The impact of trainee characteristics on family therapy skill acquisition of novice therapists

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Title:
The impact of trainee characteristics on family therapy skill acquisition of novice therapists
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vi, 3, 232 leaves : ; 29 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Goodman, Rita Lawler, 1953-
Publication Date:

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Subjects / Keywords:
Family psychotherapy -- Study and teaching   ( lcsh )
Family therapists -- Training of   ( lcsh )
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1991.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 216-230).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Rita Lawler Goodman.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001714606
notis - AJC6971
oclc - 25604980
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Full Text















FAMILY


THE IMPACT OF
THERAPY SKILL


TRAINEE CHARACTERISTICS ON
ACQUISITION OF NOVICE THERAPISTS


RITA


LAWYER


GOODMAN


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA


1991















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


deepest


appreciation


and


gratitude


are


extended


committee


chairperson,


Ellen


Amatea,


who


gave


me her


continual


encouragement


and


guidance


Without


her


encouragement


and


relentless


support


I would


not


have


been


capable


meeting


the


numerous


challenges


required


for


the


completion


Ph.D.


Her


warmth


and


guidance


will


always


an inspiration


me.


am also


grateful


the


support


the


members


committee.


Special


thanks


to Dr.


David


Miller


who


provided


insight


and


expertise


that


greatly


facilitated


the


planning


and


writing


phases


dissertation.


Gratitude


extended


to Dr.


Margaret


Fong,


Connie


Shehan,


Peter


Sherrard,


and


Jeff


Larsen.


This


study


would


not


have


been


possible


without


the


love


and


support


family


and,


particular,


mother,


Frances


Lawler,


and


husband,


Goodman.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


ABSTRACT


CHAPTERS


I INTRODUCTION


Scope of the Problem .....................
Need for the Study .......................
Purpose of the Study .....................
Research Questions .......................
Context for the Study ....................
Significance of the Study ................
Definition of Terms ......................


II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE


....................... 26


Historical Perspective .........................
Family Therapy Training Research ...............
Training Model ......... ...............***-***
Research on Therapy Trainee Characteristics ....
Variables of Interest in the Study .............
Summary ...................... **........- ..*****


III METHODOLOGY


Research Design ........... .........*..........
Population ................. ..... .. ... .*****
Sampling Procedures .......................*****
Sample .................................**** -***
Instrumentation .........................*******
Data Collection ...................*****.**.*.**
Hypotheses .............*...........**.-******.
Data Analysis .......................*******..***


IV RESULTS ..............

1 1 4 .n-tr X Ina 1 xye1 c


..............o oo..oo..ooo .****.oo*o 1ii


.. . . 1


()1,()()()1)1)1))()((1)((1~))~1)))1())11


(()))))())1)()~1())1I)~)))


-









DISCUSSION


Preliminary
Discussion
Limitations


Implications
Summary ....

APPENDICES


INFORMATION


Analysis
of Results


the


Study


TO PARTICIPATING


UNIVERSITIES


CLASS


CONTENT


CRITERIA


INFORMED


CONSENT


FOR


FAMILY


THERAPY


PROJECT


THERAPY


EXPERIENCE


INVENTORY


KOLB


LEARNING


STYLE


INVENTORY


THE


MEANS


FAMILY


AND


THERAPY


STANDARD


ASSESSMENT


DEVIATIONS


EXERCISE


OF TRAINEE


CHARACTERISTICS,


BY SCHOOL


REFERENCES


BIOGRAPHICAL


SKETCH















LIST


OF TABLES


Table


Frequency Distribution of Descriptive
for the Sample: Demographics .......


Variables


Frequency Distribution of
of the Sample: Educational


Analysis
by School

Analysis
by School


Descriptive
Background


of Covariance of Student FTAE
for Six Participating Schools


of Covariance of Student
for Five Participating


Means and Standard
Characteristics ...


Deviations


Variables


Scores


FTAE Scores
Schools ....


of Trainee


Frequency


Distribution


Trainee


Age


Frequency Distribution
Training for Individual
and Family Therapy ....


Frequency
Experience
and Family


for Amount
Counseling


Distribution for Amount of
in Individual Counseling
Therapy .................


Frequency Distribution
Style of the Trainee .


Results of t-tests for
Score and Descriptive,
Therapeutic Subscales


of Prior
and Marriage


Prior Work
and Marriage


Learning


(Total)


Preferred


the FTAE Overall
Conceptual, and


Intercorrelations


Among


Trainee


Variables


Intercorrelations
Trainee Variables


Among


Independent


and


Dependent
........... 146


Page









Frequency Distribution for
and Family Therapy Classes
With the Specified Training


Additional Marriage
Taken in Conjunction
Courses ...........


Regression Model for the Relationship Between
Posttest FTAE Overall Score and the Selected
Personal Characteristics of the Marriage and
Family Therapy Trainee ......................


the


Regression Model for the Relationship Between
the Family Therapy Assessment Exercise (FTAE)
Descriptive Subscale and the Selected Personal
Characteristics of the Marriage and Family
Therapy Trainee ............................

Regression Model for the Relationship between
the Family Therapy Assessment Exercise (FTAE)
Conceptual Subscale and the Selected Personal
Characteristics of the Marriage and Family
Therapy Trainee ..............................

Regression Model for the Relationship between
the Family Therapy Assessment Exercise (FTAE)
Therapeutic Subscale and the Selected Personal
Characteristics of the Marriage and Family
Therapy Trainee ..............................













Abstract
the UI


Dissertation


diversity


Requirements


Presented


of Florida


for


the


Degree


the


Partial Fu
of Doctor


Graduate
Ifillment


School


the


Philosophy


THE


IMPACT


OF TRAINEE


SKILL


CHARACTERISTICS


ACQUISITION


OF NOVICE


ON FAMILY


THERAPY


THERAPISTS


Rita


Lawler


Goodman


December,


1991


Chair:
Major


Ellen


Department


Amatea


Counselor


Education


Although


researchers


the


family


therapy


field


have


emphasized


the


need


assess


the


impact


of family


therapy


training


on trainees


differing


experience


levels,


there


has


been


limited


study


this


issue.


The


purpose


this


study


was


to investigate


the


impact


of the


initial


phase


family


therapy


training


on novice


therapists'


skill


acquisition.


In addition,


the


associations


between


four


types


trainee


characteristics


on the


acquis


ition


these


family


therapy


skills


were


examined.


The


sample


consisted


of 99 students


enrolled


introductory


courses


structural/strategic


family


therapy


drawn


from


five


different


academic


training


programs.


Participants


completed


questionnaires


assessing


level


prior


training


and


work


experience


individual


counseling









individual


of family


therapy


counseling.


Of four


possible


learning


styles,


more


than


of the


participants


described


themselves


as divergers.


Results


indicated


a significant


change


skill


acquisition


from


protesting


to posttesting


on all


three


subscales


Significant


the


scores


Family


were


Therapy


obtained


Assessment


the


Exercise


total


(FTAE).


score


.0001),


the


descriptive


subscale


score


.05),


the


conceptual


subscale


score


.0001),


and


the


therapeutic


score


.0001).


The


extent


initial


knowledge


family


therapy


was


significantly


associated


an inverse


direction


with


skill


acquisition


as predicted.


significant


associations


were


found


among


prior


training,


prior


work


experience,


or learning


style


and


the


acquisition


skills.


Regression


analyses


were


conducted


to examine


the


relationship


between


family


therapy


skill


acquisition


and


prior

and f


training


family


and


therapy,


work


experience


initial


knowledge


individual

of family


counseling

therapy,


and


preferred


learning


style.


Changes


total


skills


and


conceptual


and


therapeutic


skills


were


significantly


predicted


only


the


extent


initial


knowledge


of family


therapy.


In terms


trainee


characteristics


neither


prior


training


and


work


experience


nor


preferred


learning


style









Possible


explanations


and


implications


these


findings


were


discussed


along


with


directions


for


future


research


this


area.
















CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


Over


the


past


four


decades,


as the


field


family


therapy


has


expanded,


opportunities


to gain


professional


training


family


therapy


within


academic


settings


have


increased.


training


relatively


This t

family

recent


rend


toward


within


development.


academic


Most


professional


settings


therapy


the


early


stages


the


field'


development


(the


1950s


to 1970s)


occurred


specialized


research


centers


free-standing


institutes


and


was


carried


out


primarily


innovative


clinicians


rather


than


academicians.


Individuals


receiving


training


during


this


early


period


usually


one


social


had


the


work,


already


received


a terminal


mental


health


psychiatry,


professional

disciplines


counseling)


and


degree

(e.g.,

viewed


family


therapy


training


as advanced,


postgraduate


skill


training.


During


this


time,


only


a small


handful


universities


offered


marriage


and


family


therapy


graduate


programs.


These


programs


were


typically


the


doctoral


S


4 -


A. -3--- A .tJ - -a a a a n-n a A


- n~R n 4a I


providing


therapy


training


family


traditional

psychology,


,,m*r A~





-rurrur


~ L


1











In the


past


two


decades,


however,


as a number


marriage


and


family


therapy


professionals


trained


during


this


earlier


era


moved


into


academic


settings,


opportunities


graduate


education


family


therapy


have


expanded


In addition,


the


master


a degree


rather


than


the


doctoral


degree


has


become


defined


as the


standard


professional


graduate


education


(Everett,


1979;


Keller,


Huber,


& Hardy,


1988)


leaders


the


American


Association


for


Marriage


and


Family


Therapy


who,


the


late


1970s,


created


a set


of standards


professional


education

coupled w


consisting


ith


of 2


an additional


years


of graduate


years


training


supervised


clinical


practice.


This


set


events


has


resulted


the


development


of a significant


number


of master's


level


graduate


degree


programs


marriage


and


family


therapy


departments


of family


and


child


development


as well


within


departments


of social


work


and


counselor


education.


More


importantly,


these


events


have


resulted


a shift


the

than


type

not,


individual


a young


receiving


novice-level


such


therapi


training.

st with 3


More


littlee


often

or no


prior


therapeutic


skill


training


or work


experience


the


typical


participant


these


entry-level


graduate


training


programs.











Interestingly,


despite


the


growth


the


provision


family


therapy


training


academic


settings,


there


has


been


little


empirical


attention


given


to the


implications


of such

expected


a shif

from


either


family


the


therapy


design


training.


or outcomes


Although


researchers


the


family


therapy


field


(Gurman


& Kniskern,


1978;


Gurman,


Kniskern,


& Pinsof,


1986)


have


emphasized


need


those


assessing


the


effectiveness


family


therapy


training


attend


to the


nature


the


trainee


well


as the


training


content,


there


limited


empirical


evidence


concerning


the


impact


of entry-level


graduate


training


family


therapy


on young,


novice-level


clinicians


who


have


had


limited


prior


therapy


training


work


experience.


regarding


the


Furthermore,


types


very


of pretraining


little


differences


known


skills,


personality


attributes,


or life


experiences


of students


enrolled


entry-level


graduate


programs,


and


whether


such


pretraining


differences


have


a differential


impact


on the


acquisition


family


therapy


skills.


Scope


the


Problem


Despite


the


dramatic


growth


recent


years


opportunities


for


family


therapy


training


both


academic


and


nonacademic


settings,


there


has


been


only


limited











available


family

evidence


prior


the


therapy

e was a


field


training.


available


professional


concerning


the


Moreover,


concerning


training


effectiveness


that

the i


persons


time,


importance


entering


family


therapy


training


programs


the


merits


of using


any


specific


criteria


selecting


trainees.


1990


nine


studies


had


been


conducted


evaluating


the


outcome


of family


therapy


training;


however,


few


advances


had


been


made


specifying


which


trainee


characteristics


should


considered


trainee


selection


or evaluation


(Avis


Sprenkle,


1990).


Moreover,


because


most


these


studies


were


conducted


with


populations


more


experienced


therapists


and


did


not


usually


include


information


on or


consider


the


impact


important


trainee


variables


such


gender,


experience


level,


or previous


training,


has


been


difficult


to determine


whether


the


findings


based


on these


populations


can


generalized


to novice-level


professionals.


A number


reasons


have


been


proposed


for


this


slow


rate


of empirical


progress


conducting


family


therapy


training


research.


Avis


and


Sprenkle


(1990)


posited


that


major


source


this


delay


related


to the


difficulties


inherent


conducting


any


type


of psychotherapy


training











measure


trainee's


skills;


the


lack


of adequate


and


appropriate


instruments


measuring


trainee


behavior


and/or


skill


change;


and


the


lack


of reliable


knowledge


about


which


therapist


skills


or behaviors


are


associated


with


positive


therapy


outcomes.


In reviewing


the


state


the


art


psychotherapy


training


research


general,


Matarazzo


(1978)


attributed


the


slow


rate


progress


such


research


to the


following


situation:


We are attempting to measure a combination
conceptual, experiential, and behavioral
learning in a consistently shifting, never


duplicated stimulu
defined variables
instruments that i
whose use may not


another.
the measu
study is
complexity
consequen
not all a
described
942)


Because
rement an
likely to
y of the
t complex
aspects of


nor


are


s situation.
and inadequate
involve subject
be comparable
of the time-co
d treatment, t
be small. Be
behaviors to b


ity
the


their


the


tea


program
effects


We have poorly
measuring
ive judgments


from
nsumi
he N
cause
e lea
ching


are


one study
ng nature
in each
of the
rned and
program,


and
to
of


the


fully


measured.


A number


writers


(Gurman,


Kniskern,


& Pinsof,


1986;


Tucker


& Pinsof,


1985)


have


reiterated


these


same


difficulties


evaluating


family


therapy


training.


For


example,


reviewing


recent


research


on family


therapy


training,


Avis


and


Sprenkle


(1990)


contended


that


current


providers


of family


therapy


training


still


know


very


little


about


the


efficacy


any


their


training


approaches


and


---- w


L











the


lack


of definitive


research


this


area,


Gurman


and


Kniskern


(1988)


proposed


a set


of questions


to guide


future


research.

trainees


Among

profit


these

most f


was


rom


the

what


following:


type


"Which


of family


types


therapy


training


experiences?"


Other


researchers


concurred


that


key


issue


improving


family


therapy


training


efforts,


well


developing


a clearer


understanding


the


impact


training


on professionals,


centers


on identifying


those


characteristics


that


predict


positive


training


outcomes.


Little


known,


however,


as to


the


pretraining


differences


skills


or experiences


that


exist


among


those


who


seek


family


therapy


training,


as there


have


been


only


a limited


number


of studies


conducted


which


the


characteristics


the


trainees


have


been


examined


considering


the


impact


of family


therapy


training.


