable


and,


some


extent,


any


observed


urban-


rural


mortality


differentials


probably


reflect


those


disparities.









Demoaraphv


and


SociosDatial
Disparities:


Expressions
A Summary


of Development


The


utility


mortality


as a summary


indicator


the


life


conditions


population


could


not


have


been


fully


realized


without


the


availability


the


Brass


technique


indirect


mortality


estimation.


The


capability


deriving


these


estimates


from


census


sample


survey


information


individuals


and


households


permits


disaggregated


mortality


estimates


population


groups


specified


any


selected


social


or spatial


criteria.


Considerable


flexibility


is added


to research


population


geography


and


spatial


analyses


development because geographic


information


is one of


the types


variables


attached


the


individual


record


census


survey


samples.


Chapter


IV provides


complete


description


of the


techniques


involved


and


their


application.


This


chapter


has


summarized


salient


features


of leading


development


paradigms


their


conceptualization


the


causes


and


processes


social


and


spatial


disparities


development.


have


seen,


the


scale


focus


used


theorists


different


schools


thought


ranges


from


nation-state


dependency


level


theorists


' emphasis


modernization


school,


extra-national


the


influences


affecting


peripheral


nations,


to the


global


view


employed


the


world-systems


perspective.


Regional


science


and


microeconomic theorists anoroach subnational level development









analyses


with


similar


research


tools


employed


at the


national


or macro-level


the


orthodox


analysts.


Underlying


tensions


between


the


paradigms


was


reflected


the


"growth


versus


distribution"


debate.


Eventually,


concern


radical


the


distribution


theorists


crossed


to be incorporated


"growth-with-equity"


conventional


needs"


economic


or "human needs"


philosophical


to varying


which


perspective


approach


issue became


barriers


degrees


retains


development.

a fundamental


The

part


from


into

more


"basic

of the


discourse


regarding


development


(Hopkins


and


Van


Der


Hoeven,


1983) .


has


been


pointed


out


that


the


actual


outcomes


global,


national,


and


subnational


processes


frequently


differ


from


the


theoretical


predictions


certain


paradigm


according


to the


context


of a specific


nation


(Dicken,


1986;


Kim,


1986;


Wilber


and


Jameson,


1984;


Streeten,


1984;


Morris,


1979;


Nugent


and


Yotopoulos,


1979)


As


David


Apter


(1987


p.35)


notes,


"The


point


that


both


Third


World


and


advanced industrial


countries,


the productive system and world


economy


are


changing


ways


that


confound


conventional


liberal


modernization


and


dependency theorists.


Authors


from


a diverse I

development


range


have


research


stressed


objectives


the


and


importance


perspectives


analyses


"concrete"


development experiences


(Wood,


1988;


Dicken,


1986;









processes


social


economic


change


specific


settings


reflected


Morris' (1979)


comment,


. .it


important


to stress


the


differentness,


the


diversity,


among


developing


countries because


the diversity


experiences can


lead


to new


theories about development evolution and about the measurement


of welfare


performance


22).


method


assessing


the


outcomes


specific


development


experiences


has


become


more


critical,


not


only


terms of


empirical


verification of theoretical


constructs,


but


means


evaluating


national


and


international


development


strategies.


the


issue


basic


human


needs


came


to the


fore,


a means of measuring development


performance


terms


reflecting


those


criteria


was


sought.


The


significance


the


interaction


between


material


dimensions


of development


and


demographic


variables


was


emphasized


and


the


basis


of the


rationale


this


study.


Mortality


levels


are


posited


an useful


indicator


summarize


outcomes


different


development


contexts


and


processes


population.


terms


Certainly


their

not e


impact


on the


dimensions


well-being


of development


the

are


captured


mortality


rates,


nor


can


they


any


other


indicator


insights


yet


into


distribution


devised.


the


which


They


level


GNP


and


however,


material


other


permit


well-being


production


important


and


consumption









techniques


derive


provides


mortality


the


estimates


researcher


and


with


compare


flexible


them


tool


internationally,


regionally,


and


through


time.


The


review


development


paradigms


this


chapter


underscores


the


necessity


place


the


analysis


the


conditions


specific


nation


within


the


context


the


forces


and


processes


which


have


been


operative


the


international,


national and subnational


levels.


The


following


chapter


will


outline


the


geographic,


economic,


political


and


social


features


and


processes


which


have


shaped


the


development


of a particular


nation--Venezuela.


The


specific


style


of development


and


the


rapid


pace


which


the


profound


changes


have


occurred


Venezuela


are


among


the


reasons


was


selected


analysis


this


research.


The


discussion


describes


the way


in which various


forces and events


coincided


with


internal


processes


Venezuela


produce


the


living


conditions


the


population


which


are


the


subject


this


research


using


recently


available demographic


research


tools.













CHAPTI
DEVELOPMENT


IN VENEZUELA


Introduction


The


previous


development


and


chapter


suggested


reviewed


the


the


need


leading


more


perspectives


analyses


concrete


development


experiences.


This


chapter


places


the


investigation in the specific national


setting,


beginning with


description


geographic


context,


emphasizing


the


particular


regional


characteristics


which


are


important


understanding


the


life


conditions


found


different


parts


country.


Next,


the


broader


aspects


Venezuela


political,


social


and


economic


transformation


are


reviewed.


Attention


directed


to those


changes


which


have


taken


place


recent


decades


under


democratic


administrations


and


their


programs


of large-scale government


planning


and


participation


nation


s economy.


The


impact


those


changes


on the


structural


determinants


of mortality


stressed.


GeoqraPhv


and


the


Spatial


Economy


General


Description


Venezuela


seventh


physical


size


among


Latin


American


nations


with


about


352,000


square


miles


area,


roughly


equivalent


to the


size


of Texas and


Oklahoma


combined.









sixth


population


with


14,516,735


inhabitants


(excluding


about


53,000


indigenous


persons


not


surveyed)


according


the


1981


census


and


one


hemisphere


least


densely


populated


countries.


Population


distribution


highly uneven,


with


most


of the


nation


s people


inhabiting


the


northern


part


the


country


near


the


coast,


the


coastal


mountains


the


Andes.


The


rest


the


country


including


the


Llanos,


the


Orinoco delta


and,


particularly


Guayana


Highlands,


very


sparsely


inhabited.


Located


entirely


within


the


tropics


the


north


coast


South


America,


Venezuela


s 1,750


mile


long


coast


forms


much


of the


southern


shore


Caribbean


Sea


and


has


Atlantic


coastline


well.


wedged


between


Colombia


the


western


and


southwestern


border,


Brazil


on the


southern


and


southeastern


border


and


Guyana


the


east.


