Identity structure and autobiographical memory

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Title:
Identity structure and autobiographical memory a constructive perspective
Physical Description:
vii, 111 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Metzler, April E., 1959-
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Identity (Philosophical concept)   ( lcsh )
Autobiographical memory   ( lcsh )
Counseling Psychology thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counseling Psychology -- UF
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1991.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 104-110).
Statement of Responsibility:
by April E. Metzler.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

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University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001741904
oclc - 26146366
notis - AJF4604
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AA00002103:00001

Full Text












IDENTITY


STRUCTURE AND AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL
A CONSTRUCTIVIST PERSPECTIVE


MEMORY:


APRIL


METZLER


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


would


like


to acknowledge


many


individuals


who


have


given


me support,


encouragement,


guidance


throughout


academic


career


Univers


Florida


First,


Dr. Greg


Neimeyer


been


undoubtedly


single


most


important


influence


upon


my prof


ess


ional


development.


He has


patiently


directed


supported


efforts


many


year


, and


has taught


me much


about


colleagueship,


res


pect,


trust.


Greg


has


been


both


mentor


a very


dear


friend


Greg


s enthusiasm


dedication,


perseverance,


and


prof


essionalism


are


something


aspire


would


also like


thank


members


committee


Franz


Epting,


Mary


Fukuyama


Peter


Sherrard,


Mark


Alicke


(who


deserves


a special


measure


of gratitude


service


above


and


beyond


call


of duty,


remaining


on my


committee


after


leaving


Florida),


their


efforts


helpful


suggestions


has


been


a pleasure


to work


with


these


individuals.


would


like


thank


people


who


were


integral


part


dissertation.


was


extremely










Schaffer,


Barbara


Quinones.


Their


help


has


been


invaluable


this


project,


they


have


been


good


friends.


would


also


like


thank


Frank


Martin


Department


Statistics


kind


patient


advice


regarding


analysis.


would


Metzler,


like


their


thank


parents,


understanding


and


Betty


support,


Martin


without


which


this


dissertation


would


never


have


been


written.


Finally,


my deepest


gratitude


is extended


my fiancee,


Doug


Reese.


Doug


s unwaning


love,


respect,


and


affection


me have


meant


doctorate.


so much


thank


Doug


me throughout


with


the


love


pursuit


look


forward


our


life


together.


















TABLE


OF CONTENTS


PAGE


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

ABSTRACT


CHAPTER


REVIEW


OF THE


LITERATURE


S1


Common The
Autobiogra
Identity F
Identity F
Difference
Impact of
Purpose
Hypotheses


oreti
phica
ormat
ormat
s in
Ident


al Or
Memo
on
on as
denti
ty St


ientation
ry


a
ty
yle


ess
essing
Autobiographi


* S S S
* S S S


Nem


S S S S S S S S S S 5 5 5 5 5 5 S S S S
S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S a a a


METHODS


Subjects
Procedure
Overview
Administ
Administ
Summary
Design and


* S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
* S 5 S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S


rat
rat
of
Ana


Sion
ion
ion
Proc
lysi


of the
of the
of the
edure
s


Zung S
Comput


III.


RESULTS


AND


ANALYSIS


Analy
ieval
ieval
-Chana


DISCUSSION


ses
Quant
Laten
e


AND


* S S S S S S
* S S S S S S


CONCLUSIONS


1













APPENDIX


IDEOLOGICAL


IDENTITY


SCALE


. ZUNG


SELF


-REPORT


SCALE


FOR


DEPRESSION


ZSRS)


. EXAMPLE


INTERACTION


IN COMPUTER


TASKS


. EXPERIMENTAL


MATERIALS


PROGRAM


OPERATION


AND


SELECTION


OF CUES


Summary


of Operation


election


of Retri


eva


Cues


BIBLIOGRAPHY


BIOGRAPHICAL


SKETCH
















Abstract


of Dissertation


Presented


the


Graduate


School


University


Requirements


Florida


Degree


in Partial


of Doctor


Fulfillment


of Philosophy


IDENTITY


STRUCTURE


AND


AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL


MEMORY


A CONSTRUCTIVIST


April


December,


PERSPECTIVE


Metz


1991


Chairman:


Major


Greg


Department


. Neimeyer
: Counseling


Psychology


current


identity


study


development


tests


relationship


autobiographical


between


memory


recall.


ition


is advanced


that


subjects'


identity


style


should


influence


both


the


recall


of personal


memories


and


impact


that


recall


on self-perceptions.


Following


Berzonsky


s paradigm,


a mixed-sex


sample


of 202


people


falling


into


one


three


identity


styles


(information-oriented,


normatively


oriented,


diffusely


oriented)


were


identified


study


protesting.


Subjects


subsequently


completed










self-consistency


(self-congruent


or self-incongruent


with


current


self-perceptions).


As predicted,


information-oriented


individuals


generated


greatest


number


of autobiographical


recollections


diffusely


oriented


subjects


generated


fewest.


Recall


was


also


found


vary


across


conditions,


with


information-oriented


individuals


showing


highest


recollection


among


three


identity


styles


memories


that


supported


positive


self-perceptions,


well


greatest


ability


to generate


memories


that


threatened


those


self-perceptions.


A general


self-enhancement


effect


was


also


evident,


particularly


among


information


normative-oriented


individuals


, the


latter


being


most


inclined


three


identity


styles


to generate


invalidating


memories


when


benefited


them


(positive/incongruent)


the


least


inclined


when


threatened


them


(negative/invalidation).

















CHAPTER


REVIEW


OF THE


LITERATURE


Many


years


an unmanageable


adolescent


the


name


of Samuel


Clemens


took


leave


of what


he des


cribed


stupid


, know-nothin"


father


Several


years


later,


when

young

awhil


famous


adult


Mark


afte

Twa


American

r weather

in was "


humorist


ring


had


the world


astonished


returned


on hi


to find


horn

own

how


as a


for

much


the


old


man


had


learned


those


year


Autobiographical


memories


such


as thi


are.


not


only


amusing


testaments


to predictable


developmental


milestones


, but


serve


subtle


reminders


that


autobiographical


memories


are


based


on our


own


rsonal


development


Even


as we forge


notions


our


selves,


we shape


frame


nature


our


later


rec


collections.


identity


memories


are


"two


sides of


the


same


coin"


(Greenwald


& Banaji,


1989)


study


will


addr


ess


the constructive


and


reconstructive


aspects


of autobiographical


memory


broadly


/ placing


particular


emphasis


on the


interdependence


between


memory


recall


the


____ _










assimilation


perceptual


information


as memories.


This


helps


explain


effects


of self-perceptions


on the


recall


of memories


about


self,


as well


as the


effects


of personal


memories


on self-perception.


Common


Theoretical


Orientation


The current

crossroads among


study

three


will


provide


distinct


area


a theoretical

s of psychology.


constructivist


approach


to each


these


areas


is used


provide


a common


conceptual


link.


A generic


view


constructivist


assumptions


follows


in order


to help


orient


the


reader


theoretical


underpinnings


the


current


study.


Per

Markus,


sonality

1977), m


theorists


emory


(Kelly,


theorists


1955


(Barclay


; Kihlstrom,


1986


1981;


; Bartlett,


1932


Neisser,


1967


, 1976)


, and


developmental


theorists


(Berzonsky,


1990


; Piaget


& Inhelder,


1973)


have


long


recognized


importance


of understanding


processes


and


structures


that


govern


the


organization


individual


s psychological


world.


These


constru


activist


theorists


have


advanced


similar


notions


of knowledge


structures,


referred


to generically


as schemata


, to


describe


the


active


organizational


processing


information.


Schemata


are


nonsoecif


-,


representations










expectations,


attention


(Neisser,


1967).


Schemata


are


used


continuously


to impose


order


meaning


upon


the


world


in a subjective


manner.


Schemata


are


hierarchically


organized


into


a network


of idiographic


meaning


that


continuously


changes


with


experience


(Barclay,


form


1986;


impli


Kelly,


theories


1955;


that


Neisser,


both


1988a).


guide


Schemata


limit


individual


s growth


(Berzonsky,


1990;


Ross


& Conway,


1986


Ross


& McFarland,


1988).


This


study


will


show


how


these


three


converging


areas


of psychology


can


help


illuminate


relationships


between


processes


identity


development


autobiographical


and


memory


processes


recall.


interrelationships


among


these


three


areas


will


examined


detail,


possible


implications


counseling


explored.


Autobiographical


Memory


Memory


concerned


research


with


many


accuracy


years


memories


been


more


as tested


under


laboratory


conditions


than


what


the


memories


might


about


memory


person.


research


However,


toward


there


investigating


a new


trend


"real-world"


memory.


Of particular


interest


this


study


an emerging


interest


in autobiographical


memory


(Brewer,


-R


1988;










What


a person


can


cannot


remember


could


reveal


a great


deal


about


that


person


s personality


development.


Common


assumptions


about


the


nature


autobiographical


memory


have


been


advanced


several


theori


researchers


this


area


(Barclay,


1986,


1988a;


Brewer


, 1988;


Linton,


1988;


Neisser,


1981,


1988a,


1988b)


memory


first


largely


assumption


that


a reconstructive


autobiographical


endeavor


based


supporting


sting


self-s


chemata,


often


expense


facts


As Barc


put


, these


memories


"are


true


inaccurate"


(1988b,


. 289)


This


implies


that


these


self-structures


both


maintain


transform


our


pers


onal


memories.


A second


assumption


that


these


self-schemata


are


hierarchically


organized.


Therefore,


autobiographical


memories


are


remembered


based


on cues


from


nested


structure


Finally,


distinction


between


episodic


semanti


memory


does


not


always


accurately


describe


nature


of autobiographical


memories.


An autobiographical


memory


is often


constructed


amalgam


of repeated


sodi


memory


es.


Thus


it i


often


an episode


that


symbolically


represents


something


else


example,


a person


were


remember


"being


together


with


my family


the


beach


celebrate


Memorial


day


last


year,


recollection


_ ~


v m










had


been


absent.


Such


a memory


might


carry


more


symbolic


meaning


of family


unity.


Francis


Galton,


a contemporary


Ebbinghaus,


was


first


to begin


research


on autobiographical


memory.


In his


1883


informal


experiment,


Galton


used


words


as memory


prompts


himself


"allowed


a couple


ideas


to successively


present


themselves"


(1883,


426).


He recorded


reaction


time


each


response


Later


, he grouped


recollections


according


to periods


in his


life


type


memory


word


evoked.


Galton


s technique


was


successful


in producing


open-ended


sampling


of his


thoughts


in general,


but


was


not


specific


enough


to evoke


just


personal


memories.


Due


to Galton


s varied


interests


he failed


pursue


this


line


of research


(Brewer,


1988


Crovitz


& Schiffman,


1974;


Robinson,


1988).


The


Ebbinghaus


tradition


of studying


accuracy


memory


continued


reign


next


ninety


years


largely


unchallenged.


However


in 1932,


Bartlett


questioned


whether


there


were


other


factors


besides


accuracy


memory


that


would


be of


interest


researchers.


He examined


subjects


recall


of narrative


prose


passages


observed


that


they


had


omitted,


transformed,


organized,


and


otherwise


distorted


w..


i v v










reproduction"


205).


Bartlett


believed


that


memories


were


individual'


present


"continually


remade"


self-structure


based


309)


on the

Thus,


Bartlett


began


the


constructivist


approach


memory


functioning.


This


approach


emphasized


the


use


schemata


as organic


zing


principles


that


times


enable


disable


retrieval


personal


memories.


In this


view,


autobiographical


individual


s current


memories


self


are


-theory


"selected"


help


to fit


individual


maintain


a consistent


sense


of self


face


change.


Unfortunately,


Bartlett


s insights


went


largely


unnoticed


until


mid


-1970s.


However,


mid


-1970s


a gradual


shift


notions


occurred


of what


(Nei


types


sser,


things


1988b).


people


Tulving


remember


(197


had


introduction


distinction


between


long


term


"semantic"


memory


single


event


"episodic


memory


generated


interest


whole


new


areas


study


within


memory


research.


