An application of the personality theories developed by Gordon W. Allport to the process of character analysis

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Title:
An application of the personality theories developed by Gordon W. Allport to the process of character analysis
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vii, 211 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Tomlinson, Rebecca Joy, 1961-
Publication Date:

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Subjects / Keywords:
Acting   ( lcsh )
Communication Processes and Disorders thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Communication Processes and Disorders -- UF
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non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1990.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 204-209).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Rebecca Joy Tomlinson.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

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University of Florida
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oclc - 22476845
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Full Text














AN APPLICATION
DEVELOPED
TO THE PROCE


REBECCA


A DI
OF THE


THE PERSONALITY THEORIES
GORDON W. ALLPORT
OF CHARACTER ANALYSIS


TOMLINSON


SERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
nr TIu DirriTTDIfUCTTC IWiD TmurT nmrnr or






















This


work


dedicated


to my


parents,


Charles


Tomlinson,
this as al


in appreciation o
of my endeavors.


your
When


unwavering


grow


support
I want


just


like


you!

















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


would


like


thank


. David


. Shelton,


idney


. Homan


. Judith


. Williams,


. Kenneth


Gerhardt


. Hernan


Vera


, and


Dr. A.F.C


. Wehlburg


input


advi


which


has guided


project.


would


like


thank


. Carole


Brandt


whose


arti


stic


talent


s served


inspiration


s degree.


would


like


thank


friends


family


their


support


, encouragement


love


A special


thank


you


goes


to Eric


Haak,


whose


encouragement


gentle


persuasion


made


document


much


easier


to complete






















TABLE OF CONTENTS





ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ... .. ....... ... .... ....... i i i


ABSTRACT.......................... ... ....... ..


CHAPTERS


I INTRODUCTION................... ........ .....


Statement of
Personality
An Example..
Gordon W. Al
Limitations.
Hypothesis..


Problem. . . .....
and Characterization..


Sport . . *
port. ................
. .. ........
. . ..... ....


* ..






****


..,...00.



. .aa.....
0********
*********
*********
********


II REVIEW OF LITERATURE..........................


Dissertations. ..................... .
Collections of Essays and Periodicals.
Acting Texts .........................
Summary. .............. ... ........ .. .


*********

* c....a.,
..*......
...*****
*********


III GORDON ALLPORT AND HIS WORK....................


Personality. ..................... . . .
Traits. . .. ...... .. .. ...
Motivation. ......................... .
Behavior.................. .......... * *
Analysis. ....................... *. .
Summary..... ..................... *...... *













IV A COMPARISON OF ALLPORT'S THEORIES
TO CURRENTLY TAUGHT ACTING THEORIES............ 108


Theatre Terminology Defined..............


Personality Defined.....
Traits. .................
Motivation..............
Behavior................
Analysis................


.................
* . a a a a a. a
* a a a a a a a a a a
............ aa*..a.

* .a...... a a a.
* a a a a a. a S * a
................

.................


......


a.. a.*a
4.....


.* "0..
00 00
0.0000


Character Analysis Checklist.............


Summary. ..... ............


V AN APPLICATION OF THE THEORIES OF
GORDON W. ALLPORT TO THE PROCESS OF
CHARACTER ANALYSIS............................. 155


A Character Analysis of Blanche Dubois......... 155
Summary of Blanche Dubois...................... 197
Summary....... ........ .......... ............. 200


BIBLIOGRAPHY... ......... .............................. 204


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH... ..................... ............ 210

















Abstract


Dissertation


he University
Requirements


Florida


Presented


in Partial


Degree


the Graduate
Fulfillment


Doctor


School


of Philosophy


APPLICATION


OF PERSONALITY THEORIES


DEVELOPED BY


GORDON W


. ALLPORT


TO THE


PROCESS


OF CHARACTER ANALYSIS


Rebecca


May


Joy Tomlinson


1990


Chairman:


. David


Shelton


Major


Department:


Communi cation


Proce


sses


and Disorders


purpose


actor


this


s understanding


dissertation


character


to demonstrate


can


that


enhanced


from a


study


theories


formulated


by psychology


sts,


with


specific


regards


personality


. The


focus


this


dissertation


will


a discussion


application


personal it

character


theories


analysis.


Gordon W.


Allport


Allport


used


example


process


what


might


learned


actor


through


study


psychology.


Allport


s approach


study


personality


important


actor


many


reasons.


He provides


terminology which


enhances


communication


under


standing.










behavior


individual,


studies


personal ity


analysis


based


biographies,


autobiographies,


correspondences


can


actor


character


script


analysis.


This


dissertation


includes


chapter


which


serves


overview


the major


psychological


theories


of Gordon W.


Allport,


as well


chapter


which


compares


these


personality


theories


to currently


taught


acting


theories.


final


chapter


this


dissertation


applies


psychological


theories


of Gordon W.


Allport


character


analysis


Blanche


Dubois


Tennessee William


Streetcar


Named Desire.

















CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


statement


Problem


Within


pas


one


hundred


year


extensive


research


been


submitted


scrutiny


psychological


society


igmund


Freud,


Karen


Homey,


Carl


Jung,


Abraham


Maslow


kinner


are


only


names


whose


contributions


study


personality


psyche


have


changed


our


study


personality


helped


under


stand


our


selv


our


loved


ones,


our


enemi


our


fear


our


future


s a


field


in which


inter


to be


exhausted


contrary


field


continues


grow


new


contributions


Schultz,


What


s contribution


theatre?


Theatre


psychology


signifi


cantly


influence


one


another


Gordon


Allport


credit


s the


humanity


having


given


mos


influence


toward


development


field


psychology


After


literature,


s said


done


natural,


s philo


sophy


biologi


social


sciences


throughout


recent


from


center


year


philos


that


ages


s that


ophy


that


have


tered


s only


psychology
nd from art
. (Allport,


psychology
comparatively


has detached


to become


1960,


self


storm


. 5)













(Allport,


1950,


201).


Allport


comments


this


competition


between


the humanities


psychology


specifically


applies


study


personality:


T
seen
thou
it m
bril
back
intr
lite
of P
of c
gian
psyc
less
anch
thei
I
psyc
expl
some
peda
that
ment
port
biog
matt
with
sayi
sayi


ardily,


* v
and
ght
iant
roun
der.
ati.
oust
arac
s in
olog
r me
rage
pet
is
oloer


psycho


e migh
ears t
eem ha
y. Wi


, th
And
Ste
Ami
eriz
obse
the
, me
of a
v D1


t


e


al iire I
raits tha
rapher ca
er crispl
human pe
ng what 1
ng it muc


logis
almost
late
been
his
ychol
he is
Zwei
Flaub
n. sa


s have


girrea nove
One rece
sychology,
ity," he rel
ure has alw
artfully."


arrived on
ey are begi
psychologist
him, and d
irty years
oks like a
oPinion of


in which
r heresie
f literat
represent
ectual an
arisen.
lect ions
ding an i
unforget
ist, drank
t critic
whenever i
arks, "is
ys said,
(Allport,


nning two
s' work
one most
of
conceited
many
peaking
t masters
hese are
eas in
ked by


to place
It
re make
and to


a
acts
idual
e
t, or
out the


200-201)


In researching


relationship


between psychology


theatre,


"personality"


interesting


finds


to discover


roots


that


theatre.


very word


Personality


comes


from


Latin


word


"persona,


" which


refers


U an v n f9a.


~Rnn)nn


rr,,


nn~nnn


n


fh T


mnnniinrr













other


words,


the masques


helped


reflect


personal iti


characters.


There


are


still


other


examples


influence


psychology


theatre


have


upon


each


other.


Psychologist


have


developed


theatrical


techniques


therapy


have


tools


used


(psychodrama


dramatic


role


characters


playing,


to demonstrate


instance),


theories


research


(Reppen


Charney,


Even


some


basic


terminology


used


psychologists


originated


theatrical


role


terms:


playing.


acting-out,


seems


roles,


psychologists


actor

have


, playing,

accepted t


challenge of


director


Peter


Brook


"The


stage


reflection


life


Anyone


interest


in process


natural


world


would


very


rewarded


study


theatre


conditions"


(Brook,


99).


Theatre


arti


however,


have


taken


full


advantage


data


available


through


a study


psychological


conditions.


actors


their


There


from using


work.


seem

the p


first


several


psychological


reason


factors


data


accessibility


which


hinder


a resource


Until


recent


onslaught


publications


"armchair


psycholo-


most


psychological


theories


were


written


A nn


a- w.


C' 4 i tn~ a-I t.


n jn~ A


nnmmll* Cr


lr T r


-p h













Impostor


Phenomenon


Why


Marriage


A Reality


Therapy


Approach


to Marriaee


Games


People


Play


Basic


Handbook


Transactional


Analvs


s are


three


example


psychology


-help


book


s which


present


psychological


finding


s in


vernacular


terms


, thereby


increasing


access


ability


of psychological


studies


second,


psychological


scientific


writings


sea


irrefutable


truths


can


scientifically


validated,


often


ass


ignore


concept


individual-


ity.


s concept


s precious


arti


out


standing


event


s in


psychology


pres


century


sonality


s the


substantial


sonality


concrete


e aiscovery
whatever el


unit


mental


may
life


that


exl


S In


forms


that


are


definitely


single


individual
phenomenon
depicted a


Throughout


per


sonal


explored


tne ages, or
individuality


court


has been


humanities


more


aes


arti


thetic


philo


s have


sopher


always


s and


made


more


their


philo


special


sophical
province


interest


. (Allport


1950


. 200)


same


tend


to negate


way


individuality


importance


s ignored


validity


scienti


emotions.


Arti


however


tend


emphasis


emotional


over


analytical


Tyrone


Guthrie


ees:


, as oppos


concern


with
art i


thems


elve


ences


s with


things feel
o important


express
w things


aspect


, mainly
on of quality,
feel is. to a


what


they


are


that


ma n


- -


.r. marl i rn


o a an rh


o f /\


1I marr


C' f B***ft-


C'


I


I


Il |













presented


seem


be of


little


use


practical


application


actor


science


layman
seems


chief


to be


fault


with


s willingne


psychological


ss to


pile


abstraction


concrete


upon


abstraction


personal


life.


with


little


(Allport


regard


1947


. 143)


fourth


block


study


psychology


artist


links


previous


blocks.


earlier


noted


by Gordon


Allport,


there


seems


to be


an enmity


between


science


arts.


John


Strasberg


curtly


states:


"Read


Shakespeare


you


learn


more


about


human nature


than most


psychiatric


s know"


(Mekler,


101)


While


Eugene


O'Neill


angrily


adds


own


opinion:


from my


agree
author


on exactly
much Freud


the
into


with your
's angle,


same
stuf


Freudian


find


-that
could


point-
f that


objections


fault


they
have


with
read
been


Taken


critics
too damn
written


exactly as is
of. Author


before


were


psychoanalysis
psychologists


s was
, you


heard
know,


profound


ones


before


psychology


was


invented


(Wei


ssman,


206)


Perhaps most


theatre


importantly,


community:


though,


fear


fear


approaching


part


role


intellectually


Constant in


tani


slavski,


who developed


one


the most


followed methods


acting,


warned:


Our subconscious
consciousness.


inaccessible


cannot


enter


our


into


that


realm


reason


we do


penetrate


into


then


subconscious


become


s conscious


dies.


a nrU i !nnam nn


mal ii t


|


o iinrnn ? Q


t! *o WQ n


*


* **J-1













A prevailing


classes


thought


analysis


the majority


leads


current


destruction


acting


instinc-


tive


spontaneous


emotion.


Ernie Martin,


prof


es-


sional


teacher


director,


exemplifies


s concern


warns


students


against


getting


"Freudian"


"analy-


zing"


their


responses


(Mekler,


161),


and Michel


Saint-


Denis


taught


students


to give


"fir


place


to objective


ture


rather


than


study


subjective


psychology"


Saint-Deni


189)


Even Michael


Chekhov


, whose


emphasis


s harmony


between


psychological


physical


realms,


warns:


reasoning mind,


imaginative


able


weaken


enough


fulfill


generally


, is
arti


long


cold


stic


time


peaking, is n
and abstract


work.
retard


might


your


eas


ability


act.


"knows"


You may


have


about


noticed
character


that


the more


less


you


your


are


mind
able


perform


(Chekhov


, p.


This


s a psychological


-73)


Charles


Marowitz


reminds


that


these


fears


need


hinder


actor


from


exploring


resources.


In hi


discussion


conscious/unconscious


controversy


(which


feels


s revived


every


fifteen


twenty


years),


Marowitz


explains


balance


which


sts:


nineteenth


over
role


whether
(operate


century


actor


entirely


there


should


was


lose


instinct)


a great
himself


concern


in hi


organize


n f t 1nnlr n 1 *l


"4-4


A i--m A


nhf~rv *nr


I ln rl- f^ 9


nn^ rf ^ R t


T QI D


* &


C?


W


f^T













untrammeled
performance


instinct


would


s as


to destroy


result


such


coherence


and,


more


likely


than


, his


sanity


. (Marowitz,


Despite


these


block


psychology


can


useful


actor.


Psychology


theatre do


exis


in different


worlds;


they


simply


approach


same


world


different


means


separate


terminology.


Michael


Howard--a


professional


actor,


director,


teacher--acknowledges


important


contribution


psychology


acting


told


therapy,


especially Gestalt,


experimentation


acting


classes.


taken


a great


Certainly


deal


from


s the


other


way


around"


(Mekler,


. 12)


Tyrone Guthrie,


discussion


ideal


training


program


actors,


encourages


inclusion


of psychological


study


part


training


program:


To give
of studi


intelligent


answer


s would


frivolous


demand


a course


, involving,


obviously would,


some


acquaintance


with


aes


thetic


philosophy,


anthropology


psychology


. (James


, p.


Stani


slavski


acknowledged


importance


psychological


studies


rebuking


students


read


ers


their


lack


understanding


psychological


world


physio-


logical


laws:


certain part


s of


tem,


like


phys


biological


psychological,


such


laws


a


rWn a a t* 1 -


- -,-11


no means


l~n nA


nnnnn


1 *


~1115:L


|













Despite


usefulness


psychological


studies


actor


, present


acting


theories


techniques


do not


demonstrate


that


previous


advice


been


heeded.


This


contention


can


be demonstrated


study


techniques


theories


being


currently


taught


actor


training


programs


psychology


the United


interviewed


States.


Eva Mekler,


twenty-two


actor


professional


acting


teachers


are


currently


training


actors


through


private


studios


and/or


university


setting.


results,


published


in her


book New Generation


of Acting Teachers,


reveals much


"release,


talk


teaching


"create"


actor


character.


