Supervisor referrals to employee assistance programs

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Title:
Supervisor referrals to employee assistance programs
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Capece, Michael
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Subjects / Keywords:
Employee assistance programs -- Research   ( lcsh )
Sociology thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Sociology -- UF
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Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1991.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 169-176).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Michael Capece.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

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University of Florida
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SUPERVISOR


REFERRALS


TO EMPLOYEE


ASSISTANCE


PROGRAMS


MICHAEL


CAPECE


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I would


like


thank


the


following


people


who


have


played


a significant


role


helping


prepare


dissertation


and


assisted


me during


program


the


University


of Florida.


First,


I want


thank


those


who


served


on my


committee:


. Constance


. Ronald


Akers


Shehan,


(chair),


. Richard


. Lonn


Hollinger


Lanza-Kaduce,


and


. Peter


Sherrard.


want


to especially


thank


Dr. Akers,


who


encouraged


and


was


always


available


me throughout


program


study,


and


also


Dr. Lanza-Kaduce


for


his


assistance


with


the


statistical


analysis.


I would


also


like


acknowledge


the


assistance


of Dr


Patrick


Gartin


who


helped


with


the


data


entry


phase


the


dissertation.


Much


was


learned


from


him


about


the


use


computer.


want


to thank


Nadine


Gilli


the


Department


Sociology


her


work


on the


preparation


the


dissertation.









A special


thank


you


goes


to Leslie


Clarke,


friend


and


colleague,


who


helped


make


the


distance


between


myself


and


university


more


tolerable


my parents,


who


told


me when


others


believed


different,


that


with


hard


work


can


accomplish


anything,


share


accomplishment


with


them.


And


finally,


wife,


Lynne:


one


has


played


more


significant


supported


me when


this


I needed


process


and


than


encouraged


she.


me when


wanted


give


hope


can


give


back


her


what


she


so unselfishly


given


me.


















TABLE


OF CONTENTS


pkg~


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.........................................


LIST


OF TABLES..........................................


ABSTRACT ................... ............................viii

CHAPTERS


EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE
PROCEDURE..........


PROGRAMS


BACKGROUND


AND


Introduction......
Antecedents Of Pre
Programs.......
The Basic Elements
Programs.......
Guidelines For Sup
Problem On the
Constructive Confr


S*sent *
sent


........
Employee


Employee
Employee


ervisors I
Job.......
ontation..


.A...a....
Assistance


Assistance .


. .. .C .C. .
n Identifying
* .. e.S .*.*.
.......... ..*


........
A
... ...
*........


Summary


And


Statement


Of The


Problem.


SUPERVISORY
ASSISTANCE


PARTICIPATION IN
PROGRAM..........


THE


S S C


Previous Research On Factors In
Referrals...................
Significance Of Present Study..


EMPLOYEE


Supervisors'


... .. .... ..
. S S .* S...C...


* *5* *
.....
0....


LABELLING AND
PERSPECTIVES


SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
ON EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE


AS
REFERRALS....


METHODOLOGY......................................


Sample......
Procedure...
Instrument..
Operational


. ... S *......0S. ...S. .SS5 ........ .
.. ... .S..S.. .. ...... ***......S .


a........
zation...


* S C C C 50555555 SSS.SSSSCS S 5555
* SSCSSCSC SSSCSSCC C S C *SS*S*S*











RESULTS


AND


DISCUSSIONS


OF THE


SOCIAL


LEARNING


ANALYSIS..


Discriminant


Functi


on Analys.s......
on Analysis


.. .C. ....5.

* .. C *.S.. ....


Regres


sion


Analysis..


RESULTS


AND


DISCUSSION


OF THE


LABELLING


ANALYSIS.....


......... 105


Labelling


Social


Variabli


Characteristi


......... 105


Of Referral


Controlling


For


Severity


Of The


Problem.


...... 111


CONCLUSIONS


AND


IMPLICATIONS


FOR


POLICY


AND


RESEARCH....


S. . ...... 123


Policy


Implications....


Implications


Future


Research


S................ 125
................ 130


APPENDICES


SUPERVISOR'S


ROLE


: AN


EXAMPLE


OF CONFRONTATION


.. 133


EMPLOYEE


ASSISTANCE


PROGRAM


EVALUATION


SUPERVISOR


QUESTIONNAIRE.


........................ 136


REFERENCES......................


........................ 169


BIOGRAPHICAL


SKETCH............


........................ 177














LIST


OF TABLES


Table


pAge


Reliability And Item To
For Reinforcement


Scale
Scales


Correlations
. ... .S. S .S. S ... .. ..


Reliability And Item
For Definition


To
Scal


Sca
es.


Correlations


Zero-Order Correlations For The Social
Variables Meeting The Statistical
For Inclusion In The Discriminant
For Supervisory Referrals To The
Assistance Program...............


Learning
Criteria
Function
Employee


And Standard
Learning Vari
Criteria For
Function For
Employee Assi


Deviations For The Social
ables Meeting The Statistical
Inclusion In The Discriminant
Supervisory Referrals To The
stance Program...................


Standardized
Coeffic
Variabli
For Inc
Referra


Canon
ents
s Mee
usion
s To


ical Discriminant
For Each Of The S
ting The Statisti
In The Function
The Employee Assi


Function
social Learning
cal Criteria
For Supervisory
stance Program.


Actual Number
Classified In
The Overall P
Classified By


And Percentage Of Cases Correctly
The Use And Nonuse Groups, And
percentage Of Cases Correctly
The Function....................


Regression Of
Referrals


Number Of
On Social


Employee
Learning


Assistance
Variables.


Program
....... 101


Frequency Distribution Of The Job Classification
For The Last Referral Of An Employee To The
Employee Assistance Program................


Frequency Dis


tribution For Gender, Race,


And


Means


The









pag&


Frequency Distribution Of
The Last Referral Of
Employee Assistance


Frequency Distribution
In Years For The
To The Employee A


Educational Level For
An Employee To The
Program...................


Of Length Of Employment
Last Referral Of An Employee
assistance Program...........


Frequency Distribution
Problem For Which


For
The


Severity
Employee


Of
Was


Primary
Referred...


Frequency Distribution For Extent That The
Employee's Job Performance Was Affected By
The Primary Problem For Which The Employee
Was Referred To The Employee Assistance
Program.......................................


Frequency Distribution For Degree Of Pressure
Used By The Supervisor To Get The Last
Referral To The Employee Assistance Program...

Frequency Distribution Of The Number Of Negative
Job Related Behaviors Associated With The
Last Referral Of An Employee To The Employee
Assistance Program............................


Cross-tabulation Of
Classification
Problem For The
To The Employee


The Gender, Race And
With The Severity Of
Last Referral Of An
Assistance Program.


Job
The
Employee


Table















Abstract


the


of Dissertation


University


Presented


of Florida


the


Partial


Graduate


School


Fulfillment


Requirements


SUPERVISOR


the


REFERRALS


Degree


TO EMPLOYEE


Doctor


Philosophy


ASSISTANCE


PROGRAMS


Michael

May


Capece

1991


Chairman
Major De


Ronald


apartment


L. Akers,
: Sociology


Ph.D.


The


purpose


study


to locate


the


important


variables


the


deci


sions


supervisors


refer


employees


troubled


alcohol,


drug


or emotional


problems


to "employee


assistance


programs


self-administered


questionnaire


was


given


to a sample


of 90 supervi


sors


two


general


hospitals


Tampa


Bay


area.


Two


sociological


theories,


social


learning


theory


and


labelling


theory,


guided


the


research


Data


were


analyzed


discriminant


function


analysis


regression


analysis


and


frequency


distributions.


The


discriminant


function


analysis


was


performed


determine


variables


derived


from


social


learning


theory


could


explain


why


some


supervisors


refer


employees


with


drug


, alcohol


or emotional


problems


to the


employee


a a a


m









variable,


(referring


and


non-referring


behavior


the


supervisors)


Also,


the


discriminant


function


with


the


social


learning


variables


was


able


to successfully


classify


cases


into


the


referring


and


non-referring


groups


The


regre


ssion


analysis


was


performed


determine


how


well


social


learning


variables


could


explain


the


frequency


which


supervisors


refer


employees


the


employee

included


variance

The


instance

social


the


frequency


program.

learning


dependent


The re

variable


variable


distributions


gression


model,


which


, explained


(frequency


and


the


of referral)


cross-tabulations


were


presented


determine


the


deci


sion


refer


an employee


was


based


on the


social


characteristic


the


employee,


labelling


theory


would


posit,


or on the


severity


the


problem.


No significant


support


was


found


the


labelling


perspective.


There


was


some


support


for


the


contention


that


referral


decisions


Based


the


are


based


results


on the


the


severity


study,


three


the


main


problem.


policy


recommendations


were


made.


First,


the


research


clearly


shows


that


strong


organizational


support


the


program


needed


increase


supervisory


participation.


Second,


supervisors


who


have


referred


employees


the


program


can


as resources


those


supervisors


who


have


not


referred.








concerning


their


expectations


of how


helpful


the


program


will


the


employees.
















EMPLOYEE


ASSISTANCE


CHAPTER
PROGRAMS


BACKGROUND


AND


PROCEDURE


Introduction


The


problem


employee


drinking


and


drug


abuse


been


the


focus


of attention


industry


the


United


States


since


the


mid


1800s,


(Trice


and


Schonbrunn,


1981)


and


continues


to be


an important


issue


today


(Steele,


1988;


Trice


and


Sonnenstuhl,


1988).


Workers


who


use


drugs


alcohol


on the


are


one-third


less


productive,


and


three


times


more


likely


to be injured


than


those


employees


who


not


use.


These


employees


also


experience


more


instability


as well


and


as engage


as stealing cash,

It is believe


unemployment


more


products

d that o


(Kandel


on-the-job


and


and


Yamaguchi,


deviant


equipment


ne-fourth


the


behavior


(Hollinger,


workers


1987),

r such

1988)

n the


United


States


use


alcohol


or drugs


on the


with


cost


industry,


due


to lost


productivity,


estimated


at 16


to 17


billion


dollars


per


year


(Scanlon,


1986).


In a study


corporations,


Hollinger


(1988)


found


that


3.2%


hospital


employees,


7.6%


those


retail


and


- a S a a S a S an











The


National


Institute


on Alcoholism


and


Drug


Abuse


(NIAAA)


estimates


that


the


U.S.


economy


loses


approximately


billion


dollars


per


year


due


to lowered


worker


productivity


(NIAAA,


1987).


Industry


has


responded


establishing


employee


ass


instance


programs


(EAPs)


to deal


with


employee


alcohol,


drug,


and


emotional


problems


To establish


an EAP,


organizations


contract


with


a private


employee


ass


instance


company


which


provides


to the


employees


counseling


services


alcohol,


drug


and


emotional


problems.


There


are


two


types


employee


referrals


voluntarily


the


seeks


EAP:


self-referral


counseling)


and


which


supervisory


referral


which


supervisors,


as a result


employee'


deteriorating


performance,


recommends


the


employee


that


he/she


the


EAP)


. It i


the


second


type


of referral


that


the


present


research


interested


Although


the


the


functioning


issue


supervisory


an effective


referrals


employee


ass


central


instance


program


(Masi,


1984;


Myers,


1984;


Alpander,


1980;


Schaeffer,


1979;


Poley,


Lea


and


Vibe,


1979;


Walker,


1979


Blose,


1977;


Herbert,


1975


and


Hemmett,


1972


there


been


little


research


to determine


why


some


supervi


sors


refer


to the


EAP


others


not.


Because


the


centrality


issue











Specifically,


the


purpose


the


present


research


investigate


variables


in supervisors'


referrals


or non-


referral


to employee


assistance


programs.


The


selection


these


variable


theory-guided,


and


therefore


the


findings


have


theory


some


implications


to workplace


deci


the


sions


applicability


In particular,


sociological


social


learning


theory


and


labelling


theory


are


used


derive


variable


and


expectations


about


the


relationship


these


variables


to EAP


referral


deci


sions.


Social


learning


theory


draws


and


attention


to the


consequences


theory


draws


interactive


those


attention


making


the


network


referral


social


of supervisors


Labelling


characteristic


those


being


referred.


Chapter


One


will


trace


the


evolution


employee


ass


instance


program


from


1900


to its


present


day


structure.


It will


begin


discussing


the


antecedents


the


modern


employee


assistance


program,


highlighting


the


sociological


influences


that


helped


to shape


the


development


modern


program.


Then,


an overview


the


modern


program


will


be provided.


Chapter


Two


will


discuss


the


literature


concerning


the


supervisor'


role


employee


assistance


program


including


the


factors


which


prevent


the


supervisor


from











theory


and


labelling


theory


Chapter


Four


detail


research


methodology


the


study


Specifically,


chapter


will


discuss


the


sample,


the


research


instrument,


operationalization


concepts,


the


scaling


procedure


and


the


statistical


techniques


employed.


Chapters


Five


and


present


the


results


the


statistical


analyses.


Chapter


Five


deals


with


the


results


the


discriminant


function


analysis


and


the


regression


analysis


to determine


how


well


the


social


learning


variable


can


explain


supervisors'


referral


behavior


as well


the


frequency


with


which


supervisors


refer


the


program.


Chapter


Six


will


present


the


frequency


distributions


and


the


cross-tabulations


the


social


characteristic


the


last


employee


referred


the


EAP


and


the


severity


the


problem


which


the


employee


was


referred.


The


intent


examine


the


extent


which


the


deci


sian


to refer


employee


based


primarily


on the


social


characteristics


the


employee


rather


than


nature


the


problem


behavior


as labelling


theory


would


hypothesize.


