Burning brick

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Material Information

Title:
Burning brick a study of a lowcountry industry
Physical Description:
xiv, 143 leaves : ill., photos ; 29 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Wayne, Lucy B ( Lucy Bowles ), 1947-
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Brickmaking -- South Carolina -- Wando River basin   ( lcsh )
Archaeology and history -- South Carolina   ( lcsh )
Antiquities -- South Carolina   ( lcsh )
History -- South Carolina   ( lcsh )
Architecture thesis Ph.D
Dissertations, Academic -- Architecture -- UF
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1992.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 131-142).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Lucy B. Wayne.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001751582
oclc - 26529134
notis - AJG4518
System ID:
AA00002096:00001

Full Text












BURNING BRICK:
A STUDY OF A LOWCOUNTRY
INDUSTRY













BY


LUCY


WAYNE


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA


1992































Copyright


Lucy


1992


. Wayne















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


A dissertation


is a journey towards


knowledge.


Like


journeys


includes


visits


places


and


friends


both


familiar


and


new


Thi


study


has


been


exception;


many


places


and many people have been


encountered


this quest


knowledge.


appreciate


of the


help


have


received


from


friends,


new


and


old,


well


from


those


who


were


encountered


effort


only


briefly


acknowledge


passing


their


ass


SThese


instance


paragraphs


and


are


highlight


special


people


places


on this


journey.


One


special


benefit


this


study


was


the


time


I got


spend


Charl


eston.


have


learned


know


thi


city


and


love


beauty


grace,


pervasive


sense


of history,


and


the


helpfulness


of its


residents.


I contacted


or visited most


the


local


archives


city;


were


gracious,


even


when


they


could


not


help


would


like


thank


the


staff


members


these


organizations:


the


Charl


eston


Library


Society


, the Charleston County


Library,


the Charleston Museum,


the


College


Charleston,


the


Charleston


Preservation


Society


the


Charleston


County


Records


Mesne


Conveyance,









Preservation.


Charleston


area


residents


Mackie


Hill,


Mrs.


Robert


Whitelaw,


Oliver


Buckles,


Richard


Stuhr,


Marie


Hollings


, and


John


and


Frederick


Horlbeck


shared


their


knowledge


of brickmaking


sites


with


me.


Mrs


. Whitelaw


also


gave


permission


to use


photographs


taken at her


late husband


Charleston


Brick


Company.


Several


people


Charleston


deserve


special


thanks.


Charles


Chase,


preservation


architect


with


the


City


, and


consultant


Sarah


Fick


made


time


talk


about


this


study


and


provide


leads to


information.


Jonathan Poston


of the Historic


Charleston Foundation was supportive,


interested,


and provided


unpublished


document


bricks


Charleston.


Stephen


Snyder


and Fritz


Aichele of


the


South


Carolina


Coastal


Council


were

aeria


extremely he

1 photograph


lipful


collect


in providing

action; Fritz


access


patiently


the


Council


explained


the


different


photographs


and


enthusiastically


assisted


quest.


interest


and


concern for


historic resources


should


commended.


I could


not


have


completed


project


without


the


help


and


patience


the


staff


the


South


Carolina


Historical


Society.


amounts


Staff

time


researcher

chasing


Kathleen


Leads,


Howard


retrieving


spent


unknown


records,


and


watching


references


brickmaking.


the


process


gained


a friend.


Archivist


Peter


Bennett


spent


a day


helping









Director


Mark


Wetherington


graciously


allowed


use


materials


from


the


Society


s collections


this


document.


Duncan


Newkirk


of Newkirk


Environmental


Consultants


and


Joe


Williams


of Southeastern


Surveyors


are


very


familiar with


the


Wando


River


and


were


helpful


identifying


the


brickyard


sites


along


that


river


Joe


also


provided


the


critical


piece


of equipment


field


survey--a


boat.


travels


two


other


citi


and


important


sources


of information.


The


South


Carolina


State Archives


Columbia


historical


vital


material.


source


would


for i

like


public


records


thank


their


and

staf


state

f for


introducing


Nicholas


me to the


material


Pappas


Bill


on file


thi


Weldon


repository.


the


Colonial


Williamsburg


Foundation


spent


a cold


and


dreary


January


day


outdoors


showing


how


colonial


brickmaking


worked.


Pappas


then


took


the


extra


time


to give


this


archaeologist


tour


the archaeological


laboratory


at Williamsburg


was


delightful


and


informative


trip


thanks


these


two


gentlemen.


Many archaeologists were important sources of


information


this


project.


Paul


Brockington,


Eric


Poplin,


and


Chri


Espenshade of Brockington and Associates patiently answered my


many questions

Robert Morgan


about


the


the


brickyard


Forest


sites


Service


their


provided


proj ects


site


forms,








provided


a list


of sites


identified


based


on their waterfront


components.


Martha


Zierdan,


Julie


King,


Lynne


Lewis,


and


Jonathan


Leader


brickmaking


the


shared


their


region.


knowledge


Tippett


of the


bricks


South


and


Carolina


State Historic Preservation Office was supportive,


interested,


and


helpful


terms


resource


management


approaches


Elizabeth


Sheldon,


Jack


Elliott,


and


Olga


Caballero


provided


copies


vital


reports.


One archaeologist must be


singled


special


thanks.


Linda


Stine


started


this


journey


suggesting


the


topic.


followed


this


suggestion


with


information


and


exposure


the


research


approach


landscape


archaeology.


She


has


continued


to be supportive


and


interested


throughout


thi


project.


All


dissertations


owe


much


the


student


committee.


Mine


exception.


committee,


Earl


Starnes,


Kathleen


Deagan,

to work


Susan

with.


Tate, and Herschel

They encouraged


Shepard,

me, cri


have


ticized


been


a delight


when


was


needed


, and


made


me think


about


what


was


writing


I count


them


friends,


did


learn


never


take


long


drive


with


a member


your


committee when


they


have


just


read


your


first


draft!


Production


the


final


version


thi


document


would


not


have


been


possible


without


the


support


assistant









followed the


procedures specified by the Graduate School


while


dealing with


Last,


an author


but


suffering


certainly


from the


least,


stress


would


of deadline


like


es.


thank


partner,


Martin


Dickinson,


family


their


support,


patience,


understanding,


help.


Martin


listened


ideas,


gave


advice,


helped


with


aerials,


maps,


and


environmental


data,


and reviewed


final


result.


husband


Marty


Wayne


has


been


a treasure;


not


only


did


he provide


boating


expert


field


work,


he took


the


time


to read


and


edit


document,


and


provided


loving


support


throughout


the


process.


children,


Alex


and


Michelle,


have


kept


thi


work


in perspective


provided


a note


of humor


when


was


sorely


needed.















TABLE OF CONTENTS

page


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS........................................ iii


LIST OF TABLES. ... ...................................


LIST OF FIGURES.................. ..................... xi

ABSTRACT...............................................x iii

CHAPTERS

1 INTRODUCTION: FOOTPRINTS ON THE EARTH....... 1

Purpose of the Research...................... 1
Historic Background......................... 3
The Study Area............................... 7

2 RESEARCH APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY............ 11

Research Framework........................... 11
Methods................. ........ . . . 15
Review of Previous Research.................. 21

3 THE WRITTEN RECORD........................... 30

The Economic Background...................... 31
Brickmakers and Brickyards................... 48
Production and Value......................... 62

4 TO MAKE A BRICK............................ 71

5 THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE.................. 95

Brickyards as Archaeological Sites........... 95
The Wando River Basin Sites..................102
Changes in the Land.......................... 115










SUMMARY,


CONCLUSIONS


AND


RECOMMENDATIONS..


...121


The


Role


Future


Brickmaking


Resea


rch


in the


Lowcountry


Directions


....121
....126


REFERENCES CITED.....................

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH..................


* .. S *. S

* SS S S 5 ****


....131

....143















LIST


OF TABLES


Tabl


p~age


Charl


eston


strict


Agricultural


Production


1860


Census..


S* 37


Wando


Plantation


Acc


ounts


of Dr. Anthony


Toomer,


1785


. ... 39


Brickmakers


Identified


the


Charleston


Area


Between


1745


and


1860


. ....... 51


Brickmakers


Listed


the


Charleston


strict


Census


1850


.......... 61


Medway


Plantation


Shipping


Records


1852-

Boone
Page,


1853.

Hall


Brickyard


Account Book-


1847


S S S Sa S S 66


-Sample
........... 67


Boone
Total


Hall


, 1850


Yearly


Production


and


-1860


Income


..... 67


Brickyard


Sites


the


Wando


River


Basin,


South


Carolina.


....105
















LIST


OF FIGURES


Figure


Page


Wando
County


River


Basin,


, South


Charl


eston


and


Berkeley


Carolina


Brickyards
Charleston
Carolina..


within


Wando


Berke


Coun


River
ties.


Basin,
South


. ..... 10


Lexington


Kiln


Site,


Charleston


County,


South


Carolina


.. . 40


Elm


Grove


Plantation


Brickyards


, Charleston


County,


South


Carolina.


Parker
South


Island


ckyard


, Charle


ston


Carolina


County,
. . ... 42


Addi


son


and


Martin


Brickyards


, Berkeley


County


, South


Carolina..


.... 43


Brickyards


Identified


Owner


, 1745-


1860


Wando


River


Basin


South


Carolina


...... 52


Pug


Mill


and


Molding


Table,


Charleston


Brick


Company.


...... 77


Brickmolding,


Charl


eston


Brick


Company


...... 79


Removing


Bricks


from


the Molds


Charl


eston


Brick


Company


. .. 83


Types


of Kilns


or Clamps.......


.... 85


Kiln


Arch


Cons


truction,


Charl


eston


Brick


Company..


..... 87


Jamestown


, Virginia


Brick


Kiln


..... 89


Completed


Kiln


Openings


, Charl


eston


.. 41


.









Plan,


Kiln


at Jamestown,


Virginia....


.... 98


Plan,


County,


Jimmie


South


Green


s Lime


Kiln,


Carolina...


Berkeley
....... .... .101


Lexington


Kiln


Site


Plan,


Charleston


County,


South


Carolina..


........103


Aerial
South


Photograph,
Carolina....


Wando


River


Basin,


.. ... ...109


Shoreline
Berkeley


Deposition,


County,


South


Beres


ford


Carolina


Creek,


. .....110


Timbers
Berkeley


in Shore
County,


line
Sout


Deposit, W
h Carolina


andi
...


River,


. . . .111


Kiln


Arches,


Lexington


Kiln


Site,


Charleston


Brickyard
Berkeley


County,


Surface,
County, S


South


Carolina.


Beresford


South


Creek,


Carolina...


O


.....112


f13















Abstract


of Dissertation


Presented


the


Graduate


School


the


University


Requirements


of Florida


the


Degree


Partial I
of Doctor


Fulfillment of
of Philosophy


the


BURNING


A STUDY


BRICK:


OF A LOWCOUNTRY


INDUSTRY

By


Lucy


May


. Wayne

1992


Chairman:


Earl


. Starnes,


Ph.D.


Major


Department


Architecture


Between


1740


and


1860,


brickmaking


was


a viable


industry


the


Lowcountry


of South


Carolina.


This


was


particularly

Charleston.


true


Thi


Wando


study


uses


River


basin


research


northeast

approach o


landscape


archaeology


examine


document


the


role


thi


industry


within


plantations


the


region.


Landscape


archaeology


is an approach


that


looks


not


only


why


humans


occupy


a specific


site


or region,


but


also


how


they


modify


landscape


to fit


their


own


cultural


pattern,


and


turn,


how


these


modifications


affect


the


landscape


itself


through


time.


This

research


study

with a


combines


nalvsis


historic


r- -


archaeological


environmental


characteristics


I









environment;


how


the


environment


influenced


adaptation


and


how


these


adaptations


turn


affected


the


environment;


the


technologies


or processes


employed


to exploit


the


available


location


resources;


in respect


the


to that


role


the


market;


marketplace


the


historic


and


events


which


influenced


development


industry;


and


interrelationships


between


sites


The


Wando


River


basin


was


a marginal


area


for


the


usual


plantation


crops


of rice,


cotton,


indigo.


Therefore,


the


based


plantations


on divers


which


ified


were


developed


production


of other


region


products


were


, primarily


produce,


livestock,


firewood,


bricks


the


Charleston


market.


The


enactment


building


codes


Charleston


after


1740


provided


a further


impetus


development


the


brickmaking


materials


industry.


of clay


The


, sand,


presence


firewood,


the


and


necessary


water,


raw


proximity


transportation


route


and


the


availability


of slave


labor


made


brickmaking


a natural


choice.


Over


60 brickmakers


and


least


23 brickyard


sites


have


been


identified


region.


These


brickyards,


consisting


of semi-permanent


kilns,


sheds,


sand


or clay


piles


, extensive


clay


pits


, waterfront


landings,


and


slave


settlements

shoreline m


permanently


modifications


altered


and


the


creation


landscape t

of wetlands


through


the















CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


FOOTPRINTS


ON THE


EARTH


The


seeming


encouraged
efficiency
thought fo


abundance
practices
and speed


the


effects


of natural


that


resources


emphasized


of development


on the


technological


with


future


little


the


land


and


resources


(Cahn


1978


*01


They


appear


at low


tide


along


the


Wando


River--pile


after


tumbled


pile


of water-washed


brick.