Furthermore,


most


researchers


this


area


have


utilized


samples


experienced


therapists


or have


employed


mixed


groups


(i.e.,


have


mixed


experienced


and


novice-level


professionals)


For


example,


a study


conducted


Tucker


and


Pinsof


(1984),


changes


skills


during


the


first


year


study


at the


Center


Family


Studies/Family


Institute


trainees


(CFT)


included


Chicago


the


were


sample


investigated.


were


The


practicing











single


group


pretest-posttest


design,


the


researchers


investigated


clinical


cognition,


in-therapy


use


techniques,


and


level


of self-actualization.


Clinical


cognition


was


measured


with


the


Family


Concept


Assessment


(FCA)


(Tucker


& Pinsof,


1981) ,


in-therapy


technique


with


the


Family


Therapist


Coding


System


(FTCS)


(Pinsof,


1981) ,


and


self-actualization


with


the


Personal


Orientation


Inventory (POI)

of trainees was


(Shostrom,

evaluated


1974)


The


rating


the


in-therapy

trainee's


behavior

response


to a "live-family"


simulation.


Four


professional


actors


were


trained


to represent


a family


referred


to therapy


because


the


son


had


committed


a petty


crime


The


training


the


actors


"was


designed


enable


them


improvise


response t

prescribed

(Tucker &


o each

and cc

Pinsof,


therapist,


insistent


1984,


while


mode

441)


maintaining


of family


the


interaction"


In discussing


the


results,


the


authors


suggested


that


trainees


did


not


change


significantly


the


direction


desired


the


training


staff


on several


dimensions.


For


example,


the


pretest-


posttest


scores


showed


a significant


increase


on only


one


the


three


subscales


the


FCA.


This


change


indicated


that


trainees


thought


more


terms


of circular


rather


than


linear


causality


the


posttraining


test


than


the











expected


direction,


and


one


changed


significantly


the


unexpected


actualization


direction.


during


The


the


showed


year


no increase


training.


in self-


In attempting


to interpret


this


finding,


the


researchers


suggested


that


most


trainees


began


the


program


highly


actualized.


Although


the


belief


that


family


therapy


training


can


have


clinically


meaningful


effects


on trainees


was


supported


the


findings


this


study,


many


directional


hypotheses


were

had


not confirmed.

a more limited


This

effect


could

than


indicate

many expe


that


rts


the


would


training

have


assumed


or predicted


or that


only


a longer


period


training,


or training


a different


type,


would


produce


the


effects


predicted


on the


other


dimensions.


In another


study,


Breunlin,


Schwartz,


Krause,


Kochalaka,


Puetz,


and


Van


Dyke


(1989)


examined


the


influence


three


trainee


characteristics


(conjugal


family


experience,


prior


experience


conducting


family


individual

acquisition


therapy,


and


family


knowledge


therapy


of family


skills


therapy)

trainees


on the

drawn


from


seven


different


structural/strategic


training


experiences.


These


seven


training


experiences


utilized


mixed


sample


therapist


both


drawn


from


experienced


a variety


and


novice-level


of different


training











three


settings


the


subjects


had


little


prior


clinical


experience


or training;


least


one


the


remaining


five


settings


trainees


who


had


considerable


clinical


experience


and


training


family


therapy


were


involved.


Data


from


students


all


seven


programs


were


analyzed


conjointly.


No analyses


were


conducted


regarding


differences


trainee


performance


program.


The


acquisition


of family


therapy


skills


was


measured


the


Schwartz,


Family


Therapy


Krause,


Assessment


& Selley,


1983)


Exercise


(FTAE)


a pretest


(Breunlin,


and


posttest


design


procedure


The


results


this


study


indicated


that,


as predicted,


conjugal


family


experience


was


positively


related


and


prior


knowledge


of family


therapy


was


negatively


related


to performance


measured


FTAE


pretest-posttest


change


scores).


Prior


experience


conducting


individual


therapy


was


also


positively


related


to performance.


However,


because


both


the


nature


the


samples


this


study


and


the


nature


the


training


experience

regarding


were

either


quite

the


mixed

actual


(with

levels


no information

of skills at


provided


protesting


and


posttesting


or differences


those


levels


among


these


various


groups),


difficult


to draw


conclusions


as to


how


generalizable


these


findings


are


to novice


therapists











not


trainees


are


suited


for


family


therapy


training.


Factors


often


cited


as considerations


selecting


applicant

factors


training


(American


programs


Association


are


personal


Marriage


and


maturity

Family


Therapy,


1979;


Everett,


1979;


Nichols,


1979);


cognitive


abilities


and


academic


credentials


(American


Association


Marriage


and


Family


Therapy,


1979;


O'Sullivan


Gilbert,


1989);


previous


professional


training


and/or


work


experiences


(Breunlin


1988); preliminary

personal qualities


et al.,


knowledge

(Everett,


1989;

of fami


1979;


Kniskern &

ly therapy;


Sprenkle,


Gurman,

and


1988).


However

family


these


therapy


established


mor


criteria

training

e on the


selection


programs


basis


have


of applicants


typically


tradition


than


for


been

any


substantive


empirical


evidence.


Proln rnna


Prnfsfiannal


Training


and


- -r -- -p - --- -- -


Work


Experience


A number


of researchers(


have


emphasized


the


need


examine


the


impact


the


trainee


s previous


professional


training


and


work


experience.


Kniskern


and


Gurman


(1988),


example,


posed


a series


of questions


regarding


trainee


professional


experience.


These


were


"What


are


the


types


previous


therapy


training


training?


that


"Are


best


prepare


there


types


a trainee


of previous


family


training











impact


trainee


characteristics,


Breunlin


et al.


(1989)


examined


the


impact


prior


individual


therapy


and


family


therapy


training


and


work


experience


on trainee


skill


acquisition.


They


found


that


both


prior


training


and


work


experience


family


therapy


were


negatively


related


performance.


However,


both


prior


training


and


work


experience

performance


individual

acquiring


therapy

family


were positively

therapy skills.


related

This


finding


was


considered


surprising


because


had


been


hypothesized


many


family


therapy


trainers


(Haley,


1981)


that


experience


providing


individual


therapy


would


hinder


the


acquisition


family


therapy


skills.


In another


study,


Zaken-Greenberg


and


Neimeyer


(1986)


reported


the


results


of a controlled


assessment


a training


seminar


structural


family


therapy


university


students.


Changes


the


conceptual


and


executive


skills


of 22 family


trainees


and


22 control


subjects


were


assessed


over


a 16-


week


period


using


a repertory


grid


and


videotaped


therapy


simulation


technique.


Results


indicated


significant


gains


family


therapy


trainees


but


only


among


those


with


little


previous


exposure


family


therapy


Difference


the


overall

noted.


number

Results


as well


generally


as type


intervention


supported


the


were


predicted


also


impact











In the


body


individual


psychotherapy


research


literature


Fielder


(1950)


reported


that


therapists,


regardless


theoretical


orientation,


become


more


similar


as experience


increases.


In addition,


more


recent


literature


reviews,


has


been


noted


that


increasing


experience


facilitates


the


demonstration


therapy


processes


such


as therapists'


empathy


(Auerbach


& Johnson,


1977)


and


patient


satisfaction


(Beutler,


Crago,


Arizmendi,


cited


1986).


therapist


Furthermore,


experience


Gurman


as a factor


and

that


Kniskern


(1978)


influences


the


outcome


family


therapy


and


suggested


that


training


outcome


studies


that


include


this


variable


would


quite


helpful.


Initial


Family


Therapy


Knowledge


Researchers


and


trainers


have


emphasized


the


need


consider


the


trainee'


initial


level


of knowledge


of family


therapy


assess


the


impact


training.


For


example,


Breunlin


et al.


(1989)


reported


that


the


higher


the


initial


level


knowledge


family


therapy,


the


smaller


the


skill


changes


from


protesting


posttesting


as measured


the


Family


Therapy


Assessment


Exercise


(FTAE).


Converaent/Diveraent


Thinking


Style


Among


the


assumptions


commonly


used


to select


trainees











trainee'


success


family


therapy


skill


acquisition.


Attention


has


been


given


the


individual


counseling


and


psychotherapy


training


literature


the


impact


of specific


trainee


attributes


such


as perceptual


style,


level


cognitive


development,


personal


attitudes,


personality


characteristics,


and


preferred


learning


styles


on the


acquisition


counseling


skills.


One


particular


variable


that


may


have


a significant


impact


on the


acquisition


of family


therapy


the


cognitive/learning


style


the


trainee.


The


trainee's


mode


observing,


organizing


and


taking


acting


data


upon


about


may


the


world,


influence


the


learning


of family


counseling/therapy


skills


just


as it


has


been


shown


affect


other


learning


tasks


(Lawrence,


1979).


A number


different


cognitive


style/learning


style


models


and


theories


have


been


proposed.


A well-known


example


the


Myers


Briggs


Typology


based


on Jung'


theory


of psychological


types


(Lawrence,


1979)


Another


the


model


developed


Kolb


(1976)


based


on the


accommodator/


assimilator


processes


proposed


Piaget.


These


models


have


been


used


to sort


individuals


into


different


styles


resolving


cognitive


tasks.


However,


only


limited


research


has


been


conducted


using


these


learning


style


models











Underscoring


this


point,


Mahon


and


Altman


(1977)


expressed


concern


that


individual


counseling


skills


training


both


had


learner


been

and


applied

learning


a uniform


process


manner


variables


that


that


ignored


could


affect


training


outcome


and


counseling


effectiveness


body


research


literature


being


accumulated


that


supports


their


reasoning.


has


been


suggested


that,


terms


therapy


training,


the


level


success


counselors/therapists


training


may


be related


to the


compatibility


between


the


cognitive


styles


the


trainers


and


those


training.


For


example,


Handley


(1982)


examined


cognitive


the


relationship


styles


between


of supervisors


the


and


similarity


counselors


training


and


supervision


process


and


outcome


measures.


Using


the


Myers


Briggs


Type


Indicator


(MBTI)


found


that


intuitively


oriented


counselors


training


received


higher


supervisor


ratings


than


did


other


counseling


students.


Similarity


between


supervisors


and


counselors


training


on the


Myers-Briggs


S-N


(Sensing/Intuitive)


scale


was


reported


to be


related


practicum


student


s satisfaction


with


supervise


ion.


Yura


(197


also


reported


that


feeling


types


predominated


a sample


master


s level


counselors











psychologists.


Experimental


psychologists


showed


more


thinking


more


orientation,


of a feeling


whereas


orientation.


clinical


psychologists


Rouezzi-Carroll


and


showed

Fritz


(1984)


found


a predominance


feeling


and


perceptual


types


among


allied


health


majors


stressing


client


contact


and


empathy,


and


a predominance


thinking


and


judging


types


fields


stressing


testing


and


critical


analysis.


In a competing


vein,


however,


Carey


and


Williams


(1986)


compared


18 supervisors


and


46 counseling


students


practicum


training


terms


their


dominant


counseling


style


and


related


cognitive


style.


Instruments


used


included


the


Myers-Briggs


Type


Indicator


(MBTI),


the


Counselor


Evaluation


Rating


Scale


(CERS) ,


and


the


Barrett-


Lennard


Relationship


Inventory


(BLRI).


The


results


this


study


indicated


there


was


a difference


cognitive


styles


between


supervisors


and


counselors


training.


Supervisors


demonstrated


a stronger


thinking


orientation


and


less


variability


on the


sensing-intuiting


scale


than


did


counselors


training.


However,


no strong


relationship


was


found


between


student


scores


on the


T-F


and


S-N


scales


and


process


and


outcome


measures.


These


cognitive


style


factors


family


therapy


trainees


have


been


examined


any


studies


date.











interest


this


study.


Kolb


(1975,


1984)


identified


four


modes


of experience


each


which


involves


an experiential


learning


cycle.


According


to Kolb,


these


four


modes


experience--Concrete


Experience


(CE),


Reflective


Observation


Active


(RO) ,


Abstract


Experimentation


Conceptualization


(AE) --must


all


(AC),


and


be accessible


the


learner


to be effective


as a counselor.


Abbey,


Hunt,


and


Weiser


(1985)


have


provided


perspective


understanding


the


counseling


and


counselor


training/supervision


process


means


of Kolb's


experiential


learning


model.


They


contended


that


Kolb'


theory


experiential


learning


can


be used


describe


the


sequence


counseling;


the


variations


interpersonal


response


of clients,


counselors,


and


counselor


trainees;


and


how


such


variations


affect


the


counseling


and


training


process.


Moreover,


Abbey


et al.


suggested


that,


fully


functioning


and


effective,


counselors


must


have


access


to all


four


modes


of experience


their


dealings


with


clients.


However,


because


counselors


typically


have


preferred


modes


of operating,


one


the


purposes


counselor


training


to assist


the


counselor


becoming


more


aware


his


or her


underdeveloped


mode


of operating


and


how


such


imbalances











(abstract


conceptualization)


may


have


ease


adopting


cognitive


or rational/emotive


counseling


approach


but


may


have


to attend


to not


using


that


mode


to the


exclusion


the


awareness


his


or her


own


feelings.


Conversely,


those


counselors


who


prefer


operate


from


an experiential


mode


(CE-Concrete


Experience)


must


be concerned


with


not


doing


so to the


exclusion


their


own


analysis


and


their


own


implicit


theory


regarding


the


client


s feelings,


reflections,


thoughts,


and


actions.


Thus,


although


trainees


will


find


counseling


operations


and


theories


that


are


congruent


with


their


own


dominant


modes


(i.e.,


Reflective


Observation


(RO)


dominant


trainees


may


prefer


Rogerian


stance


whereas


an Active


Experimentation


(AE)


dominant


trainee


may


prefer


to operate


from


a Gestalt


position),


they


will


need


to have


available


a broader


array


or ways

a wide


of operating


variety


on the


of clients.


world


to be most


Similarly,


with


effective


family


with


therapy


(e.g.,


Bowenian


hinder


a structural


approach)


the


family


pref


development


therapy


erred methods

of particular


approach


versus


of operating


family


may


therapy


approaches


and


facilitate


the


acquisition


of other


approaches.


Consequently,


a match


between


the


learning


mode


demanded


a particular


training


model


and


the











may


facilitate


training


may


or hinder


have


acquisition


of skills


implications


for


understanding


the


impact


of a particular


family


therapy


training


experience.


Need


for


the


Study


Researchers


are


now


offering


evidence


that


training


does


affect


change


trainees


on some


important


dimensions


(Breunlin


et al.,


1983;


Hernandez,


1985;


Pulleyblank,


1985;


Tucker


& Pinsof,


1984).


However,


there


a need


examine


the


more


teaching


closely


and


how


learning


trainee

process


characteristics


particularly


impact

novice


therapists.