In the


last


chapter


policy


recommendations


and


directions


future


research


will


discussed.


Antecedents


Of Present


Emolovee


Assistance


Proarams











1986).

housing,


These


programs


insurance,


provided


pension


plans,


employees


and


with


other


inexpensive


benefits


These


programs


were


designed


to help


industry


providing


stable


labor


force,


promoting


worker


loyalty


and


preventing


unionization


(Nelson


and


Campbell,


1972)


With


the


onset


the


depres


sion,


these


programs


diminished


because


the


depression'


negative


effects


on industry


and


unionism,


which


eliminated


the


company'


motivation


to continue


the


programs.


With


the


emergence


of personnel


counseling


during


the


1930S,


the


employee


assistance


movement


entered


a new


era.


Personnel


counseling


emerged


from


the


work


Elton


Mayo


(1923)


applied


workers


at Western


at Western


to act


Electric'


Electric,


as counselors


Hawthorne


program


These


Plant.


employed


counselors


was


shop


would


informally


talk


with


employees


about


their


personal


problems,


with


an emphasis


on listening


to the


employee


without


giving


advice.


However,


the


main


focus


of personnel


counseling

psychiatric


came


to be centered


clinics.


These


around


clinics


the


were


development

established


of

to


address


what


were


considered


to be employees'


irrational


beliefs


which


caused


strikes


and


decreased


productivity


(Sonnenstuhl


and


Trice,


1986).











emotional


problems


that


people


experienced


workplace.


There


were


two


approaches


dealing


with


emotional


problems.


The


first


approach


stressed


the


treatment


the


emotional


problems


that


worker


was


experiencing.


The


employees


could


seek


treatment


on their


own


or would


encouraged


management


to seek


treatment


their


emotional


problem.


The


second


approach


stressed


the


prevention


of emotional


problems.


Prevention


addressed


teaching


employees


healthy


beliefs


and


developing


healthy


work


environment.


In the


1940S


and


1950S,


industry


began


to address


the


issue of employee

employee assistance


drinking.

e programs


The

into


model

its


which would

current form


guide

was


greatly


influenced


shift


emphasis


(Sonnenstuhl


and


Trice,


1986;


Trice


and


Schonbrunn,


1981)


SThese


industrial


alcoholism


programs


focused


on how


drinking


was


adversely


affecting


workers'


productivity


Specifically,


owners


and


managers


became


concerned


about


effects


that


alcoholism


had


on absenteeism,


disability,


sickness


accident


loss.


Industry


reacted


the


need


to deal


with


employees'


alcohol


problems


implementing


informal


arrangements


between


company'


medical


department


and


members











Alcoholics


Anonymous


who


were


working


the


shop,


would


asked


to approach


the


employee


and


discuss


their


drinking


problem.


Following


the


guidelines


the


program,


the


member


would


talk


with


the


employees


about


their


experience


with

hoped


alcohol


that


and


the


benefits


AA member


could


of sobriety

informally


The


motivate


company


the


employee


to attend


an alcoholism


meetings


treatment


of Alcoholi


program


(Trice


and


Anonymous


or enter


Sonnenstuhl,


1985).


Goodyear


Tire


and


Rubber


Company


Akron,


Ohio


provides


an example


of a longstanding


industrial


alcoholism


program.

health b


Goodyear


benefits


has


to its


a long


employees


history


(Shain,


of providing


Survali


mental


and


Boutilier,


1986)


through


medical


department


utili


AA members


to intervene


with


employees


who


were


suspected


having


a drinking


problem.


The


program


centered


around


recovering


alcoholic


within


medical


department


Goodyear


who


had


been


sober


many


years


acted


as a


liaison


between


medical


department


and


other


recovering


alcoholics


that


worked


on the


shop


floor.


When


was


suspected


that


a particular


employee


had


problem


with


alcohol,


the


problem


was


reported


to the


medical


department.


Then


, the


AA liaison


the


medical











attend


meetings


of Alcoholics


Anonymous.


the


alcohol


problem

referral


Then,


was

was


the


deemed

made


employee


severe


the


was


enough

medical


strongly


the


AA member,


department


encouraged


of Goodyear


to admit


him/herself


an alcoholism


treatment


center


While


the


treatment


center,


the


employee


was


sited


regularly


the


AA liaison


from


medical


department


of Goodyear


Also


while


Alcoholics


treatment,

Anonymous


the


AA liaison


sponsor,


who


arranged


was


an employee


Goodyear


When


person


was


discharged


from


the


hospital,


the


medical


person'


department


progress


would


through


the


continue

Alcoholi


to monitor


the


Anonymous


sponsor


and


through


the


AA liaison


medical


department.


Thi


example


from


Goodyear


illustrates


the


type


informal


network


which


was


integral


to the


early


industrial


alcoholism


programs


in major


industry


SIt also


shows


how


the


medical


department


coordinated


with


the


established


resource


within


the


plant,


namely


those


already


involved


with


Primarily


through


these


informal


mechanisms,


Alcoholics


Anonymous


became


a major


influence


the


establishment


modern


more


day


employee


important


impact


assistance


on the


programs.


development


A formal


these


even


programs











Trice


and


Sonnenstuhl


(1985)


discuss


the


critical


contribution


that


AA made


to the


development


the


employee


assistance

employee


program.


assistance


Alcoholics

programs a


Anonymous


balance


provided


between


the


exercising


control


over


problems


on the


and


motivating


a person


seek


help.


was


seen


the


Goodyear


example,


because


members


were


working


conjunction


with


the


medical


department,


they


were


able


to exert


social


control


pointing


out


the


person


who


had


the


drinking


problem


that


continued


drinking


could


jeopardize


their


employment.


The


motivational


aspect


refers


to the


fact


that


those


already


established


the


program


were


approaching


employee


with


alcohol


experiences,


motivate


these


employees


problem.


AA members


to seek


Through


were


help


sharing


the


their


their


best


own


position


drinking


problem.


The


program


was


considered


clearly


focused


because


the


early


industrial


alcoholism


programs


concentrated


only


treating


people


with


alcohol


problems.


relying


on AA


members,


the


early


industrial


program


did


not


get


involved


with


marital,


family


or emotional


problems.


The


issue


the


importance


of using


natural


forces


workplace


deal


with


the


problem


of alcoholism


among


employees


relates


to the


fact


that


one


the


biggest


obstacles











person


and


help


the


person


deal


with


his


or her


drinking


problem


way


of breaking


through


the


denial.


AA members


used


natural


forces


the


workplace


to provide


environment


where


they


could


approach


the


employee


with


drinking

One

Anonymous


problem and

of the most


had


on the


confront

important


early


that


employee'


influences
S -


occupational


a


that


denial.

Alcoholics


lIcoholism


program


was


the


fact


that


was


cost


effective.


Alcoholi


Anonymous


a free


program


and


eliminates


any


treatment


costs


involved


working


with


the


alcoholic.


Even


when


employee


had


to be referred


into


an alcoholism


treatment


center,


AA would


prevent


provide


a relapse


back


a strong


aftercare


to drinking


Thi


program


would


to try

prevent


person


from


having


to be readmitted


to a treatment


facility


The


benefit


the


company


would


be a decrease


medical


costs.


Other


authors


also


see


the


rise


the


AA movement


having


fueled


the


early


employee


assistance


programs


(Scanlon,


1986)


AA defined


the


focus


the


program


(alcoholism),


the


recovery


program,


the


twelve


steps,


and


the


personnel


members)


to help


those


the


workplace


need


of assistance.


Thus,


in many


ways,


the


success


and


acceptance


of the


AA philosophy


as an approach


to alcoholism











Two


organizations,


the


National


Council


on Alcoholism,


formed


1944,


and


the


National


Institute


Alcohol


Abuse


and


Alcoholism


(NIAAA),


formed


1971,


gave


national


standing


to the


needs


of employee


ass


instance


programs.


The


major


influence


came


from


NIAAA;


the


agency


responsible


coining


economic


term


incentives


"Employee


to start


Assistance


employee


Program"


assistance


providing


programs


(Walsh,


separate


1982


Lotterhos,


branch,


sole


1975).


purpose


In 1971


of which


NIAAA


was


created


to promote


establishment


of employee


ass


instance


programs


fifty


states.


Each


state


was


given


a grant


of $50,000,


which


was


to be used


to hire


two


consultants


who


were


to be


put


into


place


to promote


programs


both


public


and


private


education


industry.


these


1972


consultants


, a training


was


grant


provided


was


at East


awarded


Carolina


University


most


At these


recent


educational


information


seminars,


in developing


experts


and


provided


promoting


employee


assistance


programs.


There


were


two


distinct


factions


among


those


who


attended


these


early


training


programs.


They


consisted


those

those


who

who


were

were


aligned

aligned


with

with


the

the


alcoholism


mental


movement


health


and


movement.


While


both


agreed


on the


process


and


importance


the











employees


would


improve


employees'


work


performance.


Also,


they


both


believed


that


the


supervisor,


through


process


of "constructive


confrontation"


could


help


motivate


employees


to seek


help


their


personal


problems.


What


they


disagreed


on was


what


type


of problem


on which


focus.


Those


aligned


with


the


alcoholism


movement


believed


that


the


employees


who


were


experiencing


problems


with


alcohol


should


be emphasized


the


employee


assistance


program.


Thus,


educating


supervisors


on the


proper


use


constructive


confrontation


should


an important


aspect


an employee


assistance


program.


The


mental


health


people


believed that

important, the


while


constructive


ultimate


goal


confrontation

an employee as


was


distance


program


was


to provide


an environment


that


encouraged


the


employee


to voluntarily


seek


help


(Sonnenstuhl


and


Trice,


1986)


Thus,


one


the


latent


aspects


the


establishment


NIAAA


and


the


grants


to establish


consultants


in all


fifty


states


was


the


fact


that


a schism


developed


the


employee


assistance


movement


between


those


who


believed


specific


occupational


alcoholism


programs


and


those


who


believed


what


termed


a "broad-brush"


program.


Broad-


brush


programs


are


defined


as programs


that


address


both











have


a significant


impact


on the


modern


employee


assistance


programs


debate


centers


around


two


issues,


namely


"voluntary"


versus


"involuntary"


referral


to the


employee


assistance


program


and


the


use


of constructive


confrontation.


The


issue


whether


to establish


alcohol


specific


programs


or broad-brush


programs


is still


debated


the


employee


assistance


literature


today


Roman


(1981),


Walsh


(1982


Masi


(1984)


and


Heyman


(1976),


discuss


the


establishment


of alcohol


specific


employee


assistance


programs.


above


take


view


based


on the


concern


that


the


broad-brush


programs


would


dilute


the


historical


focal


point


the


employee


assistance


program


which


has


been


on alcoholism.


These


writers


feel


that


including


problems


other


than


alcohol


an employee


assistance


program


would


lead


the


alcohol


problems


receiving


less


of a priority


than


would


receive


alcohol


specific


program.


Walsh


(198


raises


the


question


that


when


programs


shift


from


an alcohol


specific


focus


an all


encompassing


employee


assistance


program


model,


does


industry


become


too


involved


the


lives


their


employee


She


views


this


trend


as moving


towards


a type


industrial


social


engineering.











these


programs


often


will


not


address


important


issue


alcoholism


of denial.


Because


the


mental


health/broad-brush


programs


favor


voluntary


entrance


into


the


employee


assistance


program,


many


advocates


the


alcohol


specific


programs


feel


that,


because


denial


an important


part


alcoholic


mind


set,


many


alcoholics


would


not


come


into


treatment.


Masi


(1984)


sees


the


mental


health


type


employee


assistance


programs


resembling


a typical


family


counseling


agency,


which


accepts


people


on a self-referral


basi


Masi


feel


that,


the


trend


towards


a more


broad-brush


program


continues,


will


dilute


the


uniqueness


of employee


assistance


programs.


Heyman


(1976)


discus


ses


the


differences


work


improvement


those


employees


that


were


forced


to the


employee


assistance


program


and


those


who


chose


the


program


voluntarily


The


author


drew


a random


sample


approximately


people


who


entered


the


employee


assistance


program


either


voluntarily


or involuntarily


four


industrial


alcoholism


programs


the


New


York


City


area.


wanted


determine


amount


pressure


put


on the


person


into


the


employee


assistance


program


and


determine


improvement


their


work


performance


once


they


completed


program.


The


author


concluded


that


fewer











involuntarily


limited


way,


study


lends


support


to the


argument


that


alcohol


specific


programs


are


more


effective


than


the


broad-brush/mental


health


programs.


However,


the


author


indicates


that


people


who


entered


the


program


voluntarily


were


people


who


were


experiencing


early


entering


stages


treatment,


of alcoholism


their


therefore,


performance


before


was


same


state


of deterioration


as the


people


who


were


asked


involuntarily


In spite


, the


study


lends


support


to the


conclusion


that


intervention


with


those


who


are


experiencing


alcohol


problems


important


because


those


people


who


have


a drinking


problem


would


most


likely


not


have


entered


the


employee


assistance


program.


The


works


Sonnenstuhl


of Shain


(1984),


and


(1985)

Smart


Foote


(1974)


and

argue


Erfurt


(1981),


favor


shift


to the


more


mental


health/broad-brush


employee


assistance


program.


They


specifically


address


the


issue


whether


broad-brush/mental


health


employee


assi


stance


programs


dilute


effectiveness


treating


alcoholism.