"become,


Animal


observations,


people observations,


sense memory


recall,


relaxation


exercises, em

improvisations


lot ional


are


stimulus


cited


exercises,


influences


metaphors,


on and


contributors


character


development.


these


exercises,


however,


rely


ability


actor


intuit


from


script


character


structure


character


analysis


is mentioned.


What


actor


cannot


intuit


a character,


scene,


even


a moment


Shapiro,


director


teacher,


faults


1960


s as


having


"dismantled"


acting


process


(M ai or


" nn n a n a h


R7t;


P a 1 0


+fhic


arvr~rnQ ^


- l -


WU


*













acting


was


culture.


nonverbal


taught


twenty


that


years


time


ago


were


approach--the metaphor


was


into


was


related
a very
e thing,


persona
because


was


thing.


believed


that


didn


words


want


were


use


words


a means


lying.


am now
haven't


faced


with


read Plato


teaching
or Shake


acting
speare.


students


They


haven


even


exercise


simply


read


work


Neil


can


dealing with


imon
ever
text


productive as
American Method


approach
with the


acting


done


everything


deal


text.


Available


psychology
repertoire
theories o
whose need


actor


personality


based


past
to


through t
theories


psychology


one
under


study of
an extens


res


hundred years


stand


many


kinds


earch


actor,
people


on many


level


can


use


different


findings


world


psychology


to gain


insight


cover


new


character


choices
script


, particularly


analysis


regards


(Mekler,


377)


Robert


Benedetti


another


acting


teacher


expressed his


concern


lack


textual


character


analysis


being


taught


in most


actor


training programs.


"For


years


our


schools


academies


have


been


producing


actors


'play


ear


' who


literally


can


read


their music"


(Benedetti,


xii)


nonverbal


approach


, actor-freeing


skill


character


intuition


are


extremely


important


development


actor.


understanding


nature


character


through


textual


analysis


s cannot,


however


ignored


iMalr I Q r


fan. .


+'1'~ Q ^ Q


-, rr + ,r


ohn n


ni| A


rI J-













they


should


business"


(Mekler,


103).


observation


people


leads


actor


artistic


conclusions


which


are


physical


well


psychological


nature.


little


mentioned


these


same


teachers


studying


science


whose


very


basis


people


observation.


teachers


science


should


emphasize


whose


be a logical


observation


foundation


extension


people,


observation


student


study


people


theatre.


ability


clues


analyze


ability


character


understand


through


textual


personality


that


found


through


analysis


are


essential


acting


skills.


These


skills


can


further


developed


systematic


study


psychological


research.


Acting


text


must


be more


than


"play


ear"


intuitive


process,


study


personality


through psychological


research


can


teach


actor


"read


the music"


text.


Personalityv


Characterizations


"What


like?"


Almost


everyone


can


describe


friend,


acquaintance,


enemy


in a few words,


doing


feel


though


they


have


summarized


individual


entire


personality.


asked


what


thought


someone


s personality,


average


person


would


probably


aI -


- -- F* *~*L~ .


--------------------------I 2 .


.1 ri -


L -- A A












Smiley,


in his


text


beginning


playwright,


defines


personality


"self


then


expands


s the


form


overall


unity,


individual'
characters


s trait


that


include


distinguish


s the


one


complex
person


from


other


admit


s the


behavioral


potential


s of


individual


which


tran


scend


attitude


s and


actions.


. Per


sonality


is the


totality


a human


being


s phys


iologi


psychological


trait


therefore


epi tome


whatever


differentiates


one


human


from


every


other


human.


(Smiley,


82-83)


Psychologis


themselv


cannot


arrive


a unifying


definition


personality


in part


subjective


nature


basic


(Schultz,


theory


Each


from which


definition depends


psychologist


upon


approaches


study


personality.


According


to David McClelland,


whose


area


study was


motivation,


personality


the most


adequate


conceptualization


a person


s behavior


details


(Lazerson,


404).


Guthrie,


studied


learning


theories,


claims


a pers


onality


consis


s of


those


habits


and habit


sys


teams


social


importance


that


are


stable

Harry

the si


and

Helso


tuat i


resistant t

n contends

on (Lazerso


change


(Lazerson,


personality


404).


actual

leading


. 404),

ly the

g text


while


person


theories


personality


notes


the differences


psychology


' definitions.


an effort


find













theatre,


understanding


personality


critical


part


character


analysis


development.


character


created


based


on conclusions


drawn


from


textual


clues.


"Conclusions


come


from


clues,


choice


from


conclusions.


Clues


are


details--fragments--minutiae


script"


(Brandt,


46).


These


textual


clues


lead


actor


the personality


character,


personality


character


structures


actor


choices.


understanding


human


personality


essential


actor


regards


instructs


young


creation


playwright


a character.


order


Smiley


comprehend


principles


characterization,


a playwright


needs


first


consider


some


qualities


a human


personality"


(Smiley


, p.


80).


same


instruction


holds


true


actor.


purpose


this


dissertation


to demonstrate


that


an understanding


nature


human


personality


can


be derived


from a


study


psychology


personality,


this


understanding


can


actor


regards


character


textual


analysis.


an arti


must


constantly


draw


creative materials


knowledge


from


life


science.


tani


slavski,


1961,


An Example


Ti ,, I


aa+n I nt '. nn l ta ni V-


o Woi4


1^ T*n n lr4ay- tD


VUn4


nn n n t~%4


ST


T


rt













olical


sleaze"


the director


serves


s limited


real


play


-life


s antagonist.


observational


experience


with


such


an extreme


example


a dark


character,


the director


tried


rely


information


provided


solely


script.


soon


became


apparent


that


this


method


would


only


be partially


successful


because


twenty-some


years


difference


between


writing


play


this


particular


production.


Since


1966,


when


play


first


opened


in New


York,


public


been


exposed


a series


"slash


em up"


horror


flicks,


which


includes


several


sequels


nightmarish Halloween,


Nightmare


on Elm


Street,


controversial


Fatal


Attraction


(which


was


released


just


prior


this


particular


production


of Wait


Until


Dark)


audience


s increasing


exposure


gore


death


over


past


twenty


years,


was


the director


s opinion


that


1966


characterization


Roat,


particularly


regard


blocking


physicalization


dictated


script,


could not


compete


with


"Freddy


Kruegers"


created


present


horror


industry.


order


to obtain


same


audience


response


to Roat


1986


was


obtained


1966,


director


needed more


informant ion


concerning


this


type


nnr enq an a 1 4 4,,













sadistic


personality


closely


resembled


the description


Roat


s behavior


(and


consequently


personality)


general


study


sadi


stic


behavior


the director


more


specialized


research.


studies


authoritarianism


Erich


Fromm provided


this


director


with


insight


into


personality


behavior


Roat.


Fromm


s studies


hypothesized


that


individualized


feeling


security


been


sacrificed


our


societies


have


systematically


gained more


freedom:


people


have gained more


freedom,


they


have


come


feel


more


lonely


, insignificant


alienated


from one


people


another.


have


had,


Conver


sely


the greater


, the
have


ess


been


freedom


their


feelings
p. 148)


belongingn


ess


security


chultz,


According


Fromm,


this


need


regain


security


can


manifest


itself


authoritarian


stic


behavior


the masoc-


sadist.


Fromm


s study


sadis


behavior


gave


insight


which


the director


been


looking


sadi


stic


individual


strives


power


over


others


through


three


different


means:


one


way,


dependent
absolute


pers


on makes


on himself


power


over


other


self


them.


second


s totally
as to have


sadistic


expression goes


others.


beyond


involve


ruling


s exploiting


dictating


other


s by


taking


using


anything


desirable


e that


they


poss


ess


whether material


thing


s or


intellectual


amtfl 4 n nPl


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Pnn /V Bh


n^I crlt 1i4-


nntf- j -


.


t


f^ "* r


!*













ector


express


ion


was


to both


able


explain


use t

Roat


he three


s action


forms

and


sadi


to phys


calize


Roat


s intentions


example


Roat


exploit


s Susi


to have


absolute


power


over"


trying


to make


phys


ically


dependent


on him.


third


play,


was


decided


that


Roat


should


take


from


Susie


blind


In doing


e was


attempting


both


symbol


cal ly


literally


insure


Susie


s dependance


on him.


later


used


blind


stick


a symbol


Susie


s freedom


side


world,


weapon


against


in her


own


home


thus


symbol


zing


captivity


Roat


destroyed


Susie


emotional


security


s way.


Roat


used


other


items


found


in S


s apartment-


-pot


, pans,


photographic


equipment


inflict


emotional


ical


trauma


upon


Susie


s apartment


previous


repres


ented


a haven


safety


sec


urity


against


a violent


world


Roat


s ability


use


s environment


against


s an


example


second


sadi


stic


express


exploiting


other


s by


taking


away


using


anything


irable


they


possess


against


them.


final


form


sadi


stic


behavior--to


cause


suffering


through


pain,


humiliation


embarrassment--


Yvnl1 a c


RInat


c nc cro


n tiniun


qnC i


n aun f4


Qt~; r


CkRr *


Q C?


Q ? O


|













line


s found


script


he mak


Susie


stand


center


room.


furniture


s completely


vulnerable


allowed


e room


blind


to Roat.


help


to her


use


see


surroundings


s figuratively


naked


body


" where


complete


to hi


scrutiny


director


actor


s found


sexual


undertones


were


used


sadi


stically


inflict


embarrassment


well


fear


Finally


Roat


ces


issue


humiliation


insi


reveal


s that


hiding


Susi


e ask him


place


doll


"please


(Knott


" allow


. 74)


compli


with


both


request


Fromm


goes


that


goal


authoritarian


person


not


to de


troy


object


on whi


ch he


inflicting


his sadi


stic


behavior


What


ired


s a


continuing


interaction


with


object


which


prolongs


feeling


s of


power


chultz


. 150)


. Thi


s particular


concept


explains


Roat


s relationship


with


Lisa,


seeming


disappointment


death


(Knott,


intention


s to


play


with


his victims


they


invariably


because


Roat


goes


in his play


control


power


death


his victim


leaves


Roat


with


a feeling


failure


He has d


destroyed


object


which


gave


him


tt 14 n V\ ln e a sn


Sa a 1 irnr


<-^ ^ ;rf- r <


rn nn rfzi- f fh/


nn rr~ nn


n


r













Through


psychological


studies


sadis-


behavior,


director


this


production


of Wait


Until


was


able


find


insight


into


analysis


unfamiliar


type


character.


This


insight


extended


from


basic


analysis


physicalization


character


based


analysis


blocking


the dramatic


action


play.


Gordon W.


Alloort


Gordon Allport


one


psychologist


whose


theories


can


be used


to give


actor


insight


into


personality


character


thereby


character


analysis.


considered


by many


compelling


psychologists


personality


to be


theory


one


sts,


the most


because


believed


"individuality


uniqueness,


personal


exper-


ience


single


human


organism as


the most


meaningful


subject


matter


exploration


personality"


(Southwell


and Merbaum


, p.


253)


Allport


s definition


per


sonality


demonstrates


importance


concept


individuality


uniqueness


to Allport


s studies


Personality


dynamic


organization


within


indivi-


dual


those


psychophysical


systems


that


determine


character


stic


behavior


thought


(Allport,


1961,


28).


Dark













133,


141).


argued,


To minimi


was


jeopardize


importance


integrity


individuality,


accuracy


study


personality


Southwell


and Merbaum


, p.


253)


This


opposition


traditional


scientific


forming


general


laws


which


can


applied


everyone


still


controversial


(Watson,


609-610;


Schultz,


194-195)


Allport


also


argued


against


validity


study


abnormal


personality


a means


drawing


conclusions


normal


personality


believed


only


study


adults


personality was


Schultz,


194)


through

a resul


healthy

t. his


, normal,

studies r


mature


elied


"average"


individual.


From his


studies,


Allport


developed


a seemingly


simple


common-sense


approach


discussion


personality


based


trait


classification.


recent


changes


field


psychology,


these


theories


are


considered


some


to be more


influential


today


than


when


they


were


originally


developed


(Hilgard,


137).


Gordon Allport


received nearly


every


honor


field


psychology


to offer


contributions


Schultz,


195)


Psychologists


ranked Allport


15th


place


ratings


relative


influence


psychologists,


.. .u a^ r^ n n onn l4 4


C' 4 .mlw.,^-


V\ Q nd


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Julian Rotter


(Gilgen,


203-211)


also


credited


some


for making


largest


contribution


toward


accep-


tance


studies


personality


academically


respectable


What,


part


psychology


however,


Allport


Schultz,


194).


s contribution


actor?


Allport'


s approach


study


personality


important


approach


actor


to psychology


many


(mind


reasons.


body)


holi


lends


stic


itself


holi


stic


approach


actor


takes


approaching


role.


His ideas


free


will


cons


cious


choice


can


lend


strength


deci


sions made


actor


because


Allport


s emphasis


conscious


decision making


process.


Allport


s conjectur


e that


motivation


always


contemporary


helps


actor


keep


choices


active,


because


motivation


s based


present


and moving


toward


future,


rather


than


buried


past


Schult


, p.


194)


Allport


s research


individual


into


can


expressive


actor


coping


in making


behavior


physical


choices


a particular


character


well


understanding


physical


choices mandated


script.


Allport


s studies


personality


analysis


actor


based


anal


s of


on personal


script.


documents


Finally,


can guide


Allport


o rrmi nfnl na


E 1f n n U- i .k n at a 1


^ 1 Q r


Ii, ,A .. .


A


0n


* 1-













Theories


Karen Horney


Stanislavski


System of


Acting,


suggests


that


"psychology


either


science


both)


may


discover


that


Allport'


s type


psychology


what


needed


artist"


(Jaeger,


331).


Allport


often


expressed


respect


arts.


wrote


an article


which


explored


pos


itive


influence


arts


study


personality,


entitled


"Persona-


lity:


A Problem


science


a Problem


Art?"


challenged


scientific


society


learn


from


arts


regards


to personality


emphasized


necessity


distinct


approaches


both


arts


psychology


"complete


[the]


study


infinite


richness


[the


personality"


(Allport,


1950,


209).


Gordon Allport


s theories


personality


demonstrate


usefulness


study


psychology


sts'


theories


actor


personality,


standing


His theories


thereby


give


leading


a character.


insight


actor


way


into


human


a fuller


a psychology


under-


would


use


Allport


s theories


uncover


the mysteries


a patient,


actor


can


use


theories


uncover


the mysteries


character


found


playwright


s text


Limitations













clarify


goals


this


dissertation


understanding


ideas


presented.


