Academic attainers in the context of their family and schooling experiences

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Title:
Academic attainers in the context of their family and schooling experiences the perceptions of doctoral students who are daughters of alcoholics
Physical Description:
xi, 410 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Knight, Sharon Maureen
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Adult children of alcoholics -- United States   ( lcsh )
Daughters -- United States   ( lcsh )
Achievement motivation   ( lcsh )
Educational psychology   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1990.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 390-409).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Sharon Maureen Knight.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001687931
notis - AHZ9961
oclc - 25116668
System ID:
AA00002113:00001

Full Text














ACADEMIC ATTAINERS
SCHOOLING EXPERIENCES:
WHO ARE


IN THE CONTEXT OF THEIR FAMILY AND
THE PERCEPTIONS OF DOCTORAL STUDENTS
DAUGHTERS OF ALCOHOLICS


SHARON


MAUREEN


KNIGHT


A Dl


SERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
rT%-nTTT-i^rflncrm. mi^^n, fly \T^- nrn7n -TnK n^7Vlm-TT nTTT TTTT ATPsTnm






























Copyright


1990


Sharon


Maureen


Knight


















whose


voices


the women
comprise


this


study,


with deep appreciation


for their generosity


and t
that


heir


courage


remembering


in the


face


sometimes


of pain


elicited.

















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


A number


effort


individuals


toward


have


completion


expended


of this


considerable


research


time


effort.


particularly


wish to


thank


women


who


participated


this


study


preliminary


study


on which


this


investigation


was


based.


these


women


that


this


project


is dedicated.


Each


them


gave


generously


and


willingly


their


time,


energy,


emotional


reserve


that


am eternally


grateful.


sh to


their


thank


invaluable


members


assistance.


supervisory


am particularly


committee


grateful


to Dr. Lee


Mullally


Sandra


Damico,


chair


cochair


my committee,


encouragement,


expertise,


guidance


they


so willingly


provided.


University


of Florida


Department


of Health


Science


Education


faculty


have


always


been


a great


source


support


encouragement


me during


my graduate


school


endeavors,


which


have


thank


spanned


to Dr.


course


Morgan


Pigg,


past


William


decade.


Chen,


A special


Barbara


Rienzo,


Jill


Varnes,


and


Claudia


Probart


i. I


..











extended


faculty


Health Education


Unit,


East


especially


Carolina


Deedee


University


Glascoff


Rick Barnes,


contributions


for their encouragement


toward this


and invaluable


effort.


It is


to Dr.


Elizabeth Downs


that


owe


a special


debt


of gratitude.


accompanied me


through my


entire


doctoral

thanks a


program and has


,re also due Ms.


been a

Kathleen


wonderful


Varah,


friend


Special


Elizabeth Lusk,


and Dr.


need.


Susan Hambleton


addition,


always


am grateful


being


to my


there


husband,


times


Charles


Osteen,


support


and helpful


assistance.


Finally


, my


appreciation


is extended


to my parents


family whose encouragement


and abiding


faith


in me has


always


sustained me.




















TABLE OF CONTENTS


pace


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .. .. .. ... .... ... ... ..

ABSTRACT... .. .. .. .. .. ....... .. .. ... .

CHAPTERS

I INTRODUCTION. .. .. .... .. .. ... ... ...


Background for the Study.
Purpose of the Study....
Research Questions....
Significance of the Study


*. .S . .*. .S. .*. .* S S .
* .* a .a .* S .S .
* . ..S. .S. S S a *


Definitio
Design of
Scope of


n of Terms......
the Study......
the Study......


. .a .a a. .. . .* .S.* 0 5
. . . . . . ..S S *
*. . . . . ..*. S S


II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ....... ...............


Introduction..........
The Alcoholic Family..
Children of Alcoholics
Family Role Theory..
Schooling Experiences
Summary . . . .


Characteristics


of Children of Alcoholics


III MATERIALS AND METHODS


The Research Pe
Research Strate
The Qualitative
The Qualitative
Qualitative Dat
Credibility of


respective. . ... .
gies and Procedures.


a
t


Researcher Quali


Research Record....
File...... .........
Analysis...........
he Study . . ....
fications and Biases


. . ..S 0.5. S
. .S .0 ..S S
. .S .S S .a .
*. a S .S S .S S .S .*
. . . S S
*. a S .S .S S .S .S .
*. .a S. S ..


IV ACADEMIC ATTAINERS: THE ISSUE OF SELF-


Summary .












Profile


Aca


Introduction


to St


demic Attainers.
udy Findings..


*. S *. *. .. *.
*. .. .a a. a


* U
. a. ..


ACADEMIC ATTAINERS
ALCOHOLIC FAMILY


IN THE CONTEXT
ENVIRONMENTS...


OF THEIR


he Effec
quality o
rental
ODinc Wi


umma ry
uinmary


O


ts
f
At
th
f


of
Life


ohol
thin


tention..
Parental
Findings.


on
the

coh


Parenta
Family

olism..
*. a.. a.


Behavior


*. S. *. *.. . S
. . .* .S *. S
. . ..*.* *. .S .S


ACADEMIC ATTAINERS IN
SCHOOLING EXPERIENCES
FAMILY LINKAGES......


THE
AND
S S..


CONTEXT OF
PERCEIVED


THEIR
SCHOOL-


Introduction
Parental Exp


Perfo


Acade
Attit
Roles
Peer
Teach
Perce
Summa


m
u


R
e


ectati


ons


romance . .
ic Performance..
des Toward Schoo
in School.......
relationships at
r Relationships


ption
rv of


-5


s About Ac
Findings.


a


d


for
a...


Sch
at
emi


Academic


* S .* . .S. .S S S .S S S
*. .a . .S S C S S .S .
*. .. .- -. . . ..*. . S S


ool..
Schoo
c Att
. .


*. . .* . S .a *
. . . ..*. .a. *
* *. a a. .a a. a .a .* .


ainme


VII


CONCLUSIONS


AND


IMPLICATIONS . . . . ...


Conclusions
Discussion.
Implication
Recommendat
Summary....


s fo:


ons


r Educators.
for Further


*. *.. .- .S S. .S .S .S S
*. S S .S .S .S S S S .* S S .*
. . . . . ..* S S


Research


*. S S .S S .
* . . a


APPENDICES


NEWSPAPER


SOLICITATION


FOR


STUDY


PARTICIPATION..


MAILED


SOLICITATION


FOR


STUDY


PARTICIPATION.....


CHILDREN


OF ALCOHOLICS


SCREENING


TEST . . .


GENEALOGICAL


DATA


GUIDELINES . . .. ..


INTERVIEW


GUIDE .. .. .. .. .. .. ..


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---


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REFERENCES .. .......................... .

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . ..

















Abstract


of Dissertation Presented


Graduate


School


of the


University


Requirements


of Florida


for the


Degree


in Partial
ie of Doctoi


Fulfillment of
r of Philosophy


ACADEMIC ATTAINERS
SCHOOLING EXPERIENCES:
WHO ARE


IN THE


CONTEXT OF


THEIR FAMILY AND


PERCEPTIONS OF DOCTORAL STUDENTS


DAUGHTERS OF


ALCOHOLICS


Sharon Maureen

December 1


Chairperson:
Cochairperson:


Major


Department:


Knight


990


Lee Mullally


Sandra


Damico


Instruction


and


Curriculum


Since a knowledge


to the design

qualitative s


contextual


learner


of instruction,


tudy was


description


characteristics


purpose


investigate


specific


and


vital


this


provide


group of


learners:


those


who were


alcoholics'


daughters


engaged in academic


study


doctoral


level.


Informed by


theoretical


perspective of


symbol


interactionism,


study


aimed


explore


describe


home


schooling-related


experiences


and perceptions


this


population


academic


attainers,


delineating


linkages


between


their


home


educational


environment s


and factors


which


had been


influential


their


academic


striving.










During the


who were


1988-89


alcoholics'


academic year,


daughters


15 doctoral


participated


students

open-


ended,


in-depth interviews


encompassing


approximately


hours


of dialogue


during which


life history


and academic


career data


were obtained.


Additional


sources


of data


included


the Children


of a projective


of Alcoholics


technique,


and


Screening


genealogical


Test,


time


use


line


data.


Analysis


the data


revealed


that


ways


in which


informants


participated in


and experienced


their


family


and schooling

their parents'


environment s

illness. P


were


arenta


significantly mediated by

1 alcoholism precipitated


inconsistent


conflict


, unpredictable


instability;


parental


parental


behavior;


attentiveness


family


problems;


and impaired interpersonal


relationships


within


family.


informant s


experienced parental


neglect


perceived


themselves


to be devalued by


their parents.


predominant


family


roles


assumed by the


informants


included


those of


responsible


person,


mediator/placator,


and lost


person/adjuster.


These


successful


learners were


students


generally


typically


capable,


evidenced


academically


responsible,


compliant behavior


schooling


environment


and strived


to present


themselves


"normal.


Specific


schooling-










Self-validation by means


of academic achievement


attainment


evolved as


a major


theme


this


study


was


factors


of personal


gratification,


desire


self-


validation and autonomy,


need


to avoid


conflict


and non-


validating


experiences,


and


potential


to garner parental


approval


and/or


attention


that


were


identified by


informants


salient


their


current


level


of academic


attainment.

















CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


Knowledge about


personal


social


characteristics


individual


learners


academic


environment


vital


component


instructional


design


process


undertaken by


educators


(Kemp,


1985)


, especially


Mullally


(1984)


suggests,


intent


instruction


maximize


learning.


As Good and Brophy


1986)


contend,


"information


about


students'


general


aptitude


interests,


and other


learner


characteristics


such as


achievement


motivation


and anxiety


is essential


to effective


instructional


decisions"


13) .


Kemp


(1985)


concurs


that


is essential,


attention

of the le


early


the character


arners--as


in planning


stiCs,


a group and


[instruction],


abilities, an

individuals"


to give


.d experiences


46)


A unique


population


learners


"with


special


needs"


(Black,


1981a,


105)


been


recognized by


educators


and


others


to be children


of alcoholics.


These


learners,


group,


have been


characterized


having problems with


anxiety,


low


self-esteem,


a poor


self


concept,


poor


school


performance and behavioral


problems


in the


academic











children


of alcoholics


of problematic


attributed


academic


them.


do not


epitomize


performance


qualitative


that


characteristic


is commonly


research


investigation


described


herein


was


undertaken


in an effort


to obtain


contextual


understanding


about


a subpopulation


of these


learners


that


been


inadequate


studied,


specifically


those


who


are


both


academic


attainers


as evidenced


their


participation


doctoral


level


programs


of academic


study


and


daughters


of alcoholics.


primary


interest


this


investigation


was


perceptions


these


learners


had


about


their


family


and


Kindergarten


through


twelfth


grade


(K-i


schooling


experiences,


characteristics


they


perceived


themselves


to have


at home


and


in school,


and


linkages


that


were


perceived


to have


existed


between


their


family


experiences


and


their


academic


efforts.


Background


Study


process


of schooling


according


to educational


ethnographers,


cultural


in nature


(Wol


cott,


1982)


since


"every


human


event


culture-bound"


Shimahara,


1984,


64).


process


of learning


and


ass


imilating


culture,


called


socialization,


occurs


as a result


living


particular


society


(Lawless,


1979) .


cultural


earning












larger


society


recreated and hence


transmitted"


(Sanday,


1976,


176)


Wolcott


(1984)


argues


that


educational


settings must be


viewed


as cultural


scenes


researchers


schools


should


focus


"on how


individuals


directly


indirectly


involved in


those


scenes


make


sense of


and


give meaning to


what


is going


179) .


understanding


of how


individuals experience


schooling process


requires,


according to


Heath


1982),


an exploration


the broader


cultural


context


of which


schooling


a part.


Such an


understanding


family


includes


and schooling


an exploration


experiences


impact


individual


of both


student'


adaptation


learning


environment.


As Bronfenbrenner


states,


Whether


and how people


learn


in educational


settings


is a


function


levels:


of sets


first


characteristics


in which
school,


they
peer


live
group,


community). b. The
and interconnections


out t
work


forces,


comprises
learners


heir


place,


the re
and the


ves


teams


nations


(e.g.,


between


surroundings


home,


neighborhood,


second encompasses


that


exist


between


relations


these


environments


(1976,


importance of


interconnection between home


school


underscored by Webb


(1981)


who


charges,


"what


goes


on in


children


the micro-world


perceive


family profoundly


and experience


affects


the macro-world beyond












they


are


likely to experience"


ix).


The environment


provided by


a child's


family


of origin


exerts


a significant


impact


on his or


educational


achievement


(Walberg,


1984)


and educational


attainment


(Bloom,


1981),


providing


"critically


important


precondition"


successful


school


performance


(Ware


Garber,


1972,


190).


Indeed


, according to


Bloom


1981),


"the


home


environment


is a most


powerful


factor


in determining the


level


of school


achievement


of students,


student


interest


school


learning,


number


years


of schooling the


children


will


receive"


Bloom


(1981


contends,


home


secures the
parents who
different s


development.


each
reach


needs


for high


is usually


motivati
support


tages


place


learn


and encourage


in his


Almost


n


support
r goals


education


o one
and


can


in which


well
e each
nal and
make it


encouragement


child


. It


child at
cultural


on his


the
the


own--


of others


in education.


The organization


socializing


family members


family


"clearly


and its

affect


methods


the motivational


patterns


children


with


regard to


their


future


education and provide


them


with


skills


fundamental


knowledge t

educational


hat


substantially


attainment"


(Nam,


determine


1965,


their

393)


eventual

Individual


children


are


experience


"socialized


school


in diverse


differently,

contexts .


partly


{and


because

thus} c


they


ome












socialized and ultimately prepared


learning


experiences


academic environment.


Unfortunately,


more


than


percent


of Americans


are


being


or have been


environments


Henderson


due t

Blume,


raised in


-o alcoholism


1985;


unhealthy,


(Cermak,


Woodside,


1983) .


dysfunctional


1989;


home


Russell


According to


Woodside


(1986a),


is probable


that


every


classroom


includes


students


who are


living


have


lived]


with a


parent


who abuses


alcohol"


449)


Schools


serve


a logical


place


identify


and assist


children


of alcoholics


(Black,


1981b;


Newlon


Furrow,


1986;


Scavnicky-Mylant,


1984) .


Since


"alcoholism very


often


interferes


with a


child' s


education"


(McAndrew,


1985,


343),


such assistance may


rendered


through


the design


instruction and curriculum planning that


attends


these


learners'


characteristics


and needs.


