Adolescents with physical impairments

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Title:
Adolescents with physical impairments metacognitive procedures in the acquisition and generalization of nonverbal communication behaviors
Physical Description:
xiv, 295 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Carpenter, Stephanie Lee Freeman, 1955-
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Youth with disabilities -- Education   ( lcsh )
Nonverbal communication   ( lcsh )
Behavior modification   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1990.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 281-294).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Stephanie Lee Freeman Carpenter.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001610989
notis - AHN5352
oclc - 23445666
System ID:
AA00002107:00001

Full Text



















ADOLESCENTS


WITH


PHYSICAL


IMPAIRMENTS:


METACOGNITIVE
AND GEN


PROCEDURES
ERALIZATION


THE ACQUISITION
NONVERBAL


COMMUNICATION


BEHAVIOR


STEPHANIE


FREEMAN


CARPENTER


A DISSERTATION
UNIVERSITY


PRESENTED


FLORIDA


REQUIREMENTS
DOCTOR OF


UNIVERSITY


GRADUATE


PARTIAL


SCHOOL


FULFILLMENT


DEGREE


PHILOSOPHY


FLORIDA


1990































Copyright


1990


Stephanie Lee Freeman


Carpenter















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Appreciation


expressed


people who


have


contributed


supported nmy


efforts


the completion


this


dissertation.


have


been


fortunate


have


so many


wonderful


friend


Education


col leagues.


Department and


faculty


friends


taff


Univer


Special


of Florida


Naval


ROTC


unit


have


been without


equal


Special


thank


chairperson,


Mary


Dykes,


expressed


confidence


abilities


early


program of


studied


University


Florida.


challenged


me to


higher


standards


supported nmy


effort


reach


goal


been


friend


the most


valuable


kind.


sincere


appreciation


also


expressed


professors


have contributed


an important


part


graduate


studied


their


However,


valuable


especially want


guidance.


Cecil


thank


Mercer,


committee


members


David


Miller,


Stuart E


Schwartz,


Chri


tine


Boyd


topka


have


shared


their


unique


expert se


completion


sertati on.


persons who


volunteered


countless


hours


their


time


haln with


n~rrt e


nrm.irtE


desnest


gratitude.


PYnrPC


I


* i


.. .... ,


* I








Alan Gourlay


accompanied me


observe


school


personnel


even


seemed


enjoy


participation


project.


Lorrie


Kovac


gave many


hours


as the


conference


interviewer


semester when


course work


personal


obligations


were


heaviest


. She wa


great


source


help


encouragement


Kimberly


Terry


gave


time


as a


titute


interviewer


so that


we would


lose


precious


training


days.


Victoria


Morin was


strategy


trainer who


made


IMAGES


procedures


come


alive


for the


students


for me.


overlooked


are the


teacher


school,


Claudia


iders


and JoAnne Fiske.


They


only


hared


their


very


special


students with


they welcomed me


into


their


cl assroom


were


patient when


scheduling


change


occurred--almost


daily


very


warm thank


included


Azalea


Wimes,


found


tardy


students


always


greeted me with


smile.


students


participated


study


were without equal


They


only


gave


their


time


themselves.


family


encouraged me with


their


love


interest


endeavor


parents,


Dorothy


and Melvin


Freeman,


have


always


believed


siblings,


Susan,


Tony,


and Clint,


have


encouraged me


each


pec i al


Merle Carpenter


been


more


friend


than my


mother-


law.


Loving


thank


are given


children,


teven


tacey


When we


started


down


road,


ugs were


given with


their


heads


A









work,


Stacey


notes


on my


pillow were


always


cherished.


Steven


quiet words


that


"some


thing


never


change"


reassured me


special


bond.


Loving


thank


are a


given


husband,


Steve.


There


place


begin express


ing my


appreciation without


leaving


something


Foremost,


encouraged


sustained me with


steadfast


love.















TABLE


CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


LIST

LIST


OF TABLES


ABSTRACT


FIGURES

* a a


. . . . . . xiii


CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


Statement
Purposes
Rational e
Defi nitio
Del imi tat
Limitati o
Summary


. .. . . 1


Problem


the Study
the Study


* a a a a a a a
*~~ a a


of the Study
f the Study .


REVIEW


Theo
Mo



Me


LITERATURE


reti
tiva
Soci
Attr
Intr
taco
Defi
Comp
Meta
Gene
Nece


Strategy
Individuals
Motivation


rien
and
arni
on t
mot


;lon
on o
ts o
ltiv
zati
y co
Int
with
and


a


station
Percel
ng the
heory
ivatio
nd Lea
metac
metac


*


strategic

onents o
vention I
physical
erceived


a a a a a a a a a 20


ved Personal
ory .


Control


ories
Strategic e
ion .
:ion .


. .


ategy
(SIM
rment
onal


* a a
* a a a a a a a


instruction


Control .


v v v


page









Interaction
Communication
Summary .

METHODS .


patterns
Patterns


S a


Description
Descriptio
Subject I
Subject
Subject
Subject
Subject
Descrlptio
Strategy
Strategy
Student
Measurement
Student
Operat
Data c
and
Data c
sess
Social V
Personne
Procedure
Personne
Baseline
Genera
Instruct
Strate
Instru
Instru
Subseque
Experiment
Experime
Data Dis


Research Question
the Subjects .


n of
n of
One
Two
Three
Four
Five
n of


teps
teria
Syste
nverb
nal d
lecti
neral
lecti
ns .
idati
Perfo


1 Train
Condi t
lizatio
ional I
gy inst
ctional
ctional
nt Gene
al Desi
ntal De
play an


Acquisition


ms
al
ef
on
iz
on


and Generalization


* 0 . .
Procedures . .
avior Performance Mea
ions . .


meters
n .
meters


on Mea
romance


* .
ase 0
Cone
e Two
tion
al pr


ralizat
gn and
sign .
d Analy


during


line


instructional


. .
) .
rent


Phase
cedure


on (Pha
analysis


Three)


Four)


RESULTS


Measurement Systems


rson
Stra
Inte
bjec
Inte


nel Performan
tegy Trainer
viewers .
t Nonverbal C
rob server Rel


S 5 0


ce Mea


sure!


communication
ability for


a a a S S
S S S S S S a


Behavior Mea
SECs .










NCB2--eye contact (EC)
NCB3--head nods (HNs)
Summary . .


Subject
NCB1--
NCB2--
NCB3--
Summar
Subject
NCB1--
NCB2--
NCB3--
Summar
Subject
NCB1--
NCB2--
NCB3--
Summar
Subject
NCB1--
NCB2--
NCB3--
Summar
Social Val
Subject


Two
sitti
eye c
arms
y .
Three
sitti
eye c
smili
y .
Four
sitti
eye c
smill

Five
sitti
eye c
arms
y S
idati
Satis


Teacher Sati


Summary .
Nonverbal
Research


S


* 9
ng-u
onta
and


p straight
ct (EC) .
hands on t


* 4 .
* 9
* 9 4 4 4 4 *


able


(AH-T)


* 4 9
* 9 0


. . 4 9 4 4 9 9 4 4 O


ng-up s
contact
ng (SM)


straight
(EC) .


(Sus) 4 .
9 9 4


. 9 9 9 4 9 9 4 4 4


9 4 9 4 9 4 4 4 4 * *


ng-up straight
contact (EC) .
ng (SM) .


ng-up straight
contact (EC) .
and hands on t


on Measure
faction .
faction .


Communication
Questions .


(Su


* 4 a 0 9 9 9 9
* 4 9 4 4 9 9 9 4 4 4
* 0 4 9 9 9 9 *


ab e
able


(AH


. .
. . .


* 4 9 9 4 4 9 4 4 *
s 9 9 4 4 4 4 9 9 9 4
* 4 9 9 9 4 9
* 9 9 9 9 9 9 4 4 9 4 4
* * * 4
Behaviors . .


DISCUSSION


4 9 0 4 0 4 4 4 9 9


Review o
Review
Review
Review
Summary
Discuss
Adoles
Strate
Genera
Limitati
Suggesti
Summary


f Purpose,


Purpose .
Literature
Methods
Analysis o
and Implica
ts with Phy
Instruction
action .

for Future


Literature,


Resul t
ions .
ical Im


and Method


S 4 4 4* 4 9 *9


pairment


* Re . *
* 9 S 4 4 4 9 * *
Research . .


APPENDICES









STUDENT MATERIALS


0 0


SIMULATED


SCRIPT


EDUCATIONAL


QUESTIONS


CONFERENCE


4 4 4 0


SCORER


OPERATIONAL


DEFINITIONS


NONVERBAL


COMMUNICATION


BEHAVIORS


a a a a


NONVERBAL


COMMUNICATION


BEHAVIOR


RECORDING


FORM


STRATEGY TRAINING


STUDENT


SCORE


SATISFACTION


SHEETS


QUESTIONNAIRE


E 0 9 0 0 .
* * *
E . ..* *


TEACHER


INTERVIEWER


SATISFACTION


TIME


QUESTIONNAIRE


SAMPLING RECORDING FORM


STRATEGY


TRAINER


TIME


SAMPLING RECORDING


FORM


PERSONNEL


TRAINING AGENDA


OUTLINE


IMAGES


INSTRUCTIONAL


PROCEDURES


IMAGES


IMAGES


SCRIPTED LESSON


INFORMATION


SAMPLE


SHEETS


REFERENCES


BIOGRAPHICAL


0


SKETCH














LIST


TABLES


Table


Locu
with


Control


Physical


LOC)


Impairments


and Motivation


Student


. . . 39


Studies


of Nonverbal


Communication


Patterns


* 52


Test Scores
Intellectual


for Subjects
Functioning


Level


Subjects


' Most


Test Score


Recent


California


Achievement


S . . .


Summary


Instructional


During Strategy
Conferences .


Training


Personnel


Conditions


and Simulated Education


Percentage
Behaviors


and Session


Percentage
Behaviors


Each


Subject


Strategy


Trainer


Exhibited Across


of Appropriate
Exhibited Acros


instructional


Subjects


Interviewer


ions


Summary


of Visual


Analy


Concurrent Generalization


Figure 5
Behaviors


for Subject 1
(NCBs) .


(CG)


Nonverbal


Baseline


Data


(BL)


Plotted


Communi cation


Summary


Visual


Analysis


Concurrent Generalization


Figure 6
Behaviors


or Subject 2
(NCBs) .


of
(CG)


Nonverbal


Baseline


Data


(BL)


Plotted


Communication


Summary


of Visual


Analy


Concurrent Generalization


Figure 7
Behaviors


for Subject 3
(NCBs) .


Baseline


(CG)


Nonverbal


Data


(BL)


Plotted


Communication


Page











Summary


of Visual


Analysis


Concurrent Generalization


Figure 8
Behaviors


for Subject 4
(NCBs) .


of
(CG)


Nonverbal


Baseline


Data


(BL)


Plotted


Communication


9 9 S ,)( (


Summary


of Vi


Analy


Concurrent Generalization


Figure 9
Behaviors


(NCB


Subject 5


(CG)


Nonverbal


Baseline


Data


Plotted


Communication


0 . 0 . 0 0 0 0 .


Summary


Subject


(N=5)


Sati


faction


Responses


Summary


of Teacher Satisfaction


Response


Summa ry


of Teacher


Improvements


Nonverbal


Subjects


Communi cation


faction


Behaviors


Responses


Specific















LIST


FIGURES


Figure


Sample


time


line


mastery/mai ntenance,


conditions
behaviors.


for baseline,


nonverbal


intervention,


subsequent


communication


generalization


00 9 (() ))( ()I


Strategy


instruction


procedure


flowchart


Percentage
which the


sess


interviewer


observation i
or teacher wa


nterval


speaking.


. 112


During


interviewer


ratio


interviewer


speaking.


speaking
contact


time,


he percentage
frequency of
. . . 114


Percentage
nonverbal


of 12 second
communication


intervals
behaviors


in which


were


observed


for Subject


. . . . . 117


Percentage
observation


communication


Subjects


actual


interval


-5..


behaviors


education
in which


(NCB


conference
nonverbal


were


exhibited


S . . . 119


Percentage
nonverbal


of 12 second
communication


intervals
behaviors


wh


were


ich the
observed


for Subject 2.


. . . . 126


Percentage
nonverbal


second


communicate on


intervals
behaviors


in which


were


observed


for Subject 3.


. . . . 133


Percentage
nonverbal


second


communication


intervals
behaviors


in which


were


observed


Subject


. . . . 140


Percentage
nnnvprhal


of 12 second
rnmmunication


intervals
behaviors


mnw
WarnP


which


nkcnrunul


Page


let r; uu;r~l rr; u















tract of Dissertation


University
Degree of


of Florida


Doctor


Presented


Partial


Graduate


Fulfillment


School


Requi rements


of Philosophy


ADOLESCENTS
METACOGNITIVE


WITH


PHYSICAL


PROCEDURES


GENERALIZATION


COMMUNICATION


IMPAIRMENTS:
THE ACQUISITION
NONVERBAL


BEHAVIORS


Stephanie


Freeman


Carpenter


August


1990


Chairman:


Mary K


Major Department


Dykes
Special


Education


Adolescents


with


ical


impairment


exhibit


diverse


range


physical,


health,


cognitive,


communicative,


sensory,


psychosocial


abilities


that affect


their


interaction


with


other


individual


Nonverbal


communication


behavior


(NCB


are one aspect


interactions


in which


dysfunctional


patterns


are evident


between


indi vi dual


with


various


training


physical


been


impairments

recommended


and

for


nonhandicapped


individual


persons.


with


Although


specific


training


procedures


have


been


reported.


A nonverbal


communication


training


procedure was


developed


with


adolescents


research


related


with


Principle


increasing


student


from metacognition


ituational


and motivation


performance


likelihood


V


tran


ferrina


learned


behaviors


new s


situations


were


.


.









acquisition and


generalization


of NCBs.


effects


procedure


level,


variability,


trend


of NCB


performance


during


training


sessions and


education


conferences were


investigated.


Social


validation


measures


were


obtained


from


subject


their


teachers.


procedure


consi


training


subject t


use a


strategy


determine


an individualized


manner


performing


NCBs


based


on an


analysis


personal


abilitle


component


acronym,


IMAGES,


used


facilitate


subjects


recall


problem-solving


NCBs


included


Itting-up-s


straight,


position


arms


hands,


forward


lean,


contact,


smiling,


head


nods.