The


most


current


study


one


Martin


Shainm


(1985)


effectiveness


broad-brush


program


as compared


alcohol


specific


program


on identification


rate


alcoholics,


program


utilization


rates


and


employees'











brush


programs


or that


alcoholics


would


not


be effectively


treated


the


broad-brush


programs,


is unfounded.


The


studies


Smart


(1974)


and


Foote


and


Erfurt


(1981)


also


support


the


conclusions


of Shain.


These


studies


also


found


that,


while


the


broad-brush


programs


did


not


provide


better


servi


ces


the


alcoholic


employee,


they


were


no less


effective.


It could


be concluded


from


this


review,


that


while


the


shift


that


evolved


from


establishment


and


implementation


of employee


assi


stance


programs


NIAAA


has


not


diluted


focus


provided


on alcoholism


an entry


, the


research


people


with


indicates


alcohol


that


problems


has


to enter


employee


assistance


program


greater


numbers.


The


employee


assistance


programs


that


are


being


implemented


today


reflect


the


concerns


occupational


alcoholism


program


proponents


as well


as the


mental


health/broad-brush


proponents.


These


programs


combine


the


voluntary


aspect


entering


employee


assistance


program


with


the


strong


empha


on supervisory


intervention


when


performance


deteriorates.


The


Basic


Elements


An Employee


Assistance


Program


The


contemporary


employee


assistance


program


been











Groeneveld,


1986;


Walsh


and


Yohay,


1987;


Wrich,


1982


and


Wright,


1985).


There


are


several


basic


principles


which


guide


the


employee


assistance


programs


They


include


dealing


with


the


problem


of social


stigma


associated


with


getting


help


resolution


an alcohol


the


problem,


or personal


supervisory


problem,


early


intervention


with


employee


when


the


problem


affecting


their


work


role,


and

the


insuring


employee


It i


confidentiality


assistance


program


philosophy


the


of all

(Resourc

employee


records

e EAP,


relating


1985)


assistance


program


that


there


no legitimate


reason


the


social


stigma


attached


seeking


help


an alcohol,


drug,


or personal


problem.


Therefore,


important


that


the


company


which


implements


an employee


assistance


program


minimizes


the


stigma


associated


two


ways.


with


First


seeking


the


help.


company


The


can


company


develop


can


a policy


that


those


who


utilize


the


program


will


not


jeopardi


zing


their


present


or an opportunity


promotion.


Second,


the


company


gives


the


employee'


the


choice


to utilize


reject


a referral


the


employee


assistance


program.


Confidentiality


records


related


to the


above


and


basic


to all


employee


assistance


programs.


assures


the


employee


that


the


nature


problem


and


any


treatment











Early


resolution


of a problem


also


of primary


concern


to the


company


which


implements


an employee


assistance


program.


It i


hoped


that


voluntary


use


employee


assistance


program


counseling


servi


ces


will


prevent


work


related


problems


Therefore,


the


best


interest


individual


and


the


company


are


served


the


program.


The


company


will


get


involved


with


an employee'


alcohol,


drug


or emotional


problem


only


when


the


employee


supervisor


requests


assistance


or when


the


problem


affects


the


employee'


performance.


Supervisors


are


encouraged


employee


to offer


assistance


a troubled


program.


employee


However,


a referral


not


the


intent


employee


assistance


program


to have


supervisors


actually


seeking


out


employees


with


problems.


Problems


are


recognized


There


when


are


the


two


employee'


types


performance


referrals


deteriorates.


an employee


assistance


program


see


Figure


: self-referrals


and


supervisory


referrals.


Self-referrals


are


the


type


referral


that


are


initiated


from


either


the


employee


or the


employee'


family


member


Self-referral


are


usually


initiated


through


consultation


with


the


employee'


supervisor


The


supervisor


then


refers


the


person


to the


employee a


assistance


counselor


or refers


the


employee


to the





















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the


employee


approaches


the


coordinator


employee


assistance


services


within


the


organization,


coordinator


discusses


the


objectives


employee


ass


distance


program


with


the


employee,


acquainting


him


or her


with


benefits


coordinator


will


available


explain


through


the


the


employee


program.


or the


The


family


member


that


service


completely


confidential


and


that


problem


not


the


concern


organization


or anyone


The


coordinator


also


explains


the


employee


or the


family


member


that


the


organization'


opinion


the


employee


will


not


diminish


because


the


employee


elects


participate


employee


assistance


program.


The


employee


assistance


coordinator


within


the


organization


will


also


stress


the


employee


that


many


people


have


used


the


service


and


have


found


effective.


The


employee


assistance


coordinator


within


the


organization


will


also


maintain


records


and


keep


contact


with


employee


determine


that


everything


sati


factory


(Indian


River


Community


Mental


Health


Center,


1982


Once


referred


to the


employee


assistance


counselor,


the


counselor


either


deals


with


the


issue


over


the


phone


arranges


an appointment


consultation


the


counselor'


office.


contacts,


verbal


or written,











complete


assessment,


the


employee


assistance


counselor


determines


whether


a referral


to another


prof


ess


ional,


such


as an attorney


or physician,


indicated


or whether


the


problem


can


be handled


within


employee


assistance


counselor'


office.


The


employee


assistance


counselor


can


also


make


a recommendation


referral


to inpatient


hospitalization


alcohol,


drug


or mental


health


issues.


Supervisory


a result


referral


an employee'


are


poor


initiated


performance.


a supervisor


The


supervisor


should


the


best


position


identify


poor


performance,


intervene


with


the


employees


and


refer


them


services


offered


the


employee


assistance


program.


The


basi


of a supervisor'


referral


to the


employee


assistance

performance


incident


program

on the


that


must

part


indicates


be either


the


the


a decline


employee


possibility


work


or a particular


of a personal


problem.


The


supervisor


then


approaches


the


employee


and


discusses


with


him


or her


the


incident


in question.


During


meeting,


the


supervisor


should


not


speculate


concerning


cause


performance


decline


or initiate


discussion


with


the


employee


about


any


personal


problems.


Should


unusual


pattern


performance


problems


arise


or a


particularly


unusual


incident


occur,


the


supervisor


may











After


particular


the


supervisor


incident


with


discusses


the


the


employee,


work


the


situation


supervisor


option


of informing


employee


the


professional


servi


ces


It i


available


that


point


through


the


that


employee


employee


assistance


may


choose


program.


to accept


or reject


the


offer


of a referral


to the


employee


assistance


program.


the


employee


chooses


to accept


referral,


employee


given


the


name


telephone


number


the


employee


appointment.


assistance


It i


counselor


not


and


unusual


asked


to make


a supervisor


to grant


the


employee


time


off


from


work


to meet


with


the


employee


assistance


counselor


an initial


consultation.


Subsequent


appointments


are


then


arranged


between


the


employee


the


employee


assistance


counselor


some


cases,


and


with


the


permi


ssion


employee,


employees


ass


instance


counselor


may


meet


with


the


supervisor


and


employee


to discuss


situation


further.


After


completing


the


assessment,


and


upon


securing


release


of information


form


from


the


employee,


the


employee


assistance


counselor


will


write


a letter


to the


supervisor,


specifying


a number


items


The


letter


will


note


that


employee


kept


the


appointment


as scheduled,


that


there


life


threatening


situation


dealt


with,


and


that


the











away


from


work


to enter


an inpatient


treatment


program


(Indian


River


Community


Mental


Health


Center,


1982


the


employee


rejects


offer


of a referral


employee


assistance


program,


and


work


problems


do not


occur


after


the


interview,


no further


action


is required.


At that


time,


the


supervi


sor


will


make


the


employee


aware


the


fact


that


employee


ass


instance


program


available


on a


self-referral


basi


should


the


employee


change


or her


mind


the


future.


the


work


problems


recur


and


the


person


not


followed


with


the


recommendation


the


employee


assistance


program,


the


supervisor


will


present


the


employee


with


a choice


between


accepting


the


employee


assistance


program


referral


or disciplinary


action.


The


disciplinary


action


cannot


deviate


from


the


guidelines


organization'


policy


concerning


sciplinary


action.


most


organizations,


there


are


grievance


procedures


the


employee


does


not


agree


with


the


supervisor'


recommendations.


Guidelines


Supervisors


In Identifvina


A Problem


On The


Job


above


overview


employee


ass


instance


program


a S a


A











employee'


performance


that


indicates


that


employee


assistance


program


referral


is appropriate.


There


are


very


specific


guidelines


that


the


supervisor


should


follow


order


to determine


when


an employee


need


of a referral


to the


employee


assistance


program


(This


section


on guidelines


., 1985,


EAP


Affiliate


referral


Manual


and


based


on Indian


on Resource


River


Community


Mental


Health


Center,


1982


Specifically,


the


supervisor


should


refer


an employee


the


employee


ass


stance


program


when


there


a continued


and


repetitive


deterioration


performance.


One


isolated


incident


should


the


not


reason


employee


why


assistance


a supervisor


program.


refers


Instead,


an employee


there


should


be a pattern


performance


deterioration


on the


part


the


employee.


The


exception


would


an especially


serious


incident,


such


as an employee


being


caught


drinking


on the


job.


One


sign


that


a referral


may


needed


absenteeism,


including


unauthorized


or excessive


use


of sick


leave,


persistent


tardiness


or late


returns


from


lunch


The


supervisor


should


also


aware


of strange


or improbable


excuses


these


absences.


Absences


from


the


post,


frequent


trips


the


bathroom,


long


coffee


breaks,


and











should


also


be noted


supervisor,


as well


as accidents


that


affect


employee'


performance.


The

employee'


supervisor


mental


should


status.


also

These


aware


changes


changes


include


the


difficulty


in concentration,


slowness


task


completion,


and


confusion


recalling


instructions


or details


a particular


assignment.


Also,


should


be noted


when


employees


have


difficulty


in correcting


mistakes


that


they


have


made


on the


job.


When


considering


a referral


the


employee


assistance


program,


the


supervisor


should


evaluate


the


work


performance


the


employee.


Thi


includes


evaluating


such


things


the


employee


having


inconsistent


periods


very


high


and


very

due


productivity,


to inattention


ssing


or poor


deadlines,


judgement,


making


wasting


mistakes


material


and


making


bad


deci


sions.


Finally


, the


employee'


relationships


with


other


employees


should


alert


the


supervisor


that


a referral


to the


employee


assistance


program


may


be indicated.


Friction


employee


relationships,


including


supervisor-employee


relationships,


usually


results


decreased


performance


and


efficiency


The


supervisor


should


aware


the


employee's


over-reaction


to real


or imagined


criticism,


wide











the


employee


borrowing


money


from


coworkers


and


complaints


about


employee


made


coworkers


The

employees


employee patterns

in general. But


described


the


above


supervisor


relate

in upper


to all

level


management


should


keep


mind


that,


addition


to the


above,


there


are


also


different


criteria


used


assess


the


need


for


a supervisor


under


their


charge


referred


the


employee


assistance


program.


For


example,


front


line


supervi


sor


may


begin


to let


safety


standards


slip,


issue


conflicting


instructions


employees,


use


employee


time


and


skills


inefficiently,


submit


their


incomplete


reports


supervisory


duties.


data,


On the


or generally


higher


become


supervisory


level


, patterns


of declining


work


performance


are


more


subtle.

schedules


Budgets

fail t


may


obe


begin


to be mismanaged,


coordinated,


or consumers


production


fail


receive


proper


when deciding

charge to the


service.

whether t

employee


Therefore,


.o refer a

assistance


upper


1


supervisor

program,


evel

unde

must


supervisors,

r their

concentrate


on the


deci


sion


making


aspects


the


supervisor'


position.


Supervisors


should


aware


the


fact


that


employees,


including


the


supervisors


themselves,


occasionally


exhibit


some


these


performance


problems.











particular


problem


that


employee


experiencing,


but


base


deci


sion


refer


the


employee


the


employee


assistance


program


on poor


performance.


When


the


supervi


sor


recogni


zes


that


an employee'


performance


deteriorating


the


supervisor


will


have


conference


with


the


employee


. The


procedure


used


the


supervisor


to discuss


poor


performance


called


"constructive


confrontation.


Constructive


Confrontation


The


use


"constructive


confrontation"


(Trice


and


Roman,


1978;


Trice


and


Beyer,


1982


Trice


and


Beyer,


1984)


central


procedure


referring


employees


employee


assistance


program


Constructive


confrontation


a process


which


a supervisor


confronts


the


employee


with


poor


performance,


but


provides


a constructive


solution


rather


than


a dismissal


It i


important


that


the


supervisor


not


make


any


attempt


to diagnose


cause


employee'


performance


problem


or attempt


to counsel


the


employee.


The


supervisor


not


a counselor


supervisor


follows


procedures


of constructive


confrontation,


the


discussion


with


the


employee


will


based


upon


objective


performance


rather


than


on vague


. If











not


avoid


this


confrontation


when


employee'


performance


indicates


that


such


a confrontation


order,


since


dealing


with


performance


part


a supervisor'


role.


Constructive


confrontation


has


three


components,


preparation,


discussion,


and


follow


through


(Indian


River


Community


Mental


Health


Center,


1982


Preparation


includes


documentation


aspects


poor


performance,


being


as specific

supervisor


poor


as pos


when


sible.


discussing


performance.


documentation


the


It i


observation


important


that


aids

the


the


the

employee'


supervisor


an "armchair


diagnostician.


The


concern


should


with


correcting


deficient


performance.


When


discussing


the


documentation


with


the


employee


, supervisors


should


preface


their


discussion


of performance


deficits


pointing


out


to the


employees


that


the


company


recogni


zes


their


value.