In her


book aptly


titled,


Forgotten


Children,


Margaret


Cork


(1969)


suggests


that


teachers


are


among


"the


people


who


should be


most


aware


of alcoholism in


family"


since,


Woititz


(1983)


later


contends,


"anyone


who


teaches


or comes


contact


helping the


with


young people


child who


suffering


faced with


from


problem


results


parental


alcoholism"


18).












dynamic


relationship between


these


children


learners


their


surroundings,


"with both


person


environment


engaged


reciprocal


tensions


and activities,


and undergoing progressive


changes


over time"


(Bronfenbrenner,


1976,


Learners who are


warrants


children


investigation.


of alcoholics,


whether young


or adult,


represent


"a unique


group with


special


problems


and needs"


(Woodside,


1983,


535)


which


arise


consequence


environment.


living


in a stressful,


According to


research


disordered family


literature,


alcoholic


home


environment


presents,


significant


number


of children,


impediments


to academic


success


which


result


poor


school


performance


Knop,


Teasdale,


Schulsinger,


Goodwin,


1985;


Woodside,


1982,


1986a) .


What,


then,


influences


some


children


of alcoholics


to become


successfully


engaged in


striving


high


levels


of academic


attainment


Spradley


(1979)


suggests


that


"children acquire


their


culture by watching adults


and making


inferences


about


cultural


rules


behavior


I" (p.


According to


(1968),


"the


child


needs


both


parents


teach him


rules


our


culture.


Since


the alcoholic


does


himself


live according to


these


rules,


he cannot


be a good


teacher"













them


survive


and possibly thrive


in an academic


environment?


Role


theory


serves


a potential


linkage between


learner's


alcoholic home


environment


and his


or her


striving


for academic


success


in the


educational


environment.


According to this


theory,


family


roles


are


acquired by


children


of alcoholics


in response


rules


acceptable behavior that


alcoholic


families.


Such


roles


chaotic


serve


as mechanisms


family


system


survival


(Wegscheider,


in a disordered,


1981)


introduction


accompanied by


of studies


a recognition


of the


role


theory


"importance


has been


of the


'competent'


child of


an alcoholic who,


rather than


developing

environment


apparent

, exhibit


psychopathology a

s characteristics


s a result


'model '


the

child


instead"


(Brown,


1988,


role


that


frequently


assumed by


some


children


of alcoholics


that


competent,


superachieving,


"family


hero"


described by


Wegscheider


of a role


(1981)


Black


similar to


(1981a)


family


also


hero


posits


termed


"the


the existence


responsible


child.


responsible


child is


one


whose


characteristics


of responsibility,


organization,


ability to


set


achieve goals


are


rewarded both


at home


school.


Such












this


investigation,


this


theoretical


notion


had not


been


adequately


explored from the


perspective of


those who were


adult high academic attainers


from alcoholic


homes.


Purpose


Study


Saylor


Alexander


and Lewi


1981)


acknowledge


potential


existence of


difficulties


that


children


face


in growing up and assert


causes


that


these difficulties


"the nature


have


and possible


implications


educational


programs"


127) .


As Mullally


1984)


avows,


factor


such as


differences


in learner


attitudes


implications


learner motivation


and,


consequently,


instructional


strategies


that


are


planned by


educators.


One difficulty that many


learners


face


and a


factor that


plays


a potentially major


motivation


that


role


of parental


learner


attitudes


alcoholism and


stressful


home


environment


that


parental


alcoholism precipitates.


purpose


s study was


investigate


provide

daughter


describe


a contextual des

s of alcoholics


schooling


icription


learners


Specifically,


family


this


experiences


who are the

study aimed


alcoholics'


daughters


attainment,


had achieved a high


as evidenced by


their


level of academic

current participation













factors


which had been


influential


their


academic


striving.


Research


Questions


This


family


research study was


experiences


designed


of alcoholics'


to explore


daughters


the home


and


linkages


which


were


perceived


to have


existed between


their


alcoholic home


environments


academic


striving.


questions


perspective


engaged


associated with


of alcoholics'


in striving


study were


daughters


a doctoral


explored


who were


level


from


currently


academic


attainment.


Four


guiding


questions


provided


framework


for this


study:


How do alcoholics'
students describe


daughters


their


wh


family


o are doctoral
experiences?


did alcoholics'


levels


of academic


daughters
attainment


achieve


experience


high
their


K-12


schooling?


What 1
levels


inkages


exist


of academic


between
attainmen


striving


high


and adaptation


alcoholic home


environment?


What


does


academic


to alcoholics'


striving


daughters


and achievement mean


have


reached a high


level


of academic


attainment?


Within


context


these broad,


guiding questions,


- ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~L -- -.h -A rr 7 A4i aIr


n3tllrn


,,,,, L.


i-- r^ t'


LL.


nr rrlo












researcher


sought


to identify


these


learners


perceived themselves


to be prepared


cope


with


school


demands;

support


to explore


available


the existence


them as


of encouragement


they worked


and


toward academic


goals;


identify


and explore


roles


they perceived


they


played in


identify t

schooling


their


family


impact


experience


and schooling


of educators

s. Such an


environments;


and instruction


exploration


on their


served as


means by which


researcher was


able


identify


describe


linkages


between


academic


striving


and adaptation


to a home environment


where


one or


both


parents


was


addicted


to alcohol.


Sianificance


Study


Research on


learners'


characteristics,


perspectives,


and adaptations


schooling environment


previously


focused on


such


student


characteristics


as gender,


ethnicity,


and parental


social


status.


influence


that


had not


been


adequately


addressed in


research


literature


on learners


the existence of


parental


alcoholism which,


according to Webb


(1981)


"can


cripple


parent-child


relationships"


174),


place


child


significant


risk


emotional,


physical,


and social


problems,


and profoundly












Knowledge about


characteristics


learners who are


the children


of alcoholics


important


to all


educators


(Woitit


1978)


because,


"statistically,


is probable


that


every


classroom includes


student


are


living with a


parent


who abuses


alcohol"


(Woodside,


1986a,


449)


Educators must


serve


instructional


designers


and


curriculum planners


significant


number


learners


who


have one or both


parents who


are


chronically


with


alcoholism,

stressful f


a disease


familyy


that


environment


often


precipitates


in which


children


a chaotic,

are


emotionally neglected and sometimes


abused.


ability


understand these


environments may


learners


enable educators


context


to more


their


home


effectively


design


instruction

serving as


Woititz,


for them.

caregivers


1983),


though,


Educators may


these


also


children


to successful


find


(DiCicco,


school


themselves

1979;


performance


and an appearance


competence,


many


children


alcoholics


are


thought


remain


unrecognized and


unidentified


academic


environment


(Black,


1981a) .


The need for more


research


about


children


alcoholics


in general


been


voiced by many


(El-Guebaly


Offord,


1977;


Heller,


Sher,


Benson,


1982;


Miller


Tuchfeld,


1986;


Moos


Billings,


1982;


Scavnicky-Mylant,


1984;


Woodside,













garnering


little attention


research


literature


Nardi,


1978;


1981


Woodside,


; Triplett


1986b) .


& Arneson,


Indeed,


1978;


Wilson


children


Orford,


alcoholics


have


been


referred


literature


"forgotten


children"


(Cork,


1969) ,


"the hidden


tragedy"


(Bosma,


1972),


"a neglected problem"


(Sloboda,


1974) .


Research


particularly


scant


about


factors


that mediate


impact


of parental


alcohol


abuse


(Moos


and Billings,


1982);


about


the offspring


of alcoholics


who


seem to be


well-functioning


(Black,


children


academic


Bucky


, & Wilder-Padilla,


of alcoholics


environment;


are


and about


1986),


successful


adult


particularly those


learners


daughters


alcoholics


drawn


from a


community


rather than


a clinical


population


(Heller


et al.,


1982).


Much


of what


is known


about


children


of alcoholics


based on

& Tuchfel


clinical

d, 1986)


evidence a

The bulk


nd anecdotal


information


research


(Miller


on children


alcoholics


alcoholism


been


focused


transmission


in two


(Brown,


primary


1988;


areas


Chafetz,


Blane,


Hill,


1971)


and,


those offspring


of alcoholics


present


with problems


to health


care


professionals


(Black


al.,


1986;


Pilat


Jones,


1984/85) .


Children


of alcoholics


with mental health


problems


O'Gorman,


1979;


Werner,


1986)












particularly well


need exists


researched.


for the empirical


At present,


study


a significant


of populations


children


of alcoholics


that


have been


drawn


from


community


rather than


clinical


settings


that


represent


well-


adjusted


offspring


(Heller


al .,


1982)


The majority


of data


regarding the


offspring


alcoholics


has been


obtained


from male


children


adolescents,


with adults


in general


females


particular


largely


neglected


children


of alcoholics


research


literature


(Heller


al.,


1982) .


El-Guebaly


and


Offord


(1977)


report


that


"the


effects


of parental


alcoholism on


females


is often


neglected"


363)


In addition


limitations


children


alcoholics


data


which has


been associated with male


dominated


study populations


and focused on


subjects


drawn


from clinical


psychological


settings,


and social


current


research


development


of children


alcohol


narrowly


focu


ses


negative


impact


growing up with an alcoholic parent


(Wilson


Orford,


1978).


researchers


have


considered


strengths


that


result


from socialization


in an


alcoholic


family


system


(Nardi,


1981) .


A need exists


research


"children


who make


(0' Gorman


, 1979,


97)


"There


have been


little


data


about












Heller et al.

retrospective study


(1982)


specifically


of children


advocate


superior


achievement


are


the offspring


of alcoholics.


The


study


successful


"copers,


" they


suggest,


may


lead


identification


environmental


supports


that


can


potentially


have


a positive


impact


on reducing the


risks


associated with parental


alcoholism.


Chavetz


et al.


1971)


charge


that


a need exists


to investigate


effects


of familial


dysfunction and


achievement


should focus


orientation


on non-ill


that


future


populations.


investigations


suggested by


Robert


Niven,


former


director


National


Institute on Alcohol


Abuse and Alcoholism,


interview with Hindman


and Small


(1984


research


are what


terms


which addresses

"invulnerables"


children

may make


of alcoholics who


it possible


understand


the dynamics


that


appear to


protect


or buffer


those


seem immune


the negative


impact


an alcoholic


home environment


(Miller


Tuchfeld,


1986).


Wilson


Orford


(1978)


call


for more


descriptive


research about


children


of alcoholics


and advocate


undertaking of


investigations


which


focus


on the


large


number


of children


of alcoholics


who are


affected by


parental


alcoholism in


educational


and social


arenas.


Little' is


known about alcoholics'


daughters


who evidence












factors

some ch


which


.ildren


influenced ac

of alcoholics


ademic

and w


success


which


and


would


striving


have


implications


teachers'


decision


making


and


instructional


design.

potential


As previously


linkage


mentioned,


of importance


role


between


theory

home


presented


and


one


school


behavior,


a linkage


that


warranted


further


investigation.


Of significance


in this


investigation,


was


opportunity


garner


an increased


understanding


of learners


from


alcoholic


home


environments


who


have


achieved


high


levels


of academic


attainment.


An improved


understanding


these


learners


potentially


enables


educators


to better


plan


instructional


curriculum


needs


this


population


to assist


and


support


children


of alcoholics


more


effectively


learning


environment.


Importantly,


qualitative


to teachers,


accounts


administrators,


associated


and


with


parents


study


"convey


diversity


to be


expected


from


children,


students,


school


communities


and


encourage


these


educators


respond


more


flexibly


appropriately


their


charges"


Goetz


LeCompte,


1984,


32)


Definition


of Terms


Alcoholism


a chronic,


progressive


disease


in which












child of


an alcoholic


"Any person,


adult


child,


a parent


identified in any way


as having


significant


problem related


alcohol


use.


This


includes


child' s

that pa


perception


rent's


that


alcohol


use


parent


interfere


drinks


with


too much,


when


functioning


family and the


A doctoral


life of


student


child"


individual


(Blume,


who


1985,


completed a


bachelor


s degree


and who


currently


engaged in


academic program of


study that


culminates


in a Doctor


Philosophy,


Juris


Doctor,


or Doctor


of Education


degree.


An academic attainer


individual


who


completed


the necessary prerequisites


academic


study


doctoral


level.


Design


Studv


A qualitative methodology was


used


to collect


life


history


and academic career


data


from doctoral


students


who


were


self-identified


daught


ers


of alcoholics.


Following


receipt


of written approval


from


University


Committee


for the Protection


of Human


Subjects


and


those


who


agreed to participate


study,


a minimum


four


depth


qualitative


interviews


were


conducted


with


each


informant,


comprising


total


of 78


interview


sessions.












the daughters of


alcoholics


"think and how they


came


develop the


perspectives


they


hold"


(Bogdan


Biklen,


1982


Data


projective


were


also obtained


technique during


one


as a consequence of


interview;


using a


collection


demographic and genealogical


data;


and


result


of the


researcher' s


observations


during the


course


of the


study.


Scope of


Studv


Thi

year at


study was


a major


conducted


southern


during the


university


1988-89


academic


United States.


It involved the


participation


of 15


adult


female


students,


ranging


in age


from


to 47


years,


who were


designated high


academic attainers


a consequence of


their


completion


the necessary prerequisites


academic


study


doctoral


level.


Volunteers were apprised


of the


study


by means


flyers


and newspaper


advertisements


which


sought


participation


of female doctoral


students


for the


study,


word of mouth notification,


and letters mailed


to 124


randomly


selected female


doctoral


students


from one


University.


Participants


the


research


effort


were


identified


alcoholics'


daughters


the basis


of self


report


and


the results


Children


of Alcoholics












contextual


understanding


of alcoholics'


daughters


academic environment


and insight


into


factors


which


influenced


the academic


striving


this


population


female


doctoral


students whose


home


environments


were


influenced by parental


addiction


to alcohol.


Given


the nature


this


qualitative


study,


statistical


generalization


findings


associated with


study


is not


appropriate.


findings


this


investigation are


presented,


however,


in a way that


enhances


the elements


of external


validity


that


apply


to qualitative


research:


comparability


translatability


findings


(Goetz


LeCompte,


1984)


order to address


comparability,


a concerted


effort


was made


to ensure


that


each


component


and defined


study was


. {in a


way that


"sufficiently well


will


described


enable other


researchers


use


results


study


a basis


comparison with


other


studies


addressing


related


issues"


(Goetz


LeCompte,


1984,


228


Translatability was


addressed by using


definitions,


qualitative


research


techniques,


theories


which


are


understood by


educational


researchers.


summary


, a qualitative


research methodology was


used


to explore t


home


and schooling


experlen


ces


of and












to explore


linkages


between


home


and schooling


experiences

describe th


of female


children


.ose experiences


and


of alcoholics


identify


in an


factors


effort

which


influenced


their academic


striving.


following


chapters,


research methodology,


conclusions


study


and implications


review


findings,


literature,


and


study will


be presented.