Bartlett


s constructivist


theory


memory


enjoyed


a new


popularity


Therefore


when


Crovitz


Schiffman


(1974)


revived


Galton


s prompting


technique


modifying


study


autobiographical


memory


, many


researchers


were


eager


to begin


lines


research


in autobiographical


memory


(Robinson,


.4


1988)


In their


landmark


paper,


.g


.










memories.


following


two


years


these


directions


were


modified


order


to elicit


more


specific


memories


(Crovitz &

meaningful


Quina-Holland


memories


1976,


(Robinson,


1976


and


' p.


more


581).


personally

The


real


-life


research


studies


that


have


used


Crovitz


technique


constitute


most


sophisticated


long


term


memory


research


to date.


research


clearly


demonstrates


can


that


be examined


real-life


in a systematic


memory


manner


retrieval


within


process


the


experimental


laboratory


(Neisser,


1985)


This


paradigm


holds


much


promise


systematic


investigation


autobiographical


memory


recall


Much


work


from


social


psychology


regarding


individual


' self-schemata


demonstrated


central


role


of self-s


chemata


in the


recall


pers


onal


memories.


a series


of studies,


Markus


(1977


, 1980)


shown


that


individuals


dependence


processed


were


schematic


information


more


independence


quickly


recalled


more


specific


events


from


their


past


than


did


aschematic


individuals.


Furthermore,


Markus


Senti


(1980)


have


found


that


information


consistent


with


one


self-concept


is remembered


more


accurately


than


inconsistent


information.


These


studies


and


others


(Barclay,


1988b;


Barclay


& Subramaniam,


1987)


support


.










individual


with


more


clearly


defined


self-schemata


would


able


to recall


a greater


number


of personal


memories


so more


quickly


Additionally


, the


fact


that


information


inconsistent


with


the


self


is remembered


ess


accurately


may


point


to possible


biases


in processing


personal


memories.


work


of Ross and


colleagues


(Ross


& Conway,


1986


Ross


& McFarland,


1988)


begun


to addr


ess


stemati


ses


pers


onal


memory


recall


Ross


beli


eves


that


implicit


theori


of ourselves


present


guide


our


recollections


past.


addition,


we each


have


our


own


theory


of how


we might


change


still


maintain


a consistent


sense


of self


reconstructions


past


are


shaped


theory


that


dictate


assumptions


of either


consistency


inconsi


stency


with


oursel


ves


in the


present.


In order


support


this


theory


of self-change


we use


biased


process


to either


exaggerate


differences


similariti


between


our


past


and


present


selves


when


remember


Thus,


we are


times


"cognitive


conservatives


who


bias


their


memories


so as to deny


change


maintain


consistency,


at other


times


"cognitive


radical


who


embrace

altered


change


exaggerate


example,


a profe


amount


ssor


may


they


have


remember


himself










now


see


himself


as a devoted


family


man,


even


though


spends


as much


time


working


away


from


home


as he


ever


did.


Thus,


these


biases


tend


to confirm


our


existing


self


-theori


Past


research


an individual


Swann


s hypothesi


Snyder


-testing


demonstrated


about


self


that


and


others


tends


to be strongly


confirmatory


in nature


(Snyder


, 1984;


Snyder


& Swann,


1978;


Swann,


1985)


series


of experiments


have


shown


that


people


prefer


confirm


rather


than


to disconfirm


their


current


self-images


, even


when


those


self


-images


are


negative


(Barclay


& Subramaniam


, 1987


oss


& Conway,


1986


Ross


McFarland


, 1988).


From


the results


research,


then


, we might


expect


that


individual


who


held


a theory


of self-consistency


might


tend


to deny


self-change


in the


face


of disconfirming


evidence


We might


also


expect


individuals


who


lacked


a unified


theory


of self-change


show


relatively


little


tendency


toward


biased


processing


instead


drift


the


direction


of image


discrepant


recall.


Past


work


on identity


formation


shown


that


different


identity


styles


have


character


stically


different


1987)


self-schemata


Because


struck


tures


autobiographical


(Neimeyer


rec


varies


& Metz


with


es.


__










Kihlstrom


(1981)


called


research


that


examines


how


personal


memory


features


are


affected


personality


development.


is crucial


to attempt


some


inquiry


into


details


underlying


process


states


Kihlstrom


(1981,


141).


It has


been


shown


that


autobiographical


memories


help


structure


restrict


a person


self-theory,


so it


seems


likely


that


different


stages


identity


development


might


utilize


this


aspect


autobiographical


information


differently.


Research


developmental


psychology


provides


models


processes


underlying


formation


of personal


identity.


Identity


Formation


Ever


since


Erikson


s landmark


work


on life-span


development


(Erikson,


1959


, 1968),


psychologists


have


been


leading

Erikson


interest


in studying


formation


identified


eight


developmental


of a stable


stages


personal


of human


processes


identity.


psychosocial


development,


each


of which


was


characterized


the


need


to resolve


a specific


conflict.


labelled


fifth


stage,

between


which

ego


occurs

identity


during

and i


adolescence,


identity


the


diffusion.


conflict

The


adolescent


must


learn


cope


with


changes


that


challenge


sense


of self


developed


in childhood.


These


changes










and


the


adoption


more


adult


roles.


Successful


resolution


identity:


this


conflict


a consistent


sense


should


result


of self


that


in ego


permits


adolescent


to explore


select


from


among


alternatives


conflict


unable

left w


leads


to make


without


adulthood.


to identity


sense


Failure

diffusion


of all


a definite


sense


to resolve


this


adolescent


possibilities,


of self


or a way


to make


positive


life


choices.


As Berzonsky


(1990)


points


out,


identity


as conceived


Erikson


simply


static


structure


incorporating


knowledge


about


self,


but


is a pro


cess


that


"actively


evaluates,


selects,


and


organizes


responsible


self-perceptions"


reality-te


This


sting


process


adaptation


constructions


about


self


, and


may


be the


mechanism


that


enables


an individual


to successfully


cope


with


change


throughout


later


life.


Unfortunately,


Erikson


s formulation


lacked


specific


it difficult


operational


to create


definition


a solid


concepts,


empirical


making


foundation.


However,


identity


established


Marcia


(1966)


development


a framework


subsequent


extended


that


Erikson


permitted


conceptualization


s work


empirical


investigation.


Therefore,


most


research


into


identity










Marcia


s approach


formation


identity


is derived


from


two


Eriksonian


concepts


crisis


and


commitment.


Crisis


refers


the


degree


to which


adolescent


evaluating


is concerned


issues


with


relating


confronting


to identity


critically


Commitment


describes


whether


adolescent


reaches


a firm


deci


sion


about


what


values


and


roles


to adopt.


Marcia


identified


four


identity


statuses


that


arise


from


differences


along


these


dimensions.


Identity


identity


achievement


reaching


refers


a state


the


formation


of commitment


after


having


passed


through


a state


of crisis.


An achieved


individual,


therefore,


is characterized


as having


taken


definite


personal


stand


based


upon


decisions


requiring


reflection,


questioning


, and


introspection.


In contrast,


foreclosure


refers


to commitment


that


attained


absence


of crisis.


Foreclosed


individuals


values


have


(such


opted


their


to accept


parents'),


an established


without


set of


confronting


questioning


issues


involved


The


child


who


unthinkingly


pursues


a career


dictated


parents


ambitions


Both


a classic


achievement


example


of foreclosure


foreclosure


share


characteristic


of hiah


levels


f commitment


with


respect


u


- --


------- --------










selected


does


not


matter;


method


which


deci


sion


is reached


crucial


factor.


example,


some


achieved


individuals


may


possess


personal


values


very


much


in accord


with


their


parents


However,


these


adolescents


have


questioned


examined


each


values


before


personally


incorporating


suitable,


have


them


not


into


their


merely


identities


adopted


their


parents'


views


wholesale.


Moratorium


individuals


are


engaged


an identity


crisis,


have


not


yet


been


able


to resolve


it by


committing


particular


of values.


They


are


actively


seeking


to find


the


answers


questions


who


they


are


what


they


believe,


appear


preoccupied


with


identity


concerns.


fourth


final


identity


status


is diffusion.


Diffusion


is characterized


a lack


of commitment


of values


lack


an ongoing


S1S


state


directed


toward


individuals,


achieving


diffuse


commitment.


individuals


are


Like

indeci


moratorium


sive


personal


issues.


However


, unlike


adolescents


moratorium,

concerned w


diffuse


rith


individuals


establishing


are


a sense


not


actively


of personal


identity.


They


are


not


merely


unable


arrive


at a deci


sion,


they


do not


perceive


need


to make


a final


decision


-










concessions


needs


moment.


They


experience


true


crisis,


because


impetus


decision


internally


-making


imposed


motivated.


They


from


outside


similarly


do not


rather


make


than


true


commitments,


because


they


not


see


their


choices


having


a definitional


relationship


themselves.


an effort


to validate


theoretical


distinctions


among


identity


statu


ses


, Marcia


conducted


a series


of studies


with


male


college


students


(Marcia,


1966


, 1967).


Consonant


with


theoretical


expectations


based


on their


development


internalized


of personal


values


, the


identity


achieving


males


were


most


refl


ective,


employed


most


mature


moral


reasoning,


were


least


submissive


to authority


of all


identity


status


groups.


identity


Moratorium


achieving


males


males


were


many


found


to resemble


respects,


differing


primarily


showing


increased


variability


responses


much


higher


levels


of anxiety.


Variability


response


was


stress


most


maturity


marked


on learning


of moral


reasoning


performance

measures.


under

This


variability


was


thought


to be


due


their


lack


commitment


any


particular


of moral


values


uncertainty


about


the


correctness


their


judgments.


w u










to conventional


norms


of moral


behavior,


were


submissive


to authority,


exhibited


levels


anxiety.


This


supports


conjecture


that


these


individuals


have


adopted


established


modes


thought


conduct


and


have


thereby


avoided


results


from


this


studies


regarding


diffuse


males,


however


, were


not


conclusive.


measures


used


did


capture


the


distinguishing


characteristics


this


identity


status,


such


as indecisiveness,


very


well,


which


researchers


to seek


alternative


measures


experimental


designs.


A series


of studies


of identity


status


among


female


college


1975


students


Schenkel


(Marcia


& Marcia,


& Friedman,


1972)


1970


introduced


Schenkel,


an additional


identity


status


domain.


In Erikson


s view,


women


form


personal


identities


based


upon


their


selection


sexual


partner.


This


factor


was


operationalized


attitudes


toward


identity


premarital


status


sex,


interview.


incorporated


Because


this


into


change,


direct


comparisons


between


studies


of males


females


were


impossible


this


time.


findings


were


nonetheless


identity


similar.


achieved


Like


females


their


tended


male


counterparts,


to be low


in anxiety


submissiveness


to authority.


They


also


tended


to choose


difficult


majors.


moratorium


females


resembled


*rv


r










foreclosed


female


subjects


subscribed


strongly


authoritarianism


displayed


little


anxiety.


Diffuse


subjects


again


were


highly


anxious;


they


selected


easy


majors.


Marcia


identity


status


interview


procedure,


however,


was


time-consuming,


difficult


to standardize,


cumbersome


to admini


ster


score.


The


use


different


procedures


males


females


introduced


additional


complexity


and


made


comparisons


difficult.


development


of a self-report


instrument


solved


many


these


& Adam


problems


1984).


(Adams,


Shea,


resulting


& Fitch,


1979


instrument,


Grotevant

Extended


Objective


Measure


of Ego


Identity


Status


(EOM-EIS),


pencil-and-paper


ques


tionnaire


that


can


be easily


quickly


admini


stered


to large


groups.


It has


subscales


covering


religion,


2 domains


politics,


ideological--relating


philosophical


to occupation,


lifestyle


interpersonal--relating


to friendship


, dating,


sex


roles


recreation.


Adams


, Shea,


and


Fitch


(1979)


found


that


this

those


instrument

produced


produced


Marcia


a similar p

s interview


attern


of results


technique.


Achieved


individuals


had


highest


amount


self-acceptance,


while


foreclosed


subjects


were


more


rigid


and


complied


more


readily


with


authoritarianism.


As before,










that

the


there w

identity


ere


no significant


statues.


gender


Grotevant


differences


Adams


within


(1984)


validated


instrument


with


respect


to social


desirability,


merely


ensure


reflections


that


self-reported


response


patterns


responses


thought


were


to be


more


socially


desirable.


one


status


as measured


EOM-EIS


was


found


to be


more


Soc


ially


desirable


than


other.


