Wordsworth's challenges to gender-based hierarchies

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Title:
Wordsworth's challenges to gender-based hierarchies a study of lyrical ballads
Physical Description:
viii, 241 leaves : ; 29 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Colledge, Elizabeth Lovett, 1952-
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Feminist literary criticism   ( lcsh )
English thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- English -- UF
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1991.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 232-240).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Elizabeth Lovett Colledge.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001694786
oclc - 25248377
notis - AJA6891
System ID:
AA00002100:00001

Full Text














WORDSWORTH'S


CHALLENGES
A STUDY OF


TO GENDER-BASED
LYRICAL BALLADS


HIERARCHIES:


ELIZABETH


LOVETT


COLLEGE


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA




































Copyright


1991


Elizabeth


Lovett


College















This


dissertation


dedicated


children,


William


Lovett


Shepherd


College


Edward


Elizabeth


College,


Ross


College,


my mother,


husband,


zabeth


Ross


Lovett.


also


dedicate


memory


grandmother,


Sally


Chandler


Ross,


my father,


William


Dow


Lovett.















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


First

supervised


and

this


foremost


thank


dissertation,


Richard


Brant ley,


perceptive


criticism


intellectual


moral


support.


Several


years


teaching


inspired


me to write


this


dissertation


Wordsworth.


Since


then


he has


guided


work


with


patience,


humor,


encouragement.


ideal


reader


and


editor.


would


also


like


to thank


several


members


supervisory


interest


committee

feminist


Elizabeth


criticism,


Langland,


serves


fostered


as a splendid


role


model


feminist


scholars


and


teachers


. Her


comments


criticism


have


been


invaluable.


New'


high


intellectual


standards


refusal


to accept


mediocrity


have


enriched


both


my writing


thinking.


always


incisive


remarks


acerbic


continue


to challenge


me.


thank


Beth


Schwartz


thoughtful


reading


work


at several


stages


insightful


remarks.


also


thank


Jame s


Twitchell


participation


Doug


Bonneville


early


stages


careful


this


examination


dissertation


completed


ssertation.


Fi nnllv


arknnwl edaeF


he steadfast


love


sUpport


uir.


.








William


late


Lovett


College


grandmother,


Elizabeth


Sally


Chandler


Ross


Ross,


College.


who


thank


believed


unconditionally,


late


father,


William


Dow


Lovett,


taught


me the


value


know


edge


and


achievement.


And


thank


earliest


most


significant


influence,


my mother,


Elizabeth


Ross


Lovett,


loved


and


read


me Wordsworth


"Daffodils.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Eaga


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS............. ........ ................ .


ABSTRACT. . . . . . . . . . .

CHAPTERS


THE PREFACE TO LYRICAL BALLADS: WORDSWORTH'S
CHALLENGES TO TRADITIONAL MASCULINIST
IDEOLOGIES AND HIS STRUGGLES FOR POETIC
RECONCILIATION OF GENDER CONFLICTS............


Notes.........................................


THE FEMALE SPEAKER AND THE MASCULINE VOICE....


Notes...... ... ......... .... ................


"TINTERN ABBEY": THE SISTER AS SOURCE AND
SUBJECT..................... . .. .. ...


Notes.................... ....................


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION........................


Notes..................... ...................

APPENDIX FEMINIST CRITICISM...........................

Notes...... ...... .................... .......

WORKS CITED.............................................

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.....................................














Abstract


of Dissertation


Presented


to the


Graduate


School


:he University
Requirements J


WORDSWORTH'


of Florida


Degree


CHALLENGE S


A STUDY


Partial


Doctor


TO GENDER-BASED


LYRICAL


Fulfillment


Philosophy


HIERARCHIES:


BALLADS


Elizabeth


Lovett


College


August,


1991


Chairman:


Major


Richard


Department


Brant ley


: English


In both


Preface


to Lyrical


Ballads


ballads


themselves,


of gender.


power,


William


Despite


Wordsworth


Wordsworth


tendency


envisions


challenges


to favor


a fruitful


traditional


a gendered


tension,


notions


division


even


balance,


between


"masculine"


"feminine"


attributes.


Gender


roles


are


never


quite


merged


into


an androgynous


state


are


dynamic.


modified


result


exchanged


both


a fuller


through


appre


an interactive


ciation


fuller


development


each.


While


Preface


introduces


gender-specific


strategies


of writing,


poems


employ


them,


ballads


into


play


a nonhierarchical


interaction


of the


"masculine"


with








establishes


female


personae,


and


thereby


established


own


sympathy


for,


own


identification


with,


traditionally


"feminine"


attributes.


physical


status


of these


lost


abandoned


women


reflects


social


reality.


Although


Wordsworth


s own


poetic


identity


remains


more


or less


clearly


linked


to "masculine"


metaphors


power,


emotional


states


female


personae


project


sense


what


means


to speak


and


suffer


as a woman.


assuming


patriarchal


a female


structures


voice,


indeed,


endows


he challenges


"feminine"


with


least


a degree


authority.


Constrained


culturally


embedded


divisions


between


"masculine"


reason


and


"feminine"


emotion,


qualities


Wordsworth


such


cannot


as intuition,


overtly


take


empathy,


possession


or maternal


instinct.


does


simply


redefine


them


"masculine.


incorporates


mothers,


sisters,


wives


poetic


fictions


that


enable


him


to share,


or share


these


qualities.


crowning


achievement,


perhaps,


occurs


interaction


between


poet/speaker


a sororal/maternal


figure


"Tintern


Abbey.


Here


Wordsworth


abandons


fantasy


prelapsarian


androgyny


childhood.


rede fines


himself


an exchange


of "masculine"


and


"feminine,


" if


not,


indeed,


their


reconciliation.
















CHAPTER


PREFACE


TO LYRICAL


BALLADS


WORDSWORTH
IDEOLOGIES A


CHALLENGES


STRUGGLES


TO TRADITIONAL


FOR


POETIC


MASCULINIST


RECONCILIATION


OF GENDER


CONFLICTS


In the


Preface


to Lyrical


Ballads,


many


of the


ballads


notions


themselves,


of gender


William


poetic


Wordsworth


strategies.


challenges


Despite


traditional


some


tenden


toward


a gendered


divi


sion


power,


despite


occas


ional


rejection


of the


"feminine,


" Wordsworth


most


often


envisions


a radical


union


of "masculine"


"feminine"


attributes,


a union


which,


rather


than


ordering


reconciling


these


encultured


opposites


holds


them


in tension


balance.


"Masculine"


"feminine"


do not


so much


unite


an androgynous


ideal


as exchange


modify


traditional


gender


roles;


there


no merger


into


a third


state,


rather


a fuller


appreciation


of each


as necessary


richer


development


of the


other.


Preface


introduces


gender-specific


writing


strategies


poems


themselves,


which,


read


them,


reflect


Wordsworth


s attempts


to set


into


play


a nonhierarchical


interaction


of gendered


opposites.


-I-


?, -2--SI


-,. - L- .


-, A-


n,,,,L


-------------


*


'I










Preface


certain


ballads.


As Alan


Richardson


explains


"Romanticism


Colonization


Feminine,


perceptions


women


Romantic


poetry


are


based


historically


socially


entrenched


concepts.l


When


including


women,


poetic


tradition


either


relegates


them


position


muse


or appropriates


"feminine"


qualities


extensions


of the


"masculine";


female


"difference"


serves


both


as a source


inspiration


a safe


extension


male


self,


visionary


goals


ideals.


Even


efforts


part


of male


writers


to absorb


more


positive


"feminine"


attributes


expense


of the


primarily


feminine;


enlarge


such


coloniz


masculine


sphere


gestures


reinforce


rather


than


break


down


traditional


gender


hierarchies.


Poetic


tradition


reflects


this


denial


of the


"feminine,


" with


accompanying


degradation,


notably


in the


separation


reason


emotion.


Wordsworth


s challenges


to the


priorities


reason


over


emotion


reveal


awareness


of the


traditional


subject/


object


dichotomies


of Western


culture


: culture/nature,


Logos/Pathos,


form/matter,


ultimately,


masculine/


feminine.


In reference


to these


paradigms,


feminist


critics


Gayle


Greene


Coppelia


Kahn


remark,


evident


that


nature


-culture


opposition


in a matrix


common


to other


value-laden


onnos it ions


(inc ludina


those


of tender










thought


make


sustain


"the


intellectual


framework


male


dominance


Thinking


inferiority


terms


one


binary


term,


opposition


always


subordination


implies


one


element


to the


effect


other.


upon


Reversing


basic


matrix


order


of the


of hierarchical


pairing


opposition,


simply


trapped


reinforces


within


system


a system


oppose


itions;


of philosophical


one


logic


remains


that


bases


truth


upon


difference


Deconstructionist


thought


requires


undermining


of such


opposition


accordingly


system


which


support


s them


only


means


of undoing


hierarchical


oppos


ition


between


men


women.


According


Elizabeth


Meese,


"The


deconst ruct ive


critic


claims


as a


goal


within


undoing


which


binary


the f

oppos


fundamental


itions


hierarchy


structure


of meaning


western


metaphysics


In addition


to questioning


hierarchical


traditions


within


which


Wordsworth


writes,


deconstructive


theory


can


also


used


to break


down


received,


oppressive


epistemologies,


uses


of language.


However,


western


feminist


criticism


frequently


demands


that


both


theory


practice


stand


upon


specific


socio-political


goals;


emphasis


in deconstructive


theory


upon


endless


deferral


of meaning


lessens


significance


of political


or material


I-1- -


nfl I~n i IC ,-an0C 't


Fam:n.4, es4


* C I


F: nr


-i


r


rha nhn


wvn -^ysT


n










specifically


grounded


psychological


socio-historical


theories.


Much


project


feminist


of exposing


criticism


analyzing


involved


patriarchal


ongoing


representations


women,


stereo


otyping


the

and


Preface,

misrepres


course


entation


must


women


take


a certain


as a literary


sociological


given.


In their


recent


study


titled


No Man


Land, S

other t

as T.S.


;andra

things ,

Eliot


Gilbert


that

and


and


men

Ezra


Susan


from

Pound


Gubar


Tennyson

to Ted


have


through


Hughes


demonstrated,


such


had


among


modernists


difficulty


accepting


feminine


: "Once


we reimagine


author


as a


gendered


human


being


whose


text


reflect


cultural


conditions,

narratives,


story


we can

so that


stories


conflate

they co


about


and


collate


institute


gender


one


strife


individual

possible


this


literary


metastory,


period.


they


are


correct,


then


Wordsworth


represents


a different


tradition,


found


a different


difficult,


"metastory.


impossible,


Naturally


Wordsworth


to separate


encultured


difference


from


sexual


difference;


nevertheless,


envisioned


a radical


exchange


and


balance


between


gendered


opposites.


Although


he frequently


conflated


socio-


historical


with


"intrinsic,


" he


continued


to hover


between


reason


emotion,


rather


than


falling


into


prrnr


nf fsn ril' nn"


nfl 0


nu0 r


nt-hr+ r


m~ ~~rll i n ~ ~t r


I










read


Godwin


s Political


Justice


in 1793,


Wordsworth


became


temporarily


emotions


enthusiastic


rational


regarding


control


restriction


intellectual


of the


activity.


Godwin


promoted


social


justice


through


exercise


pure


reason,


without


conventions


and


encumbrance


institutions,


either


whether


emotion


political,


or various


religious,


or social.


first


Wordsworth


fell


under


influence;


had


remained


ideal


stic


despite


shattered


revolutionary


hopes,


po5s


which


ibilities


However,


had


reflected


of the


1798,


worship


perfectibility


Wordsworth


modified


reason


of human


Godwin


nature.


s philosophy


own


rationalism,


he recognized


that


emotions


could


not--and


should


--be


totally


restricted


rational


control


intellectual


activity.


Wordsworthian


effective

rational


character


principles;


of Lyrical


environmentt

the poet


focuses


Ballads


emotions


upon


shaped


as by


Godwin


healing


effects


of nature,


working


conjunction


with


conscious


efforts


will


intellect


certain


reevaluation


poetic


appropriate ion


"feminine"


accompanies


Romantic


Age,


as poets


seek


to bring


traditionally


feminine


virtues


of emotion


sensitivity


into


circle


of masculine


power,


most


often


mn nr rniirranaa


nf nromrr nr


ol f-,-,vnr,-o i n ,


I1


nr an 1 l rrn n+










adult


sexuality,


turns


search


poetic


identity


into


more


than


a simple


quest


maturity:


quest


involves


sexual


identity.


recurring


ambivalence


toward


sympathy


"feminine"


undermine


overt


allegiance


masculine


hierarchy,


as I


shall


illustrate


through


examination


following


ballads


: "The


Female


Vagrant,


"The


Mad


Mother,


" "The


Complaint


of a Forsaken


Indian


Woman,


"Lines


Written


at a Small


Distance


from


House"


("To


Sister"),


"Tintern


Abbey


In "Romantic


Quest


Conquest,


" Marlon


Ross


notes:


possess


"Poetry


ion,


motivated


determined


shaped


poet


desire


s aggressive


self-


relation


fellows


world,


intrinsically


masculine,


socio-historically


masculine.


Quest


conquest,


too,


though


able


to be appropriated


women,


are


historically


means


through


which


men


have


appropriated


power


themselves


over


women


Ross


s distinction


applies


equally


to the


binary


opposition


reason


emotion


and


other


traditional


subject-object


dichotomies,


symptoms


of socialization


rather


than


anatomy.


Much


of the


Preface


uses


traditional


metaphors


conquest


achievement


to present


poet


as manly


or self-


possessed


He must


struggle


against


a multitude


of forces


i-h~l-


"h1 ii n-


I 1 I ,


rl crr'- m nsf- ncr


nnia rr q


nf t-hP


min cE


" unfit-










mind


s "powers,


" the


reduction


of the


mind


to a state


"almost


savage


torpor,


" reflect


linear


images


of battle


circular,


direct


diffused


achievement,


images


as opposed


of "feminine"


more


influence


sensibility.


Ironically,


this


masculine


force


Wordsworth'


acts


nPOIn


him.


continuous


use


metaphors


of control


throughout


Preface


reflects


poet


s need


to struggle


against


masculine


power,


a covert


acknowledgement


of his


recognition


of the


"feminine"


nature.


In his


commitment


"the


real


language


of men"9


in the


initial


paragraph


of the


Preface,


Wordsworth


ostensibly


excludes


female


likewise,


pleasure


which


ensues


from


metrical


arrangement


of this


language,


"that


sort


of pleasure


that


quantity


of pleasure


. which


Poet


may


rationally


endeavour


to impart,


implicitly


subordinates


subordination


understanding


"feminine"


becomes


to the


clearer


of pleasure


"masculine


we examine


relation


to the


This


Wordsworth


poetic


tradition.


Stephen


Parrish


explores


Poet


s concept


: "At


once


a psychological,


esthetic,


almost


an epistemological


term,


measure


was


'grand


elementary


principle


' of


man


4Z nr'Ca4-


Ii r4 e +-1 4i nn4- 4 aar


"masculine"


a nk: ntrnmnnC


n3Crirn


Irr n~


t- nf_


n"










Dictionary


(1971),


range


from


strictly


physical


concept


of sensual


gratification


to "the


condition


consciousness


sens


action


induced


enjoyment


or antic


ipation


of what


felt


or viewed


as good


or desirable;


enjoyment,


delight,


gratification.


In anti


cipating


readers'


reactions,


Wordsworth


hopes


"more


than


common


pleasure,


" which


implies


more


than


ordinary,


that


sensual,


gratification.


quotes


Bishop


Berkeley,


1732


: "you


admit,


therefore,


three


sorts


of pleasure:--pl


measure


reason,


pleasure


imagination,


pleasure


sense,


a definition


which


places


reason,


imagination,


sense,


and,


given


age,


"masculine"


"feminine,


" in


descending


itions


important


Although


Wordsworth


might


well


have


been


familiar


with


Berkeley's


work


on the


subject,


he does


explicitly


expound

creates


upon

his


these


own


specific


unique


varieties


understanding


of pleasure


of the


concept,


instead

arriving


at much


same


hierarchical


conclusion.


sort


quantity


to impart,


read


pleasure


" would


Wordsworth


sympathy


towards


"which


certainly


aright.

the Be


a Poet

extend


Clearly,


!rkeleyan


rationally


beyond


Preface

of the


triad


endeavour


sensual,

reflects

pleasures


reason,


imagination,


and


sense;


elevation


trmc~tinn1 lx,


mncmi1 inn


r'nrn rant


I1I


ra~ Crnn


ntrar man


fnmi ni no










On the


other


hand,


in acknowledging


failure


provide


a systematic


defense


of his


theory,


Wordsworth


questions


efficacy


of "masculine"


reason.


an implicit


reference


to the


gendered


split


between


reason


emotion,


poet


refers


to "the


selfish


foolish


hope


of reasoning


him


[the


reader]


into


an approbation


these


particular


Poems


Insofar


as the


patriarchal


value


system


is based


upon


a system


of binary


opposition,


a hierarchy


with


underlying


masculine/feminine


paradigm


a corresponding


positive/negative


"masculine"


half


implication,


reason


male/female


associated


paradigm,


with


lack


strength


here


unsettles


gendered


ass


umptions


about


power


over


emotion.


