Effects of textured walking surfaces on walking behavior in visuallly restricted persons

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Title:
Effects of textured walking surfaces on walking behavior in visuallly restricted persons
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xii, 147 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.
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Kupfer, Jeffrey H., 1958-
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Subjects / Keywords:
People with visual disabilities   ( lcsh )
Walking   ( lcsh )
Psychology thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Psychology -- UF
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Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1993
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 136-141).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Jeffrey H. Kupfer.
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Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

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Full Text










EFFECTS OF TEXTURED WALKING SURFACES
ON WALKING BEHAVIOR IN
VISUALLY RESTRICTED PERSONS


JEFFREY


KUPFER


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE S
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


SCHOOL

FOR


OF

THE


UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA


1993




















Copyright


Jeffrey


1993


Kupfer










----I


my mother,
complete m:


dedicate


Claire


this


dissertation


Kupfer.


never


to the


loving


doubted


memory


that


would


dissertation.














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


express


sincere


gratitude


the


distinguished


members


committee,


Prof


essor


Marc


Branch,


Professor


Brian


Iwata,


Prof


essor


Merle


Meyer,


Profe


ssor


Henry


Pennypacker,


Prof


essor


William


Wolking,


their


constructive


comments


during


the


development


and


writing


this


sser


station,


expertise


and


analysis


permitting

f behavior.


me to draw


am also


from


their


debt


Prof


essor


Vivian


Correa


sharing


her


comments


with


me and


with


the


members


committee


during


defense


this


dissertation.


will


forever


grateful


to Professor


Malagodi

learned


Through


radical


studies


behaviorism


with


as a


Profe


"world


ssor

view.


Malagodi


I cannot


overemphasize


impact


this


view


had,


and


continues


have,


on my


vocation.


was


experiment

psychology


fortunate

1 analysis

department


pursue


behavior


graduate


(EAB)


University


studies


program


of Florida.


was


right


place


right


time


with


the


right


people


and


want


thank


graduate


students


, past


and


present,


in the


EAB


program.


am grateful


to Chris


Hughes


ass


isting


me with


graphs


from


the


res


-S~~ a -









years.


During


studies


have


had


contact


with


radical


behaviorists


through


Association


Behavior


Analysis


and


sewhere.


Needl


ess


say,


verbal


behavior


has


been


shaped


many;


however,


results


specific


shaping


are


reflected


sh to


directly


acknowledge


pages


specific


thi


individuals


sertation


Robert


and


Babcock,


John


Cerella,


Carl


Cheney,


Robert


Epst


ein,


Robert


Putnam,


Skinner,


Ernest


Vargas


, and


Julie


Vargas.


I have


also


drawn


from


expert


individuals


within


field


orientation


and


mobility


res


earch


and


training


and


grat


eful


to Donna


DiCorpo-Dawley,


Timothy


Traut


-Savino,


and


Prof


essor


John


Templer.


am grate


Mass


achu


setts


Commi


ssion


the


Blind,

Shore


Quincy

Mental


Park

Health


and


Recreation


Center


Department,


providing


and


laboratory


South

y space


conduct


research.


personal


growth


flouri


shed


since


the


inception


and


development


Bipedal


Guidance


System,


and


involvement


with


Gla


Bead Game.


am especially


grateful


to Ronald


Finally,


years


colleague


and


expr


support

loving


Allen


ess


and


wife,


and


Julie


deepest


E.-Allen.


appreciation


encouragement,


Anne


and


. Kupfer,


her


family


thoughtful


emotional


and


intellectual


support


in everything


Both


Anne


and


express


our


love


newest


generation


radical















TABLE OF CONTENTS


pagQ


ACKNOWLEDGMENT................ ......**.************** 1v

LIST OF TABLES.................***...*********. ****** vii

LIST OF FIGURES..................****......** ***-***** ix

ABSTRACT...........................*..**...**************.. xi

INTRODUCTION........................** .*****- *******-- 1


Motor Skills, Vision and Walking................... 2
Movement Through the Environment, Visual Loss
and Walking.....................-************- *-. 6
Methodological Issues in the Analysis of Walking... 13
Operant Behavior and Walking................... *.. 17