The


observer


pauses


in wonder


sheer


volume


of brick


exposed


along


the


banks.


When


told


that


these


are


remains


old


brickworks,


viewer


in awe


that


so much


remains


200-year


old


activity,


and


at the


thought


that,


these


are


merely


the


discards,


the


total


output


must


have


been


tremendous.


The


wonder


may


be followed


questions:


Who


were


the


makers?


Why


were


there


so many


in this


river


basin?


Why


were


they


located


these


particular


spots?


How


were


the


bricks


made?


Where


did


the


output


And


finally,


why


did


stop?


Purpose


Research


The


answers


to these


que


stions


are


not


as simple


as the


questions


themselves.


The


objective


thi


study


document


thi


industry


, and


demonstrate


role


the


--


_











approach


interdisciplinary,


encompassing


historic


res


earch,


the


archaeological


environmental


investigation,


factors


which


and


facilitated


an examination


development


the


industry


and


were


in turn


altered


The


emphas


on describing


the


technology,


documenting


the


local


role


story


within


thi


the


industry


plantations.


, and


The


evaluating


archaeological


economic


aspect


the


study


addr


esses


the


distribution


pattern


these


sites


as well


concludes


as the


with


intrasite


patterns


an evaluation


pattern


impact


thi


analyst


industry


on the


landscape


itself.


Much


the


research


this


study


was


conducted


the


archives


of Charleston,


South


Carolina


and


South


Carolina


Lowcountry


family


records.


Comparative


data


were


obtained


from


contemporary


descriptions


of brickmaking,


technological


histories,


archaeological


studies


of brick


kilns


elsewhere


the


United


States,


contemporary


reenactments


colonial


brickmaking


Additional


economic


data


were


obtained


from


census


records


and


an excellent


regional


study


Michael


Scardaville


(1985).


Archaeological


data


the


project


region


were


obtained


from


studies


conducted


on new


developments


the


area,


including


those


the


author,


analysis


aerial











historic


descriptions,


observations


archaeologists


working


within


region.


Historic


Background


The


European


colonists


the


Americas


viewed


the


abundant


resources


the


New


World


as a source


of wealth


and


prosperity;


forests


were


down,


fields


were


cleared,


animals


were


hunted,


and


earth


was


mined


ores


(Cahn


1978:199-200;


Cronon


1983:5)


These


activities


would


forever


change


the


face


the


land,


not


only


the


form


the


structures


which


were


built,


but


also


through


the


process


of obtaining


resources


those


structures.


These


effects


are


evident


today


along


the


rivers


the


Lowcountry


of South


Carolina


where


brickyards


active


during


the


period


between


1740


and


1860


have


left


a permanent


legacy


the


form


of brick-covered


shorelines


and


extensive


wetlands


the


abandoned


clay


pits.


The


use


of brick


or clay


building


units


has


an ancient


his


tory


based


on a technology


which


remained


virtually


unchanged


until


the


Industrial


Revolution


the


mid-


nineteenth


century


Brick


considered


to be


the


oldest


man-made


building


material


(Beall


1984:2) ;


popularity


based


on its


ease


of manufacture


construction,


durability


strength,


fireproof


nature,











The


technology


began


with


the


manufacture


of sun-dried


brick


ancient


Middle


East.


the


time


the


Babylonian


empire


of Nebuchadnezzar


(604


to 562


B.C.),


the


use


of burning


and


glazing


had


been


perfected


(Graham


and


Emery


1945


:1.1,547).


The


Romans


used


brick


extensively


construction,


particularly


arches


and


domes,


but


the


techniques


and


material


were


largely


abandoned


the


Roman


coloni


of Europe,


including


England,


after


the


fall


the


Roman


Empire


(Lloyd


1925:2).


Brickmaking


and


brick


construction


were


revived


during


the


12th


and


13th


centuries


the


Low


Countries


of Europe


and


France.


From


there


was


reintroduced


southeastern


a lack


England

local b


where


building


was


actively


stone.


the


adopted


15th


because


century,


brick


was


a popular


building


material


throughout


eastern


England


with


an increase


demand


London


after


the


great


fire


1666.


Since


the


largest


single


group


early


European


settlers


North


America


came


from


thi


area


England,


likely


that


they


brought


the


technique


brickmaking


and


masonry


with


them


the


New


World.


Immigrants


from


the


Netherlands


and


France


may


also


have


brought


tradition


with


them;


fact,


the


principal


early


period


of brick


building


the


colonies


the


late











Brickmaking


occurred


wherever


suitable


clay


and


fuel


were


available.


Often,


bricks


were


made


the


site


the


building


to be constructed.


However,


transportation


was


available,


usually


via


water,


brickyards


could


established


large


scale


production


export.


Kilns


have


been


documented


historically


archaeologically


the


English


colony


of Jamestown,


Virginia,


as well


the


Spanish


settlement


of La Isabela


the


Dominican


Republic


(Harrington


1950:16


-19;


Deagan,


pers


onal


communication


1991).


Although


initially


used


primarily


chimneys


and


foundations,


the


late


17th


century


brick


buildings


were


common


in many


the


colonial


cities


, particularly


the


Mid-Atlantic


colonies


(Trindell


1968:484).


Although


the


initial


European


settlement


South


Carolina


was


the


Spanish


towns


of San


Miguel


del


Gualdape


and


Santa


Elena,


these


settlements


were


ultimately


abandoned


under


pressure


of England


from


granted


English.


land


now


In 1663


known


, King


as Carolina


Charl


to eight


Lords


Proprietors.


The


firs


t English


settlement


was


established


1670


at Charles


Towne


on the


Ashley


River.


1680


, thi


settlement


been


relocated


a more


healthful


site


on the


peninsula


between


the


Ashley


and


Cooper


Rivers.


The


new


colony


thrived,


and


the


Proprietors











established


1706


the


General


Assembly


(Scardaville


1985:31).


1682


Thomas


Newe


letters


from


South


Carolina


stated


that


"here


excellent


Brick


made,


but


little


(Salley

became


1911:181).


common


Within


in South


next


Carolina,


years,


although


brickmaking


usually


confined


to production


single


structures.


The


industry


received


an important


Charleston.


buildings


impetus


In 1713,


within


from


a series


an act


fortified


the


of major


Assembly


portion


fires


required


of Charleston


to be


of brick


1715


or stone


as a result


construction;

of complaints


this

about


act

the


was


repealed


scarcity


and


expense


of brick


(Simons


1934


:4).


When


the


disastrous


Charleston


fire


of November,


1740


destroyed


much


the


center


the


city,


the


Assembly


again


passed


an act


requiring


all


the


erected


made
Tile,


Outside
or built


of Brick
Slate,


of all


Buildings


Charles


or Stone,


Stone


or Bricks


hereafter


Town


S. and


(South


to be


to be henceforth


be covered


with


Carolina


ette


1740).


The


act


also


the


price


of bricks


the


next


ten


years


at 6 pounds


per


thousand


English


brick,


5 pounds


per


thousand


for


thousand


Carolina


the


ess


brick,


and


desirable


pounds


(and


10 shillings


smaller)


New


per


England











In order


to be economically


viable,


brickyards


required


proximity


to navigable


water,


preferably


water


which


directly


to the


Charleston


market.


The


necessary


raw


materials


of clay,


sand


temper,


and


wood


fuel


also had


to be present


Finally,


brickmaking


as practiced


prior


the


Industrial


Revolution


was


a labor


intensive


operation;


the


plantation


system


was


the


ideal


source


this


labor


in the


form


of slaves.


Although


these


requirements


were


met


along


the


numerous


rivers


in proximity


to Charle


ston,


one


area


seems


to have


supported


larger


number


of brickyards--the


Wando


River


basin


located


northeast


of Charleston.


The


Study


Area


The


basin


consists


of portions


two


counties


historic


parishes.


The


area


between


the


Wando


and


the


Atlantic


Ocean


Charleston


County


traditionally


known


as the


Church


coastal


Wando


Parish


South


Neck


was


(Figure


Carolina


historically


Unlike


described


much


the


designated


the


as Christ


area


Lowcountry


, the


Wando


Neck


could


not


support


the


cash


crops


indigo,


rice


and


cotton.


The


soil


are


poorly


drained


and


frequently


wet,


and


river


itself


is too


saline


to support


rice


cultivation


except


extreme


upper


reaches












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(Figure


The


Wando


River


basin


s proximity


to Charleston


to development


region


as a production


area


for


the


urban


market.


Agriculture


centered


on produce


and


livestock;


thi


was


supplemented


cutting


of firewood,


timber,


and


production


of naval


stores


(Scardaville


1985:35-


As a result


surveys


made


the


course


this


study,


River


23 brickyards


and


have


tributaries;


been


identified


others


probably


along


exis


the


t but


Wando


were


not


confirmed


during


field


survey


(Figure


The


remains


these


operations


consist


of brick


-covered


banks


or wharves


, kilns,


sand


piles,


water


-filled


clay


pits,


and


the


occasional


chimney


Many


these


historic


and


archaeological


particularly


sites


within


are


the


located


Wando


in prime


Neck


development


Charleston


areas


County.


Some


have


already


been


developed


or will


the


near


future.


many


cases


, if not


all,


development


will


lead


the


removal


or destruction


of all


evidence


these


sites.


At thi


time


, although


several


the


sites


have


been


recorded


and


many


others


are


known,


little


archaeological


or historic


research


has


been


conducted


the


brickyards


themselves.


study


provides


a beginning


that


documentation


as well


as address


sing


some


the















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CHAPTER


RESEARCH


APPROACH


AND


METHODOLOGY


S. sites


(and


settlements


interact


with


and


are


affected


processes


natural


environment


(Schiffer


1987:199).


Research


Framework


Thi


study


of Lowcountry


brickmaking


will


look


the


industry


from


the


approach


landscape


archaeology,


concept


recently


utilized


storic


archaeologists


"consider


entire


regions


that


bear


the


imprint


of a shared


set of


values"


(Deetz


1990:2).


this


approach,


lands


cape


is defined


archaeologists


as the


physical


and


spatial


manifestation


of human


interaction


with


the


environment.


interaction


is a process


of continual


evolution;


each


interaction


leaves


phys


ical


remains.


The


emphasis


in landscape


archaeology


on the


continuity


between


sites


and


through


time


(Lewis


1991;


Shapiro


and


Miller


1990:98


-99)


Landscape


archaeology


a powerful


tool


to integrate


history,


geography,


anthropology


order


to study


past


human


behavior.


It addre


sses


spatial


dimension


the










1991).


Unlike


settlement


pattern


studies


archaeology,


which


focus


on identifying


the


environmental


factors


which


influence


settlement


the


distribution


of sites


throughout


the


land,


landscape


archaeology


also


addresses


the


effects


of humans


on the


land


and


emphasizes


change


through


time:


the


evidence
different
. an
of space
and are


same


time,


the


scales


social
and


contributes


and


how


1


[archaeological]
organization of


at different
to broader


people


affected


use


(Mrozowsk


times


record


space at
in history


interpretations


think
i and


about


Beaudry


1990:189).


The


study


landscape


archaeology


addresses


adaptation


the


environment


terms


the


occupants


perception


the


environment


the


sense


of how


and


why


specific


sites


are


chosen;


the


technologies


processes


utilized


at a specific


site;


the


markets


products


and


the


location


the


cultural


remains


with


respect


to both


resources


and


those


markets;


the


interrelationships


between


individual


sites


terms


the


idea


space


as a continuous


dimension;


the


interrelationship


of historic


events


and


the


activities


documented

environment


at specific

influenced


sites;

human


how


behavior


the


(Green


natural


1991;


Crumley


1991;


Winberry


1991).











In order


to look


at historic


landscapes,


Shapiro


and


Miller


stated


that:


To learn


the


"read"


meaning
is nec


e


of a historical 1
ssary to separate


landscape


the


natural


and


human


factors


relationship.


viewed
people
process


and


human
some


has


to understand


In this


as a dynamic


and


sense


record


their


landscape


may


interactions


environment--dynamic


of environmental


long-term


events.
record c


the


destroy


interplay
Each has


r evidence


potential o
ng evidence


is a complicated


open
cause


change
between


in that


be
between
the


is a continuous


natural


potential


on the


f modifying


prevlou


accumulation


to interpretation


S


can


once


be determined


landscape,
, confusing
s events.
of effects


the


(Shapiro


events


and


leaving


and


each


Landscape
and is


chronology


and


Miller


1990:98-99)


Thi


study


identify


the


natural


resources


available


the


planters


region


as well


as the


historic


events


and


economic


aspects


which


influenced


development


industry.


Rather


than


focus


on an individual


brickyard


site,


study


takes


a regional


approach


and


looks


the


environmental


factors


which


the


proliferation


these


sites


within


the


region,


as well


the


long-term


ecological


effects


of brickmaking


on the


region.


Specifically


, thi


dissertation


demonstrates


first,


that


the


numerous


brickyards


along


Wando


River


played


major


role


economic


life


the


plantations


thi


region.


The


brickmaking


process


complemented


vegetable











indigo.


presence


as well

these p


Brickmaking


of all


as the


was


the


close


plantations


and


a natural


necessary


relationship


selection


elements


which


Charleston


based


the


existed


commercial


on the


industry,


between

community


(Zierdan


1986:37).