Wordsworth


s use


of the


ostensibly


generic


"he"


and


equivalents


once


includes


subordinates


women.


proposes


to create


a new


class


of Poetry


sufficient


interest


mankind


permanently,


" and


significant


"the


quality


moral


relations


association


superior


moral


relations


with


best


interests


of mankind,


continued


emphasis


on "man"


"mankind"


throughout


Preface


, appears


to ignore


half


human


race,


despite


ostensibly


generic


use


of "man"


"mankind


eagerness


to include


lower


classes


speak


*C *


nnln.. fin


nnlnnn


F~n ~C(~ Ylh


nrr Ann nC n rr


an


tr "










Although


Wordsworth


insists


upon


poet


as a


representative


of humanity,


definition


of this


humanity


seems


to break


with


tradition.


Despite


acknowledgement


of societal


influence,


Wordsworth


insists


upon


existence


"natural"


man,


outs


Soc


cultural


constraints,


and,


as well,


on the


existence


a natural


language:


"such


language


sing


of repeated


experience


regular


feelings


a more


permanent


a far


more


philosophical


language


than


that


which


frequently


substituted


Poets


And


obviously,


he considers


himself


qualified


bridge


between


Poet


natural


man.


focusing

social r


upon


upon


natural


restraints


writing.


discourse,


he hopes


influences


Nevertheless,


to avoid


of cultural


concept


artificial


contexts


"natural


man,


" however


much


appears


an embracing


of the


marginalized,


still


exc


ludes


or subordinates


woman


completely


older


concept


of humanity,


that


of the


man


of culture


soc


iety.


Despite


attempts


to create


this


natural


man,


then,


outside


constraints


of culture


Soc


ety,


Wordsworth


cannot


gendered


deny


effect


expectations


Soc


that


io-historical


accompany


them.


factors,


He admits


with


that


complete


defense


of his


theory


would


require


a full


account


Ill~~n I Ii t 2 -0I,


nrmront


1-ntat


4 mnna11 a !~h


rrw(th nlf5


Pt~t a


lo


I *










revolutions


of literature


alone


likewise


of society


itself


"15


He thus


openly


acknowledges


weight


tradition,


despite


vision


man


free


from


historical


cultural


influences


Wordsworth


created


well


act


recognizes


of writing


traditional


verse,


expectations


expectations


exclusion


as well


inclusion


. The


Poet


"will


gratify


certain


known


habits


of association";


"not


only


thus


apprizes


Reader


that


certain


classes


ideas


expressions


will


found


book,


that


others


will


be carefully


excluded


Poet


always


considered


male,


this


concept


"voluntarily


contracted"


agreement


between


Poet


reader


suggest s


a long


patriarchal


tradition


between


despite


writers


different


readers,


expectations


extended


through


generated


ages,


different


ages.


equal


emphasis


upon


exclus


well


inclu


sion


refl


ects


which,


hierarchical


turn,


we know


origins


to have


literary


denied


tradition,


significant


literary


powe r


to the


lower


classes


feminine


gender.


Female


writers


readers


have


no place


here.


using


excuse


traditional


developing


brevity


present


of a Preface


import


as his


of writing


verse


(again


made


an Author


"his


" Reader,


whom


poet


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endeavouring


to ascertain


what


is his


duty,


when


duty


ascertained,


prevents


him


from


performing


In thi


one


sentence


he emphasizes


concepts


of honor


duty,


historically


associated


with


masculine,


as opposed


to the


"indolence,


" associated,


default,


with


feminine.


verbs


uses,


endeavouringg,


" "ascertaining,


" and


"performing,


" suggest


ostensibly


masculine


action


as well.


In Women


Writers


Poetic


Identity,


Margaret


Homans


notes


that


although


feminine,


their


nothing


"Static


place


in literature


definitions


culture


simply


symbols


so long


or inherently


of femininity


that


have


sometimes


difficult


to separate


them


from


actual


sexual


difference


The

with


Preface

the "f


reflects


feminine"


these


standard


activity


ass


with


ociations


of passivity


"masculine,


oppressive


confederations


which


Wordsworth


found


difficult,


impossible,


escape.


Modern


gender


theories


enable


feminist


critic


to attempt


to avoid


essentializing


terms


masculine


Wordsworth


states


nature


feminine


s most


intention


respect


radical


to trace


to the


to ground


proposition


primary


association


them


occurs


laws


of ideas


culturally


when


of human


a state


excitement.


juxtaposing


world


of ideas,


with


associations


with


reason,


clarity,


culture,


with


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IALIALL










feminine


attribut


es.


such


a union


cannot


occur


within


confines


traditional


SOC


iety;


must


found


"low


rustic


life"


where


"the


essential


passions


of the


heart


find


a better


soil


which


they


can


attain


their


maturity,


are


less


under


restraint,


speak


a plainer


more


emphatic


language


Here,


traditionally


feminine


metaphors


of natural


growth


fruition


combine


with


masculine


metaphors


of freedom


communication.


passions


feelings


are


"essential"


"elementary";


they


more


"forcibly


communicated"


a state


of simplicity


durability.


Most


signifi


cantly,


"the


passions


men


are


incorporated


with


beautiful


permanent


forms


nature,


" further


suggesting


a merger


of the


masculine


feminine.


particularly


notes


use


"are


incorporated


with"


rather


than


"incorporate,


" suggesting


more


equitable


exchange,


male


gives


active


passive

female,


voice.


Wordsworth


suggesting

strengthens


the

its


permanence

position


of nature/


interchange


with


masculine.


feminine


influence


retains


position


object,


never


subject;


language


remains


masculine,


"men


Nature


hourly


serves


to purify


communicate


this


with


language


best


objects


"because


from


such


which


men


best


!,.. -.


- A .-. ~ 4- t%


1


*I J










their


proportion


as they


separate


themselves


from


sympathies


men,


indulge


arbitrary


capricious


habits


expression


order


to furnish


food


fickle


tastes


disparaging


fickle


those


appetites


align


their


their


own


with


creation.


weakness


frivolity,


traditionally


"feminine"


characteristics,


Wordsworth

feminine,


appears

although


to disparage

he certainly


certain

values


aspects


"the


sympathies


men


Images


of growth


and


nurturing


remain


subservient


images


of masculine


action,


reflecting


poet


s continued


ambivalence


toward


"feminine


see


Wordsworth


as struggling


between


attachment


to and


rejection


"feminine,


" symbolized


in Lvrical


Ballads


a mother/nature


figure


"The


Female


Vagrant,


" "The


Mother,


" and


"The


Complaint


of a Forsaken


Indian


Woman,


" the


self


overcomes


angry,


self-destructive


rejection


mot he r


same


time


acknowledges


wholen


ess,


nobility,


separate


reality;


Preface


reflects


Wordsworth


s initial


conflict


and


partial


resolution


of this


relationship.


We might


view


celebration


of motherhood


an insidious


reinscription


of the


notion


"separate


spheres"


men


women;


however,


hovering


between


acceptance


rejection


maternal


figure,


Wordsworth


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in subsequent


chapters,


result


an androgynous


ideal,


a complicated


interchange.


standards


which


Wordsworth


defines


poetic


personal


entrenched


achievement


ideals;


continue


repeated


to depend


emphasis


upon


culturally


on the


importance


"purose "


aligns


poetry


with


"masculine"


goals.


Every


basic

good


text

poetry


on Romanticism


"the


quotes


spontaneous


Wordswor

overflow


s definition


of powerful


feelings";


elaborate


upon


qualifying


sentence


which


follows


: "Poems


to which


value


can


be attached


were


never


produced


on any


variety


of subjects


a man


being


possessed


more


than


usual


organic


sensibility


also


thought


long


deeply


Value,


a quality


determined


masculinist


critical


hierarchy,


occurs


poems


produced


a man


possesses


critical


skill


long


fost


ered


this


male


hierarchy,


preserve,


analytic


continues


thought.


to dominate


Thought,


feeling,


a traditionally


despite


emphasis


"organic


sensibility,


" although


Wordsworth


goes


on to suggest


that


relationship


again


one


symbiosis


: "For


our


continued


influxes


of feeling


are


modified


directed


our


thoughts,


which


are


indeed


representatives


of all


our


past


feelings;


as by


contemplating


relation


of these


general


representatives


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image.

English


Remarking

Augustan


upon


period,


devaluation


Alan


Richardson


women

notes


(with


considerable


overstatement,


to be


sure)


that


"women,


cons


idered


sensible


reasonable,


were


denied


status


as human,


that


rational


beings


Romantic


Age,


long


after,


retains


this


gendered


divi


sion


reason


emotion,


despite


a reevaluation


feminine


resulting


from


upon


developments


reason,


moral


originating


philosophy


early


and


in the


empirical


eighteenth


attacks


century.


tracing


roots


of this


opposition


from


Freud


through


Hegel


back


to Plato,


critic


Luce


Irigaray


argues


"that


men


s intellectual


systems


are


based


on opposition


which


second


term


understood


as a devalued


opposite


first;


within


such


definitions,


whether


overt


or covert,


woman


gets


assimilated


to the


negative


pole--other,


irrational,


material


: that


to being


thought


as the


matter


whose


masculine


mirroring


Reason


existence


Within


reevaluations


such


feminine <


makes


possible


a deeply

e" are r


embedded


evolut ional


light


system,

:y indeed;


even


Irigaray


must


use


an oppos


itional


vocabulary


that


reinforces


gender


distinctions


she attempts


to transcend.


Wordsworth


s references


to the


blind


and


mechanical


impulses


of the


mind


create


gendered


implications,


,,,~S


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- ~ -- -- a A. -


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* _










impulse


extensive


effects


: "the


understanding


being


to whom


we address


ourselves,


he be in


a healthful


state


ass


ociation,


must


necessarily


in some


degree


enlightened,


taste


exalted,


affections


ameliorated"29


Hugh


Sykes


Davies


clarifies


Wordsworth


understanding


of "impulse"


: "For


him,


it meant


inexplicable


eddy


within


human


spirit,


a movement


stirred


from


without,


an influence


upon


individual


some


force


in the


outer


universe


A comprehensive


understanding


"impulse"


suggests


a more


equitable


interchange


between


thought


feeling,


contrast


to the


act s


of masculine


' uit s


" Wordsworth


earlier


proposes.


Wordsworth,


however,


reiterates


significance


purpose,


as a useful


strategy


in balancing


masculine


feminine


attributes.


purpose


of each


poem


generally


illustrate


manner


in which


our


feelings


and


ideas


are


ass


ociated


in a state


of excitement"


and


specifically


follow


fluxes


refluxes


of the


mind


when


agitated


great


simple


affections


our


nature


"A state


excitement"


suggests


a metaphor


aroused


senses,


almost


sexual,


certainly


sensual,


encounter


between


feelings


ideas.


Likewise


mind


"agitated,


" while


"fluxes


refluxes"


suggests


sensual


movement.


Wordsworth


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stimulants;


must


have


a very


faint


perception


of its


beauty


and


dignity


does


know


this,


does


further


know


that


one


being


elevated


above


another


proportion


as he


possesses


capability.


A certain


irony


exists


here


: appropriating


culturally


based


traditionally


inferior


"feminine"


attributes


permits


poet


to rise


above


other


members


of the


human


race.


Such


a statement


suggests


Wordsworth


s admiration


envy


of these


socio-


historical


attributes,


wish


incorporate


them


within


work


self.


In enumerating


means


which


he attains


this


object,


Wordsworth


refers


to a number


poems


begins,


significantly,


tracing


maternal


passion


through


many


more


subtle


windings,


in the


poems


of the


'Idiot


Boy'


'Mad


Mother


I II


primary


circumstance


distinguishes


these


poems


from


popular


poetry


of the


day:


"that


feeling


therein


developed


gives


importance


to the


action


and


situation


action


situation


to the


feeling.


Rather


than


develop


this


radical


claim,


Wordsworth


subsequently


refers


readers


discuss


two


to his


poems


poetry,


mentioned


shall


in relation


this


claim.


Nevertheless,


significance


of valorizing


superiority


of feelings


over


action


and


situation


far-


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opposition,


simply


reversing


terms.


However,


affirming


feeling


over


action


situation,


Wordsworth


prepares


reader


subsequent


challenges


patriarchal


authority.


ability


to produce


or enlarge


human


capability


excitement,


through


contribution


of ostensibly


feminine


attributes,


becomes


essential


to Wordsworth


particular


period


of the


1790s,


order


to offset


effect


of socio-political


changes.


Acting


to "blunt


discriminating


powers


of the


mind"


"reduce


to a state


of almost


savage


torpor"


(the


converse


of activity)


are


"the


great


national


events


which


are


daily


taking


place,


increasing

uniformity


extraordinary


intelligence


accumulation

of their occ


incident,


hourly


men


upations


which


gratifies


cities,


produces


rapid


Here,


where


a craving


communication


briefly,


Wordsworth


s most


specific


reference


to the


political


economic


climate


which


was


significantly


altering


agrarian


economy


of rural


England


creating


contingents


of dis


located


rural


poor


served


as subjects


a number


lyrical


ballads.


emphasis


swiftly


turns


to the


effect


"the


degrading


thirst


after


outrageous


stimulation" 35


upon


literature


and


theater


of the


day.


- a a a a j~, aL. .aa-a -, -1 A. .1.


,,,, ?,,


,,,~










into


sharp


contrast


with


more


feminine


"state


exc


itement,


" which


elevates


one


man


over


others;


Wordsworth


implies


an interaction


between


reason


emotion,


a sense


exchange


which


each


tempers


other.


He also


affirms


faith


possibility


SOC


io-historical


change


: "The


time


approaching


when


evil


will


be systematically


opposed


men


of greater


powers


with


more


distinguished


success


Although


power


remains


with


"men,


our


understanding


tempered


poet


s empha


upon


beauty


dignity


of the


human


mind


under


influence


less


violent


stimulants,


an emphasis


which


values


more


"feminine"


virtues.


In his


discussion


style,


Wordsworth


challenges


patriarchal


poetic


tradition.


rejection


"personifications


abstract


ideas"


avoidance


of "what


usually


called


poetic


diction"36


as contrary


to "the


very


language


of men"


suggests


a less


gender-specific


understanding


"men,


one


which


will


keep


Reader


company


of flesh


blood.


Likewise


proposes


look


steadily


my subject"


rather


than


through


filter


of traditional


style


.He


further


distances


himself


from


own


perception


of the


poetic


tradition


with


concentration


upon


one


particular


property


of poetry,


good


sense


: "It


lnaraooa, 1 T.


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,,,c! ,,


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^"n ^ T


e~rr










In rejecting


common


inheritance


between


poetic


fathers


sons,


Wordsworth


deliberately


breaks


chain


influence,


avoiding,


he believes,


"falsehood


description"


determination


posits


patriarchal


to look steadily

tradition as th


at his

enemy


subject.

to good


Thus

sense;


choice


of "the


language


of men"


sets


an opposition


between


these


"men"


"poetic


fathers


and


sons"


that


implies


inclusion


feminine


attributes


and


a more


truly


ungendered


"man.


He also


decries


"numerous


class


critics"


Reader


who


will


"would


conclude


establi


he must


a canon


utterly


criticism


reject


which


if he wishes


be pleased


with


these


volumes


In addition


to challenging


traditional


canon


of lit


erature,


Wordsworth


challenges


canon


of critic


as well;


although


he does


not


specify


his objections


to established


criticism,


implies


rejection


of patriarchal/masculine


critical


modes.


According


to Harold

(although


Bloom,39


this


a strong


denunciation


poet

does


must

not


reject

derive


his

from


father

a feminized


impulse);


Wordsworth


s version


of eighteenth-century


poetry


represents


Bloom'


s "Poetic


Misprision"


as he


"kills"


"father"


he creates.


Although


Bloom


does


here


construe


this


rejection


as a feminized


gesture,


read


Wordsworth


going


beyond


Bloom'


paradigm


see


king


a poetic


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t 113t










As a paradigm


relationship


between


metrical


verse


prose,


Wordsworth


uses


traditional


metaphor


poetry


painting


humanity


of feminine


sisters.


force,


While


this


asserting


culturally


power


bound


comparison


based


upon


a classical


and


hence


patriarchal


reference:


are


fond


of tracing


resemblance


between


Poetry


Painting,


and


accordingly,


we call


them


Sisters


where


shall


we find


bonds


of connection


sufficiently


strict


to typify


affinity


betwixt


metrical


and


prose


composition?"40


Although


concept


of the


arts


as sisters


long


precedes


physical

version.