EXPERIMENT ONE

Introduction......................***** -**-******..... 28

Method....................... ......-*****.. ...-.-. 30

Subjects.. . .... .. . .- .* 30
Apparatus.............. .. ..****-**********- 31
Procedure............... .... .....e.......*-* 39

Results.................**. ***..************--***** 45

Discussion.....................******-************* 65

EXPERIMENT TWO

Introduction..................................----- 79

Method.............. ..................... .....----- 82

Subjects................. ..................- 82
"A nn ^ v* rr +* rr n R' _











Discussion.......................-.-***************

GENERAL DISCUSSION....................................

Consequences of Walking.....................*..-
Contingencies of Reinforcement and Walking......

REFERENCES..............................--.-.---.....-

APPENDIX............................... .. . ..- -- *

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH............................---. ...


X)a9e















LIST


OF TABLES


Table


Summary of Experimental
order) for Subjects 1,
the Number of Trials
Condition.............


Summary
Times
and 3


Conditions (in
2, and 3 with
Under Each


of Mean Walking Speeds and Mean
Per Turnaround for Subjects 1, 2,
Under Each Experimental Condition....


Summar
orde
Mean
Per
Each


y of Exper
r) for Sub
Number of
Trial, and
Condition


mental Conditions (in
jects 2, 4, and 5 with the
Side-To-Side Arm Movements
the Number of Trials Under
... e ......ee..... *


Summary
Times
and 5


of Mean Walking Speeds and Mean
Per Turnaround for Subjects 2, 4,
Under Each Experimental Condition....


(11()1(((()((()()))(~


Pace















LIST


OF FIGURES


Figure


Page


Vertical
Panel.


Cross-Section


View


of a Detection


Path Layout and Placement of Detection
Panels, Time Meters, Response Counters,
Electromechanical Equipment...........


and


Horizonal Cross-Se
and Right Panel
mental Condition


Summary Figure
Panel Length
Time on Each
Pathway for
in Experimen


tion
series


of the
Walked
Panel S
subject
1.....


of the
Under


Number of
Per Minute
series, and
1 Under All


Left, Center,
all Experi-


One-Meter
, Mean
Time Off
Conditions


Summary Fi
Panel Le
Time on
Pathway
in Exper

Summary Fi
Panel Le
Time on
Pathway
in Exper


gures
ngths
Each
for S
iment


gure
ngth
Each
for
imen


the
Iked
el S
ect


of th
Walke
anel
objectt
1....


Number of
Per Minute
ries, and
Under All


Number of
Per Minute
ries, and
Under All


One-Meter
, Mean
Time Off
Conditions


One-Meter
, Mean
Time Off
Conditions


Summary Figures
Panel Lengths
Time on Each
Pathway for S
in Experiment


of
Wal
ane
bje
2..


the
ked
1 S
ct


Number of
Per Minute
Series, and
Under All


One-Meter
, Mean
Time Off
Conditions


Summary Figures


of the
ra, 1 1,hAr


Number of
fat- L?4 n iiCa


One-Meter
U a n









Page


Summary Figures
Panel Lengths
Time on Each
Pathway for S
in Experiment


of
Wal
ane
bje
2..


the Number of One-Meter
ked Per Minute, Mean
1 Series, and Time Off
ct 5 Under All Conditions









Abstract
the Ui


Dissertation


diversity


Requirements


EFFECTS


Presented


Florida
Degree


OF TEXTURED


ON WALKING


VISUALLY


to the


Partial
Doctor c


WALKING


Graduate


School


Fulfillment
E Philosophy


SURFACES


BEHAVIOR


RESTRICTED


PERSONS


Jeffrey

May,


Chairperson:


Major


Department


Kupfer


1993


F. Malagodi
: Psychology


These


experiments


simultaneously


examine


two


character


stics


of walking


behavior


visually


res


tricted


individual


directional


continuity,


measured


deviations


from


straight-


line


walking;


and


impeded


walking,


measured


decr


eases


in walking


speed.


Experiment


, three


blindfolded


subjects


with


prescriptive


long


canes


were


exposed


to four


walking


surface.


