Teaching practices and perspectives of second-year teachers

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Material Information

Title:
Teaching practices and perspectives of second-year teachers a case study of three elementary proteach graduates
Physical Description:
xiii, 343 leaves : ; 29 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Hayes, Lynda Fender, 1961-
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Teaching -- Case studies   ( lcsh )
Elementary school teachers -- Attitudes -- Case studies -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1992.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 333-342).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Lynda Fender Hayes.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001790420
notis - AJL4080
oclc - 29202095
System ID:
AA00002089:00001

Full Text














TEACHING
A CA


PRACTICES
3E STUDY


PERSPECTIVES


OF THREE


ELEMENTARY


OF SECOND-YEAR


PROTEACH


TEACHERS:


GRADUATES


LYNDA


FENDER


HAYES


A DISSERTATION


PRESENTED


TO THE


GRADUATE


SCHOOL


OF THE


UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA


IN PARTIAL


FULFILLMENT


OF THE


REQUIREMENTS


THE


DEGREE


DOCTOR

UNIVERSE:


OF PHILOSOPHY

ETY OF FLORIDA































Copyright


1992


Lynda


Fender


Hayes















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Although


there


were


many


times


considered


abandoning


this


project,


have


found


completing


this


study


to be


rewarding.


This


study


provided


a unique


opportunity


reflect


upon


my prof


ess


ional


readings,


discus


sions


with


colleagues,


experiences


as a classroom


teacher


teacher


cator.


involvement


in this


process


extended


over


several


years,


and,


as a result,


many


people


became


involved


along


finish


line


would


like


thank


of the


special


people


willingly


remained


involved


life


shared


their


encouragement


support


throughout


this


process.


First,


would


like


to thank


members


doctoral


committee


Profes


sor


Margaret


Early,


whose


enthusiasm


follow-up


study


of PROTEACH


graduates


helped


me to maintain


interest


in this


study;


Professor


Ashton,


careful


editorial


feedba


ck and


confidence


successful


completion


interest


of this pr

my study,


:oject;


carefully


Elizabeth

reading e


Bondy,


arly


drafts


her

of the


case


studies,


asking


important


questions


about


conclusions;


Professor


Webb,


whose


enthusiastic


smile









my chair,


Professor


Dorene


Ross,


offer


a special


thank


you.


mentor


teacher,


clearly


influenced


my thinking


as both


a researcher


ssroom


teacher.


Dorene


always


confidence


in the


significance


my findings


order


challenged


to clarify


me to


thinking.


recons


Most


ider


of all,


my analy


thank


patience


with


impatience


with


this


process


making


it possible


me to finish


before


was


time


celebrate


another


birthday.


To all


members


committee,


am grateful


challenging


me to refine


writing


style


helping


me understand


more


clearly


what


writing


process


involves.


This


experience


only


helped


me as a writer


also


as a teacher r


of writing.


would


also


like


thank


friends


colleagues


tolerated


mood


swings,


offered


words


encouragement,


occas


ionally


stened


struggled


to make


sense


data.


am especially


appreciative


support


received


from


friends


colleagues


at P.K.


Yonge.


one


questioned


whether


or not


this


project


would


finished


someday,


so many


colleagues


provided


words


encouragement


also


times


need


when


to extend


was


very


feeling


special


overwhelmed.


thank


students


at P.K.


Yonge.


They


pati


ently


endured


years


with


"Ms.


Hayes


as she worked


hard


to fini


sh writing










learned


so much


about


writing


process


and


what


believe


about


children


learn.


During


last


month


of writing


became


especially


indebted


my teaching


assistant,


Cheryl


Smith,


and my


intern,


Fran


Cohen.


Without


their


support


willingness


to take


over


helm,


am confident


would


never


have


achieved


my graduation


goal.


would


also


like


express


my gratitude


doctoral


student


support


group--Bill


Smith,


Peggy


Johnson,


Linda


Ledbetter,


Jean


Schiffbauer.


weekly


luncheons


during


last


summer


of writing


provided


me an opportunity


discuss


one


my findings,


another


share


as we were


my frustrations,


simultaneously


share


engaged


support


in this


process.


To Dr


. Karen


Kilgore


Paula


DeHart


cannot


begin


thank


enough.


Without


their


support,


openness


engaging


long


conversations


phone,


availability


lunch,


dinner,


dessert,


wine


breaks


am not


sure


would


have


ever


finished


this


project.


Their


willingness


share


their


own


experiences


with


writing


a dissertation,


listen


struggled


to clarify


my analysis,


their


reassurance


continue


that


moving


this


would


forward.


someday


To Karen


enabled


Kilgore,


me to


extend


special


gratitude.


Karen


s enthusiastic


part


cipation


pilot


study


provided


incentive


nee


to get


this


project









confusions


on the


phone,


agreeing


to help


me proof


final


draft.


my editor,


Pat


McGhee


, and


my typist


Barbara


Smerage,


extend


warm


thanks


their


willingness


to take


me on in


laughter,


darkest


hour.


interest


appreciated


my study.


s smiles,


careful


readings


helped


learn


so much


about


mechanics


of good


writing.


Barbara


s ability


to qui


ckly


produce


revi


sions


format


final


drafts


enabled


me to make


my graduation


goal.


Finally,


thank


entire


family


their


patience


support.


From


time


of this


project


s inception


to its


completion,


extended


family


grown


to the


point


where


there


are


many


members


to mention


them


name.


Yet,


must


thank


brother


Mike,


supported


completion


this


project


tolerating


tremendous


mood


swings


making


a spec


effort


to stay


out


my way


during


last


months


of writing.


Most


importantly,


must


extend


a special


thank


my parents


husband.


would


like


to thank


mom


always


confident


in myself,


believing


stressing


teaching


importance


me to be


of setting


reaching


goals.


They


taught


me to believe


can


anything.


husband,


endured


endl


ess


years


graduate


school,


listened


my ramblings,


offered


encouragement,


gave


me time


space


to complete


this









never


been


completed.


have


enough


words


nor


enough


space


to begin


to thank


him


he has


done


me.





















TABLE OF CONTENTS

Daae



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . iii


ABSTRACT..................... ...... . .. ......... xii


CHAPTERS


I BACKGROUND FOR THE STUDY................ ........ 1


Statement of the Problem....
Rationale for the Study.....
Definition of Terms.........
Reflective Teaching.......
Teaching Perspectives.....
Workplace Variables.......
Contexts for Professional
Design for the Study........
Possible Uses of the Results


*... .S S
. .. .. *
. *.. .a
*......*
*. .. S


* S S S
* S S S S S
* S S S S
* S S S S S
* S S


ocializatio]


. ...
. S .* S S S


* *
* .. *


0 000*
... 0
.. ... .



...........


II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE........................... 17


Teacher Socialization Research: An Introduction
to Three Research Paradigms...................... 21
Influences on Teachers' Practices and Perspectives
Prior to Teacher Education: A Focus on the
Individual Teacher .... . .. ....... ... .... .. .. 23
Influences on Teachers' Practices and Perspectives:
Preservice Teacher Education..................... 25
Influences on Teachers' Practices and Perspectives
During Induction: Early Studies of Beginning
Teachers. .. ... ......... .. .. .. .... ..... . . 29
Interpretive Case Studies of Teacher Socialization:
The Induction Years . . . ... ..... 31


III METHODOLOGY...... .......... ............ ....... .. 60


Participants.......... ....
Selection Criteria.......
Gaining Access...........


. ...
....
*. ...... .. ....S S


.. .....
....... *
...... S


- c










Unobtru


sive


Data Anal
Methodologi
Analytic
Research
Overview of


Measures....
s ... .... ....
Issues.....
erpretation.
qualification
,e Case Studi


......
*. .....


and
S,..


O:tOO"
*...... S
......a C


Bia
* S .


* C S C
*.a... ..*. ...


ANNE


: "HOW


DO I


TEACH


ALPHABET?


s Teach


Anne's
Aims
Belie
Belie
Wor
Anne's
Class
Norms
Norms
Worki
Admin
Anne's
Aims
Belie
and
Belie
Wor
Var


ing
ing
tude
out
out
e *..
ptio
gnme
olle
each
th a
tive
xt f
erce
out
epti
out
e an
S..


Practice


S ... *


Perspective.
nt Learning.
the Teaching
the Teacher'


of Workpla


lity
Pra
ide.
yle.
Prof
ons
Tea
of
Rol
erce


....


.....
. a. at
*t .t ft ft


and Lear]
s Role in


....... ... 110
............ 111
ning Process.. 113
the


.. 119


.. a.. g


]


ce Variables.......... 1
* . .S. .* .S. .*. . . 1
.*. .a .a. .*. . . 1
.*. .S . . . . 1
.. . .S . .S. . .C. 1
.. .. .. . .. .... 1
al Socialization...... 1
colace Variables...... 1


and
ace
he T
of


arnin
riabl
cher
rkpla
*0i 5e


Proce


. .. 152


the


BECKY:


"BONDING


THESE


KIDS


TOGETHER


AS A GROUP....


s Teaching


Becky's
Estab
Teach
Belie
Wor
Becky's
Class
Confl
Confl
Admin
Becky's
Aims
Belie
and
Belie
Wor


chi
.ing
and
.bou
ce.


ercep
abou
lace


Practi


ng Perspective......
a Sense of Community
Learning in English.
t the Role of the Tea


tions
ment..
Norms
Norms
ve Sty
t for
ceptio
t the
tions
t the
and Pe


Workpla


S. . . 158
. *. 169
. . . .. .. 169
S. . . 175


Variable


Collegiality
Practice...


rcept


ssio
Wor
ing
rkpl
of t
ions


*. a...
. .. .


ciali
Vari
arnin
riabl
cher
rkpla


* .
* .
* .
. .


atic
ble;
Pr<


. ..... 1
. .. 1
* .. .S 1
. .S. .* 1
. .S. 1
S. ... 1
on .... 2
s...... 2
3cess


the..
the


.. 207


Anne


-- -












STEPHANIE:


"PASSING


TESTS"


Stephanie's
Stephanie'


Holid
Writi:
Stephan
Aims
Belie
Belie
Wor
Stephan
Class
Norms
Norms
Admin
Stephan
Aims
Belie
and
Belie
Wor


ay
ng
ie'
for
fs
fs
kpl
ie'
As
of
of
ist
ie'
and
fs
Pe
fs
kpl


Teach


Pr
Ac
S


about


out
epti
out


ng Practices..
1 Instruction.
...e... ..0....
es... .... ..
ng Perspective
Learning.....
e Teaching and
e Role of the


epti
nt..
terf
ing
Sty
ext
ptio
the
ons
the


.. .. .. .. ... ... .. 2
... .. .. .. ... ... 2
.. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. 2
. . ......... ... 2
... .. .. .. ... .. .. 2
. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... 2
Learning Process.. 2


Teacher in


of Workplace


ence
acti


..a. a .
*. .C .* ...


the


. ... ... 0
Variables
. a
... .
. ......


1 Soc
Vari
arnin
riabl
cher
rkpla


alizat.
bles .
Proce;


S.. 2
* 2





ion. 2
.... 2
ss


the


Variabi


DIMENSIONS OF
SOCIALIZATION
IMPLICATIONS.


CONTRAST
CONTEXTS


IN THE CONSTRUCTION
CONCLUSIONS AND


Summaries
Anne....
Becky...
Stephani
Dimensions
Socializ
Beliefs
Interpre
Variab
Teacher
The Role o
Socializ
Contributi
Contributi
Teacher
School-B
Summary...


of the


* .
e.
o
at
ab
ta
le
Ed


f Co
ion
out
tion

ucat
the
ion
of
of
ucat
ed E


Case Studies


.*a *
* .


* S *


ntrast
Context
the Rol
s of Si


* a *
* a
a.. S
the


S .


. ............ .. 2

.*. . .* . a ...a. 2
.*. .* .C. . . .C. 2
2
" 2
2


Con


of the
nificant


tion


Teacher.
Workpla


C S


onstructing


.*. .*. 2
S. .. 2

. .. .. 2
2


SS *


Further Reflections..... 2
to Research Community..... 3
to Practitioners.......... 3
.. . .. .. .. 3
. .. ... ... 3
. ... ... .. . .. .... 3


APPENDICES


L











REFERENCES .S..T .. .. * * .* * .. ... ... .. 333

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. .. . * * * *'-' .. 343















Abstract


of Dissertation


:he University
Requirements j


Presented


of Florida


DegrE


to the


in Partial
ee of Docto


Graduate


Fulfillment


School
of the


of Philosophy


TEACHING
A CA4


PRACTICES
3E STUDY


PERSPECTIVES


OF THREE


ELEMENTARY


OF SECOND-YEAR


PROTEACH


TEACHERS


GRADUATES


Lynda


Fender


Hayes


December


1992


Chair
Major


Dr. Dorene


Department


Doerre
Instruc


Ross
tion


Curriculum


purpose


this


study


was


examine


practi


ces


perspectives


of three


elementary


teachers


during


their


first


years


of teaching


as they


interacted


with


a variety


of workplace


variables


to construct


their


socialization


contexts.


Four


questions


were


addressed


in the


three


case


studies


How


do teaching


perspectives


influence


these


teachers


' decisions


about


practices?


What


workplace


variables


emerge


influences


these


teachers'


deci


sions


about


teaching


pract


ices?


What


other


influences


on these


teachers


' practices


perspectives


emerge?


do perspectives,


teacher


education


experiences,


workplace


variables


interact


to influence


v ---- --


--- '









Methods


of data


collection


analysis


were


informed


procedures


associated


with


interpretive


case


studies.


Evidence


of the


three


beginning


teachers


' efforts


construct


their


social


zation


contexts


was


collected


observing


interviewing


three


graduates


of the


elementary


PROTEACH


partic


program


ipant s


during


were


their


first


questioned


years


about


their


of teaching.


practices,


sources


of their practices,


their


perceptions


of significant


workplace


variables,


their


interactions


with


other


teachers,


their


beliefs


about


teaching


learning.


other


teacher


from


each


school


was


also


interviewed.


An analysis


dimensions


of contrast


between


three


case


studies


suggests


that


these


beginning


teachers'


beliefs


about


their


role


have


shaped


influence


workplace variables

professional growth


on their


That


practices


these


continued


beginning


teachers


played


an active


role


in shaping


their


contexts


professional


SOC


iali


zation.


Contrasts


between


three


teachers


reveal


ed differences


their


beliefs


about


their


role--whether


is the


teacher


s responsibility


understand


children


learn,


to evaluate


student


learning,


make


curricular


instructional


deci


sions,


to shape


classroom


climate,


engage


other


teachers


in prof


essional


dialogue,


to continue


learning


about


profe


ssion.
















CHAPTER


BACKGROUND


STUDY


first


year


of teaching


been


described


"reality


shock,


a year


which


novices


are


expected


fulfill


same


expectations


responsibilities


experienced


teachers


(Feiman-Nemser,


1983;


Glassberg,


1979;


Lortie,


1975;


Ryan,


1979;


Veenman,


1984).


Previous


researchers


studying


teacher


socialization


have


suggested


that b

trying


beginning


teachers


to survive,


developmental


needs


master

of the


respond


the c


in a variety


curriculum,


particular


grade


ways


understand


level


while

the


being


taught,


gain


control


of the


students


in their


class


rooms.