This


dissertation


acknowledges


styles


theatre


individual


plays


in which


characters


are


developed


their


similarities


generalities.


these


theatrical


styles


another


approach


analysis might


be more


appropriate


than


approach


discussed


through


this


research.


might


found


example


a generalized


development


character


a chorus


approach


in a Greek


drama.


intention


an approach


which


chorus


emphasizes


might


ensemble


better


acting


served


unity


vocal


and phys


ical


movement,


rather


than


individual


characterization


analysis.


Robert


Benedetti


describes


another


example


inappropriateness


psychological


motivational


research:


In play
itself


s where


s the


allegorie


external


dominant


, farces,


example)


action


element


some


psychological


ssical
aspect


the plot
play (as
tragedies


character


when


zation


actor


motivating


every


insi


small


on psy


action,


even


importance.
chologically


when


fact,


such motivation


irrelevant


quality
greatly.
interior


the nature


play


action


example)


characters
(Benedetti


s structure may


other
(like
here


hand,
those


vehicle


some


play, t
suffer


play


Chekhov


psychology o
for the plot


s feature
and O'Neill


self


. 152)













theories


are


formed


from


study


actual


people,


while


created


characters,


even


those


based


on actual


people,


are


still


products


imagination.


personality


character


in a play


resembles


human


beings,


distinctions


between

exist.


a human


personality


Smiley


recognizes


a character


these


in a play


distinctions:


A personality


in and


itself;


a dramatic


char
when
huma
ever
situ
deli


dim
per
cha
is
bod
sev
lea
a 1
new
do
nex
cha
Alt
cou
yea
of
cha
lim
Thu
inf
cha
pos
alt
cha
ser
Tp


acter
blen
n per
yday
action
mited
nutiv
onal i
acter
ossib
cell
n yea
t som
nger
expert
e fri
week
acter
ough
se of
to y
am let
acter
ts of


0 fl _


h

r
s

r
f
.


11 e
wit
alit
Id o
d ac
lieu


.


, how
Hamle
the
ear.
, or
hims
the
uman
and a
is f
an o
and a
poss
spec
nt-ta*


range
ever,
t goe
play,
Alth
any o
elf i


C. U r


ual ly
e per
ves i
tensi
ty; a
a pla
ty an
divid
t of
ly fo
ated
rsona
day a
ime,
devel


tomor
r. Th


one
s th
the
ough
their
s al


U fl fl


O
S


reach fu
sonality
n an unli
ve possib
character
y, an ima
d necessi
ual perfo
action.
r a human


in
lit
nd
bec
opi
row
e c
est
ugh
cri


human


any reader
character,
ways the sa
nd doings o
ty can be i
nring, while


ever
lity
stin
sed
xed


yb 1 U flb f


lity
tor.
lieu,
r
in t
rid o


only
A
the

he
if


ng actions;
inite change


Ing


ut ev
on al
atly
idly
s. T
ance
f a
ever
anges
anges
terpr
chang
thin
play
field
ramat


s. A human
series of
ualities.
re with a
tive quali


Each


change.
in the
from
station
e, a
the


ties.













characters


are


human


beings.


They


can


usually


should


deliver


illusory


appearance


personal it i


they


are


truly


agents


more


ess


causally


related


to a structured


action


(Smiley


. 83)


Despite


differences


which


exist


between


created


charac-


ters


living


people,


similarities


between


are


strong:


process


sati


which


his needs


his situation


pers


under


onality


standing


station


is much
s formed


a character


desire


like


real


character
difficulty,


attempt
is fru


process
life. B


s way or
we will


res


s to


strated


by which


ponding


cover


active


express


sens


e of


s per


sonality


(Benedetti


, p.


152)


Theatre


uses


life


foundation


from which


to build


world.


Consequently


study


life


important


understanding


theatre:


suggest,


therefore,


that


actions


within


are


somehow


"unreal"


sense


that


they


wholly


entirely,
which is
everyday
of "more


hour


separate
the most


that


from


striking


insofar


reality,


real"
hour,


rather


more


reality


s to miss


aspect of th
is different


different


than


rather


"less
than


real;"


, quite


theatre,
from
direction


usually


inten


revealing
whimsical
composed
celluloid


intense


eagerly
separate
diminish


, enlightening


. The


theatrical


stage


, evocative,


context


scenery


camera,


ely pursued,


sought,
acting
both.


even


whether


, street


arena


battle
lives


from


s vibrantly
brilliantly


reality


goals
engaged,
lived.


, therefore,


loves


s to


(Cohen,


* a 1


II a


A 4 r. c. a n + ra 4 4 nwn An fa In n. nn nn


"play"


are


t


q^ 4


k


nrnn T n /* ^r- Vf^ *- f f- ^ IrfB


'*-V /^V 9


tkn nn f f













(Klurman,


between


ix-x).


outstanding


A story


actors,


told


conversation


Dustin Hoffman


Laurence


Olivier.


In preparation


a particular


scene


"Marathon


Man,


" Hoffman


in order


Upon


reportedly


achieve


observing Mr.


stayed


right


Hoffman


two days


emotional


s physical


level


emotional


nights


scene.


prepara-


tion


role


. Olivier


approached


him


with


idea


that


perhaps


should


just


"try


acting.


s so much


easier"


(The Washington Post,


July


1989).


story


illustrates


that


successful


actors


can have


entirely


different


techniques,


approaches


acting.


neither


better


or worse


They


are


simply


different


Michael


Howard


agrees


there


no one


way


everyone


approach


a play


a role,


very


opposed


teachers


limit


their


students


"training


actors


to do


one


particular


way"


(Mekler,


12).


Neither


purpose


this


dissertation


imply


theory


psychologist,


Gordon W.


Allport,


only


valid


theory which might


used


actors


to develop


process


character


anal


opposite


true:


Many


psychological


concepts


can


applied


theatre.


actor


need not


choose


one


theorist


over


another


should


ot 1udr mw n nn


thonri


4h 4


intn


human


norCnnali fv


. I .I


Y


*


. w .. .
-













one


psychologist


a representation


resources


avail-


able


actor


terms


life


knowledge


through


study


psychology.


Allport


s theories


are


presented


example


through


increased


a study


insight


psychological


available


personality


actor


theories.


Allport


s theories


were


chosen


this


dissertation


because


studies


emphas i


individuality


human


nature.


This


emphasis


individuality


can


help


actor


make


choices


which


are


unique


the character


to be


portrayed.


Allport


s theories


also


help


broad


foundation


future


psychological


application


character


analysis.


Allport


felt


something


could


learned


from


almost


theory


psychological


study


personality.


allows


actor


s broad


based


a foundation


which more


can


specific


added,


choices


play,


from more


character,


specific


director,


psychologists


or moment


dictates.


Hypothesis


focus


application


this

the


dissertation

personality


will


theories


a discussion

of Gordon


Allport


process


character


anal


This


discus-


sion


will


include


a presentation


the major


theories


nrdnin Allnn r


ur a 11


thaia


narPnnalty


Snmnnri clan


I h


L -


I I













analysis


Blanche


Dubois,


from


Tennessee William'


treetcar


Named Desire.


study


personality


theories


developed


psychologists


can


actor,


especially


regard


character


analysis


character


development.


Insight


into


human


personality


can


found


through


study


both


arts


sciences.


Allport


Stanis


lavski


both


understood


need


the merging


ideas


science


arts:


are


novels


student


dramas


psychology,


character,


read many,
read


many


biography
read thes
(Allport,


too,
1950,


are not
read p
209)


student


sychology


psychology,
well.


not


that
lead


quite


clear


requi red


a life


full


now


true


when
arti


interest


you


real


that


, beauty,


he mus


varie


excitement,


enlightenment?


He mus


aware


what
also


is going


in all


villages
centers


study
nation
(actor


on not


outlying


factories
culture.


life


that


need


only
part


, plant


large


s of


s and


actor


psychology


foreign


s a


limitless


citi


country, i
the great
observe a


both his


nations.


world


own


. What


horizon.


(Stanislav


ski,


1936,


. 76)


















CHAPTER


REVIEW


OF LITERATURE


Sigmund


Freud


developed


first


formal


theory


personality


, psychoanalys


around


turn


19th


century.


s determine


stic


pessimi


stic


view


human


nature


was


immediate


reaching,


world


science


that


began


scholars


searching


outside


different


fields


in which


psychoanalytical


research


could


influential


Schultz


, P.


Weissman,


214)


Theatre


was


one


such


field


which


impact


psychoanalysis,


demonstrated


following


review


literature.


This


review


literature


explores


contribution


psychological


theories


field


theatre


relationship


between


fields


begins


with


a brief


survey


moves


the dissertations


a discussion


published


essays


this


area


, periodicals,


acting


texts


which


address


this


subject.


This


review


literature


will


demonstrate


that


a great


interest


exis


regards


the general


relationship


between


psychology


arts.


will


also


demonstrate,


however,


that


research


limited


Vr4 a m V f fl 4% S n .i no4 5


nnn* F; *


I y +n n mkn


P *-^ arr i-rnm y n1ntlk1/ fr


t nn











28

Dissertations


early


1919,


theatre


dissertations


United


States


explored


personality


theories


their


influence


theatre.


"August


Strindberg.


A Psychoanalytic


Study"


was


written


1919,


"August


Strindberg.


A Psychoanalytic


Study


with


Spec


Reference


the Oedipus


Complex"


was


written


following


year,


according


early


indexes


Dissertation Abstracts.


Later,


topic


dissertations


expanded


from


strictly


Freudian


perspective


field


psychology


grew


encompass


other


psyc


hologi


sts


their


studies,


often


in direct


contradiction


with


Freud


s psychoanalysis


psychological


theories


Piaget,


Lacan,


Erikson


others


were


analy


used


explore


ses


actor


values,


s drive,


morals


, motivations,


visual zat ion,


creative


ability


limited number


dissertations


apply


theories


found


psychological


field


theories


developed


acting


field


only


one


dissertation


could


considered


relevant


this


particular


dissertation.


William Jaeger


s "The


Application


Psycho-Analytic


Theorie


s of Karen


Horney


Stani


slavski


System of


.I. C, tAi Jb 'U *1 a n n -- w-.


.k4 ^ k


An r 1


a


dn fl


i,. .,. .. 2- l,,. -.i


~vn


* _*k- /


111


-iF a .













relationship


existed


between


theories


Homey


Stani


lavski


in general.


This


dissertation


uses


analysis


character


Willy


Loman


in Authur


Miller


Death


a Salesman


explore


relationship


between


similar


theories


theatre


psychology.


a result


Jaeger


s di


sser


station,


gaps


were


found


exist


Stani


slavski


system


regards


physical


actions,


imagination,


"Magic-If,


sense


emotional


memory


exerci


ses,


formation


main


action,


superobjective.


A positive


relationship


was


shown


exist


between


two


theory


author


recognized:


temr


including


is equivalent


Homey


life


that


reality,


definition


unconsc
brought


ious


is no


longer


unconscious


consciousness


still


when


clear


that


sys


actual


arti


tem which
emotional


offer


s the


behavior


scienti


ses


will


bett


serve


than


parallel
both t
no sys


tem at


. (Jeager,


exploration


bond


between psychology


theatre


through


sse


s field;


stations

however,


reveals

this re


academic


search


research does

limited.


Collections


Essays


Periodicals


Within


last


fifteen years,


a new


field


study


focused


the merging


psychology


arts:


study


psychological


theories


through


literature.













growing


field.


Upon


closer


observation


these


numerous


books,


however,


essays


which


discuss


theatre


were


found


limited


both


in number


scope.


These


essays


approach


theatre


from a


literary


standpoint


They


discuss


characters


plays


terms


literary


nature


script,


performance.


rather


This


than


terms


potential


potential


rformance


essential


very


concept


theatre.


following


discussion


essays


illustrate


this


point.


Shoshana


Felman


s Literature


and Psychoanalysi


stion


of Reading--Otherwise,


book


essays,


was


published


1977,


in part,


familiarize


American


public


with


French


psychoanalyst


Jacques


Lacan


interpretation


Freud.


When


was


republished,


just


four


years


later


1981,


remarkable growth


field


was


significant


enough


author


to make


following


addition


introduction:


that


ever


theor


-growing


ethical


intellectual


renewal


s attracting


attention


the


timeliness o
and pragmatic


volume


cal ly


tests


that


thes


concretely


new method


illu


states


s of


interpretation
(Felman, p. 2)


. is


the more


apparent.


This


particular


theatre.


Both


book


discus


includes


s aspect


essays


s of


which


Shakespeare


pertain


s Hamlet:












(Felman,


50)--while


latter


essay


continues


this


line


reasoning while


emphasizing


language


deci


sions


made


(Felman,


53-93).


Discourse


in Psychoanalysis


Literature,


edited


Sclomith Rimmon-Kenan,


applauds


progress


unifying


these


fields


ten


years


since


publication


Felman


s book.


Interestingly


Rimmon-Kenan


feels


need


justify


what


calls,


"yet


another


collection


article


s in


s already


popular


(some


would


over


popular)


interdisciplinary


junction"


(Rimmon-Kenan,


xi).


Discourse


includes


only


one


essay


which


explores


aspect


theatre.


In Elizabeth Wright


s "Transmission


psychoanalysis


literature:


whose


text


anyway?


Bertol


Brecht


s texts


theories


are


analyzed.


This


analysis


does


lead


into


a discussion


action


characters


Brecht,


only


thought


Brecht


(Rimmon-Kenan,


90-103)


article


Psvchoanalvt ic


in Joseph


tudv


Reppen


Literature


and Maurice


includes


Charney


theatre,


s The


"The


Purloined Handkerchief


in Othello.


" Once


again


this


literary


analysis


equates


handkerchief


Desdemone


with


lost


unlost)


virginity,


cas


tration,


feminine


mysteries


(Reppen


Charney,


Lx -- -


-189).


___ __













use


psychoanalysis


application


art,


that


theories


are


longer


limited


studies


Freud


large


number


essays


related


theatre


can


found


this


book.


Part


book


dedicated


essays


on Shakespeare:


"What


Comedy


Can Do


Reparation


Idealization


in Shakespeare


s Comedies


"Separation


Fusion


Twelfth


Night,


" "Expounding


Dream:


Shaping


Fantasies


in A Midsummer


Nieht


s Dream,


"Brutu


Cassius


Caesar


Interdestructive


Triangle,


" and


"Analogy


Infinite


Regress


In Hamlet


ese


essays


explore


psychological


lives


characters


psychological


implications


specific


actions


characters


(Charney


and Reppen


, p.


