Continuity and change in Guale Indian Pottery, A.D. 1350-1702

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Material Information

Title:
Continuity and change in Guale Indian Pottery, A.D. 1350-1702
Physical Description:
xiii, 234 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Saunders, Rebecca A., 1955-
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Guale Indians -- Pottery   ( lcsh )
Indians of North America -- Pottery -- Georgia   ( lcsh )
Anthropology thesis Ph.D
Dissertations, Academic -- Anthropology -- UF
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1992.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 220-233).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Rebecca A. Saunders.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001751584
oclc - 26529147
notis - AJG4520
System ID:
AA00002094:00001

Full Text











CONTINUITY


AND CHANGE
A.D.


IN GUALE
1350-1702


INDIAN POTTERY,


REBECCA A.


SAUNDERS


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA








































Copyright


Rebecca A.


1992


Saunders
















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


This


study was


accomplished because of


an extraordinary


level


cooperation


from a


number


of remarkable


individual


institutions.


research


never


could


have


begun


were


it not for Dr. George


and Dottie Dorion


and Marion Heatwole,


who own


the adjacent


lots


on Amelia


Island where


Santa


Catalina


and Santa Maria missions


have been


unearthed.


These


individuals


gave


their permission


to excavate on


their property without


legal


requirement


to do


so.


The Dorions


went


so far as to postpone


house


construction


for five years while we


completed our work.


Mitch


Beanie


Wenigman,


several


owned


seasons.


the next


over,


provided


All of these people bolstered


housing


our


and lab


spirits


with


space

their


interest


in and


enthusiasm


our


research.


The mission


on the Dorion


was initially


investigated by


Piper


Archaeological


Research,


Inc.


(now


Janus


Research).


Ken Hardin,


president


that


company


, designed


first


field


seasons


at the


site,


secured


funds


from


the Dorions,


arranged


for Dr. Clark Spencer


Larsen


to analyze


human


remains.


In so doing,


Ken


initiated a


program of


institutional


cooperation


that


remains


a hallmark


of this


project.


After two


fields


seasons,


recognized


contracting


that


the work would


company


could afford,


require more


long term effort


and he relinquished


than


project


to the


Florida Museum of


Natural


History.


However,


never


lost


appreciation


for the potential


of the


site,


and has


been helpful


throughout


long years


it has taken


to complete


the work.


Public


interest


in the sites on Amelia


Island was


immense.


Though


site was


within


the Amelia


Island


Plantation,


a restricted residential


svul nnmnn_- -


ho nilmhar


nf norvnn a onn


'7 c4i 4-o


Srn.


4 1 -a omr!h


rtir honnv 1-n


Gus


own


E


I








series


of weekly


site tours using


Amelia


Island Museum volunteer


interpreters.


Amelia


Island Plantation management,


especially


James


Restor,


graciously


allowed


visitors


from


all over to take


advantage of


these tours.


In the


ensuing


years,


special


tours


were


instituted


for regional


school


children.


season,


over


2000


children


visited


site.


Deon


and her


closet-architect


husband Phil


soon began


construction


"Dorion Dig


study


Room"


at the Amelia


of archaeology,


Island Museum,


and Dorions


where


are celebrated


history

a single


of Florida,

(extremely


well-designed)


space.


told,


there were


seven


field


seasons


on Amelia


Island.


These


were


financed


in part


by two


Historic


Preservation Grants


provided by the


Bureau


Historic


Preservation


, Florida Department


of State,


assisted


by the Historic


Preservation Advisory Council.


The Dorions


and the Heatwoles


also


contributed


funds.


were


Too many

a number


crew members


have


of repeaters who


come


formed


gone


to list


the backbone of


them


all here,


the excavation.


there


Those


folks


were


(and


are)


Tina


Bassett,


Brack Barker,


Boots


Lewis,


James


McGill,


Kathleen Richert,

Island Museum of


Vicki Rolland,


History


provided


Donna Ruhl,


volunteers


and Susan


for the


Simmons.


last


field


The Amelia


season.


There was


also


a multitude of


lab personnel.


Again,


several


individuals


deserve


special


mention--Gianna Browne,


Radai


Cintron,


Tracey Garbade,


Hock


, Penny Melville,


While work


Vicki


was underway


Rolland, D

on Amelia


Sommerer


Island,


, and Joyce


we became


Walker.


aware of


another


long


term mission


excavation


of yet


another


Santa


Catalina


(the predecessor


of the


on Amelia


Island)


on St. Catherines


Island,


Georgia.


That


research


being


conducted by


David Hurst


Thomas


the American Museum of


Natural


History.

apparent

Natural


relevancy


History


n Amelia

crews (


of that


Island


and


project


contingent


vice versa).


to our


soon

Dave


own work was


immediately


infiltrated American Museum of


has been supportive of


aspects


of this


research --we-


He helped


secure


funds


from the Edward John


one


one


Joe


was


I llr


_


I-


fa I.


_ _









analyze


Catherines


collections


Island mission.


of materials


Other


previously


individual


excavated at


from the American Museum have


enlightened


and enlivened


the last


few years,


including


Lorann


Pendleton,


Peter,

baby).


and Joe


Royce


Jimenez.


Hayes,


and David Hurst


superintendent


Thomas


of St. Catherines


(please pass


Island


, provided


every


imaginable


logistical


support


for excavations


at the mi


ssion


at Meeting


House


Fields


and many


outstanding


island


dinners.


chair


committee,


Jerald T.


Milanich,


a fixture


Florida


archaeology

in Florida,


When


one


seems


looks


that


at current


almost


research


every project


in Mission


owes


something


Period


archaeology


to his long


involvement


him.


in the


By their


own


field.


I appreciate


achievements


in their


the opportunity to


respective


have worked


specialties ,


with


the other


members


my committee provide


a model


that


hope


to emulate


in the


future.


Finally,


would


like to


thank those


people who


provided


emotional


support.


less


Other


goaded me


graduate


into


students


continuing,


provided an


intellectual milieu


especially Mike Russo.


Vicki


that more or


Rolland


buttressed me


as only


a good


friend


can.


My parents


have encouraged me


throughout


this


long


and sometimes


difficult


process.


Thanks


everyone.

















TABLE OF


CONTENTS


Page


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


viiiL


LIST OF TABLES


LIST OF FIGURES


ABSTRACT


CHAPTERS


POTTERY

General
Pottery


AND CULT

Theories
Change i


URE CHANGE


of Pottery Change


n Spanish


Colonial


Contexts


ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND


ETHNOHISTORIC PERSPECTIVES


ON THE


GUALE


INDIANS.


S 13


Pre-Columbian
Implications.


Settlement


and Society.


Guale


Indians


and European


Coloni


zation


ssionization.


Conversion:


Cause


and Effect.


S. 23


POTTERY


OF THE GUALE


INDIANS


1350


-1702


Type
The


Descriptions


Filfot


Cross


as a Cosmological


Symbol


METHODS


. . .42


Attribute
Analysis


Selection
Techniques


, Measurement


and Rec


ording


THE MEETING


HOUSE


FIELDS


SITE


S. 49


Site


Background


Radiocarbon Data





Pottery
Summary

MISSION
GEORGIA


Analysis.


SANTA


4 . 65


CATALINA


CATHERINES


ISLAND


. . .91


Pre-Rebellion Assemblage.


Summary


and Implications.


Seventeenth


Century


Assemblage.


Fnmmaryv


and Tmnlr i rna tin









MISSION


SANTA


CATALINA,


AMELIA


ISLAND,


FLORIDA.


Comparisons


Summary


and Implications


CONCLUSIONS


APPENDICES


MEETING


HOUSE


FIELDS


SURFACE DECORATION


MIDDEN/LEVEL.


MEETING


HOUSE


FIELDS RIM STYLE


BY MIDDEN/LEVEL


MEETING


HOUSE


FIELDS


MIDDEN


BY VESSEL


FORM.


STYLES


SANTA


CATALINA


CATHERINES


ISLAND


BIBLIOGRAPHY.


BIOGRAPHICAL


SKETCH
















LIST OF TABLES


Table


Radiocarbon Dates


from Meeting


House


Fields


Midden E


Surface


Treatment by


Level


Surface Decoration by Cluster


Rim Style by Cluster.


.. 71


Comparative


Surface


Treatments


S72


Vessel

Vessel


Form by

Form by


Cluster. .

Surface Decoration


Chi-Square
Decoration.


Test,


Vessel


Form by


Surface


Vessel


Form by


Rim Treatment


S 79


5.10


Chi-Square
Treatment


Test,


Vesse


Form by


5.11


Temper


by Cluster


Temper


Vessel


Form


Burnishing

Frequency
Stamping.


by Cluster


Rectilinear


vs Curvilinear


Frequency


of Dots


Rim Elaborations


on Stamped

by Cluster


Sherds


. . 84


5.17


Applique Rim Strip Depth


by Cluster


. 85


Land


and Groove Width by Cluster.


Early Convento


Surface


Decoration


Early

Early


Convento Rim Style.


Convento


Decoration. .


Vessel
a a a


Forms


Surface


a a


Page


.


.








Early Convento,


Surface


Frequency


Decoration


of Dots


Structure/Zone.


Structure by


Surface Decoration


Chi-Square
Decoration.


Test,


Structure


Surface


Structure by


Vessel


Form.


Chi-Square
Form. .


Vessel


Test,


Form by


Chi-Square
Decoration.


Test


Structure by


Surface

, Vessel


Vessel


Decoration .

Form by Surface


6.14


Chi-Square
Decoration


Test,


(Vessel


Structure


Surface


Form).


Structure


Treatment


Chi-Square
Treatment


Vessel


Test,


Form by


Structure


Rim Treatment


Chi-Square
Treatment


Test,


Vessel


Form by


Vessel


Form by


Rim Elaboration.


Rim Elaboration


Surface


Structure.


Treatments.


Frequency


of Sooted


Sherds.


Temper


(Sherds)


Temper


Vessel


Frequency of

Frequency of


Form


Central


Dots


Curvilinear


Stamping


Firing Characteristics,
Fields. .. .


Meeting


House


6.28


Firing Characteristics,


Catalina,


St. Catherines


Mission
Island


Santa


Firing Characteristics,


Mission


Santa


Catalina,


Amelia


Island


Surface Decoration by


Structure








Chi-Square Test,
Form. .


Vessel


Structure by Vessel


Form by Surface Decoration


Chi-Square Test,
Decoration. .


Vessel


Form by


Surface


-Square


Test,


Structure by MNV


Surface


Decoration.


Vessel


Vessel


Form by

Form by


Style.


Rim Treatment


Chi-Square Test
Treatment .


, Vessel


Form by


Chi-Square Test


Treatment

Structure


, Structure by


Rim Elaboration.


Frequency

Frequency
Dots..


Curvilinear


of Stamped


Stamped


Sherds


with


Sherds


Central


Structure by Temper


Vessel


Form by Temper


Chi-Square


Test,


Temper


Vessel


Form.


Structure by


Interior


Finish.


Chi-Square


Test,


Interior


Filming


Vessel


Form


7.20


Sooted


Sherds


Summary


of Proveniences


and Selected


Attributes.
















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure


Page


Irene


Filfot


Stamped and


Incised


"San Marcos


Complicated Stamped"


San Marcos


Stamped


(Smith


1948)


Sites Analyzed


or Discussed


in the Text


Meeting


House


Fields


Site Map


54


Radiocarbon Dates


, Midden E


Radiocarbon Dates


, 1988


Samples


. . 61


Clust
(not

Clust


er


Analysis,


standardized)

er Analysis,


Surface


Decoration


Surface Decoration


(standardized).


S. . 0 68


Clust
(not

Clust


er


Analysis


standardized).

er Analysis, R


Rim Style


Lim Style


(standardized).


Pipes


5.10


from Meeting


Selected Sherds


House


Fields


from Meeting


House


Fields.


Site Map,

Selected
Catherine


Santa

Sherds,
s Islan


Catalina

Santa C


, Georgia

atalina,


, Georgia.


Site


Map,


Santa


Catalina


Amelia


Island


Florida


Selected


Sherds


, Santa


Catalina,


Amelia


Island


, Florida.
















Abstract


of the


of Dissertation Presented


University


Requirements


of Florida


to the Graduate


in Partial


for the Degree of


Doctor


Fulfillment


School
of the


of Philosophy


STABILITY


AND


CHANGE


A.D.


IN GUALE
1350-1702


INDIAN


POTTERY,


Rebecca A.


Saunders


1992


Chairman:


Major


Dr. Jerald


Department:


T. Milanich


Anthropology


In this


study,


the nature


and timing


change


in Guale


Indian


pottery


from the


late


Pre-Columbian


through


the Mission


period


explored.


Results


of the comparison of


pottery


attributes


from a


late


Irene


phase


site;


the early


(1594?-1597)


and later


1604-1680)


occupations


Santa


Catalina mission


on St. Catherines


Island,


Georgia;

Island,


and the


Florida,


late Mis


sion


indicated both


period


site of


stability


Santa


Catalina


on Amelia


and change


technological


Radiocarbon


stylistic


dates


attributes


stylistic


of Guale


Indian


attributes of


pottery.

pottery


from


late


Irene


se Meeting


House


Fields


site


suggested


that


deposition


of some middens


at the site


occurred


quite


late,


possibly


even


in the


Contact


period.


Neverthele


ss, the pottery


had no


attributes


suggestive


a transition


to Altamaha


phase wares.


Analysis


of the early


component


proveniences of


the mission on St.


Catherines


Island


indicated


that


Irene


pottery


phase pottery was


before


the early


replaced


occupation of


completely b

the mission


Altamaha

compound.


phase

The








folded rims,


there was


also


little difference between


St. Catherines


Island mission


pottery


assemblage


and that


from


the Santa


Catalina


mission


on Amelia


Island.


Though


there were


changes


in design execution


from the


Irene


phase


to the Mission


period,


the principal


motif


used


at both


the Georgia


Florida


Santa


Catalina missions was


a variation


of the


filfot


cross.


That


cross


was shown


to be a


cosmological


symbol


and its


frequency


different


components was used


as a (very)


indirect measure


of change


in the worldview of


the missionized


Guale.


Incidence of


this


"world


symbol"


was


about


same


at the St. Catherines


Island mission


as at


the Meeting


House


Fields


site.


However,


the symbol


was


visible


on only


half


as many


sherds


at the Amelia


Island mission,


suggesting the


eros


of traditional


beliefs


during the


late Mission


period.
















CHAPTER


POTTERY


AND CULTURE CHANGE


This


a study


of change


in the


pottery made


by the


late


Pre-


Columbian

Florida c


and Mission


oasts.


period Guale


Technological


Indians of


and stylistic


the Georgia

attributes of


northeast


Guale


Indian


pottery


are compared across


time


space


beginning


in the


late


Pre-


Columbian


period


and ending


in 1702,


the date of


the demise of


Spanish mission


system on


the Atlantic


coast.


As such,


research


deals


with


three


previously


defined pottery


assemblages.


first


late


Irene


phase


A.D.


1425


-1550)


and Altamaha


phase


assemblages


A.D.1550


-1690;


DePratter


1984)


from the central


and northern


Georgia

period


coasts,

Guale In


were


Ldians,


associated with

respectively.


Pre-Columbian


last


assemblage,


early Mission

San Marcos


A.D.


in what


1650-1763?


now


southern


assemblages


Georgia


of the St.


Augustine


and northeastern


Florida


phase,


at the


appeared


time of


immigration


of the Guale


to that


region


in the mid-17th


century.


What


follows


is a description of


technological


stylistic


attributes


of those


pottery types


from a


series


of discrete


temporal


contexts.


A consideration


of the changes


in attribute


values


over


time


space,


in concert


with relevant


historical


and ethnohistoric


data,


should


help explain


when


Irene


assemblages qualitatively


changed


became Altamaha assemblages.


The characteristics


of Altamaha


assemblages


are then


compared


to San Marcos


assemblages


to determine


which


pottery


attributes


changed


and which


remained


stable


over


years


of declining population


and the nucleation of


peoples


in the


later


two









systems


of the Guale


Indians


in the Mission


period


affected


pottery


production.


A great


deal


of background material


was assembled


to provide


basis


for understanding the changes


observed


the pottery.


dissertation begins


with


a review of


general


theories


of ceramic


change


and the


results


of previous


research


into


Native American


pottery


(principally


Spanish)


colonial


contexts.


Chapter


presents


a social


history


the Guale


Using


archaeological


and ethnohistoric


data


from La Florida


, relevant


aspects


of Guale


Indian


settlement


and subsistence


patterns


and social structure


are reviewed.


imposition


the mission


system


among


native


inhabitants


interfered with


those traditions;


resultant


changes


their


affect


on pottery


production


are the focus


of the


chapter.


next


chapters


provide


a review of


type


descriptions


pottery

change


involved


(Chapter


(Chapter


and the


Attributes were


attributes


chosen


chosen for this


on the


basis


of the


study


type


descriptions


Marcos


developed


assemblages


and refined


and from other


for late


studies


Irene,


of pottery


Altamaha,


from


and San


single


multicomponent


sites


asso


cited


with


the Guale.


Both


technological


stylistic


attributes


are considered,


though


stylistic


aspects


emphasized.


In particular,


the evolution


Irene


phase


filfot


cross


with


its fine


land


grooves


to the bold


carving


in San Marcos


rectilinear


stamped motifs


is examined.


Once


the relevant


attributes


have


been


isolated


, the methodology


for the


Chapter


attributes


analysis


includes

were as


of the


assemblages


a discussion


sessed


studied


of the coding


and measured,


explained

system used


and how the data


Chapter


are displayed


subsequent


chapters.


The database


for thi


research


comes


from


three


Guale


Indian


sites.


study


begins wi


an analvai-


1 ate Trean


nhase


A.D.


1400-


are


IA Ll=;


. ... n


L.1


U I


b









monitor


succeeding


I changes

Mission


known


period.


to have occurred


Criteria


for the


in the pottery


selection


in the


of this


site


research


the results


of the analysis


of the pottery


from


site


are


presented


in Chapter


The

buildings


next


set of pottery


at the mission


collections


site of


Santa


comes


Catalina


from the

. also o


Spanish


n St. Catherines


Island,


Georgia


(Chapter


At that


site,


pottery


from early


-1597


Guale


rebellion


contexts


in the


convento


are compared with both


Meeting

context


House


pottery


Fields materials


and later,


post-rebellion


at the mission to determine whether


(1604-1680)


or not there


evidence


for a gradual


change of


traits


from


Irene pottery to


Altamaha


pottery.


Once


that


determination


is made,


pottery


coll


sections


from the


later


contexts--a


church,


kitchen,


and the


late


convent


--are examined


to see if pottery

The determination

associated with d


attributes


of the extent


istinct


are correlated


to which


assemblages


with


structure


these


of form or


function.


use


decoration


cruc


are


ial to


an understanding


of the change


in Guale pottery


as a whole.


