Administrators' perceptions of effectiveness of international studies and programs in institutions of higher education

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Administrators' perceptions of effectiveness of international studies and programs in institutions of higher education
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Barnett, Rosemary V
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Subjects / Keywords:
Organizational effectiveness   ( lcsh )
International education -- Case studies -- United States   ( lcsh )
Universities and colleges -- Curricula -- United States   ( lcsh )
College administrators -- United States   ( lcsh )
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theses   ( marcgt )
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Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1991.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 153-163).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Rosemary V. Barnett.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
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notis - AJC6959
oclc - 25604922
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Full Text











ADMINISTRATORS' PERCEPTIONS OF EFFECTIVENESS
OF INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND PROGRAMS
IN INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION














By


ROSEMARY


BARNETT


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA


1991
































Copyright


Rosemary


1991


Barnett
































To Michael,


believing


in me.















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


would


like


express


appreciation


committee


members


their


guidance,


patience,


assistance,


and


recommendations


chairman,


James


Hensel


, provided


with


expertise


regarding


the


writing


dissertation.


co-chairman


supervisor,


. John


Koran,


guided


through


process


selecting


research


problem


taught


me how


to think


inve


stigatively


. David


Miller


ass


listed


me with


the


statistical


design


data


analysis.


Art


Sandeen


posed


questions


regarding the


topic


and


application,


Dr. Haig


Der-Houssikian


gave


objective


feedback


only


an external


member


from


international


programs


could


provide


Thi


study


could


have


been


p05


sible


without


support


partic


ipation


the


Association


American


Universities


respondents


(AAU) ,


from


would


partic


like


ipating


thank


institutions.


would


like


express my


sincere


appreciation


to Dr


. Ed


Blankenship,


executive


vice


president


and


director


College


Divi


sion


of the American


Institute


Foreign


Study,


providing


a dissertation


grant


this


study


Also,









School


support


providing


during


with


doctoral


assistantship


program,


and


especially


financial


during


study.


family


friends


have


also


provided


with


encouragement


needed


during


the


long


and


winding


road


towards


Ph.D.


ssertation.


parents,


George


and Mary


Hudnet,


provided


endl


ess


encouragement


and


were


especially


important


me during


time.


daughters,


Lauren


Morgan


Barnett,


constantly


reminded


me to keep


priorities


sense


process.


humor


"study


intact


buddi


during


" Ann


this


Masters,


sometimes


Dee


painful


Williams,


Mary


Lynn


Williamson,


allowed


express


anxieti


frustrations,


friends


Department


ideas


colleagues


Educational


throughout


the


the


entire


Graduate


Leadership


were


writing


School


always


and


there


ass


me too


many


times


to mention.


am extremely


grateful


friends


real


world"


Cheryl


and


Tim


Desch,


Jacqueline


and


. Thiell,


Dr. Katherine


Elizabeth

Johnson, f


Fain


Bryant,


reminding


Dr. Gigi

me that


Durham


there


life


after


a dissertation.


And


want


to especially


thank my


husband


Michael,


who


was


with


every


step


the


way


gave


me the


courage


to achieve


a lifetime


goal
















TABLE


OF CONTENTS


pagg


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS....................................


CHAPTERS


INTRODUCTION................... ...... ........


Hypotheses...


The Constr
Effective
Sources
Subject
Level of
Definition
Assumption
Justificat


Organi


Organizational


uct
ene


of Criteria..
ve versus Obj
Analysis....
.s of Terms...
s and Limitat
ion for this


zation


of the


Dis


......
active


...Data
Data


ions......
Study.....
sertation.


* S (( S S
* S* S* *1 S S *
* S S S S *
* S S S S *


REVIEW


OF RELATED


LITERATURES....


. ....... 21


Organizational Effectiveness
Corporate Environment.....
Goal Accomplishment Theory
Natural Systems Theory....
Decision Process Theory...
An Integration of Theories
Organizational Effectiveness
Higher Education..........
Studies on International P
Perception Assessment Stud
Summary.....................


Studies


the


....eee
Studie
......0
programs
ies....


METHODOLOGY...................................


Procedure...........
Research Population.
Oannin a A nCal An4


* S S SS SS S S S ** SS S
* S S *S S 5l** *** S S S SS *


ABSTRACT )((()))1))()11((1)())1)1((((11111(1))









RESULTS


Study


AND


Parti


Results....
Summary....


CONCLUSIONS


DATA


cipants


* .
* .


AND


ANALYSIS


....
. S
* S S


........... .. ..... 76


*5S S* SS SS *S SS S SS 77
*5* S S SS *S SS SS S S S 78
5S*l)l)((~lr((I S SSSSSSSSS*58


RECOMMENDATIONS


S. ..... ...... 88


Finding


Discu


S...


sslon.


.* ..


...............


* S S SS S S SS S S
* S S 55 55555 @ *S


Job


Category


Perceptions


of Effectivene


. ........... 90


Domains


Background


Perceptions
Differences


of Effectiven


and


ess


Perceptions


of Effectivenes
Implications.......
Recommendation for


S..


S.... . 99
. . 100


Further


Study


APPENDICES


CASE


AND


The


STUDIES


PROGRAMS


University


ON INTERNATIONAL


IN HIGHER


of North


STUDIES


EDUCATION


Carolina


at Charlotte


The


University


Western


Kentucky


of Mass


achu


setts


Amher


University


Ohio


University.


Indiana


Texas


Florida


The


Univers


Southern


ity....
Univers


International


University


MEMBER


ity..


University


of Nebraska


INSTITUTIONS


IN THE


at Omaha


ASSOCIATION


OF AMERICAN


UNIVERSITIES


AAU


PUBLIC


THIS


INSTITUTIONS


INCLUDED


STUDY..


ADMINISTRATORS


PROGRAMS


OF INTERNATIONAL


PERSONAL


PERCEPTION


STUDIES


AND


SURVEY..


PERMISSION
MATERIAL


TO QUOTE/REPRODUCE


COPYRIGHTED


COVER


LETTER


TO CHIEF


ADMINISTRATIVE


OFFICERS...


SS,










MEAN


DOMAIN


SCORES


JOB


CATEGORY


. . .. 138


MEAN


REFERENCES


BIOGRAPHICAL


DOMAIN


SCORES


BY INSTITUTION.


. S S S ..


SKETCH.















Abstract


of Dissertation


Unive


rsity


Requirements


of Florida


the


Presented


in Partial


of Doctor


Degree


Graduate


School


Fulfillment


of Philosophy


ADMINISTRATORS


' PERCEPTIONS


OF INTERNATIONAL
IN INSTITUTIONS


STUDIES


OF EFFECTIVENESS


AND


OF HIGHER


PROGRAMS


EDUCATION


Rosemary


December


. Barnett

, 1991


Chairman:


Co-Chairman:


Major


Dr. James


Dr. John


Department


. Hensel


Koran,


national


Leadership


The


purpose


of thi


study


was


to explore


the


theory


that


construct


organizational


effectiveness


higher


education

perceptions


could


measured


of effectiveness,


analy


and


that


zing


differin


administrator

g perceptions


among


five


administrative


categories


nine


specific


effectiveness


domains


would


realized.


Thi


study


concentrated


assess


construct


the


program


subunitt)


level


focused


international


studi


and


programs.


The population consisted of public


member


institutions of


Association


American


University


es.


Twenty-three


institutions


partic


ipated


study


with


total









chairmen


academic


departments,


directors


international


student


service


centers


, study


abroad


program


advisors,


directors


area


study


centers.


survey


was


administered


the


participants


assess


perceptions


effectiveness of


administrators


international


regarding


studies.


organizational


Respondents rated the


extent


which


their


programs


possessed


certain


characteristics


of nine


effectiveness


domains


identifying


a point


scale


each


item.


Prior


research


perceived


effectiveness


institutional


level


found


significant


differences


nine


effectiveness


perceptions


domains;


according


however,


significant


to administrative


job


differences


category were


found.


study


, conducted


the


program


level,


confirmed


that


there


were


significant


differences


perceived


effectiveness


for the nine effectiveness domains.


Significant


differences


perceptions


job


category


of administrators


three


academic


nine


development,


domains


student


.05)


career


were


found:


development,


and


student


faculty


administrator


employment


satisfaction.


Highest


perceived


effectiveness


scores


three


domains


were


consistently


held


chief


administrative


officers,


while


lowest


perceived


effectiveness


scores


were


held


chairpersons


academic


departments


first


domains,


and


directors


area









associated


with


internal


program


functions


accurately


perceive


effectiveness


in international


programs.


It is


also


possible


that


the


most


accurate


percept ions


can


best


determined


levels


below


the


chief


administrator.


Once


compiled,


data


should


transmitted


the


chief


administrator


realistic


decision-


and


policy-making















CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


The


purpose


this


study


was


explore


Cameron


(1978a)


theory that the construct of


organizational


effective-


ness


higher


education


could


measured


analyze


administrator perceptions of effectiveness by job category and


that


differing


perceptions


among


five


administrative


categories

realized.


for

While


nine


specific


Cameron


effectiveness


focused


on the


domains


assessment


would


of effec-


tiveness


the


institutional


(organizational)


level,


study


focused


assessing


the


construct


the


program


subunitt)


level


The


perceptions


held


five


key


administrators


international studies and programs at


selected institutions of


higher


education


were


analyzed.


The


following


research


question


was


posed


administrators


international


studies


and


programs


(including


chief


administrative


officers


of international


studi


directors of


foreign student service


study


area


study


abroad


centers,


program


and


faculty


department


advisors,


heads


directors

chairmen


academic


departments)


have differing perceptions


of organic


za-


centers,











The


researcher


investigated


secondary


question:


individual


background


factors,


such


age,


sex,


years


experience,


and


educational


level,


have


an effect


on how they


perceive the effectiveness of


their programs


Are


perceptions


similar


or different


based


variances


their


individual


backgrounds?


If there


are


differences


, what


kinds


of differ-


ences


are


they


what


might


they


mean


the


internal


functioning


the


programs?


Administrators


of higher


education


are


always


concerned


with


the effectiveness of


their organizations,


yet very


little


empirical


research


been


conducted


this


area.


Most


studi


organizational


effectiveness


have


dealt


with


assess


various


other


types


organi


nations,


such


the


coal mining


Ewy,


industry


Forrest,


(Goodman,


1978)


1979) ,


the


hospitals


tobacco


(Scott,


industry


Flood,


(Miles


Cameron,


1982)


effectiveness


These


criteria


researchers


not


always


utilized


considered


sources


appropriate


the


unique


characteristic


the


educational


organization


(Weick,


1976).


There


has


always


been


some


difficulty


with


the


assess-


\ ment
~^\ ^


effectiveness


any


setting


due


the


lack


consistent


definition


and


utilization


common


criteria


(Campb


ell,


1976;


Steers,


1975)


Organizational


effectiveness










1977)


Effectiveness


can


also


occur


in organizations


which


have


multiple


contradictory


goals


(Dubin,


1976


Perrow,


1977)


and


constituencies


with


varying


level


of importance


different


times


(Scott,


1977)


Colleges


and


universities


have


long


suffered


from


the


lack


clear


definition


effective


performance


their


unique


characteristic


CS.


Generally,


institutions


higher


education


are


typified


loose


coupling,


little


relationship


between


acquired


resources


and


products,


a lack


of measurable


goals


, and


the


ability


to disregard


demands


major


constituencies


(Cameron,


1978a,


1980)


University


administrators


hold


the


position


that


institutions


are


unlike


any


other


type


organization;


consequently,


the


traditional


Additionally,


assessment


their


performance


traditional


not


resistance


applicable.


effectiveness


assessments


delayed


the


attempts


discover


standard


criteria


(Cameron,


1986)


The ability to make comparative assessments has also been


questioned


due


uniqueness


individual


institutions


(Dresse:

private


1971)


criteria,


Attempts

however,


have


been


has


made


only


to identify


been


Sappro-

last 13


years


since


Cameron


research


began


that


empirical


studi


relating


the


measurement


effectiveness


higher











faculty


members


are


continually


making


individual


judgements


regarding


organic


national


effectiveness


colleges


universities


(Cameron,


1986).


The


following


six


most


widely


used


methods


of evaluating


effectiveness


in higher


education


over


the


past


years


were


identified


and


discussed


Webster


(1981)


study


methods


assessing


quality


higher


education:


Reputational


ratings


are


the


most


popular


criteria


are


produced


asking


peers


or experts


to rank


the


most


best


institutions


popular,


or departments.


criterion


subject


While


to the halo


effect,


time


lag,


oversimplification.


Citation


counts


faculty


members


are


criteria


which

number


attempt


assess


of articles


effectiveness


published


the


based


on the


faculty.


process


validity


problems


due


to the


inability


assess


the


quality


the


articles


published,


teaching


orientation


the


school


, and


the


effect


popularity


discipline


on the


quantity


published.


Faculty


awards


and


honors,


such


the


number


Fulbright


Fellowships,


are


a third


criteria.


Student


achievements


after


graduation


are


often











activities.


Schools


without


high


visibility


would


suffer


from


applying


this


method.


National


examination


scores


entering


student


such


SAT


or the


ACT,


are


widely


used


crite-


due


their


quantitative


nature.


Other


than


institutions


excellence,


most


with


colleges


traditions


or universities


academic

would not


score


high


on this


criteria.


Institutional


resources


are


the


sixth


most


widely


used


criteria


assessing


effectiveness


of insti-


tutions.


This


entails


collecting


data


on material


measures


such


the


size


the


library.


