The relationship between career maturity and commitment to work in alternative and regular high school students

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Title:
The relationship between career maturity and commitment to work in alternative and regular high school students
Physical Description:
vii, 148 leaves : ; 29 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
English, Charles W., 1948-
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
High school students -- Attitudes   ( lcsh )
Career development -- Psychological aspects   ( lcsh )
Work ethic   ( lcsh )
Psychology thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Psychology -- UF
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1992.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 140-147).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Charles W. English.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001789139
oclc - 29238703
notis - AJL2789
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Full Text



t


THE


RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CAREER MATURITY AND
TO WORK IN ALTERNATIVE AND REGULAR
HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS


COMMITMENT


CHARLES


. ENGLISH


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA




























In loving


memory


mother


Loui


. Engli


who


told


could


James


Engli


, my


father


, who


always


believed


me and


abilities


and


Angelica


and


All


future















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Sincere


gratitude


and


appreciation


go to Dr. Dorothy


Nevill,


who


served


as chairperson


committee


given


the


guidance


and


support


needed


persevere


and


complete


thi


project


also


appreciate


other


members


committee


, Dr. James


Morgan


, Dr. Greg


Neimeyer


, Dr. Max


Parker


, and


Robin


West,


who


gener-


ously


offered


their


time


and


knowledge


Other


persons


instrumental


success


project


included


. Rod


McDavi


, Dr. Charl


Dziuban


, Dr


. Ronnie


Priest,


. Bob


Bollet


, Dr


. Burt


Bertram


, Dr. Monica


Biernat,


and


dear


friend


and


mentor


Dr. Eddie


Lee


Collins


Finally,


would


like


to acknowledge


sacri


fices


made


and


patience


shown


wife


, Patry


Her


support


and


encouragement


inspired


endure


the


chal


lenges


created


decision


to complete


doctoral


degree
















TABLE


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


OF CONTENTS


a S S S S S S CS Siii


ABSTRACT


S . . vi


CHAPTERS


ONE


INTRODUCTION


a S S CS 51


Stateme
Purpose
Need fo
Signifi
Definit
Organiz


of
f t
the
nee
n o
ion


the Prob
he Study
Study .
of the S
f Terms
of the S


lem


* .
tudy
* y
tudy


* S S S S S S S
a S S S S S
* S S S S S S S S


TWO


REVIEW


OF RELATED


LITERATURE


Historical Overview of Ass
Career Counseling and Gui
Matching Models .
Developmental Models .
A Review of Career Readine
Career Pattern Study .
Career Development Study


Vocational Developm
Career Development
Work Commitment
Relationship Between
and Career Maturity
Summary . .


ent


Pz


essment
.dance


in
* .


Orientation


:oject


Inventory


w or
Work


Commitment


S S S S S S S S
S S S S S S S S S


THREE


METHODOLOGY


S S S S C S S S S S 5 542


Hypotheses .
Population .
Sample .


* C S S S S S S S S S S S
* S S S S S S C C S S
* S S S S S S S S S S S S S


~acre









Procedure
Analysis


SS S SS S 563


Data


S S S S S S S 564


FOUR


RESULTS


S S S S S S S S S S S S 566


Analyses
Hypothe


Analy
Analy
and


ses


Product-Moment


One


and


Variance
Variance


Two
for
for


Correlations


Hypothes


Hypothe


ses


Three
Four


Five


Profile
Summary


Types .
of Results


FIVE


DISCUSSION


S S S S S S S S S 589


Relationship


Between


Career


Maturity


and


Role


Importance


A Comparison


Alternative


and


Regular


High


hool


Students


S S S S S S S93


Implications .
Recommendations
Conclusion .


APPENDICES


PERSONAL


DATA


FORM


S . . 104


INFORMED


CONSENT


FORM


106


UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA


CHILD


ASSENT


SCRIPT


NEW


YORK


STATE


SELF


-ESTEEM


SCALE


(ROSENBERG


SELF-ESTEEM


S. . . . 108


QUESTIONS


FROM


THE


SALIENCE


INVENTORY


CAREER


DEVELOPMENT


INVENTORY


(CDI)


REFERENCES


BIOGRAPHICAL


SKETCH


. . . . J148















Abstract


of Di


sse


University


Requirements


j


rotation


of
for


Presented


Florida


Degree


Partial


Doctor


Graduate


Fulfillment


School


the


Philosophy


THE


RELATIONSHIP


TO WORK


BETWEEN


CAREER


IN ALTERNATIVE


MATURITY


AND


AND


COMMITMENT


REGULAR


HIGH


SCHOOL


STUDENTS


Charl


December


English

1992


Chairperson:


Major


Dr. Dorothy


Department


. Nevill


sychology


present


study


examined


relationship


between


several

regular


ship


career

high


between


r


readiness


school

career


variables


students

maturity


alte


Specificall


as measured


rnativ

y, the


the


e


and


relation-

Career


Development


Inventory


(CDI)


and


measures


the


relative


importance


work


and


study


as asse


ssed


the


Salience


Inventory


were


investigated


and


compared


between


high


school


groups


study


data


were


coil


ected


from


high


school


students


, 80


whom


attended


an alternative


high


school


and


whom


attended


a regular


high


school


Correlations


and


variance


analyses


were


done


to examine


A iC C nara n oa1a-ao o e A


nn roar


n~tn4-i~ I-u


Ant'


rtlrAv


wnrlt


~nrt


kn^Cl~nnn









Alternative


high


school


students


were


more


career


mature


regular


more


high


committed


school


to work


students


and


Although


study


not


than


were


a part


any


hypoth


, gender


differences


were


noted.


Considerable


gender


differences


were


found


on both


instruments


Female


students


scored


significantly


higher


than


male


students


three


summative


scales


CDI


Female


students


were


also


more


committed


to work


and


school


than


were


male


students


The


fact


that


alternative


high


school


students


were


more


committed


to their


role


as both


workers


and


students

maturity


clearly


was e

level


showed


explained


this


that


group


student


difference


Nonetheless


who


the

thi


attended


overall


study


alternative


high


school


were


more


motivated


than


were


regular


high


school


behaviors


students


career


investigated


and


readiness


compared.


attitudes


Two


and


hypotheses


received


full


support


, one


was


partially


supported,


and


two


were


not


supported















CHAPTER


ONE


INTRODUCTION


The
with


work


a man


mental


form


and


does
phys


level


earn


ical


traits


labor


livelihood
character


defines


stamp
stic o


him
the


circle


friends


sure


and


acquaintances


influences


interests


(David


son


, affects


political


and


& Ander


S use


affiliation


boundaries


son


lei-


limits


culture


, 1937


Statement


Problem


surprising


that


, in


a society


as advanced


United


States


America


, the


nature


and


level


literacy


skill


demonstrated


certain


groups


population


are


inadequate.


Although


United


States


come


closer


than


many


other


countries


to providing


excellent


universe


-education


stem


citizens


, many


citizens


country


have


been


able


to participate


fully


and


equitably


, and


thus


even


ordinary


students


have


been


penali


(Parnell,


1985)


There


mounting


concern


that


substantial


efforts


are


made


to attempt


increase


student


achievement


, the


overall


ability


our


own


nation'


human


resources


will


decline


cons


iderably


coming


decades


(Kirsch


Jungeblut,


1986).








past


an evolving


new


information


society


where


economy


based


creation


and


stribution


information


and


knowledge.


Naisbitt


further


depicts


new


era


as one


both


"high


tech/high


touch


" where


new


technologies


are


matched


with


equally


new


and


creative


human


responses


Nasbitt


scribes


thi


period


paren-


as one


ambiguity


and


change


where


new


abilities


are


readily


available


those


able


anticipate


new


era


Prince


(1970)


also


written


about


challenge


change


near


future


and


the


importance


changing


creative


new


ways


versus


holding


onto


past


Thus


a time


both


great


need


and


opportunity


essential


to rethink


certain


aspects


our


educational


system.


The


area


career


choice


and


preparation


likely

future


subject

research


investigation


efforts


vocational


In particular


and


we need


career


psychology

to build o


move


n them.


beyond


New


earlier


models


efforts

career d


while


continuing


development


are


ess


ential


student


education


needs


and


based


requirements


upon


individual


a rapidly


changing


society


(Parnell


, 1985)


Researchers


career


and


coun-


selling


psychology


have


been


rethinking


and


reformulating


concepts


that


encompass


a broader


definition


career








information


society


and


the


needs


individual


(Holland


, 1974).


The


subject


schools


concept


many


and


recent


Super


career


creative


maturity


career


colleges


studies


& Nevill


been


(Crites


1984


1978


Thompson


been


education


the


Nevill


Lindeman,


the


central


programs


subject


uper


1984)


high


a number


1988


The


notion


career


maturity


or vocational


maturity


composite


evaluation


components


manifested


self-


concept


and


other


behavioral


indicators


adolescent


sub-


jects


, has


been


firmly


established


literature


career


psychology


(Gribbons


Lohnes,


1965)


The


measure-


ment


career


maturity


been


a rapidly


developing


activity


, according


to Norton


(1970)


and


one


which


considerable


future


activity


anticipated.


The


early


studies


career


maturity


used


multidimen-


sional


approaches


encompas


sing


a variety


assessment


methods


and


approaches


ese


studies


examined


measures


career


closeness


maturity


to other


terms


variables


their


which


intercorrelations


could


and


viewed


causes


or concommitant


career


maturity


(Jordaan


Heyde,


Warnath,


1979


uper


1957


Super


Crites


Nevill,


, Hummel,


1984


Moser,


Super


Overstreet, s

& Overstreet,


1960)


Crites


(1978)


and


uper


and


Nevill


(1984)


have








ssible


determinants


such


as soc


ioeconomi


status


, intel


ligence


school


achievement,


and


career


commitment.


Career


commitment


and


work


salience


have


rec


ently


emerged


as major


constructs


career


development


theory


(Kanungo


, 1982


Osipow


, 1983a


Super


& Nevill


, 1984)


The


Salience


Inventory


(SI)


(Super


Nevill,


1985)


, which


measure


relative


importance


work,


provides


res


searchers


with


opportunity


to examine


relation-


ship


between


career


maturity


and


work


importance


Being


able


to objectively


and


reliably


assess


career


commitment


enabi


researchers


to study


relationship


to other


determinants


career


maturity


and


career


maturity


itself


(Nevill


Super


, 1988


Super


Nevill,


1984)


Purpose


Study


The


purpose


study


will


to inve


stigate


and


compare


several


career


readiness


variable


alternative


high


school


students


with


those


regular


high


school


students


Specifically


study


will


investigate


and


compare


the


relationship


between


career


maturity


measured

Thompson


the


Career


, Lindeman,


Development


Jordaan,


Myers,


Inventory


1981),


(CDI)

and c


(Super


Sommit-


ment


to and


the


participation


Salience


alternative


and


Inventory

regular h


work


(SI)


igh


and


(Super


school


school


Nevill,


students


as measured


1985)


in Central








Need


Study


Futuri


in the


forecast


world's


that


markets


there

the


will

next


major

to 20


changes


years


Centron


and


Appel


(1984)


predict


that


market


United


States


will


change


dramatically


the


century


are


Among


changes


a decrease


number


predicted


jobs


various


filled


authors


factory


workers


biotechnology


as one


fastest


growing


fields


a need


more


than


3 million


computer-aided


design


engineers


to work


as software


specialists;


involvement


kind


nearly


training


four


program


percent


all


annually


and


workers


the


some


necessity


workers


to learn


new


skills


and


move


new


locations,


many


to southern


and


southwestern


cities


(Centron


& Appel,


1984;


Centron


& O'Toole


, 1982)


Parnell


grows


(1985)


technically


notes


and


that


scientifically


American


more


society


sophisticated


continues


to produce


an increasing


number


indi-


vidual


who


are


undereducated,


unskilled,


and


unable


cope

While


with

the


increasingly


supply


demanding


technological


baccalaureate-degree


changes


engineers


remains


adequate


, little


attention


being


given


to preparing


the


much


needed


mid-level


technician


For


example,


Centron


and


O'Toole


(1982)


state


that


U.S


Department











college


United

degree


States.


ome


Few


these


these

jobs


jobs


, according


require


the


authors


have


no educational


prerequisites


beyond


high


school


, and


offer


many


favorable


incentives


such


starting


salaries


higher


than


national


norm.