Marcia


noted


that


identity


statuses


achievement


diffusion


corresponded


closely


Erikson


which


s ego


functioned


identity


as polar


identity


diffusion


alternatives.


Marcia


concepts,


described


other


statuses


, foreclosure


moratorium,


"additional


concentration


points


roughly


intermediate


this


distribution"


(Marcia,


1966,


552).


While


identity


achievement


status


was


the


obvious


ideal,


Marcia


did


specifically


outline


progression


or sequence


of statuses


However


that


development


, theoretically


one


would


would


normally


expect


follow.


successful


identity


development


to proceed


from


diffusion


through


higher


identity


statuses,


moratorium


achievement


(Waterman,


1982)


There


have


been


four


longitudinal


studies


that


have


tested


various


assumptions


regarding


this


developmental










that


while


in general


there


is a progressive


shift


higher


identity


regressive


shifts


statuses


were


during


noted


the


college


some


years,


subjects


who


had


previously


identity


crises.


achieved


a successful


Furthermore,


Marcia


resolution


(1976)


their


found,


during


a six


year


follow-up


study


of adult


males,


that


many


high


identity


status


individuals


moved


to lower


identity


statuses,


particularly


foreclosure.


Therefore,


success


resolution


of identity


crises


does


not


guarantee


permanence


commitments


formed.


possible


reason


these


shifts


in identity


status


a change


in the


domain


that


individual


focus


of development.


focus


model


of identity


development


was


first


proposed


Coleman


(1974,


1978),


who


suggest


that


domain


issues


are


addressed


sequentially


rather


than


concurrently.


Kroger


(1986)


found


personal


support


identity


idea


is not


that


necessarily


development


a global


acc


ompli


shment,


but


rather


resolution


of a series


distinct


domain-specific


psychosocial


crises.


Individuals


focus


on certain


issues


at certain


times


their


lives.


most


crucial


tasks


college


-age


adolescents


development


occupational


identity.


Indeed,


Kroqer


(1988)


found


that










of females

statuses).


had

The


identical

domain c


occupational


combination


that


global


best


identity


predicted


global


identity


status


was


that


of occupation,


religion,


politics


males


(which


percent


produced


a match


of females).


88.9 percent


Therefore,


it is


important


recognize


that


the


individual


s focus


development


should


taken


into


account


when


trying


assess


global


identity.


Due


these


limitations


current


interpretation


identity


status


paradigm,


Marcia


(1976)


proposed


as a process


rather


that


than


identity


a state,


status


in order


be reinterpreted


to provide


deeper


understanding


mechanisms


change


and


growth


self.


He said:


problem


a static


with


quality


There


has


statu


ses


identity


always


been


that


never


a process


they


have


static
aspect


inherent
status.


explicitly


process
identity


take


this


in the


determination


The


issue


define


of identity


now


then


elements.


should


more


measure


Any


have


movement


these


adequate


descriptive


into


account.


terms
(pp.


theory of
that
152-153)


There


are


many


potential


advantages


viewing


identity


change


through


such


a process


model.


Rather


than


view


identity


way


formation


adolescents


as the


cope


final


with


product


changes


of adolescence,


self could


become


basis


- -


understanding


adult


identity


change.


wD w










to another


throughout


their


life


time


order


cope


with


needed


identity


changes


status


could


self.


be viewed


Additionally,


as a different


each


style


processing


information


about


self


Berzonsky,


1990).


Here,


each


status


may


seen


as having


adaptive


value


in allowing


person


cope


with


potential


identity


change


in such


a way


that


it does


not


threaten


total


self-structure.


Identity


Formation


as a Process


In his


1990)


extension


recently


of Marcia


advanced


s work,


a process


Berzonsky


model


(1988,


of identity


formation


based


on a constructivist


approach.


Berzonsky


views


an individual'


developing


identity


much


like


scientific


investigation.


An individual


acts


scientist


actively


constructing


a theory


about


himself


herself.


This


self


-theory


contains


a sys


temr


of cognitive


schemas


guiding


future


behavior.


When


the


exi


sting


cognitive


schemas


fail


to help


guide


individual


through


process


disconfirmed,


of assimilation,


modified,


of accommodation.


Like


revised


a personal


they


are


through


scientist,


process


the


individual


theory for


forms


an increasingly


understanding


self


viable


through


comprehensive


a process


---- ---










Berzonsky


(1987,


1988)


views


Marcia


s identity


statuses


as representing


three


different


scientific


styles


processing


assimilating


self-relevant


information


this


view,


both


achieved


and


moratorium


individuals


would


share


an open


style


in which


they


actively


seek,


process,


utilize


self-relevant


information


prior


to developing


firm


personal


beliefs


commitments.


Thus,


these


self-reflective


individuals


tend


to be


more


information-oriented


adaptable


their


self-theories


In contrast,


individuals


with


more


closed


style


tend


to rely


more


on the


available


prescriptions


standards


of significant


groups


order


to meet


expectations


of others.


Like


Marcia


(1966)


foreclosed


identity


status,


these


more


normatively


oriented


individuals


function


as dogmatic


theorists


who


tend


revise


to defend


their


preexisting


self-theories.


self-perceptions


Lastly,


rather


diffuse


than


style


associated


with


either


a lack


an adequate


self-theory


or a fragmented


self-theory.


Individuals


who


are


diffusely


oriented


rely


on the


situational


demands


determine


their


behavior


beliefs


rather


than


being


directed


an internalized


of commitments


and


convictions.


Berzonsky


(1987


, p.


describes


persons


adoption


style


of functioning


d hoc


theorists,










Differences


Identity


Processing


Recent


research


examining


Berzonsky


s theory


has


used


Kelly


(1955)


theory


of personal


constructs


provide


individual


a means


testing


s self-theory.


structural


In the


view


features


of personal


construct


theory


(PCT),


people


are


active


explorers


striving


to understand


gain


some


measure


of control


over


make


their


sense


of PCT,


each


environment.


their


person


Their


experience.


a unique


primary


motivation


According


"personal


tenets


theory,


world-view,


that


permits


formulation


"hypotheses


or expectations


about


what


will


happen.


mental


framework


enables


people


to approach


life


as a series


"experiments"


through


which


they


can


continually


test


and


refine


their


parallels


"personal


between


PCT


theories


The


Berzonsky


theoretical


s theory


of different


processing


styles


based


on identity


status


suggest


that


PCT


should


provide


an excellent


way


test


Berzonsky


theory.


Several

Berzonsky, R


recent


ice,


studies


& Neimeyer,


(Berzonsky


1990


& Neimeyer,


Neimeyer,


1988


Prichard


zonsky,


& Metzler,


1991)


tested


differences


self


-sc


hema


structure


processing


among


various


identity


styles.


researchers


argued


that


. more


more


_


-- -


rrl










In contrast,


more


normatively


oriented


individuals


should


develop


a self-system


that


relatively


inflexible,


poorly


differentiated,


and


uses


biased


processing.


first


exploratory


study,


Berzonsky


Neimeyer


(1988)


correlated


subjects


' identity


status


scores


with


several


structural


scores


raw


identity


status


scores


were


asses


using


Grotevant


and


Adams


(1984)


measure


of identity


status


The


structural


measures


of differentiation


integration


each


subject


were


derived


from


an eli


cited


10x10


self-ratings


grid.


The


differentiation


measure


gives


an indication


how


many


self


-schemas


are


available


subject


while


integration


interrelatedness


measure


among


indicates


these


the


degree


self-schemas


The


researchers


found


that


the


level


of differentiation


was


positive


correlated


with


moratorium


diffusion


scores


The overall


pattern


of structural


scores


also


showed


that


diffuse


individual


had


lowest


integration


scores


highest


differentiation


scores


Berzonsky


Neimeyer


concluded


that


pattern


of findings


lent


some


support


to the


theory


that


diffuse


style


self


-theori


have


a fragmented


self-schemas


"Thi


type


of self


-theory


construction


one


would


expect


to find


an ad hoc,










nature


that


making


qualitative


distinctions


among


the


statuses


was


not


possible.


Therefore


a second


study


was


conducted


(Berzonsky,


Rice


& Neimeyer,


1990)


that


employed


a between-subjects


design.


class


The


sified


subjects


as one


for

the


this

pure


study

identity


included

v status


only


those


es.


Only


about


one-third


subjects


tested


with


Grotevant


pure


status


Adams


type.


(1984)

Results


measure


this


can b

study


e classified


as a


supported


predi


cted


relationship


between


self


-structure


identity


style.


Information-oriented


identity


Styles


were


linked


differentiation,


highest


where


eas


levels


normatively


of self-system


oriented


foreclosures


were


ass


ociated


with


lowest


levels


self-schema


differentiation.


These


findings


are


consi


stent


with


relatively


narrow


rigid


self-definition


normatively


oriented


self-theorist.


In a final


study,


Neimeyer,


Prichard,


Berzonsky,


Metzler


(1991)


tested


whether


individuals


with


different


identity


styles


might


be disposed


toward


differential


biases


in processing


occupational


information.


The


researchers


expected


to find


that


biased


hypothesis


testing


would


occur


within


groups


of individuals


whose










the


absence


of a permeable


information-oriented


search


process


, we would


expect


see


strong


confirmatory


bias


in relation


to relevant


occupations


, and


strong


disconfirmation


bias


in relation


to irrelevant


occupations"


Results


provided


partial


support


their


predictions.


Although


persons


in the


more


committed


status


groups


did,


as predicted,


engage


significantly


more


confirmatory


bias,


lack


exploration


characteristic


of foreclosed


individuals


failed


to produce


quite


as pronounced


a confirmatory


bias


as one


might


have


expected


among


that


group.


Results


of the disconfirmatory


data


furnished


additional


support


their


predictions.


Overall,


the


more


information-oriented


styles


did


show


less


extreme


disconfirmatory


bias


than


more


normatively


oriented


(foreclosed


status)


or diffusely


oriented


(diffuse


status)

related


individuals.

to greater c


"Strong


:onfirmatory


identity


bias


commitments


whereas


were


higher


levels


of identity


exploration


tended


to attenuate


disconfirmatory


bias


as predicted


on the


basis


their


greater


information-oriention"


(p.12).


The


researchers


concluded


that


Berzonsky


theory


of differential


processing


due


to identity


style


was


supported


this


study.










Impact


Identity


Style


on Autobiographical


Memory


Tracing


impact


such


schematic


processing


differences


on autobiographical


memory,


Neimeyer


Rareshide


(1991)


argued


their


exploratory


study


that


identity


styles


marked


greater


differentiation


active


identity


exploration


should


facilitate


greater


personal


memory


recall.


In other


words,


memory


recall


linked


self-schemata


, then


individuals


whose


systems


are


marked


greater


schematic


differentiation


should


show


higher


levels


of personal


memory


recall.


Particularly


since


information-oriented


self-theorists


not


only


define


themselves


along


a wider


range


self-schemata,


information


(Ber


also


zonsky,


actively


1990


seek


; Berzonsky


elf-relevant

& Sullivan,


1990),


they


should


also be able


to generate


greatest


range


of autobiographical


recollections.


Particularly


relation


to diffuse


individuals


, who


lack


a clear


self-structure,


or normatively


oriented


individuals


who


place


a premium


upon


the


preservation


of existing,


limited,


self-constructions


, the


information-oriented


identity


style


should


enable


higher


levels


autobiographical


memory


recall.


Subjects


Grovtevant


this


Adams


experiment


measure


were


of identity


selected


status.


using


From


-~-- -~










were


presented


with


four


highly


descriptive


positive


characteristics


that


were


either


congruent


or incongruent


with

recal


their


self-theory.


"specific


Subjects


incidents


your


were

life


then

when


asked

you


exemplified


or demonstrated


that


trait"


(Landy,


1986/1987,


46).


From


this


total


number


memories


were


recorded.


Results


from


this


experiment


provided


some


support


their


hypothes


in previous


literature


(e.g


Markus


& Sentis,


greater


events


1980)


that


subject


were


s overall


consistent


recollection


with


was


their


self


-images


than


events


that


were


inconsistent.


But


this


tended


vary


as a function


of identity


orientation.


When


recalling


positive


memories


that


supported


self-constructions,


the


highest


level


memory


recall


was


evidenced


information-oriented


achievers.


However,


there


was


no corres


ponding


support


under


schema


incongruent


conditions.