Reinforcing


this


perspective,


Gurman


and


Kniskern


(1988),


as well


as Breunlin


et al.


(1989),


suggested


that


researchers


shift


from


asking


the


general


question


more


"Does


specific


family

question


therapy

s such


training


as "How


work?" to asking

specific trainee


characteristics


influence


.e.


either


facilitate


inhibit)


a trainee


learning


marriage


and


family


therapy?"


375).


They


proposed


that


specific


trainee


characteristics


examined


that


are


not


model


specific


but


are


general


variables


assumed


to enhance


the


learning


skill


acquisition


process


across


various


family


therapy


training


model


However,


to date,


only


two


studies


(Breunlin


significant


family











the


contribution


trainee


characteristics


to the


training/learning


process.


It is


not


surprising


that


this


specificity


question


the


field


family


therapy


training


has


not


been


addressed,


because


the


parallel


question


the


general


counseling


and


psychotherapy


training


field


has


also


been


extremely


difficult


answer.


Purpose


of the


The


purpose


this


study


was


twofold.


First,


the


impact


the


initial


phase


of family


therapy


training


novice


therapists'


skill


acquis


ition


was


assessed.


Second,


the


impact


of four


types


trainee


characteristics


on the


acquisition


these


family


therapy


skills


was


examined.


The


four


types


trainee


characteristics


were


extent


trainee


family


s prior


therapy,


experience


training in

extent of


individual


individual

trainee's c


therapy


and


therapy


clinical


family


and

work


therapy,


extent


initial


family


therapy


knowledge,


and


trainee's


preferred


learning


style.


Research


Questions


In this


study


the


following


research


questions


were


addressed:


How


can


students


the


initial


phase


of family


Study











their


prior


training


experiences


individual


therapy,


their


prior


level


work


experience


individual


therapy,


their


prior


training


marriage


and


family


therapy,


their


prior


level


of work


experience


marital


and


family


therapy,


their


initial


level


of family


therapy


knowledge,


and


their


preferred


learning


style?


What


the


impact


of the


initial


phase


structural/strategic


family


therapy


training


on the


acquisition


family


therapy


skills


student


therapists?


To what


extent


does


that


level


initial


knowledge


family


therapy


affect


the


amount


skill


acquisition


demonstrated


student


therapists?


To what


training


extent


inhibit


does


the


prior


acquisiti


individual

on of family


counseling

y therapy


skills


of student


therapists?


To what


extent


does


prior


family


therapy


training


inhibit


the


acquisition


of family


therapy


skills











To what


extent


does


previous


work


experience


conducting


individual


therapy


inhibit


the


acquisition


family


7. To what

conducting


family


therapy


extent

family


therapy


skills


does p

therapy


skills


of student


previous work

inhibit the


of student


therapists?


experience

acquisition


therapists?


To what


degree


does


the


learning


style


the


therapist


influence


the


acquisition


of family


therapy


skills


student


therapists?


To what


prior


extent


training


the


experience


trainee


characteristics


individual


therapy


marital


and


family


therapy,


prior


work


experience


individual


therapy


or marital


and


family


therapy,


initial


knowledge


family


therapy,


or preferred


learning


therapy


style


skills


influence


of student


the


acquisition


therapists


of family


the


initial


phase


of structural/strategic


family


therapy


training?


Context


for


the


Study


Students


enrolled


university-based


graduate


level


training


programs


marriage


and


family


therapy


that


were


accredited


or eligible


accreditation


the


Commission


on Accreditation


for


Marriage


and


Family


Therapy


Education


were


recruited


participation


this


study.











beginning


phase


training


include


acquainting


the


student


with


the


basic


concepts


family


systems


theory


and


the


historical


development


these


ideas;


introducing


family


the


systems


student


to the


therapy,


structural/strategic


related


concepts


model


and


intervention


methods;


introducing


the


concept


differing


family


forms


(i.e.,


single


parent


families,


dual


career


families,


etc.);


introducing


the


concept


family


life


cycle


issues;


assisting


the


student


developing


skills


necessary


assess


families


(i.e.,


collect,


observe,


and


organize


family


interactional


data)


order


to plan


counseling


interventions;


and


providing


interviewing


students


and


with


an opportunity


assessment


skills


to rehearse


Amatea,


family


personal


communication,


March


1989).


Significance


the


Study


Examining


the


type


skill


development


of novice


therapists


training


during


can


the


be useful


initial


the


stages

ongoing


of family t

refinement


herapy


family


therapy


training


experiences


academic


contexts.


Moreover,


ascertaining


which


trainee


variables


are


vital


consider


predicting


learning


among


younger


professionals


can


be helpful


shaping


both


selection


and


training











are


relevant


predictive


factors


performance


as a


therapy


professional.


Although


scores


on the


Graduate


Record


(GPA)


Examination


are


value


(GRE)


and


college


predicting


grade-point


graduate


student


average


academic


performance,


there


have


been


no established


indices


predicting


student


clinical


performance.


The


identification


of factors


useful


predicting


clinical


skill


development


could


make


for


a more


efficient


use


academic


training


resources,


as well


as begin


to address


the


question


of who


most


likely


benefit


from


specific


graduate


level


family


therapy


training


experiences.


Definition


Terms


Family


therapy


training


refers


to the


beginning


phase


training


family


therapy


at university-based


graduate


level


training


programs.


This


phase


training


emphasizes


the


acquis


ition


of observational,


perceptual,


and


conceptual


family


therapy


skills


as originally


defined


Cleghorn


and


Levin


(1973).


The


training


segment


consists


of a 16-week


semester


long


course


hours)


equivalent


a quarter


hour


system


family


therapy


that


emphasizes


the


structure /strategic


school


family


therapy.


Learnina


style


defined


as the


extent


to which











definition


of experiential


learning


theory


based


on the


work


of Kolb


(1976,


1981).


Family


theraDv


skills


refers


those


observational


(perceptual),


conceptual,


and


technical


(therapeutic)


skills


needed


to conduct


structural


family


therapy.


Observational


skills


are


those


skills


required


perceive


and


describe


behavioral


interactions


within


a family


session


(Breunlin


al.,


1983)


Conceptual


skills


are


those


skills


that


relate


to the


therapist's


ability


understand


a theoretical


model


that


enables


a therapist


classify


distinctions


according


to that


model


this


case


a structural/strategic


model)


(Breunlin


et al.,


1983).


Therapeutic


skills


are


those


skills


that


refer


to the


therapist's


ability


act


family


sessions


ways


that


are


consistent


with


goals


the


training


program


(Breunlin


et al.,


1983).


Student


therapist


refers


to graduate


students


enrolled


counselor


education,


counseling


psychology,


or marriage


and


family


therapy


departments


of universities


located


the


northeast


and


southeast


regions


the


United


States


participating


graduate-level


courses


structural/


strategic


family


therapy.


Extent


of Drior


traininar


refers


to the


number











the


number


supervision


hours


received


individual


counseling


and


marriage


and


family


therapy.


Extent


of Drior


work


exoer ience


refers


the


number


years


spent


providing


either


individual


counseling


marriage


and


family


therapy.


Level


initial


knowledge


refers


to the


student


trainee


initial


degree


knowledge


observational,


conceptual,


measured


and

the


therapeutic


Family


family


Therapy


therapy


Assessment


skills

Exercise


(Breunlin


et al.,


1983).














CHAPTER


REVIEW


OF THE


LITERATURE


This


chapter


provides


a review


and


analysis


the


theoretical


and


research


literature


on family


therapy


training.


The


review


addresses


three


major


areas:


family


therapy


training,


structural


and


strategic


models


family


therapy


practice


and


training,


and


student


characteristics


expected


to impact


skills


training.


Historical


Perspective


In a state


the


art


review


the


literature


family


(1978)


therapy


cited


training


almost


and


supervision,


references


that


Liddle


dealt


and


with


Halpin


some


aspect


training.


They


suggested


that


these


studies


lacked


the


rigor.


evaluation


Only


one-fifth


of training,


and


the

none


articles


these


focused

were


empirical


studies.


These


articles


documented


a variety


attempts


assess


training


outcome


through


such


means


videotape


assessment


or playback


and


measuring


changes


trainees'


work


patterns


and


job


related


behaviors.


In 1984,


Tucker


and


Pinsof


noted


that


most


positive


reports


training


outcomes


a -


1 -- aa


:II*rYIACICI~ A~CI


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associated


with


a change


actual


practice


outcome


with


patients.


(p.437)


They


noted


that


no research


evidence


existed


to show


that


training


marital


and


family


therapy


increased


clinical


effectiveness.


Although


therapy


research


growing


examining


(Gurman,


the


Kniskern,


impact


of family


& Pinsof,


1986),


little


empirical


work


has


been


done


to evaluate


the


outcomes


of family


therapy


training.


Difficulties


inherent


this


type


of research


are


the


reason


for


the


delay.


These


difficulties


also


characterize


the


outcome


research


individual


psychotherapy


training.


Matarazzo


(1972


identified


several


the


difficulties


confronting


individual


psychotherapy


training


researchers.


These


included


problems


with


design,


randomization,


simulation


techniques,


use


of real


clients,


poorly


defined


variables,


inadequate


measuring


instruments


and


small


samples.


one


the


first


empirical


evaluations


of a family


therapy


training


program,


Tucker


and


Pinsof


(1984)


reiterated


these


same


difficulties


evaluating


family


therapy


the


training.


evaluation


They


process.


reported


They


four


were


factors


confounded


complexity


the


type of
a.. .mnl 1 n


changes


/- a


being
nsmil4


measured; (

a0 yarfv an


the


rm i nat


lack

whieh


of a standard

tn measure











behaviors


are


associated


with


positive


family


therapy


outcomes.


Family


Therapv


Training


Research


In 1979


research


field


Kniskern


on family


s lack


and


therapy


empirical


Gurman review

training and


studies


the


status


revealed


of family


the


therapy


training.


a more


recent


review,


Gurman


and


Kniskern


(1988)


noted


that,


despite


the


tremendous


upsurge


family


therapy


training


over


the


past


decade,


there


is still


little


research


to guide


these


training


efforts.


Breunlin


(1989)


reported


that


"with


few


exceptions


training


programs


not


evaluate


themselves,


but


rather


what


they


consider


correct,


often


basing


their


training


decisions


on some


isomorphism


between


therapy


and


training


domains"


Two


different


bodies


of research


literature


interest


developing.


the

One


family


concerns


therapy


training


therapist


researcher


factors


that


are


influence


the


outcomes


of family


therapy.


The


other


concerns


empirical


evidence


the


effectiveness


family


therapy


training.


The


literature


on each


these


topics


reviewed


the


following


sections.


Research


on Therapist


Factors


Affectinra


Treatment


Outcome











evidence


as to the


effectiveness


of family


therapy.


However,


a number


studies


existed


(e.g.,


Epstein,


Segal,


& Rakoff,


1968;


Thomlinson,


1973;


Tomm


& Wright,


1979)


which


the


specific


therapist


factors


that


influence


the


outcome


family


therapy


were


examined.


Three


the


most


important


therapist


factors


associated


with


positive


therapy


outcome


were


therapist


experience


level,


structuring


skills,


and


relationship


skills.


High


levels


of experience


have


been


reported


to be positively


associated


with


positive


therapeutic


outcome,


thus


the


behavior


of experienced


therapists


can


an indirect


criterion


training


success.


Pinsof


(1981)


reported


that


advanced


therapists


used


a wider


range


interventions


and


were


significantly


more


active


than


beginners.


In 1984,


Tucker


and


Pinsof


provided


preliminary


evidence


that


trainees


became


more


active


and


used


a wider


range


interventions


over


the


course


training


More


specifically,


they


noted


that


training


had


a significant


impact


on trainees


terms


increased


systemic


thinking,


increased


activity


level,


and


increased


range


and


specificity


interactions.


Therapist


structuring


skills


have


also


been


investigated


researchers


(Alexander,


Barton,


Schiavo,











gathering,


and


stimulating


interaction.


Gurman


and


Kniskern


(1988),


example,


argued


that


the


family


therapist

without a


must


be active


ssaulting


family


and


provide


defenses


early


too


soon


structure

Alexander


(1976)


reported


the


finding


the


importance


structuring


skills


that


supports


other


research


findings


that


active


family


therapists


have


fewer


dropouts


than


nonactive,


and


that


providing


structure


early


therapy


while


not


attacking


family


defenses


prematurely


associated


with


good


outcome


(Gurman


& Kniskern,


1978;


Postner,


Guttman,


Segal,


Epstein,


& Rakoff,


1981)


Finally,


therapist


relationship


skills,


including


warmth,


humor,


and


affective-behavior


integration,


have


received

outcome.


consistent

Several i


support


as a skill


investigators


(Shapir


related

o, 1974;


to positive


Shapiro


Budman,


1973;


Waxenburg,


1973)


have


reported


that


therapist


empathy,


warmth,


and


genuineness


appear


to be


very


important


keeping


families


treatment


beyond


the


first


interview.


Alexander


et al.


(1976)


reported,


for


example,


that


both


structuring


skills


and


relationship


skills


were


factors


related


to positive


outcome


regardless


the


theoretical


orientation.


Together


these


variables


accounted


the


outcome


variance


family


therapy











Research


on Family


Therayv


Training


The


second


body


literature


reviewed


concerns


the


empirical

training.


studies

Noting


the


a lack


effectiveness

of empirical


family


evidence


therapy

this


area,


Gurman


and


Kniskern


(1979)


outlined


a five-step


process


which


trainers


could


structure


their


evaluation


efforts.


This


process


includes


the


following:


identification


and


specification


training


goals,


development


a training


model,


development


measures


that


can


evaluate


training-induced


change


trainees


who


participate


the


program,


demonstration


measures


that


can


evaluate


training


induced


change,


and


demonstration


that


trainees


who


have


shown


expected


change


on the


measures


are


better


able


to help


families


therapy.


This


five-step


process


was


proposed


as a model


evaluate


any


training


program.


Obviously,


the


goals


and


identified


outcomes


training


and


supervision


(and


the


skills


the


supervisor)


are


dependent


upon


the


theoretical


orientation


the


particular


training


program


involved.


Model


family


therapy


tend


be isomorphically


represented


their


corresponding


training


models


and


methods.


For


example,


the


experientially


oriented


(Constantine,


1976;


Ferber











training


and


affective


experiences


the


trainees.


Whereas,


those


programs


that


operate


more


from


a structural


(Minuchin,


1974) ,


behavioral


(Cleghorn


& Levin,


1973),


strategic


(Haley,


1976)


therapeutic


orientation


have


more


cognitively-based


goals


and


are


focused


more


on defining


particular


sets


therapist


skills


and


ways


intervening


dysfunctional


systems.