The


supervisors


should


keep


in mind


that


the


goal


the


discussion


to restore


the


employee


as a productive


member


the


organization


and


that


discussion


should


focus


on the


person'


performance


rather


than


on the


personal


characteristic


the


person


The


supervisor


should


follow


with


the


discussion


one


two


ways.


The


first


way


accept


a commitment


from


the











to make


a referral


to the


employee


assistance


program.


happens,


the


supervisor


either


call


the


employee


assistance


coordinator


within


the


organization


or call


the


employee assistance

appointment. Either


counselor


way,


directly


the


to set


supervisor


responsibility

performance,


to continue


documenting


to monitor


whether


the


has


employee'


improved


work


or has


continued


to deteriorate.


An example


provided


the


Appendix


confrontation


constructive


The


to create


object


an atmosphere


confrontation


process


constructive


for


positive


change.


The


supervisor


and


employee


should


agree


on an


improvement


program


which


has


been


documented


or the


supervisor


will


make


a specific


recommendation


the


employee


assistance


program.


McClellan


(1982


discusses


the


weaknesses


that


are


associated


with


the


process


constructive


confrontation.


First,


few


work


organizations


have


descriptions


that


are


completely


objective.


Some


subjectivity


ultimately


involved


the


process


Second,


prof


ess


ional


work


more


abstract


than


blue


collar


work.


Professional


work


involves


knowledge,


organizational


skills,


and


communication


information.


Because


fact,


difficult










difficult


their


supervisor


to spot


and


intervene


with


prof


ess


ional


troubled


employee.


and


Statement


the


Problem


The


early


EAPs


were


informal


nature


with


a strong


emphasis


employee


on the


problem


assistance


of alcoholism.


programs


have


Since


increased


1970s,


their


the


scope


include


problems


beyond


just


alcoholism,


such


as emotional


problems,


family


problems,


and


drug


abuse.


The


modern


employee


assistance


program


appears


to be a synthesi


mental


health


approach,


which


encourages


voluntary


referrals,


the


alcohol


specific


approach


which


encourages


supervisory


referral


It would


seem


that


the


modern


employee


assistance


program


leans


toward


the


mental


health


approach,


which


also


termed


the


broad-brush


program.


Manual


with


guideline


and


procedures


including


specific


techniques


such


as constructive


confrontation,


have


been


developed


for


training


supervisors


make


intelligent


referral


deci


sons


Whether


one


aligned


with


the


mental


health


perspective


or the


alcoholism


perspective


of employee


assistance


programs,


the


strength


or weakness


of the


program


lies


training


of supervisors


their


utilization











alcohol


specific


approach


utilized,


the


supervisor


best


position


to evaluate


, and


when


appropriate,


refer


an employee


to the


program.


Because


the


importance


of supervisors


EAPs


study


will


focus


on the


variables


that


explain


why


some


supervisors


refer


employees


to the


employee


assistance


program


and


others


do not


After


supervisors


are


trained


the


proper


guidelines


procedures


for


EAP


referral


, what


accounts


variation


those


referral


the


search


answers


this


question


which


forms


the


objective


this


research.















CHAPTER


SUPERVISORY


PARTICIPATION


IN THE


EMPLOYEE


ASSISTANCE


PROGRAM


The


issue


supervisory


participation


the


employee


ass


distance


Masi,

Poley


1984


et al


program


Myers,

. 1979


is a common


1984


Walker,


one


Alpander,


1978


in the


1980


ose


literature

Schaeffer,


1977


(see

1979;


Herbert,


1975


and


Hemmett,


1972


Therefore,


in the


previous


chapter supervisory

cornerstone of the


involvement


modern


was


employee


shown


to be


instance


the


program.


because


the


centrality


the


supervisory


referral


that


supervi


sors


' behavior


the


focus


the


present


study.


Previous


Research


On Factors


In Supervisors'
In Supervisors '


Referral


Myers


(1984)


discussed


two


aspects


that


prevent


supervisors


from


becoming


more


involved


referring


employees


to the


employee


ass


instance


program.


First,


Myers


believed


supervisors


not


refer


because


the


supervisors'


skill


deficienci


es.


These


skill


defic


ienci


include


ignorance


of employee


problems,


inability


- S


ass











produces


stress


the


supervisor,


inadequate


planning


related


to documentation


employees'


work


deficiencies


and


indeci


siveness


about


when


confront


an employee.


Second,


Myers


believed


that


supervisors


not


refer


employee


to the


employee


assistance


program


because


privacy


norm


and


avoidance


rationale.


Thi


relates


to the


supervisor'


belief


that


he/she


"playing


God"


and


acting


judgement


concerning


personal


matters


the


employee.


Many


supervisors


believe


that


what


employees


on their


own


time


little


concern


them.


Therefore,


they


view


supervisor


intervention


as an interference


the


personal


affairs


the


employee


Supervisors


also


fear


that


employees


will


file


complaints


against


them,


that


they


will


not


supported


the


management,


problem.


or are


leads


not

the


qualified


supervisors'


diagnose

percepti


an employee

on that


they


do not


want


to put


their


jeopardy


wrongfully


"accusing"


an employee


of having


a problem.


The


supervisor


feel


inadequate


to determine


when


or for


what


reason


refer


The


disagrees


supervisor


with


a deci


may


sion


feel


that,


refer


management


an employee


to the


employee


assi stance


program,


the


supervisor


will


embarrassed


and


will


lose


influence


with


those


employees










employee


ass


instance


program,


anger,


guilt,


fear,


ego


involvement


and


denial


Supervisors


may


experience


anger


dealing


with


the


employee,


especially


the


alcoholic


employee,


because


the


fact


that


they


may


have


approached


the


alcohol


informally,


and


as a result


those


meetings,


there


has


been


no positive


change


the


employee'


work


performance.


puts


the


supervisor


the


position


continually


adjusting


schedules


and


making


excuses


for


the


employee'


continued


poor


work


performance


Supervisors


can


also


feel


guilt


associated


with


working


with


the


alcoholic


employee.


They


often


find


themselves


feeling


guilty


about


the


fact


that


they


may


have


done


something


wrong


or that


they


are


unable


to handle


situation.


Because


these


guilty


avoid


feelings,


the


situations


supervisors


which


they


would


have


have


a tendency


confront


the


alcoholic


employee.


Phillips


and


Older


(1981)


also


contend


that


supervisors


feel


fear


when


working


with


the


alcoholic


employee.


Supervisors

alcoholic e


may


employee


fearful


and


of losing


of feedback


control


concerning


over


the


their


own


drinking,


whether


they


have


a problem


or not.


the


supervisor


the


employee


who


has


a problem


have


been


working


together


a long


period


time,


the


supervisor'










responsibility


the


employee'


poor


work


performance


and


poor


problem.

concerning


work


performance


Finally,

working


the

with


becomes


supervisor


supervisor'


may


alcoholic


experience

employee.


direct


denial

The


supervisor


may


cover


the


employee'


poor


work


performance,


make


excuses


absenteeism


or tardiness


job,


and


rescue


the


worker


from


disciplinary


action


when


other


supervisors


become


aware


the


employee'


poor


work


performance.


Instead


of confronting


the


employee


and


setting


limits,


the


supervisor


informally


gives


the


employee


"one


more


chance"


to correct


her/his


behavior.


Googins


and


Kurtz


(1980)


discuss


programmatic


and


organizational


barriers


which


impede


the


supervisor


from


becoming


involved


confronting


the


employee


who


experiencing


alcohol-related


problems


at work


The


authors


argue


that


knowledge


alcohol-related


problems


and


the


supervisor'


attitude


towards


employees


may


act


as barriers


supervisory


intervention.


According


to Googins


and


Kurtz


(1980)


the


factual


knowledge


alcohol


and


the


treatment


alcoholics


the


knowledge


the


company'


program


intervention,


and


the


knowledge


the


supervisor'


role


process


of a referral


operate


to determine


whether


or not


referral


are


made.


The


authors


predict


that










experiencing


an alcohol


problem.


The


authors


also


state


that


factual


alcoholism


needs


knowledge


be coupled


concerning


with


alcohol


skill


and


training


concerning


how


to intervene


with


a person


who


has


an alcohol


problem.


Googins


and


Kurtz


state


that


having


the


simple


knowledge


that


there


is an employee


assistance


program


existence


not


sufficient


to motivate


supervisors


utilize


the


employee


assistance


program.


There


must


also


a perception


that


the


program


of high


quality


and


that


the

The


employee would

supervisor must


receive

also D


help

erceiv


from e

e that


entering


the


program


program.

provides


equal


treatment


to all


employees


and


that


there


no bias


built


into


the


program


which


would


target


some


employees


over


others.


It is


important


supervisors


to know


what


the


organization


expects


from


them


when


they


have


employee


who


a drinking


problem.


The


supervisor


should


also


know


the


rights


that


employee.


Googins


and


Kurtz


argue


that


the


literature


inadequate


to determine


empirically


depth


knowledge


plays


an important


part


supervisors


referring


or not


referring


to the


employee


assistance


program.


The


authors


feel


that


research


the


area


the


best


means










Because


to intervene


the


with


emphasis


employees


put


who


on front


are


line


experiencing


supervisors


poor


performance,


supervisors'


knowledge


their


role


within


the


employee


assistance


program


of vital


importance.


The


issue


the


supervisor


documenting


poor


work


performance


could


an obstacle


the


supervisor


involved


the


referral


process


because


vague


performance


criteria.


The


supervisors


could


feel


that


the


performance


criteria


are


too


vague


to document


the


employee'


poor


work


performance


appropriately


enough


to make


a referral


to the


employee


assistance


sillusioned


program


with


This


the


could


process,


cause s

viewing


supervisors


as bein


to be

g too


demanding


and


their


view,


too


subjective


to intervene


with


an employee.


The


attitudes


concerning


the


alcoholic


and


the


effectiveness


the


program


can


also


a barrier


supervisor


being


involved


the


referral


process.


The


perception


which


of whether


to return


a problem


program


employee


an effective


to productivity


tool

may


more


important


than


the


supervisor'


feelings


about


the


employee.


Googins


and


Kurtz


(1980)


also


maintain


that


organizational


barriers


could


impede


a supervisor


from


being


involved


the


referral


an employee


the


employee










supervisor


perceives


that


the


organization


not


generally


supportive


their


supervisory


Thus,


an overall


satisfaction


supervisor


with


would


their


can


willing


influence


take


the


whether


additional


responsibility


of supervisory


intervention


with


an employee.


Googins


and


Kurtz


(1980)


believe


that


a supervisor


who


feel


that


they


are


not


an integral


part


the


supervisory


managerial


process


unlikely


to respond


favorably


management


directive


intervene


with


the


employee


. If


the


management


an organization


instructs


a supervisor


to be


involved


the


employee


ass


instance


referral


process


and


that


supervisor


was


not


involved


the


deci


sion


making


process,


they


may


feel


negatively


about


carrying


out


the


directives.


The


(1980)


most


analysis


relevant

to the


aspect

present


the


study


Googins


their


and Kurtz

view that


positive


reinforcement


supervisors


the


employee


ass


instance


program


will


enhance


that


role


while


recogni


zing


that


not


using


the


employee


ass


instance


program


when


one


their


employees


needs


help


could


result


a negative


sanction.


The


organization


must


aware


that


order


the


supervisor


be involved


the


referral


process


employee


ass


instance


program,


there


must


the


proper










program


and


positive


reinforcement


exists


doing


good


job,


perform


generally,


the


duti


the


supervisor


assigned


the


will


employee


motivated

assistance


program.


The


goal


the


Googins


and


Kurtz


(1981)


study


was


determine


what


variable


explained


the


difference


between


group


of supervisors


who


did


use


the


employee


assi stance


program


and


those


supervisors


who


did


not,


which


the


goal


present


research.


A sample


supervisors


were


selected,


had


referred


an employee


the


employee


assistance


program


and


had


not.


There


were


six


major


groups


of variable


that


were


identified


Googins


and


Kurtz


as potential


discriminators


between


the


referring


and


non-referring


supervisors.


These


groups


of variables


were


personal


characteristic


, which


included


age,


length


time


the


position,


and


years


with


the


company


The


second


group


of variables


measured


the


perceptions


the


supervisor'


the


role.


supervisor'


The


third


knowledge


group


the


variables


program


and


measured


alcoholism.


The


fourth


group


of variable


measured


the


supervisor'


perception


the


effectiveness


and


utility


program.


The


fifth


group


of variables


evaluated


the


informal


relationships


between


supervisors


that


could


lead


program











The


authors


tested


four


specific


hypotheses.


The


first


hypothesis


was


that


supervisors


will


participate


the


employee

assimilat


their


assistance


the


routine


program


employee

supervisor


to the


assistance

v behavior


extent

program

The


that


they


expectations


second


into


hypothesis


was


that


supervisors


who


are


knowledgeable


about


the


employee


assistance


program


and


the


dynamics


of alcoholism


will


problem


more


appear


likely


The


take


third


action


when


hypothesis


early


was


that


signs


supervisors


who


have


a positive


attitude


towards


the


employee


assistance


program


and


towards


the


problem


alcoholism,


will


more


likely


participate


the


employee


assi stance


program.


The


last


hypothesis,


concerning


the


organizational


structure,


states


that


the


organizational


climate


positive,


healthy


and


functioning


well,


supervisors


will


more


likely


to participate


the


employee


assistance


program.


Googins


Kurtz


(1981)


report


support


for


all


four


hypotheses.


Supervisors


who


referred


an employee


to the


employee


ass


instance


program


assimilated


the


role


expectations


employee


assistance


program


into


their


routine


supervisory


behavior


Referring


supervisors


were


much


more


likely


to report


that


they


routinely


involved











alcoholism


were


more


likely


to refer


employees


the


employee


assistance


program.