Many


first-year


teachers


compromise


educational


beliefs


aims


programs


they


(Blase,


developed


1985;


during


their


eridge,


teacher


1989;


education


Feiman-Nemser,


1983;


Hoy,


1969;


Rees,


1977) .


Some


accept


compromises


limits


of possibility


(Borko,


1986;


Goodman,


1985;


Katz,


1974) .


These


teachers


talk


about


their


aims


beliefs


were


too


idealistic


begin


use


stify


traditional


teaching


practices


they


once


criti


cized


Blase,


1985;


Etheridge,


1989;


Katz


, 1974;


Ryan,


1970;


Tabachnick,


DrnnlraT4 4- .,


A-


7.a rk h nor


1 Q7Q


-1QAn\


ni-hare


hnwptaclr~


qP m rr~h











year"


(Bullough,


1989;


Crow,


1986;


Goodman,


1987;


Lacey,


1977;


Tabachni


Zeichner,


1984;


Zeichner


Tabachnick,


1985).


Many


teacher


educators


recognize


significant


impact


first


year


of teaching


on a teacher


s professional


development


(Hall,


1982


Howey


Bents,


1979;


Johnston,


1985;


Ryan,


1979;


Vaughan,


1979) .


While


some


teacher


education


programs


focus


on the


development


induction


programs


(Carter


1989;


Richardson,


Medley,


1989;


enblum,


Griffin,


Vance


1989;


, 1989;


Howey


Rosenholt z,


Zimpher,


1989;


Schlechty


Whitford,


1989;


Wildman,


Niles


, Magliaro,


McLaughlin,


1989) ,


others


are


concerned


with


tendency


teachers to

progressive


implement

practices


tradition

or ideals


practices


developed


despite


during


their


teacher

Zeichner


education


Liston,


program

1987) .


(Goodman,

Arising


1987;


Ross


of their


Krogh,

concern


1988;

that


beginning


teachers


use


their


educational


aims


as guides


teaching


practice,


many


teacher


educators


now


cons


ider


development


of reflective


capacity


as an essential


component


teacher


education


(Calderhead,


1989;


Goodman,


1987;


Ross


Krogh,


1988;


Waxman,


Freiberg,


Vaughan,


Weil,


1988;


Zeichner


Liston,


1987).


A refle


ctive


teacher


"makes


rational


ethical


choices


about


what


to teach


assumes


responsibility


those


choices"


(Ross


Bondy,


,


P


,,










beginning


teachers


to direct


their


socialization


into


teaching


take


responsibility


making


decisions


about


practice.


Statement


of the


Problem


Elementary


PROTEACH


University


of Florida


teacher


education


of reflective


educators


program


teachers


committed


that


as one


to the


identified


important


development


aim.


development


Teacher


of reflective


teachers


assume


that


these


teachers


will


view


continued


growth


hallmark


of being


a professional


(Ross


et al.,


press).


important


question


about


impact


elementary


PROTEACH

teaching


program

concerns


and

the


programmatic


profes


sional


emphasis


development


on reflective

of graduates


over


time


do PROTEACH


graduates


continue


their


professional


growth


development


Recently,


a follow-up


examined


Kilgore,


study


graduates


Ross,


elementary


' teaching


Zbikowski


PROTEACH


(1990


graduates.


perspectives


conducted


They


experien


ces


during


first


year


teaching.


They


concluded


that


there


was


a need


to follow


their


graduates


beyond


first


year


teaching.


Although


they


continued


study


examining


practi


their


ces


fifth


perspecti


year


ves


of 4


teaching,


of these


study


teachers


findings


were


during


limited


dat a


gathered


through


telephone


interviews


(Kilgore


Ross,


r


F










must


conduct


in-depth,


longitudinal


studies.


We need


examine


nature


of professional


learning


development


over


time.


purpose


this


study


to describe


experiences


of 3 beginning


teachers


during


their


first


years


teaching


look


common


patterns


in their


deci


sions


about


practice.


It is


important


to caution


reader


that


findings


of this


study


can


no way


considered


an evaluation


of the


elementary


PROTEACH


program.


teachers


included


this


study


represent


individuals


' experiences


PROTEACH.


In addition,


little


data


were


collected


regarding


their


teacher


education


experiences,


as all


teachers


found


it difficult


to recall


specific


experiences


that


influenced


their


deci


sions


about


practice


as beginning


teachers.


general


questions


guided


data


collection


in this


investigation


do beginning


teachers


make


decisions


about


teaching


pract


ices,


what


influences


those


deci


sions?


gathered


information


about


teaching


decisions


practices


of the


second-year


teachers


four


more


specific


questions


guided


data


analysis


of their


first


years


teaching


do perspective


s influence


these


teachers


decisions


about


practices?


What


workplace


variables


influence


these


teachers'










What


other


influences


on these


teachers


' practices


perspectives


emerge?


do perspectives,


teacher


education


experiences,


workplace


construction


variables


interact


contexts


to influence


professional


socialization


these


teachers?


does


that


context


influence


their


practices


perspectives?


Rationale


Study


Educational


reform


reports


of the


1980s


have


called


empowerment


of teachers


(Carnegie


Forum,


1986;


Holmes


Group,


1986) .


If education


to improve,


teachers


must


involved


as deci


51i*1


makers


in the


changes


being


made


schools.

their pr


Teacher


:ograms


educators


as well;


have


teacher


been


called


educators


must


upon


to reform


prepare


future


teachers


to become


active


participants


in educational


reform.


Though


reform


reports


repeatedly


call


teacher


empowerment,


they


lack


spec


ific


suggestions


implementation.


Business


s leaders,


educational


leaders,


parents,


with


government


state


officials


of education.


continue


Little


to be


is known


frustrated


about


impact


of reforms


on classrooms.


We do not


know


what


kinds


of deci


sions


teachers


are


making


to improve


education


their


classrooms.


Little


is known


about


teachers


choose


teaching


strategies


or educational


aims.


We need










improving


education


of students


their


classrooms


while


others


appear


to accept


status


or give


To understand


potential


impact


of current


reform


efforts,


researchers


must


examine


professional


lives


teachers


We must


develop


a clearer


understanding


teachers


' perspectives


on their


work


lives


working


conditions


We do not


know


teachers


understand


define


their


role


in designing


implementing


reform


efforts.

teachers


We need

striving


to examine


improve


efforts


student


learning


individual

in their


individual


classrooms.


This


study


was


designed


to contribute


our


understanding


of teachers


' efforts


improve


their


teaching


practices.


Researchers


have


identified


many


influences


on teachers'


practices

endeavor


perspectives.


to influence


teaching


Though


teacher


practices


educators

perspectives,


recent


studies


indicate


that


they


have


limited


influence


(Etheridge,


1989;


Goodman,


1985;


Rees,


1977;


Zeichner


Tabachnick,


1981) .


Teachers


' persp


ectives


practi


ces


are


also


influenced


their


images


beliefs


(Bondy,


1989;


Bondy


Davis,


1991;


Clandinin,


1986;


Clark


Peterson,


1986;


Elbaz,


1981;


iman-Nemser


Buchmann,


1983;


Lortie,


1975;


Zeichner


Tabachn i


, 1985),


their


personal


professional


history


(Barone,


1987;


Butt


Raymond,


1989;


Feiman-Nemser,


,










Wildman


Niles,


1987) .


Other


studies


suggest


influences


within


teacher,


listed


above,


interact


with


teaching


context


to shape


development


teachers'


practices


perspectives


(Crow,


1986;


Lacey,


1977;


Lortie,


1975;


Tabachnick


et al.,


1979


-1980)


Many


teacher


education


programs


have


been


reorganized


reconceptualized


to promote


professionalization


teaching

educators


through

have i


empowerment


identified


of teachers.


reflective


teaching


Many


teacher


as a means


improving


teacher


deci


sion


making


(Calderhead,


1989;


Ross,


1988;


Waxman


et al.,


1988;


Zeichner


Liston,


1987).


Definitions


of reflection,


beliefs


practices


supporting


development,


descriptions


of reflective


teaching


vary


widely


among


teacher


education


programs


boasting


support


development


of reflective


teachers


Cruickshank,


1985;


Connelly


Clandinin,


1988;


Zeichner


Liston,


1987) .


Such


programs


are


based


upon


premise


that


if teachers


are


more


reflective,


they


will


be empowered


make


thoughtful


decis


ions


about


curriculum


instruction


According

become co


many


nscious


teacher

of the i


educators,


influences


reflective


on their


teachers


will


practices


perspectives


more


deliberative


in their


responses


Reflective


teachers


will


more


likely


to make


decis


ions


about


teaching


state


gies


student


learning


on the


basis


.g.,










Facult

University


in the


of Florida


elementary


are


PROTEACH


engaged


program


in follow-up


studies


examining


teaching


practices


perspectives


of their


graduates.


Like


others


studying


impact


of reflective


teacher


education


programs,


PROTEACH


researchers


have


found


evidence


of reflective


practice


during


first


year


(Kilgore


et al.,


1990)


They


also


found


a trend


toward


conservative


perspectives,


as noted


previous


teacher


socialization


studies.


However,


a more


recent


study


of 4


of the


same


graduates


in their


fifth


year


of teaching


revealed


a change


perspective


one


of the


least-


reflective


st-year


teachers


(Kilgore


Ross,


Bullough


(1989)


Goodman


1987)


also


suggest


that


strongest


impact


reflection


of a teacher


come


after


education


first


year


program


emphasis


teaching,


zing


when


novices


have


mastered


techniques


survival


are


more


able


to focus


on their


own


professional


growth.


Although


several


res


earchers


have


studied


graduates


reflective


teacher


education


programs


during


their


first


year


of teaching,


only


Bullough


(Bullough,


1989;


Bullough


Baughman,


1992)


Kilgore


Ross


1992


have


followed


teachers


beyond


their


first


year


of teaching


Bullough


(Bullough,

practices


1989;


Bullough


perspective


Baughman,


es or one


1992)


secondary


studied

teacher.


the

Kilgore











more


studies


of the


teaching


practices


perspectives


of graduates


of a reflective


teacher


education


program


over


time.


Definition


of Terms


purpose


of this


study


was


to examine


teaching


practices

elementary


perspectives


PROTEACH


of three


program.


thi


graduates

s section


of the


clarify


definitions


this


needed


study--reflective


to understand


teaching,


analysis


teaching


findings


perspectives,


workplace


variables,


contexts


professional


SOC


ialization.


Reflective


Teaching


Although


many


definitions


interpretations


reflective


teaching


exist,


PROTEACH


is concerned


with


"the


development


research


of reflective


theoretical


teachers


knowledge


are


order


able


to draw


to make


decisions


about


teaching"


(Ross


Krogh,


1988


Reflective


teaching,


as conceptualized


elementary


PROTEACH


program,


"the


ability


to make


rational


ethical


choices


assume


responsibility


those


choices"


(Ross,


1988,


Ross


outlined


(1987,


1988) ,


reflection


is composed


of three


distinct


components


certain


processes


(e.g.,


ability


view


teaching


as problematic;


ability


to take


action


monitor


effe


of that


action), (


attitudes


.g.,


w


.


.


--


r~


r










knowledge


of student


point


of view;


knowledge


purposes


consequences


of educational


practices)


Reflective


teachers


engage


a cyclical


process


when


making


deci


sions


about


their


practices.


Ross


et al.


press)


have


identified


five


components


of the


reflective


teaching


cycle:


identifying


dilemmas,


planning


future


actions,


acting,


observing,


and


making judgments.

Teaching Perspectives


In a study


decisions

propensity


substance


focusing


of second-year


on the


teachers


to be reflective,


to be examined.


conscious


teachers


Teachers


unconscious


influenced


' perspectives


' perspectives


their

provide


are


grounded


in their


"beliefs


about


teaching


about


themselves


as teachers"


(Tabachnick


et al., 1979-1980,


12) .


notion


of perspectives


is drawn


from


symbolic


interactionism


(Blumer,


1969) .


Becker,


Geer,


Hughes,


and


Strauss


(1961


defined


perspectives


as follows


coordinated


of idea


actions


a person


uses


dealing


with


some


problematic


situation.


Patterns


of thought


action


which


have


grown


response


to a specific


institutional


processes"


34).


this


study,


teaching


perspectives


"take


into


account


situations


within


classrooms


are


experienced;


these


situations


are


interpreted,


given


teacher


previous


experiences,


w










Workplace


Variables


Teachers'


decisions


about


their


practices


are


influenced


a variety


of factors


(Ross


et al.,


in press),


including


social


forces,


state


school


district


policies,


school-


specific


influences.


purposes


of this


study,


school-


specific


influences


on teaching


practices


perspectives


are


referred


as workplace


variables.


Dreeben


(1973)


suggested


that


school


as workplace


compr


ises


several


variables--administration,


curriculum


materials,


architecture,


pupils,


class


size,


class


schedules,


professional


solution.


Contexts


Professional


Socialization


Some


researchers


in teacher


socialization


(Crow,


1986;


Goodman,


1987;


Zeichner


Tabachnick,


1985)


have


suggested


that


contexts


professional


socialization


arise


from


interactions


between


individual


s' perspectives


workplace.


[this]


Crow


interaction


(1986)


which


concluded,


informs


[the]


novice


content


about


teaching


profession


influences


their


socialization"


30).


notion


of context,


then,


important


to the


present


study.


Contexts


are


established


as people


interact


with


one


another.


Together


individuals


define


situation


rules


appropriate


participation


(Blumer,


1969;


Spradley,


1980).


w v










entering


perspectives


interact


with


workplace


variables.


Crow


(1986)


concluded


that


in order


to understand


teacher


social


zation


it is critical
socialization
relationships


that
begin
which


more


studies


to focus


form


of teacher


on the
context


complex
of teacher


Soc


ialization.


Teacher


socialization


theory


earch
cess


must
of int


orient i
eraction


itself


between


towards


a dialectical


individual


society.


teachers


construct


their


contexts


professional


development,


they


engage


an ongoing


process


of making


deci


sions


about


teaching


student


learning


their


classrooms.


Awareness


of established


definitions


reflective


teaching,


perspectives,


workplace


variables


helps


in interpreting


construction


contexts


understanding


professional


teachers


socialization.


Desiann


Study


Qualitative


research


provides


an opportunity


to examine


teachers


variable


' thinking


in teachers'


to consider


actions


(Eri


mind


ckson,


as a


1986) .


"mediating"


a process


tapping


unobservable


processes


such


as thoughts,


attitudes,


enables


feelings


researchers


Shulman,


examine


1986),


interactions


qualitative


between


research


teachers


perspectives


workplace


variables


construction


contexts


professional


socialization.


study,


which


took


place


over


school


years,


was


31)










conducted


beginning


collaboratively


teachers


with


another


attended


researcher.


Beginning


Teacher


Conference


February


1990


were


contacted


to be


included


first


phase


of the


study.


Of those


contacted,


agreed


to participate.


Structured


monthly


interviews


were


conducted


with


year


of the


of teaching,


teachers


during


resulting


in 3


spring


interviews


of their


with


first


each


beginning


teacher,


a total


of 21 interviews.


Upon


completion


of the


interviews


initial


data


analysis,


teachers


were


chosen


second


phase


of the


study.


of these


teachers


a propensity


to be


exhibited a

reflective,


commitment


to student


an inclination


learning,


to approach


other


teachers.