The


need


study


evolves


from


the


rapidly


increasing


mismatch


between


labor


market


realities


future


and


projected


availability


trained


workers


This


mismatch


between


skilled


laborers


and


avail-


ability


according


to Parnell


(1985)


tragedy


that


"tremendous

unemployment


opportunities


remain


on one


other"


hand


. 23)


while

There


sizable


are


number


factors


which


indicate


that


the


shortage


skilled


workers


will


grow


worse


ears


come


The


first


factor


an aging


work


force


the


proportion


older


workers


younger


workers


steadily


increa


(Parnell


force


, 1985)


year


Second


2000


vast


already


majority


working


the


today


work


Third


new


additions


reduced,


which


to the

will


work

make


force

youth


Swill

more


dra


attractive


tically


as workers


Finally


, adds


Hodgkinson


(1985)


the


relatively


small


number


added


work


force


2000


, close


to half


will


minority


es.


ere


have


been


great


strides


made


since


1900








school.


1950,


percent


black


youth


and


percent


white


youth


graduated


from


high


school,


compared


to 75


percent


black


youth


and


percent


white


youth


1978.


estimated


that


around


percent


Hispanic


youth


graduate


from


high


school


(Hodgkinson,


1985).


Recent


statistics


declines


reported


graduation


Evangelauf


rate


nationally


(1990)


to 71


indicate


percent


1988


from


percent


1987.


The


rate


high


school


graduation


Florida


according


the


study


the


lowest


states


at only


percent


(Evangelauf,


1990).


According


to Hodgkinson


(1985)


, high


school


dropouts


have


a rather


typical


profile


They


usually


are


from


low-


income


or poverty


settings,


often


from


a minority


group,


and


have


parents


who


did


complete


high


school


and


who


provide


a support


system


academic


success.


These


youth


often


come


from


homes


where


English


not


the


major


language


spoken.


Dropouts


usually


have


low


and


inadequate


academic


skills


, especially


reading


and


math,


and


are


most


often


males


bored


with


school


who


perceive


themselves


as failures


school


culture


(Hodgkinson,


1985)


The


results


poor


academic


preparation


indeed


persistent


and


growing


problem


the


nation


s labor








adults


today


and


the


future


are


able


to and


will


able


earners


The


gain a

majority


foothold


these


the


persons


economy


as wage


according


to the


authors


will


poor


and


from


ethnic


minority


groups


and


will


have


left


high


school


before


graduation


, and


thus


meet


the


profile


mentioned


above.


Many


these


persons


will


have


committed


crimes


, making


themselves


unappealing


to employers.


Others


, particularly


single


parents,


will


have


had


children


out


wedlock,


creating


additional


responsibilities


and


limiting


their


freedom


to maintain


regular


jobs


Lastly


, Hahn


and


Leiman


(1985)


believe


that


poor


adults


social

r jobs


and


educational


results


chronic


preparation


youth


these


unemployment


young

and


reduces

patterns


their

and


chances

finding


ever


steady


establi


work


shing


throughout


adequate

their 1


work


ife


spans.


The


youth


unemployment


, currently


unemployment


rate


exceeds


during


Great


youth


total


, particularly


national


Depression


minority


rate


The


unemploy-


ment


rate


black


teenagers


near


percent


(Parnell


1985)


Hahn


and


Leiman


(1985)


note


that


over


the


past


years


, while


white


teenagers


increased


their


rate


par-


ticipation


the


labor


force


from


to 60


percent,


the


labor


force


participation


black


teenagers


dropped


from








majority


burden


unemployment


among


youth


rests


upon


poor


and


minority


youth


who


have


dropped


out


school.


The


concern


high


illiteracy


rate


United

Profile


States


echoed


America'


Younac


a report

Adults,


titled


the


Literacy:

National


Assessment


Educational


Progress


(Kirsch


Jungeblut,


1986).


This


study


found


that


as many


as 20


percent


subjects


were


functionally


illiterate,


lacking


skills


necessary


to function


smoothly


modern


society.


Minority


subjects,


blacks


and


Hispanics,


were


rated


having


especially


severe


problems


(Kirsch


& Jungeblut,


1986).


Hahn


and


Leiman


(1985)


warn


that


problems


disadvantaged


youth


are


not


adequately


addressed,


country


could


faced


with


development


a permanent


underclass


with


mixture


family


instability,


involve-


ment


in and


exposure


to crime


, poverty


, unemployment,


and


a home


life


children


that


perpetuates


continuance


this


style


living.


Many


questions


remain


unanswered


regarding


what


meaningful


interventions


are


needed.


The


present


study


will


focus


these


kind


vocational


prob-


lems


our


society


and


will


emphasize


high


schools


and


community


colleges


points


departure.








needs


a new


era


(Crites,


1974


Holland,


1974


Super,


1984)


Holland


(1974)


cautions


us about


devoting


much


effort


to expensive


vocational


and


counseling


impracticable


and


cautions


methods


against


providing


"intellectual


wars


about


best


approach"


. 24)


The


need


this


study


relative


to vocational


counseling


that


will


build


on both


early


and


recent


perspectives


and


approaches


the


field


as stated


Holland


(1974)


In addition


incorporating


main


strengths


sting


most


earlier


approaches


, Holland


(1974)


advocates


approaches


that


assume


than


usually


that


been


people


ass


can


umed,


more


take


themselves


advantage


person


s knowledge


stress


information,


s/her


interests


experience,


and


and


competencies


immediate


feed-


back


, rather


than


insight,


talking


, and


remote


reinforce-


ment


, (d)


support


pers


onal


experiences


and


exploration


and


respect


a per


son


s goals


and


problems


as given.


Significance


Study


Career


development


being


defined


increasingly


the


continuous


unfolding


one


life


, life


settings,


and


life


events


(Gysbers


, 1984)


Super


(1982)


states


that


career


development


may


conceptualized


compri


sing


following


two


dimens


ions


one


stemming


directly


from


value


one


attributes


to work,


and


the









importance


other


roles


that


individual


value


and


upon


opportunities


which


labor


market


and


society


large


1982)


offer


Therefore


sociological


involves


and


roles


attainment


value


psychological


social


those


work


factors


order


values


involves


The


Super


(Super


both


former


(1982)


states


that


schools


must


prepare


people


to play


a variety


changing


roles


social


order


and


occupationally


and


that


counselors


must


help


students


find


a variety


outlet


their


talents


at work


and


during


leisure


time.


The


latter


, psychological


factors


, encompasses


indi


vidual


s' relationships


with


their


own


indigenous


needs


values


, and


confirmations


or disconfirmations


received


from


others


response


factor


, Super


(1982)


suggests


that


educators


and


counselors


have


a special


res


ponsibility


helping


students


perceive


work


as one


the


ways


which


important


personal


values


can


realized.


sbers


(1984)


cites


three


reasons


rethinking


and


reformulating


concepts


careers


and


career


develop-


ment


vast


and


considerable


changes


that


are


taking


place


social


and


economic


system,


the


changing


values


and


beliefs


individuals


hold


about


them-


selves


, others


, and


world,


and


the


fact


that


more








premise


that


the


results


will


yield


a greater


capacity


understanding


the


motivations


high


school


students


other


similarly


aged


individual


who


enter


labor


force


prematurely


Moore


(1986)


reports


results


a survey


taken


Pinellas


County,


Florida,


which


revealed


that


percent


high


school


seniors


have


after-school


jobs


and


per-


cent


ninth


grade


students


are


working.


Similar


results


were


reported


about


Orange


County


High


School


students


where


percent


students


polled


reported


having


part


-time


jobs.


What


effect


does


participation


work


an early


age


have


upon


unfolding


and


inter-


action


a teenager's


life


roles


and


career


maturity?


The


significance


study


on theory


will


address


this


and


similar


questions


The


beginning


current


conceptions


career


development


began


early


1950s


when


theorists


began


emphasizing


a broader


and


more


developmental


view


OCCU-


pations


and


impact


occupational


these


trends


choice


(Gysbers,


counselors


1984).


that


The


they


are


challenged


continue


expanding


and


extending


their


knowledge


the


changing


environment


and


structures


which


career


development


unfolds.


Likewise,


the


signifi-


chance


this


study


the


practice


career


counseling








counselors


and


student


personnel


professionals


can


use


assist


high


school


students


prepare


careers


The


significance


field


counseling


study


relative


psychology


that


to

it


training

extends


and


expands


important


concepts


area


Indications


are


that


movement


needed


toward


more


definitive


and


unified


sipow


career


, 1990)


counseling


Counselor


models


trainees


high


need


school


to be


students


aware


the


new


career-competency


requirements


created


information


society


as well


the


implications


the


increasing


number


low-


skill


low-paying


jobs


requiring


minimal


skills


In addition


, counseling


training


programs


must


equip


trainees


with


a repertoire


knowledge


and


skill


that


will


enable


them


to be


effective


multicultural


settings.


Definition


Terms


Aptitude


tests


are


often


used


vocational


coun-


selling


or educational


counseling


assess


the


talents


and


skill


client


Behavior


change


overall


goal


or outcome


counseling.


career


sequence


occupations


which


one


participates


While


some


persons


remain


the


same


occu-


pation


throughout


their


life


span,


others


have


a series








Career


counseling


is counseling


that


helps


clients


make


decis


ions


about


work


, training


or education


related


a career.


Thi


phrase


will


used


interc


hangeably


with


vocational


counsel


ling


and


career


guidance.


Career


commitment


refers


orientation


and


moti


vation


necess


ary


engaging


work


related


behaviors


(Super


, 1983).


Career


development


refers


the


lifelong


process


developing


work


values,


establishing


a vocational


iden-


tity,


learning


about


opportunities,


and


gaining


experience


through


a variety


working


situations


Development


involves


a process


occupational


investigating


possibilities


Thi


choices


phrase


and


will


evaluating

used


interchangeably


with


vocational


development


(Tolbert,


1980)


Career


maturity


a global


cons


truct


developed


Career


Pattern


Study


Super


, 1955)


which


measures


that


predict


certain


kinds


adult


occupational


achievements


and


progress


(Heyde


, 1979)


this


study


career


maturity


refers


scores


on the


Career


Development


Inventory


(CDI)


(Thompson


Lindeman


, 1981)


career


pattern


the


sequence


and


tenure


occu-


pations


the


life


span


an individual


that


indicates


long-term


trends


such


as upward


progression


(Tolbert,








Career


readiness


orientation


used


include


career


maturity


variabi


and


concepts


that


have


been


demonstrated


as being


determinants


career


maturity


J1Qk


ness


refers


, industry


a group


, or other


similar


place


positions


employment


a busi-


(Tolbert,


1980)


An occupation


a definable


work


activity


that


occurs


many


different


settings


(Tolbert,


1980)


Position


a group


activities,


tasks


, or duties


performed


one


person


a work


situation


(Tolbert,


1980).


purpo


useful


and


gainful


mental


, physical,


combined


mental


-physical


activity


that


a product--


something


economic


value


(Tolbert,


1980)


Work


salience


the


relative


importance


a person


attributes


to work


uper


, 1983)


Organization


the


Sstidv


The


study


will


organized


the


following


manner


Chapter


Two


will


include


a review


related


literature


and


sections


historical


overview


assessment


career


counseling


and


guidance,


a review


career


readiness


orientation,


relationship


between


work


commitment


and


career


maturity


, and


summary


Chapter


Three


will


present


res


earch


methodology


used


the


Work








procedures,


and


analysis


data


. Chapter


Four


will


provide


res


ults


and


a discussion


the


results


and


Chapter


Five


will


include


a discussion


results


conclusions,


implications


, summary


, and


recommendations


further


research.














CHAPTER


REVIEW


OF RELATED


TWO


LITERATURE


The


rise


technology


and


major


economic


changes


society


are


shrinking


the


number


traditional


jobs,


while


new


jobs


are


demanding


greater


sophistication


and


education.


no other


time


history


our


nation


there


the


been


knowledge,


cessfully


a greater


attitudes,


planning


and


need


and


for


individuals


skills


beginning


necessary


careers.


Yet


to master


suc-


leading


authorities


report


that


more


and


more


young


people


are


leaving


high


school


ready


neither


college


nor


work


(Kirsch


Jungeblut


1986


Parnell,


1985).


Parnell


(1985)


warns


that


the


crucial


issues


facing


schools


today


are


developing


students


competencies


required


cope


with


real


-life


roles


and


communicating


to students


the


relationship


these


competencies


the


school


curricu-


lum.


For


more


than


a half


century


career


development


theorists


have


rapidly


generated


much


productive


and


inno-


vative


research,


such


that


career


development


a high-


priority


item


on an international


as well


as a national


scale


(Tolbert,


1980).