Preface,41


sensuous


Metrical


and


Wordsworth


"feminine"


prose


images


composition


uses


particularly


to develop


"both


speak


own

and


to the


are


same


clothed


organs,

may be


" while


said


"the


to be of


bodies

the s


in which


ame


both


substance


of them


Prose


metrical


composition


seem


twins


as much


sisters


"their


affections


are


kindred


almost


identical,


necessarily


differing


even


degree;


Poetry


shed


tears


'such


as Angels


weep,


' but


natural


human


tears;


can


boast


no celestial


Ichor


that


distinguishes


vital


juices


from


those


prose;


same


human


blood


circulates


through


veins


them


both


very


physicality


these


lines


is striking:


"Ichor,


" that


blood


of gods


that


one


m










stronger


physical


union.


Indeed


lines


suggest


a sexual


bond


through


comingling


physical,


a bond


that


affirms


feminine


sexuality.


While


he recognizes


threat


to the


existing


socio-


political


order


of the


"outrageous


stimulation"


(masculine)


"degrading


thirst"


female


sexuality,


Wordsworth


poetic


sees


effect.


a poss


ibility


In defense


harnessing


of his


writing


this


verse


threat


, he


acknowledges


"the


most


valuable


object


of all


writing


whether


prose


and


or verse,


reaffirms


great


vision


universal


of opposites


passions


tension


men,


balance


"the


with


of Poetry


an overbalance


to produce


excitement


of pleasure


in coexistence


treating


excitement


unusual


irregular


state


of mind,


" with


ideas


and


feelings


no longer


succeeding


one


another


accustomed


order,


he suggests


ential


danger


or disruption


establi


shed


order.


This


danger


of excitement


carried


of bounds


to be tempered,


"co-presence


something


accustomed


regular,


when


something


an unexcited


to which


or a less


mind


excited


been


state


Here


Wordsworth


suggests


a check


upon


feminine


emotion


masculine


reason,


a sense


of exchange


mutual


control.


further


reference


to "continual


regular


impulses


, a a


"46


I ~__ '1


1 i r


I F


aa


1 ^










insufficient


to create


necessary


excitement,


feelings


of pleasure


Reader


associates


with


meter


create


an almost


patterned,


associational


interaction


response


of "feminine"


to a recognized


excitement


or emotion


stimulus.


with


"masculine"


areas on


control


produces


complex


end


poet


proposes.


In order


to reinforce


connections


between


sexual


creative


tension,


Wordsworth


recalls


a traditional


philosophical


language.


defense


Through


of the


reference


pleasure

to the


received


ancient


from


Roman


metrical


principles


Concordia


scores


cordia


cors,


"the


pleasure


which


mind


derives


from


perception


similitude


dissimilitude,


he affirms


critical


commitment


to the


parallels


between


sexual


union


union


imagination


art.


From


these


principles


only


"the


activity


our


minds"


"the


direction


sexual


appetite,


passions


sexual


connected


opposites


with


with


arise.


life


linking


mind,


union


Wordsworth


validates


provocative


interaction


of opposites


general,


both


physical


mental


A particularly


significant


interaction


occurs


"the


complex


feeling


delight"


tempers


"the


painful


feeling


which


will


always


found


intermingled


with


powerful


descriptions


of the


deeper


. --A- .e a ra-


'a


i I


r I III 1


r 'I










tastes


moral


feelings


similarly


depend


upon


our


accuracy


perceiving


these


paradoxical


unions.


concern


with


conflict


between


reader'


predetermined


ass


ociations


author


intentions


also


reflects


recognition


of the


power


patriarchal


poetic


tradition.


In acknowledging


arbitrary


association


of certain


feelings


ideas


with


particular


words


mind


reader,


he notes


"the


various


stages


meaning


through


which


words


have


passed,


" and


"the


fickleness


or stability


of the


relations


particular


ideas


to each


lead


other.


Such


to exhort


concerns


Reader


with


that


vagaries


judging


these


of meaning


Poems


would


decide


own


feelings


genuinely,


reflection


upon


what


will


probably


judgment


others


challenging


Reader


to "abide


independently


own


regarding


feelings,


literary


" he


defies


value


patriarchal


reaffirms


assumptions


power


of emotions;


moreover,


he explicitly


jettisons


masculinistt"


judgment.


However,


traditional


good


Wordsworth


forms


eighteenth-century


does


not


literature


thinker,


entirely


critical


values.


equivocates,


reiterating


that


an accurate


taste


Poetry


an acquired


talent,


which


can


only


be produced


thought


a long


continued


*1~~~ a- -


Wo rd swo rt h


I


II A


r 1


I 1


I r r










Poetry


a subject


on which


much


time


been


bestowed,


judgment


may


erroneous


He acknowledges


comfortable


lure


easiness


tradition


: "all


men


feel


habitual


gratitude,


and


something


an honorable


bigotry


objects


which


have


long


continued


to please


them:


we not


only


wish


to be pleased,


to be pleased


that


particular


in which


we have


been


accustomed


to be pleased.


want


emotional


satisfaction


of the


familiar


rather


than


uncertainty


of the


unknown;


a patriarchal


society


tends


to identify


that


familiarity


with


itself,


closing


ranks


against


unfamiliar,


which


identified


with


"feminine"


poetry


art.


Wordsworth


s use


of the


word


"bigotry"


an especially


strong


indication


that


concerned,


patriarchy


itself


suspect.


Ultimately


Wordsworth


recognizes


valuable


impact


"feminine,


" the


unfamiliar,


upon


stultifying


tradition.


Refusing


to be


satisfied


with


programmed


responses


literature,

enjoyments,


nature


insists

a purer,


Were


"that

more


objects


poetry


may


lasting,


give


mor


to be attained,


other

e exquisite


a "genuine"


poetry


would


result,


nature


well


adapted


interest


mankind


permanently,


likewise


important


in the


multiplicity


quality


of its


moral


relations


choice


"mankind"


- A- A- -- -


a,


. -


- ..r


r


II










multiplicity


before


quality


reflect s


an openness


to the


other,


including,


presumably,


"feminine.


Numerous


critics,


from


Wordsworth's


contemporaries


Mary


Jacobus,


John


Jordan,


.J.B.


Owen,


have


argued


against


originality


of the


"experiments"


Wordsworth


refers


to in


Prefa


Mary


Jacobus,


analyzing


relationship


between


tradition


experiment,


notes


that


Wordsworth


uses


ideas


poetic


theory


that


had


been


generally


available


forty


years.


In particular,


echoes


theories


of Hugh


Blair,


defined


poetry


"the


language

origins.


of passion,


John


" emphasizing


Jordan,


primitive,


challenging


nonliterary


originality


Wordsworth


choice


of subjects


style,


argues


that


poet


was


attempting


to avert


a potentially


poor


critical


reception


presenting


poems


"experiments


Nevertheless


poems


resemble


periodical


verse


of the


both


contemporary


form


poets


matter;


were


moreover,


frequent


claims


small


of novelty


magazines


journals


of the


period


reveal


a number


of ballad


or ballad-


like


forms


as well


frequent


use


of the


subject


matter


vagrants,


poor,


introduction


1798


abandoned.


edition


.J.B


of Lyrical


Owen


Ballads


in his


mentions


several


examples


from


contemporary


issues


of Gentleman'


1Lt~ ~ -A- -a 1~ - -- ~ 1*n- -I _-


- -


-- t


~1


C __I -I


LL


_ I


A


~ LL










understanding


in the


verse


of Wordsworth,


contrast


to the


sentimentality


of magazine


verse.


Owen,


Wordsworth


concerns


wished


normal


are


pity


to affirm,


human


under


or even


spirit


standing,


to celebrate,


circumstances


Wordsworth


dominance


which


of the


breakdown


might


perhaps


be expected.


Nevertheless,


find


that


Wordsworth


s attempts


to trace


grasp


survival


human


spirit


amidst


circumstances


of mental


physical


stress


carry


a number


implications


status


women,


in so doing,


open


way

work


for

was


a major

indeed


revolutionary


new.


impulse;


Of particular


in this


respect


importance


poet


s inclusion


particularly


even


maternal


state


emphasis


of mind,


upon,


that


"feminine"


passion


and


which


prevails


despite


a child


s state


of idiocy


or a mother


state


of madness.


In Wordsworth


s account


of the


workings


human


mind,


he first


proposes


to trace


"the


maternal


passion


through


many


of its


more


subtle


windings,


as in


poems


'The


Idiot


Boy'


and


'The


Mother'"58;


other,


presumably


nonmaternal 1


characters,


"under


influence


less


impa


ssioned


feelings,


" will


subsequently


treated.


suggest


that


elevating


maternal


passion


as one


of the


more


"impassioned"


feelings,


poet
i- -L- -


demonstrates


more


IfC A naI-nA j a- at a .. ?


r.!


LL


11


I










construct


even


theoretically


values


Wordsworth


averts


this


danger


through


ultimate


emphasis


upon


human


spirit


full


complexity.


Advertisement


to Lyrical


Ballads


presents


, in


abbreviated


form,


a number


ndered


conflicts


the


poet


develops


Preface.


initial


sentence


Wordsworth


claims


that


materials


Poetry


exist


every


subject


interesting


to the


human


mind.


While


admitting


that


word


"Poetry"


"a word


very


disputed


meaning,


" he


demands


that


natural


readers


themselves


delineation


of human


whether


passions,


poetry


human


"cont ains


characters,


human


incidents


"59


emphasis


upon


"human"


Advertisement,


contrast


to the


greater


emphasis


"man"


"the


language


men,


" for


example)


Preface,


specifically i

Significantly,


.nclusive


Wordsworth


of both


halves


asks


of the


reader


human


race


to be pleased


spite


of that


most


dreadful


enemy


our


pleasure,


our


own


pre-established


codes


of deci


sion,


" which


can


be extended


pre-established


hierarchies


of gender


as well


literary


codes


of deci


sion.


Gender-based


values


influence


critical


traditions,

of criticism


Wordsworth


among


recognizes


readers.


the

the


ideological

Preface, d


bases


despite


reference


to Poetry


s "natural"


delineation


of the


nR PQ nnq _


Wnrri~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Qnnr- U r~ -, -r nf :ff ran C 4 nn nP Da


.e.


Wn r~ e on rt h


nF DnaC rrt


" rmlap


^^ r~\


a_










To a certain


extent


Preface


reflects


gender-


specific


attitudes


both


of the


society


and


literary


tradition


ground


which


challenges


Wordsworth


to these


wrote;


nevertheless,


attitudes. 60


While


breaks


Preface


reflects


difficulty


of challenging


tradition,


a number


poems


Lyrical


Ballads


have


a greater


success,


reflecting


strong


rebellion


of Wordsworth


s feminized


self.


Despite


ition


as a member


of a masculine


poetic


hierarchy,


values


beyond


Wordsworth


traditionally


Bloom'


anxiety


both qu

feminine


estions


poetic


attributes;


influence.


tradition


struggle


Through


and

goes


attempts


balance


values


reason


emotion,


unsettles


authority


of the


"masculine"


over


"feminine"


affirms


interaction


balance


over


separation.


Notes


Alan


of the
Mellor


Feminine,


(Bloomington


Richardson,


" Romanti


and


"Romanti


cism


cism


Feminism,


Indianapolis:


Colonization


ed. Anne


Indiana


1988)


. Richardson


influence


upon


male


also provides


gendered


Romantic


conventionally


writers


feminine


domain


an exce


ent


opposition


discussion


reason


and


their appropriation
of sensibility.


of the


emotion
of the


Gayle


Difference


Methuen,


Green


: Feminist


1985)


Coppelia


Siter


Kahn,


Criticism


eds.,
(Lond


Making a
on and N'


ew


York


10-11


a concise


binary


theory,


Introduction


see


summary


Terry


Minneapolis


of Derridean


Eagleton,
: U of Mi


Literary
.nnesota P


understanding
Theory: An


, 1983)
#1 oni <


132-134.


r.* I 7h~~hth c a Q artrr.T ttna fy %W nn 3 4


rl;3hPth


Ma a (2 a


crnar: F: h


rOr nn


nC Ckh


Mh rb


u.


r ^E










Practice (London and New
Norris does not develop
feminist criticism.


York: Methuen,
the implications


1982), although
of this theory


. Meese


as t
crit
and
the
itse
self
conc
who
addr
hete
most
inte
coll


he 1
icis
femi
apor
if,
-cen
erns
have
ess
rose
Fre
rest


imit
m: "
nismr
ia.


the
xua
nch
in


eagues


Meese


s of
There
rein
the p
icula
Sadness
not
, on
power
, rac
and A
women


deconst
is ano
force o
oint at
rly the
and it
necessa
the who
relati
ial, an
merican
's text


other


theory
ruction
their se
ne anot
which
ways i
s polit
rily sh
le, pro
onships
d class
male d
s than


critical


zes
ist
nse
her
phal


n wh
ics
ared
duce
exp
opp
econ
thei


persua


upon


ory
which
the
entr
it
excl
dec
.any
sive
sion
ucto
rede
ns "


benefits


for f
h dec
methc
ism i
conce
usion
onstr
readi
of s
s. In
rs ev
cessc
(83).


mi
ns
Io
b
ls
B
ct
gs
xu
th
de
S


as well


nist
tructi
f expo
lind t
its o
ut fern
ive cr
that
al,
is res
nce no
or


n
ing

n
nist
tics


pect
more


Sandra


Place of the
and London:


Woman
Yale UP


Gilbert


Writer
, 1988)


Susan


in the
xiv.


Gubar,


Twentieth


No Man's
Century


Lanch


New


Haven


6. For
philosophy,
Context (New


a concise discussion of Godwin's political
see Marilyn Gaull, English Romanticism: The Human
York and London: Norton, 1988) 131-135.


7. Marlon B. Ross, "Romantic C
Romanticism and Feminism, ed. Anne
Indianapolis: Indiana UP, 1988) 49.


st and
Mellor


Conquest,"
(Bloomington


8.
Wordswo
Owen (0
to the
under O


Samuel T. Coleridge and William Wordsworth,
rth and Coleridge: Lyrical Ballads 1798, ed. W.J.B.
xford: Oxford UP, 1969) 160. All subsequent references
Preface of 1800 will be documented in the endnotes
wen.


. Owen


Owen


153.


153.


11. Stephen Parrish,
(Cambridge, Massachusetts


The Art
: Harvard


of the Lyrical
UP, 1973) 20.


Ballads


Owen

Arw n


154.

1 ciA


.
<


sio










Owen

Owen


155.

155-156.


18. Margaret Homans, Wome
Dorothy Wordsworth. Emily Bron
(Princeton, New Jersey: Prince


n Writers and Poetic Identity:
te. and Emily Dickinson
ton UP, 1980) 3-4.


19. In
of "excitem
titillation
excite (a f
latter defi
De Quincey,
feeling and


The Oxford English
nt" range from the
(of the senses)" t4
eling); a motive o:
ition, supported b]
suggests the inter4
(masculine) action


Dictionary (1971)
purely physical "
"Something that
incentive to act
quotations from
action between (fe
which Wordsworth


definite
imulati
nds to
n." The
leridge
nine)
nursui


ions
on,


and

ng.


Owen

Owen

Owen


156.

156.

157.


23
relatio.
object
particu
an alte


Reproduc
nf Gende


P, 1
prod
and
moth
boys
iden
and
base
Chod
oppo
well


78)
ces
ymp
r;
rej
ifi
onn
on
row
iti
as


Appendi


. An


snip
s the
ar th
native
tion
r (Be
, rev
the
athy.


how
ect
cat
ect
de.
's
on
phy


important


between
influen
e mascul
e to a F
of Mothe
rkeley,
eals how
convent
All pre
er, in t
heir mot
n, thus
n. In tu


r
r

1
r


Feminist


factor


the
ce
ine
reu
rin
Los
th
ona
-Oe
he ]
her
def
rn,
eje
adi
and
emn
iti'


ining
boys
action
cal i
emot
bedme
cism.


in understanding


:uline
6e moth
tifica
approa
vchoan
sles, a
edition
ociati
exper
d of 0O
rls re
thems
devel
of wo
mplica
ion, s


nt


subje


er-s
tion
ch,
alys
nd L
al f
ons
ienc
edip
tain
elve
op r
men
tion
ugge


O


t an
rel
ith
ncy
and
don:
ily
wom
foc
tra
his
in t
atio


western


complex


d the feminine
ationship, in
the mother. A
Chodorow, The


the
U of
truce
n wi
s up
siti'
rima
rms


a


iologav
lifornia
e
emotion
the
while


relation


1 capacities
"feminine."
e gendered
s cultured a


society.