Geoaranhic


Diversity


Venezuela'


extreme


physical


diversity


suggests divis


into a number of regions,


each with distinctive physiographic,


climatic,


cultural


and


economic


features.


Different


authors


have


times


divided


the


nation


into


four


or more


regions,


but


least


four


areas


are


so distinctive


appear


nearly


classification


schemes:


the


north


coastal


zone


mountains,


the


Andes,


the


Llanos


and


the


Guayana


highlands.


The


Maracaibo


Lake


basin


and


the


Orinoco


delta,


distinctive









The


dominant


physical


feature


the


western


part


of the


country


the Andes mountain


range,


a spur of


the


chain which


extends


the


entire


length


the


South


American


continent.


The


range


enters


Venezuela


the


west


from


the


Colombian


border,


turns


northeast and divides


to form the


Lake Maracaibo


basin


(see


Fig.


III-1).


It diminishes


size


extends


toward


the


northern


coast


until


gradually


falls


off


into


the


Caribbean.


another


Range


chain


East


lower


Central


remnant


mountains


Highlands


the


referred


follows


the


Andes


as the


north


range,


Coastal


coast.


discontinues briefly at


the Unare depression and resumes again


to finally terminate


on the coast near the


island of Trinidad,


which


actually


extension


the


range.


Between


coastal


range


and


Andes


and


extending


north


toward


the


coast


are


the


Segovia


Highlands,


transition


zone


low


mountains


and hills


South


of the Coastal


Range and


southeast


the


Andes


broad,


grass-covered


plain,


known


the


Llanos


that


extends


from


the


Colombian


border


with


southwestern


Venezuela


to the


Orinoco


Delta


the


east.


The


Llanos


Range

which


are


and

also


bordered


the Andes

forms the


on the


and


border


north


the

with


northwest


south

the G


the


uayana


the


Orinoco


highlands.


Coastal


River

The


Guayana


Highlands


and


theLlanos


drain


into


the


Orinoco,


the


second


largest


river


South


America


and


fourth


largest


















































-
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'O
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5
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*... -**"** **-..









Highlands,


form one of the world'


most spectacular


landscapes


with


vertical-sided,


flat-topped


mesa


often


rising


several


thousand


feet


above


the


tropical


forests


or savannas


below.


This


sparsely


populated


and


barely


explored


region


comprises


nearly


half


the


national


territory


of Venezuela.


These


physiographic


divisions


form


the


backdrop


the


evolution


regional


identities


which


are


distinct


their particular economic and cultural


characteristics as they


are


their


physical


features.


Each has


played


a particular


role


the


nation


history


according


the


time


and


circumstances.


An adequate description


of the rich


physical,


historical


and


cultural


variety which


comprises


the


nation


Venezuela


brief


cannot


summary


presented


this


distinctive


chapter.


regional


However,


contexts


the


national


territory


necessary


understand


the


relationships


between


the


life


conditions


the


population


and


demographic


measures


reflecting


those


conditions.


Origins


the


Spatial


Economy:


Early


Settlement


Patterns


Although


the


site


where


Columbus


first


landed


continental


America


1498


within


present-day


Venezuelan


territory,


the


the


colony


Spanish Empire


remained


until


essentially


independence.


The


a frontier


Crown


area


s attention


was


focused


other


areas


including


Peru


and


Mexico


which


were


more


richly


endowed


with


those


resources


suitable


to the









the object of


so much attention in twentieth-century Venezuela


were


either


not


known


exist,


were


comparatively


little


value


time


discovery


Europeans


and


throughout


the


colonial


period.


was


during


the


earliest


years


colonization


that


the


foundations of Venezuela


s latter patterns of urban growth


and


regional


social


and


economic


structure


were


established.


The earliest settlements were


founded


in the east--Nueva


Cadiz


and


Cubagua


1510,


and


Cumana


in 1523,


to exploit


the


pearl


fisheries around Margarita


Island and the nearby


salt deposits


the


Maracaibo


mainland.


(1567)


Later


were


Coro


settled


(1527),


the


Tocuyo


west


(1545)


conduct


and


slave


trading


Valencia


and


was


produce


some


founded


agricultural


one


commodities.


intermontane


In 1555,


basins


of the


Central


Highlands


which


would


later


become


the


center


the


nation's


Caracas


leading


was


agricultural


founded


area


1567


and


the


most


same


populated


Central


region.


Highlands


region


near


the


coast


to link


the


eastern


and


western


coastal


settlements.


The


city


has


a more


attractive


climate


than


the


other e

defense


sarly


settlements


position


along


and

the


was


coast


selected


the


the


Spanish


central

military


because

chosen


defensible


as the


Spanish


position.


regional


Later,


administrative


Caracas

e center


was

and


also

the


city


soon


began


to establish


leadership


as the


principal








the


end


the


sixteenth


century


nearly


Venezuela


current


major urban


centers


had been


established,


setting


the


location and structure of urbanization which would persist and


even


strengthen


profound


social


through


and


the


centuries


economic


and


changes


throughout


Venezuela


would


experience


Maior


recent


Regions


decades.


Venezuela


The


country'


pronounced


physical


differences


soon began


reflected


characteristics


distinctive


the


settlements.


social


The


and


physical


economic

setting


provided


the


conditions


the


limits


under


which


local


economies and social


structures would


evolve and,


in different


time


periods


would


influence


the


position


that


a region


would


hold


in national


affairs.


Regional


distinctions


and loyalties


have


always


played


significant


role


the


internal


political


and


military


strife


which


characterized


much


Venezuela


history.


and


living


conditions


the


populations


residing


these


areas


have


always


been


profoundly


affected


region'


combination


environment,


resources


and


social


characteristics.


North


Central


Venezuela


North


Central


Venezuela


the most urbanized


part of


nation


well


the


political


and


economic


center


Venezuela.


The


area


contains


the


capital


largest


city,


i SMrlc.v'1 s


nMafl af


C! wma i -


~hrrlnnr


snrl


A c? T*T 1 1


ac 4-Mff


1









western


section


the


Coastal


Range,


the


region


includes


roughly

District


the

and


states

part


of Miranda,


Yaracuy


Aragua,


(Fig.


Carabobo,


III-2).


the


According


Federal

to the


1981

five


census,

largest


this


cities


urban-industrial


of Venezuela:


core


includes


Caracas


(pop


;three

. metro


of the

area:


.6 million),


Valencia


(616,000),


and


Maracay


(440,000)


and


over


5,446,000


people,


37.5


percent


the


nation'


population.


The


attractiveness


of the


central


valleys


this


region


was


known


from


earliest


days


Spanish


exploration


(Lombardi,


1982)


and


the


area


achieved


economic


prominence


early


the colony


s history.