Small


institutions


suffer when


such a method


employed.


was


estimated


that


these were


the


six most widely used


criteria


assessing


effectiveness


described by


"quali-


ty")


institutions


of higher


education


overall


the


last


twenty


years


However,


study


also


found


that


such


criteria


did


not


apply


to the


greater


than


95 percent


of the


colleges and universities


or traditions


in America


of academic


that


excellence


lacked high vis


(Webster,


ibil-


1981).


In a seminal


study


on the organizational


effectiveness of


institutions


of higher


education,


Cameron


(1978a)


found


that


institutions


ranged


from


loose


coupling


(organized


anarchies)











which


starting


could


with


utilized


further


approximately


assessments.


variables,


Cameron


After


found


criteria


which


were


generated


from


dominant


coalition members


(major decision-makers)


in six institutions,


and produced nine


domains


organizational


effectiveness.


These


domains


were


assessed


items


representing


the


three


major


theories


organizational


effectiveness:


goal


accomplishment,


decision


process,


natural


systems


theory.


When


the


domains


were


tested for reliability and validity,


patterns of


effectiveness


were identified across all


nine.


Cameron


(1978a)


demonstrated


the


first


time


that


organizational


effectiveness


can


empirically


measured


institutions


higher


education.


The


nine


effectiveness


domains


utilized by


Cameron


were


Student
criteria
students


educational


indicating


with


institution;


their


satisfaction--composed


the


degree


educational


satisfaction


experiences


at the


Student


indicating


growth,
tion;


academic


the


and


development--composed


extent


progress


academic


students


of criteria
attainment,


the


institu-


career


indicating
development


emphasis
tion;


Student


indicating
noncareer


and


the


development--composed


extent


of students


of
and


opportunities


personal


student
oriented


career
the


career


provided by


development--composed


development


areas--e.g.


criteria


occupational
development
the institu-


of criteria
nonacademic,


, socially,
~l~a a a -


emotion-


alit.~~h~ ,..\ .(Y1 4. --4I.


Student


allrt


CLn


'L 1. YI~~L7











P-r/--ofessiona J a LilaL


faculty--the
development


devel onment and niial i*v
-- *- a a w V ...


extent


the


stimulation toward professional


ed by


the


attainment


the


development provid-


institution;


Systems


emphasis


onennes s and cornrnunitv we.
I ntPrRr!tI nn--$-ho


placed


service


Ability to
institution
environment


communitV


on interaction


in the


acquire


to acquire


external


with,


resources


ability


from


the


external


'-a '-


Organizational
vitality, and


and


practices


health--indicating


viability


the


the


benevolence,


internal


institution.


processes


Cameron


employed


two


types


instruments


study


which


were


developed


measure


the


criteria


nine


domains.


Two questionnaires were


issued to administrators


academic


categories:


affairs

first J

extent


instrument,


to which


heads


general,


and


Cameron


their


at six


institutions


financial,


department


possessed


five

and


heads.


escriptio

certain


general

student

In the


organiza-


tional


characteristics


(effectiveness


criteria).


This


was


accomplished


using


a rating


system


organizational


traits


which


allowed


possibility


highly


intercorrelated


perceptions.


The


second


questionnaire


contained


records


specific


each


questions


institution.


Thus,


to obtain


both


data


from


perceived


and


of professional
faculty, and


adaptation


environment;


resources--the


50-51)


department


administrators


academic,

academic (

asked fo


institution


order


_ __~_


devel aament


~ nrl


mi;rlitv


amount


and


i n+ P ril P+ i ~n ---+h rr


openness











Cameron


whether


performed


effectiveness


analysis


domains


variance


differentiated


determine


among


schools


and


among


the


five


general


high


level


administrator


categories


The


results


indicated


that


there


were


differences by job category


Administrators


surveyed in


these


institutions


Institutions


had


varied


similar


perceptions


significantly


effectiveness.


their


effectiveness


profiles;


however,


certain


patterns


of organizational


effec-


tiveness


could


distinguished.


Individual


institutions


could


analyzed


basis


their


effectiveness


pro-


as those


having


very


high


or very


low


effectiveness


each


the


nine


domains.


Where


profiles


differed


signifi


cantly,


there was evidence of


relative


strengths and weakness-


indicating


that


some


institutions


achieve


higher


effectiveness


than


others.


Cameron


initial


(1978a)


study


been


forerunner


of other


follow-up


studies


on higher


education,


most


of which


Cameron has


conducted


focusing


the relationship between effectiveness dimensions and external


factors


(such


as faculty


unions)


Cameron


(1978a)


research


study


the


organizational


effectiveness


of institutions


higher


education


was


used


a model


study


test


perceptions


effectiveness


domains


held


admini


strators


a specific


area


or subunit











universities,


coupled


with


lack


formal


structure


precedent.


This


study


provided


those


participating


institu-


tions


with


individual


effectiveness


profile


that


may


used


for program improvement.


Additionally,


an examination of


similarities or differences of administrators


perceptions


organizational


effectiveness


within


institutions


may


indicate


a greater


need


internal


cohesiveness.


A further


examination


of differences


administrator


backgrounds


may


also


provide


some


useful


illuminations


into


any


effect


differences


might


have


on perceptions.


Hvnotheses


The


purpose of


study was


to explore Cameron


s theory


that


the


construct


of organizational


effectiveness


in higher


education


could


measured


analyzing


administrator


perceptions


of effectiveness


job


category


the


program


subunitt)


level


The


study


s primary


objective


was


to deter-


mine


whether


perceptions


differentiated


among


five


general


administrative


job categories


and


whether perceptions


differ-


entiated


the


nine


effectiveness


domains.


The


following


hypotheses


were


tested


Hol


: There


are


effectiveness
categories.


no significant


among


differences


five


on perceived


administrative


: There


are


no significant


0 0a -


r -U.


differences on
r


perceived
-i -- _


*


i











The


Construct


of Organizational


Effectiveness


This


study was


based


on the


examination


of the


construct


organizational


effectiveness,


which


three


major


theories


identified


the


literature:


goal


accomplishment,


natural


systems


resource


acquisition),


and


internal


decision


processes.


The


first


and


most


widely


used,


goal


accomplishment


theory,


has


been


defined


terms


organizations'


ability


mobilize


internal


resources


accomplish


stated


objectives


(Etzioni


, 1964;


Georgopolous


Tannenbaum,


1957;


Price,


1972).


In organizations


that


do not


have clearly defined goals,


however,


this effectiveness theory


not


applicable


and


criteria


may


especially


ambiguous


(Cameron,

management


1986).

goals


Also,


the


there


focus


exclusion


the


official


organizational


member,


organizational


constituency,


and


societal


goals


(Blau


Scott,


1961).


The


second


theory,


natural


systems


theory


resource


acquisition


theory),


defines


effectiveness


as the


ability


the organization


to exploit


its environment


in the


acquisition


scarce


and valued resources


(Yuchtman &


Seashore,


1967)


and


focuses


interaction


environment.


this


the


approach,


organization


organizational


with


inputs


resource


acquisition


replace


goals


as the


primary


effective-











The


third


theory


decision


process


theory,


examines


internal


organizational


processes


(instead of


an end state)


defining


characteristics


of effectiveness


(Steers


, 1977)


theory


focuses


process


which


organizations


articulate


preferences,


perceive


demands,


and


make


deci


sons


(Pfeffer


, 1977)


The


process


model,


however,


been


criticized


due


difficulty


expense


monitoring


organizational


processes


and


the


inaccuracy


any


data


obtained


(Scott,


1977) .


These


three


theories


each


relied


on one


separate


criteria


for the evaluation of


organizational


effectiveness to


the


exclusion


(1978a)


original


of others.


research


The


instrumentation


combined


criteria


from

which


Cameron


assessed


effectiveness perceptions


previously


relating to the three major theories


described.


In thi


study


Cameron


s instrumentation


was


utili


the program level


and the


same


three aspects


of organizational


effectiveness


were


examined:


inputs,


processes,


and


outputs.


triangulating


these


three


theories,


more


integrated


approach


and


comprehensive


assessment


effectiveness


performed,


rather


than


the


exclusionary


assessment


each


individual


theory


That


, rather than examining perceptions


goal


accomplishment


resource


acquis


ition


healthy











Sources


of Criteria


Constructs,


such


organizational


effectiveness,


are


difficult


measure


or test


due


to their


nature.


MacCorquo-


dale


and


Meehl


(1948)


defined


"construct"


inferred


property


which


not


wholly


reducible


to empirical


laws


operationalizations.


Campbell


(1977)


stated


that


since


organizational


variety


effectiveness


"separate


is a construct


possibly


which


even


is composed


contradictory


dimensions,


tor which


" there


can be


is no one


used


necessary


and


to operationalize


sufficient


The


term


indica-


"organi-


national


effectiveness


" therefore,


often


used


a wide


variety


of organizational


performance


assessments.


Cameron


s (1978a)


discussion of the criterion problems of


organizational


effectiveness


stated


that


while


the


construct


can


be defined,


"the


definition


and


itself


may


lead


nowhere.


" (p.


The


construct


refers


phenomena
likely on


so
that


Lly


where


"effectiveness


many


different


progress
Specific


domains"--


types


toward c
aspects


are


organizational


=onceptual


clarity


effectiveness--or


operationalized.


Cameron


domains


s (1978a)


instrumentation,


effectiveness


which


greater


operationalized nine


theoretical


clarity


construct


the


program


level,


was


utilized


this


study.


Ciih4~~~hk an+: 4 r lae '


- *


Cirki nnC i ttn


tldYlblln


1


rrcrr










obj ective


data,


industrial


and


organizational


psychologists


have


used


perceptions


more


often.


This


is mainly


due


to the


nature


construct


effectiveness


which


can


change


definition


with


different


constituencies


, levels


of analysis,


organizational


aspects


, and


purposes


of research


and


evalua-


tion.


For example,


maximi


zing


individual


growth and


sati


sfac-


tion


organization


(the


effectiveness


domain


used


Likert


[1967]


and


Argyris


[1962]),


may


relate


negatively


level


of subunit


output


coordination


(the


effectiveness


domain


used


Pennings


Goodman,


1977)


(Cameron,


1978a)


Campbell


(1977)


stated that effectiveness criteria should


always


be subjective because


objective


criteria


obtained


from


organizational


records


are


inappropriate


and


"preordained


fail


the end


The


researcher collected subjective data


study


from


five


different


key


administrators


as criteria


an analysis


of effectiveness


perceptions


the


program.


In order


to determine


whether


perceptions


vary


widely within


administration


these


programs,


and


what


individual


factors


might


affect


the


perceptions


held


these


individual


these


criteria


were


most


appropriate.


Obj ective


data


level


were


also


found


difficult


to obtain.


Level


of Analvsi


Three basic


levels


of analysis


within an organization may











Weick,


1977)


second,


intermediate


level


focuses


subunits


organization


(Pennings


Goodman,


1977)


third


focuses


individual


performance


behaviors


sati


faction


(Argyri


1962


Lawlor


Hall


Oldham,


1974)


Although


little


empirical


work


has


been


done


subunit


level


regarding


assessment


organizational


effectiveness,


Pennings and Goodman


(1977)


suggested


that this


most


appropriate


approach


to analysis


because


"organi-


national


effectiveness


associated


with


contributions


subunits


(program)

explore t


In this


within


study,


institutions


he construct at a


researcher


of higher


different


level


examined


education


of higher


one subunit


order


education


and


to add


the


current


empirical


research


available.


Definitions


of Terms


In order


to understand


the


purpose


research,


was


necessary


to operationally


define


some


critical


terms:


Adminis


tration


direction,


organization,


execution


of functions


activities


(Dressel,


1981)


Productivity


a concept


efficiency


which


often


used


as a variable


to stand


as an indicator


of organizational


effectiveness


because


total


meaning


can


captured


measuring


amount


organizational


output.


only


represents


one


aspect,


however,


the


total


construct


space









15

Organizational effectiveness encompasses a combination of


theories


and


defined


conceptually


as "successful


organiza-


tional


transactions"


(Cameron,


1978a).


the


center


organizational


models,


the


nature


of effective


organizations,


difference


between


effective


and


ineffective


organiza-


tions,


and


theories


of organizations


are


grounded


notions


of effective


designs,


strategies,


and


leadership


styles


which


are among the


factors


that


form the criteria


of organizational


effectiveness


(Cameron,


1983) .


The


operational


definition


of effectiveness


institu-


tions


higher


education


(Cameron,


1978a)


based


the


extent


which


"they


produce


valued


and


desired


outcomes,


maintain


organizational


viability


and


vitality,


and


acquire


needed


resources


without


destroying


the


environment.


" (p.


"Valued"


outcomes


refers


to those


outcomes


which


the


external


environment


considers


important;


"desired"


outcomes


refer


those


outcomes


valued


within


institutions


and


constituen-


cies who determine organizational


goals;


"viability"


refers to


internal


processes


such


as adaptability,


flexibility,


undis-


torted


communication,


satisfying


and


growth


producing


activities;


"vitality"


refers to the long-term survival


of the


institution;


and


"resources"


may


include


potential


faculty


members,


students,


and financial allocations


(Cameron,


1978a).











abstractions


that


are


inferred


from


the


results


of observable


phenomena,


the


total


meaning


effectiveness


unknown,


although


many


models


have


been


designed


attempt


encompass


(Cameron,


1983).


Domains


components)


of organizational


effectiveness


are used


to designate


the


types


of organizational


transactions


which


are


referred


in a study


(Cameron,


1978a).


The


internal


dominant


coalition


refers


the


strategic


constituency


who


influences


the


direction


and


functioning


organization


(Thompson,


1967).