Parti


cipants


were


ected


based


on the


principles


of purposive


sampling


(Guba,


1981)


and,


as a


consequence,


also encountered


differences


in workplace


variables.


second


phase


of the


study


was


conducted


during


participants


' second


year


of teaching,


1990-1991.


part


cipants


each


identified


one


teacher


colleague


their


school


was


willing


to participate


interviews.


interviewed


PROTEACH


companion


graduates


teachers


' perceptions


to clarify


of workplace


challenge


variables.


During


fall,


PROTEACH


graduates


responded


to structured


interviews


once


a month


na were


observed


and


interviewed










teachers


were


interviewed


once


in the


fall


again


spring.


Finally,


PROTEACH


graduates


were


observed


interviewed


once


more


during


March


1991


to confirm


emergent


data


analysis.


Total


data


collection


second


phase


study


resulted


interviews


18 observations


PROTEACH


graduates


interviews


with


companion


teachers.


Possible


Uses


of the


Results


extensiveness


interviews


number


observations


needed


to conduct


a qualitative


study


limited


the number

their first


of parti


cipants


years


in this


of teaching.


study


to three


Although


teachers

study


provides


insight


into


teaching


perspectives


practices


of beginning


teachers,


specific


findings


cannot


generalized


investigation


to all


of 3


beginning


teachers


teachers.


raise


However,


important


an intensive


questions


researchers


practitioners.


study


of professional


provided


an opportunity


development


teacher


to examine


decision


nature


making


variety


of teaching


potential


contexts.


influence


Previous


of workplace


research


variables,


indicates

teaching


perspectives,


personal


prof


ess


ional


history,


level


reflection


development.


on teacher


This


deci


study


sion


making


provides


professional


an opportunity


to identify


these


factors


and


enrich


our


understanding


of how


these










researchers,


results


of this


investigation


suggest


questions


possible


hypothe


further


ses


study


continued


identify


variables


investigation.


This


study


also


contribute


our


understanding


of teacher


socialization


adds


insight


to the


role


of individuals


constructing


their


contexts


professional


socialization.


results


of this


study


provide


teacher


educators


with


some


insight


into


role


of reflection


in teacher


socialization.


Many


teacher


education


programs


are


being


reorgani

involved


ed to promote

in these effor


reflection.


assume


Teacher


that


educators


an emphasis


reflective


teaching


will


have


a positive


impact


on teachers'


professional


growth


development.


Results


this


study


reveal


significant


factors


that


facilitate


or hinder


teacher


reflection.


In addition,


develop


these


an understanding


findings


of the


help


interactions


teacher


between


educators


teaching


perspectives


workplace


variables


their


impact


teacher


deci


sion


making.


Previous


researchers


(Butt


Raymond,


Goodman,

theory p


1989;


1988)


>lays


Calderhead,


have


1989;


discovered


teacher


decision


Connelly


important


making,


while


Clandinin,


role


1988;


personal


others


(Blase,


1988;


Frymier,


1987;


Little,


1982


Rosenholt z,


1989)


have


identified


workplace


variables


that


influence


teachers'










influence


teacher


decision


making


construction


contexts


profes


sional


socialization.


Finally,


school-based


educators


may


gather


new


insights


about


their


role


in teacher


socialization


from


these


findings.


Teachers


administrators


are


concerned


about


teacher


empowerment,


teacher


deci


sion


making,


student


learning


be able


identify


factors


which


influence


these


processes.


In the


following


chapters


review


related


literature


discuss


methodology,


findings,


implications


Chapter


review


relat


ed research


on teacher


socialization.


describe


methodology


and


provide


overview


of the


cases


Chapter


III.


In Chapters


present


case


studies


of Anne,


Becky,


Stephanie,


resp


ectively.


In these


chapters


describe


analyze


their


prac


tices


perspectives


present


construction


their


contexts


professional


socialization.


In Chapter


VII,


summarize


three


case


studies,


discuss


dimensions


of contrast


in the


construction


of contexts


professional


socialization,


present


conclusions


implications.
















CHAPTER


REVIEW


OF THE


LITERATURE


Research


conduct


on beginning


teachers


provided


background


questions


raised


present


study.


Such


a review,


however,


revealed


confusion


rather


than


clarity


concerning


the professional


development


of beginning


teachers.

learning


Carter

to teach


(1990

have


noted


been


that


primarily


studies


of teachers


unproductive.


propos


one


possible


explanation


Findings


of studies


classified


together


under


this


heading


are


comparable.


example,


studies


examining


teachers


think


about


their


teaching


different


Clark

from


1988)


those


answer


used


questions


in studies


using


of teachers


methodology

' career


development


(Fuller


Bown,


1975) .


Carter


distingui


shed


five


areas


of research


focused


on "learning-to-teach":


acqui


sition


(Carter,


of knowledge


1990),


formal


related


to classroom


subject-matter


knowledge


performance


(Ball


McDiarmid,


1990) ,


a profess


ional


knowledge


base


teaching


(Tom


Valli,


1990) ,


acquis


ition


of institutional


oCC


upational


perspectives


or teacher


SOC


ialization


(Zeichner


Gore,


1990) ,


teacher


development


(Burden,


1990).


Arn rc i nrr


9-n C.artsrr


if tsanhsr


P~duciatnrs


are


119 9fll










produce


comparable


studies,


they


must


indicate


within


which


field


of inquiry


their


study


rests.


In this


study


focus


to understand


emerging


practices


perspectives


of three


beginning


teachers


their


second


year


of teaching.


Therefore,


studies


of teacher


development


teacher


socialization


are


most


closely


assoc


iated


with


questions


raised


present


study.


Research


on teacher


development


describes


stages


professional


growth.


Such


studies


suggest


beginning


teachers


focus


on themselves


their


survival.


As beginning


teachers


gain


confidence,


become


comfortable


with


their


role


teachers,


less concerned


acquire


about


successful


themselves


experiences,


more


they


concerned


become


about


their


teaching


pupil


learning


(Fuller


Bown,


1975) .


Feiman-Nemser


(1983)


reviewed


literature


on learning


teach


noted


that


"stage


descriptions


reflect


someone


view


of the


ideal


path


of professional


growth,


a path


some


teachers


have


taken"


23) .


Researchers


of teacher


development


conc


lude


that


stages


career


development


are


same


teachers


focus


on the


professional


growth


individual


teach


ers


without


considering


influence


of varying


school


contexts


on teachers'


learning.


What


remains


unclear


in teacher


development


research


is how


changes


in teachers'


concerns


come


about


what


influences










Researchers


of teacher


socialization


examine


process


of becoming


context


a teacher


of a particular


"unfolds


setting"


over


(Crow,


time


1986,


within

. 13).


the

Such


studies


acknowledge


that


learning


to teach


a part


becoming


a teacher.


In addition,


they


examine


process


acquiring


skills


knowledge


about


teaching


selective


acquisition


of values


attitude s


associated


with


teaching


(Lacey,


1977) .


essence,


socialization


process


through


which


teachers


construct


a teaching


perspective,


"learning


to interpret


what


seen


or heard"


(Lacey,


1977,


17) .


Lacey


(1977)


noted,


"Socialization


viewed


as the


development


sets


of behaviours


perspectives


an individual


as he confronts


social


situations"


emerging


30).


practices


this


study


perspecti


ves


focus


of three


to understand


beginning


teachers.


Studies


concerned


with


institutional


occupational


perspectives,


or teacher


SOC


ialization,


are


most


closely


study


associated


(Zeichner


with


Gore,


1990) .


questions


raised


review


in the


of the


present


literature


focuses


predominately


on issues


raised


researchers


teacher


socialization.


In a comprehensive


review


of research,


Zeichner


Gore


(1990)


organized


studies


of teacher


Soc


ialization


into


three


phases


influen


ces


prior


to formal


teacher


education,


T










education


placement


methods


foundations


experiences),


courses,


influences


field


of the


workplace


teaching


cultures


on inservice


teachers


Studies


related


to the


third


phase


of teacher


socialization


are


most


closely


related

However,


to the


questions


briefly


review


raised in the

and summarize


present

studies


study.

related


first


phases


of teacher


socialization


to provide


needed


insight


into


potential


sources


of influence


emerging


practices


perspectives


of beginning


teachers.


review


also


helps


to clarify


methodological


and


theoretical


traditions


within


teacher


socialization


literature.


Zeichner


Gore


(1990)


indicated


that


three


research


paradigms


exist


within


each


of the


three


phases


of teacher


socialization.


To help


readers


understand


nature


of research


on the


three


phases


of teacher


socialization,


begin


with


a brief


description


of the


focus


contribution


of each


research


paradigm.


Following


introduction


to the


three


paradigms,


briefly


review


summarize


research


within


first


phases


socialization--influences


prior


to teacher


education


influence


teacher


education.


Finally,


summarize


early


examine


studies


recent


of beginning


interpretive


teachers


case


studies


then


critically


of beginning










Teacher


Socialization


Research:


Introduction


to Three


Research


Paradiams


Zeichner


Gore


(1990)


identified


three


theoretical


methodological


research:


functionalist

interpretation


traditions


functionalist,


perspective

s of social


in teacher


interpretive,


dominated the

nation research


socialization


critical.


findings and

h for approximately


years


.g.,


Dreeben,


1973;


Rees,


1977;


lannoccone,


1963) .


Researchers


with


a functionalist


s perspective


emphasize


inevitable


result


of social


zation


experiences--


maintaining


status


quo.


Such


studies


highlight


role


institutions


bureaucratic


structures


in socializing


perspectives


of beginning


teachers


Recent


critics


have


suggested


that


functionalist


pers


pective


minimi


zes


complexity


of the


soc


ialization


process


ignores


range


responses


individuals


(Crow,


1986;


Lacey,


1977;


Zeichner


Gore,


1990) .


chner


Gore


cited


Lacey


s (1977)


qualitative


study


of student


teacher


Soc


ialization


as a pivotal


force


in changing


researchers'


thinking


about


Soc


ialization


process.


Studies


such


as Lacey


which


have


been


undertaken


within


interpretive


individual


imposed


paradigm,


in directing


situation


emphasize


or her


or context.


strength


response


Within


of the


to demands


interpretive










to understand;


functionalist


strives


to provide


explanations


based


Zeichner


on the


Gore


nature


(1990)


of institutions.


concluded


that


socialization

tradition of


studies


critical


have


been


theory.


conducted


Studies


within


within


the

critical


theory


paradigm


call


into


question


issues


of class,


gender,


race


interesting


relations


questions,


everyday


they


are


life.


Though


directly


these


are


related


to the


questions


raised


present


study.


In this


study


have


described


the practi


ces


perspectives


beginning


teachers


during


their


first


years


teaching


aim


was


to understand


their


deci


sions


are


influenced


interactions


between


their


perspectives,


teacher


education


expe


rien


ces,


workplace


variables.

professional


In particular,


socialization.


examine


Studie


ed their co

s conducted


ntexts

within


for

the


interpretive


paradigm


are


most


closely


associated


with


study;


however,


functionalist


studies


conducted


within


each


three


phases


of teacher


Soc


ialization


also


were


useful


analyzing


data.


organize


next


three


sections


terms


these


three


phases


of teacher


Soc


ialization--


influences


prior


to teacher


education,


teacher


education,


teacher


induction.


Within


each


phase,


summarize


early


functionalist


studies


contrast


findings


with


recent










Influences


Teacher


on Teachers
Education:


' Practices


A Focus


PersDectives


Individual


Prior


Teacher


Lortie


(1975)


early


study


of teacher


soc


ialization


contributes


socialization


our


understanding


experiences


prior


of the


to teacher


powerful


impact


education.


Based


on interviews


with


teachers


in 5


American


towns,


Lortie


concluded


classrooms


that


are


years


a powerful


teachers


force


are


in shaping


students


teachers'


perspectives.


He noted


that


unless


teachers


undergo


significant


equally


powerful


experience


in their


teacher


education


program


or first


years


of teaching,


they


will


maintain

students


perspectives

in classrooms


constructed

Lortie c


during


oined


their


years


phrase


"apprenticeship


of observation"


to denote


powerful


influence


of 13,000


hours


of observation


students


classrooms


on teachers


' perspectives.


Lortie


further


noted


that


teachers


interviewed


characterized


their


teacher


education


training


impractical


theoretical.


Although


teachers


identified


student


teaching


as the


best


experience


within


teac


education


program,


he concluded


that


this


experience


failed


to offset


uncritical,


individualistic,


traditional


approach


to teaching


developed


during


their


years


students


in classrooms.










occasionally


seeking


informal


sources


of support.


Lortie


concluded


that


focus


on survival


lack


technical


subculture


in teaching


destined


teachers


maintain


a strong


biographical


orientation


to deci


sion


making


rather


than


adopting


a critical,


reflective


stance.


Lortie


conclusions


imply


that


adoption


of traditional


teaching


practices


inevitable.


Recent


interpretive


case


studies


of preservice


inservice


teachers


present


a different


view


of teacher


socialization.


From


an interpretive


view,


variety


experiences


prior


to teacher


education


are


sources


influence


do not


determine


outcomes


soc


ialization


process

These s


(e.g.,


sources,


Crow,

which


1986; Z

include


eichner


Tabachnick,


predispositions,


1985)


images


of good


teaching,


about


prior


teaching


experiences


learning,


as a student,


prior


entering


teaching


beliefs


experiences,


serve


as a filter


through


which


preservice


teachers


view


content,


discussions,


experiences


of their


teacher


education


program


their


classroom


teaching


(e.g


., Bondy,


1989;


Crow,


1986;


Elbaz,


1981;


Goodman,


1986,


1988;


Ross,


Smith,


Johnson,


1991;


Tabachnick


Zeichner,


1984) .


Some


teacher


educators


, Bondy,


1989;


Bondy


Davis,


1991;


Butt


Raymond,


1989;


Elbaz,


1981;


Ross,


Ashton,


Mentonelli,


1989)


have


argued


that


when


preservice


teachers










socializing


impact


their


entering


perspectives.


Zeichner


Gore


(1990)


argued


that


recent


interpretive


studies,


such


those


cited


above,


have


"focused


almost


exclusively


individual


characteristics,


conceptions,


skills,


dispositions


that


students


bring


to teacher


education


programs


have


ignored


collective


aspects


socialization


suggests


into


need


teaching"


a broader


334).


view


This


of teacher


argument


socialization


as well


as an examination


of other


influences


on teacher


SOC


ialization.


In the


next


section


review


what


is known


about


influence


of preservice


teacher


education


on teacher


socialization.


Again,


organize


this


review


to highlight


differences


in findings


and


interpretations


of studies


emerging


from


a functionalist-versus-interpretive


viewpoint.


Influences


on Teachers
Preservice


' Practices


Teache r


Perspectives


Education


Early


studies


of the


effects


of preservice


teacher


education


to the


conclusion


that


teacher


education


programs


little


or no


lasting


impact


on teachers'


practices


perspectives


(Zeichner


Tabachnick,


1981).