According


to Garrigan


and


Bambrick


(1976),


a current


trend


the


family


training


literature


toward


establishing


operationally


defined


objectives


and


therapist


competencies.


Cleghorn


and


Levine


(1973)


proposed


a model


operationalizing


objectives


assessment


training


family


therapy.


According


their


model,


therapist


skills


can


be classified


into


three


groups


perceptual,


conceptual,


and


executive.


Most


published


accounts


training


programs


have


described


their


goals


as achieving


an increase


trainee


s conceptual,


perceptual,


and


technical


or executive


skills.


This


way


of describing


learning


objectives


(e.g.,


Falicov,


Constantine,


Breunlin,


1981;


Tomm


& Wright,


1979)


follows


the


proposal


Cleghorn


and


Levine.


Conceptual


skills


are


those


that


relate


to the


therapist


s ability


to formulate


problems


systemically


and











therapy


session


and


how


those


thoughts


are


organized.


Conceptual


skills


can


be evaluated


paper


and


pencil


methods.


Perceptual


skills


are


those


skills


that


relate


therapist's


ability


to evaluate


a particular


family


within


his


or her


conceptual


framework.


Perceptual


skills


refer


to what


the


therapist


observes


a family


session,


how


the


therapist


perceives


interactions,


and


their


meaning


to and


effect


on family


members.


Thus


to evaluate


perceptual


skills,


the


therapist


must


be presented


with


family


behavior, whether

perceptual skills


live


or recorded.


seldomly


occur


Conceptual


independently


and


one


another.


More


discriminating


perceptions


allow


for


better


conceptualization,


and


better


conceptual


skill


allows


better


perceptual


acuity.


The


third


type


skill


called


executive


technical


skill.


This


refers


to the


therapist


s ability


act


family


sess


ions


ways


that


are


consistent


with


the


goals


the


training


program.


Thus


executive


skills


involve


what


the


therapist


says


and


does


the


therapy


session


order


to influence


the


family


s sequences


transactions


and


thus


alter


the


way


the


family


functions.


These


skills


are


the


ultimate


goal


training,


although











Prior


1979,


most


the


family


therapy


training


literature


consisted


articles


that


described


training


programs


and


discussed


training


and


supervision


goals


(e.g. ,


Ferber,


Mendelsohn,


& Napier,


1972;


Flomenhaft


Carter,


1974;


Garrigan


& Bambrick,


1977;


Lange


& Ziegers,


1978;


Liddle


& Halpin,


1978).


Typically,


evaluation


these


programs


took


the


form


uncontrolled


post


hoc


studies


which


the


change


measures


used


were


reports


the


level


of services


offered


families


at the


respective


mental


health


Flomenhaft


and


and


counseling


Carter


(1974,


centers.


1977)


For


mailed


example,

questionnaires


professionals


private


practice


one


year


after


termination


of a 20-week


training


program


structural


family

service


therapy


practice.


to families


versus


A significant

individuals


increase


was


direct


noted.


During


the


period


from


1979


to 1985,


much


the


training


literature


continued


be impressionistic,


although


there


was


a trend


to objectify


the


skills


family


therapy


trainees.


example,


many


the


studies


described


training


outcomes


based


on clinical


observations


the


trainees


(e.g.,


Aponte


Van


Deusen,


1981;


Beal,


1976;


Ferber


& Mendelsohn,


1969,


Nichols,


1979)


or provided


a sociological


comparison


of supervision


methods


based











scored


behavioral


counts.


A popular


method


assessing


trainees


knowledge


of family


therapy


course


content


and


theory


involves


paper


and


pencil


methods


such


as multiple


choice


questions


or essays


(Friedman,


1971;


Tomm,


1980).


Friedman


reported


that


mental


health


professionals


significantly


increased


factual


and


theoretical


knowledge


between


pretraining


and


posttraining


tests.


Toni


reported


that


first


year


medical


students


demonstrated


significant


increases


the


knowledge


a Family


Categories


Scheme


devised


Epstein


and


his


associates


following


their


training


experiences


(Epstein,


Sigal,


Rakoff,


1968).


Another


method


used


the


family


therapy


training


literature


involves


assessing


changes


attitudes


the


trainee.


Pollstra


and


Lange


(1978)


reported


that


trainees'


attitudes


shifted


significantly


towards


acceptance


behavioral


family


therapy


as a result


training


this


model.


And,


as previously


mentioned,


Flomenhaft


and


Carter


(1974,


1977)


reported


that


mental


health


professionals


trained


family


therapy


reported


a significant


increase


the


amount


time


spent


family


therapy.


These


findings


suggest


that


training


leads


an increased


knowledge o


course


content


and


an acceptance


new











more


apt


use


those


concepts


with


increased


familiarity.


There


are


two


major


limitations


of the


empirical


research


discussed


so far.


Typically


the


research


design


did


not


include


comparable


control


groups.


Thus


any


changes


other


than


the


trainees


training


could


programs,


be attributed


example,


factors


spontaneous


improvement


or maturation


attention


placed


effects


(Cook


Campbell,


1979).


In addition,


the


variable


selected


outcomes


measured


only


whether


trainees


had


assimilated


instructional


material


not


whether


they


could


demonstrate


particular


family


therapy


skills.


Another


aspect


the


training


research


concerned


the


development


measures


change.


Some


the


earliest


studies

al., 19


used


73;


coding


Sigal,


systems


Lasry,


(Postner


Guttman,


et al.,


Chagoya,


1981;


& Pilan,


Sigal


1977).


Pinsof


(1981)


pointed


out


that


the


main


difficulties


with


these


studies


arose


from


the


coding


system.


Specifically,


the


division


therapist


s verbal


behavior


into


two


categories


of drive


and


interpretation


makes


the


system


not


sensitive


find


significant


results.


In 1974,


Chagoya,


Presser,


and


Sigal


developed


a more


specific


coding


system


using


26 distinct


categories.


They











simulated


family


session


and


the


outcome


therapy


families


they


treated.


Trainees'


behaviors


were


coded


the


simulated


situations


and


results


were


compared


with


family


outcome


data.


Outcome


was


based


on independent


ratings


the


family'


satisfaction


with


treatment,


the


status


of the


presenting


problem


six


months


after


termination,


return


to treatment,


and


the


family'


goal


attainment


scores.


Through


the


use


of this


category


system


(FTIS-II),


the


authors


distinguished


different


levels


competence


among


therapists


and,


some


cases,


showed


that


families


who


saw


more


expert


therapists


had


better


outcomes


therapy.


The


main


difficulty


with


this


research


was


failure


establish


actual


whether


family


results


therapy


shed


because


light

results


on the


process


measured


the


therapist's


response


to a simulated


videotaped


family


session


versus


actual


in-therapy


behavior.


Clearly


the


closer


one


gets


the


evaluation


of real


therapy


the


more


powerful


the


instrument


or measure


effectiveness.


However,


very


practical


problems


arise


the


use


of "real


families"


actual


sessions.


These


can


include


lack


of standardization,


no shows,


and


confidentiality


issues.


Because


these


difficulties











As previously


noted,


these


problems


are


also


not


new


the


history


outcome


research


individual


psychotherapy.


Matarazzo


(1972)


summarized


difficulties


with


individual


psychotherapy


training


research


that


still


apply


today.


These


include


problems


with


design,


randomization,


simulation


techniques,


and


the


use


of real


clients.


Pinsof


(1977)


and


Allred


and


Kersey


(1977)


also


developed


instruments


assess


behavioral


changes


family therapists.

executive skills.


These

Pinsof


instruments


(1979)


targeted


developed


therapist


a 19 category,


nominal


coding


system


used


study


short-term,


problem


oriented


family


Researchers


therapists


using


system


during

have


initial

reported


interviews.


findings


differences


verbal


behavior


advanced


family


therapists


who


focused


on the


here-and-now


and


beginners


who


were


more


focused


individual


members'


thoughts


and


opinions


Pinsof


speculated


that


two


cognitive


skills--


"sequential


thinking"


and


"attentional


skill"--may


influence


the


difference


between


two


groups.


Following


this


study


Pinsof


(1981)


developed


a more


complex


coding


system


called


the


Family


Therapist


Coding


System


(FTCS).


This


system


consisted


of nine


nominal











reconstruction


of a therapist


intervention.


Thus


one


can


get


a clearer


picture


a therapist'


verbal


behavior.


However,


there


a major


limitation


involved


the


use


this


measure.


Due


the


complexity


this


instrument,


considerable


amount


of practice


administration


required


order


insure


reliable


measurement


and,


therefore,


the


use


the


FTCS


often


not


feasible.


In the


second


measure,


Allred


and


Kersey


(1977)


have


analyzed


results


of research


using


the


Allred


Interactional


Analysis


of Counselors


(AIAC).


This


measure


has


also


been


shown


differentiate


among


trainees


' level


training.


Several


researchers


have


reported


this


measure


of verbal


behavior


to be highly


reliable


(Kersey,


1976;


Sanders,


1974;


Watson,


1975).


However,


studies


attempting


establish


concurrent


validity


have


not


been


impressive.


In the


past


years


several


excellent


descriptions


the


development


and


validation


therapist


rating


scales


have


been


published


(Breunlin


al.,


1983;


Piercy,


Laird,


& Mohammed,


1983;


Tucker


& Pinsof,


1984).


In each


these


papers


a different


approach


to the


problem


scale


development


was


detailed.


For


example,


Piercy


et al.


(1983)


began


with


a pool


items


that


were


believed


to reflect


family


therapy











developed


to evaluate


the


therapeutic


skills


of trainees


well


as therapists.


Their


goal


was


to create


a short,


concise


instrument


The


categories


were


based


on the


structuring


and


relationship


skills


specified


Barton


and


Reed


and


on Levant


s class


ification


various


theoretical


models


family


therapy


(Piercy


et al.,


1983)


Mohammed


and


Piercy


(1983)


used


the


relationship


and


structuring


scales


this


coding


system


measure


the


effectiveness

observation f


discuss


two


eedback


videotapes


methods

method

their


training

training


simulated


. They compared

(i.e., trainees


family


therapy


sessions)


with


a skill-based


method


the


trainer


shows


videotapes


that


teach


relationship


skills


and


structuring


skills).


Twenty-six


subjects


participated


study.


Both


groups


received


both


treatments


different


order.


A significant


result


occurred


the


group

skill


that

based


first


received


training.


This


observation


group


feedback


showed


followed


a significant


increase


relationship


skills.


In another


study,


Tucker


and


Pinsof


(1984)


utilized


scale


(the


Family


Therapist


Coding


System)


that


was


developed


to allow


the


description


of all


therapist


behavior.


The


Family


Therapist


Coding


System


was


based











Breunlin


(1983)


also


reported


the


development


an instrument


designed


measure


observational


(perceptual),


conceptual,


and


technical


(executive)


skills


of family


therapy.


The


original


instrument


consisted


videotape


an enacted


family'


first


sess


and


a series


multiple


choice


questions


regarding


the


subject'


perceptions,


conceptualizations,


and


therapeutic


recommendations


about


the


tape.


The


experimental


subjects


consisted


22 psychiatric


residents


who


were


given


one


month


of family


therapy


training,


and


the


control


group


subjects


consisted


of 11 pediatric


residents


who


were


not


given


family


therapy


training


or any


formal


training


psychotherapy.


A preassessment-postassessment


revealed


significant


increase


conceptualizations


skills


for


only


family


therapy


trainees


There


were


no significant


changes


either


observational


(perceptual)


or technical


(executive)


skills


for


either


group.


Breunlin


and


colleagues


suggested


that


the


instrument


may


not


have


been


sensitive


enough


to detect


a change


skill


level.


The


FTAE


has


since


been


revised.


The


fifth


refinement


currently


being


used


research


studies.


The


current


version


a procedure


which


subjects


watch


a simulated


family


therapy


interview


on videotape


and


answer


the










to a simulated


videotape


constitutes


a reasonable


compromise


that


can


reliably


measure


therapist


skills


within


a standardized


and


easily


scorable


methodology.


The


FTAE


was


designed


assess


the


acquisition


skills


within


the


structural/strategic


model.


Although


Breunlin


et al.


(1983)


reported


continued


difficulties


with


the


observational


(perceptual)


scale,


there


accumulating


evidence


that


both


the


conceptual


and


therapeutic


scales


the


current


version


the


FTAE


discriminate


well,


as does


the


total


score


(Hernandez,


1985;


Pulleyblank


& Shapiro,


1986;


West,


Hosie,


Zarski,


1985)


For


example,


Hernandez


(1985)


tested


the


descriminant


validity


the


FTAE


using


sample


of 75


persons


who


were


either


novice,


mid-range,


experienced


family


therapists.


Subjects


were


drawn


from


seven


family


therapy


training


programs


Illinois


and


Indiana


and


ranged


from


first


year


graduate


students


A AMF


approved


supervisors.


Three-


and


six-week


test-


retest


reliabilities


were


and


.62,


respectively.


Hernandez


found


that


the


total


score,


conceptual


score,


and


the


therapeutic


(executive)


score


discriminated


well


between


novice


and


experienced


therapists.


In another


study,


Pulleyblank


and


Shapiro


(1986)


used


the


FTAE


to evaluate


a 9-month


structural


family


therapy











therapy


training


program


and


an eight


member


comparison


group.


All


trainees


held


master'


degrees


either


marriage


and


family


therapy


or social


work


and


were


employed


were


educated


a mental


health


as master's


agency.


level


The


marriage


comparison


and


group


family


therapists


and


were


also


employed


as such.


However,


generalizability


the


study


was


limited


due


to the


small


sample


size.


In another


students


study,


enrolled


West


et al.


a graduate


(1985)


level


examined


course


family


therapy


who


practiced


interviewing


simulated


families


over


a period


months


(one


semester).


Students


were


novice


level


family


therapists.


Skill


development


was


assessed


three


equal


interval


times


during


the


semester.


The


FTAE


was


used


measure


skill


development.


A repeated


measures


analyses


indicated


there


were


significant


differences


between


testing


times


on the


total


score.


Significant


differences


were


found


from


time


to time


with


combined


scores


observational


and


conceptual


subtests.


Conceptual


time


skills


while


increased


observational


significantly


skills


from


significantly


time


increased


from


time


to time











observational


and


conceptual


skills.


However,


the


study


lent


support


to the


validity


the


FTAE


and


suggested


the


use


of simulation


for


skill


development


observational


and


conceptual


skills.


Evaluation


Training


Studies


Recently,


some


researchers


have


evaluated


training


programs.