They


are


generally


considered the major decision-makers


, the resource allocators,


determiners


of organizational


policy,


and


explicators


organizational


goals


(Pennings


Goodman,


1977;


Price,


1972;


Yuchtman


& Seashore,


1967).


The


dominant


coalition


chosen


provide


the


input


during the data


collection


this


study


are


specifically


the


administrators


maj or


subunits


interest


groups


within


the


area


international


studies


programs.


They


include


chief


administrative


officers


international


programs,


directors


area


study


centers,


student


affairs


administrators


charge


centers


foreign


student


services,


study


abroad


faculty


program


advisors,


department


heads


chairmen


academic


departments.











include i]

education,


international

foreign la


studies,


nguage


area


study,


study


exchanges


centers,

, study


global

abroad,


international


student centers,


comparative education,


intern-


ships,


and


the


like


(Backman,


1984)


Area


study


center


is a program


area


generally


represent-


a geographic


area


and


housed


in an academic


department.


The


center


focuses


one


specific


location


.e.


Latin


America,


Africa).


Frequently


these


centers


are


partially


funded


grants


United


promoting


States


international


Department


program


of Education


expansion


Title


(Manning,


1983)


Assumptions


and


Limitations


Certain assumptions were considered


in the design of this


study


The


first


assumption


was


that


public


and


private


institutions


sample


considered


international


studies


and


programs


important


component


the


institution.


second


assumption


was


that


the


internal


coalition


members


international


studies


and


programs


were


interested


achiev-


maximum


effectiveness.


third


assumption


was


that


individual


who provided the perception data


collected were


a position


answer


questions


accurately.


Several


factors


limited


this


study


First,


during


pilot


study,


was


found


that


objective


data


could


not











self-reports


individual


each


institution


which


cause


internal


and


external


validity


to suffer.


Justification


this


Study


several


necessity


institutions


studies


effective


higher


, researchers


international


education


have


identified


education


Florida


public


(Blankenship,


1980;


Florida


House


Representatives


Commerce


Committee,


1989 ;


Florida


State


University,


1986;


Mayes,


1981;


State


University System of Florida


Board of Regents,


1986;


Universi


of Florida


1989)


Council


Florida


International


expanding


Studies


international


and


trade,


Programs,


tourism,


financial


markets


and


investment


opportunities


will


require


trained


specialists


meet


the


state


needs


and


help


Florida


prepare


the


challenges


and


opportunities


global


marketplace.


A commitment


to international


education


can


best


achieved


effective


educational


programs


which


train


citizens


for adequate understanding,


participation,


communication


with


other


nations


(Florida


House,


1989)


Through


an analysis


of perceptions


held


key


admini


trators


of international


studi


and


programs,


an effective-


ness


profile


will


developed


relating


these


programs.


Further analysis


will


explore


the relationship between


similar


and differing perceptions of effectiveness


held by administra-










administrators


of international


education


programs


Florida


across


the


nation,


well


others


interested


enhancing

education


the

and


organizational

institutions o:


effectiveness


e higher


international


education.


Organization


the


Dissertation


Chapter


1 contains


the


research


question


and


justifica-


tion


for


study,


the


hypotheses,


synopsis


of organiza-


tional


effectiveness


theories


and


criteria,


definitions


terms,


and


assumptions


and


limitations.


Chapter


review


related


literature


and


divided


into


three


sections.


The


first


section


a review of


studies which focus


on the theoretical


literature on organiza-


tional


effectiveness


as it


relates


to organizational


behavior


performance


including


three


main


theories:


natural


systems


theory,


decision


process


theory,


and


goal


accomplish-


ment


theory.


This


section


will


include


studies


performed


the administrative sciences


in the corporate sector as


well


studies


performed


the


area


of higher


education


administra-


tion.


The


second


section


is a review


of studies


performed


higher


education


which


examine


effectiveness


and


differences


perspectives


educational


relevant


background,


various


or other


categories,


individual


gender,


factors.


Chapter


describes


procedure


employed











Chapter


contains


collected


data,


with


an analysis


interpretation.


Chapter


summary


discussion


the


findings,


implications


and


conclusions of


study as well


as recommen-


dations


future


studies.


Appendices


contain


a list


institutions


higher


education


letter


selected

permission


for

for


this

the


study,


introductory


instrumentation


used,


letters,


a list


participating


institutions,


case


studies


describing


administration


of international


programs


in public


universi-


ties,


and


miscellaneous


data


not


included


the


text.















CHAPTER


REVIEW


OF RELATED


LITERATURE


literature


review


was


confined


two


main


areas:


literature and studies exploring organizational


effective-


ness

and


theory

studies


the


exploring


corporate


organi


environment,


national


and


literature


effectiveness


higher


education


individual


administration,


background


including


differences


those


and/or


that


use


examine


percep-


tions


as a criteria


measurement.


The


first section


of thi


chapter begins with


an examina-


tion of theoretical


literature


and corporate sector studies on


organizational effectiveness


in the administrative sciences as


they h

formal


were


ave


developed


organic


published


nations.


from


since


The


1938


Barnard


corporate


1975


(1938)

sector


were


general

studies


the


theory of

reviewed


foundation


effectiveness


studies


later


performed


the


area


of higher


education.


Effectiveness


literature


and


studies


performed


area


were


higher


reviewed


education


the


during


second


period


section.


1975


review


1990


studies


which


explored


the


effects


differences


individual











education administration was also conducted.


These individual


differences


include


age,


sex,


level


education,


length


experience,


length


of employment.


Oraaniz


national


in the


Effectiveness


Corporate


Studi


Environment


Early


writers


administrative


and


organizational


sciences


began


defining


the


concept


of organi


national


effec-


tiveness


while


formulating


a general


theory


of formal


organi-


national


behavior.


classic


work,


Functions


Executive,


Barnard


(1938)


conceptualized


an organization


as a


"cooperative


system"


where


"effectiveness


cooperation


the accomplishment of the recognized objectives of


cooperative


action.


The


degree


accomplishment


indicates


the


degree


effectiveness"

Weber (1!


(Barnard,


947),


1938,


. 55)


writing on the rational


-legal bureaucracy,


described


type


of organization


capable o
[emphasis


most r
control
form in


Attaining
in original]


itional
over 1


known


iuman


precision,


discipline,


the ,
and
means


beings.


highest


degree


this


sense


carrying


It is


in stability,


out


superior


in the


reliability


efficiency


formally


imperative


any


stringency
337).


other
of the


Although


Weber


inferred


organizational


effectiveness


through


efficiency,


the concept stood alone without empirical


analysis


support


postulate


(Evan,


1976)


until


the


1960s


and


*La a-a


- ..~1 -


ak


*3 S


t -* 1 --J


A










Goal


Accomplishment


Theory


The


classical


works


the


administrative


and


organiza-


tional


sciences


were


the


basis


the


output


goal-based


theory


which have been


among the most


widely used approach-


es for


the


assessment


of effectiveness.


These


theories


were


established


the


assumption


that


the


organization


definable


can

thes


purposes


be "represented


e


goals"


or goals


the


(Seashore,


and


organizational


attainment


1956) ,


effectiveness


or progress


particularly


toward,


terms


organizations


ability


mobilize


internal


resources


accomplish


stated


obj ectives


(Etzioni,


1964;


Georgopolous


Tannenbaum,


1957;


Price,


1972


The


definition


was


later


expanded


include


"the


degree


achievement


of multiple


goals"


(Price,


1972


, p.


"the


degree


congruence


between


organizational


goals


and


observable


outcomes"


(Hannan


Freeman,


clearly


19W:


defined


applicable


7, p.

goal

and


. 110)

s, ho


In organizations


wever,


criteria


this


may


that do


effectiveness


especially


not have


theory


ambiguous


(Cameron,


1986)


The


Aston


group


began


the


empirical


research


this


aspect


of effectiveness


with


a variant


of Weber


s model


which


studied


the


interrelationships


of structural


dimensions


sample


organizations


Britain


(Hickson,


Pugh,










formalization,


centralization,


and configuration were studied,


organizational


performance


was


not.


Studies


done


same


group


(Pugh,


Hickson,


Hinings,


1969;


Pugh


Pheysey,


1973)


later


began


to consider


performance


aspects


organi


nations


such as reputation,


productivity,


profitability,


adaptability,


and


morale.


Blau


and


Schoenherr


(1971)


examined


the


concept


of organizational


and analyzed


complexity,


structure


in 53 employment security agencies


interrelationships of variables


such as size,


decentralization and administrative overhead


They


SCUSS


any


findings


on the


structural


interrelation-


ships


with


the


effectiveness


variable


"service"


"agency


output,


" although


they


were


included


study


The


authors


stated


their


concern


was


"not


with


how


well


they


perform"


but


added


that


nevertheless


of great


interest


determine


how


various


aspects


the


structure


affect


operations


and


services


supplied


to clients"


Other


researchers


the


area


microeconomic


theory


such


as Chandler


(1962)


Williamson


(1970)


focused


clearly


organizational


performance


conducting


comparative


study


tional


corporations


corporate


and


structure.


an analysis


Those


two


types


corporations


func-


which


are


large and complex were


found


to be more economically


effective


with


a multi-divisional


structure


than


those


with


unitary











Goal


accomplishment


the


most


common


approach


measuring


organizational


effectiveness.


These


studies


often


examine


objective


data


against


desired


outcomes,


including


standard


economic


measures


such


as earnings


per


share,


return


investment,


Bradstreet,


and


1973b;


profit

Robert


a percentage


Morris


Associates,


(Dun


1973;


Troy,


1966)


Other


studies,


however,


have


also


included


the


measurement of members


perceptions


of the effectiveness of


organization


(Evan,


1976)


or other


subjective


criteria.


Yuchtman


goal


and


approach.


Seashore


The


(1967)


first


described


the


two


components


"prescribed


goal


proach,

charter


" which


the


"characterized


organization,


focus


some


the


formal


category


personnel


as the


most


valid


source


of information


concerning


organizational


goals"


892)


Although


approach


the


most


widely


used


organizational


studies,


was


criticized


authors


empirical


failing


identification


provide


goals


rationale


organizational


property"


897)


The


second


component


the


"derived


goal


approach"


in which


the


investigator "derives


the ultimate goal


organization


which


may


from


independent


theory,


the


thus


intentions


arriving

and awa


r


at goals

eness of


members"


This


approach


uses


benefit










evaluation


external


to the


organi


zation,


and


reinforces


their


preference


for the open system view


of the organization,


which


eliminates


goals


as a dimension


of effectiveness


and


focuses


adaptation


system


environment


acquis


ition


scarce


resources.


They


did


admit,


however


that


some


the


resource


factors


they


recommend


could


considered


as goals.


Georgopoulos and Mann


(1962)


used the perception measure-


meant


approach


study


hospitals.


Mott


(197


also


utili


in a study


of government


agencies


Mahoney


(1967)


analyzed


percept ions


and


judgments


managers


industrial


companies


on 283


subordinate


units.


He found


that


managers


distinguish


among


criteria


the


measurement


organizational


effectiveness


and also assign different degrees


of importance


to these


criteria.


This


study was


important


development


of model


that


considered


thi


approach


as it


suggested


that managers


consciously


evaluate


effectiveness


different


applied


ways

all


The

types


perception


measurement


organizations,


however,


approach

these


can


studies


are more


reliable


and


valid


they


have objective measures


compare


themselves


with


(Evan


, 1976).


Gross


(196


proposed


"performance


-structure"


model


which gave seven organi


national


objectives and three universal










model,


seek


minimize


maximize


values


associated


with


these


three


goals.


Price


(197


scussed


the


problem


of identifying


goals


effort


analyze


organizational


effectiveness


propos


that


activity


the


best


major


measurement


deci


"the


sion-makers"


intentions


. 12).


discussion


the


philosophy


social


systems,


Rapoport


(1968)


discussed


relationship


organizational


goals


to the


open


system.


He stated


that


since


an organiza-


tion


is a goal-setting,


goal


-seeking and goal-changing


tem,


continuously


the


process


changing


initial


conditions


from


one


time


period


next"


organization,


therefore,


concerned


with


both


negative


feedback


goal)


effects

well


(decreasing


positive


deviations

feedback


from


a predetermined


effects


(increasing


deviations


from


a predetermined


goal).


Pennings


(1973)


interrelated


objective


and


subjective


measures


centralization


and


formalization


study


organizational


structure.


This


approach


led


further


attempts


to cross-validate


assessments


this


nature.


The


use


outcomes


outputs)


effectiveness


criteria


research


focusing


more


on efficiency


rather


than


effectiveness.


Katz


and


Kahn


(1978)


defined


efficiency










accomplished


establishing


cost-criteria


(including


costs


per


student,


costs


per


faculty


member,


costs


per


square


foot,


other


financial


measures)


an attempt


to discover how to


provide


quality


education


ess


money


(Bowen


Douglas,


1971)


These


indicators


are


not


adequate


the


comprehen-


sion


dynamics


of organizational


accomplishment,


not


enough


have


efficient


use


resources


college


university;


effective,


successful,


use


resources


must


occur


as well


(Cameron,


1978b).


The


two constructs,


efficiency


effectiveness,


differ


meaning.


Efficiency


demonstrated


using


resources


with little waste,


while effectiveness


is composed


of multiple


domains which may be operationalized


in different


ways.