These


early


studi


showed


that


while


teacher


education


program


promoted


orientation


a liberal,


shifted


toward


humanistic


orientation,


an authoritarian,


conservative










teacher


education


program


itself


collaborates


in the


construction


of conservative


pers


pectives


(Goodman,


1985;


Tabac


hnick,


1980;


Zeichner,


1980;


Zeichner


Tabachnick,


1981),


while


others


have


emphasized


social


zing


impact


class


room


environment


(Copeland,


1980;


Doyle,


1977)


These


pers


studies


pective


of teacher


grounded


within


socialization,


functionalist


to conclusions


which


were


cons


istent


with


this


paradigm.


Zeichner


Gore


(1990)


argued


that


when


findings


from


these


studies


are


generalized,


there


a tendency


to treat


outcomes


as central


tendencies,


thereby


losing


sight


of individual


variations


individual


changes


in perspectives.


Interpretive


case


studies,


such


as Lacey


1977)


seminal study

suggested that


incomplete.


generalized


existence


1990


of student

teacher s


While


tendency


teacher


ocializat


functionalist


interpretive


of individual


summarized,


"There


variations.

a growing


socialization,

ion is partial


researchers


have

and


focus


researchers


highlight


Zeichner


consensus


in the


Gore

field


about


highly


interactive


nature


of the


social


zation


process


about


constant


interplay


between


choice


constraint


process


of learning


to teach"


341)


example,


socialization


Lacey's


provided


new


(1977)

insigh


pivotal

t into


study


teacher


interactive










intersection


'biography'


'social


situation,


' has


some


freedom


to manipulate


change


situation


while


same


time


being


constrained


to adjust


to it"


. 95).


Lacey


concluded


that


individual


teacher


inevitably


destined


to adopt


traditional


teaching


pract ices


interacts


in the


SOC


situation


makes


choices.


Lacey


(1977)


closely


examined


cons


traction


of social


strategies


preservice


teachers.


His findings


indicate


individual

situations.


variations

In his d


response


discussion ,


to similar


Lacey


SOC


identified


ial

the


following


concerns


regarding


functionalist


perspective


teacher


socialization:


raised


issue


functionalist


models


assumed
degrees


internalizaton o
of institutional


SOC


norms


stability.


d high
model


have


propose


problematic.


choice
social


with


d makes
Within
respect


strategy


issue


this


internalization


model


actor


to his relationship


he employs


(p


to the


96)


Lacey


identified


three


social


strategies:


internalized


adjustment,


strategic


compliance,


strategic


redefinition.


identification


of three


Soc


strategies


highlights


existence


of variations


response


to institutional


structures


Lacey


s findings


have


clarified


teacher


educators


' understandings


of the


interactive


process


socialization


influenced


findings


interpretations


recent


interpretive


case


studies


of preservice


teachers










Recent


case


studies


have


revealed


persistence


strength


of entering


perspectives


dispo


sitions


suggest


they


serve


as a lens


through


which


programmatic


experiences,


content,


messages


are


filtered


., Crow,


1986;


Goodman,


1986,


1988;


Ross


et al.,


1989).


Such


findings


emphasize


variations


in individual


responses


to teacher


education


programs


., Bondy,


1989;


Bondy


Davis,


1991;


Goodman,


1985;


Ross


et al.,


1991;


Tabachnick


Zeichner,


1984;


Zeichner,


1980).


Case studies


of preservice


teachers


are


helpful


identifying


potential


sources


of influence


on emerging


practi


ces


perspectives


of beginning


teachers.


Findings


from


these


point


to the


potential


impact


of predispositions,


teacher


education


courses,


field experiences,


seminars,


cooperating


teachers,


pupils,


clarity


of educational


beliefs


aims,


images


of teaching.


However,


if teacher


educators


are


to understand


their


impact


on teacher


socialization,


must


examine


practi


ces


perspectives


of both


their


student


their graduates


(Zeichner


Gore,


1990) .


Lacey


(1977


emphasized


that


studies


of changes


in teachers'


attitudes


behaviors


they


move


from


preservice


to inservice


teaching


highlight


discontinuity


between


these


two


phases


in learning


to teach.


Lacey


writes,


"TOO


much


emphasis


s been


given


to the










realization


that


new


styles


of teaching


are


emerging"


48).


There


a need,


then,


to closely


examine


first


years


of teaching.


Influences


on Teachers


' Practices


Perspectives


During


Induction:


Early


Studies


of Beginning


Teachers


Many


of the


early


studies


of beginning


teachers


were


executed


an effort


to understand


nature


of the


first


year


of teaching.


These


researchers


noted


efforts


beginning


teach


ers


they


experienced


"reality


shock"


were

1979;


forced

Ryan


to "sink

et al., 1


or swim"


980)


alone


Other


(Lortie,


researchers


1975;


Ryan,


documented


problems


concerns


of beginning


teachers


(Veenman,


1984)


results


these


early


studies


indicated


that


first


years


teaching


are


stressful


potentially


impact


teach


ers


1975),


' emerging


Ryan


(Ryan,


prac


1979;


ces


Ryan


perspec


et al.,


tives.


1980) ,


Lortie


Veenman


1984)


concluded


that,


even


though


variations


in teaching


contexts


existed,


problems


of beginning


teachers


were


alike.


Veenman


s (1984


comprehensive


review


of research


beginning


teachers


indicated


possibilities


greatest


changes


teaching


occur


between


first


third


years


of teaching,


teaching


styles


are


developed


early


in teachers


careers


as teachers


seem










Johnston,


1985;


Lortie,


1975;


Ryan,


1979) ,


theorized


that


first-year


experiences


work


environment


strongly


influence

profession


emerging

al growth


teaching

These


styles,


researchers


well


as future


suggested


that


teachers


are


reluctant


to give


up teaching


practices


procedures


that


help


them


survive


first


year


render


feelings


success


(Blase,


1985;


Feiman-Nemser,


1983;


Lortie,


1975;


Ryan,


1979) .


Feiman-Nemser


(1983


noted,


Some
the


go s
first


whether


o far
year
'r not


as to


argue


of teaching


someone


that


what


determines


remains


happens


during


only


teaching


also


what
that
year


kind


of teacher


first


in learning


year


they


become.


of teaching


to teach


. (pp.


This


is the
14-15)


assumes
critical


conclusions


of these


early


studies


reviews


research


on beginning


teachers


are


consistent


with


functionalist


approach


to teacher


socialization.


These


researchers


suggest


that


in the face


of institutional


pressures


constraints,


beginning


teachers


modify


their


entering


that


beliefs


teachers


practices.


' attitudes


These


behaviors


studies

become


also


indicate


consistent


with


a traditional,


conservative


approach


after


first


years


teaching


are


unlikely


to change.


Recent


interpretive


case


studies


of beginning


teachers


(e.g.,


Goodman,


1987;


Hayes


Kilgore,


1990,


1991;


Hayes


Ross,


1989;


Zeichner


Tabachnick,


1985)


indicate


that










studies,


such


as those


employed


early


studies


noted


above,


provides


little


clarification


understanding


individual


teachers


' practices


perspectives


they


are


influenced


and


interact


with


teaching


contexts.


researchers


on teacher


socialization


adopt


an interpretive


perspective


conduct


in-depth


case


studies,


evidence


individual


variations


response


to institutional


pressures


begin


emerge.


In the

studies. I


next


n this


section

review


review

clarify


recent

our u


interpretive


nderstandings


case

of what


is known


about


interactive


process


of teacher


Soc


ialization


during


first


years


teaching


examine


questions


left


unanswered.


Interpretive


Case


Studies


of Teacher


Socialization


Induction


Years


Interpretive


studies,


Zeichner


Gore


(1990


noted,


focus


on the


interactive


process


of teacher


soci


alization.


Such


studies


are


conducted


an effort


to understand


"teachers


influence


shape


that


int o


which


they


are


being


Soc


ialized


same


time


that


they


are


being


shap


ed by


variety


of forces


many


levels"


eichner


Gore,


1990,


341).


What


known


about


this


interactive


process


during


first


conducted i


years


nterpretive


of teaching


case


studies


Recently,


researchers


to investigate


have


the










secondary


teachers.


Next,


examine


recent


case


studies


elementary


teachers


Gehrke


(1981)


interviewed


observed


11 secondary


teachers


during


their


first


five


years


of teaching.


Participants


included


males


females


representing


various


subject


areas


three


different


high


schools.


Teachers


were

first


interviewed and

quarter of their


observed

r first


on alternate


year


weeks


of teaching.


during


interview


observation


was


also


conducted


of each


their


first


five


years


teaching


Gehrke


focused


patterns


of interaction


with


potential


reference


groups


within


school.


Reference


groups


were


identified


as the


group


., parents,


students


, teaching


colleagues,


administrators)


from


which


teacher


identified


standards


personal


attitudes.


Gehrke


indicated


that


teachers


varied


considerably


their


relations


with


perceptions


potential


reference


groups.


Teachers


varied


both


in initial


choices


of reference


groups


in the


focus


direction


their


orientation


over


time.


Gehrke


concluded


variations


foci


resulted


from


differences


contexts


individual


needs


perceptions.


Teachers


were


competent


higher


sense


self-esteem


identify


ed with


groups


that


were


less


supportive


made


them


feel


more


vulnerable,


such a










special-interest


student


groups


subject


area


teachers


Gehrke


noted


that


patterns


in reference


group


identification


tended


to remain


stable


after


third


year.


This


study


contributes


our


awareness


of individual


variations


socialization


resulting


from


interactions


between


teaching


perspectives


school


contexts.


In addition


findings


suggest


p055


ibility


of change


within


first


years


potential


stability


after


third


year


in reference


group


identify


cation.


Etheridge


(1989)


conducted


a follow-up


study


graduates


of a single


teacher


education


program.


teacher


education


future


program


teachers


identified


as critical,


primary


autonomous,


as empowering


informed


deci


sion


makers.


Etheridge


examined


factors


processes


involved


as beginning


sec


ondary


teachers


modified


or abandoned

education pr


practices


ogram.


emphasized


In-depth


within


interviews


their


teacher


participant


observations


were


conducted


with


31 graduates


of the


single


teacher


education


program


were


their


first


three


years


teaching.


areas


teac


a range


hers


school


represented


contexts.


a variety


case


of subject


studies


representing


both


extreme


typical


cases,


were


comply


eted.


Etheridge


found


that


teachers


in her


study


abandoned


practices


from


their


university


training


when


they


w










Individual


teachers


varied


their


responses


to constraints


resulting


in differences


in adjustments


and


decision


making.


Responses


to constraints


workplace


pressures


were


controlled


individual


teachers


often


resulted


in the


abandonment


of practices


taught


university.


Teachers


maintained


those


practices


that


elicited


desired


student


behaviors.


Etheridge


noted


that


these


beginning


teachers


used


strategic

identified


adjustment


Lacey


strategy

1977) .


that


Lacey


differed


s analysis


from


that


indicated


that


strategies


were


a response


to institutional


structures,


whereby


teachers


either


conform


to authority


or change


system.


Etheridge,


however,


found


that


strategies


are


response


to situational


needs:


Teachers
devising


deal


with


independently


instructional


ernatives


adjustment
self over


problems
learned a


is preceded
viability an


environmental


their
after


own


assures


solutions


exhausting


univ


teacher


ethical


ersity.


Each


negotiations


soundness


with


of the


changed


practice


. 310)


Etheridge


noted


that


these


teachers


' responses


were


deliberative


reactions


to environmental


pressures,


unconscious


reactions.


Teachers


were


consc


ious


deliberative


in their


responses


chose


from


a wide


range


of strategies


based


on their knowledge


of intended


unintended


outcomes.


Their


goal


became


gaining


control










teachers


moved


away


from


university


teachings,


less


likely


making


they


decis


were


ions


to consider


about


moral


practices.


ethical


Etheridge


criteria


suggested


when


that


longitudinal


studies


are


needed


to examine


adjustments


are


made


over


time.


cited


need


investigate


effect


of beginning


teachers


setting


aside"


desirable


practices


until


favorable


conditions


exist.


Bullough,


Knowles,


Crow


(1989)


investigated


"perceptions


of self-as-teacher"


of three


graduates


their


teacher


education


program.


These


teachers


participated


year-long


seminar


that


met


twice


a month


to discuss


their


experiences


first


-year


teachers.


Participants


also


kept


journal


approximately


curriculum


every


log,


three


were


weeks.


interviewed


In addition,


researchers


periodically


observed


teachers


in classroom


settings.


Bullough


et al.


concluded


that


beginning


teachers


perceptions


of themselves-as-teachers


inform


their


interactions


with


students.


example,


one


teacher


saw


role


"teacher


as nurturer"


interact


ed with


students


ways


that


indicate


ed she


cared


them


was


working


toward


nurturing


children,


even


"Rockers,


" into


being


good.


Bullough


et al.


also


noted


that


teacher


lacked


clarity


about


role


adopt


a technical


approach










teacher


students.


influenced


Bullough


to focus


et al.


on gaining


highlighted


control


existence


variety


between


in entering


teaching


perspectives


perspectives


clarify


perceptions


interactions


of students.


Although


we gain


insight


into


teaching


perspectives,


influence


of perspecti


ves


on practices


interactions


with


other


workplace


variables


are


less


clear


Using


same


data,


Bullough


Knowles


1991)


examined


metaphor,


or perception


of self-as-teacher,


one


of the


beginning


teachers


more


detail.


With


a purpose


of giving


"careful


attention


. to the


'things'


that


share


[teaching]


context


to how


others


understand


shape


that


context"


.122


researchers


followed


development


one


teacher


s metaphor


teaching


over


entire

that t


first


his


year


beginning


teaching.

teacher ma


Bullough


lintained


Knowles


metaphor


revealed

despite


several


challenges.


They


also


described


interactions


with


students


perceptions


of students


were


filtered


through


shaped


metaphor.


Although


they


recognized


that


"the


context


within


which


beginning


teacher


works


or may


fitting


their


understanding


teaching


self-as-teacher"


127),


only


workplace


variable


examined


in the


study


was


students.


Recently,


Bullough


(1989)


conducted


an interpretive


case










taken


decisions


were


made


during


first


years


teaching.


Kerrie


was


chosen


in-depth


study


because


was


considered


likely


to succeed


as a public


school


teacher.


Kerrie


was


observed


interviewed


once


a week


during


first


year


a half


of public


school


teaching.


Bullough


organize


ed Kerrie


s experiences


around


three


stages


of professional


development


identified


previous


studies


teacher


development


(Fuller


Bown,


1975;


Ryan


al.,


1980)


fantasy,


survival,


mastery.


Kerrie


actions


decisions


were


influenced


image


of good


teaching,


beliefs


about


teaching


learning,


level


experience,


curricular


materials


guidelines,


image


principal


s role,


as well


as the


open-classroom


structure


of the


school,


collegial


relationships


norms


collegiality


within


school


reactions


of the


pupils


classes.


Decisions


during


first


year


of teaching,


survival


stage,


were


based


on the


need


to maintain


control.


However,


Kerrie


continually


strove


to identify


strategies


classroom


activities


that


with


image


of good


teaching.


Her


efforts


were


instituted


in relative


isolation,


as Kerrie


a tendency


to withdraw


maintain


distance


from


other


teachers


Although


enjoyed


relative


autonomy,


was


discouraged


lack


of support


- -


advice


from


others.










first


year


of teaching


in the


beginning


of her


second


year.


was


First,


more


as Kerrie


inclined


accumulated


engage


successful


self-criti


experiences,


sm.