Cacao thrived


and was


produced


almost


exclusively


plantations


the


valleys


and


basins


the


Coastal


Range


(Margolies


1979) .


The


colony's


economy


was


dominated by


cacao


production


for more


than


two


centuries


until


was


superceded


coffee


around


1830


after


thelndependence


War


and


the


confiscation


of plantations


which


disrupted


trade


with


Spain.


Founded


position


the


of North


production


Central


and


Venezuela


export


as the


cacao,


metropolitan


the


core


the


nation


and


the


role


Caracas


the


principal


city


were


firmly


established


during this


period.


The


dominance


the


city


was


further


enhanced


the


dramatic


economic


and


social


changes


current


century


took


place.


The


size


*- t. -


.- .


S. .


A.


* *


* *


A


t






























C
C

-t
0









hierarchy


has


given


Venezuela


the


primate


city


feature


characteristic


throughout


Latin


America.


Insofar


there


has


been


substantial


movement


population


and


industry


to secondary


cities,


the


trend


toward


reduction


urban


primacy


more


pronounced


Venezuela


than


other


nations


Latin America


(Jones,


1980,


1979;


Brown


and


Gilliard,


1981).


However,


most


the


growth


income,


population


still


and


industrial


concentrated


the


activity


industrial


secondary

corridor


cities


adj acent


Caracas.


The


area


the


most


densely


populated


part


of the


the


country


industrial


(OCEI,

value


1985)

added


and


produces


(Blakemore


and


; three

Smith,


quarters

1983).


The


Andes


The


Andes


Venezuela


differ


from


the


popular


image


those


mountains


inspired


sections


of the


range


located


countries


further


south


characterized


high,


cold


and


often


desolate


terrain


with


the


remnants


and


ruins


highly


complex


indigenous


civilization.


The


branch


the


Andes


range


located


primarily


the


Venezuelan


states


of Tachira,


Merida


and


Trujillo


not


nearly


so high


and


cold


and


does


not


contain


large


numbers


the


descendants


former


civilization


speaking


language


other


than


Spanish.


Generally

a more


much


generous


lower


altitude,


vegetation


the


cover


Venezuelan


and


are


Andes


suitable


have

for









Although


coffee


production


initially


took


place


the


former


cacao


zones


of the


coastal


mountain


valleys,


was


ideal


crop


for the cooler mountains of


the Andes.


Cultivation


spread


into


the


states


Tachira,


Merida


and


Trujillo


and


production increased until


the Andes became the


leading


coffee


producing


area


the


late


nineteenth


century.


Coffee


remained


Venezuela


foremost


export


until


around


1920


when


petroleum


production


began.


The


shift


the


location


production


and


the


growing


importance of


coffee as


the


leading


export crop also attracted


population


the


region


response


the


dynamism


the


economy.

production

foreign cu


which


By

in


1880,

the


rrency


coffee


coffee

Andes


(Dipolo


brought


had


and

ind


this


reached


was


Suarez,


part


the

1974)


i highest

primary

. The r


Venezuela


level of

source of

>rosperity


during


this


period


caused


to become an area


of attraction


for migration


(Cunill,


1984)


Numerous


commercial


centers


were


established


and


prospered


along


with


the


coffee


farmers


and


the


region'


population


grew


at nearly


double


the


national


rate


from


1873


until


1926


(Margolies,


1979


Roseberry,


1979


in Margolies,


1979)


Population


movement


into


the


area


was


stimulated


not


only


by the attraction


a prosperous


economy


but also


by the


healthful


the


climate


cooler


(Cunill,


mountainous


1984).


area


Many


leaving


the


the


migrants


nearby


came


low-lying


a









(1983),


a level


of autonomy


and


standard


of living


that,


despite


growing


debts,


was


better than


that


achieved


rural


toilers


other


parts


of the


country.


Several


events,


which


occurred between


1925 and


1935,


had


profound


impacts


the


national


economy


and


completely


reversed


the


position


the


Andean


region


the


nation


economy


(Suarez


and Dipolo,


1979),


creating a depressed region


and


changing


into


area


population


expulsion.


The


sudden


increase


production


that


played


a dominant


role


of Venezuela


s affairs


this


century was,


course,


one


the


elements,


reducing


the


importance


agriculture


general,


and


generating


high-paying


jobs


the


petroleum


industry


which


was


located


nearby


Zulia


state


the


Maracaibo


caused

which


Lake basin.


the


worldwide


drastically


Other decisive blows


economic


depressed


the


crisis

market


to the


region were


beginning


1929


agricultural


products


(particularly


those


not


essential


the


diet)


and


the


Gomez


' administration'


revaluation


the


currency


favor


the


import


capital


goods.


The


policy


did


aid


the


importation


capital


goods


but


disastrously


affected


agricultural


exports


increasing


the


price


the


international


market


(Roseberry,


1983;


Suarez


and


Dipolo,


1979).


From


the


Gomez


years


until


the


present,


the


Andes


have









concentrate


much


of the


agrarian


reform activity


there


(Eidt,


1975).


In 1936,


the


states


of Merida,


Tachira,


and


Truj illo


still


contained


about


percent


of Venezuela


s population,


or about


638,000


people.


1981,


1,533,330


people


resided


there,


more


than


double


the


1936


population


but


only


about


10.6


percent


the


nation


total.


The


population


whole


country


had


more


than


quadrupled


the


same


period


(OCEI,


1985).


Agriculture


was


the


foundation


Andean


prosperity


the


last


century


but


greater


extent


than


some


other


regions


which


have


changed


their


economic


base


manufacturing,


services


or raw material


extraction,


the Andes


have


remained


rural,


agricultural


society.


Among


Venezuela


regions,


the


Andes


have


the


highest


percentage


population


living


rural


areas


and


major


urban


centers


(OCEI,


1985


and


1981


public


use


sample).


Only


Cristobal


(198,000)


and


Merida


(142,000)


have


more


than


100,000


people.


Exacerbated


soil


erosion


and


exhaustion,


the


agricultural


base


the


Andes


has


continued


to decline


(Crist,


1984).


As small


farmers


are


pushed


off


the


land,


being


bought


by wealthy


urban


residents


for vacation


homes


the


cool,


scenic


mountains,


further


changing


the


economic


base


this


once


prosperous


region


of Venezuela.


The


Llanos


-__ -__ -_ -e .. -


w _-


nr~


L









Guarico,


Anzoategui


and


Monagas.


There


are


over


2,539,000


people


living


these


states


about


17.5 percent


the


national


population,


although


not


live


areas


which


are


part


the


Llanos.


Population


density


low


and


the


inhabitants


live


mostly


rural


areas


or small


towns,


there


being


only


two


urban


centers


with


more


than


100,000


inhabitants


1981:


Barinas


(pop.