Data


from


each


subject were


played


related


level,


variability,


trend.


subjects


(N=5),


13-16


years,


attended


some


sses


program


students


with


Intellectual


functioning was


within


normal


limits.


Effects


training


procedure


on the


acqui


ition


generalization


of NCB


dole


scents


with


were


itive.


Subject


exhibited


newly


acqui red


during


training


sess


ions


were


able


generalize


them


to education


conferences.


Subjects


teachers


expressed sati


faction with


IMAGES


strategy


training


terms


importance,


effectiveness,


practicality


. Implication


were


presented


for NCB


training


procedures


generalization


issues


adolescents


with















CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


breadth


educational


service


children


youth


with


physical


impairments


expanded


dramatically


since


nineteenth


first established


century when


larger


classes


cities


crippled


United


children


States


were


(Connor,


Scandary,


Tulloch,


1988;


Dykes,


1986)


growth


educational


opportunities


for youth


with


physical


impairment


paralleled


over apped


expan


education


programs


other


exceptional


youth


such


as those


suspected


having


brain


injury


education


(Mercer,


1987)


services


commitment


students


with


handicap


federal


level


incl uded


student


with


ical


impairments


specifically


Since


ssage of The


initiative


Education


to provide more


Handicapped Children


comprehen


1975,


educational


programming


student


with


handicaps


continued


through


provi


included


Public


99-457


more


recently


Senate


Bill


101-204


(Kennedy,


1989)


presence


nature


ically


disabling


condition


educational


need


students


with


ical


4nmn 4 trmony+e


Aki .- ttuu


"loan


e nmawh ha+


+than


naAd


n+hnr


kP V11


r **


1 *mlms











exhibit


diverse


range


physical,


health,


cognitive,


speech,


sensory,


psychosocial


abilities.


These


students


have


been


ncl uded


categories


orthopedical ly


impaired


other


health


142.


impaired within


emphasis


rules


94-142


regul ati on


definition


of Public


has been


Law 94-


on the


physical


condition


that may


affect educational


performance.


Students


with


physical


impairments


also


have


associated


cognitive,


sensory,


or social


-emotional


problems


that mu


cons


idered


educational


planning


(Bigge


irvi


, 1978;


Jones,


1983;


Lyle & Obringer,


1983


imeonsson,


1986


irvi


, 1978;


Williamson,


1987)


ti pul ated


-142,


children


with


handicaps


have


ri ght


receive


"free,


appropriate


publ ic


education


restrictive environment"


(Federal


Register,


1977,


42488).


least


restrictive


educational


placement


students


with


physical


impairment


(PI)


been


identi field


as classrooms


with


nonhandicapped


peer


(Walker,


1984)


Although


some


condition


such


as cerebral


palsy


or myel omeningocel e


have been


reported


present


an increased


of mental


retardation,


majority


youth


with


have


normal


intelligence


Weitzman,


1984)


or have cognitive


profiles


indicative


presence of


learning


disabilities


imeon


sson,


1986


Will iamson,


1987)


Under-


achievement


.. v


been


problem


some


chronically


w


-


--










settings


(Carr,


Halliwell,


& Pearson,


1983;


Center


Ward,


1984)


equaled


or exceeded


achievement


of NH


student


(Gregory,


Shanahan,


& Walberg,


1987a,


1987b)


Ultimately,


unless


student


physical


well


being


jeopardy,


learning


need


presence


physical


impairment or


use of


orthoses


specialized medical


equipment,


should


used


determine


optimal


educational


pl acement


irvi


1988)


Appropriate


related


service


(Dykes


Venn,


1983)


comprehensive


programs


(Morgan,


1984)


have


been


used


enhance


probability


student


success


regul ar


class


srooms.


foremost


goal


educational


programs


students


with


been


irvi


adult


to equip


1978)


lives


them with


as well


which


ical


as communication


individual


social


necessary


"i independent,


adaptation


successful


productive,


integrated


communi ty"


(Bellamy,


Wil cox,


Rose,


McDonnell,


1985,


126)


addition


academic


performance,


efficacy


service


delivery ha


been


evaluated


using


outcome


measures


such


as self-e


independence,


steem,


activity


competency


level,


social


and

role


autonomy,


mobility


performance,


communication


skill


(Brunswick,


1985)


interdependent


relationship


challenge


among


profe


these


ssional


areas


presented


attempting


an additional


to maximize


opportunity


youth


with


to become


success


1 adults


(Mulkey


Brechin,











self-concepts


meaningful ness


students


activities


with


which


they


have


been


engage


related


(Margalit


Cassel


-Seldenman,


efficacy that

Henfield, 198


they


2).


1987)


degree


experience


turn,


(Palmer,


student


independence


Stieglitz,


motivational


self-


Lombardi,


orientations


have


affected


self-


efficacy;


self


-efficacy


influenced


choice


activities


(Schunk,


1985);


choice


activities


affected


level


independence


achieved


(Palmer


et al


, 1982)


A cycl ic


pattern


been


establi shed


that


potential


enhance


or hinder


students


' acqul


ition


life


kill


social


experiences


adolescents


with


have


differed


from


those


their NH


peer


terms


quantity


quality


(Brown


& Gordon,


1987;


McAnarney,


1985;


dale,


1985)


Differences


commnunicati on


pattern


of NH


individual


students


with


have


been


reported.


Conversational


adju


stments


have


been


made


individual


based


on their


perceptions


person


with


(Hackney,


1984;


Thompson,


1981,


1983)


These


adjustments


have


indicated


rel ationshi p


that


unequal


statu


(Donaldson,


1980)


or have


reinforced


learned


hel pi e


ssness


student with


seman,


Emry,


Morgan,


Messamer,


1986)


Perception


about


tener


have


also


affected


conversational


nI ffoArnr ae


pattern


displayed


4 n+ilrnorennAl


individual


Inmlntr+ ..


with


hahauinre


* nrI


rii










listener


(Comer


Piliavin,


1972)


Moreover,


deficiencies


listener


adaptation


skills


low communicative


frequency


scores


have


been characteristic


of main


treated


students


with


comparison


to NH


peer


(Thompson,


1981,


1983).


Alteration


associated with

to influence th


in communication


presence of


e development of


pattern


physical


itive


that are


negatively


impairment are


likely


sel f-concepts,


independence,


socialization


youth


with


(Wiseman


1986)


Aspects


impairment


that


have been


associated


with


al tered


communication


patterns


include


structural


anomalies,


sensory


deficits,


movement


coordination


irregularities,


mobility

patterns


constraints,


(DeLoach


stamina


& Greer,


limitation


1981;


Richardson,


abnormal


1976).


oramotor


Adolescent


with


require


explicit


training


skill


rel ated


independence


(Coupey


Cohen,


1984;


Levenson


Cooper,


1984;


Morgan,


1984;


Turnbul 1


Turnbull,


1985),


socialization


(Margalit


Cassel


-Seidenman,


1987),


communication


(Coker


Coker,


1985;


DeLoach


& Greer,


1981).


conclusion,


educational


programming


students


with


addition


traditional


academic


must


addr


wide


variety


physical,


psychosocial

achieving at


health,


need


itonomy


cognitive,


across S


as adults.


speech,


domain

The D


sensory,


that


patterns


motivational,


are crucial


communication











settings


norms


represents


one aspect of


conditions


everyday


programming


life


that


experienced


approximates


by NH


individual


adolescent


Main


with


stream


will


placement


ac qu i re


alone


requi


ensure


skill


that


become


independent,


productive,


autonomou


adul t


Morgan,


1984)


however,


mainstream


placement


real isti c


preferable


appropriate


rel ated


services


are provided


(Walker,


1984)


educational


objectives


focu


on the


student


with


achieving


independence


(Morgan,


1984).


statement of


Problem


Professional


from education


health


science


scipl ines


have worked


together


design


implement


therapeuti


educational


programs


regular


special


facilitate


education


progress


setting


students


(Hall


with


Porter,


1983)


Interventions


have


focused


on the


student


with


or on


individual


student


environment


such


as family member


cl assmates.


Often


intervention


have


been


effective


addre


ssing


demand


immediate


circumstance


have


been


limited


scope


because


unforseen


or novel


situations


were


not always


anticipated


issue


training


general ization


trans


fer of


skill


across


situation


not been


addressed


numerous


interventions.











structure

events.


needed


Within


life


student


span


apply


perspective,


skill


intervention


future


are needed


that


address


unique character


tics,


strength


limitation


individual


student


with


across


settings;


enhance


interaction


with


individual


incorporate


moti vati onal


principles;


promote


independence


autonomy


Therefore,


problem


addressed


this


tudy


that


designing


using


appropriate


techni que


that


involve


adolescents


with


process


obtaining


skill


necessary


them


eventually


reach


their


potential


independent


functioning


autonomy


across


variety


environments


situational


demands.


Purposes


tudy


primary


purposes


tudy


were


twofold.


First,


intent was


develop


an individualized,


nonverbal


communication


training


procedure


adolescents


with


that


incorporate


motivational


theory


and metacognitive


principles.


Next,


effectiveness


procedure


determined


eval uating


nonverbal


communicate on


behavior


played


students


with


during


training


sess


educational


conferences.


secondary


interest


was the


sati


faction


subjects


as well


student


teachers


with


students


' nonverbal


communication











Rationale


Study


Difficulties


socialization,


associated with


communication


self-esteem,


independence,


are characteristic


adolescents


with


These


areas


functioning


often


have


been


approached


from a


fragmented


perspective


which


probl ems


within


each were


addressed


separately.


A more


comprehensive


approach


identify


behavior components


functioning


(Guess


that


Helmstetter,


concurrently


1986;


span


Sailor


several


& Gues


areas


, 1983;


Orelove


& Sobsey,


1987)


use procedures


which


process


as well


as the content contributes


goal


attainment.


Nonverbal


communication


integrated


skills


into


represent one


student


group


' behavioral


of behavior


repertoire


that may


enhance


competence


communication


interaction


across


several


domains.


Instructional


procedures


on motivational


and metacognitive


principles


deficits


reliant


not only


provide


approaching


facilitate


strategy


future


remediation


students


situations


identi fled


to become


across


skill


sel f-


variety


setting


Individual


communicators


with


avoid


have been


social


characterized


situations


as apprehensive


communication


interaction


(Coker


& Coker,


1985)


Several


variable


respon


ible


this


situation


First,


difficulties


j-an~n.u4n ta4+k nIha 3m nr r


in/iuidmia lt


with


~vrn urp i n CnYT PA


n~kaa


r


1 W


r











that


are associated


with


impairment may


preclude


acqui


ition


or use of


socially


expected


nonverbal


behavior


(DeLoach


& Greer,


1981;


Wi seman


1986)


Finally,


mutual


misperceptions between


individual


individual


with


regarding


communication


Intent may


perpetuate


dysfunctional


pattern


communication


(Braithwaite,


Emry,


Wiseman,


1984


Coker


& Coker,


1985;


seman


1986)


Behavior


rel ated


nonverbal


communication


contribute


over


half


total


information


transmitted


communicative


exchange


(Coker


& Coker,


1985;


1970)


Nonverbal


communication


behavior


(NCB


include


faci al


express


, eye


behavior,


posture,


body movement


as well


as physical


appearance,


touch


proxemic


(Coker


Coker,


1985;


DeLoach


Greer,


1981)


The message


that are


sent


through


affect


that


the me


ssage


recipient


views


sender


result of


their


individual


viewed


as either


interested


interested,


responsive


or unresponsive,


approachable


unapproachable


, 1970),


competent


or incompetent


(Mul key


Brechin,


1988),


confident or


unconfident,


worthy


or unworthy,


hel pl ess


or capable


(Braithwaite


et al


., 1984;


DeLoach


& Greer,


1981;


Wi seman


et al


1986)


importance


oclalization


funtonni no


(Wiseman


nrnvidnek


Kr


1986


rationale


Fast,


1970)


training


overall


individual


is with


I


*











Although


some


training


conversational


behaviors


occurred


involving


individual


with


(Coker


Coker,


1985),


specific


programs


have


been


reported


date


that


address


training


enhance NCBs.


Through


use of NCB


adolescents


with


facilitate


autonomy


self


-advocacy


Advocacy


role


process


that enhance


are included


measures


independence


independent


living


adolescents


with


(Brunswick,


1985;


Harni sch,


her,


Carroll,


1988)


Self


-advocacy


skills


are needed


so that


students


with


become


active managers


their


life


events.


Self-advocacy


skills can


used


educational


planning,


overcoming


barriers


optimal


school


experiences,


acquiring


tran


ition


services


skill


Provi


ions


student


participation


devel opi ng


their


Individualized


guidelines


Education


special


Program


education


(IEP)


service


are pre


(Federal


federal


Register,


1977)


Student contributions


process


have


been


advocated


as a


valuable


source of


information


(Abeson


Weintraub,


1977)


as well 1


as an important mean


facilitating


student


growth


and maturity


(Gille


pie,


1979;


Gillespi e


& Turnbul 1,


1983)


student


ability


nonverbally,


been


communicate


recognized


preferences,


as an important


verbally


consideration


student


participation


Reusen cited


Reusen,


Schumaker.


Deshler.


1987:


illesoie


& Turnbull.


1983:


. I


-


J


I










means


improve


school


experiences


adole


scents


with


Presently


training


procedures


designed


purpose


are not


avail able


Theori


from motivation


Adelman,


1978


Deci,


1975


Deci


Ryan,


1985;


Wi ttrock,


1986)


and metacognition


(Wi ttrock,


1986)


perspectives


associated


have


with


addressed


children


principle


learning


thought


achievement.


itively


Principle


from motivation


and metacognition


theories


have been


included


techniques ,


referred


as learning


trategie


that a


learner


uses


during


hier


learning


Schumaker


process


(1986)


have


(Weinstein


empha


ized


Mayer,


1986)


outcomes


learning

technique


strategic


principles


dressing

. or rule


that


that


"learning


enable


strategic


student


are

learn,


solve


problem


complete


independently"


583)


across


"situation


setti ng


over


time"


584)


Therefore,


using


learning


strategy


format


to train


student


with


improve


their


educational


conferences may


an avenue


increa


their


situational


performance,


as well 1


as increasing


likelihood


situation


transferring


, thereby promoting


learned


individual


behaviors


autonomy


view of


research


on the


importance


functional


communi


action


pattern


between


individual


with


and NH individuals,


it can


be concluded


that


youth


with


PI should










strategy


format


(Deshler


Schumaker,


1986)


training


in which


motivation


and metacognitive


principles


incorporated


should d


encourage


development


goal


oriented


behaviors


that


ul timately


lead


goal


attainment


autonomy


students


with


Such


training


procedure


tructured


flexible


enough


accommodate


individual


diverse


communication


characteristic


patterns


that


adolescents


Infl uence


with


Definition


Ataxia


"loss


power of


muscle coordination"


(Umbreit,


1983,


286)


Ataxia


results


from


damage


cerebellum.