. Although


H.
and
and
nr


Hagstr
relat
rogyny
r'rl n fl,


umr
iv
O
"0 d


press
ely u
often
"*FainT


criti


ent t
ncomp
occlu


such
ncept


*r2 r r. r


as Carolyn


Heilbrun


rogyny a
e Utopia
of male
rnrrr r q^ -


n-' it-- *i nn


a
vi
'oet


and
ala
ion
to
n^ 4-


Jean
nced
of
absorb
T.%-%


e
1
I

I


r


1










Jehlen
enabli,
female
Critic
ed. El
of Chi
metanhl


defines


men to
ide." "A
m," The
abeth Ab
go P, 19
ically f


the conventional
retained.


androgyny


act from
rchimede
Signs Re
el and E
83) 90.
emale, w
notions


in
the
an
Older
,ily
f t
ile


novel


ir male
d the Pa
: Women.
K. Abel
he inter
the ext


of feminine


"a male


feel
Femi
nd S
and
is


trait


from their
nist
scholarship,
London: U


remains


mas


culine


S


male,


are


Owen

Owen


157.

157-158


. Richardson


Locke.
inesvi
sentat
cedure
darves


taki
his
chal
read
the
Mary
rega
Chri
equa


pr
le
y
ph
G
rd
st
Is


future
taken


ogra
ngin
to e
ilos
ranv
for
and
," a
int


on or
Exte:
signi
inte
m to
g sub
stable
ophic
ille
women
henc
nd hi
ellec


together


n re
e as
s re
tual
"are


. On


t or
ease
of
with
the
.arve
press
fel
lati
rel


other


he Method
ida P, 19
idgement
Limits of
n "the ev
a woman
women's
philosophy
all wome
logical
s and his
ents "the
low human
onship wi
ationship


nothing


short


hand,


f Ena
) fin
Pete
humann
lence
rious
arnin
al th
the i
latio
other
ove o
>eings
* Mary
with


Richard


Brantley


sh Romanticism


Wes
Brow

giv
ind
Wes
logy
elle
hips
(116
women
nd i
et a
thod


's The
ndina to Mary
of one man's
d" (105). In
y chose the
"Wesley was
ual and indeed
e enioved with


). H
n as
ntell
patt


women


or
that


historic.


28.
Experien
Pandora,


Jan Montefiore,
ce. Identity in
1987) 140.


Feminism and Poetry: Language.
Women's Writina (London and New


York:


Owen


158.


30. Hugh Sykes
Philosophers," The
Moralists Presented
George Watson (Camb
Clarke further exam
Wordsworth's poetry
Poetry of Wordswort


SDavies,
English
to Basi
ridge: C
ines the
in Roma
h (New Y


"Wordsworth


Mind
1 Wi
:ambr
par
ntic
ork:


Studies
ey, ed.
dge UP,
doxes of
Paradox:
Barnes.


and
in-
Hugh
1964
sen
An
1962


the Empirical
the English
Sykes Davies
) 155. Colin
se perception
Essay on the
).


fh. .n n


'Co










Owen

Owen

Owen

Owen

Owen


160.

160.

161.

161-162.

162.


39
Oxford,


. Harold
and New


Bloom,
York:


The Anxiety of
Oxford UP, 1973)


Influence


(London,


Owen


163.


Art s


Tradition


of Literary


Pictorial
U of Chic
deve 1 opme
the two a
"In Plato
feminine
indeed, a


ago P,
nt of
rts th
's Gar
forms
ready


195
the
at h
den
that
est


Essen'
would e
lished


t


ry from
. Hagst
ip betw
commonly
s abstr
ily est
hemselv


Drvden


rum
een
be
act
abl
es


- as


to Gr
ces th
noting
called
appea
these


(Chicago:
historical
poetry,
sters":


- had,


visual


personifications


of art


literature"(5).


Owen

Owen

Owen

Owen


163.

164.

170.

171.


Owen


47.
concepts
Discors o
ed. John
Wisconsin


Owen 173
see Jean
f Human
J. Burke
P, 1983


. Fo
Hag
Rela
, Jr
). 3


r a more developed discussion of these
strum, "Johnson and the Concordia
tionships," The Unknown Samuel Johnson,
., and Donald Kay (Madison: U of
9-53


48.
viewpoint
noting th
sexually
merely po
th-t Cnle


Jean


I I I JLJ *-


Hagst
rding
a li
renti
but
renn


rum


Wo
ter
ate
men
rcie


present
dsworth


L JI


rnaJnI I


a strongly


comfo
he p
the
y. H
nrr rpc


rt
rai
gre
ags
S ;1


affirmative


with
sed
at s
trum
Sth


sexuality,


the
ourc
als
P un


nion of
of not
reminds u
nn nf


eSister


r The


r










Coleri
to den
metaph
Sexual
Tennes


also
the
cal.
in K1
P, 1


coined
fusion
Jean Ha
eats. W
985) 54


a specific
of opposite
gstrum, The
ordsworth,


expression, "coadunation,
s, both sexual and
Romantic Body: Love and
and Blake (Knoxville: U of


Owen

Owen

Owen

Owen

Owen

Owen


174.

176.

177.

177-178.

178.

179.


55. Mary Jacobus, Tradition and
Wordsworth's Lyrical Ballads (1798)
188.


56.
Ballads,wort
Wordswort


Experiment in
(Oxford: Clarendon,


John E. Jordan, "The Novelty of t
Bicentenary Wordsworth Studies,
h (Ithaca and London: Cornell UP,


57. W.J.B. Owen,
Lyrical Ballads 1798,
1969) xxxi.


1976)


:he Lyrical
ed. Jonathan
1970) 340-358.


introduction, Wordsworth
ed. W.J.B. Owen (Oxford:


and Coleridge:
Oxford UP,


Owen


158.


Owen


6
to dea


that
crit
hist
Inve
McGa
poet
univ
cult
expr
hist
ZTf Tr


Jerome


wit
are
tudy
ana

o ex
tran
and


spe
in
cir
r*f


McGann


h pas
soci
of s
lytic
(Chic
poses
s-his
trans
cific
diffe
cumst
4-th 4


, lua


states


and pre
and hi
h produ
The Ro
o and L
he fund
rical:
ndent h
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CHAPTER


FEMALE


SPEAKER


AND


THE


MASCULINE


VOICE


In three


of the


Lyrical


Ballads,


"The


Female


Vagrant,


"The


Mad


Mother,


" and


"The


Complaint


of a Forsaken


Indian


Woman,


" Wordsworth


expresses


sympathy


identification


with


traditionally


"feminine"


attributes


through


use


of a female


speaker.


physical


status


these


lost


or abandoned


women


refl


ects


social


reality;


their


emotional


means


identity


state


to speak


remains


reflects


suffer


linked


Wordsworth


as a woman,


"masculine"


s projection


although


metaphors


of what


poetic


power.


In his


attempts


to enter


mind


woman


through


assuming


female


voice,


he reveals


latent


awareness


"feminine"


aspects


of his


own


character--both


his desire


fear


of such


characteristics.


of assuming


a female


voice


represents


challenge


to patriarchal


strictures


endows


"feminine"


with


a certain


authority


despite


oste


nsible


presence


masculine


narrator;


this


a coloni


zing


gesture


Wordsworth


s part.


Both


"The


Female


Vagrant"


"The


Mad


h1Ad n fl (


A 0 n1a


S nan


S
-J --- ---


,.L.1..


- -- A -. 1 --- -- -A- -


1


-L










Wordsworth


ambivalence


towards


"feminine"


aspects


personality


fears


conflicts


about


own


masculinity


as well


utter


as his


isolation


need


to reemphasize


of the


narrator


patriarchal


of "The


values.


Complaint


Forsaken


female


Indian


voice


Woman"


a world


reflects


which


hopelessness


power


of the


defined


culturally


entrenched


gender


distinctions.


"The


Female


Vagrant"


begins


with


Wordsworth


s attempt


distinguish


authorial


voice


from


female


voice.


second


artless


contrast


line


story


he parenthetically


told)


to written,


injects,


Defining


gives


a more


"(The


story


living,


Woman


"told,


physical


thus


" in


quality


that


recalls


women


s connections


with


oral


tradition


implies


an interaction


between


speaker


poet.


"Artless"


impli


city


refers


to the


culturally


inscribed


"feminine"


attributes


emotion


feeling


as opposed


"masculine"


reason


art.


concluding


four


lines


also


change


from


female


speaking


voice


omniscient


hence

turned


clearly


away.


masculine


This


narrator:


provides


"She


a safe


eased,


framework


and


weeping


within


which


poet


can


freely


express


concerns


while


ostensibly


separating


In its


voice


initial


from


lines,


that


"The


of the


Female


Female


Vagrant"


Vagrant.


acknowledges


1~ n a nt'vr~ra r 'jr m~nenii1 4 no ,thar4 I- o4hoealar2rhr


~I
m 3 a flr r I r n n


~a thn


ann3lnr


;r nlrhnra


t-hn r\nwn


h


r~r n r


r









neighboring


flood


to him,


thus


early


on enforcing


dependence


upon


masculine


protection


support.


This


acknowledgment


further


reinforced


capitalization


"Father"


Female


Vagrant


"Woman"


masculine


narrator;


thus


Wordsworth


depersonalizes


Female


Vagrant


reinforces


her


father


s spiritual


authority.


In contrast


to masculine


an image


responsibility,


care free


freedom


"days


transport


undifferentiated


roll'd,


flow


experience.


Even


laboring


works


"with


thoughtless


Joy,


another


reminder


paradigm


of "masculine"


reason


and


thought


as opposed


to "feminine"


emotion


and


feeling.


Wordsworth


uses


natural


elements


to heighten


contrast


leads


flocks


"high


o'er the


cliffs"


while


father


works


boat


"a diz


zy depth


below.


placing


upon


cliffs,


Wordsworth


suggests


closeness


to the


open


heavens,


more


ethereal


aspects


of nature.


father


s earthbound


connections


to nature


are


devalued;


poet


swerves


from


traditional


association


a natural


female


relationship


with


which


nature


heightens


permits


Edenic


father


atmosphere


Vagrant


towards


s youth.


reconciliation


It also


of the


represents


"masculine"


a yearning


and


"feminine.


" Western


culture


traditionally


ces


women


nr1 orsr


rPl ati nnsh in


tn natiirs


than


man:


a s Marl on


Rnoss


notes










social


role


asserting


intimacy


between


femininity


nature


Ross


also


suggests


that


although


superficially


Wordsworth


appears


to promote


a natural


upbringing,


actually


reinfor


ces


Soc


ietal


emphasis


upon


a proper


"feminine"


education,


nature


invested


with


traditional


male


values.


feel


that


Wordsworth


s interest


in the


relationship


between


men


and


nature


adds


significance


rather


than


devalues


"feminine


an extent,


father


represents


a species


"natural


man"


of the


Preface,


outside


constraints


of culture


society;


patriarchy


that


excludes


and


subordinates


daughter


marginalizes


him


as well.


Wordsworth


s exploration


of the


continuity


between


nature


"feminine"


permeated


influence


empirical


philosophy.


emphasis


upon


Qna~


field,


a flock,


neighboring


field


supplied


reflects


interest


significance


of singular


moments,


objects,


experiences;


throughout


poem


we recognize


their


impact


upon


female


experience,


contrast


continuous


flow


sensation


that


comprises


prelapsarian


existence


of the


Female


Vagrant.


Hugh


Sykes


Davies


remarks


English


NinA:


discovery


that


human


experience


was


evenly


continuous


homogeneous,


that


amidst


normal


flow


* horn T~TO r 0 I n4 Aanl- -' a.. 4- a A Cnrn wn- fl%144.


what


t ha ra


~ant a


nC rrt r: Cn


IY.. ~1!C


Irta Pd


rA










specially


sensitive


to the


isolated,


time


or in


space.


Much


of "The


Female


Vagrant"


reflects


this


sensitivity


isolated


sights


or sensations--from


"miserable


hour"


when


father


ocean


gives


that


hope


separates


to the


from


"heavenly


horrors


silence"


war


upon


and


death--which


contrast


with


normal


experience


or the


normal


flow


of events.


isolated


sights


emphasize


only


radical


disjointure


of events


economic


depression


wartime


also


isolation


of the


female


a masculine


world,


feelings


of aloneness


uniqueness


as the


"other"


in a hostile


world.


Female


Vagrant


continually


defers


to her


father,


and


respect


admiration


reinforce


value


of his


paternal


authority,


despite


economic


failure;


feminine


solace


assuages


masculine


guilt.


Throughout


poem,


channels


concerns


feelings


through


masculine


with


other,


which


whether


repeatedly


father


or husband.


describes


father,


adjectives


"good,


"pious,


" "honest,


" emphasize


unimpeachable


character


also create


world


a strong


must


contrast


encounter.


with


As Laura


sinister


Claridge


masculine


Elizabeth


Langland


note


Out


of Bounds


: Male


Writ


ers


Gender (ed)


Criticism,


"there


least


possibility


that


maleness


a trt~ 4 i, n -A 1a1'-..I4. -. --.. ~ L4... .C


nC A


CA h~C~: CIH A ~


c '1,?


AE I*ACLElhV


C A YM










specific


individuals,


Female


Vagrant


father


does


keep


"natural"


place


includes


her


world


of books.


From


learns


both


prayer


and


reading,


every


latter


neighboring


creates


house


a sense


sought


community:


Moreover,


"books


books


actively


bring


pleasure


to her:


"nothing


mind


a greater


pleasure


early


brought


This


interaction


with


significant


nature,


interaction


while


parallels


unsettling


association


opposed


of the


to culture.


"feminine"


this


primarily


point


with


we begin


nature


to recognize


presence


of the


poet


within


speaker,


as Wordsworth


projects


Vagrant,


himself


while


values


simultaneously


into


attempting


mind


Female


to understand


hers.


In changing


Eden-like


Vagrant,


emphasis


garden


Wordsworth


from


idyllic


conveys


"masculine"


childhood


understanding


learning


Female


of "feminine"


nature.


In this


small


paradise


there


little


specific


mention


of humankind,


save


"the


gambols


wild


freaks


shearing


time.


injection


"sabbath


morn"


"sabbath


bells"


casts


a Christian


(and


hence


patriarchal)


light


upon


sensuous


imagery,


"hen


rich


nest,


s dewy


prime,


" the


swans


"spreading


their


snowy


pride";


as Jean


Hagstrum


argues


Romantic


Body:


Love


and


Sexuality


Keats.


Wordsworth.


R1 ki


n rn ni i r


ISi iii i ir


t 1-r 1


INay


n .i .


S I E


(I i 1


I


-










Christian/sexual


metaphor


ravishment


followed


wholeness,


that


greatness


rather


mythologize


fructifying


As noted


energies


Chapter


of nature,


Preface


including

to Lyrical


sexual.


Ballads


uses


numerous


metaphors


aroused


senses


: the


principal


purpose


of poetry


illustrate


manner


in which


our


feelings


ideas


are


associated


a state


of excitement,


while


poet


himself


a man


more


than


usual


organic


sensibility.


Hagstrum


suggests


that


Preface,


Wordsworth


actual


human


sexuality


as well


as empirical


sense-data


mind.


find


nature


imagery


"The


Female


Vagrant"


primarily


sensuous


as opposed


to sexual,


containing


a definite


sexual


undercurrent.


Wordsworth


suggests


that


speaker


both


identifies


interacts


with


nature;


only


does


Female


Vagrant


seek


swans,


they


come


forth


to greet


as well,


almost


books


sought


brought


pleasure


This


interaction


recalls


Colin


Clarke's


discussion


paradoxes


moments


sense


sensory


perception


experience


Wordsworth


which


s poetry,


visible


those


scene


observer


s mind


meet


interpenetrate,


Wordsworth


"resolves


apparent


contradiction


that


natural


world


extrinsic


to the


self and


a modification


of it


C. 1 a 1. a


----~~~~~~~~~~, --t -


r! ,, L?


,,,I


*


-^. -J










interpenetration


of the


visible


scene


and


mind


Female


the s

swans


Vagrant,


cents

that


Wordsworth


herbs


glide


to greet


uses


flowers,


her,


imagery


sight


physical


senses;


nests


activity


of work


play,


whether r


shearing


sheep


or gathering


cowslips--all


glorify


feminine


interaction


with


nature.


contrast,


father


presents


a more


passive,


even


though


active


masculine,


sire"


figure.


Despite


authority


of his


reference


staff,


to "my


"bending


body "


seat


chair


suggest


a sedentary,


fixed


figure;


reality


contrast s


with


symbol.


seat


"beneath


honeyed


sycamore/


When


bees


hummed"


suggests


comfortable


place


nature;


Wordsworth


wishes


to bring


both


woman


man


into


natural


world.


As Kate


Millett


argues


Sexual


Politics,


one


most


effective


ways


subverting


women


s demands


equality


during


nineteenth


century


each


was


other


men


then


to point


grant


to the


distinct


sexes


value


complement


of each.


Nevertheless


western


Wordsworth,


culture


rather


ideological


than


placing


strictly


conforming


women


natural


world,


places


man


within


this


world


as well.