Thus,


efficiency


effectiveness


criteria


differ


substantially


(Fincher,


1972)


Although


efficiency


studies


focus


aforementioned cost factors,


effectiveness studio


may utilize


a unique


of criteria


each


organi


zation


(Scott,


1977),


be descriptive


of inputs,


in nature


processes,


(Steers,


or outcomes


1977), ir

(Yuchtman


iclude


static views


& Seashire,


1967),


or use criteria indicating changes over time


(Pennings,


1976)


These


goal-based


studies


were


the


foundation


effec-


tiveness research


in the administrative


sciences and organiza-


tional


behavior


theory.


Further


studi


the


examina-










Natural


Systems


Theory


During the


1950s,


an alternative


to the goal-based


theory


emerged


introduced


the

into


form

the


natural


social


systems


sciences


theory,


and


which


focuses


interaction


an organization


with


environment


(Pfeffer


Salancik,


tiveness


1978)


began


The


definition


broaden


of organizational


result


studi


effec-


which


analyzed

system..


"the


extent


.fulfills


which


objectives


organic


without


zation


social


incapacitating


means and resources and without


placing strain on


its members"


(Georgopoulos


Tannenbaum,


1957,


. 535).


The


concept


natural


systems


theory


continued


evolve,


which


viewed


organization


'Iain


own


survival


activity


and


and


growth


change"


requirements


as well


and


as being


own


"autonomous


dynamics


except


interdependence

es" (Yuchtman &


Seashol


form of

re, 1967


information and energy exchang-


898).


Another


variation


the


natural


systems


theme


was


Yuchtman


Seashore


(1967)


resource


acquisition


theory,


which


analyzed


organization


"bargaining


position,


reflected


absolute


the


or relative


acquisition


ability


terms,


scarce


the


to exploit


valued


resources


organization,


either


environment


" (p.


the


898)










affect


the


overall


performance


the


organization


(Evan,


1976)


Open


theory


systems


relevant


theory,


to formal


a variation


work


on the


organizations,


natural

explored


systems

system


boundary


differentiation


integration


sub-systems,


input-transformation-output processes,


boundary transactions,


system maintenance


proce


sses


(Baker,


1973;


Georgopoulos


Cooke,


1979;


Katz


Kahn,


1966


, 1978;


Yuchtman


Seashore,


1967)


The


most


widely


cited


model


representative


systems


theory


Katz


and


Kahn


(1966)


They


have


described


systems,


such


as organi


nations


, as needing


to be politically


effective and


internally


efficient.


Zammuto


(198


summarized


their


theory


conci


sely


describing


the


characteristics


systems


nested


transforming,


tions
decay


and


outputs)


within


larger


exporting


with


(negative entropy);


homeostasiss)


having
permit
ments;
cycles
actors


complex
adaptive


and


a number


feedback


and


responses


social


of events


act,


rather


systems;


energy


their


(inputs


environment


able to re
paths (eq
regulatory


to changes


activities


than


the


are


ach a


. -


importing,
transforma-


avoid


given state


[uifinality);
mechanisms


in t
viewed


behavior


ieir


(4)
that


environ-


as patterned
f individual


. 34)


In thi


model,


organizational


effectiveness


based


the
I-na-'


degree
d,--.c.4-


to which


- -


CLIIC~Ma


forms


of energetic


-- 4 4n t


p Ir r


return,


including


A--n~M 3. 4


being


-


*










goals,


necessarily


whether


the


goals


are


actually


attained.


Many


studi


have


been


undertaken


the


field


organization


theory


analyze


the


structural


concept


organizations and the problem of organizational


effectiveness.


Investigators


these


studies


often


examine


the


boundary


within


which


boundary


the


organization


closed


system)


operates.


often


A relatively

maintained


closed


organi


action


trying


avoid


intrusion


government


agencies,


unions,


or distractions


to the


overall


work


perfor-


mance.


system)


greater


Conversely,


may


relatively


be desired


social


open


organization


responsibility


service


boundary


hopes


open


achieve


of social


goals


(Evan,


1976).


The organizational boundary


often the critical


point


examining


organizational


effectiveness


terms


efficiency


versus


social


utility


(Dubin,


1976)


Open


bound-


aries


systems)


are


generally


used


more


educational


organi


zations


since


they


strive


social


services


moreso


than


private


corporations


contrast,


natural,


open


systems


theory,


has


mainly


evolved


as a result


of research


corporate


sector


(Cameron,


1978b)


It generally


examines


an organization as a


social


system


in its


interaction


with











inputs


transformations


and/or


technical


transmitted


of
(T)


various


types


resources


mechanisms;


other


systems;


(3)
and


resources;


with


the


outouts


aid
(0)


feedback


of social


which


are


effects


(F) ,


whether


negative


or positive"


. (Evan,


1976


, p.


Research


evolved


thi


area


from


early


studies


which


examined


the


relationship


structure


(centralized


versus


decentralized)


performance,


later


studies,


which


expanded


include


environment


(internal


and


external


conditions)


analysis.


Lawrence

of plastics,


and L

foods,


orsch

and


(1967)


containers


performed


industry


a comparative


which


study


analyzed


the relationship between organizational performance,


organiza-


tional


structure,


type


of environment.


Chief


executive


officers


industries


were


asked


to give


subjective


evaluation


their


organization


performance,


which


were


then


correlated


composite


score


with


based


"total


on chance


performance i

Jes in profit


.ndex"

over


which

five


was


years,


changes


in sal


volume


over


five


years,


and


new


products


a percentage


of current


which


were


introduced


over


five


years.


The


authors


found


organizational


effectiveness


function


the


"goodness


fit"


between


structure


environment


39-40).


Negandhi


Reimann


(1973)


tested


the


Lawrence


Lorsch


study


India


examining


"impact


decentral










they


did


suggest


that


"dynamic


competitive


market


conditions


make


decentralization


effectiveness


than


more


do stable


important


non-competitive


organizational


conditions"


144) .


Further


analysis


authors


included


behavioral


well


as economic


criteria.


Evan


(1963)


focused


the


hierarchical


structure


industrial


organic


nations and


relationship to the transfor-


mation


process.


He found


that


"effectiveness


with


which


the


focal


organization


processes


inputs


is partly


a function


organizational


design"


which


includes


"the


authority


structure,


the


division


of labor,


and


the


system


rewards"


468-77)


His


variation


of systems


theory,


the


"organi


za-


tion-set


model"


(1972),


claimed


that


effectiveness


must


measured


"with


respect


to all


four


systemic


processes


as well


their


interrelationships"


organizational


success


199) .


obtaining


resources


includedd

(inputs)


that

and


channeling products,


services,


or decisions


(outputs)


to other


organizations


or to


consumers


or clients


partly


a function


factors


the


organization


set,


such


as size,


diversity,


structure.


Later


Evan


(1975)


regard


explored


addi-


tional


"set


factors"


such


as dimensions


organiza-


tional


culture


and


the


social


structure


of the


organization


environment


regard


resources.











Systems


theory,


as originally


developed


engineers


biologists


states


that


systems


strive


to maintain


homeosta-


which


equilibrium


condition


that


may


either


static


or dynamic


Parsons


(1971)


research


on modern


societ-


claimed


that


organizational


systems do not


try to maintain


equilibrium,


rather,


they


seek


to maximize


or minimize


one


more


values.


Another variation of open systems theory,


the contingency


management theory,


states that organizational


effectiveness is


based


on the


personality


of the


leader


the degree


to which


the


leader


given


power,


control


and


influence


over


situation


(Fiedler


Chemers,


1974)


Tosi,


Aldag


and


Story


(1973)


stated


that


the


contingency


model


assumes
behavior


that


organization


composed


identified boundaries


subsystems


within


the


system,
subunit


system.


Each


or unit,


that


have


subsystem


can


analyzed


subunit


as a unit


behavior


behavior


in its


interacting


own


with


right,
other


subunits.


These


researchers


explored


concept


organizational


effectiveness by


examining the organization as a system rather


than


the


organizational


goals.


According


to Zammuto


(1982),


researchers


assumed


that


this


would


allow


more


value-free


method


assess


organizational


effectiveness.


essay


on this


topic


, however,


stated


that


organizational


a$Pall n*llr 4 v n a e nl a4v. aa- na .nl4


(P


~t~lllhk~n hrl


n~Cr~rA


nrrnnn~rC


Ck~C


n~nn AC


r-ti T


r










contain


a certain


element


of value


is true


in making


judgment


on performance.


There


are


limitations


the


usefulness


the


systems


theory


model


effectiveness


(Cameron,


1986)


Since


focuses


the


interaction


organization


with


environment


(Pfeffer


Salancik,


1978;


Yuchtman


Seashore,


1967)


the construct i


assessed by


examining systemic process-


the


organization


the


primary


criteria,


including


inputs


resources,


transformations


resources,


outputs


other


systems,


and


feedback


effects


(Evan,


1976)


organization


loosely


coupled,


however,


acquired


resources


have


minimal


connection


with


the


organization


s products,


approach


an insufficient


assessment.


Deci


sion


Process


Theory


third


theoret i


approach


effectiveness


deci


sion


(internal)


process theory,


which focuses on assessing


internal


processes


and


operations


lieu


resources


the


end


become


result.


the


primary


The


analysis


criteria


this


activity


approach


practi


(Pfeffer


ces


, 1977)


Effective


organizations


have


a lack


internal


strain,


members


integrated


into


the


system,


trust


and


benevolence


toward


individuals


smoothly


flowing


information


(both










ineffective


organizations


possess


them


lesser


degree


(Cameron,


1980).


The


notion


foundation


that


deci


organizations


sion


develop


process


ways


theory


dealing


the


with


information


that


can be observed and measured.


Organizational


effectiveness


organization


specifically


optimizes


assessed


process


how


"getting,


well


storing,


retrieving,


allocating,


manipulating,


interpreting,


discarding


information"


(Seashore,


1983


Others


(Likert,


1961;


March


Simon,


1958;


Pettigrew,


1973)


focused


on a behavioral


approach and


examined limited rationality,


the


political


and


power


aspects


strategic


deci


sons,


participative,


group-based


decisions.


Argyris


and


Schon


(1978)


linked


individual


-level


choice


processes


to organizational


norms


and


processes


informa-


tion


management


and


devised


framework


organizational


learning.


Weick


(1969)


examined


problem


solving


and


decision


rules.


The


common


view


decision-process


theorists


that


organizations are


"information-processing and deci


sion-making


entiti


that


can


and


commonly


are,


evaluated


against


rational


standards


intrinsic


goodness


deci


sons


made;


appropriateness


decision


process;


impact










intrusions


There


strong


focus


whether


there


"fit"


between


the


organization


deci


sion


processes


organization


s situation


Another new


approach


which


will


be discussed


and is still


gaining


strength,


multiple


constituencies


model,


sometimes referred to as


the strategic constituencies approach


participant


satisfaction


model


Effectiveness


defined


the


extent


which


the


organization


constituencies


(stakeholders)


are


satisfied


(Cameron,


1980)


The


theory


ability


explores


of the


organizational


organization


to meet


effectiveness


the demands


through


of its various


strategic


constituencies


(Connolly


1980;


Zammuto,


1982).


Some


organizations,


however,


can


survive


while


ignoring


these


demands


(Cameron,


1986).


Strategic


multiple


constituency)


theory


evolved


model


began


to explore


the


issue


of values


value-free


value-based


judgments on performance.


These multiple constit-


uency models


began


view


organizations


as "intersect ions


particular


influence


loops,


each


embracing


constituency


biased


toward


assessment


the


organization


s activities


terms


of its


own


exchanges


within


the


loop"


(Connolly


et al


1980,


process


. 215


the


Instead


organization


assessing


goes


goals


through


or ends,


attempt










approach


and


explored


the


notion


that


various


constituents


have


sometimes


differing


values


which


may


have


affect


organizational


performance


(Zammuto,


1982


, p.


The


which si

success"


basi


iggested t

should be


model


:hat


was


criterion


expanded


to include


an article


measure

e society


Bass


"organi


(195


national


as a whole,


organization


management,


and


employees,


which


were


value-based


j udgments


("the


degree


value


organization


society,


the


degree


value


which


organization


was


profitable,


and


the


degree


of value


to which


organization


was


value


employees")


157)


Early


studies


this


area


tested


Bass


' theory


and


found


that


various


constituencies


believed


different


criteria


important


(Friedlander


and


Pickle,


1967)


An Integration


of Theori


These


theories


are


relevant


to thi


study


on organi


national


effectiveness.


They


describe


how


administrators


perceive


organizational


objectives,


have


different


sometimes


changing


priorities


, are


affected


the


organiza-


tional


environment,


and


are


internally


composed


various


stakeholders with


similar or differing views on effectiveness.


Pennings


Goodman


(1977)


first


triangulated


these










differ


scope


utility


they


are


complementary


interdependent


facets


organizational


behavior


(Seashore,


1983)


Constituents


were


found


to be important


to the concept of


multiple


integration of


effectiveness theories


since they are


the


principle


"integrators"


(Seashore,


1983,


Members


organization


are


particularly


important


since


they


"integrate


evaluative


information


with


reference


to their


own


value


behavior


perspectives"


as constituents


are


while


"readily


acting


observable


their


their


organizational


and


settings


and,


addition,


are


qualified


informants


about


other


constituencies"


. (Seashore


, 1983,


63-64)


Together,


these


theorists


indicate


interest


research


on organizational


effectiveness


in hopes


of defining


relevant criteria as


identification


well


of boundari


as defining the construct space


criterion)


(the


of effectiveness.