110,000),


the


state


Barinas,


and


Maturin


(pop.


155,000),


located


the


eastern


edge


the


Llanos


in Monagas


State.


The


Llanos


have


long


been


devoted


to raising


cattle


and


horses


and,


the


earliest


years


after


Spain


s colonization,


hides


were


the


major


export


from


area.


In the


area


of the


present-day


state


of Barinas,


there


were


half


a million


head


of cattle


according


to the


1787


census


and


the


area


was


also


famous


tobacco.


The


Llanos


enjoyed


such


prosperity


during


this


period


that


poverty


was


said


not


to exist


(Crist


and


Nissly,


1973).


However,


beginning


the


nineteenth


century,


devastation


from


the


Wars


Independence


and


the


later


Federal


Wars


became


widespread


that


many


families


migrated


into


the


nearby


Andes


which


was


enjoying


period


of economic


ascendancy


from


the


"coffee


boom


Malaria


also


contributed


the


economic


and


population


decline


Llanos


the


extent


that


only


1950


did


Barinas


state


regain


the


population


(about


80,000)


had


the


last









Recent


least


decades


the


have


seen


western


a change


Llanos


the


states


situation


Barinas


and


Portuguesa,


significant


immigration


the


area


occurred


(OCEI,


1985)


partly


result


government


sponsored


agrarian


settlements,


investment


infrastructure


and


improvements


health


conditions


(Jones,


1980).


Raising


livestock


continues


to be


important


part


the


Llanos'


economy,


agricultural


has


economy


been


centuries,


developing


based


but


on the


commercial


production


rice,


corn


and


sesame


and


assisted


the


construction


irrigation,


flood control and transportation facilities


(Crist


and


Nissly,


1973).


The


migratory


relationship


between


the


Andes


and


the


Llanos


reversed


recent


decades


, with


the


Llanos


receiving


population from the

settlement programs,


now depressed Andean


largely


region.


directed toward


The


the Llanc


agrarian

os in the


early


years


the


program


(Eidt,


1975) ,


the


eradication


malaria


the


region


and


the


decline


the


Andean


agricultural base have all


contributed


to the


reversal


(Crist,


1984).

Zulia


The


state


Zulia,


which


also


designated


administrative


region,


Zuliana,


surrounds


the


Maracaibo


Lake


basin


(about


5,000


square


miles


area)


and


the


location









Zulia


experienced


a steady


increase


population


because


the


labor


requirements


the


expanding


production.


Most


of the population growth occurred


in the state


s leading


city,


Maracaibo,


and


the


nearby


towns,


Cabimas,


Lagunillas,


and


Ciudad


located.


largest


Ojeda,


where


Maracaibo


city


production


grew


Venezuela


rapidly


(1981


pop.


and


and


shipment


still


888,000)


points


the


after


were


second


Caracas,


and


Zulia


became


and


remains


second


only


the


Federal


District


1,674,252


The


the


people,


remainder


most


or 11.5


Zulia


populous


percent


outside


state


of the


Venezuela


nation'


Maracaibo


with


population.


and


the


production


rural


area


character


remains


with


sparsely

no other


populated

major urb


and


an


predominantly


centers.


After


1958,


foreign


investment


the


industry


stagnated


as the


petroleum


companies


became


uneasy


about


what


the


aftermath


the


revolution


would


bring


(Blank,


1984).


In spite


the


high


wage


remuneration


to workers


the


industry,


a pronounced decline


in the share of national


income


was


experienced


a decline


from


the


17.7


region.


percent


Jones


1961


(1982)


11.4


estimated


percent


that


1967


occurred


the


state's


share


of national


gross


territorial


product.


consequence,


the


population


the


petroleum-


producing states,


including Zulia,


declined while unemployment









with


three


fourths


of its


revenue,


yet by the


early


1960s,


was


severe


economic


depression


because


the


dis


investment


(Blank,


1984).


Guayana


The


national


State


region


territory


Bolivar,


known


Guayana


percent)


the


and


Amazonas


covers


includes


Federal


nearly


the


half


whole


Territory


and


the


the


the


Orinoco


Delta


Territory.


A wide


variety


and


vast


quantities


of minerals


including


iron


ore,


bauxite,


manganese,


diamonds


and


gold


are


located here.


Much


of the


nation


s more


than


two


billion


tons


proven


iron


ore


reserves


(greater


than


percent


purity)


located


Guayana


and


there


are


over


200,000,000


tons


of high


quality


bauxite


just


one


major


deposits


Bolivar


state


(Cunill,


1987).


The


region


became


the


focus


the


first


and


largest


regional


development and planning project after the revolution


with


the


establishment


new


industrial


complex


the


planned


regional


center


at Ciudad


Guayana.


The


new


city


was


intended


become


the


nation'


principal


heavy


industry


center


(Friedmann,


1966,


157) .


Some


the


area'


hydroelectric


potential


was


harnessed


the


construction


the


Leoni


dam


on the


Caroni


River,


integrated


steel


mill


and


hydroelectric


plant


and


an aluminum


production


plant.


In addition to establishing a heavy


industry


complex,


the


1









policy for decentralizing economic development.


Founded where


there


was only


a small


village


1958,


the


new


Ciudad


Guayana


center


did,


fact,


grow


rapidly


and


1981


had


more


than


314,000


people.


Contrary


the


planners'


intentions,


growth


came


largely


from


the


surrounding


areas


within


or near


the


region


rather than


from other parts


of the


country


and


did


not


serve


to relieve


the


pressure


on urban


centers


other


parts


of Venezuela.


Within


Guayana,


sharp


contrasts


exist


between


urban


and


rural


areas


characteristics.


Bolivar


State,


over


495,000

centers,


the


Ciudad


668,000

Guayana


people

(pop.


live


the


314,000)


two


and


metropolitan


Ciudad


Bolivar


(pop.


181,000) ,


leaving


remainder


Venezuela'


largest


state


nearly


uninhabited.


Only


46,000


people


live


the


region'


huge


Amazonas


Territory.


Because


the


concentration


people


around


the


industrial


complex,


the


residential


and


occupational


characteristics


Guayana's


population


highly


urban


and


industrial,


although


most


the


region


area


very


sparsely


inhabited


indigenous


people.


The


administrative


reasons


For


administrative


and


planning


purposes,


the


national


planning


agencies


and


the


census


office


divide


the


country


into


nine


regional


subdivisions


(CORDIPLAN,


1981


and


OCEI,







69







I










a,' N,

[I) )
*r




I L I

QQ O I.e. O
U,, 4-I
a 0 }


C O O w

2 L I r*
-^j rC~ (U*i )


hif L. .
o < o1




< F \ _/- 10
^-. 1 -I
z K
'Cf S1JVCI




/ rf -J L 4-


I \ '
N -- ^<.z ) ^
44.
W I-^ 'K I
\i ji -^"^ i \i FH









regions


described


earlier.