The Guale


Indians


associated with


Santa


Catalina mission


Georgia


(and


some


other


groups)


were moved


to Amelia


Island,


Florida,


1686.


Mission Santa


Catalina


was


re-established


on that


island


remained


inhabited


until


1702


when


was attacked


and burned


British


forces


from


South


Carolina.


Analysis


of the pottery


from three


contexts--a


possible


kitchen,


the convent,


and the


church


of the


Santa


Catalina mission


on Amelia--are


analyzed


in the


same way


as the material


from


St. Catherines


Island


(Chapter


Finally,


assemblages


from


the Georgia


and Florida


carnations


of Santa


Catalina


are


compared.


Results


of this


analy


provide the


first


detailed


study


of the


differences


between Altamaha


and San Marcos


pottery.


The Amelia


Island


materials


can


also


be used


to address


the question


of what


happens


notte


rv


assRmbianes when


rdli ffnrn+


nrnnli o


n ro nun 0a-t o


ov-Ita


"context s


II ^ 111


I l









would be the most


appropriate


contexts


to compare with


village


refuse of


Irene


phase


site.


Dueblo associated


with


Santa


Catalina mission on St.


Catherines


Island


has been


tested


with


mechanical


Head


site


auger


across


, but the ceramics

the Wamassee Creek


have not


to the


been


analyzed.


southeast


Wamassee


of the mission


compound


(see


Figure


6.1)


was tested by


Lewis


Larson


in 1959


and by the


American Museum of


Natural


History


in 1980


(Thomas


1987


:105, 113)


Guale


1985).


:ndian

Her


pottery

findings


from Larson


s excavations


are incorporated


into


was


this


analyzed by


discussion.


Brewer

The


village presumably


associated


with


the Santa


Catalina mi


ssIon


on Amelia


Island


(but


possibly


associated


with


the earlier


Yamassee


Indian mission


Santa Maria)


was tested


in 1971


and the pottery


recovered


reported

from that


(Hemmings


used


and Deagan


at the mission


1973


Though


and their


their methodology


analysis was


differed


not as detailed,


some of


Hemmings


and Deagan's


results


can be compared with


those


from


the mission


compound


(see


Chapter


Taken


together,


these


assemblages provide geographical


, temporal,


and contextual


control


over


attribute changes


in Guale


Indian


pottery.


In contrast


to some other


cases


of aboriginal


pottery


colonial


contexts


(reviewed below)


some changes,


particularly


decorative


style,

thrust


occurred


of this


in Guale


work,


Indian


pottery


facilitated


after the


the series


late


Irene


of tightly


phase.


dated


components,


was


to determine


the timing


and rate


of these changes


and to


correlate them with other


changes


in Guale


culture


during the Mission


period.


Before examining the


specific


archaeological


contexts


used


in this


analysis,

reviewed.


use


past


approaches


to the understanding


review underscores the


is embedded


in the productive


fact


systems


that


pottery


change


pottery production


a society


but that


n A n n 1 a a,*| A 4 _.m nL aI


was


are


1- II rl *~I 1 A


nlAE1 A~l n


,i U AU


~II.~C1C AD1~








General


Theories of


Pottery Chanae


Some


researchers


have


argued


that


there


a conservative


pragmatism

their wares


pottery


does


in traditional


(Foster

change,


1960;


potters


cf. Rice


and as one of


that


precludes much


1987:460).


primary


dramatic


Nevertheless,


sources


change


over


of data


time


in the


archaeological

circumstances


record,


it i


incumbent


on us to explain


under what


changes occur


Change does


appear


to affect


pottery


uniformly through


time or


space.


Instead,


as Binford


1962 )


suggested


some


time


ago,


how pottery


changes may


be dependent


on the way


a particular ware


functions


in a


society.


Pottery may


function


in a


techni


c, sociotechnic,


ideotechnic

(1961:15) a


sphere,


appears


or in


to have


some


combination


had a similar


idea


these

when h


contexts.


e retrodicte


Kubler

d that


Latin America,


utility


of any particular


native behavior was


"closely


linked"


with


its survival.


Consequently,


religious


beliefs


art symbolizing their


expression are particularly vulnerable


rapid


recent


offered


extermination.


research


into


a viable


Though Kubler

the functional


testable


s explanation was


uses


hypothe


of style,


for the


uninformed by

nevertheless


survival


of material


culture


in conquest


situations:


In respect


scales


to colonial


can be suggested


cultural


magnitude of
displacement
plants and a


for th


repertory.


intrusion.


in the
animals


action, di
e survival


The scales


Most


hands of


index


vary


offering


graduated


of various items
according to the


likely to weather


a few stragglers would be


Useful


crafts


would


a great


useful


be next


most
4).


likely to


The,


at


useful


explanatory myths


Aesthetic


tain perpetuation if
symbolic knowledge s


or animalistic


symbols would


come


next


uch


accounts
, in the


one survived
as language,
(index 3).


arts


index


of time


space (
unknown


value


index


Religious


in nature


index


beliefs:


and in perception


(Kubler


the accounting


would


have


of the
lowest


1961:34)


Kubler


s addendum,


that


the order


is reversed when


considering the


acquisition


of traits


by the


subjugated


population


that


religion








pottery production


Pottery


is less


likely to change


if the context


production


for use on


a seasonal


basis


than


if production


is stimulated


by market


demands,


though


under


certain


circumstances


the market


also


contribute to conservatism.


Population


pressure


(Arnold


1985;


Rice


1984)


depopulation


(Rice


1984)


can force changes


in the mode


production and


in stylistic


aspects


of pottery.


In one of


the most


comprehensive treatises


on change,


1984)


isolated


seven major


factors--resources,


status


of potters


efficiency,


diet,


and organization


ritual


behavior,


of production,


value


and market


systems,

demand--


each


with


separate


variables


that might


influence


stability


or change


ware


characteristics.


apparent

Spanish


in the results


colonial


The interplay

of previous


many


research


of these


pottery


actors

change


contexts.


Pottery


Change


in Spanish


Colonial


Contexts


Conventional


wisdom


states


that


the change


from


Irene


pottery to


that


of the Altamaha


and St. Augustine


(San Marcos


pottery


phases


reflected


about


by the


"deculturation"


ravages of


epidemic


(sensu M.


Smith


disease and


1987)

other


of the Guale


brought


destructive


consequences


Spanish


colonization.


This


"deculturation"


could


have


resulted


from many


of the social


changes wrought


in the


colonial milieu.


Theoretically,


the transmission of


both


the technology


of pottery


manufacture


and de


sign


style


and content


could


have


been


interrupted by


population


loss


and/or


changes


in marriage


patterns


and residence


rules


(Deagan


1985:295).


Simplification


in design


execution might


also


linked


with


increased


labor


demands on


the Indians.


Hann


(1988:246;


Willey


1982


:489)


noted


"a decline


in the aesthetic


quality


mission-


pottery


,but it


was expected because


this


feature was


intimately


linked


with aboriginal


tribal


lore


and religion.


fact


that


or all of


these


factors


produced


an entirely


different


pottery


was


era


see








Several


other


researchers


(Tschopik 1950;


Charlton


1968;


Cusick


1989)


have


studied historically


known


groups


of Native AmAericans


whose


land had been


traditional


colonized by the Spanish


pottery manufacture


and found


and decoration


only minor


(except


changes


where


indigenous

completely;


population

G. Smith


died


1986).


out altogether


Studies


and the pottery


in other


historical


disappeared


contexts,


particularly that


of Adams


(1979),


have also


failed


to correlate


ceramic


change with

archaeology


known


tumultuous events,


to perceive


social


casting


change on


doubt


basi


on the


ability


of changes


material


culture.


studies


of pottery


change


the context


of Spanish-Amerindian


contact


are particularly


relevant


Despite


severe depopulation


for both


the Aymara


(Tshopik


1950)


and the Aztec


(Charlton


1968),


pottery


change


appeared


limited


to a


decrease


in the frequency


of burnishing


for both


groups,


loss


addition


a ceramic


of infrequent


type


colono-ware


for the Aztec.


forms


However,


for the


as Rice


Aymara,


(1984:270)


noted


when reviewing these


works,


in both


areas


pottery


factories


were


established


and produced wheel-thrown,


kiln-fired


glazed


wares


Spani


sh consumption.


At least


in the Aymara


area,


Chucuito


pottery


(the


Pre-Columbian


type)


continued


to be used by the Aymara


and by


Mestizos


Tshopik


use


(1950:206)

of native


serving wares


similar


were


dichotomy


added


that


in the


utilitarian wares


imported

existed i


case


of the Mestizo


was restricted


glazed wares

n the mestizo


to the


and glassware

households of


"aristocracy,

kitchen and


. A remarkably

St. Augustine


(Deagan


1983,


1988;


see below).


Evidence of more


Spanish


colonial


significant


contexts


change


available


in Native American


from the Caribbean.


pottery

Cusick


also


Deagan


1988)


has summarized what


is known


about


changes


in Taino


Indian


pottery


after


contact:


In contrast


to what


w.fa a


nnt4- A


w n tli-J il-=tU


in the


cases or


see


W









Garcia-Arevalo


distinguished


(1990;


two "phases"


following

of change


Foster


1960;


in post-contact


see also


Deagan


1983)


Taino pottery:


contact


phase


recipient


a period

culture,


of informal


control


conquest


of the


phase,


conquest


during which


culture over


control


became more


formal


and change more directed by the


conquest


culture


initial


contact


phase,


the Taino were


stimulated


copy


Spanish


earthenware


either


forms,


Taino or


sometimes


Spanish


produce


precedents


aberrant


forms


(Garcia-Arevalo


199


different

0:278).


from

During


later


conquest


phase


1515


-1530)


Taino


pottery:


again changed d
impoverishment,
richly symbolic


ramati


cally,


marked by


artist


and the disappearance of


iconographic traits


characterized Antillean


pottery


that


in precontact


times.


This


loss


can be explained


hostility toward elements
Taino magico-religious be


that


were contrary to


the


that
lief
goal


were


y Spanish
inspired by


and mythology
s of Catholic


. and


evangelization.


(Garcia-Arevalo


1990:278)


Because


pottery


studied by Garcia-Arevalo


came


from Spanish


opposed


to Indian


towns,


pottery was


hypothesized


to have


utilitarian


needs.


function


Vessels


only,


were thicker,


and to have been


and,


owing to


adapted

changes


to Spanish

in cooking


culinary


techniques


and fuels


and the


introduction


new


foods


ves


sels


were


more


heavily


sooted


(Garcia-Arevalo


1978).


The pottery


also


simpler


surface


fini


shes,


and,


because of


aforementioned


loss


of ritual


artistic


functions,


vessel


surfaces


were most


often


left


plain,


lacking


the elaborate decorations,


adornos,


and handles


of the


Pre-Columbian


pottery.


Similar


results were


reported by G.


Smith


(1986)


for Puerto


Real


in Haiti.


At that


Spanish


town


1503


-1580)


Pre-


Columbian


aboriginal


wares


were


replaced


first


plain


wares


then by


a type


colono-ware,


designated


Christophe


Plain,


purportedly made


by African


peoples

contact


brought


or conquest


to Hispaniola


has also


as slaves.


been noted


Simplification


in as


widely


response


separated


contexts


fnlarann


1QRK\


a nn Nrt i flknn -a


IhL 1%-- A


I I i 1JI V


ace V on a 2nol


1QFii^\









however,


all the Caribbean


assemblages


studied


and discussed


above


come


from Spanish


towns.


In contrast,


changes


in the pottery


studied by


Cusick


from the


aboriginal


town


of En Bas


Saline


in Haiti


were


subtle


indeed,


change


could be demonstrated


only through


a decline


thoroughness


burnishing


and a


shift


from carinated


to unrestricted


bowls


(Cusick


1989:178).


No "colono-wares"


replaced


Taino


pottery


at En Bas


Saline;


town


ceased


to exist


1520.


Cusick's


response


study may


indicate that


depending upon whether


there will


aboriginal


be a difference


pottery was


produced


Spanish


use,


as is likely


in the context


of Spanish


towns


in the


Caribbean,


or whether


was produced


for native


use.


(Obviously


correlated with


established.


this


These


premise

talleres


is whether


were


or not pottery


apparently


rather


factories were


common


in Latin


America


Ortega


and they

Fondeur


have

1978;


been


documented


see also


Deagan


in the Caribbean


1985:295,


[Cruxent


1990;


No Spanish


colonial


pottery


factories


have been


located


in the


Southeastern


United


States.


Evidence


from the


urban


contexts of


Augustine


and the


mission foundations


of La Florida


can be


used


to address


issue.


Nowhere were


the demographic


consequences


of Spanish


colonization


as severe


as in Hispaniola,


where the native


population


was


wiped


out by


1520.


This


is demonstrated


in the


abandonment


of native


towns


like


Saline,


and the


appearance of


African-influenced


"colono-wares"


Spanish


towns


like


Puerto


Real


Though


vitiated


to a certain


extent


geographic

demographic


and historical


decline was


circumstances


quite


severe


(Deagan


in northeast


1988:198-199),


Florida


(Deagan


1990b;


Dobyns


1983;


Hann


1986)


where


the native


Timucuan


Indian


population had


to be supplemented


with Georgian


Guale


Indians


1650.


1700,


frequency


of the Guale


Indian


San Marcos


pottery


in St. Augustine was


three


times


that


of the Timucuan


Johns


pottery,


reflecting the


dem1 S


la f-t r


t ji 1.1 -


nrnttn


In arnan


After


1711


nthsr


Tndi an


1983:234].


Bas


199Onh*O -^n








assemblages

to increase


First


Timucuan,


of St. Augustine

in frequency in


Spanish


non-Guale)


after


domestic


period while the


remained


1711, i

c sites


n fact,

in St.


frequency


San Marcos

Augustine


of "other"


virtually unchanged


(Deagan


continued

throughout


pottery


1990b


(non-

307).


Further,


according to


Deagan,


Guale


Indian


pottery


remained


virtually


unchanged


Spanish


colonization.


She noted


of the most


interesting


features of


Indian


pottery


found


in the


Spanish


sites


that


the great majority


of it is unmodified


from


its traditional


forms-


neither


shape


decoration


cases.
because


show European


This


influence


an important


it demonstrates,


in most


observation,


first,


that


traditional


Amerindian
unaltered


crafts


persisted


form through


the enti


a largely
re colonial


period,
to be a
the Spa


Spanish


and,


my


second,


serious


Lniards


tastes


that


directed


there did not


effort


to influence change
S(Deagan 1990b:30


on the


appear
part o


in favor


7)


Deagan's


analysis


considered


only


change within


San Marcos


type.


one


takes


long view


and considers


San Marcos


derivative of

demonstrated


Irene phase


in the


wares,


following


changes


chapters,


are more

a bolder,


apparent.

rectilinear


As will

stamped


design

changes


replaced


in rim


a fine


form


finishing techniques


land


groove


and treatment.


and new


forms


New,


were


curvilinear


or at least


incorporated


one,


and there were


re-emphasized,

into pottery


assemblages


used by


both


Spanish


and the


Indians


Once


established,


however,


San Marcos type


appears


to have


been


extremely


stable


through many


social perturbations,


disappearing


only with


removal


Spanish


Indians


to Cuba


at the end


of the


First


Spanish


period.


Thus,


the situation


in the Spanish


towns


of La Florida


contrasts


markedly with


appear


to have


Caribbean,

production.


urban


that


in the Caribbean


fostered a


settings


stability

resulted


While


Florida


in aboriginal


in dramatic


urban


pottery


change


settings

, in the


in native


pottery


Nevertheless


, it is


inaccurate


"to char~a^^ctr iz T


pottery


change


in La


nor









contexts


and St. Augustine exists,


it is generally


believed


that


Marcos


pottery


1990a:239


isolation made


have been


exhibited more


, 1990b:308).


Spanish


required


formal


In those


tablewares


to produce most


change at missions


relatively remote


difficult


(e.g.


outposts,


to acquire.


of the pottery


suitable


, Deagan

poverty


Indians may

e for Spanish


serving


dishes,


perhaps even Catholic


services.


In contrast,


in St.


Augustine the


high


incidence of


Guale


Indian


woman-Spanish male


intermarriage


(Deagan


1990b)


created a


situation


(similar to that


in the


Peruvian


highlands)


in which


traditional


utilitarian


while


European


shown


serving


wares


continued


dishes


(Deagan


that


1983;


typical


to be produced


and tablewares,


1988)

diet


Indeed,


in St.


used by


more visible


status


zooarchaeological


Augustine


Indian women


objects,

studies


incorporated much


were


have


of the


native


and Reitz


subsistence


1990).


strategy

In these


(Deagan


1983;


circumstances,


Reitz


formal


and Scarry


change


like


1985;


Scarry


that


observed by Garcia-Arevalo


for the Caribbean would not


be expected


St. Augustine.


Further


evidence


that


different


contexts will


produce dramatically


different


assemblages


available


in Hoffman


a (1990:127


-130)


study


the pottery


assemblage


from the Convento de


San Francisco,


Province


House


of the


Franciscan Order


in St. Augustine.


a series


of discrete


contexts


frequency


dated between


nonlocall"


1588


wares


and 1702,


eclipsed


Hoffman


that


demonstrated


of both


that


St. Johns


Marcos


wares


1702.


Hoffman


attributed


increase


in nonlocal


wares


to the


in St


collapse c

Augustine.


the mission


This


collapse,


system and


however,


consolidation


was


almost


invisible


peoples


in the


domestic


contexts of


urban


St. Augustine.


In addition,


in contrast


to remote mission


sites,


colono-ware


forms


were


quite


rare


at the


Convento de


San Francisco.


This was most


likely


to the


fact


that


Spanish maiolicas


TwTer-


rela~ tivly ,


abn in4 4-


WT = L. = L. = A. a t L_ V _= -V 0 LJLJ l RLAEJ 0 1 L


Iconstitutino


12-13%


of all


San









foregoing


summary


indicates


that


the study


of pottery


change


complex


and multi-faceted.


The perspective


from La


Florida


is that


of the more


contexts


cruc


use,


ial controls


where


"contexts"


an understanding

can be defined


change will


at a scale


as large


socioeconomic


system and


as small


as an activity


area


within


a site.