In Chapter


family


a review


dynamics


the


of alcoholism,


literature


children


regarding the


of alcoholics,


schooling performance of


children


of alcoholics,


and


theories


regarding


literature on

qualitative re

and procedures


academic


familial


striving


alcoholism will


search perspective

associated with t


and th


his


gleaned


from the


be addressed.

e research st


study will


-rategies


be described


in Chapter


III.


In Chapters


and VI,


research


findings will be


presented,


and


in Chapter


VII,


conclusions and implications


findings


education


will be discussed.


w

















CHAPTER


REVIEW OF THE


LITERATURE


Introduction


learning


capabilities


students


are


affected by


their physical,


mental


emotional


health,


with


learner


performance


the educational


setting


significantly


influenced by the


presence


of emotional


stress


arising


from


sources


external


classroom environment


Knirk


Gustafson,


1986) .


Parental


alcoholism represents


one


form


of chronic


stress


(Clair


Genest,


1987)


to which many


learners


"the most


are exposed.


widespread


Indeed,


cause


according to


severe


stress


Brenner


(1984),


school-age


children


United States


today


life


with an


alcoholic parent"


151) .


An estimated


twenty-eight


and a


half million


people


American


society


have


an alcoholic parent


(Booz-Allen


Hamilton,


1974;


Russell


al.,


1985;


Woodside,


1988) ,


with


children


under the


of 18


accounting


approximately


seven million


of those


individual


s (Blume,


1985;


Morehouse


Scola,


1986


Russell


al.,


1985) .


Thus,


"there are


large


.' 4 -


-,, ..'~*-.,.-'1.


C -'nrtA


A


r


1 I


r












educators


in classrooms


or other


settings


can anticipate


that at


least


(Woodside,


1983)


to eighteen


percent


(Berkowitz


Beals,


Perkins,


Short,


1988a)


1988;


Kammeier,


their


1971;


students


Roosa,


will


Sandler,


be children


alcoholics.


Children


of alcoholics


represent


"huge but


hidden


group


the nation's


population"


(Woodside,


1988,


785).


Despite


their prevalence,


it has


been


only


recently that


offspring


of alcoholics


have been


recognized as


a population


at risk


(Roosa


et al.,


1988a)


and in


need of


identification,


education,


intervention


treatment


(Black,


1981b;


Brown,


Beletsis,


Cermak,


1989;


Small,


1974) .


The most


frequently


cited underlying


children


concern


of alcoholics


about

are


this population is


twofold:


increased risk


developing


alcoholism or marrying


an alcoholic


(Woodside,


1986b)


and,


and are


these offspring


grave


risk for


"don' t


developing


do well


long-lasting


academically


emotional


and behavioral


disturbances"


(Triplett


& Arenson,


1978,


596)


home environment


eight Americans


who grows


experienced by

up with an alc


an estimated one


oholic parent


(Russell


et al.


, 1985)


different


from


the home


environment


those


who have nonalcoholic parents


Booz-












Brown,


1989;


Jacob


Seilhamer,


1989)


"Whether


aged


young


and adult


children


from alcoholic


families


experience


special


problems


which are


unique


living with


an alcoholic parent"


(Woodside,


1983,


531)


These


individuals


tend to be


as deeply


affected by


alcoholism


alcoholics


themselves


(Booz-Allen


Hamilton,


1974;


DiCicco,


1979).


Although a


dearth


of research on


children


of alcoholics


exists


(Scheitlin,


1990;


Woodside


, 1986b),


the majority


studies


"convincingly


demonstrate"


(Russell


et al.,


1985,


that


the major


impact


of parental


alcohol


dependence


lies

(Moos


detrimental


Billings,


1982) .


influence

Parental


on a child's

alcoholism


functioning


strongly


associated with


severe


family


stress


(Wegscheider,


1981),


child neglect,


emotional


abuse


(Ackerman,


1989),


poor


school


performance,


depression,


and suicide


(National


Institute


Alcohol Abuse


and Alcoholism


[NIAAA],


1983)


physical,


social,


emotional


problems


(Blume,


1985;


Russell


et al.,


1985)


that


family


alcoholism appears


to precipitate


the educational


particularly


children of

environment


in the areas


alcoholics may


(Naiditch,


learning


be manifested


1986),


and academic


achievement


(Brown


Creamer,


1987-1988


McAndrew,


1985;













consequent


impact


on the


teaching/learning process.


"Only


within


last


few years


have


we begun


to realize


how much


the home


lives


these


children


can


affect


their


ability to


learn and perform academically


and socially


school


environment"


elementary,


1989,


As Morehouse


and Scola


(1986)


note,


Children of
physical, ps
which impact
experience


alcohol


suffer a


ychological


on all


wider


emotional


aspects


{including}


their


attendance,


range or
characteristics
educational


classroom


behavior, academic perform
relationships, involvement
activities, and interaction


nce, peer group
in extracurricular


with


those


in authority.


Although


conduct


disorders,


truancy,


poor


academic


performance and impaired peer


group relationships


are


problems


frequently


associated with


children


of alcoholics,


those who manifest


such


problematic behaviors may


actually


be in the minority


(Black,


1979,


1981b;


Black et


al.,


1986).


Educators must be


able


to identify


and appropriately


respond


to learners


from


these high-risk homes


(Lackey,


1987),


the detrimental


impact


of parental


alcoholism


learners


and the needs


they


have


special


attention may


not be


readily


apparent


those


teach


them


(Black,


1981b).


Teachers may


become


aware of


only those


children


are


most


severely


affected by parental


alcoholism


(Roosa


..1.,


al.,


inoo,\


- L


,,, L~


LL












Clinicians


(Black,


1981a)


and researchers


(Black


al .,


1986;


Pilat


and Jones,


1984/85)


assert


that many


children


of alcoholics manage


seemingly well


and appear


well-adjusted


(Triplett


(Seixas,


& Arneson,


1982)


1978)


without


or emotional


obvious


behavioral


problems


despite


what,


for many,


is a painful,


inconsistent,


chaotic,


stressful


positive


(El-Guebaly


family


environment.


consequences


Offord,


(Nardi,


1977)


It may


1981


result


from


be possible


personal


that


strengths


growing up with an


alcoholic parent but,


suggested by


Naiditch


1986),


"most


children


of alcoholics


remain hidden because


their


coping


behaviors


tend to


be approval-seeking


and socially


acceptable"


A review of


87),

the


not because


current


they


research


are


unaffected


literature


will


presented in


this


chapter


an effort


to provide


a basis


for understanding


learners


who are


offspring


alcoholics


context


their


home


and schooling


environments.


review will


focus


characteristics


of the


alcoholic


family


system,


impact


of parental


alcoholism on


the offspring


of alcoholics,


and


acquisition


offspring


roles


in response


a primary


to parental


coping


strategy used by


alcoholism.


clinical


observations and research


findings


regarding


academic












The Alcoholic


Family


Alcoholism is


a chronic,


progressive disease


(Arentzen,


1978)

1981a)


that

and


involves


a loss


continuation


of control

of alcohol


over drinking

use despite


(Black,

the


problems


causes


an individual


in any


area


of her


or his


life


(Kinney


Leaton,


1987) .


Approximately


10 million


Americans


are affected by the disease


given


time


(Miller


Tuchfeld,


1986)


with males


estimated to


represent


the majority


of alcoholics


(Kinney


Leaton,


1987).


impact


of the


illness


invariably


extends


beyond


individual


alcoholic to


include


significant


others,


particularly


family members


(Ackerman,


1983).


Alcoholism has been


recognized


family


illness


(Cotton,


1979;


Goodwin,


Schulsinger,


Moller,


Hermansen,


Winokur,


Guze,


1974;


Harford,


Haack,


Spiegler,


1987-


1988)


since


1950


(Gravitz


Bowden,


1985) .


disease

Penick,


called a


Tomelleri,


familial


disorder


& Armbruster,


1977


Herjanic,


for two


Herjanic,


primary


reasons.


First,


strong


evidence


supports


existence


an inherited predisposition


alcoholism


Blum,


Noble,


Sheridan,


Montgomery,


Ritchie,


Jagadeeswaran,


Nogami,


Briggs,


Cohn,


1990;


Goodwin,


1988;


Woodside,


1988),


second -


a 1 m~mh~rs


LI' I ii


f~m-i 1w


invar iabhvi


affected by


~ rP


.












Everyone


whose


or another


consequences


family,


life


touches


affected by


fall


those who


on the member


in a most


the alcoholic's


disease,
s of his


literal


sens


in one
direct


immediate
e share his


life


and eventually


illness.


Unfortunately,


associated with


cross-generational


cycle of


1988)


alcoholism is


to the


"family


dysfunctional


cycle


family


of pain"


environment


(Woodside,


that


alcoholism precipitates.


As Arentzen


(1978)


avows,


alcoholism is


illness


that


generates


fear,


shame,


rage,


and helplessnes


s in


patient


well


'significant


others


" involved in his


or her


life


351)


The demoralization


family


alcoholism becomes


devastating


the alcoholism itself"


(Gravitz


Bowden,


1985,


Impact


of Alcoholism


Alcoholism and the


family


environment


creates


constitutes


a critical


factor that


influences


development


of the offspring


of alcoholics


(Brown,


1988


thus


their


arena.


characteristics


children


learners


of alcoholics,


parental


academic

drinking


becomes


the


central


focus


of their


lives


and


this


reality,


more


than


other,


impacts


development


their


social behaviors,


emotions,


and personalities


(NIAAA,


1983).













according to


Booz-Allen and Hamilton


(1974),


"by virtue of


their


dependency


status,


{they}


do not


exercise


control


over


their


own


lives.


If alcoholism is


present


in their


family


environments,


children must


experience


and


suffer


impact"


Although

(Wegscheider,


every


1981)


alcoholic


with


family


disturbances


severe


apparent


stress


in the


structure of the


alcoholic


family


inevitably


affecting


family members


(Cermak


& Brown,


1989;


Gravitz


Bowden,


1985), th

(Beletsis


e dynamics


Brown,


of the

1989) .


alcoholic home environment


a consequence,


vary


it must be


noted that alcoholism has


variable


impact


families


on individual


family members


(Ackerman,


1983,


1987b;


Clair


Genest,


1987;


Goodwin,


1987;


Heller


et al.,


1982;


Kaufman,


1984;


Nardi,


1981).


Children and

be differentially


other member

affected by


of the


alcoholism


alcoholic


family may


to a number


factors


including


"interacting


forces


that


are


social


and


psychological


in nature"


(Nardi,


1981,


239)


Although


alcoholism undoubtedly


disrupts


familial


equilibrium and


interaction,


psychopathology


criti


children


factor that


leads


of alcoholics


to be


isolated


(West


Prinz,


1987)












et al.,

pattern


1977; R

(Wilson


ydelius,


Orford,


1981) ;


1978) ;


alcoholic drinking


incidence of maternal


drinking


during pregnancy


(Marcus,


1986;


Morehouse


Scola,


1986) ;


alcoholic'


behavior,


including the


effectiveness


with which he or


fulfills


parental


role


(Ackerman,


1987b);


(Ackerman,


perceptions


about


1983) ;


situation by


parental


family members


effectiveness


of the


nonalcoholic parent


(Deut


sch,


1982


Moreover,


socioeconomic status


family


(El-Guebaly


Offord,


1977),


Noonan,


continuation


1979),


family


age of


rituals


child at


(Wolin,


onset


Bennett,


of alcoholism


(Seixas,


1982;


Wilson


Orford,


1978),


and


gender


child


(Kammeier,


1971;


Seixas,


1982)


also play


significant


role.


Ackerman


(198


argues


that


one of


most


significant


parental


factors


alcoholism is


that


can mediate


ability


the i:

child


impact


to establish


positive


relationships


outside


family.


Approximately


of alcoholic


families


are


affected by


paternal


alcoholism,


both maternal


20% by maternal


and paternal


alcoholism


alcoholism,


(Ackerman


and 20%


, 1989).


gender of


alcoholic


can


exert


a significant


influence on


impact


of parental


alcoholism on


family


(Cork,


1969;


Seixas,


1982;


Wilson


Orford,


1978)


although,


when


family












observed


in families


with male


alcoholics


compared


those


with female alcoholics.


In any


case,


gender


the alcoholic parent


believed to


influence


pattern


of drinking


(Wilson


Orford,


1969) ,


1978),


magnitude of


progression


disease


impact


child


(Kinney


Leaton,


(Cork,


1987),


and the age of


alcoholism awareness


child


(Ackerman,


1989) .


The alcoholic's


gender


also affects


the existence


and type


of negl


ect and/or


abuse


family


(Kaufman,


1986;


Woititz,


1978),


family


stability


(Ackerman,


1986;


Kinney


Leaton,


1987).


a consequence


children


of these


of alcoholics


and other variables


are negatively


, many


affected by


the home environment


created by parental


alcoholism


(Ackerman,


1987a,


1987b;


Goodwin,


1987) .


According to


Ackerman


(1987b),


"families


under


stress


produce


children


under


stress"


children'


reactions


stress


vary


13) .


Some may


less


affected by parental


alcoholism


the methods


they


develop


to cope with


stress


(Ackerman,


1987b)


Still


others may


less


affected


to ways


which


disease


incorporated into


family


system


Booz-Allen


Hamilton,


1974;


Wolin


et al.,


1979) .


Deutsch


1982)


maintains


that


a reduction


power that













to satisfy


or her


own needs


without


focusing


on the


alcoholic.


Parental
families


alcoholism i


some


not


cases,


equally


disruptive


alcoholism is


in all


a relatively


minor
the f


characteristic


family


functions


total


well


with


fiber


of family


life;


a basically positive


atmosphere, w
alcoholism of


whether


in spite


a parent.


of or because of


If the


situation


the
not


seriously uncomfortable,


extreme measures


child need not


to defend himself


against


take
it;


simply
problem


accommodates


(Booz-Allen


alcoholism as


Hamilton,


a limited


1974,


Gravitz


and Bowden


(1985


assert,


however,


that


"almost


everyone


who


profoundly


an alcoholic parent


affected by the


experience"


has been and is


because,


Deutsch


(1982)


contends,


emotional


needs of


these


individuals


impact


cannot be


satisfied within


the experience


considered


alcoholic


to be


family.


significant


even


if the


child is


teenager


the onset


of parental


alcoholism


(Kaufman,


1986


RecoQnition


of Alcoholism


problem with


asses


sing the


impact


of parental


alcoholism is


that many


adult


children


of alcoholics


report


never


having


associated


current


problems


and


concerns


with


their previous


experiences


feelings


affiliated with


growing up with an


alcohol


parent


(Small,


1984) .