83-170)


"Sexuality


Incest


Plays


Bertolt


Brecht"


also


included


this


book,


cusses


Brecht


s coming


terms


with male


sexuality,


female


heterosexual


sublimation,


and mother-son


incest


bonding


(Charney


and Reppen,


193-


211).


articles


on Freud


s Oedipal


Complex,


assoc


iated


with


the Greek


character


"Oedipus,


are


also


included


(Charney


and Reppen,


-248).


previously mentioned


article


written


by Gordon W.


Allport,


"Personality:


Problem


Science


a Problem


for Art?."


discusses


three main


Points


to be


learned


.- -V


w --













certain number


traits


peculiar


that


specific


individual


which


can


identified


defined:


e the point
erature of
. ., or f
s on the ps
er has cert
an be defin
episodes f
lity is nev
ogy, as a s


ons.


(Allport,


acceptance


self


more


ter-
.3


broadly


-whe


their s
t *


Almost


n, arama or DIO
logical assumpti
raits peculiar
rough the narra
ife. In litera
garded, as is s
ce of unrelated
, p. 202)


-consistency


all

-
each
elf


product


one


chara
Hedda
Great
great
they
some
out o
adhes
self-
anoth
self-
confr
appli
then,
techn
ality


ever


cters
Gabb
char
ness


asked
of Ham
er, or
cteriz
rove t


are
sub
f a
ive
con
er,
con
ont
ed
ne
iqu


can


their
let, D
Babbi
nations
hemsel


eces
bot
, we
beh
ion;
t th
if
s th
work
hniq
eby


sar
h a
11-
avi
on


be determined


authors


on Qui
tt wer
by vi
ves .
. Eve
reflect
nit ch
r meet
bit o
ole ca
icate
ly met
artist
of sel
togeth
. (All


prove


ote,
tru
tue
hey
y ac
ion
ract
the
beh
be
nity
od o


Anna
and
f th
re p
see
nd a


* .
-confr
rness
ort, 1


that


Kareni
authen
eir
lausibl
ms to b
round
This
known
support
ehended
If-
idation
chology
action,
a perso
, p. 20


na,
tic.


e;
eng
ng


n-
3)


sustaining


interest


individual


person


longer


period


time:


Following
assume th
Science.


t i fl 3


A 'US S


the
ey i
ual
S.
a v


ndivi
ist,
a nu
is tr
t. sh


a


older
must
s onl


science


U rV a i


II


they


hed
ene
wan
ted
in


aside.
ral laws.
ted are
in the












similar


literary


treatment


theatre


plays


can


found


in other


collections


essays


on psychology


affect


art.


These


have


been


presented


this


review


literature,


rather


examples


types


typical


essays


have


been


presented


to demonstrate


what


been


written


this


particular


area.


collections


essays


discussed


demonstrate


this


field


rich


literary


contribution


strictly


theatre.


literary.


lacking


approach,


however,


discussion


theatre


a performance


vehicle:


Characters


are


analyzed


to be discussed,


not


to be performed.


Institute


Psychological


tudy


Arts


was


founded


1984


Norman N


. Holland,


a University


Florida


professor.


This


organization


publishes


international


listing


published


soon-to-be-published


works


whose


topics


contribute


area


psychology


arts.


This


bibliography


published


in May


each


year.


Even


with


timeliness


s publications


extensiveness


listings


no publication


which


discusses


psychology


a performance


tool


can


found


either


last


years'


listings.


been


previous


demonstrated


this


discussion,


many


articles


are


listed


IPSA


publication


which













year


alone


psychology


works


Shakespeare


general, in

publications


addition


on Hamlet,


this,

four


there

on Kine


exist

Lear


eleven

and numerous


others


ranging


from Othello


to Tamine


Shrew.


books


have


been


published


this


year


which


analyze


e the


works


Samuel


literature)


Beckett,


in general


books


(IPSA,


discuss


1989).


drama


Even


(theatre


interview with


. Holland


psychology


reveal


performance


knowledge


plays


work


, although


s on


found


topic


fascinating


subject.


straight


psychology


articles


published


between


1983


and March


1989,


most


articles


have


been


written


explore


encourage


influence


cont inue


theatre

d use.


therapy


There


are


also


several


articles


which


analyze


characters


particular


plays


order


to draw


conclusions


personality


author


to demonstrate


a particular


theory


personality


type.


These


arti


cles


give


interesting


insight


into


areas


psychology


theatre


however,


their


intention


provide


direct


insight


actor.


Act ine


Texts


What


books


which


approach


theatre


performance


vehi


cle?


they use


nsvcholon i cnl


elements


*.B.


n-r













just


a step-


-step


approach


craft


acting


one


author


they


belong


fiction


rather


than


non-fiction


shelv


continues:


because


e they


are


full


because


e they


are


full


Acting
highly


talk
what


poetry,


s the


impress


about


kind
ioni


what


tici


subject
style of
. writer


. (Marowit


anecdote


that


drama.


encourages


writing.
s tend to


Rather


than


describe


. 4)


Some


these


acting


text


s demonstrate


a direct


correlation


between


psychology


acting


while


other


do not

reflect


directly


acknowledge


impact


influence,


psychology


craft


indirectly


acting


Perhaps


most


important


s study


are


text


s used


s review


literature


in which


there


s no


thought


given


to psychology


acting


text


which


reflect


current


training


typical


in both


academic


prof


ess


ional


acting


programs,


approach


actor


emphasis ze


training.


analyze


a phys


Little


ical


emphas


character


non-verbal


s placed


learn


(except


teaching


through


observation)


general


psychological


freeing


nature


emotion


people


intuition


actor


are


emphas


zed.


review


these book


s will


demonstrate


that


under


standing


psychological


nature


a person


s an













personality


people


implemented


basic


part


actor


training.


One

theories


the most


acting


influential,

presented i


and most


n Constant


misunder

in Stani


stood


lavski


series


acting


texts:


An Actor


Prepares,


Building


Character


Creatiner


a Role.


tani


changed


course


theatre,


filtered,


principles--although


transformed--are


foundation


altered,


of most


contemporary


acting


theories.


This


series


books


addresses


importance


both


psychological


physical


use


development


conscious


actor.


technique


tanislavski


creating


explains,


physical


body


a role


achieve


creation


subconscious


life


spirit


e" (Stani


slavski,


1936,


138).


In An Actor


Prepares,


Stanislavski


explores


creativity


, imagination,


subconscious


actor,


well


actor


s obligation


truth.


introduces


concept


" by


which


actor


can


arouse


inner


real


activity


tani


slavski


, 1936,


tani


slavski


speaks


through


fictitious


character


Tortsov:


"In moment


s of


doubt,


when


your


thoughts,


feelings,


imagination


are


silent


remember


iuthnr


aln


hapan


wnrk


that


said


n


L


. I Z


nv E


. .lr. n


L













also


explains


importance


identification


character


motive


character


objective


, both


which


will


be di


scusse


further


chapter


four


. The


text


follow


s the


training


a young


aspiring


actor


fictitious


acting


company


, emphas


zes


psychological


nature


In Buildinwe


both


a Character


character


tani


slav


actor


emphasis z


phys


ical


needs


both


character


actor


He di


SCUSS


movement


terms


control


flexibility


actor,


terms


communication


pers


onality


character.


also


addr


esses


voice


diction,


tempo


rhythm


acting


ethi


tani


slav


realized:


When


s said


done


thes


e various


element


s of


an actor


s make


-up


which


have


been


studying


cons


being
life.


titute


s and


nothing


they


are


familiar


natural


you


state
from


human


actual


amazing


which


thing


s produced


is that
normal


s familiar


means


under


state


natural


conditions


vanishes without


trace


instant


actor


sets foot


stage


tani


slav


1949


. 275)


a Role


tani


slav


s application


theor i


follow


s the


process


uses


create


role


from


Inspector


General,


Woe


from


Wit,


Othello.


not


surpri


sing,


however,


to di


cover


part


s of


s third


book


were


actually


written


before


other


text


Creatine













s with


many


innovative


e leader


what


tani


slavski


said


what


was


attributed


tani


slav


were


always


s the


same.

acting


His work

schools


stirr


emphas


a gr


controversy


different


element


as different

s of his


theory


, forgetting


that


tani


slav


hims


emphasis


balance


between


phys


ical


(external


technique)


psychological


spiritual


inner


preparation)


tani


slavs


, 1949,


viii)


. S


tani


slav


was


awar


e that


his t


techniques


wer


e always


s changing


growing,


cautioned


student


s against


copying


methods


instead


adapting


method


the needs


thei


r environment


innovative


tani


slav


s methods


were


turn


century


in Russia


real i


methods


reflected


knowledge


his time,


his country


, his people


encourage


d his American


student


s not


to be


cont


follow


his tradition,


move


forward


tani


slav


ski,


1949


xiv)


hological


studi


were


just


beginning


their


impact


on S


tani


slav


s demonstrate


throughout


his book


tani


slav


under


stood


their


importance


their


potential


impact


theater


There


s little


doubt


that


tani


Psyc


slav


holorical


would


studio


continue


- 1


encourage


another


actor


source


use


creativity


V


_ _


I












stri


ves


teach


actor


exercises


which


will


develop


harmony


between


physical


psychological


elements.


s a


known


fact


that


human


body


psychology
interplay.


overdeveloped


the mind,


Because


influence


Either


body may


dull


each


character


field


stic


each


other


undeveloped


eas


feelings
and profe


occupational


dim


are


constant


or muscularly
the activity


weaken


ssion
habit


will


prey


seases


hazards


which


inevitably


affect


worker


s and


practitioners


balance


harmony


actor


instrument


stage,
harmony


mus


is seldom
between
who must


or expressing
strive for th


between


two,


that


the body
consider


creative


find


a complete
psychology
body as an


ideas


attainment


body


comply


psychology


(Chekhov


, p.


gives


three


requi rements


to help


actor


develop


this


harmony.


First


a sensitivity


body


psychological


richn


creative


ess


impulses;


psychology


second


itself,


an understanding


third


complete


obedience


both


body


psychology


needs


actor


(Chekhov,


-5).


In his


discussion


first


requirement,


Chekhov


warns


actor


against


"dangerous


practice


eliminating


psychological


elements


from his


over


estimating


significance


physical"


(Chekhov,


encourages


actor


remember


"real


task


creative


artist"


interpret


life--not


just


copy


(Chekhov


, p.


This


ability


interpret


life,


-- v


S













Chekhov


felt


these


impulse


s come


from an


understanding


richness


psychology


itself,


second


requirement.


encourages


actor


constantly


enlarge


circle


interests


assuming


psychology


persons


other


eras,


nations,


dispositions


(Chekhov.


4-5)


Chekhov


discusses


third


requirement--


obedience


both


body


psychology--throughout


remainder


discussed


book.


further


These


detail


ideas


chapter


exercises


four


will


this


dissertation.


Chekhov


summarizes


book


in his


discussion


different


may


ways


analyzed


actor


through


approach


use


a role.


imagination,


character

atmospheres,


sensations


feelings,


psychological


gestures


, tempos,


physicalizations


characterizations,


Stani


slavski


units


objectives.


Even


though


the goal


each


these


approaches


character


strengthen


actor,


Chekhov


psychological


does


core


condone


use


text


analysis


psychological


studies


options


developing


character.


Although Chekhov


emphasizes


study


psychology


others


through


extensive


reading


observation,


fails


include


psychological


studies


available


through


I


k


_ _


I .













contradictory


approaches


psyc


hology:


Theatre


profe


sses


need


understand


psychological


nature


people


avoids


science


psychology


resour


Robert


Cohen


s Acting


Power


uses


psychology


life


experiences


(such


baseball,


snow


skiing,


dining


out)


a means


to explore,


explain,


the discussion


development


actor


theatre.


example,


Cohen


scusses


Philip


imbardo


s prison


experiment


which


male

and


college st

"prisoners.


udent


s were


Within


divided


days


into

the e


groups


"guards"


experiment


abandoned


psychological


physical


strain


found


the mock


prison


environment.


Cohen


uses


Zimbardo


experiment


to explain


intense


relationship


between


"actor"


"play.


Zimbardo


study


a prison


experiment
effects of


situation


was


originally


prison


the mos


life


valuable


undertaken


"acting
result


out"


the experiment,
yielded on the
here Zimbardo h


however
"acting


was


out"


created


information


process


own


self


improvisational


theatre
actors,
context


with


situation,
audience.


acting


scenery,
Zimbardo


context


cos


tume


s theatre


was


was


court


arbitrary--a


improves


action


scientific


that


went


experiment
on within


--but


intera


reality
with al


effective


action


, was


psychological


genuinely


"play" w
context


inten


phys


se.


place


. (Cohen


biological
thus it i


within


, p.


Cohen


s book


-


broken


into


five


chapters:


Playing


the


ce.


__ __













enhanced


following


chapters


which


relate


acting


life


life


experiences.


This


fascinating


book


often


reads


self


-help


psychology-acting manual.


Cohen


also


includes


a suggested


reading


list


actor


which


psychology


theatrical


books


craft,


that


with


"deal


human


with


behavior


acting


everyday


life"


(Cohen,


258).


Charles


McGaw


s Acting


Believiner


elementary


text


which


"assumes


that


actor


s job


create


believable


character


to present


within


character


circumstances


with


theatrical


play


effectiveness"


(McGaw


, p.


based


first


theories


tani


sections


slavski,


book


offer


are


both


exerc


ises


scuss


ions


development


these


theories.


first


section,


"The


Actor


and Himself


emphasizes


development


actor


McGaw


believe


that


actor


large


degree


can


only


"play


himself


first


section


seeks


strengthen


this


ability


(McGaw,


second


section


, "The


Actor


Play


" emphasis


zes


importance


discovering


intentions


playwright


character


putting


them on


what


stage.


a character


Under


willing


standing


to do


what


to eet


character


McGaw


wants


ives


W -


. .


R













(always
purpose


taking


into


in saying
character'


consideration


it),
s line


what


actions


what


speaker


are


comment


suggested


s and


descriptions
directions.


playwright


(McGaw


offers


stage


, p.


final


section,


"The


Actor


Production,


" give


actor


practical


advice


stage


terms


rehearsal


conduct,


staging.


importance


dissertation


McGaw


second


section.


analysis


character


based


both psychological


physical


terms:


what


character


says


what


character


does.


However,


reference


made


study


nature


personality


people


through psychology.


