Environmental value engineering (EVE)

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Material Information

Title:
Environmental value engineering (EVE) a system for analyzing the environmental impact of built environment alternatives
Physical Description:
xi, 265 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Roudebush, Wilfred H., 1947-
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Environmental impact analysis   ( lcsh )
Environmental protection   ( lcsh )
Environmental degradation   ( lcsh )
Power resources   ( lcsh )
Architecture thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Architecture -- UF
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1992.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 260-263).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Wilfred H. Roudebush.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001867919
oclc - 28997594
notis - AJU2435
System ID:
AA00002093:00001

Full Text











ENVIRONMENTAL VALUE ENGINEERING (EVE):
A SYSTEM FOR ANALYZING THE ENVIRONMENTAL
IMPACT OF BUILT ENVIRONMENT ALTERNATIVES

















By


WILFRED


ROUDEBUSH


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL















Copyright


Wilfred


1992


Roudebush















wife,


Christine;


children,


Jennifer,


Sarah,


Matthew,


and Kelly;


my parents,


Betty


and Ernest;


and


the


late


Anthony


Section.















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


would


like


express


appreciation


supervisory


committee


chairman,


John


Alexander,


guidance,


patience,


and


encouragement


during


the


research


and


documentation


thi


dissertation.


Acknowledgement


also


due


committee


member


Howard


Odum


the


University


Florida


his


example


and


extraordinary


contribution


energy


basis


man


and


nature.


His


research


on EMERGY


analysis


forms


the


main


basis


this


study


on "environmental


value


engineering"


Numerous


contributions


also


were


made


the


other


members


committee:


Charles


Kibert


provided


expertise


the


value


engineering


basis


environmental


value engineering;


Weilin P.


Chang provided valuable


input


and


financial


support


the


form


graduate


teaching


and


research ass istantships;


and Dr.


Gary


Koehler assisted with


input


and


expertise


knowledge-based


expert


systems


future


applications


of environmental


value


engineering.


Most


importantly,


want


thank


wife,


Christine.


Development


of environmental


value


engineering would not


have


a~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ tS- -..- ,-2


a t


II _. ~L1


Iir 1


I


r

















TABLE


OF CONTENTS


Page


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


S S S S S iv


LIST


OF TABLES


V111


LIST


OF FIGURES


ABSTRACT


CHAPTERS


INTRODUCTION


Statement of th
Organization of
Concepts and De
Built Envi
Environmen
Concept of
Environmen
Life
Hierarchic


e Prob
the S
finiti
ronmen
tal Va
Maxim
tal Va
Cycle
al Org


lem
tudy
ons
t In
lue
um B
lue
* an
aniz


* 0 *
S S 0 5 0


. .
put
Eng
ene
Eng


s .
ineering
fit .
ineering


action


. . .
. .