Those


supervisors


who


did


not


refer


an employee


to the


employee


assistance


program


perceived


the


employee


ass


instance


program


as being


ess


helpful


the


employees


than


the


supervisors


who


did


refer


When


supervisors


were


part


an informal


system


within


the


organizational


climate


where


they


got


support


encouragement


use


the


employee


assistance


program,


they


were


more


likely


to be involved


program.


Another


personal


important


characteristic


aspect


the


research


supervisor


concerned


Specifically,


variable


"years


with


the


company"


proved


to be


significant


discriminator


between


the


group


supervisors


who


used


the


employee


assistance


program


and


the


group


supervisors


who


did


not.


The


authors


attribute


this


the


fact


that


supervisors


with


more


years


on the


had


tendency


to be


more


secure


in their


overall


role


and


were


more


sophisticated


when


confronting


employees


with


their


poor


performance.


Specific


training


procedures


encourage


supervisors'


referral


to employee


assistance


programs


have


been


suggested


Campbell


and


Graham


(1980)


and


Myers


(1984)











supervisory


function.


The


supervisors


are


given


specific


instructions


concerning


performance


evaluations,


documentation,


the


constructive


confrontation


interview


with


employee,


and


how


make


the


employee


a referral


to the


employee


assistance


program.


The


issue


of following


with


the


employee


after


returning


from


the


employee


assistance


counselor


or the


inpatient


treatment


program


also


discussed


during


training.


Typically,


the


training


supervisors


are


given


includes


a thorough


review


the


disease


concept


of alcoholism


and


drug


addiction


and


an overview


mental


health


problems


that


people


face


such


as divorce,


marital


difficulties,


parenting


issues


and


stress.


They


are


made


aware


some


behavior


patterns


that


are


associated


with


alcoholism


and


drug


addiction


and


mental


health


problems


that


may


influence


performance.


The


training


is geared


towards


integrating


the


information


concerning


the


behaviors


associated


with


alcoholism,


drug


addiction


and


mental


health


issues


into


natural


flow


supervisor'


responsibilities.


Supervisors

appropriately do


are


cumen


also g

t when


iven


instructions


an employee'


on how


performance


fall


below


the


acceptable


level.


The


supervisors


are











Campbell


and


Graham


(1980)


discuss


a progressive


format


documentation


that


may


be used


in reaching


a deci


sion


refer


an employee


to the


employee


assistance


program.


Thi


format

before


consists


a supervisor


three


warnings


decides


tak


of increasing

e disciplinary


severity

action,


refers


the


employee


to the


employee


assistance


program.


Trice


and


Belasco


(1968)


used


a four


group


experimental


design


determine


the


effects


that


supervisory


training


had


on supervisory


behaviors.


The


first


group


received


pretest


the


training


The


second


group


received


the


training


with


no pretest


The


third


group


received


pretest

neither


with


no training


training


nor


And


pretest.


the

The


last g

sample


roup


received


consisted


front


line


supervisors


a large


organization


located


upstate


New


York


who


were


randomly


ass


signed


the


four


groups.


The


groups


given


the


pretest


were


asked


questions


concerning


their


general


attitudes


towards


alcoholism


emotional


disturbances.


The


groups


receiving


the


training


got


information


on how


to assist


general


workers


and


specifically,


alcoholic


employees.


The


research


found


that


changes


the


supervisors'


tendency


to refer


from


the


training


experience


alone


was


very


small.


The


most


significant


change


the


supervi


sors


from


the


training










alone


were


very


significant.


Trice


and


Belasco


(1968)


found


that


completion


the


pretest


items


alone


without


training


was


associated


with


dramatic


consistent


and


often


statistically


significant


changes


the


attitudes


and


actions


towards


the


problem


employee.


Gerstein


. (1989)


wanted


to investigate


the


relationship


between


the


employee


assistance


referral


training


and


the


supervisors'


interactions


with


troubled


employees.


The


independent


variables


were


the


groups'


participation


employee


assistance


training


and


their


attitudes


towards


the


employee


ass


instance


program.


The


dependant


variable


was


the


supervisors'


beliefs


about


troubled


employees.


Their


sample


industrial


supervisors


consisted


of mostly


white


males


ranging


from


age


Most


the


participants


had


been


employed


the


company


approximately


years


, on the


average,


and


had


two


or more


years


supervisory


experience.


measure


the


independent


variable,


the


researchers


asked


the


supervisors


whether


they


had


received


training


on how


to make


a referral


to the


employee


assi


stance


program


and


questions


concerning


their


perception


about


the


employee


assistance


program'


importance.


The


dependent


variable


was


measured


the


bystander-equity


model


supervisor


helping


behavior










Acrimoniousness


depicts


employees


who


appear


to be irritable


angry


and


who


have


difficulty


with


interpersonal


relationships


on the


job.


Industriousness


describes


employees


who


display


impaired


work


productivity


with


respect


to behaviors


like


time


management,


cooperation


and


competence.


Disaffection


indicative


an employee


who


experiencing


work


apathy,


alienation


and


discontent


Training


assistance


and


program


the

had


attitudes


mixed


towards


affects


the


employee


on whether


supervisor

identified


could


the


identify


BYTE


the


scale.


four

The


types

ability


worker


to identi


problems

fy the


impaired


worker


was


not


related


to supervisor'


positive


feelings


about


the


employee


ass


instance


program.


There


was


link


between


supervisory


training


and


the


ability


recognize


acrimoniousness


and


disaffection


which


were


displayed


impaired


workers.


The


authors


found


relationship


between


the


supervisors


participation


employee


assistance


training,


their


attitudes


towards


the


employee


assistance


program


and


their


ability


to recognize


behaviors


displayed


impaired


workers.


Significance


Of Present


Study


review


indicates


the


role


the


supervisor











supervisors


refer


employee


assistance


program


and


others


do not.


The


research


concerning


supervisory


referral


void


is sparse,


theory


inconclusive


to guide


and,


research.


the


The


most


present


part,


study


proposes


to add


the


research


concerning


supervisory


referral


the


employee


assistance


program


and


provide


some


conceptual


theoretical


focus


to the


research


aspect


of employee


assistance


programs


Specifically,


the


study


will


be interested


in accounting


why


some


supervisors


refer


to the


employee


assistance


program


and


others


not.


The


theoretical


guidance


comes


principally


from


two


sociological


theory


, social


learning


theory


and


labelling


theory


that


have


been


widely


used


studies


deviance.


The


supervisors'


behavior


response


to drug


and


alcohol


problems


on the


may


viewed


as a form


social


control


of deviance


to which


labelling


theory


may


applicable.


Referral


to the


employee


assistance


program


best


a mildly


stigmatizing


label


and


efforts


are


always


made


to avoid


unduly


tagging


employees


as having


problems


need


of correction.


Neverthel


ess


referral


are


deci


sions


made


about


employees


which


are


similar


to referral


and


treatment


deci


sions


made


health


care


and


correctional










others


about


what


to do to


or for


those


with


drug


and


alcohol


problems


(Krohn


and


Akers,


1977).
















LABELLING


AND


SOCIAL


ON EMPLOYEE


CHAPTER
LEARNING


THEORY


ASSISTANCE


AS PERSPECTIVES


REFERRALS


1960S,


the


popularity


labelling


theory


changed


from


the


emphasis


searching


the


the


cause


sociology


of deviant


of deviant


behavior


behavior


to the


social


reaction


and


attempts


to control


the


behavior


SThe


question


became


why


some


people


have


the


label


of deviant


applied


to them


and


what


consequences


exist


for


those


bearing


a deviant


label


SFrom


this


perspective,


deviance


was


seen


as being


socially


constructed


way


of interaction


between


those


who


engage


a particular


behavior


and


those


who


see


that


behavior,


label


deviant,


react


Both


drug


and


alcohol


problem


and


the


violation


work


performance


job.


rules


Supervisors


and


are


expectations


the


are


role


deviant


rule


acts


enforcers


on the


who


identify


, define,


and


react


to certain


employee


behavior


failing


to meet


referral


the


expectations


employee


and


taking


assistance


action


program,


constructive


confrontation)


to do something


about


so doing


they


are


labelling


certain


employees


as having


problems


and


- -A


at


- a


- '- --.


a











nonetheless,


an instance


social


labelling


and


labelling


theory


may


provide


some


answers


to the


question


of what


the


label


based


on and


what


variable


may


be operating


the


exerci


supervisors'


deci


sions


referring


or not


referring.


The


roots


of labelling


theory


can


be traced


to the


works o

example


f Tannenbaum


young


(1938)


people


and


coming


Lemert


(1951)


contact


with


Using

the c


the


criminal


justice


that


system,

supposed


Tannenbaum


to be


cautioned


correcting


that


behavior


the

may


institution


fact


producing


very


behavior


trying


prevent.


essence,


Tannenbaum


feel


that


the


adolescent


will


become


the


very


thing


that


he i


described


as being.


In 1951,


labelling


Edwin


Lemert


perspective


continued


illustrating


develop


the


the


process


which


severe


reaction


to a particular


norm


violating


behavior


would


cause


a reorganization


the


person'


"social


self,


thus


integrating


the


new


deviant


identity


Following


the


lead


of Tannenbaum,


Lemert


wanted


to point


out


that,


while


many


people


many


different


circumstances


engage


norm


violating


behavior,


those


that


are


singled


out


and


given


the


label


"deviant"


internalize


that


label


that


with


the


label.










sociology


of deviance


literature.


Becker


(1963,


states


"social


groups


create


deviance


making


rules


whose


infractions


constitute


deviance,


and


applying


those


to particular


people


and


labelling


them


as outsiders.


From


point


view,


deviance


not


a quality


the


act


the


person


commits,


but


rather


a consequence


the


application


others


and


sanctions


an offender


The


deviant


is one


to whom


the


label


has


successfully


been


applied;


In hi


deviant


writing,


behavior


Erikson


behavior


(1962


, p.


that


also


people


comments


so label


on the


change


of emphasis


from


individual


actor


to the


social


audience


stating


"deviance


not


a property


inherent


certain


forms


of behavior;


a property


conferred


upon


these f

witness


forms


them.


the

The


audiences

critical


which

barrier


directly


or indirectly


study


deviance,


then,


the


social


audience


rather


than


the


individual


determines


actor,


whether


since


or not


the


any


audience


episode


which


of behavior


eventually


or any


class


of episodes


labelled


deviant


Schur


(1971)


discusses


what


is meant


the


social


audience


and


identify


three


level


analysis


which


evaluate


the


social


audience.


According


to Schur,


the


first


level of


social


audience


society


at large,


which










control.


Schur


sees


these


as the


most


significant


the


labelers.


because


the


fact


that


the


agents


social


control


implement


the


broader


and


more


diffuse


social


definitions


through


organized


structures


and


institutionalized


illustrate


social


procedures.


level


control


agencies


Hawkins


of analysis


"the


and


noting


organizational


Tiedeman


that


prerequi


(1975)


many

sites


and


perpetrate


a pre-exis


ting


tendency


on the


part


trained


agents


to categorize


clients


and


inevitable


result


a social


system


wherein


many


those


who


come


be typed


as deviant


are


created


as such


through


their


encounters


with


the


social


process


sing


agencies


183)


The


whom


third


level


a person


of analysis


has


daily


comprises


interaction


those


and


individual


whom


with


he/she


constantly


labelled


in numerous


ways.


An example


this


social

or othe


audience


would


relatives,


significant


who


view


others,


a particular


husbands,


behavior


wives


as being


deviant


and


thus


refer


them


for


psychiatric


treatment


The


supervisors


study


are


a social


audience


intermediate


between


the


second


and


third


level.


Consistent


with


three


level


social


audience


the


central


concept


power


. Thi


an important


concept


labelling


perspective


because


a guiding











particular


person


or act


and


the


relative


lack


power


that


the


person


who


the


object


the


label


avoid


the


label


that


central


the


labelling


perspective.


Commenting


on the


issue


power,


Becker


(1973,


states,


interactionistt


theori


of deviance,


like


interactionist


theori


generally,


pay


attention


to how


social


actors


define


each


other


and


their


environments.


They


pay


particular


attention


to differentials


the


power


to define,


way


one


group


achieves


and


uses


power


to define


how


other


groups


will


be regarded,


understood


and


treated


To summari


in general,


social


the


social


control


audience


agents


and


consists

significant


of society

t others.


The


most


important


variable


that


determines


whether


one


will


be labelled


deviant


or not


the


social


audiences


relative


power


. Those


with


greater


social


power


will


ess


likely


to be


labelled


than


those


with


ess


power


even


the


same


act


Lilly


et al. (1989)


refer


the


two


main


propositions


labelling


theory


SThe


first


proposition


states


that


those


who


are


labelled


deviant


will


internalize


the


deviant


label,


become


what


they


have


been


so labelled,


and


increase


deviant


behavior


in the


future.


regard


labelling










affects


labelling


on the


social


actor


any


rate,


the


effect


labelling


as an independent


variable


not


interest


the


present


study,


rather


the


second


labelling


proposition.


The


second


proposition


states


that


not


the


seriousness


the


or severity


the


problem


that


produces


the


label


but


the


social


characteristics


those


believed


to have


engaged


the


behavior


. These


social


characteristics


are


viewed


indicating


greater


or 1


ess


social


power


and


hence


greater


less


likelihood


being


labelled.


proposition


has


also


been


tested


the


criminal


justice


system


studying


effects


the


extra-legal


factors


versus


legal


factors


offense


seriousness


on discretionary


deci


sions


police,


courts,


and


correctional


agenci


es.