Ramon Delgado


s Acting with


Both


Sides


Your


Brain:


sPectives


Creative


Process


explores


application


theories


psychological


creative


right


process


brain/left


acting.


brain


book


provides a

intuitive,


acting


exercise


nonverbal,


s designed


right


-hemisphere


to develop


brain


the

functions


well


analytical,


logical,


left-hemisphere


brain


functions


(Delgado,


Delgado,


acting


whose


students,


text


provide


was


designed


s exerci


ses


teach


which


first


develop


year


"the


levels


craft


level


actions;


creative


level


processes


-ords;


acting"


level


w -


.. J


v


I.~ V


VI .


.













student


through


a logical


development


a balance


functions


brain


which


will


lead


to dependency


neither


elusive


inspiration nor


stifling


logic


(Delgado,


emphas


this


text


exerci


ses


rather


than


an explanation


theory which might


behind


exercise


es.


Only


a short


discussion


left


brain/right


brain


theory


provided.


Charles


Marowit


z's The Act


Beine:


Towards


a Theory


Act inus


a fascinating


eclectic


overview


acting.


Marowitz


discusses


recent


history


acting,


including


practical


different


insights


schools


into


strengths


acting.


weaknesses


explores


theories


acting


he deems


important


either


their


mystical


practical


contributions.


even


offers


developmental


exerci


ses


actor


, from working


with


an audience


rehearsal


techniques.


Marowitz


believes


strongly


influence


psychology


on acting.


In his


introduction


states:


fact
not


our


written


mos


influential


by Coque


works


on acting


Stanislavsky


Sigmund
acting


Freud,
"theory"


Carl


Jung


, very


Alfred


largely


Adler


, extrapolation


from our


theories


psychology


. (Marowit


, p.


Marowit


z also


attribut


revolutionary


acting


theories


inan r at i nn


nvhn ln i al 1


hrp*aUthron ih .


.


*' ..


* II .


.













Freud and
the whole


early


a handful


notion


1920'


French


inner-te


eashed


upon


psychology


that


chnique is, in th
the unsuspecting


acting profess


ion.


(Marowi t


Sp.


Marowit


z seems


chastise


contemporary


American


theatre


s methods


ch he


views


stifling


work


actor.


feels


that


many


American


acting


theories


encourage


inward-


looking


, border-narrowing,


rather


than


horizon-widening,


out look:


Without


view


meaning
life, a


to do


one


fois


that


can


s a


simple


stic


be mechanically


interpreted


soon


according
s you have


a given


scove


formulae.


red Hamlet


s as


s super


objective


sequence


actions


that


titute


nothing more
or the work.


which
makes


s progress


to be


cannot


no provis


surrealism,
conventions,


actors


said


denies
reduced


ions


fantasy,


play,
about


tence


--either


exis


to Method


unverifiable


magic


genius


committed


relied


doesn't


to get


always


s a


safe


you


s insure


that


safe


travel


from Point


that


you


will


there


character
dimensions


terminology


phenomena
flouter of


technology
although i
A to Point
experience


like


can


landscape


between


those


contemporary


natural
points.


American


prac


phenomena


that


abound


finally, it is,
a renunciation


what


Stanislavsky


rigid


sys


tern of


intended
applied


to be--which


esthetic


was


s technology


more


Why
you


like


a helpful


you


to your
decide


means


rather


going


destination?


turn


so--


down


cas


this


guide
road,


other


any point


there


says


may


hand,


along


territory


should


ne way
down


there


that


even


have


never


seen


and you may


find


things f
anything


yours
might


every


suggest


intere


. (Marowit


z p


sting


. 18)


Master


Teachers


Theatre:


Observations


Teaching


cons


I


w --


_ __ _~ ~


_


I


I~


__ _I__












into


teach


various


areas


influence


theatre

theatre


student


dramatic


interpretation


stage movement,


directing


literature,


(classical


text


, designing,


theatre


actor


high


history,

training


school


theatre,


children


s theatre.


No direct


discussion


importance


study


psychology


included


these


essays,


indirect


references


can


found.


In his


Mission


introduction


Theatre


book,


Teacher


Hobgood


He discusses


address


four


"The


phases


development


significantly


talented


acting


student.


Hobgood


s ability


to develop


these


four


cases


attributes


"remarkable


studies


findings


researcher


s in


human


self-development.


work


Jean


Piaget


Erik


Erikson,


among


others,


illuminates


phases


through


which


children


and young


people


pass"


(Hobgood,


11).


like


Allport,


acknowledges


that


young


actors


are


process


"becoming,


" another


concept


attributed


research


in human


self-development


(Hobgood


, P.


Finally,


Professor


Hobgood


s footnotes


acknowledge


certain


sections


this


book


were


presented


a paper


favorably


Princeton


a delegate


Conference


behavioral


were


scienti


received


(Hobgood,


20).


--












theories


basis


specific


ideas.


In his discussion


three


categories


acting


skills


(analytical,


psychophysical,


transformational


skill


attributes


them as


result


function


different


brain


hemispheres:


right


brain/left


brain


(Hobgood,


88-89).


reinforcing


Stani


slavski


s idea


that


habit


establi


shes


creativeness,


sight


s a


recent


finding


brain


research:


a newly


learned


technique must


forgotten


before


can


truly useful


(Hobgood,


Benedett i


also


likens


acting


dichotomy


outside-in


acting


inside-out


technique


acting


similar


technique


psychological


counsel ing


dichotomy


(Hobgood


, p.


95).


Perhaps


most


important


Benedetti


justification


s explanation


just


for

how


psychological


acting


research


actually


learned:


best


rather


training
is the


byproduct


s not


uncons


expert ene


cious


compelli ng


training


automatic


esthetics


inquiry


very


work


behavior
(Hobgood,


effort


to dis


character


itself


works


cover


s mind
we end


w a play or
works, how
up learning


scene


human


104)


Although


psychological


ideas


found


in Master


Teachers


were merely mentioned


references


not


focus


discussion,


they


do demonstrate


psychological


foundation


important.


However,


a direct


1












Robert


Benedetti


s book,


Actor


at Work,


discusses


further


human


ideas


behavior.


psychology


teaching


acting


discussions


insights


into


through


directly

exercises


study


rely

which


field


help


foundation


beginning


actor.


Interestingly


feels


need


following


disclaimer


because


use


psychological


tools:


Despite


drawn


fact


from a


that


type


ese


exercises


therapeutic


are largely


psychology


[largely Ge


makes
philos


stalt]


must


no pretensions


ophical


hardheaded


(and


efficacy


been


alone.


nature.
scipline,


extens


stre


that


this


therapeutic


Acting
and my


ively


class


(Benedetti,


book


even


a rigorous


approach


-tes
xiv)


ted)


s designed
for


His book


teaches


importance


what


terms


expressive


technique


well


textual


analysis


character


development


These


ideas


will


further


discussed


chapter


four.


Previous


ly mentioned


was


Eva Mekler


s The


Generation


Act ine


Teachers.


This


book


summarizes


basi


c acting


philosophies


currently


taught


twenty-two


leading


acting


coaches


east


coast,


west


coat,


universities


this


country.


Animal


observations,


people


observations


, sense memory


recall,


relaxation


exercises,


emotional


stimulus


exercise


metaphors,


improvisations












their


tea


ching


tool


s to


science


psyc


hology


book


indicate


that


use


psychology


resource


actor


s not


included


major


training


institutions


acting


similarly,


acting


text


s such


Edward


Dwight


Easty


On Method


ctinu,


Morri


s' Beinw


Doinff


ella


Adler


s The


Techniqu


Acting,


Sonia


Moore


s Training


an Actor


emphas i


ze the


development


improvisational


exerci

memory


ses

and


observation


affective


memory


techniques


skill


to stimulate sens

concentration and


relaxation


skill


well


animal


exerci


ses


many


similar


exerci


ses


styl


teaching


can


works


tani


slav


sberg,


other


influential


acting


teacher


No doubt


their


method


s are


seeped


psychology,


extens


ions


their


work


presently


taught


emphas


ze the


development


actor,


rather


than


identification


development


character


found


text


Ther


before


psychological


acknowledgement


s limited


book


s previous


pres


ented


refl


some


major


acting


theori


currently


taught


United


states.


Although


many


se t


s demonstrate


under


standing


psychological


nature


a person


s important


_


v


__










51

Summary


previous


discussion


dissertations,


essays,


periodical


acting


texts


demonstrates


importance


psychological


contribution


arts


in general,


theatre


specifically.


demonstrates


important


effect


both


fields


can


have


upon


each


other.


This


discussion


also


demonstrates


that


although


there


a substantial


amount


psychological


standpoint,


research


there


theatre


lack


from


research


literary


study


psychological


contribution


theatre


from


standpoint


actor.


Perhaps


the most


important


conclusion


demonstrated


this


review


literature


realization


that


implementation


use


psychological


studies


the major


actor


training


programs


and many


acting


theories


lacking.


research


which


reflects


interest


psychology


areas


drama


literature


outweigh


research


which


reflects


interest


psychology


theatre


a performance


vehicle.


A movement


beyond


analyzing drama


simply


literature


which


includes


applying


psychological


theories


development


performance


Performance


literature


step


drama


beyond


should


analysis


encouraged.


- -


completes


~


I












psychologist


theories


personality.


These


theories


will


be demonstrated


particularly


being


regard


useful


character


actor,


text


analysis.

















CHAPTER


GORDON


ALLPORT


AND HIS


WORK


Gordon Allport


psychology


(1897


by moving


-1967)


study


revolutionized


personality


world


into


mainstream of


psychology.


theories


are


still


debated,


considered


one


the most


controversial


psychology


our


time


(Hall


Lindzey


. 260)


Unlike


Freud


other


major


psychologists


, Allport


insisted


studying


healthy,


mature,


adults.


felt


study


animals


neurotic


people


could


not


lead


conclusions


pertinent


to normally


functioning


adults


(Allport,


1955,


writings


tended


teach,


intrigue,


and motivate


research


argument,


rather


than


justify


prove


theories


(Hall


Lindzey


, p.


-260)


was


a teacher


and most


of his


books


read


textbook


s rather


than


scientific manuals.


thrust


studies


theories


personality


dealt


with


whole


person


unique


dynamic


individual


Allport


felt


that


science


was


overlooking


rich


when


ignored


complexities


and individuality


human


behavior


s search


V -


__ _


. .


L k













This


individualism


defined


individual


traits


that


characterize


differentiate


people.


Al port


s theories


optimistically


view


people


state


"becoming


" meaning


each


person


can


consciously


choose


a lifestyle


strive


achieve


recognized


importance


studying physical


clues


regards


understanding


human


personality


Finally,


Allport


believed


much


could


learned


about


personality


individual


letters


major


from


studying


diaries.


contributions


personal


These


are


however,


documents,


only


these


such


Allport


ideas


overview


Allport


s theory


behavior,


personality,


analyst i


are


traits,


focus


motivation,


discussion


this


chapter.


Personality


"Every


hypothetical


person


deviates


average man"


thousands


(Allport,


ways


1961,


from


. The


idea


uniquenes


Allport


s of


s studies


the

and


individual


theories.


s the


Allpor


foundation o

t criticized


scienti


their


avoidance


individual


seemingly


prevalent


theory


that


individuality


cannot


studied


science.


only


history..


art.


bioeraDhv.


- ,T


w ,


. a


WUf












If we accept
limitations


person


this


dogma


science


concerning


shall


a person.


have


scope an
abandon


are


discouraged.


patterned
universals


pers


onali ty
s found


That


uniqueness


not


itself


only


individual


That


particulars
is a univer
individual


also


a system
science


likes


fact


phenomenon


forms.


though


Since


a universe
it cannot


phenomenon


study


science


correctly


mu


unle


st st
ss it


udy it
looks


into


individuality


dilemma

Allport


definition


. (Allport,


begins


f patterning!
1961, p. 9)


Such


discussion


personality with


s the


particular


a disclaimer


in which


states


there


no such


thing


a correct


incorrect


definition


of personality


rather


definitions


are


"full


pitfall


(Allport,


1961,


These


statement


reinforce


AlIport


s general


philosophy


that


much


can


learned


from


almost


anywhere;


consequently,


idea


should


so narrow


exclude


other


possibilities


(Allport,


1955,


17).


Allport


defined


personality


"dynamic


organization


within


individual


those


psyc


hophysical


systems


that


determine


characteristic


behavior


thought"


(Allport,


1961,


. 28).


Because


s definition


reflect


s some


unique


phrasing


word


choices,


Allport


own


explanations


terminology


phrasing


are


presented.


Dynamic Organization













boundary i


an organic


zation


(Allport


1937


. 48)


change


occur


s in


a self-regulating


motivating


fashion


s definition


organi


chang


e impli


stanc


reciprocal


process


disorgani


nation,


especially


those


per


sonalitie


marked


progr


ess


disintegration,


(Allport,


1961


. 28)


svchoPhys


ical


s term


serves


reminder


that


personalty


neither


exclusively


phys


ical


nor


mental


Instead


organi


mental


zation


"some


personality


inextricable


ses


unity"


phys


(Allport


ical


1961


Allport,


1937,


. 48)


teams


s a


complex


element


s in


mutual


interaction.


A habit


person


sentiment


nality


, trait,


s compos


concept,


many


style


sys


teams


behaving


are


teams


are


latent


sonality


even


when


they


are


not


active


teams


are


our


"potential


activity"


(Allport


1961


. 28-29)


Determine


Personality


something


, and


does


something


sonality


s active


Allport


contended


that


latent


psyc


hophy


ical


teams


when


called


into


action,


either


. 28


_


w i


w


_ -


i


w













activity make


S on


others


what


lies


behind


specific


acts


within


individual


(Allport,


1937,


48).


teams


that


comprise


a single


personality


are


"determining


tendencies.


" They


exert


a direct


influence


adjustive


expressive


acts


which make


personality


(Allport,


1961,


29).


Character


behavior


thought


are


character


stic


person


are


unique


that


person.


Allport


acknowledged


use


this


term,


need


to define


appeared


redundant


in a definition


whose


very meaning


stressed


individuality


uniqueness.


used


though,


"drive


point


home"


(Allport,


1961,


29).


Behavior


Thought


Allport


used


these


terms


cover


anything


what


soever


individual


might


person


s main


activity,


according


to Allport,


adjust


environment,


felt


unwise


to define


personality


only


terms


adjus


tment


he had


earlier


done


1937


book,


Personality).


acknowledged


individual


also


reflects


sometimes


the environment,


succeeds


this


striv


mastery


to master


environment.