* S *
* ~~~ S S


Case
State


Study .
-of-the-
Benefit-
Embodied
EMERGY A
Life Cyc
Value En


. .
Art
to-
En
.nal
le
ain


Review
ost Anal
rgy .
sis .
ost Anal
ering .


METHODS


. . . . 0 5 47


Energy


Systems


Diagrams


and


Language


Envi


Detail
Aggreg
ronment
Tables


EMERGY Input Diagram .
ed EMERGY Input Diagram .
Value Engineering EMERGY


Analysis


0 0 0


I ( (


.J


I I (









Case


Study Application Methods .
EMERGY Calculations and Program Data
Description and Use of Environmental
Engineering Simulation Program


Input
Value


RESULTS


Case


Detai


Study Application
Engineering EMERG
Environmental Val
Analysis Tab
ENERGY Analysis T
Sheets .
Environmental Val
Simulation O
led EMERGY Input


Deta

Deta

Deta

Deta


Compariso
Pitc
Exte


Aggre


Compa


iled
Pit
iled
Roo
iled
Ext
iled
Wal
n of
hed
rior


EM
che
EM
f C
EM
eri
EM
1 C
Ca
Roo
Wa


gated EMERG
Aggregated
Aggregated
prison of Ca
Aggregated
Cumulative


a.


ERGY
d Ro
ERGY


I
f
I


Env
Y Ca
ue E
les
able
. .
ue E
utpu
Anal
nput
Con
nput


construction
ERGY Input S
or Wall Cons
ERGY Input S
construction
se Study App
f Constructi
11 Construct
Y Input Anal
ENERGY Input
ENERGY Input
se Study App


Pha
Tot


EMERGY
Input


ironmental
iculations
engineering


Calculation

engineering T
t . .
ysis .
Source Data
struction Sy
Signatures


System
source D
tructio
* a


ig


So


natures
stem 041
cation S
System


a__~- -I .


Value

ENERGY


* a *
Back-up
* a a
abular


Tab
stem
for
2


les
03
Pit


Tables
system 0
for Ext

systems
0322 .


n system u411
is . .
ource Data Tab
signatures .
cation Alterna
nput Signature
urce ENERGY .


for
22 .
ched
* a
for
411 .
erior


1


tiv


.at.C


DISCUSSION


a a a a 9


Case


Imple


Futur


Study Appli
Intraphase
Interphase
Comparison
Environment
Indice
mentation o
Environment
Worksh
Society of
e Research


cation


Disc


Comparison
Comparison
of Aggrega
al Value E


S
f
al
op
En
an


ussion
of EMERGY


of EMERGY
ted Phase
engineering


Environmental
Value Engine


v
d


.. . .. ... .- -- --


Value
ering


ironmental Value
Applications .


Input
Input
ENERGY
ENERGY


Engineering
Training


Engineering


a .









APPENDICES


COMPARISON OF EMERGY

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT


AND


EMBODIED


EMERGY


INPUT


ENERGY

SOURCES


* a *


ENERGY


SYSTEMS


DIAGRAM


SYMBOLS


AND


LANGUAGE


TRANSFORMITIES


UNIFORMAT


CODE


OF ACCOUNTS


CASE


STUDY


APPLICATION


EVE


EMERGY


ANALYSIS


TABLES


. a a a a a a a a *


SIMULATION


PROGRAM


. a a a a a a a .


CASE


CASE


STUDY


STUDY


APPLICATION


APPLICATION


TABULAR


EVE


SIMULATION


EMERGY


OUTPUT


INDICES


GLOSSARY


a a a a a a a a a a *


REFERENCES


BIOGRAPHICAL


SKETCH
















LIST


OF TABLES


Table


Page


ENVIRONMENTAL


VALUE


ENGINEERING


EMERGY


ANALYSIS


T . .A 56


EXAMPLE ENVIRONMENTAL
ENERGY ANALYSIS TABLE


VALUE


ENGINEERING


S S S S S S S S S S 5 71


EXAMPLE


TABULAR


SIMULATION


OUTPUT


. . 75


DETAILED EMERGY INPUT SOURCE
ROOF CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM 032


DETAILED
EXTERIOR


DATA


ENERGY INPUT SOURCE Dj
WALL CONSTRUCTION SYS!


FOR


PITCHED


. . 78

ATA FOR


FEM


0411


S . 86


AGGREGATED


ENERGY


INPUT


SOURCE


DATA


COMPARISON


OF AGGREGATED


PHASE


ENERGY.


TABLE















LIST


OF FIGURES


Figure


Page


Energy


systems


diagram


built


environment


Environmental


value


engineering


model


Environmental


cycie


Energy


value


engineering


phases


of life


S S S S S S S S 4 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 11


hierarchy


I ) I () ( ) I( ) I


Built


environment


EMERGY


hierarchy


Floor


Shelter


plan


case


Complex


study


application


Alert


S S S S S S S S S S S S S S 5 29


Exterior


Alert


Detailed


Aggregated


wall


Shelter


EMERG


sections
Complex

Y diagram


EMERGY


diagram


case


study


application


. . 31

m . . 51


. 54


Description
designation

An example
engineering


back-up


of environmental
system .


an environmental


ENERGY


analysis


sheet


value


engineering


4 5 5 5 5


value


table


calculation


Detailed


roof


ENERGY


construction


Detailed


wall


ENERGY


construction


input


signatures


system


input


0322


signature<


system


of pitched


es of exterior


0411


Total


system


ENERGY


input


signatures


S S 5 5 95


& nnrvrro T1 fn-


* vrr


Dh ~ Er a


Fl : ~Yn ~ L(~ 11A CI


FMPD~V















Abstract


the


sse


University


rotation


Presented


of Florida


the


Partial


Graduate


Fulfillment


School
of the


Requirements


ENVIRONMENTAL


Degree


VALUE


Doctor


ENGINEERING


Philosophy


(EVE)


A SYSTEM


IMPACT


FOR


OF BUILT


ANALYZING


THE


ENVIRONMENT


ENVIRONMENTAL
ALTERNATIVES


Wilfred


. Roud


ebush


December


1992


Chairman:


John


Alexander


Major


Department


: College


of Architecture


An analysis


system called environmental


value engineering


was


developed


analyze


the


environmental


impact


built


environment


alternatives


. Thi


evaluation


system


combines


Howard


Odum


EMERGY


analysis


with


traditional


value


engineering


The procedure compares multiple built environment


alternatives


over


life


cycle


consisting


phases


natural


resource


formation,


natural


resource


exploration


and


extraction,


material production,


design


component production,


construction,


use,


demolition,


natural resource recycling,


and


disposal


Because


these


phases


successively


accumulate


results


work,


EMERGY


tends


increase


with


each


phase.









inputs


as either


contributions


or losses


due


to environmental


impact.


This dissertation applies the new evaluation procedure


two


alternative


exterior


wall


construction


systems


concrete


masonry


units


and


concrete


tilt-up


panels


Energy


systems


diagrams


(models


and


language


were


used


represent


were


detailed


calculated


and

EMERG


aggregated

\Y analysis


ENERGY


inputs.


tables.


Data


Inputs

from


calculations


were


input


into


a DYNAMO


simulation


program.


The


evaluation


procedure


was


used


evaluate


alternatives


with


detailed


and


aggregated


ENERGY


tabl


and


signatures.


Simulation


results


included


graphical


output


cumulative


ENERGY


Environmental


value


engineering


ENERGY


indi


ces


were


used


compare


ENERGY


per


unit


of built


environment


alternative.


The


highest


environmental


impact


occurred


during


the


first


three


phases


of material


transformity


for


both


alternatives,


with


total


ENERGY


concrete


masonry


unit


(CHEJ)


alternative


concrete


tilt-up


panel


alternative.


The


ENERGY


per


unit


built


environment


alternative


was


.35E13


solar


emjoules


(SEJ)


per


square


foot


the


CMU


alternative


.10E13


SEJ


per


square


foot


concrete


tilt-up


panel


alternative.


Environmental


impact


the


CMU


alternative


was


11.9%


higher


Sustainable


development


selection


built


environment















CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


the


earth


environment


becomes


crowded


with


increasing


population


and


the


resources


the


earth


scarce,


efficient


and


economic


building


construction


becomes


increasingly


important.


This dissertation compares new and old


ways


evaluating


the


requirements


and


contributions


of the


built


environment


so as to better


include


the


environment


and


resource


values.


Traditional


systems


evaluation


using


dollar


cost


are


compared


with


a method


that


uses


EMERGY,


the


prior


work


nature


developing


the


land


and


other


resources


and


also


the


human


services


used.


EMERGY


evaluation


incorporated


into


new


computer


aided


procedure


evaluating


built


environment


alternatives.


Comparisons


were


made


exterior


wall


construction


as an example.


The

affected


the


sustainability


the


form of


humans


environmental


our built


on this


impact


environment.


planet


of economic

A range of e


directly


development


environmental


issues are


impacted by the built environment:


natural


resource


use,


solid


waste


generation,


wetlands


destruction,


fl W~ In -. a- a 0- fl a


n a 1I*I .r jk -


nn


r









The


operation


technological


societies


dependent


upon


the


good


use


the


earth


resources


and


economic


developments


that


are


compatible.


Faced


with


shortages


natural


resources,


pollution,


overgrowth,


and


concern


protecting the environment,


human beings are coming to


realize


that


new


concepts


are


needed


analyze


the


interdependent


parts


cons


the


iders


built


new


environment


analysis


whole.


concept


Thi


study


evaluating


the


environmental


impact


of built


environment


alternatives.


Statement


of the


Problem


The


new


analysis


concept


must


overcome


the


shortcomings


traditional


analysis


systems


. These


shortcomings


include:


. too


much


concentration


on the


interdependent


parts


built


environment


alternatives


during


specific


analysis


periods


analysis


periods


too


short


represent


the


total


life


cycle


of built


environment


alternatives


. use


money


or embodied


energy


measures


that


do not


evaluate


. lack


environmental


of consideration


work


the


appropriately;

environmental


and

impact


built


environment


alternative


inputs.


research


analysis


system


was


developed


without


these


shortcomings


-a


T.n talC


and


given


a a


the
C a ..


name


'a


aL a


"environmental


a -I


value


aY .. -1 -Y a 1a









engineering,


procedures


were


written


for


environmental


value


engineering


environmental


value


including


a simulation


engineering


was


program,


applied


and

case


the


study


application.


Organization


the


Study


Chapter


contains


introduction


the


study,


statement


the


problem


and


purpose


the


study,


environmental


value


engineering


concepts


and


definitions,


introduction


of the


case


study


application,


and


state-of-the-


art


review


of analysis


systems


related


to environmental


value


engineering


and


the


analysis


built


environment


alternatives.


Chapter


2 presents


detailed


and


aggregated


environmental


impact


ENERGY


input


calculation


and


analysis


methods


used


an environmental


value


engineering


analysis


, development


simulation


program


input


environmental


impact


ENERGY


data


for


built


environment


alternatives,


and


case


study


application.


The


results


thif


case


study


application


are


presented


Chapter


the


form


ENERGY


input


source


data


tables,


ENERGY


input


signatures


, and


comparisons


of built


environment


alternative


systems


and


alternatives.


Chapter


presents


discussion


the


case


study


a i aAa


- -- -- -- - A


,,,?,,,,, i,,


I-..-r ~.~LL


'I









Concerts


and


Definitions


Built


Environment


Inputs


The


term


"built


environment"


, as


used


this


dissertation,


includes


human-made


objects


(alternatives)


on earth


that


consume


environment


(E),


fuel


energy


(F),


goods


(G),


and


energy


services


systems


inputs.


diagram


This


Figure


represented


using


energy


the


systems


language


explained


methods


Money


circulates


into


the


system


pay


only


services


(labor)


rendered


human


population


. Money


is not


paid


the


environment,


and


money


that


paid


to people


cannot


be used


to evaluate


benefits


losses


the


environment.


Environmental


Value


Ejnsin


eerinc


An analyst


system called environmental


value engineering


was


developed


analyze


environmental


role


built


environment


alternatives.


evaluation


system


combines


Howard


Odum


ENERGY


analysis


with


traditional


value


engineering,


listed


Figure


Life


cycle,


was


defined


include


pha


ses


that


built


environment


alternative


goes


through,


from


natural


resource


formation


to final


disposition


. A built


environment


alternative

resources


uses


the


throughout


earth


life


renewable


cycle


and


. Consumption


nonrenewable


of minerals























Figure


1-1.


Energy


systems


diagram


built


environment.
















FUEL


ENERGY


GOODS


RECYCLEl


S';


ENVIRONMENTAL


BUILT


ENVIRONMENT


DEPRECIATION


SOUD WASTE


STORAGE


n


PROMI~I~KX(


I





















Figure


1-2.


Environmental


value


engineering


model.














z IZO


z-ZC
MO
zw
--o w wJ

2 8'
WOW








i ->





-LI










m I g .me
111 V /







z Q ^ a
^a co>
EY w 2 ;i









environment


alternative


life


cycle


phases


(Figure


1-3) .


Traditional


evaluation


used money.


Since


money


goes


only


pay


human


services,


was


not


suitable


environmental


value


engineering.


Embodied


energy


could


not be


used


either


because


accounts


only


fuel


energy


and


does


not


include


environmental,


goods,


or services


input


sources.


Since


production


and


consumption


processes,


which


take


place


during


phases


of a built


environment


alternative


life


cycle,


use


energy


of differing


quality


or type,


ENERGY


was


selected as


the basic unit


of quantification because


energy


of differing


types


into


units


one


type


energy.


The


name


ENERGYY"


was


coined


David


Scienceman


1983


stinguish


it from other embodied energy


concepts.


Scienceman


(1987)


documented


the nomenclature


energy


and ENERGY


So as


not


confuse


EMERGY


with


energy,


the


word


ENERGY


capitalized


this dissertation.


Solar emjoules


(sej)


are the


units


solar


ENERGY,


used