Two


four


walking


surfaces


were


comprised


rubber


textures


mm or 2


mm in height.


The


other


two


surface


conditions


were control

900-shoreline


procedures

or a smoot]


consisting

h surface


either


without


a continuous


landmarks


structures


Both


mm and


mm textured


surfaces


and


the


shoreline


produced


deviations


from


straight


-line


walking,


whereas


a smooth


surface


produced


greater


deviations


from


straight


-line


walking.


The


-shoreline


ra 1 on rnnA nn


I- nrndnr~cs


90-


~irl


mmlC avC rr r


IdllrC~FI


an~ C~n 1


El


* f |


I


nn









textured-surface


condition,


decreases


in walking


speed


subjects


were


a function


cane


method


employed.


Experiment


examined


interaction


between


cane


method


and


walking


behavior


on the


mmu-


and


2 mm-textured


surfaces.


either:


Three


hold


blindfolded


cane


subjects


in front


were


the


instructed


midsection


their


body


and


move


cane


forward


while


walking


forward


cane


trail


: or


drag


cane


in an arc


motion


front


their


body


while


walking


forward


(touch


-drag).


For


subjects


textured


surf


aces


under


experimental


conditions


produced


straight


-line


walking,


and


walking


speeds


were


lowest


under


mm-texture


touch-drag)


conditions.


The


results


from


both


experiments


suggest:


mm-


and


mm-textured


surfaces


placed


in open


areas


can


be used


as a structure


V'S


ually


impaired


individuals


maintenance


straight-line


walking;


phy


sical


dimensions


textured


surfaces


may


impede


walking


and


cons


equently,


decrease


walking


speed,


depending


on the


cane


method


effects


employed;


and


textured


experiments


surfaces


on walking


designed


to examine


performances


should


employ


measures


walking


speed


straight


-line


walking.


Conceptualizations


of walking


behavior


are


discussed.















INTRODUCTION


Moving


safely i

survival


through


s an important


organisms.


environment


skill


Walking


efficiently


development


is one


form


and


and

locomotor


movement


or travel


which


human


beings


access


or avoid


particular


objects,


events


or areas


in the


environment.


These


locomotor


movements


are


an important


part


both


commonplace


and


complex


activities


such


vacuuming


rugs,


mowing


yards,


carrying


packages


to and


from


car


to the h

meeting,


within


Louse,


marching


rushing


in parades,


morning


crosswalks,


classes,


carrying


sneaking


crossing


glasses


water


a dull

street


filled


to the


top,


preparing


to steal


second


base,


dancing


waltz,

Common

behavior


speeds,


or strolling


to each


casually


these


walking,


with


tha


different


before


diverse

t is, w


gaits


taking


activities


walking


in a movie.


the


at different


postures


, under


different


sets


circumstances,


and


controlled


different


consequences


that


are


arranged


environment


in which


we live.


The


variables


that


control


walking


are


broad-ranged


and


research


on these


variables











portions


body,


to a "molar


-level


analysis


" of


entire


organism


walking


within


simple


and


complex


environments


At both


level


analy


sion


plays


crucial


in the


acquisition


and


maintenance


walking,


and


there


is a substantial


amount


research


devoted


analyst


effects


sion


and


visual


oss


on walking.


The


following


review


will


focus


on some


the


methodological


approaches


to examining


walking


at both


levels


analy


and,


particular,


vision


the


effect


visual


oss


walking


will


be described.


Motor


Skills


, Vi


sion


Walking


The


motor


skill


required


walking


have


been


described


terms


milestones


in child


development


which


the


presence


or ab


sence


particular


reflexes


during


various


stages


development


appear


to be


critical


upright


motor


functioning.


For


example,


the


asymmetric


tonic


neck


reflex


is seen


in newborns


until


four


months


Thi


reflex


accounts


an infant


ability


move


or her


own


head,


but


there


is an


inability


an infant


thi


move


or her


head


and


arms


independently


of each


other


age


four


month


, symmetric


tonic


neck


refl


emerges


and


body











reflex


patterns


order


to play


a role


as the


key


structure


in building


erect


posture.