The


Insular


region


excluded


from the analysis


because of


its small


population.


The


region


includes


number


small


islands


along


the


Venezuelan


coastand


the state of Nueva Esparta,


which


essentially


only


Margarita


Island.


The


administrative


regions


are


used


as the


territorial


units


the


spatial


demographic


analyses


conducted


thi


study


and


they


comprise


the


following


states:


Reaion:


States


or Territori


. Capital

. Central


Region

Region


Federal

Aragua,


District

Carabobo


and

and


Miranda

Cojedes


. West-Central


Region:


Falcon,


Lara,


Portuguesa


and


Yaracuy


. Guayana


Region:


Bolivar


and


Federal


Territories


Amazonas


and


Delta


Amacuro


Insular


Region:


Nueva


Esparta


and


Federal


Dependencies


. Andes


Region:


Barinas,


Merida,


Tachira,


Trujillo


and


Paez


district


of Apure


state


Llanos Region:


Guarico and Apure


ess


Paez district)


Northeast


Region:


Anzoategui,


Monagas


and


Sucre


. Zuliana


Region:


Zulia


Geographically,


there


might


some


exceptions


taken


the


administrative


regional


groupings


the


states


and








physically


part


the


Llanos


although


they


are


not


included


the


Llanos


planning


region.


the


census


regional


grouping


scheme


they


have


been


included


with


other


states


different


physical


and


agricultural


character.


However,


to maintain consistency,


the national


regional


system


used


this


research rather than creating


another grouping


of states.


The


preceding


discussion


presented


picture


Venezuela


geographic


diversity


and


summarized


prominent


features


of regional


social


and


economic


characteristics.


The discussion now turns


to the political,


economic and social


processes


change


which


have


so deeply


affected


Venezuela


this


century,


with


particular


emphasis


the


last


three


decades.


We begin with


petroleum because


it has


been


the


pre-


eminent


influence


on Venezuelan


national


life


(Blank,


1984).


Petroleum


and


the


Economic


Trans formation


Venezuela


The


Early


States


The


impact of petroleum on


Venezuela's economy,


politics,


society


and


population


caused


a series


of rapid


and


profound


changes


which


Lombardi


(1982,


. 211)


termed


"a compression


of historical


time


acceleration


cause


and


effect


that


stuns


the observer.


In 1920,


Venezuela


produced


only


490,000


barrels


of oil


(Lombardi,


1982,


331).


1945,


production


was


over


million


barrels


and


the


country


became


the









(exceeded


only


the


United


States).


Production


would


later


reach


over a billion barrels


a year


during the


1960s


and early


1970s.


During


the


Juan


Vicente


Gomez


regime


from


1908


to 1935,


was


estimated


that


Venezuela


received


only


seven


percent


of the pr

production


'ofits


the


the


foreign


country


companies


(Blank,


1984).


extracted


Under


from


the


elected


governments


recent


decades,


petroleum


revenues


have


increased enormously,


first as


larger concessions


from foreign


companies


were


negotiated,


then


as major


price


increases


occurred


after


the


1974


Middle


East


embargo


and


finally,


when


the


industry


was


nationalized


the


government


1976.


Among


exporting


nations,


Venezuela


has


been


the


leader


negotiating


larger


shares


of petroleum


revenues


from


the


companies


(Hassan,


1975).


In 1946,


the government's


share was


the


first


among


those


nations


increased


to 50 percent,


was


raised


75 percent


1970,


and


finally


about


percent


1973


(Hassan,


1975)


before


nationalization


of the


industry.


funding


The

ever


increased

larger


revenues


programs


made


and


possible


national


federal


autonomous


agencies


intended to promote national and regional


development


(Greenwood,


1984


and


Jones,


1982).


For much


most of


of the history


of oil


the activity was carried


exploitation


out by


foreign oil


Venezuela,

companies.


- a a a a a a -


_ 1I r


I*


I _


_


1 r I r









subsidiary.


ownership,


During


the


the


petroleum


earlier


industry


stages


foreign


operated


enclaves,


reconstructing


their


employees


much


possible


the


1 lifestyles


Holland,


Britain


and


the


United


States


(Blank,


1984).


time,


petroleum


extraction


enclaves,


because


the


complexities


the


industry


and


the


exigencies


placed


upon


the


host


country,


caused


changes


that


were


fundamentally


different


from


foreign


enclaves


operating


other


country


where


agricultural


production


the


simpler


extraction


other


resources


component


the


export


economy.


was


The


the


type


basis


and


the


level


foreign


services


required


the


petroleum


industry


were


more


sophisticated


than


those


needed


the


cultivation


and


export


cacao


coffee


(Lombardi,


1982)


and


the


camp


enclaves


could


not


supply


their


own


needs


locally.


As petroleum


production


was


extended


over


ever


greater


areas,


especially


after


the


reserves


the


eastern


part


the


country


had


been


discovered,


the


requirement


modern


and


extensive


infrastructural


improvements


became


apparent.


Nationwide


communications


and


transportation


networks


and


reliable


electrical


service


were


not


easily


supplied


limited


the


enclaves.


The


technological


elite


Venezuelan
-~ m. a aa


society
S- .3.. a A. -.


who


were
ALt,


the


intermediaries


__ __ ^ *S


-.. Sa.1


between


* *


the


t. a -









health,


transportation


and


communication


which


they


observed


and


were


supplying


the


enclaves


(Lombardi,


1982).


Transportation


was


particularly


affected


because


the


locations


of the


new


resources--petroleum,


iron


ore,


bauxite


and hydroelectric


power


at the


periphery


of the


pre-existing


economically active centers,


areas called


"resource frontiers"


by Jones


(1980).


With unlimited petroleum resources available


construct


and


operate


petroleum-based


transportation


system,


the


government


set


about


create


road


network


unmatched


Latin


America


nearly


the


outlying


areas


came


within


easy


reach


the


metropolitan


centers


(Lombardi,


the


1982).


influence


Consequently,


the


changes


areas

which


remained


were


outside

rapidly


occurring


in the nation


s urban centers,


particularly Caracas.


Dependency


Concepts


dependency


posited


both


dependency


theorists


and


orthodox


economists


apply


Venezuela.


From


the


dependency


perspective,


a highly


dependent


nation


because


influences


the


of the


export-oriented

North Atlantic r


economy


nations


and

all


the

phases


strong

of its


political,


cultural


and


economic


existence.