Some


organizations,


such


certain


industries


measuring


effectiveness


through


profitability,


have


been


able


to reach


conclusion


colleges


regarding


these


universities,


issues,


have


been


while


unclear


others,


such


regarding


what


constitutes


effective


performance


(Cameron,


1986)


These


tional


researchers


effectiveness


explored


in the


the


corporate


concept


environment


of organiza-


and











Organizational


Effectiveness


Studies


Hifther.


Education


For


many


years,


question


of how


assess


organiza-


tional


effectiveness


higher


education


has


been


a topic


question


and


debate.


Many


studies


have


attempted


assess


"quality"


various


aspects


graduate


and


profe


ssional


education,


undergraduate


level,


and


the


institutional


level,


while


other


studies


have


focused


on the


organization


effectiveness


as an administrative


unit.


Conrad


Blackburn


(1985)


completed


an assessment


departmental


quality


in regional


colleges


and


universities


investigating


45 departments


14 institutions.


Rather


than


using


reputational


ratings


the


researchers


used


departmental


quality

dent v


students,


as the


ariables


dependent va]

identified


programs,


and


riable.


Of a total


four


facilities)


categories

indicators


of 73 indepen-


(faculty,

of depart-


mental


quality,


were


used


the


final


analysis


to deter-


mine


the


degree


their


correlation


with


departmental


quality.


Conrad


Blackburn


reported


that


"multiple


and


diverse


factors


contribute


graduate


departmental


excel


lence"


281).


They


found


little


correlation


between


departmental


quality


graduate


degrees


awarded


the


number


and


range


programs.


Studies


on the


assessment


of professional


education have











following pr

consistently


oblems:


The


identified


same


professional


ratings;


and


school


the


are


diversity


professional


school


necessitates


use


different


criteria


academic


iplines


that


are


usually


assessed


a departmental


basis.


Hunger


Wheelen


(1980)


employed


survey methodology to


report


that


deans


and


directors


undergraduate


business


schools


and


M.B.A


programs


well


senior


personnel


executives believed that


faculty reputations were an important


factor


in rating


the


best


business


school


Accreditation


and


mandated


standards


affect


process


monitoring


quality


programs


and


institutions.


Director


Council


Postsecondary


Accreditation


has


defined

program


quality


objectives.


the

Thi


graduate


allows


level


the


terms


consideration


special

whether


the programs are


"research oriented,


disciplinary or


interdis-


ciplinary,


oriented


toward


beginning


a career


or developing


one


s own


skills,


or a combination"


(Millard,


1984)


Webster


(1979)


suggested


how


assess


the


quality


master


s degrees


His


major


point


was


the


need


beyond


quantifiable


data


and


employ


the


use


variety


criteria


order


more


accurately


assess


not


just


produc-


tivity,


but


also


student


outcomes,


facility


, departmen-










reputational


rankings


and more emphasis


on the


response


to the


program


objectives


students


' needs.


The


Ohio


Board


Regents


(1982)


directed


colleges


universities


the


State


to define


the


purposes


and


expecta-


tions


their


master


programs


and


develop


their


own


statements of


acceptable quality


They


supported the position


that


the


diversity


of objectives


required


diverse


measures


excellence,


single


set


accepted


criteria


programs.


Beyer and Stevens


(1977)


examined


four models


of possible


predictors


of change


in prestige


university


departments.


Using data


collected


from 1


faculty


in 80 departments,


the


study


found


that


results


exhibited


large


differences


across


fields


The


authors


stated,


example,


that


while


resource model


the best predictor


for sociology,


a research


productivity


model


and


organizational


model


were


good


predictors


political


science


and


chemistry


The


fourth


model,


faculty


reputation,


yielded


the


fewest


significant


results


. The


authors


concluded


that


no single


set


of factors


can reliably predict


improvement


or decline


in prestige across


university


disciplines.


Bare

systems n


(1980)


lodel


performed

academic


empirical


analysis


performance


twenty











correlates


departmental


outcomes


including


faculty


work-


load,


tenure


pattern


and disciplinary differences.


The eight


departmental


input


and


process


variables


included


student


satisfaction


with


their


overall


learning


experience,


student
student
student
student
faculty
quality,
faculty
degrees


sati
sati


sfaction
faction


graduate


employment


satisfaction


sati


conferred


with
with


school


faculty,
academic


admissions


in field


with


sfaction,


per


advis


ing,


ratio,


ratio,
departmental


research


and


faculty


member.


McAllister


and


Wagner


(1981)


performed


comprehensive


study


relationship


between


research


resources


research


output


based


approximately


universities.


There


was


evidence


of a linear


relationship


between


research


development


expenditures


and


the


quantity


scientific


journal


articles,


as well


as a positive


relationship


between


the


number


of cites


received


per


paper


and


number


papers


published


the


basic


research


journals


the


fields


chemistry,


physics,


and


biology.


Aery


(1978)


explored


the


concept


of effectiveness


area


of student


affairs.


She concluded


that


women


administra-


tors


this


field


need


to be


supported


their


professional


development


just


as male administrators do,


or they will


leave


the


field


move


into


other


areas


higher


education


which


W% Wfl~~h fl* a inn n 4. a r nn A aq i 1 hllnnman' .a na a 4er..


~~m; n; cC r~,


mhnC hYI( n~


n mm h/" h


C)rn


A~nnnC nnC


n-% n -











effectiveness


effectiveness


differences


higher


could


education.


be measured


in perceived


Cameron


higher


effectiveness


theorized


education


would


exist


that


that


according


to different


categories.


Focusing


on the


generation


reliable


and


valid


criteria,


thi


doctoral


study


utilized


survey


methodology


analyzed


responses


dominant


coali


tion members at


six


institutions


Nine dimensions of


organiza-


tional


effectiveness


were


derived.


Reliability


and


validity


were


tested


and


the


results


found


that


institutions


varied


significantly


and


uniquely


across


nine


effectiveness


dimensions


their


individual


profiles.


Respondents


perceptions


effectiveness


within


their


individual


institu-


tions


were


analyzed


five


general


administrative


categories


and


were


found


have


similar


perceptions


effectiveness.


followup


study,


Cameron


(1981)


surveyed


academic


department


heads


administrators


(dominant


coalition


members)


at 41 institutions of higher education and


identified


four d

morale,


lomains


external


organi


national


adaptation,


and


effectiveness

extracurricular


(academic,


domains


utilizing


a clustering


procedure


on the


previously


identified


nine


dimensions.


Results


indicated


that


the


same


nine


dimensions


emerged


these


41 institutions


and


were


found











organizational


construct


ness
tions
not b
each
with


that
and


such


effectiveness


that


a general


applicable


domains


model


types


of organizational


multidomain
effective-
f organiza-


activity


would


e enlightening;


major


effectiveness


a different


characteristics,


institutions


are


that


profile


may


of distinctive


and,
are


effective


effective
internal


be associated


organizational


in external


domains,


domains


vice


versa.


In a third


study


Cameron


(1986)


focused


on the


identify


cation


factors


that


are


most


powerful


predicting


explaining


effectiveness


and


factors


that


are


associated


with


improvement


effectiveness.


Described


exploratory


investigation


(since


there


theory


existing


this


area),


the


research


questions


were


identified


guides


understanding


organizational


effectiveness


in higher


educa-


tion,


used


and


the


knowing


same


how


instrument


improve


the


The


earlier


current


research


study


(1978,


1981


, 1982)


to measure


effectiveness


four years


later


in 29


the


same


schools.


Psychometric


tests


found


that


the


same


nine


dimensions


effectiveness


emerged


and


had


internal


consistency


reliability


and


discriminant


validity


Each


institution had a


unique effectiveness profile and no


institu-


tion


scored


high


on all


effectiveness


dimensions.


Scores


institutions


the


effectiveness


dimensions


in both


previous


studies


were


found


>e significantly


correlated











regression


analysis


found


that


the


strategic


orientation


management


was


significantly


related


high


scores


every


dimension


of effectiveness.


Managers


orientation


toward


proactivity


quality


students


they


can


attract


are


among


most


influential


variable


identified in


the study


in predicting to


what


extent


dimensions.


institution


Further


analysis


will


score


identified


effectiveness


that


institutions


that


improved


over


time


were


externally


oriented


in strategic


affairs,


were


not


caught


internal


legalistic


matters,


had


a cosmopolitan


and


diverse


student


body


, and


did


have


a faculty union.


Institutions


that


declined


effectiveness


were


strategically


oriented


toward


internal


institutional


affairs,


had


large


local


student


body,


and


unionized


faculty.


Cameron


(1978b)


work


particularly


relevant


to thi


study since


it showed


that organizational


effectiveness can be


measured


institutions


higher


education


utili


zing


instrumentation


that


examines


administrators


perceptions


effectiveness.


Although


Cameron


found


that


administrators


perceptions


were


similar,


sample


his


study


was


rather


homogeneous


five


categories


were


similar


administrative


level


responsibility


During


this


study,










Studies


on International


Proqraams


There


have


been


two


major


national


studies


performed


international


programs


institutions


of higher


education.


First,


the


American Association


of State


Colleges


and


Univer-


sities


(1977),


conducted


18-month


study


investigate


international/intercultural


education


approaches


utilized


320 member


institutions


of this


organization.


It examined


current


state,


trends,


differences,


elements,


principles,


programs,


or activities


that


could


be adapted


other


institutions.


After


gathering


data


on the


member


institutions,


50 were


selected


for site visits.


Findings


from


this

some


study

type


were:


three-fourths


international


program,


the


institutions


although


they


had


varied


considerably


and


very


reached


large


proportions


of under-


graduates;


trends


indicated


more


planned


programs,


particularly


the


areas


of study


abroad


and


the


enrollment


foreign


students;


was


particularly


important


there


to be


institutional


commitment


the


programs


with


administrative


support


and


faculty


participation,


and


establishment


of linkages;


key


elements


international


programs


included


commitment,


strong


administrative


support,


qualified


interested faculty,


and links within and


without


the


college


or university;


and,


adaptable


ideas


included











strong


leadership


program


planning


development;


use


of outreach


programs


to stimulate


community


interest.


the


second


study,


the


American


Council


on Education


(1988)
I


examined


international


studies


two-year


and


four-


year


institutions.


sectional


sample


"snapshot"


of forty


Its purpose

of what was <


institutions.


was


provide


occurring


Utilizing


nationally


a survey


cross-


from


design,


first


questionnaire gathered


objective data


from


coordinators


international


programs


that


described


the


institutions'


policies


was


and


used


activities


elicit


this


opinions


area.


from


A second


questionnaire


presidents/chief


academic


officers


regarding


the


importance


international


education


their


students,


in comparison


with


other


programs,


and


terms


of funding


priorities.


The


major


finding


was


that


there


appeared


to be greater


involvement


in and


support


international


programs


four-year institutions,


however,


there were many opportunities


expansion


both


sectors.


Although


two-thirds


the


four-year college presidents considered international programs


"very


important"


the


education


their


students,


less


than


half


at the


two-year


institutions


agreed.


Instead,


their


main


priority


was


preparation,


shared


only


one-


eighth


the


four-year


presidents.


Although it


was


found











Only descriptive


statistics were


used to di


close the opinions


of the senior official


degree of


importance.


This


research


was


very


informative,


however,


it did


not


pursue


an in-depth


investigation


the


degree


and


nature


opinion


variance


between


and


within


institution


officer


or what


might


cause


variance.


Perception


Assessment


Studies


other


research has


areas


been


higher


performed


education


to examine


administration,


varying perceptions


greater


depth.


Johnson


(1981)


conducted


study


faculty


perceptions


administrator


role


and


perception


the


degree of


success


colleges


and


universities.


Subjects were


chairperson


and


faculty


members


physical


education


departments


at colleges


and


university


es.


Subjects


completed


two


instruments


designed


measure


perception,


28-item role


perception instrument


and a


13-item perception of


success


instrument.


Likert


scale


model


was


used


assess


perceptions.


In addition,


data


was


obtained


on the


faculty


s current


administrator


marital


in the


status,


following


total


areas


years


age,


present


sex,


administrative


r position,


total


years


administrative


experience










been


employed,


and


the


total


years


of experience


at the K-


level


Results


indicated


that


the


ideal


department


administrator


would


single


female


any


age


with


years


higher


education,


ess


than


years


administrative capacity,


and


on the


present


job


ess


than five


years.


Female


administrators


were


perceived


faculty


more


successful


when


sex


and


marital


status


was


considered.


Some


experience


the


K-12


level


was


also


indicated


important


to perceptions


of the


role


and


degree


success


administrators.


Knight


and


Holen


(1985)


conducted


a survey


design


study


that


investigated


faculty perceptions


of the


effectiveness


department


heads.


Results


indicated


that


leadership


styles


affect


perceptions


effectiveness


and


faculty


evaluations,


recruitment,


selection,


professional


development


department heads


are


related


strongly


to two


leadership


style


elements


, "initiating


structure"


and


"consideration"


Austin


(1985)


conducted


an examination


of personal


, job-


related


and


environmental


factors


contributing


to job


satis-


faction of


260 mid-level


administrators at a large


university


The


researcher


examined


personal


characteristic


, including


sex,


age,


number


years


employed


the


institution;


perceptions


of job


characteristic


, including


autonomy,


task










and


professional


staff


involved;


and


salary


level.


Utilizing multiple


regression


analyses


results


indicated


that


age


sex


were


significant


predictors


satisfac-


tion


than


(with


younger


older


administrators


or male


administrators)


females


and


more


perceiving


satisfied


a caring


environment


was


the most


significant


environmental


predictor,


while perceiving


a fair environment was


the only


environmental


characteristic not


significantly associated with


job satisfac-


tion.