A normal


walking


gait


demands


just


normal


neck


reflex


activity


but


also


the


development


righting


reactions


, balance,


protective


reactions,


rotation,


normal


muscle


tone.


Without

refine


these

skills


skills,


a child


walking,


is unable


climbing,


and


to develop

running.


and

The


labyrinthine


or vestibular


righting


reaction


allows


the


head


remain


in upright


position


when


the


pelvis


moved,


whereas


neck


righting


reaction


brings


lower


parts


body


into


line


with


upright


head.


Optic


righting


reflexes


are


responsible


orientation


head


and


that


orientation


controlled


vision.


Another


important


motor


skill


that


critical


development


walking


balance,


ability


maintain


or assume


body


position


or posture


against


force


gravity.


Chaney


and


Kephart


(1968


suggest


that


posture


is the


basic


pattern


from


which


other


movement


patterns


develop,


and


center


gravity


one'


sture


is the


point


from


which


direction,


space


orientation,


movement


must


originate.


According


the


authors,


only


when


line,


direction,


and


force


gravity


are


established


can


a child


proceed


to the











aligned


to the


body


with


conformity


to the


supporting


base.


The


body,


in proper


alignment


with


head,


designed


to react


to change


and


restore


disturbed


equilibrium


order


to maintain


posture


balance.


ture,


therefore,


results


from


interacting


motions


the


head,


torso,


and


limbs


to maintain


balance,


orientation


to gravity,


and


adjustment


to acceleration.


turn,


these


interacting


motions


are


affected


the

that


vestibular,


visual,


positioning


tactual,


and


and


dynamic


kinesthetic


stabilization


stems


the


body


during


walking.


The


role


vision


critical


to the


learning


and


performance


most


motor


skills,


especially


walking.


Visual


training


an ancillary


part


many


motor


education


programs


because


children


are


involved


visually


in the t

Jennett,


.raining


Morri


activities

s, 1970).


(Cratty,


Some


Ikida,


researchers


Martin,

have


suggested


that


four


sources


sensory


information


that


can


serve


preserve


postural


stability


(i.e.,


vision,


vestibular


stimulation,


proprioception,


and


touch),


visual


system


processes


exact


information


about


space


more


efficiently


than


other


sensory


modalities


(Howard


Templeton,


1966).











Gesell,


Ilg,


and


Bullis


(1949)


describe


three


functional


parts


sion


fixation


that


part


sion


which


see


and


holds


an image;


focus


enables


the


viewer


to discriminate


and


define


an image;


and


fusion


unifies


and


interprets


the


image


on the


cortical


level.


These


observations


have


the


development


norms


four


weeks


and


visual


nine


maturity


year


levels


on the


children


basi


from


-hand


coordination,


postural


orientation,


fixation,


and


retinal


response.


Somn

between


res


walking


earchers


have


behavior


described


and


sual


the

loss


relationship


reference


"environmental


input.


Miller


1967


example,


suggests


that


oss


sion


gait


mechanically


cause


Oss


sensory


data


necessary


timing


steps


, impoverished


balance,


deficiency


protective


reflexes.


Out


-toeing,


walking


with


the


toes


oriented


outward,


is a commonly


observed


gait


pattern


visually


impaired


individuals


and


may


develop


as a source


increased


tactual


input.


A "shuffle


gait"


may


develop


when


the


feet


are


used as feelers,


particularly


during


indoor

placed


walking

along h


in which


always,


"runners

or during


"guide


outdoor


strips"


walking


are

which











the


base


one'


support;


however,


out-toeing


excessive,


walking


speed


may


impeded


(Aust,


1980


A wide-based


impaired


gait


individual


is commonly


as a way


observed


increase


usually


stability


during


walking.


Acc


ording


to Aust


(1980


both


the


wide-


based


gait


and


shuffle


gait


result


slow


walking


speed


but


thi


gait


may


irable


usually


impaired


individuals


because


who


are


insuffi


reluctant


eient


or fearful


orientation


and


stepping


mobility


techniques


Similarly,


a shortened,


guarded


stride


may


seen


in a visually


impaired


individual


who


fearful


walking


into


objects


Typically,


as one'


speed


incr


eases


, the


tendency


veer


decreases


whereas


a shortened


stride,


which


tends


to decrease


walking


speed,


may


serve


increase


vee


ring


Aust,


1980).