The


challenge


ever


present









This


chapter


presents


a review


literature


which


is most


directly


related


purpose


thi


study


It includes


selected


fundamental


theories,


research,


and


and


organize


literature r

ed according


elating

to the


career


following


development


sequence


Historical


overview


assessment


career


counseling


and


guidance.


A review


career


readiness


Relationship


between


work


commitment


and


career


maturity


Summary


storical


Career


Overview


Coun


elinci


Assessment


and


Guidance


Goldman

literature w


(1961)


which


makes


focuses


stinction


tests


between


themselves,


research

their


validity


, norms


, and


character


stics


, and


those


which


report


research


, theory


techniques


related


use


tests


counseling


process


This


review


will


focus


primarily


on the


latter


group


with


such


aspects


selecting


tests


particular


purposes


, administering,


interpreting


their


results


, and


reporting


the


interpretation


Matching


Models


According


to Super


(1983)


, the


model


typically


4 nA i ,r an S SA sr w -a- 0naa- ntqeCfa~aa


annl:nrJ


A(l 11 Cf CI *I CIA


,,f


1J*I~O 1II AI!II


"" rnnu


CAY








assessment,


matured


during


1920s


and


1930s


while


researchers


investigated


characteristic


and


causes


unemployment


during


Great


Depression


and


recovery


period


(Borow


, 1964


Super,


1983).


The


basi


making


compare


son


under


matching


model


was


ability


Coun-


selors


making


assessment


began


asking


themselves


and


their


data


question


what


level


can


this


per


son


best


function?"


(Super


, 1983


. 55).


Patterson


and


Darley


(1936)


a cla


SS1ic


research


study


compared


female


clerical


workers


with


female


department


store


sales


clerks


on verbal


ability,


perceptual


speed


and


accuracy


spatial


visualization,


and


finger


dexterity


order


establish


to the


profiles


requirements


matching


occupation.


abilities


Thorndike


a person


and


Hagen


(1969)


used


more


advanced


stati


stical


methods


matching


abilities


their


long-term


follow-up


study


aviation


cadets


during


World


War


They


compared


pre-


employment


test


scores


to civilian


employment


status


years


later.


Interest,


like


abilities


, was


used


basis


comparison


under


the


"matching


models


Strong


(1943)


first


provided


classifications


occupations


according


interests


1940s


(Super


, 1983).


was


the


stan-


dardized


works


Strong


that


provided


basis









interest


were


used


next


generation


"matching


models.


Holland


(1963)


stulated


occupational


environ-


ments


and


personality


types


He contended


that


people


could


character


their


resemblance


to each


per-


sonality


type


: reali


stic


, arti


stic


, investigative,


social


enterpri


sing


and


conventional


The


more


a person


resembled


a particular


type,


more


she


was


likely


exhibit


personality


traits


and


behavior


associated


with


that


type


The


emergence


personality


types


comes


as a result


environmental


interaction


factors.


Thi


between


interaction


heredity

n leads


and

to a selec-


tive


interest


certain


activities


which


turn


directs


individual


toward


specific


types


behaviors


The


interactions


individuals


with


corresponding


environ-


ments


lead


many


outcomes


which


can


predicted


and


understood

environment


from a knowledge

model (Holland,


personality


1963).


These


type


outcomes


and

include


vocationa

personal


choice,


stability,


vocational

creative


stability


and


performance,


achievement


and


suscepti


ability


influence


Holland


(1963)


further


states


that


each


person


a product


an interaction


between


specific


heredity


and


an assortment


cultural


forces


such


as peers,


parents


, significant


others


social


class









characteristic


abilities


, perceptual


skills


life


goals


national


, values


self


classes


-concept


designate


copying


types


people


behaviors.


, and


Occu-


similarly


vocational


choice


becomes


function


per


sonality


Though


Super


(1983)


considers


Holland


s model


to be


scien-


tifically


edges


less


that


advanced


is much


than


better


Anne


known


Roe


and


s model


more


, he


widely


acknowl


used


today


, because


Holland


provided


practical


means


putting


model


to work


instruments


the


Vocational


Preference


Inventory


(VPI)


Holland,


1975)


and


Self


-Directed


Search


SDS)


(Holland,


1970)


used


gories


both


a refine


to assessment


a highly

d set of


in career


selected

ability


guidance


set

level


(Super


interest


cate-


approach


, 1983)


Roe


theory


was


based


upon


propos


ition


stemming


from


res


earch


on the


effects


childhood


experiences


adjustment


, creativity


, and


intelligence.


She


concluded


that


early


home


climate


played


a significant


role


career


choice


(Tolbert


, 1980


Roe


Siegelman,


1964)


second


major


personality


theme


theory


"need"


theory


specifically


used


Maslow


1954)


The


third


major


proposition


notion


genetic


influences


vocational


deci


sions


and


development


of need


hier-


archies


(1957


attempted


to represent


relation-








individual


home


vocational


and


is or is


environment


activity


pattern


occupational


oriented


theory


, such


releasing


level


worker


toward


people.


influences


items


psychic


achieves


Though


the


genetic


energy


(Osipow


type


structure


influences


, 1968)


theory


stimulated


tremendous


amount


research.

occupations


According

according


to Super

to field


(1983

and


her


level


classification


provided


broad


basi


research


subsequent


validation


studies.


Griggs


(1959)


ted


Roe


s hypothesis


inves-


tigating


differences


childhood


memories


about


parental


treatment


between


women


studying


mathematics


and


science


and


women


theory,

science

parental


Gr

ma


preparing t

iggs (1959)

jors would


attitude


tha


;o be


nurses


predicted


recollec

n would


According


that


to Roe'


mathematics


"colder,


nursing


less


students


and


attentive"

The


author'


findings


failed


to support


Roe's


theory


, indi


casting


that


there


were


no differences


between


the


two


groups


what


they


recalled


from


their


child-parent


interactions


Shaffer


(1987)


states


that


when


any


testing


used--


personality,


intere


attitudes


achievement


or perfor-


mance--at


least


a portion


the


counseling


based


trait


factor


theory


or the


"matching


model


This


model








trait


factor


model


encourages


"point-in


-time"


thinking


part


client


Primary


focus


is concentrated


a single


choice


a job


or training


SSecond,


under


"matching


model


" by


predicting


future


from


past


information


about


people


tests


reify


Finally


model


ciently


assumes


mature


that


person


vocationally


with


tested


stable


are


suffi


measurable


traits


and


are


ready


use


self


-knowledge


ascertained


making


career


deci


sions


(Super,


1983)


Developmental


Model


There


good


evidence


that


support


notion


that


developmental


issues


are


great


importance


relation


to a person'


readiness


career


deci


sons


(Crites


1978


Jordaan


& Heyde


, 1979


Super


, 1983;


Super


Overstreet


, 1960).


The


influence


client


centered


theory


(Rogers


, 1951)


moved


focus


from


trait


factor


theory


and


test


interpretation


the


emotional


side


decision


client'


making


role


This


and


new


highlight


approach

ed the i


emphasized


the


implementation


the


self


-concept


an occupational


capacity


(Crites,


1974


1976)


Patterson


tenets


attitude


and


client


and


Watkins


-centered


beliefs


(1982)


counseling


summarizing


stated


counselor


the


the


that


client's









continue,


testing


or assessment


becomes


tool


benefit


client


to better


under


tand


himself/herself


and


facilitate


s/her


self


-actuali


zation.


Thi


radical


and


different


paridigm,


approach


to assessment,


sets


the


stage


developmental


model


many


ways


developmental


model


represents


a modification


directive


and


didactic


matching


models


and


the


non-


directive


style


client


centered


models


, combined


with


behavioral


approaches


method


career


to reflect


counseling


best


(Crites,


several


1974).


Buehler


(1933)


was


first


to focus


attention


life


stages


they


related


careers


and


identified


the


career


development


tasks


found


various


life


stages.


Super


(1942)


made


use


these


data


and


later


synthe


sized


what


was


known


about


career


development


from


works


Havighurst


(1953,


1964)


and


Ginzberg


, Ginzberg


, Axelrod


and


Herma


(1951)


Super


(1953)


views


career


development


as a continuous


process


career


choice


as a synthe-


sizing


process


a condition


He explains


integrating


notion


the


individual


synthe


sizing


s personal


needs


and


resources


on the


one


hand


and


economical


and


social


demands


other.


Super'


theory


includes


following


propo-


sitions:









Because


their


diversities


people


are


qualified


a number


occupations.


Each


occupation


requires


character


stic


patterns


with


tolerance


wide


enough


to allow


some


variety


individual


each


occupation.


Vocational


competenci


and


preferences


change


with


time


and


experience


, although


self-concepts


are


rela-


tively


stable


from


late


adolescence


until


maturity


The


developmental


process


may


summed


series


five


life


stages


, characterized


as growth,


exploration,


establi


shment


, maintenance,


and


decline


, and


these


stages


tentative


may


and


turn


reali


stic


subdivided


phases


into


fanta


exploratory


stage


trial


and


stable


phases


establi


shment


stages


The


nature


a career


pattern


determined


individual


s parental


socioeconomic


level


mental


ability


, personality


, and


opportunities


Development


guided


maturation


ability


, interest,


reality


ting


, and


the


self-concept


The


process


vocational


development


essen-


tially


that


developing


and


implementing


a self-concept.


Vocational


development


a compromise


process


between


self-concept


and


reality


, between


individual








necessary


product,


whether


role


played


fantasy


or in


real


life


activities


such


as school


or work.


Work


and


life


sati


sfaction


depend


upon


degree


to which


an individual


able


to find


adequate


outlets

traits.


for

and


s/her


values


abiliti

as well


inter


upon


ests

the


, personality

establishment


type


work


and


a way


life


which


he/she


can


kind


role


which


s/her


growth


and


exploratory


experiences


have


him/her


to consider


appropriate


(Super


, 1953


Tolbert


, 1980)


A Review


Career


Readiness


Orientation


Career


Pattern


Study


According


to Tolbert


(1980)


monograph


the


Career


Pattern


Study


, a longitudinal


study


eighth


and


ninth


grade


males


Middletown


, New


York


, represents


landmark

research


project


study

was


vocational


constructed


maturity


on a model


The


that


timely


drew


the


development


theories


a number


writers


and


can


summarized


four


principles


Development
entiated ac
activity.
Development


awareness


proceeds


tivity


from


to goal


the


and


Development i
independence.


random


directed,


direction


orientation


from


undiffer-


specific


incre


to reality.


dependence


increa


asing

sing


Mature


(Thompson


individual


select


& Lindeman


, 1984


and


pursue
. 2)


goals








intended


to be


all-inclusive


interest


assessing


p055


ible


measures.


Data


were


collected


from


pupils


a seri


one


-hour


testing


and


tape


recorded


interview


sess


ions


Techniques


used


initial


phase


included


case


studies


involving


a que


stion-


naire


on family


, education,


recreational,


and


social


story


an autobiographical


statement


designed


to focus


attention


topics


relevant


study;


two


projective


tests


and


inter


and


aptitude


tests


(Super


, 1955)


According


to Super


(1955)


the


Career


Pattern


Study


neces-


stated a

maturity"


t concrete

as a basi


definition


the


constructing


term


"vocational


a yardstick


with


which


assess


vocational


development


and


as a guide


choosing


data


to be


scaled


measurement.


The


term


"vocational


maturity"


used


to denote


degree


development


tional


, the


development


place


from


reached


exploration


continuum


to decline


voca-


(Super


1955)


Developmental


approaches


to vocational


maturity


hypothesize


that


vocational


maturity


measures


can


predict


certain

progress


aspect


kinds


adult


(Jordaan


vocational


occupational


Heyde


, 1979)


maturity


have


achievements


A number


emerged


and


important

several


studies


awareness


and


concern


with


current


and









various


kinds


occupational


and


educational


information


an anticipatory


planning


approach


to life,


acceptance


res


ponsibility


choice


, and


knowledge


and


use


resources


, on-the-


experience,


and


wisdom


personal


characteristic


and


preferences


(Jordaan


& Heyde


, 1979)


The


mos


t comprehensive


research


concerning


vocational


maturity


Pattern


that


Study


time


Super


was


accomplish


and


hed


associates


Career


and


students


(Herr


Cramer,


1972


ipow


, 1968)


The


study


was


designed


to develop


gain


an understanding


techniques


measure


career


and


behavior


predict


and


The


validity


propositions


developmental


approaches


such


as vocational


stages


was


assesse


The


identification


and


validation


dimen


sons


vocational


maturity


were


major


research t

tional mat

Study. Ea

several in

vocational


opics


urity


ch


dices.

choice


(Tolbert


were

these

The

e, (b


, 1980)


identified in

dimensions w

dimensions w

) information


Five


dimensions


Career


as

ere

an


examined

: (a) o


d


planning


voca-


Pattern


means


orientation


of

to


about


preferred


occupations


, (c)


consi


stency


vocational


pref-


erences


, (d)


crystalli


action


traits


, and


wisdom


vocational


preferences.


indices


vocational


maturity


were


found


to be


significantly


intercorrelated








An interpretation


results


suggested


that


two


factors


grade,


are


namely


relevant


to vocational


orientation


to choice


maturity


tasks


the


and


ninth


use


resources.