Although


S1 rnhnl q m vort-


;I t- ronrionrlini, C


n fl n rT IIIi ~


r nn~ crt


If il


-i r 1


u












Family members


tend to


strongly


deny to


themselves


and


others


that


alcoholism is


a problem


Schumrum


Hartman,


1988) .


They may


attempt


to minimize


the


impact


that


drinking behavior


family


(Ackerman,


1989)


and


shield


children


from recognizing the


existence of


a drinking


problem


(Mayer


Black,


1977) .


Denial


is assoc


iated


with


social


stigma


that


continues


surround alcoholism


(Bowles,


1968;


Mayer


Black,


1977)


despite


current


recognition


this


problem


an illness.


effects


alcoholism serve


"stigmatizing


experience


members


of the


affected


family"


(Hawley


and Brown,


1981,


because


as was


noted


over three


decades


Jackson


(1954),


family


affected by


a problem that


culturally


defined


shameful


and viewed


indicator


weakness,


sinfulness,


or inadequacy.


Alcoholism awareness


within


family


also masked


by the


tendency


of family members


to attribute


alcohol-


related problems


to phenomena


other than alcoholism and to


avoid


discussion


of both alcoholism and the


problems


precipitates


(Black,


1981a) .


addition,


lack of


understanding


about


alcoholism


(Black,


1981a;


Donovan,


1981)


and the


lack


a basic


frame


of reference


with which


young


children


of alcoholics


can


compare


their


home


environments












Although


some


children


alcoholics may


have


difficulty


linking parental


drinking with


events


their


lives


(Biek,


1981)


and


quality


their


home


lives,


it is


impre


ssion


treatment


professionals


that


most


children


of alcohol


lCS


are


aware


of parental


drinking


problems


(Deutsch,


1982;


Wilson


Orford,


1978)


and become


aware of


such problems


"from a


very


early


age"


Hawley


Brown,


1981,


four year

articulat

family.


45)


of age most


Deutsch


children


linkage between


Interviews


conducted b


(1982)


are

alcoh

y Cor


claims


aware of

ol and p

k (1969)


that by three


can


problems

with c


children


between


ages


of 10


and 16


years


(n=115)


who


were


offspring o

and reacted


f alcoholics

to parental


revealed

drinking


that most

around the


became aware


years.


In contrast


with


findings


Deutsch


(1982)


Cork


(1969),


Ackerman


(1989)


identifies


later


recognition


study.


in daughters


of alcoholics


According to Ackerman


(1989),


in a more


the mean


recent


at which


daughters


of alcoholics


(n=624)


reported attainment


of what


researcher


identified


stage


of alcoholism


awareness


was about


years.


Moreover,


Ackerman


(1989)


observes


that


the age


alcoholism recognition












while daughters with


alcoholic parents


became


aware


at age


and those


with an


alcoholic mother


Alcoholic Family


Characteristics


Despite


the heterogeneous


nature


of alcoholic


families


(West


Prinz,


1987),


clinicians


and researchers maintain


that


general


patterns


and predominant


characteristics


can be


found which


typify


families


for which parental


alcoholism is


a problem


(Black,


1981a;


Black,


1981b


Seixas


Youcha,


1985;


Woititz,


1978,


1983)


and


with


which


children


alcoholics


consistently


identify


(Gravitz


Bowden,


1985).


Though


limited


with


research


(Googins


growing up


on the


Casey,


family


dynamics


1987),


in an alcoholic


of alcoholism is


difficulties


family


are


associated


frequently


documented


in the


existing


research


literature.


with most


chronic


illnesses


alcoholism


can become


a powerful


organizer of


family


life"


(Bennett,


Wolin,


Reiss,


Teitelbaum,


1987) .


Unfortunately,


alcohol


becomes


central


focus


of the alcoholic's


life


the exclusion


the needs


family


and its members


(Arentzen,


1978).


According to Woodside


(1986b),


children


"commonly


feel


invisible,


neglected,


unloved because all


of family


life













environment


that


characterizes


alcoholic


families


will be


presented in


section


of this


chapter


below.


childrearing practices


commonly


associated


with alcoholic


families


will be


presented in


section


that


follows.


Family


environment


As with


other


long-term,


severe


illnesses,


alcoholism


only preoccupies


conflict


(Clair


Genest,


family

1987)


also precipitates


accompanied by


an atmosphere


of anxiety


tension


within


the


family


(Wilson


Orford,


1978;


Wood,


1987) .


The alcoholic


family


environment


generally typified


as one


that


chaotic


(McAndrew,


1985;


Morehouse


Richards,


1983;


Seixas


Youcha,


1985),


rigid,


unpredictable,


and inconsistent


(Beletsis


Brown,


1989


Black,


1981b;


Cermak


Brown,


1989;


Gravitz


Bowden,


1985;


McAndrew,


1985


; Miller


Tuchfeld,


1986;


Seixas,


1982;


Woodside,


1982


The alcoholic home


environment


generates


denial,


potential


distrust,


violence


fear


(Black,


(Cermak,


1981a),


1989),


abandonment,


and a


sense by


real


children


that


their


home


environment


diff


ers


from


that


of other


children


(Cork,


1969) .


None of


school-aged


children


alcoholics


interviewed by Cork


(1969),


example,


assessed


or his


family


atmosphere


as normal.


alcoholic


family


is a family


under


stress.












and an


overwhelming


denial


that


alcohol


a problem.


Due


to the


frequency with


which


these


problems


are


cited in


the


research


literature and


impact


these


problems


have on


children,


further


discussion


these


particular aspects


alcoholic


family


life


is warranted.


Stress.


Alcoholic


families


are more


stressful


(Roosa,


Sandler,


Gehring,


families with


young


Beal


& Cappo,


children


(Moos


1988b),


especially


Billings,


1982)


for

and


less

Genes


supportive

t, 1987; H


than


olden,


families


Brown,


of nonalcoholics


Mott,


1988) .


Clair


Living with an


alcoholic has been


likened


living with


chronic


stress


(Ackerman,


1983;


Clair


Genest,


1987) .


As Kaufman


(1986)


affirms,


is generally


accepted


that


anyone


living


close


to an alcoholic will be


psychologically


stressed"


347)


the point


that,


stress disorder


some,


become


apparent


symptoms


(Liepman


of post-traumatic


, White,


Nirenberg

alcoholic


, 1986) i

families


n adulthood


are


(Cermak,


characterized by


1989) .


"wide


Indeed,

variety


physical,

which, di


psychological,


xrectly


social


or indirectly,


and e

affect


economic

the ch


stress


ildren"


(Mayer


Black,


1977,


432)


stress


that


is characteristically present


alcoholic


families


often


exists


at high levels


severity












According to Cermak


(1989),


"early


childhood development


within an


alcoholic


family


constitutes


stress


that


clearly


outside


range of human


experience


usually


considered


to be normal"


40)


a consequence of


stressful


conditions


under which many


alcoholic


families


function,


that


the offspring


are


placed at


risk


behavioral,


social


emotional


(Berkowitz


Perkins,


1988


developmental,


and physiological


problems


(Ackerman


, 1983)


Conflict.


Conflict


s a


frequently


cited problem in


alcoholic


families


(Booz-Allen


Hamilton,


1974;


Clair


Genest,


1987;


Deutsch,


1982;


Kumpfer


& DeMarsh,


1985;


Wood,


1987)


with


the emotional


climate


in the


home


characterized


emotional


conflict,


situational


crisis


(Mayer


Black,


1977),


emotional


unavailability


of parents


Morehouse


Richards,


1983) ,


tension,


and arguments


(Wilson


Orford,


1978) .


conflict


that


is manifested in


alcoholic


family


1982)


frequently unending


and recalled by


and


children


triangulated


alcoholics


(Deutsch,


a problem of


great


concern


them


(Cork,


1969;


Seixas,


1982) .


Such


conflict may


aggression,

1982). Acc


be manifested by


or by passive


wording to


overt


forms


a study


quarreling


aggression


conducted by


and physical


Seixas,


Booz-Allen


Hamilton


(1974),


interviews


with


fifty


children












In concert


with


recurrent


family


conflict,


Cork


(1969)


found


that


young and adolescent


children


of alcoholics


interviewed noted a


families.


members


Wilson


of 11


lack


Orford'


families


of laughter


s (1978)


included several


and fun


interviews wi


children


in their

th the


who


mentioned


contrast between


silence


and tension


their alcoholic homes


with


joking


and


talking that


took


place


addition,


the nonalcoholi

occurrences of


homes


family


their


involvement


friends.


in recreational


and other


activities


have been noted by


researchers


range


from


less


frequent


than


those of


nonalcoholic


families


(Moos


Billings,


1982)


rare


or absent


(Wilson


Orford,


1978).


Marital


relationship.


A poor marital


relationship


(Chafetz


et al.,


1971


family


conflict


often


coexist


within


the alcoholic


family.


communication between


spouses


tends


to be characterized by


conflict


(Wilson


Orford,


1978)


, disapproval


and hostility


(Jacob,


Ritchey,


Cvitkovic,


Blane,


1981),


with


the negativity worsening


when


alcoholic


is drinking


(Jacob


Krahn,


1988;


Jacob


et al.,


1981) .


is not


uncommon


for parental


fights


Wilson


Orford,


1978)


spousal


abuse


to be


witnessed by


children


family


(Booz-Allen


Hamilton,


1974;


Ackerman,


1989) .


Such


violence


tends


to affect












Family


stability.


In keeping with


family


conflict


a poor


spousal


relationship,


family


instability manifested


death,


divorce,


separation


tends


to occur with


greater


frequency


in families


where


parental


alcoholism is


problem


(Black


et al.,


1986;


Chafetz


et al .,


1971;


Kammeier,


1971;


Knop et al.,


1985;


Marcus,


1986) .


Mayer


and Black


(1977)


suggest


possibility that,


"rejection


of the


alcoholic by


other


to marital


society


family members


feelings


contribute


difficulties which


often


shame


Soc


disrupt


experienced


isolation and


these marriages,


thus


leaving


a single


parent


family"


433)


Secrecv


and isolation.


an effort


to protect


status

(Hawley


of the


Brow


family,

n, 1981


the alcoholic


and become


family


socially


tends to withdraw

isolated (Bowles,


1968;


Deutsch,


1982


; Wood,


1987) .


Due


to perceptions


shame associated with an


illness


that


is perceived to be


moral


failing


(Wood,


1987),


alcoholism becomes


secret


that


compul


sively


guarded by


family


(Newlon


Furrow,


1986)


rarely


acknowledged


either within


or outside


family


(Cermak


Brown,


1982) .


The message


that


alcoholism


is to be


regarded


family


secret


(Brenner,


1984),


typically transmitted by


one


or both parents


(Woodside,


1982) ,


becomes


a major


focus


around


which


family


becomes












youngsters


are made


partners


family' s


denial


that


parent


is drinking"


(Woodside,


1986b,


p.31)


secret


of parental


alcoholism


created,


in part,


an attempt


social


to avoid


isolation of


discovery


family


of the


problem,


(Deutsch,


1982) .


fosters


Children,


in turn,


become


isolated


from peer


relationships.


Prevailing negative


children


social


of alcoholics


attitudes


to perpetrate


toward alcoholism


shroud


cause


secrecy


(Gravitz


Bowden,


1985)


an effort


to hide


family


alcoholism from their peers


secrecy


cannot be


maintained,


child


an alcoholic may


avoid peers


order to prevent


potentially


damaging


contact


with


them


(Booz-Allen


Hamilton,


1974).


child knows


home


situation


is different


from


others'


that


it mustn't be exposed.


The need to


guard the


homes


family


secret


keeps


children


isolated from other youngsters,


from alcoholic
inhibiting their


ability to make
childhood good


friends,


times


relax
fun.


or experience


(Woodside,


1982,


visual
p.


Denial.


One of the major


symptoms


of alcoholism i


denial


system


(Kinney


Leaton


1987;


Seixas


& Youcha,


1985)


of massive


proportions


(Wood,


1984)


which is


experienced by


both


alcoholic and her


or his


family


and which


progresses


in severity with


illness


(Deutsch,


1982).


According to


Deutsch


1982)


denial


represents


"an


uln cofnsnin


rP~innti nfl


[-2 .Z*l nil h-i -


r-a1 i tv"


371


I 1 1- ^


n


1 uL












often,


in Schumrum and Hartman's


(1988)


estimation,


"expected to


help preserve


illusion


that


everything


under

that


control"


it is by nine


120) .

years


Indeed,


Black


that


(1981a)


contends


a well-developed


denial


system exists


in children regarding their


feelings


and


perceptions


about


their


alcoholic home


experiences.


Childrearing practices


According to Seixas


Youcha


1985)


alcoholism


"almost


children


always


interferes with


of alcoholics


are


parenting"


likely to have been


Thus,


exposed


parenting deficits


recipients


their


of poor parenting


homes i

skills


including

which,


being the


turn,


likely to


significantly


increase


children'


stress


levels


(Honig,


1986).


illness


of alcoholism poses


childrearing


difficulties


for parents


(Mayer


Black,


1977)


because,


the alcoholism progresses,


alcoholic becomes


increasingly


Morehouse


less


effective


Richards,


1983)


as a parent (

Alcoholics


Arentzen,

and their


1978;

spouses


"create a


family


structure


that


tends


to be


unstable,


empathetically


depriving,


exploitative


, neglectful,


and in


many


cases,


abusive"


Wood,


1987,


In families with


one


alcoholic parent,


the nonalcoholic parent


often becomes












Parentinar


style.


Alcoholics


are


often


characterized as


dependent,


impulsive


, depressed,


and having


self-esteem


(Mayer


Black,


1977) .


child in an


alcoholic


family


therefore,

impulsivity"


"chronically


(Miller


exposed


Tuchfeld,


to a model


1986,


of parental


236),


undependability

inconsistency i


(Morehouse


n role behavior


Richards,


(Ackerman,


1983),


1987b).


Indeed,


inconsistency


considered


hallmark of


alcoholism


(Deutsch,


1982)


and parental


inconsistency the hallmark


alcoholic


families


(Leipman


et al.,


1986).


Preliminary


interview


data


obtained by Mayer and Black


(1977)


revealed that alcoholic


fathers


reported themselves


to be


inconsistent


and unpredictable


when


interacting with


their


children.


These


fathers viewed


themselves


loving


one


and rejecting and abusive


next


(Mayer


Black,


1977).