Second,


as she developed


confidence


in her


opinions,


beliefs,


abilities,


meetings


Kerrie


was


was


able


more


likely


to have


more


to speak


influence


up during


on the


team


practices


of colleagues.


Third,


during


second


year


of teaching,


Kerrie


determined


that


if she


were


to continue


growing


professionally,


a belief


with


which


exited


teacher


education


program,


then she


must


begin


building


a network


colleagues


shared


belief


about


teaching


learning.


Fourth,


insights


she had


gained


from


teacher


education


program


also


began


to surface


during


second


year


of teaching.


These


insights,


however,


tended


to be


general


ideas


understandings


gleaned


from


teacher


education


expe


riences.


Finally


Kerrie


began


to empower


herself


taking


a variety


of steps--becoming


involved


professional


organizations,


establishing


relationships


with


teachers


in her


school


on her


team,


participating


school


district-wide


commit


ees


, speaking


up during


team


planning

minded c


faculty


colleagues


meetings,


outside


of th


developing

e school,


a network

exhibiting


like-


overt


compliance


preferred


with


teaching


institutional


style,


standards


asking


while


questions


maintaining


about










Bullough


investigation


Baughman


of Kerrie


(1992)


conducted


s practices


a follow-up


perspectives


during


fall


of her


fifth


year


of teaching.


Kerrie


was


interviewed


times


observed


teaching


times.


Kerrie


participated


data


collection


analy


sis,


which


showed


that


Kerrie


s vision


of herself


as a teacher


remained


constant


over


five


years


that


radical


changes


in her


teaching


practices


of her


fourth


year


of teaching


were


cons


istent


with


entering


perspective.


As they


reflected


on their


findings,


Bullough


Baughman


raised


questions


concerns


about


limitations


of stage


theories


of teacher


development.


They


noted


that


Kerrie


moved


in and


of different


stages,


different


reasons


at different


times.


Consequently,


was


possible


simply


describe


professional


development


as a series


steps.


They


also noted


that


there


a tenden


in research


on teacher


socialization


to overemphasize


influence


workplace


variables


on teachers'


practices


perspectives.


Their


findings


highlight


role


of individuals


shaping


their


contexts


professional


socialization.


These


studies


of the


experiences,


prac


tices,


perspectives


of secondary


teachers


contribute


our


knowledge


of the


social


zation


of beginning


teachers.


Several


factors--working


conditions,


ssroom


life,










teachers.


Beginning


teachers


also


respond


in a variety


ways


to existing


workplace


variables.


Four


of these


studies


followed


teachers


beyond


their


first


year


of teaching.


Gehrke


(1981)


study


provides


evidence


of changes


in teachers


' perspectives


practices


during


first


three


years


of teaching


individual


teachers'


confidence


with


teaching


self-esteem


influence


their

(1989)


practices


also


professional


documented


changes


role


identity.


practices


Etheridge

perspectives


during


first


three


years


of teaching,


as teachers


repond


to situational


survive.


Bullough


needs


However,


student


Bullough


Baughman, 199


Bullough


behavior

colleagues


Knowle


in their ef

(Bullough,


1991;


Sports


1989;


Bullough


et al.,


1989)


have


raised


questions


about


change


versus


constancy


Gehrke


in teachers


(1981)


' pract


Etheridge


ices


(1989)


perspectives.


adopted


Although


an interpretive


approach


to analysis


, the


large


number


of informants


leads


a generalization


of findings


a focus


on central


tendencies.


Bullough


Only Bullough

Baughman, 1992;


colleagues


Bullough


(Bullough,


Knowles,


1991;


1989;

Bullough


et al.,


1989)


clarified


interaction


between


entering


perspectives


(entering


aims,


beliefs


about


teaching


learning,


beliefs


about


teacher


s role,


propensity


to be empowered


reflective)


workplace










a case


study


of a single


secondary


teacher


Bullough


(1989)


closely


examined


interaction


between


entering


perspectives


a variety


of workplace


variables


influence


of this


interaction


on curricular,


instructional,


professional


decisions


during


first


two


years


teaching.


Bullough


noted


persistence


of Kerrie


s beliefs


about


good


teaching


as she


moved


of the


survival


phase.


Bullough


s findings


indicate


a need


examine


teachers'


practices


perspectives


as they


move


of the


survival


phase


during


first


year


of teaching.


Only


after


Kerrie


acquired


successful


teaching


experiences


efforts


implement


entering


beliefs


about


good


teaching


begin


emerge.


results


changes


design


Bullough


corroborate


in Kerrie


a curriculum


Baughman


this


s (199


conclusion


s teaching


more


practices


consistent


follow-up


highlight


as she


with


study


radical


struggled


entering


perspective.


However,


these


three


studies


do not


explain


differences


entering


perspectives


cause


some


teachers


maintain


while


strengthen


others


seem


their


to be overwh


perspe

elmed


ctives


(Bullough,


student


behavior


1989)

r and


adopt


less


desirable


practices


order


survive


(Etheridge,


1989) .


What


do recent


interpretive


case


studies


of beginning


elementary


teachers


reveal?


Wildman,


Maqliaro,


Niles,


McLaughlin


Drill


(1988)


r










fall


spring


of the


teachers'


first


years


teaching.


Secondary


sources


journals,


activity


reports)


were


also


used


to corroborate


findings.


Wildman


et al.


listed


seven


categories


of problems


cited


beginning


teachers


sted


order


of frequency


from


most


to least)


students


individuals,


as a workplace,


instruction,


self,


classroom


parents,


organization,


teaching


school


profession


general.


solutions


They


noted


adopted


tremendous


beginning


range


teachers


variety


to solve


problems.


Though


previous


studies


have


produced


lists


of the


problems


of beginning


provides


teachers


further


(see


evidence


Veenman,


1984),


variety


this


rather


study

than


homogeneity


responses


beginning


teachers


to their


first


teaching


experiences.


Wildman,


Niles,


Magliaro,


McLaughlin


(1989)


conducted


a longitudinal


investigation


of the


first


2-1/


years


teaching


of 4


teachers


contrasting


values,


beliefs,


experiences.


These


teachers


were


part


larger


study


examining


effects


Colleague


Teacher


Project,


a component


Virginia


Beginning


Teacher


Assistance


Program.


Semi-structured


one-hour


interviews


were


conducted


times


a year


three


years.


In addition,


logs,


activity


report


, audiotaped


meetings


between


assigned mentor


beqinninq


teacher,


end-of-year


9r










Wildman


et al.


(1989)


found


that


beginning


teachers


engage


processes


simultaneously--teaching


learning


to teach.


They


suggested


that


induction,


or teacher


socialization,


a highly


individualized


process


continues


through


first


three


years


of teaching.


Four


factors


were


found


to be significant


sources


of influence


teaching


learning


to teach


over


first


three


years


parents,


students,


colleagues,


school


context


(including


class


ass


ignments,


principals


, curriculum,


collegial


relationships


teachers


within


individual


schools).


These


researchers


emphasized


individualized


nature


of the


induction


ocess.


Individual


variations,


they


suggest,


result


from


ente


ring


different


ces


in beliefs,


expectations

differences


findings


individual


preparedness,


encountered


contribute


teachers


as well


in teaching


our


as dramatic


situations.


understanding


as they


attempt


to survive


These


perspectives

and


construct


professional


identitie


within


their


first


years


teaching.


Although


Wildman


et al.


1989)


have


clarified


our


understandings


influences


on the


process


of learning


teach,


they


do not


help


us understand


beginning


teachers


deci


sions


are


influenced


interaction


of perspectives


various


school


contexts.


Haves


- -.


Ross


(1989)


conducted


a collaborative










investigated


experience


first


this


prior


years


study


to the


four


study,


of teaching


years


of teaching


interviews


kindergarten


document


in public


schools.


tudy


reveals


influence


leadership


styles,


faculty-


administration


communication


processes,


organizational


structures,


curricular


resources,


curriculum


decision-


making


processes


on one


teacher


s curricular


decision


making.


Jennifer


began


first


year


of public


school


teaching


with


a strong


knowledge


base,


after


successfully


teaching


four


public


years


in private


school


where


schools,


she accepted


principal


a position


trust


teachers


implemented


a variety


of procedures


to control


teachers.


Jennifer


strong


beliefs


about


teaching


learning


maintained


a reflective


approach


to teaching.


However,


was


faced


with


several


mandates


regarding


curriculum


classroom


management


practices.


Despite


confidence


strong


peer


support,


Jennifer


s enthusiasm


teaching


confidence


in her


abilities


began


to erode


in light


of the


workplace


pressures


she faced.


Jennifer


left


teaching


year


entered


graduate


school.


After


a year


graduate


school,


Jennifer


returned


teaching


another


public


school.


second


school


was


typified


support


teacher


deci


sion


making


risk


taking.


Within


this


supportive


context,


Jennifer


drew


--


-- m










designed


practices


evaluated


them


light


of student


learning.


In their


study


Hayes


Ross


(1989)


revealed


influence


of workplace


variables


on the


curriculum


provided,


willingness


to accept


responsibility


professional


deci


sions,


self-confidence,


satis


faction


one


"beginning"


teacher.


This


study


provides


added


insight


into


interaction


education,


between


workplace


entering


perspectives,


variables


teacher


influence


of such


interactions


on one


teacher


s emerging


practi


ces


perspectives


In particular,


Hayes


Ross


documented


changes


in the


teaching


practices


perspectives


one


teacher


as she


moved


from


a controlling


school


context


one


where


teachers


were


encouraged


to be autonomous


take


risks


with


their


teaching.


Zeichner


Tabachnick


1985


conducted


a two-year


longitudinal


study


of 4


beginning


teachers.


Thirteen


student


teachers


from


one


teacher


education


program


were


observed


interviewed


during


course


their


full-time


student


teaching


experience.


first


phase


of the


study


identified


student


teachers


' perspectives


their


dominant


social


strategy


cey,


1977).


Four


teachers


from


this


original


group


were


chosen


a follow-up


study


of their


first


year


of teachincr.


Each


teacher


was


observed


interviewed


- -


v


.


.










teacher

were in


s class,


terviewed.


their p

Three


rincipals,


of the


teachers


teaching

taught


colleagues

at the


middle


school


level,


other


teacher


taught


fourth


grade.


During


follow-up


study


changes


in perspectives


influences

analysis f


on those


focused


perspectives


on identifying


were

and d


examined.


describing


Data

personal


characteristics


characteristics


of the


that


beginning


interacted


teachers


to support


institutional


or constrain


entering


perspectives.


findings


indicated


that


even


though


four


teachers


began


their


first


year


of teaching


with


similar


perspectives,

characteristics


differences


resulted


in institutional


unique


socialization


personal

experiences.


Zeichner


Tabachnick


modified


Lacey


s (1977)


original


three


SOC


strategies


to include


both


successful


unsuccessful


attempts


at strategic


redefinition


clarify


influence


of changes


in teaching


context


beginning


teacher


moved


from


student


teaching


experience


to her


first


year


of teaching.


Although


each


teacher


employed


preservice


dominant


variety


social


inservice


Soc


strategy.


strategies


teaching,


each


success


during


teac


or failure


both


adopted


of attempts


strategic


redefinition


were


influenced


four


factors


degree


to which


teaching


LersDective


were


LII


s










informal


school


cultures,


react ions


of the


pupils


to the


teachers


This


study


provides


further


evidence


of individual


variations


response


to institutional


characteristics


clarifies


our


understanding


power


individual


teachers


direct


their


social


zation


into


teaching.


In addition,


provided


Zeichner


encouragement


and Ta

teacher


.bachnick


educators


1985)

when


have

they


concluded


that


"first-year


teachers,


under


some


conditions


least,


can


have


a creative


impact


on their


workplaces


survive"


. 14)


They


noted,


despite
student
teachers


differing
teaching


under


some


institutional


first


conditions


contexts


year,


at 1


during


beginning


east


were


to maintain


with


a perspective


dominant


which


institutional


was


in conflict


cultures


their


schools


Zeichner


Tabachnick


concluded


that


contradictions


between


formal


informal


school


cultu


res


differences


between


various


"subcultures"


existing


within


schools,


provide


space


beginning


teachers


to assert


their


preferred


style.


Zeichner


Tabachnick


also suggested


that


teaching


perspectives


are


not


situationally


specific,


as suggested


Becker


et al.


(1961


their


findings


indicate


that


beginning


teachers


' perspecti


ves


are


consistent


with


those


exhibited


during


their


student


teaching


experience.


In their


analysis


impact


of institutional


control


. (p


. 13)


(p


14)


- -










control


personal


or direct


control


(the


principal


supervision),


practices),


bureaucratic


technical


control


control


(official


(curricular


policies


material


constraint


, distribution


of time)


Their


findings


indicated


that


most


pervasive


powerful


factors


in institutional


control


also


are


noted


those


that


associated


beginning


with


technical


teachers


were


control.


able


They


to "avoid


redirect


elements


technical


control


if they


[had]


personal


goals


political


skills


to realize


these"


17) .


They


indicated,


however,


that


studies


have


closely


examined


influence


of technical


control


on the


SOC


ialization


teac


hers


' practi


ces


and


perspectives.


Zeichner


Tabachnick


s (1985)


study


provides


new


insights


into


soc


ialization


of beginning


teachers.


First,


beginning


teachers


tend


to maintain


some


form


of their


entering


perspectives.


Their


findings


suggest


that


some


beginning


teachers


are


able


to implement


their


"deviant"


practi


ces


within


their


first


year


of teaching,


as formal


informal


cultures


within


schools


interact


to support


constrain


their


noted,


opportunities


perspectives


"A loss


beginning


practices.


of idealism


teachers


Zeichner


inevitable


implement


Tabachnick


result


induction


into


teaching


.the


efforts


of formal


teacher


preparation


programs


are


not


necessarily


in vain"


A.- -


--










teachers


interact


with


institutional


constraints


other


elements


of school


context


as they


direct


their


socialization


into


teaching.


They


noted


that


beginning


teachers


' responses


to in


stitutional


clarified


that


constraints


one


are


homogeneous


not


school


uniform.

culture


They

into


further

which


beginning


teachers


are


socialized


does


not


exist.


Third,


technical


control


identified


as a pervasive


influence


socialization


of beginning


teachers


warranting


further


investigation.


Goodman


1987)


investigated


socialization


of three


potentially


empowered


novice


elementary


teachers


from


one


teacher


education


program.


Potentially


empowered


novice


teachers


were


those


identified


as assuming


a more
towards


individuals


critical


pers


teaching


are


challenging


children;


there


onally


profes


committed to
educational
y, encourage


ac


sion.


tive approach
These


providing
experiences


their


thoughtful
for


pupils


become


empowered


these


ves


(pp


2-31


three


teachers


included


this


study


were


a part


larger


longitudinal


study


investigating


experiences


of 10


student


teachers


one


teacher


education


program.


Observations


participants


interviews


' first


were


semester


conducted


inservice


during


teaching.


Goodman


(1987)


found


that


these


three


elementary


teachers


becoming


empowered


rested


on three


aspects










potentially


liberal,


empowered


humanistic


novice


teachers


approach


adopted


to these


three


a progressive,


issues.


example,


area


of classroom


management,


rather


than


focusing

elementary


on issues

v teachers


order


were


more


control,


concerned


these

with d


three


eve loping


sense


of community


discipline.