Although


foreclosed


individuals

memories, t


did


his


produce


difference


highest


did


not


number


reach


of incongruent


statistical


significance.


However,


experiment


failed


test


differential


impact


of both


positive


and


negative


personality


characteristics.


Because


foreclosed


individuals


rely


more


on the


available


standards








28

Purpose


purpose


present


study


test


differential


impact


of identity


style


on autobiographical


recollections


that


either


confirm


or disconfirm


positive


or negative

hypothesized


self-perceptions.

to selectively i


Identity


influencee


style


an individual


process


of retrieving


memories


life


experiences.


Identity


orientations


marked


an openness


redefinition


a quest


information


should


vary


predictable


ways


from


those


marked


either


defensive


preservation


of existing


self-constructions


general


absence


autobiographical


of such


recall


constructions.


should


generally


While


be facilitated


more


firmly


committed


identity


structures,


availability


of such


recollections


should


be qualified


nature


memory's


self-consistency


(consistent


or inconsistent)


valence


(positive


or negative).


HYpotheses


A main


effect


identity


style


is predicted


such


that


information-oriented


normatively


oriented


subjects


will


produce


a greater


number


autobiographical


memories


than


will


diffusely


oriented


individuals.










memories


than


will


subjects


who


recall


negative


characteristics.


A main


effect


valence


of characteristics


predicted


such


that


subj


ects


who


recall


positive


characteristics


will


rec


memories


more


rapidly


than


subjects


recall


negative


characteristics.


A three-way


interaction


is predicted


among


identity


style,


memories


self-consistency,


recalled.


valence


Information-oriented


number


individuals


should


produce


more


balanced


numbers


of confirming


disconfirming


negative


memories


personality


in regard


character


to positive


stics.


and


Normatively


oriented


identity


styles


should


show


disproportionately


large


number


of self-confirming


memories,


especially


positive


ones.


Normatively


oriented


individuals


should


also


produce


fewest


number


of negative


self-disconfirming


memories.


Diffusely


least


oriented


number


individuals


of autobiographical


should


produce


memories


the

these


memories


should


be equally


distributed


among


four


conditions,


suggesting


an absence


systematic


bias.


three-way


interaction


is predicted


among


identity


style,


self-consi


stency,


and valence for th


latency










to positive


negative


personality


characteristics.


Normatively


oriented


identity


styles


should


show


disproportionately


longer


response


time


when


recalling


self-disconfirming

Diffusely oriented


memories,

individual


especially

s should p


negative


ones.


reduce


shortest


response


times


in all


four


conditions.


self


-disconfirming


memories,


a two-way


interaction


between


is predi


identity


cted


style


level


valence


of self-change.


of characteristics


Diffusely


oriented


widely


individuals


with


' self-perceptions


nature


should


condition


vary


memory


recall.


Information-oriented


individuals


are


predicted


to change


their


self-perceptions


more


judic


iously


but


still


incorporate


self-di


screpant


information.


Normatively


oriented


individuals


are


predicted


to be


the


least


responsive


to changing


self-perceptions,


particularly


when


confronted


with


image-discrepant,


negative


recollections.
















CHAPTER ]
METHODS


The


present


study


was


designed


to explore


the


relationship


between


identity


development


autobiographical


memory


recall.


was


expected


that


individual


s identity


style


would


carry


implications


both


that


person


s ability


to retrieve


personal


memories


also for


impact


these


recollections


upon


that


person


s self-theory.


In order


test


these


hypoth


eses,


a three-way


factorial


design


was


employed.


The


first


factor


had


to do with


subject


s style


processing


and


ass


imilating


self-relevant


information.


three


basic


identity


styles


are


an information-seeking


orientation,


a normative


orientation,


a diffuse


orientation.


next


factors


determined


nature


cues


presented


to the


subject


recall,


thus


had


to do with


type


memories


solicited


. The


first


these


factors


, schemata


valence,


indicated


whether


memories


related


subject


s positive


characteristics


or negative


character


stics.


The


final


factor,


schemata


validation,


indicated


whether


the










addition,


since


a subject


s mood


was


known


to be capable


of affe


cting


recall,


a measure


of depression


was


used


a check


ensure


equivalency


groups


along


this


variable


Subjects


Prior


testing,


potential


subj


ects


were


given


pretest


pretest


their


consisted


introductory


of admini


psychology


string


sses.


Extended


The


Objective


Measure


of Ego


Identity


Status


(EOM


-EIS


- Grotevant


Adams,


1984)


A total


of 628


subjects


were


pretested.


From


people


were


identified


as potential


subjects


the


sis


their


scores


on thi


instrument


(106


information


-oriented,


56 normatively


oriented


and


diffusely


oriented


subj


ects


These


subjects


were


then


contacted


experiment.


telephone


total


of 205


asked t

people


o parti


cipate


completed


in the

final


experiment


(132


females


73 mal


ages


subjects


ranged


from


to 24


with


a mean


of 19


years.


subjects


received


one


experimental


credit


completing


pretest,


credits


parti


cipating


experiment.


Subj


ects


were


randomly


assigned


experimental


conditions.


experimental


conditions


were


designated










assured


While


use


experimenter


subject


numbers


introduced


identification.


explained


each


experimental


task


subject,


no one


was


present


room


with


subject


during


completion


of each


tasks/, assuring


EOM


the subj


ects


developed


of complete


Grotevant


and


privacy


Adams


(1984),


measures


overall


level


of identity


development


It is based


on the


original


measure


devised


Adams


(1966)


Shea


ass


, and


ification


(1979),


of identity


which


status


used


into


Marcia


four


categories


The


EOM


-EIS


contain


items


8 items


pertaining


to each


4 identity


statuses


(achievement


, moratorium,


diffusion,


forec


closure)


eac


h of 2 domains


ideological


(relating


oCC


upation,


religion,


erpers


politics


onal


, and


(relating


philosophical


to friendship,


life


style)


dating


, sex


recreation)


Only


ideological


subscal


was


used


this


study


because


more


ose


tied


purpo


ses


subjects

opinion

thoughts


proj


were

express

and f


asked

sed i


Using


to rate


n each


item


feelings.


a five


degree

reflect


total


-point


scale,


to which

d their


scale,


the

own


internal


consistency

correlations


ranges f

ranging


rom


.84,


from


with

over


test-ret

a four-


est

week


-EIS










Subjects


identity


status


was


determined


during


the pretest

which apply


their

the i


scores


on the


ideological


domain.


items o

Every


f EOM-EIS


item


rated


on a scale


from


to 5.


each


the


four


identity


statuses


(diffusion,


foreclosure,


moratorium,


achievement),


there


are


items


which


strong


agreement


(higher


ratings)


characteristic.


Summation


ratings


each


these


groups


of items


produces


a set


of four


subscores


ranging


from


to 40.


Each


these


subscores


mean


a given


subjects


on that


subject


subscore;


compared


with


a subscore


more


than


one


standard


deviation


above


the-mean


is considered


a positive


indication


corresponding


identity


status.


Subjects


testing


positive


exactly


one


identity


status


were


ass


signed


that


status


group.


Subjects


not


testing


positive


any


the


four


statuses


subje


testing


positive


more


than


one


identity


statuses


were


excluded


from


this


study.


(See


Appendix


Berzonsky

representing t


(1990)


hree


views


different


Marcia


styles


s identity


statuses


of processing


assimilating


self-relevant


information.


Therefore,


keeping


with


Berzonsky


s theory,


achievement


and


moratorium


status


groups


were


combined


to form


the


the










style.


Finally,


diffusion


status


group


formed


the


diffusely


oriented


identity


style.


Procedure


Overview


experimental


procedure


conditions


involved


main


steps


administration


the


Zung


(1965)


depression


inventory


computer-moderated


admini


station


rating


memory


tasks.


The


procedures relating

be described first,


depression


followed


questionnaire


procedures


will


relating


tasks


performed


Administration


on the


Zuna


computer.


Self-Ratincr


Scale


The subjects

Self-Rating Scale


twenty-item


were

(ZSRS


first

) for


questionnaire.


administered

depression.


Each


the Zung


This


items


is a brief


statement


about


how


subject


feels


or behaves,


example,


am more


irritable


than


usual


Subjects


were


directed


indicating


to rate


how


each


often


statement


statement


on a four-point


applies


scale,


them.


four


levels


on the


scale


are: "


- a little


time


" "2


- some


time,


II if 3


- a good


part


the


the


v u










a depressive


symptom,


indicating


on a four-point


scale


self-reported


frequency


applicability


item


subject.


Increasing


ratings


indicate


greater


agreement


with


item.


Half


items


are


phrased


so that


agreement


indicative


of depression


, while


other


half


are


phrased


so that


disagreement


is indicative


of depression.


ratings


latter


items


are


reversed


sum


prior


to scoring.


20 adjusted


final


ratings


, giving


score


a scale


is then


from


Higher


scores


indicate


greater


degrees


depr


session.


ZSRS,


a brief


self-report


instrument,


has


been


shown


to correlate


strongly


.80)


with


Hamilton


Rating


Scale


(HRS),


a wid


recognized


clini


cian-administered


scale


(Biggs


, Wylie,


& Ziegler


1978).


ZSRS


appropriate


use


een


with


shown


to be especially


sub-clinical


populations.


Administration


Computer


Tasks


next


part


the


procedure


was


moderated


computer


program.


experimenter


first


familiarized


subject


with


computer


outlined


the


tasks


be performed.


computer


The


program,


identification


experimenter


providing


number


then


it with


a code


which


initiated


subject


indicated


- -










questions


subject


might


ask.


When


the


instructions


had


been


completed


subject


was


ready


to begin


the

the


each


of each


screen


askin


task,


experimenter


task

a the


program


subject


left


displayed


to get


room.


a message


experimenter,


who


then


prepared


subject


next


task.


There


were


four


tasks:


schemata


ordination


ratings,


schemata


self-description


ratings,


memory


retrieval,


and


re-rating


schemata


self-descriptions.


procedure


performed


each


these


tasks


will


described


below


, followed


a discussion


measures


derived


from


each


task.


(See


Appendix


C for


an example


interaction


with


computer.)


Prior


program


to beginning


presented


actual


subj


rating


tasks,


a generalized


six-point


prac


tice


scale.


endpoints


this


scale


were


unlabelled,


sca


was


not


presented


conjunction


with


item


to be rated.


purpose


this


scale


was


to familiarize


subject


with


rating


metric


to give


subject


opportunity


practice


simple


mechanics


of selecting


a rating


using


computer


displayed


keyboard


a mark


next


One a

to each


t a time,


the


program


six rating


points.


subject


had


to enter


corresponding


rating


- -A










that


variations


in the


measured


responses


was


not


due


differential


accessibility


rating


keys


Previous


work


has


shown


that


practice


exercise


suffi

500 m


cient


to provide


illiseconds


(Landy


uniformity


, 1986/1987)


response

After


to within

completion


practice


scale,


first


actual


rating


task


was


begun.


Schemata


ordination


The


first


rating


task


involved


schemata


ordination.


task


consisted


of rating


cons


truct,


presented


as a pair


traits,


on a six-point


sca


repres


enting


personal


importance


each


subject


attached


that


construct


see


Appendix


The


scale


"not


at all


important


456


very


important


total


of 28 constructs


were


presented.


pairs


traits


used


were


identical


with


those


used


Landy


(1986/


words


1987)


were


although


presented


not


Appendix


selected


distinguished


in the


same


D for


first


from


order


a description


three


of how


constructs


remaining


subjects,


, were


served


merely


as practice


items


to orient


subje


rating


task.


The


remaining


25 constructs


were


same


experimental


subject


subj


in a randomized


ects


order


, but


The


were


presented


program


recorded


to each


each


response.










a series


of items


on a six-point


scale.


In this


case,


however,


trait


pairs.


items

The


were

scale


individual

represented


trait

the


rather


degree


than


to which


subjects


felt


that


each


trait


was


self-descriptive


The


scale


was


given


"not


me 1


456


me.


" A


total


of 53


traits


were


presented.


As before,


first


three


items


, unbeknownst


subjects,


were


practice


items


only.


remaining


50 items,


presented


in a different


random

making


order


to each


same


subject,

trait r


were

>airs


the

used


individual


in the


traits


schemata


ordinatio

response


task.


in order


As before,


use


program


the ratings


recorded


to select


each


items


memory


Memory


retrieval


retrieval.


task.


third


computer-moderated


tasks


was


memory


retrieval


task.