Balance


equilibrium


are affected


Athetosi s


condition


which


there


constant


success


extension,


1 ow,


writhing,


pronation,


invol untary movements


upination


fi ngers


flexion,


hands,


sometime


feet"


(Stedman


, 1972,


123)


Bell 1


pal sy


refer


part al


paraly


face


tedman


1972)


Cerebral


palsy


(CP)


nonprogress


disorder


movement


posture which


caused


trauma


or mal function


brain


occurs


during


developmental


period


(Bleck


Nagel,


1982)


Cerebriti


"nonl local ized


infl ammation


brain


without










Concurrent


generalization


general i zati on


skill


while


student


still


receiving


instruction


skill


acqui sition


(Ell1


, Lenz,


abornie,


1987a,


1987b)


Hemipare


"slight


paralysis


affecting


one side


body]


o~n y


tedman


. 562)


General zation


"the


extent


which


student


uses


effectively


adapt


skill


outside


setting


which


learned"


(Len


, Alley,


Schumaker,


& De


hler


cited


Elli


Lenz,


Sabornie,


1987a,


More


specifically,


generalization


refer


"the


occurrence


relevant behavior


under


di fferent


nontraining


conditions


(le.


across


subject


setting


, people,


behaviors,


and/or


time)


without


scheduling


same


events


those


conditions


as had


been


scheduled


training


condition


tokes


& Baer,


1977,


350)


Juvenile


rheumatoid


arthritis


(JRA)


"characterized


chronic


or chronically


recurrent


in fl amation


joint


lesser


extent,


other


issues


body"


(Hanson,


1983,


Extensive


inflammation manifest


fatigue


which


limits


ordinary


activities.


Profuse


sweating,


intermittent mild


fever,


anemia may


o be


exhibited


tedman


1972).


Least


restrictive environment means


that


students


with


handicaps

cl assrooms


should

with


receive

regular


educational


students


services


regular


the maximum extent


ssible.










Mainstream


refers


full


or part-time


pl acement of


handicapped


children


regular


education


sses


with


nonhandicapped


peer


(Eich


taedt &


Kalakian,


1987)


These


classes


are taught


regular


classroom


teacher


Wallace


& McLoughlin,


1979)


Myel omeni ngocel e


congenital


defect


[the]


wall


spinal


canal


caused


lack


union


between


1 aminae


vertebrae"


(Thomas,


1985,


1599)


"with


portion


[the]


cord


membranes


protruding"


(Thomas,


1985,


1085)


pinal


cord


abnormal


below,


usually


several


spinal


segments


above,


level


sac causing


paralysis


or lower


extremity


impairment.


Bowel


bladder control


are affected.


The child


may have


hydrocephal us


and/or


specific


difficulties


learning


Hyperverbal


behavior


or "the


cocktail


party


syndrome"


often


exhibited


(Williamson,


1987)


Nonhandicapped


(NH)


refer


individual


demon


states


cognitive,


communicative,


motor,


sensory,


social


behavior


appropriate


level


peer


same


Nonverbal


communicate on


behaviors


(NCB


include


"(1)


body


motions


or kinesic


physi


character


stics


, (3)


touching


behavior,


paral language


(vocal


qualities


such


as tone


pitch),


proxemic


stance


between


person


interacting),


arti facts


(articles


adoring


one's


person),











contact,


smiling,


head


nodding.


operational


definition


these


specific


nonverbal


behavior


are included


Chapter


III,


Methods.


Nystagmus


refer


"rhythmical


oscillation


ball


either


horizontal,


rotary,


or vertical"


(Stedman


, 197


865).


Ocul ar


dysmetria


lack


harmonious


action


between


eye muscles


"in which


subject


unable


arrest


muscular


movement at


ired


point"


tecdmnan


, 1972,


386)


Orthopedical ly


impaired


refer


severe


impairment


structure,


function


or mobility which


adversely


affects


child


educational

congenital


performance.


anomaly


The

open


term


spine,


include


impainrtent


clubfoot,


absence


caused


some


member,


, impairments


caused


disease,


poliomyeliti


arthri ti


muscular


trophy,


bone


tubercul o


impairments


from other causes


cerebral


pal sy,


amputation,


cl osed


head


trauma,


fracture


or burns


which


cause


contracture


(Federal


Regi


ster,


1977).


Other


health


impaired means


limited


strength,


vitality,


stamina


or alertness


to chronic


or acute


health


problem


such


as a


heart condition,


tubercul o


rheumatic


fever,


nephriti


asthma,


ickle cell


anemia,


hemophilia,


epi epsy,


lead


poisoning,


leukemia


. -


tr diabetes.


*.. *


adver


w


*


affect a


child'


..


w


r










Physical


impairments


(P1)


refer


the conditions


ncl uded


Federal


Regi


1977


definitions


orthopedicallyy


impaired"


"other


health


impaired"


as well


as the


Florida


Statute


State


Board


Education


Rules


(SBER)


(1988)


Furthermore,


West,


Williams,


White,


Cappel 1 ari,


Hill,


Dyke


(1988)


noted


that


physically


impaired


and positioning pr
mobil Ity-enhancing


learning,
Learning


permit
into a


instruction


Many
need


vocational
s affected


integration
activities


, movement,


students


disorder
child in
general


ocedure


child


equipment


often


as well 1


social


the
the


activities


with


requires


special


as communication


order


activities


degree to
child with


spaces


daily


health maintenance


Intervention
behavioral


a ri program
intellectual


Quadripare


related


test


Student


participate


which


within
the e


handling
and/or


n
school


environment


nonhandicapped


living


impairment


function


functioning


light


paraly


require


(feeding,


peer


dres


and/or communication


also


learning,
or sensory


average
(p. 6)


have


ing,


specific


1 language
deficit.


to gifted


affecting


four


range of


limbs


body


tedman


, 1972)


Scol io


"lateral


curvature


spine"


(Stedman


1972,


1128)


ticity


refer


state


increased muscular


tone with


exaggeration


tendon


reflexes"


tedman


, 1972,


1167)


Strabi smus


refer


constant


lack


parallelism of


visual


axes


eyes"


Stedman


, 1972,


1201)


Subsequent


general i zation


"applying


kill


various


contexts,


situations,


setting


" (Ellis


, Lenz,


Sabornie,











Thoracol umbar


refers


"thoracic


lumbar


portions


spine"


(Stedman


1972


1293)


Delimitations


Study


scope


focu


study


were


limited


geographic


region,


school


variables,


student characteristic


tudy


took


pl ace


County


Gainesville,


Students


with


Florida,


from


which


several


counties


located


Al achua


attended


regular middle e


students


also


attended


school


with


involved


based


school


were


tudy


school


part of


There


Nonhandicapped


program


students


investigation.


subjects


Included


study


were


eligible


special


education


services


as set


forth


state


guidelines.


Additionally,


subjects


study


attended


both


mainstream


classes


classes


signed


students


with


Limitations


Study


This


study


limited


factor


which may


affect


interpretation


data


obtained.


Considerations


were made


following


limitations.


use o


video camera


during


data


collection,


subject


behavior


have


been


representative


those


that


would


occur


natural


I tuations.


minimize


effects


*-- r nr r) no K-n


e laki ar


saraP


u i lnfant n


tha wuP k


nrinr


^


CI~F


" on


|.











procedures


used


study


adhered


those


recommended


Tawney


Gast


1984)


ingle


subject


experimental


research.


The multiple


baseline


design


across


behaviors


used


provi de


evidence


treatment


effectiveness


replicating


effect


within


same


subject at


different point


time.


Finally,


generalizability


study


findings


limited


unique


physical


learning


character


subjects.


findings


apply


other


group


class


ification


Societal


of handicapped


expectations


for young


or nonhandicapped


elementary


student


children


not be


same


as for


older


individual


rel ation


nonverbal


interactive


skill


Summary


Developing


with


autonomy


Al though


been


ical


primary


impairment may


concern


directly


adolescents


affect


movement,


coordination,


mobility,


stamina,


communication


patterns,


numerous


skill


associated


with


achieving


independence


autonomy


have


been


attain ned


individual


with


presence


overcome ng


persons may


physical


difficulties


have


impairment


life


inaccurate


not been


management


perceptions


areas.


about


only


barrier


Nonhandicapped


performance


potential


individual


with


These


diminished


expectancies


often


have


resulted


. .. -.


functional


interaction


pattern


between


w











responses


between


individuals


with


Individuals


have been


evident.


Intervention


are needed


that


will


afford


training


adolescents


with


develop


necessary


for them


communicate


interact


effectively with


persons


their


environment.


principles


Training


actively


procedures

involve a


that


incorporate motivational


dol escents


with


instructional


process


will


Increase


their


potential


independent


environments


functioning


situational


autonomy


demands


across


variety


Presently,


training


students


with


potential


impact of


their


unique


characteristics on


skill


acqui


ition


have


not been


reported.


intent of


present


investigation was


contribute


know edge


base of


providing


effective


programming


that


posters


independence


student


with


following


chapter


contain


information


rel evant


present


study


Pertinent


literature


been


reviewed


Chapter


Research


methodology


procedures


have


been


presented


Chapter


Chapter


contains


research


results.


Impl ications


research


findings


have


been


discussed


Chapter
















REVIEW


CHAPTER


LITERATURE


this chapter,


literature


been


reviewed which


supports


need


explicitly


train


adolescents


with


physical


impairments


(PI)


enhance


nonverbal


communication


behaviors and


incorporate


principles


from motivation


and metacognitive


theories


training


program.


First,


an overview of


fundamental


precepts


from


theories


perceived


personal


control


and motivation


been


presented.


primary


theoretical


distinctions


among


soci al


learning


theory,


attribution


theory,


intrinsic motivation


theories


have


been


examined


as related


locus


control


Basic


principles


metacognitive


strategies


have been


presented


next.


Additionally,


characteristics


individuals


with


that


have


been


rel evant


have been


review


their

d from


development


literature.


independence

Motivation


and

and


autonomy


locus


control


orientation


individuals


with


have been discussed.


reported


persons


attitudes


with


nonhandicapped

elf-concept of


(NH)


individuals


individual


with


towards


have


been


presented.


Both


sets


attitudes


have


an impact


on (a)


A~ fl L L I -- -


L


1.


L L -_ -











Therefore,


altered


interaction


patterns


that


have


been


reported


occur


as the


result of


negative


attitudes


have been


reviewed.


Finally,


the communication


pattern


between


persons


individual


with


have


been


examined.


Nonverbal


as well


verbal


behaviors


have


been


identified


as crucial


communication


process


need


develop


independence


autonomy


individual


ically


impaired


been


common


el ement


throughout.


Theoretical


Orientations


Motivation


and Perceived


Personal


Control


Perceived


children


personal


sel f-esteem


control


(Seligman


been


& Mille


reported

r, 1979),


affect


motivation


ti pek


& Wei


, 1981),


persistence,


sel f-efficacy


(Bandura,


1977


Wilson,


1979),


performance


(Ryckman,


1979),


academic


achievement


tipek


1981;


Wilson,


1979)


Al though


still


fully


understood,


role


personal


control


children


development


"control"


evolved


used


from


simplistically


insular origin


describe


which


disparate


term


ideas.


clear


under


standing


delineation


the components


perceived


onal


control


are necessary


alleviate


ambiguity


means


urement,


interpretation,


application


rese


arch


findings.


sel section


(Perlmuter


& Monty,


1977),


contingency,


locus,


__I __I_ __












Infonnational


nature of


events


(Deci


& Ryan,


1985)


have


been


determined


relevant


to perceptions


personal


control


Locus


control


been


defined


generally


circumscribed


sel f-apprai sal


pertaining


degree


which


individual s


view themselves


as having


some


causal


role


determining


specified


event


" (Lefcourt,


1976,


141)


Stipek


and Wei


(1981)


identi field


three


theoretical


perspectives


perceived


personal


control


social


learning


theory


(SLT),


attribution


theory


(AT),


intrin


ic motivation


theories


(IMT


three


control


theories


events


pertain


differ on


an individual


their


emphasis


perception


of who


event context


versus


event outcome.


Event


context


refer


selection


or choice


(Lefcourt,


1976;


Perlmuter


& Monty,


1977;


Stipek


Weisz,


1981)


Event outcome


pertain


perceived


contingency


operation


(Lefcourt,


1976;


Sti pek


Weisz,,


1981)


Social


learning


theory


focu


(Rotter,


1966)


been


on the


subj ect


belief


about


contingency


outcomes


relation


subject t


own behavior


(Lefcourt,


1976;


Sti pek


1981)


belief


that


an event


contingent


on factors


such


as ability


or effort


that


are within


subject


behavioral


repertoire


have been


labeled


internal


control


Conversely,


external


control


been


referred


as the


perception


that


S a. t.. .. ---A-----' - L


I I.~L


1 I


I


.


..


S_


ft


a











Attribution


theory


Similar


SLT,


focus


been


on the contingency


aspect


outcome


rel ation


subject


own behavior or characteristic


(Stipek


Weisz,


1981)


However,


Weiner


(1979)


labeled


perception


outcome


contingency


locus


causality


differentiated


from control


Whereas


locu


causality may be


internal


or external,


internal


causes


may be


control able


factors


such


as effort or


uncontrollable


factors


such


as ability


External


causes


have


been


similarly


designated


as controllable


or uncontrol 1 able.


Hence,


"control


dimension concerns


subject


perception


or her


(Stipek


ability


alter


, 1981,


factor


129).