Second,


thi


study


addresses


the


permanent


effect


brickmaking


on the


landscape


itself;


this


effect


has


long-


term


consequences


which


are


being


felt


today


Brickmaking


altered


the


shoreline


and


adjacent


uplands,


created


permanent


wetlands


which


are


now


affecting


development


these


properties,


and


may


have


altered


the


natural


environment


in more


subtle


ways,


particularly


through


deforestation.


Thi


interdisciplinary


study


begins


with


examination


the


records


of Lowcountry


plantations


for


the


economic


within


and


the


historic


plantations


evidence

SThe


the


colonial


role

and


of brickmaking

antebellum


brickmaking


process


as described


primary


accounts,


well


contemporary


attempts


at recreating


the


craft


presented


next


order


to provide


a basis


understanding


the


exi


sting


remains


industry.


The


archaeological


and


environmental


aspects


are


addressed


through


a review


the


existing


studies


of brickmaking


sites,


a walkover











thi


study


are


designed


to provide


long-term


resource


management


guidance


these


sites.


Methods


This


study


had


genesis


research


the


Dunes


West d

During


development


Charleston


an archaeological


County


on the


survey


Wando

acre


River.

tract


the


south


side


the


river,


three


antebellum


brickyard


sites


were


located,


with


evidence


of extensive


operations.


Archival


research


one


the


plantations


within


thi


tract


the


recognition


that


the


brickyard


was


probably


primary


focus


the


antebellum


plantation


(Wayne


and


Dickinson


1990


:6-4


- 6-7).


During


a site


to Lexington


Plantation


s brickyard


with


Linda


Stine


the


South


Carolina


Historic


Preservation


Office,


Stine


mentioned


that


the


entire


Wando


River


basin


contained


numerous


brickyards


dating


to the


same


period.


She


felt


that


a study


industry


would


an important


contribution


to Lowcountry


story


that


point,


study


began.


Although


was


initially


hoped


that


the


opportunity


excavate


other


Dunes


West


brickyard


complexes


would


occur


time


to be


incorporated


study,


that


did


not


happen.


Since


was


clear


that


extensive


archaeological


excavations










combined


with


utilization


of existing


information


from


archaeological


research


region.


Thus


the


initial


research


step


was


an effort


to obtain


available


information


on known


brickyard


sites.


The


majority


this


archaeological


data


was


obtained


from


the


files


the


South


Carolina


Institute


Archaeology


and


Anthropology


Columbia.


The


data


consisted


of published


reports


as well


as a number


historic


map


references


provided


the


Institute


underwater


branch.


Additional


data


were


obtained


through


conversations


with


other


archaeologists


working


the


area,


including


staff


members


of private


consultants,


the


Forest


Service,


Carolina,


the


the


Charleston


National


Museum,


Trust


the


University


Historic


South


Preservation,


and


the


State


Historic


Preservation


Office.


The


next


step


was


an intense


review


of aerial


photographs


the


region.


Thi


effort


was


conducted


the


South


Carolina


Coastal


Council


Charleston.


Three


different


collections


were


utilized:


1:40,000


scale


infrared


aerials,


1:20


scale


aerial


, and


1:12,000


scale


aerials.


Two


features


were


sought


on the


aerial


evidence


of shoreline


modifications


such


landings,


and


wetlands


which


did


appear


natural











rest


the


basin.


The


shoreline


evidence


was


the


more


difficult


the


two


features


to identify,


since,


later


became


clear


, many


brickyards


did


have


projecting


landings


Identification


wetland


pattern


was


very


success


ful,


USGS


. minute


topographic


maps


were


marked


with


locations


of possible


brickyards


based


on these


wetland


patterns.


After


the


aerial


photography


study


was


completed,


maps


with


the


p055


ible


brickyard


locations


were


sent


to the


region


s major


environmental


consultant


and


land


surveyor


see


they


could


confirm


any


the


p055


ible


sites.


Their


information


was


utilized


during


the


field


survey


and


the


final


map


development


(Figure


The


obtaining


literature


published


survey


accounts


project


of brickmaking


focused


, as well


previous


archaeological


studi


of brickyards


in the


United


States.


soon


became


apparent


that,


while


the


literature


on brickmaking


not.


is exten


In addition,


most


sive,


archaeological


archaeological


research


information


not


public


shed


, except


as technical


reports.


a result,


the


majority


the


information


had


to be obtained


through


personal


contact


with


archaeologist


who


conducted


the


work











detail


to determine


site


plans.


Second,


plantation


diaries,


journals


, daybooks,


and


accounts


were


sought


to get


primary in

brickyards


formation

as well


on the

as the


day-to-day


economic


operation


aspects


the


these


operations.


Although


initially


confined


to the


Wando


River


basin,


became


the


clear


search


that


such


very


information


little


was


information


expanded


was


when


available.


Third,


unpublished


historic


accounts,


studies,


and


descriptions


of brickmaking


and


brick


use


in the


Lowcountry


were


sought.


Last,


published


storic


references


such


newspaper


adverti


segments,


census


data,


and


city


director


were


utilized


identify


the


brickmakers


and


determine


the


economic


impact


the


industry.


The


primary


source


historic


material


was


the


South


Carolina


Historical


Society


Charleston.


Research


thi


facility


was


conducted


through


use


the


open


catalog


well


as through


a computer


search


assisted


the


Society


archivist.


The


Society


s staff


researcher


assisted


searching


specific


references,


names,


and


documents.


advertisement


was


placed


the


Society


s journal


soliciting


information


from


members;


effort


resulted


only


one


contact.


A second


important


source


was


the


State


Archives











additional


source


of plat


maps,


as well


as deeds,


wills


and


probate


records.


Many


these


records


were


also


available


the


Charleston


County


Library.


The


general

records


libraries


historic


, and


the


references


an account


Univers


as well


of brickmaking


of Florida


as microfilmed


Florida


provided


census


the


19th


century.


Numerous


information


other


or leads


Charleston


Although


archives


most


were


these


contacted


sources


provided


little


or no specific


data


study,


they


did


prove


to be


a source


of contacts


people


who


might


have


information

potential s


or know


sources


something


were


about


contacted


sites.


letter


and


All

telephone


call


several


knew


of brickyard


sites


but


had


very


little


specific


information.


One


source,


the


Horlbeck


family,


does


apparently


have


extensive


family


records


from


the


Boone


Hall


brickyard;


access


these


records


could


not


be obtained


during


the


course


the


project.


The


initial


attempt


at completing


the


archaeological


site


survey


was


conducted


on land.


At that


time,


an effort


was


made


to vi


sit


as many


sites


as possible.


rapidly


became


clear


that


the


majority


the


sites


were


relatively


inaccessible


with


exception


those


the











A second,


successful


attempt


was


made


via


a small


outboard


boat


a two-day


field


effort.


The


initial


stops


were

with

that


at known

relevant

at high


sites

site

tide i


order


features.


might


to familiarize


was


the


immediately


be difficult


discern


searchers

apparent


sites


since


the


upland


portions


were


heavily


overgrown


and


the


shorelines


were


flooded


After


the


tide


changed,


a second


attempt


was


made.


time,


the


sites


were


very


apparent


and


the


distinguishing


site


signatures


were


noted


for


future


use.


At most


sites


which


were


encountered,


the


site


was


photographed


from


the


water


and


a landing


was


made


order


examine


the


upland


portion


the


site.


When


distinctive


upland f

surface,


featuress

these


existed


were


such


as a kiln


photographed


Field


mound

notes


or a working

were


maintained


to record


the


approximate


location,


obvious


features


, and


condition


of each


site


map,


either


navigation


chart


or a USGS


topographic


map,


was


marked


with


the


site


location.


No attempts


were


made


to delineate


the


site


boundari


or expose


features


because


the


limited


time


and


resources


available.


The


final


task


undertaken


thi


study


involved


development


of research


recommendations


these


sites.











Carolina


State


Historic


Preservation


Office,


and


members


the


University


of Florida


College


Architecture


historic


preservation


program.


Review


of Previous


Research


Previous


research


on brickmaking


fell


into


four


basic


categories:


accounts,


technological


economic


discu


documentation,


ssions


, (2)


and


historic


archaeological


studies.


Although


there


was


abundant


information


available


the


the


first


latter


two


categories,


categories,


with


and


two


a more


exceptions


limited


amount


(Atkinson


and


Elliott


1978;


Wheaton


et al. 1987)


the


previous


research


did


not


attempt


to provide


an interdi


sciplinary


or regional


approach


which


related


the


industry


the


historic,


environmental,


and


economic


events


which


development.


Brickmaking


a well-documented


trade.


There


are


historic


descriptions


dating


to the


colonial


period


from


both


Europe


and


Americas


, which


provided


the


basis


for


the


description


brickmaking


presented


this


study.


These


include


Chambers


' 1728


Cyclopaedia:


or an Universal


Dictionary


of Arts


Sciences


as well


as Neve


1726


City


and


County


Purchaser


s and


Builder


s Dictionary:


or the


Builder


s Guide.


Chambers


was


the


source


co~lete











Antebellum


brickmaking


was


recorded


Ure


his


1840


Dictionary


of Arts


. Manufacture.


and


Mines,


and


Appleton


1852


Dictionary


Machines


. Mechanics


. Enaine-Work


and


Encineerinq.


Appleton


was


source


a discussion


of clay


preparation,


while


Ure


described


clamp


and


crossdraft


kiln


construction.


First-person


accounts


of brickmaking


are


available


the


diary


of Lowcountry


planter


Charles


Graves


(1854-55),


well


an article


(1889).


Graves


Florida


' account


brickmaker


particularly


John


relevant


Crary


as a


Lowcountry


source.


It provides


an understanding


the


time


and


manpower


committed


to brickmaking


a yard


which


was


producing


brick


sale.


Crary


s article


helpful


terms


of understanding


the


functions


the


brickmaking


crew


and


their


rate


of production.


Nathaniel


Lloyd


s 1925


History


English


Brickwork


provides


work


a summary


of contemporary


brickmaking


Colonial


operation,


Williamsburg


as does


brickmaker


the


Bill


Weldon


(1990a;


1990b).


Lloyd


useful


terms


understanding


the


entire


brickmaking


process


from


obtaining


the


clay


opening


the


fired


kiln.


Weldon


s work


correlates


the


demonstration


brickmaking


at Williamsburg


with h


historic


accounts


in a step-by


-step


manner.


the











usable


bricks


Thi


information


helpful


terms


understanding


role


various


personnel


involved


brickmaking


photographs


the


plantations.


of brickmaking


His


clarify


step


the


-step


mechani


the


process.


series


of studies


the


Ceramic


Engineering


Department


of Clemson


University


document


the


nature


and


location


of good


brick


clays


Lowcountry


(Buie


1949;


Johnson


Heron


1965;


Robin


son


Johnson


1960).


These


are


very


technical


studies


which


addr


ess


shrinkage


, firing


temperatures,


color,


combinations


of soils


for


brickmaking.


They


were


used


developing


the


brickmaking


discus


sion


as well


as contributing


an understanding


as to


why


brickmaking


developed


region.


There


are


three


storic


studies


of bricks,


brickmaking,


and


brick


structures


in the


Lowcountry


written


from


the


perspective


architects


or hi


storians.


These


studies


are


critical


as sources


of historic


and


economic


data


not


readily


available


elsewhere,


as well


as an


indication


of other


possible


sources


More


important,


these


works


present


a Charleston


perspective


on thi


industry.


A brief


Gaillard


undated


Stoney


report


Henry


Lowcountry


Staats


architects


attempted


Samuel


to document










brick


Charleston


sequence


the


structures,


development


provides


of colonial


a chronological


brickmaking.


In 1934,


Harriet


Stoney


Simons


prepared


a report


colonial


brick


South


Carolina


which


summarizes


the


historic


documentary


evidence


brickmaking,


primarily


from n

Stoney


the


newspapers


and


and


Staats,


question


brick;


however,


the

her


account


Simons


use


report


books


was


(Simons


particularly


local

and r


brick


research


1934).


Like


concerned


versus

notes


with


imported


provide


digest


the


the


Charleston


printed

area,


primary

as well


information

as numerous


on brickmaking

references.


In 1978,


Marie


. Hollings


completed


a the


siS


the


University


Charleston.


of South


While


Carolina


study


on 18th


focuses


century


on the


brickwork


sources


brick


and


the


work


of brickmasons


Charleston,


does


summarize

synthesiz


the

ing


craft


the


as practiced


available


that


information


time,


on the


as well


brickmakers


within


the


region


(Hollings


1978).


Like


Simons,


Hollings


provides


information


on the


primary


sources


for


brickmaking


the


Charleston


region.


Economic


data


are


available


the


U. S.


Census


documentation


of manufacturers


as well


through


primary


records


from


Charleston


region.


None


thi











were


a study


rice


industry


(Swan


1975)


and


Michael


Scardaville

Swan p


s history


provides


a brief


Wando


summary,


Neck


(Scardaville


primarily


from


1985).


census


records,


the


status


of manufacturing


the


Lowcountry


terms


the


costs


of operation


the


value


the


products


, including


bricks.


Scardaville


s data


were


vital


the


scussion


the


agricultural


production


and


economic


history


the


Wando


Neck


study,


although


he devotes


little


or no attention


to manufactured


goods.


data


were


used


comparisons


between


the


value


the


output


brickyards


and


agricultural


production


the


region.