Four


traits


were


presented


one


time.


subj


ects


were


told


that


they


would


be allotted


one


one-half


minutes


to consider


each


trait.


They


were


instructed


attempt


to recall


as many


distinct


incidents


as possible


in which


they


displayed


given


trait.


They


were


told


press


keyboard


clearly


as soon


marked


as they


"Enter"


recalled


key


each


on the


computer


incident,


then


to write


down


a word


or brief


phrase


which


would


help


them


identify


the


memory


later.


addition


the


the










issued


an audible


signal


"beep")


and


displayed


message


instructing


subjects


to stop.


The


subjects


were


given


15 seconds


to relax


re-orient


between


traits.


After


four


traits


had


been


presented,


the


subjects


were


instructed


to supply


an approximate


date


(month


year)


when


each


incident


occurred.


Appendix


E for


program


a description


criteria


operation


selection


cues


Re-ratina


schemata


self-description.


The


fourth


and


final computer-moderated

schemata self-description


task

task


was


a repetition


described


the


above.


traits,


including


practice


traits,


were


presented


once


again


in random


order.


traits


were


rated


on the


same


six-point


"not


me 1


345


6 me"


scale.


Completion


this


task


finished


computer-moderated


portion


experiment. -


later


data


processing


measures


derived


were

the


from


recorded

computer


computer


in a file


program


tasks.


on disk


ended.


Two


measures


the


subject


s ability


to retrieve


memories


response


presented


cue


were


derived


from


this


part


procedure.


The


program


recorded


number


responses


to each


trait


(retrieval


quantity)


the


delay


in responding


(retrieval


latency).


Additionally,


third


measure


was


derived


from


difference


w-- v










Retrieval


quantity


refers


number


distinct


memories


recalled


response


to a particular


cue


(Landy,


1986/1987).


As each


trait


was


presented


the


subject


on the


computer


screen


during


memory


retrieval


task,


subject


signalled


remembrance


a particular


incident


relating


to personal


expression


trait


pressing


the


"Enter"


key.


program


recorded


keypress


signal,


providing


a count


number


memories


recalled


each


trait.


The


subject


also


recorded


incident,


later


supplied


an approximate


day


and


year,


ensuring


that


each


incident


corresponded


a specific,


distinct


event.


counts


from


the


computer


record


the


dated


list


were


cross-checked


against


each


other,


to provide


verification


accuracy


this


measure.


counts


were


then


averaged


in order


provide


a single


score.


Retrieval


latency


a measure


the


delay


between


presentation


of a retrieval


cue


an indication


from


the


subject


that


a memory


been


accessed


response


that


cue


(Landy,


1986/1987).


The


computer


program


monitoring


memory


retrieval


task,


using


the


same


keypress


signal


described


above,


recorded


the


elapsed

computer


time


between


screen ar


the

the


display

retrieval


the

the


trait

first


on the

memory,










latency


was


calculated


as the


sum


elapsed


times


divided


number


memories


recalled.


The


self-change


index


is a measure


total


difference


in self-description


ratings


on the


four


recall


cues


from


before


the


recall


task


to after


recall


task.


were


The


ratings


subtracted


corresponding


from


to each


ratings


cue


time


time


and


these


four


differences


were


summed.


Summary


of Procedure


procedure


first,


essentially


administration


interactive


computer


Zung


tasks,


comprised


two


steps


questionnaire.


which


Second,


consisted


schemata


ordination,


retrieval,


a repeat


self-description


the


rating,


self-description


memory


rating.


Desin.


Analysis


Three


independent


variables


were


manipulated


3x2x2


factorial


between


subjects


design.


first


factor


referred


to information-oriented,


normatively


oriented,


diffusely


oriented


identity


styles,


determined


during


protesting


using


the


EOM-EIS.


The


second


factor


comprised


referred

levels:


to schemata

positive pe


evaluation


rsonal


and


characteristics










The


present


study


investigated


three


dependent


measures,


which


pertained


memory


retrieval,


and


one


of which


dealt


with


cognitive


change.


memory


retrieval


measures


, Retri


eval


Quantity


Retri


eval


Latency


, were


recorded


computer


program


monitoring


memory


derived


retrieval


from


The


ratings


Self


rec


-Change


orded


Index


that


was


program


one-way


ANOVA


with


three


eve


of identity


style


was


conducted


Quantity


using


to test


the dependent


Hypoth


measure


ser


Retrieval


tests


were


conducted


using


dependent


measures


of Retrieval


Quantity


Retri


eval


Latency


test


Hypotheses


2 and


seni


three-way


ANOVAs


3x2x2


were


conducted


using


the dependent


variable


Retri


eval


Quantity


Retri


eva].


Latency


test


Hypotheses


4 and


A two-way


ANOVA


was


conducted


using


dependent


measure


Self


-Change


Index


test


Hypothesi
















CHAPTER


RESULTS


AND


ANALYSIS


A series


effects


3x2x2


of identity


ANOVAs


style,


were


cue


conducted


valence,


to analyze


and


validation


on the


pretest


depression,


total


number


of memories


rec


ailed,


latency


of recall.


In addition,


ANOVA


was


performed


test


effects


subjects


of identity


perceived


style


cue


self-change


valence


when


they


on the


recalled


self-disconfirming


personal


character


CS.


independent


variables


were


between-subjects


factors.


Pretests


Prior


to conducting


the primary


analyses


, two


protests


were


conducted.


First,


in order


to determine


identity


style


might


linked


to subjects


' memory


recall


ability


/ 15 subjects


were


asked


to complete


-EMS


Digit


Span


subtest


Wechsler


Adult


Intelligence


Scale


Revised


(Fantuzzo,


Blakey,


& Gorsuch


1989).


The


Digit


Span


subtest


measures


immediate


recall


memory.


A series


of Pearson


s correlations


were










total


score


Digit


Span


test.


three


correlations


.11),


failed


to reach


suggesting


that


significance


(range


differences


memory


rec


among


identity


styles


are


not


due


to general


differences


memory


ability.


Second,


because


depr


session


been


shown


influence


memory


recall


Subjects


were


asked


to complete


the


Zung


depr


ess


scale,


x2 ANOVA


was


conducted


on the


depr


ess


scores


in order


to confirm


that


subje


in the various


cell


were


not


differentially


depr


ess


Analys


the


Zung


scores


confirmed


that


subj


ects


' leve


of depression


did


not


differ


signifi


cantly


across


conditions


There


were


significant


main


ects


or interactions


Sas reflected


Table


Table


2 provides


the


mean


depression


scores


each


condition.


Primary


Anal


vses


data


the


first


dependent


measures


(Retrieval


Quantity


and


Retrieval


Latency)


were


analyzed


using


(information


-oriented,


normatively


oriented,


and


diffusely


oriented)


sitive


negative


memory


cues)


self-confirming


self-disconfirming)


between-subj


ects


analysis


variance


(ANOVA)










46

N 0 N NU 04





F1o o He 0r 0 0 ('4





$4



rd0 CC 0" 0II Ci CV) N H
01 04 (9 0r LA (9 CV)~

U)9 aO a ~






(U H


(9 H (' H Hr ('4 Ci( nn




sI U)
o 0)L q 0, N C 7




o U) CO H H L

U) 0
VF





o 0~

0a H
o (U E


s-J I r1

I I a
4- (1 rI 0)a lj a


U)) r4E ClU
Ca X~ X (
>1 '0 ~
H ( Id11) 0I 0 rl 0)










47













SO 0l H r '4' Nr CV) H 44 (N N- 4
(P U) 4' ('4 (N CO 44 N (N (N (N (N H

0(/ N NT (01 44) tO) LI) LA 4') U) C

Cl)

01
CC H '4' 4' LA CV) Cr ) 0 0 Hl CT' CO
C)i NO t O 0 N3 (V o f) N
N O)
CD E cl, LA LA '' tO C) LI) 4' '.0 (t LA C)



0 (1 (V (Y) CV) (1 Cl Cl Cl (t) CV) C) C

(I2



o, (9 (' (' (N H H H H v- H H H
p4~I kk e k l r r r
0 r w lr r u il c r e
U) drr F c wL cI E: lt Z rF
O : o 1)r oco E:oE
$4II-tO UO U
04 C 2, 2 2 2 2n 2)r )
(Pl 0d 2 S-a 2F 1-. 2~ $4 2 2 2





-,I Ci 0) ) l CI 03 1) 0) 1) 02 C
) (U "ri p4 p4l p4l p4( p4 rf l r
C: 0c 0c 0 0c 0, 0,c
0 i l l( r r dc r d e
p4 r ,m mb mmt
42I (tO O Q1 a




(1) () @3 @l @l @3 0 3P @3 @3 4) 0)
0 ~ Ir C.) r1 p4 p4, r4 p4 p4 p4l p4l -H rl -
V 0) "rI p4 (5 (U -ri (U (U p4 "I (U (
$4 H: 0) U) 01 0' 0) 02 01 01 CD 0) 0- 0
Vt, 040 Zc 040 Z Z 040 Z wc
Crr l k k k ll ll I r
(Uc* r w o


rIOF 42 42 42 42 p4 r4 p4 p D U) (
02~~~ 42- 0 Cd C d 42 4 2 4
C I 2 C U u u 4 4 4-










Retrieval


Quantity


three-way


ANOVA


performed


on the


total


number


memories


recalled


revealed


significant


main


effects,


one


significant


interaction


(See


two-way


Table


interaction


Main


and


effects


one


were


three-way


found


valence


, F(1,


205)


= 34.82,


.0001


, and


identity


style,


, 205)


= 3.84,


.02,


these


were


qualified


a two-way


eraction


between


valence


and


validation


205)


, F(1,


interaction


among


= 5.16,


identity


p < .02,


style,


a three-way


valence,


validation,


, 205)


= 4.38,


.01.


The


main


effects


reflected


that


subj


ects


did


tend


to recall


more


positive


memories


= 18.94)


than


negative


memories


= 11.23)


that


memory


recall


varied


as predicted


according


to identity


style.


Student-Newman-Keuls


analysis


with


.05 revealed


that


the


highest


numbers


of autobiographical


memories


were


reported


information-oriented


individuals


= 16.60),


followed


diffusely


normatively


oriented


oriented


= 12.35)


= 14.65)


individuals.


However,


these


main


effects


were


qualified


interactions.


Using


a Student-Newman-Keuls


analysis


two-way


interaction


between


valence


validation


showed


that


under


conditions


of self-confirmation,


subjects










49


Nl 0i U) LI) C' C'
HS 0 CO N
So o 0I U) 0 0






lH N c C') Cl N HC'
Cr4VOQ r





U) N tO tO HO LA C' C



d ~ ~ 1(N 0' to Cl to

(U (I H (




(4 (N u-I ('4 HU (N HU ('4


4-) a


al
U' 0' N a) to w( N uc~
Hd U) 0' (N (Y (N (N C' C)

(U d t ) Ha C') H0 N

@3 0w H u(

sI~
42 0
0) U ) C:

Irl


Irt
0 Hd


o( (U


(U 0) 4.)



4.4 0 1

r1 4' )QI 'l O

Hd U) S Sl rI 0lr
OSh 'I Hr H Hh


0 N
>3r >i rl 1










= 11.83;


see


Figure


However,


when


subjects


were


presented


with


self-disconfirming


characteristics,


they


recalled


significantly


more


memories


when


presented


with


positive


characteristics


that


were


not


like


themselves


= 19


than


when


asked


rec


memories


of negative


characteristics


that


were


not


like


themselves


10.60).


This


interaction,


however


, was


qualified


three-way


interaction


among


identity


style,


valence,


validational


conditions.


Table


4 indicates,


the


three


identity


styles


reported


significantly


different


patterns


of recollections


across


four


recall


conditions.


predicted,


illustrated


in Figure


information-oriented


individuals


produced


a relative


balanced


number


of self-confirming


self-disconfirming


memories


both


positive


negative


characteristics.


When


subjects


were


asked


to recall


positive


characteristics


, a Student-Newman


-Keuls


conditional


analysis


revealed


that


they


recalled


both


self-confirming


= 22.57)


self-disconfirming


memories


= 19.89)


with


same


frequency.