Weiner


that causes


the outcome"


distinguished


further


between


causal


factor


that


are s


table,


intelligence or


task


difficulty,


unstable,


mood


or effort


(Stipek


, 1981)


Intrin


ic motivation


theories


been


notion


that


individual


have


an intrin


need


interact


effectively with


their


environment and


that


mastery


results


personal


behavior


sati


(Stipek


faction


& Weisz,


that


1981)


turn

Deci


reinforces

(1975) de


competent


fined


intrin


ically motivated


behaviors


as "behaviors


which


person


engage


to feel


competent and


sel f-determining"


empha


been


on the


event


context,


the control


-'P


.. ~ ~ ~ ~ a- a- -,a.-I .-- __


a- -


U l


S fl-


f


m


1 F











outcomes


(Stipek


Weisz,


1981).


As more


responsibility


outcomes


Charms,


accepted,


1979)


feel ings


Perception


personal

"l earned


causation


are enhanced


helplessness"


occur


when


individual


they


cannot


overcome


failure


(Dweck,


1975


Wittrock,


1986)


Thus,


outcome


are important


for their


feedback


rel ationship


associated with


perceptions


self


the contingency


-determinati on


dimension


found


are not


within


in which


internal


or external


actors


are viewed


as responsible


for outcome


tipek


, 1981)


Deci


Ryan


(1985)


el aborated


on the


significance


initiating


or regulating


events.


Three


types


events


were


scribed


on the


basic


whether


they


perceived


support autonomy


versus


control


behavior


effectance-


enhancin

support


versus


autonomy


effectance-dimi fishing.


provide


Informational


effectance-enhancing


events


feedback.


Control ling


events


exert


pressure


toward


particular


outcomes


Amotivating


event


prevent complete


attainment of


ired


outcomes.


Furthermore,


Deci


Ryan


proposed


locus


causality


based


on the


informational


or controlling


nature


event


regardless


whether


event


occurs


inside


or out


person.


internal


perceived


locu


causality


been


associated


with


informational


event


where


an external


locus


raintal ityv


* in


hppn


ac nriated with


cnntrnl ina


events.










that


have been


purported


to be


present


within


each


person.


Whereas


autonomy


control


orientations


are associated


with


informational


controlling


events,


respectively,


impersonal


orientation


associated


with


motivating


events.


impersonal


Incompetent


the
that


beliefs
forces


experience of


orientation


to deal


with


that behavior


life


are uncontrol 1 able,


incompetence


based


challenges


outcomes


(Deci


sense


. [


one's being
It] involves


are independent
results in the


Ryan,


1985,


159)


impersonal


contingency


orientation


resemble


outcomes


the concept of


AT but may


be most


perceived


comparable


flow of


(Seligman


events


Miller,


that


1979)


lead


symptoms


Accordingly,


helplessness


objective


noncontingency


reinforced


noncontingency,


noncontingency,


perceptions


attribution


expectations


present


present or


future


past


past


noncontingency


Different aspects


personal


control


are present


SLT,


IMTs.


Although


precise


relationship


between


choice


contingency


within


outcome


construct of


not been


perceived


established,


personal


component


control


correlated.


Lefcourt


(1976)


suggested


that


continuum


control


ranges


from


internal


external


further


characterized


perception

contingency


control

events


as a

and


process


which


perceived


include


rol e


the

goal


perceived


election.


Stioek


and Weisz


(1981)


recommended


that aspects


U l


thsnrisPC











intrinsic motivation


theory sts


have


begun


examine


nature


consequences


initiating


or regulatory


events


rel action


self-determination.


Metacognition


and Learning


Strategie


developmental


pattern


of metacognitive


theory


resembled


that


motivation


theories


that ambiguity


term nol ogy


been


character stic


of both


General


terminal ogy


been


used


represent broad


concepts


that


have


subtle


differences


(Hagen,


Barclay,


& Newman,


1982)


difference


the meaning


terms


seem


arise


when


theorists


attempt


identify


various


components


broader construct


metacogniti on.


Consequently,


construct of


metacognition


generally


accepted


definition


that


been


explained


varying ways.


necessary


order


examine


understand


general


theory


definition


of metacognition


the concept


well


as the


various


perspectives


concerning


underlying


components


of metacognition


impl ications


student


Instruction.


Definition


metacognition.


Metacognition


been


broadly


defined


as "knowledge


that


learner


have


about


various


aspects


learning


situation"


(Reynolds


Wade,


1986,


308)


cognitive


proce


sses.


Moreover,


metacognition


been











(Reynolds


Wade,


1986)


or (b)


individual


actual


knowledge,


goal


, experience


strategies


(Fry


& Lupart,


1987).


Metacognition


been


defined more


peci fiscal ly


as the


learner


conscious


processes


knowledge

(Flavell,


about

1979;


control


Lupart,


over


their


1987;


cognitive


Hagen et


., 1982;


Meichenbaum & Asarnow,


1979;


Reynolds


Wade,


1986;


Reynold


Wade,


Trathen,


Lapan,


1989;


Tennyson


Rasch,


1988;


Wittrock,


1986)


Fl avel 1


difference


(1979)


between


ummarized


cognition


one perspective of


and metacognltion


sterns


purpose


invoked


respective


to make cognitive


strategies.


progress


"Cognitive


metacognitive


strategic


strategic


monitor


(Fl avell,


1979,


909)


Two concept


have


been


to most


definition


metacognition


learner


consciousness


cognitive


processes


difference


between


knowledge of


control


over


cognitive


processes


(Fry


Lupart,


1987;


Reynold


& Wade,


1986)


. Knowledge of


cognitive


processes


refer


learner


"sensitivity"


si tuati on


requiring


specific


cognitive


activities


(Fry


Lupart,


1987;


Hagen


1982)


or the


"degree


awareness


skill


, strategies,


resources


needed


perform a


task


effectively"


(Reynold


Wade,


1986,


308)


Control


over


cognitive


proc


esses


involves


procedural


know edge


i


.. .











Subsuming the difference


between


know edge


control


cognitive


processes,


theorist


have


attempted


further


explicate


metacognition by


enting


various


components


metacognitive


process.


Components


metacogni ti on.


Fl avell


(1979)


presented


global


model


metacogni ti on


that


incorporates


rel ationships


between metacogni tive


know edge,


metacognitive


experiences,


goal


task


action s


strategic


(Fry


Lupart,


1987


Hagen


1982)


objectives and


. Goal


action


behavior


refer


needed


achieve


objectives


respectively.


Goal


actions


are Interrelated with


metacognitive know edge


experience


Meta


ognitive


know edge


include


knowledge


about


person,


task,


strategy


variable


that


affect cognitive endeavor


(Hagen


., 1982)


Interi individual

as universal le


!arnin


intrai ndividu

g principles


learning


are included


differences


person


as well

variables.


task


category


encompa


sses


information


available


during


cognitive endeavor


including


situation


variations


specific


demands


or goal


(Flavell,


1979)


Strategy variables


refer


stored


knowledge


about


specific


tactic


that can


used


interpret


under


tand


learning


activity


(Fry


Lupart,


1987)


Metacognitive experience


represents


an affective component


that


-..- -. -.


cognitive


r


C ~


ft *


r


.a- A- -


*











Investigations


of metacognitive


processes


have


ncl uded


studied


about


presence,


nature,


development of


strategic


In children


approaching


cognitive


enterpri se


(Meichenbaum &


Asarnow,


1979;


Mi schel


& Mi


chel,


1983)


Wong


(1986)


tated


that


metacognition


enables


learner


"use


uitable


strategic


deal


effectively with


. task


demands"


Flavel


strategy variables


(1979)


have


been


further


developed


into


construct referred


Burkowski,

Metamemory


as "metamemory


Sullivan cited


about


strategic


about


Reynol d


includes


strategic


& Wade,


components


" (Pressley,


986).

rel evant


learner


general

learner


factual


strategy


trategie


application


knowledge,


rel ationa


know edge


pecific

1 memory


about


strategy


acqui


trategies:


know edge,


Ition


procedures,


rel national


memory


strategy


knowledge,


metamemory


acqui sition


procedures


(Reynol d


Wade,


1986).


interrelationship between


knowledge


about


impl ementati on


strategic


have


been


fundamental


to many


explanation


metacogni ti ve


process


(Hagen


Other


researcher


have


empha


dynamic


aspect


metacogni ti on


(Hagen


et al


1982)


. These


researcher


have


investigated


executive control


aspects


of metacognition


related


"(a)


sel section


-appropriate


probl em-solving


a a 4 ... *


1 1 I


9P _





Ci











demands"


(Hagen


., 1982,


. 20).


Sel section,


Impl ementation,


adjustments


strategic


are coordinated


self-monitoring


process


ses.


Metacognitive


strategic


Whereas metacognition


been


defined


as the


strategies


uses


awareness


have been


facil itate


control


described


performance


as the


(Pres


cognitive


procedure


ley,


proce


that


Goodchild,


sses,


learner


Fleet,


Zajchowski,


based


Evans,


on (a)


1987)


domain


trategle


have


specificity


been categorized


strategy


(Pressl ey


., 1987),


learner


behavior during


strategy


(Weinstein


& Mayer,


1986),


goal


accomplished


using


strategy


as d


tingui


three


areas


research


(deBettencourt,


1987)


Pres


. (1987)


referred


limited


across-


domain


trategles.


Task-


limited


trategie


are used


peci fic


purposes
strategy


spec i fi c


learner


domains.


use of


example


task-


t letter mnemon


limited

ic as a


specific


memory


device without


knowing


rul e


general ize


technique


other


I tuatlons.


Across-


domain


strategic


include


subcategories


goal


-limited


general


strategies.


Both


these


across-


domain


trategie


have


potential


to be


used


various


content areas.


However


goal


-limited


strategic


are used


- jk = r ne $, t f S a J kan nJ a 4n a1


nnF(E(r


M~CAY: ar\


CLllnClnlrA


F


| I


rnn a











domains.


Although


Pres


et al


. (1987)


have


ignated


strategies as


either


task


-limited


or across


-domain,


categories


are not mutually


excl u


-limited


trategies


may become


across-


domai n


strategic


learner


generalize


strategy


concept


application


Weinstein


learning


behavior


and Mayer


strategies.


method


(1986)


identified


category e


Ig ned


eight


are de


Influence


categories


scri ptl ve


learning


learner


outcomes


and/or


performance,


categories


level


include:


or complexity


complex


rehearsal


strategy


strategic


basic


comply ex


el abortion


trategie


basic


complex


organizational


strategies,


affective


and motivational


strategies,


comprehension monitoring


trategies.


DeBettencourt


(1987)


identi field


strategy


training model


based


on three


research


perspectives


goal


student


learning


Ll oyd


Academic


Strategy


Training


specific


academic


problems


associated with memory


research


Research


elective


attention


rel ated


Torgeson


Strategy


Training


which


student


are taught


apply


general


trategies


that are


already


their


repertoire.


Consistent with


research


on metacognition,


independent


learning


kill


(Tennyson


Rasch,


1988)


are the


goal


of Deshler


Learning


Strategic


Model


at the


Univer


of Kansas


- C a.e


,b


Ir


I L 1 I*


111I LI


4


I











important criteria


eval eating


success


strategy


training


programs


(Reynolds & Wade,


1986).


General ization.


order


skill


or behavior to


used


outside of


specific


contexts


contingencies


training


situation,


generalization must


occur


(Melchenbaum & Asarnow,


1979;


Stokes


Baer,


1977)


Comprehensive y


defined,


general ization


occurrence of


relevant behavior


under


different


nontralning


conditions


(le.,


across


subject


, setting


, people,


behavior


and/or


time)


without


scheduling


same


events


those


condition


as had


been


scheduled


training


conditions"


(Stokes


Baer,


1977,


350)


. Stimulu


generalization,


response


general izati on,


adaptation


are s


ubtype


wi thin


concept


general zation


(Elli


, Lenz,


Sabornie,


1987a)


Stimulu


generalization occurs when


learned


skill


exhibited


different condition


than


were


present


during


skill


instruction.


Although


stimul i


change,


response


remains


same


"Response


generalization


occurs


when


training


one s


kill


causes


change


another


untrained


skill "


(Elli


et al


., 1987a,


Adaptation


occurs


as a


function


interrelated


timul us


response


changes.


stimul I


differ more markedly


from


those


used


training,


adaptation


kill


required


making


response"


(Elli


et al


., 1987a,


a -


S.,- 'al


- ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ur -Y .--a -a


"the


- a


-LL~..,











exemplars, m

instruction.


mediated


generalization,


order


train


systematic


use of


sufficient exemplars,


i n struction


occurs


Stokes


across


Baer


number


noted


setting condition


that often


training


and/or


persons.


conditions


increased


mediated


likelihood


generalization


general I nation


learner


third


active y


condition.


involved


generalization


process


through


use of


variety


self-


management procedures.


facilitate generalization


ability


The categories


Systematic


involve


general ization


instruction


use o


instruction


informing


then


subject about


asking


for generalization


are not


mutually


exclusive


often


el events


from


several


categories


have


been


evident


generalization


programming.


hiler


col leagues


-IRLD


have


incorporated


several


techniques


encouraging


setting


generalization


and material


(Deshler


learning

Schumaker


strategic

, 1986, 1


across


988;


Schumaker,


Deshler,


Alley,


Warner,


1983;


Schumaker


Ellis,


1982)


However,


primary


precept


-IRLD


general ization


programming


been


systematic


use of


instruction


facilitate


general zation.


Ell i


et al


(1987a,


1987b)


proposed


model


in which


general ization


instruction


occurred


along


continuum


was infused


into


skill


instruction.


r ,aa


I ~. al


nnaunvIAl -aiEr4rnn


nec+fae+inn


WornP


identifiedP


mii~ PU~ r nT


|


*


* .


.











prior


to direct


instruction


skill


. Instructional


design


features


student


attitudes


addressed


antecedent


generalization.


intent


to create conditions


conducive


strategy


general ization


from


outset


training


Instructional


features


include mnemonic


devices


facilitate


memory


strategic


that can


used


across


situations.


Student comprehen


purpose of


instruction


goal


setting


behavior


are fundamental


to motivation


learn


and generalize


skill


Concurrent generalization


training


occurs


while


student


still


receiving


instruction


skill


acqul


ition.


Effective


instructional


practices


are included


skill


Products


mastery,


from the


as well


as student motivation,


targeted


generalization


are emphasized


setting


regular


classroom


versus


remedial


cl assroom)


are reviewed


regul early


order


provide


feedback


student


reinforce


expectancy


that


strategy


or skill


will


generalized


beyond


training


condition


Subsequent


general ization


training


occurs


after


skill


mastery


training


conditions.


emphasis


on applying


skill


to various


contexts,


situation


settings.