Results


also


indicated


that


among


the


variables


important


development


a meaningful


orientation


to vocation


choice


were


those


which


res


ulted


behaviors


reflecting


recognition


need


to make


educational


decisions


that


have


vocational


implication.


Important


also


was


acceptance


responsibility


plan


these


decision


, to collect


related


data,


and


make


and


implement


deci


sions


with


vocational


implications


(Osipow,


1968).


Studying


variables


that


might


ass


ociated


with


vocational


maturity


Super


and


Overstreet


(1960)


concluded


that


vocational


maturity


related


to intelligence


and


that,


ninth


grade


, age


is of


less


importance


than


grade


placement.


In relation


to environmental


factors


vocational

parental o


maturity


occupational


index


correlated


level,


school


positively

curriculum,


with

amount


cultural


stimulation,


and


family


cohesiveness,


and


nega-


tively


with


urban


background


and


Protestantism


(Super


Overstreet,


1960)


The


authors


found


the


vocational


matu-


rity


index


to be


correlated


significantly


with


vocational


aspirations


and


with


degree


agreement


between









variable


as measured


TAT


, Incomplete


Sentence


Blank


, and


other


identification


inventor


Finally,


grades


, achievement


versus


underachievement


, participation


school


and


out


-school


activities


and


independence


were


positively


related


to vocational


maturity


, while


peer


acceptance


was


negatively


correlated


(Super


Over


street,


1960).


Montessano


and


(1964)


compared


the


occupational


choices


made


ninth


and


twelfth


grade


boys


terms


Super


s position


that


vocational


deci


sions


occur


developmental


context


a predictable


and


orderly


fashion


Using


Gei


Picture


Interest


Inventory


(GPII)


(Geist,


1959)


boys


were


asked


to respond


and


give


reasons


their


responses


The


reasons


were


clas-


sified


according


attitudes


toward


occupational


choice


tasks


or occupations


themselves


terms


cate-


gories named:

personal need


simple


sati


affect,


faction,


identified


assessment


interest


abilities,


assessment


opportunities


, assessment


particular


occupation,


social


value


, and


ambiguous


or evasive.


The


authors


hypothesized


that


developmental


theory


career


preferences


had


validity


older


boys


would


more


reflective


their


reasoning


The


findings


supported


their


view


The


older


boys


' responses


indicated


more









responses


younger


boys,


whose


responses


showed


more


reliance


on simple


affect


or identified


interests


(Montesano


Gei


1964)


More


recent


analy


ses


studies


within


the


Career


Pattern


Study


found


that


vocational


maturity


factors


common


at both


ninth


and


twelfth


grades


included


occu-


national


information


as well


as planning


, independence,


crystallization


interests


, and


specification


and


imple-


mentation


preference


(Super


, 1969)


Super


further


reported


that


vocational


maturity


ninth


grade


related


to vocational


success


young


adulthood.


Furthermore


, twelfth


grade


vocational


maturity


, judged


same


measures


, proved


even


more


valid


as a predictor


vocational


support


success


earlier


young


findings


adulthood


(Super


These


studies


& Overstreet,


1960)


that


deci


ninth-grade


sions


boys


concerning


are


fields


yet


and


ready


levels


to make


work


sound


(Herr


Cramer


, 1972).


Career


Development


Study


In a search


other


measures


vocational


maturity


Gribbon


and


Lohnes


(1968)


launched


Career


Development


Study


(CDS)


Like


Career


Pattern


Study


from


which


derived


a number


important


concepts


and


procedures,


was


longitudinal


and


began


following


a group


sub-








Analysis


data


eighth


-grade


through


high


school


graduation


showed


that


readiness


vocational


planning


scales,


scores


increa


, indicating


from


greater


eighth


maturity


tenth


eight


grades


However,


eighth


-grade


scores


were


better


predictors


extent


educational


and


vocational


planning,


educational


aspirations,


and


post


-high


school


vocational


adjustment


than


other


criteria.


In addition


, eighth


-grade


scores


were


as effective


curriculum


choice


the


and


tenth-grade


level


scores


occupational


in predicting


preferences


Super


(1969)


questions


about


validity


scales


because


lack


agreement


with


other


types


with


measurements


chronological


and


age.


the


lack


However


increase


Gribbon


and


scores


Lohnes


(1968)


data


support


concept


different


career


proc-


esses


All


subjects


study


could


assigned


one


rity


four


, emerging


defined


maturity


career


processes;


, degeneration


, and


constant


constant


matu-


imma-


turity


The


largest


number


subjects


fell


into


emerging


maturity


degeneration


category


category


and


Males


next


and


females


largest


were


into


nearly


equally


represented


each


category


(Tolbert


, 1980)


Career


Development


Study


correlations


between


parental


socio-economic


status


and


eight


Ready


For








From

that


these results,

parental socio


Gribbons

economic


Lohnes


level


(1968)


not


concluded


a significant


correlate


vocational


maturity


early


adolescence


Vocational


DeveloPment


Project


Crites


Maturity


(1961,


Inventory


1968


(CMI)


, 1971)


while


developed


serving


the


the


Career


staff


Career


Pattern


Study


He further


refined


five


dimensions


introduced


Super


(1955)


, and


organi


and


explained


detail


their


interrelationship


model


career


maturity


According


to Norton


(1970)


Crites


conducted


measuring


first


vocational


"straight


inventory"


maturity


approach


attitude


scale


Vocational


Development


Inventory


(VDI)


(Crite


, 1974),


later


called


Career


Maturity


Inventory


(CMI)


The


Vocational


Development


Project


(VDP)


launched


Crites


(1961,


1968


, 1971)


warrants


specific


attention


because


longitudinal


nature


design


, the


specific


variables


covered,


the


systematic


research


program,


and


specific


instruments


used


(Tolbert,


1980).


According


to Crites


(1974)


most


relevant


results


from


VDP


effecting


model


vocational


maturity


are


results


from


an item


analysis


the


Attitude


Scale.


From


data


on 1


subjects


through


llth


grades


"biserial


correlations


all


fifty


items








using Flanagan'

"Because these


and


direction


procedure


correlations


and

are


nomograph"


indices


relationship


each


(p.

the

item


312).

magnitude

to the


total


scale


, they


can


interpreted


as estimates


the


first


factor


loadings


centroid


inter-item


matrix


" (p


. 312)


size


and


sign


biserial


correlations


confirmed


Attitude


Scale


theoretical


a factorially


expectation


complex


that


scale


(Crites


, 1974).


Crites


' results


merit


specific


attention


here


because


was


successful


measuring


vocational


maturity


as a


construct,


and


found


adequate


internal


construct


validity


especially


attitude


scale


Crites


' efforts


have


both


practical


and


res


earch


value


, providing


counselors


with


information


on the


rate


and


level


a counselee


development


in regard


career


matters


, while


estab-


lishing

attitude


empirical

s toward


data


on determinants


occupations


(Herr


choice


& Cramer,


and


1972


Tolbert


, 1980)


Bathory


Aspiration


(1967)


Scale


used


Miller


as a measure


-Haller


realism


Occupational


and


aspiration


and


correlated


with


VDI


Attitude


Scale


and


12th


grades


He obtained


a significant


correlation


.39.


Hollander


(1967), 1


a comprehensive


study









correlations


among


each


variabi


and


maturity


vocational


attitudes


a sample


students


grades


through


Thomp


son


and


Lindeman


(1984)


acknowledge


stor-


ical


significance


VDI,


later


called


the


Career


Maturity


Inventory


(CMI)


, and


Crites'


model


and


their


use


many


studies


the


impact


career


education


programs


and


services


A preponderance


evidence,


however


, has


pointed


tive


out


and


that


that


Attitude


does


Scale


actually


fact


measure


cogni


career


development


attitudes


(Buros


, 1978


Thompson


Lindeman,


1984).


Career


Development


Inventory


The


several


Career


times,


Pattern


Study


prompted


both


model


been


empirical


revised


evidence


and


refined


theory


(Super


, 1977


1983


Super


Knasel,


1979;


Super


& Ridd,


1979;


Thompson


Lindeman,


1984)


updated


version


basic


model


is expanded


to include


nonpaid


-work


roles


that


cons


titute


a life


career


(Super


, 1980,


1983)


The


principal


dimensions


updated


model


are


: planfuln


ess


and


exploration


attitudei


or conative);


information


and


decis


ion


making


(cogni


tive)


and


and


reality


cognitive)


orientation


(Super


, 1983


mixture


Super


both


Thompson,


conative


1979)








represented


individual


progress


through


stages


defined


various


life


, and


how


ese


stages


interact


with


personality


(Osipow


, 1990)


. Thi


phenomenon


scribed


according


to Osipow


(1990)


terms


self


-concept


and


various


meta-concepts


derived


from


self-concept


such


as self


esteem.


The


life


stages


are


characterized


roles


that


exhibit


specific


vocational


developmental


tasks.


An individual


progress


mastering


vocational


tasks


through


the


stages


describes


vocational


maturity


Biological


factors,


though


implied


, are


variables


to be


studied


and


only


parameters


as reflected


life-stage


behavior


The


environment


relative


Super


s refined


stages


theory


individual


primarily


moves


through


defined


caused


demands


the


culture


makes


one


during


each


stage


task


the


investigator


to study


two


proce


sses


mastery


tasks


each


stage


and


mastery


the


forces


from


self-concept


develop


The


theory


attempts


to predict


both


choice


or occupational


prefer-


ences


and


sati


faction


with


choice


, with


choice


being


implementation


self-concept


work


(Osipow,


1990)


Most


research


reported


model


supports


Super'


theory


Crites


, 1978


Nevill


Super,


1988;


Thompson


& Lindeman


, 1984)


The


developmental


aspects









theory


and


future


pros


pects


approach


appear


to be


promise


(Super


, 1984)


Work


Commitment


Two


constructs


have


emerged


that


have


changed


course


developmental


studi


on career


maturity


The


notion


involvement


and


career


commitment


have


been


cited


as subjects


ma3or


investigations


an inter-


national


study


(Nevill


Super,


1988)


The


Work


Impor-


tance


Study


(WIS


, a project


pursued


countries


, and


coordinated


meanings


Super


work


, ha


developed


methods


a model


investigating


cen-


trality


work


several


country


(Nevill


Super


1988)


Super


(1983)


noted


that


to people


to whom


work


does


not


seem


important


, the


attitudinal


and


cognitive


factors


that


make


career


maturity


would


seem


irrelevant.


Kanungo


(1982)


review


and


synthes


theory


and


research


work


alienation


and


involvement


explicitly


revealed


that


not


everyone


work


motivated.


Que


stions


raised


regarding


usefulness


career


development


theory


African


American


and


other


minori


ties


convey


the


inadequacy


current


theories


(Ford


Ford,


1978)


The


reasons


lack


work


motivation


career


orientation


, according


to Super


(1983)


, are


many,









these


factors


and


negative


impact


racial


, sexual


and


class


stereotypes


, Super


(1983)


concluded


that


career


deci


sion


making


must


involve


more


than


career


maturity


also


motivation


a career


Between


Career


Work


Commitment


Maturity


The


meaning


work


in contemporary


society


varies


considerably


as aforementioned


a number


reasons


The


Salience


Inventory


(SI)


(Super


& Nevill


1983


, 1984)


made


possible


to objectively


and


reliably


assess


career


commitment


and


to examine


relationship


to other


possible


determinants


career


maturity


, and


career


maturity


minant


from


itself


career


a cross


Super


and


maturity


section


Nevill


with


socioeconomic


(1984)

high s


examined


School


levels


deter-


subjects


The


authors


obtained


measures


career


home


commitment


from


and


measures


career


maturity


from


the


administration


Results


revealed


no significant


relationship


between


The


and


extent


career


and


maturity


nature


as assessed


relationship


the


between


, gender


, and


Work


Salience


on the


one


hand


and


career


maturity


other


were


inves


tigated.