Thought


as well


.ehavior.


then.


make


both


survival


UU a


..


2












"really
perceive


regard


qualities


ess


other


the methods


people


by which


study


them


in error,
studying
is still


perceptions


just


astronomer


constitution


there,


challenging


our


may


methods


fall


a star.
object


may


short


star


study


definition


does


course,


deny


that


a person


variable


over


time


that


his behavior


may


change
that t


from


situation


person


s an


situat ion.


internal


structure


says
e and


simply
range


characters


ascertainable)


, and


(variable,
it is thi


to De sure,
s structure


that


hope


study


. (Allport


, 1961,


. 35)


Traits


Allport


traits.


was


a pioneer


believed


traits,


study


which


personality


he defined


"predi


position


s to


respond


same


similar


manner


to different


determinant


kinds


cause


stimuli,


" to


behavior,


real.


they


They


are


are


overlapping


regard


their


influence


identification


(Schultz


, p.


199).


also


believed


existence


traits


could


demonstrated


empirically


Allport


study


was


traits


(Allport,


aware


generalities


1961,


limitations


names;


356).


involved


variabilities


emotions;


ability


observe


only


act,


which


the result


(Allport,


trait


1961,


rather


333-334)


than


Even


trait


with


itself


limitations


involved


trait


research


, Allpor


lived


them


nn


-- -


Y


.












trait


theory


can


sound


unless


allows


for,


accounts


variability


a person


conduct


assures


environment


from


companions


surrounding
e is with,


counter
augment


current


stort


person
inhibit


himself


may


completely


delay,
he conduct


we would


that


person
person


variable


s thi


with


He di


normally


s traits.
s stream o'


portion,


s constant


e concept


stinguished


expect


. All
f activity
likewise


portion


trait


between


issue


this


there


cons


from a


s true; yet
is. beside


tant


seek


. (Allport,


types


in a
s a


portion; a
designate


1961,


trait


. 333)


traits


which


could


be generalized


in a group


(common


trait


traits


which make


individual


unique


(personal


dispositions)


common


trait


identifies


trait


which


some


extent


s reflected


in many


personalities.


Common


traits


are developed,


according


to Allport,


because


human


nature


develops


similar


modes


adjusting


similar


environment,


though


varying


degrees


individualism


still

trait


exist

might


(Allport,


1961,


friendliness


349).


associate


example

d with


a common


southerners


brusque


individual


nature


trait,


attributed


however,


to New


personal


Yorkers.


disposition


Allport


came


call


them),


peculiar


individual.


They


have


capacity


initiate


and guide


consi


stent


forms


adaptive


stylistic


behavior


(Allport,


1961,


373).













changing

particular


according

r society.


the growth,

Allport felt


development,


fads


very nature of


common


trait


made


less


influential


individual.


Traits


are


described


through


trait


names


Allport


identified


approximately


18,000


words


Engli


language


which


named


stinctive


forms


personal


behavior


(Allport,


1961


. 353)


. He


not


believe


this


list


to be


complete,


infinite


and hyphenations


words


scope


are


especially


considered


when


(Allport,


combinations


1961


, p.


355)


Allport


thought


trait


names


demonstrated


actual


stence


traits.


Trait


names


developed,


Allport


believed,


because


people


have


a desire


label


what


truly


present


in human nature


(Allport,


1961,


354)


traits


there


would


no gain


in developing


so many


trait.


have


words


Allport


evaluative


attempt t


categorized


flavor;


correctly


these


are


identify


trait


comparative;


specific


names:


refer


temporary


states


of mind,


mood,


emotion,


activity


are


metaphorical


(Allport,


1961


, P.


354-355)


Allport


was


dissati


sfied


with


limitations


verbal


however.


recognized


weaknesses


found


subjective


limited nature


labeling:


trait


ner


sonality m


or ma


coinc


.


-


S


1


e ,


& A.


.: .. *












we may
thus b
exists
would


bound


away


in a given
be well for


conventional


from


precise


individual


find


meanings


integration


Where


our


poss


ible


traits


then
teri


seek


ze our


devaluated


erms


scoveries


with


. (Allport


which


chara


, 1960,


135)


Allport


believed


traits,


once


identified,


could


labeled


arbitrarily


example,


long


they


a personality


deliberately mi


can


identified


slead.


"friendly"


Judge-A and


"outgoing"


Judge-B.


argument


semanti

semanti


should


themselv


avoided


es.


Allport


hoped


limitations of the

achieve a certain


amount


flexibility


identification


traits


this


method,


thereby


overcome


one


weakne


sses


trait


identification


Allport


felt


trait


names


to be


most


accurate,


though


limited,


source


trait


identification available


(Allport,


1961,


356).


Allport


also


felt


there


was


a distinction


between


using


trait


names


to describe


common


traits


individual


traits


(personal


dispositions)


felt


trait


names


were


less


accurate


because


Whereas


their


description


tendency


this


personal


trait


generalization


name


effect ive


dispositions,


to generalize.


describing


common


trait


(a generalization


own


right),


often


falls


short


reflecting


individual


structure













contention


that,


correctly


diagno


sed,


.'s [personal


dispositions]


reflect


personality


structure
categories
(Allport,


accurately,


into


1961


which


, p.


whereas


common


individual


traits


are


s forced.


359)


Allport


understood


that


single


act


product


only


one


trait,


trait


only


one


factor


determining


an act


(Allport,


1961


, p.


360)


This


recognition


complexity


human nature


Allport


conclusion


that


ridiculous


reduce


human


nature


a single


element


simply


sake


explanation:


view


pers


intelligibly
composed of


onali ty--
viewed--


teams


the only way
a network of


within


sys


teams,


can


organization


some


systems


small


magnitude


somewhat


peripheral


central


wider
easy


propriate


scope


into


structure,


core


act ion,


other


other
total


more


sys


teams


edifice;
dormant:


some
some


culturally


conforming


that


they


can


readily


viewed


"common" ;


others


definitely


idiosyncratic.


anal


ysis


network--


complying


billions


billions


nerve


cells


fashioned


environmental


a one-time


experiences


never


heredity and
duplicated--


ultimately


Because


unique


complexity


. (Allport


, each


1961


personal


. 360)


disposition


affects


other


personal


spos


itions


given


individual


that


a personal


boundaries


s concept

dispositio;


are


only


led Allport


not


relatively


identified


independent


conclusion


sharp


each












expression


which


will


betray


individual'


s unique


efforts


survival


and mastery


(Allport,


1961,


362).


Although


there


certain


degree


consistency


found


within


personality,


personality


completely


predictable.


inconsistency


dispositions


could


be due


to a specific


situation,


opposite dispositions


actual


within


individual


exis


tence


(Allport


, 1960,


p.135)


Allport


felt


that


contradictory


behavior


often


contradictory


contrasting


styli


stic


demonstration


same


personal


disposition.


What


must


identified


s the


deepest


disposition


that


operating


within


individual:


Take


case


, always


neat


about


person an
outlines,
not only
and key.


departmental
he leaves th


desk,


punctilious


s pers


in order


also


library.
library


about


onal


carefully
in charge


In
door


this


lecture


possess


kept


duty


unlocked,


note


ions


under


are


lock


s careless


books


does


s this


bother


contradiction


that


behavior


dust


mean


accumulate


that


s pers


oppos


orderliness
situations


mne case
explained


onal


spos


ed styli


one


arouse


further,


(motivational)


contras


about


ting


s per


egotist
interest


style


diff


itions
dispo


disord


erent


the duality


fact
spos


that


ition


D ha


He has


itions


one


erline


dispositions


s at


s one


from which


s proc


sonality


never


eas


Different


Pursuing
partly


cardinal


these


standing


that


acts


always


self-centeredness


other


s for


(for


S own.


7, *A. -L


there


a self


fact


-centered


people


This


cardinal


s abundant


lack


are


.


LA













given


individual.


Some


trait


s have


a stronger


influence


people


than


other


traits,


while


other


traits


have


more


subtle


influence,


even


a weaker


influence


sake

types


understanding

personal dis


discussion,


positions:


cardinal,


identified

central,


three

and


secondary


These


three


dispositions


repres


ent--in


reality--


a means


identifying


intensity


influence


particular


traits


have


individual,


rather


than


exact


category


into


which


traits


actually


fall


Cardinal


Trait


A cardinal


trait


s so


pervasive


outstanding


given


individual


that


almost


every


can


traced


influence


almost


every


aspect


a person


s life


touched


person


so dominated


cardinal


trait


that


can


rarely


be hidden


from others


(Allport,


1961


. 365)


person


does


necessarily


have


only


one


cardinal


trait,


this


trait


may


change


a person


mature


s and


changes


(Allport


, 1961,


365)


Central


Dispositions and


Secondary


DisPositions


Less


predominate


dispositions


are


central


dispositions.


These


central


dispositions


are


also


identifiable;


they


are


handful


traits


one might


use


in describing


individual


writing


a letter


recomnmendatijoS


(AllDort.


w


.


__


J


J












1961,


365)


They might


reflect


something


only


best


friend


would


know


chultz,


201)


Allport


was


hesitant


speculate


exact


number


of personal


How many
audacious


preliminary
the question


dispositions


ispositions
question, a


spec


a person might


a person


can


ulative


audacious:


ans


possess


a mos


were


way. vo
Behavior


in only


many


reasons


continuous
themselves


flow;


singly;


dispositions


never


people manife


express
contradictory


dispositions
furthermore,
developed to


contradictory


diagnostic
enable us


methods


situation


are


to discover


answer.


(Allport


1961


, P.


366)


Still


he projected


from


the data


available


own


observations


cardinal


that


traits


any

any


given

given


individual

point, be


posse


!tween


sses

five


central


traits,


while


number


secondary


traits


could


infinite.


Often


confused


with


traits


because


their


similarities


are


habits


attitudes.


Allport


offered


some


clarifications


definitions.


Habit


Habits


specific


are


stimuli


inflexible


traits


specific


response


are more generalized


variable


in expression


(Allport,


1961,


346)


child


earning


brush


teeth


developing


a habit,


although


this


process













image


which


eads


fusion


habit


into


trait


(Allport


1961


, p.


346):


A young
specific
brush hi


habit


child may


habit


teeth


may


when


night
stand


regarded
e learns


forming


(with


and morning


alone,


aroused


difficulty)


some


year


only


appropriate


commands


appropriate


environmental


years,


however


automatic c


situation.
, brushing


s the


With
teeth


way


tne pass
becomes


habi ts)


ot only
likewise


firmly woven


into


a much


wider


sys


tern of


habit


viz


trait


personal


cleanliness.


. The


adult
teeth
single


uncomfortable


from hi


habit


s daily


omits


schedule,


frustrated,


not


brushing


only


because


because


sslon


(Allport


violates


1937


a general
. 292)


demand


cleanliness.


Attitudes


The difference


between


attitudes


traits


are


even


harder


to distingui


than


between


habits


traits.


sexism an


attitude


a trait?


Patriotism?


Introversion?


Allport


clarified


these


concepts


asserting


that


often


doesn


matter


which


label


a particular


term


given--attitude


trait.


important


issue


identification


trait


word


terms


behavior


a particular


personality.


two distinctions:


first


However,

an attitude


Allport

e always


does

has


identify

an object


reference


whereas,


trait


does


direct


itself


specifically


toward


something.


Second,


an attitude


usually


favorable


unfavorable.


against


(AllDort.


V


J .. V.












attitude


trait,


would


have


considered


what


the object


this


patriot i sm.


patriotic


toward


country,


patriotism becomes


an attitude.


If Tina


sexism


judged


a negative


behavior


toward men,


an attitude.


Lisa


introverted


around


people;


however,


introversion


probably


trait.


Motivation


Allport


lived


that


theory


personality


pivoted


upon


analysis


motivation


nature


internal


of motivation.


condition


He defined


person


that


induces


action


thought


(Allport,


1961,


196).


also


recognized


importance


mot ivation


regards


arts:


Literature


sciences


the single
frequently


criti


Cs.


psychology,


psychology


case.


We have


chiatrist


Conver


biographers


logi
the


when


realm of


sely


social


meet


mos


already


s have


we may


nd literary
they probe,
motivation.


naturally
pointed ou


turned


point


criti


as they
(Allport


into


in
that


literary


that


become


increase
, 1947,


psycho-
ingly d


Allport


believed


theory


motivation


should meet


four


requirements


contemporaneity,


plurali


stic,


cognitive


process,


concrete


uniqueness


Schultz,


201).


ContemPoraneity












are


always


operative


time


activity


takes


place.


Allport


added,


"That


which


drives,


drives


now"


(Allport,


1947,


Allport


was


aware,


however,


that


complex


adult


motives


pas


some


degree,


alive


present.


He considered


however,


task


psychologist


discover


"how much


fire


how much


ashes"


(Allport,


1961


, p.


219)


think


that


the motives


of mankind


are


essentially


unchanged


from


birth


until


death


seemed


to Allport


inadequate


best


(Allport,


203)


That


which


once motivated,


does


necessarily motivate


always.


important


important


force,


exists


"dynamically


realize


a present


active


past


current


present"


only


mot ivating


(Allport,


1961,


. 220)


More


preci


structure
structure


tending


sely
that


stated,


s the


dynamic


static;


toward


a given


unfinished


power


Sa growing
direction o


finished


structure,
closure,


capacity


conformity with


to subsidiate


movement


guide


. (Allport


conduct


, 1955


Plurali


stic


theory


of motivation must


be a plurali


stic


theory


allowing


motive


s of


many


types


(Allport,


1961


. 221).


Plurali


stic motivation


recognizes


that


human motivation


a












unconscious,


others


others


propriate;


tension-maintaining


type


that


find


conscious;


some


some


tension-reduc


. Motives
t difficult


are


opportunistic,
ing, others


so diver


to discover


common
person
(consc


denominator.


's motiv
iously o


deliberately)


About


include


unconscious


(Allport


s that


that


, reflexly
, 1961, p.


trying
or


221)


Simplification


does


explain motivation.


Neither


does


reducing


"its


machine,


strands


animal,


simplified model


child,


pathological"


(Allport,


1961,


222).


theory


of motivation


should


allow


that


there may


some


truth


each


theory


(Allport,


1961,


Cognitive


221).

Process


theory


of motivation must


acknowledge


importance


cognitive


processes--e.g


. planning


intention

cognitive


(Allport,


process


1961,

ves e


. 222).


mphas is


Allport


requirement


individual


conscious


plans


intentions.


These


conscious


intent ions


represent,


addressing


above


future


else,


individual'


(Allport


, 1955,


s primary mode


Thus,


cognitive


processes


stress


s the


importance


future


the motivating process


personality.