One


other


article,


a 1986


discussion


the


rural-urban


connection


Lowcountry,


provides


important


indications


the


close


relationship


between


Charleston


and


the


nearby


plantation


districts


(Zierden


1986)


Archaeological


studi


of brickmaking


sites


were


very


limited.


This


may


be a function


the


difficulties


involved


excavating


a kiln


as well


as the


limited


artifactual


evidence


which


can


be recovered


from


such


sites


In addition,


clamp-type


kilns


were


often


disas


sembled


and


the


bricks


used


other


structures


, leaving


little


structural


evidence


investigation.


Perhaps


as Noel


Hume


states:











purpose


to which


bricks


would


ultimately


put,


and


artifacts


the


chances


of finding


in association


with


any
are


datable
remote.


Thi


course,


manufacturing


product.
salable,


but


is true


site


whose


. Bricks


they


have


of
end


and
yet


the


excavation


product


tiles


are


to be mad


is not
complete
e into


or any
an end
e and
a house


(Noel


Hume


1975:174).


One


the


earliest


kiln


excavations


provides


some


the


most


informative


data


on the


nature


the


archaeological


excavation


Harrington


remains


the


(1950).


at these


Jamestown,


Harrington


sites.


Virginia


This

kiln s


s careful


is the


ite


description


the


remains


the


kilns


and


the


functions


the


features


crucial


to understanding


the


nature


of brickyards


archaeological


sites.


Research


the


Nance


s Ferry


site


Alabama


provides


guidance


the


correlation


of archaeological


evidence


with


storic


local


accounts


of brickmaking,


as well


additional


data


on the


nature


the


archaeological


remains


(Atkinson


and


Elliott


1978).


study


s attempt


address


the


role


the


industry


within


the


plantation


which


the


kilns


were


located


helpful


terms


comparative


data


the


Lowcountry.


Limited


excavations


have


been


conducted


other


kiln


sites


throughout


the


southeast.


Documentation


these


excavations


consists


of descriptive


information


rather


than











sites.


These


studies


include


a field


school


excavation


kiln


Alabama


(Sheldon


n.d.)


kiln


excavations


Brunswick


near


Town,


North


Williamsburg


Carolina


, Virginia


(South


(Steen


1963)


1991).


and


The


excavations


Alabama


kiln


was


probably


a one


-time


usage


site;


the


information


on thi


site


limited


to field


records


photographs.


South


excavations


at Brunswick


Town


were


exploratory


in nature,


and


the


resultant


report


a brief


descriptive


document.


Steen


s draft


report


provides


an excellent


description


the


archaeological


remains


two


brick


kilns


near


Williamsburg.


More

documented


recent


industrial


DesJean


brickmaking


Clark


sites


Tennessee


have

(1990)


been

and


Gurcke


Oregon


(1987).


The


Tennessee


study


documents


fully


mechanized


brickmaking


operation


the


early


20th


century.


Gurcke


s book


includes


an excellent


history


brickmaking


a discussion


the


types


bricks


and


kilns,


and


a review


of previous


archaeological


studies,


particularly


those


which


focused


on identification


different


brick


types


or manufacturers.


Although


these


mechanized


brickmaking


operations


are


directly


relevant


the


Lowcountry


industry,


the


studies


are


useful


for


basic


data


on the


nature


the


brickmaking


industry


and










the


location


and


nature


of specific


sites


within


the


Wando


River


basin.


secondary


In addition,


sources


ese


economic


studi


and


are


historic


useful

data,


particularly


specific


sites.


Several


brickmaking


sites


have


been


identified


within


the


Wando


River


basin,


but


thi


time,


only


one


has


been


excavated.


These


surveys


include

(Zierden


sites

1981;


within

Watts


Franci


1979) ,


two


Marion


kilns


National


on Parkers


Forest

Island


(Southerl in


et al. 1988),


three


brickyards


within


the


Dunes


West


development


(Wayne


and


Dickinson


1989;


1990),


extens


brickyard


at Boone


Hall


(Espenshade


and


Grunden


1991) ,


and


a brickyard


Darrell


Creek


. Brockington,


pers


onal


communication


1991).


The


majority


the


information


from


these


sites


consists


of descriptions


the


readily


observable


features


such


as brick-


lined


shores


, overgrown


kilns,


and


brick


rubble.


A small


brick


kiln


within


the


Longpoint


development


has


been


excavated,


but


report


was


not


yet


available


Brockington,


personal


communication


1991)


The


initial


survey


report


thi


particular


kiln


provides


an excellent


brief


storic


account


of brickmaking


as well


as a seri


possible


research


questions


concerning


the


role


thi


industry


within


the


region


(Trinkley


1987


* 5.7ec1 i


The


Boone











the


differences


between


this


brickyard


and


others


the


region


(Espenshade


and


Grunden


1991).


The


Jimmie


Green


Lime


Kiln Site


(Wheaton


et al.


1987)


contains


comparative


documentation


the


excavation


Lowcountry


site


from


closely


related


industry


lime-


burning


factors


, as well


which


information


the


on the


development


economic


that


and


storic


industry


the


Charleston


area.


summary


, although


each


these


sources


contributed


data


study


of brickmaking,


the


previous


research


rarely


offers


a synthesis


the


available


data,


nor


does


provide


the


a regional


economic


existing


approach


development


documents


address


to the


the

the


role


thi


Lowcountry


effects


the


industry


None


the


industry


the


environment,


or attempt


to provide


a multiple


resource


management


approach


these


sites
















THE


CHAPTER
WRITTEN


RECORD


They
and
with


keep
make


Union


about
a large


Army,


hands


fortune


1864


at work


at it


, cited


too


burning


brick


(Journalist


Perkerson


1952:101).


Examination


the


written


record


of Lowcountry


brickmaking


attempted


to determine


why


certain


activity


and


sites


were


selected,


what


technologies


or processes


were


utilized


brickmaking,


and


what


historic


or economic


factors


influenced


development


these


sites.


Thi


landscape


archaeology


focus


differs


from


that


plantation


archaeology,


which


has


been


conducted


extensively


the


southeastern


United


States


in recent


years


(see


Orser


1984;


1989;


Joseph


1989).


In plantation


archaeology,


the


focus


has been


on the


socio-economic


relationships


within


the


individual


plantations


and


between


neighboring


plantations,


and


on aspects


of acculturation


as evidenced


the


archaeological


remains


(Joseph


1989


* 57-


The


emphasis

these pa

1989:34-

artifact


has


tterns

36) .


been


on pattern


between

Landscape


or feature


recognition


different


social


archaeology


to the


land


look


itself,


and coi

groups

s beyond<

in terms


mparison


(Orser

d the

s of how











Although


the


written


record


Lowcountry


brickmaking


proved


to be sketchy


at best,


did


provide


evidence


the


importance


this


industry


to its


practitioners,


as well


an explanation


as to why


developed


within


the


region.


This


record


will


discussed


terms


the


factors


which


gave


rise


to this


craft;


who


made


the


bricks;


the


distribution


the


brickyards;


and


the


value


the


industry


the


brickmakers.


The


Economic


Background


In 1955,


the


geographer


Merle


Prunty


identified


six


distinguishing


characteristics


a landholding


distinguishable


a distinct di
functions, wi
hands of the
production, u
per proprieto
the South [or


[5]
orga
cent
a re
unit
apple
empl
any


distinct
nization
realized
latively
of area
ied to a
oyment a
labor sy


i

C


vis
th
own
sua
rsh
wo
ve
ref
ont


large


from
ion
manal
er;
lly
ip;
crld]
sett
lect
q


roI


large

system :
lone, b
stem is


occupance. No one
alone, characterize
six are necessary a
1955:460).


plantation


enough


e larger
labor and


ent c


lemen
ing,


usto
iali
or
tion
plan
orms
a hi
a *


system:


to be


"family" farm; [2
management
marily in the
zed agricultural
three specialties
in some area of
station tradition;
and spatial
gh degree,


or cultivating po
input of cultivati
the term "plantat
m" of labor or cap
because, viewed geo
but one element i
of the foregoing e
s the plantation;
nd interdependent


w
n
i
i
g
n
1
i
(


er; ana [b]
g power per
on" is neve
tal
raphically,
plantation
ements,
instead, all
Prunty


r


I. -


Prunty


did


not


emphasize


production


of a staple


crop;


rather,


production


V.


a specialized


crop


or crop


destined


r


u











majority


the


labor,


and


goods


are


produced


subsi


stence


and


domestic


consumption


(Singleton


1985:1-2


Adams (

factory


1987:9)


which


describes

h capital


the


plantation


investment


was


as an agricultural


represented


acquis


ition


of land


buildings,


the


means


of production


was


the


source


of dependable


labor,


and


there


was


a product


for


sale


on the


market.


The


source


labor


could


human,


animal, or machinery

indentured servants,


The

free


human

labor,


labor c

or some


would


be slaves,


combination


the


three.


In return


their


efforts


, the


labor


may


have


been


provided


with


wages,


a portion


the


crop,


housing,


food,


clothing,


or other


goods


or services.


The


southern


characterized


plantation


as a system


with


system


wide


can


also


variations


size,


products,


labor


systems,


location,


degree


diversification,


and


markets.


However,


certain


factors


remain


consistent.


First,


the


plantation


was


always,


sense,


a frontier


institution,


functioning


as a relatively


self


-sufficient


system


on the


periphery


the


world


market.


Second,


there


was


almost


always


an identifiable


element


status


differentiation,


both


within


the


individual


plantations


and


between


plantations


the


same


region.


Third,


the


settlement


pattern


reflected


centralized


control











the


individual


plantation


level,


this


settlement


pattern


was


also


affected


resource

specific


seasonality


processing,

products, t


of production,


environmental


transportationn


nature


requirements


methods,


the


storage


requirements,


defense


needs,


and


specialized


functions


within


the


system


(Adams


1987


:9-10).


Traditionally,


viewed


the


as an outgrowth


southern plantation

f the mercantilism


system


the


has

18th


been

and


early


markets


19th


such


centuries,


which


as England


the


the


industrialized


northern


United


world


States


demanded

material


raw


materials.


the


plantations


In exchange


were


supplied


these

with


raw

manufactured


products


(Zierdan


1986


:33)


Genovese


(196


:422-423


states


that


the


willingness


the


South


to participate


thi


system


directly


to a lack


industrial


development


within


that


region,


as well


as retardation


the


home


markets.


family


He points


farm


out


or yeoman


that


farm


areas


system


characterized


, a network


the


local


markets


was


developed


in response


to the


need


an outlet


farm


products,


as well


as the


availability


of cash


buy


goods.


While
with
power


the
debt,
. the


conditions


peasantry


and 1
labor
for e


is tied


limited


the


to minimal


recruitment


extensive


and


land,


purcha
market


manufacturing


burdened
sing
pre-


are


missing











and


the


barter


system.


Adams


(1987


:10)


states


that


this


barter


system


functioned


extensively


between


neighboring


plantations


in exchanges


of everything


from


wood


or seed


individual


slaves.


In Genovese


s analysis


(196


:435-436)


there


was


only


one


area


the


South


which


industrial


zation


and


a home


or urban


market


could


develop,


and


that


was


proximity


cities


having


a population


over


15,000.


There


were


only


four

Civil


cities

War:


which

New O


qualified


rleans,


thi


Mobile,


category


Savannah,


prior


and


the


Charleston.


was


this


proximity


to Charle


ston


which


defined


the


nature


the


plantation


development


within


the


Wando


River


basin.


When


South


Carolina


was


originally


settled,


the


Lords


Proprietors


sought


a staple


crop


which


would


provide


them


with

they


a lucrative

encouraged


return.

planters


In order

from Barb


to achieve


ados


thi


migrate


goal,


South


Carolina


with


their


slaves.


Initially,


thi


plan


failed


due


the


new


settlers


' preoccupation


with


producing


adequate


subsistence


themselves,


as well


as the


failure


the


tropical


crops


which


were


attempted


this


temperate


climate.


Although


tobacco


and


naval


stores


were


successfully


produced


during


this


early


period,


neither


was


a major


export.


The


main


product


the


early


years


was











As a result


reduction


the


deer


population


and


the


Yemassee


War


of 1715


, the


lucrative


deerskin


trade


came


an end


new


products


were


sought


the


settlers


Rice,


initially


introduced


the


1690s


, became


the


dominant


product


the


Lowcountry.


A fall


rice


prices


during


the


1740s


the


introduction


indigo


as a second


staple


crop.


The


two


crops


were


complementary


terms


land


use;


rice


required


flooded


lowlands,


and


indigo


was


upland


crop.


The


royal


bounty


on indigo


production


also


encouraged


development


labor


intensive


crop.


The


labor


needs


of both


products


resulted


a tremendous


growth


the


number


of slaves


in the


Lowcountry,


the


point


that


just


whites


prior


the


in this


area


Revolutionary


was


War,


to 1


the


the


ratio


time


of blacks


the


American


Revolution,


Charleston


had


become


the


dominant


port


southeast


and


center


of a network


large


plantations


(Stoney


1938:27


-29;


Scardaville


1985:33).


the


end


the


Revolutionary


War,


the


loss


the


bounty


on indigo


combined


with


foreign


competition


the


end


that


crop


as a plantation


product


the


Lowcountry


cotton,


(Stoney


particularly


1938:31)


long


was


soon


-staple


replaced


Island


variety


which


could


only


be produced


coastal


region.