Tomm


and


Leahey


(1980)


examined


the


relative


effectiveness


of differing


methods


training


used


teach


basic


family


assessment


72 first


year


medical


students

methods


at the


were


University


compared:


of Calgary.


lecture


Three


with


teaching


videotaped


demonstration,


small


group


discussion


with


the


same


videotaped


demonstration,


and


learning


groups


that


included

assessing


the


experiential


a family


and


component


presenting


of interviewing


a videotape


and


the


interview


to the


group


for


discussion.


Results


showed


that


posttest


achievement


was


significantly


higher


than


pretest


all


methods.


However,


no method


was


shown


superior


to others,


leading


the


conclusion


that


the


lecture-demonstration


approach


the


method


choice


teaching


family


assessment


to beginning


medical


students,


on the


basis


of cost-effectiveness.


An outcome


study


the


effectiveness


of a 3-day











performances


before


and


after


the


workshop


on both


cognitive

videotaped


and


intervention


interviews


with


skills.

simulated


Written


case


families,


analyses,


and


self-


ratings


were


the


three


measures


used


evaluate


trainee'


learning.


Significant


improvements


were


found


on all


three


measures.


No significant


differences


were


found


between


different


professional


groups


participating.


Changes


cognitive


and


intervention


skills


were


found


to be


relatively


independent.


Byles,


Bishop,


and


Horn


(1983)


described


the


evaluation


of a 14-month


training


program


based


on the


McMaster


model


of family


functioning.


The


program


consisted


6 months


training


conceptual


and


perceptual


skills


and


8 months


training


executive


skills


through


peer


group


review


of audio-taped


therapy


sessions.


Twenty-four


social


workers


employed


metropolitan


family


service


agency


were


the


trainees


Outcome


measures


of skill


acquisition


were


inconclusive.


The


most


significant


result


was


greatly


increased


use


family


therapy


agency


staff.


However,


this


article


important


as a case


study


program


innovation


within


agency


setting.


As previously


mentioned,


Mohammed


and


Piercy


(1983)










skills.


The


training


consisted


four


weekly


hour


sessions.

observation


Relationship


feedback


skills


methods


improved


the


first


with


the


sequence.


However,


overall,


neither


the


methods


or sequences


were


more


effective


direct


comparison.


The


first


comprehensive


study


an outcome


evaluation


an entire


training


program


was


reported


Tucker


and


Pinsof


(1984)


They


demonstrated


that


training


does


effect


change


trainees


on several


important


dimensions.


Setting


as their


goal


evaluating


to what


extent


psychotherapy


training


programs


achieve


their


skills


training


goals,


Tucker


and


Pinsof


developed


a standard


stimulus


and


a battery


instruments


evaluating


trainee


change.


The


study


evaluated


change


19 family


therapy


trainees


their


first


year


of study


the


Center


Families


terms


Studies/Family


three


attributes:


Institute


of Chicago


clinical


(CFS/FIC)


cognition,


techniques,

part-time,


and


self-actualization.


post-graduate


coursework.


Training


Clinical


involved


cognition


was


measured


the


Family


Concept


Assessment


(FCA)


(Tucker


& Pinsof,


1981)


and


self-actualization


the


Personal


Orientation


Inventory


(POI)


(Shostrom,


1974).


The


therapy


behavior


the


trainees


was


evaluated


rating











posttesting.

interactional


Simulated

patterns


families


were


trainees


equivalent


as demonstrated


empirical


evidence.


Results


reported


Tucker


and


Pinsof


(1984)


suggested


that


trainees


did


change


significantly


on several


dimensions


the


direction


desired


the


training


staff.


Specifically,


pretest-posttest


scores


showed


a significant


increase

Concept


thought


causality


therapy


on one


Assessment.


more


at the


verbal


the


three


This


terms


subscales


change


circular


posttesting


behavior,


than


indicated


rather

at the


as measured


the

tha


than


Family

t trainees


linear


protesting.


the


Family


Therapist


Coding


System,


was


expected


to change


25 code


categories.


these,


three


were


found


have


changed


significantly


the


expected


direction.


The


showed


increase


self-actualization


during


the


first


year


training


but


also


suggested


that


most


trainees


began


the


program


highly


actualized.


Tucker


and


Pinsof


(1984)


findings


supported


the


belief


that


family


therapy


training


can


have


clinically


meaningful


effects


on trainees.


Increased


systemic


thinking,


increased


activity


level,


and


increased


range


and


specificity


interactions


were


impacted


training.










the


fact


that


research


may


be useful


as a guide


shaping


family


therapy


training


programs.


In 1986,


Zaken-Greenberg


and


Neimeyer


reported


the


results


of a controlled


assessment


of a training


seminar


structural


the


family


conceptual


therapy


and


for


executive


graduate

e skills


students.


of 44


Changes


therapy


trainees

assessed


(22

over


family


trainees


a 16-week


and


period


22 control


using


subjects)


a repertory


grid


were

and


videotaped


therapy


simulation


technique.


Results


indicated


significant


conceptual


gains


family


therapy


trainees


but


only


among


those


with


little


previous


exposure


to family


training.


Differences


the


overall


number


as well


type


interventions


were


also


noted.


Results


generally


supported


the


predicted


impact


therapy


training


but


left


unanswered


questions


regarding


the


unique


input


family


therapy


training


over


individual


training.


Family


therapy


training


itself


could


not


be isolated


the


cause


for


many


the


differences


noted


this


study.


For


example,


some


effects


such


as decrease


obstructive


responding


occurred


both


groups


suggesting


that


they


may


result


from


practice,


maturation,


or some


other


variables


not


specific


to family


therapy


training


per


se.


Other


findings


the


study de


monstrated


the


consistent


superiority


family










therapy


over


and


above


individual


training.


Moreover,


these


authors


noted


that


there


was


an uncertain


relationship


between


training


effectiveness


and


therapeutic


effectiveness.


Even


though


the


structural


family


trainees


this


study


did


show


comparatively


greater


gains


conceptual

specified


The


and

the


executive


impact


following


skills,

training


conclusions


no current


gains


can


research


on therapy


be drawn


from


has


outcome.


reviewing


this


literature:


instruments


with


some


degree


reliability


and


validity


now


exist


that


distinguish


therapists


experience


levels;


family


therapy


training


appears


produce


an increase


trainee


skill


acquisition,


however


intervention


skills


have


never


been


measured


actual


therapy


sess


ions;


cognitive


and


intervention


another;


skills


and


effectively


appear


beginning


taught


using


to develop


assessment


traditional


independently


skills


one


may


classroom


methods.


With


regard


the


type


trainee,


the


context


and


type


of trainee,


and


the


length


training,


this


body


research

example,


demonstrated


types


a great


trainees


deal


included


diversity.


graduate


For


students,


post-master's


level


trainees,


medical


students,


and


mixed


professional


groups.


Context


training


included











and


experiential


approaches.


The


length


the


training


components


encompassed


3-day


workshops,


4-week


training


components,


semester-long


coursework,


9- and


14-month


training


programs,


and


no time


specified.


Clearly,


the


type


trainee,


contexts


training,


and


length


training


time


were


quite


varied.


Little


attention


has


been


given


to the


sample


of novice


level


trainees


studying


the


beginning

university

particular

particular


phase o

based

types

stages


f family

settings.


traine

train


therapy tr

Research

es (i.e.,

ing (i.e.,


gaining

that a

novice

initial


enrolled


dressed


level)


stage)


specific


contexts


(i.e.,


university


based


programs)


would


enhance


the


research


literature.


In a recent


review


the


outcome


research


on family


therapy tr

guidelines


aining

for f


Avis


uture


and


Sprenkle


research.


The


(1990)


suggested


following


were


recommendations


1. A need for'
creatively expl
relevant variab
traditional des
. Tucker an
distinction, as


controlled
ores ways
les due to
igns requi
d Pinsof's
method fo


research which]
for controlling
difficulty in
ring random as
(1984) Hi-Low
r controlling


h
g for
using
signment.


for


therapist experience level, was cited as an
example of this.
2. Replication of existing research with greater
specification and description of training programs
and experiences, including goals contexts,
enA nn^ 4!4- ana iintAa v.rhoij- 4h 4-rn wS n r n t nranru









51

4. The evaluation of training in terms of its
impact on therapeutic outcome. this may be
done indirectly by measuring changes in trainees
on skills associated with positive outcome, or by
studying therapy outcomes of trainees.
5. Design improvement, including specification of
trainer/supervisor and trainee variables .
adequate sample size, trainer-investigator


nonequivalence.
6. Comparative studies which
specificity question (i.e., wh
effective when, for whom under
and for what type of clinical
such studies will be essential
relative cost/effectiveness of
(p. 262)


address the
at training is
what conditions,
situation. .
in determining the
training programs.


In keeping


with


these


recommendations,


the


focus


for


this


research


was


the


novice-level


family


therapy


trainee


the


beginning


phase


of training


from


university-based


programs.


The


structural/strategic


school


of therapy


was


targeted


as the


method


training.


In addition,


the


influence


of particular


trainee


characteristics


were


examined.


Training.


Model


The


wide


field


range


marriage


approaches.


and


They


family


range


therapy


from


encompasses


psychodynamic


and


experientially


based


approaches


structural,


strategic,


and


behavioral


orientations.


Several


studies


(Henry,


1983;


McKenzie,


Atkinson,


Quinn,


& Heath,


1986)


have


found


that


structural


and


strategic


models


are


taught


-~~~wnrr~ a 4 "t n 4.A O mn


a 1 4-lhnnnh


a ama


rtrr: CaA


bCa~aa


)trn


~,IL


IW&


I











simplicity,


concreteness,


and


directness


(Figley


& Nelson,


1990).


Because


little


empirical


evidence


supports


any


one


theoretical


approach,


intellectual


integrity


mandates


the


presentation


a broad


spectrum


theories


(Sprenkle,


1988).


However,


Sprenkle


noted


that


theoretical


orientation


practice,


more


citing


evident

Purdue


classroom


University'


instruction


leading


than


marriage


and


family


therapy


program


as a program


that


teaches


major


approaches


theory


courses


but


emphasizes


brief,


problem-centered interactional

In a discussion of Purdue


approaches


s curriculum,


practice.

Sprenkle


(1988)


outlined


the


theoretical


training


sequence.


Structural


and


strategic


theories


are


emphasized


the


initial


state


the


training.


Because


the


focus


this


research


was


on the


novice


level


trainee


the


beginning


phase


training,


seemed


logical


assess


the


impact


a structural/strategic


approach


to family


therapy


training.


StructurallStrateaic


Family


Therapy


Models


The


structural


and


strategic


approaches


family


therapy


practice


are


some


the


most


clearly


articulated


the


literature.


Specific


assumptions


about


the


nature


the


therapy


process,


precise


description


techniques,











these


two


models


are


often


integrated


as a structural/


strategic


the


theory


theoretical


practice.


assumptions,


In the


major


following


therapeutic


sections

techniques,


and


major


goals


these


two


approaches


are


described.


Structural


family


theraov


model.


Viewing


the


family


as an organizational


system,


structural


therapists


conceptualize


the


family


as do


other


systemic


approaches


(i.e.,


own


as a system


functioning).


evolution


However,


that


they


constantly


feature


regulates


a distinctive


focus


on concepts


that


describe


spatial


configurations;


(i.e.,


closeness/distance,


inclusion/exclusion,


fluid/rigid


boundaries,


and


hierarchial


arrangements).


The


key


notion


of complementarity


used


the


structuralist


to denote


not


an escalation


of differences


(Bateson,


1972)


but


a fit


among


matching


parts


a whole.


From


a structuralist


point


of view,


symptomatic


behavior


a part


a dysfunctional


organization


an adolescent'


anorexia


viewed


as related


a mutual


invasion


the


patient's


and


parents'


territories).


Structural


configurations


are


deemed


functional


or not


according


to how


well


or how


badly


they


serve


the


developmental


needs


of the


family


and


members


dysfunctional


family,


development


replaced by


inertia.











symptom


the


structuralist


focuses


on the


organizational


flaw


(i.e.,


the


couple's


avoidance


of conflicts


crippling


their


parenting


of son)


(Colapinto,


1988).


The


dimensions


transactions


most


often


identified


structural


family


therapy


are


boundary,


alignment,


and


power.


Each


transaction


contains


three


these


structural


dimensions.


Minuchin


(1974)


stated,


"The


boundaries


subsystems


are


the


rules


defining


who


participates


and


how"


53).


Alignment


refers


to "the


joining


or opposition


one


member


a system


another


carrying


out


an operation"


(Haley,


1976,


109) .


This


dimension


include


but


not


limited


the


concepts


coalition


and


alliance.


Coalition


defined


as "a


process


of joint


action


against


a third


person


contrast


"alliance"


where


two


people


might


share


a common


interest


not

also


shared


described


a third pe

as force,


srson)"


has


been


109) .

defined


Finally,

as "the


power,

relative


influence


each


(family)


member


on the


outcome


activity"


(Aponte,


1976,


. 434).


Commonly


described


structural


therapy


techniques/


interventions


include


joining


the


system,


boundary


making,


enactment,


escalating


tracking


stress,


sequences,


creating


reframing


relabeling),


a crisis/intensifying,


symptom











Altering


clients'


perceptions,


expanding


their


world


views,


or reframing


their


behavior


can


lead


to change


therapy.


Structural


goals


include


reorganization


the


family


structure


and


the


lessening


of rules/roles


dictated


narrow


bonds


transactions


(i.e.,


increased


flexibility


both


families


and


their


members)


According


structuralists,


although


the


presenting


problem


should


solved,


done


so through


structural


reorganization,


process


allowing


relevant


and


essential


tasks


within


family


life


to be mastered


more


effectively.


Strategic


family


therapv


model.


The


term


strategic


family


therapy


has


been


applied


many


different


approaches.


Prominent


figures


associated


with


this


approach


include


Milton


Erickson,


Jay


Haley,


Cloe


Madanes,


the


Mental


Research


Institute


(MRI)


group


(including


John


Weak land ,


Paul


Watzlawick,


Richard


Fisch,


Steve


Shazer,


Arthur


Bodin,


and


Carlos


Sluzki),


Gerald


Zuk,


Lynn


Hoffman,


Mara


Palazzoli-Selvini,


Peggy


Papp,


and


Karl


Tomm.


Generally


speaking,


strategic


approaches


to family


therapy


fall


under


what


Madanes


and


Haley


(1977)


have


termed


the


"communication"


therapies.


Haley


(1972)


defined


strategic


therapy


as a therapy


which


the


clinician


initiates


what


happens


during


treatment


and


designs










the


theory


and


means


change.


Strategic


therapists


believe


that


insight


not


necessary


to bring


about


change


the


presenting


problem.


A developmental


life


cycle


perspective


utilized.