environmental


value


engineering.


Environmental


environmental


value


contribution


engineering


impact


evaluates


built


the


environment


alternatives


units


solar


ENERGY


over the


life cycle.


The


sum


of ENERGY


contributions


to each


phase


added


as an input


the


next.


ENERGY


accumulates


from


one


phase


the


next.


ENERGYY


not


only


a measure


of what


went


into


a product, it





















Figure


1-3.


Environmental


value


engineering


phases


of life


cycle.














PHASE A


PHASE


PHASE C


PHASE


PHASE E


PHASE


PHASE


PHASE H


PHASE


I









contributes


most


while


drawing


the


least


from


the


main


economy.


Concept


of Maximum


Benefit


any


environmental


development


there


optimal


intensity


which


generates


maximum


ENERGY,


part


from


the


environmental


work


and


part


from


purchased


inputs"


(Odum,


1991,


67) .


According


Odum


(1991),


there


are


several


maxima


concern:


The


development


intensity


that


maximizes


yield


and


profit.


. The


development


intensity


that


maximizes


the


total


ENERGY


availability


the


home


country.


The development


intensity that maximizes


the ENERGY


investing


countries.


The


development


intensity


that


maximizes


the


total


ENERGY


production


and


use


worldwide.


Built


environment


alternatives


which


contribute


the


most


ENERGY


the


economy while


drawing


least


from


provide


maximum


benefit.


Environmental


Value


Enaineerincr Phas~..s Tif~ fluni a
- -. -- ,.


The analysis period of


environmental


value engineering


subdivided


into


phases


through


which


built


environment


alternative


materials


, components,


and


systems


proceed.


This


Enain eeri no


T,~ fa


Ph ;I~~~


17v~l p









The


analysis


period


traditional


value


engineering


limited


to the construction phase


and a


"study period"


portion


the


use


phase


. The


study


period


generally


25-40


years,


which


considerably


ess


than


the


life


cycle


built


environment


alternative.


The


study


period


of material


analyzed


the


American


Institute


of Architects


' (199


, April)


issue


of Environmental


Resource Guide Subscription


is more extensive than traditional


value


engineering


but


does


include


pha


ses


of the


life


cycle


, nor


does


analyze


teams


of a built


environment


alternative


. The


10 pha


ses


of environmental


value


engineering


are


based


upon


different


production


consumption


processes


taking


place


within


each


phase.


These


production


consumption


processes


have


distinct


environment


(E),


fuel


energy


, goods


(G) ,


servi


ces


environmental


impact


input


source


requirements.


For


example,


the


following


are


inputs


accounted


during


construction


phase


Environment


(renewable


El. Atmosphere
E2. Ecological
E3. Energy
1. Sun
2. Earth


production


E4. Land


. Area


. Re


sources


E5. Water
1. Area


. Re


. Fue


energy


sources


nonrenewablee


Sri P-W I 9 -'~n









Services
Sl. Labor


A list of


environmental


impact EMERGY


input


sources


environmental


value engineering phases


provided in Appendix


The production and consumption processes of


the


10 pha


ses


environmental


value


engineering


are


described


the


following


subsections.


Phase


natural


resource


formation


The


natural


resource


formation


phase


involves


the


production


(ecosystems,


utili


and


consumption


geology


built


systems


environment


various

etc.


alternatives


environmental


Natural

include


systems


resources

minerals,


which

and h


are


niomass,


formed


earth


resulting


processes


from


living


over


millions


organism


net


years,


production


occurring


over


shorter


periods


time.


Phase


natural


resource


exploration


and


extraction


The

includes


natural

EMERGY


resource


exploration


environment,


fuel


and


extraction


energy,


goods,


phase

and


services


inputs


occurring


during


natural


resource


exploration


and


ass


extraction


ignable


processes


phase


Also,


include


environmental


renewable


impacts


environmental


inputs


the


form


of land


used


during


extraction


and


storage


extracted


natural


resources.


Reclamation


land,


after


nattura1


rP sin ii r


Pvi-r~nI- I nnn


r 4 an r r t 1


n~Crr vr sl


r


nr








Phase


material


production


The


material


production


phase


includes


ENERGY


environment,


during


fuel


material


energy,


production.


goods,


and services


Material


production


inputs occurring


includes


conversion


of natural


resources


into


material


used


built


environment


alternative


component


production.


Some


materials


are


produced


directly


into


standardized


components.


Examples


of standardized


components


are


steel


beams,


doors,


windows,


dimensional


lumber,


and roofing components.


Many


components of


built


environment


alternative


are


not


produced


until


specific


design


information


has


been


provided.


Phase


design


The

energy,


design

goods,


phase

and


includes

services


EMERGY


inputs


environment,

occurring


fuel


luring


architectural


and


engineering


design.


The


design


phase


includes


five


subpha


ses.


According


the


American


Institute


Architects


(1987),


these


subphases


are:


schematic


design,


design


development,


construction


documents,


bidding


and


negotiations,


and


construction


administration.


Phase


: component


production


The


component


production


phase


includes


ENERGY


environment,


fuel


energy,


goods,


and services


inputs occurring


during


component


production.


Some


standard


components


are


produced


and


stored,


before


use,


while


other


components


are








Production


components


specifically


designed


for


built


environment


alternative


proceed


upon


completion


and


acceptance


production


documents


during


the


construction


administration


subphase


design,


which


overlaps


with


the


construction


phase.


Components


produced


the


job


site


are


included


the


construction


phase


instead


the


component


production


phase.


For


example,


concrete


tilt-up


exterior wall


panels


are


produced


during


the


construction


phase.


This


phase


includes


environmental


impacts


related


transportation


of the various components


site


to the built environment alternative


construction.


Phase


construction


During


construction


materials


, components,


and


systems


are as

goods,


assembled


and


through


services


the


inputs


use

into


environment,


structures


fuel


Environmen


energy,

it, fuel


energy,


goods,


and


services


inputs


used


during


this


phase


are


dependent


upon


such


factors


type


construction,


techniques


of construction,


time


construction,


quality


materials,


components


and


systems,


and


workmanship.


During the construction phase,


there are wastes and


their


impacts


are


evaluated.


This


phase


includes


work


done


during the


guarantee


and


warranty periods


the


construction


contract,


which


commence


the


beginning


the


built


environment


alternative


use


phase.









operation,


are


and


financing,


maintenance


maintenance,


to time of demolition.

operation, alteration,


Included

repair,


replacement,


tax elements,


insurance,


and any other activity


which


require


ENERGY


inputs.


The


use


phase


includes


the


period


time


from


substantial


completion


construction


the


demolition


phase


. Included


are


periods


nonuse


or abandonment


. The


use


phase


affected


quality,


occupancy,


time


use,


and


decis


ions


on recycling


or di


sposal


of material


components,


and s

Phase


systems.


demolition


The


demolition


phase


includes


EMERGY


evaluation


environment,


fuel


energy


, goods


, and


services


inputs


used


demolish


and


remove


the


material


, components


, and


teams.


The


EMERGY


evaluation


sensitive


to deci


sions


on reuse


and


recycling.


Currently,


most built


environment alternative material


components,


demolition


and


debri


systems


during


are


the


disposed


demolition


the


phase.


form


Disposal


demolition debri


landfill


affects


required


land


each


use because


1000


one


1200


cubic yard


pounds


demolition


debris


(Appendix


The


EMERGY


disposals


accounted


phase


sposal


phase)


. As


land


becomes


ess


available


disposal


demolition


debri









Phase


: natural


resource


recvclin.


The


natural


resource


recycling phase


includes


the


ENERGY


environment,


fuel


energy,


goods,


and


services


inputs


used


recycle


material


, components


, and


systems.


The


stored


EMERGY


a built


environment


alternative


may


be reduced


transporting


components


away


during


the


natural


resource


recycling


phase.


ENERGY


can


saved


recycling


increases


natural


resource


formation


(Phase


and


decrea


ses


natural


resource


exploration


extraction


(Phase


material


production


(Phase


and


component


production


(Phase


requirements


future


construction


alternatives.


Land


area


made


available


recycling


and


disposal


ases


reduces


the


requirements


new


land.


Salvage


of demolition


debris


recycling


reduces


the


ENERGY


required


for disposal


and


landfill


land


use


. Thus


there


is an ENERGY


credit


for salvage


demolition debri


Resource


recycling


during


any phase


of environmental


value


engineering


reduces


total


EMERGY


required.


The


natural


resource


recycling


phase


built


environment


alternative


similar


the


nutrient


feedback


phase of natural


systems


System designs


that maximize empower


(EMERGY


flux)


are


the


systems


that


feed


back


the


larger


system


of which


they


are


a part


(Odum,


1988)


. Disposal


of built


environment


alternative


material


, components,


and









Phase


: disposal


The


disposal


phase


includes


ENERGY


environment,


fuel


energy,


goods,


and


servi


ces


inputs


occurring


during


the


disposal


of material


evaluation


debri


are


compaction,


components,


demolition


demolition


and


debris


debris


systems.


placement,


landfill


Included


demolition


containment,


landfill

(1985),


closure,

landfill


and


landfill


closure


postclosure.


postclosure


According to


include


Topp


groundwater


monitoring,


final


cover,


contour


grading,


surface


water


diversion,


gas


mitigation


control,


revegetation,


security


systems,


and


certification


closure.


The


EMERGY


these


uses


must


be included.


Land


use


disposal


demolition


debris


will


become


more


important


the


future


. The


ENERGY


of land will


increase


intensity


Cumulative


land


EMERGY


use


lands


increa


and


ses


their


with


stored


population


demolition


growth.


debris


measures


environmental


impact


and


oss


resource


contribution.


Hierarchical


Organization


Environmental


value


engineering


synthesis


zes


the


total


EMERGY


systems


built


environment


during


the


environmental


value


engine


ering


life


cycle


phases.


Each


phase


built


environment


alternative


forms


portion


rn'Slrn


I, .~~~~


Cats.~.1 4. a n 4. w a r a a a a - -


Crrw C1r rr L


A


%1


TL


L.


A -


~w




















Energy hierarchy.
(a) Energy transformation
(b) Distribution of size
of units in each cat
(c) Graph of energy flow
energy hierarchy.
(d) Solar transformities
the hierarchy.


n diagram.
and spatial pattern
egory.
s at each stage in t


he


for each position in


Figure 1-4.








21






FEEDBA FEEDBa FEEDBACK



(a) sound P___CERS














1 .


*. 0 *


*




6E9




6E7
(c)

6E6

6E5
I 6E4



100.000




10,000

(d) I









environment


alternative


EMERGY


hierarchy


also


may


represented


materials,


series


components,


stepwise


to systems,


transformations


to a whole


from


alternative


(Figure


1-5) .


Miller


(1980


in Odum,


1983)


found development


land


Florida


an energy


transformation hierarchy with


order


magnitude


Increase


EMERGY


each


stage


due


developer


inputs


of goods


services.


account


alternative


engineering,


total


through


hierarchical


EMERGY

phases


organization


built


environment


environmental


designation


value


system


was


developed


. A review


was


made


two


existing


designation


systems


related


the


built


environment.


First,


the


Construction Specification Institute


s 16-division format,


and


second,


the


General


Services


Administration


s UNIFORMAT


Code


Accounts


format.


The


Construction


Specifications


Institute


s 16-division


format


industry


various


used


extensively


document


materials,


the


designers


specification


components,


and


the


construction


requirements


systems


the


used


built environment

various activities


alternative.


that


The


take


format

place


derived


during


from


the


the


built


environment


alternative


construction


phase.


Before


the


1940s,


designs


for buildings were


transmitted


from designer to


constructor


primarily


drawings


(Simmons,


1985).


Written





















Figure


1-5.


Built


environment


ENERGY
Distri
of uni
Graph
ENERGY
Solar
the hi


ENERGY


transformation


bution of size
ts in each cat
of EMERGY flow
hierarchy.
transformities
erarchy.