A comparison


of the assemblages


from a mestizo


household,


a mission


convento,


Province


House


, for instance,


will


very


different


because


individuals


in each


context


had differential


access


to the


"world


area


cultural


within


system"


institutional


(South


1988)


compounds


Structure


should


function


also determine


or activity

to a large


extent


composition


of the


assemblage-


-one would


expect


a mi


ssion


church


to have


a different


assemblage than


a mission


kitchen


South


(e.g.,


1977)


has long


sought


pattern recognition


in artifact


assemblages


to determine


structure


function


and ethnic/class


identity;


here


known


functions


and/or


occupants


are used


to explicate


differences


pottery


much


assemblages.


to Binford'


(1962


In addition,

formulation


the notion


of technomic,


of contexts


use


sociotechni


owes


, and


ideotechnic


functions


of material


culture;


majolicas,


colono-ware


plates,


and Guale


Indian


cooking


jars


function


differently


in the


system,


as do the designs


on their


surfaces


With


these


ideas


in mind,


it i


useful


to review the


contexts


pottery use

following a


and manufacture


archaeological


among the Guale


and ethnohistorical


described above.

summary of the


The

Pre-


Columbian


and Mission


period Guale


emphasizes


factors


that


would


affect


ceramic


ecology


and technological,


formal,


stylistic


attributes


pottery produced by


a society under


continuous


stress


to adapt


changing


social


and environmental


circumstances.


one
















CHAPTER


ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND


ETHNOHISTORIC


PERSPECTIVES ON THE GUALE


INDIANS


Pre-Columbian


Settlement


and Society


Iren'

maritime


phase


live oak


sites a

forest


re confined


on the barrier


a narrow

islands


coastal


strip of


and adjacent


mainland


Georgia

noted:


north


of the Altamaha River.


Pearson


(see


also


R. Smith


1984)


No Irene phase
Altamaha River.


sites


are reported


south


It is interesting to


of the


note


that


southern boundary


of Irene


phase


ceramics


corresponds
boundary de


to the linguistic


scribed as


historic Guale


existing


and Timucua


and political
between the


(Swanton


1922).


Irene


phase


equivalent
1958). (P


appears
of the h


earson


to be the


historic Guale


archaeological


see


Larson


1978:55)


northern boundary


believe


it extended


of Guale


as far nort


territory i

h as Edisto


s disputed.


Island


Some


(Jones


historians


1978:186-187),


while others


cite


the Savannah River


as the northern


extent


(Hann


1987


:2-4).


Most


archaeologists


restrict


historic


Guale


to northern


Georgia


(Larson


1978;


Braley


1990);


however


coastal


Georgia


ceramic


sequences


have been applied


to South


Carolina


(Anderson


1989:


105).


Several


fairly


extensive treatments


of Guale


Indian


ethnohistory


exist


(Crook


1978,


1986;


Jones


1978;


Larson


1978;


Milanich


et al.


1977;


Thomas


1987)


and there


are a few synthetic


treatments


of Irene


phase


site


settlement


and subsistence patterns


(Crook


1986;


DePratter


Howard


1980


Larson


1980;


Milanich


and Larson


1976;


Pearson


1978,


1980).


These works


indicate


that


Irene phase


peoples


were


organized


into


chiefdoms


(Jones


1978:200


SThese


chiefdoms,


however,


were neither


hierarchically


onrani zed


nnr as nun lated


as thei r


fnrhsarsrs


in ths









Complex


as their


contemporary


inland relatives


(Cook and


Pearson


1989:149).


In fact,


except


at the type


site


(Pearson


1978:56)


, Irene


phase


sites lack most


late Mississippian


traits


(e.g.,


B. Smith


1978)


This apparent


provincialism


is often attributed


a lesser


reliance on


maize


horticulture by these


coastal


peoples


either


necessitated by


poor


soils (Larson


1978,


1980;


Pearson


1978:57)


or afforded by


abundant


estuarine


resources.


At present,


subsistence


pattern


the Guale


under


debate


(Thomas


early


1987


Jesuit


, 1990).

priests


Principally


in La


Florida,


on the basis


Larson


of correspondence of


(1980)


and Crook


(1978,


1986)


proposed


that


the majority


of the Guale


engaged


a shifting


seasonal


subsistence


round.


estuary where they


the early winter, m

exploited molluscs,


latrilineages

estuarine f


lived


ish,


adjacent


and deer.


spring,


when


swidden


plots


to be prepared,


population


more


dispersed,


and one or two nuclear


families might


work the


same


plot


in the oak


forest.


Crook


hypothesized


subsistence


stress


at this


time,


when


stored


foods


were


becoming


exhausted.


Molluscan


resources


estuarine


anadramous


fish were


fish


still


arrived,


exploited,


and by


however.


July the


first


In June,

harvest


large


could


schools


be brought


Matrilineages


converged


into


strategically


located,


permanent


town


sites,


where


the chief


and his retinue


had remained


throughout


the year.


Populations


dispersed


again


in the


fall


to the oak


forests


where deer


and hickory


nuts


that


attracted


them could be taken.


Jones


(1978)


has argued


that


this model


of residential


mobility


based


on Jesuit


sour


grapes.


Letters


to their


superiors


in the Old


World


to justify the


failure


to make


inroads on


heathenismm"


in La Florida.


According to Jones


1978


179)


Guale


horticulture was


productive


enough,


in combination


with


other


resources,


"to account


presence of


permanent


towns,


a chiefdom


level


of social


oraani


zation.


temnnr rrv


I L.J


leratiins nf


rhi efd oinm


under


centralized


was








bounteous


harvests


and year-round


settlements


of dispersed


towns.


Jones


takes


for his


definition


a description by


Sandford


of Orista


in 1666--90


years


after


effective


Spanish


control


in that


area:


The Towne


is scituate on


skirts of


several


a fire


distances


side or


forrest,


are diverse


rather


in which


feilds


of maiz


with many
for the h
(Jones 19


little


houses


abitations


straglingly


of the


particular


amonst


them


families.


78:192)


In other words,


horticultural


plots


and houses


were


all in the general


vicinity


of the town.


Jones


cites


similar


descriptions


for Santa Elena,


St. Catherines


Island,


and Fort


George


Island.


Crook


(1986:


correct


when he notes


that


sources


that


Jones


uses


to bolster


an argument


for sedentary


subsistence


are


later


than many u


sed by Crook,


and that


later


documents


reflect


dramatic


changes


in settlement


subsistence patterns


as a result


missionization.


argument must be resolved with


zooarchaeological


studies


of site


seasonality


and subsistence.


such


studies


have


been


done on


late


Irene phase


sites


Braley


et al.


1986;


Russo


1991).


Vertebrate


and invertebrate


data


from the


Harris


Neck


site


indicated


year-round


occupation


(Braley


et al. 1986


119);


invertebrate data


from


the Meeting


Both


of these


House


Fields


site


sites were quite


also


large


indicated


and might


year-round


represent


occupation.

the permanent


town


sites


of Crook


s model.


full


range of


poss


ible


site


types


remain


to be tested


There


no argument


that


the Guale,


like


all other


Southeastern


peoples,


were matrilineal


They may


also


have been matrilocal


(Hudson


1976:


190)


but Jones


1978


:201)


and Larson


(1978:126)


consider the


evidence


the most


equivocal.

important


Southeastern


Indians


Though


social


the principal


unit


was


practiced both


the clan


lineage


economic


(Hudson

and clan


unit


was


lineage,


1976:193)


exogamy.


Polygyny


appears


to have been


restricted


to important


leaders.









division between


sexes was


so complete


that


men


and women


were


often


seen as


separate


species;


day to day


activities


kept men


and women


apart


from each


other


(Hudson


1976:260)


Europeans were


appalled


to report


that


women


performed


the bulk of


the subsistence


activities:


"The


little


work


that


is done


among the


Indians


is done


by the poor Women,


while the


men


are quite


idle,


or at most


employed


only


in the Gentlemanly


Diversions


of Hunting


and Fishing"


(Byrd


1929,


quoted


in Silver


1990:44).


Hudson


(1976


:267)


stated:


"The


principal


occupations


men


were


connected


hunting,


with


ball


the entire


game,

round


politics,

of social


war,

life.


ceremonies


Most


important


to this


discussion,


pottery making--from


clay


collection


(except


where extraction


was


particularly


laborious;


Fewkes


1944)


to firing--was


Catawba,


continue


done by the women

to make pottery


(Swanton

very much


1946)

like


Among


that


the modern


found


archaeological


sites


associated with


their


ancestors


, pottery


generally produced


in the early


spring to


late


fall


(Arnold


1985:95


Table


Fewkes


1944).


However


, Fewkes


(1944:


noted


that


weather


not impose


a serious drawback to production


throughout


year,

Vessel


at least


construction


in modern


(not


times,


including


vesse


Is could be dried


obtaining the


clay


indoors


paste


preparation)


took about


hours


(Fewkes


1944:95).


Firing took


another


four


hours


(Fewkes


1944


:95)


but the


fact


that


several


pots


could be


fired


once


must


be factored


into that


figure.


Women


executed


incised


designs


on pottery


(Swanton


1946;


Speck


1909);

might

Given


however,


have


carved


there


no mention


the wooden


the broad range


of their


paddles


duties


in secondary

with which


(Hudson


sources


vessels


as to which


were


1976:258-269,


sex


stamped.


285,


295),


and their


involvement


in all other


aspects of


pottery manufacture,


seems


reasonable


to assume


that


women


carved


paddles,


unless


Daddles


had some other


function


unrelated


to notterv


decoration.








that


each


adequate data


identifiable chiefdom


were available)


in the


interior


Southeast


can be distinguished by the


(for which

associated


pottery

Weisman


assemblages


(1989:45;


at the


phase


and see Sears


level.


1959)


For the historic


suggested


that


Seminole,


limited


repertoire

matrilocal


simple rim decorations might


unit


formed


related


correlate with


huti,


women.


Of des


in general,


and pottery


design


in particular,


Speck


commented


that


among the Catawba:


As regards


the artistic


expression


of this


tribe,


seems


that, in general,
concrete objects


special con
are confined


ventional


decorations


to a few articles


symbolizing


of clothing


as neckbands,


carry-pouches. The
religious significa
still more emphatic


though


rarely,


as well


sashes,
whole


nce.


hair
field


ornaments,
is permeate


Decorations of


religious


meaning


as on other


a l


are


leggings,
d with a
ike sort


found


objects.


Sp


strong
with a


on pottery,
eck 1909:54)


Implications


The degree of


sedentism,


residence


rules


, and the


organi


zation


labor


all potentially


affect


pottery production


(Arnold


1985)


If the


Guale did


shift


residences


throughout


year,


as Crook envi


sioned,


pottery production would


have


been


limited


not only


climactic


considerations,

the Guale were


but would


areas


also


with


have to


all the


be scheduled


resources


seasons


necessary


in which


for pottery


production


(Arnold


1985:


123).


Plog


(1980)


also


has discussed the


relationship between


sedentism


pottery


settlements


assemblages.

throughout t


If the Guale


year,


occupied


emphasizing


a series


different


of different


resources


each,


we might


expect


to find a different


assemblage of


vessel


forms


seasonal


sites having different


functions


(and


food


processing


needs).


In addition,


since


certain


surface


treatments


designs


are often


restricted


to particular


vessel


forms


(Arnold


1984;


Friedrich


1970;


Hardin


1984)


seasonal


settlements may


have entirely


different


formal


and/or


decorate iv


assemb lanes


from onne


another.


such


r








These were


clustered


into


four


size


classes.


Pearson


found


that


site


size was


correlated with


environmental


factors


and postulated


settlement


hierarchy


(which has


been


criticized by Crook


1986:47-48).


However,


whether


or not


there were different


subsistence


foci


at each


site


type


is unclear.


The evidence


did indicate that


pottery


attributes


not correlate with


site


types,


suggesting that


possible


biases


like


those


enumerated


above will


not be a problem


for Irene


phase


sites.


Sedentism


is also


related


to specialization


and trade.


Full-time


pottery production


societies


emerges only


both because


in the


scheduling


context


conflicts


fully-


are reduced


sedentary

and because


demand


Special


increased


zat ion,


in more


particularly


populous,

in the o


sedentary

reductionn


societies

of elite


(Arnold


or ritual


1985).

wares,


might


stimulate or maintain


trade networks.


However,


despite


fact


that


Braley


(1990:101)


has isolated


one possible


Irene


phase mortuary


ware,


a small


carinated


there


is no evidence of


specialization


pottery production


among


the Pre-Columbian Guale.


Even


in mortuary


contexts


, in general,


burial


urns


and pottery placed


with


burials


not distinguishable


presence of


heavy


from village


sooting


pottery


and broken


rims


(Braley

on much


1990).

of the


In fact,


pottery placed


with


individual


in the


Kent


Mound


(Cook 1986)


and Johns


Mound


(Larsen


Thomas


1982


indicates


that


it was village pottery.


However,


these


data


cannot


be used


as indirect


proof


shifting


settlements.


Arnold


1985)


has shown,


specialization


correlated


with


sedentism,


but sedentism does


not invariably


result


in specialization.


There


little


archaeological


evidence


for widespread


importation


or export


of utilitarian


pottery per


though


it has been mentioned


Jones


1978


:197)


The amount


of trade


involving pottery


(the


contents


of pots)


has not been


tested


with


any analyses


of subtypical


variation


or technological


studies.


However,


the interrelatedness


chiefdoms.


... a-


orobabilitv


that


there was


some


system


of tribute


in Pre-


are








Residence


rules


and the organization


of labor


have


been


observed


hypothesized


to affect


design


execution


and transmission


(e.g.


Deetz


1968;


M. Hardin


residence


1977).


is matrilocal,


Theoretically

and pottery


if pottery is

constructed,


made


by women,


decorated,


fired


by women


a single


household,


lineage,


or other


social/residential


unit,


a relatively


homogeneous


assemblage


should


result,

appear


because

(Irwin [


there


1974:371]


little


opportunity


hypothesizes


for extra-local


a similar


scenario


designs


for the


interpretation of


the distribution


of paddle-stamped motifs


in the


Solomon


Islands).


Conversely,


residence


patrilocal,


women


would


be "imported,

peculiar to Ih


" along with


nuclear


construction


family or


techniques


lineage.


In this


design


case,


repertoires


pottery


attributes


would


be expected


to be more


heterogenous.


Similarly,


designs


are more


likely to


be borrowed


(and


assemblages


more


heterogenous)


in the context


of ad hoc work


groups


than


women


engaged

lineage


in pottery production alone or


Hardin


1977;


Friedrich


only with members


of their


1970).


The extent


organization


altered


to which


of labor,


the Mission


subsistence


patterns,


and specialization


period may


residence


and trade


help to explain


rules,


patterns

e changes


were


observed


in Guale


Indian


pottery


from the


late


Pre-Columbian


through


the Mi


ssion


period.


Guale


Indians


and European


Colonization


The Gual


Indians


of the northern


and central


Georgia


coast


were


among


first


southeastern


groups


to come


into


contact


with


Spanish

timber,

inland,

thought


and French


vines,


perhaps


colonists


native


gold


unlikely that


olive


seeking


tree,


and silver"


slave


"Chicora,


Indians,


(Hoffman


raids


a land


pearls,

1984:419


sponsored


"abounding


a distance


Though


Lucas


it is


Visquez


are


own


now








Ayll6n established


the colony


of San Miguel


de Guadalpe


in the


"land of


Guadalpe,


" probably on


Sapelo


Sound


(Hoffman


1990;


cf. Jones


1978:181).


Other modern


researchers


believe the colony was


further


north


among


Souian


peoples


(Swanton


1922),


or even as


far south


as the Altamaha


River


(Hann


1990b:9).


Axes,


a jet


rosary,


and trade


beads


were


apparently traded


from San Miguel


to Cofitechique,


as these


items were


shown


to members of


the de


Soto expedition


Smith


1968


:240;


Jones


1978:180).


Ayll6n's


1526


expedition


was ambitious


. His


complement


consisted


of six vessels


and 600 men


women,


including African-American


slaves


Dominican


1978:180;


Jone


friars.

s report


The endeavor was

d 500 people on


however,


short-lived


the expedition,


Milanich


Jones

1990:


and Biedma


1968


:240 cite


600)


. Ayll6n


sickened and


died,


colony


was deserted.


first


It is likely that

European epidemic


year


1526


also marked


along the Atlantic


coast


arrival


(Jones


1978


of the


194;


contra


Dobyns


1983.


Dobyns


1983


Table


believed


the first


pan-American


epidemic

epidemic


, smallpox,


spread


spread


inland at


into


least


the Southeast


1524)


as far as Cofitachequi;


1526


evidence of


population


decline was


recorded by


the de


Soto expedition


1540


Smith


1968:63;


Jones


1978:194).


consequences of


the spread


of Old


World


diseases


through New


World


populations


has also


been


recorded by numerous modern


researchers.


Dobyns


1990)


(1983),

and M.


Hann


Smith


(1986),


1987)


Milner


have


(1980)


all examined


Ramenofsky


(1987),


Silver


the evidence with respect


to the


Southeast.


Population


estimates


and diagnoses


of population


loss


are


treacherous


Suffice


undertakings


it to say that


there


and beyond

is evidence


scope of


to suggest


this


that


paper.


populations


along the


southeastern Atlantic


coast


could have been


reduced by


90% by


16th-


eont-ir


(Ramenofsk


1987


:171)


that


-. -- -- - -- W.a.-


before


y





,


...


*








Ribault


established


Charlesfort


on an


island


in what


now


Port Royal,


South


long


Carolina,

as it did


in 1562.


largely through


settlement,


abandoned


the beneficence of


in 1563,

e Indians


survived


of region,


the Orista,

considering

writings of


the Guale,


the availability


the Escamacou--an


of foodstuffs


Ren6 Laudonniere remain


the best


important


point


when


in the winter months.


documentary


evidence


available


for the early Guale


(Laudonniere


1975).


In spite of


increasing resistance


from the native


inhabitants,


French

(Hann


and

1986;


the Spanish

Ross 1923,


continued


1924)


to vie for control


attesting to


of the Guale


the perceived


coast


importance of


area


(Hoffman


1984,


1990)


Spanish


eventually won nominal


control


of the


territory with


the establishment


of St. Augustine


in 1565


Santa Elena


in 1566.


However,


the French


continued


to trade with


Indians


(and


British)


along the


pirates


Savannah River


harassed Spanish


into the


17th


settlements


century

as late


French


as 1686.


Miss ion i z at ion


The mi


already

civili


ssioni


some


zing"


zation


of La Florida


forty years

indigenous


was


of experience


populations


begun after the

in converting


of the Caribbean


Spanish


twenty to


thirty years

pacification


in parts


of Latin America.


was accomplished by


In La Florida,


"reducing"


scattered


as elsewhere,


populations


mission


towns


(this may not


have been


necessary


in some areas where


aboriginal


populations were


already nucleated;


see Deagan


1985:303;


Hann


1988:28)


where


the neophyte populations


could be


kept


from apostasy


spending most


of their time


laboring


for the Spanish.


Such


labor


included


enterprise


cultivation


and the


crops which


Spanish military


supported both


and civilian


the mission


populations,


construction


mission buildings


and secular


structures


fortifications


both


at the missions


and in St.


Augustine.


In the








Missions,


definition


located


on the frontier


civilized


lands,


also


served


as the


front


line of


defense


in the struggle of


competing


European


powers

history


for dominance


in the New World.


of the missionization


of La Florida


has been


recounted


numerous


1936;


scholars


Pearson


(Gannon


1968;


1965;


Sturtevant


Geiger

1962).