General ization maintenance


activities


may be


implemented


level


instruction.


Independent generalization


fourth


level


instruction


nl nraenmnkl u


t114


1 7ORTh


ie.,


~ka nrnrlnt


h nh hn C nA krr


,


,


c nr r


.











similar


those


presented


tokes


Baer


(1977)


for mediated


generalization


programming.


Necessary


components


strategy


instruction.


general


purpose of metacognitive


training


programs


been


facilitate


students


' problem-solving


behavior by


providing


them


"wi th


variety


conscious


strategies


so that


they


can process


information more


efficiently


under


variety


task


and material


condition


" (Mosenthal,


1982,


103)


use of learning


trategies


been


associated


with


improved


student


performance


with


regard


academic


interpersonal


task


demands


student


with


without


learning


problem


(Clark,


Deshler,


humaker,


Schumaker,


Alley,


1989


Warner,


Gagne


1984


1988


Elli


humaker,


, 1989;


Elli


Deshl er,


hier,


Alley,


Warner,


& Denton,


1982


Reusen,


1985;


Wein


tein & Mayer,


1986


Wi ttrock,


1986)


Al though


exact


proce


sses


invol ved


metacognition


have


been


unequivocally


determined


(Reynold


Wade,


1986),


several


correl ates


student


' acqul


Ition


general i nation


learning


trateg ie


have


been


identified


(Fry


Lupart,


1987


Hagen


., 1982;


Meichenbaum


& Asarnow,


1979


Press


1987


Reynolds


Wade,


1986


Symons,


Snyder,


Cariglia


-Bull,


& Pres


ley,


1989)


students


' acqul


ition


of meta


ognitive


strategic


have


I- --- .~~ sq t. .s ~1 L .A 2-- A 2--A


k -- A-


L


I--L--,


L











making


the cognitive


teacher modeling


process


(Press


ible


1987


observable


Reynolds


Wade,


through


1986);


reciprocal


teaching


that


include


opportunities


for overt and


covert


student


rehearsal


strategy


providing


performance


generate


feedback


sel f-feedback


student


about


training


effectiveness


student


strategy


(Meichenbaum &


Asarnow,


1979;


Press ey


., 1987;


Reynolds


Wade,


1986).


type


strategy


that


taught


been


rel ated


to the


general i ability


strategy


kill


& Lupart,


1986


Reynolds


Wade,


1986)


. The


potential


enhance


student


performance


greater with


general


skill


that can


used


across


several


domains.


Task


specific


strategic


provide


fewer


opportunities


student


use the


strategy


hence


less


impact on


overall


student


performance.


maintenance


general zation


depth


strategy


last


use i


also


prolonged


increased when


period


time


instruction


(Meichenbaum &


sarnow,


1979;


Symon


1989)


Superfi


teaching


of many


trategie


concurrently


not been


reported


result


durable


changes


in metacognitive


behaviors.


Symons et al


. (1989)


reported


that


knowledge


experience


element


are c


ruci al


student


' metacognition


about


trategi











that


student


will


use the


strategy


across


situations


(Meichenbaum


1989)


& Asarnow,


Another


1979;


situation


Press ey

al aspect


et al

that


., 1987;


been


Symons


addressed


important


strategy


training


context


instruction


hiler


Schumaker,


1988;


Symons


1989)


Strategic


have


been


found


be most


relevant


current and


future


tasks


when


student


' actual


curriculum material


were


used


training.


Strategy


Intervention


Model


A model


teaching


learning


trategies


developed


Univer


achieving


of Kansa


adolescents


Donal d


been


hiler


colleague


(Deshler


& Schumaker,


1986,


1988;


Schumaker,


hier,


Alley


& Warner,


1983


humaker,


hiler,


Ell i


, 1986;


Pressley,


Symons,


Snyder,


& Cariglia-Bull,


1989;


Symon


1989)


IM wa


developed


address


demand


expectations


encountered by


adolescents


school


settings.


These


demands


include


academic,


motivational,


executive,


social


aspects


student behaviors


Not only


are s


student


expected


accomplish


spec i fi c


academic


requirements


exhibit t


goal


setting,


independent


problem


olving,


appropriate


i interpersonal


interaction


behavior


as well 1


instructional


sequence
teaching


used


to teach


principle


from


trategie


literature


incorporates


on meta


effective


ognition


I lofnl\


*


a | | IJLA i dl*| A | I aaaaa


I -


L,,,~


tLILYIIIS~


*


* ur*


i,


I











and modeling,


verbal


rehearsal,


extensive


practice


in controlled


advanced materials,


feedback,


student


performance monitoring


data


display,


mastery


learning,


generalization


maintenance


activities.


Individual


with


Physical


Impa irment


Motivation


Perceived


Personal


Control


Motivation


or locus


control


(LOC)


orientations may


related


1evel s


independence


aspirations


adolescents


with


Researcher


have


reported


that


an internal


intrinsic motivation


performance


are po


academic


itively


achievement


associated


(Brigham,


with


1979;


task


Ryckman,


1979)


However,


research


results


about


orientations


youth


with


have


been


ambiguou


Table


Al though


conflicting


results may


attributed


difference


inherent


studies,


unequivocal


relationships


among


variables


have


been


delineated.


Difference


internal ity


or externality


reported


students


with


have


been


interstudy


variability


subjects


placements,


with


ages,


data


type


gathering


mainstream


orientations


than


severity


procedures,


placements


students


played


segregated


handicaps,


educational


program content.


greater
setting


Students


external


(Morgan,


1984








































































































C"I

L







































































s
C.

(A
C
0

<0
*r-
t,
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*r



L.
0
C
S.

0
-J
O


4.)












Tenth


grade mainstream


students


with


orthopedic


impai rments


(Gregory,


cerebral


Shanahan


pal sy


Walberg,


grades


1987a)


one through


and mainstream


(Center


students


& Ward,


with


1986)


orientation


similar


students.


Rich,


Lfnor,


Shalev


(1984)


reported


that


student


' feeling


about


school


varied


according


type


physi


handicap


present.


diffi


determine


general


scription


students with


across


handicapping


conditions.


Morgan


(1984)


varied


noted


across


that


program emphases


pl cement


settings


family


could


situations


contribute


that


subjects


differences


LOC.


Contradictory


finding


about


students


with


have


been


asses sment


factor


only


scal e


used


measure


vary


(see


Table


Center


and Ward


(1986)


noted


that


there


were


psychometric


probl ems


with


scal e


they


used


measure


LOC.


Variable


reliabilities


general


particularly


low reliabilitie


some


ubgroup


f children


(Stipek


Weisz,


1981)


corroborate


implication


psychometric


probl ems


some


measures.


Regional


differences may


response


ible


differential


results


obtained by


researchers


students


different


settings


(Palmer


et al


1982)


General


differences


urban


rural












Carroll,


1988).


findings


an Australian


sample were


inconsistent with


results


found


American


sample es


(Center


Ward,


1984)


Regional


effects


on LOC


assessment


rather than


educational


pl cement


differences may


have


been


responsible


variations


separate


school


found


students.


'almer et

The ma


. (1982)


instream


between


sample was


regular

taken


from a midwestern


school


segregated


sample


from a


school


Albertson,


York.


Geographic


region


as well


as the


psychometric


properties


instruments may


an important


consideration


for LOC


comparisons


students


with


Al though


the generalizabillity


and motivation


characteristics


adol escents


with


not been


demonstrated,


some


students


with


seem


to be


an increased


risk


for LOC


orientation


that


have


been


negatively


associated


with


independence


autonomy


(Deci


Ryan,


1985;


Schulz


Hanusa,


1979)


Some


adolescents


with


have experienced


difficult tie


acquiring


independence.


nationwide


survey


high


school


students


with


orthopedic


handicaps


reported


independence equival ent


high


school


student


(Gregory,


Shanahan,


& Walberg,


1987a,


1987b),


Morgan


(1984)


reported


that


students


with


severe


physical


handicaps


institutionalized


settings


were more


independent


than


their main streamed












retardation were


excluded


from the


study


. The


findings


were


attributed

the more r


differential


estrictive


program


placements


emphases.


included


Educational


achieving


goal s


total


independence


as well


as academic


gains.


Academics


were


emphasized


the mainstream programs


and assistance was


rendered by


teachers


peers


physically


oriented


tasks.


There was


little


emphasis


on achieving


independence


terms


opportunities


overcome


ical


limitations


or to


capitalize


abilities.

Independence


Young

as th


adults

e most


with


cerebral


valuable


pal sy


subject


rated


taken


training


during


their


school


years


(Margalit &


Cassel-Seidenman,


1987).


Independence


i influenced


the concomitant


opportunities


expectations


work


of NH


through


challenging


individual


student


with


handicap to


achieve


just


as anyone


else.


Reports


about


attribution


independence


behavior


youth


hypothesized


with


relation


have

hip of


been

LOC


inconsistent.


view of


perceptions


acqui


ition


autonomous


behaviors


demonstrated


positive


infl uence


educational


experience


on LOC


orientations


individuals


(Cohen,


1986;


deCharms,


1979;


Sti pek


Weisz,


1981),


educational


programs


students


with


should d


include


components


signed


foster


an internal


instructional












aspects of


student


lives


over


which


they


have control


(Levenson


& Cooper,


1984)


Attitude


Attitude


representative


likes


likes


(Horne,


1985)


or emotion


aroused by


certain circumstance


(Morgan,


1976)


Negative


attitudes


toward


given


group


based


on inaccurate


information


or counterproductive


interactions


have


long


term


ramification


psychosocial


functioning


autonomous


behavior


the discriminated


group


(Lefcourt,


1976)


attitudes


of NH


individual


numerous


toward


fac tors


impairment


aspects


person


(see


(Goffma


interactions


with


Carpenter,

n, 1974; R


have


1988)


been


influenced


Including


ichardson,


(Rosenbaum &


Katz,


1976),


ability


I tuati onal


1980),


severity


handicap


(Hi rshoren


Burton,


1979)


self-attitude


an individual


often


been


referred


as self-concept or


self


-esteem.


concept


self


formed


relation


individual


environment and


determinant of


behavior


son,


Finding


about


sel f-concept


student


with


have


varied


(see


Carpenter,


1988).


Al though


some


students


with


have


experienced


psychosocial


problems


related


sel f-esteem more often


than


their NH


peer


(Harvey


& Greenway,


1984;


McAndrew,


1979;


Weitzman,


1984),


other


students


with












related


their


perception


personal


control


Selignan


Miller


(1979)


propose


that


"lowered


sel f-esteem


dependent on


making


an internal


attribution


helplessness"


363)


Consequences


Attitude


Role expectations.


Nonhandicapped


individual s


hold


certain


role expectancie


individual


with


that


not only


reflect


attitudes


individual


which may


"have


little


rel ationship


reality"


(Auxter


& Pyfer,


1985,


18),


also


demand


conforming


behaviors


from the


individual


with


Societal


expectations


persons


with


resemble


expectation


held


for other


tact


groups


on the


basis


group member


rather


than


on character


individual


(Anderson,


1973)


individual


with


stigmatization


(Goffman,


1974)


relegation


minority


group


status


(Wright,


1960)


results


concomitant expectancies


individuals


that


person


with


relieved


from


normal


respond


ibil cities


and must


"sick"


dependent


despite


possible


ires


otherwise


(Bartel


kin,


1980;


Shontz,


1980).


Self-Efficacy


"Efficacy


expectations


reflect


individual


subjective estimate


that


or she


capacity


to cope


success


fully


with


threatening


situation"


(Wilson,


1979,


181)


Efficacy


expectation


are an


important aspect of












projected


other


affect


sel f-efficacy


individual


with


(Gresham,


1984;


Rich


Wuest,


1983;


Schunk,


1985)


Internal


attribution


for outcome


o be


related


feel ing


sel f-efficacy


(1979)


proposed


that


devel opment


strong


sel f-efficacy


dependent on


self-attributions


for mastery


behavior


Deci


(1975)


suggested


that


someone who


sel f-


determining will


efficacy


Interaction


patterns.


nonfacll itative


attitudes


of NH


persons


often


have


been manifested


as negatively


altered


interaction


patterns


(see


Carpenter,


1988),


thus


ubtly


communi cati ng


lower


expectancie


individual


with


that


encourage


dependency


hence


inhibit


progress


toward


sel f-


sufficiency


Harrington,


(Hegarty,


1981)


Pockl ington,


Modi field


& Lucas,


expectancies


1982


Randol ph


interaction


patterns


be evident


indiscriminate


assi


tance


(Cruick


hank,


Hallahan,


Bice,


1980


Hall


& Porter,


1983),


dimini


educational


Limited


McAnarney,


opportunities


socialization


1985;


(Downing,


opportuniltle


Teasdale,


1988


(Brown


1985;


Hackney,


& Gordon,


Weitzman,


1984),


1987


1984)


Although


some


adolescent


with


have


been well


accepted


their


peer


school


(DeApodaca,


Watson


, Mueller,


& Isaacson-


Kailes,


1985


Gill


hackley,


1988),


other


have












interpersonal


school

PI have


interaction


(McAnarney,


been


1985;


reported


home


(Brown


Teasdale,


pend more


time


Gordon,


1985)


social


1987)


and at


Adolescents


Isolation


with

and


time


out-of-home


activities


than


students


(Brown


Gordon,


1987)


These difference


social


experience


further


isol ate


student


from


peer


compound


di fficul tie


achieving


appropriate


social


behavior


(Weitzman,


1984)


as well


as the


skill


necessary


develop


independence


positive


sel f-concepts.


surpri


that


social


kill


training wa


deemed


second


importance


evaluation


school


experiences


individuals


with


cerebral


palsy


Margalit &


Cassel


Seidenman,


1987)


Where


inadequate


experiences


or opportunities


may be


partially


respon


ible


socialization


problems


youth


with


functional


communication


pattern


between


person


with


Individual


(Comer


Piliavin,


1972


Kleck,


1968,


1969;


Kl eck,


Ono,


Hastorf,


1966)


have


been


reported


contribute


strain


social


interactions


(Coker


Coker,


1985)


Communicati on


Patterns


Interpersonal


interactions


between


individual


persons


with


have


been characterized


as cons


ting


dysfunctional


communication


patterns


(Wi seman,


Emry,


Morgan,


Messamrer,


1986)


Adjustments


conversation content


nonverbal


behavior


have












have


been


associated with


altered


communication


behaviors


that


occur between


individuals


with


those without


Bralthwalte,


Emry,


Wiseman,


1984;


Wiseman et al


1986)


Al though communication


includes


verbal


nonverbal


conversational


behaviors


(Coker


& Coker,


1985;


DeLoach


& Greer,


1981;


Fast,


1970;


WI seman


et al


., 1986),


limited


amount of


research


been


reported


about


nonverbal


communication


behaviors.


presence of


ical


impairment can


have


debil Itative


effects


on communication


(Braithwaite


., 1984;


Coker


Coker,


1985;


DeLoach


& Greer,


1981)


Coker


Coker maintained


that


communication


pattern


individual


with


resemble


those of


apprehensive communicators.