A traditional


economic


definition


of dependence


also


appropriate because of the single-product,


export-orientation


which


has


historically


characterized


the


nation


economy.








accounted


percent


Venezuela


export


earnings


(Lombardi,


1982,


Table


III-8)


and


1981


the


revenues


from


petroleum

(Ewell,


provided


1984


76.5


p.229).


percent of

The shift


the


government


from


income


dependence


agricultural


exports


petroleum


did


not


make


the


country


ess


dependent,


even after the


industry had been nationalized.


In 1980,


the


Inter-American Development


Bank


ranked


Venezuela


as the


fifth


most


dependent


economy


among


twenty-three


Latin


American and Caribbean nations using


a measure produced by the


ratio


between


combined


value


of exports


and


imports


Gross


Domestic


Product


(Ewell,


1984).


Heavy


dependence


single


product


obviously


pla


ces


the country's economy


in a


vulnerable


position


terms of


the


world


supply


and


demand


the


product.


Nevertheless,


reliance


on the


production


of petroleum


has


placed


Venezuela


better


position


than


most


other


developing


countries


because


both


the


price


and


quantity


of petroleum


exported


has


generally


been


more


stable


than


those


other


primary


products


(Hassan,


prices


there


1974


finite


1975).


and


Although


a downward


supply


the


there


was


trend

product


a sudden


the


early


which


upturn


1980s,


there


little


possibility


of substitution


at thi


time.


In the


long


run,


there will


probably be


a continuing appreciation


in value


(recent


years


notwithstanding).


Finally,


unlike


coffee,


.--.--


A---


arnranannh a narn 11 a


T. I i r


vm~ vr t lir^l


V^ vmVt e


P


mnrb


~rd


nn ra~









the


manufacture


numerous


products


developed


and


developing


nations


alike.


For


these


reasons,


petroleum


production


creates,


certain


ways,


a different


relationship


the


world


market


and


other


nations


than


the


situation


other


developing


nations


dependent


on the


export


of tropical


agricultural


products.


Emergence


of a New


Venezuelan


Social


Structure


The


new


technocratic


and


managerial


elite


The installation of elected governments after


1958


imbued


with


ideals


large-scale


national


development


programs


financed


petroleum


revenues


also


created


an even


greater


need


for a


technically


competent middle class


to implement


the


far-reaching


development


plans


nation


and


especially


provide


the


expertise


required


the


technologically


sophisticated


industries


which


generate


most


of the


output


the


Venezuelan


economy.


After


nationalization


1976,


the


requirements


technological


competence


and


precision


Venezuelan


managers


and


technicians


associated


with


petroleum


industry


and


the


newer,


nationally-owned


steel


and


aluminum


industries


became


even


more


acute.


combination


approaches


was


used


satisfy


the


rapidly


growing


need


skilled


managers


and


technicians.


Foreign


technicians


large


numbers


were


brought


into


the


country


in every


phase


activity


ranging


from


teaching


a a


II t


I I -








completely


new


urban-industrial


complex


(Rodwin,


1970).


Simultaneously,


to drastically


the


national


increase


school


government


enrollment


embarked


within


on a program


country


(Ruscoe, 1977


Martz


and


Myers)


and


financed


technical


training


and


university


level


education


thousands


citizens


abroad


with


the


generous


scholarship


program,


Gran


Mariscal


Ayacucho.


Venezuelan


the


social


creation


structure was


large,


rearranged and


middle-level


redefined


technological


managerial


dollars


threatening


class

into


the


responsible for

the Venezuelar


established


industries

economy


elites


bringing

without


(Tugwell,


billions

directly


1977)


relative decline occurred


the


influence of


the


landed


elite


through


displacement


rather


than


revolution


as many


families


became


aware


that


although


stock-raising


and


agricultural


estates


(the


old bases of


wealth and power)


remained valuable,


their

1982).


relative

Some


centers


importance

families re


economic


power,


was


drastically


sponded


reduced


moving


especially


the


Caracas,


and


(Lombardi,

expanding


becoming


members of the growing class of professionals,


bureaucrats and


businessmen


(Roseberry,


1983).


the


new


high-technology


industries


there


was


less


latitude


the


traditional


system


of personal


connections


to operate


as the


main


criteria


obtaining


key


managerial


nns: i tn .-_c


'R1i sms nts


K *|


the


traditional


style


persisted.








government


and


has


been


responsible


for


much


corruption,


inefficiency


and


incompetence


(Stewart,


1977).


Through


what


David


Blank


called


"creative


corruption"


well


mismanagement,


Venezuela


was


prevented


from


buying


way


into modernity with


the $50


billion


"petrobonanza"


it received


from


the


post-1973


crisis


(Blank,


1984).


Structural


chance


and


remuneration


the


work


force


was


suggested


earlier


that,


whatever


the


benefits


the


petroleum


bonanza


the


nation


whole,


the


distribution


of those


benefits


have


been highly unequal,


both


"vertically"


and


"horizontally,


" that


between


social


classes


and


between


areas


of the


country.


The


impacts


of the


economic changes on the country'


regions and


the populations


those


areas


were


spatial


manifestations


of changes


the


structure


the


Venezuelan


economy.


Areas


were


affected


according


their


particular


combination


resources,


economic


specialization


and


position


the


urban


hierachy.


closer


look


economic


activities,


comparing


remuneration


per


worker


sector


selected


years


between


1960


and


1972,


reveals


something


of the


extent as


well


as some


of the


reasons


substantial


income


distribution


inequities


between


segments


the


population


and


between


areas


the


country.


Compared


to agricultural


workers,


those


employed


industry


generally


received


three


four


times


the


wage


amniint -


wonrtTro


in trario


hnrtit


iv tiTPc


ncet. rn 1 AUlh








.1) .


The


higher


paying


industrial


and


trade


activities


are


concentrated


the


larger


urban


centers


and


particularly


the


urban


industrial


corridor


of North


Central


Venezuela.


Table 3. 1
Average Annual Remuneration per Worker by Economic Sector*

1960 1965 1970 1972
Agriculture 1,556 2,084 2,361 2,067
Petroleum 25,659 34,563 25,701 27,391
Industry 6,170 6,734 6,999 7,896
Trade 8,730 7,070 11,657 12,370
* bolivares
Source: Ewell, 1984, Venezuela: A Century of Change, p. 183.


The


work


force


employed


petroleum


industry


has


impact


the


national


economy


greatly


exceeding


proportion


numbers.


1975,


employees


petroleum


and


mining


which


comprise


only


percent


the


labor


force


generated


provided


percent


the central


Gross


government with


National


77 percent


Product


of its


and


revenue


(Valente,


1979)


The


level


skills


required


and


the


high


productivity


labor


force


this


sector,


terms


the


value


the


product,


gives


employees


considerable


capacity


press


their


demands


their


share


the


industry'


output.