Cotton










further


west.


In fact,


during


1820s


and


1830s,


there


was


a 10 percent


Carolina,


SS1SS


compared


ipp i


drop


cotton


to large


was


production


growth


followed


Alabama


a modest


South

and


resurgence


during


the


1850s


, but


South


Carolina


never


regained


early


19th


century


dominance


the


Southern


economy


(Scardaville


1985:34-35).


The


parishes


surrounding


Charleston


provide


interesting


contrast


to the


state


as a whole,


and


support


Genovese


s discussion


the


development


an urban


market


and


local


industry.


The


growing


city


required


an increased


variety


and


quantity


of subsistence


products,


which


were


soon


supplied


the


surrounding


area.


Thus,


while


these


parishes


produced


only


percent


the


state


s cotton


crop


(Table


they


produced


15.9


percent


the


state


rice


on only


.8 percent


the


improved


land


as shown


Scardaville


s examination


census


records


(1985:36


-37).


This


lowland


rice


production


increased


11.8


percent


1860,


compared

percent

provided


to a statewi

(Scardaville.

significant


decrease


1985:36-37

quantities


in rice

These


of livest


production

parishes

ock and pr


of 25.5

also


oduce


crops


which


were


sent


to the


Charleston


markets


local


consumption.


Scardaville


(1985:38)


states


that


the













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potatoes,


sweet


potatoes,


and


corn


to support


livestock


such


as cattle


, sheep,


hogs,


and


poultry


In addition,


proximity


the


major


port


provided


an incentive


for


the


production


of naval


stores


within


the


district.


Evidence


the


importance


these


products


to the


plantations


within


the


Wando


River


basin


can


seen


examination


of ledgers


diaries


the


antebellum


period.


Ledgers


of Anthony


Toomer


, owner


Richmond


plantation


Toomer


corn,


Creek,


butter,


list


numerous


cabbages


of cords


carrots,


chickens


of wood,


, eggs


turkeys,


, spinach,


asparagus,


LVes


, artichokes,


peas,


rice,


hay,


ducks,


and


building


material


such


as brick,


lime,


and


lumber


(Table


-Toomer


1783-85)


. While


similar


records


have


not


been


these


located


other


plantations


properties


' outputs


were


within


probably


the


much


study


the


area,


same.


One

shipments


product


was


which


was


bricks;


noticeably


a three


year


important


period,


Toomer'


lists


shipments


of 195,900


bricks


to Charleston


(Toomer


1783-85)


Richmond


plantation


contains


only


one


kiln


(Wayne


and


Dickinson


1989


:5-17


- 5-18) ;


the


adjacent


Lexington


plantation


to the


northwest


has


a pair


of kilns


and


associated


brickmaking


complex


(Figure


Elm


Grove


plantation


the


east


has


two


brickyards


(Figure





















Table


Wando


Plantation


Accounts


Dr. Anthony


Toomer


1785


Product


Income


sted


Bricks


Firewood


(Oak)


Rice

Produce/livestock*


Includes


corn,


butter,
artichoke


cabbages,


spinach,
s, ducks,


carrots,


asparagus,
turkeys,


chickens,


peas
hay,


eggs,
calves,


potatoes,


pigs


Note:


Plantation


also


produced


lumber


but


not


in great


quantities


Source:


Toomer


1783-85


















[Marsh]


[Wooded Area]


Negro Houses


- Ov


erseer's


House


BRICKYARD


House


Garden


Dwelling


Kitchen


[Cemetery]


Stable


Driver's


House


0 Duck Pond


I


0 500 1000 Feet
lI fthI ii


~85
~o





























* 1 *


Marsh]


BRICKYARD


',j


'4
4'

4'
'4
4'


Old Field


Old Field


BRICKYARD


Brick Shed


Elm Grove


Dr. Daniel Legare


",4'-

























*". "*.*: *.*.:. W AN DO


-, ,-- -.: ;.. .. .. ...... ,
S*RIVER
S I 4


S


a .S


Settlement


* .-.. *
-, *


James J. Rhett's Land









Oarst


Robert Parker's
Island


Sarah Rutledge Estate


Horlbeck's Land


Brick Kiln























4-. 'I
St


/
^*- .*r--


Dr. John


Samuel Martin


U-
Ir
'I
II
U'1
SC)
"In
"C

Ili
U'


Thomas
Addison


~-,..


BRICKYARD


T. P. Addison


BRICKYARD


Landi


Marsh


Marsh


-u


MARTIN











As pointed


Genovese


(1962:436)


Charleston


was


one


the


few


locations


South


which


provided


the


market


or demand


manufactured


goods.


one


the


largest


the


South


s cities,


there


was


a particular


demand


building


material


, especially


fireproof


material


a brief


study


the


sources


brick


Charleston,


Simons


(1934


notes


that


when


occupants


the


Lowcountry


had


to import


every


manufactured


good,


is unreasonable


think


that


valuable


cargo


space


would


have


been


taken


for


brick


when


product


could


be produced


locally.


She


cites


an architect


s estimate


that


would


take


the


full


cargo


room


of nine


the


largest


vessel


available,


or 45


loads


of ballast


to import


sufficient


brick


one


structure,


the


Miles


Brewton


House


(Simons


1934:11).


Thus,


although


there


evidence


of importation


of bricks


(Rauschenberg


1991:103-104),


the


builders


of Charleston


largely


depended


on local


production


their


materials


Thi


manufacturing


enterprise


was


of sufficient


value


the


plantations,


that


when


Arnoldus


Vanderhorst


Lexington


submitted


his post-Revolutionary


War


claims


losses


to the


British


, he li


sted


building


"200


feet


long


30 for


Sheltering


Bricks"


as valued


1000


pounds.


This


half


the


value


claimed


his


dwelling


on the











the


plantation


settlement


patterns,


which


slaves


the


means


of production,


are


often


located


in proximity


to the


kilns


rather


than


to the


owner


or the


agricultural


fields


(Figures


and


The


Wando


River


basin


was


an ideal


location


the


manufacture


of brick


Charleston.


Although


brick


was


produced


along


the


rivers


which


to Charleston


(Figure


thi


industry


appears


to have


been


particularly


important


along


the


Wando.


The


lands


drained


thi


river


the


crops


Wando


the


Neck


and


Cooper


lower


Berkeley


Ashley


River


County

basins


lacked


but


the


had


cash

very


strong


tie


to the


Charleston


market


both


economically


and


logistically.


The


region


is well-suited


brick


production.


The


Wando


except

creeks.

drained


River


within

Soils


highly


saline,


small areas

within thi


flatwoods


types


inhibiting


the


region


which


are


upper

are

not


rice


reaches

primarily


production


the


poorly


particularly


suitable


crops


such


as cotton


or indigo.


However,


the


area


has


the


resources


brickmaking,


as evidenced


property


advertisement


which


appeared


1747:


To be Sold
Subscriber
on Wando R


Brick


. the


now


iver


Works,


lives,


their


Plantation
convenient


. also


being


great
excelled


where


to a good
conveniency


nt


Clay


Landing
for


close


v











In addition,


brickmaking


was


often


a winter


and


spring


occupation


which r

produce


(Gurke


resulted


farming,


1987


resource


corn


Graves


1854-55;


scheduling


raising,


which


livestock


Stoney


1938:48),


complemented


production


the


the


region.


As a result


the


combination


of available


resources,


slaves),


display


a ready


the


market,


majority


evidence


brick


and

the

kiln


a suitable

plantations


S


with


labor


the


associated


force

area

landings


along


the


streams.


one


writer


said


the


Cooper


River


brickmaking


industry:


The


extensive


sometimes


One


old


brick-making


very


lady,


advised


said


three


profitable


to have


successive


on Cooper


second


been


Mrs


dreams,


River


string t
. Frost,
turned


was


rice.


as an industry,


fortune


(Irving


and


like


1932:23).


[John]


Gordon,


made


This


statement


clearly


applies


the


planters


along


the


Wando


River.


In addition


to providing


Charleston


with


subsistence


and


construction


products,


the


plantations


the


District


served


another


important


function.


Land


and


plantations


were


excellent


investments


a business


man


s surplus


or for


the


savings


a professional
was a pleasant
agreeable care
prosperous tow


e
n


man o
goal
r for
men


r politician;


their


their
were c


old


a planter
aae and a


children.


considerable


life


So most
planters


well


(Stoney


1938


:25).


the


same


token,


dominance


of the p


lantation


products


a











they


maintained


town


houses,


and


within


the


state


(Stoney


1938


:41)


The


nearby


plantations


location


Wando


Charleston


River


basin


businessmen


who


represented


wished


acquire


the


financial


investment


and


status


without


the


problem

Charlest

Charlest


of distance

on business

on allowed


from


their


es.


those


who


ma or

same


were


source

time, p


primarily


income--their


roximity

planters


to

to


invest


plantation


Charleston


activity


businesses


such


which


complemented


as factorages,


shipping,


their


and


brickmasonry


An example


this


interrelationship


can


seen


at Lexington


Plantation:


the


Vanderhorsts,


primarily


planters,


also


owned


wharves


and


stores


in Charleston.


The


next


owner


property


was


. Willington,


who


was


primarily


a Charleston


businessman


and


newspaper


publisher


The


third


owner,


Effingham


Wagner,


was


also


involved


Charleston


commerce


activity


es.


these


owners


Lexington


owned


homes


Charleston


(Wayne


and


Dickinson


1990


:3-20


- 3-21)


Their


neighbors


were


equally


involved


Charleston


commerce:


Anthony


Toomer


of Richmond


plantation


south


eas


t of Lexington,


and


the


Horlbecks


of Boone


Hall


were


brickmasons


in Charleston


(Hollings


1978


:89,


91);


William


Hopton,


owner


property


northwest


of Lexington,


was











Charleston.

consumed or


These


i Charleston


plantations


s tables,


providedd

as well


the


foodstuffs


as the


firewood


cook


and


heat


the


houses,


and


the


materials


for


the


buildings.


At the


same


time,


the


properties


provided


investment

businessmen


opportunity


appears


a number


that


of Charleston


in an agriculturally


marginal


area


such


as the


flatwoods


of the


Wando


Neck


and


lower


Berkeley


County,


brickmaking


became


a significant


factor


the

have


economic


been


success


based


these


on production


plantations


of a diverse


which


group


seems


of products


rather


than


a single


staple


crop.


Brickmakers


and


Brickyards


indicated


the


introduction


thi


study,


the


origin


the


craft


of brickmaking


as practiced


the


Carolinas

of Europe,


the


was

and


Carolina


from


southeastern


Huguenot

s were F


France.


rench


England,


Many


Huguenots


the

the


who


Low

earl


came


Countries

y settlers

o this


region


because


the


liberal


religious


policies


the


Lords


Proprietors.


A large


Huguenot


enclave


was


established


St. Denis


Parish


(Berkeley


County),


not


far


from


the


Wando


River.


Many


these


Huguenot


emigres


had


background


the


building


trades


and


utilized


that


experience


to establish


businesses


Charleston.


The











building


and


of manufacturing


material


(Wheaton


et al.


1987


:54).


It i


important


to note,


however,


that


although


the


planters


and


businessmen


may


have


listed


themselves


brickmakers,


highly


unlikely


that


they


actually


were


involved


the


manual


labor


of making


brick.


As Eaton


points


out,


During
extent


industries
employed o
to make br


eighteenth


the
wer
n th
icks


century


ante-bellum
e carried o
e large pla
, staves, a


and


period


n by


to a lesser
household


slaves,


nations tc
nd barrels,


who
weave


were
cloth,


manufacture


nail


to boil


soap,


to do blacksmith


work,


and


even


to make


artistic


furniture


(Eaton


1966:372)


Thus,


the


role


the


named


"brickmaker"


the


Lowcountry


was


essentially


that


the


supervisor


and


instructor


Often,


the


"brickmaker"


was,


fact,


merely


the


property


owner

For e


and


xampl


an unnamed

e, in 1770


overseer


John


directed


Moore,


the


identified


manufacturing.

d as a brickmaker


Thomas


Deni


Parish,


advertised


for


overseer


who


understood


brickmaking


(South


Carolina


Gazette


1770).


Little


documentary


evidence


exists


the


unnamed


slaves


and


overseers


who


provided


labor


and


skill


for


brickmaking,


other


than


an occasional


advertisement


such


that


a slave


sale


1849


which


listed


four


female











Brickmakers


as the


first


skill


those


being


sold


(Capers


and


Huger


1849)


As a result


this


lack


documentary


information,


thi


discussion


the


brickmakers


of necessity


focuses


on those


property


owners


who


were


identified


the


written


record


as practitioners


thi


trade.


Table


provides


a list


the


people


who


were


identified


as brickmakers


Lowcountry,


as well


as the


location


their


brickyards


when


available


(Figure


The


gaps


time


reflect


the


gaps


the


written


record


as well


as the


nature


that


record.


interesting


to note


that,


in a male-dominated


society,


several


women


were


listed


as brickmakers.


least


two,


Hannah


Goodbe


and


Mrs.


Frost,


were


actively


engaged


providing


bricks


the


market


(Irving


1932


:23;


Simons


1934


:9).


The


information


on 18th


century


brickmakers


was


gathered


primarily


from


newspaper


advertisements


and


records


transactions


building


material


The


later


antebellum


information


was


based


largely


on map


references,


city


directories,


and


census


records.