Female


Vagrant


s frame


of reference


changes


from


nature


to home


hearth;


homely


comforts


"market


S


II ha.-


*ttna4 r.1,F,, 1


,lnn


nn


II~ ra il


h arrn o


lr n -wn t


I I r










dresses


herself


neat


attire


"though


bent


on haste";


often


checks


breast


watch


does


dog


sing


"starts


"pecks,


furious


" perhaps


ire.


reflecting


discontent


underlying


Female


Vagrant


s culturally


stereotyped


role.


Female


Vagrant,


youth


a perpetual


summer


whose


suns


"danced


along,


" "rolled


away";


flow


of time


parallels


what


certain


feminist


critics


define


as the


undifferentiated


flow


of feminine


experience.


Breaking


into


this


moving


scene,


like


a malevolent,


encroaching


plant


amidst


an Edenic


garden


"Then


rose


a mansion


proud


our


woods


along


In parasitic


fashion


master


s "greedy


wish"


absorbs


neighboring


cottages


land,


a metaphorical


rape


of the


woods


which


one


finds


echoed


later


actual


rape


Female


Vagrant.


we read


poem


politically,


we find

that su


poet


offered


protesting


eviction


the pi

poverty


ight


of the


despite


working


war


classes


profits


from


arms


manufacturing


landed


classes.


Female


Vagrant


becomes


a victim


of both


class


sex.


punishment


father


receives


challenging


master


s authority


Female


Vagrant,


slow


totally


starvation


dependent


of all


upon


resources;


father


authority


benevolence


own


economic


survival,


aiif forQ


I~~r~lr I t1r O % 4 h l


4-rht


t n hk C:


1 .a


Cka: r


rinTnnr


r i i**









with


father


s suffering


and


feelings


than


with


own,


reflects


grief


description


"that


through


miserable


prism


hour"


of his


focuses


experiences.


upon


loss


her


father


connection


made


upon


marriage


broken--he


will


beside


buried


wife.


although


he retains


spiritual


connection,


the


Female


Vagrant


loses


hers


: "Bidding


me trust


God,


he stood


prayed,


comprise

showers,/


could


a unit


pray,


as before:


Glimmer'd


our


" Nor


will


"through


dear-loved


her


tears

home,


that


alas


father


fell


no longer


ours!"


Home


no longer


"ours"


Female


Vagrant


father


cease


to be


a significant


pair


as she


transfers


need


toward


another


patriarchal


figure.


only


outside


another


feasible


patriarchal


masculine


alternative


home


subject,


feminine


marriage,


survival


transference


alternatives


within


economic


cultural


system


come


through


men.


Love


does


precede


union


female


vagrant


and


"youth,


" who


remains


nameless


relatively


abstract.


Initially


they


shared


a child


-like


nature:


had


sung,


like


little


birds


May.


This


reflects


Wordsworth'


yearning


that


semi androgynous,


prelapsarian


world


vagrant


s childhood,


or what


USC.


Knoepflmacher


terms


"the


Wordsworthian


myth


of a childhood


naradi~n


I I










"And


truth


did


love


him


like


a brother.


Here


Wordsworth


seems


to prefer


fraternal,


or even


fraternal/


sororal,


to conjugal


love.


Those


interested


psychobiography


Wordsworth

of critics


Vagrant


might


s dependence


have


variously


s affirmation,


examine


these


upon


explore

r never


lines


sister

'd this

could


relation


Dorothy,

subject


hope


to meet


a number


Female

with


such


another,


suggests


that


genetic


similarity


brother


gives


value


and


signifi


cancer


to her


femaleness,


that


brother,

provide


than


century


beloved


sharing

a more


a husband.


England


g


utterly


similar


literal

On the

(not to


unlike


qualities


mirror

other


mention


conventional


men.


characteristics,


justify


hand,

n the


a female


brothers

twentieth


might


s existence


in nineteenth-

century)


certainly


received


economic


preference


a higher


position


family


hierarchy;


at most


a sister


might


find


vicarious


satisfaction


through


significance.


Wordsworth


recognizes


bondage


patriarchy


places


upon


own


members.


Like


Father,


Female


Vagrant


s loved


one


constricted


patriarchal


authority,


both


paternal


societal


: "His


father


said,


that


to a di


stant


town,/


must


repair,


to ply


artist


s trade


In contrast


their


earlier


unity,


their


marriage


contracted


from


economic c


neEs!S t1-v


r7at hsr


-han


fl70 n rvr ml


Wams 1 a


"FO:


1 n~rp


~I~ rr r~ n t









duty


obligation


loved


joy,/


as well


said


as free


He well


will


could


: "And


her


love


whom


grief


: his


faith


kept


Thus


through


figures


both


father


husband,


Wordsworth


quietly


unsettles


gendered


binary


opposition


underlying


patriarchy,


suggesting


that


both


men


women


are


constrained


strictures


of patriarchy.


Nevertheless,


reactions


of the


Female


Vagrant


continue


to be


reflected


through


a masculine


other


rather


than


relief,


directly.


through


expresses


a patriarchal


own


figure


feelings,


: "And


this


a quiet


time


home


once


more


father


slept


Just


as in


Preface


Wordsworth


masculinist


could


separate


metaphors


power


poetic


control,


identity


so he


from


continues


Lyrical


Ballads


to define


identity


through


distinctions


gender.


Even


as he


attempts


to inhabit


Female


Vagrant


voice,


he maintains


authority


of "masculine"


subjectivity.


continuous


downward


spiral


Female


Vagrant


fortunes


patriarchal


suggest


inefficacy


Christian


values


of her


adherence


a culturally


entrenched


"feminine"


role.


Although


"each


with


daily


bread


was


blest,


" this


"con stant


blessing


prayer"


of the


offset


following


"constant


years.


Tears


toil"

flow,


and

"for


ills


which


Patience


could


heal.


LI.-- tl .-" II I.


Prt rnf


SI L -


. .


I I










number


three


which


usurps


Trinitarian


metonymies.


births


three


children


presage


new


difficulties.,


Death


makes


Father


"thrice


happy,


as his


grave


hides


him


from


three


symbols


a shattered


home


: "The


empty


loom,


cold


hearth


silent


wheel.


Their


means


employment


fail


and


hearth,


Wordsworth


center


s choice


symbol


of home,


of a specific


number


cold.


reflects


Again,


impact


of singular


moments


and


objects


upon


more


flowing


diffused


nature


"feminine"


experience


influence


empirical


philosophy.


using


symbols


description


of "masculine"


conditions


conquest


war


ravages,


particularly


upon


dispossessed,


Wordsworth


implies


antipatriarchal


political


agenda


that


encompasses


both


sexes.


"proud


parade


noisy


drum"


ironically


"sweep


streets


of want


pain"


gathering


country


men


social


Wordsworth


individual


expresses


suffering.


concern


realism


both


strong;


does


romanticize


either


war


or the


plight


of its


victims.


Female


Vagrant


becomes


one


a great


crowd


sufferers


"There


foul


neglect


months


months


we bore.


Claridge


and


Langland


note,


"patriarchy,


as a term


power,


encompasses


issues


of class


race


as well


as gender.


senarat' inn


wnfml


I f~lmtiira


Srnr~l t -Ana in


" seal


I lie


I ll


A










exclusively


"feminine


Departure


from


her


homeland


accompanies


Female


Vagrant


separation


from


nature,


Wordsworth


effectively


portrays


a nature


gone


wild


that


parallels


an unnatural


general


harvest,


human


turmoil.


Wordsworth


expre


Through


sses


metaphor


futility


hope


irony


of nature


s mercy:


"Our


hopes


such


harvest


of affliction


reap, /


That


we the


mercy


of the


waves


should


rue.


According


to Margaret


Homans,


"masculine"


separation


from


nature


corresponds


with


Freudian


rejection


of the


maternal


figure,


necessary


growth


encouraged


nature


itself;


contrast


"feminine"


separation


represents


loss


of origins


Such


liberation


anguish


Female


Vagrant,


through


bitter


voice,

irony c


Wordsworth


)f existence


expresses


: "Oh


own


dreadful


perception


price


of being


to resign/


that


dear


being!"


Survival


within


patriarchal


qualities


other


culture


demands


silencing


stence


abjuration


female


impossible.


"feminine"


voice;


In contrast


nevertheless,


to the


Vagrant


s earlier


celebration


of the


senses


within


nature,


which


suffers

connect


reflected


a separation

on. Even is


union


from


olatio


of nature


nature

n with


female,


bereft


nature


now


sensory


would


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experience;


of loss,


however,


as the


this


Vagrant


instance,


unwatched


experience


star.


one


In either


case,


interaction


with


nature


ceased.


fact


that


woman


nature


are


disjointed


represents


sjointed


state


of generic


man


world.


Wordsworth


creates


increasingly


hopelessness


war,


severe


images


reminding


of the


us that


"Th


horrors

e Female


and

Vagrant"


more


than


a tale


of individual


suffering.


hallucinatory


images


personifications


of Fire,


Hell,


Murder,


Rape


reach


their


height


with


sexual


violation:


"And


joint


Murder,


prey,


ghastly


mother


gleam,


child!"


Rape/


"Mother


Seized


and


their


child"


both


symbolize


society


s helpless


victims


and


represent


specific


individuals,


Female


Vagrant


her


infant.


Escape


from


madness


"these


crazing


thoughts"


lies


upon


ocean,


"balmy


air";


only


reuniting


with


nature


can


Female


Vagrant


return


to sanity.


Similarly,


determines


shun


spot


where


man


might


come


read


an ungendered


sense,


line


suggests


a total


withdrawal


from


society,


a retreat


into


nature.


On the


other


hand,


Vagrant


seek


to avoid


actual


meLn,


reaction


to her


rape


violation.


Only


through


death


can


Vagrant


protest,


however


S nn*r S r nn-c


nf her


cvi ci-cnt a -


1 nnhi 4 t-tv


BDY


"man"


fll+ i 1 Fs~ V ~


I| I |


r iJ r-


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streets


walks


where


proud


men


are,


" to a servile,


-like


existence


heel


war


ironi


references


"proud


men"


brood


"that


their


brothers


' blood"


condemn


both


leaders


war


and


parasitic


stragglers


that


survive


on its


refuse.


Wordsworth


awareness


of the


devastating


political


economic


climate


affecting


lives


of the


common


people


gives


weight


significance


to events


as well


as character,


as all


height


perished,


of natural


"all,


deva


one


station,


remorseless


Female


year


Vagrant


At the


wakes


from


a trance


unnatural,


restored";


forced


state


use


of "trance"


experience,


one


suggests


imposed


Female


despair,


Vagrant


"every


Ironi


tear


cally,


dried


as s


experiences


despairing,


utmost


desolate,


" nature


returns


peace


calm;


"Peaceful 1


as some


immeasurable


plain/


. the


envi


glittering


ocean


main"


s "hour


recall


rest,/


fields


That


comes


home.


to the


human


mourner


s breast


ocean


maintains


interconnectedness


with


God


that


lost


: "Remote


from


man,


waves


storms


invest.


of mortal


Here


care, /


Wordsworth


A heavenly


s use


'Ian


silence


again


did


reflects


masculine


narrator


behind


feminine


speaker.


Only


once


within


poem


does Wordsworth


directly


imply


n3re csn s


nf n ii ctt~r fIS~


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m anriil i 4 no


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of dramatic


form


both


grounds


poem


reality


and


reinforces


patriarchal


framework.


In The


of the


Lyrical


Ballads,


Stephen


Parrish,


finds


poetic


novelty


Wordsworth


s experiments


dramatic


form


and


characterization


within


format


of the


ballad,


defines


dramatic


related


monologue


are


"loosely,


meaningful


a poem


which


themselves


they


events


reveal


character


person


relates


them.


sixteen


poems


in Lyrical


Ballads


(excluding


three


works


blank


verse)


defines


twelve


as dramatic


or semidramatic


form.


According


to Parrish,


Wordsworth


s original


use


dramatic


form


best


expressed


poems


which


use


real


language


men


to reflect


language


mind.


Unlike


narrator


"The


Thorn,


a central


figure


unconsciously


reveals


much


of his


own


character,


shadowy


narrator


"The


Female


Vagrant"


merely


serves


as a foil


Vagrant


Vagrant


s ow


s story;

n voice.


Wordsworth


Nevertheless


s focus


remains


we often


hear


upon

his


the

voice


through


figure.


hers,


as he attempts


As Robert


Langbaum


to sound


remarks


marginalized


of the


female


dramatic


monologue,


"there


at work


it a consciousness,


whether


intellectual


claim


or historical,


This


beyond


consciousness


what


mark


speaker


of the


can


poet


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ac


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Vagrant


consciousness


dependent


into


upon


poem


Wordsworth'


as much


projection


as his


own


dramatization


"feminine"


In his


consciousness


attempts


of the


to voice


Vagrant


"feminine,


herself.


" Wordsworth


emphasizes


mental


as much


as the


physical


violation


rape,


Rather


forcing


than


our


present


involvement


a stereotyped


Vagrant


situation


s predicament.


of female


violation,


perfect


Wordsworth


mind,


emphasizes


an intensely


Vagrant


personal,


"robbed


particularly


Wordsworthian


conception.


Her


alienation


from


humanity


appears


total,


every


human


friend


disowned.


Like


Ancient


Mariner,


surrounded


water


he cannot


drink,


stands

thousand


bereft

d homes


midst


stood,/


of plenty:


And


near


"And


a thousand


homeless

d tables


near a

pined,


wanted


food.


These


lines


reinforce


lack


connectedness


with


humanity,


such


a state


of mind


lacks

cannot


the w

lift


ill


to survive.


morsel


to mouth,


inertia


cannot


such


knock


that s

door,


he

"Nor


to the


beggar


language


could


frame


tongue.


language


man,


even


lowlie


lies


beyond


her,


and


such


dumbness


reflect s


general


silence


of the


"feminine"


voice


within


a "masculine"


world.


Only


total


physical


collapse


rescue


save


life:


despair


left


her


totally


unable


sri-...










tenants";


such


people,


women


men


outside


laws


patriarchy,


share


isolation


from


mankind


and


earlier


bonds

from


with

the e


nature.


economic


She

system


expresses


"were


surprise


first


that


relief,


these

" for


outlaws


spite


homelessness


rape,


stills


finds


difficulty


rejecting


conventional


patriarchal


society,


with


social


moral


hierarchies.


However,


gypsies


provide


her


with


a feeling


of community,


significant


that


Wordsworth


choo


ses


this


group,


a group


outside


patriarchal


authority,


initial


rescuers.


aligning


these


gypsy


vagrant s


with


earth,


Wordsworth


celebrates


their


connectedness


with


nature.


This,


however,


a connectednes


Female


Vagrant,


share.


still


first


ied

she


to the


patriarchal


celebrates


"their


value

long


system,

holiday


cannot

that


feared


grief,/


belonged


to all,


each


was


chief


although


they


recognize


no hierarchies


of rank


or possessions


, they


must,


order


to survive,


both


emulate


members


of the


system


deceive


"Semblance,


with


straw


panniered


ass


, they


made/


Of potters


wandering


on from


door


to door.


patriarchal


Even


Likewise,


value


as the


system


Female


women


even


Vagrant


must


as they


paints


conform


attempt


to the


to undermine


an inviting


picture


life,


eAr~i iPr


she,


~ri hisP


"brought


qusd-tpm


nothing


Wn r. crr T+ h


ill,


P14; ri-cl


" cannot


woii-h


escape


I
Aoz


-I .1 -:


I l|II










Female


Vagrant


can


only


protest


condition


reinforcing


status


as a victim.


The

without


Female


Vagrant


support


remains


of father,


incapable

husband,


acting


or husband


alone,

s kindred,


superfic


spiritual


benediction


which


reward


fidelity


unaided


and


fields,

cruelty


to the p

unblest?"


again

sky a


patriarchal

Living o


loses


touch


accused.


system:


n the


with


"What


arbitrary


reality,


greatest


pain


could


mercy


"and


seems


much


loss


of family


and


home,


or physical


violence,


"that


have


upon


inner


Female


self abused";


Vagrant,


thus


Wordsworth


projecting


empha


concerns


izes


significance


inner


soul


to the


female


as much


as the


male.


regrets


that


I' reon


home


delight


constant


truth, /


And


clear


and


open


soul,


so prized


fearless


youth"


again


reflect


Wordsworth


ideals


superimposed


upon


Female


Vagrant


s and


belief


continuity


one


between "m

considers


asculine"


traditional


"feminine"


values


association


female


with


body


earth,


cruelty


nature


and


willfulness


might


suggest


willfulness


and


danger


female


this


poem,


however,


nature


s willfulness


towards


female


creates


a more


complex


situation.


If the


fomm1 a


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ior I-


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4 n A,~


n3trr ra


I-- A


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t n


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reality


to the


poet.


Even


nature


"feminine"


are


ultimately


reconciled,


a reconciliation


with


reservations


a bleak


future.


Although


Female


Vagrant


loses


much


her


humanity


through


albeit


female


stence


obstacles.


such


losing


almost


character,


as one


those


total


love


passivity.