Apprehen


communicators


characterized by


variance


their communication


apprehensiveness,


avoidance or


ssive


participation


social


situations


perception


requiring


as well


oral


communication,


as negative


perceptions


negative


other


sel f-


during


communication.


result of


inadequate communication


interactions,


apprehen


ive communicators


perceived


generally


less


competent


than


less


reticent communicators


Competent communicators


are characterized


ability


choose


among


avail able communication


behavior


order


that












impression management


similar concept


that


defined


strategy


for manipulating,


altering,


or in


other ways


controlling


certain


more


aspects


creditably"


Verbal


nonverbal


(DeLoach


nonverbal


behavior


& Greer,

behaviors


1981,


sake


performing


232)


are essential


communication


process


(Coker


Coker,


1985;


DeLoach


& Greer,


1981;


Fast,


1970;


Wiseman


1986)


Verbal


conversation


behavior


rel evant


communi


cators


include


"asking


questions,


initiating


and maintaining conversation


, paraphra


ing,


agreeing,


disagreeing,


giving


receiving


compliments,


asking


behavior change"


(Coker


& Coker,


1985,


-17).


Verbal


kill


that are


particularly


relevant


to the


interactions


individual


with


impairments


are self


closure


about


ability,


reque


ting


reassurance


emotional


support,


assisting


individual


overcome


tereotypic


blase


(Coker


Coker,


1985;


Wi seman


1986)


Nonverbal


communication


behaviors


equal


or exceed


importance


verbal


communi


action


behavior


Interactions


between


persons


with


abilities


individual


communi cation


(Coker


Coker,


behaviors


(NCB


1985)


Relevant


include


facial


nonverbal


expressions,


behavior,


posture


body movement


, physical


appearance,


touch,


ical


distance,


vocal


qualities


such


as tone


'itch


*


. ..


I


-











Researchers


have


investigated


verbal


behaviors


relevant


persons


with


(Bral thwalte


1984)


as well


as the


effects


training


on verbal


behaviors


such


as self


disclosure


(Coker


Coker,


1985)


A limited


amount


research


been


conducted


investigate


nonverbal


communication


patterns


between


individuals with


individuals.


The most


current


nonverbal communication

communication patterns


studies

using qu


focused


estionnai


on percepti

re formats


about


(Braithwaite


, 1984;


Wiseman


1986).


Earlier


studies


used


observational


differences


procedures


behaviors


contrived


during


situations


interaction


examine


between


individual


persons with


(Comer


& Piliavin,


1972;


Kleck,


1968,


1969;


Kleck,


Ono,


& Ha


torf,


1966)


Brai thwai te


et al


. (1984)


used


questionnaire


ascertain


whether


subjects


with


orthopedic


handicaps


(n=27)


perceived


their


communication with


communication with


individuals


individuals


as different


with


than


Subject


their


responded


negative communication


behavior


characteristic


interactions


subjects


felt


that


compared


communicators


with


communicators more


frequently


glanced


away,


stood


further


away,


acted


nervous


ended


conversation


early,


pretended


to i ignore


the disability,


assumed


greater


disability


than


actually












Wtiseman


. (1986)


designed


questionnaire


about


helping


situation


in which


a NH


individual


rendered


unsolicited


assi


stance


an individual


with


purpose was


determine


subject


perceived


normati ve


demand


on their


behavior


there were


differences


normative


demands


identified


subjects


based


on their


group membership.


Nonhandicapped


=102)


orthopedically


handicapped


(n=40)


adults


completed


questionnaires.


Both


groups


subjects


perceived


that


normative


demands


infl uenced


behaviors


participants


helping


maintain


scenario.


favorable e


Whereas


self


perception


-image were


sel f


deemed


actions


influence


helping


behavior


individual,


perception


self


actions


to enhance


relationship with


individual


were


seen


as respon


ible


acquiescence


individual


with


Compared


subjects,


subjects


with


perceived


greater


situational


societal


demands


on the


disabled


actor


behavior.


reported


perceptions


differences


nonverbal


communication


previous


patterns


identified


corroborate


researcher


behavioral


di screpanci e


observational


settings


(see


Table


Some


findings were


present whether


subject


were


NH or had PI


when


interactions


occurred


between


individual















52


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sooner than


interactions


between


persons


with


similar


physical


attributes


(Comer


& Piliavin,


1972;


Kleck,


1968,


1969;


Kleck,


Ono,


& Ha


torf,


1966)


Some


findings


varied


for communicators with


without


Whereas


contact was


greater


NH-PI


interactions


than


for NH-NH


interactions


(Kleck,


1968),


contact


interactions wa


than


conversation


(Comer


& Piliavin,


1972)


. Kleck


(1968)


noted


that


differences


subjects


Ii steni ng


behaviors


confederate


were


greater when


speak


than when


subject


subject was


talking.


Kleck


postulated


that


greater


contact


during


interactions


an indication


information


seeking


behavior


on the pa

emotional


greater


foundthat


Irt of


arousa


NH-PI


subjects


subject.


as measured by


interactions.


with


Kleck


. (1966)


psychogalvanic


Comer


smiled more


skin


Piliavin


interviews


reported that

response, was


(1972)


which


confederate


an orthopedic


handicap


than


interviewer


scenario.


communicators,


are not competent


should


or incompetent


noted


(Coker


that individual

& Coker, 1985).


with


similar


individual


their effectiveness


interpersonal


interactions


varies


with


situation.


Many


persons with


physical


impairments


possess


an adequate


repertoire











communication


strategies


that


are appropriate


beneficial


(DeLoach


& Greer,


1981).


Al though


procedures


train


NCBs


have


been


advocated


enhance


communication


competence


social


kill


Indivldua

research


with


specific


(Coker

the e


& Coker,


fflcacy


1985;


DeLoach


training


& Greer,


1981),


Individuals


with


not been


successful


improving


conducted.


their


Individuals


verbal


with PI


interactions


have


with


been


persons


following training


self


closure


"break


through"


techniques


(Bel grave,


1984;


Evan


, 1976;


Mill


SBel grave,


& Boyer,


1984)


Training


yield


equally


positive


result


Nonverbal


communication


behavior


have


been


recognized


as an


important component


overt


social


kill


necessary


students


with


learning


disabilities


effectively


participate


interpersonal


Moreover,


enhance


interactions


training


education


(Schumaker


been


& Hazel,


incorporated


conference


(Van


1984a,


1984b)


programs


Reusen,


signed


1985)


classroom


(Ellis,


1989)


participation


students


with


learning


disabilities.


students


performance


level


during education


conferences


were


reported


Reusen.


Adolescents


' use of


NCBs


during


classroom


participation


improved


following


training


composite


nonverbal


skills


that


been


determined











leaning


forward,


acting


interested,


head


nodding,


visually


tracking


teacher


Nonverbal


Communication


Behavior


training


adolescents


commu nicati on


with


contribute


interactions with


more


teachers


positive


peer


that may


subsequently


affect


classroom


participation


or self


-advocacy


kill


Teaching NCBs


problematic


students


as an aggregate


with


skill


could


Inventorying each


behavior


training may


more


bible


approach


adolescents


who may


have


physical


requi


sites


perform all


aspects


ired NCB


Coker


and Coker


(1985)


combined


treatment model


typically


used


approach


ineffective communication


apprehen


communicators


individual


with


. They


posited


that


ability


ineffective


causes


communication


commu ni cation.


apprehension which


Negative


personal


causes


social


consequences


are the


result.


Sugge


treatment


procedures


included


social


skills


training


(including


nonverbal


behavior


counseling,


educational/vocational


rehabilitation.


DeLoach


and Greer


(1981)


suggested


phases


that


should


included


training


nonverbal


communication


skill


Orientation


use and mi


ster


behavior


effectivenpcs


the
suse


role


situational
[including


I *


specific


stures


rol e-playing
videotaping];


rnlA-nlavinn


r... i


stures


impre


ssion management;


as well


practice
feedback
finally


usin


as gesture
g these


on the


artinal


nrartlrea











Summary


Motivation


theory sts


have


empha


sized


Importance


intrinsic motivation,


determining,


relation


need


feel


children


competent


learning


sel f


achievement


(Adelman,


1978;


Deci,


1975;


Deci


Ryan,


1985;


Wittrock,


1986)


Deci


(1975)


expanded


on the


consequence


intrin


motivation


person


determination


turn


intrinsic


provide


decide what to


achieve


these


make


do)
goal


need


him aware


feelings of
of potential


energy tor
id to behave
(P. 100)


such


competence and
satisfaction,
goals (i.e.,


a way


as to


self-
which
to
to


Learning


strategies


have


been


defined


as actions


thoughts


that


occur


during


learning which


affect motivation


as well


as the


selection,


acquit


ition,


organization,


integration


know edge


(Wein


tein


& Mayer,


1986)


Metacognition


theori


have


associated

performance


Students


student


use of


on academic


' acqul


ition


task


learning

s and in


strategic


terpersonal


generalization


to improved


behaviors.


learning


strategies


have


been


related


instruction


components


incorporated


strategy


training


programs.


There


evidence


that some


individual


with


are at


for LOC


orientations


-attitude


that


have


been


negatively


associated


with


autonomous


behavior


. Mutual


expectations


between


individual


individual


with


that


are based


4innnwrnnir ato


norrantinn


- flu


ahilltiP


and/or


intentions


have


,










in which


altered


behavior


patterns may


hinder


development


independence


autonomy


person with


Principle

are pertinent


deri ved


from motivation


rational e


for providing


and metacognition


student


theories


with


specifically


signed


strategies


enhance


NCBs.


Active


versus


passive


student


involvement


acquisition


nonverbal


communication


skill


related


goal


oriented behaviors


hence


ultimate


goal


attainment.














CHAPTER ]
METHOD


material


methods


for the


investigation


nonverbal


communication


training


procedure


adolescents


with


physical


impairment


(PI)


that


incorporates motivational


theory


metacogni ti ve


principles


have


been


presented


chapter


chapter


been


divided


into


five


sections


scri pti on


research


questions,


description


subjects,


description


nonverbal


communicate on


behavior


acqui


ition


strategy,


measurement


systems


and mea


surement


procedure


student


training


paradigms,


experimental


Description


analysis


Research


Question


Several


research


questions


were


investigated


order


study


acqul


ition


nonverbal


communicati on


behaviors


adolescents


with


areas


addre


questions


include


student


use of NCB


during


training


practice


sess


ions,


simulated


education


conferences


actual


education


conferences


the

sati


student


faction with


faction with


students


their NCB


use o


teacher


following


questions


were


evaluated


using


multiple


sel ine


ingle


subject











What


are the effect


training


on the


level


nonverbal


communicate on


behaviors


exhibited


subject

behavior


during training

performances d


sess


during


ions


as compared


baseline


simulated


nonverbal

education


conferences?


What are


effects


training


on the


1evel,


Stability,


trend


nonverbal


communication


behaviors


exhibited


subject


generalization


during ba

simulated


sel ine


education


concurrent

conferences?


Does


subject


generalize


use of


newly


acqui red


nonverbal


communication


behaviors


an education


conference


attended


special


educati on


teacher


were


present


during


training


sessions


imul ated


conferences?


subject


report


sati


faction with


newly


acquired


nonverbal


communication


behaviors?


subjects


report


sati


faction with


training


procedures?


special


education


teacher


report


sati


faction with


student


nonverbal


communication


behavior


performance


during


simulated


education conferences


after


training?


nar~nl aA. mrs+4n an ~ n a rs+ *flji 44fl.14


nari~l a


ALl~~~(h~


~a~rkhn


r~CI


HAA A UC










Description


Subjects


Middle


school


students


with


attended


classes


designed


students


with


were


trained


using


metacognitive


procedure


heighten


their


awareness


improve


their use


subjects


were


eligible


special


education


services


as set


forth


state


federal


guidelines.


school


located


Al achua


County,


Florida.


Students


with


from


several


nearby


counties


attended


school


students


attended


one mainstream academic


class


or were


scheduled


attend


main


tream academic


cl ass


following


school


year


eighth


grade


subject


were


scheduled


attend


local


high


school


with


program


students


with


following


school


year


basi


their membership


aforementioned


program


students


with


students


were


screened


inclusion


study


special


education


ssroom


teacher made


recommendations


preliminary


ssroom observations


were


conducted


order


identify


students


lacked


cons


istent


usage


app ropri ate


NCBs.


Five


students


were


selected


training.


None


subjects


previous


participated


education


conference


nor had


they


received NCB


training.


Subject


Three


Subject


Five


been


exposed


to the


concept


using


contact


good


posture


during


interview


mainstream


business


cl ass.











who worked with


students


at the


school


verified


that


there


were


NCBs


no contraindications


selected


for the


instruction.


subjects


Approval


associated with


youth


trained,


videotaped,


observed


was obtained


from


Uni ver


of Florida


titutional


Review


Board


(see


Appendix A),


School


Board


Alachua


County,


students


themselves,


students


' parent


(see


Appendix


Subject One


Subject


(Sl)


sixth


grade


black


female,


year


3 months.


Subject


an L3


level


myel omeni ngocel e


associated


nonprogressive


bilateral


flaccid


paralysis


legs


feet.


Subject


had a


ventricul ar-


peri toneal


shunt


hydrocephal us.


Intermittent


bladder


catheterization wa


necessary


thoracolumbar


Al though


scolio


there wa


that


no obvious


been


deformi ty


detected


back,


x-rays


reported.