Allport


thought


extremely


irrational


that


human


motivation


been


equated


with


"blind


will


Schopenhauer),













eliberat


deci


Sons


made


individual


People


e can


think,


that


process


thought


deci


sions


are


made


Therefore,


vidual


s intent


s central


under


standing


Allport


individual


defin


s pers


intention


onality


"what


individual


trying


to do,


" and


included


sev


eral


feature


motivation


derived


from


cone


intention


cognitive


pers
2.


onal ity


become


The intention,
present, but h


emotive


fused
like


int
all


s strong


0


process


ses


integral


motivation,


future


urge


s in


orientation


motivation


future


concept
as lives


not,


help


are


as mos


S US


trace


actually


theorie


lived


s do,


court


--into


backward


into


S US


s trying


bring


what


sort


about,


future
s the


a per


son


mos


important
3. The t


thus


range


ques


erm


tion


s a


reflect


can


about


flavor


s the true


mortal


maintained


condition


long


motive


When


have
pers


identify


a device


pective


major


holding


. (Allport


intentions
subsidiary


, 1961,


life


trends


. 223)


Allport


terms


believe


future


pres

not


should


past


explained


more


more


important


identify


what


a per


son


intends


to do


they


are


presently


acting


s intention,


than


look


toward


past


individual


s childhood


development


Unfortunately


prominent


that


the co
current


connotes


incept


intention


psychology


Puroos


effi cacy


s not


reason


.


L E *.


-


_. .


LJ












allow


organic


zation


section


cognitive


control


attitude


. (Allport


,by
1961


forces


eight


, by


cortical


. 224)


Concrete Uni ueness


theory


of motivation must


allow


concrete


uniqueness


identification


of motives.


Concrete


of motives


what


uniqueness


Allport


limits


considered


abstract


terms.


theoretical


sys


An abstract

tem which cla


term


connected


.ssifies motives


only


some

in general


common


terms


Concrete:


gave


Mary


following


strong


desire


examples:


to become


profess


ional


Abstract


sexual


nurse.


he is cathecting
(Freudian).


aim-inhibi ted


Concrete:
Abstract:
developed
his early


Is pass
interest


from hi
primary


mus


ionately


sec


ical


drive


fond


mus


ondary


mother, wh
-R theory)


drive
sati


sfied


Concrete


Patricia


loves


entertain guests


home


Abstract


s true


desire


that


competence


Patricia


root.


sens


manife


sting


"competence"


in her


entertaining


there


life


motive


are


surely


which do


highly


a million
interest
concrete.


kinds


competence


Patricia


Entertaining,


abstract


competence,


bread


life


to her,


abstract


completely,


scheme


therefore


sses


sheds


that


point


little


light


on her


personality


a caricature


a person


actually
to view


function


interests


merely as
(Allport,


chang
1961,


rung
. 226)


on a common pattern.












could


lead


a uniform


schedule


of motives


common


(Allport,


1961,


226).


Functional


Autonomy


following


own


previously


discussed guidelines,


Allport


developed


the motivational


theory


"functional


autonomy


own


admission,


s theory


does


explain


human motivation,


Allport


felt


was more


effective


than


past


motivational


theories


. He


felt


was


attempt


abstract,


escape


backward


"the


limitations


looking


theories


uniform,


" and


rigid,


recognize


instead


"the


spontaneous,


changing,


forward-looking


concrete


character


that


much


adult


motivation


surely


has"


(Allport,


1961,


227).


Functional


varied,


teams,


autonomy
as self-


growing


functionally,


indep


regards


adult


sustaining,


antecedent


endent


motive


s as


contemporary


systems,
Just as


them.


child gradually


outgrows


dependence


on his


parent


becomes


parents, so it
transition may


dras


matures


, the


self-determining,
with many motive


be gradual b
e individual


bond


with


outli


noneth


ves


ess


the motive)
is broken.


is historical,
227)


functional


. (Allport


1961


Motivation


s always


contemporary


(Allport,


1961,


p.227)


Motive,


normal,


mature


adult


functionally


related


the


past


experiences


in which













changed


maturity


may


have


have


developed


originated


into


childhood


an entirely


time


different


motivation.


Allport


demonstrate


ex-sailor


longs


absence,
pile. N


love
earn


o return


a miser


e s
sea


living


reinforcement


ex-sailor


motive


" for


is perhaps


is destroyed,


s and


even


a craving for th
to his instrument


continue


ailor


may


s to


build


e fir


incident


sea was


sec


his hunger


a wealthy


yet
ses


increa


sea,


a mus


ician


an enforced
his useless


acquired


in his struggle
ondary


drive


. But


banker;
e hunger


now


original


sea


intense


mus


cian


inferior


but
that


habi


now
he
in
t of


may rirst
performance


s safely


love
the


s hi
world


thrift


miserliness


years


even


(Allport


pers
after


1961


have
e int


s ins


in dire


s and


been
o mas


beyond
trument


miser
necess


become


neces


stung by
tering hi
hese taun


more


than


perhaps


a slur


s in
ts.


on hi


trument


finds


anything
learned h


s stronger


has been


with


relieved


. 227)


Allport


described


original


activity


instrumental


some


earlier


adult


motive,


mot iv


now


now


that


serves


activity


self


-image


serves


self


self


-ideal


per


son.


"Childhood


longer


saddle;


maturity


1961


. 229)


Functional


autonomy


s not


always


s achieved


however


in adulthood


become


continues


a person


functionally


tied


does


mature


autonomous.


original


motivation


Instead


activity


motivation


found


childhood


-mmntn 4


s Dnern


Allnnrt


nn c


la rd owl


s" (Allport,


. .I


T


SI


a













over


those


first


hurtful


words.


actions


could


considered

considered


functional

a normally


autonomous,


functioning


neither

mature a


would


dult.


Maturity


Allport


sought


identify


some


attributes


that


would


be demonstrated


ideal


mature


individual.


He pursued


these


ideas


limit


uniqueness


individuals,


to better


understand


theory


development


personality


(Allport,


1961,


276).


Neither


Allport


believe


spoke


(Allport,


that


an ultimately


terms


1961


ideal


277).


true


human


rather


also


being


than


distingui


sted.


actual


shed


person


between


maturity


adult,


recognize


that


maturity


personality


does


not


have


any necessary


relation


chronological


(Allport


1961


. 277)


With


these


thoughts


in mind,


Allport


believed


normally


functioning


mature


personality


demonstrates


following:


extension


sense


self


persons


activities


beyond


self


(Allport,


1961,


. 283).


enough


a person


simply


with


activity

involve


life.


a personal


Instead


part


mature


themselves


individuals


(while


must


still


maintaining


their


individuality)


least


one


LIt L .I .


t


I .


1












individual


able


to decenter


personal


attention


extend


that


attention


beyond


self.


Warm


relations


self


toward


others


(Allport


1961


, P.


285).


Allport


believed


this


concept


warm


relations


was


went


valid


beyond


terms


intimacy


individual


include


and general


compassion,


relationships.


Intimacy


reflected


individual


s capacity


to develop


deep


lasting


balanced


relationships,


compassion.


Allport


this


related


intimacy must


compassion


person


s ability


respect


appreciate


another


person


individual.


relationship must


other

never


words,

impede


the

the


intimacy

freedom of


found in

another


individual


find


their


own


identity


(Allport


1961


, p.


285)


Emotional


Security


(self-acceptance)


(Allport,


1961


avoid


, p.


287)


overreaction


situations.


Self-acceptance


to matters


individuals


Mature


includes


pertaining


may


ability


temporary


be happy


positive


times,


they


have


learned


accept


their


emotional


state


does


interfere


with


well-being


others


themselves.


They


are


able


express


their


convictions


feelings


with


consideration


convictions


feel ines


others


they possess


sense


.


. 1


,


U












particular


score.


Maturity


rather


ability


real


stic


observations


life,


able


to solve


objective


problems,


to be


able


"problem-centered


What


this


means


is mature


individuals


will


in close


touch


with


"the


real


world,


" they


will


see


objects,


people,


situations


what


they


are,


they will


have


important


work


to do


(Allport,


1961,


290)


Self-objectification:


insight


humor


(Allport,


1961,


288)


Allport


believe


that


insight


into


one


self


sense


humor


work


together


create


self


objectification:


ability


look


oneself


objectively.


sense


Mature


proportion


individuals who

concerning their


have

own


the most

qualities


complete

and


cheri


shed


values


are


able


perceive


their


incongruities


absurdities


certain


settings


(Allport,


1961,


. 293).


A unifying philosophy


life


(Allport


, 1961,


295).


Allport


believed maturity


required


a clear


comprehensive


theory


regarding


life.


This


theory


theories)


can


considered practical


, spiritual,


philosophical


toward


which


in nature.


nature


unifies


Despite


actual


directs


individual


philosophy


aspects


preference


, a philosophy


a person


life


should


develop


the mature


individual


chultz. D.


, K


Y u













major


studies


area


personal


values.


From


studies,


Allport


developed


inventory


containing


questions


(The


Study


Values)


which


felt


gave


insight


into


value-direction


theories


pranger


individual.


regard


built


value-directions


found


social,


individual


political


theoretical,


religious.


economic,


SIX


aesthetic


values


presented,


Allport


inventory


values


showed


that


only


one


values


were


dominant


in any


given


individual


s life,


although


values


were


present


some degree


(Allport,


1961,


297).


A discussion


values


follow:


Theoretical.


This


value


concerned


with


pursuit


truth,


usually


through


empirical,


critical,


rational


methods


(Allport,


1961,


297)


Economic:


This


value


s concerned


with


what


practical,


might


useful


be manifested


relevant.


some


strength


aspect


this


business


value


world


(Allport,


1961,


297)


Aesthetic:


s value


concerned


with


beauty


arti


stic


experiences.


This


value


limited


artistic


talent,


includes


also


enjoyment


pursuit


a cth tin


/Allnnr t


1QR1


n


9Q0'













Political


This


value


concerned


with


power


influence,


limited


narrow world


politics


(Allport


, 1961,


299)


pursuit


power


control


can


found


anywhere


from general


occupation


goals


to personal


relationships.


Religious:


s value


concerned


with


unity,


harmony


understanding


world


universe)


whole.


strives


relate


individual


life


workings


cosmos


(Allport,


1961,


99).


pursuit


a spiritual


understanding


end-in-itself


In his


discussion


value-directions,


Allport


admits


that


previous


values


do not


exhaust


possibilities,


nor


they


necessarily


reflect


values


those


individuals


sensual,


vital,


in pursuit


temporary


"hedoni


needs


stic,


adjustment"


(Allport,


1961


, p.


300)


However


, keeping


in mind Allport


emphasis


s on


average,


mature


adult,


these


values


make


important


contribution


study


integration


the mature


personality.


Behavior


Because


of Allport


s holi


stic


approach


study


individual,


he did


extensive


research


into


area


-.. '


_ _


_ __


T_













Even


though


present


definition


empathy


includes


almost


type


successful


understanding


another


individual,


term


empathy


was


originally


used


refer


process


which


motor


someway


mimicry;


imitative


that


muscular


something


else


activity


(Allport


1961


, p.


-536):


Contemplation


a work


example,


involve
trunk,


many


slight


limbs


which


movements


are


brow


in some


, eyes


imitative


stimulus


spire
that


soars


-object
that t


a waterfall


When
arch


eaps,


one


says


that


nave


that


a storm


a Gothi


s exalted,
cloud


weighs


responses
p. 534)


heavily


that


are


being


reality
reported


one


s own mus


. (Allport


cular


, 1961


this


joining


physical


emotional


aspects


humanity


through


empathy


which


led Allport


pursue


importance


behavior


observation


regards


understanding


interpretation


personality.


ability


imitate


physical


movements


another


often


leads


an understanding


emotions


that


particular


empathy


individual


allows


(Allport,


individual


1937,

"swing


530).


with"


Physical


with mental


life


another


(Allport,


1961,


534):


Some


writers


have maintained


that


our


under


standing


other


imitate,
behavior


people
usually


is derived


from


imperceptible


person


are


our


capacity


ways


trying


t


e 1 a S a A


e r \


J 't1


i n* )


*n~l+~ulA













active


imitation


phys


icality


others


(Allport,


1961,


Allport,


1937,


530)


Expressive


CoDin.


Behavior


Allport


identified


types


behavior


expressive


coping.


He believed


behavior


was


both


expressive


coping


in nature,


although


one


usually more


influential


than


other:


Every


that


we perform


copes


with


our


environment
exceptions.
behavior).
relaxation,


Even


There


We must
summon


res


task


repair a
a doctor,


sleep an
in hand


lock,


answer


play
(the


are


what


seek


a ques


tion,


blink


the
upon
into


a speck


task we
our sk


this


dust


employ


ills,


our


stream of


our


from our


eyes.


reflex


judgment
activity


To cope
habits or


knowledge.


there


enter


with
call
But


deeper


trends


in our


nature.


There


are


styles


repairing
answering


action
aspect


locks,
a ques


betrays


calling
tion, or


both


. (Allport,


a doctor,
blinking


a coping


1961


relaxing,


eye.


express


Every


sive


. 426)


Expressive


behavior


spontaneous


that


shows


one


s true


personality.


specific


goal


purpose,


usually


unconsciously


displayed.


Coping


behavior,


other


toward


hand,


s consciously


a specific


purpose


planned


(directing


formally


change


carried


one


environment).


Allport


summarized


difference


between


coping


expressive


behavior:













d. Coping
(inhibited
behavior i


can


mor


, modified,
s harder to


uncontrollable
handwriting, e
time.)


Coping


express


incidentally


e readily


control


conventionalized)


alter


(Changing


can


usually
behavior


have


aims


expr


essive


often


our


kept


style


only


change


aims


effect


nothing,


s (a


s when


a short


environment


though


our


may


manner


answering


impress


ques


ion


Typically


may


employ


tions
lands
coping


automatic


ervi


us


create


s a


good


job)


is cons
skills:


Clouds, even
expressive


though i
behavior


generally
awareness


s below


. (Allport


thres


, 1961,


hold


our


. 463)


He al


offer


s a succinct


explanation


"What


individual


s voluntarily


doing


saying


constitute


adaptive


aspect


his behavior;


doing


saying


expr


ess


aspect"


(Allport


1947


. 111)


Coping


behavior


can


a restrainer,


sometimes


even


a destroyer


basic


rhythms


individual


expr


ess


ion.