The


first


reference


to brickmaking


the


Lowcountry


was


a 1664


letter


which


stated


that


there


was


a "rich


ground


a grayer


colour


, they


have


made


Brick


the


Clay,













Table


Brickmakers
Between 1745


Identified
and 1860


the


Charleston


Area


Period


Location


Ashley
Wappoo
Parnas
Cooper
Cooper
Cooper
Cooper
Cooper
Foster
Foster
Goose
Moorel
Boone
Palmet


John Cockfield
Richard Lake
Zachariah Villepontoux
Alexander van der Dussen
Thomas Wright
Nathaniel Snow
James Coachman
Hannah Goodbe
Samuel ELLiott
Benjamin and Isaac Mazyck
James and William Withers
John Moore
Peter & John Horlbeck
Peter Croft
James and Deborah Fisher
James Sandeford
Samuel Warnock
Hugh Cartwright
Mrs. (Thomas?) Lynch
William Bruce
Lionel Chalmers
John Laurens
William Hopton
Elizabeth Hill
John Hutchins


Thomas

Charles
Samuel
Joseph
John Wi
ThomasI
Anthony


Gordon
Dupont
Cantey
Cordes
Palmor
lliams
Addison
Toomer


John Daniel
Henry Gray
___ Crosby
Joseph Verree
Blaike
Peter Gaittllard Stoney
John Gordon


Frost
Edward and Samuel Mart
William Marsh
John and George Parker
John Horlbeck
James Rhett
Arnoldus Vanderhorst
_Huger
Robert and Thomas Park
John Horlbeck
Daniel Legare
T.H.I. White
John Sanders
John L. O'Hear


River
Creek
sus, B
River
River
River
River
River
Creek
Creek
Creek
and, T


Cainhoy,
Cainhoy,
Cainhoy,
Cainhoy,
Christ CI


Ashley River
ck River


homas Is


LI, Hor
Grove,
Wando
Wando
Wando
Wando
hurch P


., Beresford Creek
Creek
beck Creek




, Wando River


Wando River
Wando River
Wando River
Wando River
Wando Neck


Beresford Creek
Richmond, Toomer Creek
Christ Church Parish
Fosters Creek


Medway, Cooper River
Brickyard Plantation, Moreland,
The Grove, Cooper
Cooper River
Beresford Creek
Fairchild's Creek, Christ Church Parish
Parker's Island, Horlbeck Creek
Boone Hall, Horlbeck Creek
Palmetto Grove, Horlbeck Creek
Lexington, Wagner Creek


in


er


Parker's Island, Horlbeck Creek
Boone Hall, Horlbeck Creek
Elm Grove, Darrell Creek
Christ Church Parish
St. Thomas & St. Denis Parish
11 II II u II


1745-1760


1761-1776


1790-1830










1850-1860














- ~: .--* I, -
,IIitiit~i'i I .r11





IiI


Aii






/II- 0

P- n~ II



e :Ak















-i -l
US f4~ I


0

rl
US)

r4(T
C
S4Hl
00

00

,Q4J
0(0











(Salley


1911:181).


Within


years,


Lawson


stated


that


there


were


numerous


brick


buildings


in Charleston


with


additional


large


ones


under


construction


using


what


described


as good


brick


tile


made


locally


(Lawson


1709).


the


1740s,


when


Charleston


s building


code


required


the


use


of fireproof


materials


numerous


brickmakers


and


properties


most


could


important


identified


brickmaker


the


written


period


was


record.


probably


The


the


Huguenot,


Zachariah


Villepontoux


of Parnassus


plantation


the


Back


(Cooper)


River


Villepontoux


s bricks


were


cited


as the


standard


when


Stephen


s Parish


attempted


to order


bricks


construction


a new


chapel


1759


(Porcher


1944:165).


Charl


Villepontoux


Pinckney


had


s house


provided


1745;


194,400


Nathaniel


the


Snow,


bricks


a Mr


Dupont,


and


Hannah


Goodbe


provided


the


balance


of 81,400


bricks


(Simons


1934:8)


Villepontoux


has


also


been


identified


as the


brickmaker


St. Michael


Church


Charleston,


a supplier


the


merchant


Henry


Laurens


, and


provider


of part


brick


fortifications


for


the


city


(Hollings


1978


:20;


Rogers


1974:358


-359;


Commi


ssioners


of Fortifications


1755


-70)


In addition


to making


bricks,


Villepontoux


was


a planter,


tax


collector,


and


leader


several


charitable


religious


organizations


(Edgar


and











as Villepontoux


(Porcher


1944:160-164).


The


parish


initially


contracted


with


Samuel


Cordes


August


1759


for


120,000


bricks,


when


delivered


October


1762,


the


church


official


rejected


the


brick


as "not


being


sufficiently


burnt"


(Porcher


1944:163).


In April


1765,


the


Commissioners


the


Church


met


to examine


bricks


made


Joseph


Palmer


the


size


of Mr.


[Ville]Pontoux"


, but


also


rejected


these


since


"they


are


entirely


too


Bad,


and


are


not


164) .


Charles


Proper


In June


Cantey


Building


1766


to make


, the


150,000


a Church"


(Porcher


Commissioners


bricks


1944:163-


contracted


a size


with


equal


Villepontoux


(Porcher


1944


:165).


Since


no further


reference


is made


to bricks


the


minutes,


Cantey


was


evidently


successful


supplying


the


church


s needs.


Construction


the


many


fortifications


and


around


Charleston


during


the


mid-eighteenth


century


utilized


numerous


brickmakers,


including


Villepontoux,


James


and


William


Withers


, Thomas


Gordon,


Joseph


Verree,


Blaike,


and


Anthony


Fort,


Toomer.


Johnson,


These


and


fortifications


Broughton


Battery


included


(Commi


Dorrel


ssioners


Fortifications


1755-1770;


Council


of Safety


1903:18-23).


Toomer


also


supplied


bricks


the


Pringle


house


Charleston


(Toomer


1783-85).











"with


conveniences


making


Brick"


(South


Carolina


Gazette


1741)


year


later


, Elizabeth


Hill


and


Lionel


Chalmers


both


offered


land


on the


Wando


"very


convenient


making


Brick


or Lime"


(South


Carolina


Gazette


1742a;


1742b)


Similar


descriptions


were


used


lands


on the


Wando


River


offered


Sandeford,


1746


. and


Samuel

William


Warnock

Bruce


and


(South


1747


Carolina


James

Gazette


1746a;


1747a;


1747b)


The


property


in Chri


st Church


Parish


advertised


bricklayer


Hugh


Cartwright


on behalf


of Mrs.


Lynch


(perhaps


Mrs.


Thomas


Lynch)


included


unburnt


bricks


(South


Carolina


Gazette


1746b)


The


most


detailed


contemporary


description


of a brickyard


thi


period


came


from


the


advertisement


the


1748


the


property


James


and


Deborah


Fisher:


To be Sold,


a Plantation


on Wando-River


, near


Cainhoy,


Corn,


and


Yard


Length,


Rice


Out


containing


and


Houses,


(with


and


Indigo,
and at


large
about


Acres
with a
the La


Houses,


of Land,
Dwelling


nding


near


Breadth


proper
House,


a Good


100 f
each)


!eet
and


for
Barn


Brick


in
a good


Brick


case


burning


them.


About


feet


Length,


near


arches,


and


in Breadth,
a Division i


and


Height,


Middle,


with


large


quantity


of Wood


near


at Hand,


with


other


conveniences.


whom
Brick


are


very


Likewi


good


a number


Coopers,


Moulders;


several


Household


of slaves,


Sawyers
Furniture


among
and


(South


Carolina


Gazette


1748).


The


two


large


houses


referred


to in


this


advertisement


were


probably


drying


sheds.











1978


:17)


Van


der


Dussen


Mazyck


offered


bricks


for


sale


1745


and


1749,


while


property


being


sold


Elliott


estate


included


a large


quantity


of burnt


and


unburnt


bricks


and


til


(South


Carolina


Gazette


1745


1749a;


1778)


Two


brickmakers


were


identified


on the


Ashley


River


from


these


advertisements--John


Cockfield


and


Richard


Lake


(South


Carolina


Gazette


1747c;


1749b)


Brickmaker


John


Moore,


. of


Beres


ford


Creek


Thomas


and


St. Deni


Parish


was


identified


previously


mentioned


advertisement


an overseer


who


understood


brickmaking


(South


Carolina


ette


1770)


Moore


was


the


nephew


of brickmaker


Zachariah


Villepontoux


and


operated


both


brick


and


lime


kilns


on his


plantation


on Thomas


Island.


relationship


to Villepontoux


undoubtedly


provided


him


with


exposure


to brickmaking


(Wheaton


et al.


1987


* 4-5


In addition,


was


married


to Elizabeth


Vanderhorst


(Wheaton


et al. 1987


:59);


the


Vanderhorst


family


operated


a brickyard


at Lexington


plantation


on the


Wando


River


Besides


brickmaking,


Moore


served


the


Royal


Assembly,


the


First


Provincial


Congress,


and


as a justice


the


peace


(Wheaton


et al.


1987


:54;


Hollings


1978


:19)


William


Hopton,


owner


of a plantation


on the


Wando


River


opposite


Cainhoy,


was


an excellent


example


the











Berkeley


thi


1982:


property


231) .


shows


Examination


a brickyard


an 1819


on the


plat


plantation


map


(Wilson


1819).


At approximately


same


time


that


Hopton


owned


property


on the


Wando,


Peter


Croft


developed


plantation


Palmetto


Grove


on what


is now


Horlbeck


Creek.


Since


thi


property


contains


remains


of a brick


kiln,


is assumed


that


Croft


was


making


bricks,


although


the


kiln


could


have


been


the


work


other


long-term


landowner


the


property,


James


Rhett,


who


owned


Palmetto


Grove


from


1834


1854


(Trinkley


1987:


The


other


major


brickmakers


the


18th


century


were


Peter


and


John


Horlbeck.


The


Horlbeck


family


developed


what


would


become


longest


lasting


the


brickyards


thi


region.


bricks

Customs


tied


The


as early


House


Horlbeck


to a specific


brothers


as 1766, in

Charleston


brickyard


were


eluding


Simons

until


selling


bricks

n.d.)


the


and


for

but


early


laying


the


could


19th


not


century.


In 1817,


their


sons,


John


Henry


Horlbeck,


acquired


Boone


Hall


plantation


on what


now


Horlbeck


Creek


A deed


issued


just


prior


to this


acquisition


mentioned


a brickyard


as one


the


property


s features.


1839


, thi


brickyard


was


under


the


control


John


Horlbeck,


(Espenshade


and











(U.S.


Census


1850)


production,


plus


a reference


the


census


to the


use


of coal


, indicated


that


the


Horlbecks


may


have


been


using


steam-powered


brick-making


machinery


(Espenshade


and


Grunden


1991:15).


The


Boone


Hall


brickyard


continued


to operate


throughout


Civil


War


until


the


late


19th


century


(Espenshade


Grunden


1991) ;


thi


the


only


brickyard


the


basin


which


seems


to have


operated


after


the


Civil


War


possible


that


the


high


production


the


Horlbeck


property


forced


the


smaller


brickyards


out


of business


1860.


In 1875,


John


Horlbeck


acquired


a neighboring


brickyard


on Parker


developed


Island.


This


John


brickyard


George


was


Parker


probably


who


are


originally


listed


brickmakers


the


late


18th


century


Charleston


city


directories


(McElligott


1989).


An 1844


map


shows


the


island


and


brickyard


as the


property


of Robert


Parker


(Jones


1844).


Horlbeck


acquired


the


property


from


Parker


s son


Thomas


(Southerlin


et al.


1988:


Although


there


were


fewer


brickmakers


identified


during


the


19th


century,


they


seem


to have


had


larger


operations.


Peter


Gaillard


supplier


Stoney


brick


of Medway,


Fort


Sumter


instance,


1830


was


(Stoney


the


and


major


Staats


n.d. :10).


John


Gordon


owned


three


properties


on the


Cooper


22).











sale,


included


oxen


"used


trampling


the


clay"


plus


"the


unburnt


brick"


(Ravenel


1835)


Gordon


was


said


to have


gotten


wealthy


from


brickmaking,


inspiring


a neighbor


, Mrs.


Frost,


to do


the


same


(Irving


1932:


Another


indication


the


extent


the


brickmaking


during


thi


period


was


move


to mechanization.


The


Hugers


the


Cooper


River


investigated


a brickmaking


machine


made


Philadelphia;


although


the


machine


cost


over


$1,000.00,


Huger


indicated


would


be worth


the


money


worked


(Huger


1812) .


At least


one


plantation


the


Charl


eston


area


did


acquire


such


a machine;


now


the


collections


the


Charleston


Museum


(News


Courier


1991)


As previously


noted


, the


Horlbecks


were


probably


using


steam


power


thi


and


scale


ssibly


brickmaking


of production


machines


level


at Boone


technology


Hall.

, these


brickyards


represent


transition


to full


-fledged


manufacturing


facilities,


although


they


continued


to be


operated


as an aspect


plantations


on which


they


were


located.