1937;


Hann


Several


1988;


waters


Matter


heds


1972


in that


history


are important


for this


study


of social


change


and pottery


production


in the Mission


period.


The first


missionaries


to La Florida


were


effort


the Jesuits,


failed


who debarked


to make


in St.


conversions


Augustine


in 1567


and the order


The Jesuit


retreated


from La


Florida


in 1570.


The Franciscans


followed


also


little


success


until


quarter


after


of the


turn


16th


of the century


century


(Jones


saw innumerable


1978:183


skirmishes


Indeed,

between


last


the Guale


and Spanish


colonists,


including two organized


revolts


1576


1597).


Both


revolts


were


followed by brutal


Spanish


reprisals;


devastation wrought


the reprisals


following the


latter was


compounded


an epidemic


in 1582.


The consequences


famine


disease


were


severe.


appease


the Spanish,


in 1601


the mico of


Asao-Talaxe,


southern Guale


chiefdom


led a


federation


of other Guale


chiefs


in a


successful


attack


on the


leaders


of the 1597


rebellion


(Jones


1978


:184).


failure of


revolts


, the unprecedented


aboriginal


standards)


harshness of


the Spanish reprisals,


toll


epidemic


disease


(perhaps


approaching 90%


of the population


at contact,


above)


led to


ensuing years

on the Georgia


an apparent


saw peace,


capitulation on

and the gradual


part


of the Guale.


reestablishment


the missions


coast.


Despite documentary


evidence of


continued


high mortality


among


mission


inhabitants


and numerous defections


to the British,


the missions


on the Georgia


coast


endured


until


1680s.


With


establishment


Charleston


in 1670,


however,


the international


rivalry


over


the Atlantic


Ore


see


__ _~__ _____~_~__


I


w -








the decision was made to withdraw from St.


Catherines


Island


southward


to Sapelo


Island.


Spanish burned


the mission buildings


before


they


left


island.


refugees


on Sapelo


Island


were constantly


harassed


by pirates

personnel


in danger


their


Indian


of British attack.


allies


or converts


In 1686,


were moved


all Spanish


south


of the


St. Marys


River.


New missions were established,


but the


Spanish


hold


over


their


converts


was


increasingly tenuous


(Saunders


1991),


and the


danger o

Governor


f British

James Mo


attack ominous.


ore of


The attack


South Carolina


came


systematically


in 1702,


when


destroyed


every


mission


on a march


to St. Augustine.


Though Moore


failed


in his


ultimate purpose


of taking


Florida


from the


Spanish,


he succeeding


destroying the mission


system along the Atlantic


coast.


Convers


ion:


Cause


and Effect


ultimate


acceptance of


the mission


system


into


their


territory


can be


seen


as a conscious gambit on


the part


of the Guale


to ensure


their


own


ethnic


survival--a


revitalization movement


of sorts


Axtell,


speaking


of Indians


along the Eastern


seaboard


under


English


control,


it this


way:


The more de
situation (
greater the
of the grou


sperate


Indians


social-cultural


as in seaboard Massachusetts)


possibility


p and


of life-giving


thus


of physical


the greater


conversion


annihilation


the efficacy


and revitalization,


which Anthony Wallace


[1966:30]


defines


simply


as "any


conscious,


organized


effort


by members


a society to construct


a more


satisfying


culture.


Axtell


1988a:54)


(Axtell

added:


1988a:51-52)


"But


those


tribes


could


still


piece of


forest


between


themselves


and the


long


arm of


invaders,


those who escaped


the worst


of the maladies of


European


contact,


little


need


of the


full


'civilized


cure offered by the Christian


doctors.


real


This


history


prescription


undoubtedly


seventeenth-century


applied to many Guale.

Guale is actually not t


"The


:o be









expression

presence"


Those


changes


of coastal


(Jones

Guale


southeastern rebellion


against


the European


1978:208).


that


accept mi


in the organization


their


ssions


culture


in their midst


and society


saw major

Marriage


patterns were


affected


to the extent


that


polygyny was exterminated


Potential


partners


were wiped


out in epidemics


and some Guale


Indian


women became


Residence


disease


the wives


patterns


or concubines


also changed,


and different mi


ssion


of Spanish


especially

populations


soldiers


(Deagan


as populations were

had to be combined


1990b).

reduced


maintain


adequate


personnel


for a single mission


(Hann


1986).


Whatever


prehistoric


subsistence


and settlement


system,


there


can be


no doubt


that


Spanish


friars


redirected


system


into more


intensive hor

for clearing,


as in the


'ticulture.


With


techniques


Precontact


for cultivars--Indians


garrison might be


Franciscan mi


period


were


stationed


ssionari


es, and,


the exception

of cultivation


(Silver

required

nearby,


1990).


of the u

probably

However,


to provide


to tithe


food


their


sporadically)


se of


metal


remained


Spanish


tools


same


demand


for whatever


produce

tribute


to the


to the


crown


(Bushnell


1981:


76-79, 97-99)--caused


changes


in the organization


labor.


Prior


to contact,


male


involvement


in cultivation


was


restricted


to the


heaviest


Bishop Calder6n


clearing

(Wenhold


(Silver


1936:


1990).


13),


After


"In April


contact,


they


according to


commence


sow,


as the man


goes


along


opening


the trench,


the woman


follows


sowing.


Females


would


have many more


fields


to tend


than before


contact.


introduction


of double-cropping


(Deagan


1985:302)


would


have


upset


seasonal


schedules


for the procurement


of other


foodstuffs.


Other


post-contact


labor


demands


on males


included


sending workers


to St.


Augustine


for construction


projects,


running


ferries


between


islands


on which


the missions


were


stationed,


and transporting


goods,


Darticularlv produce


. from mission


outnosfts


such


as San Luis and


Santa








responsibilities of


Indians


at San Juan


del Puerto;


women


probably


would


have done


that


brewing.


No doubt


women manned the mission


kitchens.


Whatever


contribution


children had made to the


Pre-Columbian


foodquest


was


usurped:


"The


children,


both male


and female,


to the


church


on work days,


to a


religious


school


where


they


are


taught


teacher


" (Wenhold


1936


:14).


Increased


demands on


the Guale


Indians'


labor may


have


resulted


changes


in pottery production.


Hypothetically


, it might


have been


necessary to exploit


clay


resources


closer to


settlements,


to reduce


time


invested


in clay preparation


such as cleaning,


or to


simplify the


finishing process,


perhaps,


as indicated


in other


research,


eliminating burnishing.


There


are no documents discussing


how the


Spanish


acquired Native American wares,


either


in traditional


or colono-


ware


forms,


in La Florida.


Presumably,


Native American women


produced


wares


for their


own


use


in mission


villages or


Spanish


towns.


Some


part-time


specializ


action


in pottery production might


have


been


necessary


to meet


demand


for cooking vessels


and colono-wares


for unmarried


colonists,


soldiers


, and friars,


but this


has not been


demonstrated


date.


study


(Ann


Cordell


to determine


Florida Museum of


if colono-wares


were


Natural


produced


History


locally


has begun


or in regional


workshops.)


Carbon-isotope evidence


from contemporary missions


in the Southwest


indicate


that,


though


the Pueblo


Indians were producing


corn


for the


missions,


their


own


corn


consumption


fell


below that


of the preceding


period


(Spielmann


et al.


1990).


Evidence


from


Santa


Catalina


in Georgia


indicates


that


this was


not the


case


for the Guale.


Corn


consumption


increased over the


Savannah


phase,


and exploitation of marine


resources


decreased


Schoeninger


practices might


be reflected


1990).


These


in differences


changes

in food


in subsistence


preparation and


serving


ves


sels.


Changes


in group siz


and definition might


also


have


__


w








consequence of


the nucleation


of population


and the


intensification of


horticulture was


the depletion


of wood


resources.


Even


prior to


contact,


aboriginal


clearing practices


exploitation


fallen


branches


for firewood


resulted


in a


"parklike"


environs


around


Indian


villages


(Silver


1990:61).


With


increased


clearing


demand


for wood


scarce.


for building

When Dunlop


and firewood,


(1929:


131)


forest


visited St


resources may


Catherines


have


Island


become


in 1687


"much


clear


ground


for 7


or 8 miles


together,


" probably most


arable


land


on the 14,000


acre


island.


Further


evidence


for the


increased


value of


wood


products might


seen


in the


fact


that


to gain


admission


to a


church,


each


Indian was


required


to bring


a log


wood


to the


house


the priest


(Wenhold


1936:14).


1655,


forests


nearest


to St. Augustine were


too far


away


for timber


to be carried


city


Indian


laborers


(Rebolledo


1655,


in Hann


1988:177).


One of


the main


reasons


Indians gave


to the visitador


in 1702


for not


finishing the


required


stockade


at Santa


Catalina


de Guale


on Amelia


lack of


wood


in the


area.


If wood did become


scarce,


pottery


firing


might


have


been


affected.


idea


that


even


simple


pottery


designs might


function


societies


to signal


ethnic


affiliation


and sustain


group


cohesiveness


Conkey


acceptance

disparate


1978;


Hodder


1982;


over the years.


populations described


Wiessner


The population


above may


1983;


Wobst


1977)


decline


have disrupted


has gained

nucleation


this


process


the Mission


period.


Further,


if Fewkes


statement


as to the meaning


pottery


designs


among the Catawba


can be extended to


all the


southeastern


Indian


groups,


then


another


consequence of


missionization


conversion might


be changes


in design.


one


level,


with


increased


labor


demands,


the Guale may


have


lacked


time to produce


painstakingly


in design


carved


paddles


simplification.


and to incise elaborate designs,


if designs were


religious


resulting

in nature


saw


was


-g- ,


However,








Bishop Calderon apparently believed


in the true


conversion


of the


13,152


Christian


Indians


he counted


in 1675:


"As to their


religion,


they


are not


holy


idolaters,


faith"


(Wenhold


and they


1936:14).


embrace with devotion


Modern researchers


the mysteries of

have been more


skeptical


(see Axtell


1988b)


Axtell


believed that


those who


insist


that


conversion was


only


"protective


coloration"


and at


best


syncretic


are wrong:


This assumption
unwarrantedly r


examples,


i


is misleading


eductionist
t confuses


three ways:


and belied by


social


counties


functions


it is
s historical


of conversion


for groups with
individuals, an


with


original;


its emotional


validity or
Axtell 198


it confuses
quality of
8b:118-119)


and intellectual


the explanation


the result.


meaning


of conversion


(emphasis


Conversion,

documentary

southwestern


according to


research


Florida


Axtell,


into


reveals


was


the attempts


that


real


Hann


1991,


to Christiani


Spanish mi


whose


the Calusa


ssionaries were


tolerated


only


extent


as long


to which


as the trade goods


the southeastern


lasted).

Indians


accepted


Catholicism


cannot


be answered


satisfactorily with


reference


to contemporary


documents


because each European


chronicler was


biased by


his own agenda.


Primary

do exist


documents


suggest


written by


that


some


Native Americans


Indians were


posses


are rare,


sed of


those


that


a deep


understanding

Pre-Columbian


of the


faith.


religious


Certainly


principles,


the most


burial


mound


visible expressions

s, disappeared and


unadorned


cemetery


burial


became


norm.


Larson


1978:135)


noted


some


documentary


evidence


of syncretism;


Father


Parej a


s Confessionario


(Milanich

vigilant


Sturtevant


against


transcendent


1972)


superstition


as faith


indicated


that


and apostasy.


susceptible to


recovery


friars


to be


Is something


archaeology?


Several


researchers


suggest


that


it is.


Drawing


on the


contextual


methodology

Braithwaite


of Hodder


1982)


(1982,


1986)


David et


and initial


(1988)


have


applications


proposed


a "semiotic"


our


,


*


I


_3









actual


meaning


of individual motifs.


"While pottery may


be invested


with


explicit


messages,


the decorative


techniques,


motifs,


and designs


also embody


a potent


implicit


component


that


realizes


society


'ultimate concern,


its religious


substance'"


(David


et al


. 1988:379).


According to David et


1988:378),


repetition


a small


number


of motifs


arranged


a limited


and rigidly organized


set of designs


many


artifact


classes


and physical


contexts


indicates


that


the motifs


"condensed


While


symbol


I am not


s" expressive of


convinced of


their


underlying

assertion


cosmological


that


principle.


all societies


"ass


imilate"


pots


to people


because


the former


transformed by


fire


latter


enculturation


, their


case


for particular meanings


among specific

method, perhaps


peoples

less s


is plausible.


successful


Emerson


because of


(1989


his wide


used


scope,


a similar

in extracting


cultural


meanings


of symbolism at


Cahokia:


The c
units


mental


central


problem


of analysis
constructs


in performing


that


will


such


allow us


--cosmology--on


a study


to deal


the basis


is to define


with


realm of


of its material


manifestations.


to those
artifact


that


From this


archaeologists


assemblage.


interpretation


acceptable


comes


to make


perspective


have


The difference


from the


leap


fact


from


problems


in interpreting


between


that


artifact


are


the
two


traditionally


identical


rest
realms
it ha


to chronology


of the
of
s been


function


or definition


of specific


cultures.


Archaeologists


have


been


trained


to accept


and unobjectionable


trans


ition


superficial


the ambiguities


in their


from artifact


level.


(Emerson


in such


research.


transitions


This


to symbolism,
1989:45-46)


except


ot th
at a


as inevitable
e case with
very


Emerson'


argument


recalls


that


of Kosso


(1991)


and Patrik


(198


both


of whom argued


that


there


is little methodological


difference


Binford


s middle


range theory


and Hodder's


contextual


hermeneutics.


It might


well


be impossible


to understand meanings


cases


where


ethnography


or the direct


historic


approach


is lacking


or inapplicable


This


is not the case


for the


Southeast


M. Smith


1987


7-8;


however


Smith'


indirect


historic


approach


essentially the


same


thing


strong


continuities


have been


established).


Using the


contextual


annrnach.


I-I


is nnssilhi


ton rdmnnpitr tsf


that


had r


r'nsmn1 nfl,,


nf ths


are


use


I l Bk








The degree to which


the change


in subsistence practices,


rescheduling of


Indian


labor,


the nucleation of


disparate


populations,


environmental


worldview


depletion,


affected


and the reorganization of


pottery production are


the Guale


all testable.


Indian


This entails


consideration


of the three pottery


assemblages


associated


with


Guale


Indians;


these


are described


in the next


chapter.

















CHAPTER


THE POTTERY


OF THE GUALE


INDIANS,


A.D.1350-1702


Tvye Descriptions


Irene


Phase


Pottery


Irene


defined


phase pottery,


1941


an real


Caldwell


variant


and McCann


the Lamar


using pottery


ceramic


from the


complex,


Irene


Mound


site in Chatham County,


Georgia.


They


recognized


three types,


Irene


Plain,


Irene


Incised,


and Irene


Filfot


Stamped.


As the


definition


implied,


all stamped


designs were


a variant


filfot


cross


(Figure


3.1).


Incised


designs


cons


isted


of a band


of repeating


or alternating


motifs,


most


commonly the


scroll


and pendant


concentric


circles.


Irene


Plain,


Incised,


and Filfot


Stamped


shared


same method


construction


(coiling


temper was


"invariably"


grit


or gravel


(Caldwell


and McCann


1941:47).


carinated bowls,


Vessel


forms


and, occasionally


consisted


bottles


of jars

(Braley


, unrestricted


et al.


1986:


Caldwell


and McCann


As noted


1941;


in Chapter


Pearson


Guale


1984).

Indian


occupation


on the


coast


extended


no further


south


than


the Altamaha River


prior to


contact


Milanich


1986:61)


has put


St. Simon's


Island


and the


south


side of


Altamaha River


estuary outside the


area of


significant


Guale


habitation


Crook


1986:42


However,


there


some evidence


that


Irene


pottery


traded


further


south


to contemporaneous


Savannah


phase


peoples who


used


Irene


pottery principally


as a mortuary ware


(Milanich


1986).


After the


type was


defined,


there


remained


some


confusion


about


whether


Irene


pottery was


a Colonial


period


or Pre-Columbian


phenomenon


Ifrl-n, f..


I nrllf


a A fl a I a a, -- a a a a C A-La


,I nb


was


was


%


A-m


*


I I


I


I












and Russo


1988)


however,


consensus


was that


Irene


pottery


originated before


A.D.


1350


contact,


and terminating


developing out

n the Altamaha


of the Savannah


phase


A.D.


phase


about


1550


DePratter


1979;


of. Crook


1986


1990:36).


Irene


phase


usually


divided


into


an early


(A.D.


1350-1450)


and late


1450-1550)


component


by the


appearance of


incising


around A.D.


1450.


Braley


(1990)


has refined


the definition of


Irene


phase,


subsuming the


Pine


Harbor


phase


(discriminated by


Larson


1955;


1978)


into


Irene


phase,


and subdividing the


Irene


phase


into


three


phases,


Irene


I (A.D.


Pine


Harbor


1300-1350)


(A.D.


Irene


1450-1580


II (Pipemaker


The first


s Creek


incising


A.D.


appeared


1350-1450),


at the


beginning


of the Irene


II phase


Pine Harbor


phase


is theoretically


contemporaneous


with


the relocation


of the majority


of the Guale


population


south,


away


from the


Savannah


River to


Altamaha River


is discriminated


on the basis


of the


appearance


of the


type McIntosh


Incised


after


A.D.


1450.


Thus


Braley


the beginning


Irene


phase


somewhat


earlier than


other


researchers


and the


incipience of


incising

The

interior


100 years


coastal

Georgia,


earlier.


ceramic

where


sequence

incising


usually


said


seen


to begin


as derivative

around A.D. 1


from


450


(Hally

Joseph


and Rudolph

(1988:250),


1986:63;


however,


DePratter


inci


1984).


sing was


According to


present


very


Anderson


small


amounts


somewhat


earlier,


around A.D.


1350.


fact


that


an earlier


incipience


incising


Savannah River


bolstered


basin


their


hypothesis


around A.D.


1450


abandonment


notwithstanding,


of the


their


lower


data


suggested


that


incising


could


have


begun


earlier


than A.D.


1450


on the


coast.


Pipemaker'


Creek


phase


incising,


then,


should be


assoc


iated


with


Irene


early

site.


treatments


scribed below)


and indeed


was


at the


Ssvura l


nthn r


hC Icrmnnr^] *r


nnanra r4


annca


a t- 'tr i heo1


- 4"i ire


ii


* In









expense


Irene


of complicated stamping.


phase


This


and into the early Colonial


trend


period,


continued


as it


throughout


was


observed


comparison


Pre-Columbian and Colonial


period materials


Harris


Neck


Island


(Braley


et al. 1986)


treatments


also changed


through


time;


sequence


on the


coast


quite


similar to that


in the


Lamar


interior.