They


highlight


issues


circularity,


sequences


of interaction,


behavior


communication


a relationship,


and


therapeutic


issues


a part


theoretical


Therapeutic


assumptions.


techniques/intervention


used


strategists


include


obtaining


an identifiable


problem,


relabeling/reframining,


and


using


the


client'


language


and


position.


Strategic


therapists


favor


going


with


the


resistance


and


avoiding


confrontation


versus


creating


crisis.

client,


They endorse

however, they


direct

also e


methods


ndorse


of dealing


indirect


with


methods


the

(i.e.,


the


use


paradox


and


metaphor,


such


as prescribing


symptoms,


restraint


from


change,


positioning,


etc.).


Giving


directives


an important


skill


strategic


therapy.


Homework


assignments,


tasks,


the


use


rituals,


and


the


use


of outside


teams,


consultants,


and


supervisors


are


common.


Change


assumed


occur


through


the


interruption


dysfunctional,


repetitive


patterns.


altering


the


clients'


perceptions,


expanding


their


world


view,











occurs


without


the


client


knowing


how


or why


that


considered


sufficient


(and


often


preferable


insight).


Thus,


the


therapist


s relationship


not


endorsed


structural


family


therapy.


The


major


goal


of strategic


therapy


to change


the


presenting


problem.


The


therapist

behavior

problems


behavioral


s goal


sequence

quickly


to break


that

and e


change


the


maintains


efficiently,


the


presenting


immediate

symptoms

thus pro


and

and


duci


problem.


redundant

resolved

ng concrete


Altering


the


client's


solution


patterns


or second


order


change


major


goal


strategic


therapists.


Different


approaches


to strategic


therapy


emphasize


different


aspects.


The


Haley/Madanes


approach


to strategic


therapy


places


emphasis


on symptoms


as metaphors,


the


use


of ordeal


and


the


use


of pretending.


Symptoms


are


seen


as arising


from


dysfunctional


hierarchies.


Whereas


the


Milan/Ackerman


approach


places


emphasis


on circularity


and


the


inextricable


nature


of symptoms


and


systems.


The


MRI


approach


endorses


a more


general


approach


strategic


therapy.


Similarities


and


differences.


Many


similarities


and


differences


therapy.


exist


Many


structural


summaries


and


concerning


strategic


these


schools


comparative/











strategic


family


therapy.


A panel


of experts


representing


each

the


school

basic


of therapy


tenets


was


their


identified


schools


and


asked


of thought


and


to identify


reach


consensus


means


of a Delphi


procedure.


Profiles


were


developed


and


similarities


and


differences


regarding


each


school


were


identified.


The


structural


and


strategic


panelists


agreed


that


both


approaches


are


similar


terms


focusing


on the


present;


being


change,


rather


than


insight,


oriented;


viewing


problems


their


relationships


tasks;


context;


being


giving


interactional


directives;


or contextually


(e) assigning

oriented;


and


being


goal


directed


and


concerned


with


therapy


outcome


In addition,


both


schools


agreed


that


change


occurs


the


interruption


of dysfunctional


sequences,


thus


producing


a change


behavior


and


a change


perception.


However,


the


panelists


felt


that


the


approaches


differed


theoretical


emphasis.


Although


structural


therapists


emphasize


family


structure,


strategic


therapists


not.


Although


both


schools


use


direct


techniques


intervene


family


therapy,


strategic


therapists


tend


use


indirect


ones


much


more


than


do structural


therapists.


In addition,


they


noted


that


the


goals


therapy


differed


across


the


two


schools.


Strategic


therapists


aim


solve











therefore
structure.


logically


try


In contrast,


to reorganize
strategic th


the


erapi


family
sts take


the symptom at
identify those


face


value,


interaction.


S... and
1 patterns


attempt
which


maintain


the


problem.


(Stone-Fish


& Piercy,


1987,


124)


Although


integrated


approaches


of structural


and


strategic


family


therapy


exist,


may


be important


the


teaching


and


training


of family


therapy


practitioners


expose


between


them


the


the


two


subtle


schools.


and


not


There


so subtle


are


different


distinctions


ways


approach

students


this


one


(e.g.,


approach


tracking and

or the other


supervising

initially


beginning

or by


emphasizing


distinctions


throughout


the


training


process).


Many


therapists


describe


their


work


as a combination


or as


a sequence

Obviously


of both


this


strategic


not


and


coincidenta


structural

i, as Haley


principles.

was


instrumental


the


development


the


structural


school.


Structural


and


Strateaic


Models


Family


Therapy


Trainirng


There


tends


an isomorphic


relationship


between


the

the


way


therapy


family


therapy


constructed


field.


and


Literatu


training

re on the


structured

training


models


and


methods


the


structural


and


the


strategic


family


therapies


display


this


consistency.


Structural


family


therapy


training.


An example


.atnirmtnra 1


trainina


m


the


traIi nina


yroarram


of the


I











live


supervision


(Montalvo,


1973).


There


an early


emphasis


on learning


techniques


the


teaching


structural


family


therapy


reaction


the


limitations


traditional


psychotherapy


training


with


deductive


sequence


from


theoretical


constructs


specific


interventions


availability


supervision
existed bet


concepts


the


teaching


exposed


ween


and


session
a the


. without


t


the


n.


live
huge


he appa
actual


Thus,


students "
burdening


t
t


and


videotaped


discrepancies


rent


that


understanding


behavior
he idea
he steps
them wit


the


evolved
of the
h loads


therapist
of
dance


theory


that


would


slow


them


down


moments


therapeutic
theoretical
spontaneously 1


immediacy."
integration


was


would


(Colapinto,


hoped


that


emerge


1988,


With


experience,


the


training


approach


has


been


modified


became


apparent


that


spontaneous


theoretical


integration


was


the


exception


rather


than


the


rule


using


these


methods.


Thus


the


emphasis


shifted


developing


conceptual


understanding


the


model


and


the


practical


operations


the


therapy


room


simultaneously


with


an integrated


paradigm.


mere


balance


of theory


and


practice


was


considered


not


enough.


The


integration


theory


and


practice


was


necessary,


a feat


the


structural


trainer


believed


could


occur


only


the


arena


supervised


clinical


work.


"The


best


opportunity


the


The











the


highest


point


motivation


and


alertness"


(Colapinto,


1988,


21).


A typical


example


of a structural


training


program


the


Philadelphia


therapy


program


Child

which


Guidance

offers in


Clinic'


ternships,


structure

various


family


clinical


practice,

courses,


extern pr

workshops,


*ogram,

and c


supervisory


conferences .


groups,

More sp


evening


Specifically,


the


extern


program


component


aimed


master's


level


trainees


who


are


employed


an agency


setting


where


they


are


seeing


at least


five


families.


Typically


this


particular


trainee


already


acquainted


with


the


concepts


of structural


therapy


through


readings,


workshops,


edited


videotapes.


Colapinto


(1988)


has


described


the


extern


program.


summarize,


the


training


program


begins


with


a 3-day


seminar


intended


set


common


ground


for


the


training


process.


The


rest


the


program


revolves


around


direct


supervision


the


trainees'


work


with


families.


Clinical


work


conceptualized


as the


arena


where


an integration


theory


and

two


practice

sessions


can

per


best

day


occur.


under


Each


live


trainee


supervision


conducts

and rec


one


eives


or

an


additional


half


hour


of videotape


supervis


for


each


hour


therapy.











and


practice


follows


a pattern


of alternation;


the


trainee


works


with


a family,


receives


corrective


feedback


from


the


supervisor,


returns


the


family,


and


receives


more


feedback. G

or enacting,


;eneric

are i


concepts


ntertwined


such

with


as joining,


the


unbalancing,


discussion


specific


clinical


situations


throughout


the


stages


the


training


cycle.


The


integrative


approach


complemented


with


readings


assigned


accordance


with


each


trainees'


needs,


videotaped


sessions


experienced


clinicians


that


the


supervisor


discusses


to illustrate


specific


points,


and


monthly


meet


1-day


to talk


seminars


among


where


themselves


all

and


students


with


and


guest


supervisors

presenters.


The


extern


program


representative


the


way


structuralists


approach


training.


Strategic


family


therapv


training.


Many


models


therapy


are


considered


strategic


(i.e.,


Haley/Madanes


approach,


the


Milan


approach,


and


the


MRI


approach).


For


purposes


this


paper


the


Haley/Madanes


approach


discussed.


It is


assumed


that


training


a strategic


family


therapist


involves


the


design


a specific


and


individualized


plan


the


supervisor.


The


plan


followed


may


be shared


with


the


therapist


or may


indirect


and


not


shared.


this


definition


one


can


see


the


isomorphic











Strategic therapists are generally trained
live." A small group of therapists meet to
observe each other and discuss their work.
Therapists who are observing may make comments or


ask questions of
instruct or advi
clear hierarchy
supervisor is re
training therapi
It is assumed th
live experiences
family) will be
inexperienced th


Families are
therapist by live
report that they


than one
Each their
discusses
call with
sets the
relevant
session.


therapi
apist i


the supervisor, but may
se the therapist in any
is established in which
sponsible for simultaneo
sts and solving clients'
at a therapist who bring
to the therapy (e.g., r
more successful than an
erapist.


protected


1
t


the inta
the their
appointme


family
(p. 93)


supervise
ook forw
is work
assigned
ke and p
apist.
nt, and


members


from


ion,
ard
ing
a s
lans
The


the


not
way. A
the
>usly
problems.
s certain
raising a


inexperienced


and sometimes
to knowing that m
on their problem.
supervisor who
the initial phon
therapist calls,


arranges


to attend


for
the


lore


the
first


The


model


Haley


(1976)


and


Madanes


(1981,


1984)


one


which


therapy


expected


brief,


problem


focused,


with


planned


sessions,


and


an active


therapist


used.


The


goal


training


prepare


therapists


work


a variety


settings


not


dependent


on a team


behind


a one


way


mirror.


Therapists


have


the


opportunity


to treat


a wide


range


clients


(e.g.,


acute


and


chronic


problems,


poverty-level


and


upper


class


families,


etc.).


Therapists


are


trained


a directive,


learn


doing


approach.


Although


therapists


are


taught


specific


technical


skills,


the


training


emphasizes


the


development


re











make


the


best


use


the


therapist's


skills.


Learning


to clearly


deliver


directives


and


increase


one's


range


interventions


therapist


are

the


individually


context


designed


treating


for


a particular


a particular


client.


Thus


the


therapist


s strengths


and


experiences


are


built


upon.


Depending


upon


the


particular


therapist,


assignments,


tasks,


readings,


etc.


are


given.


Both


direct


and


indirect


change,


etc.)


(e.g.,


prescribe


techniques


are


the

used


behavior


restraint


teaching.


from


the


end


the


first


year


training


a therapist


should


be able


make


structural


changes


the


family


and


understand


rationale


and


consequence


each


intervention.


the


end


the


second


year,


a therapist


expected


able


to generate


a number


of strategies


to solve


a specific


problem.


Summary.


summary,


there


a great


deal


similarity


these


two


training


models.


Structural


family


therapy


training


emphasizes


both


the


conceptual


model


and


the


practical


operation


the


therapy


room.


Live


supervision


an integral


part


the


training


with


learn


doing


approach.


Structuralists


emphasize


particular


interventions


and


techniques


(e.g.,


joining,


unbalancing,


etc.)


that


are


more


direct,


focus


on changing











that


theory


and


technique


(understanding


and


behavior)


can


and


should


occur


spontaneously.


Strategic

understanding

behavior. Sim


therapists

of their nr


ilarly,


believe


oblems


strategic


that


follow

family


the


clients'


changes

therapy


their


trainers


focus


on changing


trainees


' behavior


with


their


client


families


rather


than


giving


trainees


a broad


understanding


of what


they


are


to do through


extensive


lectures


on theory.


Thus,


they


assume


that


learning


a new


approach


to treatment,


both


conceptually


and


technically,


comes


about


doing


that


treatment


(Fisch,


1988).


Clearly


methods


training


at structural/strategic


family


therapy


training


institutes


are


directed


towards


post-degree


therapists.


training


Live


with


supervision


knowledge


the


theoretical


ornerstone

concepts


the


considered


a given.


This


study


focused


on novice


level


trainees


their


beginning


phase


training.


Preliminary


phases


training


emphasized


theoretical


concepts,


a conceptual


shift


towards


systemic


thinking,


and


development


assessment


skills.


Universe itv-Based


Training


Family


Theranv


The


university-based


context


clearly


differs


from


the


previously


discussed


institute


settings.


Training










context


processes


which


and


training


outcomes


occurs also

training and


influences


the


supervision


(Haley,


1975;


Liddle,


1978).


Training


that


occurs


within


settings


that


define


family


therapy


as a profession


(e.g. ,


family


therapy


institutes)


differs


from


training


that


takes


place


within


a professional


discipline,


such


as psychology,


social


work,


or counselor


education.


Sprenkle


supervision

programs.


(1988) discussed

family therapy


Clearly


context


issues


degree


influences


training

granting


the


and

graduate


training


component.


For


example,


the


training


site's


financial


stability,


facilities,


means


of support,


embeddedness


stage


or lack


development,


thereof


the


physical


community,


and


competing


ideologies


(i.e.,


intrapsychic


versus


systemic th

Many a

theoretical


inking) influence

credited degree

diversity as the


the


nature


granting

hallmark


program


th


training.

ms cite

eir programs.


This


decision


likely


based


on the


lack


empirical


research


supporting


any


one


theory,


thus


the


presentation


a broad


spectrum


theories.


Nonetheless,


this


approach


Liddle


stands


(1982)


that


contrast


the


premature


argument


advanced


to integrate


theories


the


field


that


would


result


an eclectism


that


will


not











program


as an example


which


major


approaches


are


taught


theory


courses,


whereas


the


practice


emphasizes


brief,


problem-centered


interactional


approaches.


Another


interesting


notion


that


academic


training


theory


and


research


the


emphasis


degree


granting


programs.


In the


literature,


training


and


supervision


terms


are


often


used


synonymously,


whereas


academic


family


therapy


educators


insist


that


supervision


a subset


training,


and


that


the


latter


requires


mastery


the


body


academic


knowledge


that


requires


years


of intensive


study


(Sprenkle,


1988).


Issues


such


as these,


addition


to accreditation,


licensure,


and


third


party


payments


insurance


companies


certainly


influence


the


development


of marriage


and


family


therapy


the


training


university


the


setting


university


setting.


influenced


Training


context


and


subsequently


differs


from


training


offered


free


standing


institutes.


Training


Model


Used


this


Study


Although


the


terms


"training,


" "supervision,


" and


"consultation"


are


widely


used


the


literature,


they


are


seldom


defined


and


differentiated


clearly.