In families
focused on


with an


alcoholic parent


the addiction,


and parent


attention


also


s lack time and


energy


child


care.


these


families,


inconsistency


in dis


cipline


and attention are


particularly marked.
discipline alternate


Periods of attention
with periods in which


or strict
children


receive


little or no


attention


little


amaD


discipline.


(Black


Mayer,


1980,


Family


rules.


rules


that


govern alcoholic


family


interactions tend to be distorted


(Cermak,


1989) .


Black


11 QR1~


rnn-aric *h* *1, fly-,r~h2 ri ni no rah r'h rhrinor ,


wh; rh


r~nton~c


th3t thn


rrr loE


nrlm~rtt












concerns.


congruence


with Black's


observation,


doctoral


study by


Andrasi


(1986),


disclosed


that


adult


children


of alcoholics


experienced


their


families


significantly


less


facilitative


promotion


trust


and the expression


feelings


than


offspring


nonalcoholics


Parental


inconsi


stency


and unpredictability precipitate


problems with

experience (B


trust


trust


lack,


in children


that many

1981a). T


children


of alcoholics


he development


of alcoholics may


a sense


impaired due


their


inability to


feel


safe


and secure


(Woodside,


1982


parental


inability to dependably meet


their needs


(Black,


1981a),


and an


inability


by parents


to provide


them with


focused attention


(Black,


1981a


Cermak,


1989) .


For these


children


trust


others


often


"means


disappointment


deprivation"


(Morehouse


Richards,


1983,


since


their


survival


depends


on an ability to adapt


inconsistent


availability


care


offered by


their parents


(Cermak,


1989) .


They


learn not


only to distrust


others


but also


distrust


about


themselves


parental


since


drinking may


validity


be challenged,


their perceptions


ignored,


punished by their parents


(Cermak


Brown,


1989).


Emotions


are


likely to


repressed


the alcoholic












parental


drinking problem by most


children,


example,


discussion


of the


problem by the


child


with


other


family


members


(Mayer


or outsiders


Black,


tends


1977)


not


to occur until


for many,


adulthood


adolescence


(Ackerman,


1989).


Parental


expectations.


Inconsistent


parental


expectations may


source


of many problems


experienced


children of


alcoholics


(Black,


1981a;


NIAAA,


1983).


Moreover,


frequently


parents


have


in chemically


unrealistic


dependent


expectations


families


self-


sufficiency


(Cermak,


1989;


Kumpfer


DeMarsh


, 1985)


and age-


appropriate behavior


(Kumpfe r


DeMarsh,


1985)


their


children,


sometimes


forcing their


offspring to assume


adult


responsibilities prematurely


(Miller


Tuchfeld,


1986


According to Kumpfer


and DeMarsh


(1985),


"the


parents


appear


to expect


children


after


infancy to


behave


levels


beyond


age-appropriate


developmental


level


child"


75)


Parental


roles.


Children


alcoholics


are often


confused about


expected


to play


roles

the


both

family


they


and their parents


(Nardi,


1981) .


are


In addition


to erratic and unrealistic parental


expectations


of children


and a


required assumption


of responsibilities,


especially












1973;


Seixas,


1982)


a reversal


of roles


between


adults


and


children


within


family


is not


uncommon.


Role


reversals


within


alcoholic


family


are


associated with


the expectation


that


child


function


an adul

(Black


(Mayer


& Mayer,


& Black,


1980;


1977)


NIAAA,


and assume


1983) .


a parental


"In many


role


these


families


on their


both


the alcoholic


children


comfort,


and non-alcoholic parent


allies


depend


in conflicts with


the other parent and


care


younger


brothers


sisters"


Black


& Mayer,


1980,


50)


Such


role


reversals


lead


to role


confusion


a minimization


opportunities


for the


child


to adjust


to a


clearly


defined


role


(Morehouse


& Richards,


1983


to a


shortening or


loss


of childhood


(Naiditch,


1986).


Parental


responsiveness.


A lack


of acknowledgment


children'


needs


(Morehouse


Richards,


1983)


and


problems


they


face


is not


uncommon


alcoholic


families


(Mayer


Black,


1977) .


to alcoholism-related


family


problems,


focus


of attention


the alcoholic by the


nonalcoholic


spouse,


need by the


spouse


to cope


with


and assume


consequences


the alcoholic's


erratic


behavior


(Weddle


Wishon,


1986),


Ackerman


(1983)


maintains


that


"often


those


remembered last


are


the children"












and subtly


exhibit


rejecting


behavior.


Cork' s


(1969


interviews


with


children


of alcoholics


aged


to 16


years


revealed a


general


feeling


among the


children


rejection by both


alcohol


and nonalcoholic parent.


fact,


"the


children


felt more


deeply


affected by


disharmony


and rejection


than by


excessive


drinking"


(Cork,


1969,


64)


Children


of alcoholics


frequently manifest behavioral


(Triplett


& Arneson,


1978),


physical


Nylander,


1960;


Moos


Billings,


1982;


Roberts


Brent


1982


or other problems


response


to their dysfunctional


family


even


such overt


manifestations may


unrecognized by their parents.


group therapy


(1980


sessions


observed a marked


with alcoholics,


lack


awareness


example,

or denial


Ellwood

on the


part


of the alcoholics


regarding their


children'


illnesses


or behavioral


problems.


Parental


neglect.


In keeping with


observation


that


the needs


of children


of alcoholics


are


often


ignored by


their parents


(Morehouse


Richards,


1983),


long


been


noted


(Nylander,


1960)


that


these


children


comprise


population


who are


likely


to be neglected by their parents


Rydelius,


1981;


Weddle


& Wishon,


1986) .


Kumpfer


Demarsh


(1985


maintain


that


"substance-abusing parents











their


offspring


that


"the


alcoholic


sees


world


through a


people


(Bosma,


fog that


surrounding


1972,


impenetrable


him or trying to


34).


the emotions


reach


nonalcoholic parent


of the


to him"


frequently


becomes


obsessed with


alcoholic and also


becomes


source of


(Deutsch,


inconsistency,


1982).


stress,


a consequence,


and anger within


children


family


of alcoholics


frequently


feel


unloved


(Woodside,


1982)


and neglected


(Booz-Allen


Hamilton,


1974;


Bosma,


1972


Nylander,


1960).


Interviews


with


children


of alcoholics


(Booz-Allen


and Hamilton,


1974)


revealed


that


the majority


children


Nylander'


(60%)


felt


s (1960)


emotionally


study


of children


neglected by


of alcoholic


their parents.


fathers


(n=229)


disclosed


that


these


to 12-year-old offspring did


receive adequate


care


and attention


from


their parents


and that


mental


they were


neglect more


likely


often


"show


than


signs


children


of physical


from average


and


homes"


93).


Parental


abuse.


While


child neglect


is more


frequently


associated with alcoholism


than


child abuse


(Mayer


Black,


1977),


parental


alcohol


problems


constitute


frequently


cited factor


incidence


of child abuse


(Black


& Mayer,


1980;


Russell


et al.,


1985) .


Behling












were associated with evidence of


parental


alcoholism or


alcohol


abuse.


Although few


researchers


have


investigated


the nature


of the


association between


family violence


and alcoholism


(Russell


et al.,


1985),


the


offspring


of alcoholics


are more


likely to


report


emotional,


physical,


and/or


sexual


abuse


than


the offspring


of nonalcoholics


Ackerman,


1987a,


1989;


Black


et al.


1986


; Tarter,


Hegedus,


Goldstein,


Shelly


Alterman,


1984)


Ackerman


(1987a)


found


that


8% of


nearly


adult


children


of alcoholics


parti


cipated in


National Adult


Children


of Alcoholics


Research Study


were victims of physical,


sexual,


or spouse


abuse


compared


to 37.4% of those


who were


offspring


of nonalcoholic


parents.


Ackerma


that


likely


A study

n (1989


daughters


than


of adult


using


of alcoholics


daughters


daughters


a questionna


(n=6


of nonalcoholics


of alcoholics

ire survey, c


were


conducted


on firmed


significantly more


(n=585)


to report


emotional


abuse


(80%


37%,


<.001)


and physical


abuse


(31%


p <.001).


A comparison


family


experiences


adult


offspring


of alcoholics


with adult


offspring


nonalcoholics


conducted by


Black et


(1986)


also


revealed


that


children of


alcoholics


were


significantly more


likely












of alcoholics


compared to


9.6%


of a nonalcoholic


sample


<0.01)


reported by


Black et


(1986)


was


similar to


incidence of


sexual


abuse


in daughters


of alcoholics


reported by


Ackerman


(1989)


Ackerman


1989)


noted


that


of the daughters


of alcoholics


surveyed in his


study


reported


child sexual


abuse


compared


to 5% of a control


group of


daughters


of nonalcoholics


<.001).


incidence and


of alcoholics may vary


type


of abuse experienced by


in accordance


with


children


gender


alcoholic.


Kaufman


(1986)


observes


that


"whereas


alcoholic


fathers may abuse

alcoholic mothers


their children

are more prone


violently

to abuse


and/or

their c


sexually,


children


through neglect"


357)


Black


et al.


(1986)


note


that


of the


sample of


children


of alcoholics


their


study


(n=409)


reported paternal


violence while


indicated


maternal


violence


in their


homes.


The anticipation


of aggression


the alcoholic parent


likely


to promote


an environment


of fear within


alcoholic home


(Bosma,


1972) .


"The


environment


in which an


abused


child lives


is described as


being


deprived


nurturing


and love


and filled with


fear-provoking


unpredictable events"


(Ney,


Moore,


McPhee,


Trought,


1986,


512)












conflict,


insecurity


(Woodside,


1982),


neglect,


and,


many,


abuse


(Ackerman,


1987b;


1989;


Russell


et al.,


1985)


Never


free


from worry


or anxiety


about


their


chaotic home


situations


(Woodside,


1982),


these


children


often


perceive


their parent


or parents,


to be arbitrary,


erratic,


inconsistent.


They


commonly


experience


confused,


inconsistent,


unrealistic parental


expectations


(Cermak


Brown,


1989;


Nardi,


1981)


sometimes


find


themselves


playing a


parental


role


(Black


Mayer,


1980)


and


carrying


the burden


adult


responsibilities


home.


general,


theirs


unpredictable,


extremely


stressful


home environment


which


encourages


them


to perceive


chaos


normal


(Miller


Tuchfeld,


1986)


and


to distrust


themselves


and others.


an environment


that


is also


"rife


with


pressure


to keep


the obvious


unnoticed"'


(Cermak


Brown,


1989,


to keep the


family


secret


protected.


Children


of Alcoholics


Characteristics


Children


alcoholics


are


prone


development


emotional,


physical,


and social


problems


a consequence


living with an alcoholic parent.


this


section


of the


chapter,


an overview


of the emotional,


physical,


social


health


consequences


of parental


alcoholism will












children


of alcoholics


cope


with


their


family


environments,


will be addressed.


Emotional


Health


Although not all


children


of alcoholics


develop mental


health problems

difficulties (R


(Roosa


ydelius,


et al.,

1981),


1988b)

the re


or social


.search


adjustment


literature


provides


support


for the


contention


that


parental


alcoholism


impacts


on the emotional


functioning


offspring


(West


& Prinz,


1987),


frequently presenting


a destructive


influence


consequence


on emotional


of parental


well-being


Woititz,


alcoholism and


1978).


family


atmosphere


and parenting practices


precipitated by the


illness,


children


of alcoholics


have


been


characterized


anxious


(Morehouse,


lonely


1979),


(Booz-Allen


insecure


Hamiltoz


(Deutsch,

n, 1974;


1982;

Bowles,


Woodside,

1968), a


1982),


depressed


(Roosa


et al.,


1988b).


They


have


also been noted


to have

Russell


self-esteem,


et al.,


1985),


poor


self-concepts


an external


locus


(O'Gorman,

control (E


1985;


tern,


Haslett,


Collipp,


Bridges,


Solomon,


Condren,


1981;


Prewett,


Spence


Chaknis,


1981),


to have


significantly


higher


incidence


of emotional


disorders


than


do children


of nonalcoholics


(Morehouse


Scola,


1986).












parental


behavior will


be discussed further


following


portion


this


chapter.


Control


"Perceiving yourself


in control


your


life


and having


self-esteem are


external


alcoholics


factors


stressors"


are


that


(Honig,


risk


help


1986,


cope adequately with


51)


for perceiving an


Children


inability


control


the events


their


lives


(West


Prinz


, 1987)


perhaps


because


they


learn,


a consequence


of inconsistent


and undependable

consequences rec

arbitrary and ex


parental


eived in


ist


behavior,


response


independently


that t

their


he outcomes


behavior are


from the behaviors


they


exhibit


(Prewett,


Spence,


Chaknis,


1981) .


A perceived


lack of personal


control


over


environmental


events may


impact


the academic


efforts


undertaken by these


individuals


(Kern


et al. ,


1981).


Wanting


control


is postulated by


some


clinicians


to be


a major


issue


for the


offspring


of alcoholics


(Cermak


Brown,


1989;


Gravitz


Bowden,


1985) .


In fact,


children


of alcoholics


struggle


to gain


control


their


lives,


they


sometimes


develop


"a pathological


independency


based


fear


of relying


on other people"


(Woodside,


1982,


which


manifested by


a compulsive


need


to be


charge


of other











that


conceals


their


inner


turmoil,


chaos,


neediness


Cermak


Brown,


1989).


Locus


of control


least


studies


on locus


of control


in children


alcoholics


greater


suggest


tendency


that


toward


this


population


externality


than


a significantly


do children


nonalcoholics.


Kern


(1981)


used


several


measures


including


Nowichi-Strickland


Locus


of Control


scale


compare


children


of alcoholics


aged


to 13


years


with


children


of nonalcoholics.


results


of this


investigation


locus


revealed


of control


a significantly


children


greater


alcoholics


external


than


nonalcoholics


=4.1,


though


potential


socioeconomic


status


differences


between


the


two


groups


have


confounded


the


results


(West


Prinz,


1987) .


Kern


(1981)


contended


that


an external


orientation


may


related


to intellectual


performance


and


may


explain


depressed


mental


ability


they


observed


males


their


study.


They


conclude


that


"the


tendency


toward


externality


may


a core


destructive


attitude


children


alcoholics


learn


at home


which


becomes


basis


their


later


inability


to effectively


cope


with


environment"


(Kern


al.


1981,


172).


=. os)












External


Control


Scale


children


to 12


years


age,


fifteen

fifteen


of whom had parents


of whom served


in treatment


controls matched


or alcoholism and

in accordance


with age


and socioeconomic


status


Significant mean


score


differences on


scale


existed when


children


alcoholics


t= 3


group was


.96,


compared


df = 28,


<.05)


control


group


researchers


hypothesize


that high


externality


children


of alcoholics


reflect,


as Kern


et al.