Medical


reports


documented


that


student was


capable


ambulating


school


with


ankle e-foot


orthoses.


However,


preferred


school


using


hours.


manual


Subject


wheel chair


transferred


not ambulate


out of


during


her wheel chair


independently.


classroom


teacher


reported


that


although


Ically


strong,


upper


body


movement


were


stiff.


Subject


received


therapy


(PT)


service


at school


Fine


mn +n r


2ki1 4+4ac


taYn r


i'ntnrt


Unmvrinn uwe


within


nflmrflia


limited


.











Subject


first


identified


special


education


services


about 3


years


was placed


Ical


occupational


therapy


program


children


with


Subject


been mainstreamed


on since


first


grade


for music,


science,


social


studied


, and/or


physical


education.


maximum


amount


mainstream placement


four


five


hours


per week.


During


sixth


grade


year


she was


main


treamed


homeroom and


music


only


Intellectual


function wa


within


normal


limits


(see


Table


Fourth


grade


standardized


achievement


test


scores


were


the most


current


available e


(see


Table 4)


. Subject


achieving below


grade


level


that


time.


classroom


teacher


indicated


that S1


reading


on approximately


fourth


grade


level


time


project


and continued


to perform below


grade


level


math


subject


Subject


(S2)


Sixth


grade


white


female,


years


10 months.


Subject 2


cerebral


palsy


exhibited


quadriparetic


ataxic


spastic


patterns.


Some


athetotic


movement


were


also


present


upper


lower


extremi ties.


There was


profound


easily


soli


ited


primitive


start e


reflex


as wel


an absence


righting


reactions


event


fall)


Subject


was uncoordinated when


walking


used a


wide


base


bal ance


during


ambulation.


SuhbiPct


rePsivpsd


r i fls..


nrriunatinnal


,


.*











Table


Test


Scores


for Subjects


Level


Intellectual


Functioning


Subject Test Date Scale Score


1989


Full


Scale


Performance

Verbal


WISC-R


1989


Verbal


K-ABC


1984


Mental


Process


ing Composite


Sequential P

Simultaneous


roces


Process


WISC


1987


Verbal


-ABC


1987


Mental


Process


Composite


Sequential


Proce


ssing


Simultaneous


Processing


K-ABC


1987


Mental


Processing Composite


K-ABC


1983


Mental


Proce


ssing Composite


Sequential


Simultaneous


Process


Processing


WISC-R


K-ABC


1987


1987


Full


Mental


cale


Processing Composite


Note.


WISC-R


Weschler


Tntellinapnr


SralP


fnr rhild n-iouvicAdl


-- ---










Table


Subjects


Most Recent


California


Achi evement


Test Scores


Grade in

Subject Date School Subtest Percenti Ie Stani ne


1988


Reading


Language

Math


1987


Reading


Language

Math


1989


Reading


Language

Math


1989


Reading


Language

Math


1989


Reading


Language

Math











the wheel chair


during most


project


sessions.


Fine


motor


activities


were


characterized


involuntary motor


patterns


during


vol i tional


movement.


Handwriting was


difficult.


Speech was


mildly


blurred.


Hearing was


within


normal


limits.


Some


strabismus


was present


right


ion was


approximately


normal


uncorrected


Subject


2 was


also


characterized


extreme


emotional


ability


during


unfamiliar


first


scheduled


situations.


simulated


She was


education


unable


participate


conference


to extreme


anxiety


reactions.


order


Additional


to maintain


desensitization was


emotional


control


necessary


simulated


education


during


sess


conference


preliminary


in which


interviewer


setting.


simul ated


principle


"pre"


sess


class


education


investigator


lasted


room teacher


conference


acted


joined


videotape


as the


approximately


25 min


not used


scoring


purposes.


Following


more


extensive


desensitization


aspects


project


procedure


S2 was


interact


able


with


participate


varied


onnel


without


further


incident


or additional


interventions.


Subject


2 was


first


identified


special


education


services


approximately


years


placed


program


children


with


Subject


been


mai nstreamed


intermittently


since


ki nderaarten


for mu


S.. .


science.


social


studies


and/nr


nhvsi cal


.











partici pate


science


regular


class


S room


fifth


grade


(1988


-1989


school


year)


During


ixth


grade


school


year


she wa


mainstreamed


homeroom only


Initially


experienced


difficulty


controlling


emotional


reactions


during


homeroom.


Intellectual


function wa


within


normal


limits


(see


Table


Third


grade


standardized


achievement


test


scores


were


the most


recent


group


test


scores


available


(see


Table


Subject


2 was


achieving


below


grade


level


that


time.


classroom


teacher


indicated


level


that S2


was reading


time


project


on approximately


continued


fourth


perform


grade


below


grade


level


in math.


grade


equi val ents


achievement


subtests


reading


Kaufman-Asse


comprehension,


ssment


decoding,


Battery


for Children


arithmetic


were


(K-ABC)


5.4,


respectively.


Subject


Three


Subject


years


Three


9 months.


arthritis,


as well 1


(S3)


an eighth


Subject


as Bell


long


grade


standing


palsy


black


left


male,


juvenile


side


rheumatoid


left


hemipare


arms


Subject 3 was


obese


Ambulation was


limi ted


usually


labored


movement


shuffling


Subject


3 wa


recovering


from ankle


surgery


occasionally


used


manual


wheel chair


. L


schnn1


WnwPsra


whale rhair


"ICa n


fnj rf.


hoon


u


,


.i










was poor


Consequently,


performance


portion


tests


reported


school


records


were


routinely


omitted


Physical


strength


markedly


Some


low.


strabismus


Subject 3


was present


received PT


glasses


services


been


school


prescribed


were


not worn.


Speech


language was


within


normal


limits.


Hearing was


approximately


normal


Subject


3 wa


identified


special


education


service


1983


and was


placed


specific


learning


disabilities


(SLD)


program


following year


approximately


third


grade)


sixth


grade


S3 was


dismi


from the


program


and placed


program


student


with


physical


impairments


Mainstreamed


classes


during


eighth


grade


included


social


tudie


* reading,


home


economic


homeroom.


Intellectual


function was


within


normal


limit


(see


Table


Seventh


grade


standardized


achievement


test


scores were


most


current available


(see


Table 4)


ssroom


teacher


indicated


that S3 was


reading


on grade


level


eighth)


time


project


but continued


perform


below


grade


level


in math


Subject


Four


Subject


Four


(S4)


an eighth


grade


white male,


year


months.


Subject


4 had


cerebral


palsy


exhibited


left-


ided


hemi paresi


He was


lightly


overweight


and had


poor mu


tone.


left


arm and


hand was minimal


although pos


ible.










wel


Fine


motor


patterns


were


problematic


on the


right


side.


Handwriting was


poor but


primarily


refusal


stabilize


paper with


affected


left


hand.


tremors


nor extraneous


muscle e


activity


were


ent.


Subject 4


received PT


services


school


ion wa


normal


Hearing was


somewhat


affected


on the


left


side


normal


on the


ri ght.


classroom


teacher


characterized


as highly


tractible with


story


making


initial


improvement


failing


maintain


gains.


Subject 4


received


therapy


services


beginning


three


years


was not


identified


special


education


service


unti 1


approximately


third


grade.


Subject


4 began


the eighth


grade


school


year


five


mainstream


placements:


reading,


math,


education,


music,


homeroom.


However


to lack


performance


those


setting


, the


mainstream placement


were


changed


home


economic


homeroom only


Intellectual


function was


within


normal


limits


(see


Table


Seventh


grade


standardized


achievement


test


scores


were


most


current


available


(see


Table


Subject


achieving below


grade


level


at that


time.


SS room


teacher


indicated


that S4


was reading


on approximately


third


grade


level


continued


perform


below


grade


level


math


subject


Five


Subject


Five


(S5) wa


an eighth


grade


white


female


U










gros


motor


patterns


were


clumsy


as evidenced


gait.


Ambulation was


difficulty


fine motor


characterized


changing


patterns were


an increase


directions


characterized


base,


quickly.


unintentional


instead lines


Subject 5


tremors


that


interfered with


vertical


wore


horizontal


sses


indwri ti n

ocular


reading.


eating.


dysmetria


speech


were


Nystagmus

present.


mildly


lurred


as well

Subj ect


and S5


received


speech


therapy


services


school


Hearing was


within


normal


limits.


Some


emotional


liability


present.


Subject


attended


regular


school


attended mainstream


classes


through


fifth


grade


performing


poorly


first


within


provided


unit


special


students


education


with


services


Subject 5


ixth


attended


grade


reading


science


mainstream


classes


ixth


grade.


During


eighth


grade


school


year


she was


ma in streamed


language,


social


studied


, reading,


home


economics,


homeroom.


Intellectual


functioning was


within


normal


limits


Table


. Seventh


grade


standardized


achievement


test


scores


were


most


current available


(see


Table


ssrooon


teacher


indicated


that S5


was reading


at/or


above


grade


level


at the


time


project


but continued


perform


below


grade


level


math.


Description


Acqui


ition


Generalization


strategy










limitation


list


important


performance components


targeted NCB;


based


on the


inventory


decide


they


were


able


perform the


given


or i


an approximation


behavior


was necessary;


improvements


remembering


warranted,


or modifications


use the


identify


as well


skill;


ible


as relevant


evaluate


skill


cues


effect veness


their


behavior performance


goal


use the NCBs


during


education


conferences


other


settings


as de


ired.


Strategy


Steps


acronym was


devel oped


help


subjects


remember


steps


strategy


first


letter


first word


each


step


strategy


corresponded


letter


ac ro nym


IMAGES.


subject


steps

could


strategy


recite


them


were


from memor


verbally

v. The


rehearsed

strategy s


until


teps


were:


S I


Inventory


your


ical


abilities.


Make


note


kill


requirements.


there


are different


ces.


Gather


ideas


doing


skill


Evaluate


your


goal


performance.


use the


skill


strategy


step


were


applied


invest gation


were worded


so that


they


could


aoolied


wide


ranae










first


step


students


completed


an inventory


their


ical


abilities


answering


questions


about


their


physical


attributes


ting their


physi


strength


within


several


areas.


skill


Next


needed


student


success


targeted NCB


performance


physical


(ie.,


definition


NCB)


student


then


compared


ical


skill


needed


success


/her


personal


inventory


ical


strength


determine


ical


requi


sites


perform the


appropriately


student


requi


skill


then


only


improvement


was necessary


performance.


discrepancy


existed


between


requi


kill


student


physical


capabi itie


student


would


specify


an alternate


form


accomplishing


intent


particular NCB.


student


then


wrote


ideas


doing


including what,


how,


where,


when,


and why


on the worksheet.


student


so wrote


the NCB


short


I(C uN


about


perform


on a


card.


purpose


cue card was


help


student


think


about


using


instructional


setting.


During


encouraged


n structi onal


strategy


trainer


sess


student


take


cue card


education conferences


or classes


where


student


wanted


practi


the NCB.


However,


pecifi


reminder


were


provided


immediately


prior to th


simulated


education


conferences


T










Next


student


strategy


trainer


eval uated


effect veness


the modified


skill


components


using the


role-play


conference


cards.


student


orally


answered


questions


the cards


while


practicing


NCB.


performance was


eval uated


negatively


student


returned


strategy


step


think

The n


al ternati ve


ew behavior


idea


components


for performing

were evaluated


desired behavior


as before.


Student Materials


material s


that


students


used


during


strategy


instruction were


designed


to as


included


as Appendix


student


material s


learning the


were


acqui sition


strategy


applying


strategy


specific


material


included:


. Strategy


overview


sheet


which


included


steps


strategy,


nonverbal


instruction


comnuunicati on


completing each


behaviors


step


their


definitions.


Student


worksheet


which


included


abilities


questionnaire;


an inventory


physical


abi litie


form;


an IMAGES


prompt


sheet


verbal


rehear


a worksheet


requi recent


assist


, deciding


student


ting the


behavior modifications


were


necessary,


gathering


ideas


performing


the NCB;










Student


performance


forms


which


included


strategy


goal


statement


completion


i nature


plan;


page;


student


strategy


progress


chart


graphing NCB


performance


data


during


training.


Measurement Systems


Procedures


general


performance


measures


types


scores


measures


social


consisted


were


validation


nonverbal


obtained:


measures.


communication


behavioral


behavioral


behaviors


that


subjects


displayed


during training


sessions,


simulated


education conferences,


an actual


education


conference.


performance


measures


were


obtained


personnel


behavi ors


during


training


sessions


simulated


education


conferences.


social


validation measures


included


questionnaires


given


subject


their


signed


special


to obtain


education


individual


teachers.


tionnaires


perception


about


were


different


aspects


nonverbal


communication


training


program.


student Nonverbal


Behavior Performance


Measures


The NCB


observed


trained were


general


categories


identified


DeLoach


Greer


(1981)


as particularly


relevant


improvement


nonverbal


communication


individual


with


physical


demeanor


facial


expression.


Three


discrete


ervable


behaviors


from each


category


are further











Operational


defi ni ti ons


nonverbal


behavior


were


dependent


variables.


following


operational


definitions


were


used


as scoring


guidelines


during


data


collection


session


throughout


baseline


concurrent


generalization,


training,


subsequent


generalization


phase


project.


subject


were


deemed


capable of


performing


behaviors


prior


project


Implementation.


Physical


demeanor


purpose


this


study,


physi


demeanor


included


posture


upper


extreme ty


position


cluster


behaviors


included


positioning


hands


arms,


sitting


straight,


leaning


forward.


desired


positions


arms


hands


included


arms


unfolded,


upper


arms


adducted


approximately


perpendicular


floor


or s


shoulder


flexion


no more


than 45


degree


, (c)


elbows


lightly


flexed


between


approximately


degrees,


palms


lightly


extended


facing


with


fingers


relaxed


palm


are facing


each


other


with


finger


lightly


touching


clasped,


hand


resting


on the


table.


Hands


subject


lap wa


Consequently


hands


distinguished

on the table


from

and


hands


on table


hands


scoring.


subject


were


mutually


exclu


behaviors.


hitting


-up-straight


invol ves


alignment


torso,


houl der


- II


head.


was assumed


that


' .


- -


ubiect


was sitting


r v


.