hierarchy.
diagram.


and spat
egory.
s at each


each


ial


pattern


phase


position


the

in








































































10,000,000


1,000,000


* *









Format


Construction


Specifications


(Simmons,


1985).


The


Construction


Specifications


Institute


16-divi


sion


format


divisions


are:


1-General


-Site


Requirements


Work


3-Concrete
4-Masonry
5-Metals


6-Wood


and


Plastics


7-Thermal
8-Doors,


and


Moi


Windows,


sture


and


Protection


Glass


9-Finishes
10-Specialties
11-Equipment
12-Furnishings


13-Special


Cons


14-Conveying
15-Mechanical
16-Electrical


truction


teams


teams


stems


The


16-divi


sion


format


was


intended


standardize


the


subdivi


sion


built


environment


alternative


into


construct ion


subcontractor


work


packages


and


provide


construction


cost


Utilization


estimation


the


format


format


these


determine


the


work


unit


packages.


cost


specific


built


environment


alternative


systems


very


difficult.


For


example,


exterior


wall


system


may


have


material


(thermal


and


and


components

moisture Dr


divi


sion


.otection),


(masonry),


divi


sion


divi


(metals


sion


and


divis


(finishes)


Therefore,


design


decision


makers


interested


the unit


costs


need another designation system.


The


General


Servi


ces


Administration


developed


rmrr r~n ns,


m fan 3*


U 1~ a .. A.a A


-3 .,, a S


.-


- -r a. l


mi J tL


IILIY


-1- -


A A --


m


I


*









01-Foundations
02-Substructure
03-Superstructure


04-Exterior
05-Roofing
06-Interior


07-Conveying
08-Mechanical
09-Electrical


10-General


Closure


Construction


teams


Conditions


and


Profit


11-Equipment


12-Site


Work


These


code


account


elements


are


subdivided


into


several

1981).


through


levels

Appendix


detail


detail

provides


level


(General

sthe Ul


The


Servi


ces


NI FORMAT


General


Administration,


Code


Service


Accounts


Administration


requires


cost


consolidated


estimates


and


submitted


conducted


detail


designers


level


The


UNIFORMAT


Code


Accounts


provides


designation


system


that


enable


design


deci


sion


makers


to separate


built


environment


alternative


costs


system.


organi


hierarchically


and


built


environment


alternative


system


instead


of the


construction


trade


format


the


Construction


Specifications


Institute


s 16-divi


sion


format


Johnson


(1990)


states


that


the


UNIFORMAT


structure


similar


to the


design


deci


sion


process


and


therefore


facilitates


cost


management as


design


progresses.


Environmental


value


engineering


incorporates


the


UNIFORMAT


Code


Accounts


structure


and


designation


system


to account


EMERGY


of environment,


$ii~~~~~~~~~~C alA flr ve t i lt 4 A-S. l1%41


anrre


nn r*r rr nhn


~r ral


nhh~c,


an~


Ck Hnr r nlr


CI~ A


bnbrF(\I









Case


Study


For


the


application


of environmental


value


engineering,


exterior


wall


construction


was


selected,


with


evaluations


include


two


alternatives:


concrete masonry


units


and


concrete


tilt-up

Force B


panels.


ase


The


Floridu


Alert

a was


Shelter

selected


Complex


Homestead


evaluation


Air


because


value


engineering


management


report


the


Alert


Shelter


Complex,


conducted


Hanscomb


Associates,


Inc.


(1986),


proposed


the


use


concrete


tilt-up


panels


place


designed


concrete


masonry


walls.


The


consisting


extent


exterior


approximately


19,200


wall


square


construction


feet,


system,


indicated


on the Alert Shelter Complex


floor plan


(Figure


1-6)


Included


the


system


area


are


portions


of the


exterior wall


over


the


eight


aircraft


hangar


doors.


Case


study


application


alternatives


and


B designate


the


exterior


wall


construction


systems


concrete


masonry


units and concrete tilt-up panels


respectively.


Wall sections


the


exterior


wall


construction


systems


alternatives


and B are


provided


Figure


Referring to


Figure


the


pitched


roof


construction


system


both


alternatives


indicated


because


affected.


The


concrete


masonry


unit


exterior


wall


construction


system


alternative


A supports


the pitched roof


construction system,


whereas the pitched roof





















Figure


1-6.


Floor


plan


case


study


application


Alert


Shelter


Comple,


















WUSWW -


- -
I.- -S


a a

e-m-


ROUN FLOOR PLAN
eAkS ^*I*<


4 -6ll

(t~kN 'a Mn...
- --
-C-


-n -r



un


a- flu
t A. ._ U.A


It


~%Fu~M~M~*ryrpl+PPb~La~L~




















Figure


1-7.


Exterior
(a) Case
(b) Case


wall
Study
Study


sections of
Application
Application


case study application
Alternative A.
Alternative B.


Alert


Shelter


Comp


















SPitched roof construction system











Concrete masonry unit
exterior wall system 0411


0322


LPitched roof construction i

V Steel beam

- Steel column






Concrete tilt-up panel
exterior wall system 0411


-......C *rrg C--------------
*1 6t .. -.-< *.*.~.* .*~.**..........................~.
~5.*& ~ .t.'.tt.. %*.~%. ~ .~C..............4 ~.%............................%~.t. .
~ A A A S. ~S.









management


report


Hanscomb


Associates,


Inc.


(1986)


. The


pitched


roof


construction


system must


included


to properly


evaluate


the


environmental


impact


both


exterior


wall


construction


system


alternatives


Methods


analysis


used


case


study


application


alternatives


review


engineering


A and


analysis


. Analysis


are


systems


results


described


related


are


Chapter


following


environmental


presented


value


Chapter


State


-of-the-Art


Review


extensive


literature


search


related


analysis


systems


was


conducted.


literature


codeword


search


Dissertation


Technical


Abstracts


Information


International


Service


(CD-ROM),


(CD-ROM),


National


Government


Publications


(CD-ROM)


, UN


Publications


(CD-ROM),


the


Enerav


and


the


Environmental


Index


found


no prior


use


the


term


"environmental


value


engineering"


Benefit-to-Cost


Analvsi


Benefit-to-cost


analysis


systematic


method


identifying


and


measuring


the


economic


benefits


and


costs


project


program


(Hufschmidt,


James,


Meister,


Bower,


Dixon,


1983).


Benefit-to-cost


analysis


became


widely


used


the


United


States


following


passage


the


federal


government


s Flood


Control


Act


of 1936,


which


required


water-


Index,









incremental


outputs


goods


and


services


including


environmental


servi


ces


made


possible


the


project,


and


the


costs


are


the values


of the


incremental


real


resources


used by


project.


Monetary value


the basi


comparison


used


benefit-to-cost


analysis


. Project


costs


and


benefits


must


discounted


over


time


compensate


monetary


value


fluctuations.


Benefit-to-cost


analysis


compares


the


benefit


-to-cost


ratio


(BCR)


proposed


project.


Collier


and


Ledbetter


(1982)


present


simplified,


conventional


model


the


benefit-to-cost


ratio


given


equation


Conventional


Net


savings


user


BCR


Owner
net o


s net


peratin


capital
c and m


cost


+ Owner'


maintenance


cost


The


owner


net


capital


cost


reflects


the


equivalent


annual


costs


obtained


application


the


appropriate


present


worth


factor,


which


based


on a specific


"expected


life"


or "study period"


and


interest rate


Standard methods of


benefit-to-cost analysis


are presented


in the American Society


for Testing


and Materials


standard


E964


(American


Society


for


Testing


and


Materials,


1990).


Results


of a benefit-to-cost


analysis


using


benefit-to-


cost


ratios


(BCR)


indicate


ratio


benefit


dollars


Anl 1 nr


4 nti'e-aAl


aL nn aC


a nr'n


aL -


Unrw ewn h


Irrl FLA~n.as


A -- --


avamt


I









Where


project


costs


and


benefits


are


easily


determined,


the


application


benefit-to-cost


analysis


simple


and


straightforward.


Benefit-to-cost analysis


normally


applied


the


economic


evaluation


of buildings


and


building


systems.


Extension


benefit-to-cost


analysis


evaluate


environmental


quality and quantify the environmental


impact of


development


proj ects


is proposed


Hufschmidt


et al


. (1983).


Differences


between


benefit-to-cost


analysis


and


environmental


value


engineering


include


the


following:


Benefits


and


costs


are


considered


a limited


study


period.


. Study


period


only


a portion


the


use


phase


environmental


value


engineering


Benefits


and


costs


are


measured


dollars.


. Environmental


inputs


are


not


considered.


Costs


are


not


totalled


over


the


life


cycle


project.


Environmental


value


engineering


a long-term


analysis


system

external


that


considers


source


inputs


all

and


built 4

benefits


environment

(savings)


alternative


terms


EMERGY,


whereas


benefit-to-cost


analysis


short-term


analysis


system


terms


of dollars


that


considers


a limited


amount of built environment alternative costs


and benefits and


excludes


environmental


source


inputs


Benefit-to-cost


only









that


paid


to people.


Embodied


Enerrav


Many documents have been written on embodied energy


since


the


energy


crisis


the


mid-1970s.


Embodied


energy


general


term


that


refers


to several


different


kinds


energy


analysis.


One


these


process


analysis


(availability


analysis-EXERGY)


that evaluates mechanical and chemical


energy


used


(including


Gibbs


free


energy).


Another


input-output


energy


analysis.


Input-output


energy


analysis


used


estimate


services


and


process


analysis


fuel,


electricity,


chemical


energy.


The


Center


Advanced


Computation


(CAC),


now


called


Energy


Research


Group


of the


University


of Illinois,


and


The


Stein


Partnership


(TSP),


under


contract


the


output


United


energy


States


Department


analysis


of Energy,


produced


two


developed


input-


documents


the


embodied


energy


building


construction


using


input-output


energy


analysis.


These


documents


are


Energy


Use


for


Building


Construction,


Final


Report


(Hannon,


Stein,


Segal,


Serber,


1976)


and


Enerav


Use


Buildinca


Construction,


Suolement


(Hannon,


Stein,


Segal,


Deibert,


Buckley,


& Nathan,


1977).


United States


Department of Energy


(1981)


document prepared by


the


Stein


Partnership


provides


fuel


energy


inputs


BTUs


per


unit


building


material


component


delivered


Anhe4 4+


onarnt,


S n rJn


4r~r~1i~e ~ra -S 4C'a a t- th 4a-


Plr al


~ nnrlt~ a rn


ChYI Ckn


n*








required


the


industries


that


produce


building


materials


and their


components


For


a comparison of


concepts


of embodied


energy,


see


Odum


(1983).


Hannon,


Stein,


Segal,


and


Serber


(1978)


evaluate


energy


and


labor


the


construction


sector


based


on an energy


and


employment


input-output


model


the


construction


industry.


Roose


(1978)


edited


book


that


contains


information


embodied energy related to various building materials.


Another


source


information


Stein,

about


Reynolds,

embodied (


and


energy,


McGuinness


with


(1986)


references


contains


to Hannon,


Stein,


Segal,


and


Serber


(1977).


Zimmerman


and


Hart


(1982)


include


information


the


energy


intensiveness


typical


building


materials


with


reference


to Roose


(1978).


Leonov


and


Stenhouse


(1979)


discuss


the


use


embodied


energy


building equipment and construction materials with a reference


to Hannon,


Lawson


Stein,


(1992)


Segal,


describes


and

the


Serber


use


(1976).

capital


A recent

energy


paper

costs


life


cycle


energy


costing.


The


capital


energy


costs


given


Lawson


are


comparable


those


Hannon,


Stein,


Segal,


and


Serber


(1978).


All


of these documents


lack consideration of


environment,


goods,


and


services


inputs


that


into


built


environment


equipment,


materials,


construction


because


only


fuel


energy


inputs


were


considered.


The


energy


value


differences









based


on ENERGY


data


from


Appendix


and


embodied


energy


data


from


Hannon


et al


. (1978).


Differences


between


comparison


built


environment


alternatives


using


embodied


energy,


described


the


previous documents,


and environmental


value engineering,


which


based


embodied


EMERGY,


energy


are


data


even


not


more


significant


include


the


because


life


the


cycle


phases,


which


are


described


the


environmental


value


engineering phases of


life cycle section of this


dissertation.


These


differences


are


what


make


the


environmental


value


engineering


analysis


system


unique.


ENERGY


Analysis


The


most


significant


difference


between


environmental


value


engineering


and


other


analysis


systems


that


utili


zes


ENERGY


analysis


techniques


developed


Howard


Odum.


EMERGY


is a scientific-based measure of wealth


that


puts


raw


materials


, commodities,


goods,


and


services


on a common


basi


, the


energy


one


type


required


to generate


that


item


(Odum,


inputs,


1991)


much


. Although


of the


EMERGY


application


analysis


so far


was


has


developed


been


for


to ecological


resource


environmental


systems.


value


Here


engineering


the


measure