Likewi


information-oriented


subjects


recalled


both


self-confirming


memories


11.20)


self-disconfirming


memories


= 12.44)


with


equal


frequency


(see


Figure


,















25 -






20 -


15 -






10 -






5 -






0-


I I


Confirmatory


Disconfirmatory


VALIDATION


LEGEND:


Positive


Characteristics


Negative
Characteristics


Sirr
rt giir


Effects


of valence


nmfh mn nrnri SQ r r


validation


1Iid


rE~r.17


nnmhcrt










52



C1) (rcr) Hn ON LA 0' it) It) CL) LI)
44; (1 C' C'4 ON 0V Hw Qb LI 0lCr
>iC/ 44 (I) ND to 0( 44 a)I) 1O U) a) C
U H Hl


(Y) 44 0' 44 0' CN CO (1) U)) 0' 0
ed(' ('4 ON 0U 0T tO If 44 C') 44
4) a, ar a)dOc 3 (
5 ~ r 44 U) ONl Nl C C 440 (fl (4 0 H


d~ Hn Hr Ho Hl H~ (NI (I eq Hu (4(
(92IQ IPdr o JL)OF
'I)id i ddi
jh4 c u O\


l 0) C) IA O CO HV ('4 N U), 44 CO (I (



'U CC tDOD 44 44 H CX) H U) 0 44 H
S) 42Q 0' ('4 to to 44 0j ON '0 tO 0 t



(C(U
*E EC CD 0' 0 44 U) 0000O
-! 0( U) CX (' 4 N 10 0 H (N N 0' 4
5.4 (1 a a ar a ar a a a ar





2 to a) nl Nr Crl eqeqo t
V, (N (N (' (' H H H
S


$4Q ) a c c u (1 a
0 -3



ci 0c 2 2; 54 2I $-a 2 $4 2c S 2; S-





'UJ AI 0J U 0 C) 0r Ur 0r U~ 0~ 0l 0
r4~ -4 U (9) C) 0) 0d ii 0C 0) 0 0) Cl
















25 -






20-






15-






10 -


5-






0 -


22.6
















-- 12.4


11.2


Confirmatory


Disconfirmatory


VALIDATION


LEGEND


Positive


Characteristics


Negative
Characteristics
- i.


Figure


Effects


of valence


validation


tr n fnrm~t i'5 rn-


rn'p aanr


rar=r ilrst~


C"h)" 91


nrrmkdr










self-disconfirming


memories.


A Student-Newman-Keuls


conditional


analysis


self-confirming


demonstrated


conditions


recalled


that


subjects


similar


numbers


positive


= 15


negative


= 13.00)


autobiographical


memories


see


Figure


In contrast,


subjects


in self


-disconfirming


conditions


differed


significantly


their


recall


of positive


negative


memories.


number


of negative


self-disconfirming


memories


recalled


- 7.10)


was


significantly


lower


than


number


of positive


self


-disconfirming


memories


21.5


see


Figure


suggesting


operation


of a robust


self-enhancement


effe


Finally,

individuals r


as pred


called


icted, d

an equal


.iffusely

number


oriented

of autobiographical


memories


among


four


recall


conditions.


Student-Newman-Keuls


conditional


analysis


revealed


that


differences


in the


number


of memories


recalled


across


both


self-confirming


conditions


sitive


negative


= 11.93)


and


self-di


confirming


conditions


sitive


.78,


negative


- 9.46)


proved


to be


insignificant


see


Figure


Retrieval


Latency


Viewed


as a second


indicator


ccessiblity


w B
















25 -






20 -






15 -






10 -






5 --


0-


21.5


15.8


13.0


Confirmatory


Disconfirmatory


VALIDATION


LEGEND:


Positive


Characteristics


Negative
Characteristics
- ---


Figure


Effects


of valence


validation


- *


L1---1..


'I,~





































10 -






5-


O -


I I


Confirmatory


Disconfirmatory


VALIDATION


LEGEND:


Positive


Characteristics


Negative
Characteristics
--- i .


Figure


Effects


of valence


validation


np rnmF~4am/yn


~~f ftl~~l~t~


f F\I~ al


nrtmhar


raF 3 1 1 11~










significant


main


effect,


one


significant


two-way


interaction


one


three-way


interaction


see


Table


Main


effects


were


found


valence,


ff1~,


205)


= 12.02


< .0006,


a tendency


toward


a main


effect


identity


style


, 205)


qualified


a two


2.66


-way


< .07.


eraction


However,


between


ese


valence


were


and


validation,


F(1,


205)


= 4.75


.03 and


a three-way


intera


action


among


identity


style,


valence,


validation


205)


= 3.89,


.02.


Support


was


found


hypothesis


that


memories


related


to positive


characteristics


would


be recalled


more


quickly


than


would


negatively


cued


memories.


The


main


effect


valence


reflected


fact


that


subjects


did


tend


to recall


positive


memory


more


quickly


78 seconds)


seconds).


than


negative


tendency


toward


memories


= 19.94


a significant


difference


among


various


identity


styles


terms


response


times


indicated


that


diffusely


oriented


subj


ects


produced


longest


response


times


overall


= 19


sec


onds)


compared


normatively


oriented


subjects


= 18.9


seconds)


information-oriented


subjects


= 16.7 seconds)


However


these


effects


were


qualified


interactions.


Using


a Student-Newman-Keuls


analysis.


---


I Fl










58


LA (0 Cd (N H O
eq 0 N N3 OI 0 CM
04 ~ N 0I rj4 (v 0' C)


o0 0U LA H H 0I 0



to ('4 0 LA LA




'a a o t~ o eq, 'a



a a SS
CM ('4 ('4 e






LI N 0'1 (V) CD ~ rEl

to in e o a' toCVC
USc N H -I (4



V 0'


>1C



S cU Q0 0 1 (4 t

Hr U) (f ) N0 7 "

cU~~ (fl N '

44 ('4 (
4)l 0r H
lr1 *



5-4 4-', rQ Il Q

o~ (U
h h l*rl










presented


with


positive


self


-characteristi


= 17


second


than


when


asked


to confirm


negative


self-characteristi


= 19.9 seconds


see


Figure


In a similar


way,


subj


ects


who


were


pres


ented


with


positive


characteristic


that


were


not


like


these


ves


recalled


memories


significantly


more


quickly


= 14.5


seconds)


than


when


asked


to recall


memories


of negative


charact


eristi


that


were


not


like


themselves


= 19.9


seconds


s interaction,


however


, was


qualified


three-way


interaction


among


identity


style


, valence,


validational


conditions


As Table


6 indicates,


the


three


identity


styles


reported


significantly


different


patterns


response


times


across


the four


recall


conditions.


predi


cted,


information-orient


ed individuals


produced


equal


res


ponse


times


self-confirming


self-di


confirming


memory


both


positive


negative


characteristic


When


subjects


were


asked


recall


positive


character


/ a Student-Newman-Keul


conditional


analysis


revealed


that


they


recalled


both


self-confirming


memories


= 14.2


sec


onds


and


self-disconfirming


memory


= 15.6 seconds)


with


same


speed


of recall.


Negative


memories


were


recalled


with


similar


speed


overall


with


information-oriented


with


-- v














25-





20 -





15 -





10 -





5-


Confirmatory


Disconfirmatory


VALIDATION


LEGEND:


Positive


Characteristics


Negative
Characteristics


Figure


Effects


of valence


validation c










61




r4 0 C1)





o tO t


r4





V1
jh.4 c

uS0 00 U




(U (






tr( H 04 (1)
Ft C V 0
C D








sIr



o Cl N 0 O L




dl U' 0I 0, LA



Ir
(4.4If
r-4I I 8\ r










62


















t3' v- NIc


U, U

o r-4 ('4 (9 ('4 0 0 CX
of vs en (4 f) C




C

C.)





Ir

-I Z N, (9 0 C
0U (N (1 H Hd Hr Hr
U)r I r J
$4IOa~ooa
0 cP








4.) 0 0, 4) (1) 0d 0,

Ud .r4 *rI (rI *r
C, .i- 42 .42 k il r
4) 0 *rI S r1 (U r
OE -I 02; CD 0
(U~~ 0 0( 0
















25 -


20 -


19.3


- -----__17.9


15--






10 -


5-







0 -


15.6


14.2


Confirmatory


Disconfirmatory


VALIDATION


LEGEND:


Positive


Characteristics


Negative
Characteristics
---- S


Fiaure


Effects


of valence


validation


-~~ 5. rCSL


__


,


__ ~


mmA--


I m










Partial


support


was


found


prediction


that


normatively


oriented


individuals


would


show


disproportionately


longer


response


time


when


recalling


self


-disconfirming


memories,


especially


negative


self-characteristics.


A Student


-Newman-Keul s


conditional


analysis


demonstrated


that


under


self-disconfirming


conditions,


normatively


oriented


subjects


did


significantly


differ


their


response


times.


The


latency


of recall


negative


self-disconfirming


memories


= 23.6 seconds


was


significantly


higher


than


positive


self-di


confirming


memories


= 14.0


seconds;


see


Figure


Finally,


partial


support


was


found


prediction


that


diffusely


oriented


individuals


would


produce


response


times


with


relatively


equal


latency


among


four


recall


conditions,


the exception


being


rapidity


with


which


they


recalled


positive,


self-disconfirming,


memories


see


Figure


Self-Chance


final


analyses


addressed


relative


degrees


perceived


self-change


among


three


identity


styles


following


recall


of autobiographical


memories.


Because


validational


conditions


____ W V


_ _














25--






20-





15 -






10-





5 -


0-


20.7 -. 2 -6


18.1


14.0


Confirmatory


Disconfirmatory


VALIDATION


LEGEND:


Positive


Characteristics


Negative
Characteristics
-m m- -


Figure


Effects


of valence


validation c


-














25





20 -


15





10 -





5-


0 -


I I


Confirmatory


Disconfirmatory


VALIDATION


LEGEND:


Positive


Characteristics


Negative
Characteristics


Figures


Effects


of valence


validation


. S










on a six-point


scale),


these


conditions


were


subject


ceiling


effect.


this


reason,


these


conditions


could


not


be used


analysis


of perceived


change


, since


they


could


change


little


as a function


of validation.


Conditions


of invalidation


(positive/disconfirm;


negative/disconfirm),


however,


reflected


memory


recall


along


dimensions


that


were


initially


self-descriptiveness


.e.,


rated


or 2


on a six


point


scale)


and


that


reason


could


be subject


modification


if disconfirmed.


In other


words


,these


originally


non-self


-descriptive


characteristics


might


become


memories


more


self-descriptive


illustrating


their


as a function


applicablity


of reviewing


self.


Changes


under


positive/disconfirm


condition


would


reflect


individual


s willingness


to relinquish


negative


self-constructions.


Likewise


, changes


under


negative/disconfirm


individual


condition


s willingness


would


to relinquish


reflect


positive


self-constructions.


two-way


ANOVA


performed


on the


time


self-ratings


revealed


significant


main


effects.


The


main


showed


effect


that


valence


, overall,


F(~1,


subjects


104)


= 12.01,


regarded


.0008


positive


cues


as more


self-descrintive


SA 1


= 20.01


than


the


pnatti v7s


w -- --


I I


- --









self


-similarity


individual


= 15


reported


self-similarity


while


lowest


= 13.3)


. The


normatively


amount


level


oriented


perceived


of perceived


self


-similarity


information-oriented


subjects


fell


between


other


identity


styles


= 14.0)


Although


these

between


findings f

n identity


ailed

style


to show


valence


predicted

, these r


intera


results


action

lend


partial


support


hypothesis


SIX,


suggesting


relative


resistance


to disconfirmation


associated


with


normatively


oriented


identity


style

















CHAPTER


DISCUSSION


AND


CONCLUSIONS


Results


this


study


provide


support


relationship


between


identity


development


autobiographical


memory


recall.


Central


study


been


renewed


interest


in the


relationship


between


personality


memory


in general,


as well


specific


transformations


in recall


that


may


accompany


pers


onal


change


reconstruction


(Barclay,


1986,


1988a


1988b;


Barclay


& Subramaniam,


1987


Brewer


, 1988


Kihlstrom,


Ross


1981


& Conway,


Markus,


1986).


1977


This


Markus


study


& Sentis,


followed


1980


from


rec


ognition


of personal


identity


personal


memory


erdependent


process


es.