Plain


rims were the


most


prevalent


type


throughout


the Irene


phases.


Besides


plain,


earliest

of nodes


treatments,

(relatively


also present


large,


on late


circular to oval


Savannah wares,


applique,


were


Figure


composed

7.1);


rosettes


, smaller


circular


applique pellets


with


cane


punctations


(Figure

pellets,

the most


plain applique


and plain


popular


rim strips.


rim strips disappeared,


treatment


after


unmodified


Somewhat


segmented


rims,


later,


rim


strips


nodes,


became


there were


variety

strips.

commonly


of experimental


During the

segmented


very


treatments


late


Irene


or cane punctated


like


phase,


segmented


rims


strips


and punctuation


cane


punctated


were most


directly


on the


vessel


wall


became


common.


This


several


progression


studies.


has been


Pearson


demonstrated


1984)


compared


, with minor

"incidental


variations,


rim treatments"


from three


coastal


Irene


sites: the


Irene Mound


site


late


Savannah-very


early


Irene;


it should be mentioned here that


Caldwell


and McCann


1941


:42]


observed


that


rim treatments


at Irene were quite


different


than


at other


coastal


"Lamar-like"


sites);


the Red


Bird


Creek


site in


Bryan

Simon


County,


s Island


Georgia


(mid


(early


to late


Irene)

Irene).


and the


Pearson


Kent


Mound


(1984:22)


site on


found


that


"plain


rims


occur


in high


popular treatment


frequency

throughout


at all three


sites


the Irene phase.


and apparently was


There


an increase


use of


appliqued


rim strips,


especially of


segmented


(punctated


with


a wide,


blunt


instrument)


rim strips.


The use of


nodes


as a rim


_ -* -


a -S


#4 ar~nrn- 4 an ~na~ afl 4- lantl rnln .a


was


/1tFrjh^*a+ n n\


c nnd v<-


fn rnrrn~ FIma









directly


Irene


on the vessel


phase,


just


wall


"are


assoc


before


iated


with


to historic


very


contact"


late part

(Pearson


1984:22


However,


Pearson'


(1984:21,


Figure


data


indicated


that


segmented


rim strip


continued


to increase


through


time,


becoming


most


common


during the middle


to late


Irene when


it constituted


nearly


40% of the

second-most


rim type

common


and that


treatment


the cane

at the Ir


punctated

ene Mound


vessel


site


was


(early


the

Irene).


Pearson'


treatment


Figure

through


1984:21)


time,


with


also


fewer


indicated more


kinds


standardization


of treatments


at the


in rim


later


Kent


Mound


than


elsewhere.


Contrary


to Pearson'


findings,


Cook


(1986:17;


1980:165)


found


increase


in the


frequency


cane


punctations


occurred


during


the middle


Irene,


increase


present


appearance


McCann


with


a concomitant


in the frequency

in the Kent Mound;


with


[1941:42]


the Colonial


noted


that


decrease


of plain


Cook


period

folded


in segmentation

rims over time.


1986:19,


1980:165)

DePratter


rims were


of the


Folded


strip,


rims


correlated


1984;


relatively


were


their


Caldwell


rare


at Irene,


were


common at


comparison of


contemporaneous


coastal


the Kent Mound materials to


sites.)

those of


Cook'


1986)


Seven Mile


Bend


Site


also


(9Br7

noted


in Bryan

1986:19)


County,


that


Georgia,


rim pellets


confirmed


or nodes


this


have


progression.


been


recovered


Cook


from


contexts


dating up to the


last


quarter


of the sixteenth


century


, though


they


are


rare.


Cook'


results may


also


argue


against


significant


spatial


time


variation


period


rim


treatments


of occupation was


based


during the

on pottery


Irene


phase.


However,


attributes,


radiocarbon


dates


or some


other


independent


line


of evidence,


making the


argument


tautological.


Irene


pottery


continued


to be produced


after


contact.


Terminal


dates


for the complex


have


been


at A.D.


1550


(DePratter


1984)


A.D.


1580


(Bralev


19901.


However -


several


date f na fr th Mst ina


House








discussed


in Chapter


some


interior


sites


containing


Irene


pottery may


represent


habitations of


Guale


Indians


fleeing


colonial


control,


may


also date


to the


17th


century.


More


research


is needed


to establish


firm terminal


dates


for the Irene.


These dates


ultimately may


be shown


to depend more on


local


histories


than regional


events.


Altamaha Phase


Pottery


Altamaha


phase


pottery was


originally de


scribed by


Larson


1953).


temporal


acknowledged


and typological


at the


time


relationship to

type was defined


Irene


phase


(Larson


wares


1953,


was


1978:136).


Braley

Spanish

Island.


et al. (1986)


artifacts


They


studied Altamaha


at the


Harris


phase pottery


assoc


iated


Neck Wildlife Refuge on Harris


with


Neck


stated


archaeological


period (ca. A.D.
the prehistoric


ceramics


are ver


the design e
simplified,
(Snow 1977;
replaced by
some vessels


complex


d


1550-1680)
Irene/Pine H
y similar to


elements


and fine-line


Cook


1980).


line-block


were


paint


eating to
shows the


arbor


protohistoric


direct


culture.


the earlier


e complicated
incising bec
Curvilinear c


stamping,
ed with r


check
:ed sli


outgrowth
Altamaha


Irene


stamping


[sic]
from


. wares
became more


ame more widespread


complicated
stamping r
p. (Braley


stamping was
returned, and
et al.


1986:14)


In addition,


grooves


the paddle designs


(Chapter


were


There was


carved


also


with bolder


a shift


deeper


from the use of


lands


cane


decorated


late


vesse


Pre-Columbian


segmented

period to


strips,


an emphasis


cane


on cane


punctated


strips


punctated


in the


folded


rims


in the


Colonial


period


(Braley


et al.


1986:137).


Despite


remained


changes


same


in design


execution,


as in the Irene phase.


the principal


Brewer


(1985:24)


motif


determined


that


all identifiable


complicated


stamped


designs


at the


Wamassee


Head


site


on St. Catherines


Island


(the


aboriginal


component


of the


Spanish


mission


site)


consisted


of "four


blocks


of parallel


lines


arranged


right

design


angles


was


to one


essentially


another


around


a filfot


a central


cross


comPosed


node"


(Figure


of straight


3.2)


lines


This


rather


P






















































6cm








This


same motif


is visible on


sherds


from colonial


contexts


Harris


Neck


(Braley


et al. 1986:82,


Figure


30).


Vessel


forms


from Wamassee


Head


consisted


of small


large


globular


jars


and unrestricted bowls,


and several


new


forms:


inverted


bell-shaped bowls


and plates


and bowls with marleys


(Brewer


1985:20).


Colono-ware


forms were


apparently


quite


rare


at Harris


Neck


(Braley


1986:84,


Table


The difference


in the


frequency


of colono-ware


forms


at the two


sites may


be related


to the


fact


that


former,


associated


with


a mission


, had Spaniards


living


at the


site,


whereas


Harri


Neck


site probably did not.


San Marcos


Pottery


While


many


researchers


see nothing


but an areal


distinction between


Altamaha


San Marcos


pottery


(Thomas


1987:14;


Walker


1985


Brewer


1985:19;


DePratter


1984:48)


Braley


(1990


:100)


believed


that Altamaha


complicated


stamped


wares


were distinct


from the


later,


more


southerly


San Marcos


wares


because the


cross


simple


stamping


reportedly


characteristic


San Marcos was


rare


at Harris


Neck


(see,


for instance,


Otto


and Lewis


1974:99;


Goggin


1952:60;


Smith


1948:314).


Deagan


(personal


communication,


January


1991)


also


differentiates


Altamaha


from


San Marcos


pottery


characterized by


in St.


stamping


Augustine.

and incising


According to


on the


Deagan,


same vessel,


Altamaha


and Altamaha


rims


are not


folded


and have whole


cane


as opposed


to half


cane


punctations.


She has observed


that


pottery with


these


Altamaha-like


characteristics


come only


At present,


from


differences


earlier


contexts


in St.


between Altamaha and


Augustine

San Marcos


pottery


remain


to be demonstrated


in the literature.


Though


"San Marcos


Compli


cated


Stamped"


has not been


identified


in collections


from St.


Augustine

analysis


with


has bee


the exception

n done on col


of Otto


elections


and Lewis


from


(1974),


the locality


no formal motif

Otto and Lewis









typological


distinction between Altamaha


and San Marcos


is considered


Chapter


Smith


included


1948)


San Marcos


originally


Stamped,


identified


San Marcos


San Marcos


Plain,


as a type.


and San Marcos


Varieties


Filmed


(Otto


Types,

filmed


usually


forms


and Lewis


Caldwell


vessels


grit,

included


1974:95;


1943;


with


sometimes

small to


these


Larson


types


1958:14).


painted black lines.


crushed


large


limestone,


globular


subsumed


previous


Smith noted


Paste


and,


vesse


some


temper

rarely


King George


interior


was


defined


grog.


Is and shallow


Vessel


bowls


with


rims


straight


or slightly


flaring,


and sometimes


folded


(Smith


1948


:315)

Otto


and Lewis


(1974:106)


offered


a refinement


of the


San Marcos


type:


San Marcos


subtypes.
subdivided


The
into


type
Plain


embr


aces


three


surface examples


two varieties:


Plain


Stamped


can be


and Plain


surface


further


and Plain Burnished.


Also,
plain


there
though


is the Red-Filmed


at least


one stam


sub-type which
ped red-filmed


is generally


example


was


recovered.
probably f
served pri


We hypothesize


functioned as


.marily


cooking


that t
vessels


he stamped
while the


examples


plain


ves


sels


as tableware.


Colono-ware


forms


included


plates


with


foot


rings,


and pitchers,


mugs,


cups


with handles


(Otto


and Lewis


1974:96).


On the


basis


of his excavations


in the moat


Castillo


de San


Marcos


in St.


Augustine,


Smith


identified


a number


of different


curvilinear/rectilinear motifs


Smith


1948:320


plate


XXXI;


Figure


most


simple

studies


which


stamping


reportedly


(Smith


of San Marcos


disappeared


1948:314,


pottery with


after


315).


which


1680,


There


to be replaced by


are no other


to substantiate


cross


chronic


Smith


However


, more


recent


analysis


the aboriginal


pottery


in St. Augustine


(Piatek


1985)


indicated


a wide


variety


of nonlocal


aboriginal


wares;


be that


some of


the motifs


depicted


in Smith


(1948


:320)


were


executed by Guale


Indians.









































. J,4. fovt,,


0








the Irene phase to the

at Wamassee Head would


production


suggest


that


of only


this


San Marcos


so.


Complicated


If true,


Stamped


it must


recognized


that


"San Marcos


Simple


Stamped"


or "Cross


Simple


Stamped"


sherds


are just


incomplete,


overstamped portions


of the dot motif.


Alternatively


, if the Guale did


produce


the profusion


of motifs


depicted


Smith


(1948)


then


their


designs


were


influenced


, however


briefly


far more than


has been


appreciated


in the past.


The Filfot


Cross


as a Cosmoloaical


Symbol


Variations


Lamar-related


on four-field


types


filfot


cross motif


in the late Mississippian


character


period


in the


zed many

Southeast


(e.g.,


Snow


1990).


prevalence


and longevity


of the


filfot


cross


related motifs


derive


from


embeddedness


in southeastern


Indian


cosmology.


The
flat


Hudson


southeastern


island


from the vault


cardinal d
island was


four


1976:122)


Indians


resting


of the


n the
sky


directions.
circular


cardinal


described


conceived


surface of


by f
Most


in shape,


directions,


our


the basis


of This


cord


of that


World


the waters,
s attached


cosmology:


as a great,
suspended


at each


of them evidently thought


but that


was


crosscu


and it is reasonable


of
that
t by


assume


that


each


southeastern


society


conceived


of itself


occupying the


center


of the


circle.


It is also


reasonable


assume


that


Ceremonial


circle


Complex


cross


represents


This


motif


of the


World,


Southeastern


four


directions


and the


center.


Fundaburk and Foreman


(1957


see also Waring


and Holder


1968)


referred


to this motif


it essentially the


as the "Cosmic or


same way


as Hudson


World


does,


Symbol"


though


and interpreted


she believed


central

of its


circular

greatest


element


power


represented


The Sun itself


sun at its


source


zenith,


the period


all warmth,


light,


and life,


Indians


was


one of


conceived


principal


of the


deities;


Sun as female


some


and others


of the


southeastern


as male.


earthly


representative


and ally


of the Sun was


sacred


fire,


the principal


symbol


of purity


Many


southeastern


Indians


built


their


sacred


fire


in the


shape


a cross


, so that


the fire


burned


in the


center.


According








are still


built


according to


these concepts


in modern Green


Corn


ceremonies


in Oklahoma


(Howard


1968).


World Symbol


alone


or with


was


replicated


other mythological


in a number


symbols,


on shell


f media.

gorgets


It occurred,


pottery


banners


(Fundaburk and Foreman


1957:58),


gamestones


(Fundaburk


1957


Foreman


, plate


96),


copper


(Fundaburk and Foreman


1957


, plates


109,


110),


was


is represented


in the


sacred


fire


perhaps


plan


of the


square ground


itself.


Though


was


embedded


Southeastern


Ceremonial


Complex


iconography,


symbol


great


antiquity


in the


southeast,


appearing


at least


by the beginning


of the


Woodland


period


in the


interior


(Hudson


1984:8).


ign motifs


based


on the same theme,


with


differences


execution,


have


been


observed


in other


Lamar-related


pottery


assemblages.


Snow


(1990:85-87)


has isolated


an assemblage


in the


Pine


Barrens


which


he refers


to as


"Square Ground Lamar"


design f
that may


ound


on these ceramics


stand alone or may


is described


as a central


have one or more concentric


circles
element


about


and may


Four
seen


lines


radiate


as pointing to


from the


central


the cardinal


directions.


four


quadrants


formed by these


lines


usually
Figure 3
Georgia.


filled with


m-q)


chevrons


illustrates


It is likely that


(Snow
similar


1977).


designs


Wauchope


(1966


from north


the square ground motif


, 82,


quite


widespread.


(Anderson et


1986,


, Figures


d-e)


A.D.


1350,


the world


symbol


was the only motif


carved


on the wooden


paddles


used


to stamp pottery


among


the Guale


Indians.


representation


of this


single motif


in many media


and physical


contexts


would


seem to


justify the consideration


of the


filfot


cross


"San Marcos


1988).

remained


complicated


As discussed


stamped"


in Chapter


a principal motif


as "condensed

, the extent


in Mission


period


symbols"

to which


Guale


(David


this


Indian


et al


design


pottery might


be used


as a measure of


the effectiveness


of missionization


on the


reorientation


of the Guale


Indian


worldview.


are
















CHAPTER

METHODS


research


questions


outlined


in the previous


sections


dictated


attributes


recorded


for each


of the


five


contexts


studied


Though


samples


involved


(or three


if Altamaha


and San Marcos


considered


production,


distinct


types)


attributes


pottery types


recorded were


held


covering

constant


over


for each


years

type


so that


they


could be


directly


compared.


The evolutionary


relationship of


types


made


this


attributes


program

selected


poss


ible.


and analysis


The following


discussion


deals


with


techniques.


Attribute


Selection


Measurement


and Recordina


The operationalization


an attribute analysis


for pottery


been


best


explicated by


Redman


1978;


especially


Figures


8.4 and 8.5).


Redman


s hierarchical


approach


allows


for the examination


of both


subtypical

frameworks"


typological


that


production


explicitly


function


variation within


recognize


of ceramics


"tentative


the influence of


within


a society.


interpretive


technology o

As suggested


Redman,


initial


attribute


selection


was


based


on review of


available ethnographic,


historical,


and archaeological


evidence,


much


which


was


presented


in the previous


chapters.


Attributes


traditionally


considered both


technological


and stylistic were recorded.


However,


during


analysis


lines


between


these


two qualities


began


to blur


(see,


for instance,


Chapter


The list


of attributes


that


follows


organize


ed roughly


into


these two categories,


but it is acknowledged


that


technology


style are


inextricably


intertwined.


Unless


noted,


are








Technological Attributes


Temper.


amounts of


Major temper


grit


and grog,


categories

limestone,


included


and shell.


sand,


Sand


grit,


and minor


and grit


were


distinguished


following the Wentworth scale


(Shepard


1980:


118)


Quartz


inclusions

and "grit"


were considered "sand"

for all particles over


if the


this


particles were


ze.


When


less


in doubt,


than

grain


.25 mm

size


verified


using


a binocular microscope with a micrometer.


sherds


coded as


tempered with


limestone or


shell


tested


positive


for calcium by


reacting with a


indicates


that


5% solution


there were


hydrochloric


inclusions of


fired


acid.


clay


A "grog"

distinct


designation


from the


paste.


However,


no attempt


was made to determine whether


or not the


grog


represented

Burnishina.


ground-up pot


Interior


sherds.


burnishing was


considered a


technological


trait,


because


interior


burnishing


reduces


vessel


porosity.


Burnishing


determined by paste compaction


rather than


luster,


since


luster


be destroyed by


1987:138).


further


Exterior


drying


of the vessel


burnishing was


considered


after


burnishing


a stylistic


(Rice


trait;


this


is reflected


in the


recognition


of interior


and exterior


burnished


sherds


as a different


type


from plain


(exterior


unburnished)


sherds.


Slippincq.


Two types


of "films"


were


used


on Mission


period


sites.


These were


applied

Cordell,


probably pigmented


a thin


coat


before


Florida Museum of


slips

firing


Natural


(fine


clay


but could


History Ceramic


suspended


have


been


in water


paints


Laboratory,


(Ann


personal


communication


, 1991).


Some


sherds did


have the


substance painted


bold


designs


along


the marley.


However,


complete


coverage of


either


marley


or the entire


far the most


red and black


prevalen


filmed


vessel

t kind

sherds


interior was more


but there were


With


only


common.


rare


a handful


A red


instances


exceptions


slip was

black or


(which


have


been


eroded)


all slipped


sherds


were


burnished.


Burnishing


promotes


adhesion of


slip to


the vessel


(Rice


1987:150).


was


was


can


__


. _









Firina.


A subsample of


sherds


from all


three


sites


were


analyzed


for firing


under


color.


fluorescent


Interior,


light


with


exterior,

reference


and core colors were


to the Munsell


color


recorded


chart.


control


for variation


core


color


due to


the location


of the


sherd


, firing


colors were


read on rim sherds


only.


Because of


size of


the assemblages,


and the expected


redundancy


of the


information,


subsamples


were


used


for this


attribute.


For the Meeting


House


Fields


site


, the


sample


consisted


of all rims


of adequate


size


from the


19 88


excavations.


proveniences


For the


was


St. Catherines


randomly


selected


Island


from all


sample,


structures


a set of


and color


characteristics


of the rims in those proveniences


were


recorded.


the Amelia


unaligned


Island


series


sample,

of pits


sherds were


in each


studied


from


a systematically


structure.