to analyze


extended


the


environmental


contributions


and


requirements


built


environment


n 1C 4-rlrl~:l n + i









utilized


is the


use of


energy


and,


more specifically,


ENERGYY"


basis


comparison


instead


money


. Conversion


from


ENERGY


money


can


be made


using


ENERGY


analysis


techniques.


Energy


1981)


and


. Money


money


flow


is paid


opposite


only


to people


directions


the


(Odum


labor


Odum,


produce


goods


and


services


and


not


paid


to the


earth'


environment


for use of


the natural


resources which


went


into


the


goods


and


services


. The


units


EMERGY


utili


environmental


value


engineering are


solar emjoul


(sej)


because EMERGY


evaluation


traces


what


was


required


a product


back


a common


form


energy


show


how


energy


requirements


different


products


compare


(Odum,


1991).


The


EMERGY


analysis


approach


evaluates


resource


with


physical


measures


and


then


calculates


the


macroeconomic


dollars


the


public


eco


nomy


buying


power


contributed


that


resource


(Odum,


press)


Human


efforts


and


environmental


efforts


are


evaluated


common


basi


Odum


provide

EMERGY


detailed


analysis


review


the


related


historical


background


methods.


EMERGY


analysis


includes


the


following


methods


(Odum,


1991) :


. Draw


. Draw


a detailed


energy


an aggregated


teams


energy


diagram.


systems


diagram


Set


up an ENERGY


analyst


table


to calculate


ENERGY


C one ept s









table.


Write


a simulation


program


to study the


system through


time.


Evaluate alternatives to maximize


ENERGY


contributions


the


unified


economy


humanity


and


nature


recommending


public


police


es.


Results


an ENERGY


analysis


are


the


form


ENERGY


analysis


tabi


and


simulation


outputs


. The


ENERGY


analysis


tables


calculate


macroeconomic


United


States


dollar


contributions


each


input


source


using


equation


(Source


unit


quantity)(Tran


formity


solar


emj oul


Solar


ENERGY


per


US dollar


a specified


year


Evaluations


sources


are


made


determine


which


contribute


the


most


EMERGY


the


system


being


analyzed.


Recommendations


are


made


based


on these


ENERGY


contributions


the


values


system.

for n<


EMERGY


itural


analyst


resources


applications


and


ecosystem


serve


set


processes.


Environmental


contributions


the


economy


are


evaluated.


The


following are aspects of EMERGY


analysis


incorporated


environmental


value


engineering:


use


energy


systems


diagrams


and


language,


. solar


emjoules


as basi


of EMERGY


calculations,









use


of a computer


. utilization


of the


simulation


program,


macroeconomic


and


United States


dollar


contributions


EMERGY


of 2.0E12


servi

solar


ces


(labor),


emj oules


(sej)


)ased

per


on Solar

U.S.


dollar


1990


(Appendix


Innovations


environmental


value


engineering


follow:


Environmental


value


engineering


uses


EMERGY


on built


environment


alternatives.


simulation


program


written


to simulate


multiple


built


environment


alternatives


simultaneously.


Environmental


value engineering totals


EMERGY


of built


environment


alternatives


through


10 environmental


value


engineering


phases


EMERGY


analysis


and


environmental


value


engineering


account


environmental


contributions


made


systems.


ENERGY


analysis


forms


the


main


basi


environmental


value


engineering


Therefore


, as refinements


are


made


the


EMERGY


analyst


system,


they


would


incorporated


environmental


value


engineering.


Life


Cycle


Cost


Analysis


Life


cycle


cost


(LCC)


analyst


can


defined


economic


asses


sment


competing


design


alternatives,


considering


significant


cos


over


economic


life


A II~LI YL 1 S


r- -


~ 1 ~ Avln ~ C ': t IA


h~nk


A \~n~n A n A rl


- I


In, 1 r 1


h









1988).


The


LCC


analysis


method


sums,


either


present-value


annual-value


terms,


relevant


building


building


system


costs


over


a designated


analysis


or life


cycle


period.


The


LCC of


a building


or building


system


is calculated by


summing


relevant


cash


flows,


which


are


discounted


common


point


time,


through


a designated


analysis


period.


Life


cycle


cost


analy


may


be applied


any


time


during


project


development


use.


The


standard


practice


measuring


life


cycle


costs


buildings


and


building


stems


provided


the


American


Society


Testing


and


Material


standard


E917


(American


Soc


iety


Testing


and


Material


1990)


Computation


an LCC


in press


ent-value


(PVLCC)


terms


represented


equation


, which


given


the


American


Society


Testing


and


Material


standard


E917.


PVLCC=


(1+i)t


where


-= the


sum


relevant


costs


occurring


year


= length


study


period


(years),


and


= the


scount


rate.


Life


cycle


costs


include


the


following:


initial


investment,


operating


costs,


maintenance,


utilities,


repair,









analysis


to determine


the


present


value


various


relevant


future


costs.


Future


costs


include


replacement


costs


building


components


or systems


having


a shorter


life


than


the


LCC


analysis


period.


The


analysis


total


present-value


worth


several


alternatives,


which


satisfy


the


same


functional


requirements,


are


compared


determine


which


alternative


has


the


lowest


total


LCC.


Life


cycle


analysis


performed


the


alternatives


being


considered


have


different


relevant


costs


over


the


analyst


period.


there


are


relevant


cost


differences


between


alternatives,


economic


decision


making


based


initial


costs.


Several


aspects


analysis


are


incorporated


environmental


value


engineering


because


their


use


value


engineering


analysis


system,


which


described


following


section


. These


aspects


include:


. inclusion


of all


relevant


costs


(inputs),


. summation


relevant


costs,


. calculation


initial


costs


and


total


LCC,


and


. multiple


alternative


comparison.


Significant


differences


exist


between


LCC


and


environmental


value


engineering.


These


differences


are


. The


LCC


has


a limited


analyst


period


versus


environmental


value


engineering


life


cycle


phases









value


engineering


uses


an EMERGY


basis.


The


concluding


statement


David


. Haviland


s text


life


cycle


cost


analysis


states,


owners


and


architects


alike respond to a


world


of increasingly


limited resources


they


dollars,


mineral


deposits


or kilowatt


hours),


the


life


cycle cost analysis


tool


will become


increasingly valuable and


perhaps


even


indispensable


helping


make


critical


resource


deci


sions"


(Haviland,


1978,


When economic growth has


leveled and


in descent,


money


cannot be counted


on to increase


its value


through


investment,


will


decline


as the


level


real


wealth


declines


. Thi


would


negate


use


of life


cycl


cost


analy


Value


Encineerina


Zimmerman


and Hart


(1982


have


defined


value


engineering


as a


proven management technique using a systematized approach


seek


out


the


best


functional


balance


between


the


cost,


reliability,


and performance


of a product


or project.


A formal


"job plan"


forms the systematic


approach


to value engineering


The


job


plan


involves


each


of the


disciplines


associated


with


the


product


project


through


team


approach


value


engineering


. According


to Zimmerman


and


Hart


(1982),


the


plan


consists


the


following


five


basi


steps


Information


ase


~~a 4. *t A


nl, ,,,









The


involves


product


information


obtaining


or project


phase


much


design


value


information


requirements,


engineering


possible


design


plan


about


constraints,


and


costs


related


to the


product


or project.


Design and


design


constraint


information


obtained


from


the


owner


designer.


Cost


information


obtained


from


the


designer


and


includes


initial


construction


cost


costs


ownership


and


operation.


Functional


analysis


utilized


during


information


phase


to determine


product


or project


functions


and


their


associated


costs.


The


creative


phase


a value


engineering


job


plan


may


called


the


speculation


or brainstorming


phase.


During


phase


a number


alternatives,


which


provide


the


same


basic


functions,


are


proposed


without


regard


the


alternative


practicality.


Advantages


and


disadvantages


each


alternative


are


considered


but


judged.


Judgment


decisions


take


place


during


the


next


job


plan


phase.


The


judgment


phase


value


engineering


job


plan


used


proposed


analyze,

during


critique,


the


and


creative


rank

phase.


each


The


the


alternatives


functions


each


alternative


are


evaluated


prioritized


according


weighted


values,


which


are


based


on tangible


and


nontangible


functions


of the


alternative.


The


alternatives


that


offer


the


greatest


cost


savings


potential


are


determined.


These









The


development


phase


value


engineering


plan


selects


alternatives


determined


to have


the


greatest


cost


savings


potential


and


develops


them


into


workable


solutions.


Comparisons are made between


the original


alternatives and


the


proposed


alternatives


. The


value


engineering


team must


assure


that


proposed


alternatives


are


workable


and


reliable


and


that


they


can


implemented.


Other


implications


that


must


considered


in making proposed


alternative


recommendations


are


cost


and


scheduling.


Life


cycle


cost


analysis


is conducted


the


original


and


proposed


alternatives


predict


initial,


operating,


and maintenance costs over a


specific study period.


Factors


such


life


cycle


costs,


aesthetic


performance,


energy


consumption,


"buy


American"


are


compared


each


alternative


utili


zing


matrix


evaluation


techniques.


Recommendation


proposed


alternatives


are


then


made.


The


recommendation


phase


the


last


step


the


value


engineering


job


plan


. Value


engineering


team


recommendations


are


presented


to the decis


ion makers


for review,


adoption,


and


implementation of the proposed alternatives


that are


selected.


Salesmanship


keyword


during


phase.


The


value


engineering


team


must


make


good


recommendations,


which


are


based


on an open-minded


review


alternatives,


reduce


unnecessary


costs


the


product


or project


owner.


Monetary


cost


reduction


main


objective


value


engineering









time.


The


LCC analysis methodology


detailed


in ASTM E917-89


defines


"study


period"


follows:


The
may


study
not re


period


reflect


appropriate


the


life


the


the


LCC


building


analysis may or
or system to be


evaluated.


(American Society


for Testing and Materials


, 1989,


account


the


true


total


environmental


impact


inputs


built


environment


alternatives,


the


study


period


must


include all


phases of


the built environment alternatives.


distinct


difference


between


EVE


and


traditional


value engineering


Figure


indicates the


phases


included


EVE


and


that


analyzes


the


total


environmental


impact


whole


built


environment


alternatives


versus


only


specific


component


comparisons


as conducted


value


engineering


It may


be concluded


from the state-of-the-art review that


available systems for analy


ing built environment alternatives


not


adequately


evaluate


environment


resource


contributions.


As the effects of environmental


impacts related


the


expansion


modification


the


built


environment


increase,


so does


the


potential


need


an analysis


system


like


environmental


value


engineering.















CHAPTER
METHODS


Thi


chapter


represents


methods


utilized


to develop


the


environmental


value


engineering


analysis


system


and


application


a case


study.


Enerav


Systems


Diagrams


and


Lancuace


Energy systems diagrams


(models


and language are used in


dissertation to communicate


the relationship of EMERGY


a built


environment


alternative


s systems.


Howard


. Odum


has


been


developing


energy


diagrams


and


language


used


ENERGY


analysis


more


than


three


decades


. Thi


section


the


dissertation


describes


energy


system


diagrams


and


language


a complete description of


energy


system diagrams


and


language


development,


see


Odum


(1971,


1983,


and


1991)


and


Odum


Odum


(1981)


Descriptions


energy


systems


diagram


symbols


and


language


are


aggregated


according


natural


groupings


and


hierarchi


(Appendix


Energy


systems diagrams


are based


the


fact


that


: 1)


some


energy


flows


on all


pathways,


some


energy


transformed


through


production,


consumption


and









There


an EMERGY


hierarchical


organization


energy


systems


diagrams.


External


energy


system


boundary


are


energy


sources,


which


are


arranged


from


lowest


quality


the


lower


left


corner,


then


clockwi


the


highest


quality


source


the


lower


right


corner


. The


bottom


the


energy


system


diagram


boundary


used


only


the


dispersion