Wordsworth


maintained


However,


circumstances.


figures,


Vagrant


first


both


appears


sheer


we question


following


father,


revealed


second


defi


nevertheless


Through


to value


strength


worth


fortunes


the

the


husband,


ciencies


survives,


use


"feminine"


despite


survival

of male


Female


of patriarchy


failed


to acquire


self-sufficiency.


Ultimately


alone,


surrendered


to despair


only


survived


through


mercy


other


outcasts


more


arbitrary


mercy


nature, "

passivity


for


no earthly


remains


friend


have


unchanged,


Her


tearful


initial

reference


that


country


"Where


poor


heart


lost


fortitude"


reflects


her


understanding


of the


hopelessness


situation.


we might


feelings


we take


consider


a narrow


poem


regarding


early


psychobiographical


as reflecting


loss


approach,


Wordsworth


mother


subsequent


fears


of abandonment;


powerlessness


rhbi 1 rhnnri


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rI*ImmIIf


m1nrh


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S\nTyT r 1 a a a? n a a? a


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English


society


social


economic


effects


war,


as well


as a strong


concern


individuals,


accompanies


personal


feelings


of passivity


and


impotence


face


societal


change.


identification


with


Female


Vagrant


permits


him


to put


own


words


mouth,


"that


inner


self


have


abused.


can


enunciate


own


feelings


of despair


hopelessness,


betrayal


of his


values


ideals,


through


medium


a totally


powerless


figure--


significantly,


a woman.


"The


Female


Vagrant"


raises


questions


regarding


extent


to which


a poet


can


convey


an experience


without


sharing

framing

speaker.


or interjecting


devices,


Wordsworth's


Superficially,


"The


own concerns.

voice permeates

Female Vagrant"


Despite


that


conclude


various

his

s with


return


to a masculine


narrator


frame


of reference:


"She


wept;--because


had


no more


to say/


Of that


perpetual


weight


which


on her


spirit


lay.


" This


overlay


of a masculine


narrator


masculine


ostensibly


voice,


separates


proves


feminine


thin


speaker


a barrier.


from


same


complication


occurs


"The


Mad


Mother.


In "The


Mad


Mother,


" Wordsworth


uses


entire


first


verse


to establish


presence


an omniscient


narrator;


creates


a much


stronger


visual


image


of the


female


figure


.1---


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although


contrast


between


Mad


Mother


words


and


our


understanding


of them


creates


a sense


of dramatic


perspective,


verging


upon


form


of a dramatic


monologue


What


Robert


Langbaum


terms


"the


effect


created


tension


between


sympathy


ambivalence


ambivalence


moral


towards


towards


judgment"16


Mother,


child.


reinforces


which


Despite


echoes


our


our


own


sympathy,


sense


a danger


in her


madness


that


threatens


both


herself


child.


lack of formal


closing


permits


us to maintain


our


complex


identification


with


speaker,


rather


than


neatly


return


to a patriarchal


framework.


setting


tale


in quotations,


Wordsworth


strengthens


monologue,


sense


of personal


of a specifically


female


narration


voice,


dramatic


a retelling


a masculine


narrator.


does


tell


tale


masculine


or even


adult


other,


to a nonspeaking,


uncomprehending


child.


Indeed


tale


spoken


as much


herself


as to the


child,


which


reinforces


sense


isolated


voice;


female


voice,


even


enunciated,


lacks


real


audience.


concept


of a listener


negated


from


beginning,


child


hardly


a presence


: "She


baby


on her


arm, /


Or else


were


alone


This


sense


aloneness


reinforces


vulnerability,


dependence


upon


4-h40 01 flfll a 9 a1 a n n4nk,


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inherent


risks


of reinforcing


female


status


"other


However,


precarious


mental


state


of the


Mad


Mother


suggests


motherhood


a threatening,


dangerous


entity,


one


perilou


to both


mother


child.


If motherhood


saves


Mad


Mother


from


utter


madness,


also


brought


her


to the


edge.


We also


sense


an ambivalence


maternal


passion,


adoring


ambivalence


desperate


brings


"tracing


feeling


to madness


maternal


toward


and


passion


child;


protects


through


many


this


from


of its


more


subtle


windings,


Wordsworth


expresses


mixed


feelings


toward


motherhood


female


sexuality.


In creating


character


of the


Mad


Mother,


Wordsworth


emphasizes


both


strangeness


familiarity;


while


announced


arrangement


intention


a selection


in the


of the


Preface


real


to fit


language


to metrical


men


state


of vivid


sensation,


" the


choice


of a mother,


particularly


mother,


provides


a challenge


to both


poet


reader.


initial


line


"The


Mad


Mother,


" "her


eyes


are


wild,


" recalls


reference


to Dorothy


s "wild


eyes"


"Tintern


Abbey.


However,


we have


no clues


to the


identity


of the


Mad


Mother,


despite


physical


similarity


Wordsworth


s sister;


she is


a symbol


as well


as an


individual.


Wordsworth


careful


to distance


Mad


nfl- -


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sense


of vulnerability


exposure,


isolation


female,


and


specifically


maternal,


figure.


Mad


Mother


initial


word


up a paradoxical


state


of mad


gaiety


melancholy


that


denie


reality


defies


husband


an unknown


"they,


society.


" presumably


istence


combined


that


forces


am happy


when


sing/


Full


many


a sad


doleful


thing,


" reflects


ironic


distortion


of despair


sorrow


into


reverse;


survival


depends


upon


dilemma


denial


of the


of reality,


female


a masculine


as such


world.


represents


Twice


Mad


Mother


begs


child


to fear


her,


which


suggests


that


indeed


he does;


twice


terms


child


"lovely


baby,


" suggesting


both


youth


innocence


and


possibility


of its


redeeming


thee


know


much


owe; /


cannot


work


thee


woe"


reflects


unconscious


desire


perhaps


to harm


child,


a desire


restrained


sense


of obligation.


positioning


Mad


Mother


close


to Nature,


Wordsworth


initially


transforms


women


s culturally


subordinate


position


into


an essential


place.


As Marlon


Ross


notes,


"the


male


naturalizes


female


SOC


role


asserting


intimacy


between


femininity


and


nature.


woods


child


will


"safe


in a cradle,


mnrt- antt 4 ir


in 4 ar~a ,- a..1,4 lI -n-,r%~ -a --a -a 4----


A


: M~ r*h


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suggest


a comforting,


nonhostile


nature,


which


neither


threatens


nor


rejects


her;


these


images


reflect


traditional


image


of nature


as a nurturing,


maternal


figure,


contrast


to the


more


threatening


nature


of "The


Female


Vagrant.


Although


Nature


serves


as the


most


powerful


female


figure


Romantic


poetry,


role


from


wholly


positive.


Harold


Bloom,


Nature


plays


mother


family


past;


romance,


while


emphasis


father


upon


struggle


powerful


between


poet


poets


of the


their


literary


fathers


reflects


patriarchal


nature


of western


literary


tradition.


Margaret


Homans,


focusing


upon


association


women


with


nature


and


their


exclusion


from


position


of speaking


subject


(traditionally


identified


male),


remarks


of Nature


: "she


prolifi


biologically,


linguistically,


as destructive


as she


creative


power


of this


maternal


nature


no impact


upon


power


of real


women;


moreover,


Mother


Nature


consciousness,


only


materiality


an elusive


presence;


center,


into


only


nature


diffuseness


male


Between


narrator


woman


s self-conscious


s absorption


distance


subject-object


distinctions


which


infiltrate


Wordsworth


attempts


to voice


"feminine


hi ~ a -


aI _


a 1 1 -.


_. _r_.. ~_


*


'IT--










"dull, dull

physical and


pain"

menta


further


enmesh


anguish.


boundaries


"sight


joy"


between

represented


her


baby


specific


cally


"flesh


blood"


as opposed


fantasy;


wakes


from


a terrible


dream.


"For


was


here


only


suggests


relief,


although


terrible


significance


this


one


relation


hip


reinforces


isolation.


In contrast


to her


section


of the


"fiendish


faces,


one,


two,


three,


" that


pulled


at her


breasts,


urges


pain


child


fever;


"suck


as she


suck


finds


again,


temporary


" sucking


redemption


nursing


nurturing,


child,


ironically,


nurtures


as much


nurtures


him.


psychological


literary


critics,


a work


reflects


emotional


dynamics


conflicts


artist


internal


world;


also


expresses


struggles


of the


artist


of a wor

achieve


s ego


of art


autonomy


relationship


depends


detachment


with


upon


from


reality.


artist


original


success


ability


conflicts.


While


critic


Richard


Onorato


emphasizes


Wordsworth


search


Barbara


lost


Schapiro


idealized


finds


mother


poetry


projected


"less


into


journey


Nature,


a lost,


ideal


mother


than


a struggle


to accept


an unideal,


human,


and


imperfect


mother,


one


s own


guilty


feelings


toward


her.


o td, n r


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Images


nursing


Romantic


literature


often


serve


objective


correlatives


masculine


absorption


feminine


qualities.


episode


In the


Prelude,


suppressed


Vaudracour


finds


Julia-Vaudracour


spiritual


nourishment


one


of Julia


s breasts


while


their


infant


finds


physical


nourishment


other;


"The


Mad


Mother,


nursing


redeems


mother


as much


as the


child.


affirming


self-sacrifice


goodness


of such


women,


Wordsworth


can


resolve


guilt


reaffirm


belief


both


mankind,


mother,


himself.


Wordsworth's


skillful


presentation


of the


hallucinatory


joys


horrors


motherhood


suggest


that


sympathy


Mad


Mother


amounts


to genuine


understanding.


While


gives


her.


child


image


sustenance,


of a "tight


he likewise


deadly


cools


band"


fire


about


within


chest


suggests


suffocation


of her


existence;


pressing


child


s hand


relieves


this


pressure


in a beneficial


interchange


between


mother


child.


Clarity


and


coolness


redeem


feeling:


"the


breeze


see


tree;/


comes


to cool


babe


me.


several


images


of coolness


as opposed


to heat


reflect


Western


paradigms


reason


and


emotion,


traditionally


associated


as contrasting


"masculine"


and


"fomi ni flflf"


ci oimont- a


frnlnn na?


*1 I fllna 1 an*


rd a E Cn


1










dangerous


threatening


feelings


with


coolness


and


rationality.


Wordsworth


s portrayal


this


conflict


reflects


interest


reconciliation


reason


emotion,


recognition


that,


contrary


to the


philosophy


of William


Godwin,


feelings


and


emotions


neither


could


nor


should


totally


controlled


reason


and


intellect.


As he


remarked


Preface,


"our


continuous


influxes


feeling


are


modified


directed


our


thoughts,


which


are


indeed


representatives


of all


our


past


feelings


traditional


ass


ociation


of emotion


with


"feminine"


invests


choice


of a female


figure


to illustrate


passionate


struggle


between


reason


emotion


with


significance


supports


statement


Preface


"that


feeling


therein


developed


gives


importance


to the


action


situation


not


action


situation


feeling.


intensity


of the


Mother


s feelings


are


conveyed


urgent


pleas


love.


Just


upon


waking


saw


"only"


him,


now


child


"only


This


emphasis


upon


singularity


uniqueness


reinforced


dangerous


climb


upon


sea


rocks,


above


waves;


baby


serves


as protection,


almost


a token


or emblem


of safety.


"leaping


torrents


when


they


howl"


recall


"fiendish


a a II -


- 5 .


- -h-i- -


L


m


,,


i


I










Female


Vagrant,


" the


unsettled


relationship


between


nature


"feminine"


symbol


zes


general


malai


of society


danger


to the


Mad


Mother


as much


spiritual


physical,


invests


emotional


survival


her


child.


Emphasis


lies


upon


their


mutual


dependence


: while


saves


me my


precious


soul,


" yet


"Without


me my


sweet


babe


would


mutuality


strained,


despite


protests;


child


s needs


are


more


physical,


hers


more


psychological


fears


desertion;


a sense


her


child


like


another


lover,


although


one


ess


likely


to leave


immediately.


In urging


child


to fear,


Mad


Mother


seems


to be reassuring


herself


as well,


as she


proposes


maternal/natural


alternative


to societal


or purely


masculine


guidance


"bold

always


Creating


as a lion,


image


" both


guide"


leadership.


of natural


maternal


suggests


knowledge


security,


masculine


"feminine"


of "the


leaves


strength


that


will


"I will

h and


make


softest


bed"


reinforces


kinship


with


nature


promi


ses


that


abides


with


until


death,


will


achieve


harmony


with


nature


: "then


thou


shalt


sing,/


merry


as the


birds


spring


Just


as spring


follows


snow,


happiness


will


follow


guidan


here


Wordsworth


naturali


zes


" her


maternal


role.


a-


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prelapsarian


paradise.


In resting


upon


Mad


Mother


breast,


baby


redeems


father


s rejection


of it,


despite


changing


of its


hue;


love


men


seems


linked


women


s physical


attributes.


brownness


her


cheek


hides


paleness,


as her


gaiety


hides


her


madness.


child


"dove";


her


beauty


"flown


away,


foreshadowing


a time


when


child


will


depart.


urges


child


to ignore


taunts


humanity


and


attacks


society


that


rejected


her,


despite


sanction


marriage


vow.


If she


cannot


live


a pair


with


husband


society,


then


her


baby


will


become


a pair


natural


live


society,


honesty"


society.


anger


"under


nature,


against


spreading


contrast


desertion


tree.


to the


turns


will


hypocrisy


to a posture


pity:


"But


poor


man!


wretched


made,/


And


every


we two


will


pray/


him


that


s gone


away.


turning


her


sion


towards


a fantasy


world


nature,


can


avoid


reality


of desertion


turn


her


rage


into,


forgiveness,


a form


pity.


stresses


role


as teacher,


traditional


patriarchal


terms,


as one


inculcates


her


child


mysteries


nature


of nature,


naturalizess"


"the


her


sweetest


cultural


things";


role.


intimacy


when


with


child


Ca'O2 00 1r


t- ni TIr11I r


1 non


C'an a


rvF hin


r.m 11


~~3Q~E


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r r


7


a










defense,


casts


idea


of madness


upon


child.


Initially,


child


s gaiety


permitted


her


to channel


own


grief


into


madness;


infant


itself


mad,


"Then


must


be for


ever


Her


mad


gaiety


turns


to fear


and


both


denial,


of her


which


reinforces


situation


and


sense


mother-child


precariousness


relationship.


Eagerly


begs


child


response,


again


reiterating


trials


suffers


sake,


attempts


to seek


paternal


figure.


concludes


with


an ambiguous


picture


future


which


nature


no longer


an entirely


benevolent


figure.


Knowing


both


"the


sons


of the


hade"


"the


earth-nut


food,


" she


will


both


"find


father


wood"


"there,


babe;


we'll


live


aye.


Although


Mad


Mother


seems


to suggest


possibility


reconciliation


with


father


and


a new


existence


outs


patriarchal


society,


reader


clearly


perceives


self-


deception.


reconciliation


"masculine"


and


"feminine"


elements


to be


achieved


this


mother-child


bond;


here,


need


draining


as well


as strengthening.


Just


as the


danger


of excitement


carried


of bounds


must


tempered


co-presence


of something


regular,


something


to which


mind


excited


been


state,


accustomed


"feminine"


when


an unexcited


emotion


excitement


or a less


requires


S~c,, rL


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breast


her


child


"wicked


looks"


convey


a certain


sexual


ambivalence


toward


own


child;


perhaps


he has


destroyed


possible


physical


harmony


possessed


with


husband.


might


also


consider


her


marriage


as part


hallucinatory


fantasy,


view


these


lines


as suggestive


sexual


guilt


this


respect.


Even


though


images


child


s sucking


as cooling


redeeming


suggest


a form


of erotic


substitution,


they


are


only


temporary;


as soon


child


ceases


nurse


suffers


malevolent


visions


again.


Motherhood


thus


appears


an enemy


to female


sexuality


as well


subjectivity.


one


of the


poems


Lyrical


Ballads


which


deals


with


sexual


tensions,


"The


Mad


Mother"


demonstrates


Wordsworth


s keen


interest


metaphors


aroused


senses,


accompanying


intent


illustrate


manner


which


our


feelings


ideas


are


associated


a state


of excitement.


sense


of dramatic


perspective


develops


as the


reader


recognizes


dangerous


distortions


of the


Mad


Mother


perceptions


both


to herself


to her


infant.


As Charles


Ryskamp


notes,


'The


Thorn


' and


'The


Mother'


we are


brought,


through


internal


or external


dialogue


and


through


sharp


contrasts


between


conflicting


emotions


observations,


to dramatic


perception.


"26


We pity


arnna4-~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ H 1.4 .. C,~4.~ n ..1.4 i~- -r ,4 --n Ay


I


nn


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both


mad


visions


mutual


need.