Form.


however


Where


, only


possible,


lip orientation


vesse


form was


was recovered


recorded.


This


was


In many

because


cases


for the


bulk


of the


samples


of both Altamaha


and San Marcos


vessels


broke


at the


base


of the


rim fold.


This


phenomenon


was so prevalent


that


a special


code was


created


for the unidentifiable


surface


decoration


of these


rimsherds


to distinguish


them


from


sherds


for which


surface


decoration


was merely


illegible.


An analogous


situation


obtained


colono-ware


brimmed


vessels,


far the


largest


category


colono-


wares.


These


vessels


commonly


broke


at the point


of inflection


between


the marley


Vessel


body


diameter was


of the


taken


plate

where


poss


ible,


but few sherds


were


large


enough


to provide


crossmending might


reliable


diameters


yield enough


data


A comprehensive


to analyze


vessel


program of

diameters.


However,

for this


Stylistic


because of


time


space


limitations


, this


was


not undertaken


study.


Attributes









1963).


few studies


on the diachronic


changes


Irene


and Altamaha


wares


have


emphasized


such


variables.


Stylistic


attributes


for the


study

basis


of the

of those


evolution of

e studies, a


Irene to


s well


San Marcos wares


as on ethnographic


were chosen


on the


archaeological


evidence of

The fo

decoration,


was


also


the uses


allowing


of style presented


stylistic


style,


recorded


in the


attributes were


and depth


for a subsample of


previous


selected:


of the rim fold.


sherds.


Each


chapter.

surface


groove width

is discussed


Land


of these


below.


Surface


decoration.


The bulk of


all the collections


studied


consisted of


heavily


overstamped


sherds.


was,


therefore


, impos


sible


to code


at the


level


of design motif


for most


sherds.


What


was


coded


for each


sherd


was


highest


level


of the motif


visible.


instance,


for the world


symbol motif


simple


stamping was


basic


element


(sensu


Shepard


1980)


involved.


When


only


simple


stamping


(parallel


lines)


was


visible,


one code number


(396)


was


used.


perpendicular

directions),

incorporated


applied.

number,


lines


were visible


a different


into


Sherds


the

with


as were different


code was


parallel


in other words,


used.


Sometimes


lines;


the central


exec


two of


checks


a different


dot were given


utions


of the "sun"


a different


was


cardinal


were


number was


code


usually


circular


total


occas


motifs


ionally


were visible


square or

, they were


rectangular).


recorded


with


Where


partial


reference


to a series


of drawings


associated


with


code


numbers.


Overstamping was


recorded


only


for the various


combinations


of simple


stamping.


There


a great


deal


of information


then


, on motifs


in this


study.


In general,


however,


code numbers


for all designs were


collapsed


into


a set of "master


codes"


(rectilinear,


curvilinear,


dot,


check,


oblit


erated


stamped,


plain,


burnished


plain,


incised,


and incised


stamped).


nt- a


J l-


were


combined


with


either


rectilinear


or curvilinear


1









Apalachee


Terms


area,


such as


east


Lamar


coast


Bold


incising


Incised,


has not


Irene


been


Incised,


systematically


etc.,


are


studied.


rather


loosely


applied


of execution


and sometimes


are conflated.


geographical

In addition,


location


for the


and characteristics


Amelia


Island material


use


which


of these


type names


is probably not


true,


implies

at least


that


the material


for late


was


Spanish mission


extra-local,


sites


properly type these


sherds


would require


another


study


scope of


this


one


elements


Data


are available without


or motifs were


recorded with


complete


reference to


reanalysis.


a series


Again


of drawings.


presence


of stamping


below


incising was


noted,


and,


for sherds


analyzed


after


the course of


this


research


was understood,


land


groove widths


were measured.


style.


"style"


was conceived


as the


combination


of two


attributes

whether a


called


rim treatment


vessel had a plain


rim,


and rim elaboration.


a punctuation


directly


former


on the v


defined


esse


body

rim.


, an applique


latter


rim strip,


consisted


an applique node or


of the more decorative


pellet,


elements


or a folded


, the


"elaborations"


basic


rim treatments


defined


first


category.

punctuation


Rim elaborations


styluses


used


included


to impress


incising

applique


and the variety


strips,


vess


el bodies


(these


punctuated


plain


rimmed


vesse


are referred


as "decorated"


sels


throughout


this


report)


or folded


rims.


some


instances


was


diffi


cult


to determine whether


or not


rim was


folded.


This


was


particularly true


for the Meeting


House


Fields


site pottery


assemblage.


Some


rims


initially


identified


as folded were


later


interpreted


juncture


to be applique


smoothed


over.


strips


In every


applied


case


flush


a folded,


with


lip and


punctated


rim at


Meeting

as well


House


as areas


Fields,


that


closer


were


inspection revealed


not well


those


smoothing marks,


smoothed.


a--n +-ho raont-or r


ves


nlrmr T m i


UQT-O moa an rar


Timmt ^^"m Haa


nr r T rif, T- 1 r


II









Land


and groove width.


Land


and groove widths


were


recorded


subsample of

sherds with


sherds


central


dots


from each


SThe main


site.


The sample


purpose


consisted


for selecting these


of all


sherds


was

with


to reduce


some


criterio


sample

n that


size

could


of eligible

be easily


sherds

applied


to a manageable


during


level


the main


analysis.


In addition


characteristics


of the


, it helped


same


to avoid repeated measurements


paddle because many


of the


of these were


recognize

though,


able


by unique


executions


central


dot.


Some


repetition,


is doubtless present.


Analysis


Techniques


coding


system used


for thi


study was


developed by


archaeologists with


Florida Bureau


of Archaeological


Research


Florida


State


University


for use


in mi


ssion


excavations


throughout


Florida.


However,


that


system was


not designed


for a rigorous


ceramic


analysis


Nevertheless


and major


changes were made


s, terminology


to adapt


and definitions


that


system to


already


this


existed


study


in that


code


system were


used.


For instance,


vessel


form descriptions


in this


study


are as defined


codebook were


coded


therein;


with


all attributes


same


numbers


(and


defined


definitions)


pre-existing

as described


in Shapiro


(1987).


Data


were presented


in two


formats


, by


sherd


count


and weight


most


attributes)


and by minimum number


vesse


Is (MNV).


Some


attributes


were


considered


appropriate


for only


one of


these


formats


so presented.


Most


attributes


were missing


or unidentifiable on


some


sherds.


Those sherds


or vessels were deleted


for specific


tests


table


results.


Because of


sherd


or MNV


totals will


not match


every


table.


Count


totals


are given


at the beginning


of each


analysis


section


where tables


do not match


those values


, there were


missi


data.


are









fold


depth were


close


(these


tend to be variable


even


on single


sherds;


deviations


less


than


cm were


accepted).


Other measurements


included


size of


punctations,


width


of brim,


land


and groove widths,


diameter


of dot,


vessel


diameter.


For the Meeting


House


Fields


site


sample,


was


assumed that


there was


no crossmending


between


house


midden


s; pottery


from each midden was


treated


as a separate


assemblage.


A similar


assumption


was made


for structures


at the missions.


use of


the MNV


approach


is intended


remove


bias


present


the differential


the MNV


plain


approach


some


recovery

general,


stamped


vessels


vessels.


depress

because


The technique


frequency


they


used


here,


common


lack attributes


forms


that


record


individual


variation.


This can be


seen


in the


data


presented


following


chapters,


particularly


in the differences


in percentage


totals


between


sherd and MNV


some


attributes


like


incising


sand


tempering.
















CHAPTER 5


THE MEETING HOUSE


FIELDS


SITE


In this


chapter,


the Meeting


House


Fields


site


is described


previous


research


is detailed,


and the


1988


field


season


designed


ensure


adequacy


of the


site


for this


research


is discussed.


Radiocarbon data


intrasite


and ceramic


contemporaneity.


analyses

Finally,


are applied


to the


technological


question


stylistic


attributes


late


Pre-Columbian


to Colonial


period


site


presented

chapters.


as baseline


data


for the study


of pottery


change


in subsequent


S ite


Background


The Meeting


House


Field


site


one of 54 Irene


phase


(A.D


1325-1550;

Georgia.


DePratter


1984)


site occupies


sites


known


a peninsula


on St.


Catherine


on the estuarine


s Island,


(west)


side of


island


(Figure


5.1)


The westernmost


portion of


site


undisturbed


covered


a climax


forest


of magnolia


with


little


understory.


This


undisturbed


area


is a maximum of


50 m wide


bordered


on the east


side


a field


ditch.


West


of the


ditch


an old


field and


this


portion


of the site


has been


extends


ively plowed


Currently

pristine


however,


state


this


and is in


portion


successional


the site


being


returned


a more


pine.


Meeting


respects.


House


Both


Fields


on barrier


a typical


islands


Irene phase


and on


site


the mainland


in several


bulk of


Irene


marsh


phase

edge


sites


are


(Pearson


situated adjacent


1979:70).


to or within


The presence of


100 m of


salt


archaeologically


are

































Figure


5.1.


Sites


Analyzed


or Mentioned


in the


Text.


Irene


Seven Mile
Red Bird C


Marys


Bend


reek


Mound


Meeting
Johns M


House


Fields


ound


Santa
Harris


Catalina,


Georgia


Neck Wildlife


Refuge


Pine Harbor


Bourbon


Field


Couper
Taylor


Field/Indian
Mound


Field


Kent Mound


Santa


Catalina,


Florida





















a


miles
I!


I









structure,


also


present


at Meeting


House


Fields,


consists


numerous


discrete midden


deposits,


presumably


reflecting the


refuse


adjacent


dwellings


scattered


(apparently)


randomly


over the


site.


Joseph

a unit


Caldwell


was the first


in the northern


portion


to excavate


of what


at the


site


has subsequently


In 1969,


been


labeled


Midden E.


Though


the materials


from


his expedition


were


analyzed by


this


because


investigator


little was


, they were not


recorded


included


of his excavation


in the analysis.


techniques


This


was


and because


even


without


Caldwell


's materials


,the


sample


of pottery


from


Midden E


was


Meeting


already much


House


larger


Fields was


than


tested


that


in 1975


from the other middens.


by the American Museum of


Natural


History


visible middens


in 1975.


During that


in the undisturbed


season,


western


a field map


portion


of the


locating the

site was made


using


a compass


(Center


point


locations of


those middens


plan maps


of the middens


Excavation


excavated


in 1988


units were placed


are represented


of the


14 middens


in Figure


located,


samples


were


run on materials


from Midden E.


The results


of the C14


tests


and analysis


of the ceramics


recovered


during the


1975


field


season


(by the


author)


indicated


that


Meeting


House


Fields


might


useful


a research


project


designed


to study pottery


change during


Mission


period.


As discus


sed in Chapter


the ceramic


assemblage


from


a late


Irene


phase

change


site would

during the


study with


trans


provide


the necessary


subsequent


itional


Mission


attributes,


baseline


period.

the site


from which


To avoid

needed to


to study


confounding the

be a single


component


site.


In addition


, the site should not


a seas


onal


special


forms


of the


purpose


site


or decorative


site on


that might

attributes


same


island


not contain


(e.g.


Plog


as the next


a full


1980).

context


range of

Finally,


considered,


pottery


location


Mission


Santa


rCatal ina.


fnr thhc uV7 a h ii 1 i fttv


in n a-l;v n Bt <


nha1 rpan


+n t rrnn+n1











































Figure


5.2.


Meeting House


Fields


Site Map.




























MEETING
HOUSE
FIELDS


MIDOEN
BOUNCARY


U EXCAVATED


N
20m









A three-week


field


season


(November-December


1988)


was


planned


gather


additional


data


about


site,


information


necessary to


answer


explicit


questions


crucial


to the aforementioned


research


program.


Specifically,


settlement


we needed


organization


basic


information


to better


assess


about


site


site


size


function.


internal


A site


survey


was


proposed,


shell middens


employing

in the old


extensive


field.


subsurface probing


During the


three weeks,


for plowed


over


a 500 (


100 m


area


was


mapped


(Figure


Another


250 (EW)


X 70 m


area


covered


less


intensively.


Shell


middens were encountered


to the


eastern


limit


of the testing


(350E


line)


Physiographic


features


suggested


that


site could


extend


twice that


far,


to the


10 m topographic


contour


line.


Despite


the fact


that


we did not map the whole


site,


apparent


that


was


quite


large


and extended


several


hundred meters


east


of the


marsh.


Even


if all the middens were


not contemporaneous,


these data


argued


against


a special


purpose


function


for the


site.


Molluscan


samples


were taken


to address


seasonality


issue.


Samples


of clam


(Mercenaria mercenaria)


and a parasitic


oyster


drill


(Boonea

oyster


impressa)


were


analyzed


and clam exploitation


to ascertain


at the site,


the principal


and,


extension,


seasons


some of


seasons


every midden

from Middens


site occupation.


excavated

H, M, 12,


Zooarchaeological


in either

and 21.


1975 o

Results


r 1988.

of this


samples

Sample

facet


were


were


of the


taken


from


analyzed

study


(Saunders


and Russo


1988;


Russo


1991


indicated


that,


though


"neat,


" the


site type most


consistent


with


the data


permanently

from other


occupies

samples


town.


indicated


Midden M was

exploitation


an exception.

of molluscs


Though

throughout


evidence

t the


year,


only


fall,


winter,


and spring


exploitation


was


identified


Midden M.


Whether


or not these


data


reflect


a change


in seasonal


subsistence


patterns


that


could be


correlated


with


late


radiocarbon


dates


from that


midden


Isee


below


must


await


L. 1


analysis


of the


was


was


was


was


,









contemporaneous with


boundaries of


one


another.


the occupation,


C14 dates


while ceramic


would


provide


seriation


provided


broad


a finer


relative


chronology.


results


of this


portion


of the


study make


remainder


of this


chapter.


Radiocarbon Data


During the


1975


excavations


a vertical


series


of radiocarbon dates


taken


from the


arbitrary


cm levels


in one of


larger


of the


middens


Midden E.


Though


none of


the samples


from Meeting


House


Fields


were


sotopically


corrected,


a generalized


correction


for stable


isotope


C12/C13


fractionation


suggested by Michael


for the


Russo,


southeastern Atlantic


Florida Museum of


Natural


coast


Hist


(420


ory,


years,

1991)


a local


reservoir


correction


Stuiver


et al.


1986)


were


added


to the dates


run


on shell.


Recalibration


of both


carbon


and shell


dates


obtained


using the CALIB program


(Stuiver


and Reimer


1986).


Results


for Midden E


5.4 (1988


are presented


radiocarbon


in Figure


samples)


present


5.3.


Both Figure


the calibrated


date


and Figure

range within


sigma


(68%


and 95% probability that


actual


date


fall


within


shown


range,


with


respectively


an asterisk.


The uncorrected/uncalibrated


Laboratory numbers,


date


source materials,


proveniences,


and uncorrected and


corrected/


calibrated


date


ranges


shown


in Table


5.1.


As can be


seen


in Figures


5.3 and 5.4


correction


and calibration


created


a slightly


earlier


date


range


than


uncorrected/uncalibrated


date.


should


be noted


that


the correction


for the


reservoir


effect


is at best


a guess


and the CALIB


program may not


be appropriate


for most


archaeological


materials,


including


charcoal


that


was


not part


of the


outer


rings


a tree


(personal


communication,


M. Tamers,


Beta Analytic,


Inc, 1991).


corrected/calibrated


dates


no more


accurate


than


uncorrected/uncalibrated


range.


was


was


one


are






























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in deposition


on this midden)


and it


was


reoccupied,


because of


A.D.


1190


date


from Level


that


samples


from the


upper


levels


the midden


were contaminated


in some way.


Aspects


of the


ceramic


assemblage

should be


indicated


interpreted


that


radiocarbon dates


towards


the more


recent


from the


end of the


lower


range


levels


Surface


decoration


on the pottery


of Midden E was


predominantly plain


(33.7%)


and complicated


stamped


(57.7%,


total


of rectilinear,


curvilinear,


and surface


roughened


surface


treatments).


Incising,


though


a minority


treatment,


midden


was consistently present


assemblages


level


(Table


are presented


5.2; complete

in Appendix A)


inventories of


Most


of the


incising was


composed


characterized


of relatively


as fine


few lines.


1mm),

fact


designs were


that


ram


simple


treatments


throughout


Midden


E consisted


primarily


of plain


applique


strips with


segmentat ions


or cane punctations,


and cane deco


rated


vessels


(Appendix


indicate


that


Midden E was


deposited


in the Pine


Harbor phase.


Comparative


ceramic


studies


with


accompanying


radiocarbon


data


were


scarce.


Irene


phase


radiocarbon


dates


existed


from only two other


sites


(the

from


Kings


an Irene


date


cultural


[DePratter


1984


occupation).


:51, Figure


Pearson


probably


1984)


reported


does


one


come


date


from the


Bird


Creek


site in Bryan


County,


Georgia


. The


single


sample,


site


done on


, dated


charred


to A.D.


wood


from a burned


1145


wattle


Pearson


and daub


(1984:8


cons


structure


idered


date


"too


early"


A calibrated date with


sigmas


yielded


a range


A.D.


1039-1280;


even


with


sigmas


the date


fell


short


beginning

assemblage


the early


from


Irene


the Red Bird


phase

Creek


as presently


defined.


site indicated an


early


ceramic


or middle


Irene


from


phase

Braley


features


site;


(1990;


at the


incising was


Braley


Harri


present


et al. 1986)


Neck National


at .5% of the


published


two


Wildlife


sample.


Irene


Refuge


phase

9MCI41


dates


site,


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1297-1453


and 1280-1450,


respectively.


calibrated


terminal


dates


for the


Pre-Columbian


component,


then


, were


coeval


with


the beginning of


Pine


chronologies


Harbor phase


indicate that


Nevertheless,


Braley was


previously


probably


established


right


relative


in putting


pottery


assemblage


near the


end of the


Pre-Columbian


period


A direct


comparison of


surface


treatments


from the


Harris


Neck


site and Meeting


House


Fields


presented below,


in Table


5.5.


comparison


of Table


5.2 with


Table


5.5 indicates


that


Midden E was


probably


contemporaneous


with


the Pre-Columbian


component


at Harris


Neck.


A late


Pre-Columbian


date


for Midden E was


also


indicated


results


of subsequent


Additional


radio


radiocarbon


carbon


samples


dating

taken


on other middens


from other middens


from


site.


during the


latest


field


season


excavated middens were


the C14


from both


intended


dates and the material


previously


to address

assemblage


excavated


contexts


inconsistencies


from Midden E.


Samples


recently

between


were


chosen


on the


basis


of the


results


of the ceramic


analysis.