Training


refers


the


domain


education


professionals


(Piercy











precede


or occur


alongside


the


development


of a trainee


clinical


skills


through


supervised


clinical


practice


(Saba


& Liddle,


1986).


Trainees


are


concerned


with


a more


general 1


transmission


of conceptual


and


clinical


knowledge.


Supervision


refers


a continuous


relationship,


real


world


work


setting,


that


focuses


on the


specific


development

practical


a therapist


experience


s skills


treating


as he


client


or she


families


gains

(Saba


Liddle,


1986).


Focused


attention


on specific


cases,


therefore,


the


hallmark


of supervision.


Consultation


short-term,


differs


symmetrical,


from


supervision


peer-like


relationship


that


between


therapist


and


an invited


expert.


The


consultant's


power


derived


from


his


or her


expertise


and


skill.


There


formal s

learning


take


or job


evaluating

performance


the


therapist's


(Nielson


progress


& Kaslow,


1980)


might


occur


This


some


study


was


training


focused


and


on the


supervision


training


contexts.


of beginning


family


therapists


university-based


introductory


family


therapy


seminars/courses.


Thus,


the


emphasis


was


placed


upon


exposing


students


to a family


therapy


approach


that


emphasized


a combination


on structural


and


strategic


models


of therapy


Christensen,


Brown,


Rickert,


and


Turner


(1989)










emphas
(Kaslo
system
system
should
experi
should
recall
need t
identi


is on the development of assessment
w, 1987); (b) students must learn to
ically with clients in environments
s approach does not exist; (c) train
consist of a combination of didacti
ential coursework and mastery at thi
be demonstrated through more than c
; and (d) students at this level of
o primarily master engagement and pr
fiction skills. (p. 84)


skills
work
where a
ing
c and
s level
ognitive
training
oblem


Goals


interest


and o

this


objectives


study


were


the


based


sequence

on these


training


assumptions.


Coursework


that


focused


on theoretical


concepts


from


major


theories,

models, w


planning


and


rith


were


particular


an emphasis


targeted


structural


on assessment


as the


and

and


instructional


strategic

treatment


component


this


research.


Christensen


et al.


(1989)


summarized


courses


objectives


that


are


typical


of this


stage


training.


These


included


leave


basic systems concepts
description of family
structural boundaries,


* .
skills
identi
elemen
stages
from a
concis
referr
levels


as
h


), and a descripti
; (b) perceptual 1
fiction of basic
ts of family struc
of an assessment/


e
a


videotaped interview,
summary of a family a
1 plan; and (c) applic
such as mapping a fami


simulative form) f
and sequence view,


interview


with


trom a devel
conducting


a simulated


such as description of
nd then history, a
sessment criteria (i.e.,
ierarchy, strengths
on of pre-interview
evels such as the
systems concepts and
ture, recognition of basic
consultation interview


abi
sse
ati
ly
opm
an


lity t
ssment
on/dem
(video
mental,
asses


family.


o write a
and
onstration
or
structural,
sment
86)


informational











summary,


the


segment


of training


interest


this


study


was


based


on the


aforementioned


assumptions,


goals,


and


objectives


which


have


been


commonly


used


at the


initial


stage


of family


therapy


training


Clearly


this


method


instruction


emphasizes


a skill


development


approach


which


has


been


commonly


described


the


training


research


literature.


The


outcome


variables


interest


were


changes


family


therapy


conceptual,


perceptual,


and


observational


skills.


These


changes


skills


were


used


evaluate


this


component


the


training


The


instrument


used


evaluation


the


outcome


variables,


the


FTAE


was


considered


an appropriate


choice


this


task


based


previously


cited


research


Breunlin


et al.


(1983)


developed


this


instrument


measure


conceptual,


perceptual,


and


observational


skills


specific


the


structural


and


strategic


schools


therapy.


Research


on Theranv


Trainee


Characteristics


Gurman


and


Kniskern


(1981)


also


recommended


that


family


therapy


training


research


be conducted


to evaluate


the


impact


factors


that


may


not


be specific


any


given


school


but


may


pertinent


across


schools.


For


example,


are


there


relatively


enduring


personality


factors


psychological


mindedness,


tendency


toward


convergent


rather










schools


therapy


and


also


relevant


across


various


schools


has


been


the


direction


recommended.


an attempt


address

designed


this


"specificity


a research


study


question"


evaluate


Breunlin


the


et al.


effect


(1989)

three


these


variables


on the


acquisition


of family


therapy


skills.


The


three


variables


were


aspects


the


trainee


s personal


background,


trainee's


prior


training


and/or


clinical


practice


experience,


and


components


the


training


experience


itself.


Data


regarding


these


three


sets


variables


were


gathered


questionnaire.


The


acquisition


of family


therapy


skills


was


measured


the


Family


Therapy


Assessment


(FTAE)


(Breunlin


al .,


1983)


protesting


and


seven training

subjects ranged


posttesting.

programs par


experience


Ninety-six


Sticipated


from


subjects


the


little


drawn


study.


prior


from


The


clinical


experience


training


training


to those


included


programs,


with


and


considerable


university

an institu


experience.


settings, a

te training


agency


Contexts


inservice


program.


All


programs


included


some


teaching


the


structural/strategic


model.


More


specifically


conjugal


family


experience,


prior


family


therapy


experience


and


prior


individual


therapy


experience,


and


severity


cases


and


percentage


cases


being


seen


individual


therapy


were










specifically


the


therapeutic


skill


level.


In contrast,


prior


experience


family


therapy


did


not


influence


change


either


the


FTAE


total


or subscores


perhaps


due


ceiling


effect


or to higher


pretest


scores.


Previous


experience


individual


therapy


did


predict


changes,


however,


family


therapy


learning,


specifically


conceptual


skill.


Thi


finding


was


of surprising


interest


because,


(e.g


the


Haley,


past,


1981)


family


have


therapy


predicted


educators


that


and


individual


trainers

training


would


be counterproductive


to the


theory


and


practice


family


therapy.


In addition,


the


program


variables


severity


cases


and


percentage


individual


cases


also


had


predictive


significance.


their


own


admission,


Breunlin


et al.


(1989)


stated


that


these


results


can


only


taken


as suggestive


and


needing


replication


(due


to methodological


problems


and


missing


data).


However,


they


reported


the


results


because


the


scarcity


of studies


family


therapy


training.


More


importantly,


these


researchers


suggested


that


"trainee


characteristics


matter


a great


deal


even


after


selection


training;


accounting


for


a population


estimate)


the


half


total

the


FTAE


score


reliable


improvement,


variance


the


or better,


total


for


change


about


score"











studies


and


begins


look


how


personal


characteristics


the


trainee


effect


acquisition


of skills


family


therapy


training.


Five


other


studies


have


been


conducted


which


the


researchers


have


attempted


control


for


important


trainee


variables


such


as gender,


experience


level,


and


and


Leahy


previous

(1980) co


training.


ntrolled


In previous


statistically


literature,


for


Tomm


gender,


marital


and


status,


Pinsof


and


(1984)


previous


and


work


Zaken-Greenberg


experience,


and


and


Neimeyer


Tucker

(1986)


controlled for

to extend this


particular


trainee


type


experience.


of research


characteristics


the


This


researcher


examining


marriage


the


and


sought


effect


family


therapy


trainee


on the


acquisition


of skills.


Therapist


Variables


Individual


..Counselina


Training


It is


not


surprising


that


the


specificity


question


the


field


family


therapy


has


not


been


addressed,


as the


parallel


question


with


regard


to general


psychotherapy


training,


1967).

family


itself,


Much


therapy


has


the


been


training


focused


on s


difficult t

g research

kill acquis


O

in


answer


(Paul,


marriage


ition


and


as originally


proposed


Cleghorn


and


Levine


(1973).


Similarly,


emphasis


on the


skills


training


approach


has


been


a common


component


graduate


level


counseling


programs


(e.g.,










manner


that


ignores


both


learner


and


learning


process


variables


that


could


affect


training


outcome


and


counseling


effectiveness.


Therapist


factors


that


can


affect


the


learning


family


therapy


skills,


and


even


more


importantly


the


outcome


psychotherapy,


are


complex.


In a review


the


literature


on therapist


variables


psychotherapy


process


and


outcome


research,


Beutler,


Crago,


and


Arizmendi


(1986)


discussed


the


complexity


conducting


research


such


this.


They


emphasized


the


need


to continue


research


directed


towards


understanding


the


complex


interactions


between


therapist,


intervention,


client,


and


the


nature


outcome.


Some


research


has


emerged


the


general


body


individual


counseling


and


psychotherapy


training


literature


that


studied


the


effect


trainee


variables


on the


acquisition


therapy


skills.


Mahon


and


Altmann


(1977)


suggested


that


learner


perceptions


and


attitudes


may


affect


the


control,


the


intentionality,


or the


flexibility


skill


used


the


trainee,


which


could


turn


determine


the


selection


and


production


discrete


skills


during


counseling.


Hirsch


and


Stone


(1982),


a study


examining


attitudes


and


behaviors


counseling


skills


development,











Attitudes


of counselors


have


been


found


influence


perceptual


and


behavioral


flexibility.


Wampold,


Cass,


and


Atkinson


(1981)


found


that


stereotyping


interferes


with


counselor


minorities.


i processing

In another


information


study,


about


stereotyping


ethnic

of homosexual


individuals


versus


heterosexual


individuals


was


also


found


to interfere


with


the


counselor's


processing


information


(Cass,


Brady,


& Ponterotto,


1983).


Rec


trainee


ently some

variables


studies

on the a


have


cquis


examined


ition


the im

therapy


p


act of

skills.


Fong


and


Borders


(1985),


Fong,


Borders,


and


Neimeyer


(1986),


and


Neimeyer


and


Fong


(1983)


explored


the


relationship


between


self-disclosure


flexibility


and


counselor


effectiveness


during


a counseling


training


course


which


more


53 students


flexible


were


disclosures


enrolled.

initially


Results

produced


revealed


more


that


effective


counseling


responses


than


did


less


flexible


disclosures,


but


that


these


differences


were


attenuated


over


the


course


training.


Fong


and


Borders


(1985),


using


the


Bemr


Sex


Role


Inventory,


reported


that


counseling


students'


sex


role


orientation


had


an effect


on counseling


skills


performance.


In particular,


masculine


oriented


trainees


were


rated











trainees


were


less


effective


than


either


the


feminine


the


undifferentiated


orientations.


a more


recent


study,


Fong,


Borders,


and


Neimeyer


(1986)


examined


the


impact


sex


role


orientation


and


self-disclosure


flexibility


44 counseling


students


their abil

overall co

counseling


ity


to demonstrate


unseling

skills


response

training.


counseling s

effectiveness


Using


kills a

during


factorial


nd


their


and


analyses


after

, sex


role


orientation


and


level


of self-disclosure


flexibility


accounted


approximately


the


variance


quality


counseling


skills.


These


findings


lend


support


the


importance


trainee


perceptual,


cognitive,


and


behavioral


flexibility


the


acquisition


and


use


counseling


skills.


The


authors


challenged


the


assumption


that


instructional


input


can


account


most


the


variance


trainee


skill


performance


and


suggested


that


the


trainees'


perceptual

developing


source


cognitive,


counseling

variation.


and

skill

They


behavioral

proficienc:

recommended


flexibility


may

using


for


an important


other


indicators


of flexibility


research


studies


to describe


more


clearly


how


these


variables


mediate


the


learning


and


use


of counseling


skills.


It has


been


suggested


that


compatibility


between


the











used


the


Myers-Briggs


Type


Indicator


(MBTI)


(Handley,


1982;


Yura,


1972;


Wyse,


1975).


For


example,


Handley


(1982)


examined


cognitive


the


relationship


styles


between


of supervisors


the


and


similarity


counselors


training


and


supervision


process


and


outcome


measures.


previously


noted,


he found


that


intuitively


oriented


counselors


training


received


higher


supervisor


ratings


than


did


other


counseling


students.


Similarity


between


supervisors


and


counselors


training


on the


MBTI


S-N


scale


was


reported


to be related


to practicum


student


satisfaction


with


supervision.


Handley's


findings


supported


the


hypothesis


that


similarity


of cognitive


styles


improves


accuracy


of communication


the


supervisory


relationship.


However,


these


findings


are


preliminary


As previously


noted,


Carey


and


Williams


(1986)


compared


18 practicum


supervisors


and


46 counselors


training


terms


dominant


counseling


style


and


related


cognitive


style


of counselors


training


to the


supervision


process


and


outcome


measures.


In contrast


findings


previous


researchers,


a strong


relationship


between


the


cognitive


style


of counselors


training


and


supervision


process


and


outcome


measures


was


not


detected










Clearly


this


research


supports


the


concern


voiced


Mahon


and


Altmann


(1977)


and


Hirsch


and


Stone


(1982)


that


counseling


skills


training


should


not


uniformly


taught


counselor


trainees.


In addition,


supports


the


need


further


research


on the


impact


of personal


trainee


variables


on the


learning


process.


As previously


mentioned


parallel


literature,


Gurman


and


Kniskern


(1988)


suggested


that


marriage


and


family


training


researchers


are


beginning


grapple


with


the


specificity


question


(i.e.,


what


types


training


experiences,


with


which


types


trainees


produce


effective


therapists


within


a particular


model


of therapy).


As discussed


previously,


Breunlin


et al.


(1989)


reported


the


results


a study


designed


examine


the


effect o

therapy

conjugal


trainee


skills.

family


variables


Variables

experience,


on the


their


prior


acquisition

study conc


training


of family


erned


individual


and


family


therapy,


and


program


variables


(e.g.


severity


cases).


They


concluded


from


their


research


that


trainee


characteristics


matter


a great


deal


even


after


selection


training,


accounting


for


the


variance


the


total


score


improvement


trainees.


interest


this


research


effort


the


prior











became


more


similar


as their


experience


increases.


More


recent


literature


revealed


that


experience


facilitated


some


therapy


processes


such


as therapists'


empathy


(Auerbach


Johnson,


1977)


and


patient


satisfaction


(Beutler


et al.,


1986).


Gurman


and


Kniskern


(1978)


cited


therapist


experience


level


as a factor


that


influences


the


outcome


family


therapy


and


suggested


that


studies


include


this


variable.


Beutler


et al.


(1986)


suggested


that


investigations


should


distinguish


between


amount


(e.g.,


number


of years)


and


type


(e.g.,


professional


discipline)


of training.


Thus


experience


level


should


be considered


independent


of formal


training

trainee'


This


s prior


researcher


training


examined


the


individual


impact


counseling


the

and


marriage


and


family


therapy)


and


prior


work


experience


individual


counseling


and


marriage


and


family


therapy)


the


acquis


ition


therapy


skills.