potential


symbol.


energy


Within


into


the


heat,


energy


which


system


indicated


boundary


a heat


are


sink


producers,


consumers,


and


storage


which


ascend


energy


quality


from


left


toward


the


right


. Relationships


between


these


producers,


consumers


, and


storage


are


indicated


energy


circuits


pathways


energy


flow.


The


energy


systems


diagram


and


language


were


used


visually

various


represent

external El


the


~'IERGY


influences


input


sources


relationships


to a built


the


environment


alternative


Two


level


energy


teams


diagrams


were


constructed


represent


ese


relationships.


First,


detailed energy


systems diagram of


a typical built environment


alternative


system


was


drawn


with


corresponding


ENERGY


input

was


sources.


drawn


Second,

indicate


aggregated


the


energy


relationship


systems

EMERGY


diagram


systems


built


environment


alternative


through


environmental


value


engineering


cases


n-c^4--h. 7* ?-a


n?,,,,,


BU15ml~V


trVI..L








data


collection.


The


detailed


ENERGY


diagram


like


inventory

diagram o


input


f a typical


sources.

I built


Figure


environment


a detailed


alternative


ENERGY


system.


The


following


steps


are


taken


to diagram


a typical


built


environment


alternative


system:


The


system


boundary


defined.


. A li


st of


ENERGY


input


sources


made.


. Input


sources


are


arranged


order


energy


quality


outside


the


system


boundary.


. Pathway


. The


lines


system


are


drawn


production


represent


output


pathway


ENERGY


line


flows.


drawn.


The detailed EMERGY


diagram represents the EMERGY


related


environment


(E) ,


fuel


energy


(F) ,


goods


(G) ,


and


services


inputs


utili


in a built environment alternative system.


Each

that


these


affects


sources

the a"


may


be considered


availability


the


as a limiting


built


factor


environment


alternative


system.


Representation


the


total


environmental


impact EMERGY


built environment alternative systems


an environmental


value


engineering


phase


are


similar


that


an individual


system


. The


next higher


level


detail


diagrammed


was


an aggregated


EMERGY


diagram


, which


indicates


relationship of


of the environmental


value engineering


phases


built


environment


alternative


the


various


source


inputs


. The


aggregated


ENERGY


diagram


represents






















Figure


2-1.


Detailed


ENERGY


diagram.


















GOODS


ENERGY


RENEWABLE
RESOURCE


a- ---


ri/
/
/;
/


ENVIRONMENTAL


ft
I I
I I
I I
I I


BUILT ENVIRONMENT


ALTERNATIVE


SYSTEM


PR~IE


~llll~l-ll-ll;rC-------i


IMm









Acrcregated


ENERGY


Input


Diacram


An aggregated


EMERGY


diagram


was


drawn


to represent


the


total


source


inputs


EMERGY


from


environment


(E),


fuel


energy


(F),


goods


(G) ,


and


services


inputs


whole


built


environment


alternative


over the


10 environmental


value


engineering phases.


Figure


is an aggregated EMERGY


diagram


indicating


ENERGY


inputs


through


these


phases


and


production


output


transformity


a built


environment


alternative.


Components


within


the


aggregated


ENERGY


diagram boundary


represent


environmental


ENERGY


value


accumulations

engineering


that

phase.


occur

ENERGY


within

pathways


each

are


indicated


from


environment


the various external


alternative


input sources


passes


to the built


through


the


environmental


value


engineering


phases.


The


circulation


money


is not indicated because environmental


value engineering


considers


environmental


impacts


terms


ENERGY


and


not


money


Any


external


input


sources


involving


money


are


converted


to ENERGY


using


the


appropriate


transformity


of the


input


source.


Environmental


value


engineering


ENERGY


calculations


are


conducted


use


EMERGY


analysis


tables


and


ENERGY


simulation


program.


Methods


EMERGY


analysis


table


preparation


and


EMERGY


simulation


input


are


described


following


sections.





















Figure


Aggregated


EMERGY


diagram.













Goc


P1W~
'I


PHASE
I


PHASE
F


PHASE


PHASE
B









facilitate


the


calculation


of EMERGY


the


various


sources


of external


input


to a built


environment


alternative


over


the


10 environmental

Procedures


value eng

for making


rineering


phases.


an environmental


value engineering


ENERGY


analysis


table


are


similar


those


ENERGY


analysis


table


as designed


Dr. Howard


. Odum,


except


a few


differences


. One


difference


that


the


external


input


sources


are


consolidated


into


environment,


nonrenewable


fuel


energy,


goods,


and


servi


ces.


Another


difference


that


environmental


value


engineering


ENERGY


analysis


table


account


for all


systems of


a built environment alternative


through


the


10 phases


of environmental


value


engineering


. Table


is an


environmental


value


engineering


EMERGY


analysis


table.


The


procedures


making


environmental


value


engineering


ENERGY


analysis


table


are:


Make


an environmental


value


engineering


EMERGY


analysis


table


each built


environment alternative


system and


each


environmental


value


engineering phase


with


one


line


the


table


each


environment,


nonrenewable


fuel


energy,


goods,


and


servi


ces


input.


. Number


the


lines


to match


back-up


sheets


data


sources,


references,


calculations,


or other


detail


. Put


the


input


source


the


item


column.


. In


the


second


column


of data


put


raw


data


each









Table


ENVIRONMENTAL


VALUE


ENGINEERING


EMERGY


ANALYSIS


TABLE


[EVE


des


iqnation]


Note Item Raw Units Transformity Solar EMERGY
g,J,$ sej/unit sej

E ENVIRONMENT

El Atmosphere

E2 Ecol. Prod.

E3 Energy

E4 Land

E5 Water



F FUEL ENERGY

Fl Equipment

F2 Facilities



G GOODS

G1 Equipment

G2 Facilities

G3 Materials

G4 Tools



S Services

S1 Labor

52 Labor









In the


fourth


column,


multiply


data


from


column


2 by


the


solar


transformity


from


column


thus


obtaining


solar


EMERGY


values.


. Input


the


solar


EMERGY


values


for


each


phase


each


built


environment


alternative


into


the


simulation


program.


Solar


transformities


are


obtained


from


research


data


described


the


ENERGY


analysis


section


the


state-of-the-


art


review


Chapter


Appendix


provides


typical


solar


transformities


related


the built


environment.


Total


EMERGY


of a built


environment


alternative


through


the 10 environmental


value engineering phases


is calculated by


the


simulation


engineering E

environmental


SMERG1

value


program.

Y analysis


Le


engineering


From


the


tables


and


EMERGY


environmental

simulation


indices


are


value


program ,


calculated


compare


built


environment


alternatives,


identify


high


ENERGY


items,


predict


trends,


and


suggest


which


built


environment


alternative


has


the


least


environmental


impact


ENERGY


over


life


cycle.


Environmental


Value


Enaineerin


EMERGY


Indices


Environmental


developed


aspects


value


compare


built


engineering


various


environment


ENERGY


environmental

alternatives.


indices

impact

From


were


ENERGY

these


nEYCL( -Y -~ a .-a-Aa aa- a.a l.a a* a


,,,~! I113


L U ~ I, ~ 1


YYII~!


~Y3


Ir








environment


alternatives


that satisfy


functional


requirements


with


the


least


amount


environmental


impact


ENERGY.


Environmental


value


engineering


ENERGY


indices


form


the


basis


the


environmental


value


engineering


selection


process.


Environmental


determine


value

a built


engineering

environment


EMERGY


indices


alternative


ha


can be

s a net


used to

ENERGY


yield.


other


words,


the


total


production


output


(yield)


ENERGY


exceeds


the


total


source


input


ENERGY.


Environmental


value


engineering


ENERGY


indices


are


derived


from


EMERGY


analysis


ENERGY


indi


ces.


ENERGY


analysis


ENERGY


indi


ces


include


solar


transformity,


net


ENERGY


yield


ratio, 4

analysis


and


ENERGY


ENERGY


investment


indices


are


ratio


calculated


(Odum,

using


1991).

data


ENERGY


obtained


from


ENERGY


Analysis


tables.


Environmental


value


engineering


ENERGY


indi


ces


are


calculated


from


detailed


and


aggregated


ENERGY


input source data


tables and


simulation program tabular


output


data.


Environmental


value


engineering


EMERGY


indices


are


useful


comparing


built


environment


alternatives.


These


indices


include


the


following:


Solar


transformitv


object


resource


the


equivalent


solar


energy


that


would


required


generate


(create)


unit


that


object


resource


effi


ciently


and


rapidly


(Odum,


1991)









whether


the


process


can


compete


supplying


a primary


energy


source


an economy


Net


ENERGY


(Odum,


yield


1991)


ratio


+ G+ S


where


= production


output


(yield),


= fuel

= goods


energy

input,


= services


input,

and


(labor)


input.


ENERGY


investment


ratio


the


ratio


the


ENERGY


back


from


the


economy


the


EMERGY


inputs


from


the


free


environment.


This


ratio


indicates


if the


process


is economical


a utilizer


economy


investments


comparison


alternatives


(Odum,


1991).


Areas with higher


investment ratios


than average have more


impact


on the environment


(Odum,


1981).


F+ G


ENERGY


investment


ratio


where


= environmental


input,


= fuel

= goods


energy

input,


= services


input,

and


(labor)


input.








ENERGY


per unit of built environment production output


measure


the


total


ENERGY


used


built


environment


alternative

production


from


output.


all

This


sources


the


divided


transformity


the

per


total

unit o


gross


f built


environment


alternative


production


output.


Interpretation


the


environmental


value


engineering


ENERGY


indices


form


the


summary


environmental


value


engineering


analysis


of built


environment


alternatives.


Built


environment


alternative


selection


recommendations,


which


reduce


environmental


impact


ENERGY,


are


based


these


indices.


Environmental


Value


Enaineerinac


Simulation


Program


Program


Development


A computer


simulation


program


was


developed


to study


the


ENERGY


properties


of aggregated


energy


systems diagram models


of built


environment


alternatives


over


the


environmental


value


engineering


phases.


The


program


used


conjunction


with environmental


value engineering EMERGY


analysis tables to


account


alternatives

engineering


the


total


through


EMERGY


ENERGY


their


analysis


life

table


these


cycle.


built


environment


Environmental


evaluation


and


value


simulations


were


used


compare


the


total


ENERGY


various


built


environment


alternatives.









simultaneous

environment


simulation


alternatives


the


are


EMERGY


possible.


multiple

Third,


built

ENERGY


calculation


data


can


easily


input


into


the


simulation


program,


and,


finally,


simulation output results are available


graphical


and


tabular


formats.


The


environmental


value


engineering


simulation program was developed to


simulate up to


built


environment


alternatives


simultaneously


through


environmental


value


engineering


phases.


The


UNIFORMAT


Code


of Accounts


designation


system


and


environmental


value


engineering phases


were


incorporated


into


the environmental


value engineering


simulation program through


development


an EMERGY


input


variable


designation


system.


The


designation


system


was


designed


accommodate


the


need


built


environment


alternatives,


additional


environmental


value


engineering


pha


ses


, and


increased


level


detailed


environmental


value


engineering


ENERGY


analysis.


The


DYNAMO


simulation


program


used


environmental


value


engineering


is provide


Appendix


A description


the


ENERGY


input


variable


designation


system


utilized


simulation


program


provided


the


following


sec


tion


ENERGY


EMERGY


calculations


Calculations


and


and


program


Program


data


Data


input.


Input


Environmental


value


engineering


analysis


simulations


are


llnnr'a 1 rni n4+ 4 nnen


rRnafPIV


h~cra~


r*: mr~l a I: hn


rlnnn


nUhlYY~ ~









description


the


environmental


value


engineering


ENERGY


input designation system is


provided


in Figure


2-3.


The ENERGY


input


designation


system


was


developed


to match


the


various


aspects


the


environmental


value


engineering


analysis


system.

sources


These


aspects


(Appendix


include

environment


environmental

tal value eng


impact


ineering


EMERGY

ENERGY


analysis


tabl


(Table


2-1),


and


the


environmental


value


engineering


simulation


program


(Appendix


Environmental


value


engineering


ENERGY


calculations


and


simulation


program


data


input


include


the


following


steps


Conduct


material


mass


quantity


take-off


for


initial


environmental

alternatives


impact


and


ENERGY


include


of phases


as back-up


A-C


sheets


with


the


applicable


analysis


environmental


table


value


for material


engineering


ENERGY


transformity phases


A-C.


. Enter


material


raw


unit


quantities


for


phases


A-C