During


the


years


of rapid


expansion


of the


economy,


the


relative


importance


of the


economic


sectors


changed,


only


value


added


to the


economy,


but


also


in terms


of the


number


of people


employed.


The


tertiary


sector


of the


economy


shows









percent


to 51.2


percent


of the


labor


force


while


the


primary


sector


declined


drastically


from


43.2


percent


to 12.4


percent


the


same


period


(OCEI,


1985).


The


shift


activity


from


agricultural


economy


petroleum,


manufacturing


and


service


economy


was


reflected


the


population


movement


urban


areas


where


the


new


activities


were


located.


According


the


Venezuelan


National


Economic


Council,


the


percent


category


the


received


population


percent


the


the


highest


benefits


income


from


the


petroleum

population


industry

obtained


1976,


40 percent


the

and


next

the


percent


remaining


50 percent


population,


only


percent


(Valente,


1979).


The


growth


a large,


salaried


middle


class


somewhat


reduced


the


uneven


income distribution at


the


top


levels compared


to other


Latin American countries,


but the poorest have received little


benefit

1979) .


from


the


In 1970,


changes


the


lowest


economic


20 percent


structure (Valente,

the household income


groups


received


only


percent


of the


total


income,


while


the


highest


20 percent


received


54 percent


(Wilkie,


1985


, p.278).


Trans format ion


the


Economy


and


"State


Capitalism"


The


create


impact


of petroleum


Venezuela


almost


combined


with


anew.


The


political


27-year


changes


Gomez


dictatorial


rule


which


ended


with


his


death


1936


had


virtually


eliminated


political


parties,


activity


or even


- a a


- -


_


__









country


his


own


nineteenth


century


patriarchal


rural


hacienda


(Crist,


1983).


After


his


death,


there


was


vacuum


expertise


leadership


economics


and


politics


and


country was reconstructed and re-organized under the direction


of leaders


who


had


returned


from


exile


with


a North


Atlantic


and


international


perspective


development


and


political


institutions


(Lombardi,


1982).


Gomez'


elimination


authentic Venezuelan political


traditions made possible at the


end


his


regime,


wholesale


importation


current


international


ideas


with


the


return


the


exiles


to create


a new


Venezuela


(Crist,


1983


and


Lombardi,


1982).


Revenues


from


the


huge


petroleum


reserves


would


provide


the


mechanism


that,


the


view


the


new


leaders,


would


make


this


possible.


Their


ambition


create


replica


the


North


Atlantic


societies


was


seen


as a means


of freeing


the


country


from


dependency


becoming


as developed


as those


countries


(Lombardi,


1982) .


With


the


bonanza,


was


felt


that


the


transition

Venezuelan


could


society


made

share


without


the


denying


new


any


prosperity


segment of

although


there


was


considerable


disagreement


about


the


relative


benefits


obtained


(Lombardi,


1982).


Before


ideas


the


returning


exiles


could


fully


implemented however,


there was a


series of


post-Gomez military


regimes


which


ruled


the


country


until


1958


when


the


last









rapid


change,


however,


and


the


extent


of those


changes


which


had


occurred


during


these


years


was


such


that


Lombardi


(1982)


contends


the


downfall


Jimenez


could


attributed


to hi


failure


understand


the


new


society


and


culture


which


attempted


rule


the


personal


fashion


the


old-style


Latin American


dictator.


The


capricious,


irrational


style


his


rule


offended


the


values


broad


segments


Venezuelan


society


including


the


middle


class,


the


technologically-


oriented


elite


and


the


military which


also


turned


against


the


regime,


assuring


his


downfall


(Blank,


1984


and


Lombardi,


1982).


After


the


revolution,


the


new


leaders,


especially


from


the


social-democratic


oriented


party,


Accion


Democratic,


began


political


implement


and


their


economic


principles


structure.


the


These


new


Venezuelan


included


state


participation


and


planning


the


economy,


wide-ranging


program


of social


services


and


national


ownership


critical


productive


sectors


of the


economy--particularly petroleum


metals


production.


Ever


greater


concessions


from


the


petroleum


companies


were


negotiated


1976.


The


until


iron


the


industry


industry


had


was


already


finally

been na


nationalized


tionalized


1975.


State


companies


were


created


at a rapid


rate


so that,


1975,


they


accounted


62 percent


of public


expenditures









consumed


the


central


government


had


been


reduced


from


percent


to 21 percent


the


total


even


though


four


times


the


total


amount


money


was


being


spent


the


government


as in


1960.


enterpri


1980,


ses,


there


which


were


were


mixed


wholly


public


state


and


owned


private


(Ewell,


1984).


Social


and


Spatial


Inequities


and


National


Policies


Reaional


Planning


and


Development


Centralized


economy


government


Along with increased state participation in and direction


the


economy


came


the


necessity


consider


the


spatial


organization


the


government


s activities


those


areas.


Prior


1958,


the


policies


the


military


regimes


assured


and


reinforced


economic


and


political


primacy


of Caracas.


Under


the


Perez-Jimenez


government,


per


cent


the


national


budget


was


spent


Caracas


while


only


per


cent


was

into


spent


in the


office,


interior,


publicly


stated


a ratio


Betancourt,


he would


reverse


upon his

(Myers,


entry

1977).


Caracas


plays


dominant


role


very


central


national


government whose ownership and control


of key sectors


the


economy


gives


important


role


the


nation


resource


allocation.


Greenwood


(1984)


notes


that


centralized nature of the management of the


petroleum revenues


created


extensive


state


apparatus


located


Caracas


and









market.


Efforts to industrialize

intensive concentration


through


new


import


substitution


industries


the


Caracas


Metropolitan Area


until


saturation


was


reached


the


early


1970s


and


the


government


finally


decreed


a moratorium


new


plants


Caracas


politicala


desconcentracion


industrial"


1974


(Jones,


1979).


The


highly


centralized


nature


of Venezuelan


government


and


the


focus


Caracas


the


decision-making


center


reflected

municipal

decisions,


the


government

whether


relatively

ts. Stewart

important


weak functions

(1977) comments


not,


are


state


that,


usually


and


...all


made


Caracas.


He further


describes


the


problem


centralization


as being


a problem of


concentration


authority


in nearly


Venezuelan


agencies


rather


than


just


the


physical


centralization


of the


bureaucracies.


the


authoritarian


national

leadership


government,

pattern cc


the


institutess


centralized


what


and


Schuyler


(1980)


the


calls


personal


the


"presidentialist


attention


the


system.


president,


The nr

or the


necessity


head


for

any


other


organization,


order


obtain


any


binding


decision


means


that


industries


located


too


from the power and money


Caracas


are


severely


disadvantaged.