Ambivalence


towards


child


interwoven


with


her


sense


of duty


maternal


love,


as motherhood


both


empowers


weakens


her.


choosing


to conclude


poem


with


form


narrative


closure


us to maintain


our


or textual


distancing,


identification


with


Wordsworth


and


permits


sympathy


Mad


Mother.


While


poet


does


value


maternal


passion,


he clearly


portrays


destructive


as well


as redemptive


role.


never


learn


complete


part


that


motherhood


played


father'


desertion;


nevertheless,


we are


aware


intense


complications


created


situation,


complications


which


turned


speaker


into


a mad


mother


opposed


to a mad


wife,


or simply


a deserted,


perhaps


unwed,


woman.


Motherhood


damnation


as well


as salvation;


surely


Wordsworth,


painfully


aware


loss


of his


own


mother,


felt


clearly


a sense


dangers


empathizes


with


of the


mothers


maternal


that


state,


reason.


cannot


accuse


Wordsworth,


then,


simply


reifying


motherhood.


In his


determination


follow


fluxes


refluxes


mind


when


agitated


great


simple


affections


our


nature,


he reveals


torturous


complications


of the


female


situation.


Rather


than


simply


celebrating


maternal


passion,


with


ensuing


risk


,,,,?, rI


-4-n~ -. -n a A a aa- I a -- -- ...1


,,,,.. 1


,,


1


*k 4-


Lir










reality.


Among


poems


Lyrical


Ballads


which


deal


with


mother/nature


figure,


"The


Mad


Mother"


creates


a most


complicated


portrait


which


unsettles


gendered


assumptions


about


maternal


passion


powers


redemption.


A different


treatment


of the


deserted


woman,


one


without


either


child


or spouse,


occurs


"The


Complaint


Forsaken


Indian


Woman.


Like


"The


Mad


Mother,


" it


suggests


dramatic


between


situation.


connection


monologue


speaker


As Robert


between


involving


reader


s statements


Langbaum


dramatic


our


notes,


lyric


through


contrast


understanding


"Wordsworth


and


her


shows


dramatic


monologue,


when


he turns


visionary


stare


upon


a solitary


figure


upon


with


a natural


same


transforming


object.


While


effect


"The


as when


Mother"


he turns


provided


ostensibly


"The


"female"


Complaint


insight


a Forsaken


into


maternality


Indian


Woman"


madness,


provides


particularly


"female"


ultimately


universal


insight


into


death.


dying


alternates


between


resignation


death


passionate


yearning


absent


child,


although


makes


no mention


any


husband


or father.


According


to Barbara


Schapiro,


experience


of loss


lies


at the


core


of the


mother-child


relationship,


and


many


of the


lyrics


written


between


1798


1805


focus


upon


inn 4- hno


~1k41


-r ,-a-


L- -I -


r


A- 1%.- -r. t


~nrl


r


,,,


4










previously


discussed


poems,


Wordsworth


treats


maternal


needs


concerns


as deserving


attention


respect.


As such,


these


encultured


"female"


concerns


become


human


thus


universal.


In contrast


to "The


Female


Vagrant"


"The


Mad


Mother,


" "The


Complaint


a Forsaken


Indian


Woman"


lacks


formal


framework


or narrative


distancing


plunges


immediately


into


voice


of the


speaker


with


a poignant


release.


Dreams


blend


with


reality,


a song


-like


verse


that


ends


as it


begins,


"Before


see


another


day,/


body


away!"


Here,


meter


clearly


regulates


emotion,


reflecting


purpose


"tempering


painful


feeling


which


will


always


be found


intermingled


with


powerful


descriptions


deeper


passion.


focus


upon


emotional


state


of the


Indian


Woman


also


supports


Wordsworth


s contention


Preface


that


"the


feeling


therein


developed


gives


importance


to the


action


situation,


action


and


situation


to the


feeling


dreams


of the


Indian


Woman


rival


lights


sounds


night


their


forboding


physical


intensity;


their


very


vitality


stands


in contrast


with


encroaching


death


female


stasis


In the


Preface,


Wordsworth


defended


choice


-- -a- ~ -!r... --1- -I.'--.--A- a-


E -


1


,1


1 -


--


I


_ --. --


II


r










communicated"31;


existence


of the


Indian


Woman


obviously


pared


down


to the


essence


life


versus


death,


with


"the


essential


pass


ions


heart"


thus


unrestrained.


In contrast


to the


initial


highly


dramatic


mood,


repetitive


references


to the


dying


fire


convey


her


stoic


resignation


preparation


end.


If clothes,


warmth,


food,


fire


give


neither


pleasure


nor


joy,


manifestly


no need


gives


to live.


reason


More


importantly,


to continue


: "Alone


no one


s dependence


cannot


ear


die,


" suggesting


importance


of relationship


in justifying


human


existence.


In discussing


"Lucy"


poems,


Margaret


Homans


remarks,


"the


feminine


figure


becomes


an object


merging


with


nature,


dying


as a result,


represents


masculine


appropriation


of femininity


find


a certain


correspondence


Woman


this


does


poem:


as a result


although


of merging


Forsaken


with


Indian


nature,


death


will


one


inL


nature,


and


as such


appears


particularly


"feminine


To the


extent


that


lacks


voice


or subjectivity,


remains


an object,


dependent


upon


decree


of both


Whereas


"masculine"


focus


society


of grief


natural


"Lucy"


poems


forces.


lies


loss


to the


poet/


speaker,


hisa


needs


memories


rather


than


I-~ -a -


r


m m'I


r I


.r t


1~ I 1


I










despite


apparent


stoicism,


Forsaken


Indian


Woman


deplores


her


acquiescence


with


societal


decree,


ready


descent


into


despair


and


hopelessness.


Grief


and


regret


pierce


her


attempts


acceptance:


"Alas


might


have


dragged


me on/


Another


day,


a single


one!"


does not


accuse


companions;


twice


terms


them


"friends,


" in


obvious


acceptance


traditional


fate


of aged


females.


Like


Female


Vagrant,


only


protest


against


position


of victim


passive


acceptance


reinforcement


this


role.


does


suggest


that


indeed


had


possessed


strength


to follow,


somehow


failed


to do


This


sense


of inertia,


from


one


perspective


ostensibly


"feminine,


also


reflects


poet


s own


sense


futility


protest.


fatalism


most


strongly


challenged


feelings


toward


child,


again


a boy;


poet


s choi


of a male


child


significantly


complicates


mother-child


bond.


reflecting


upon


difference


choice


of a female


child


might


have


made


both


"The


Complaint


a Forsaken


Indian


Woman"


"The


Mad


Mother,


recognize


significance


gender.


Wordsworth


an extent


would


"deserted "


naturally


concerned


own

with


mother'

the mc


death,


,ther-son


relationship.


A mother-daughter


bond


would


place


themes


- -,,E, J I-i-- -


~~2 -


nr....... I -


.m


II .-, LI


ux A


L


~I










implicitly


part


this


world,


enmeshes


mother


even


further


within


patriarchal


society


increases


difficulties


active


rebellion


against


or rejection


this


world.


Indian


Woman


protests


child


s delivery


another


woman,


"who


was


mother,


a phrase


which


ostensibly


biological


promotes


mother,


role


as paramount


motherhood,


to a child


particular


s well-being,


although


society


implicitly


denies


significance.


projects


a strong


physical


emotional


reaction


from


infant:


"Through


whole


body


something


ran.


simultaneously


strives


to be


man


child,


both


rescuer


one


need


society


which


rescue.


cast


As a "man,


out,


" and


might


full


member


ironically


pull


sledge


save


her;


poem


reflects


paradox


futility


of such


a rescue


as his


arms


reach


out,


aid,


need:


"And


then


stretched


arms,


how


wild


mercy


like


a little


child.


sense


powerlessness


reinforced


powerlessness


Tormented


need


child.


relationship


unfairness


her


fate,


oscillates


between


anger


fatalism,


hope


and


resignation.


Although


yearns


child,


wishes


that


he neither


nor


grieve,


as her


hnriv ;n


mi n


fal -


;man a~l


Tni r no a


T*T ^ +-


ra~l 4*,,.


11 7 Ch CI ~n


I I









upon


isolation


wilderness


many


: "Too


things


loneliness


soon,


say.


friends,


imagined


of the


female


went


contact


voice


away;/


reinforces


sense


isolation;


also


reflects


weakness


of the


"feminine"


enabled


Margaret


voice


to speak,


Homans


a patriarchal


lacks


notes,


IV ci tio


world.


an audience


with


Even


to hear


nature


woman


her.


exclusion


from


placing


speaking


the


subjectivity


woman


amount


dualistic


to two


culture


different


on the


ways


side


other


object


We might


extend


this


to a comparison


with


Wordsworth


own


poeti


voice,


need


inability


voice


own


powerlessness.


significant


choice


here,


"feminine"


suggests


speaker


identification


becomes


with


situation.


Susan


Wolfson


suggests


that


Wordsworth


uneasy


with


position


in the


hierarchical


order


of masculinist


poetics


which


demands


that


mind


either


assert


itself


lord


master


or recognize


engulfment


and


bewilderment


"he


sure,


secure


figure


of logocentric


performance


egocentric


confidence


ascribed


to him


some


feminist


(and


older


masculinist


readings


of Romanticism)


insistence


Preface


that


poetry


must


take


significant


human


experience


province


enables


him


to voice


own,


i~~n~qns~kh


Snr-t stu-w


nniasrl PQ~n0Q


I-h rnimrth


QnP~t~ ne t










conflicts


between


body


and


spirit


rise


Indian


Woman


pain";


s determination


Wordsworth


to


subtly


follow "In

undermines


spite

her i


of all


intentions


weary

through


imagery


dead


fire,


snowy


water,


wolf


which


steals


food.


Physical


comfort


sustenance


have


disappeared;


acknowledges


isolation


again


attempts


resignation.


As phy


ical


decline


comes


swiftly


upon


her,


split


between


body


and


mind


grows


: "I cannot


lift


limbs


to know/


If they


have


life


or no.


This


lack


integration


between


body


soul


reflects


greater


jointedness


between


deserted


woman


soc


iety


which


cast


her


out.


final


thoughts


return


to the


child,


primary


attachment.


Unlike


"The


Female


Vagrant"


or "The


Mad


Mother,


" "The


Complaint


of a Forsaken


Indian


Woman"


makes


no mention


of husband


or father.


Toward


ambiguous


"friends"


have


deserted


expresses


overt


anger.


concluding


lines,


feel


my body


dies


away,/


opening


shall


lines,


see


"Before


another


see


day,


another


" fatalistically


day,/


echo


body


away


create


a strong


sense


of closure.


Neither


family


nor


society


provides


security


women,


neither


enables


expression


"feminine"


voice.


Wordsworth


s focus


upon


abandonment


women


r n cr c C rn n 4-n 4- trr.l


Lt


I


LL


ckn: r


n k


,nFln nC


nC ?C nn


-- A


nmn


*_ n r


nf^t-










poetically;


even


strongest


bonds


between


mother


child


have


little


impact


upon


strictures


society.


We might


focus


on the


fact


that


these


women


are


deserted


remain


, and


question


Wordsworth


s failure


"save"


them;


inability


"save"


own


mother


from


death


leave


him


power


ess


face


of tragedy


Regardless


psychobiographical


speculation,


we recognize


that


their


endurance


amidst


hardship,


madness,


perils


nature


suggests


fortifying


nature


both


of the


female


human


spirit.


And


as the


Indian


woman


expre


sses


thoughts


one


approaching


death,


speaks


powerless


humanity.


We again


recognize


Wordsworth


s underlying


concerns


with


social


injustice,


criticism


effects


changing


English


society


upon


poor


dispossessed,


although


eschewed


extreme


political


change


and


rebellion.


twentieth


century


readers,


we use


our


critical


understanding


"force"


connection


between


survival


poet


spirit


following


disillusionment


the


French


Revolution


survival


those


common


souls


lacked


understanding


of the


mighty


events


that


shaped


their


lives


continued


to struggle


survive


amidst


hopelessness


even


madne


failure


Revolution


forced


rh nrr e 9- 4 nn rChr


n3 rt ( a 3 n


Wn r~ awn rt h


frnm


tn th3~


nnnt


nr ^










personal


concerns.


Correspondingly,


argued


validity


of lowly


subjects


human


feelings.


As do


many


Romantic


poems,


Lyrical


Ballads


involve


displacement,


with


poet


absorbing


quieter,


more


shifting


political


circumscribed


world


from


SOC


world


upheavals,


of 1797-1798


of 1793-1794,


to the


Racedown


Alfoxden.


Likewise


Wordsworth


converts


anger


rage


at the


betrayal


of the


Revolution


lofty


ideals


into


sorrow,


sympathy,


love


those


suffered


economically


and


socially;


Lyrical


Ballads,


many


of these


figures


are


mother


Rather


than


simply


glorifying


mother-child


relationship


running


risk


of reductively


reinforcing


women


maternal


role,


Wordsworth


reveals


dangers


complexity


such


bonds,


mutual


interdependence,


destructive


as well


as the


positive


elements.


concept


of "female"


powerlessness


must


have


struck


sympathetic


several


political


chord


times


Wordsworth,


varying


subtext


these


as he


situations.


poems


would


chooses


Again,


to portray


a natural


a stringent


criticism


social


injustice


forms.


singling


one


from


many,


reflects


own


personal


sense


powerlessness


controlling


own


fate,


death


nf hi c


1-% tn


irn V a *


4-4 nfl -- Li -


4- .1


--A -- -


rr nl ~n


L1










Notes


1. Marlo
in Wordsworth

2. Hugh
Philosophers,
Moralists Pre
George Watson
163.


fl
's


B. Ross, "Naturalizing
Ideological Landscape,


Gender: Woman's Place
" ELH 53.2 (1986): 399.


Sykes Davies, "Wordsworth and the Empirica
" The English Mind: Studies in the English
sented to Basil Wiley, ed. Hugh Sykes Davi
(Cambridge, England: Cambridge UP, 1964)


1

es a
162-


. Laura
Bounds:


automat
appropr
collect


masculine


often


sustained


Claridge


Mal


re and El
P, 1990
.e terms
mine pat
so must
ith man.
imply a
of the
es in av
sus femi


ELizabeth


writ
iza
) 1


of
ria
we
" N
fe
fem
oid


-U


ers
beth
.Th
patr
rchy
be
or d
mini
ining
ing 1


nine


through


Sd Gen
,angl a
editor
Srchy
o exp
gilan
s ant
agen
"The
e eas
lite


concept


Langland,


der(ed) Criti
nd (Amherst:


y DI
rary
of


cuss the
e mascul
s spurio
nst the
iarchal
t possib
enge of
ry oppos
criticism


patriarchy"


introduction,


.sm, ea.
of
dangers of
ne: "Even
.s claims to
arror of
activityy
y a further
his
tion of
has too
(3).


4. Jean
Sexuality in
Tennessee P


H. Hagstrum, The
Keats. Wordsworth
1985) 106.


Romantic Body: Love and
Sand Blake (Knoxville:


U of


. Owen

. Owen


158.

157.


7
Poetry


. Colin C. Clarke,
of Wordsworth (New


Romantic Paradox: An
York: Barnes, 1962)


Essay
12.


on the


8
1969).


. Kate
In her


remarks: "He
difference, j
dissimilarity
social circumr
with regard t
temperamental
also discuss
sexual sphere
era, when aen


Millett,


[
u


S
S


discu
the p
stify
- 'Ei
tance
pers
diffe
Rusk
. U.C


der


S.t. C


Sexual


on o
ce]
cul
tr se
if co
lity
fces
s th<
noep
ntvn


I


Politics


: Te
sets
:ura
: al
idit
bu
esil
.ory
Imal
nrr


'son
) a
.isp
is
ing
enn:
in
sel


(New

eory


York:


|inces
comp
ough
elf.'
even
eves
10). 2
t corm


he
M1


uW f


. ,
-
,


*allantine,
s, Millett
elementary
genital


Given
the ca


the
se


Millett


elementary
Victorian
San C!e vniir.


I


,a


~JI;I 1


W


(


,(


:


B


[
U







80

Gender: From Wordsworth to George Eliot to Virginia Woolf,"
Victorian Literature and Society: Essays Presented to Richard
D. Altick, ed. James R. Kincaid and Albert J. Kuhn (Ohio


State


1983)


French


bifur
indeb
expert
arran
envel
to th


London, 192
U.C. Knoepf
"masculine"
"feminine"


feminist


netwee
Virgin
"Life
ife is
rroundi
" "Mode
5) 189.
Imacher
time a
time (K


n
ia
is
a
ng
rn
Il
a
nd


critics,
culine"
if's Loc
a series
nous hal


noepflmacher


notorious


and
kean
s of
o, a
beg
he C
the
o th'
athe
00-1


"femi
desc
gig
semi
innin
common
Inte


this


nine"
ripti
lamps
-tran
g of
Read
grati


contrast


r than
01).


time,
on of
symmet
parent
conscio
er (Har
on of G
between


are

rically

usness
court:
ender,"
n linear


sequential,


Knoepflmacher


11.
Dorothy a
Studies o
and Marti
Meier, 19
Identity:
Dickinson
Dorothy W
Rutgers U


See
nd
f W
ne
84)


'I


'homas


Willial
writers
Watson
. Also
rothyvl
rincet
worth
1987).