Their


within


approach


classroom


to curricular


fostering


decision


self-


making


involved


more


than


simply


managing


implementing


preexisting


tightly


structured


curricular


materials.


These


three


teachers


strove


to develop


implement


curricular


materials


based


on their


own


their


pupils


interests,

Finally, t


thus


thesee


altering


three


element


modifying p

ry teachers


reexisting

articulate


materials.

d beliefs


about


teaching


learning


that


indicate


ed they


believed


students


learned


best with


a variety


of hands-on


materials


activities.


Their


focus


was


on challenging


their


pupils


to think.


Goodman


1987)


identified


four


factors


that


had


impact


on whether


or not


these


teachers


became


empowered


elementary

commitment;


teachers


personal


institutional


knowledge,


support;


time


talent,


availability;


pupil responses

teachers include


to their

d in his


efforts.


study


He noted


varied


that


in their


effort


three

s and


abilities


to become


empowered.


He concluded


- -


suggesting










more


experience"


10) .


Goodman


called


studies


which


would


continue


through


beginning


teachers


' first


years


of teaching.


Recently,


Univers


of Florida


elementary


PROTEACH


faculty


have


been


engaged


a follow-up


study


their


graduates.


Kilgore,


Ross,


Zbikowski


(1990)


conducted


interview


study


with


beginning


teachers


semistructured


telephone


interview


was


conducted


with


each


participant

teaching.


during


Data


sources


spring

also


of their

included


first

four q


year


questionnairess


that


were


mailed to


spring/summer


1987


graduates


of the


program,


field


notes


recorded


during


Beginning


Teacher


Conference


in February


1988,


when


beginning


teachers


returned


campus


days


of presentations


discussions


about


their


teaching


concerns.


focus


of the


study


was


to examine


evidence


of a reflective


attitude


dealing


with


a concern


or problem


during


first


year


teaching.


Evidence


of a reflective


attitude


was


found


four


beginning


professional


teachers.


development


researchers


a reflective


noted


attitude


that


toward


problems


of teaching


result


from


interaction


between


spec


ific


context


people


involved.


Reflection


was


nurtured


contexts


that


viewed


teachers


as professionals,


.










explanations

alternative

contributed


Zeichne

found,


strength


classroom


strategies.


to teachers


r and Tabachnick

Kilgore et al.,


of the


: events

These s

satisfa


1985) ,


(1990)


individual


to experiment


ame va

action.


Lriables


with


also


As Goodman


Bullough


concluded,


plays


"The


a significant


(1989


profe


role


(1987),


also

ssional


in the


ability


beginning


teac


to sustain


a reflective


approach"


35) .


Yet,


these


researchers


questioned


whether


or not


their


most


reflective


teacher,


Martha,


would


have


been


able


to sustain


reflective


approach


in a nonsupportive


context.


Kilgore


et al.


concluded


that


one


of the


strongest


influen


ces


on a novice


teacher


s ability


to sustain


reflective


approach


support


of at


least


one


colleague


shares


similar


beliefs


about


teaching,


learning,


professional


development.


Kilgore


Ross


(1992)


conducted


a follow-up


investigation


of these


same


beginning


teachers


during


their


fifth


year


of teaching.


They


examined


graduates


' efforts


to resolve


significant


dilemmas


they


identified


during


their


first


year


of teaching;


gathered


information


about


their


current


context,


concerns;


or workplace


described


variables,


role


their


school


professional


development.


graduates


During


were


fall


interviewed


of their


on four


fifth


separate


year,


occasions.


p


w










development


reflective


capacity


of teachers"


14).


They


noted


that


these


teachers


moved


toward


an "experimental


stage"


teaching


concluded


that


this


was


consistent


with


a reflective


approach.


They


suggested


that


beginning


teachers


play


an active


role


shaping


their


own


professional


development


they


make


deci


sions


to change


their


positions


or move


to other


schools.


They


also


highlighted


experiences


one


teacher


had


been


described


as being


less


reflective


less


committed


student


learning


during


first


year


emerged


in her


fifth


earlier


year


as more


studies


from


reflective.


which


Kilgore


researchers


Ross


concluded


questioned


that


negative


first


experiences


can


inhibit


professional


growth


development


of beginning


teachers.


Hayes


follow-up

elementary


Kilgore


interview

PROTEACH


(1990


study


program.


, 1991)


seven

Semi


conducted


graduates

structured


a similar


of the

telephone


interviews


were


conducted


three


times


during


spring


their


first


year


of teaching.


In addition,


field


notes


were


collected


during


Beginning


Teacher


Conference


in spring


1990.


Hayes


Kilgore


(1990)


explored


classroom


management


problems


concerns


of these


beginning


teachers.


They


noted


that


three


of the b


beginning


teachers


framed


their










picture"


(developing


a sense


of community


promoting


self-


discipline).


Data


analysis


indicated


that


frames


these


beginning


sources


teachers


values


constructed


information


were


influenced


taken


from


three


teacher


education


program,


workplace


variables


(inc


luding


school-wide


programs,


administrative


style,


collegial


interactions),


and

four


personal b

beginning


eliefs


about


teachers


their i

framed


institutional


their


role.


concerns


The

terms


"the


bigger


picture"


were


continually


engaged


in exploring


range


of alternative


explanations


classroom


prac


tices


tended


to be self-critical


as they


examined


intended


unintended


outcomes.


These


characteristics


indicated


existence


of a reflective


approach


to teaching


within


first


year


of teaching


these


four


teachers.


Hayes


Kilgore


(1991),


using


same


data


sources,


investigated


collegial


relationships


constructed


these


beginning


Findings


teachers


indicated


during


expe


their


rienced


first


year


colleagues


teaching.


were


a significant


source


of support


groups


of teachers


advice


emerged


these


from


beginning

analysis


teachers.

of beginning


teachers


' interactions


with


their


colleagues.


Four


of the


beginning


teachers


entered


their


first


year


of teaching


with


expectation


they


would


seek


find


support


assi


stance


of other


teacher


while


other


three


teachers


'""


,










collegial


network


believed


that


good


teachers


identified


concerns


about


their


teaching


and


worked


with


others


explore,


evaluate,


implement


alternative


strategic


other


teachers


believed


that


good


teachers


projected


image


competence


control;


good


teachers


not


have


problems o

suggesting


r concerns.


that


Hayes


beginning


Kilgore


teachers


(1991)


actively


concluded


construct


their


roles


interactions


with


colleagues


that


framing


their


roles


serves


to limit


or broaden


reflection.


They


also


noted


that


of their


most


reflective


teachers


taught


in the


two


most


debilitating


school


contexts,


while


least


reflective


teachers


began


teaching


in schools


that


were


Kilgore


reported


(1991)


to be supportive


highlighted


of teachers.


potential


Hayes


strength


individual


teachers


to create


their


own


contexts


professional


growth


Many

of novice


noted


of the


findings


elementary


earlier


of these


teachers


on secondary


are


novice


nine


interpretive


consistent

teachers.


studies


with conclusions

First, entering


perspectives


practices


are


modified


during


first


three


years


teaching.


Second,


a variety


of workplace


variables


.g.,


principals,


colleague


, pupil


reactions,


available


curriculum)


interact


to influence


changes


perspectives


practices.


Third,


entering


perspectives


es.










noted


Bullough


(1989),


some


studies


(Goodman,


1987;


Hayes


Kilgore,


1990,


1991;


Kilgore


et al.,


1990;


Zeichner


Tabachnick,


beginning


1985)


teachers


indicate


to implement


potential


alternative


strength


practi


some


ces


consistent


with


a progr


ess


ive,


humanistic


orientation


within


first


years


of teaching.


studies


reviewed


several


features


common.


Most


of the


studies


included


both


participant


observation


in-depth


interviewing.


However,


Gehrke


(1981


observed


interviewed


participants


only


once


a year,


while


Wildman


(1988,


1989)


collected


similar


data


twice


a year.


addition,


three


studies


relied


on telephone


interviews


as the


primary


source


of data;


no classroom


observations


were


conducted


(Hayes


Kilgore,


1990,


1991;


Kilgore


Ross,


1992;


Kilgore


et al


*


1990)


Only


Bullough


associates


(Bullough,


1989;


Bullough


Baughman


, 1992;


Bullough


Knowles,

Zeichner


1991;

and T


Bullough


:abachnick


et al.,

(1985)


1989),

observed


Goodman

and in


(1987),


terviewed


and

their


informants


on a more


frequent


basis.


There


a need,


then,


more


case


studies


which


observe


interview


beginning


teachers


on a regular


basis


during


their


first


years


teaching.


It is only


through


regular


interviewing


observing


that


a researcher


able


to detect


gradual


changes


in perspectives and


practices


over


time


to identify










contrast


between


Etheridge


(1989)


conclusion


other


studies


that


were


reviewed


(Bullough,


1989;


Bullough


Knowles,


1991;


Bullough


et al.,


1989;


Goodman,


1987;


Hayes


Kilgore,


1990,


1991;


Kilgore


et al.,


1990;


Zeichner


Tabachnick,


1985)


striking.


Etheridge


(1989)


noted


focus


on control


order


to survive


as major


influences


on teachers


' practi


ces


perspectives,


while


other


studies


revealed


existence


of a critical


reflective


stance


toward


teaching


emerging


some


teachers


within


first


year


of teaching.


contrast


in these


findings


indicates


need


to further


examine


interactions


between


entering


perspectives


and


teaching


experiences .


instructional


controlling


Bullough


decisions


students


(1989)


that


not


noted


moved


emerge


that


beyond


until


curricular


goal


near


Kerrie


s first


year


of teaching,


while


steps


toward


self-


empowerment


were


taken


during


second


year.


Kilgore


Ross


(1992)


also


highlighted


movement


one


beginning


teacher


from


a technical


to a reflective


stance


fifth


year


of teaching.


Though


entering

approach


we have


perspectives


to teaching


some


insight


which


into


enhance


Bullough,


1989


elements


a creative

; Goodman,


and critical

1987; Hayes


Kilaore.


1990.


1991;


Haves


Ross,


1989;


Kilgore


& Ross,










beginning


teachers


' first


years


of teaching


(Bullough,


1989;


Bullough


Baughman,


1992;


Hayes


Ross,


1989;


Kilgore


Ross,


Hayes


Ross


(1989)


study


of the


experiences


one


experienced


kindergarten


teacher


enters


public


school


teaching


documented


contrasting


experiences,


perspectives,


practices


as Jennifer


moves


from


one


school


context


to another.


Kilgore


Ross


(1992)


also


documented


changes


teaching


practi


ces


perspectives


their


graduates


make


deci


sions


to change


their


teaching


contexts.


However,


these


researchers


relied


on data


collected


through


interviews.


Only


Bullough


(Bullough,

interviews


1989;

and c


Bullough


classroomm


Baughman,


observations.


1992)


conducted


Bullough


(1989


both

) noted


tremendous


changes


teaching


practices,


teaching


perspectives,


professional


development


during


Kerrie


second


year


of teaching


more


changes


fifth


year


(Bullough


Baughman,


1992) .


However,


Kerrie


was


a high


school


English


teacher.


less


clear


experiences


of novice


elementary


teachers


might


differ.


Zeichner


Gore


(1990


noted


that


perspectives


individual


teachers


need


to be examined


more


extens


ively.


They


concluded


calling


more


interpretive


studies


teacher


socialization:


Until


recently,


study


teac


socialization


~---


r. .


W u










There


is a need,


then,


interpretive


case


studies


that


closely


examine


perspectives


interactions


workplace


between


variables


entering


clarify


dynamics


of constraint


choice


within


teacher


socialization.


particular,


more


studies


are


needed


to document


perspectives


practices


of beginning


elementary


teachers


ove r


time.


There


is a need


studies


which


include


both


part


cipant


observation


in-depth


interviewing


to further


clarify


our


understandings


individual


variations


teacher


socialization


during


first


years


of teaching.


purpose


of this


study


was


to address


some


unanswered


questions


about


construction


of contexts


professional


socialization.
















CHAPTER


METHODOLOGY


purpose


of this


study


was


to discover


describe


conscious


unconscious


deci


sions


of three


second-year


teachers


to understand


what


influenced


those


deci


sions.


When


choosing


nature


a methodology


subject


being


this


studied,


study,


considered


underlying


goals


research,


theoretical


perspective.


choice


methodology


was


influenced


questions


asked,


well


as my


view


of the


world


to be understood


(Firestone,


1987).


adopt


a symbolic


interactionist


s point


of view


(Blumer,


1969


when


trying


to understand


social


processes


originate


they


are


maintained.


understand


that


decisions


teachers


make


are


result


of reciprocal


interactions


(Shulman,


among


1986)


persons


In other


within


words,


school


believe


context


teachers'


deci


sions


are


influenced


meanings


that


arise


through


social


interactions


with


others


within


school


context.


view


individual


teachers


as well


as the


organization


contributors


to the


construction


of meanings


(Shulman,


1986).


C. r+ran 4 nfl i Qm cn


that


meanings


arise


through


sllnRP St $


~~,mknl: n


|


.










automatic.


"The


actor


selects,


checks,


suspends,


regroups,


transforms


meanings


in light


of the


situation


which


is placed


dire


action


of his


action"


(Blumer,


1969,


Teachers


define


their


role


actions


terms


of how


they


define


their


social


interactions


with


others.


Teachers

respond


construct


to the


inside


an action


environment.


defining


or decision;


Blumer


process


they


cautioned,


of the


actor


not


simply


"One


in order


understand


action"


. 16)


researcher


must


see


observing


situation


what


it is


taken


into


seen


account,


actor,
observing


interprets


alternative


what


taken


kinds


of acts


into


that


account,


are


noting


mapped


in advance


that


see


to the


king


to follow


selection


interpretation


execution


one


these


prefigured


acts


(Blumer,


am interested


in understanding


teachers


construct


these


interpretations


use


them


making


deci


sions


within


context


of their


teaching


situations.


Qualitative


research


methods


provide


a means


understanding


teachers'


perspectives


actions.


Fire


stone


1987


suggested


that


qualitative


res


earchers


view


"reality


as socially


constructed


through


individual


collective


purpose


definitions


to "understand


situation"


social


that


phenomenon


their


from


actors


those


perspective


actors Q


through


ualitative


participation


researchers


life


im to "hel


r


56)










studied"


"become


immersed


in the


phenomenon


of interest"


(pp.


16-17).


cons


idered


nature


subject


being


studied


underlying


appropriate


goals


of the


methodology


research


Since


this


when


study


determining


focuses


teachers


' thoughts,


qualitative


research


methodology


most


appropriate


choice.


As Eri


ckson


(1986)


suggested,


through


qualitative


research


researchers


can


begin


to put


"mind"


back


into


teaching.


Qualitative


research


traditions


provide


an opportunity


to examine


mental


life


of teachers


to consider


mind


as a "mediating"


variable


teacher


actions. S

qualitative


unobservable


hulman


(1986)


research


processes


reminded


provides


such


researchers


a means


as thoughts,


that


tapping


attitudes,


feelings.


In this


perspectives


study,


explored


practices


beginning


through


teachers


qualitative,


naturalistic


methods.

procedures


In this

for st


chapter,


udying


describe


beginning


teachers


methods


' decisions


about


practices


begin


this


chapter


with


an overview


of the


study


discuss


criteria


selecting


participants


procedures


gaining


access.