Arnoldus


Vanderhorst


of Lexington


plantation


considered


brickmaking


to be


so important


that


located


slave


cabins


overseer


s house


brickyard


(Figure


valued


the


brick


shed


at thi


operation


at 1,000


pounds,











Beres


ford


Creek


remained


a center


brickmaking


during


the


19th


century


. In


addition


to John


Gordon


s and


John


Moore,


Jr.'s operations,


the


creek


served


as an outlet


for


the


brickyards


of Thomas


Addison


and


Edward


and


Samuel


Martin


(Diamond


1823)


1850,


only


nine


brickmakers


were


identified


the


project


region


(Table


but


with


the


exception


of Daniel


Legare


of Elm


Grove,


were


making


over


300,000


bricks


per


year


Two,


John


Horlbeck


and


John


Marshall,


were


making


over


a million


bricks


a year


. Census


1850).


Examination


of a plat


of Legare


s property


(Figure


does


show


two


brickyards,


but


census


record


indicates


that


only


operated


them


about


two


months


the


year


p055


ible


that


these


brickyards


originally


dated


earlier


period


of Elm


Grove


s operations.


With


the


exception


the


Boone


Hall


operation,


there


no evidence


the


continuation


the


brickyards


after


the


Civil


War


. Thi


may


be a function


of several


factors.


First,


lost


the


the


South


cheap


was


labor


economically


source


devastated


of slavery


Second,


the


War


many


and


the


plantations


in the


Lowcountry


were


destroyed


during


the


War,


lost


or abandoned


their


owners


during


the


post


-bellum


period.


Third,


industrialization


reached


the


brickmaking






















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Brickmaking


the


post-bellum


period


seems


to have


shifted


to large


scale


operations


the


piedmont


region


the


state


with


extensive


clay


deposits


(Johnson


and


Heron


1965:45,


47).


Proliferation


of rail


transportation


during


the


late


19th


century


facilitated


this


shift


out


the


Lowcountry.


Production


and


Value


The


extent


the


brick


production


and


the


value


these


bricks


has


been


mentioned


the


previous


discussions


the


development


the


industry


and


the


brickmakers.


Thi


section


will


summarize


that


data


and


examine


certain


items


more


closely.


When


the


Charleston


building


code


1740


required


fireproof


construction,


also


established


the


cost


for


local


bricks


at 6


pounds


per


thousand


(Edgar


1972:301).


Even


though


New


England


bricks


were


available


at the


cheaper


rate


of a little


over


pounds


per


thousand,


merchant


Robert


Pringle


stated


that


these


bricks


were


unpopular


and


didn


sell


because


their


smaller


size


(Edgar


1972:301).


The


1740


price


appears


to have


generally


held


through


most


the


18th


century,


although


there


were


occasional


variations, F

arrangements.


probablyy


based


In 1749,


one


on quality

advertiser


or special

offered a


contract


discount











the


Commi


ssioners


were


paying


between


and


12 pounds


per


thousand


bricks


(Commiss


loners


of Fortifications


1765).


The


Horlbecks


offered


bricks


at 7 pounds


per


thousand


during


the


period


from


1766


to 1767


(Horlbeck


1770) ;


however,


Stephen


s Church


brick


was


time


paying


(Porcher


only

1944


6 pounds


:160).


per

the


thousand


time


for

the


Revolutionary


thousand


War,


(Council


brick


costs


of Safety


remained


1903:18


at 6 pounds


-23)


per


1783,


soon


after


the


War


, Anthony


Toomer


seems


to have


been


selling


bricks


at approximately


After


the


pounds


establishment


per


the


thousand


United


(Toomer


States


1783-


dollar


the


late


18th


century,


brick


prices


seem


to have


stabili


at $4.00

These pr


to $7.00


ices


per


remained


thousand


effect


based

during


on the

a the


grade


antebellum


brick.

period


(Ramey


& Hughes


1839;


. S.


Census


1850;


Horlbeck


1856-


75).


difficult


to estimate


total


brick


production


the


Wando


River


basin


prior


the


information


provided


the


1850


census


report.


Some


idea


the


scale


can


drawn


from


references


to the


amounts


of brick


ordered


specific


projects.


A single


structure,


the


1745


Pinckney


house


Charleston,required


a total


of 275,800


bricks,


ordered


from


three


makers.


During


same


period,











foot


square


house


(Hollings


1978


:12).


After


the


Revolutionary


War,


Arnoldus


Vanderhorst


of Lexington


Plantation


story


claimed


brick


sses


house


of material


Charleston"


for


construction


at a value


of 2,500


pounds,


which


could


represent


over


400,000


bricks


(Vanderhorst


1780)


The


many


fortifications


continually


required


bricks;


Villepontoux


and


Goodbe


provided


94,000


between


1757


and


1758,


while


two


other


brickmakers


provided


an additional


68,600


during


the


same


period


(Simons


1934


Commi


ssioners


of Fortifications


1765)


Between


1775


and


1776,


for


the


Dorrel


Second


Fort


Council


from


Safety


three


purchased


brickmakers


40,500


(Council


bricks


of Safety


1903


:21-2


Gurcke


estimated


that


an expert


brick


molder


could


make


between


and


5,000


bricks


per


day


(Gurcke


1987


:19)


This


estimate


consistent


with


the


records


of Medway


plantation


as well


as the


description


of Florida


brickmaker


Crary


(Stoney


1852


Crary


1889)


Thus


when


Graves


indicated


was


molding


two


tabli


each


day


(Graves


1854-


55),


was


probably


producing


least


10,000


bricks


a day


Since


he molded


about


a week


at a time


and


fired


kilns


three


or four


times


in a season


(Graves


1854-55)


was


conservatively


producing


280,000


bricks


per


season











force,


since


Graves


indicates


that


other


slaves


were


cutting


wood


or manuring


fields


while


brickmaking


was


progress


(Graves


1854-55).


Based


on the


available


comparative


data,


seems


likely


that


the


Lexington


Plantation


brickmaking


complex


Wagners


Creek,


which


included


two


kilns


and


was


obviously


important


part


plantation


as evidenced


the


settlement


pattern,


could


have


been


producing


several


hundred


thousand


bricks


each


season


(Wayne


and


Dickinson


1990


* c1n


-11)


This


could


trans


late


into


more


than


000.00


per


year


income


the


planter,


without


the


investment


seed


or stock


required


agricultural


activities,


or the


risks


crop


failure


insect


damage.


Total


annual


production


figures


were


located


for


three


antebellum


br ickmakers


prior


to the


1850


census:


Anthony


Toomer,


Peter


Gaillard


Stoney,


the


Horlbecks.


Toomer


brick


production


the


three


year


period


between


1783


and


1785


totalled


195,900


bricks.


The


money


received


these


bricks


represented


approximately


25 percent


of hi


plantation


income


a single


year


(Table


2--Toomer


1783-


85).


Stoney


s Medway


plantation


shipped


594,000


bricks


the


ten


month


period


from


1852


to 1853


(Table


while


the













Table


Medway


Plantation


Shipping


Records,


1852


Number Bricks


Vessel


5/18/52
5/25/52
6/1/52
6/8/52
6/15/52
6/22/52
6/29/52
7/6/52
7/12/52
7/13/52
7/20/52
7/27/52
7/28/52
8/2/52
8/3/52

8/5/52
8/10/52

8/17/52
8/31/52
9/7/52
9/9/52
9/14/52
9/14/52
9/18/52
9/21/52
9/22/52
9/28/52
10/29/52

11/2/52

11/3/52

11/5/52

11/8/52
11/10/52

11/16/52
11/23/52

11/30/52

12/7/52
12/17/52
12/19/52
1/4/53
1/11/53
1/17/53

1/18/53
1/25/53
2/1/53
2/8/53
-k .Ar ---


12,000
12,000
12,000
12,000
12,000
12,000
12,000
12,000
15,000
12,000
12,000
12,000
14,000
14,500
6,500
5,500
15,000
10,500
1,500
12,000
12,000
14,000
12,000
14,000
12,000
14,000
12,000
14,000
12,000
7,000
7,000
8,000
6,500
6,000
6,000
9,000
5,000
12,000
9,000
5,000
12.000


brown
grey
grey
grey
grey
grey
grey
grey
grey
brown


brown
grey
grey
brown
grey
grey
brown
grey
brown
grey
grey
grey
grey
grey
brown
grey
grey
brown


Mr. Fairchild's
Stoop Ann


stoop


Mr. Fairchild's
Mr. Fairchild's


Sloop Ann


Mr. FairchiLd's
Stoop Ann


Stoop Ann
Stoop Ann
Mr. Fairchild's sloop
Stoop Ann
Mr. Fairchild's sloop
Mr. Stoney's sloop Ann
Mr. Fairchild's sloop


Stoney's


stoop Ann


Fairchild's sloop


Stoney's


stoop


Fairchi d's


Fairchild's


brown
grey
brown


Mr. Stoney's


Fairchid's


stoop Ann


sloop


brown


Mr. Stoney's st
Mr. Fairchild's


stoop


brown


Stoney's
Stoney's


brown


brown
brown
brown
grey
grey
grey
brown


12,000
12,000
12,000
12,000
12,000
10,000
5,000
12,000
12,000
12,000
12,000


Slr~ I SI 1' *fEI


grey
brown
grey
grey
brown
L a -.


P. G. Stoney's

P. G. Stoney's
P. G. Stoney's
P. G. Stoney's
P. G. Stoney's
P. G. Stoney's
John Wright's


P. G. Stoney's
P. G. Stoney's
P. G. Stoney's
P. G. Stoney's
nfl P 0 a>a t.i~ ja


sloop


boat


stoop
stoop
stoop
stoop
a I An-lq


Date













Tabl


Boone


Hall


Brickyard


Account


Book,


Sample


Page,


1847


Stoop


71,269


Brown


480.261


Remarks


Landing
Place


134.320 BROUGHT FORWARD


Dec. 17

Dec. 18


Dec. 19

Dec. 20


10,000 Geiger wf


14,500


Fairfield wf


to be sold
by him
I II1


13,000

13,000


13.200


Dec. 22

Dec. 22


25.500


Howards wf


10,250

21.050


Sureef


Geigers


Fitsimmnons wf


by Buena
Vista


Dec. 24

Dec. 28


Source:


13,350

9.800


Espenshade and Grunden


Geigers


1991:16


Tabl


Boone


Hall


Yearly


Production


and


Income


Total


1850


-1860


Bricks Produced


3,127,930

3,505,968

3,278,069

3,451,696

2.693.675


1,573,014

1,832,810

1.812.520


439.545


1.557.715


1,659,123


Income


If~mnlaD


$ 18,701.01

$ 17,905.40

$ 22,558.44

$ 26,210.53

$ 21,855.75

$ 11,313.40

$ 12,856.22

$ 12.505.71


$ 3.151


$5.98

$5.11

$6.88

$7.59

$8.11


$7.19


$7.01

$6.90

$7.17

$7.07

$7.88


$ 11,009.91

$ 13,076.05


Dec.


gers


Year


1852


1853


1857

1858


1859











$3,564


and


$41,119


respectively,


assuming


a sal


price


per


thousand


. In


fact,


during


the


ten


year


between


1850


and


1860,


Boone


Hall


produced


over


24 million


bricks


valued


more


than


$170,000


(Table


Examination


the


1850


census


records


(Table


shows


that


the


nine


brickmakers


sted


these


two


parishes


were


producing


over


nine


million


bricks


1849


(the


year


the


data


were


collected)


valued


at $64,000


This


production


utili


a relatively


small


labor


force


of 288


slaves.


The


item


sted


invested


capital


represented


the


combined


value


these


slaves


the


land


use.


The


variation


the


average


monthly


cost


the


labor


was


either


reflection

represented


the


some


quality


estimation


care


the


the


owners


various

based


owners,

on the


slaves


' employment


as brickmakers


on a part-time


basi


Stoney


s Medway


plantation


day


book


1852


provided


indication


the


level


of effort


involved


a major


brickmaking


operation.


Thi


book


listed


a maximum


hands


a day


the


brickyard;


usually


the


record


indicated


either


or 12 hands


supporting


one


or two


molding


tables.


Maximum


production


from


these


two


table


appears


to have


been


10,000


bricks


a day


production


comparable


that


adverti


sed


earlier


brickmaking


machines


which


cost











summary,


brickmaking,


while


labor-intensive,


could


be conducted


number


at a high


of slaves


level


, probably


of production


on a seasonal


using


basis


a limited


at most


brickyards


The


value


the


end


product


compared


favorably


to that

1). For


of plantation


example,


cash

1850


crops

rice s


in the


old


Lowcountry

an average


(Table


price


cents


per


pound


(Smith


1985:215).


Thi


places


the


value


the


rice


production


Christ


Church


Parish


$32,803


that


year


, compared


to $34


for


bricks


Census


1850;


Scardaville


1985:37)


In St. Thomas


and


Denis


Parish


, which


produced


a greater


volume


of rice,


the


value


rice


production


1850


would


have


been


$119,041.00;


brick


value


was


estimated


$29,960.00


(U.S.


Census


1850;


Scardaville


1985


The


growth


this


industry


the


Wando


River


basin


provides


an example


importance


of diversity


within


the


plantation


system.


Archaeologist


Craig


Sheldon


has


suggested


that


planters


in agriculturally


marginal


areas


were


forced


to diversify


acquire


multiple


properties


order


to succeed.


Thi


diversification


included


providing


goods


and


services


to their


neighbors


as well


the


local


market.