This


conceptualization


self


is broadly


consistent


with


George


Kelly


s view


people


acting


as personal


scientists


who


continuously


strive


to evolve


preserve


a meaningful


sense


of self.


Bartlett


(1932


work


supported


this


study


s view


that


autobiographical


recall


is more


than


the


literal


reproduction


of psychologically


embalmed


events,


but


he aptly


put it, is


instead


"far


more


decisively


CfL.


__










continues


to mount


importance


addressing


function

attention


or purpose


Consistent


such

with


efforts

other a


continues


accounts


to draw


(e.g.,


Greenwald,


1980),


this


study


regarded


preservation


a meaningful


sense


of self-identity


as an important


factor


this


reconstructive


process


(see


Kelly,


1955),


predicted


development


that


could


important


carry


differences


implications


in identity


autobiographical


recall.


The


specific


hypotheses


this


project


have


been


derived


from


Berzonsky


(1987


, 1988,


1990)


conceptualization


of identity


style


which


emphasizes


differential


processes


assoc


iated


with


information-oriented,


normatively


oriented,


and


diffusely


oriented


pers


onal


scientists -


As relatively


objective


processors


, information-oriented


individuals


actively


see


k self-relevant


information


willingly


embrace


assimilate


Concerning


viable


reconstructions


contemporary


self-images,


self.


information-oriented


individuals


would


"skeptical


tentative


about


their


self-constructions


, responsive


to environmental


feedback,


willing


of contradictory


test


revise


evidence"


self-constructs


(Berzonsky,


1990,


in light


p.177).


contrast,


normatively


oriented


individuals


. wh


o have


r










Having


foreclosed


prematurely


on readily


available,


externally


provided


self-images,


they


operate


as dogmatic


scientists


rely


on assimilative


processes


such


rationalization


and


confirmation-biased


searches


testing

oriented


images


themselves.


individuals


self-theorists


who


are


And


finally,


characterized


continually


engage


diffusely


hoc"


in ephemeral


accommodative


changes


in response


vagaries


immediate


contextual


demand


see


Berzonsky,


1988,


1990).


These


broad


-based


differences


in personal


identity


should


carry


implications


nature


tran


action


that


occurs


between


self-constructions


and


recollections.


Accordingly,


number


autobiographical


memories


recalled,


latency


that


memory


recall,


and


impact


that


recall


subsequent


self-perceptions,


varied


with


the


style


identity


development


that


individual


brought


to bear


in forging


a sense


of self.


Implications


of the


Results


Overall,


greatest


information-oriented


number


individuals


of autobiographical


generated


recollections


and,


as predicted,


diffusely


oriented


individuals


generated


fewe


More


imDortantlv.


this


recall


- O


wCl










positive


self-perceptions,


as well


greatest


ability


to generate


memories


that


threatened


those


self-perceptions.


compelling


negative


This


in light


self-discrepant


latter


fact


memories


effect


that


is particularly


number


generated


the


information-oriented


individuals


were


almost


double


that


normatively


oriented


subjects


whose


predisposition


was


toward


pattern


preservation


of findings


supports


of central


the


self-images.


relatively


This


greater


receptivity


of information-oriented


individuals


negative


identity-discrepant


information.


It also


supports


other


research


which


found


that


normatively


oriented


individuals


tend


to employ


constri


action


and


withdrawal


under


ego-threatening


conditions


(Waterman


Waterman


, 1974).


Furthermore


, looking


across


four


memory


recall


conditions,

speculations


these

that


data

may


invite s

be worthy


ome


intriguing


of further


attention.


For


example,


contrary


to predictions,


it does


not


appear


that


normatively


oriented


individuals


engaged


in markedly


greater


confirmatory


memory


recall


than


information-oriented


individuals.


Indeed,


there


was


remarkedly


little


discrepancy


between


levels


confirmatory


-- -


disconfirmatorv


memory


recall


ror any or










study


would


be defined


the


tendency


to generate


relatively


greater


numbers


of positive


than


negative


memories,


regardless


their


consistency


with


self-perceptions.


Viewed


from


this


perspective


, both


information-


normatively


oriented


individuals


appeared


engage


in greater


self-enhancement


than


did


diffusely


oriented


individuals


this


regard


the


information-oriented


individuals


generated


significantly


more


positive


memories


= 21.23)


as did


than


normatively


negative


oriented


= 11.82)

subjects


(positive


= 18.63; negative


= 10.05).


Only


diffusely

relatively


oriented

greater


identity

balance


style

in the


was


marked


number


of favorable


= 13.49)


unfavorable


= 10.67)


memories


recalled.


One


possible


interpretation


this


effect


concerns


endemic


function


of identity


development


preserve


favorable


sense


of self.


this


regard


such


biases


may


be viewed


"indicating


that


s cognitive


bia


ses


are


pervasive


character


stic


of normal


personalities


as manifestations


an effectively


ctioning


organization


of knowledge"


(Greenwald,


1980


, p.603).


This


general


picture


of autobiographical


recall


influenced


differences


in personal


identity


strengthened


considering


impact


that


memory


,


. ..


V










changes


in self-perceptions


following


recall


memories


that


were


inconsistent


with


positive


and


negative


self-images.


As expected,


normatively


oriented


individuals


their


showed


preference


or accommodation.


findings


least


change,


assimilation


This


of Berzonsky


finding


Sullivan


again


over


is consi


(1990)


underscoring


personal


stent


who


revision


with


concluded


from


their


factor


analytic


study


of identity


styles


that


"normatively


oriented


individuals


may


cordon


a core


self from


potential


threats


of invalidation"


is also


consistent


with


broader


literature


that


documents


role


that


firm


self-commitments


play


in how


memory


information


is distorted


processed


(Greenwald,


Swann,


1980),


1985),


the


whether


extent


which


beliefs


persevere


in the


face


of contradictory


evidence

reasoning


(Lord, R

, highly


oss,


& Lepper


committed


, 1979).


identity


According


styles


may


to this

less


amenable


to potential


disconfirmation


of firmly


held


self-perceptions,


preferring


instead


to adhere


previous


personal


convictions.


In conclusion,


overall


results


this


study


provide


some


evidence


concerning


relationship


between


identity


style


recall


of autobiographical


memory.


Matter


of findincas


in this


study


were


d&A


I .


..










warranted


interpreting


the


results


study


The


cross-sectional


nature


s study


limits


interpretations


regarding


the


developmental


progression


of personal


memory


recall


Limitations


Inve


stiaation


One


limitation


sent


investigation


concerns


the

The


way

only


in which

measure


subj


ects


subj


self-theori


ects


were


assessed


self-perceptions


was


self-rating


of how


descriptive


themselves


particular


people


pers


initial


onal

y ten'


character

d to rate


was


itive


Because

character


most

stics


rather


highly


self


-descriptive


negative


character


as only


moderately


self-descriptive,


measures


of changes


their


self


-theory


were


plagued


ceiling


ects


Although


present


investigation


extended


level


asses


sment


a per


son


self


-theory


compared


level


used


in existing


experimental


specific


memory


assessment


research


, a more


needed


thorough


using


and


an asses


sment


instrument


that


ess


obvious


more


personally


meaningful


, personally


elicited


constructs


subtle


changes


in subje


' self


theori


could


be ascertained.


Also


, by


usina


haracteri


v.


that


were


more


nersonallv


c


-










Recommendations


Future


Research


results


present


investigation


justify


continued


exploration


organization


and


role


retrieval


of identity


of personally


style


meaningful


memories.


Rather


than


conforming


more


traditional


use


of standardized


memory


cues


found


in past


memory


research,


future


inve


stigations


could


rely


more


heavily


on eliciting


personally


relevant


memory


cues


through


various


techniques


available


in personal


construct


theory,


whi


ch might


lead


to a better


assessment


person


s self-theory.


use


of a less


obvious


measure


in order


to derive


a person


s superordinate


self-schemas


could


acc


omplished


using


a repertory


grid,


a laddering


procedure


(Hinkle


, 1965),


or a variety


of other


ways


determine


superordination


(Metz


& Neimeyer


, 1988).


Such


instruments


could


also yield


some


useful


information


about


overall


positive


or. negative


evaluative


nature


self-system


self-schemata


about


possible


interrelationships


changes


among


in the


organization


self-theory.


The


explore


continued


subjects'


use


style


of a computerized


processing


assessment


assimilating


self-relevant


information


could


allow


more


comprehensive


understanding


relations


between


vL CI~1~


i- D


I










example,


time


periods


from


which


retrieved


memories


came


were


recorded


analyzed,


different


identity


styles


might


be found


to differ


the


average


memory


retrieved.

















APPENDIX


IDEOLOGICAL


IDENTITY


SCALE


Read each

reflects your


item

own t


indicate


thoughts


to what

feelings.


degree


If a statement


more


than


one


part,


please


indicate


your


reaction


item


as a whol


Mark


the


number


on the


attached


answer


sheet


that


best


reflects


your


opinion.


ease


sure


to respond


to all


32 of


items


Do not


write


booklet


strongly

moderate


disagree


moderately

strongly a


disagree


agree


gree


neither


agree


nor


disagree


haven


t chosen


occupation


really


want


to get


into


, and


just


working


at whatever


available


until


something


better


comes


along.


When


comes


to religion,


st haven


t found


anything


that


appeals


don


t really


feel


need to


look.










Politics


is something that


never


can be too sure


about because things


change so fast.


do think


it's


important


to know what


can politically stand


for and believe


I'm still


trying to decide how capable


am as a


person and


what


jobs will be


right for me.


don't give religion much


bother me one way


thought and it doesn't


or the other.


looking for


an acceptable perspective for my


own


"life


style"


view,


haven't really found it


yet.


haven't


really


considered politics.


just


doesn't excite me much.


might have thought


about a


different


jobs,


there's never really


any question since my


parents


said what


they wanted.


A person's


faith is unique


to each individual.


I've


considered and reconsidered it myself


know what


can believe.


.










style"


don't


believe


anyone


will


be likely


change


my perspective.


guess


m pretty


much


like


folks


when


comes


to politics.


follow


what


they


do in terms


voting


such.


m really


not


interested


in finding


right


job;


any


will


just


seem


to flow


with


what


available.


m not


sure


what


religion


means


me.


like


make


up my


mind


but


m not


done


looking


yet.


15. My


own


views


on a desirable


life


style were


taught


me by


my parents


and


don


see


need


to question


what


they


taught


me.


There


are


so many


different


political


parties


and


ideals.


can


t decide


which


to follow


until


figure


it all


out.


took


me a while


to figure


it out,


but


now


really


know


what


want


a career.


...


.










In finding


an acceptable


viewpoint


to life


itself,


find


myself


engaging


a lot


discussions


with


others


some


self-exploration.


ve thought


my political


beliefs


through


realize


can


agree


with


some


not


other


aspects


what


my parents


believe.


parents


decided


a long


time


what


should


into


employment


m following


through


their


plans.


ve gone


faith


through


can


a period


now


of serious


understand


questions


what


about


believe


an individual.


23. My


parents


'views


on life


are


good


enough


don


t need


anything


else.


m not


sure


about


my political


beliefs,


but


trying


to figure


what


can


truly


believe


took


me a long


time


to decide


but


now


know


sure


what


direction


move


in for


a career.


V V










guess


just


kind


of enjoy


life


in general,


don


see


myself


living


particular


viewpoint


to life.


really


have


never


been


involved


in politics


enough


to have


made


a firm


stand


one


way


or the


other.


just


can


t decide


what


to do for


an occupation.


There


are


so many


that


have


possibility


es.


ve never


really


questioned


my religion.


If it


right


my parents


it must


be right


31. After


a lot


of self-examination


have


establi


shed


very


definite


view


on what


own


style


will


32. My


folks


have


always


had


their


own


political


moral


beliefs


about


issues


like


abortion


mercy


killing


ve always


gone


along


accepting


what


they


have.
















APPENDIX


ZUNG


SELF-REPORT


SCALE


FOR


DEPRESSION


(ZSRS)


Please


read


following


statements


indicate


whether


they


apply


you:


a little


time


, 2)


some


time,


good


part


time,


most


time


feel


down


-hearted


blue


Morning


when


best.


have


crying


spells


or feel


like


have


trouble


sleeping


at night.


eat as much

still enjoy


used


sex.


notice

have t


that


rouble


am losing


with


weight


constipation


. My


heart


beats


faster


than


usual


tired


no reason.