directly


into


the


simulation


program.


Collect


transformities


for material


not


database


and


add


to simulation


program


transformity


list.


Construct


analysis


environmental


tables


value


alternatives


engineering


and


EMERGY


alternative


teams


being


analyzed.


. Categorize


ENERGY


inputs


environment


(E),


fuel


energy


(F),


goods


(G) ,


and


servi


ces





















Figure


2-3.


Description
designation


of environmental


value


engineering


system.














BUILT ENVIRONMENT
ALTERNATIVE


ENVIRONMENTAL


VALUE


ENGINEERING PHASE


BUILT ENVIRONMENT
ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM


INPUT SOURCE


O








. Construct


analysis


applicable


environmental


table


value


calculation


alternative


engineering


back-up


systems


ENERGY


sheets


during


environmental


value


engineering


pha


ses


D-J.


. Collect


raw


unit


quantities


environment,


fuel


energy,


goods


, and


services


ENERGY


source


inputs


back-up


sheets


inclusion


appropriate


environmental


value


engineering


ENERGY


analysis


tabl


es.


. Calculate


source


input


ENERGY


environmental


value


engineering


applicable


ENERGY


analysis


alternative


system


tables


during


each


each


environmental


value


engineering


phase


alternatives.


10. Transfer


source


input


ENERGY


quantities


from


environmental


value


engineering


ENERGY


analysis


tabi


the simulation


program


Check


to make


sure


environmental


value


engineering


EMERGY


analysis


table


data


were


correctly


input


the


simulation


program.


The


following


section


provides


a case


study


application


of the environmental


value engineering EMERGY


calculations and


data


input


methods


described


above.


Case


Strudv


Annli i a i nn


Mnt-hnr c









UN I FORMAT


Code


Accounts


systems


0322-Pitched


Roof


Construction and


0411-Exterior Wall


Construction.


Alternative


was


the


built


environment


alternative


concrete


masonry


unit


exterior


wall


system


0411


originally


designed,


and


alternative


was


the


concrete


tilt-up


panel


exterior


wall


system


study.


0411


proposed


Pitched


roof


the


Hanscomb


construction


(1986)


system


0322


value


was


engineering


included


both


alternatives


and


because


was


affected


the


exterior


wall


construction


system.


Environmental


value


engineering


ENERGY


analysis


tables


were used to calculate the environmental


impact EMERGY


related


these


two


systems


through


environmental


value


engineering


phases.


The


EMERGY


data


was


then


input


into


the


environmental


value


engineering


simulation


program


simulation


the


two


alternatives.


ENERGY


Cflculaticns


and


Program


Data


Input


conduct


calculations,


the


case


information


study


was


application


obtained


from


ENERGY

existing


documents.

drawings,


These


documents


architectural


desi


included

gn budget


architectural

, construction


design

cost


estimate,


and


Hanscomb


(1986)


value


engineering


study.


Other


ENERGY


calculation information was obtained through references


and


interviews


related


specific


environmental


value


onn 1 ncnr h a*4 an mar"4..hn T-Tam ^stvfl 4 ,-^r Al


pnrr i nasr; nrv v\h I a a a


FMFPIIV








ENERGY


material


transformity


phases


A-C


for


alternatives


A and


. Material


raw


unit


quantities


for


phases


A-C


both


alternatives A and B were entered


into the simulation


program


provided


Appendix


Applicable


transformities


were


added


simulation


program


transformity


list.


Environmental


value


engineering


ENERGY


analysis


tables


were


constructed


each


environmental


value


engineering


phase


of systems


0322


and


0411


for


alternatives


A and


Source


input


ENERGY


was


categorized


as environment


(E),


fuel


energy


(F) ,


goods


(G) ,


and


services


(S).


Environmental


value


engineering


ENERGY


analysis


tables


were


arranged


order


alternative,


phase,


alternative


system.


. ENERGY


each


calculation


source


back-up


input


sheets


each


were


constructed


environmental


value


engineering


ENERGY


analysis


table


phases


D-J.


. Raw

were


unit


quantities


calculated


source


on back-up


inputs


sheets


for


and


inclusion


appropriate


environmental


value


engineering


ENERGY


analysis


tabl


es.


. Source


input


EMERGY


was


calculated


on each









engineering


ENERGY


analysis


tables


was


input


the


simulation


program


provided


Appendix


Simulation


program


input


was


checked


against


applicable


environmental


value


engineering


ENERGY


analysis


tables.


After


source


input


EMERGY


quantities


were


input


the


simulation


program,


a simulation


of alternatives


A and


was


conducted.


The


methods


of simulation


are


described


the


following


section.


Description


Simulation


and


Use


Environmental


Value


Engineering


Program


To perform the case study application simulation,


certain


simulation


program


variables


were


set.


These


variables


included


the


analysis


baseline


year,


environmental


value


engineering


phase


conclusion


times,


and


simulation


program


specifications


of computation


interval


delta


time


(DT),


save


period,


plot


period,


and


length


analysis


period.


Once


the


simulation


program


variables


were


set,


the


simulation program was saved,


compiled,


simulated,


viewed,


and


plotted.


Results


the


case


study


application


simulation


ENERGY


inputs


are


presented


the


following


chapter.















CHAPTER
RESULTS


Thi


chapter


presents


the


results


obtained


from


environmental


value


engineering


analysis


case


study


application


alternatives


and


Environmental


value


engineering


ENERGY


analysis


table


with


calculation


back-up


sheets,


environmental


value


engineering


tabular


simulation


output,


ENERGY


input


signatures,


ENERGY


input


source


data


table


and


graphical


simulation


output


are


utilized


represent


the


analysis


results.


Results


include


case


study


application


environmental


value


engineering


calculations,


detailed


ENERGY


input


analysis


comparison


case


study


application


systems,


aggregated


ENERGY


input


analysis


and


comparison


case


study


application


alternatives.


Case


Study


Annlication


ENERGY


Environmental


Calculations


Value


Enaineerina


Application


methods


described


the


environmental


value


engineering


case


study


application


methods


section


previous


chapter


provides


two


basic


types


results


the


completed


tables


with


environmental


annl icrahhl


value


WMWIRflV


e engineering

r(sl nil na4 n


ENERGY

h a rIr-, nn


analysis
ch eIa ea


: 1)


I









the


tabular


output


output


provides


the


input


source


simulation


data,


program.


which


The

used


tabular


the


aggregated


EMERGY


input


source


data


table


described


later.


Environmental


Value


Enaineerina


ENERGY


Analvsi


Tabl


Case


study


application


environmental


impact


EMERGY


quantities


associated


with


input


sources


of environment,


fuel


energy,


goods,


and


services


are


the


result


calculations


performed


the


environmental


value


engineering


ENERGY


analysis


tables


and


calculation


back-up


sheets


provided


Appendix


F. An


example


an environmental


value


engineering


ENERGY


analysis


table


provided


Table


3-1.


The ENERGY


analysis


table


and calculation back-up sheets


are


arranged


order


alternative,


environmental


value


engineering phase,


and alternative system.


Figure 2


provides


a description


the


designation


system


used.


Information


ENERGY


analysis


tables


comes


from


three


sources.


First,


the


environmental


impact


EMERGY


source


items


are


from


the


st given


in Appendix B


Second,


raw units


are


obtained


from


the


EMERGY


analysis


table


calculation


back-


sheets,


which


are


described


the


following


section.


Third,


transformiti


are


obtained


from


the


transformity


list


provided in Appendix D


Environmental


value engineering EMERGY


nm' a cc nn 1 r ni n + 45 r.v


nnalvai~


f" ~r kl ad


k ~ nGr rn


~W~~lt: r3 IIIJ


~k hnC rrr









TABLE


3-1.


EXAMPLE
ANALYSIS


ENVIRONMENTAL


VALUE


ENGINEERING


TABLE.


ENERGY


AF0411


Note Item Raw Units Transformity Solar EMERGY
g,J,$ sej/unit sej

E ENVIRONMENT 0

El Atmosphere NA

E2 Ecol. Prod. NA

E3 Energy NA

E4 Land NA

E5 Water NA



F FUEL ENERGY 2.02E15

F1 Equipment 3.06E10 J 6.60E4

F2 Facilities NA



G GOODS 3.06E13

G1 Equipment 4.56E3 g 6.70E9 3.06E13

G2 Facilities NA

G3 Materials NA

G4 Tools NA



S SERVICE 1.72E17

Sl Labor 8.59E4 $ 2.00E12 1.72E17









calculated on


the ENERGY


analysis


tables are then


incorporated


the


detailed


ENERGY


input


source


data


table


and


the


simulation


program.


EMERGY


Anal


vsis


Table


Calculation


Back-un


Sheets


The


EMERGY


analysis


table


calculation


back-up


sheets


serve


two


purposes.


First,


they


contain


the


raw


unit


calculations


input


sources


of environment,


fuel


energy,


goods,


and


servi


ces


associated


with


case


study


application


alternatives


A and


. These


units


are


utilized


the


ENERGY


analysis


tabi


to calculate


the


environmental


impact


solar


ENERGY


related


each


system


each


alternative


environmental


value


engineering


phases.


Second,


the


back-up


sheets


contain


raw


data


source


citations.


example


portion


EMERGY


analysis


table


calculation


back-up


sheet


case


study


application


alternative


A designation


AC0322


provided


Figure


3-1.


Appendix


contains


the


ENERGY


analysis


table


and


corresponding


calculation


back-up


sheets


case


study


application


alternatives


A and


Environmental


Value


Eniineerinac


Tabular


Simulation


Output


tabular


simulation


output


the


case


study


application was obtained


as a result of


an environmental


value


engineering


simulation


with


the


DYNAMO


program.


An example





















Figure


3-1.


An example of an environmental value engineering
EMERGY analysis table calculation back-up sheet.









AC0322


ENERGY INPUT CALCULATION BACK-UP


Steel


transformity


Petroleum product


= 1.80E9


sej/g


transformity


= 6.60E4


sej/J


Steel


quantity


= 9.08E7


Petroleum product quantity =
(1.82E6 g)/((9#/Gal) (55


(6.28E9 J/BBL)


[Materi
.08E7 a)(2%


Gal/BBL)(453


= 5.09E10 J


[Appendix D]
al take-off]
) = 1.82E6 g


.6 g/#))


. Environmental.
Steel


Environmental


input transformity portion
[Odum,


= 37


in press]


(1.80E9
(9.08E7


sej/g) (0.
g)(6.71E8


Petroleum product
Environmental


373)


input


= 6


sej/g)


71E8


sej/g


= 6.09E16


transformity portion


=25 %


.60E4


sej/J) (0


.09E10 J)(1


.25)


.65E4


= 1.65E4


sej/J)


sej/J
.40E14


[Estimate]


Total


environmental


input


= 6.17E16


. Fuel


energy.


Steel


Fuel


energy


(1.80E9
(9.08E7


input transformity portion
[Odum,


sej/g)(0.465)


g) (8


.37E8


= 8.37E8


sej/g)


sej/g


= 46.5 %
in press]


7.60E16 sej


Petroleum product


Fuel


energy


input transformity portion


= 25 %


[Estimate]


60E4


sej/J) (0


.25)


= 1.65E4


sej/J


09E10 J)(1


65E4


sej/J)


= 8.40E14


Total


fuel


energy


input


= 7.68E16 sej









Table 3-2.


EXAMPLE TABULAR SIMULATION OUTPUT.


TIME


2074.


AAC
ADT
AET
AFT
AGT
AHT
AIT
AJT
ATEIE


BA C
BDT
BET
BFT
BGT
BHT
BIT
BJT
BTEIE


370.e15
12.57e15
34.38e15
210.el5
0.
13.8el5
0.
18.35e15
659.e15


406.6e15
12.86e15
32.e15
96.37e15
5385.e12
17.33e15


20.29e15
590.8e15


TIME


2079.


AC
ADT
AET
AFT
AGT
AHT
AIT
AJT
ATEIE


BA C
BDT
BET
BFT
BGT
BHT
BIT
BJT
BTEIE


370.e15
12.57e15
34.38e15
210.e15
0.
13.8e15
0.
18.35e15
659.e15


406.6e15
12.86e15
32.e15
96.37e15
5385.e12
17.33e15
0.
20.29e15
590.8e15


2075.


370.e15
12.57e15
34.38e15
210.e15
0.
13.8e15
0.
18.35e15
659.e15


406.6e15
12.86e15
32.e15
96.37e15
5385.e12
17.33e15


20.29e15
590.8e15


2080.


370.e15
12.57e15
34.38e15
210.e15
0.
13.8e15
0.
18.35e15
659.e15


406.6e15
12.86e15
32.e15
96.37e15
5385.e12
17.33e15
0.
20.29e15
590.8e15


2076.


370.el5
12.57e15
34.38e15
210.el15
0.
13.8e15
0.
18.35e15
659.e15


406.6e15
12.86e15
32.e15
96.37e15
5385.e12
17.33e15
0.
20.29e15
590.8el5


2081.


370.e15
12.57e15
34.38e15
210.e15
0.
13.8e15
0.
18.35e15
659.e15


406.6e15
12.86e15
32.e15
96.37e15
5385.el12
17.33e15
0.
20.29e15
590.8e15


2077.


370.el5
12.57e15
34.38e15
210.el15
0.
13.8e15
0.
18.35e15
659.e15


406.6e15
12.86e15
32.e15
96.37e15
5385.e12
17.33e15
0.
20.29e15
590.8e15


2082.


370.el15
12.57e15
34.38e15
210.e15
0.
13.8e15
0.
18.35e15
659.e15


406.6e15
12.86el5
32.e15
96.37e15
5385.e12
17.33e15
0.
20.29e15
590.8e15


2078


370.e15
12.57e15
34.38e15
210.e15
0.
13.8e15
0.
18.35e15
659.e15


406.6e15
12.86e15
32.e15
96.37e15
5385.e12
17.33e15
0.
20.29e15
590.8e15


2083.


370.e15
12.57e15
34.38e15
210.e15
0.
13.8e15
0.
18.35e15
659.e15


406.6e15
12.86e15
32.e15
96.37e15
5385.e12
17.33e15
0.
20.29e15
590.8e15









alternatives


A and


over


the


life


cycle


analysis


period


years


. The


complete


output


provided


Appendix


Data


the


case


study


application


aggregated


ENERGY


input


source


data


tables


are


obtained


from


the


tabular


simulation


output.


Designations


alternatives,


environmental


value


engineering


phases,


input


sources,


and


phase


ENERGY


totals


are


provided


along


the


left


side


The


cumulative


environmental


impact


EMERGY


total