Gender


was


found


to be

relate


related


some


to others


aspects


Girl


scored


career m

slightly


aturity

higher


and

than


not

boys


*. ~~ -~r -A- --


Re I at i~ a h iP


.....-II I.~_


L I









related


to Career


Development


Attitudes


(CDI-Career


Planning


[CP]


and


Career


Exploration


[CE])


, but


Career


Development


Information


Commitment


to Work


was


positively


correlated


with


career


maturity


Homemaking


was


related


to gender


The


relative


importance


attached


to home


and


family


roles


was


higher


with


girls


than


boys


While


nearly


percent


boys


reported


work


as being


more


important


than


home


family


, 36


percent


girls


reported


work


as being


more


important.


However


percent


family


compared


girls


attached


to nearly


more


38 percent


importance


the


to home


boys


and


this


measure


Finally


, there


was


a small


significant


differ-


ence


between


relative


Commitment


to Home


and


Family


males


mitted


and


females


to home


and


, with


family


girls


than


being


to work,


more


and


often


boys


com-


more


often


more


committed


to work


than


to home


and


family


Super


and


Nevill


(1984)


found


intriguing


that


Commitment


to Homemaking


and


Family


roles


was


slightly


positively


related


to the


career


maturity


variables


career

that D


whether


planning


ersons


males


and


thinking

or fem


exploration.

g positively

ales, tend t


These

about


o have


findings


these


suggest


roles,


aspirations


and


goals


more


than


others


both


the


family


and


the


work


spheres.


Conversely


Home


-and


-Family


committed


not









Nevill


(1984),


that


occupational


information


appears


to be


remote


from


thinking


most


high


school


students.


This


topic


according


authors


need


further


study


(Super


& Nevill,


1984)


Nevill

between car


economic


and


eer


status,


Super (1

maturity,


and


988)

work


college


examined


salience,


level,


with


relationship


gender,


socio-


undergraduate


students.


The


effect


commitment,


gender,


socioeconomic


status


and


college


level


on various


aspects


career


maturity


was


measured


with


a series


multivariate


analyses


variance.


Socioeconomic


status


was


not


found


to be


related


career


maturity


this


study.


Role


salience


was


found


to be


related


to subjects'


gender.


Female


college


students


expressed


more


commitment


to both


work


and


home


than


did


males.


Commitment


to work


was


found


to be


positively


correlated


to both


attitudinal


the


cognitive


factors


career


maturity.


Nevill


and


Super (1988)

finding that

maturity for


reiterated


work c

career


the


important


commitment


development


implications


directly

theorists


related


and


career


practi-


tioners.


This


finding


utmost


importance


when


working


with


vocationally


undecided


indecisive


clients


Knowing


how


important


work


an individual,


conclude


Nevill


and


Super


(1988),


ess


ential


''








substance


scores


on vocational


interest


inventories


most


commonly


used


career


counseling


Assessment


role


importance


counseling


stantial


The


become


authors


research


a vital


nevertheless


on role


component


recommend


importance


and


career


additional


on its


relation


ship


to education


vocational


, leisure,


and


homemaking


behavior


Summary


A review


literature


concerned


with


assess-


ment


vocational


readiness


orientation


supports


notion


that


res


earch


efforts


area


are


neces


sary


is apparent


that


vocational


maturity


related


degree


aspiration


ability


intellectual


to achieve


to perform


and


higher


reasonably


cultural


stimulation


socioeconomic


well


levels


academically


one's


, the


and


variety


activities,


and


the


relative


importance


one


attributes


to work.


also


evident


that


differences


exi


st between


personality


patterns,


interests


, and


sati


factions


gained


occupational


endeavors














CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY


The


purpose


this


study


was


to investigate


and


compare


relationship


between


career


maturity


and


com-


mitment

students

chapter


to work


alternative


To further


provides


and


purpose


details


regular

this s


study's


high


tudy


school

this


hypotheses,


sub-


jects,


instrumentation,


procedures,


and


statistical


applications.


Hypotheses


The


following


hypotheses


were


tested


statistically:


Commitme
Commitme
Work sea
tively r
the Care


to work as
to Work and
of the Sal
ted to care
Development


measured by
Value Expe
ience Inven
er maturity
Inventory,


both
tatio
ory i
as as
Schoo


he
s in
posi-
essed
Form.


Participation in Work as measured
Salience Inventory is positively r
career maturity as defined here.

Students attending an alternative
will score significantly higher on
career maturity than will students
regular high school.


by the
elated


high school
measures of
attending a


Stude
will
work
tatio
h4: ^h


nts attend
score sign
participate
ns than wi
1,%an' kh


ing an alternative high school
ificantly higher on measures of
ion, commitment, and value expec-
11 students attending a regular









than


students


school.


attending


an alternative


high


Population


The


subjects


study


were


drawn


from


students


attending


Students


two


from


high


both


schools


high


Seminole


schools


County


represent


, Florida.


a socioeconomic


cross


section


communities


Seminole


County


, a rapidly


growing


suburban


area


with


significant


agriculture,


tourist,


and


aerospace


industries.


One


sample


students


was


drawn


from


an alternative


high


school,


Adult


High


School,


which


located


Seminole


Community


College


and


enrolls


approximately


student


per


semester.


According


to the


Student


Handbook


(Seminol

to help


Community


students


College,


obtain


1988)


a regular


the

high


school

school


designed


diploma


setting


and


atmosphere


that


enables


them


to be


treated


like


"adults


The


school


maintains


a year-round


academic


schedule


where


individuals


years


older


can


enroll


beginning


or midpoints


any


the


three


terms.


The


school


is accredited


major


accrediting


agency


the


southern


area


the


United


States


and


the


curric-


ulum


includes


traditional


core


subjects


offered


a regular


public


high


school.


Tuition


and


fees


are


free


students;


however


, they


are


required


to purchase


4-1nt% -*


--A~


-s-- 4 A a aj as e- a-a aL .L .I A


YL UA! if CL


LL


I*L


I


L1









attracted


"adult"


atmosphere


possibility


completing


high


school


more


rapidly


and


the


shortened


school


day


(most


students


attend


from


a.m


. to


12:00


noon


, Monday


through


Thursday)


The


vast


majority


students


have


either


full


-time


or part-time


jobs


Permission


granted


using


a sample


Director


from


Adult


population


High


School


was


and


Vice


President


Student


and


Information


Services


Seminole


Community


College.


The


second


sample


high


school


students


was


drawn


from


student


Florida


high


attending


Seminole


school


diverse


student


High


county


population.


Seminole


School


terms


The


High


School

most r


the


enrollment


Sanford,


representative


ethnically


at Seminole


High


School


during


winter


term


1990


was


1723


Permiss


was


granted


Vice


Principal


Seminole


High


School


and


School


Board


Seminole


County


conduct


thi


study


Sample


Two


groups


subject


took


part


study


alternative


high


school


students


105)


and


regular


high


school


students


115)


The


students


were


second


third


, and


fourth


year


students


enrolled


either


the


Adult


High


School


or Seminole


High


School


The


subjects








were


designated


official


institutional


representatives


who


used


their


best


judgment


selecting


comparable


groups.

included


distributed


No honor


cla


sses


study.


to the


or special


Two


subjects


hundred


during


needs

twenty


two


students

packets


regular


were

were


minute


classroom


periods


, allowing


subjects


approximately


minutes


to complete


entire


packet


. Of


the


packets


admini


stered


.6%)


were


returned


completed


and


sub-


sequently


included


study.


One


hundred


four


females


(89%)


and


males


(79%)


completed


entire


packet


The


rate


completion


school


differed


notably


Eighty


subjects


(76%)


the


alterna-


tive


high


school


completed


the


packet


while


subjects


(90%)


regular


high


school


completed


the


battery


instruments.


Portions


data


from


subjects


were


used


analyses


to provide


robustness


res


ults


study.


The


alternative


high


school


students


were


older


years)


years)


17.3


credits


than


The


regular


average


alternative


high


amount


high


school


credits


school


students


earned,


and


credits


regular


high


school


reflected


the


age


difference


students.


The


finding


that


groups


differed


age








determine


whether


dependent


was


variable


significantly


on which


related


alternative


any


and


regu-


high


school


students


were


compared


Hypoth


eses


and


were


affected


they


related


subj


ects


as a


whole


However,


Hypotheses


, and


5 compared


group


career


Hypothes


maturity


compared


Career


two


Development


groups


on measures


Attitudes


(CDA)


Career

Total


Development


(COT)


Knowledge


Hypothesis


(CDK)


and


compared


Career


two


Orientation


groups


measures


work


importance


Participation


Work


(PW)


Commitment


to Work


(CW)


, and


Value


Expectations


through


Work


(VW)


Hypothe


compared


groups


measures


importance


studying


Participation


Studying


, Commitment


to Studying


(CS)


and


Value


Expectations


correlational


through


matrix


Studying


revealed


Inspe


action


correlations


between


and


dependent


variables


were


(CDA,


CDK,


COT


-.03


-.05


and


.14)


Although


correlations


between


and


CDA,


COT,


and


were


sufficiently


high


to be


concern


, overall


dif-


ference


between


the


groups


did


not


effect


the


results


For


example


, an r of


would


only


account


total


variance


Since


students


alterna-









constellation


attributes


which


accompanied


that


self


-se


election.


The


group


differed


noticeably


average


number


hours


employed


away


from


home


per


wee


k with


alternative


high


school


stud


ents


averaging


hours


working


per


wee


k compared


to 7


hours


the


average


reported


students


attending


regular


high


school


see


Table


Again


correlational


matrix


was


con-


suited


the


same


manner


above.


Correlations


between


average


number


hours


employed


away


from


home


per


week


and


dependent


variabi


were


low


(CDA,


CDK


COT,


and


.12)


Only


variable


(Participation


Work)


was


significantly


related


should


hours


found


employed


there


. Thi


should


positive


a relationship


correlation


between


two


measures


student


employment


as measured


Participation


Work


scal


Salience


Inventory


and


the


self-reported


number


hours


worked


the


student.


Thi


finding


serves


as a validation


Participation


Work


scale


When


adjusting


student


who


were


actually


working,


data


revealed


that


alternative


high


school


students


.5%)


worked


an average


hours


per


















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subjects


were


mal


and


.5%)


were


femal


These


percentages


compare


favorably


population


female


as a whole


. Department


which


Commerce


male


, 1991)


and


As shown


Table


socioeconomic


evel


, as


asses


sed


a Pers


onal


Data


Form


(PDF)


developed


study


, were


similar


groups.


Evaluation


Table


shows


that


both


the


alter-


native


and


subjects


regular


parents


high


who


were


school


large


employed


group


"profes


sional/


managerial"


level


A further


section


data


revealed


that


occupational


level


both


parents


were


similar


two


groups.


More


members


ethnic


or racial


groups


were


found


regular


school.

regular


high


Forty

high s


school


-eight

school


than


percent


were


African


alternative


subjects

American


high


heritage


Forty-four


percent


subjects


were


white


and


were


spanic


origin.


alternative


high


school


subjects


were


more


homogeneous


Seventy


-seven


percent


were


white,


were


African


American


and


were


Hispanic


origin


(see


Table


The


majority


subjects


from


both


school


res


ponded


that


they


anticipated


continuing


their


education


.5%)







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to this


question


as compared


to 85


regular


high


school


subjects.


The


sample


used


study


was


a convenience


sample


, although


efforts


to stratify


the


sample


were


aimed


at assuring


divers


representation.