The


findings


the


effects


of social


character


of offenders


such


class,


race


and


sex


on criminal


justice


deci


sions


have


been


mixed


The

referral,


proposition

treatment,


has

and


also


been


release


tested


deci


sons


on admi


ssion,


regarding


mental


patients


The


question


whether


factors


such


as age,


race,


sex,


and


marital


status


have


an impact


on who


labelled


as being


mentally


independent


illness


behavior


The


issue


is best


seen


the


work


of Walter


Gove











illness,


and


Thomas


Scheff


(1966,


1974,


1975),


who


argues


from


a labelling


perspective


that


the


illness


secondary


and


social


characteristic


of individual


primary


labelling


persons


as mentally


basic


question


put


forth,


then,


whether


a person


labelled


characteristic


as mentally


the


because


individual


the


social


indicative


the


person'


applied


power


based


and


on the


resources,


presumed


or whether


the


or diagnosed


label


severity


the


mental


illness


symptoms.


Scheff


argues


that


those


labelled


mentally


are


those


with


the


least


amount


of social


resources


and


therefore


the


least


powerful


society


When


decisions


concerning


referral


treatment,


admi


ssions


treatment,


discharges


from


treatment


are


made


.e.


the


label


applied,


they


are


not


made


the


basi


the


severity


an underlying


disease.


Gove


takes


the


view


that


there


is a real


disease


involved


and


that


deci


sions


regarding


the


referrals


to treatment,


admissions


treatment


and


discharges


from


treatment


are


simply


responses


that


illness.


The


label


mental


illness


applied


those


who


have


symptoms


recognized


psychiatrists


indicative


an underlying


mental


illness


or disease.


Krohn


Aklers


(1977)


a critical


review


of the











Krohn


and


Akers


ask


the


question,


which


set


variabli


, psychiatric


or extra-psychiatric,


are


the


deci


sons


of mental


health


agents


(psychiatrists,


physicians,


etc


regarding


treatment


needs


and


treatment


termination


more


strongly


related?"


(Krohn


and


Akers,


1977,


. 342


The


authors


state


that


much


the


research,


either


support


the


psychiatric


or labelling


perspective,


does


not


pay


adequate


attention


to the


utilization


of samples


predominately


voluntary


patients


and


involuntary


patients


committed


to institutions.


The


authors


also


feel


that


many


the


studies


not


possess


adequate


control


the


severity


the


psychiatric


illness.


Krohn


and


Akers


look


the


research


on voluntary


admissions


to psychiatric


institutions


and


the


release


voluntary


patients


from


psychiatric


institutions


as well


research


on involuntarily


committed


patients


and


their


discharge


from


psychiatric


institutions.


The


authors


highlighted


those


studies


which


adequately


controlled


the


level


psychiatric


illness


Krohn


and


Akers


begin


their


discussion


evaluating


research


on voluntary


admissions


into


psychiatric


hospitals.


Two


studi


one


Mendel


and


Rapport


(1969)


the


other


y Maisel


(1967)


both


adequately


controlled










number


of support


resources


patient


possessed.


The


next


area


that


Krohn


and


Akers


reviewed


concerned


research


on the


release


of voluntary


patients


from


a psychiatric


unit


Two


studi


that


provided


adequate


control


of psychiatric


illness


were


the


studies


Greenley


(197


and


the


study


Watt


Buglass


(1966)


Again


support


was


lacking


the


psychiatric


perspective


because


family


desires


were


found


influence


discharge


deci


sions


more


than


the


diagnosed


illness.


Next,


Krohn


Akers


examined


research


involuntarily


committed


patients.


Two


studies,


one


Wilde


(1968)


one


Wenger


and


Flether


(1969),


adequately


control


level


of psychiatric


illness,


and


found


that


being


committed


or avoiding


commitment


was


based


on whether


a patient


had


legal


representation.


Krohn


and


Akers


conclude


their


critique


the


literature


looking


the


research


on the


discharge


involuntary


patients


In a study


Piperno,


(1975)


the


author


studied


length


of hospitalization


patients


who


have


been


confined


for


being


criminally


insane.


Piperno


comes


to the


conclusion


"the


patient'


continued


commitment


apparently


based


on factors


other


then


the


patient'


treatment


performance.


Some


these


factors,


such


as age


and


socioeconomic


status,


are


ascriptive


nature


although











As a result


this


review


the


literature,


Krohn


and


Akers


concluded


that


majority


the


evidence


indicates


more


support


the


labelling


than


the


psychiatric


perspective.


In fact,


the


five


studies


reviewed


Krohn


and


Akers


(concerning


the


voluntary


admi


ssions


and


discharges


that


controlled


for


the


level


of psychiatric


illness),


only


one


was


consistent


with


the


psychiatric


perspective.


A total


eight


studi


were


reviewed


which


looked


involuntary


admissions


and


discharges.


None


supported


the


psychiatric


perspective


that


deci


sions


are


based


only


on the


nature


diagnosed


illness.


It i


Krohn


and


Akers


conclusion


that


the


extra-


psychiatric


social


variable


do affect


deci


sions


about


admitting


and


releasing


mental


patients.


The


authors


state,


"one


ess


likely


to be


labelled


mentally


and


continue


as an involuntary


mental


patient


or she


can


bring


legal


or other


resources


bear


in opposition


to commitment


and r

While


release

Krohn


decisions"

and Akers


(Krohn

conclude


and Akers,

that the


1977,

review


354)


of literature


indicates


that


there


is some


support


the


labelling


perspective


regarding


voluntary


commitment


and


diagnosis


mental


illness,


they


also


feel


that


the


research


provides


support


an alternative


perspective,


social


learning











In EAPs


no direct


decisions


are


made


the


supervisors


about


admi


ssions


or length


treatment


diagnosed


mental


illness.


However,


referral


supervisors


problems


that


make


may


deci


result


sons


from


regarding


alcohol,


drug


or emotional


problems.


sense


they


are


making


labelling


deci


sions


just


as the


mental


health


worker


made


labelling


decis


ions


in the


research


reviewed


Krohn


and


Akers.


involving


A study


some


EAP


the


referral


same


, then,


variable


can


as the


seen


research


mental


health


decisions


reviewed


Krohn


and


Akers


(1977)


Therefore,


both


labelling


and


social


learning


perspectives


could


aid


explaining


those


deci


sions.


The


version


of social


learning


theory


to which


Krohn


and


Akers


refer


a reformulation


of Sutherland'


theory


differential


association


(Burgess


and


Akers,


1966)


using


principles


of reinforcement


and


conditioning


(Skinner,


1953;


Bandura,


1977)


The


present


research


follows


the


lead


Krohn


and


Akers


in applying


social


learning


theory


labelling


decis


ions.


Before


specifying


how


that


will


done


a review


of social


learning


theory


order


Akers


social


(1985)


learning


presents


theory


the


as well


most

as th


current tr

e relevant


eatment


research


which


substantiates


the


theory


The


major


concepts


used










Reinforcement


the


process


which


a particular


reaction


encourages


the


behavior


to be emitted


the


future.


Thi


response


can


be in


the


toni


positive


reinforcement,


a pleasurable


experience,


or a negative


reinforcement;


the


removal


something


painful.


An example


of a positive

of negative r


reinforcement


enforcement


is social


the


approval.


avoidance


An example


of discipline.


Differential


reinforcement


a process


which


one


several


behaviors


reinforced


more


frequently


and


greater


amounts;


thereby


giving


a higher


probability


that


the


behavior


will


persist


the


future.


Punishment


the


opposite


of reinforcement


because


it decreases


the


rate


which


a particular


behavior


will


emitted


the


future.


Punishment


can


also


be positive


or negative.


Positive


punishment,


such


as a legal


sanction,


has


the


consequence


decreasing


being


the


fined


behavior


a traffic


Negative


violation,


punishment,


when


such


a reward


taken


away.


Imitation


a process


which


the


behavior


of another


person


modeled


Imitation


of model


as it


used


social


new


learning


behaviors


theory,


and


important


ess


the


important


initial


the


learning


maintenance


behavior.











Differential


association


relates


the


interaction


patterns


with


others


that


provide


definitions,


models


and


reinforcement


deviant


or conforming


behavior.


Social


learning


theory


has


been


empirically


tested


with


an adolescent


population


concerning


their


alcohol,


drug


and


smoking


behavior


(Akers


et al


1979;


Krohn


et al


1985;


Krohn


et al.,


1984;


Krohn


et al


1982;


Lanza-Kaduce


1984


and


Dembo


et al.,


1986).


With


social


bonding


theory


and


strain


theory,


the


theory


has


also


been


tested


determine


the


explanatory


power


of all


three


theories


(Akers


and


Cochran,


social


1985;


learning


Elliott


theory


has


et al.,


been


1985)


tested


with


SMore


recently,


an adult


population


(Akers


et al.


, 1989).


In the


1979


article


Akers


et al.,


the


authors


wanted


to determine

variables co


the


explanatory


ncerning


power


adolescent


the


alcohol


social


and


drug


learning

behavior


Data


were


collected


using


a self


report


questionnaire


which


was


administered


3,065


male


and


female


adolescents


attending


grades


7-12


seven


communities


three


midwestern


states.


Results


the


study


indicated


strong


support


the


social


learning


variable


differential


association,


differential


reinforcement,


definitions


and


imitation.











alcohol


the


variance


explained


the


abuse


alcohol


the


adolescents.


the


1985


study


Akers


and


Cochran,


authors


performed


a direct


comparison


the


explanatory


power


social


learning


theory,


social


bonding


theory


strain


theory


The


sample


consisted


the


same


7-12


graders


who


were


used


the


Akers


et al


. 1979


research.


In thi


research,


Akers


Cochran


specifically


studied


the


use


and


abuse of marijuana

multiple regression


the


analyst


adolescents.

is indicated


The r

strong


results


support


the

for


the


social


learning


variable


over


the


social


bonding


and


strain


the


variables.


variance,


The


the


social


social


learning


bonding


model


model


explained


explained


the


variance


and


the


strain


model


explained


the


variance


marijuana


use.


the


1989


article


Akers


et al


the


first


time,


the


authors


tested


social


learning


variables


with


an adult


population.


They


tested


the


theory


with


an elderly


population


to determine


the


social


learning


variables


can


explain


drinking


behavior


within


thi


population.


Other


than


imitation,


the


same


social


learning


concepts,


differential


association,


definitions


and


differential


reinforcement


were


measured.


The


authors


found


that











purpose


the


present


research,


social


learning


theory


not


being


used


to explain


the


deviant


behavior


(drug


or alcohol


abuse)


employees.


Instead,


being


applied


the


behavior


those


supervisors


who


are


a position


to label


that


behavior


and


make


deci


sions


about


those


believed


to have


engaged


the


behavior.


The


behavior


to be explained


the


social


learning


variabi


supervisors'


behavior


concerning


referral


of employees


the


employee


assistance


program.


Krohn


and


Akers


(1977)


argue


that


the


research


findings


mental


health


deci


sions


(admission


or discharge


deci


sions)


are


more


a result


the


rewarding


or punishing


consequences


those


deci


sions


than


are


the


psychiatric


symptoms


the


patient.


Krohn


and


Akers


state,


"the


learning


model


adds


an explanation


the


behavior


psychiatric


workers


as a function


past


learning


and


responses


to present


and


anticipated


stimuli"


(1977,


356)


The


deci


sion


to commit


retain


someone


into


psychiatric


care,


according


to social


learning


theory,


based


on what


behavior


would


produce


the


highest


rewards


and


least


cost


to the


psychiatrist


or other


mental


health


practitioner.


Social


learning


theory


would


state


that


the


extent










the


psychiatrist


or referring


agent.


Those


who


are


involuntarily


committed


have


social


resources


and


ess


power


and


are


less


able


cause


problems


or create


difficulties


for


the


psychiatrists.


Therefore,


the


psychiatrists


would


experience


higher


rewards


and


lower


costs


they


involuntarily


committed


person.


Those


with


higher


social


resources


and


more


power


are


more


likely


admitted


as voluntary


patients


because


the


psychiatrist


would


experience


less


rewards


and


greater


difficulty


attempting


to commit


such


persons


involuntarily,


while


taking


on well-to-do


patients


who


are


desirous


treatment


offers


rewards.


Consistent


with


research


social


that


the


learning


rewards


theory,


and


the


costs


expectation


that


supervisors


have


experienced


or anticipate


experiencing


they


refer


an employee


under


their


charge


the


employee


assistance


program


will


affect


their


referral


actions.


The


research


will


also


propose,


consistent


with


the


labelling


perspective,


that


the


supervisors'


deci


sions


to refer


employee


under


their


charge


the


employee


assistance


program


will


affected


the


social


characteristic


the


employee.


Supervisors


the


workplace


are


not


psychiatrists


and











referral


to the


employee


assistance


program.


The


supervisors


are


not


making


diagnosis


treatment


or discharge


deci


sions.


But,


they


are


making


referral


deci


sions


which,


in part,

abuse.


result


a label


Therefore,


social


of mental

1 learning


illness

theory


or substance


applicable


as an alternative


approach


in accounting


decis


ions


mental


health


workers,


should


also


provide


some


theoretical


referral


coherence


to the


the


employee


understanding


assistance


supervisory


program.