.











torso


straight;


hips


buttocks


pushed


back


chair


seat;


shoulders


parallel


hips,


hunched


or rounded,


scapulae


touching


chair back;


head


positioned


over


shoulder


erect


or s


lightly


tilted


ide.


Leaning


forward


included


components


sitting-up


-straight


with


exception


that


shoulder


position wa


lightly


forward


hips


scapulae were


touching the


chair back.


this


position


scapulae were


approximately


three


or more


inches


from


the back


chair


subject


waist


or unmbar


region would


away


from


the chair


back


as well


forward


lean


should


subject


was s


exceed


degree


hitting toward


an alternative


front


chair


posi tion


no part


subjects


back


touching


chair back.


Leaning


forward


itting-up-straight


were mutually


exclusive


behaviors


scoring


purposes.


Facial


expression.


For the


purposes


study


facial


expression


movements.


cons


behavior,


Specifically


skill


mouth


cluster


stores,


inclu ded


head


contact,


smiles,


and head


nods.


contact


implied mutual


glancing


order


to determine


whether


eye contact


occurred


between


subject


interviewer


(1968)


on the


method was


basi


used


videotapes,


to define


an adaptation of


he behavior


. .. -


Kleck


video camera


,











interviewer was


instructed


gaze


naturally


continually


subject.


Therefore,


eye contact was


assumed


occur


time


subject


looked


(eyes


open)


toward


interviewer with


head


positioned


mi dli ne


body


chin


level.


DeLoach


Greer


(1981)


defined


several


types


smiles.


"simple


smile"


"the


upper


smile" were


used


purposes


study


Therefore


smiling wa


defined


as "the


corners


mouth


are pulled


lightly


back


teeth


are not


exposed


( [or)


. the


corners


mouth


are pulled


back


upper


exposes


portions


teeth"


(DeLoach


Greer,


1981,


240)


Head


(DeLoach


speaking


were


Greer,


or in


defined


1981)


immediate


as verti


while


movement


interviewer or


response


interviewer


head


teacher was


or teacher


peaking.


purposes


tudy


head


nods


could be


ingle


quick


, (b)


repeated


nod,


or (


several


nods.


Horizontal


rotation


head,


shaking the


head,


included


definition.


Data


collection


parameter


for baseline


generalization


Several


factors


were


pertinent


collection


behavioral


measures.


Videotaped


behavioral


measures


were


obtained


during


base


line,


concurrent


general i


nation,


sequent


general i


ation


phases


'JR C CI.E.. S tA


Proceduresz


chanter


*


.I.I. .


VI LIIC


. U


--C










generalization


phases.


However


order


obtain


concurrent


generalization measure


nonverbal


behavioral


data


was obtained


each


subject


during


vi deo


recorded


simulated


education


conference


procedures


following


this


each


chapter)


sess


instruction


There wa


usually


(Phase


time


Three--see


lapse


hour or more


between


strategy


instruction


sess


simul ated


education


conference.


scheduling constraints


amount of


time


between


instruction


Inmul ated conference


held


constant.


Simulated education


conference


setting


During


baseline


concurrent


generalization


phase,


videotaped


behavioral


measures


were


obtained


during


simul ated


education conference


(SEC)


between


subject


an interviewer


interviewer was


volunteer


previous


known


student.


Only


one subject


participated


conference


at a


time.


Other


subjects


were


present


during SECs.


Observer


were


present


during


some


simulated


conference


score


interviewer


for con


istency


behaviors.


occurred


room


free


di stracti on


interviewer


behind


small 1


square


ft 6


ft 6


table was


table,


similar


that was


table


inches


heights


high


used


height


subjects


classroom.


feature was


necessary


in order


accommodate


subjects


wheel chairs.


subject


... ... ..


i anated


straiaht-


ry


w


. .











table,


interviewer,


subject


remained


same


baseline


concurrent


generalization


data


collection


sessions.


additional


chairs


were


placed


behind


right


subject


provide


seating


observers


Some


other


furniture


was in


room


remained


same


duration


project.

slightly


An RCA

behind


Camcorder


and 45


video


degree


camera

the l


on a


tripod was


eft


placed


interviewer


that


pictures


angle was


subject


necessary


order


torso were


adequately


obtained.


see the


light


subject


posture


gaze


approximately


scoring purposes.


subject


level


camera


when


lens


subject


seated.


stance


from the


subject


to the


camera


ft 6


area


constant


recorded


filmed


throughout


each


recorded.


lens


sess


sess


A separate


lasted


angle


ions.


session


videotape was


approximately


5 min


used


for each


and width)


sess


remained


number was


date


time were


for each


sess


subject.


ion.


interviewer


asked


subject open-ended


tions


rel ated


aspects


students


school


experiences.


tons


were


selected


from a


pool


question


(see


Appendix


varied


dally


. The


interviewer


prompted


subje


ct as


necessary


verbal


response,


student


nonverbal


behaviors,


vnrh al


rfnnT an+


nr


+haivr


Srn eiaa we


- -r


i.E nra n -


n~artr ae


ie.


|











during


an actual


education


con ference


between


subject


special


educati on


teachers.


teachers


sroom experience


with


students


least


one school


year


Only


one subject


participated


an actual


conference


at a


time.


Other


subject


observers


were


not present


during


education conference.


actual


educati on conference


AEC)


occurred


school


large


ssroom


unit


students


with


teacher


sat be


each


other


on one


side


rectangular


table


approximately


ft 6


in wide,


long,


and 27


inches


high


teacher


(T1)


seated


close


table


other


teacher


(T2)


seated


approximately


at the midpoint


length


table.


subject


straight-back


wooden


chair


subject


wheel chair)


opposite


table


from


This


position was


necessary


order


adequately


see the


subject


sture


gaze


scoring


purposes.


The AEC


was video


recorded


using


same


RCA Camcorder


video


camera


tripod


that


were


used


during


camera


placed


lightly


behind


degrees


left


of T1


so that


pictures


subject


torso were


obtained.


height


camera


lens


was the


same


as the


height


during SECs


approximately


subject


level


when


seated.


stance


from the


subject


camera


was 9


**rz~~~~~~m 1* I*-fl*I ** m *.


1 snoth


var iPd


wata


~m nr


IIF


IIP CIT I.


SJ|I..


.


* Ni.


* I


*.. .











subject.


teachers


were


requested


principle


investigator to


Include


opportunities


student


respond


open-ended


questions


queries.


(see


Some


Appendix D)


open-ended


were


question


provided


similar


teachers.


However,


actual


content


sequence


topic


determined


teachers


themsel ves.


Scoring


system


subject


performance


. Trained


volunteers


viewed


videotape


inmulated conference


daily


and the


actual


education conference


project.


scorers


know which


were


receiving


instruction


which


were not.


A time


sampling method wa


used


provide


estimate


nonverbal


behavior


frequency


(Hall,


1974;


Tawney


Gast,


1984)


Operational


definition


scorers


located


in Appendix


A data


collection


device,


the Assistant


(tm)


Data


Acquli


ition Computer,


used


observers


as a


timing


device.


When


tone


from the


device


sounded


interval


observer


paused


videotape


recorded


nonverbal


behaviors,


except


head


, occurring


that moment


a data


collection


form


(see


Appendix F)


occurrence


nonoccurrence


appropriate


head


nods


were


recorded


during


interval


between


pauses


videotape.


order


obtain


measure


amount


time


that


interviewer or


teachers


t a a .4-, .4 4-4 a -


~allr(rrr,


F AdA ~


nill: rrlr~


YA C) A II *L~


~IALIIFII~


A, f 1 *f


qpRAA


9A


III YRA











The

sess


observation


Interval s


subject.


were lim

recorded


cited


behavior


intervals

frequencies


for each

were


converted


percentages


ervatlon


interval


Behavior % Of


results


Observation


subjects


behavior


session


occurrences


interval


nonverbal


100.


(le.


behavior


performances


reported


Chapter


Interobserver


reliability


Interobserver


reliability


checks


were


conducted


for 40% of


data


collection


sess


ions


therefore exceeded


the mi nimum percentage


(le.,


20%)


rel ability


check


usually


recommended d


ingle


subject


research


(Wolking,


personal


communication,


1989)


Three


reliability


coefficient


were


culated


total


percent


agreement


occurrence


agreement,


nonoccurrence


agreement


(Tawney


& Gast,


1984)


Total


percent


agreement,


using


point


-point method,


calculated with


formula


Total


agreement


agreement


reement


agreement


100.


Occurrence


agreement


calculated with


same


formula


using


only


those


interval


in which


one or both


observers


recorded


an occurrence.


Likewise


nonoccurrence


agreement wa


ulated except


that only


those


intervals


for which


behavior


occur were


used.


85% agreement


was desired.


T ntrnhcarvaro


rol hia1 a t


nnnua rh1


hnkhui nrnal


mbea masae










Data


collection


parameters


during


instructional


sessions


data


col election


system


subjects


performances


during


instructional


sess


ions


differed


from


data


collection


methods


used


for the


videotaped


baseline


generalization


sess


ions.


Student NCB


performance


measures


were


obtained


only


during the


kill


practice


teps


tructional


sess


(see


Strategy


Instructional


Procedure


chapter)


only


the NCB


taught


during


particular


sess


ion.


Nonverbal


communication


behavior performance


measures


during


practice


sess


ions


were


obtained


instructional


setting


and were


videotaped.


order


evaluate


subject


performance


targeted


strategy


questions.


trainer


question


asked


were


student a


identical


series


questions


open-ended


used


interviewer


simulated


education conference


(see


Appendix D)


trainer were


operational


identical


definitions


definitions


used


used


strategy


observers


scored


subject


videotape NCB


performances


(see


Appendix


However


instead


evaluating the


performance


at 1


interval


strategy


trainer


scored


subject


performance


each


question/answer


interval


student exhibited


target NCB


most


time while


estion was


asked


answered.


w.. t


student


received


oosi ti ve


score


that











strategy


trainer


recorded


subject


scores


on a


practice


feedback


score


sheet


(see


Appendix G)


questions


were


asked


sets


five


questions


set.


subject


score


question


set was


converted


percent


correct


performances


that


using


formula


score--%


Where A


are defined


questions


answered while


correctly


performing


= # of


tons


(ie.,


Mastery


criteria


given


tion


required


positive


score


on four-out


-five


questions


set.


practice


from the


sess


last


percent


question


score was


sets


calculated


esslon


using the


using


scores


formula:


Session


score--%


= set


score--%


score--%


sess


score


percentage


was then


plotted by


student


on a


student


progress


chart


(see


student Material


chapter)


sess


ion was


terminated


when


student


achieved


question


set mastery


two consecutive


tion


sets


or (b)


when


sess


time


limit,


approximately


0 min,


elapsed.


skill


practice mastery wa


achieved


during


sess


ion,


student


repeated


skill


practice


during


next


sess


subsequent


sess


ions


until


skill


practice


mastery was


achieved


total


th)In.


rnncarnati Uv


tctc


inne


,,w~~a ml


nimilm n


nno act


riii II


.


I











Social


Validation Measures


Social


validation wa


interest


as a


means


establishing


social


importance


i intervention


(Tawney


& Gast,


1984)


Three


level


social


validation


typically


include


goal


or intended


outcomes


research,


procedure


used


intervention,


desi gned


assess


and

the


practical


participants


sati


effect


faction w


Questionnaires

ith the


i n structional


program were


given


subject


(see Appendix H)


their


teachers


(see Appendix


an swer


format was


similar to


format


used


Maheady,


Harper,


Sacca


(1988)


assess


student


sati


faction with


peer


tutoring


program.


Prior


completing


questionnaire


teachers


conducted


an actual


education


conference with


each


subje


viewed


videotape


student


performance


from


baseline


sess


an end-


-training


data


interest


collection


study


was the


session.


specific


participant


feelings


information


about


general


importance


nonverbal


communication


behaviors,


feasibility


instructional


program,


effect


training


teacher


on the


sati


subject


faction


' nonverbal


results


behaviors.


reported


Subject


Chapter


Personnel


Performance Measure


Specified per


onnel


behaviors


were


deemed


relevant


th cEnn


i ctsnrv


intervpnt.inn


dA;t~a


rnll nrtinn


s


Iri I.iir


nrl *.











interviewer


. Prior


to beginning


instruction


each


step


strategy


strategy


trainer wa


required


demonstrate


understanding


intent


instruction


step


appropriate


use of


script and


material


relevant


behaviors


strategy


trainer


included


following the


script,


following the


sequencing


script,


using


material


correctly,


1989)


pecified


fluent


pacing


interviewers


behaviors


were


instruction


required


least


(King


display


observation


-Sears,


composite

n interval


The minimum performance


level


ired


smiling was


50%.


pertinent


behaviors


for the


interviewer were


looking


subject,

pacing d


smiling,


luring


following


conference


scri pted


During


questions,


fluent


course


investigation an 80% minimum performance


level


was de


ired


personnel


behavior


except


interviewer


smiling.


Addi tional


documentation of


instructional


consistency was


obtained


each


step


instruction


across


subjects


recording the


amount


time


spent


during


instruction


each


subject


Personnel


performance


results


are reported


Chapter


Independent


observer


recorded


appropriate


personnel


behaviors


using


time


ampling method


at 30


interval


first


4 min,


minimum,


instructional


sess


- 4Ie- a 1 a a J a ...2 I1 ... ....


~~~~*IUAL~~


n


1


r~










interval


box was


checked


indicate


occurrence


behavior


sound


prerecorded


tone.


Behavior


frequencies


were


converted


percentages


using


formula:


Behavior %


= behavior occurrence


observation


interval


100.


Interobserver


agreement


reliability


(point-by


was calculated


-point method)


total


nonoccurrence


percent


agreement.


formula


Interobserver


Reliability


agreement


reement


sagreemen


100.


nonoccurrence


agreement,


only


interval


in which


one or


both


servers


record


an occurrence were


used


calculation.


Interob


server


reliability


personnel


performance


measures


are reported


Chapter


Procedure


investigation was


divided


into


four


general


phases.


Personnel,


including


strategy


trainer,


interviewer,


observers,


were


trained


e One.


Phase


baseline


concurrent


generalization


Elli


, Lenz,


Sabornie,


1987a,


1987b)


data


were collected


on the


subject


' performance


NCBs


during


videotaped


simulated education


conference


with


interviewer


concurrent


video


general


recorded


action


simulated


measures


education


subject


conference


' NCB


were


fol owing


daily