McDowell


(1985)


conducted


study


midwestern


university


explore


the


perceptions


faculty


members


regarding


current


and


desirable


information


from


department


chairs


and


their


relationship


with


those


chairs,


coworkers,


and


top


administrators.


Two


instruments


(the


Receiver


Information Scale and the Communication Relationships Scale of


the International


Communication Association)


were completed by


the


respondents.


The


results


indicated


that


limited


information was received by


faculty members regarding mistakes


and failures of their departments,


technical


changes,


teaching


evaluations,


job-related problems.


Female


faculty members


indicated


that


they


received


less


information


from


their


department chairs


than


their


fellow male


faculty members,


their


perceptions


their


relationships


with


chairs,


col-











A study


on the effect


of selected biographical


factors on


faculty


perceptions


of law


school


deans


'leader


behavior


was


performed


(Johns,


1986)


examining


perceptions


of 81 deans


and


1,001


faculty members


81 law


school


The


relationship


factors


formal


(including


education,


noneducational


age,


years


legal


sex,


teaching


work)


academic


rank,


experience,


to perceived


leader


extent


and


years


behavior


was


analyzed


using


questionnaire


data.


Results


indicated


that


their


were


significant


differences


perceptions


between


deans


and


faculty


Deans


reported


exhibiting


more


leadership


than


was


perceived


faculty;


faculty members


indicated


they


would


like


more


involvement


from


their


deans.


In another


study


Bogenschutz


and


Sagaria


(1988)


invest


gated


the


perceptions


mid


-level


administrators


higher


education


regarding


career


growth


and


aspirations.


A discus-


sion


on the


increase


of mid-level


administrators,


the


struc-


ture


and


nature


higher


education


organizations,


and


the


affect


advancement


non-tenure


accruing


opportunities


positions


was


included.


on traditional


The


career


researchers


collected


data


regarding


the


perceived


career


aspirations


mid


-level


administrators,


motivating


factors


affecting


their


career deci


sions,


and organizational


factors they perceived as


facilitating and inhibiting their career development.


Results











Murray


and


Feitler


(1989)


examined


the


interactions


current


leadership


theories


and


perceptions


of organizational


effectiveness


related


demographic


characteristics


(enrollment,


retention rate,


percentage of students completing


college


four


years,


percentage


students


receiving


financial


aid,


age,


sex


and


current


position


of respondent)


small,


private,


midwestern


colleges.


The


leadership


theories


utilized


were


the


Bass


(1985)


transactional


and


transformational


models;


while


the


organizational


effective-


ness


model


used


was


Cameron


(1978b)


Data


were


collected


by two questionnaires which


were sent


to key


administrators at


each


institution.


Administrator perceptions


were gathered


questionnaire


regarding


views


leadership,


leadership


higher


education,


transformational


leadership,


organizational


effectiveness


higher


education.


Results


indicated


that


there


was


significant


relationship


between


perceptions of


organizational


effectiveness and the demograph-


variable


, and


academic


excellence


appeared


to be the


most


predictive


of variation


perceptions


effectiveness.


A gender-related


study was


performed


Cimperman


(1986)


on female


higher


education


administrators


due


to the


lack


data


their


behavior


perceptions


the


time.


and


The


views


their


purpose


the


own


leadership


study


was











respondents


(320


male,


female)


completed


self-percep-


tion


instruments.


regarding


The


leadership


results


style,


range,


indicated


and


that


adaptability


perceptions


did


vary


according


to gender.


Mark


(1986)


considered gender differences among mid


-level


administrators


higher


education.


Based


review


research,


the


author


focused


the


characteristics


administrators,


institutional


climate


characteristics and


effect


gender,


and


the


socialization


career


patterns


according


to gender


Specific


suggestions


and


concerns


future


research


were


addressed,


including


administrators


perceptions


and


evaluations


their


work;


demographic


factors;


skills


mid-level


managers;


and


leadership


as an


expression


achievement.


Organizational


climate


institutions


of higher


educa-


tion


was


examined


Moran


Volkwein


(1988)


A sample


nine


institutions


containing


,397


respondents


was


drawn


from


the


Higher


Education Management


Institutes


' (HEMI)


data


bank,


which maintains


a research


analysis


program


on managerial


functioning


and


effectiveness.


The


institute


surveys


board


members,


presidents,


administrators,


faculty,


staff,


students


assess


their


attitudes


towards


and


percept ions


management at


their


institutions.


For thi


study,


a question-










varied


cant

tions


among


than


institutions;


organizational


of climate


were


subunit


effects;


found


effects


and


were more


administrators


to be significantly


more


signifi-


percep-


positive


than


faculty


Although


length


service


was examined


affect


on perceptions


of climate,


was


not


found


to have any


significant


there was


influence.


a positive


Analysis


perception


institution


climate


which


contrast with an


institution


which


there


was


negative


perception


climate


found


evidence


a discriminant


function


("goal


performance


standards")


based


on institutional


goal


clarity,


supervisory


performance,


and


performance-based


evaluations,


and


suggested


that


there


may


"implications


organi


za-


tional e

regarded


effectiveness


measure


inasmuch


positive


effectiveness


and


climate


weak


can


climate


suggests


the


inverse"


. (p.


378)


This


finding


was


summarized


as being


"quite


consistent


with


the


work


of current


theorists


who


goal


claim


that


focus


effective


organi


organizations


national


behavior


have


that


a high


degree


congruent


with


that


goal


focus"


. (p.


378).


Wheeler


and


Tack


(1989)


conducted


a study


on differences


between


male


and


female


college


presidents


attitudes


and


leadership


behaviors.


The


Fisher/Tack


Effective


Leadership


Inventory,


a mail


questionnaire,


was


used


to identify


distin-











Differences


responses


were


not


due


to gender,


rather,


they


were


based


on years


of experience


in higher


education.


Linkages


between


faculty/administrator


perceptions


student

examined


outcomes


Ewell


and

(1989)


institutional

as a measure


characteristics


of perceived


were


institu-


tional


effectiveness.


The


study


focused


on the


investigation


of the


affect


of "institutional


culture"


variables


on percep-


tions


effectiveness,


characteristics such


independent


as size and


type


more


of institutic


traditional

>n. Culture


was


assessed


having


respondents


weight


descriptive


state-


ments


about


the


institution


the


basis


of which


statement


most


closely


described


respondent


institution.


The


sample


consisted


four-year


institutional


participants


faculty


with


surveys


representatives


top


selected


administrators


randomly


from


and


institutional


lists.


Instrumentation utilized


for the


study


consisted of


items


drawn


from Sections


, and


8 of the Assessment


Performance of


Colleges and Universities


(APCU)


survey,


a 183-


item


questionnaire


developed


the


Organizational


Studies


program of


the National


Center for Higher Education Management


Systems


examine


variety


participant


perceptions


higher


education


institutions.


Seven


variables


institu-


tional


characteristics


were


also


drawn


from


the


Higher











headcount,


student


selectivity,


control


and


institutional


type.


Effects


were


established


perceptions


student


satisfaction


and


student


personal


development,


but


not


student


academic


development


student


career


development.


Relationships between institutional culture and faculty/admin-


istrator


perceptions


of a number


variables


educa-


tional


process


degree


with

which


student


outcomes


information


and


were


confirmed,


feedback


are


such


valued


decision making


and


the


frequency


of student/faculty


contact.


Results


of the


study


suggested


that


institutional


culture


may


a powerful


determinant


of perceived


effectiveness.


Summary


This


review


of literature


in the


area


of organizational


effectiveness


began


with


studies


the


administrative


and


organizational


behavioral


science


followed


with


studies


which


assessed


effectiveness


higher


education,


closed


with


studies


that


examined


higher


education


administrators


perceptions,


including


some


that


considered


individual


background


differences.


Throughout


review,


there


were


several


recurring


themes


regarding


the


construct


and


assess-


ment


of organizational


effectiveness.











1976)


Many


corporate


researchers


have


examined


objective


data


against


desired


outcomes


(Chandler,


1962


Bradstreet,


1973a


1972


Robert


Morri


Associates,


1973


Williamson,


1970)


Others


examined


the


organization


system


efforts


interaction


the


to define


system


boundary


with


and


analyzed


environment


least


four


systemic


processes


(Fiedler,


1974;


Hirsch,


1975


Katz


Kahn


1966


Lawrence


Lorsch,


1967


Nagandhi


Reimann,


1973


Another


approach


was


to analyze


how well


the


organl-


zation


optimi


zes


process


decision-making


and


informa-


tion


management


(Argyris


Schon,


1978;


Hage,


1974


Likert,


1961


March


Simon,


1958;


Pettigrew,


1973;


Vroom


Yetton,


1973;


Weick,


1969)


Many


studies


also


combined


the


analysis


objective


and


subjective


data


including


perception


measurement


(Cameron,


1978b,


1982


, 1983


Georgopoulos


Mann,


1962


Mott,


1972


Although


the


literature


revealed


that


effectiveness


at the


heart


organizational


models,


the


area


of higher


education


appears


institutional


lacking


(organizational


empirical

) and Dr


w-


analysis


:ogram


regard-


(sub-unit)


assessment.


Most


effectiveness


studi


are


being


performed


largely


with


the


assessment


perceptions


(Cameron


1978b;


Ewell,


1989;


Johnson,


1981;


Knight


Holen,


1985


9










Wheeler


Tack,


1989)


; however,


there


not


yet


been


strong


focus


combining


the


two


together


explore


affects


the


individual


category


effectiveness


perceptions.


In their text on the subject


of organizational


effective-


ness


measurement,


Cameron


and


Whetten


(1982)


concluded


that


"there


cannot


effectiveness"


one


. 262)


universal


because


model


"there


organizational


no universal


theory


of organizations"


63);


and


is more


worthwhile


develop


frameworks


assessing


effectiveness


than


to try to


develop theories of


effectiveness"


. 267)


because


only


way


come


grips


with


definitional


and


assessment


problems.


That


, measuring


constructs


leads


an improved


understanding


Further


of constructs"


investigation


267).


found that the specific subunit of


international


studies


and


programs


in institutions


of higher


education has


been


assessed


organizational


effective-


ness


other


than


individual


case


study


methodology


(for


summaries of


such case studies,


which describe the administra-


tive


structure


international


programs


institutions


higher


education,


see


Appendix


or descriptive


statistic


alone.


the


purpose


of this


study


examine


the


construct










literature


review


helped


to identify the key


questions of


this


study


which


include


whether


administrator


perceptions


effectiveness


vary


individual


institutions


and by


five


key


administrative


job categories;


and,


whether differences


administrators


individual


backgrounds


had


affect


their


perceptions.


Findings


from


this


study


could


contribute


to a knowledge


base


regarding


the


internal


functioning


international


programs.


The


instrumentation


and


methodology


developed


this


study


described


the


next


chapter.















CHAPTER


METHODOLOGY


This


chapter


includes


description


and


summary


of the


procedures

research


developed


problem.


and

The


used


research


order


problem


investigate


was


explore


Cameron


(1978a)


theory


that


the


construct


of organizational


effectiveness


higher


education


could


measured


analyze


administrator


perceptions


effectiveness


category,


and


that


differing


perceptions


among


five


admini


trative job categories


for nine specific effectiveness


domains


would


program


realized.


level


Thi


study


rather than


focused


institutional


analysis

level.


A second-


question


was


whether


individual


background


differences,


age,


sex,


educational


level,


experience,


etc.,


may


affect


perceptions


of effectiveness.


During


review


of literature,


was


found


that


most


empirical


studies


measuring


organizational


effectiveness have


been


conducted


the


administrative


and


organization


behav-


ioral


sciences,


mainly


the


corporate


sector.


Most


the


studies


performed


area


of higher


education have been at


the


organizational


level


, that


they


have


explored


asssssmsn nftnF


1 nzt i I-il i n n 1


5-. me4. 4-i. 4 a


&len


mnaC oCllrl; nn


O











have


explored


the


notion


of organizational


effectiveness


the


sub-unit,


or program


level.


The


area


international


studies


and


programs


was


selected


as a representative


sub-unit


to investigate.


Since


relatively


new


some


curriculums,


does


have


precedent


in terms


of organizational


structure


or location


administrative


academic


hierarchies


higher


educa-


tion.


Additionally,


unlike


many


strictly


disciplinary


departments,


international


studies


and


programs


can


encompass


wide


variety


components.


These


components


generally


include:


area


study


centers


(originally


designed


to represent


a geographic


area


order


to create


specialists


the


field


centers


information


the


government


access


times


need),


international


student


services


(which


perform


basic


student


affairs


admissions


functions


such


immigration


paperwork,


counseling


and


orientation,


housing


referrals,


and other nonteaching functions),


outreach programs


(which


seek


inform


the


general


public,


especially


K-12


public school


children,


about international studies),


research


student


exchange


agreements


(generally


contract


negotia-


tions


coordinated


through


council


and


administered


dean),


and


academic


departments


(performing


the


traditional


teaching


functions


within


the


university).


Consequently,










During


review


of literature,


evidence


was


found


that


the


administrative


research


this


area


primarily


utilized


the


case


study


method,


descriptive


statistics,


which


do not


provide


generalizability


characteristic


CS.


This


study


explores administrator perceptions of the current levels


of effectiveness


of international


studies


and


programs


at 23


public


institutions


of higher


education


the


Association


American


Universities


(AAU)


survey


research


design


was


adopted to assess


the perceptions of organizational


effective-


ness


held


administrators


five


different


categories


at each


institution.


The


following


sections


describe


the


research


sample,


selection,


instrument


development,


data


collection,


and


data


analysis.