Labelling


and


social


learning


theory


(which


have


been


useful


understanding


criminal


justice


and


psychiatric


deci


sions)


should


provide


fruitful


propositions


regarding


employee


assistance


program


referral


They


hold


promise


offering


theoretically-based


models


supervisor


referral


where


little


theory


now


exists















CHAPTER


METHODOLOGY


Samol


sample


the


research


was


obtained


from


two


hospitals


public


the


, teaching


southeast.


hospital


One


with


the


hospitals


approximately


patient


beds


and


employs


approximately


3,000


people.


those


employed


approximately


are


considered


be in


supervisory


positions.


The


hospital


has


had


an employee


assis


tance


program


approximately


years.


The


other


hospital

hospital


is a 1,000


with


bed


private,


approximately


,000


religiously

employees.


affiliated


those


employed


approximately


are


considered


to be


supervisory


positions.


The


hospital


has


had


an employee


ass


distance


program


approximately


five


years.


Thus,


both


are


sizeable


organizations


, with


large


numbers


of employees,


well


established


employee


ass


instance


programs.


The


sample


was


originally


to be drawn


way


a two


step


process.


A introductory


letter


was


to be sent


the


supervisors


their


paycheck


envelope.


letter


was


a t -











letter


was


also


to ask


they


were


willing


to participate


the


research


study


In order


to get


an equal


number


from


each


group,


a sample


was


to be drawn


from


those


who


had


referred


an employee


to the


employee


assistance


program


and


those


who


had


not


referred


an employee


to the


employee


assistance


program.


The


researcher


was


then


contact


those


who


were


willing


to participate


and


they


were


to be


interviewed


individually.


After


several


meetings


with


the


people


the


personnel


department


the


public


hospital


became


obvious


that


procedure


was


not


going


to be effective


gathering


data.


The


people


at the


public


hospital


felt


that


since


method


patient


care


could


cause


process


considerable


and


could


disruption


be difficult


to the

to coordinate


an appropriate


time


the


researcher


and


each


supervisor


to meet,


would


be best


the


instrument


to be self-


administered


to the


supervisors


a group


situation.


an alternative


the


researcher


proposed


that


the


personnel


department


would


contact


the


vice


presidents


the


various


departments


to determine


the


time


and


date


that


the


supervisors


regularly


meet


and


during


that


meeting


the


researcher


would


administer


the


research


instrument.


proposal


was


accepted


and


procedure


was


used


to collect









67

Procedure


Ninety


supervisors


were


interviewed,


48 from


the


public


hospital


and


from


the


private


hospital


At both


the


public


and


private


hospital


supervisors


included


those


who


had


responsibility


oversee


the


work


the


line


staff


the


hospital'


dietary,


housekeeping,


nursing,


and


administration


services


At each


institution,


the


supervisors


were


given


a self-administered


questionnaire.


Each


time


the


questionnaire


was


administered,


was


explained


to the


supervisors


the


researcher


that


the


study


was


being


conducted


to evaluate


the


effectiveness


employee


ass


instance


program.


was


briefly


explained


that


an integral


part


the


employee


assistance


program


was


participation


on the


part


the


supervisors.


The


first


page


the


questionnaire


was


then


read


the


employees.


The


instructions


indicated


the


supervisors


that


the


questionnaire


was


designed


anonymity


and


respondents


were


to make


no identifying


marks


anywhere


on the


questionnaire.


was


also


explained


that


the


answers


they


were


give


were


part


an aggregate


total


so no


individual


responses


could


be identified.


Additionally,


supervisors


were


informed


that


they


did


not


want


- a a


n











questionnaire


was


pre-tested


the


public


hospital


with


supervisors


the


personnel


department.


result


the


pre-test


some


important


changes


were


made


research


instrument.


Because


some


the


instructions


were


vague


wording


was


changed


and


key


words


were


highlighted.


The


most


important


change


that


came


out


the


pre-test


was


addition


a definition


a referral


the


employee


assistance


program.


The


supervisors


were


instructed


that


a referral


to the


employee


assistance


counseling


program


includes


the


prof


ess


ional


counseling


that


is available


outside


the


hospital


as well


as services


the


hospital


which


deal


with


employees


who


are


experiencing


alcohol,


drug,


personal


or emotional


problems


which


are


interfering


with


the


employee'


work


performance.


Instrument


The


survey


instrument


consisted


67 questions


which,


the


most


part,


were


the


form


a five-point


Likert


scale


(see


Appendix


First,


the


instrument


gathered


some


demographic


information


. age


, sex,


race,


marital


status,


years


education


and


income)


about


each


supervisor


(questions


1-10)


Questions


11-13 dealt


with


overall


knowledge


and


use


the


employee


assistance


program.











the


supervisors


answered


yes,


they


continued


answer


questions.


they


answered


they


were


to advance


question


29 and


continue


with


the


remainder


the


questionnaire.


Questions


14-24 measured


variable


related


labelling,


such


as employees'


sex,


race,


marital


status,


title


and


years


education.


Female


gender,


minority


status,


unmarried


status,


low


status


and


education


are


taken


as indicating


social


power


. To


measure


the


severity


the


primary


and


secondary


problem


which


the


employee

questions


was referred

were asked


the


about


employee


supervisors


assistance

' perceived


program

severity


and


type


of problem


which


the


employee


was


referred


and


the


negative


related


behaviors


that


were


associated


with


primary


and


secondary


problem.


Questions


25-60 operational


ed the


social


learning


constructs


Questions


25-28


dealt


with


actual


reinforcement


that


the


supervisors


who


referred


an employee


the


employee


assistance


program


experienced


Questions


29-36


addressed


anticipated


reinforcement,


the


future,


supervisor


referred


an employee


the


employee


assi


stance


program.


supervisors


answered


these


questions


whether


they


had


referred


someone


or had


not


referred


someone


to the











the


other


supervisors


referred


an employee


the


employee


ass


instance


program.


Questions


38-40


asked


the


supervisors


to respond


asked

were


a series


concerning


asked


of questions


anticipated


to respond


similar


reinforcement.


to a series


the


The


of questions


questions


supervisors


concerning


how


other


supervisors


would


react


they


had


an employee


who


needed


help


and


needed


a referral


to the


employee


assistance


program,


but


they


did


not


refer


the


employee.


The


supervisors


were


asked


separate


questions


about


employees


with


alcohol,


drug


and


personal/emotional


problems.


Although


increased


the


length


the


research


instrument


was


felt


that


would


important


aspect


the


research.


Questions


41-57


addressed


the


supervisors'


personal


experiences


with


counseling


servi


ces


provided


the


employee


assistance


program,


counseling


provided


from


source


other


than


the


employee


assistance


program,


and


the


actual


and


anticipated


reinforcement


for


being


involved


counseling.


In questions


58-60,


the


supervisors


were


asked


how


they


would


respond


people


close


to them


were


referred


to counseling


The


remainder


the


questions,


questions


60-67


dealt


with


the


supervisor'


satisfaction,


how


supportive


the


institution


was


the


employee


assistance









71

Onerationalization


Reinforcement


defined


as a process


which


particular


reaction


encourages


the


behavior


be emitted


the


future.


response


can


be in


the


form


positive


reinforcement,


a pleasurable


experience,


or a negative


reinforcement,


the


removal


of something


painful


addition,


differential


reinforcement


defined


as the


balance of

supervisors


behavior


anticipated


expect


the


positive


to receive


purpose


and


for


this


negative


referral


study


reactions


or non-referral


reinforcement


includes


the


degree


to which


organizational


rewards


encourage


a particular


behavior.


The


first


group


reinforcement


variables


were


the


anticipated


social


reinforcement


from


other


supervisors


and


employees


that


supervisors


believe


they


would


receive


they


were


refer


an employee


to the


employee


assistance


program


(EAP)


* To


measure


the


degree


reinforcement


a five-point


Likert


scale


was


employed,


from


strongly


disapprove


to strongly


approve.


Reinforcement


measures


were


taken


for


the


three


different


types


referrals


discussed


Chapter


referral


an employee


an alcohol


problem,


referral


for


a drug


problem,


and


referral


an emotional


problem.


S a a


q a


A











sponsored


employee


assistance


counseling


program


and


the


following


people


knew


about


your


referral,


what


you


think


would


most


likely


be their


reaction


the


referral?"


supervisors


indicate


a high


responded


degree


strongly


approve


reinforcement


this

the


would

referring


behavior


. If


supervisors


responded


strongly


disapprove


would


indicate


a low


degree


of positive


reinforcement


a high


degree


of punishment)


the


referring


behavior


The


next


series


anticipated


reinforcement


measures


consisted


reinforcement


anticipated


from


other


supervisors,


employees


and


family


members


the


supervisors


were


to make


EAP


self-referral


Again


degree


the


counseling


of reinforcement


services


was


measured


a five-point


Likert


scale


respon


ses


to each


item,


and


the


items


were


separated


into


groups


of questions


concerning


alcohol,


drug


or emotional


problem.


An example


question


from


serin


reinforcement


measures


included


future


you


were


to receive


counseling


from


the


hospital


sponsored


employee


assistance


counseling


program


an alcohol


problem


what


you


think


would


most


likely


be the

people


reactions

included


the


family


following

members, f


people?"
S -


rlends,


a t


(the


other


list


supervisors


other


employees)


the


supervisors


responded


strongly










reinforcement,


or a high


degree


punishment


counseling.


The


next


series


of reinforcement


measures


examined


the


reinforcement


that


supervisors


anticipated


they


would


receive


from


other


supervisors,


other


employees


and


family


members


they


were


to receive


personal


counseling


from


source


other


than


the


employee


assistance


program.


Consistent


also


with


separated


the

into


preceding


three


measures,


groups


these


measures


of questions,


were


alcohol,


drug


or emotional


five-point


Likert


problems


scale


and


from


responses


strongly


were


disapprove


measured


to strongly


approve.


An example


a question


from


sen


reinforcement


measures


included


the


future


you


were


to receive


counseling


from


a source


other


than


the


hospital


sponsored


employee


assistance


counseling


program


emotional


problem


other


than


an alcohol


or drug


problem


what


you


think


would


most


likely


the


reaction


the


following


approve


people?"


would


the


indicate


supervisors


a high


responded


degree


strongly


of reinforcement


counseling.


supervisors


responded


strongly


disapprove


counseling.


would

These


indicate


two


a low


questions


degre

were


of reinforcement


viewed


measuring


greater


or 1


ess


reinforcement


referring


other










problems,


they


are


more


likely


to anticipate


positive


reactions


intervening


with


other


employees


also


seek


help


their


alcohol,


drug


or emotional


problems.


The


next


series


reinforcement


measures


explored


the


negative


supervisor


reactions


would


.g.,


the


be upset),


employee


that


or one'


supervisors


own


anticipated


receiving


from


other


supervisors


and


other


employees


they


were


to refer


an employee


the


employee


assistance


program,


compared


gratitude


anticipated


the


referred


supportive


employee


reactions


or the


such


approval


one'


the


supervisor


punishing


The


respondents


or supportive


behavior


were


they


asked


to check


anticipated


from


making


an EAP


referral


(see


Appendix


questions


35 and


The


amount


of institutional


support


or non-support


that


a supervisor


received


from


the


organization


concerning


the


employee


assistance


program


also


considered


an indicator


differential


reinforcement.


To evaluate


the


degree


organizational


support,


questions


were


asked


concerning


the


number


memos


the


supervi


sors


received


on the


employee


assistance


program,


informal


discussions


they


had


with


other


supervisors


regarding


the


employee


assistance


and


the


frequency of


employee


assistance


program


in-service


training











question


from


thi


series


reinforcement


measures


included


the


in-s


best


service


your


training


knowledge


which


how


explained


often


the


have


way


you


the


been


employee


assistance


program


utilized


the


supervisors?"


answer


of "very


often"


indicated


a high


degree


support


the


organization.


response


"never"


indicated


a low


degree


of organizational


support


for


the


employee


assistance


program.


Finally,


supervi


sors


were


asked


what


reactions


from


others


they


would


anticipate


for


not


referring


employees


employees


included


assistance


to determine


program


there


Thi


question


consistency


was


between


the


positive

referring


reactions

employees


the


supervisors


to the


employee


anticipated

assistance


receiving


program


and


anticipated


disapproving


reactions


not


referring.


As with


some


the


previous


measures


concerning


supervisory


referral


to the


employee


assistance


program,


three


groups


measures


were


used


to determine


the


anticipated


reinforcement


refraining


from


making


a referral


for


alcohol,


drug


or emotional


problem.


These


measures


also


used


a five-point


Likert


scale


which


ranged


from


strongly


disapprove


to strongly


approve.


example,


a question


from


series











problem


you


did


not


refer


them


the


following


people


knew


about


you


not


referring


them,


what


you


think


would


most


likely


be their


reaction


your


not


making


the


referral


response


of strongly


approve


would


indicate


high


degree


of reinforcement


not


making


the


referral


response


of strongly


approve


would


indicate


a low


degree


reinforcement


not


making


the


referral.


There


are


measures


of definitions


or attitudes


favorable


or unfavorable


to referral


SDefinitions


are


verbal


zations


which


define,


the


actor,


what


appropriate


and


what


inappropriate


in a social


situation.


The


first


two


questions


were


asked


about


the


supervisor'


endorsement


the


disease


concept


of alcohol


drug


abuse,


from


strongly


disagree


strongly


agree


that


alcohol


or drug


abuse


a disease.


Because


endorsement


the


disease


concept


and


the


idea


that


drug


addiction


and


alcoholism

supervisory


response


disease"

referral

"strongly


are


treatable


training

"strongly


would

to the


diseases

employee


agree"


indicate

employee


disagree"


would


to th


a definition

assistance

d indicate


a major


assistance

e statement


favorable


program.


a definition


part


programs,
"alcohol


to making a

response of

unfavorable


to making


a referral.