Vogler,


i Wordswort
and Their
Brownley (
Margaret
iordsworth.
n: Princet
& Romantic


"'A Spirit,


thering
Partne
rk and


omen
onte
80)


" Mo
lent
w Yo
mans
mily
UP,


New


a Woman


rs.,
Lon
Wr
a]
and


n: H
ers
Emi
usan


Brunswick


Twelve
.th Perry
timess &
nd Poetic

M. Levin,
London:


Claridge


Langland


13. Margaret Homans,
Dorothy Wordsworth. Emily
(Princeton: Princeton UP,


Women Writers and
Bronte. and Emily
1980) 14-17.


Poetic Identity:
Dickinson


14.
Ballads


15.
Dramatic
Norton,


Stephen Maxfield Parrish,
(Cambridge, Massachusetts:


Robert Langbaum, The Poetry
Monologue in Modern Literary
1957) 94.


The Art
Harvard


the Lyrical
1973) 99.


of Experience:
Tradition (New


The
York:


Langbaum


Owen

Dht^


158.

3QQ


!










. The


Wordsworth


Prelude


stresses


empathe
equival
Wordswo
serves
close a
behavior
import a
poetry.
relation
express
Melanie
dynamic
one's e
theory
format
objects
develop
drives
mother
Romant i


signifi
" Richa
in The
model
ence to


Kl1
s o
nti
emp
on
as
men
and
is
c M


(Baltimore


s em
f th
ara
s an
the
n, a


t, in
impul
intern
other:


pr
e
A.
d


I


chance of
rd Onorat
Prelude (
of psycho
Freudian
asis on i
absent mo
Schapiro
identity


writi
nd D.W
mother
erienc
s rela
indiv
ajor f
opposi


ses.
aliz
Nar


London:


ngs
. Wi
-chi
e of
tion
idua
acto
tion
Our
and
ssis


Johns


nursing
o's The
Princet
analyti
models
nfantil
their as
, drawi
format
f Heinz
nicott,
d relat
the wor
hips wi
identi
s in ea
to Freu
central
retain
ic Patt


and it
Charac


on
ca
o
e
a
ng
on
K
p
io
Id
th
ty
rl
di
re
d
er


: Pri
1 cri
f rep
sexual
key
on t
, par
ohut,
laces
nship
. Obj
obje
thro


y
an
la
th
ns


Hopkins


s "
ter
nce
tic
res
lit
to
heo
tics
Ot
he
as
ect
cts
ugh


ps
-0
to
is
si
y
un
ri
ul


C
e Poet:
, 1971)
'ith its
nd
the
standing
f object
as


to Kernbe
r emphasis
the basi
relation
and the
separate


rg,
s on
s of
ship


from


psychological
emphases on sexual
tionship with the
roughout adulthood. The
in Romantic Literature
, 1983) 94.


Owen

Owen

Owen

Owen


157-158.

159.

172.

158.


26. Charles Ryskamp, "W
Their Time" From Sensibility
To Frederick A. Pottle, ed.
Bloom (New York: Oxford UP,


rordsworth's
to Romantic
Frederick W.
1965) 363.


Lyrical
ism: Es
Hilles


Ballads in
says Presented
and Harold


Owen


158.


Langbaum

Schapiro


Owen

Owen

U Ifnli


71.

101.


174.

156.
o 991


l


h


Il










Feminismana
Indiana T


Anne


Mellor


(Bloomington


Indianapolis:


1988)
















CHAPTER


"TINTERN


ABBEY"


SISTER


AS SOURCE


SUBJECT


Constrained


culturally


embedded


divisions


between


"masculine"


reason


and


"feminine"


emotion,


Wordsworth


cannot


overtly

maternal


take


possession


instinct


of attributes


or redefine


them


such


intuition


"masculine


Rather,


frequently


incorporates


mothers,


sisters,


wives


poetic


fictions


that


enable


him


to share


these


qualities.


memories


descriptions


of infancy,


interfused


boundaries


experiences


between


with


mother


child,


sister,


and


allow


later


him


childhood


to absorb


a more


"feminine"


empathy


"feminine,


collapsing


sensibility


.latednes

" then,


certain


express


Rather


Wordsworth


stinctions


than


qualities


simply


suggests


between


appropriating

possibility


traditionally


"masculine"


"feminine"


qualities,


this


possibility


comes


poet/


closest


speaker


to realization


a sororal/maternal


interaction


figure


between


"Tintern


Abbey


refusing


to define


Nature


as exclusively


female


poetic


imagination


as exclusively


male,


Wordsworth


a *


- -


r I 1










Despite


Wordsworth'


claim


"Preface"


to represent


humanity,


"Tintern


Abbey"


initially


appears


to favor


masculine


through


a "natural"


assimilation


of the


feminine.


However,


female


here


does


suffer


radical


an absorption


nature


say,


figure


"Lucy"


poems,


fails


to achieve


Romantic


transcendence


reached


poet


himself.


Remarking


on the


"Lucy"


poems,


Sarah


McKim


Webster


notes


: "It


becomes


difficult


distinguish


among


Lucy


dead,


Lucy


alive,


and


Nature.


question


critical


ass


umption


that


traditional


association


of nature


with


"feminine"


effectively


prevents


possibility


of female


transcendence,


even


within


boundaries


of male


verse.


If Wordsworth


must


grow


beyond


nature


search


self,


cannot


a female


figure


achieve


a similar


"feminine"


growth?


doom


transcendence


Does


female


possible


association


figure


without


of nature


to immanence,


rejecting


nature?


with


or is


Regarding


"Tintern


Abbey,


find


Wordsworth


seeking


just


such


transcendence


Dorothy


without


rejecting


association


with


nature.


Must


"feminine"


transcendence


necessity y


take


same


route


"masculine"


transcendence,


or does


Wordsworth


suggest


an alternate


path?


would


argue


latter.


,~-I fl- -* n- .a I,~- A a- .%


c S


-


t


n,,,LL..


rr C~A


nn rrn n


r *


n Fl









version


of Wordsworth'


absent


mother.


Wordsworth,


fusion


with


sister


serves


as a displaced


manifestation


fusion


with


mother,


result


androgynous


ideal


or a more


complicated


creation


Does


myth


innocent,


ungendered


childhood


paradise


correspond


with


this


also


mythical,


less


balanced,


union


between


brother


sister/mother


selves


In later


works


such


as The


Excursion,


Wordsworth


turns


away


from


"feminine"


sensitivity


mythic


memory


express


sed in


lyrics


ballads


toward


"masculine"


history


reality.


even


though


later


poetry


clearly


separates


male


female


self-consciousness,


nevertheless


reflects


a longing


to return


to the


undifferentiated


world


childhood.


Rather


presented


than

such


an androgynous


critics


soul,


as Carolyn


balanced


Heilbrun


I ideal

Jean


Hagstrum,


Wordsworth


of Lyrical


Ballads


yearns


a more


complex


creation,


one


interaction


rather


than


fusion.


traditional


concept


androgyny


suggests


wholeness,


both


physical


and


spiritual


utopia;


one


can


often


view


Romantic


emphasis


on androgyny


as yet


another


aspect


of the


"masculine"


appropriation


"feminine"


characteristics.


Quoting


Coleridge,


"The


truth


a great


mind


must


androgynous,"


Carolyn

T. dh tAT


Heilbrun


nf r CI Otatu 1i I S


suggests


c nfnl: a .


a rather
t,. 4-r 4-a r 4


awkward

4-t-,4-










position


of the


female


this


form


androgyny;


poet


remains


center


of focus,


receiving


rom


female.


Heilbrun


does,


however,


remark


upon


Coleridge


s definition


androgyny


less


to make


prejudicial


distinctions


between


traditionally


"masculine"


"feminine.


Although


Heilbrun


attempts


to define


androgyny


terms


reconciliation


between


sexes,


admits


essentially


indefinable


nature,


as well


threats


men


s and


women'


sexual


social


roles.


Heilbrun,


nineteenth


twentieth


centuries


"superseded


other


finding


some


confusion


nameless


creative


and


between


horrible


civilizing


sexes


threat


force


terrifying


However,


of androgyny


or indicative


declares


essential


survival


of human


soci


ety.


Virginia


Woolf


provides


standard


feminist


understanding


of androgyny,


decrying


likeness


from


between


a fruitful


sexes


interchange


in favor


an enrichment


of attributes;


rising


most


part,


allusions


recently,


Dian


to sexuality

e Hoeveler w


function


arns


metaphorically


More


us of confusing


androgynous


reunion


of masculine


feminine


principles


psyche


with


literal


sexual


union


of male


and


female


: "The


latter


union


produces


a sort


of physical


monstrosity


that


merely


accentuates


differences


between


-- - ,- ...
rnt~ -- --.


1 1 3


,,


1 i.


*










Wordsworth


s attempts


to reconcile


"masculine"


"feminine"


aspects


of the


psyche


in several


of the


Lyrical


Ballads


suggest


a wish


complementarity


and


gender


fusion,


upon


ser


examination,


these


poems


go beyond


androgyny


into


a complicated


search


his lost


interaction


mother,


that


reflects


or a maternal


poet


surrogate.


In his


discussion


of The


Prelude,


James


Heffernan


remarks,


"Since


separation


from


Dorothy


directly


resulted


from


death


of their


mother,


one


separation


metonymically


signifies


other


In communicating


Wordsworth


can


with


transference


Dorothy,


communicate


Heffernan


with


suggests,


lost


mother,


and


essentially,


repeat


correct


past


"Separation


does


preclude


possibility


of return


creative


re-enactment


of the


past,


which


is essential


growth


of the


poet


s mind.


Heffernan


cautions


us that


returning


to the


past


memory


re-enacting


words


same


regressing

spectacles


to infancy

of inhumani


or returning


both


to the


England


womb.


and


Having


France


seen


toward


abandoned


women,


prostitutes,


homeless,


Wordsworth


views


pain


of separation


on a more


widespread,


human


basis.


initial


intensified


experience


adult


of "primordial


experience


soc


separation"


ietal


,!a4 n -- 4.!a


-I-- I I I .





I, L1


rl


r










physical,


on an imaginary


plane,


as memory


and


imagination


together


compensate


losses


both


personal


political.


While


maternal


a number


influence


critics


upon


have


poet


carefully


examined


Preludes,


only


superficial


attention


been


paid


"tracing


maternal


passion


through


many


of its


more


subtle


windings"9


Lyrical


Ballads,


despite


Wordsworth


s remarks


"Preface


Although


Wordsworth


s major


characterizations


nature


as maternal


are


found


Prelude,


several


of the


poems


Lvrical


Ballads


portray


nature


"feminine"


maternal;


most


of the


female


figures


are


like


nature


interact


with


nature,


whether


positively,


like


Dorothy


"Tintern


Abbey,


or in


an ambivalent


or negative


fashion


Through


"Mad

the


Mother,"

contrast


"The


Thorn,


between


or "The


women


Female


s absorption


Vagrant


into


nature


poet/


speaker


s conscious


distance,


poems


reflect


difficult


distinctions


between


subject


object, "n

wrestling.


Lasculine"

Merging


and

with


"feminine,


nature


" with

both


which the

desired and


poet


feared;


Wordsworth


association


paradigms


does


of the


of activity


simply


accept


"feminine"


versus


with


traditional


nature


passivity,


patriarchal


resulting


reason


versus


--- A- I -----


C


._ __ _^










positive


and


negative


feelings


toward


"feminine,


striving

masculinen


to break through

e" subject and "


traditional


feminine"


object.


relationship


concluding


Lyrical


Ballads


with


"Tintern


Abbey,


" Wordsworth


reempha


izes


complicated


"feminine"


role


played


throughout


nature


volume.


relation


Nature


to the


s separation


from


"feminine"


represented


height


of unnaturalness,


"the


"The


Female


Forsaken


Vagrant


Indian


It has


Woman,


played


or a healing,


a fatal


role,


maternal


role,


"The


Idiot


Boy.


Unlike


"The


Female


Vagrant,


" "The


Mad


Mother"


or "The


Thorn,


" in


which


nature


represented


both


threatening


and


redeeming,


"Tintern


Abbey"


presents


nature


uniting


with


female


male


figure


a primarily


positive


fashion.


figure


natural


Nevertheless,


elements


absorption


serves


of the


empowers


female


her


brother


as much


as herself;


a number


of critics


find


"Tintern


Abbey"


a rather


calcifying


experience


sister,


"feminine"


as nature/mother


figure


appears


to absorb


female


whether


figure


Dorothy'


sets


failure


male


to break


figure


with


free.


nature,


wonder


i.e.,


maternal


figure,


prevents


full


growth;


will


argue


that


Wordsworth'


intentions


are


otherwi


se.


psychological


literary


critic


might


read


into


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finds


conclusion


of "Tintern


Abbey"


integration


a realized


self


with


landscape,


an ego


achievement


resulting


from


loss


one


relationship


with


Nature


or the


mother


(and


"all


aching


joys")


development


another;


Wordsworth


effectively


achieved


resolution


pre-Oedipal


Wordsworth


Lyrical


ambivalence.


s preoccupation


Ballads


Schapiro


with


reflects


also


abandoned


own


suggests


women


feeling


that


several


abandonment,


coupled


with


desire


to punish


mother.


affirming


self-sacrifice


goodness


of such


women,


can


resolve


guilt


reaffirm


belief


mankind,


mother,


himself.


Thomas


Vogler


(1984)


also


examines


Dorothy


as a


maternal


surrogate,


spiritualized


presence


serving


as the


living


embodiment


of Wordsworth


idealized


lost


mother.


Taking


a strongly


Freudian


turn,


Vogler


describes


Wordsworth


S use


Dorothy


as a form


psychoanalytical


transference,


enabling


recover


work


through


repressed


experience


order


to achieve


an integrated


self


"The


Wordsworthian


activity


of writing


during


this


period


combines


textual


goals


a completion


form


with


psychological


goal


of achieving


a coherent


identity.


As psychoanalytic


theory


continues


argue


favor


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both


psychological


understanding


literature


of current


literary


trends


criticism.


developmental


theory


enables


us to apply


theories


of maternal


influence


or neglect


more


carefully


our


criticism


of the


Literary


Ballads.


Since


early


1970


s a number


critics


have


illuminated


manner


which


we idealize


"good


mother"


castigate


other.


Janna


Malamud


Smith


emphasizes


general


neglect


of "the


social


context


mothering"11


concurs


with


Jean


Baker


Miller


that


easier


to blame


mothers


than


to comprehend


entire


system


that


restricted

questions


paternal


women


regarding


influence,


Smith


points


relative


and


a number


importance


reluctance


of unresolved


of maternal


of psychiatric


literature


to acknowledge


In Feminism


influence


Psychoanalytic


of societal


Theory


(1990),


contexts.

Nancy


Chodorow


both


warns


of the


tendency


dangers


toward


of psychoanalytic


a universalism


which


feminism,


disregards


class,


racial,


ethnic


differences


among


women


and,


historically,


failure


of psychological


critics


to apply


method


and


theory


a socially


or culturally


specific


manner


Chodorow


herself


argues


that


mothering


generates


defense


masculine


identity


men


and


a compensatory


psychology


ideology


of masculine


superiority


also


a- a


-*


.


1 .





1










psychological,

identities, be


cultural


tliefs,


which


relations,


would


dynamics,

privilege


practices,

neither


society,


psyche,


nor


culture,


comes


to constitute


gender


as a


social,


cultural,


and


psychological


phenomenon.


While


Tha~


Reoroductionn


of Motherina


(1978)


implied


that


mothering


was


cause


or prime


mover


of male


dominance,


Feminism


Psychoanalytic


Theory


(while


denying


social


cultural


significance


of her


former


argument)


examines


other


axes


power


dimensions


of gender,


particular


father


s soc


ial,


cultural,


political


power.


Examining


this


"multiplex


web"


of sexual


inequality,


Chodorow


continues


to privilege


psychoanalytic


object-relationship


theories


that


emphasize


mother-dominated


pre-Oedipal


period


over


father-dominated


Oedipal


period.


Chodorow


also


reveals


how


fantasy


perfect


mother


permeated


literary


critic


as well


psychoanalytical


literature,


citing


some


most


virulent


extreme


examples,


such


as Nancy


Friday


s My Mother/My


(1977)15


Dorothy


Dinnerstein


s The


Mermaid


Minotaur


(1976)16,


as well


as more


objective


accounts


such


Adrienne


Rich


s Of Woman


Born


(1976)17


which


examine


difficulties


of being


a mother


a male-dominated


society


empha


size


identification


with


mother.


Much


recent


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