Tests


stati


stical


significance


were


made


under


assumption


that


the


subjects


included


s study


constituted


representative


sample


the


population


high


school


students


Seminole


County


and


Central


Florida


Instruments


New


York


State


Self


-Esteem


Scale


Considering


influence


that


personality


factors


have


on occupational


choice


inve


stigator


elected


control


differences


self-concept


the


two


sample


populations


students


To accomplish


thi


pur-


pose


Esteem


New


, RSE)


York


was


State


used


Self


(see


-Esteem


Scale


Appendix


(Rosenberg


The


RSE


Self-


a 10-


item


Guttman


scale


with


a Coefficient


Reproductibility


percent


and


a Coefficient


Scalability


percent


(Rosenberg,


most


1979)


widely


. Respondents


used


were


measure


asked


type


to strongly


agree


, agree


, di


sagree


or strongly


disagree


with


each


items


Each


instrument


was


hand


scored


based


upon


an ingenious


author


that


brought


about









positively


receive


a positive


(that


low


self-esteem)


score


responses


Scal


Item


to items


Scale


and


and


Item


positive


composed


responses


either


out


or 2


responses


are


considered


positive


Scale


Item


Scal


Items


, IV and


are


scored


simply


as positive


or negative


based


upon


res


pond


ents'


answers


items


and


Finally


Scale


Item

and


was


where


formed


one


from


out


combined


or 2


responses


positive


to items


responses


are


considered


1979)


The


indicates


positive


highest


high


self


or low


possible


-esteem


self-esteem


score


, and


(Ros


RSE


lowest


enberg


which


-6 which


means


self-esteem


or the


lowes


self


-esteem


measured


thi


instrument


Analys


results


RSE


showed


no significant


difference


mean


scores


the


alternative


high


school


students


.85)


and


regular


high


school


students


.38)


(184)


.4570


Personal


Data


Form


Personal


character


, gender,


race,


socio-


economic


status(SES)


, and


grade


level


stratified


number


credits


earned)


were


assess


d by


a Pers


onal


Data


Form


(PDF)


developed


study.


Grade


level


high


school


indicated


total


credits


earned


Subjects








and


students


with


credits


are


recognized


seniors


In Seminole


County


, Florida,


credits


are


required


graduation a

requirements


assuming


grade


student


point


meets


average.


the

The


specific


PDF


course


requested


specific


information


occupational


status


parents


subjects


including


titles


and


duties


Each


parent'


occupation


was


coded


according


to the


Warner


Scale


Finally


regular


as revised


, the


public


Hamburger


requested


or private


high


Super


last


& Nevill


day


school


, 1984)


attendance


students


attending


Adult


High


School


The


form


itself


Appendix


Salience


Inventory


Salience


Inventory


was


developed


as a result


Work


Importance


Study


launched


Super


1976


(Nevill


uper


, 1986)


SThe


WIS


(group)


an informal


consortium


autonomous


research


teams


and


members


from


country


Africa


Europe


The


, North


objective


America


Work


, Australia,


Importance


Asia


Study


, and


was


assess


values


and


sati


factions


people


seek


work


and


other


life


-career


roles


and


the


relative


importance


work


role


context


other


life


roles


(Nevill


Super


, 1986)


The


WIS


(group)


developed


instrument t


measure


salience


life


roles


when









The


Salience


Inventory


(SI)


a 170


item,


30-45


minute


inventory


that


provides


scores


participation


in,

life


commitment


and


Student


value

Worker


expectations

, Homemaker,


five


Leisurite


major

, and


Citizen


The


roles


resulting


of Student


scales


Worker


are:

Citizen


Participation


Homemaker


and


Leisurite


Commitment


to each


roles


Student,


Worker


, Citizen


, Homemaker


and


Lei


surite


, and


Value


Expectations


in each


five


roles


Student


, Worker


Citizen,


Homemaker


and


Leisurite


The


can


mailed


publisher


scoring


can


hand


scored.


For


study


the


was


hand-


scored


investigator


score


SI weighted


values


scale


each


score


component


sum


are


the


added


column


numerical


The


responses


to 4)


each


through


intense


items


scale


refinement


The


been


SI has


found


gone


to be


reliable


instrument


both


internal


consis


tency


and


stability


. Nevill


and


Super


(1986)


report


internal


con-


tency


(alpha


coefficients


high


school


and


college


samples


at above


reliabilities


However


less


than


, stability


were


(test


found


-rete


the


scales


, with


Value


Expectations


scale


having


lowest


reliability


(Nevill


Super


, 1986)


Since


the









first


version


administered,


fatigue


or bore-


dom


may


have


caused


random


guessing


subjects


study


test


fatigue


hypothe


, Nevill


and


Super


(1986)


gave


either


the


regular


sequence


reverse


order


Consequently,


half


of the


subjects


took


pre-


and


post-


tests


normal


sequence


Participation


, Commitment


and


Value


Expectations


, and


half


completed


specially


signed


booklets


which


had


reverse


sequence


Participation.


Value


the


Expectations


length


, Commitment,


tests


fact


and


caused


increasing


amounts


random


guessing


, then


subjects


who


took


Participation


first


would


get


the


highest


test-retest


scores


the


Participation


scale


and


the


lowest


scores


Value


Expectations


. The


opposite


would


true


those


subjects


taking


the


Value


Expectations


first


Commitment


scores


should


remain


same.


The


findings


were


that


regardless


whether


Value


Expectations


scale


was


given


first


or last


, the


reliabilities


this


scale


were


lower


than


either


Participation


or Commitment


SI has


also


demonstrated


content


and


construct


validity


the


United


States


, Canada,


Australia,


Portugal


, Spain


, Italy


, and


Yugo


lavia


(Super


Nevill,


1983


1984)


Nevill


Super


(1986)


report


that


the


content


validity


was


an intrinsic


part








real


subject


reactions


Nevill


and


Super


(1984)


found


support


cons


truct


validity


relation


to gender


and


age


differences


in commitment


to home


and


family


high


school


student


itive


relationship


was


found


between


being


female


and


being


committed


to home


and


family


.01)


There


was


a signifi


cant


difference


.05)


the


relative


com-


mitment


high


school


male


students


and


female


students


work


and


home


and


family


roles


, with


males


being


more


committed


Different


dents


results


from


to work


were


large


females


found


southern


home


a sample


universities.


and


college


The


family


stu-


point-


biserial


equalled


correlation


only


between


.01)


gender


Since


and


commitment


positive


scores


to home


showed


correlations


between


being


female


and


role


importance,


these


results


show


that


mal


and


females


differ


their


relative


commitment


to work


comparison


to home


and


family


Both


groups


had


a much


greater


commitment


home


and


family


than


to work


The


college


females


how-


ever


, did


indicate


more


participation


home


and


family


than


did


to home


college


work


from


males


high


These


school


changes


samples


commitment


to college


samples


males


and


females


are


logical


and


thus


lend


support


to the


validity


the


(Nevill


& Super


, 1986)








validity


the


Among


high


school


students


leisure


was


related


as most


important


work


and


home


and


family


appear


middle;


studying


and


community


service


rated


least


important


college


year


participation


leisure

maturing


activities


role


was


values


still


can


rated


seen


as being


that


important,


greater


but


impor-


tance


was


attributed


to work


and


home


and


family


Parti


ipation


expected


studying


since


also


more


tended


serious


to be


higher


student


as would


on from


high


school


to college


Nevill


uper


, 1986)


Similar


res


ults


adults


were


found


Yates


(1985)


study


students


enrolled


in an off-campus


baccalaureate


degree


program


conducted


a major


mid-


western


marital


university


status


. He


, and


found


expected


differences.


gender-role,


Females


showed


greater


participation


home


and


family


activities


, main-


tainted


a stronger


commitment


to work


, to community


affairs


, and


to the


home


and


family


, and


sought


greater


sati


sfaction


from


activities


related


to the


community


and


to the


home


and


family


than


did


males


Married


respon-


dents


indicated


a greater


participation


a stronger


commitment


, and


placed


greater


value


on home


and


family


activities


than


did


unmarried


respondents


Unmarried


respondents


indicated


greater


participation


leisure








involvement


in community


and


leisure


activities


than


did


married


respondents


. As


expected


youngest


group,


to 25


, participated


most


leisure


activities


were


most


committed


to them


indicated


the


strongest


leisure


-related


expectations


Ellermann


and


Johnston


(1988)


found


expected


differences


between


female


college


seniors


who


were


tradi-


tional


academic


ma3or


special


education,


nursing


, and


home


economic


and


those


nontraditional


academic


majors


(pre-medicine


, engineering


and


business


They


found


that


women


who


were


currently


nontraditional


majors


, though


they


did


significantly


differ


from


their


counterparts


in traditional


majors


in commitment


work


were


significantly


ess


committed


to home


and


family.


Validity


scale


can

the


correlations.


also


norming


shown

sample


inter-


3,347


high-


school


students


, the


correlation


between


the


Participation


and


Commitment


scales


are


Study


Work,


Community


Home


and


Family


and


Leisure


Activities.


The


correlations


between


Participation


and


Value


Expectations


scales


are


.43,


, .57


, and


, respectively


The


correlations


between


Commitment


and


Value


Expectations


scales


are









Thus


they


are


theoretically


similar


use


a different


format


The


Participation


scale


theoretically


dif-


ferent


from


other


scales


The


two


scales


(Commitment


and


Value


Expectations


which


are


theoret-


ically


more


similar


are


more


highly


correlated


than


those


are


theoretically


third


variable


different.


(Participation)


Similar


relationships


which


hold


university


and


adult


samples.


These


findings


are


good


evidence


both


the


convergent


and


divergent


validity


scales


(Nevill


Super


, 1986)


Career


Development


Inventory


Career


maturity


attitudes


and


knowledge


were


assessed


with


The


Career


Development


Inventory


(CDI)


which


had


theoretical


beginnings


basic


res


earch


on the


nature


career


maturity


(Hansen,


1985;


uper


Nevill


, 1984)


The


intended


assess


vocational


or career


matu-


rity


and


career


development


(Hansen,


1985;


Thompson


Lindeman


, 1981)


The


current


study


used


the


School


Form


which


was


designed


junior


high


and


high


school


students


(Appendix


Based


upon


theoretical


model


developed


and


tested


Career


Pattern


Study


the


measures


four


basic


dimensions


career


maturity


Planfulness


, (b)


Exploration,


Deci


sion


Making


and


Information


These


dimensions


are


means


ured


on five









Preferred


Group


. The


scales


Career


Planning


and


Exploration


can


combined


to form


an Attitudes


scale


Decis


Making


and


World


Work


Information


can


combined


Career


Career


to form


Orientation


Development


a Career


Total


Development


can


Attitudes


Knowledge


obtained


and


Knowledge


scale


combining


scales


The


is computer


scored


and


results


are


reported


standard


scores


with


means


equal


and


standard


deviations


equal


to 20


(Hansen,


1985)


The


norms


School


Form


were


based


on a sample


5,039


high


school


students


The


computer


printout


scale


scores


can


transformed


raw


score


equivalents


To derive


raw


scores


scored


Career


to 5


and


Planning


total


, res


score


ponses


the


A to E


sum


are


the


values


items.


For


the


Career


Exploration


scale


responses


A to D


are


given


values


to 4.


Each


item


then


assigned


a weight


according


determined


quality


resource


The


score


response


value


multi


plied


times


item


weight


For


the


Decision


Making,


World


Work


Information


, and


Knowledge


Preferred


Occupational


Group


scales


, the


score


simply


the


total


number


items


answered


correctly


(Thompson


Lindeman,


1981)


According


to Hansen


(1985)


the


eight


scales








follows


Career


high


Exploration


school


seniors


(CE)


Deci


: Career


sion


Planning


Making


(CP)


(DM)


World


Work


Information


(WW)


Knowl


edge


Pref


erred


Occupational


Group


(PD)


Career


Development


Knowledge


(CDK)


and


Car


eer


Orientation


Total


(COT)


The


two


scal


DM and


PD have


inte


rnal


consi


stency


values


enough


to warrant


caution


their


use


(Hansen


, 1985


Thompson


Lindeman,


1981)


stability


(test


-rete


was


, WW


asse


, and


ssed


These


on five


sca


separate


were


scal


admini


, CP


stered


, CE


twice


within


three


week


time


interval


total


of 668


9th,


llth


and


12th


grade


students


With


few


exceptions


results.


indicated


corre


lations


in the


and


the


combined


sca


(CDA,


CDK


, and


COT)


and


sca


For


remaining


scales


correlations


were


and


which


s still


indicative


sati


factory


stability


over


three-week


interval


(Thompson


Lindeman


, 1984)


According


to Thompson


Lindeman


(1981)


the


CDI


demon


strated


content


validity


having


items


that


qualified


judges


viewed


as dealing


with


those


variables


that


are


to be


measured


The


based


theo-


retical


model


that


was


developed


and


tested


the


Career


Pattern


Study


Eight


out


experts


agreed


that


the


items


appeared


to be


such


as prescribed


the









Thompson


and


Lindeman


(1981)


provide


further


support


construct


validity


the


The


authors


report


findings


that


demonstrate


developmental


character


stic


career


maturity


As students


progressed


from


12th


grade


means


on all


separate


and


combined


scales

tional


support


CDI

for


increased.


the


The


construct


authors

validity


report


addi

CDI


scales

demic


programs


ability

SFor


to predict


example


differences


students


among


honors


aca-


programs


had


higher


scales


than


mean

did


scores,

students


particularly


regular


on the

classes


cognitive


Students


college


preparatory


and


business


programs


tended


to have


higher


scores


than


those


in general


and


vocational


pro-


grams


Thi


information


provides


further


evidence


construct


validity


scales


(Thompson


& Lindeman,


1981)


Procedure


Personal


Career


Data


Development


Form,


Inventory


Salience


were


Inventory


explained


, and


to each


class


students


before


the


writer


administered


the


instrument.