MnvPment


TPhrnahh


the


Environment.


a1 a .- LV L w -- - -~ -- -I -1 11- 11 -- -- -- -- -~ -


sual


Loss


and


Walking


An important


component


in the


rehabilitation


visually


impaired


persons


is the


development


efficient


and


safe


walking.


The


motor


skill


described


above


are


important


smooth


and


coordinated


execution


walking;


however,


is the


entire


body


that


must


move


success


fully


through


simple


and


complex


environments.


Therefore,


from


a mobility


rehabilitation


standpoint,


the











kitchen,


a front


yard,


and


a residential


street,


as well


as a supermarket,


a hotel


lobby,


a crowded


sidewalk


mall,


and


an airport


terminal.


This


level


analysis


particularly


important


mobility


rehabilitation


visually


impaired


persons


because


mobility


instructors


must


provide


these


individuals


with


a means


to get


around


their


environment.


Characteristics


of walking


behavior


can


described


with


respect


to both


efficient


safe


walking


(Armstrong,


1972).


Directional


continuity,


example,


describes


maintenance


straight-line


walking


prespecified


distances


and


efficient


walking


inferred


from


this


measure


(Brabyn


Strelow,


1977


Impeded


walking


describes


decreases


in forward


movement


and


safe


walking


inferred


absence


abrupt


decreases


forward


movement


or walking


speed,


such


as when


visually


impaired


person


stumbles


or catches


the


tip


or her


cane


(Brabyn


Strelow,


1977).


Accordingly,


an adequate


measure


directional


continuity


must


sensitive


deviations


veerin

from


(i.e.,


a fixed


number


central


point


or the

or the


duration

distance


lateral


movement


(Armstrong,


1972;


Brabyn


Strelow,


1977;


Dodd


Carter,


Howarth,


1983;


Howarth,


Heyes,











common


way


in which


mobility


instructors


train


visually


impaired


persons


the


use


physical


structures


within


or landmarks


an environment


as aids


(Allen,


orienting


Griffith,


Shaw


walking

, 1977;


Armstrong,


1972;


Blasch


and


Hiatt,


1983;


Braf,


1974;


Elias

1980;


, 1974;

1983;


Herms,

Templer


Elias,


Zimring,


lobbins,

1981;


1974;

Tooze,


Templer,

1981;


Wardell,


1977).


physical


structure


is referred


to by


mobility


instructors


as a shoreline.


A shoreline


line


between


or a contrast


a sidewalk


between


grass


surfaces,


strip.


such


A visual


as that

y impaired


individual


can


use


a shoreline


body


alignment


and


maintenance


straight-line


walking.


Individuals


using


a prescriptive


long


cane


walking


can


maintain


straight


-line


walking


over


extended


distances


placing


and


keeping


the


cane


tip


junction


where


the


sidewalk


meets


the


grass


strip,


or by


occasionally


touching


shoreline


with


the


cane


tip


using


a sweeping


or dragging


arc


motion.


Over


the


years


during


which


this


type


of mobility


training

reported


has p

their


proceeded,


mobility


observations


specialists


regarding


have


effectiveness


of shorelines


in controlling


walking.


Mobility











provide


optimal


conditions


straight-line


walking,


discontinuous


shorelines


are


less


than


optimal


(Blasch


Hiatt,


1983),


environments


without


shorelines


(i.e.,


open


space


areas


often


result


disoriented


walking


(Aiello


Steinfeld,


1979;


Allen,


Griffith,


& Shaw,


1977;


Braf,


1974;


Foulke,


1979).


Unfortunately,


most


shorelines


are


constructed


on the


basis


architectural


and


landscaping


visually


aesthetics


impaired


persons,


rather


and


than


thus,


functional


shorelines


use


are


often


discontinuous


complex.