(1981)


suggested,


a lack


competencies needed


In contrast


to exert


control


aforementioned


over the en

d findings,


environment.

Churchill,


Broida,


and Nicholson


(1990)


found no


significant


differences


in college


students'


locus


of control


when


children


of alcohol


children


of nonalcoholics were


compared.


Locus


They


of Control


admini


scale


stered


to 497


the Rotter


students,


Internal/External


of whom were


children


of alcoholics


They


did,


however,


find a


correlation


using the


Spearman


between


self-esteem


and an


external


locus


of control


.18,


df=496,


<.001).


In addition,

differences


Callan

on the


and Jackson


Rotter


1986)


found no


Internal/External


Locu


significant

s of Control


scale when


three groups


of adolescents


were


compared,


two of


which


were


comprised of


children


of alcoholics.












65 children


of alcoholics


aged


to 18


years


seen by


counselor at


a community mental


health alcoholism


clinic


(Morehouse,


1979


revealed


several


reasons


for the


anxiety


they


experienced in


relation


to growing up with an


alcoholic


parent.


The anxiety provoking


experiences


relayed by these


children


included


their


feeling that


parental


alcoholism


equaled not being


loved and hurt


feelings


associated


with


actions


alcoholic


such


as broken


promises


inadequate affection


and attention


(Morehouse,


1979).


According to


some


clinicians


and researchers


Clair


and


Genest,


1987;


Pickens,


1984;


Roosa


et al.,


1988b),


children


of alcoholics may


be more


prone


to depression


than


children


who do not have a


family


history


of alcoholism.


Family


environmental


factors may play


a role


incidence of


depression


as may


gender


of both


child and


parent.


Goodwin,


Schulsinger,


Knop,


Mednick,


Guze


(1977)


found an


excess


of depression


among


alcoholics'


daughters when


these


daughters


were


raised by their


alcoholic parents


compared


incidence of


depression


found in


daughters


of alcoholics


raised by


adoptive


parents.


Self-esteem and


self-concept


Impaired self-esteem and


self-concept


are


frequently


cited outcomes


of parental


alcoholism


(Baraga,


1978;


Booz-











behavior


as a


reflection


their


own


worth.


Children


alcoholics


wrong


tend to


in their


feel


family,


that because


there


there


something


something wrong with


them"


50).


In addition,


hypothesized by


some


that


self-


esteem problems may


arise


as a consequence of


parental


neglect


equation by


or inattention


children


(Miller


of alcoholics


Tuchfeld,


1986),


of parental


drinking with


a lack of parental


love


(Morehouse


Scola,


1986),


and poor


social


relationships


(Weir,


1970).


An investigation


comparing the


self-concept


scores


children


of alcoholic and nonalcoholic parents


aged


9 to


years


(Baraga,


1978)


revealed


that


children


alcoholics


had significantly


lower


scores


Piers-


Harris


Children'


Self-Concept


Scale.


self-concept


scores


were


unaffected by


number


years


of parental


alcoholism or years


of parental


sobriety


were


affected


family


size.


Self


concept


scores


increased in


concert


with family


size.


A lack


of the


self-confidence


children


was


of alcoholics


noted in nearly


interviewed for


a third


a study


conducted by


Booz-Allen and Hamilton


(1974)


researchers


associated with


study


assert


that


self


confidence


difficult


to attain


in the


face


of a lack of












Gender o

facilitation


the alcoholic parent may play


or impairment


role


of self-esteem among the


in the

children


within


family.


Berkowitz


and Perkins


(1988)


administered a


questionnaire


survey


covering


eight


personality measures


to first


second


year


college


students


n=860)


ranging


in age


from 18


years


who were


attending


an upper middle


class


northeastern


liberal


arts


institution.


When


responses


children


alcoholics


to the


personality measures


were


compared


those of


the non-alcoholics,


female


children


alcoholics


scored


significantly


higher


on the


self-


depreciation


scale which measured low


self


esteem and


depression

significant


and the male

ly higher on


children


of alcoholics


scored


independence and autonomy


scale.


When


responses


of the


subjects


were


compared in


accordance

alcoholic


with gender


father were more


parent,


likely


than


women

those


with an

with an


alcoholic mother to

self-depreciation s


report


cores


self

the


-depreciation.

daughters of


The mean


alcoholic and


nonalcoholic mothers


were


same.


Although


O' Gorman


(1985)


noted


that


children


alcoholics


not


only


have


self


concept


self-esteem


but also a


wide


range


of psychological


problems,


several












non-alcoholics


in at


least


three


investigations


of college


students


(Andrasi,


1986;


Churchill


et al.,


1990;


Clair


Genest,


1987)


and one


study


of adolescents


Callan


Jackson,


1986).


Self-blame


awareness


of parental


drinking


coupled


with


behavior


of the alcoholic,


denial


that


alcohol


problem


exists


within


family,


and a


lack


of information


about


alcoholism may


lead


children


of alcoholics


to feel


guilt


shame


about


parental


drinking.


Many


children


of alcoholics


perceive


themselves


to be


somehow


responsible


for the


drinking that


occurs


(Boo


-Allen


Hamilton,


1974;


Cork,


1969;


Donovan


, 1981;


English,


1988;


Hawley


Brown,


1981;


Morehouse

1986b)


responsible


1979;


Although


for the


Morehouse


some


Scola


1986;


children might


drinking,


they may


Woodside,


feel


feel


1982,


directly


indirectly


responsible by precipitating parental


anger which,


turn,


is observed by the


children


lead


to parental


drinking


(Morehouse,


1979).


According to


et al.


(1986),


"children


are more


likely to blame


themselves


than


someone


else


both


physical


and emotional


neglect"


517)


It was verbal


abuse


more


than


other


types


of abuse,


that


et al.












also due


to the behavior


nonalcoholic parent


"Youngsters


are


often


angry


the non-alcoholic parent


not


protecting them


from the


alcoholic"


(Woodside,


1982,


for not


decreasing their


responsibilities


home,


and for not


getting a


divorce


(Morehouse,


1979) .


Physical


Health


Living with


parental


alcoholism may


precipitate


adverse


health


consequen


ces


, possibly


as the


indirect


result


stress


inherent


alcoholic


family


environment


Roberts


Brent,


1982) .


Such health


consequen


ces


may


include


increased incidence of psychosomatic


illness


in the


absence


of organic etiology


(Nylander,


1960)


and,


particularly


women,


stress-related


diseases


(Roberts


Brent,


1982)


which


include


asthma


, allergies,


and frequent


colds


(Moos


Billings,


1982) .


Children


of alcoholics


are


significantly more


likely to


experience


trauma


(Roberts


Brent,


1982),


including neglect


and abuse


(NIAAA,


1983),


accidents


(Chafet z


et al.,


1971) .


Although


data


from a


study


(McGann,


1990)


of adults


from a


university-based family practice


waiting


room


revealed no


significant


differences


between


family


members


of alcoholics


and nonalcoholics


regarding their











shown


to result


in significantly more


visits


to health care


professionals


by the offspring


compared


to children


nonalcoholics


(Moos


Billings,


1982;


Roberts


Brent,


1982;


Rydelius,


Social Re


1981).


lationshiDs


Peer relationships


Children of


alcoholics


tend


to have


fewer


relationships


with


their peers


(Morehouse


Scola,


1986)


perhaps


because


such relationships


are


jeopardized by these


children'


poor


self-concept,


poor


social


skills,


and deviance by the


family


from accepted


community


norms


(Liepman


et al.,


1986).


social


withdrawal


of the


family


also affects


childhood


development


and the peer


relationships


of children


(Hawley


Brown,


1981).


The emotional


isolation


that


s encountered by


children


of alcoholics


both


within and outside


the alcoholic


family


poses


one of


the greatest


problems


they


face


(Ackerman,


1983;


Donovan,


1981).


For


example,


clinical


impressions


65 children


of alcoholics


treatment


(Morehouse,


1979)


revealed


that


once


these


5- to 18-year-old children


realized


that


drinking


alcohol


was


not


socially


acceptable behavior,


"there was


always


shame and


embarrassment.


Many


children












precipitated by


a child's


assumption


that


problems


faced


her or


him are


unique


and not


shared by


others


(NIAAA,


1983).


Many


of the


16-year-old


children


of alcoholics


(n=115)


interviewed by


Cork


(1969)


felt


distant


from


their


peers.


"They


appeared


to have


little of


prestige


popularity that


1969,


are


38).


important


child


adolescent"


of an alcoholic may


(Cork,


experience


isolation at


school


because,


as Bosma


(1972)


suggests


s ashamed to tell


anyone


about


anxieties"


afraid


to make


friends


(Bowles,


1968;


Wilson


Orford,


1978).


Morehouse

reciprocity is


(1979)


present


asserts

even i


that


n young


sensitivity to


children.


social


Children


alcoholics may


the need


Morehouse


avoid


to invite


Scola,


close


friends


1986;


friendships


their


Wilson


in an


homes


Orford,


effort


(Morehouse


1978) .


to avoid

, 1979;


Such


avoidance


parental


is related to


alcoholism and


inconsistency


child's


associated with


inability to predict


parent's


behavior


(Morehouse


Scola,


1986).


Children


of alcoholics


are


sometimes


able


to develop a


relationship with


one


peer during


their


childhoods.


number


of children


interviewed by


Wilson


and Orford


(1978)












Relationships with


significant


others


Relatives


may play


other


an important


adults


role


outside


family


immediate


lives


family


of alcoholics


(Wil


son


Orford,


1978)


Interview


data


from alcoholic


family


obtained by Wilson


and Orford


(1978)


reveal


that


such individuals were


frequently mentioned by their


informant s


supportive


others.


They


found,


however


that


alcoholic


families


they


interviewed were more


likely


feel


shame


in front


of neighbors


and


to keep


their problems


secret"


(Wilson


Orford,


1978,


134) .


Ackerman


(198


suggests


that


ability to establish


positive


primary


relationships


with


others


outside


family


is one major


tor that


distinguishes


those


children


seem


survive


their


alcoholic


families well


from


those


who

it i


suffer


significant


of major


important


emotion

ce that


effects


primary


He asserts


relationships


that

are


established somewhere,


that


such


relationships


are


necessarily


developed in


home.


Family


Role


Theory


Family


systems


theory


based


assumption


that


each


family member plays


a significant


part


in the


establishment,


maintenance


function


family












functioning


one


family member


necessitates


a change


remaining members


in order to maintain homeostasis


(Black et al.,


1986;


Wegscheider,


1979) .


Roles


are


acquired


family members


in order to preserve


stability


of the


family


and thus maintain homeostasis.


Implications


of Role Acquisition


"Learning to


cope


with


the difficult


environment


that


alcoholism produces


is a widely


documented problem"


for the


offspring


of alcoholics


(Kern


et al.,


1981


, p.


169).


roles


played by


theorized to


stability


children


serve


family


the alcoholic


survival


(Black,


strategies


1981a;


family


that


Crawford


system are


serve


Phyfer,


1988;


Wood,


1984).


Role


acquisition also


serves


an adaptive mechanism


for the


child.


A role


is defined by


Liepman


et al.


(1986)


expected and


repetitive


set


of behaviors


enacted by


an individual


in a


social


context"


50)


acquisition


of roles


theorized


to enable


children


of alcoholics


adapt


to a


situation


over which


they


have


no control


(Ackerman,


1987a).


Through


use


role


acquisition


coping


strategy,


these


children


are better able


to withstand


the pain associated


with alcoholism


(Liepman


et al.,


1986),












them to defend against


inconsistency,


chaos,


aggression,


and feelings

environment


adoption


shame


(Wood,


of roles


stability to


that


1984) .


"serve

family


arise


As Wood


to bring


and one'


the a

1984)


some

own p


alcoholic


home


maintains,


semblance of


psychological


experience,


to mask


intense


and painful


emotions


which,


if openly


expressed,


might


shatter


one' s


self-esteem,


well


as the


fragile


family


structure"


In a


dysfunctional


family


system such


as that


associated with alcoholism,


roles


tend


to be


inflexibly


dictated by


family


needs


with


expectation


that


roles


will be played regardless


their


congruence


with


individual's


personality


(Cermak,


1989;


Deutsch,


1982)


suitability


for that


person


(Liepman


1986;


Deutsch,


1982) .


type of


role


taken


on seems


to be


related


to birth


order


rather than


personality


factors


(Wegscheider,


1981),


with


role


changes


occurring


in response


to changing


family


(Wegscheider,


1981)


rather than


personal


needs.


It is


problem


of acquiring


roles


apart


from


individual needs


desires


(Cermak,


1989)


rigidity


and reactive nature


of the


roles


(Deutsch,


1982)


that


presents


problems


to children


of alcoholics,


roles


themselves


(Cermak,


1989).


al.,












Nardi,


1981;


Wegscheider,


1981;


Wood,


1987)


depending


on the


circumstances with


which


they


are


confronted.


Ackerman


(1987a)


suggests


that


some


roles


arise


in response


given


situations


or developmental


periods.


addition,


under


some


circumstances,


a complete


change of


roles


within


family


can


occur


(Wood,


1987)


Normal


interactions


with


teachers


other


adults


school


and with


peers


are


affected by the behavioral


patterns


adopted by


children


cope


with


parental


alcoholism


(NIAAA,


1983) .


Nardi


(1981)


avows


that


role


acquisition


can be beneficial,


partly


because


such


traits


independence and initiative


can be developed


Russell,


al.,


1985) .


Black


(1979)


agrees


that


adoption


of roles


lead


development


of strengths


suggests


that


significant


deficits may


also arise


which may not become


apparent because


"strengths may


hide


scars


that


develop


from living


in an alcoholic


family


system"


(Black,


1979


, p.


In keeping with Black'


s (1979)


perception,


Kumpfer


DeMarsh


(1985)


maintain


that


rigid


role


adherence


experienced by


children


of chemically


dependent


parents


manifest


s itself


in behavioral


rigidity with a


subsequent


potential


future adaptation


problems.


role


or roles












which,


because


such


roles


become


ingrained,


persist


into


adulthood


(Crawford


Phyter,


1988).