Next,


review


research


procedures


methodological


issues.










Participants


Selection


Criteria


conducted


this


study


in two


phases


to facilitate


selection


of parti


cipants


to gain


a broader


understanding


of the


development


teachers


' practices


perspectives.


first


phase


of the


study,


which


began


February,


1990,


continued


through


spring


of the


participants


' first


year


of teaching,


was


conducted


collaboration


with


another


researcher,


findings


are


reported


in Chapter


(Hayes


Kilgore,


1990,


1991)


analysis


of the


first-


year


teachers


aided


in the


selection


of three


participants


second


phase


of the


study,


which


began


August,


1990,


marked


beginning


of the


participants


' second


year


of teaching.


first


phase


of the


study


was


initiated


during


Third


Annual


Beginning


Teacher


Conference


in February,


1990.


This


College


conference,


sponsored


of Education,


was


organized


university

to reunit


of Florida


PROTEACH


graduates


in the


spring


their


first


three


years


teaching.


of the


graduates


of the


elementary


PROTEACH


program


in their


first


year


of teaching


attended


conference


were


contacted


to be included


in the


first


phase


of the


study;


nine


agreed


to participate.


beginning


with


those


-


st-vear


teac


hers


attended the


conference, I had


"'










During


Beginning


Teacher


Conference


collected


data


through


participant


observation.


During


conference


comments

contexts,


beginning


problems,


teachers


successes


about

were r


their


recorded


teaching

in field


notes


audiotaped.


Thirty-minute


follow-up


telephone


interviews


were


planned


with


nine


first-year


teachers


once


a month


last


months


of the


school


year.


This


resulted


complete


dat a


sets


with


seven


of the


beginning


teachers.


Appendix


first


A for


phase


a copy


of the


of the


study


interview


first


schedules


semistructured


interview


was


organized


around


teacher


s thoughts


concerns


as she reflected


on her


first


year


of teaching


discussed


plans


change.


structuring


first


interview


around


teacher


s interests


beginning


with


small


talk


establish


a search


rapport


build


common


ground,


a relation


ship


was


with


able


teacher


(Bogdan


Biklen,


1982) .


Second


third


interviews


focused


on gathering


information


about


workplaces


teaching


perspectives


beginning


teac


hers


.By


beginning


study


during


spring


their


first


year


of teaching,


efforts


to construct


an initial


understanding


these


teachers


' perspecti


ves


practices


were


enhanced.


Transcripts


revealed


their


commitment


to student


learning;










their


second


year


of teaching;


their


interpretations


of workplace


variables.


Parti


cipants


second


phase


of the


study


were


chosen


(Guba,


according


1981).


to the


Purposive


principles


sampling


of purposive


helped


sampling


to "maximize


range


information


uncovered.


According


to Guba,


"The


nature


sampling


process


governed


emergent


insights


about


what


important


relevant"


86).


Glaser


Strauss


(1967


recommend


choosing


subjects


that


are


maximally


differentiated


variables


concern


examine


nature


those


influences.


basis


of the


principles


of purposive


sampling


three


part


cipants


were


chosen


the second


phase


of the


study.


of the


participant


indicated


a propensity


to be


reflective;


third


part


cipant


was


considered


to be


less


reflective


Evidence


regarding


reflective


ability


was


gathered


from


their


contributions


during


Beginning


Teacher


Conference


their


responses


to interview


questions


during


first


phase


of the


study.


development


of criteria


evaluating


reflection


was


guided


methodology


findings


of similar


studies


Ross


(1987)


Goodman


(1987)


derived


from


literature


reflection


Ross,


1988;


Schon,


1987;


Zeichner


Liston,


1987).










practi


ces


described


PROTEACH


demonstrated


that


they


were

was


likely


less


to maintain


likely


such


to examine


a stance.


student


learning


third

issues


participant


implement


practices


valued


PROTEACH.


Goodman


(1987)


suggested


that


those


teachers


are


"potentially


empowered


novice teachers"

learning. They


exhibit

exhibit


a strong


commitment


a willingness


to take


to student


risks,


commitment


to making


a difference,


a propensity


taking


an active


role


in curricular


decis


making


(Goodman,


1987).


teaching


context


was


another


factor


cons


idered


when


choosing


participants


second


phase


study.


Researchers


have


identified


a variety


of workplace


variables


that


potentially


enhance


profes


sional


growth


of teachers


as decision


makers


(Goodman,


1987;


Little,


1982;


Ross,


1987;


Veal


et al.,


1989;


Wildman


Niles,


1987;


Zeichner


Tabachnick,


1985)


They


indicated


that


administrative


style


and

from


norms


school


collegiality


to school


and professional

county to county


development


vary


strongly


influence


Hord,


1988;


deci


Little,


lions m

1982;


lade


Veal


teachers

et al., 1


(Hayes


989;


Ross


Wildman


1989;

Niles,


1987)


There fore,


three


teachers


chosen


second


phase


study


varied


along


dimension


of school


context.










inclination


to implement


practices


valued


PROTEACH,


their


school


contexts,


considered


their


level


frustration


concern


during


their


first


year.


Researchers


(Goodman,


1987;


Howey


Bents,


1979;


Kilgore


al.,


1990;


Ryan


et al


1980)


indicate


that


levels


frustration


concern


vary


among


beginning


teachers.


Some


beginning


teachers


are


overwhelmed


management


problems


(Blase,


1985;


Ryan,


1979;


Veenman,


1984) ,


while


others


are


frustrated


requirements


constraints


their


teaching

beginning


context (

teachers


Etheridge,


take


1989;


Goodman,


responsibility


1987).


Some


teaching


practices


strategies


they


employ


believe


that


they


can


continue


to improve


student


learning


in their


classrooms


(Goodman,


1987;


Kilgore


et al.,


1990) .


While


some


first-year


teachers


are


ready


to give


suggest


that


they


will


not


continue


teaching


a second


year


(Glassberg,


1979;


Ryan,


1970),


others


sea


a support


group


persevere


their


teaching


efforts.


part


cipant s


chosen


second


phase


of the


study


actively


sought


support


ass


instance


of other


teachers


they


persevered


in their


efforts


participant


to implement


indicated


practices


that


valued


was


PROTEACH;


beginning


third


to abandon


suggested


a... -


practi


teaching


ces


goal


was


(Hayes


adopting


Kilgore,


controlling


1990,


students


1991).










commitment


to student


learning,


commitment


to practices


described


in the


PROTEACH


program,


reflective


ability.


was


interested


propensity


in following


to continue


growing


teachers


exhibited


professionally.


criteria


listed


guided


selection


of participants


toward


first-


year


teachers


demonstrated


a commitment


to continued


professional


growth.


three


teachers


included


in the


second


phase


of the


study


also


varied


terms


teaching


context


their


level


frustration


concern.


Finally,


with


doctoral


committee


in August,


1990,


to confirm


se lect ion


of participants


second


phase


of the


study.


Substantive


data


collection


began


in fall,


1990,


as the


three


teachers


began


their


second


year


of teaching.


September,


1990,


each


teacher


identified


one


companion


teacher


was


willing


to participate


interviews.


PROTEACH


graduates


were


interviewed


once


a month


fall


60 to 90


minutes


observed


bimonthly


on two


consecutive


school


days.


(See


Appendix


B for


a copy


interview


schedules


second


phase


of the


study.)


first


observed


entire


school


day,


following


observed


to 3


hours


conducted


seven


interviews


with


each


PROTEACH


graduate,


four


of which


were


telephone


interviews.


Companion


teachers


were










challenge


issues


regarding


workplace


variables


emerging


PROTEACH


graduates'


interviews.


three


beginning


teachers


were


interviewed


observed


once


more


in January,


1991.


Final


data


collection


PROTEACH


teachers


occurred


in March,


1991,


to confirm


emergent


data


analy


sis.


Each


beginning


teacher


was


observed


interviewed


once


during


this


month


Companion


teachers


were


intervi


ewed


once


again


May,


1991.


To summarize,


first-year


teachers


attended


Beginning


Teacher


Conference


in February


1990


were


included


first


phase


study.


Telephone


interviews


were


conducted


once


a month


until


of the


first


year


teaching.


Three


of these


participants


were


selected


second


phase


study


prior


to fall


1990,


on the


basis


prin


ciples


of purposive


sampling.


Total


data


collection


second


phase


study


resulted


in 33


interviews


with


second


-year


beginning


teachers,


full-day


observations


3-hour


observations


of classroom


teaching,


interviews


with


companion


teachers.


(See


Appendix


C for


a summary


schedule


of data


collection


Gainina


Access


identifying


participants


first


phase


of the


study

I was


from


those


hopeful


tha


attending

t these


teacher


Beginning

rs would


Teacher


more


Conference,


likely










interest


their


their


in maintaining


teacher


teaching


education


situation


contact


with


program


concerns.


faculty


a desire


Official


and students

to talk about


approval


University


s Ins


titutional


Review


Board


Protection


of Human


Subjects


was


granted


first


phase


study


under


"Becoming


Teachers


Grant


applied


acquired


approval


second


phase


of the


study.


During


initial


meeting


with


participants,


discussed


study


in general


terms


so that


could


minimize


influence


on the


outcome


of the


study.


stated,


would


teaching


like


to understand


as expe
ssible


rienced


me to


sec


PROTEACH
interview


d year or
graduates.
all PROTEACH


graduates,
graduates
represent
graduates


second


so I am asking
in their first


range


a small


year


expe


to participate.


ear


to participate


will
range


be choosing


teaching


in the
g three


of experiences


sec


rien


sample
teaching


ces


Prior
will c
ond pha


of all


of the
who
PROTEACH


to beginning


contact


se


teachers


of the


initial


your


three


of the
repre
group


study


sent


participants.


was


aware


of the


importance


of negotiating


a smooth


entry


into


field


setting


to establish


trust


enhance


richness


trustworthiness


data


to be collected


(Erickson,


1986).


When


contacting


participants


first


phase


remember


study,


me from


their


was


hopeful


teacher


that


education


participants


program.


would


was


hopeful


that


they


would


recall


feeling


comfortable










After


first


phone


interview,


thanked


each


participant


described


agreeing


proposed


to participate


methods


in the


collecting


study


data.


clarified


what


role


would


be during


interviews


classroom


observations


during


second


phase


of the


study.


explained


that


would


record


of their


comments


questions


on tape


during


interviews


would


maintain


reflective


stance


refrained


from


offering


suggestions


giving


advice


in order


to minimize


effect


on teacher


behavior


interview


data.


Prior


with


to beginning


principals


second


three


phase


part


of the


cipants


study,


to gain


met


their


support


permission


study.


shared


with


each


principal


a brief


outline


of the


purpose


procedures


study


During


that


meeting,


inquired


about


process


procedures

procedures


gaining


each


formal


district


school

varied.


district


one


approval.

district,


submitted


a written


application


a copy


my approval


from


University


s Institutional


Review


Board


In another


district,


received


verbal


approval


from


principal.


third


district,


contacted


district


s supervisor


research


received


verbal


permission.


indicated to


parti


cipants


in the


second


phase


tudv


that


during


observations


would


be bus


y writing


.


. ,- a


I


&LL










with


each


teacher


my presence


in the


classroom


would


introduced


to the


children.


explained


that


would


avoid


contact


or verbal


exchanges


with


students


so as not


to disrupt


class


flow


(Bondy,


1985;


Hatch,


1985).


assured


participants


that


would


schedule


informal


interviews


their


convenience.


indicated


that


these


interviews


would


focus


on clarifying


my questions


about


observations


provide


an opportunity


them


to discuss


their


plans


concerns.


also


assured


teachers


that


they


would


have


an opportunity


to review


verify


study


s findings.


To review,


during


initial


meeting


with


each


teachers


was


prepared


answer


following


questions,


identified


teachers


"What


Bogdan


consent


are


Biklen


to part:


1982)


icipate


actually


going


as being


common


in qualitative


to do?"--By


studies


being


honest


interested


specific,


in understanding


indicated


what


that


like


was


to be a teacher


second


year


teaching.


"Will


be disruptive?"--I


reassured


teachers


that


would


as unobtrusive


noninterfering


as possible.


addition,


indicated


that


would


observe


interview


only


their


convenience.


"What


are


going


to do with


your


findings?"--I


v


v










emphasized


that


data


would


be available


to their


supervisors.


clarified


that


would


be the


only


person


would


have


access


to the


data


that


would


use


codes


identify


teachers


(Erickson,


1986).


"Why


emphasized


that


am generally


interested


understanding


second


year


of teaching


that


am not


interested


them


personally;


in other


words,


am not


there


to evaluate


or check


on them


(Erickson,


1986)


"What


will


of thi


s?"--I


shared


that


as a


classroom


teacher


teaching


teaching


framed


plans,


that


empathize


value


concerns,


interview


process


with


conditions


opportunity


frustrations.


as being


to talk


This


therapeutic


nature


about


response

for


teachers.


"What


researcher


s role


field?"--I


explained


verbal


my strategy


exchanges


of not


with


establi


students


shing


(Bondy,


contact


1985).


emphasized


desire


to be


"like


a fly


on the


wall"


. 123-


124).


expectation


was


that


spending


an extended


period


time


collecting


data,


a full


calendar


year


encompassing


school


years,


increased


probability


of overcoming


distortions


caused by my


presence an


description


of the


me?"--I










As research


dilemmas


occurred


during


course


of the


study,


used


following


of ethical


principles


as a


guide


to making


deci


sions:


Consider
Safeguard


informants


informants


first


'rights,


interests,


sensitivities


Communicate


Protect


resea


privacy


objectives.


of the


informants.


Don't


6. Make r
(Spradley,


exploit
reportss
1980,


informants.


available
pp. 21-25)


to informants.


In the

procedures.


following


discuss


sections

data co


describe


election,


research


participant


interviewing,


participant


observations,


unobtrusive


measures,


data


analysis


separate


sections.


Finally,


review


pertinent


methodological


issues.


Research


Procedures


Overview


Spradley


(1980


suggested


that


strategy


associated


with


micro-ethnography,


participant


observation,


participant


interviewing


provide


a means


"dis


covering


cultural


knowledge


people


are


using


to organize


their


behavior


interpret


their


experience"


(pp.


30-31).


of this


research


approach


to "understand


another


life


"learn


from

from


the

the


native

people"


point


(Spradley,


view," and


1980,


purpose i

Spradley


suggested


that


rese


archer


to understand


a culture,










heads"


making


inferences


from


what


teachers


say,


use


(Spradley,


1980)


purpose


teachers


this


experience


study


their


was


to describe


second


year


reality


of teaching


their


own


terms.


To understand


teachers


' behavior,


which


provides


evidence


teachers


' decisions,


to search


discover


what


teachers


know


they


define


their


actions


(Spradley,


1980) .


Participant


interviewing


was


primary


mode

means


of data

for co


collection.


rroborating


Participant


teachers


observation


' descriptions


provided


of their


decisions


actions.


Spradley


organic


zed these


methods


into


a systematic


of procedures


called


Developmental


Research


Sequence.


adapted


this


model


this


study


describe


subsection


entitled


"Analysis


Qualitative


research


begins


with


broad


descriptive


questions


that


guide


initial


interviews


observations.