Much


architectural


and


mobility


research


examined


effects


variation


walking


surfaces


and


shorelines


on locomotion


in complex


environments


(Braf,


1974;


Elias,


1974;


Herms


et al.,


1974;


Templer,


1980).


Several


studies


have


examined


walking


with


respect


to directional


continuity


and


impeded


walking.


one


study,


a 100-foot


long


texture


strip


was


added


community


sidewalk


serve


as a continuous


shoreline


(Templer,


1980


The


textured


strip


was


a 12-inch


wide


strip


thick,


resilient


paint,


similar


that


used


surface


outdoor


tennis


courts.


Visually


impaired


subjects


were


recruited


serve


in the


study.


However,


no information


was


provided


regarding


degree











continue


walking


an additional


feet,


with


the


latter


stance


serving


as a control


condition


to evaluate


the


effects


the


textured


strip


on mobility.


The


subjects


were


then


instructed


to turn


and


retrace


their


steps


repeating


first


control


condition


then


test


segment


course.


Test


sessions


were


recorded


using


time


lapse


photography


to record


elapsed


walking


time


and


to determine


number


of walking


deviations


subjects.


All


subjects


followed


textured


strip


and


maintained


street


stands,


a safe


obstacles


benches,


etc.


direct


i.e.,

which


course


telephone


were


without


poles,


located


encountering


newspaper

various


points


test


however,


area.


one


Under


subject


wandere


control

d from


condition,

a projected


direct


course


and


had


to change


direction


after


encountering


street


obstacles.


Although


author


provides


a summary


results


from


this


study


suggesting


safe


that


walking,


there


textured


are


strip


produced


no quantifiable


data


efficient

provided


and

for


within-subject


comparisons


between


test


and


control


conditions.


Dodds,


Carter


and


Howarth


1983


examined


the


reliability


three


observers


viewing


a video


tape











continuously


tracking


subject'


pavement


position


from


video


recordings.


information


supplied


observers


was


recorded


on a number


electronic


timers


means


allowed


walking


of a five

to each pa


one


-channel


vement


zone,


keyboard,


zone.


example,


one


channel


subject


observer


being


was


depressed


the


that


zone.


When


subject


moved


into


another


zone,


observer


depressed


a different


key


and


held


down


until


subject


moved


that


zone.


These


data


were


used


to calculate


proportion


time


spent


subject


in each


zone


in relation


to the


total


time


taken


to complete


each


sec


tion


a route.


Inter


-observer


correlations


the


two


viewings


suggested


observers


can


make


consistent


and


replicable


judgments


about


pavement


position


subject.


Unfortunately,


study


provides


no information


regarding


degree


visual


impairment


subject,


means


subject


recruitment,


dimensions


characteristics


pavement,


testing


area


recording


devices,


or performance


blind


subject.


Some


research


safe


walking


visually


impaired


individual


extent


to which


been


directed


a surface


towards


material


examining


used


the


a shoreline











evaluated


on the


basis


safety


features


such


as walking


resistance,


slip-resistance


trip


hazards


(Templer,


1980;


1983


Each


these


characteristics


describes


how


walking


can


impeded


a particular


shoreline


material.


Impeded


walking


may


result


from


irregularities


or nonuniformity


surface


design,


different


heights


within


a pattern


surface


material


or heights


between


material


joint


width


or depth,


and


so on.


Results


from


research


on characteristics


surface


materials


suggest


that


variations


in surface


heights


as small


as one-half


inch


can


impede


forward


motion


visually


physically)


impaired


persons


(Architectural


and


Transportation


Barriers


Compliance


Board,


1984;


Templer,


1980,


1983).


summarize,


conceptualizing


the


characteristics


walking,


there


are


two


levels


analysis


that


are


most


often


considered:


coordination


movements


parts


or portions


body;


and


the


entire


organism moving


through


environment.


At both


levels


analysis,


visual


system


critical


acqui


sition


and


maintenance


walking;


however,


other


types


stimuli


exert


control


over


walking


such


auditory,


tactile


and


proprioceptive.


The


role


these










Methodoloqical


Issues


in the


Analysis


Walking


There


are,


at least,


two


methodological


issues


that


have


hindered


both


progress


in an experimental


analysis


walking


behavior


both


level


analy


S'S


and


the


development


an effective


technology.