11. My


mind


is as clear


as it used


to be


find


easy


to do


things


used


to do


13. I


am res


less


and


can't


keep


still.










feel


that


am useful


needed.


18. My


life


is pretty


full.


19. I


feel


that


other


would


be better


if I


were


dead.


still


enjoy


things


used

















APPENDIX


EXAMPLE


INTERACTION


IN COMPUTER


TASKS


As part


procedure


elicitation


autobiographical


memories


, the


subject


was


asked


perform


computer


a number


program.


tasks


During


which


this


were


monitored


portion


experiment,


subjects


intera


cted


dir


ectly


with


the


program.


following


description


illustrates


procedure


used.


first


task


was


a practice


exerc


se.


prompt


was


like


six-point


rating


sca


le used


in all


subsequent


rating


tasks.


In each


step


of this


task,


one


numbered


items


was


marked


, and


subject


was


expected

following


press


ins


tructions


corres

were


ponding number

displayed at t


key.


computer


screen:


PLEASE


THE


PRACTICE


MARKED


SOME


KEY


KEY


. USE


PRESSES.


YOUR


PRESS


DOMINANT


HAND


After


a moment


, the


message


PRESS


ANY


KEY


TO CONTINUE


was


displayed


bottom


right


corner


screen.


When


subject


had


read


instructions


felt


ready










following


display


to be


presented:


* ** *


The


message


PRESS


KEY


CORRESPONDING


TO "X"


appeared


bottom


right


corner


display.


Pres


sing


changed


display


the


following


The


subject


continued


pressing


indicated


key


until


items


had


been


used.


Then


message


PRESS S

screen,


PACE


again


TO CONTINUE


indicating


appeared


that


subject


bottom


could


continue


as soon


as he


or she


was


ready


Next,


subjects


received


the


following


message


to guarantee


them


the


importance


experimenter


their


privacy


and


anonymity


PLEASE


LEFT


ASSURE


ROOM


THAT
WHILE


EXPERIMENTER


ARE


DOING


EXPERIMENTAL


ANONYM I TY


TASKS
VERY


YOUR


PRIVACY


AND


IMPORTANT.


As before


after


a few


moments


message


PRESS


SPACE


BAR


TO CONTINUE


appeared,


to allow


subject


proceed


at his


or her


own


pace.


next


task,


the


subjects


rated


importance


of 28 binolar


trait


nairs.


.










were


presented


on the


screen


as follows:


PERSONS
ACCORD
(AMBITI
PERSONS
BELIEVE
FORMING
DIMENSI
ON THE
DIMENSI
YOU BEL
IMPRESS
SCALE I


FORM
NG TO
OUS-LA
DIFFE
ANY P
AN IM
ON AT
SCREEN
ON ACC
IEVE I
ION OF
S:


IMPRESS


VARI
ZY)
R AS
ARTI
PRES
A TI
. PL
ORDI
T IS


IONS


OUS DIM
OR (POL
TO HOW
CULAR D
SION OF
ME WILL
EASE RA
NG TO H
IN FOR


A PERSON.


OF OTHERS
TENSIONS SUCH AS
ITE-IMPOLITE).
IMPORTANT THEY
DIMENSION IS IN
ANOTHER. ONE
BE PRESENTED


TE EACH
OW IMPORTANT
MING AN
THE RATING


NOT AT ALL
IMPORTANT


VERY
IMPORTANT


RATE ACCORDING TO
OPINION. YOU WILL


YOUR
PRESS


PRIVATE
KEY FROM


1-6.


Once


again,


reminder


PRESS


SPACE


BAR


TO CONTINUE


appeared


after


a few


moments.


The


experimenter


read


over


directions


with


subject


and


gave


examples


important,


unimportant,


neutral


dimensions


familiarize


subject


with


task.


Particular


attention


was


paid


to making


sure


subject


felt


completely


scale.


how


free


use


An example


experimenter


entire


or two


might


was


range


represented


discussed


rate


and


terms


then


additional


examples


were


discussed


from


subject's


viewpoint.


The


examples


were


taken


from


AMBITIOUS--LAZY


, POLITE--IMPOLITE,


WEALTHY--POOR,


FORGIVING--UNFORGIVING,


CONFORMIST--NONCONFORMIST;


. .










presented


the


program


as follows


YOU
DUE


CANNOT
TO THE


CHANGE


WORKINGS


YOUR


RATING


OF THE


ONCE


MADE


COMPUTER


DO YOU


HAVE


ANY


QUESTION


The


experimenter


stood


and


answered


questions


st dummy


dimension.


the subj


was


still


having


problems


understanding


the


task,


other


two


dummy


dimensions


were


used


to elicit


questions.


Responding


PRESS


SPACE


BAR


TO CONTINUE


message


to the


first


dimension


to be rated


(which


was


a dummy


dimension):


AMBITIOUS--LAZY


not at all
important


very
important


soon


from


as the


to 6


subject


, an


pressed


appeared


one


over


number


the selected


keys


rating


confirm


CONTINUE


choi


appeared


message


as well.


PRESS


When


SPACE


subject


BAR


pressed


space


bar


, the


the "continue"


message


disappeared


, and


first


dimension


was


replaced


with


new


one


, as follows:


FORGIVING--


UNFORGIVING


not at all


very










second


dimension


was


a dummy


The


subject


selected


a rating


as before


, and


then


pressed


space


bar


again


to continue


next


dimension:


CONFORMIST


--NONCONFORMIST


at all


important


very
important


This


third


dimension


was


last


dummy


dimension


task.


in privacy


subj


then


Each


rated


actual


true


dimensions


was


dimensions


presented


in exactly


same


way


as the


dummy


dimensions


The


true


dimen

ast d


sions


were


imension


presented


had


been


in a random


rated,


order.


responding


After

the


PRESS


THE


SPACE


BAR


TO CONTINUE


prompt


caused


screen


to be


cleared


the following


message


to be displayed


PLEASE
DON'T


SOON


GET


PRESS


APPEAR


EXPERIMENTER


ANY


KEY.


-- PLEASE


NOW


NEXT


PLEASE


TASK


WILL


WAIT.


After


10 seconds


message


was


replaced


with


instructions


subjects


next


rated


rating


individual


ask.


traits.


s tas


The


instructions


were


as follows:


NOW,


PLEASE


RATE


EACH


OF THE


FOLLOWING


TRAITS


ACCORDING


TO THE


DEGREE


THAT


YOU


PRIVATELY
DESCRIBES


BELIEVE


YOU


. THE


THAT


THE


RATING


TRAIT


SCALE










(Followed,


message


as usual,


a PRESS


experimenter


again


SPACE


gave


BAR


TO CONTINUE


examples


traits


that


might


like


them


selves


, not


like


thems


elves


, and


somewhere


in the


middle


examples


were


scuss


ensure


that


subj


was


properly


oriented


new


sca


understood


what


was


expec


examples


used


were


taken


from


AMBITIOUS,


LAZY,


POLITE,


IMPOLITE


, WEALTHY,


POOR


, FORGIVING


, UNFORGIVING,


CONFORMIST


, and


NONCONFORMIST


The first


three


dummy


traits


then


appeared:


LOGICAL


This


new


rating


sca


behaved


exac


the


prev


ious


one.


When


subject


had


ected


a rating


pressing


a number


key,


the selected


rating


was


marked


user


was


cued


to continue.


ress


the


space


caused


program


to display


next


trait


UNFORGIVING


not


As before


, each


trait


was


presented


turn.


The


third


final


dummy


trait


was










Again,


when


questions


were


answered


and


the


subject


appeared


to understand


task


, the


experimenter


left


room


The


50 real


traits


were


presented


and


subj


ect rated


them


, until


following


message


appeared


DO NOT
PLEASE


PRESS


GET


ANY


THE


KEY


AT THIS


EXPERIMENTER


TIME.


. THANK


YOU


After


a pause


, the


message


PRESS


SPACE


BAR


CONTINUE


was


given.


The


experimenter


pressed


space


to bring


st screenful


instructions


next


task:


IN THIS


PART


OF THE


EXPERIMENT


, A TRAIT


WILL
TASK
YOUR


BE PRESENTED


TO RECALL


LIFE


WHEN


YOU


ON THE


SPECIFIC


SCREEN


YOUR


INCIDENTS


DEMONSTRATED


PARTICULAR


TRAIT.


(Followed


momentarily


a PRESS


SPACE


BAR


TO CONTINUE


message


experimenter


explained


that


a trait such


as AMBITIOUS


would


appear


on the


screen


subject


was


reque


sted


reca


times


when


demons


treated


that


trait


When


subject


was


ready,


press
yt~da a


the


space


next


art of


instru


actions


PLEASE


PRESS


THE


"ENTER"


KEY


EACH


TIME


YOU
YOU


RECALL


A PARTICULAR


DEMONSTRATED


INCIDENT


TRAIT


SHOWN


WHEN


THEN


QUICKLY


JOT


DOWN


A WORD


OR PHRASE


HELP


YOU


REMEMBER


THE


INCIDENT.


WHAT


YOU


CHOOSE


AS LONG


TO WRITE
IT HELPS


IS NOT


YOU


IMPORTANT


RECALL


THE


INCIDENT.










they


had


recalled


a specific


memory,


experimenter


pointed


ENTER


, which


was


labelled


PRESS


HERE


FOR


EACH


MEMORY,


instructed


them


press


this


key


each


then


time


given


they


remembered


4 pieces


an incident.


paper


told


subject


to write


was


a word


short


phrase


each


memory


recalled.


The


memory


should


short


experimenter


relating


continue


phrases


then


asked


to AMBITIOUS,


pressing


as many


and


ENTER


memories


them to th

indicated


key


as they


ink


tha


of another

t they


jotting


could


down


recall


until


cautioned


computer


them


told


to only


them


make


to stop.


a short


experimenter


note


memory--just


enough


them


to be able


to recall


the


incident


later.


After


subject


pressed


space


bar


to continue


, the


program


presented


some


guidelines


recall


process:


PLEASE


NOTE


FOLLOWING


GUIDELINES


THE


INCIDENT


RECENTLY


MAY


OR MANY


HAVE
YEARS


OCCURRED


QUITE


AGO.


.YOU


THAT


MUST B
MAKES


E ABLE
THE I


TO RECALL


INCIDENT


SOMETHING


A DISTINCT


MEMORY.
INCIDENT


PRESS
IF YOU


MAKES


CAN


YOU


IF THE


HAPPENED


KEY


SAME


MORE
EACH


FOR


RECALL


CERTAIN


TYPE


THAN


ONCE,


INCIDENT


SOMETHING


THAT


THE


ONLY


THAT
OTHER


INCIDENT
OCCASION


HAPPENED


ON A DIFFERENT


.










distant


given


past


incidents


as an example.


relating


because


to AMBITION


event


could


were


vary


significance


, the


experimenter


gave


examples


insignificant


events


., studying


a test


that


morning),


significant


events


, applying


graduate


school)


When


the subj


appeared


understand,


pressing


space


bar


caused


following


additional


guidelines


appear:


. IT


DOESN


WOULD


T MATTER


AGREE


WITH


IF ANYONE


YOU


ELSE


AS TO WHETHER


INCIDENT


"COUNTS"


YOUR


OPINION


IS ALL


THAT


MATTERS.


. PRESS


THE


"ENTER"


KEY


AS SOON


YOU


RECALL


INCIDENT


IMPORTANT


, BUT


THAT


YOU


NOT


KEEP


BEFORE


TRYING


TO RECALL
ALLOTTED


INCIDENTS


TIME.


DURING


A TOTAL


THE


OF FOUR


TRAITS


HAVE


TRAIT
PERIOD


WILL


AND


AND


BE PRESENTED.


A HALF


A FIFTEEN


BETWEEN


YOU


MINUTES
-SECOND


TRAITS


YOU


WILL


PER


REST
WILL


KNOW


WHEN


THE


TIME


IS UP FOR


EACH


TRAIT,
APPEAR


BECAUSE
ON THE


"STOP"


MESSAGE


WILL


SCREEN


Again,


experimenter


read


over


these


new


guidelines


trying


with


subject


to continue


recalling


stores


importance


memory


full


minute


a half


computer


would


them


know


when


time


was


subject


was


told


to expect


total


of four


cue


words


The


subj


was


given


a printed


copy