Those


results


indicated


that Middens


12 and 21 might


be earlier than


the other


middens;


samples


were


processed


from both


these middens.


In addition,


in order to


compare the


results


from different materials


a set of


samples


consisting


of one each


oyster,


clam,


and charcoal


were


processed


from


level


of Midden


21 and Midden M.


Other


samples


were


proce


ssed


from the


top and


bottom of


Midden H,


to determine


dates


of initial


deposition


was


and abandonment


also processed


of thi


from Midden N,


deepest midden


which


appeared


excavated.


earlier


than


A sample

all the


other middens


at the


site.


results


of the process


sing


are presented


in Figure


5.4 and


Table


(Midden N


appears


only


in Tabl


5.1).


Midden N


was


indeed


earlier


than


the other middens


tested,


probably


dating to


Wilmington


phase


(DePratter


1979:111).


All other


dates


from


this


series


fell


- ~ -1 --L .L., I, -f r I-- '


- L?1 *-





J


1


S1


_


!E L


*









Somewhat


surprising was


the number


of dates


that


extended


into


17th


century;


the dates


from Midden M could be


considered Altamaha


phase


sigmas


extended the deposition of


H and 21


into


that


period


(however,


the oyster


date on Midden


21 is


inconsistent


with


the other


from the


same provenience).


However,


all pottery


recovered


from the


site displayed

characteristic


light


stamping


and thin


of Irene phase designs.


lands


No bolder


grooves


Altamaha-like


stamping


observed.


There was


no red filming


and no


colono-ware


forms


European


folded


artifacts


(and


one


were


these


recovered.


is only


Though


"possibly


two rims


folded"


were


classified


, they were


plain and


smoothed


at the


base.


They


bore


little resemblance to


Altamaha


folded,


punctated rims.


Pottery Analysis


The Meeting


House


Fields


pottery


assemblage


included


all sherds


from midden


contexts


recovered during


the 1975


1988


excavations.


Materials


were


screened


through


mesh,


but pottery


less


than


square was


only


counted


and weighed.


Those small


sherds


were


included


in this


analysis.


Total


count


for Irene


phase


sherds


used


this


study was

Analysis


(Saunders


2453.


the pottery was


and Russo


1988).


originally


first


done


two levels


at three


tested


levels


hypothesis


that


the Meeting


House


Fields


site was


a single


component,


late


Irene


phase

plain

level


site.


, burnished


In the first


plain,


to determine whether


level,


incised,


or not


intramidden


and stamped

there was


analysis,


incidence of


pottery were examined


enough


time


depth


in midden


deposition

attributes


to observe


through


changes


time.


in the


Levels of


frequency


of the


middens which


aforementioned


contained


pottery


attributes


determined to


be earlier than


late


Irene phase


would not


be included


in the subsequent


descriptions


pottery


style


in the


late


two


was


1/4"









possible with radiocarbon dates.


using


both


surface decoration and


Intermidden


rim style.


assemblages

If different


were examined


areas


of the


site were


occupied


at different


times,


intermidden assemblages


should


vary


regularly


along


a number


of different


attributes


the middens


could be


clustered


to produce


a chronology


of spatial


use


for the


site.


Middens


earlier than


late


Irene


phase would


be excluded


from


further


analysis.


initial


results


from that


earlier


analysis


suggested


that


middens


were


contemporaneous


(Saunders


and Russo


1988);


values


attributes


paper,

Irene


for the


however,


into


site


as a whole were discu


and an appreciation


Pipemaker'


of Braley'


ssed.


Reanalysis


division


Creek and Pine Harbor phases,


of the


for this

late


has led to the


conclusion


that


portions


of the site were


not occupied


contemporaneously.


Intramidden Analvs


Intramidden


analy


yielded mostly negative


results


(Appendix A,


that


temporally


sensitive


attributes


did not


covary


through


time


within most middens.


convincing


evidence of


Several


regular


middens


change


, B, D, J,)

attributes


showed


of surface


treatment.

deposition


This was


(the


attributed


possibility that


to the lack

several le


time


vels of


depth

shell


in midden

in Middens


were


plowed away must


be considered


, but the middens


seemed


quite


discrete)


or inadequate


sample


sizes.


relative


frequency


stamping to plain


wares


appear


decrease


in Midden 21,


though


because


so few sherds


were


recovered


from


level


was impossible to determine whether


or not this


was


a trend.


event,


the percentages


indicated


a deposition within


same


phase.


In Midden E,


high


incidence of


incised


wares


in levels


represented


sherds of


the same vessel,


so a dramatic


in the









some


time


depth


in occupation may


be indicated by


radiocarbon


dates.


As in Midden E,


however,


other


surface decorations


did not


show


regular


change;


frequencies


of stamped


and plain wares


between,


instance,

ambiguous


level

data


level


were


interpreted


ere almost

to mean t


identical.


hat middens


These

could


somewhat

be treated


wholes


for the


subsequent


analysis


Intermidden Analysis


Cluster


analysis


based


on both


surface treatment


and rim


treatment


of the midden assemblages


produced


a bipartite division


the middens


on the


site (Figures


5.5-5.8).


The SAS Cluster


Procedure,


average


linkage,

surface


was


performed


treatment


on the percentage total


or rim treatment


group.


(count)


sherds


The procedure was


run


in each

for


standardized


and unstandardized


data.


For surface


treatment


(Figure


5.5,


Middens


, 21,


and J


formed


formed


one major

the other


cluster


(Cluster


and B


clusters were more monolithic


, and M

in the


(Cluster


unstandardized


data,


but the results


were


similar


in both.


In Cluster


, plain


sherds


constituted


20% or lower


of the total


and stamped


sherds


comprised


72% of the


total


(Table


5.3).


In Cluster


, plain


sherds


ranged


between


30 and 40% of the total


and stamped


sherds


were


less than


In addition,


the first


group,


only Midden J


had inci


sing


n=l)


Overall,


Cluster


had more


burnished


plain


wares


, though


some


Cluster


individual midden


totals were


higher.


style


results


from


clusters


surface


(Figure


treatment


5.7-5.8)

analysis


essentially mirrored


(Middens


B, D,


and J


were


not included because


the unstandardized


they


average


had only

linkage,


3, 5,


and 6


Middens


rims,


12 and


respectively).


21 formed


one


cluster


and Middens


, and M the other.


Middens


12 and


were


the only


middens


with


pellets


or nodes,


segmented applique


strips


with


cane














Average Linkage Cluster


Analysis


MIDDEN


D
i

t
a 0


XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
XXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx
. xxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx
. XXXXXXX
* .


Figure


5.5.


Clust


(not


er Analysis,
standardized


Average


Linkage


Surface
).Cluste







Cluster


Decoration








Analysis


MIDDEN


ixxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
+xxxxxxxxxxxxx XXXXxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
XXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXX XXXXXXX
. xxxxxxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxx
. xxxxxxx xxxxxxx































A ---------- --------n- 5

* m UI T Ir r I
5 5 A a I 5
, S 5 a -- -+" -- 5
I I~ I *I 4 I





SI W Mh |
* Iw I 5 |N
. j ,a '
I e4 4 ---- 4 .. .


* a z a a. .*.
8 g ---- -. .4 -

SI I I
I 5( *r .N.





SI I I I I S I
Sa I J in *
0 I l 3:. f S S0S0 .


Ia
lu
10

* -
I
I
I
I
S
;
c


__+ ....... .. I


-i --- + ----- -4.- -- '
E *M I I
I, fi a ,r r


I Ia t a
- -- + ---- + -- --

a- ^ a. a ^ -- --


I -- ---- +--+ -- S
O0 a M n 'NO






I5 I S 5
Z. 0'in01 i



a-S' aU .C


ya -+- +-+ +St --4. 5
* St I Iin I *
I a i Li I 1 t **
S I a l I rIN INs
* s a s --.. -----+. -- +--s-

- I 0 s 40 s
* = a 2 f 0 .1
* I M I a 0 s *
SI -- + -- m --- -- -- a




.*. a*,, .
* I I I iA s


* I 0 0
I 4 C) Sr I n-
S 5 I ,5 a.' N o







**i3 i s 0
aS I *
aa 4. 5 -- + ----- + + -
U 1 & 0 n 8 1





z in
^llC-1- -- -- + 4 --
Ss a I


e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t s- -+ -- -+ -
1 ~~~& I N N











Average


Linkage Cluster


Analysis


MIDDEN


D
1i

t
a 0


Figure


5.7.


Ixxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
+XXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXX
!XXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXX
IXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXX
I
I* *
I .


Clus


(not








Average


ter Analysis, R
standardized).








Linkage Cluster


im Style









Analysis


MIDDEN


xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
+. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
I. xxxxxxxxxxxxx
i XXXXXXX


Figure


5.8.


Cluster Analysis,
I standardize ed.


Rim Style

















* a a a a a I 0 !mo
a0I I a a a Ia a 0a

* a a a a I -- .+ -I---- -- --
I UJ a p a -4.a. *- -

SIa i I *I I


I J I I I 0



5 l '4SE *
B iz
a 1-- + ----- -- a-i a a-a
a a a I II I + +++ -- I



,-- I l 1 -- -- -- 4 -- I -
I m S I I I CI ImI
* m J m I Iaa I a C a g 0 I
0 I I I I 1 I

SII 0
a, a a, 0.i a ,

I I I I 0 I Ia

Sa a a -- --+ ---- --
a l a U I l I a
i i+ a *II* I ,1 I
A A a a sa -I I a m S

*i a am ag
1 I 5 I 5 5 I I I l I

S a -- -- ----- --4 -- 0


a a,* W m ',0 ,0
I I I U I I I I I
SI I a a m a

a Zi 3m D a __ ,
I 5 I I aI M a




I I I I --N-- I
a I I I I 5 m S .


a i a M si
a a a a aa--+ -----4 -- -- aM

, 1 0. i, S. ,
a I I s I C m I* I




I I0 0 ---



I a a i-- a0a._ _a 'a
I I I 1 'U aN Ci
I I i I I alt a





aI I I I iiI I

a 1 a a a U) m aM





a t --+ I ---_+ -+ I
I Q I I I a 00 a
SI I I a a aI I *I I
aZs a a & 1si a-SI.-





a I a a I --+ ----- --+-- I





I I I I______ I l I
I I ,I D a a a s










S, --. --_ -- a
l I a I a Ca N l m











I 1 II I I I I$* I

I I I I I .. I I I

I I 3 |I I / IN

S I a I a Ie
II I I I I *i*








I I I I I 8 0 II ii 1
a a a 1 I I S a IN
a a s a a --+ -----+ --+ --


















I I I I I m I I I I
, ,, ,






I U I Z *
a a I ia I a a a












S a a --+a --+ ---- + --+ --
a a z aoa a d)ma M0t
I I I a a I I aa a.-
















I I I I I I S I I I
m a a a a ----- -- --

SI I I I t0 IM I0
a a a a a 5 a *
a a a a 0 a --4. -----4. --4 -- a



a a z a a a *


I I a .4 a a I ItI


* I *0 0 0
I o I- *0 0

* I I- I
S-- --- ----- ---. --
* s, i me i -
S13 n o )

1I I I I 0 r

I I 0 00 0a
m-, 0 0 0
a l aT- arm
a a I I a I
a m --+ ----- + -- .--.




S I I I I 'a 3 O
0 0 I I I I a0
0 0 1 1 8


* S .... ---- ---
I I 8 I I I *0 I
I I I i &I i RI rlP





I I U I 1l I S I
* a --- ..... -----+ --+ ---





0 I I- 1 I I i 0 0
S I A I ~ 1 I I I 4




I8 I I i 0 I I I I





* SOS .C.M-D i-
*II I t U S l a ) S 5 I
* mc 4... a s
I I I I Ir O I I I i
* a .. a a. +---+ ----- +---+---,
* Ia U e, 'I-a 0'0#
I I 1I IU I I = = =
* a I I0 I a I



S a m a a f- --- + ----- + --- +---
I I I I I 5(j0t I I I


S- 4 +o -- -- 4 ---+ -- -- + -- + ---



* ,,* C,
2 I 0 I I 8 h I I
I I i I I I-a *0



* S S _i + -----+ --+ --
SI 0I a I I I 9
* I I -.*- -I ... ..s ..




SS I 0~- I ) Ia I
V a I a I I I I


Sa e a O --+ ---+ -- +-- 4 --+--
* a I I S I a I a a




SI I g l I I N I '
I a a a --- -+ --+ -
* S 1S I D I



SI -I S 5* ( C I I

I S --+ --+ --4 ----+ --+ -- a
I I CI 1 I- *
SI C I g Na





* a a az aI 0a I a
S s a a 4 s a -- --------1 -- -- a
* I-i a I i .1 C







-i a .a*i
SU a a -- -- ----+ -- -- a




* aa a. *4- MC
a. U0 a 0 ZM 0 tI





IZS L I 0 C 0
* a I 1 I ( a a a




a a W a --4 4 ----- + -4 I


* --* a s --+4 ----- -- --
a1 m D I .


S a a a -- -- -----+ -- --
* a i ,g m Naa- S.


a m s m S i i 4. ti




* I I m m af l aI I

a i a t --+--+--+ -- ---a

*j a i I- t 4mB CI
us a a *
* s a iin Wet oA a
S, a i. t I am. f a


* a --+ --4+ ----- + +- a
a a m SI f.
I a S 5 9* SM
a a a a 1(0 1 a I I









chained,

a Ward's


indicating no


method


coherent


clustering


clu


routine


sters in the data.

produced results s


In addition,


while


similar to


average

results


linkage

for the


for the


rims


surface


treatment


data,


associated Midden M with


the Ward's method


Cluster


This


indicated


that


there was


a greater difference between


clusters developed


from


surface treatment


data


than


rim treatment


data.


These results


seemed


to represent


time


differences,


with Middens


12, 21,


and J


(Cluster


deposited


earlier than


other middens.


Surface treatments


for Clusters


and 2


were


compared


to similar


data


from other


Irene


sites


with


radiocarbon


dates


(Table


5.5)


to see how the


data might


seriate.


Table


5.5.


Comparative


Surface


Treatments


MHF1


MHF2


HNPH


19.4%


18.1%
78.5%


71.4%


35.4%


52.4%


53.8%


15.1


65.1%
15.0%


RBC=


Bird


Creek


(Pearson


1984)


Pearson have been refigured
sherds.


Note


without


: Percentage
earlier and


s given by
unidentified


MHF1=
MHF2=
HNPH=


HNH=


Meeting
Meeting


Harri
Table
Harris


House
House


Neck


Neck,


Fields,
Fields,


Cluster
Cluster


"Prehistoric"


"Protohistoric"


Component


Component


(Braley

(Braley


et al.


1986


:53,


1986:


Table


XU1 and non-Irene phase materials


excluded)


For Meeting House


Fields Cluster


i, percentages


of all surface


treatments except

Neck Pre-Columbian


inci


sing


period


suggested


that


component


was


A.D.


later than


1415


65).


Harris


Similarly,


Cluster


component


appeared


(A.D.


even


1650


later than


except


the Harris


for the values


Neck Colonial


on incis


period


ing,


were,


nevertheless


, significantly


higher than


values


on thi


attribute


in the


Pre-Columbian


component


at Harris


Neck.


(The


Bird


Creek


site


an extremely


high


proportion


of burnished


plain


wares








mound at


that


site were excluded


from the


analysis,


burnished plain


still more


assemblage


reason


prevalent

from Red


for the


than


plain


Bird Creek


high


pottery


(13.5%


is consistent


percentage


to 2.8%).


with


burnished


an early


plain at


Irene


that


site;


site is


unknown.)


Other


data


from Middens


E and H


also


suggested


a late deposition


date.


Evidence


for the


inclusion


of basal levels


of Midden


in the


Pine


Harbor phase was


given above;


radiocarbon


dates


from


level


fine


line


incising


on some of


incised sherds


from


level


in Midden


M indicated

addition, 1


with


a Pine


evel


Southeastern


Harbor

and 4


phase or 1

of Midden M


Ceremonial


Complex


after


deposition


contained


designs


piece


(Figure


for that

s of pipe


5.9)


midden.

s incised


which


are


indicative


(Cook and


material


a very


Pearson


until


late


1989:155,


upper


Irene


163;


levels


phase


Larson


, but the


or post-contact


1958).

lower


period


Midden H


levels


deposit


no incised


had relative


frequencies


of plain


to stamped


wares


similar


to those


from Midden M.


Together with


radiocarbon dates


and rim


style


information,


these


data


could be


interpreted


to support


a middle


Irene


(Pipemaker's a


Creek


except


for the virtual


absence of


incising)


deposition


for Cluster


middens.


A terminal


Pine Harbor


phase


depo


sition


was


indi


cated


for the


Cluster


Vessel


middens.


Form Analysis


Only


a few distinct


forms


were


recovered


from Meeting


House


Fields.


These


included


excurvate


restricted,


excurvate


unrestricted,


and more


often,


excurvate unidentified


There were


a few instances


rims


presumably


a widely


flaring,


belonging to deep


restricted,


long


jars.

neck


jar;

(the


simple,

table s


slightly


showing


incurved,


the distribution


and straight-sided bowls


of all recognized


were


vessel


numerous


forms


all middens


is given


in Appendix


The straight-sided bowls


may be


was







































Figure


5.9.


Pipes


Top: O
Middle:
Lower:


from Meeting


ibverse


House


Fields


and Reverse of


Possible


Plain


pipe,


portion


pip'


of pipe,


(drawing by
e, Midden M;


Radai


Cintron).


Midden M;


Midden










75






































rul

















111























cma









rim assemblage


at Meeting House


Fields.


On the other


hand,


small


rim s

would


herds


from carinated bowls


have been


coded


broken


as straight-sided


above the

, thus in


r


point


floating


of inflection

that total.


However,


the presence of


one beaker


handle


in Midden M


indicated


that


least


some of


these


straight-sided rims


came


from beakers


or "bean


pots


(e.g.,


Harn


1980:108),


a late Missis


sippian


ves


sel form not


usually


described


for coastal


sites.


For comparison between


clusters,


seven


recognized


vesse


form


categories were


collapsed


into


four


categories


simple


bowls,


straight-


rimmed


vessels,


jars,


and long necked


jars.


comparison


of the


relative


frequency


of these


forms


cluster


is presented


in Table


5.6.


There


appeared


to be no


significant


difference between


the clusters


except


that


long necked


jars


occurred


only


in Cluster


Preservation


factors may

required fo


be responsible


for this


r the determination


of this


difference.


form and


Large

larger


sherds

sherds


were

were


recovered


from the


undisturbed


portion


of the


site.


There was


a weak association between


vesse


form and


surface


treatment


(Table


, 5.8;


sample


sizes


were


small


to analyze


vessel


form by

occurred


stamped.


surface treatment


on all forms,


Similarly,


cluster).


though


while


Stamped


bowls were more


all forms except


plain


likely to


bottles were


surfaces


be plain

incised


than


larger


percentage of bowls


were


incised


than any


other


form.