The


first


issue


apparent


absence


standard


methods


measuring


walking


performances


and


lack


standardized


experimental


preparations


used


researchers


Mobility


researchers


and


mobility


trainers


frequently


agree


on the


complexity


walking,


and


identify


thi


fact


as a reason


conspicuous


absence


standard


, obj


ective


measures


walking


behaviors


(Foulke,


1970;


Strelow,


Brabyn,


Clark,


1976).


response


these


measurement


difficulties


one


res


earcher


proclaimed


that


the measurement


mobility


in a scientific


sense


was


viable


and,


instead,


has utilized


subjective


rating


scales


evaluate


mobility


performances


Kay,


1974;


1981).


The


impact


lack


standardized


measures


walking


on mobility


rehabilitation


technology


is reflected


the


following


passage


that


appears


in the


national


plan


report


Panel


on Visual


Impairment


and


Rehabilitation


(1983):











appears


for developing
quantitatively


skill


in both


individuals


would


to be


standard


considerable


ting


or qualitatively


partially


The


facilitate


function


sighted


development


and


with


encourage


other


potential


procedures
grading th


and
such


nons


i


ese
ghted


methods


correlations


senses


and


skills


p.7) .


The


passage


above


suggests


that


emergence


standard


experimental


approach


and


standard


measures


would


both


bene

level


ficial


to advancing


described


in the


an analysis


previous


walking


section.


The


second


methodological


issue


that


seems


to have


hindered


emergence


an effe


ctive


analy


walking,


as well


as hindered


the


development


standard


measures


of walking,


is related


to conceptualizations


about


behavior


in general.


It i


important


to point


that


these


two


issues


are


mutually


exclu


sive.


The


manner


which


rese


arch


questions


about


walking


are


raised


and


specific


experimental


approach


utilized


researchers


manner


are


in whi


some


influ


enced,


ch behavior


rese


arch


to a large


is conce


on motor


degree,


ptualized.


skill


involved


For


the

example,


walking


been


criti


cized


because


many


important


environmental


variable


that


contribute


acquisition


nnnttrnl pl


,


motor


di retl v.


skills


Hart


involved


(1980


walking


suaaests


are


that


there


I


Ll


|











cognitive


functioning


are


three


primary


types:


correlative


studies


which


comparisons


are


made


between


mental,


academic,


experimental


perceptual,


studies


which


motor


programs


scores;


of perceptual


motor


education


are


evaluated


extent


to which


they


change


other


attributes;


studies


development


of perceptual-motor


capacities


infants.


Hart


1980


criticized


findings


from


some


this


research


on the


basis


"confusing


methodological


approaches


and


assumptions


too


short


training


periods,


lack


controls


numbers


subjects,


independent


undifferentiated


variables,


samples,


small


inadequate


statistical te

interpretation


"However


chniques,


and


faulty


inadequate


over-generali


research


reporting


zation


findings,


and


over-


findings.


" states


" (p.


Hart,


"the


theories


are


being


used


across


the


country


as the


basis


various


training


curricula.


" (p.


Much


mobility


visually


research


describes


impaired


literature


conceptualizations


individuals


in orientation


walking


primarily


and


behavior


terms


cognitions


or schema


formed


formed


and


terms


information


processing.


theory,


example,


describes


various


cognitive


features


that


are


required











skills


the
must


described


speed


could


grace


be a fundamental


demonstrated


a sighted p
supposition.


person.


with


This


To execute


a mobility


spatial


to th
the f
This
blind
the d


e t
orm


task,


senses


ask


and


that


becomes
persons
esign of


necessary
behavior


must
the


such


input


in


stimulate
sensory i
a percept


a prerequisite


is not


a specific


to have


from


which


a means


formation
a percept


nputs


can


the


related


must


formed.


to mobility


merely
device.
for ob


a general


the
It


outcome


was


only


,serving


conclusion


could


deduced.


aiding


Any


mobility


requirement.


device
should m
e actual


which
eet t
form


is to be used


his
of


basic


sensory


input


and


important,
quickly le
with other


the


initial


provided


!arned


and


response


that
can


percepts--or


to it


percept


used


spatial


are


formed


in conjunction


inputs


from


other


sense


S


(Kay,


1974,


pp.33-35).