designated


the


bottom


line


each


alternative.


A description


case


study application tabular simulation


output use


provided


the


section


on aggregated


ENERGY


input


source


data


tabl


es.


Detailed


ENERGY.


Input


Analvsi


The results of the detailed EMERGY


input analysis


portion


environmental


value


engineering


the


pitched


roof


construction


system


0322


case


study


application


alternatives


A and


are


represented


first


detailed


ENERGY


input


source


data


tables


and


then


translation


data


into


detailed


EMERGY


input


signatures.


Detailed EMERGY


input source data


tabi


represent EMERGY


data


calculation


results


from


two


sources


. These


sources


are


the environmental


value engineering EMERGY


analysis tables and


the


case


study


application


simulation


program


tabular


output.


Detailed


ENERGY


input


signatures


represent


ENERGY


input


~nii r'.a A 4-n rnm 4lmn Aa4-ehI 4 -. 'ttltt .. ..aa 3-.8.- Ltti


a nr 1 rrca


:YI~IL rrur~ 3-L-


L,111









The


following


four


sections


describe


detailed


ENERGY


input


data,


source


and


data


detailed


table


nomenclature,


EMERGY


input


sources


signatures


of ENERGY


the


input


pitched


roof


construction


system


0322


and


exterior


wall


construction


system


0411


of alternatives


A and


Detailed


ENERGY


Construction


Input
System


Source


Data


Tables


Pitched


0322


Roof


The


detailed


EMERGY


input


source


data


tables


the


pitched


roof


construction


system


0322


case


study


application


alternatives


A and


are


given


Tables


3-3a


and


3-3b.


Referring


these


tables,


the


system


ENERGY


input


sources


of environment


(E),


fuel


energy


(F),


goods


(G),


and


services


are


given


columns


below


ENERGY


input


source


data,


and


environmental


value


engineering


phases


are


represented


rows


along


the


left


side.


Phase


ENERGY


totals


are


given


alternative


right


system


given


column.


the


Total


lower


ENERGY


right


for


corner


the


each


ENERGY


input


source


data


table.


ENERGY


input


source


data


columns


(E),


(F),


(G),


and


the


data


table


were


obtained


from


the


environmental


value


engineering


alternative


ENERGY


system


analysis


each


tables


environmental


the


value


designated

engineering


phase.


These


tables


are


provided


Appendix


Phase


ENERGY


totals


were


obtained


from


the


case


study


application









TABLE


. DETAILED


ROOF


CASE


ENERGY


CONSTRUCTION


STUDY


INPUT


SOURCE


SYSTEM


APPLICATION


DATA


FOR


PITCHED


0322.


ALTERNATIVE


ENERGY


INPUT


SOURCE


DATA


SEJ)


ENVIRON


17E16


FUEL


ENERGY


.68E16


GOODS


6.56E1


SERVICES


.16E16


TOTAL
PHASE
EMERGY


1.67E17


1.41E13 1.48E14 0 4.56E15 4.72E15

0 2.75E15 3.35E15 2.40E16 3.01E16

0 6.49E15 1.01E15 2.84E16 3.59E16

0 0 0 0 0

0 3.21E16 4.76E15 5.56E16 9.25E16

0 0 0 0 0


21E12


6.46E14


.67E13


1.33E15


.01E15


TOTAL


ENERGY


OF ALTERNATIVE


A SYSTEM


0322


CASE


STUDY


APPLICATION


ALTERNATIVE


EVE
PHASE


A-C


EMERGY


INPUT


SOURCE


DATA


(SEJ)


ENVIRON. FUEL GOODS SERVICES
ENERGY
(E) (F) (G) (S)
Im


6.46E16


8.03E16


6.86E15


.26E16


74E17


D 1.44E13 1.50E14 0 4.64E15 4.80E15

E 0 3.30E15 3.50E15 2.52E16 3.20E16

F 0 6.67E15 1.10E15 2.96E16 3.74E16

G 0 0 0 0 0

H 0 3.21E16 4.76E15 5.56E16 9.25E16


3.32E17


TOTAL
PHASE
EMERGY








application


alternative


Comments


the


main


aspects


Table


3-3a


follow:


Refer


to Figure


for


environmental


value


engineering


phase


designations.


No environment


input


at phases


and


. Goods


input


at de


sign


phase


D not


included


analysis.


Environment


input


source


at design


phase


includes


land


water


use.


use


phase


G ENERGY


input


sources.


No recycling


phase


I ENERGY


input


sources


because


alternative


assumes


no recycling.


Environment


input


source


at disposal


phase


includes


to debris


land


use based


volume


on ratio of


this


system


land surface area


of alternative


Refer


AJ0322


calculations


Appendix


Table


3-3b


represents


the


ENERGY


input


source


data


the


pitched


roof


construction


system


0322


case


study


application


alternative


Comments


the


main


aspects


Table


3-3b


follow:


Refer


Figure


environmental


value


engineering


phase


designations.


. No


environment


input


at phases


and


Goods


input


design


phase


D not


included








use


phase


G ENERGY


input


sources.


No recycling


phase


I EMERGY


input


sources


because


alternative


assumes


no recycling.


Environment


input


source


at disposal


phase


includes


land use based


on ratio of


land surface area


to debris


volume


this


system


alternative


Refer


BJ0322


calculations


Appendix


Detailed


ENERGY


input


signatures


were


constructed


compare


detailed


input


source


ENERGY


quantities


for


pitched


roof


construction


system


0322


case


study


application


alternatives


A and


iled ENERGY


Innut Sianatures


Pitched Roof Construction


System


0322


The detailed


ENERGY


input


signature


the


pitched


roof


construction


system


0322


case


study


application


alternatives


and


are


given


Figures


3-2a


and


3-2b,


respectively.


Referring


these


figures,


the


EMERGY


input


sources


environment


fuel


energy


(F),


goods


(G),


and


services


for


each


environmental


value


engineering


phase


are


given


columns


and


are


labeled


along


the


signature


bottom.


Quantities


input


source


ENERGY,


units


1012


solar


emjoules


(sej),


are


represented


along


the


left


side


the


signature.


Each


major


quantity


line


represents


"order


Deta


(E)





















Figure


3-2.


Detailed EMERGY input signatures
construction system 0322.
(a) Case study application alte:
(b) Case study application altez


of pitched


roof


native
native
















E12 SEJ






100,000



10,000



1,000



100


ENVIRONMENTAL VALUE ENGINEERING PHASES


------------------- -------------
A-C D E F 0 H I J











E- ----- F -----
---- -----









---- ----






E.F GSEF SEF GSEFEEFGSEF G! EEFS


EMERGY INPUT SOURCE


E12 SW


1.000,000



100,000







1,000


100



tA


ENVIRONMENTAL VALUE ENGINEERING PHASES


---- ------- -------
A-C D E F Q H I J




-- --- ------



i -- -- ---I








and


3-2b


were


obtained


from


detailed EMERGY


input


source


data


Tabi


3-3a


and


-3b,


respectively.


Figure


3-2a


represents


the


detailed


ENERGY


input


signature


the


pitched


roof


construction


system


0322


case


study


application


alternative


Comments


the


main


aspects


Figure


3-2a


follow:


Refer


to Figure


environmental


value


engineering


phase


designations.


. No


environment


input


at phases


and


. Goods


input


design


phase


D not


included


analysis.


. Environment


input


source


at design


phase


includes


land


and


water


use.


. No


use


phase


G input


sources.


. No


recycling


phase


input


sources


because


alternative


assumes


no recycling


. Environment


input


source


at disposal


phase


includes


land


use based on


ratio of land surface area


debris


volume


thi


system


alternative


Refer


to AJ0322


calculations


Appendix


. Two


highest


phase


ENERGY


inputs


occur


input


sources


of fuel


energy


(F),


and


environment


during


material


transformity


phases


A-C


. Third and


fourth highest


phase ENERGY


inputs occur at









Figure


3-2b


represents


the


detailed


ENERGY


input


signature


for


pitched


roof


construction


system


0322


case


study


application


alternative


Comments


the


main


aspects


of Figure


3-2b


follow:


Refer


to Figure


environmental


value


engineering


phase


designations.


. No


environment


input


phases


and


. Goods


input


at design


phase


D not


included


analysis.


. Environment


input


source


at design


phase


includes


land


water


use.


. No


use


phase


G input


sources.


. No


recycling


phase


input


sources


because


alternative


assumes


no recycling.


. Environment


input


source


at disposal


phase


includes


land


use based


on ratio of


land surface area


to debris


Refer


volume


to BJ0322


system


calculations


of alternative


Appendix


. Two


highest


phase


ENERGY


inputs


occur


at input


sources


of fuel


energy


(F),


and


environment


during ma

. Third and


Iterial


transformity


fourth highest


phase


phases

ENERGY


A-C.

inputs occur


input


sources


services


(s),


fuel


energy


during


demolition


phase









Detailed


ENERGY


Construction


Input
System


Source


Data


Tabl


Exterior


Wall


0411


The


detailed


ENERGY


input


source


data


tables


the


exterior


wall


construction


system


0411


case


study


application


alternatives


A and


are


given


Tables


3-4a


and


-4b.


Referring


these


tabi


, the


system


ENERGY


input


sources


environment


(E),


fuel


energy


(F),


goods


(G),


and


servi


ces


are


given


columns


below


EMERGY


input


source


data,


and


environmental


value


engineering


phases


are


represented


rows


along


the


left


side


. Phase


EMERGY


total


are


given


the


right


column


Total


ENERGY


the


alternative


system


given


the


lower


right


corner


each


ENERGY


input


source


data


table.


ENERGY


input


source


data


columns


(E),


(F),


(G),


and


the


data


table


were


obtained


from


the


environmental


value


engineering


alternative


ENERGY


system


analysis


each


tabi


environmental


the


value


designated

engineering


phase.


These


tabi


are


provided


Appendix


. Phase


ENERGY


totals


were


obtained


adding


phase


EMERGY


input


source


data


may


obtained


from


the


case


study


application


tabular


simulation


output


provided


Appendix


Table


3-4a


represents


the


ENERGY


input


source


data


the


exterior


wall


construction


system


0411


case


study


application


alternative


Comments


the


main


aspects


Tabhl


?i-ta


fnl 1 n









TABLE


3-4.


DETAILED


ENERGY


INPUT


SOURCE


DATA


FOR


EXTERIOR


WALL


CASE


CONSTRUCTION


STUDY


SYSTEM


APPLICATION


0411.


ALTERNATIVE


ENERGY


INPUT


SOURCE


DATA


SEJ)


ENVIRON


1.31E16


FUEL


ENERGY


1.33E17


GOODS


.66E15


SERVICES


.34E16


TOTAL
PHASE
ENERGY


.03E17


2.02E13 2.12E14 0 6.52E15 6.75E15

O 2.06E15 2.04E14 2.02E15 4.28E15

0 2.02E15 3.06E13 1.72E17 1.74E17

0 0 0 0 0

0 1.60E16 2.38E15 2.78E16 4.62E16

0 0 0 0 0


9.21E12


5.23E15


.97E14


1.08E16


1.63E16


TOTAL


ENERGY


OF ALTERNATIVE


A SYSTEM


0411


.51E17


CASE


STUDY


APPLICATION


ALTERNATIVE


a


ENERGY


INPUT


SOURCE


DATA


SEJ)


A-C


E

F

G

H


ENVIRON. FUEL GOODS SERVICES
ENERGY
(E) (F) (G) (S)


.98E16


.47E17


4.42E15


.11E16


.32E17


2.08E13 2.18E14 0 6.70E15 6.94E15

o 0 0 0 0

0 2.41E15 5.89E14 5.60E16 5.90E16

0 2.41E13 2.41E14 5.12E15 5.39E15

0 2.81E16 4.17E15 4.92E16 8.15E16


EVE
PHASE


E

F

G

H

I

J


EVE
PHASE


TOTAL
PHASE
ENERGY


II








. Goods


input


design


phase


D not


included


analysis


. Environment


input


source


at design


phase


includes


land


and


water


use


. No


use


phase


G ENERGY


input


sources.


. No


recycling


phase


I ENERGY


input


sources


because


alt


ernative


assumes


no recycling.


. Environment


input


source


at disposal


phase


includes


land


use based


on ratio of


land


surface area


to debri


Refer


volume


to AJ0411


temr


calculations


alternative


Appendix


Table


represents


the


ENERGY


input


source


data


the


exterior


wall


construction


system


0411


case


study


application


alternative


Comments


the


main


aspects


Table


follow


Refer


Figure


environmental


value


engineering


phase


ignations.


. No


environment


input


at phases


and


No EMERGY


input sources


at component production phase


E because


concrete


tilt


panels


exterior


wall


construction


system


0411


are


produced


during


construction


phase


. Goods


input


esign


phase


D not


included


analysis.


r G,








phase


G account


periodic


replacement


control


joints


concrete


tilt-up


panels


of exterior


wall


construction


system


0411.


No recycling


phase


I ENERGY


input


sources


because


alternative


assumes


no recycling.


Environment


input


source


at disposal


phase


includes


land use based on ratio of


land surface area


debris


volume.


Refer


to BJ0411


calculations


Appendix


Detailed


ENERGY


input


signatures


were


constructed


compare


detailed


input


source


ENERGY


quantities


for


exterior


wall


construction


system


0411


case


study


application


alternatives


A and


Detailed


ENERGY


Construction


Input
System


Si natures


0411


Exterior


Wall


The detailed EMERGY


input signature


for the exterior wall


construction


system


0411


case


study


application


alternatives


and


are


given


Figures


3-3a


and


3-3b,


respectively.


Referring


these


figures,


the


EMERGY


input


sources


environment


(E),


fuel


energy


(F),


goods


(G)


and


services


each


environmental


value


engineering


phase


are


given


columns


and


are


labeled


along


the


signature


bottom.


Quantities


of input


source


EMERGY,


units


1012


solar




















Figure


3-3.


Detailed
wall con
(a) Case
(b) Case


EMERGY input signatures of exterior
struction system 0411.
study application alternative A.
study application alternative B.