This


style


decision-making


has


tended


counteract


official


national


policies


intended


reverse


the


processes


of centralization.









Spatial


lnannina


Efforts


decentralize


growth


Venezuela


through


national


planning


began


after


the


fall


the


Jimenez


dictatorship


in 1958


and with


the establishment of the elected


national c

CORDIPLAN,


government .

the cer


The


itralizi


Betancourt

sd office


administration


created


coordination


and


planning,


under


the


office


the


presidency


to provide


nation with an organization through which national


goals could


be formulated,


long-range


planning


could be


conducted


and


activities


of other


agencies


could be


coordinated


(Greenwood,


1984


and


CORDIPLAN,


1981).


Initially,


CORDIPLAN


produced


series


components


department


national


the


was


plans


nation's


within


primarily

economic di


CORDIPLAN


emphasizing


development


to coordinate


sectoral


1967,


regional


economic


development


and


the


impetus


toward


formal


spatial


components of national


planning continued,


culminating


in 1981


with


the


Sixth


National


Plan


(1981-1985)


which


was


the


first


include


regional


investment


plans


the


administrative


regions


Venezuela


(CORDIPLAN,


1981).


The


forerunner


regional


planning


Venezuela


was


initiated


the


first


elected


admini


station


when


established


the


first


government


semi-autonomous


regional


development


corporation,


Corporacion


Venezolana


Guayana


(CVG)


for the development


of the Guayana


region,


contracted with


the









projects


Venezuela's


economically


depressed


areas


(Jones,


1982;


Eidt,


1975


and


Friedmann,


1966).


These


programs


were


intended


utilize


the


resources


of the


peripheral


areas


nation,


slow


the


growth


Caracas


and


reduce


the


substantial interregional disparities in income and employment


opportunities


(Greenwood,


1984


and


Jones,


1982).


CVG,


was


one


the


more


successful


Venezuela


development


organizations,


not


only


terms


planning


objectives,


but


also


one


the


most


effective


the


bureaucratic


structures


the


Venezuelan


government


(Greenwood,


1984;


Stewart,


1977


and


Rodwin,


1970).


Experiences


with


the


spurred


the


interest


of people


from


other


regions


of the


country


the


establishment


of similar


planning


organizations.


Consequently,


1964,


additional


regional


planning


agencies


were


established


the


Andes


(CORPOANDES),


Zulia


(CONZUPLAN),


the


West-Central


region,


(FUDECO)


and


later


in the Northeast


(CORPOCCIDENTE) .


With


the


creation

their fu

integral


these


nations


part


regional


with

the


agencies


CORDIPLAN,

government's


and


regional


the


integration


planning


involvement


the


became an

National


economic


structure.


Public


Health.


Housing


and


Sanitation


After


1958,


initially,


the


substantial


elected


efforts


governments


were


made,


beginning


least


with


the









addition


the


agrarian


reform


programs,


improvement


and


expansion


services


including


education,


public


health,


water supplies,


electricity,


housing,


child care and nutrition


became


priorities


the


national


government


(Ewell,


1984).


An early public health p rity of the post-revolutionary


government


was


the


elimination


malaria.


Malaria


which


had


been


responsible


a large


number


deaths,


especially


the


Llanos,


was


greatly


reduced


eradication


program


begun


1946-47,


during


brief


period


of democratic


rule.


The programs were


resumed with considerable success after


1958


and


malaria


was


virtually


eliminated


from


Venezuela.


Another


important


element


of the government's


program


improve


the


health


the


population


was


the


provision


public


housing.


rural


areas,


public


housing


had


additional


impact


on the


health


of the


population


because


host


the


Chagas


disease


1 ived


thatched


roofs


rural


homes


(Ewell,


1984).


connection


with


construction of water


and sewage networks,


public housing with


piped


water


and


waste


disposal


facilities


reduced


the


incidence


of water-born


diseases.


The


percentage


homes


provided


with


clean


water


(from


treatment


plants)


rose


from


46.7


percent


1961


78.9 percent


1981,


while during the


same


period,


housing


units


connected


sewer


systems


rose


from


27.4


percent


56.6 percent


total


(OCEI,


1985,


-1 -


- 1









the


same


period


(OCEI,


1985,


p.CX).


However,


the


percentage


varied


considerably


between


rural


and


urban


areas,


with


percent


facilities


while


the


only


homes


percent


rural


the


areas


having


residences


urban


areas


between


100,000


and


500,000


inhabitants


had


waste


disposal


(OCEI,


1985,


p.952).


Social


Security


The


current


social


security


system


was


put


into


effect


1967


curative)


and


provides


insured


full


medical


employees


attention


and


their


(preventive


dependents


and

the


case of


illness,


maternity


or accident;


benefits


for temporary


disability,


burial


and


marriage;


and


pensions


old


age,


permanent


disability,


and


survivors


(Valente,


1979)


Social


security


coverage extends


to all


wage and salaried


workers but


only


designated


geographical


areas,


usually


the


major


population


centers.


It does


not


always


apply


the


rest


the


state


where


center


located.


Extension


of social


security


protection


new


geographic


areas,


particularly


rural


areas


cover


agricultural


workers,


part


the


national


development


plans


but


progress


has


been


slow


(Valente,


1979).


Education


Education


facilitates


development


through


providing


the


skills


necessary


nation's


economy


function,









also

the


a crucial

population


element


contributing


including


the


physical


quality o

well-being


f life


through


improving


health


practices


and


reducing


infant


and


child


mortality


(Chapter


II) .


Each


administration


since


the


1958


revolution


has


considered


democratization


the


school


system


important


goal.


The


policies


have


focused


heavily


expansion


enrollment


the


means


achieving


that


(Ruscoe,


1977).


terms


numbers


least,


there


was


dramatic


improvement.


Enrollment


nearly tripled


less


than


two


decades


after


the


the


dictatorship.


The


national


government


expanded


educational


role


was


reflected


increase

education


in the

from


percent


L3 percent


the

1958


national

to about


budget


allocated


25 percent


1973.


thirty


years,


from


1950


1981,


the


literacy


rate


increased


from


percent


percent,


which


places


Venezuela


a mid-point


between


the


average


literacy


levels


developed


and


underdeveloped


nations


(OCEI,


1985).


spite


the


dramatic


increases


enrollment,


budgets,


and


literacy,


there are still social


and geographic distributional


disparities


the


expanded


system.


The


inequities


are


partially


attributable


bureaucratic


structure


responsibilities


and


available


financial


resources


for the education system.


Private schools