The


Personal


Data


Form


and


the


Salience


Inventory


testing


were


and


given


Career


consecutively


Development


the


first


Inventory


day


was


adminis-


tered


on the


second


day


Subjects


were


given


adequate









For


purpose


this


study


only


a portion


the


Salience


Inventory


was


used.


Subjects


were


instructed


res


pond


to questions


under


Parti


cipation


, Commitment


and


Values


Exp


ectations


only


they


related


their


roles


workers


and


as student


Inst


ead


items


, subjects


only


res


ponded


to 68


items


inventory


Special


care


was


taken


while


proctoring


the


assure


that


subjects


were


following


special


instructions


. The


Salience


Inventory


was


hand


scored


and


yielded


two


scores


on each


three


scales


, Participation


Worker


and


Student


, Commitment


, and


Value


Expectations


each


the


roles.


The


study


used


two


summative


scal


, Career


Development


Attitudes


(CDA)


Career


Development


Knowledge


(CDK),


and


more


global


composite


scale


Career


Orientation


Total


(COT)


Career


Development


Inventory


(CDI)


Analvsi


Data


The


following


stati


stical


methods


were


used


analyze


data:


A correlational


analy


was


used


to examine


relationships


among


various


measures


more


rigor-


ously


analyze


across


and


within


group


differences


the


scal


the


and


(Hypotheses


and








alternative


high


school


and


regular


high


school


students


Further


statisti


testing


using


effe


s tests


were


applied


to find


location


significant


differences


(Hypothesi


A analysis


variance


(ANOVA)


was


used


analyze


differences


commitment


to work


and


value


expe


stations


through


work


the


groups


high


school


students


When


the


ANOVA


proved


signifi


cant


, separate


analyses


variance


were


conducted


each


dependent


measure


The


Scheffe'


procedure


was


used


to find


the


location


of significant


differences


(Hypothesi


A analysis


variance


(ANOVA)


was


used


analyze


differences


Participation


, Commitment,


and


Value


Expe


stations


their


as students


the


two


groups


high


school


students.


When


ANOVA


proved


significant


each


separate


dependent


analy


measure.


ses


variance


The


Scheffe's


were


conducted


procedure


was


used


to find


location


significant


differences


(Hypothesis


The


(5%)


level


significance


was


used


study


The


Statistical


Analysis


System


(SAS)


the


University


Florida


was


used


to analyze


the


data.















CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS


The


study


was


designed


to investigate


and


compare


differences


between


career


maturity


and


work


and


study


salience


alternative


and


regular


high


school


students.


Career


maturity


was


assessed


Career


Development


Inventory


(CDI)


and


work


and


study


salience


or commitment


to work/


study


was


assessed


the


Salience


Inventory


(SI).


Tables


through


summarize


data


contained


this


study.


Five


research


hypotheses


were


investigated


this


study:


Commi
Commi
Work
posit
asses
Schoo


tment
tment
scales
ively
sed by
1 Form


work as
Work and
the Sal
ated to
e Career
DI).


measured by
Value Expec
ience Invent
career matu
Development


both
tatio
ory (
rity
Inve


the
ns in
SI) is
as
ntory,


Participation in work
positively related to
measured by the CDI.


as measured by
career maturity


the
as


Students attending an alternative
will score significantly higher on
career maturity than will students
regular high school.


high school
measures of
attending a


Students att
will score s
work partici
4 -a 4- n rn a C 1 a


ending an alternative hi
significantly higher on m
patio, commitment, and
'S4r 11 nJ-..A~.sL atL.Lan elj -s


gh school
measures of
value expec-









than


will


students


attending


school.


an alternative


high


The


data


were


analy


utili


zing


software


and


three


primary


stati


stical


procedures


: two-way


analysis


variance


on all


dependent


variabi


, partial


correlations


using


Pearson


product-moment


correlation,


and


means


and


standard


deviations


groups


Scheffe


s multiple


compar-


ison


procedure


was


used


a po


st-hoc


test.


chapter


effect


each


independent


variables


their


eractions


and


covariabi


are


discussed


Anal


vses


Product


Hvyotheses


-Moment


One


Correlations


and


Two


The


first


hypothesis


predicted


a positive


relation-


ship


through


between


Commitment


Work


to Work


and


and


career


Value


maturity


Expectations

as assessed


The


second


hypothesis


predicted


that


Parti


cipation


Work


would


sitively


correlated


career


maturity


For


purposes


study


the


two


summative


scales


, Career


Development


Attitudes


(CDA)

global


and


Career


scale


Development


Career


Orientati


Knowledge

on Total


(CDK),

(COT) w


and


rere


the

used


more

for


comparison


The


results


, as shown


Table


, do


not


sup-


port


first


hypotheses


There


was


no significant


relation


ship


between


Commitment


to Work


and


Value


Expectations


through


Work


and


any


three


summative









appears


was


that,


related


, maturity


to students'


as measured


commitment


workers


nor


the


values


they


expect


to realize


through


work


role


Tabl


Correlations


Value


ExD


between


ectations


Career


through


Maturity


and


and


Commitment


Participation


S~rkc


Correlations for CDI Summative Scales


Variables CDA CDK COT


CW .12 .02 .08

VW .15 .12 .17

PW .24* .15 .24*


*Abs
.05


olute
level


values
(two t


or larger


ailed).


are


significant


the


The


sec


ond


hypothesis


was


supported.


Participation


Work


was


found


moderately


correlated


with


the


summative


scale


, Career


Development


Attitudes


.24)


, and


the


global


scale


Career


Development


Total


(r = .24)

research

found to


Thi


on work


finding


lends


salience.


participate


Thu


work


some

s the


support

more s


higher


was


tuden


thei


previous

ts were

r level


career


maturity.








Participation


Studying


analysis


showed


correlations


even


greater


magnitude


between


variabi


on the


CDI


and


Although


a formal


hypothesis


the


relationship


between


career


maturity


and


measures


the


importance


studying


were


noted.


The


results


reported


Table


show


a consi

Value E


stent


positive


expectations


relationship


through


and


between


Participation


Commitment

n in Study


to,

and


three


Development


summative


Attitudes


scal


, Career


the


Development


CDI


Career


Knowledge,


and


Career


Orientation


Total


. Students


who


are


committed


their


roles


as students,


who


anticipate


value


through


this


role,


and


who


participate


more


study


are


more


career


mature


research


Thus


there


students


a stronger


included


relationship


the


between


current


the


importance


studying


and


career


maturity


than


between


importance


work


and


career


maturity


Table


Correlations


Value


between


Expectations


Career


through


Maturity


and


Commitment


SParticiDation


Correlations for CDI Summative Scales

Variables CDA CDK COT

CS .22* .21* .28*
VS .35* .19* .34*
PS .39* .21* .38*








Analyses


Variance


Hvyothesis


Three


The

attending


third

the


hypothes


alternative


predi

high


cted t

school


hat


students


would


score


significantly


higher


on measures


career


maturity


than


students


results


attending


three


regular


summative


high


school


scales


The


the


ANOVA


are


pre-


sented

group


Tables


(alternative


and


versus


The


regular


data

high


were

school


analyzed


students)


In addition,


although


included


the


hypothesi


the


data


were


analyzed


gender


and


group


gender


(Tables


, 10,


and


Hypothesis


was


supported


convincingly


the


data.


Alternative


high


school


students


scored


significantly


higher


two


three


scales


(the


summative


scale


Career


Development


Knowledge


and


the


global


scale


Career


Orientation


Total)


When


analyst


was


done


gender


, female


students


scored


significantly


higher


than


male


students


on all


three


scales


the


When


both


high


school


and


gender


effects


were


analyzed


together


only


cancer


measure


Female


career


subjects


attitudes


the


(CDA)


alternative


showed


high


signifi-


school


were


significantly


more


mature


than


male


subjects


the


regular


high


school


CDA


measure


career


maturity


the


(3,183)


.0035


.05.


Female


subjects














Table


The


Effect


Attendance


Alternative


on Measures


or Regular


Career


Hiah


Maturity


School


= 183)


Sum


Scale


Squares


Significance


CDA


CDK


3462


COT


.0029


3297


.0023


Table


Means


and


Standard


Deviations


Grouo


Career


Maturity


Measures


CDI Scale


Statistic


Alternative
High School


Regular
High


Mean


School


Mean


108.98
18.84


104.41
19.74


99.46
21.65


104.59
20.13


90.71
18.31


96.05
18.55














Table


The


Effect


Gender


on Measures


183)


Career


Maturity


CDI Sum of
Scale Squares df F Significance


CDA 3135.01 1 8.86 0.0033

CDK 3203.33 1 8.45 0.0041

COT 3297.33 1 14.42 0.0002










Table 9

Means and Standard Deviations of Career Maturity Measures
by Gender


CDI Scale

N Statistic CDA CDK COT

Males 80 Mean 101.47' 89.26a 93.35'
SD 19.33 19.07 18.29
Females 104 Mean 110.22b 98.56b 104.69b
SD 18.74 20.29 19.34


Note. Means with different


sunersarints


in each


colum n di ffr











Tabi


The


Eff


Attendance


ect of


Alternative


Gender


on Mea


or Regular


sures


183)


Hiah


Career


School


Maturity


Sum


Scal


Squares


Significance


CDA


1381


0.0497*


CDK


0.62


COT


.3512


Table


Means


and


Grouo


Standard


Deviations


Career


Maturity


Measures


Gender


CDI Scale


Statistic


Alternative


High


School Males


Regular
School


Mean


High
Males


Mean


107.87
17.02


97.71"
19.77


93.13
20.92


86.94
17.68


99.90
18.26


89.42
17.31


Alternative


High


School


Females


Mean


109.66b
19.99


103.26
21.39


107.40
20.84


Regular
School


High
Females


Mean


- S


110.74b
17.67


94.20
18.34


102.18
17.67









well


183)


.3646


Alternative


high


school
*


males


mean


scores


were


not


significantly


different


from


those


either


female


subjects


the


alternative


high


school


or the


female


subjects


regular


high


school


In addition


there


was


no significant


difference


in mean


scores


between


males


alternative


high


school


and


regular


high


school


on the


CDA


scale


summary


, females


were


more


mature


on the


measures


than


males


with


the


exception


the


CDA


where


alternative


high


school


males


were


significantly


less


mature


than


either


alternative


or regular


high


school


females.


Analvsi


Variance


HvPothe


ses


Four


and


Five


The


fourth


hypothesis


predicted


that


students


attending


alternative


high


school


would


score


higher


on measures


pertaining


to work


SI, including


Participation


Work


, Commitment


to Work


and


Value


Expectations


regular


through


high


Work


school


, than


These


would


result


students


are


attending


shown


Tables


, 13


, 14


, 15


, and


The


fourth


hypothe


S'S


was


partially


supported


data


, with


stati


stically


significant


differences


between


alternative


and


regular


high


school


students


on two


of the


three


scales


assess


ing


work.


Alternative


high























Table


The Effect of Alternative or


Regular Hich School


Attendance on Measures Pertainina to Commitment


and Study


= 198)


to Work


Sum of
Squares


Scale


Significance


.0026*


0.0285*


0.2854


.1323


0.0005*


0.0343*











































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Table


The


Effect of


to Work


and


Gender


Study


on Measures


198)


petrttininq


to Commitment


Sum


Scale


Squares


Significance


0.4597


.0452*


.0328*


.0690


.0110*


.0021*







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Table


The Effect of Alternative or


Attendance by Gender on Measures


to Work and Study


Regular Hiah School


Pertainina to Commitment


= 198)


Sum of
Squares


Scale


Significance


0.26


0.6129


.1736


0.3129


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regular


high


school


(Tables


and


There


were


differences


reported


between


two


groups


on the


measure


value


expectation


through


work.


fifth


differences


hypothesis


on measures


predicted


school


significant


participation,


group


commit-


ment,


and


value


expectations.