Unlike


traditional,


experimental


research,


purpose


qualitative


research


"develop


sensitizing


concepts,


describe

develop


multiple


realities,


understanding"


(Bogdan


generate


Bikle


grounded

n, 1982,


theory,


46).


and

The


research


process


is cyclical


rather


than


linear


in nature.


design


of qualitative


studies


evolving


flexible


study


develops


a focus,


data


collection


narrows.


res


earcher


engaqes


in a continuous


cycle


of asking


questions,










nearly


completed


of data


collection


(Bogdan


Biklen,


1982;


Spradley,


1980).


discussion


of procedures


data


collection


analyst


with


regard


to issues


"trustworthiness"


(Guba,


1981)


follow.


Data


Collection


In this


section


describe


three


data


collection


strategies


participant


interviewing,


participant


observations


, and


unobtrusive


measures.


using


multiple


methods


of data


collection,


increased


number


perspectives


reduced


observer


bias


Erickson,


1986;


Guba,


1981;


Kirk


Miller,


1986),


thus


enhancing


validity


research


findings.


Triangulation


of data


sources


aided


elimination


of bias


provided


a means


dismissing


plausible


rival


explanations


(Erickson,


1986;


Guba,


1981;


Kirk


Miller,


1986;


Mathison,


1988) .


Mathison


(1988


argued


that


triangulation


of data


sources


methods


provides


rich


complex


picture


of the


social


phenomenon


being


studied.


Triangulation


provides


more


better


evidence


construction


of meaningful


propositions


about


social


world.


This


process,


suggested,


requires


researcher


to be explicit


about


research


procedures


levels


information


from


which


explanation


of social


phenomenon


is constructed.


explanation


If this


e findings


done,


are


then


public


logic


open


__ _










Participant


Interviewing


Participant


interviewing


is a research


technique


often


ass


ociated


with


qualitative


studies


(Blumer,


1969;


Bogdan


Biklen,


1982;


Spradley


, 1980).


Through


interviewing,


was


able


to observe


essence


substance


of teachers


thoughts


during


planning


or reflection


about


deci


sions.


Bondy


(1989)


found


that


interviews


provide


an indication


teachers'


guiding


views


teaching.


Ross


(1979)


used


interviews


to gather


evidence


of connections


between


teachers


study


' beliefs


of potentially


practices.


empowered


Goodman


novice


(1987),


teachers


in his


, designed


interviews


discover


ways


in which


informants


interpreted


social


world


around


them


these


interpretations


were


used


as the


basis


their


act ions"


6).


Two


types


interviewing


were


used


this


study--


"formal"


(Spradley,


11f r ai


1980).


Formal


interviews


provided


primary


data


source


this


study.


Formal


interviews


occurred


at appointed


times


agreeable


to the


teacher.


Interviews


were


conducted


only


times


when


teacher


was


relieved


of her


duties


with


children.


Formal


interviews


were


guided


a semistru


ctured


interview


guide


ensure


comparable


data


across


partic


ipants


(Bogdan


Biklen,


1982;


see


Appendix


Questions


interview


guides


were


drawn


from


case


studies


of beginning


v










school


C


research re

on teachers


developed


ontext

garding


and

the


' beliefs


to allow


professional


impact


development


teacher


practices.


discovery


Broa


studies,


education p

d questions


of issues


that


programs

were


were


importance


to the


teachers


(Spradley,


1980).


Experience


questions


teacher


effect


always


were


s story


during


like


asked


to obtain


(Spradley,


interviews,


this?


a rich


1980) .


asked


give


description


To control


questions


me another


of each

researcher


such


example


give


me an example


of when


was


like


this


(Bogdan


Biklen,


1982) .


ensure


that


was


tapping


what


was


most


important


in the


minds


participants,


conducted


interviews


using


a conversational


style,


similar


to what


occurs

Though


between


entered


trusting


parties


interview


with


(Bogdan


questions


Biklen,

in mind,


1982).


was


sensitive


to the


developing


interactions


between


myself


teacher


followed


up on any


questions


or information


ered


initial


during


interviews


interview


were


(Bondy,


analyzed


1985).


emerging


Data


from


themes


used


to inform


subsequent


procedures.


Relevant


questions


emerged


developed


an understanding


of the


teachers


perspectives.


formal


interviews


were


audiotaped


to reduce


tendency


a


micht


have


to select


data


unconsciously










important


to collect


as audiotaped


recordings,


"referential


against


adequacy


which


materials,


later


" such


findings


interpretations


can


be tested.


recorded


fieldnotes


after


each


interview.


described


context


of the


interview,


my impressions,


recorded


other


remarks


made


before


or after


interview.


These


notes


helped


me to remain


conscious


various


influences


on the


data


as they


were


collected


(Bogdan


Biklen,


1982).


conducted,


audiotaped


when


possible,


informal


interviews


clarify


rapport


before


what


with


after


observed


participants.


participant


to maintain


times,


observations


establish


to time


constraint


informal


interviews


occurred


immediately


prior


to formal


interviews.


This


pose


methodological


problems,


as the


informal


interview


simply


evolved


into


formal


interview.


asked


questions


such


"How


was


this


sson


influenced


same


these


or different


changes


from


What


would


one


like


planned?


What


to do


differently


Will


it differently


next


time


not?"


refrained


from


asking


questions


during


instructional


time


waited


until


children


were


room.


during


However,


observations


recorded


in the


fieldnot


comments


es.


teachers


made


offered


notes


informal


conversations


that


were


audiotaped


after


they


1 v w


w










my presence


purpose


began


to treat


me as a


confidante.


ensured


truthfulness


trustworthiness


(Guba,


1981)


of interview


data


asking


same


ques


tion


different


ways


comparing


answers.


In addition,


compared


teachers


responses


across


interviews.


Though


there


were


changes


over


time,


there


was


some


consistency


perspective


from


one


interview


to the


next.


explored


inconsistencies


future


observations


interviews.


prolonged


with


engagement


teachers


site


reduced


enhanced


tendencies


relation


to give


ships


artificial


responses


behavior


Finally,


(Goetz


compared


LeCompte,


1984)


verbal


responses


cultural


to observed


artifacts


(Ross,


1979) .


Guba


1981


emphasized


importance


documenting


every


claim


least


sources.


Participant


Observations


Participant


observation


a form


of data


collection


most


closely


associated


with


work


of qualitative


researchers


ethnographers


(Bogdan


Biklen,


Spradley,


1980) .


Parti


cipant


observation


consists


of making


a detailed


record


fieldnotes


language


activity


those


being


observed


(Spradley,


1980).


part


cipant


observations


activities


of second-year


provided


teachers


corroborating


focused


evidence


on classroom


of teachers


v


--ww --










January,


once


again


in March


to confirm


emergent


data


analysis.


of the


fall


observations


were


an entire


school


day;


other


observations


lasted


from


to 3


hours.


Before


entering


classroom


had


to decide


to what


degree


would


become


involved


in the


social


situation.


entered


field


assuming


a passive


role


in the


classroom;


this


meant


that


was


present


in the


classroom but


interrupt


or interact


with


other


members


of the


social


situation


earlier,


great


avoided


extent


contact


(Spradley,


verbal


1980) .


As described


exchanges


with


pupils


in the


classroom


refrained


from


talking


to the


teac


until


children


were


of the


classroom.


reduce


unobtrusive


(Bogdan


influence

e, and no

Biklen, 1


on the


situation,


threatening


982)


in the


recorded


was


as natural,


classroom


as possible


fieldnotes


responses


to myself


as an observer


classroom


so that


these


could


be noted


in the


analysis


as well


(Goetz


LeCompte,


1984)


Fieldnotes


are


an objective


recording


of what


observed


Id--an


attempt


to "capture


a slice


life"


(Bogdan


Biklen,


1982


. 84).


researcher


records


detailed


accounts


as possible.


of what


Spradley


(1980)


observed,

listed t


as close


threee


to verbatim


principles










informant


language


researcher


language,


to record


as much


specific


detail


as possible.


Direct


quotes,


paraphrases,


comments


were


distinguished


from


one


another


in both


fieldnotes


final


protocols.


ensure


richness


of the


fieldnotes,


scheduled


time


immediately


following


observations


to expand


fieldnotes


transcribe


them


into


final


protocols


(Miles


Hube rman,


1984;


Spradley,


1980)


Included


fieldnotes


were


reflections


on my


frame


of mind


during


observation


to reveal


opinions,


beliefs,


attitudes,


or prejudices


that


might


have


influenced


data


(Bogdan


Biklen,


1982).


Unobtrusive


Measures


Unobtru


sive


measures


have


been


used


qualitative


researchers


(Bondy,


1985;


Goodman,


1987;


Hatch,


1985)


as a


means


collecting


data


that


are


free


from


researcher


effect


Unobtrusive


do not


measures


influence


provided


social


further


setting


evidence


being


of the


studied.


lived


experiences


deci


sions


of second-year


teachers.


Sources


of unobtrusive


measures


included


teachers


' planbooks,


copies


of student


work,


copies


of curriculum


guides,


teachers'


notes


from


faculty


meetings


, copies


of parent


newsletters,


units


study


designed


teac


hers,


descriptions


of teacher-


made


materials


Ross


1979)


suggested


that


cultural


artifacts,


such


- -


teacher-made


games


materials


w__ -










reflect


classroom


practices


indicate


potential


influences


or results


of teacher


decis


making.


Data


Analysis


To discover


what


teachers


perceived


influences


their


decision


making,


systematically


examined


what


teachers


did,


said,


used


(Blumer,


1969;


Spradley,


1980).


I accomplished

participant in

unobtrusive me


this


terviews,

assures.


examining


part


dat a


cipant


collected


observations


Developmental


Research


through

, and

h Cycle,


described


analysis


Spradley


procedures


(1980),


this


guided


study


data


collection


In a qualitative


study,


data


analy


begins


same


time


data


collection


begins


(Bogdan


Biklen,


1982;


Glaser


Strauss,


1967;


Spradley,


1980)


Glaser


Strauss


(1967)


Bogdan


Biklen


1982


recommended


using


a portion


of the


data


initially


collected


determining


important


questions


study.


entered


Developmental


Research


Cycle


with


general,


descriptive


question


mind:


"What


are


experi


ences


of second


-year


teachers?"


Guided


this


initial


question,


began


to examine


systematically


thoughts


responses


of the


second-year


teachers.


Spradley


(1980)


described


It refers


process


to the


of data


systematic


analyst


examination


of thinking.


of something


determine


parts,


relationship


among


parts,


-- w --










analytic


inquiry


include


domain


analysis,


taxonomic


analysis,


componential


analy


sis,


searching


cultural


themes.


Each


level


of analysis


guided


search


patterns


hypotheses


teaching.


about


Descriptions


teachers


of the


' efforts


levels


to improve


of analysis


their


follow:


Domain


analysis


involves


a search


categories


meaning.


Initial


categories


were


covered


through


process


of coding


Codes
from


are


rese


fieldnotes


categories.


arch


ques


tions,


They


hypothe


interview'

usually


ses,


transcripts.


derived
concepts,


important


themes


They


are


retrieval


organizing


quickly,
relating
concept,
analysis


devices


ut,


pull o
to the


or theme.
. (Miles &


that
then


particular


allow


analyst


cluster


question,


Clustering


Huberman,


sets


1984,


to spot


the segments
hypothesis,
the stage fo
.56)


Coding


left


to the


drives


ongoing


of data


data


analysis


collection;


should


through


ongoing


process


of coding


that


researcher


prevented


from


short-


circuiting


analytic


process,


to fatigue,


presenting


a partial


analysis.


Through


such


a process


researcher


uncover


real


or potential


sources


bias


in data


collection


(Miles


Huberman,


1984) .


Domain


analysis


coding


continue


ed throughout


study.


Important


domains


included


"Kinds


of Colleagues


Beginning


Teacher


Approaches


Support


Assistance,


" "Beliefs


about


Teaching


Learning,


" "Aims


Student


Learning,










"What


kinds


of things


do beginning


teachers


notice


about


students?"


Taxonomic


analysis


a search


patterns


connections

questions t

second-year


between


o guide


teachers


domains.


search


began


formulated


relationships


building


comparison

among


a "cognitive


map,


an evolving


schema


understanding


experiences


of the


second-year


teachers


(Miles


Huberman,


1984).


constructed


visual


representation


my understandings


patterns


discover


"Beliefs


themes


domains


about


emerging


related


Teaching


from


one


data,


another.


Learning"


domain


began


example,


became


larger


domain,


"Beliefs


about


Role


of the


Teacher,


" that


included


beliefs


about


role


of the


teacher


in the


classroom


well


as the


workplace.


Within


this


category


"Beliefs


about


Role


Teacher"


there


were


also


differences


such


"What


kinds


of aims


student


learning


of beliefs


teacher


do beginning


do beginning


in curricular


teachers


teachers


deci


identify


have


sion


" "What


about


making


kinds


role


" "How


beginning


teachers


differ


in their


interactions


with


other


teachers?"


began


asking


questions


about


contrasts


between


domains,


observations


interviews


became


more


focused.










cultural


researcher


categories"


continues


(Spradley,


data


1980,


collection


131).


analysis


purpose


of identifying


characteristics


terms


within


domains


that


emerge


as significant.


Through


process


identifying


attributes


within


a domain,


determined


domain


was


defined


attributes


compared


contras


with


one


another.


This


level


of analysis


was


applied


goals


to those


of this


domains


study.


that


surfaced


example,


as central


"Beliefs


about


to the


Role


the T

about


teacher


in the


learning,


Classroom"


beliefs


about


included


their


teacher


aims,


s role


beliefs


in learning,


beliefs


about


appropriate


practice


es.


Finally,


searched


a cultural


theme


that


tied


together


explained


different


ces


in second-


year


teachers


' beliefs


about


their


role


influenced


their


construction


of contexts


professional


socialization.


These


analytic


procedures


guided


data


analyst


helped


me reduce


scope


of the


data


determine


their


meaning.


Analysis


made


possible


me to note


differences


within


between


teachers.


Spradley


(1980)


suggested


that


researchers


begin


with


descriptive


observations


interviews.


began


study


collecting


an overview


experiences


of second-year


teachers










collection


of data


proceeded,


made


selective


observations


focused


on selected


questions


concern


interviews.


Methodolocical


Analytic


Issues


Interpretation


process


of analysis


in qualitative


research


involves


analytic


interpretation.


researcher


must


infer


from


what


people


say,


use


(Spradley,


1980)


to understand


what


people


know.


This


process


of making


interpretations


analyze


influences


on teac


deci


sion


making


must


monitored


to guard


against


res


earcher


bias,


misinterpretation,


researcher


influence.


Several


steps


were


taken


during


process


of collecting,


recording,


analyzing


data


to enhance


data


"trustworthiness"


(Guba,


1981) .


Some


these


steps


have


been


described


previously


Those


that


have


described


in detail


elsewhere


will


referred


more


briefly


this


section.


First,


observations


interviews


were


conducted


full


calendar


year.


This


lessened


effect


my presence,


enabled


testing


rese


archer


biases


assumption


provided ver

observations


ification


also


of developing


clarified


perceptions.


my understandings


Persistent


of what


common t

identify


o the


experiences


atypical e


xperi


of second-year


ences.


teachers


In addition,


extended


helped

contact