Vessel


form was


also


associated with rim type


(Table


5.9,


unusual


rims


and rare vessel


forms were deleted


from the


chi-square test


ensure


large


adequate cell

percentage of


sizes)

bowls


significance


with


plain rims


level


derived


corresponding


from


lack


of applique rims


on bowls.


Other


Indices of


Chance


As discussed


in Chapter


there were attributes


other than


those

































Table


Vessel


Form by Cluster.


CLUSTER


VESSEL FORM


Frequency
Percent


bowl


----------+


Straight
-+ --------


Bottle


--+-----


Total


,---


----------+


3.15
13.33
17.39

19
14.96
19.59
82.61


9.45
40.00
30.00
--^----4^
28
22.05
28.87
70.00


30
23.62


11.02
46.67
24.14


-+---


34.65
45.36
75.86


9
76.3


100.00


Total


18.11


31.50


45.67


4.72


100.00












Table


Vessel


Form by


Surface


Decoration.


VESSEL


SURFACE DECORATION


Frequency
Percent
Row Pct
Col Pct


---------+-


STAMPED


--.---. +-


bowl 5 5
bow 4.00 i
21.74 1
I 8.93 1
-..4----+ --------+-


straight


---------+-


---------+-


bottle


17
13.60
43.59 1
30.36
"-----.- +


32'
25.60 j
56.14 I
57.14 1
-------+
2 1
1.60 1
33.33 I
3.57 ,


PLAIN


-------+


9
7.20
39.13 I
17.65 j
... .- + -
19
15.20
48.72 I
37.25
----" --+-


21
16.80
36.84
41.18 I
------ -+


2
1.60 !
33.33 1
3.92 I


B PLAIN


--------+


4 i
3.20
17.39 1
44.44 !
-------+
01
0.00
0.00
0.00
---"----+

2.40 i
5.26
33.33


--.-----+


INCISED
--------+

4.00
21.74 '
55.56 I
--------+
3
2.40
7.69 1
33.33 i
S------- +


o. I
1.75 [
11.11 I


Total


39
31.20


57
45.60


-----..--+


2
1.60
33.33
22.22


---------+--------+--------+


--------+-


-------+


Total


44.80


40.80


7.20


100.00


Table


5.8.


Chi-Square


Test


, Vessel


Form by


Surface


Decoration.


VESSEL FORM

Frequency
Expected
Deviation


SURFACE DECORATION


i


CeLL Chi-Square STAMP
---------------+--------+


-...-...-------+


strai


---------------+


5 1
, 8.8364
-3.836
1.6656


--------+


I 17.673
-0.673
! 0.0256 1


------+


Total


- -------+
13
9.1636 1
3.8364
1.6061 I
-------- +
19 1
18.327 1
0.6727
0.0247 ,
----- --- +


I 32
1 27.491 I
I 4.5091
0.7396


---------------+


--------+-


24
28.509
-4.509 1
0.7132 I
-------+


Total


STATISTICS FOR TABLE OF VF BY MCODE


Statistic

Chi-Square


Value

4.775


0.092













Table


5.9.


Vessel


Form by


Rim Treatment.


VESSEL


RIM TREATMENT


Frequency
Percent
Row Pct
Col Pct


PLAIN


DECOR


PELND


APPLIQUE FOLD


! Total


- -------+--------+


---------+-


I' I
13.82
77.27 J
29.31
-------+-


straight


---------+-


-...-- --+


bottle


I
- --"


!
13.82 I
42.50
29.31 I
------- +


17.07
36.84 I
36.21
--------+

2.44 i
75.00 I
5.17 i
--------+


--------+--------+--------+-


9.09
11.76


-------+
51
4.07
12.50
29.41 I


--------+
9'
7.32
15.79
52.94


--------+-


i
0.81
25.00
5.88
.--------


2
1.63
9.09
50.00 !


--------+
0I

0.00
0.00 -
- 1 mi|A


1.63 i
3.51
50.00 !


0.81
4.55 I
2.38
-------- 4-
17
13.82
42.50
40.48 I
.-----.-+.


24 1
19.51
42.11 I
57.14 1


...-----+-------+-


V.J. I
0.00 1

---.-----+


0.00 |
..--------


-------+


o.oo I

-------+
0 I
0.00

0.00
11
0.81
2.50
50.00 I
.----.-+
1
0.81


oi
-------+

0o.oo
0.00 !

.------+


22
17.89


40
32.52


57
46.34


Total


47.15


13.82


3.25


34.15


100.00


Frequency Mi


sslng


Table


Chi-Square


Test


, Vessel


Form by


Rim Treatment.


VESSEL


RIM TREATMENT


Frequency
Expected
Deviation
Cell Chi-Square


--------.------+


--------------- + -


straight


PLAIN


---.----+-


.7345 I
oZCC 1


5.4227


-------+-
17 1
18.982
-1.982 1
0.207 I


DECOR


-------+


2.8319
-0.832
0.2444


-------+
51
5.5221
-0.522
0.0494


--------------- +-------+--------+


APPLIQUE
"-------+
1'
7.4336 j
-6.434 i
5.5682 I
-------- +
17
14.4961
2.5044
0.4327 1
--------+


I21
26.283
-5.283
1.062 1


------------*---+


. k-----+


9 i
7.646
1.354 I
0.2398 1
-------+


21
3
0


24
0.071
.9292
.7692


--------+I


Total 55 16 42

Frequency Missing = 2


Total









stamping;

on which


frequency


the dot


was


of sherds with


not visible;


central


the popularity


dots


as opposed


of various


to sherds


punctuation


tools


used


to decorate


applique


strips


and vessels;


the depth


of the


strips;


frequency


of burnishing;


temper types;


sooting.


Data on


these


variables


were


analyzed by


cluster,


except


where


sample


sizes


were


small


to yield reliable groups.


Because


all sherds


came


from a


secondary

considered


(disposal)


for Meeting


context,


House


primary

Fields.


contexts


use


cannot


TemPer.


Irene


phase


ceramics


are defined


as having


a grit


tempered


paste.


However,


a little over


20% of the sherds


at Meeting


House


Fields


were


sand


tempered;


grog tempering was


apparent


a very


few sherds


with


Irene


apparently


sherds


filfot


increased


in Cluster


stamped motifs


in the


were


sand


(Table


Pine Harbor


tempered,


5.11).

phase.

28% of


Sand


tempering


While only

the Cluster


8% of the


sherds


were


sand


tempered.


An analysis


of temper


by vessel


form


(Table


indicated


no concrete


association between


a vessel


form and


temper,


though


ratio of


sand


tempered


to grit


tempered


bowls was


more even


than


ratio of


other


forms


to temper.


Why there was


a spate of


sand


tempering


in the


late


Irene


phase


unknown.


One


possible


explanation


can be derived


from


fact


that


grit


(quartz


grains


larger than


.25 mm)


not available


on St.


Catherines


Island


and must be collected


from sand


(grit)


bars


in the


adjacent


salt


marsh


(Royce Hayes,


personal


communication,


1988).


environmental


or social


reasons,


these bars may


have


become


unavailable


during the


late


occupation of


Meeting


House


Fields.


Another


intriguing


poss


ibility


that


ves


sel size may


have decreased


in the


late


Protohistoric


or Contact


period.


Braley


et al.


(1986:137)


found


that


small


vessels


tended


to be sand tempered


and larger


vesse


grit


tempered.


They


attributed this


correlation


to differences


CE


irn nf 4 aaa a Aa


For


m3 nirCPa ""4--iv i r rn


+*^rkn; i tamQ


Cfa ^ favnCw


& rloav^AaffQ


r





















Table


5.11.


Temper by


Cluster.


I


-------


COUNT


CLUST


11
ALL----


------
AL

j n., i i.


I


WEIGHT
+-------


SUM PCT I SUM
.... ----- ----


I I
694:92.0:6270
---- .--- ----


'PC
-+--
I
I


A


--+--


11 13935177
-+---- ---+--
2; 20206:81
-- -----


--4


COUNT
"-+-4------
T ISUM PCT
- -+ ----+ -- -
I I

.9 60i 8.
*- + --.+---
.8j 467127.
- -+---- +---
*9 527:21.


1 WEIGHT

- SUM -PCT
-+------+---


I

0o 477

513925
-4----

------


GRIT&GROG

COUNT | WEIGHT


------


'SUM
-+----
I

I
11
- +---

- +---
9|
- -


I COUNT


ALL


WEIGHT


T SUM :PCT |SUM PCT | SUM
--+------+----+----+----+----


----


|PCT
-----


I
6748.1|
------ -+-
......~.+-
17908|

24656|


Table


Temper by


Vessel


Form.


--------+-


I



I-
I

VESSEL
.........
bowl
-------- 4
straight I
- -jar I
jar I


-----
bott
ALL


---+-


- -
cI


---


TEMPER


GRIT

OUNT


UM IPCT
---+---
I
I

13j56.
---4.-.
24|61.
-6+3---
39!67.

4:66.
---+-..
80 63.


SAND

COUNT


+--------t
ISUM PCT




10 43.
+ ----4---

I 15I38.
+----+---
I 19032.
+----+---
61 2133.
+ ---- + ---
46:36.


I
I

IALL
- ~.. ------------


COUN
------
SUM 1P
.... 4.
I
I

oI
231

39J

581


Chi-square value (bottles deleted)=0.895
Prob=0.64


TEMPER

SAND


|1225:72
-+----+--
[1919;78


~~~I


.
-
.
-
.


|
I
|









Burnishina.


5.13.


Roughly


The frequency


75% of all sherds


of burnishing

had burnished


is displayed

interiors.


in Table


There


appeared


to be slightly


less


interior


burnishing


in the Cluster


assemblage.


A few sherds


(comprising


less


than


1% of the


total)


Cluster


had burnished


exteriors


and unburnished


interiors.


Sootinq.


Sooting was


relatively


rare


in the


Meeting


House


Fields


assemblage


Overall,


was


most


burnished


therefore


a little over


common


plain


cannot


be meaningfully


7% of the sherds


on stamped

and incised


sherds,


sherds


had sooted


uncommon


analyzed


exteriors.


sherds,


on plain


SNo burnished


plain


cluster.


Sooting

and rare


or incised


sherds


sooted


interiors.


Rectilinear


relative


frequencies


vs. curvilinear


of rectilinear


stamina.


Table


vs curvilinear


.14 gives

stamping


cluster


analysis


based


on sherd


count


indicated


that


there was


virtually


difference


between


the two clusters.


Analysis


sherd


weight,


however,


suggested


a slight


increase


in the incidence of


rectilinear


stamping


Cluster


Central


dots.


ability to discriminate


central


filfot


cross


Of all stamped


in the


sherds


heavily


surface


overstamped


roughened


sherds was


poor


not included)


(Table

central


15).


dots


could be


seen


on only


between


and 8%


the sherds


8-10%


if weight


used)


Dunctation.


Cluster


totals


for the bivariate


analysis


treatment


were


given


above.


Table


.16 gives


values


for rim


elaboration


only


(note,


more data


was available on


this


attribute than


for other


vessel


information).


Segmentation


impressions)

in the incid


of the


increased


lence of


A few additional


(including

in Cluster


fingernail

- Aa,^/ ma r-t-/ n a


comments


all varieties


There was


punctuation


could


be made


of stick


also


in Cluster


and fingernail


a slight


over


increase


Cluster


was


Llll~hr: n: nnl rt


a.^^


Skn ~~~A rrE


~,t cl ~C a C A*l


FI rl~~





























Table


5.13.


Burnishing by Cluster.


-----------


INTERIOR SURFACE


UNBURNISHED


-------------

- ............


' COUNT

;SUM PCT

I I


I
I


----------------- ..-

-.-..-. -...-. -..4-
-- -"


114 15

368 21
---+2-
482|;19
- ..


WEIGHT COUNT
- + ---------+------
SSUM sPCT jISUM PCT
-+-+.--- +.- + -

I I I I

0:897.6 13.1 646585.
-+- -- +---- + ---- +---

-+-.....-+.... +-------
.6! 3396|17839 8.


5i 429317.31985 80.


......+


WEIGHT

SUM IPCT
.... -.- +--

I I
0 5943 86.
- +-----+ --
4 14542[81.

-52----8---
5 20485182.
I ILII


COUNT I
ii4--m --*"


ISUM IP
-+ ---+-
I I

9i 7601
+---
1117071

7124671
------


CT

I
---0+
I
I
I
I
100;
---+
100;
--- +
1001
---


WEIGHT

SUM PCT
-----+----
i

6841i 100
-----+----
179371 100
24778- 100


Table


Frequency


of Rectilinear


vs. Curvilinear


Stamping.


RECTILINE


AR


COUNT I WEIGHT I CO
S.U PC+U.. P-----------+ a
SUM PCT SUM JPCT ;SUM
-~~~~rl -- + -- ---


LUSTER
.-.....-


S-I------+I
2 A
ALL ------


319 70.

487 71.

806 71.


9 265

1 549

0815
-----


j CURVILINEAR
+ --+


UNT
""-+-~


IPCT
+---


I
I
I
I
131 29.

198128.

329:29.


WEIGHT


I SUM IPCT
-4+-----+---


I
111835

9j3216

015051


COUNT


|SUM :PCT
-I ... -- ---
i i
I I
I I
9\ 450j 10
- ----+---
91 685; 10
- +----+- --
211351 10
--I---- "..


I
I WEIGHT



-+------+---
I I


-+".--- +"-
0|14492.6 10

0 8714.5 10

01 13207: 10
- -- -


BURNISHED
-+---i----------


CLUSTER

1


MASTER CODE
































Table


5.15.


Frequency of Dots on Stamped
roughened not included).


Sherds


(surface


........~l


I
I
I


{ COUNT

jSUM IPC

STER i I
I I
414 92
.... ....4".-

1 644194
-08- + -
----- ------


MASTER C

STAMPED -
--------------+-
- WEIGHT |
-. .+..- ..... -
:T SUIM |PCT S
-- ++ --


ct
.

D.

tp
'


I I
I I
0j4045.1l90.

0!7997.2:91.
- + -1-04- + --P
2| 12042:91.
---- ---


ODE




COUNT

UM :PCT
--- + --


I
I
36
---....-.
41|

-----7
77


DOT

WEIGHT
U---- ----
SUM |PCT
-+---"------


I
447.51

717.31

1164.81


I


COUNT
- + -----
SUM PCT
- +---- + -- -
I I
I I
o0 450: 10
....6...
2| 685: 10

8:1135: 10
-- ----------


ALL

----------
WE!GHT

SUM IP
-.+......------+-
I I

o0 4492.6:
-+. ....... 4.
0:8714.5:

0; 13207:


Table


5.16.


Rim Elaborations


Cluster.


CLUSTER

1

2

ALL


PLAIN

COUNT

SUM PCT
....+


INCISED

COUNT

SUM jPCT
S-- +M *P-


I
8:25.

45 39.

53|36.-


jFINGRNAI

| COUNT
.4..--------
ISUM :PCT
-.+ .----+...-.
* I
I I

I I
.i 2 6.

61 91 8.

-3 11 7.-
31 11: 7.


RIM ELAB

CANE

COUNT

SUM :PCT

I
I
10 32.
...-+4---


28 24
--2--
38126


ORATION

STICK
- +--- -----
SCOUNT
-+1-------
SSUM PCT
- +-- +-- -
I I
I I
I .

-+- --"-


81 11: 9.
- + -


I


iCANESEG

-+--------
I COUNT

ISUM PCT
-+ ---4 ---
I I
I I
I I
I I
i 3 9.
74. -4.
71 "
-4.. + ---


PELNODE
- + -- ------- +
I COUNT
-..... .... ..
:SUM IPCT
- +---- +----"+
I I I
I I I

7| 4112.9:
- + ---- -+ ...


* I
- -


7.6


UID/O

COUNT

SUM :PCT
.......+ ..
I
I
I

4 12.

8! 7.

12: 8.


4 ALL
-+---------
I COUNT

ICs | IDex
-.4..... ---
I I
I I
I I
9\ 31| 100

1| 113: 100
- ---+ ----
31 1441 100


-----


---





CLU

1

2


|


I









Rim depth.


There was


no difference


between


Cluster


in the


depth

10 mm


of the


(Table


rim strip


5.17).


below the


An idea


that


Mean depth


the rim


for both


strip might


clusters


was


have moved upwards


towards


through


time


, eventually


suggesting the


folded rim,


supported by these


data.


Land


and groove width.


For Cluster


mean


land


and groove width


on stamped


sherds


was


1.4 and


1.8 mm,


respectively


(Table


.18).


Mean


land


size


in Cluster


was


virtually


identical;


mean


groove


size was


slightly


smaller,


not significantly


These


results


confirmed


the lack


of Altamaha-like


stamping


at the


site


Motifs.


Every


attempt


was made


to discriminate different


motifs


(with


different


code


characteristic


numbers)


during the


overstamping made this


analysis.

difficult.


More often


than not,


Nevertheless,


number


of different


variations


in the execution


of the


filfot


cross


were


record

simply


(Figure


grooved


5.10)


or have


for instance the


a circle


center


or a square


of the


as in


scroll


one


could be


instance


spiral


was


assemblage

elsewhere


variation


used


that


(Figure

on the


instead


could be


10).


filfot


a scroll.


identified


There was


as most


The design appeared


cross,


but the crossbar


only


probably


one


sherd


coming


to be yet


through


in the


from


another


circular


element


suggested


a more elaborate treatment


than


was


found


at this


site


That


sherd,


from Midden


12 Level


also


an uncharacteristic


buff


to pink

Incised


exterior


designs


and a sandy paste


were classified


as either


bold


or fine;


both


styles


occurred


each midden


with


incis


ing.


While


total


design


usually


recoverable,


no incising


(except


that


on the


pipes)


was


found


that


could


not be interpreted


as part


of either


a scroll,


or concentric


semicircles


succeeding


or rounded


sites,


chevrons.


punctuation was

in 4-hoa 4 nn, oan


In contrast


not used


to what


either


was


found


immediately


in the


below the


rinP irwna


so.


was


was


v i m nrv


a ac F 1 1 *






























Table


5.17.


Applique Rim


Strip Depth by Cluster.


m .. .. w... .
CLUSTER

1
2


MIN

4.0
3.0


13.0
18.8


MEAN STD N

9.9 2.0 32
10.2 3.5 63


Table


5.18.


Land


and Groove


Width by Cluster.


---CLUSTER 1


N Obs Variable

28 LAND 28
GROOVE 28


N Minimum Maximu

1 2.2
0.9 3


m Mean Std Dev

1.421 0.325
1.836 0.536


CLUSTER 2--


N Obs

16 L
G


Variable


AND
ROOVE


N Minimum Maximum Mean Std Dev

0.7 2 1.381 0.331
0.1 2.7 1.419 0.648













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