Alternative


high


school


students


were


predicted


score


higher


on Participation


Studying


Expectations


, Commitment


through


to Studying,


and


Studying


Value


Thi


prediction


was


were


supported


significant


the


data


differences


Tables


between


and


alternative


There


and


regu-


high


school


students


relative


to Commitment


Studying


and


Value


Expectations


through


Studying


How-


ever,


contrary


to predictions,


alternative


high


school


student


higher


mean


scores


on each


three


scales


measuring


thi


concept


scales


Commitment


to and


Value


Expectations


through


Studying


this


difference


reached


significance.


Students


the


alter-


native


school


were


more


committed


to and


expected


realize


more


values


through


studying


than


did


students


who


attended


regular


high


school.


However,


no differences


were


found


between


two


groups


the


amount


studying


done


Hypothesis


five


was


not


supported.


Although not


a part


either


Hypothesis


or 5








Commitment


to Work


and


Value


Expectations


through


Work


and


study


variabi


Commitment


to Studying


and


Value


Expe


stations


through


Studying


(Tables


and


significant


interactions


were


found


(Tabl


and


Profil


yie


two


composite


scal


Career


Development


Attitudes


(CDA)


and


Career


Development


Knowledge


(CDK)


The


CDA


scale


a summative


scale


com-


bining


scores


subscal


Career


Planning


(CP)


and


Career


Exploration


(CE)


This


scale


heavily


loaded


with


factors


that


are


conative


or attitudinal.


The


CDK


scal


combines


Deci


sion


Making


(DM)


and


World


-of-Work


Information


(WW)


and


assesses


knowledge


how


make


career


deci


sion


including


world


work


knowledge


and


other


cognitive


factors


related


career


development


(Thompson


Lindeman


, 1984)


It might


valuable


examine


relative


scores


these


two


scal


see


whether


individual


a particular


group


exhibited


similar


or differing


levels


development


these


two


major


aspects


career


development.


Using


the


total


norming


group


high


school


student


Thompson


and


Lindeman


(1984)


proposed


following


categories


scores


to define


high,


medium


and


low


profile


types


(see


Table


Types
















Mu-I~


'AlA


ttrl


Mil
Wa'l
. .n


In r-


* .g





or-





NYO
wr4'





NIF
00O


























Table


Normal Distribution of CDI


Summative Scores


for Hiah


School Students


Scale


Category


CDA


CDK


High


109-


113-


Medium


-108


-112

-92


Low









score


alternative


high


school


sample


and


a medium


score


students


who


regular


high


attended


school


sample


alternative


high


(Table


school


Thus


were


better


able


engage


in career


planning


to understand


use


career


information


resources


than


those


who


attended


regular


high


school.


Both


groups


fell


into


medium


category


CDK


aspect


career


develop-


ment.


Overall,


and


at each


school,


female


students


scored


high


medium


category


category


CDA


overall


scales


and


while


at each


males


school


scored


Thus


females


attitudes


scored


than


as more


did


mature


mal


career


three


development


comparisons.


Overall


and


at each


school


female


students


scored


medium


category


CDK


scales


while


males


scored


category


regular


high


school


and


medium


category


alternative


high


school.


Females


tended


to have


more


advanced


ability


to apply


prin-


ciples


career


planning


to a variety


situations


and


they


knew


more


about


world


work


than


did


males


Males


who


attended


regular


high


school


seemed


particu-


larly


deficient


their


career


development


knowledge.


Overall


, students


were


more


mature


their


career


development


attitudes


than


their


career


knowledge


Summary


Results






















A Clmrnnro C


Moan


Srnresq


nn the


Composite


1 vJ I'T .a a a. -


CDI for Alternative and Regular High School Students


CDI Scale


Group CDA CDK


Alternative High School 109 (H) 99 (M)

Regular High School 104 (M) 91 (M)

Alternative High School Males 108 (M) 93 (M)

Alternative High School Females 110 (H) 103 (M)

Regular High School Males 98 (M) 87 (L)

Regular High School Females 111 (H) 94 (M)

All Males 101 (M) 89 (L)

All Females 110 (H) 99 (M)


1









Salience


Inventory


was


significantly


correlated


with


Career


Development


Attitudes


, Career


Development


Knowledge


or the


Career


Orientation


sea


the


Thus


level


students


' commitment


to work


or expec-


station


to reali


their


values


through


work


was


not


sig-


nificantly


correlated


with


their


ability


to plan


and


explore


various


career


options


and


their


overall


level


career


maturity


The


Participation


behavioral


Work


component


was


significantly


measures

correlate


studied,

d with


two


summative


scal


, the


Career


Development


Attitudes


scale,


and


more


global


scale


assess


career


maturity,


Career


Orientation


Total


scale


A sub-


ject


involvement


work


was


significantly


related


career


development


attitude


necess


ary


planning


and


career


exploration,


and


the


overall


career


maturity


as measured


composite


scale


COT


Thi


hypothesis


received


partial


support.


The


alternative


high


school


students


scored


sig-


nificantly


higher


three


summative


scales


including


the


CDK


scale


that


assesses


ability


make


career


deci


sions


and


knowledge


world


work


and


the


COT


scale


which


an overall


measure


career


maturity


The


hypothesis


received


strong


support









high


school.


A subsequent


analysis


profile


types


suggest


that


scores


mal


attending


regular


high


school


accounted


much


the


difference


between


groups.


Femal


scored


significantly


higher


on all


three


measures


career


maturity


than


did


males


Alternative


high


school


students


had


signifi


cantly


higher


participation


work


and


their


attitudes


revealed


a significantly


higher


commitment


their


roles


as workers


than


did


regular


high


school


students.


How-


ever


, no differences


were


found


"the


degree


to which


major


life


sati


factions


or values


are


expected


to be


found


role


as worker"


(Nevill


Super


, 1986


.11)


hypothesis


received


partial


support.


Females


were


more


committed


to work


and


expected


to realize


more


values


through


work


than


did


males.


However


, the


sexes


did


not


differ


work


participation


Unexpectedly,


alternative


high


school


students


were


significantly


a greater


degree


more

sati


committed

faction


to and


their


expected

roles


to find


as stu-


dents


than


did


regular


high


school


students


However,


there


was


no significant


difference


the


amount


involvement


or participation


study


as reported


the


groups


The


hypothesis


was


supported


Females


were


significantly


more


committed


to studying


and


expected









However


, the


sexes


did


not


differ


amount


time


they


spent


studying.


Applying


the


profile


type


criteria


mean


scores


sample


groups


revealed


consis


tently


higher


dents


relative


scores


comparison


alternative


scores


regular


high


high


school


school


stu-


stu-


dents

that


Female


reveal


students


attitudinal


overall

factors


scored


and


higher


alternative


on scales

e high


school


females


scored


higher


than


both


male


groups


scale


that


revealed


cognitive


factors


, as well.


Female


students


were


more


career


mature


both


applying


principles


career


planning


and


their


knowledge


making


deci


sions


world


work.















CHAPTER


FIVE


DISCUSSION


Thi


chapter


divided


into


two


main


sections


evaluations


high


school


students'


attitudes


and


skills


to make


career


choi


ces


and


plans


and


impli


cations


recommendations


, and


conclusions


first


section


results


this


study


are


reviewed


and


cussed.


sec


recommendations,


and


section


, the


conclusions


overall


thi


implications,


study


are


presented.


The


press


study


was


to dete


rmine


there


were


significant


difference


between


alternative


and


regular


high


school


students


on measures


career


maturity


and


commitment


to work


and


study


These


groups


high


school


students


were


compared


on the


basi


nine


variables.


The


variable


included


three


suinmative


scal


the


(Career


Development


Attitudes


Career


Development


Knowledge


, and


Career


Orientation


Total)


and


six


scales


Salience


Inventory


(Commitment


to Work


, Value


Expe


stations


through


Work,


Participation


Work


Commitment


to Study


, Value


Expectations


through


Study


, and









Relationship


and


between


Role


Career


Maturity


Importance


The


investigation


first


looked


relationship


between


career


maturity


and


role


importance.


was


noted


that


previous


studied


using


high


school


students,


results


showed


significant


relationships


between


work


commitment


and


career


development


attitudes


, but


between


work


commitment


and


career


development


knowledge


(Super


Nevill,


1984)


res


ults


the


current


study


not


lend


definitive


support


those


previously


reported


findings


No significant


relationship


was


found


between


career


maturity


and


either


commitment


to work


values

ment a


reali


ttitud


zation

e score


through work

s were more


However


closely


career


related


develop-


to work


commitment


than


were


career


development


knowledge


scores


Super


and


Nevill


(1984)


proposed


that


identified


rela-


tionship


between


work


commitment


and


career


development


attitudes

career de


likely


velopment


to be

typical


a function


high


the


school


stage


students


compare


son


, Nevill


and


Super


(1988)


found


commitment


work


to be


related


to both


career


development


attitudes


and


career


development


knowledge


university


students


Findings


study


support


thi


relationship


and


tendency


toward


change


commitment


to work.


Older


stu-


rioni-


4-ho


alt 4'rorn4- 41


h4 nh


cr' ^h na


ca m mr 1 a


tvTrar


mnrb








Although


not


included


hypotheses,


relationship


between


both


Commitment


to Study


and


Value


Expectation


Career


through


Development


relationships


were


Study


and


Inventory


found


summative


was


among


examined


scales


scales


Significant


Commitment


study


and


students


' expectations


to realize


values


through


study


were


both


significantly


related


to both


career


development


attitudes


and


career


development


knowledge


finding


was


particular


interest


and


quite


logical


that


subjects


were


actively


enrolled


school


and


over


subjects


planned


to attend


college


or vocational


school


after


graduation.


The


finding


that


career


maturity


was


more


strongly


related


to commitment


to and


value


reali


zation


through


study


than


to work


suggests


an awareness


students


their


personal


immaturity


with


regard


career


development


and


their


ignorance


the


real


world


work,


such


requirements


duties


and


way


life.


Instead


they


express


a commitment


to the


process


most


familiar


them


, school


education,


obtaining


information


they


need


about


careers


and


labor


market


realities


Considering


limited


and


erratic


knowledge


world


work


seen


age


group,


promi


sing


see


a strong


relationship


between


commitment









utilizing


formal


educational


process


may


more


likely


to be


success


their


career


pursuits


Over


time


commitment


to study


may


influence


students


attitudes


regarding


importance


work.


Participation


work


as measured


Participation


in Work


scale


the


was


related


career


attitude


scale


and


more


global


measure


career


maturity


, Career


Orientation


Total


scales


the


Thi


finding


suggests


a relationship


between


increased


involvement


work


and


being


more


conscientious


regard


career


development


attitudes


and


overall


vocationally


mature


behaviors


High


school


students


more


involved


work


seem


to look


ahead


more


(Career


Planning)


explore


more


career


options


(Career


Exploration)


than


less


involved


students.


Although


included


hypothe


ses


the


relation-


ship


between


Participation


Study


and


the


summative


scales


was


evaluated.


Participation


Study


was


significantly


related


to all


three


the


composite


interest


scale


that


Again,


implies


this


an increased


finding


was


tendency


more


respon


and


ible


and


behaviors


successful


with


increased


career


development


involvement


attitudes


school


and


study









A Comparison


Alternative


and


Regular


Hiah


School


Students


Alternative


high


school


students


were


more


career


mature


than


regular


high


school


students


These


results


lend


support


to several


notion


: firs


, older


students


appear


to be


more


mature


vocationally


second


students


more


involved


or participating


in work


are


more


mature


vocationally


an alternative


and


third,


or regular


choice


high


a student


school


related


either


to both


student's


number


hours


actively


involved


work


Further


analyses


included


hypothesis


show


considerable


difference


between


males


and


females


career


maturity


levels


Female


students


scored


signifi-


cantly


higher


than


male


students


on all


three


the


career


maturity


variable


Previous


studies


have


reported


females

however


scoring

, usually


higher

only


career


on the


maturity


cognitive


than


factor


males,

or career


development


knowledge


(Nevill


& Super,


1988)


. It


seems


that


females


may


mature


earlier


with


regard


career


development


males.


attitudes,


significant


knowledge,


and


interaction


behaviors


gender


and


than


high


school


group


was


found.


As discussed


earlier,


the


low


scores


regular


high


school


males


contributed


a; nn4 F~nn-~ 4-n nrn~lin A rf


~(FCa ~annnn


Rrhlln