"strongly


agree"


would


indicate


a positive


definition


because


a referral


the


supervisors


would


be viewed


as a


helping


behavior,


believed


that


something


can,


fact,


be done


about


the


problem.


response


of "strongly


disagree"


would


indicate


an unfavorable


definition


toward


referral


because


alcohol


or drug


addicts


can


not


stop,


would


be futile


to refer


them


for


treatment.


The


third


measure


of definitions


consisted


separate


questions


about


the


supervisors'


views


on the


degree


responsibility


that


either


an alcoholic


or drug


addict


should


take


the


problems


addiction


has


caused.


response


of "strongly


agree"


would


indicate


that


the


addicted


person


responsible


doing


something


about


the


problems


caused


alcohol


or drug


abuse.


Under


the


disease


concept


the


development


of alcoholism


thought


to be


not


the


responsibility


the


alcoholic,


but


responding


positively


offers


of help


and


taking


steps


recover


are


the


alcoholic'


responsibility.


A fourth


measure


definitions


was


a series


three


questions


concerning


how


helpful


the


supervisors


felt


the


employee


assistance


program


would


be for


someone


experiencing


an alcohol,


drug


or emotional


problem.


The


responses


ranged


from


"not


helpful"


to "very


helpful










helpful"


response


would


indicate


a definition


unfavorable


making


a referral


. The


last


two


definition


measures


related


specifically


supervisors'


measure


the


overall


the


supervisors'


happiness


supervisors'


job.


with


These


their


dedication


included


as well


their


job.


the


as a


The


responses


ranged


from


"strongly


disagree"


to "strongly


agree"


(see


Appendix


questions


62h)


both


questions


a response


of "strongly


agree"


would


indicate


overall


happiness


with


their


and


a high


degree


dedication.


It is expected


that


supervisors


who


are


happy


with


their


jobs


and


have


a high


degree


dedication


are


more


likely


to incorporate


their


role


the


employee


assistance


program


into


their


general


supervisory


responsibilities.


Therefore,


an attitude


satisfaction


with


one'


supervisor


viewed


employee


as favorably


ass


instance


disposing


program


the


referrals


There


were


two


questions


measuring


differential


association.


Differential


association


defined


as the


interaction


patterns


with


others


that


provide


the


definitions,


model


and


reinforcement


for


a particular


behavior.


Differential


association


has


both


a behavioral


aspect


and


includes


a definitional


the


degree


aspect.


of association


The

with


behavioral


those


aspect


supervisors










organization


regarding


the


referral


employees


the


program.


The


first


measure


differential


association


consisted


supervisors'


colleagues


who


referred


the


employee


assistance


program.


The


separate


items


the


differential


association


measure


consisted


the


number


the


supervisors'


colleagues


which


they


most


respected,


with


whom


they


had


closest


relationship


with,


had


known


the


longest


had


associated


with


most


frequently,


who


had


referred


an employee


the


employee


assistance


program.


The


five-point


Likert


scale


ranged


from


none


(see


Appendix


question


question


relates


the


behavioral


aspect


differential


association.


The


other


measure


differential


association


was


a subjective


impression


the


priority


given


the


organization


the


employee


assistance


institutional


support


program, s

t measures


eparately

included


from

under


the

the


reinforcement


concept


Here


the


effort


to elicit


the


climate


of favorable


opinion


on employee


assistance


program'


prevailing


the


organization,


specifically


how


much


importance


question


the


asked


hospital


the


best


attached


your


to the


knowledge


program.


how


The


important


you


feel


the


employee


assistance


counseling


program











important"


would


indicate


a climate


unfavorable


to making


referral.


question


relates


the


definitional


aspect


of differential


association.


Scaling


Procedure


Because


the


measures


differential


association


are


not


included


the


discriminant


function


analysis


Chapter


Five,


due


response


rate,


the


differential


association


scales


are


not


reported


here.


The


individual


measures


of anticipated


reinforcement,


definitions


and


differential


association


were


scaled.


Tables


4.1 and


summarize


the


reliability


and


item


scale


correlations


for


each


the


scal


es.


The


item


total


scale


summary


statistics


item


reported


to total


Tables


correlations


4.1 and


each


includes


measure


the


the


range


scale


The


range


of alpha


values


when


the


item


deleted


each


measure


the


scale


and


the


overall


alpha


the


scale


also

well


reported.


each


The


individual


item

item


total


correlation


correlated


with


represents


the


how


overall


scale.


The


alpha


values


when


item


deleted


represents


the


change


the


overall


alpha


the


scale


a particular


item


not


included


scale.


The


alpha


represents


the


reliability


the


overall


scale.











Table


4.1:


Reliability And Item
Reinforcement Scales


To Scale


Correlations


For


Variables


Item to total
correlation range


Alpha if item
deleted


Alpha


REINFA
REINFD
REINFE
EAPREINA
EAPREIND
EAPREINE
OTHREINA
OTHREIND
OTHREINE
PUNISH
SUPPORT
INSTSUP
NOREFA
NOREFD
NOREFE


= 79


The


first


three


scales


Table


measures


perceived


differential


social


reinforcement


(approval


or disapproval)


that


supervisors


anticipated


receiving


they


were


refer


an employee


alcohol


to the


(REINFA),


employee

drug (REI


assistance


NFD)


program


or emotional


for


problem


(REINFE).


Each


these


reinforcement


scales


had


eight


items.


alphas


were


within


the


acceptable


limits.


The


next


set


three


scales


measured


the


amount


reinforcement


that


supervisors


believe


they


would


receive










emotional


problem


(EAPREINE)


Each


these


scales


had


four


items


the


alphas


were


within


the


acceptable


limits.


The


next


group


of scales


measured


the


amount


reinforcement


that


supervisors


believe


they


would


receive


they


sought


counseling


from


a source


other


than


the


employee


assistance


problem


program


(OTHREIND)


an alcohol


or an emotional


problem


problem


(OTHREINA),


(OTHREINE)


a drug


Each


these


alphas


scales


were


also


within


had


the


four


items.


acceptable


Again,


limits.


The


of the


scales


measuring


the


amount


of perceived


punishing


(PUNISH)


supportive


(SUPPORT)


behavior


supervisors


would


experience


making


a referral


scaled


reliably


There


were


five


items


in each


the


scal


es.


The


measure


of institutional


support


the


employee


assi


stance


program


(INSTSUP)


three


item


scale


with


an alpha


coefficient


indicating


the


scale


reliable.


The


last


three


scal


measured


the


amount


reinforcement


which


supervisors


would


experience


they


had


an employee


who


needed


a referral


to the


employee


assistance


program


an alcohol


problem


(NOREFA),


a drug


problem


(NOREFD)


or an emotional


problem


(NOREFE)


but


did


not


refer


the


employee


to the


employees


assistance


program.


Each


these


scales


had


eight


items,


the


alphas


being


within











Table


: Reliability
Definitions


And


Item


To Scale


Correlations


For


Scales


Item


total


Alpha


item


Variables


correlation


range


deleted


Alpha


DISEASE
STOPUSE


.5388
.9397
.8100


RESP


HELPFUL


.7911


.8750


.8448


.9131


.6672
.9689
.8948
.9168


= 79


Table


.2 summary


zes


the


reliability


and


item


to scale


correlations


the


definition


variables.


Three


the


four


scales


had


only


two


items


which


made


the


scale.


Therefore,


the


alpha


with


item


deleted


was


not


reported.


The


first


scale


measured


the


supervisor'


definition


alcohol


and


drug


addition


as a disease


(DISEASE)


The


second


scale


measured


the


attitude


that


the


supervisor


held


concerning


the


ability


people


with


alcohol


and


drug


problems


to stop


they


so desired


(STOPUSE)


The


third


scale


measured


the


amount


of responsibility


that


a drug


addict


or alcoholic


should


accept


the


problems


that


their


drinking


or drugs


have


created


(RESP).


The


last


definition


scale


was


the


amount


of helpfulness


that


the


supervisors


felt


the


employee


assistance


program


would










alphas


the


definition


scales


were


within


the


acceptable


limits.


Statistical


Techniques


The


statistical


techniques


that


will


used


to examine


these


hypotheses


are


frequency


distributions,


cross-


tabulations,


multivariate


regression


(Pedhazur,


1982)


and


discriminant


function


analysis


(Klecka,


1980)


Discriminant


function


analysis


a statistical


technique


used


when


the


researcher


studying


the


differences


between


two


or more


groups


with


present


respect t

research,


:o several


variables


dependent


simultaneously


variable


dichotomous


variable


defined


two


groups;


those


supervisors


who


have


referred


an employee


the


hospital


sponsored


employee


assistance


program


and


those


supervisors


who


have


not.


The


primary


independent


variables


the


discriminant


function


analysis


are


the


social


learning


variables;


differential


association,


reinforcement


and


definitions.


There


function


there


are


seven


analysis


should


: (1)


be at least


assumptions


there


two


for


must


cases


the


two


each


use


of discriminant


or more


group,


groups,


there


can


any


number


discriminating


variables,


provided


that











of other


discriminating


variables,


the


covariance


matrices


each


group


must


be equal


and


each


group


has


been


drawn


from


a population


with


a multivariate


normal


distribution


on the


scriminating


variable


es.


Most


the


assumptions


are


met


following


analysis.


has


two


groups;


there


were


more


than


two


cases


each


group;


there


were


fewer


discriminating


variable


than


cases;


the


intercorrelations


among


the


discriminating


variables


are


not


high


(see


Table


4.3);


the


covariance


matrices


are


not


significantly


different


at the


level


according


to the


BOX'


M (Box'


= 118


.07);


the


means


and


standard


deviations


the


discriminating


variables


suggest


they


are


not


highly


aberrant


(see


Table


4.4).


Klecka

considered


states

to be a


that


robus


discriminant

t statistical


function

technique


analysis

e and


therefore


can


tolerate


deviations


from


the


assumptions


(Klecka,


1980,


For


example,


when


interpreting


the


classification


results,


the


percent


cases


correctly


classified


assumption


large


the


(number


violation


not


the


harmful


normality


The


proportion


correct


classifications


will


also


inform


one


whether


substituting


ordinal


interval


level


data


greatly


reduces


accuracy.





























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best


explain


the


differences


between


the


groups


being


studied.

analysis


the

used


present


research,


to determine


what


discriminant function

characteristics explain


the


difference


between


those


supervisors


who


have


referred


an employee


the


employee


assistance


program


and


those


supervisors


who


have


not


referred


an employee


to the


employee


assistance


program.


For


the


purpose


study


the


standardized


canonical


correlations


will


be evaluated


determine


which


variables


best


explain


referral


and


non-


referral


behavior


the


supervisors.


Classification


purpose


involves


of predicting


using


the


the


group


discriminant


into


function


which


particular


case


fall


For


the


present


research,


thi


includes


determining


whether


a particular


supervisor


would


fall


into


the


group


which


has


referred


or the


group


which


has


not


referred


the


employee


assistance


program.


Classification


results


will


evaluated


determining


the


percentage


supervisors


that


are


correctly


classified


function.


A Tau


statistic


is computed


which


shows


how


much


better


than


chance


the


discriminant


function


analysis


performs


classifying


cases


correctly.


Next,


an analysis


using


a regression


procedure


will


also


carried


out


to determine


how


well


social











discriminant


regression


function


analysis.


The


analysis

dependent


will


be used


variable


the


will


the


number


referral


the


employee


assistance


program,


which


will


separated


into


five


categories


: 0 referral


referral,


referrals,


referrals


and


or more


referral


The


number


referrals


was


truncated


after


four


because


few


supervisors


referred


an extremely


high


number


cases.


There


was


concern


that


these


"outliners"


would


unduly


affect


the


results,


especially


given


the


relatively


small


sample


size.


Regression


analysis


makes


several


assumptions


. The


first


set


assumption


addresses


specification


error


Specifically,


the


relationship


between


the


independent


and


dependent


variable


must


be linear,


no relevant


independent


variables


have


been


excluded


and


no irrelevant


variables


have


been


included.


The


second


assumption


indicates


that


independent


and


dependent


variables


are


accurately


measured


eliminating


measurement


error


SThe


third


set


assumptions


concern


the


error


term.


Specifically,


for


each


observation


the


expected


value


the


error


term


zero,


the


variance


the


error


term


constant


for


values


independent


variables,


the


error


terms


are


uncorrelated,


and


the


error


term


normally


distributed


(Lewis-Beck,











errors.


Others


have


argued


that


multiple


regression


robust


ordinal


data


are


used


instead


interval


data


(Kim,


1975;


Labovitz,


1971,


1970).


Finally,


determine


the


the


labelling


social


variables


will


characteristics


be evaluated


those


employees


referred


the


employee


assistance


program


can


help


explain


supervisors


referral


decisions.


The


social


characteristics


used


the


analysis


will


include


the


age,


race,


gender,


marital


status,


classification,


and


length


employment


the


employee


referred,


as well


as the


measures


the


severity


the


primary


problem.


These


data


present


a direct


examination


the


effects


labelling


on referral


deci


sions


. However,


insight


into


the


problem


can


be gained


examining


frequency


distributions


and


some


cross-tabulations


The


frequency


distributions


the


social


characteristics


the


employees


referred


will


be compared


the


probable


distribution


(the


actual


distribution


was


not


available),


the


hospitals


determine


a disproportionate


number


those


referred


have


social


characteristics


which


would


indicate


fewer


resources


and


ess


power


SCross-tabulations


between


gender,


race


and


classification


and


the


severity


the


problem


leading


to a referral


will


be done


to determine


whether