TvDes


of Roles


Researchers


(Ackerman,


1987a,


1989


; Black,


1981a;


Booz-


Allen


Hamilton


, 1974;


Wegscheider,


1981)


have


identified a


variety


of adaptive behavioral


patterns


"survivor


roles"


(Morehouse


Scola,


1986)


used by


children


of alcoholics,


with


those


(1981a)


identified by


being most


associated with


Wegscheider


frequently c

three major


(


ited.

family


1981)

The c


and Black


:haracteristi


roles


identified by


Black


(1979,


1981a),


responsible


one,


adjuster,


placater,


will be discussed in


conjunction


with


four


primary


family


roles


(Cermak,


1989)


identified by


Wegscheider


1981)


: the


family


hero,


mascot,


scapegoat,


and


lost


child.


family


hero/responsible


child


family


hero


(Wegscheider,


1981)


or responsible


one


(Black,


1981a) ,


frequently the


oldest


or only


child in


the alcoholic


family


(Deutsch,


1982;


Wegscheider,


1981),


takes


on the


role


a conscientious


high achiever who


frequently


becomes


goal


and


success


oriented


(Wood,


1987).


This


"Super-Coper"


(Morehouse


Scola,


1986)


develops












compensate


for parental


deficiencies


(Cermak,


1989).


fact,


family


often


imposes


an inappropriate


level


responsibility


child is


on this


the oldest


child


(Wood,


daughter


1984),

family


especially

(Deutsch,


1982).


family


(Crawford &


hero


Phyfer,


tends


1988)


to be


with his


academically


or her


successful


self worth often


significantly 1

accomplishments


inked


to external


(Ackerman,


1987a).


recognition


received for


Unfortunately,


external


rather than internal


validation


received


accomplishments


proves


to be


inadequate


for the promotion


self-worth


(Ackerman, 1987a)

in many ways, they


frequently


fools


Although

actually


educators


a


family


engage in

nd others


heros


appear exemplary


a masquerade


into


which


thinking they


have


emotional


needs


that


they


have


achieved a


healthy


adjustment


in their


lives


(Deutsch,


1982).


actuality,


guilt


they


(Wegscheider,


are driven by


1981),


feelings


tending to


inadequacy


be dissatisfied with


themselves


their


accomplishments


feeling that


whatever they


insuffi


cient


(Wood,


1987).


Their


continual need


to achieve


in order to be


validated


(Ackerman,


1987a)


and


their tendency to thrive


being


in control


(Morehouse


Scola,


1986)


may


lead to


workalcoholism


(Deutsch,


1982


or overachievement


(Crawford












exclusion


of other personal


needs,


they may


be at


increased


risk


suicide


and depression


(Deutsch,


1982)


stress-related physical


illnesses


(Wegscheider,


1981).


scaPecroat


This


role


second oldest


family,


child,


serves


frequently


to distract


filled by the


family


others


from the


problem of


alcoholism by


focusing


attention


away


from the


family


and onto


him or


herself


(Cermak,


1989)


the guise


of rebellion,


anger,


and acting


out behavior


(Deutsch,

tend to h


their


1982) .


xave a


feelings.


Children


poor


They


who


self-image


are


play the


role of


difficulty


likely to draw


scapegoat


communicating


attention


themselves


through


inappropriate,


negative,


delinquent,


problem behavior


(Black,


1981a).


Often blamed for the


troubles


within


family


(Morehouse


Scola,


1986),


scapegoat


attempts


withdraw


from the


family,


sometimes by


hiding


or running


away,


but more often by


forming


overly


dependent


(Morehouse


Scola,


1986)


relationships


with


peers,


particularly


those


who are


also acting


out


their


frustrations


(Wegscheider,


1981) .


females,


promiscuity


and pregnancy


as well


drug abuse may be


the outcome


(Wegscheider,


1981).


Playing their


role may


only way


scapegoats


can












continuation


of a pattern


social maladjustment


(Crawford


Phyfer,


1988) .


This


individual


is most


likely to


have


poor

1982)


grades

as wel


and other sch

1 as problems


ool-related problems


with drugs


(Deutsch,


and alcohol


(Wegscheider,


lost


1981).


child/adiuster


lost


child


(Wegscheider,


1981)


, often


the middle


child


(Deutsch,


1982),


withdraws


from


interpersonal


relationships,


especially


face


of conflict


or cri


(Deutsch,


1982


tends


to be quiet


shy.


This


child


is so often ignored by the


family that


Wegscheider


(1981)


sometimes

adjuster


terms this


(Black,


role


1981a)


takes


"forgotten

no active


child.


role


in manipulating


or taking


responsibility


family


situations


adjusts


to whatever


situation


is presented.


Like


lost


child,


adjusters


avoid drawing


attention


themselves,


may


prone


to practicing unquestioning


compliance


tend


detach


themselves


from social


family


situations


(Black,


1981a) .


conflicts


These are


and emotions


children


at home"


seem


(Black,


"oblivious


1981a,


21)


consequences


lost


child behavior


often


manifested in adulthood are


related


to depression,


obesity,


physical


illness


(Deutsch,


1982),


especially


asthma












family


holds


expectations


(Wegscheider,


1981) .


he generally takes


path


of least


resistance


(Ackerman,


1987a)


tends


take


risks


necessary to


build


communication skills


(Wegscheider,


1981)


or a sense


competence


(Crawford &


Phyfer,


1988).


The mascot/placater


The mascot,


often


youngest


child


(Ackerman,


1987a;


Deutsch,


1982;


Wegscheider


, 1981),


frequently


feels


alone


and helpless


face of family protectiveness


secrecy


(Wegscheider,


1981) .


In an


effort


to gain attention


and to divert


family


away


from its


primary problem,


this


child provides


comic


relief


for the


family


in ways


that make


them the


family


and sometimes


class


clown


(Wegscheider,


1981) .


trademark of mascots


humor,


even


self-depreciating,


and behavior that


sometimes


hyperactive


(Deutsch,


1982),


immature,


silly,


and compulsive


(Morehouse


Scola,


1986) .


In both


childhood and adulthood,


family mascots


commonly


experience


feelings


of fear


anxiety


(Deutsch,


1982;


Wegscheider,


1981) .


In adulthood,


they may


develop


hypochondriac


substituting


illness


humor


(Crawford &


Phyfer,


1988).


people-pleasing,


empathic,


warm,


likable


placater


tries


"fix"


family members'


problems


and,


like












avoid conflict


at all


costs


try to bring peace


family


(Ackerman,


1987a).


Schoolinar


Experiences


of Children


of Alcoholics


As Walberg


(1984)


and others


(Bloom,


1981;


Nam,


1965)


suggest,


a positive


home


environment


seems


to be


positively


related to academic


achievement.


fact,


a positive


home


environment may


a better predictor


of academic


achievement


than


socioeconomic


status


(Walberg,


1984).


According to Walberg


(1984),


'The


curriculum of


parent-child c
encouragement
monitoring and


the home


conversations a
and discussion


joint


analysis


. includes


bout


everyday


of leisure


informed


events,


reading,


of televiewing,


deferral


immediate


goals,


{and}


children' s


gratification
expressions


academic


Unfortunately,


much


to accomplish


of affection


and personal


of the


and


growth.


aforementioned


long term
interest


400)


"curriculum


of the home"


alcoholic


family


is usurped by the


chronic


illness


with


which


family must


cope.


Survival


efforts become


paramount


(Ackerman,


1983;


Gravitz


Bowden,


1985)


in many


of these


families


where,


of necessity,


attention


frequently


becomes


focused on


alcoholic


parent


and the manifestations


of his


or her


chronic,


disabling


illness


rather than


needs


of the


children


(Mayer


Black,


1977


Morehouse


Richards,


1983),


academic or












cited by


researchers


and


clinicians


to be a


population


risk for


experiencing


social


and academic problems


school


(Chafetz


et al.,


1971;


Cork,


1969;


English,


1988;


Liepman


al.,


1986


; Knop et


1985)


Although


incidence of


such problems


is not


clearly


known,


children


of alcoholics


have been


found


to be


disproportionately


represented among


those who perform poorly


school


(Chafetz


et al.,


1971;


Deutsch,


1982).


Academic


Performance


Problems


The overall


academic performance


of children


alcoholics


has been noted


to be


lower than


that


of children


of nonalcoholics


(Hegedus,


Alterman,


Tarter,


1984


Nylander,


1960),


with some


researchers


observing


a higher


incidence of


school


failure


in children


of alcoholics


compared


to children


of nonalcoholics


(Cork,


1969,


Knop et


al.,


1985) .


Verbal


proficiency


deficits


(Gabrielli


Mednick,


1983)


and/or


reading


difficulties


(Knop et


al.,


1985;


Tarter


et al.,


1984),


including


below


grade


level


reading


comprehension


(Hegedus


et al.,


1984;


Herjanic et


al.,


1977),


have also


been


revealed in


studies


comparing the


offspring


of alcoholics


to control


groups


comprised of


offspring


of nonalcoholics.


al.,












parental


neglect and abuse


(West


Prinz,


1987),


assumption


of parental


responsibilities


home by the


offspring


(NIAAA,


1983)


are


frequently


cited


factors


which


lead


to poor


school


performance


Children


alcoholics


are noted


to be


significantly


less


likely than


children


from nonalcoholic


families


to receive


parental


support


or assistance on


such


school-related activities


homework

parents


(Kumpfer


in alcoholic


DeMarsh,

families


1985)

are t


In addition,


-hemselves more


the

likely to


have performed less


well


academically


and socially


during


adolescence


than


those


from nonalcoholic


families


Ellwood,


1980).


Children


of alcoholics


are


less


likely


to become


involved in intellectually


stimulating


and recreational


family


activities


(Clair


Genest,


1987


Moos


Billings,


1982;


Wilson


Orford,


1978) .


According to


longitudinal


data


from


1,715


urban


forth


graders


(Griswold,


1986),


family


activities


have been


shown


to impact


on academic


achievement


that


achievement


scores


were


greater


among those


children


who participated in


such


activities


underachievement


of a number


of children


alcoholics


interviewed by


Wilson


and Orford


(1978)


was


interpreted by these


researchers


to be due


to a


general












difficulties


in concentration


(Bosma,


1972;


Bowles,


1968;


Cork


, 1969;


Deutsch,


1982;


Morehouse,


1979;


Wilson


Orford,


1978) .

has been


impairment


thought


to arise


of concentration


in response


in these

such fa


children


ctors


anxiety precipitated by parental


aggression


intoxication,


concern


parent,


family


about


a lack of


, a high level


safety


alcoholic or nonalcoholic


fun and recreational


of responsibility


activities


shouldered by the


child


the home,


or a


lack


sleep due


turmoil


home environment


Bosma,


1972;


Bowles,


1968;


Cork,


1969;


Morehouse,


1979;


NIAAA,


1983;


Wilson


Orford,


1978).


School


performance may


also be


affected by the


tendency


children


of chemically


dependent


parents


to be


late


school


(Kumpfer


DeMarsh,


1985),


absent


Haberman,


1966;


Kammeier,


1971;


Weir,


1970


or suspended


from school


(Herjanic et


al. ,


1977) .


Alcoholi


families


are


also more


frequently


geographically mobile


(Weir,


1970).


Conduct


issue


disorders


children


are


a frequently


of alcoholics,


cited school-related


particularly


for males


(Black et


al.,


1986;


Glenn


Parsons


1989;


Goodwin,


1988;


Haberman,


1966;


Stenhausen,


Gobel,


Nestler,


1984) .


These


problems may


be manifested by


antisocial


behavior


(Barnes,


1977;


Bosma,


1972;


El-Guebaly


Offord,


1977


; Herjanic et











1983;


Goodwin,


1988;


O' Gorman,


1985) ;


and attention


deficit


problems


(English,


1988).


Educators


are more


likely to designate


children


alcoholics


as problems


classroom


than


the offspring


of nonalcoholics.


Nylander


(1960)


noted


that


teachers


assessed almost half


(48%)


sample of


children


alcoholics


aged


to 12


years


to be


problem


children,


compared


a same age


control


group.


investigation by


Aronson


and


Gilbert


(1963)


revealed


that


classroom teachers'


behavioral


ratings


sons


of alcoholic


fathers


aged


to 13


years


differed


from


those


assigned


sons


of nonalcoholics.


According to


researchers,


sons


of alcoholics


were


deemed less


personable by the


teachers


tendencies


and more


likely to exhibit


and aggression


than


passive-aggressive


controls.


Problematic behavior


been noted


in other


settings


as well.


English


(1988),


example,


reports


that


among


the most


apparent


consequences


of parental


chemical


dependency


observed in


children


aged 5


to 14


years


who


participated in a


group


support


program at


a chemical


dependency


center,


were


attention


deficit


disorders,


difficulty


dealing with


feelings,


and,


for those


aged


years,


disruptive behaviors.


observed t


hat,


for the












order.


Not


only were


children


familiar with


chaos,


they


actually perpetrated it


to avoid dealing with


painful


feelings


and issues"


43).


Behaviorally,


children


of alcoholics may


demonstrate


"obnoxious"


behavior with


teachers


in an


effort


to gain


attention


(Morehouse


Richards,


1983) .


Children


alcoholics may


also


use


teachers


a safer target


for the


anger and resentment


that


they would


otherwise


direct


at an


out


of control,


frequently


parent


(NIAAA,


1983).


addition,


"some of


these


children


are


totally unknowing


what


reasonable


to expect


from another person


terms


time and attention"


(Morehouse


Richards,


1983,


Other


children


of alcoholics manifest


school


phobia


or an


overdependency


on teachers


other


adults


such


school


nurse,


from whom


they may


seek assistance


stomach


aches


and other physical


complaints


(Morehouse


Richards,


1983).


Successful Academic


Performance


Despite


fact


that


poor


academic performance


one


the most


frequently


reported negative


effects


of parental


drinking


(NIAAA,


1983),


many


children


of alcoholics manage


to attain adequate


superior


standards


of performance


28)












however,


have


investigated


this


potential


outcome of


parental


alcoholism.


An exploratory


study


children


of alcoholics


conducted by


majority


Booz-Allen


of the


and Hamilton


study population


(1974)


did not


found


have


that


problems


school,


including the


18% who were


deemed by the


researchers


to be


underachievers


In another


study


Kammeier


(1971),


grade


point


average,


general


educational


development


intelligence


test


data


were


obtained


as part


investigation


of 371


adolescents


attending


a midwestern


Catholic


school,


65 of whom


were


children


of alcoholics.


Neither


grade


point


average


nor


scores


obtained by the


children


of alcoholics


on the


Iowa


Tests


of Educational


Development

significantly


or on the

v differed


Lorge-Thorndike

from those obt


Intelligence


gained by


Tests


the offspring


of nonalcoholics.