Procedure


The

instrument


researcher


which


collected


asked


and


international


analyzed data

I studies and


from


program


administrators


rate


their


perceptions


the


extent


which


their


program


possessed


certain


characteristic


which


typify


nine


domains


organizational


effectiveness


institutions

examined per


higher


ceptions


categories


education.


of effectiveness


each


institution


The

held


and


researcher


five


examined


then


different


individual









64

A review of the literature, including relevant
theoretical literature and research studies in the
areas of the organizational and administrative
sciences and higher education administration.


The development of a survey instrument adapted from
Cameron's (1978a) instrumentation to measure orga-
nizational effectiveness in higher education. It
assessed perceptions of nine dimensions of organi-
zational effectiveness as held by international
studies administrators, and collected data on indi-
vidual administrator backgrounds.


The administration of the
studies administrators
categories at each of the
sample that agreed to part


The collection and analysis of
individual data for the five
categories.


The analysis
ing the devel
profiles for
ries, within
all institute
background di


survey to international
in five different job
S23 institutions in the
-icipate.


the comparative
administrative


and presentation of the data, includ-
opment of organizational effectiveness
the five administrative job catego-
each institution and across
.ons, and an analysis of the individual
fferences in relation to perspectives.


The identification of characteristics of
tional programs which were perceived
effective by administrators and the ident
of individual background factors which
perceptions.


Research


interna-
as most
ification
affected


Population


The


public


research


member


population


institutions


this


the


study


Association


consisted


American


Universities


(AAU).


The AAU,


an educational


association which


often


I.' a r


considered


~CIC


the
k a. 3


most


prestigious


organization


- a a. - A... a


----


I


|


rrr


1











represent


27 states,


District


of Columbia,


and


Canada


(see


Appendix


Membership


the


AAU


invitation


only.


Sample


Selection


All


public


institutions


who


were


AAU


members


were


invited


to participate


the


study.


(For


a list


of institu-


tions


that


agreed


participate,


see


Appendix


rationale


sample


using


and


method


the


was


likelihood


increase


the


collecting


diversity


data


which


would


representative


of public


institutions,


including


wide


range


geographic


locations,


number


programs,


enrollment


size,


cost.


Once


tion,


there


a list was


was


institutional


provided by


each


commitment


chief


participa-


administrative officer


international


studies


programs


administrators


five


general


job


categories,


who


were


then


requested


participate


in the


study.


participation


was


voluntary,


responses


were


included


The


job


categories


consisted


the


following:


Job Cateaorv


Chief Administrative Officer.


Generally


this


position


holds


the


title


dean


international


studies


and


programs.


This


position


normally


has


most


responsibility,


the


highest


on the


hierarchical


scale,


and


requires


leadership


capabilities.


This











reports


academic


directly


affairs,


provost,


or the


vice-president


president.


Job


Cateaorv


Director Fnru~i an Stiirinnt
.... - V ~. -.


This


position


deals


with


international


students


scholars


traveling


to and


from


international


locations.


The primary responsibilities


include the certification of


visas


often

and c


and


counseling


reports


oordinate


to the

is with


foreign


vice

the


students.


president

admissions


This


student


office


and


position


affairs,


academic


departments.


Job


Catecorv


Director Arsa q*irhy flon*or
.- -- -- -- w U N ~ 4---


This


position


coordinates


a program area


generally


represent-


a geographic


area


and


housed


an academic


depart-


ment.


The Center focuses


on one specific


location


(i.e.,


Latin


America,


Africa).


Since


most


centers


are


awarded


federal grants promoting international program expansion,


center


directors


often


coordinate


activities


on and


campus


enhance


the


program


offerings


and


increase


awareness


the


academic


and


surrounding


community.


These


activities


might


include


seminars,


guest


speakers


or performers,


and


outreach


programs.


Job


Cateaorv


tu rnrn A-iui-cnr


This


position


normally


held


faculty


member


that


Study


Director


Pn rP i rrn


~Prtfi ~ac


r


SftrtlPnt


Director


Z~rP;I


~trr~v


~Pntar


*


Abm;r d


cnr


.


Pmnr~m











may


include


academic


advisement,


admissions


decisions,


development


program


content,


traveling


abroad,


and


instruction.


This


position,


although


faculty


in nature,


often


coordinates


with


the


chief


administrative


officer


international


programs.


Job


Cateaorv


- - --- -- -. a -. .. ~ &. 'A 4*
Chairperson an Anatinmin form r+,non4-


(international


disciplines).


This


position,


administra-


tively


accountable


the


dean


the


college,


provides


leadership


the


department


means


facilitating


program development and


implementation,


faculty


scholar-


ship


and


research,


long-range


planning,


and


student


recruitment.


manage


Most


the


chairpersons


departmental


teach


budget


part-time


and


as well


administrative


details.


This


position may


also coordinate with


the dean


of international


studies


and


programs.


Instrumentation


During this


study,


researcher utilized


an adaptation


of instrumentation


from Cameron'


(1978a)


seminal


study on the


measurement of organizational


effectiveness


in institutions of


higher e<

designed


education.


A survey


assess


questionnaire


administrator'


(see Appendix D)


personal


was


perceptions


regarding


organizational


effectiveness


international


programs


in the 23


participating


institutions by


investigating


Chairaerg on


ii n ~ r?~ ~ ptn i ~


ncml r+mani










student

student


academic

personal


development,

development,


student

faculty


career

and


development,

administrator


employment


satisfaction,


professional


development and


quality


faculty,


systems


openness


and


community


interaction,


ability


acquire


resources,


and


organizational


health.


The


level


were


instrument


rather than


this


on the


adjusted


study


organizational


level


and


focused


level,


nature


the


thus


the


sub-unit


items


sub-unit,


international


studies


and


programs.


The


substance


questionnaire


items


were


changed,


only


terminology


(for


example,


"program"


was


substituted


"institution").


Cameron


a questionnaire contained 58 perception items,


five of


which


were


did


not


adapted


nature


for usage.


This


this


study


study,


also


so only


focused


items


specifically


on assessing administrator perceptions of effectiveness rather


than


the


comparison


objective


data


and


perceptions


across


institutions.


Hence,


while


Cameron


used


a two-part


question-


naire,


only


the


perception


survey


(not


the


objective


survey)


was used,


due to difficulty


in obtaining objective data during


the


pilot


study.


The


following


items


were


included


nine


specific


effectiveness


domains:


Domain


One


(Items


12);


Domain Two


(Items


, 13-14,


25) ;


Domain


Three


(Items


6-30);


Domain


Four


(Items


, 15,


21);


Domain











Cameron


tested


the


internal


consistency


reliability


found


acceptable


domains


the


levels


construct


reliability


applying


each


coefficient


nine


alpha.


The


lowest


internal


consistency


reliability


coefficient


among


nine


effectiveness


domains


Cameron


study


(1978a)


was


.60;


the highest


was


.92.


The


comparison


of within-domain


correlations


each


item


the


mean


correlations


of each


item


with


items


outside


own


effectiveness


domain


was


used


test


discriminant


validity


items.


Cameron found that within-domain mean correlations were higher


than


the


mean


outside


correlations


every


item


except


one,


which


was


eliminated


from


further


analysis.


Factor


analytic


procedures


(oblique,


quartimax,


and


varimax


rotations)


were


also employed by Cameron and confirmed


the


internal


consisten-


the


domains.


These


findings


confirmed


that


the


nine


domains


are


composed


of items


with


high


internal


consistency


that


they


distinguish


one


domain


from


another.


The


survey


questionnaire


for this


study was


pilot-tested


mailout


Consortium


State


of International


University


Education.


System


Membership


Florida


consisted


nine


public universities


the


state who are generally


represented


the


chief


administrative


officers


interna-


tional


programs


at each


institution.


Due


to the


diversity











Respondents


to the


pilot-test


were


given


two


weeks


to return


the


questionnaires


researcher.


Both


parts


the


survey


were


sent


to the


nine


partici-


pant


institutions.


objective


part


None


of the


of the


participants


questionnaire,


while


responded


of the


to the


respon-


dents


completed


perception


survey


entirety.


Revi


sions


the


survey


instrument


were


subsequently


made,


incorporating


suggestions


eliminate


the


objective


portion


and


the


correcting


subjective


minor


portion


deficiencies


due


found


to unclear


pilot-test


wording.


The


final


draft


was


then


completed


and


mailed


the


administrators


the


five


categories


international


studies


pate


and

the


programs

study.


at each


The


institution


instrument


agreeing


incorporated


to partici-


five-point


Likert


scale


assess


the


perceptions


administrators


regarding


organizational


effectiveness


international


studies at


their


institution.


Respondents


rated the extent


which


their


institution


possessed


certain


characteristics


identifying


a point


scale


each


item.


Respondents were


asked


to rate effectiveness,


rather,


the emphasis was on their


providing


a description


of the


characteristic.


These


charac-


teristics,


however,


had


been


identified


Cameron


(1978a)


study


as being


potential


indicators


effectiveness


across










five,


indicating


characteristic


hiahlv


atvoical


our


programs.


Most


the


items


were


worded


so that


a rating


indicated


high


degree


effectiveness.


Other


items


were


worded


that


a high


rating


indicated


low


degree


effectiveness,


in which case


the scoring weights were reversed


during


the


coding


data


analysis.


Additional


information


on the


respondent


was


also


asked


the


end


the


survey


address


the


secondary


question


regarding the relationship of


individual background differenc-


perceptions


effectiveness.


Items


included:


sex,


age,


education,


length


employment


the


institution,


length


experience


international


studies


and


programs,


and


type


of experience


international


studies


and


programs.


Data


Collection


Data


collection


this


study


consisted


two


phases.


First,


the chief


administrative officer


(CAO)


of international


programs


each


institution


was


contacted


mail


and


asked


their


consent


and


cooperation


conducting


study


organizational


effectiveness


international


studies


programs


in institutions


of higher


education.


cover


letter


describing


assuring


focus


anonymity,


and


was


nature


included


the


with


study,


survey.


well


(For


example


of the


cover


letter,


see


Appendix











eight


more


respondents


at each


institution.


Those


CAO


s who


agreed returned


the survey


instrument


and


list


of adminis-


trators


pre-stamped


surveys


chief


envelope.


administrative


This


distribution


officers


(CAO


international


programs


the


selected


institutions


was


initially mailed


out


on March


1991.


At the


end


of the


week


period,


the


CAO'


had


responded


and


agreed


participate.


second


request


was


made


those


CAO'


who


did


respond


telephone


on April


1991.


After


a second


two-


week


period,


the


response


rate


of the


CAO


s for


institutional


participation


was


48%.


third


request


was


sent


those


CAO'


who


still


had


responded


May


, 1991,


with


final


deadline date of May


1991


for


institutional


partici-


pation.


the


institutions,


CAO'


answered


questionnaire,


agreed


institutional


participation,


provided


the


list


administrators


the


other


four


categories.


Final


institutional


response


rate


was


63.9%.


The


second


phase


the


mailout


consisted


sending


the


survey


instrument to the administrators


identified


for each of


other


four


administrative


job


categories.


These


categories


included:


department heads or chairmen of


academic


departments,


directors


international


student


service











potential


respondents


ranged


length


from


four


thirteen


administrators,


a total


of 192


possible


partic


pants.


identified


administrators


were


sent


the


questionnaire


asked


to participate


for their


institution


(see Appendix F


an example


cover


letter).


Respondents


the


participating


institutions


were


given


two


weeks


to return


questionnaires.


Coded


category


preserve


anonymity


the


analysis


reporting


of results,


administrators


who


did


not


respond


the


end


weeks


were


identified


the


master


list


each


institution


and


requested


participate


a telephone


call.


At the


end


of the


sixth


week


since


the


initial


mailout


of the


second


phase,


nonrespondents


were


sent


a reminder


letter with


a final


deadline


. The


total


number


responses


to the


survey


instrument


was


, or,


a 72


return


rate.


Table


provides


a breakdown


of respondents


administrative


category.


TABLE


Respondents


Job


Categorv


Job Category Number in Number Percentage
Sample Returned Returned
1 36 23 63.8%
2 37 32 86.5%
3 43 34 79.0%











Analysis


Data


In order


test


the


hypotheses,


a split-plot


ANOVA


was


used


to determine


effect


of the


five


job categories


perceptions


program


effectiveness


(Hypothesi


whether perceptions of effectiveness change across measurement


occasions


as assessed by


nine


domains


(Hypothesis


the


interaction


between


domain


scores


and


job


category


(Hypothesis


regression


analysis


was


used


investigate


secondary


program


question,


effectiveness


the


relationship


and


following


between


perceptions


individual


background


factors


of administrators:

gender.

age.


education


level.


length


of employment


at institution.


length


of experience


international


studies


and


programs.


previous


background


international


programs.


previous


experience


abroad.


A series


nine


regressions was


used


to examine


the


relation-


ship


the


above


factors


with


each


the


following


domains


of effectiveness:











Domain 4

Domain 5


: Student

: Faculty


personal


and


development.


administrator


employment


satisfaction.


Domain


Professional


development


and


quality


faculty.


Domain


: Systems


openness


and


community


interaction.


Domain


Ability


acquire


resources.


Domain


Organizational


health.