In order


to perceive


e the


individuality


expr


ess


ive


behavior,


focu


s of


a behavior


must


move


beyond


specific


intent


an act


, beyond


conscious


control,


beyond


conventions


skill


s employed


coping


(Allport


observation


, 1961


. 465)


that


people


Allport


become


makes


adult


inter


their


testing


express


behavior


becomes


more


controlled


consequently


, express


behavior


becomes


phys


ically


limit


He giv


example


child


irritable


s child


Ynor


SS es


r,


. -


.L. .


L


. *


*- J.













shifting


eyes


(Allport,


1961,


469).


Allport


felt


this


was


an example


expression


are


a broader

unequal s


phenomenon:


significance


various


features


in different


people.


ces


some


others,
clothing
person;
person


another,
style of
promising


are


open


people ges


highly


in other


reve


in hi


s pos


clothing o
hypothesis


book
tures


some


are


are merely


individual.
handwriting


cases,


himself


ture


"poker


faces


conventional;


Sometimes


seems


"just


entirely nonexpr


primarily


and gait;


a third,


he style
like"


essive


s speec
in his


ornamentation.


s we


suggest


that


every person


one


reveal


somewhat


cues
that


, e.g.


true


futile


voice,


s revealing


revealing


leading
nature


study


eyes


one


another


expressive


features


tnis is so,
1 people by
handwriting.


person


. (Allport


is not


, 1961,


which


same


cue


necessa
. 469)


only


are


various


features


expression


important


to different


people,


se means


expression


tend


consistently


demonstrated


(Allport,


1961,


473)


Expressive


behavior


can


the most


stubborn


part


our


natures:


individual


may


able


change


"what"


"how"


action


is much more difficult.


Emotion


and mood


do make


a difference


terms


consistency


expressive


behavior,


the difference


seems


to change


chiefly


energy


that


goes


into


expression.


Behavior


research


shows


pattern


itself


remains


about


same


(Allport


, 1961,


473).


Other


determinants


which


affect


hehavi or


some


ome


rily















native mus


cular


conditions


structure


health


and bodily
disease


build


accidental


deformations


body


special
drill)


training


(e.g


, dramatics,


military


conditions


sical


environment


(e.g.,


the groui
walking)


climatic


. (Allport


, 1961,


'actors i
p. 467)


region


body


which


can move


is--either


rest


that


movement--expressive;


consequently,


region


nature


body


whether


can


analyzed


separately


express


combination


(Allport,


1961,


479)


To di


scuss


them


all,


discuss


He did


one


however


completely,


discuss


Allport


some


considered


examples


impossible.


in order


demonstrate


significance


such


research.


face


Because


number


of muscles


nerves


found


within


facial


region,


because


this


similar


society i


body


expressive


unclothed


, Allport


region


considered


body


the most


face


(Allport,


sible


to be


1961,


region


the most


479).


Allport


research


made


interesting


done


area


point


regards


interpreting


expressive


facial


movement


Most


research


been


done


not













judgments,


relatively


eyes.


inexpressive.


Eyes


Allport


comparison


asked


are


perhaps


people


believe


they


learn


the most


from


eyes


others,


because


s through


their


own


eyes


that


impressions


are


received


(Allport,


1961,


481)


Voice


speech


voice,


untrained


a highly


expressive


instrument


while


speech


tends


be more


coping.


Interestingly


, the majority


research


been


done


speech.


This


fact


been


contributed


the e

makes

been


;lusive


nature


research

revealed


the dynamics


difficult.


though


through


following


research:


voice,


tendency

untrained


which


have


voices


are more


often


correctly matched


terms


actual


personality


true


express


sion


than


trained


voices;


age


can


usually


be di


stingui


shed


within a


ten year


accuracy


other


physical


feature


(height,


complexion,


appearance)


cannot


be distingui


shed


with


accuracy;


deeper


traits


such


dominance,


extra-version,


etc.)


can


judged


with


a fair


success;


complete


sket


ches


personality


can


This


be matched


means


with


even higher


voice-as-a-pattern


degree


highly


success.


congruent


with


oersonalityv-as-a-whole


(Alloort.


1 Ql


* u A. r .


483)













cultural


conventions,


personality


(Allport,


1961,


485)


Allport


quotes


anthropology cal


investigation


finding


one


that


thousand


human


different


body


steady


capable


postures


assuming


that


about


static


positions


that


can


be maintained


comfortably


period


time


(Allport,


1961,


. 486).


Posture


during


sleep


highly


consi


stent


regards


a personal


character


stic.


Allport


recognized gestures


highly


individualized


revealing;


however,


felt


little


research


existed


that


was


artificial


in nature


(Allport,

quotes a


1961,


study whi


. 486).


suggests


regards

a perso


to gait,


s gait


Allport


can


measured


regularity


, speed,


pressure,


length


stride,


elasticity,


definiteness


direction,


variability


rhythm.


In general


, Allport


felt


much more


research


should


be done


potential


area


insight


express i

into the


behavior


human


because


personality.


recognized


that


coping


behavior


research


easier


document


scientific


terms,


felt


expressive


behavior


to be


the more


important


in personality


expression


anal


ysis.


Allport


believed


coping


behavior


observed


often


foreground.


J hj


J. I L &


j


f .*L













the most


personality


important


(Allport


factor


, 1961,


understanding


494).


Analysis


Methods


personality


assessment


were


also


major


focus


in Allport


s work.


credited


with


writing more


about


specific methods


appropriate


personality


assessment


than


almost


other


theorist


Schultz


, p.


209).


typical


work


Allport,


recognized


that


there


was


no one


method


personality


assessment


complexities


human


personality.


Allport


believed


that


knowledge


others


available


only


fragments,


best


people


only


catch


"glimpses"


each


other


(Allport,


1961,


p 407)


person


can


under


tand


other


person


completely,


s imposs


ible


one


human


being to
feelings


share


between mind


ponder


directly


another.
and mind


egocentric


the motives


This


unbridgeable


, thoughts,


chasm


s to


human


has led philosopher
predicament of the


and poet
soul. It


race,
each


through


"shadows"
imperfect
psychology


s to
is,


circuitous


that


glimp


can


"metaphysical
outset that t


lament
they a
routes


are


ses


able


one


do nothing
solitude," i
e problem of


sure


ultimate
us, only
through t


achieve


another.


change


must


under


solitude


study


our


Since


this


recognize


standing


people


alwav


a


a problem of


martial


under


tandinw


We mav


.













lends


itself


to many


sources


error


regards


perception


analysis


others.


Allport


discussed


several


these


sources


errors;


three


are mentioned here.


Emotions


Emotional


bias


alters


both


the message


being


sent


way


that


message


perceived.


Even


in striving


objective


perspective


s often


perspective,


into


a poor


personal


a subjective


judge


feelings


perspective.


lover


turn


objective


A person


s personality


love


(Allport,


1961,


498).


family member


s personality perception


distorted


shared


emotional


background


family.


Research


shows,


example,


that


when


threatening


humiliating


situation,


other


people


are


rated


"less


attractive"


than


in situations


which


flatters


individual


s self-esteem


(Allport,


1961,


498)


Openness


Most


people


to keep


certain


aspects


their


natures


personalities


secret.


Therefore,


people


vary


widely


amount


information


they


are


willing


disclose,


in whom


they


are


willing


confide


(Allport


1961


, P.


499).


This


willingness


to disclose


oneself


essential


factor


in accurate


perceptions,


s not


necessarily


imolv


a conscious


disclosure.


Some


eono e.













actions


in order


reveal


their


motives


(Allport,


1961


, p.


500)


First


Impressions


immediate


judgement


made


concerning


another


individual


based


first


contact


often


leads


conclusions


which


are


changed


contact


with


individual


increased


Because


Allport


believed


knowledge


others


comes

of the


indirectly

judgement


fragments,


which


tries


was


instantly


highly

organic


skeptical

ze a complex


pattern


interrelated


cues


(Allport,


1961,


501)


first


impressions


inaccurat


nature,


are

and


often

they


long

are


standing,


very


despite


difficult


their

change.


In his


book,


Pattern


Growth


in Personality,


Allport


sted


eleven


different


techniques


assessing


human


personality


constitutional


physiological


diagnosis


sociocultural


setting,


membership,


role;


personal


documents


case


studies;


self-appraisal


conduct


sampling;


techniques;


depth


ratings;


analysis;


test


scales;


expressive


projective


behavior;


synoptic


procedures.


these


techniques


use


basic


scientific


(and


common


sense)


method


observation


followed


interpretation


significance


what


been


observed


(Alloort.


1961


. P.


396)


AllDort


acknowledged


L ..


*


k













recognized


contributions


literature


philosophy


being


important.


(Allport


1961


, P.


396)


Const itutional


and Phvs iological


Dia.rno


SIS


biological


aspects


human


body


correlate


personality


are


important


(Allport,


1961,


398)


studies


from


past


thirty


years


have


certainly


surpassed


Allport


s knowledge


physical


research


However,


premise


still


holds


true,


physical


biological


aspects


human


body


can


affect


personality.


tudi


Sociocultural


Membership.


tatus.


Role


Sociocultural


studies


analyze


framework


within


which


personality


develops:


social


conventions,


customs


, codes,


religious


occupational


groups,


etc.


Through


these


studies


a certain


amount


"probable


knowledge"


can


ascertained


regards


trait


behavior.


been


member
future


an army


actor
about


ship


argued
s the


conduct.
engineer


even


that


best


To know


such


knowledge


predictor


that


, a Salvation Army


a mother,


probable


s to


present


know


future


a person s
she is an Arab,


assie,
a good


deal


court


life


ques


tion


. (Allport,


400)


Still,


Allport


does


believe


that


individuals


mirror


exactly


society


which


they


were


raised


the groups


to which


they


beloner.


Personality


more


than


"the


. >_1













example,


a rich man


S son


becomes


a socialist


presents


different


psychological


program


from


son


revolutionary


leader


becomes


a social


(Allport


, 1961,


400).


Allport


membership


from


acknowledges


important,


sociocultural


studies


whether


setting


individual


relatively


sociocultural


deviates


typical


(Allport


, 1961,


400).


Self-Appraisal


Another


method


assessment


discussed


Allport


self-apprai


: all


methods


that


invite


individuals


report


explicitly


deliberately


concerning


selected


aspects


their


own


personality


(Allport,


1961,


410)


This method


keeping with


A correct


valid


results


incorrect


whether


from other


response


individual


forms


gives


s reaction


assessment


insight


s in


not.


into


personality


individual.


one


persistent


source


error


found


when


using


self-appraisal


flattery:


technique


people


overestimate


Unite

those


States


quality


self-


they


consider


desirable


underestimate


those


they


consider


undesirable


Specific


(Allport,


methods


1961,


411)


involved


self-appraisal


technique


incl ude


fnl lnwin*


KP1-Zftin no


nnmn ar i cnn


.* *


. .













approximat


ranging


from


"most


descriptive


self


" to


"leas


descriptive


self")


Self


-Anchoring


Scal


(the


individual


ident ifi


"the


ideal


life"


rated


"the


wor


poss


ible


way


life"


s rated


individual


placement


identify


year


present


five


years


placement


s sea


Variations


ese


exerci


ses


Conduct


Sampiinu


Conduct


sampling


s the


temat ic


observation


behavior


everyday


situation


Time-


sampling


time-


budgeting


spot


check


s behavior


chosen


interval


s either


through


observation


(time-


sampling)


a written


record


which


s later


analy


(time-


budgeting)


(Allport,


1961


, P.


-415)


"Miniature


ituat ions


" provide


element


s of


given


environment


in order


to ob


serve


reaction


environment:


With


ingenuity


we can


compares


s the


sprawly
scope.
be tried


situations


would


a real


his fitness


everyday
pilot of


life


into


an airplane


flight; he
laboratory


can


small


need


screen


with


test


s of


equilibrium


, visual


acuity


coordination


Psychotechni c


s has


developed


countless


voc


national


miniatures


that


assess fitness


presenting


s for


many


subj


types


with


occupation


a cameo


edition


full


vocational


pattern


employment


officer


a cus


placing


a magaz


floor


waitiner


room


notinmr


whether


DrosDec


tive


J& *


L .. K












verbally


primary


technique


involved


psychological


counseling


(Allport,


1961,


416)


Ratings


s formal


technique


estimates


strength


one


more


qualities


with


a personality


personality


compared


based


with


on direct


other


acquaintance


people


respect


Expressive


a particular


Behavior


trait


and Other


(Allport,

Assessment


418)


Techniques


Express


sive


behavior


s an


important


asses


sment


technique


which


been


discussed


previous


section


expressive


coping


behavior.


other


types


assess


techniques


discussed


Allport


are


based


scientific


analytical


aids.


They


are


tests


scales,


depth


Personal


analysis,


Documents


synoptic


and Case


procedures.


studies


Allport


conducted


extensive


research


area


personal


documents


case


studi


es.


justified


strong


interest


personal


documents


follows:


under


without


standing


some


general


degree


laws


acquaintance


poss
with


ible


particulars. I
and the general


we may


are


assume


equal


that


concrete


importance


production


psychological


under


standing,


follows
document


time


that


case material


should


attention.


s (including


claim half


(Allport,


1947


per


sonal


psychologist
p. 151)












He defined


a personal


document


"any


freely


written


spoken


yields


record


information


that


intentionally


regarding


unintentionally


structure,


dynamics,


functioning


author


s mental


life"


(Allport,


1947


, p.


xii)


These


include


both


person


third


person


documents:


autobiographies,


whether


comprehensive


topical


diaries,


whether


intimate


daily


log-inventories;


letters


tests);


open-ended


verbatim


questionnaires


recording


(but


, including


standardized


interviews,


confessions


, narrative;


certain


literary


compositions;


case


studies;


life-histories;


biographies


(Allport


, 1961,


401).


Allport


further


explains:


a self


conduct


-revealing


pers


onal


record


document


experience
is usually


, though


always


subject


use


subj
vary


, produced


himself,
ts themes
writer, i


ectiv


spontaneously
intended only


naturally


manner


e phenomenologicall)


greatly


candor,


scope,


revolve


recorded


confident ial


around


approach
Such


life


is naturally
documents


authenticity,


value.


psychological
and trivial;
distillations
experiences o
interesting t


deceptive


were


written


deceptive


and,


. (Allport,


Sometimes


sometime
the most


human


life


s they


they


are deceptive


represent


profound


And


psychologist


trivial


further


1947


, why


, p.


significant


always


who must


documents


they
xiii)


are


they


are


even


hy they
dull or


important


determining


consideration


original


in personal


motivation


documents


document