Approximately


half


school-aged


children


interviewed by


Cork


(1969),


were


"doing more


or les


s average


school


work


for their


age"


21)


A study


of 174


high


school


students


Pilat


and Jones


(1984/85)


revealed that


none of


subjects


who were


children


of alcoholics


identified by the


Children


of Alcoholics


Screening Test


(CAST)


had been


referred


school


social


worker












Catholic


education


high school


program,


students


attending


of whom were


an alcoholism


children


of alcoholics,


revealed no


significant


differences between


those


with and


without


parental


alcoholism regarding


intelligence and grade


point


average.


Impact


of Family


Roles


on Academic Achievement


Boocock


1980)


observes


that


"being


student


s in


large


part


a role-playing


activity.


child's


initial


view


the world and first


experiences


role


playing


are


furni


shed by


or her


family"


81)


Although


a dearth


of research addresses


relationship between


family


roles


and the


roles


children


of alcoholics


play


school,


school


performance has been noted to


impeded in


alcoholics'


children

previously


who play


described:


least

the


three


scapegoat,


family


lost


chil


roles

d, and


mascot.


child who plays


role of


scapegoat


attempts


gain


attention in


home


and at


school by means


of acting


out


or exhibiting


other problematic behavior.


conduct


problems manifested by this


child,


often


accompanied by


anger,


home or


defiance,


school


and a


refusal


(Morehouse


him or


Scola,


her to do work at


1986),


frequently












most


likely


of all


family


roles


played by


children


alcoholics,


to elicit


attention


of educators.


Learners who play the


family


role


of mascot


tend


to be


immature and are


prone


to compulsively


behaving


ways


that


garner attention


and laughter


According to Wegscheider


(1981)


(Morehouse

), mascots


Scola


"cannot


, 1986).


focus


deep or


sustained way


on learning"


their


preoccupation with gaining


attention by


acting


as the


class


clown and due


to potential


problems


with hyperactivity.


Alcoholics'


children


play the


family


role of


lost


child tend


to withdraw


and become


isolated


in the


academic


environment,


which may


also


impair


academic


efforts


(Black,


1981a) .


academic


environment,


adjuster


and the


lost


child does


have


a great


impact


leave


significant


impression


upon


educators,


tends


to be an


average st

(Morehouse


from school


udent


(Black


Scola,


(Deutsch,


, 1981a)


1986,


1982) .


5),

Due


"gets by


school"


frequently


to quiet,


shy,


absent


withdrawn


behavior,


learners


who play


family


role


lost


children


are,


according to


Deutsch


(1982),


difficult


identify


the academic environment because,


Ackerman


(1987a)


suggests,


their


distingui


shing


characteristics


are not


readily


apparent.












(Black,


1981a)


or family


hero


(Wegscheider,


1981)


that


frequently and consistently


associated


with academic


achievement


(Ackerman,


1983


; Deutsch,


1982;


NIAAA,


1983


some


offspring who play the


role of


lost


child,


academic achievement may


occur


as a means


escape


from


family


and its


problems


(Booz-Allen


Hamilton,


1974) .


Children

family o


who accept


responsible,


often become academic


parental


achievers


roles


confident


problem


solvers


(NIAAA,


1983) .


theorized


that


family


hero


feels


responsible


for the


pain


experienced by the


family


(Wegscheider,


1981)


and attempts


rescue


family


overachievement and being


overly


responsible


(Morehouse


Scola,


1986).


It is also


family


hero or


res


ponsible


child who


unlikely to be


identified in


educational


environment


the child of


an alcoholic and a


child in


potential


need of


some


form of


assistance


academic,


social


or emotional


realm.


Characteristics


such


responsibility,


goal-


directedness


, and organization


tend


to be


rewarded both


the home


and at


school


(Black,


1981a) .


Ackerman


(1983)


states

child


that


the behavior


"valued by


adults


SSOCi

and


ated with being


therefore


a responsible


seldom seen


having negative developmental


consequences


for the


child"












Cable,


Noel,


and Swanson


(1986),


"often


praised and


reinforced by


family,


friends,


and


teachers,


and


{the


behavior}


may not be


recognized


an early


adaptation


to an


inconsistent


life"


It has


been hypothesized


that


those


raised in an


alcoholic


family who do


become


academic achievers may


seeking the


acceptance


and love


they never


received while


growing up by


becoming professionally


or academically


successful


(Booz-Allen


Hamilton,


1974) .


In addition,


successes


garnered by those


who play the


role of


family


hero


only provide


a sense


of self-worth


for these


individuals


but also


relay


a positive message


about


worth


their


families


(Wegscheider,


1981).


School


been


noted


to provide


only


source


stability


and security


some


offspring


of alcoholics


(Weddle


Wishon,


1986) .


fact


that


the majority


adolescent


children


of alcoholics


identified by


Pilat


and


Jones


(1984/85)


were working


or above


academic grade


level


suggested


researchers


that


these


children


were


not


only


bringing a


sense


of pride


family


also


"exercising


control


over their


environment"


role of


family


hero has


been


linked


with


a significant


need


control by


children


alcoholics


(Cermak,


1989;


67)


30)












of alcoholics,


particularly


for those


who play the


role


family


hero,


responsible


child,


lost


child.


It is


theorized by


Deutsch


(1982)


that


some


offspring


alcoholics


"learn


submerge


themselves


in schoolwork


response


to family


stress"


and seem


adjust


well


to school


Martin


(1979)


asserts


that


"when


a child is


in an


abusive home where


academic


competence


is not


punished and


ridiculed,


that


sublimation


and escape


from the


"real


world"


the world of


academics


scholarliness


is not


uncommon"


419).


According to


Booz-Allen


Hamilton


(1974) ,


mechanisms


escape


from the


alcoholic


family


such


as high


academic achievement


were


used by


children


who


played


role


they


identified


flight,


a role


that


similar to


that


of the


lost


child,


well


as by


children


attempted


to be the

"Children


perfect

submerge


child or the

themselves


super-coper or r

in school, books,


family.


in work.


added benefits


are


positive


support


given by


others


for academic


success


promise


of eventual


total


escape


to college"


(Booz-Allen


Hamilton,


1974,


37).


Schoolina-Related Perceptions


-v v.l -


cIld1~re n


of Alcoholics


Little


about


research has been


schooling,


focused


academic achievement,


on the


perceptions


or academic


striving












this


researcher


interviewed aspired


to higher


education.


According to Cork


(1969),


For most,


school


achievement.


held little


sense of


children


adventure


who did


well


school


seemed


Competition with


enjoyment


to or


Recognition


for these


isolated from


of Children


receive
their s


recognition


choolmates


children because


them.


at home


offered little


they


felt


inferior


27)


of Alcoholics


by Educators


Educators may


be unlikely to


reco


gnize


the majority


children


of alcoholics


(Black,


1981a


or their needs


academic


setting


several


reasons.


First,


as previously


discussed,


the attributes


associated


with


roles


family


hero,


responsible


child,


and lost


child


tend


discourage


recognition by


educators


that


youngster may


face


significant


home


and personal


problems


Second

assistance


children


for their


of alcoholics


family


are not


or personal


likely to


problems


seek


(Deutsch,


1982)


and perhaps


their


academic problems


well.


Ackerman


(1983)


notes


that


"for many


children


of alcoholics,


more effort has


gone


into


covering up the alcoholism than


into


seeking


help"


Indeed,


an investigation by


Black


et al.


(1986)


revealed


that


adult


offspring


alcoholics


were


significantly


less


likely


than


offspring


n -F nnnn 1 r1~h~ ,r 1nrhi C n+-rorn


rPCnniI n-'


as a child.


; nt a mo rC T\n =I i


1 C! tn ir~a












survival's


inside'


sake,


(Newlon


to be


Furrow,


wary


1986,


of adults


291)


In a


'keep


it all


study


conducted by

alcoholics w


Black et


ere


(1986),


significantly


less


adult


children


likely to


communicate


with schoolteachers


than


were


children


of nonalcoholics.


These


individuals


also were


noted to


have difficulty


identifying


expressing their needs


and feelings


and


trusting


other people.


Third,


stigma associated with alcoholism is


usually


shared by


children


of alcoholics


(Hawley


Brown,


1981)


also


be shared by peers


are


raised in nonalcoholic


families


(Burk


Sher


, 1990)


social


stigma


perceived


children


existence


of alcoholics


of a parental


facilitates


alcohol


their


problem and


denial

their


denial


the need for help


in dealing with


problem


(DiCicco,


1979) .


Booz-Allen


and Hamilton


1974)


observed


that


half


fifty


children


of alcoholics


they


interviewed


expressed


shame


and embarrassment


relation


alcoholic parent.


need


to guard the


family


secret


impairs


ability


children


to seek


assi


stance


they


need.


fact


children may


attempt


to avoid recognition


in an effort


keep the


secret


closely


guarded.


avoidance


recognition


enables


them to


avoid


stigma


associated


with












stigma


associated with alcoholism prevents


only


help-seeking


efforts by


children but


also by parents


behalf


of their


children.


stigma


of alcoholism and


denial


that


s associated with


it renders


parents


in an


alcoholic


family unable


to obtain


assistance


for their


children


(DiCicco,


1979;


Hawley


Brown,


1981) .


DiCicco


(1979)


their


asserts


children' s


that


"society tends


needs.


We know


that


parent s


define


stigma


alcoholism,


the guilt,


confusion


, and paralysis


of will


creates,


makes most


parents


unable


recognize and


ask for


help


for their


children"


Fourth,


it has


been


noted


(O'Gorman,


1979)


that


some


offspring


of alcoholics


are


known by their


schools


to have


an alcoholic parent


personnel.


In addition


such knowledge

to denial, inf


is denied by


ormation


school


that might be


helpful


intervention


is not


offered due


to a


fear of


consequences


of becoming


involved.


"These


children are


stigmatized in a most


insidious


way:


having


a problem no


one will


address"


(0' Gorman,


1979,


91)


As Cermak and


Brown


(1989)


observe,


To docume
children
challenge


intrude


serious


growing up


the t
into


oo-ea
the


or potentially
in an alcoholic


sy acceptance
privacy of th


serious


effect


atmosphere


of its {
family,


alcohol


s on
to
} use,


to open


our


eyes


to unpleasantness.













Summary


relatively


recently


that


researchers,


clinicians,


others


have


recognized


that


many


school-aged


children


are


being


raised


in dysfunctional,


stressful


family


environments


to parental


alcoholism,


a disease


that


invariably


impacts


upon


family


members.


As Black


(1981b)


asserts,


"everyone


regular


contacts


with


children


contact


with


children


in alcoholic


homes


helping


professionals


must


face


this


issue"


It has


also


been


only


recently


that


deleterious


impact


of parental


alcoholism


on children'


schooling,


including


their


academic


and/or


social


performance,


been


acknowledged.


existence


of parental


alcoholism


however,


frequently


obscured


from


educators


since


affected


children


sometimes


exhibit


approval-seeking


behavior


and


appear


well-adjusted.


In addition,


according


to Black


(1981b),


"those


trained


to work


with


children


t have


sufficient


knowledge


dynamics


of alcoholic


behavior


to be of real


service"


these


children.


Although


impact


of alcoholism


on the


family


varies


in kind


intensity,


these


learners'


family


environments


are


typified


words


, "inconsistent,


unpredictable,


n r2; 73 V^7


-I~ rh rt I II V .


Cr


Rnwiden.


1985.


23)


S9).


9^


nr


4 rn |


I












stigma


that


is often


associated with


alcoholism,


illness


also tends


to precipitate


family


isolation,


secrecy,


emotional


repression .


Children


within


family


are


unlikely to


have


their emotional


needs met


and are


frequently neglected and


sometimes


abused.


They


are


risk


for developing


emotional,


physical,


social,


and academic


problems


as a consequence


living with


an alcoholic


parent.


Children


of alcoholics


develop a


variety


of survival


strategies


to cope


with


their


family


situations.


One


adaptive mechanism is


acquisition


family


roles


such


as the


family


hero


(Wegscheider,


1981


or responsible


child


Black,


1981a)


, lost


child,


scapegoat,


or mascot


Wegscheider,


1981) .


It is


responsible


child who


most


likely to be academically


successful


and


scapegoat


is most


likely to encounter


school


problems.


Academic performance


frequently


and


cited issues


conduct


children


problems


are


of alcoholics


(NIAAA,


1983)


although it


seems


that


there are many


children


exhibit


adequate or exceptional


performance


academic


environment


(Black,


1981a)


This


investigation


focused on


those daughters


of alcoholics whose


academic performance


enabled


them


to attain


a doctoral


level


of academic


study.












methodology


employed in


this


study will


be discussed in


Chapter


followed by


a presentation


of the


research


findings


Chapters


and VI.

















CHAPTER
MATERIALS AND


III
METHODS


The Research Perspective


purpose


this


study was


investigate


schooling


and family


experiences


learners


who were both


academic attainers and

delineating the factors


daughters


which


of alcoholics,


they perceived


to have been


influential


their


academic


striving.


study was


focused on


following


guiding


questions:


do academic


alcoholics


attainers


describe


their


who are
family


daughters o
experiences?


do academic attainers


who are


daughters


of alcoholics


experience


schooling?


What 1
levels


inkages


exist between


of academic attainment


striving


high


and adaptation


to an


alcoholic home


environment?


What


does


to academic
alcoholics?


academic


striving


attainers


and achievement mean


are


daughters


In order to achieve


a contextual


understanding


academic


striving


from


perspective


of the daughters


alcoholics,


a qualitative


research methodology was


used.


The qualitative


research perspective,


informed by the


1-honrrat r;


'f nnn=t- rnr


I 1 I


Qc7mhn1 ir


i nt .ran+i onni sm will












addressing the


aforementioned research


questions.


This


discussion


will


be followed in


this


Chapter


presentation of


research


strategies


and procedures


associated


with


study.


The Qualitative


Perspective


Qualitative r

interactionism and


research,

such ph


associated with


irases


symbolic


as descriptive,


ethnographic,


field,


life history,


or naturalistic


research


(Bogdan


Biklen,


1982),


involves


inquiry


into


characteristics


of social


phenomena


and


the detailed


documentation


of such phenomena


(Lofland,


1971)


in a manner


that


referred to as


"thick


description"


(Geertz,


1973;


Guba


Lincoln,


1982;


Lutz,


1981) .


Qualitative


research


based on


can be


the notion


that human behavior


understood only


context


context


in which


dependent


occurs


(Mishler,


1979;


Smith,


1984;


Spindler,


1982) .


aims


understand human


experience


nearly


as possible


participants


feel


live


(Sherman,


Webb,


& Andrews,


1984,


27)


Unlike


quantitative methods,


inquiries


into


social


phenomena by


qualitative


researchers


reflect


value


for that


which is


non-observable


(Rist,


1977)


such as


concerns


and perspectives


of people


subjective