He suggested


that


a group


diversified


planters


was


a vital


part


the


support


network


i










responsiveness


to a market-driven


economy


certainly


seems


describe


the


plantations


along


the


Wando


River


and


their


complex


interaction


with


the


City


of Charleston.















CHAPTER


TO MAKE


A BRICK


There


are


convenient
excellent


with


Wood


also


several


to settle


clay


being


at hand


steep


Brick
found


Landings


Works


burning


upon


round
(South


, very
, an


the


Land,


Carolina


Gazette


1742a).


The


Wando


River


plantations


had


an abundance


of all


the


elements


of brickmaking,


plus


access


to a market


via


the


river.


The


soil


area


are


underlain


a red


clay


stratum;


addition,


sand


present


the


Pleasant


and


Cainhoy


scarps


use


tempering


the


clay


The


pine-


oak


forests


provided


an abundance


of fuel,


while


the


large


slave


population


provided


labor


both


obtaining


the


raw


material


the


brickmaking.


Brickmaking


begins


with


the


clay.


A 1664


account


states


that


the


Charleston


area,


there


was


"rich


ground


a grayer


colour"


useful


brickmaking


(Carroll


1836:12


These


brick


clays


are


Pleistocene


marine


clays


deposited


ancient


lagoons


(Johnson


and


Heron


1965:50).


The


deposits


can


to 20 feet


thick


and


are


characterized


as kaolinitic


montmorillonites.


Thi


means


that


they


consist


primarily


of kaolinite


clays


with


a low










The


clay


mixed


with


montmorillonite,


the


proportion


which


increases


with


depth.


Montmorillonite


clays


are


virtually


the


opposite


of kaolinite


clays,


with


a high


water


of plastic


ity,


high


drying


and


firing


shrinkages,


high


dry


strengths,


and


maturing


temperature


es.


They


also


have


tendency


to pick


up large


amounts


of water


a humid


environment.


Although


not


useful


as a basic


raw


material,


small


quantities


montmorillonites


as an additive


improve


plastic


city


and


lower


maturity


temperatures


(Johnson


and


Heron


1965


:50-51)


Sand


the


clay


promotes


more


rapid


drying


while


iron


oxide


acts


as a flux


to produce


a harder


brick


lower


temperature


(Buie


1949


:97-98)


Lowcountry


clays


can


be divided


into


five


basic


types:


marl


clayey


sands,


sandy


clays,


rich


clays,


and


vitreous


clays


. Marl


are


generally


unsati


factory


alone


due


their


instability;


however,


small


amounts


added


to other


clays

Clayey


would

sands


increa


do not


strength


contain


and


a high


produce

enough


color


changes.


proportion


of clay


to be useful


for


brickmaking,


although


they


can


be used


sand


the


molds


and


table


Sandy


clay


probably


the


best


overall


material


face


bricks


, with


a shrinkage


rate


ess


than


four


percent


and


good


bonding


strength.


Rich


clays


have


a high


proportion


of clay


and


make


excellent











during


firing;


bricks


from


these


clays


have


good


structural


properties.


Vitreous


clays


also


make


a good


additive


other


clay


types


(Robinson


and


Johnson


1960:11-13).


The


elevations


sandy


above


clays


clayey


10 feet


on sandy


sands


are


knoll


found


ridges


the


pine


flatwoods.


They


range


color


from


a mottled


orange-


yellow-brown-white


sandy


clay


to a cream-colored


to brown


clay


Rich


clays


marls


are


found


below


10 feet


elevation


the


flat


swamplands


and


bottomlands


along


the


rivers


and


creeks.


These


clays


are


generally


dark


brown


olive-green


in color


, grading


down


to marls


(Robinson


and


Johnson


1960:9-10).


Digging


or "winning"


the


clay


is a seasonal


activity:


All
dug


clay


as to
snow.
stones


intended


the w
expose
Care


in it,


inter
it a
must


for
and


s much


working


next


earlier


as possible


taken,


to dig


there


in small


season


the


must


better,


to frost


are


pits,


and


small


and


cast


out
well


the
mix


stones
the t


o


as muc
p and


as possible,


bottom


the


and
bed


of clay


together


(Dobson


1850


(2) :97).


The


near


diary


Beaufort


a Lowcountry


stated


that


planter


from


slaves


Prince


were


William


digging


Parish


clay


during


the


period


between


February


and


April


(Graves


1854-


55) .


Thi


would


have


still


been


primarily


during


the


non-


agricultural


periods


the


year


As Stoney


stated,


planters


in the


brickmaking


areas


-


the


Lowcountry


"enj oved


~___











the


Wando


River


area,


the


clay


was


normally


dug


hand


from


shallow


pits


or trenches


, which


are


still


evidence


aerial


photographs


the


region.


The


clay


was


then


"wheeled


to a level


place.


. .it


heaped


to a depth


of several


mellowed


feet,


the


and


left


frosts,


through


which


winter


break


and


months


crumble


to be


the


lumps"


(Dobson


1850


:21)


Rain


also


washed


out


some


the


solubl


salts


during


period.


The


heaps


were


regularly


broken


and


turned


over


so that


all


portions


the


clay


were


exposed


weather


(Gurcke


1987


After


weathering,


the


clay


was


then


tempered


Tempering


consisted


of adding


water


and


other


material


such


as sand,


and


then


thoroughly


mixing


the


clay


and


temper


The


most


primitive


methods


were


to spread


out


the


clay,


the


water


temper,


then


trod


on the


mixture


using


men


or animal


until


was


pliable:


Then
narro
Workm


and


we water
w Spade
an may h


then


in good
piece o
Mould o


abou
old


temper


case


f Dough
r Frame


Earth
t five
out, w


it with


o make
such
when


well,
Inches


ith


our


a Brick
as will
lifted u


and


which


bare
on,
just


temper


broad, t
h we dig


feet
that
stick


and


not


it with


hat
it


the
down,


till


like


the


fall


it self;


. (Lloyd


1925


An alternative


method


was


use


a soak


pit,


which


rectangular


pit,


approximately


feet,


was


filled


with


the


clay


and


water


and


allowed


to soak


overnight.


Temper











possible


that


primitive


soak


without


the


Iron


wheel


was


the


method


utilized


the


Wando


River


basin


with


readily


available


slave


animal


labor.


one


advert is


ement


property


stated,


the


brickyard


included


reservoir


of water


swimming


the


cattle


that


tread


the


clay"


(South


Carolina


Gazette


1766).


A few


planters


may


have


used


pug


mill


during


the


latter


years


brickmaking


era.


pug


mill


consists


a cylindrical


barrel


containing


a revolving


shaft


with


paddles


The


clay,


sand,


water


were


put


the


top


and


kneaded


between


the


rotating


fixed


parts


the


mill


The


mixed


clay


was


then


forced


out


through


an opening


the


bottom


the


mill


(Figure


(McKee


1976:84).


Once


the


clay


had


been


prepared,


was


then


molded


formed.


Molding


completed


the


was


considered


craftsmen


to be a skilled


among


brickmakers.


process


"The


molder


usually


the


the


head


most


the


skilled


molding


worker


gang,


the


'stool


yard"


and


(Gurcke


1987


:15)


The


molder


worked


near


the


soak


pit,


at "a Table


standing


about


three


foot


high,


five


foot


and


a half


long,


and


three


foot


and


half


over"


(Lloyd


1925:34)


(Figure


He worked


with


a mold,


sand,


clay,


and


"strike"


instrument


remove


excess


clay


from


mold.


Molds































0)







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ri


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Lit


* \ L
r~m lllm I iF I I


'4- A..


IaJ


" "rd.l


m











records


indicate


that


such


molds


were


generally


made


mahogany


Hollings


, a dense,


states


durable


that


wood


molds


(Elfe


-1/2


1775;


-1/2


SCCCP


inches


1798)


were


"the


easiest


handling"


(Hollings


1978:7) ;


thi


the


approximate


size


of most


Wando


River


bricks.


Molds


were


first


dipped


"a little


Trough


that


will


hold


about


three


or four


quarts


of water"


(Lloyd


1925:34)


and


then


dusted


with


sand


prior


to filling.


A clot


"about


14-15


. of"


tempered


clay


was


formed


into


roughly


rectangular


shape


about


25 percent


larger


than


the


mold


(Lloyd


1925:31).


clot


was


then


held


over


the


mold


and


slammed


into


with


force;


the


molder


then


levelling
heaping u
he throws


Seizing, at
strike, the
at the edge


been


mould,
'lignes


be
the


the


the
into


the


mate
the
sam


handle


the


soaking,


same


time


rial in
second c
e time,
of which
wetting


passes


remove


' of


[Figure
strike,


it


that


thickness


that


He gives


as with


with
the


hand


excess


of which


ompartment.


with


his


right


is conveniently


trough
firmly


exceeds


the


a tap


a trowel,


two
with
on th


in which


across


the


hand


the


placed
t has


the


or 29


bricks s
the fla
e middle


should
t of


the


mould
other


the


to separate


and


table


places
(Lloyd


the
the


1925


two


bricks


surplus
:31).


one


from


earth


the


side


The


Graves


diary


described


"moulding"


"running"


"tables


" of


bricks


same


time


that


other


bricks


were


being


loaded


kiln


fired


(Graves


1854-55).


Crary


stated


that


a good


crew


of five


men


and


one


boy


could











wheel


dry


bricks


shed


and


a boy


to drive


the


oxen


tempering


the


clay


(Crary


1889).


Once


filled,


molds


were


taken


the


carrier


the


drying


area


where


bricks


were


turned


out


in rows


to dry


approximately


24 hours


(Figure


The


carrier


returned


the


empty


mold


to the


sand


bin


reuse


(Lloyd


1925:31)


The


surfaces


bricks


were


occasionally


smoothed


during


period


the


bricks


sometimes


turned


on edge


after


they


were


semi-dry


to provide


additional


airflow


to the


other


surfaces


When


the


bricks


were


dry


enough


to be handled,


they


were


removed


from


the


rows


and


placed


"Hacks


places


where


they


Row


them


like


Wall


two


Bricks


thick


, with


some


small


interval


betwixt


them,


to admit


the


wind


and


air


to dry


them)"


(Lloyd


1925:36)


Since


drying


required


about


two


three


weeks,


sheds


would


be used


to protect


the


hacks


from


rain


during


thi


period


(Gurcke


1987:26).


Firing


was


begun


after


the


bricks


were


dried.


The


bricks


spaces


must


be carefully


to allow


even


stacked


on edge


distribution


the


the


heat


kiln


and


with


gases.


Hollings


(1978:8)


stated


that


kilns


held


from


20,000


50,000


bricks


at each


firing.


Scove


or clamp


kilns


are


constructed


from


the


bricks


being


fired


(Ure


1840


*1a51


































>11






taoE







o w

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*r4


r4







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pccU












r? I'~rN
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r~/4






Ir *
r pa 1
r9it'
r", cl ?.
,F %; lg~f*Jt.


JF f
SI


- -i


1t I1 ..

'*4 1











permanent


form


of kiln,


the


Cassel


or Newcastle


type,


consisted


of a permanent


outer


wall,


base,


and


chimney


with


flues


leading


from


the


front


the


kiln


the


chimney


the


rear.


This


type


of kiln


relied


on crossdrafts


for


distribution


the


heat


(Rhodes


1968:45,


(Figure


11).


The


more


common


scove


or clamp


kilns


were


begun


with


the


construction


of a corbel


arch


or flue


running


the


length


the


kiln:


They buil
be burnt
Arches in
Brick's B
but with
they trus
project o
Place, fo
meet, and
which clo
Fuel, the
which is
'till it
to lay th
they meet
about 3 o
Width of
[Figure 1
in the Or
Eighth,
Bigness;
thousands
1726:50).


d their Cla
something 1
Kilns, viz
Breadth, &c.
this Differ
s, or span
ne beyond t
r the Wood
are bonded
ses up the
y carry up
the same th
is about 3
e Bricks. D


in
r 4
the
2].


the m
Cours
Mouth
Abov


der they
according
for they


id
e
b
e


mps
ike
. w
fo


of
the


it
r


ence,
it ov
he ot
and C
by t
Arch:
strai
ing,
Feet
rojec
die,
of Br
being
this


do in a
as the
usually


a clamp


the Bricks
Method of
a Vacancy


the
th
er,
her
oal


Fir
at i
by
, on
to


he Br
thi
ght a
uprig
high,
ting
which
icks
about
Arch
Kiln
Clam
burn


ic

t


e to
nstea
making
both
lie i
ks at
Place
both


ht at
and
over
they
in He
two
they
to 8
p is
a gr


at a time.


tha
Bui
betw
asce
d of
g th
sid
n, t
the
for
Side


both
they
inwar
will
ighth
Feet
lay t
or 1
to be
eat m


t
d


a
h
0

a


. (Neve


t
1
i
n

e


are to
ding the
xt each
d by;
Arching,
Bricks


es or the
ill they
Top,
the
s, or,
sides,
hen begin
s, till
do in
the
nd a half
e Bricks
Feet in
in
ny


The


green


brick


may


then


be covered


previously


burnt


brick


and


earth


to seal


kiln


(Gurcke


1987:32;


Weldon


1990b:24).


.h


L































-r -
rr
-r


Scove


kiln


Cassel


kiln


ec -t'~'


----


--































*rl



3
I~r4



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