In addition


to studying


the


impact


of prior


training


and


work


experience


on therapy,


this


researcher


also


examined


the


impact


the


learning


style


the


trainee


the


acquisition


of family


therapy


skills.


Learnin.U


Style


An examination


instructional


theories


(e.g.,










acquisition


and


developing


comprehensive


approaches


skill


training.


Clearly


characteristics


of both


the


supervisor


(teacher)


and


supervisee


(learner)


affect


the


interaction


that


occurs


between


them.


Hart


(198


suggested

learning


that supervisee

process include


aspects to

expectations


be examined


during


supervisee


the


and


supervisor),

interpersonal


levels


behavior,


training


and


and


learning


experience,

style. In


patterns


I this


context


learning


refers


the


speed


and


efficiency


with


which


supervises


can


acquire


various


types


information.


For


example,


some


supervisees


are


able


learn


best


from


principles


that


are


discussed


and


demonstrated


whereas


others


learn


best


critiques


their


performance


with


clients.


Hart


(1982)


suggested


that


learning


style,


like


other


the


interpersonal

supervisory


patterns,


and


an important


teaching/learning


consideration


process.


recommended


conducting


research


that


includes


the


consideration


learning


style


as an important


variable


affecting

Hart


the


supervision


(1982)


and


encouraged


teaching/learning


the


clinical


process.


supervisor


select


techniques


that


are


appropriate


the


supervise


with


particular


intellectual


characteristics.


For


example,


Berengarten


(1957)


described


major


learning


patterns











experiential-empathic


on results


learner


of intuitively


tries


proceeding


out hunches

with tasks


and

that


relies

seem


appropriate.


The


intellectual-empathic


learner


relies


deliberate


plans


that


are


carefully


thought


out


before


any


action


taken.


In another


study


Rosenthal


(1977)


examined


the


effects


of learning


style


and


conceptual


level


supervises


on the


learning


of clinical


skills.


His


results


indicated


that


the


effectiveness


the


method


teaching


a clinical


skill


(confrontation)


was


dependent


upon


the


conceptual


level


(high


or low)


the


supervisee.


Clearly,


considering


trainee


learning


style


when


examining


trainee


skill


acquisition


an important


area.


Research


on the


differentiate


outcomes


learning


styles


live supervision

and preferences


has

and


begun

has


defined


some


predictable


trainee


responses


from


therapists


who


have


undergone


a live


supervision


experience


(Liddle,


Davidson,


& Barrett,


1988)


For


example,


Liddle


et al.


(1988)


assessed,


through


structured


interview


format,


trainees


from


a variety


training


contexts


which


live


supervis


was


a component.


The


results


provided


initial


picture


the


variables


that


might


warrant


further


description


and


experimental


inquiry.


More


specifically,


they


noted


that


the


preference


active


participation










who


saw


themselves


as having


an active


learning


style


than


those


having


a more


passive


style


of learning.


The


conclusions

involvement


trainee


drawn


the


success


the


learning


authors


were


process


supervision


and


that


was


that


see


personal

n as crucial


passive


learning


styles


were


viewed


as less


beneficial


than


active


ones.


Clearly,


the


variable


of learning


style


may


have


significant


impact


on the


acquis


ition


therapy


skills.


The


trainee's


mode


observing,


taking


data


about


the


world,


organizing


and


acting


upon


the


realm


individual


and


family


therapy


training


may


influence


the


learning


therapy


skills.


A number


of different


theories


and


models


cognitive


style/learning


style


have


been


proposed.


A well-known


example


the


Myers


Briggs


Type


Indicator


which


based


on Jung


s theory


psychological


types.


Many


models


such


as this


have


been


used


to sort


individuals


into


career/occupational


categories


as a way


applying/resolving


cognitive


tasks


(e.g.,


Kolb,


1976,


1981).


Few


the


learning


models


have


been


used


predict


learning


and


performance


of specific


job


tasks.


Identifying


preferred


learning


style


and


motivation


patterns


may


be of interest,


however,


not


only


terms










classroom


structure,


tasks,


and


assignment


geared


towards


specific


personality


types/learning


styles


of students


elementary/secondary


education.


The


implications


for


research


that


includes


learning


style


of the


trainee


as a


variable


the


therapy


learning


process


are


many.


Variables


of Interest


the


Study


In the


following


sections,


the


outcome


variables


and


the


four


trainee


variables


interest


the


study


(i.e.,


prior


training


individual


counseling


and


marriage


and


family


therapy,


prior


work


experience


individual


counseling


and


marriage


and


family


therapy,


initial


knowledge


of family


therapy,


and


learning


style)


are


discussed.


Outcome


Variables


The


outcome


variables


examined


this


study


are


the


change


observational


(perceptual),


conceptual,


and


therapeutic


(executive)


skill


the


family


therapy


trainee


from


protesting


posttesting.


These


skills


were


originally


defined


Cleghorn


and


Levine


(1973)


and


have


been


subsequently


used


describing


learning


objectives


(e.g


Falicov


marriage


and


al .,


family


1981;


therapy


Tomm


& Wright,


training


most


1979)


of the


published


accounts.










understanding


necessary


of a model.


to execute


Therapeutic


interventions


skills


skillfully


are


those


within


the


session


according


one's


model


therapy,


and


this


case,


the


structural/strategic


model


of family


therapy.


Breunlin


(1983)


have


developed


an instrument


evaluate


change


therapeutic


skills


terms


observational,


as previously


defined.


conceptual,


This


and


the


measure


used


the


study


assess


change


these


skills.


Observational


(perceptual),


conceptual,


and


executive


(technical)


skills


have


been


previously


discussed


the


review


the


training


literature.


These


three


interrelated


sets


of skills


are


commonly


used


the


training


research.


Family


TheraPist


Assessment


Exercise


Breunlin


et al.


(1983)


described


the


Family


Therapist


Assessment


Exercise


(FTAE)


as an instrument-in-process


designed


effectiveness


evaluate


family


of family


therapists


therapy


and


training


the


The


instrument


based


strategic


(and


model


assesses


family


competence


therapy


which


the


structural-


integrates


structural


family


therapy


as espoused


Minuchin


and


his


colleagues

Minuchin,


(Minuchin,


Rosman,


1974;


& Baker,


Minuchin

1978); pr


& Fishman,


oblem-solvin


1981;

g and










Ackerman


Brief


Therapy


Project


(Hoffman,


1981;


Papp,


1980).


Breunlin


et al.


(1983)


claimed


that


they


were,


essence,


measuring


therapists


' ability


to systemically


conceptualize


a crucial


conceptual


family therapy
systemicallyy,
actions as one


rather
actions
traits.


The


than
or b


instrument


the


element
ability


that is to
part of a r


being caused b
e intrapsychic


consists


of
to


view


this


model


think


a


edundant
y another
events


family
family


r


member'
dance,


member's


or personality


a videotape


a first


session


with


an enacted


family.


The


script


on the


videotape


an actual


first


session


(edited


down


to 30


minutes)


so that


can


replicate


the


type


of stimulus


data


a therapist

provides a


actually


standardize


encounters.

ed stimulus


The

for


use

the


the


written


videotape

component


of the


instrument.


A wide


range


interventions


are


illustrated


and


family


dynamics


of moderate


complexity


are


depicted.

highlight


therapist


Some


modifications


important


behaviors,


conceptual


some


were


introduced


material


which


and


would


order


include


considered


mistakes.


The


final


tape


was


filmed


using


professional


actors


and


sophisticated


audio/visual


reproduction,


providing


transitions


between


the


edited


segments.


Four


family


therapists


reviewed


the


manual


and


tape


and











They


have


designed


the


instrument


assess


three


inter-related


sets


of skills:


observational,


conceptual,


and


therapeutic


skills


(Falicov


et al.,


1981)


These


are


virtually


the


same


as Cleghorn


and


Levine's


(1973)


perceptual,


conceptual,


and


executive


skills.


Observational


skills


are


those


required


to perceive


and


accurately


describe


behavioral


data


within


a session.


Conceptual


skills


are


those


inherent


a theoretical


understanding


necessary


of a model.


to execute


Therapeutic


interventions


skills


skillfully


are


those


within


the


session


according


one'


model


of therapy,


this


case


the


structural-strategic


The


instrument


model


intended


of

to


family

measure


therapy.

e therapists'


competence


these


three


sets


of skills


as applicable


within


the


clinical


situation


depicted


on the


videotape.


Observational


skills


are


measured


how


perceptive


the


respondent


to behavioral


data


and


sequences;


conceptual


skills


are


measured


whether


the


respondent


chooses


the


"correct"


(per


corresponds


theoretical


that


segment


orientation)


of behavioral


concept


data.


that


Because


the


respondent


observing


another


conduct


therapy


on a


videotape,


more


difficult


assess


the


respondent


actual


therapeutic


skills.


But


the


test


asks


the











choose


as a therapeutic


intervention


response


the


prior


sequence


portrayed


on the


tape.


These,


course,


may


not


predict


whether


the


respondent


would


actually


act


this


way


a similar


clinical


situation.


Development


the


Instrument


To date,


there


have


been


five


progressively


refined


versions

studies.


the


The


test


first


based

version


on the

used


researchers


broad,


' pilot


open-ended


questions


to explore


how


therapists


would


respond


the


tape.


A subjective


comparison


of pretraining


and


posttraining


test


responses


from


12 clinical


externs


family


therapy


revealed


a substantial


improvement


complexity


answers


with


increased


application


training


knowledge


to the


tape.


In constructing


the


second


version,


the


answers


that


were


obtained


using


the


initial,


open-ended


version


were


generated


each


item:


one


preferred


and


three


alternatives,


each


of which


were


weighted.


was


hoped


that


the


weighing


would


render


a more


accurate


indication


progress


therapist


competency


from


protesting


posttesting.


Questions


were


included


only


there


was


unanimous


agreement


among


the


researchers


on the


correct


answers.


The


second


form


included


20 questions--7











The


second


version


was


piloted


on five


groups


pediatric


residents


(n=13)


and


three


groups


third-year


medical


students


posttraining


(n=9)


scores


A comparison


indicated


signific


of pretraining

ant improvement


and

(p.


.01)


suggesting


that


both


the


training


was


effective


and


that


the


instrument


sensitively


measured


the


training


impact.


The


third


version


consisted


of 13 multiple-choice


conceptual


questions,


5 observational


questions


which


the


respondent


must


recall


an interactional


sequence


using


a fill-in-the-blank


format),


8 multiple-choice


therapeutic


questions


(mostly


critiquing


the


therapist


s behavior


tape),


and


therapeutic


questions


that


require


the


respondent


to write


a therapeutic


intervention.


This


version


was


reviewed


and


then


taken


two


other


family


therapy


trainers


to verify


concurrence


on the


multiple-choice


answers.


There


seemed


to be greater


difficulty


the


reaching


therapeutic


agreement


items.


among


the


Apparently,


experts


was


regarding


easier


agree


about


what


the


family


doing


and


what


needs


happen


than


when


and


how


this


should


best


occur.


For


this


reason,


seemed


that


the


third


version


the


instrument


was


more


valid


measure


of observational


and


conceptual


skills











The


correlation


between


experience


level


and


average


score


as would


be expected


and


suggested


that


the


test


level


difficulty


has


avoided


the


previous


problem


of a ceiling


effect.


In the


ominous


fourth


task


version


scoring


the


open-ended


FTAE,


items,


because


Breunlin


the


and


colleagues


opted


to back


track


and


convert


the


entire


instrument


a multiple-choice


format.


They


chose


some


the


most


popular


responses


from


the


open-ended


pilot


runs


and


cast


them


as potential


choices


within


the


multiple-


choice


format.


In contrast


earlier


versions


the


instrument,


however,


the


"correct"


response


was


embedded


with


equally


reasonable


alternatives


and


thereby


not


obvious


the


respondent.


The

Exercise


fifth

(FTAE)


refinement


used


the


this


Family

study.


Therapy


This


Assessment


current


version


a procedure


which


subjects


watch


a simulated


family


therapy


interview


on videotape


and


answer


the


questions


a 32-item,


multiple-choice


format


test.


these


32 questions,


are


observational,


are


conceptual,


and


are


reported


therapeutic.


continued


Although


difficulty


with


Breunlin


the


et al.


(1989)


observational


scale,


several


studies


(Hernandez,


1985;


Pulleyblank,


1985;










total


score.


These


studies


have


been


previously


discussed


the


review


the


family


therapy


training


literature.


Finally,


should


noted


that


throughout


each


version


the


FTAE,


Breunlin


and


colleagues


constructed


the


instrument


so that


maintained


jargon-free


terminology


even


though


assessed


competence


the


structural-strategic


model.


This


allowed


those


uninitiated


to family


therapy


to understand


the


alternatives


and


insured


that


the


test


measures


more


than


the


respondents'


acquaintance


with


the


vocabulary


the


model.


But,


due


its

and


reliance o

colleagues


n the


structural-strategic


commented


that


model,


theoretically


Breunlin

y possible


that


a highly


trained


clinician


from


a contrasting


school


might


very


poorly


on this


test.


However,


this


study


a structural/strategic


model


therapy


comprised


the


treatment


component,


therefore,


this


particular


issue


should


not


pose


a problem.


Trainee


Variables


(Characteristics)


Much


the


research


done


the


area


training


marriage


and


family


therapy


has


been


done


with


postgraduate


level


trainees


family


therapy


training


centers


and


institutes.


Little


research


has


been


done


that


targeted


the


novice


level


trainee


enrolled


degree


granting










within


universities


remains


be defined.


This


researcher


targeted


the


beginning


trainee


marriage


and


family


who


was


enrolled


a university-based


training


experience.


The


variables


of interest


examined


were


the


trainee's


prior


training,


work


experience


both


individual


counseling


knowledge


and


marriage


family


and


therapy,


family


and


therapy,


the


learning


initial


style


the


trainee.


Prior


training


and


work


experience


individual


counseling /therapv


and


marriacre


and


family


therapy.


interest


this


study


was


the


effect


trainee'


previous


training


and


experience


individual


therapy


and


marriage


and


family


therapy


on the


acquisition


observational,


conceptual,


and


therapeutic


skills


of family


therapy.


It has


been


commonly


and


perhaps


intuitively


presumed


that


prior


training


individual


psychotherapy


interferes


with


the


cognitive


shift


to systemic


thinking


and


the


learning


of marriage


and


family


therapy


general.


However,


what


Pulleyblank


experience


(1985)


prior


discussed


family


the


therapy


need


training


clarify


was


relevant


to the


success


as a family


therapist.


Pulleyblank's


study,


a self-evaluation


component


was


used


conjunction


with


other


measures.


She


found


that


the