Summary


The methodology as presented


in this chapter was designed


examine


the


effects


administrative


job


category


perceptions


of effectiveness,


and


examine


the


relationship


varying

complete


individual


results


background


the


factors


analysis


with

data


perceptions.


are


presented


The

in


Chapter















CHAPTER


RESULTS


AND


DATA


ANALYSIS


The


purpose


this


study


was


explore


Cameron


(1978a)


theory that the construct of organizational


effective-


ness


higher


education


could


measured


analyzing


administrator


perceptions


effectiveness


category,


that


differing


perceptions


among


five


administrative


categories

realized.


for

While


nine


specific


Cameron


focused


effectiveness


on the


domains


assessment


would


of effec-


tiveness


the


institutional


(organizational)


level,


study


focused


assessing


the


construct


the


program


subunitt)


level


Perceptions of


five different administrative


categories


were


measured


a survey


design


utilizing


five-point


Likert


scale


which


assessed


characteristic


international

organizational


programs


degrees


effectiveness.


over


test


nine


domains


hypotheses


stated


Chapter


split-plot


design


was


used


examine


per-


ceived


effectiveness.


The


secondary


question,


exploring


effects


individual


background


differences


on perceptions,


was


tested


on the


nine


regression


domains


analysis


of perceived


individual


effectiveness.


profile


The


data


results


nf t-ho


fq~l- nnnl't~er. we-~ n 4-. A I. a -La a


4-I-- a


~n~lrta; a


ALLILIU


~~YIA











Study


ParticiPants


Subjects


study


who


consisted


voluntarily


participated


(N=106 males


and N=33


this


females)


research


interna-


tional


program administrators


in five different administrative


categories


23 public


institutions


of higher


education


United


States.


the


total


respondents,


were


chief administrative officers


.5%),


were


foreign student


center


directors


.0%),


were


area


study


center


directors


.5%),


were


were


chairpersons


study abroad


of academic


program advisers


departments


.5%),


.4%).


There


was


wide


range


background


factors


across


respondents.


degrees


One hundred and


, Ed.D


six


(76.3%)


J.D.),


held doctorate


(19.4%)


had


level


masters


degrees,


varied


and


age


.3%)


from


had


years


bachelor


to 67


degrees.


years,


The


with


respondents


a mean


47.97


years.


The minimum length of


employment and length of


experience


the


area


international


studies


and


programs


was


years


while


the


maximum


length


employment


and


length


experience


was


39.0


years


(based


N=138


due


miss


variables


one


observation)


Mean


length


of employment


was


14.36


years,


with


standard


deviation


8.21


years.


Mean


length


of experience


was


16.13


years,


with


a standard


devia-











international


studies


programs.


the


administra-


tors


, 85


.2%)


had


prior


experience


as a faculty


member;


had


other


prior


administrative


experience


field;


.4%)


had


experience


as an


international


student


adviser;


.8%)


had


a background


international


student


admi


ssions;


(23%)


had


experience


as a study


abroad


program


director;


.8%)


had


experience


as a study


abroad


faculty


adviser;


had


worked


an area


study


center;


had


experience


an English


language


institute.


Results


The


results


the


research


study


are


presented


hypotheses


hypotheses


basis:


Hvpothesi


There


are


significant


differences


perceived


effectiveness


between


the


five


administrative


job


categories.


To test


Hypothesis


, a split-plot


analysis


of variance


perceived


effectiveness


change


(with


nine


within


-subject


level


and


across


job


category


(with


five


between-group


level


was


conducted.


Tables


through


provide


ratios


the


individual


domains


demonstrate


that


there


were


significant


differences


perceived


effectiveness


between


the


five


administrative


job


categories


on several


nine


domains.











there


was


significant


difference


job


category,


.23)=0


TABLE


Source


Table


ANOVA


Perceived


Effct-^, venesse


Student


Educational Satisfaction by Job Categories


Source SS df MS F

Between 2.37 4 .59 1.23

Within 64.50 134 .48

F(1.23) = 0.30, p > .05.



TABLE 4-2

Source Table of ANOVA o f Perceived Effectiveness of Student
Academic Development by Job Categories


Source SS df MS F

Between 4.31 4 1.08 2.89*

Within 50.02 134 0.37


significant


.89)


= 0.02,


The same analysis


of variance was


conducted


on Domain Two


(Student


Academic


Development).


Tabl


demonstrates


that


there


were


significant


differences


job


category


.89)


0.02,


.05.


a,


I Fl











there were also significant differences


.88)


found by job category


= 0.025


TABLE


Source


Tabl


Career Development by Job Categories


Source SS df MS F

Between 2.96 4 0.74 2.88*

Within 34.51 134 0.25


*significant


.88)


= 0.025


.05.


Table


-4 shows


that


there


was


no significance


found


analysis


variance


of job


category


on perceived


effective-


ness


of Domain


Four


(Student


Personal


Development),


.67)


0.16,


.05.


Analysis


variance


on perceived


effectiveness


category for Domain Five


(Faculty and Administrator Employment


Sati


faction)


was


found


to be


significant


as demonstrated


Table


, F(


Tabl


.95)


4-6,


= 0.0225


, 4-8,


.05.


-9 demonstrate that


there were


no significant


differences


on perceived


effectiveness


category


on each


respective


remaining


domains:


Domain


Six


(Professional


Development


and


Quality


Faculty),


P~ r~ Fl i VP~CJ


ANOVA


Fff~~tivPnarc


Ctriilant











(Ability


Domain


to Acquire


Nine


Resources),


(Organizational


.26)


Health),


.066,


.34)


TABLE
Source


Table


ANOVA


Perceived


Effectiveness


Student


Personal Development by Job Categories


Source SS df MS F

Between 2.43 4 0.60 1.67

Within 48.75 134 0.36

F(1.67) = 0.16, p > .05.



TABLE 4-5

Source Table of ANOVA of Perceived Effectiveness of Faculty
and Administrator Employment Satisfaction by Job Categories


Source SS df MS F

Between 6.14 4 1.54 2.95*

Within 69.76 134 0.52

*significant at p < .05. F(2.95) = 0.0225, p < .05.



TABLE 4-6

Source Table of ANOVA of Perceived Effectiveness of
Professional Development and Quality of the Faculty by Job
Categories


Source SS df MS F











TABLE


Source


Tabl


ANOVA


Perceived


Effectiveness


Systems


Openness and Community Interaction by Job Categories


Source SS df MS F

Between 3.40 4 0.85 1.61

Within 71.01 134 0.53

F(1.61) = 0.176, p > .05.



TABLE 4-8

Source Table of ANOVA of Perceived Effectiveness of Ability to
Acquire Resources by Job Categories


Source SS df MS F

Between 4.67 4 1.17 3.26

Within 69.40 134 0.52

F(2.26) = 0.066, p > .05.





TABLE 4-9

Source Table of ANOVA of Perceived Effectiveness of
Organizational Health by Job Categories


Source SS df MS F

Between .71 4 0.18 0.34

Within 70nnR T14 n.52











The data


support the rejection of Hypothesis


concerning


differences


perceived


effectiveness


between


the


five


categories on


the basis of


significant differences


in three of


nine


domains


student


academic


development,


student


career


development,


and


faculty


and


administrator


employment


satisfaction.


tiveness


The


changes


analysis


across


variance


job


of perceived


categories


effec-


domains


combined also


indicated a significant difference


in perception


level


, F(2


.56)


0.04,


(Table


-10)


Therefore,


Hypothesis


TABLE


rejected.


4-10


Source


Table


ANOVA


Domains for Job Categories


Source SS df MS F

Between Subjects

Subjects 23.94 4 5.99 2.56*

Error 313.98 134 2.34



Within Subjects

Domain 74.62 8 9.33 35.48**

Domain X Job Category 7.83 32 0.24 0.93

Error 281.81 1072 0.26


Pe rce i vcld


i~ ffP~~ i vanpaa


a r! me c











Hvpothesi


There


are


significant


differences


perceived


effectiveness


the


nine


effectiveness


domains.


The


split-plot


analysis


of variance


of perceived


effec-


tiveness changes across the nine domains,


shown


in Table


4-10


demonstrates


that


there


were


significant


within-subject


differences


categories


across


the


nine


domains,


F(35.48)


= 0.0001,


.05.


Therefore,


thi


null


hypothesis


was


also


rejected.


Hvoothes


There


interaction


between


domain


scores


and


category


The


two-way


interaction


Domain


Job


Category,


demonstrated


Table


4-10,


was


not


significant,


.93)


0.58,


Therefore,


because


this


ratio


was


significant


the


level,


the


null


hypothesis


was


not


rejected.


Further


data


analysis


explored


the


effects


individual


background


factors


of the


administrators.


First,


correlation


analysis


was


used


to determine


whether


a relationship


existed


between the


length of


experience


international


programs and


the


length


employment


the


institution.


Utili


zing


Pearson


Correlation


Coefficients,


indicated


Table


-11,


was


concluded


that


there


relationship


between


the











TABLE


4-11


Coefficient


Experience and Length of Employment


LEXP LEMPL

LEXP 1.00 0.49333
0.00 0.0001


LEMPL 0.49333 1.00000
0.0001 0.0


series


nine


regressions


(for


each


domain)


were


performed


explore


the


effects


the


following


individual


background


variables


on perceived


effectiveness:


sex,


age,


education


level,


length


of employment,


and


length


experi


ence.


(Due


to mi


ssing values


, only


observations were


used


analysis.


Table 4-12


provides


the F-rati


of these


factors


for the


overall


test for Domain One


(Student Educational


Satisfaction)


demonstrates


perceptions


that


.56)


there


were


= 0.0223


significant


.05.


Further


differences


examination


data


(Table


4-13)


revealed


that


differences


existed


age,


= 0.186,


.05 and


level


education


0.0052


.05.


There


was


a negative


relationship


between


and


perceived


effectiveness


effectiveness


scores


decreased.


as age


There


increased,


was


perceived


negative


Ana ivsis


R ~1 ~ t ~ nn ah i n


Rptwrr~n


tanrr+h











TABLE


4-12


Source


Table


MultiDle


Repression


Analysis


Perceived


Effectiveness of Student Educational Satisfaction by
Background Factors Overall


Source SS df MS F

Between 6.98 6 1.16 2.56*

Within 59.06 130 0.45


*significant at p < .05. F(2.56) = 0.0223, p < .05.



TABLE 4-13

Source Table for Multiple Regression Analysis of Perceived
Effectiveness of Student Educational Satisfaction by
Individual Backqround Factors


Source SS df MS F

Sex 1.12 1 1.12 2.47

Age 2.58 1 2.58 5.68*

Education Level 4.99 2 2.49 5.49**

Length of Employment 0.41 1 0.41 0.90


*significant
**significant


.49)


= 0.0186,
= 0.0052


On the remaining domains,


however,


there were no


signifi


cant


effects


found


background


factors


overall


on perceived


effectiveness


as indicated


the


llowinq


F-ratios:


,


w










Domain


Five:


.89)


.05.


Domain


six:


.01)


= 0.42


.05.


Domain

Domain

Domain


Seven:

Eight:

Nine:


F(1

F(2

F(0.


.33)

.00)

70)


= 0.25, p

= 0.07, p

= 0.64, p


.05.

.05.

.05.


Summary


The

indicated


results

several


split-plot


statistically


analysis


significant


effects.


variance

First,


perceptions


of effectiveness


varied


according


to administra-


tive


category.


There


were


specific


significant


differ-


ences


found


perceptions


three


domains


program


effectiveness


category:


student


academic


develop-


ment,


student


career


development,


faculty


administrator


employment


satis


faction.


Finally,


perceptions


also


varied


across


the


nine


effectiveness


domains.


Regression


analysis


of the


effects


varying


individual


backgrounds on perceptions revealed no


significant differences


perceived


effectiveness,


with


the


exception


of Domain


(Student


Educational


Sati


factionn,


which


was


affected


age


and


level


education.















CHAPTER


CONCLUSIONS


AND


RECOMMENDATIONS


The


(1978a)


purpose


theory that


study


the construct


was


organi


explore


national


Cameron


effective-


ness


could


measured


higher


education


analyzing


administrator


perceptions


category,


and


that


differing


perceptions


specific


among


five admini


effectiveness


domains


strative


job


would


categories


reali


zed.


for nine


Five


administrative


category


the


area


international


studies


assessed


programs


determine


in institutions


whether


of higher


administrators


education


have


were


differing


perceptions


Additional


effectiveness


investigations


based


were


the


conducted


they


into


hold


individual


background


factors


(such


as age,


gender,


years


experience,


educational


level)


to determine


whether


they


may


have


effect


on perceptions,


and


what


way.


The


study


design


consisted


survey


questionnaire


which


was


completed


administrators


in five


catego-


ries


institutions.


Participants


completed


item


perception


survey with


a five-point


Likert


scale


during which


they


rated


extent


which


their


institution


possessed


rtrta in


nhra n0trroi c i r c


I V


Il cnt ffx i7nn


ns nnir


cn~ 1


Sfnr oarhn


*


*











perceived


effectiveness.


These


items


had


been


identified


Cameron


(1978a)


effectiveness


across:


study

s nine


being


domains


potential


of higher


indicators


education.


Additional


information


was


gathered


the


end


survey


regarding


the


individual


respondents


background,


including


such


factors


as age,


gender


, length


of employment


level


education,


length


experience


international


studies


and


programs,


type


prior


experience


the


field


Findings


The


following


hypotheses


stated


the


operational


null


form


were


analyzed


using


a split-plot


analysis


of variance.


HYpothesis


There


are


no significant


differences


perceived


effectiveness


between


the


five


administrative


category


es.


Thi


null


hypothesis


was


rej ected.


Hvpothesi


perceived


There


are


effectiveness


significant


the


nine


differences


effectiveness


domains.


null


hypothesis


was


rej ected.


HvDothesi


There


interaction


between


domain


scores


and


category


null


hypothesi


was


not


rejected