Other


theories


mobility


to account


researchers


efficient


have


and


proposed


safe


similar


walking


behavior


visually


impaired


individuals


(e.g.,


Foulke,


1970;


Kay,


1974;


Mettler,


1987).


Apparently,


none


these

the t


theories


otal


seem


phenomenon


to be comprehen


orientation


sive

and


enough t

mobility


o explain


(Wels


Blasch,


1980),


and


one


researcher


suggested


that


the


sence


a general


theory


of mobility


hindered


the


refinement


training


methods


and


the


design


instruments


intended


to assist


mobility


(Foulke,


1970).


argued


here


that


there


is not


so much


a need


a general


theory


mobility


as there


a need


1 nt rlaon ra ta


ccl a 'tu1


C", nnr a 1


vynri mmnnt 1


mst hndrls


anrd


f |I


*










advantages


in terms


methodology,


theory,


and


practice.


The


remainder


s section


will


describe


some


these


advantages.


Operant


Behavior


and


Walking


In order


to evaluate


effectiveness


orientation


and


mobility


rehabilitation


usually


impaired


individual


or to determine


effectiveness


any


sensory


aid


or environmental


design


to enhance


walking


neces


behavior


sary


to specify


visually


impaired


relevant


individuals


features


, it


walking


behavior


in the


mos


preci


detailed


terms


possible


This


strategy


is similar


methodological


strategy


used


analy


SIS


operant


behavior


in which


specific


behavior


is recorded


automatically


controlled


environment,


relatively


free


problems


observer


bias


or test


validity.


The


advantages


the


direct


measurement


of walking,


like


operant


behavior,


depend


upon


the


reliability


recording


system,


adequacy


the


sample


duration


behavior,


and


eraction


between


the


recording


system


the


behavior


being


sampled


(Linds


ley,


1964;


Skinner,


1938).


One


good


example


the


advantages


adopting


thi


methodological


strategy


invol


ves


a series











walking

toward


performances

an designated


six


target


subjects


under


walking


three


straight


different


conditions:


sighted


walking;


walking


with


degraded


vis


ion,


which


experimental


room


was


darkened,


a light


was


mounted


at a height


meters


on a pole,


and


a face


mask


diffus


glass


was


worn


subj


ects


to reduced


light


perception


to a blur


extending


over


degrees


visual


field;


and


auditory


walking,


which


light


described


immediately


above


was


replaced


a metronome


(set


mounted


the s

three


ame


height.


tasks


ten


The

times


subj

and


ects

the


performed


order


each


conditions


these

were


different


each


subject.


Deviations


speed


and


path


trajectory


subjects


increased


under


the


degraded


sion


and


auditory


control,


and


average


walking


speeds


subjects


decrea


under


these


same


two


conditions.


Because


computerized


measurement


system


utili


demonstrations


above


is one


most


impre


ssive


types


direct


measurement


used


mobility


research,


brief


description


is warranted.


Essentially,


the


measuring


stem


uses


mechanical


sensors


that


register


subject


position


measuring


length


Dacron


line


connecting


subject


to each


sensor.











representation


space


within


which


subject


moves


(Strelow,


Brabyn,


Clark,


1976).


system,


however,


may


have


a drawback


regarding


the


mechanical


sensors.


The


position


a subject


determined


subject


apparatus


s distance


used


from


measures


measuring


length


points.


lines


The


joining


the


subject


take-up


two


reel


The


measuring


reels


points


are


(i.e.,


positioned


line


the


laboratory

is attached


at opposite

to another


ends

reel


a long


wall.


middle


A third


the


line


opposite


wall


and


the


acts


two


to balance


measuring


pull


drums.


subject


measuring


lines


exert


are


attached


to a circular


washer


that


turn


fastened


meter


pole.


The


pole


attached


to a leather


harness


that


is worn


on the


subject'


back.


The


three


line


tensions


are


equal


under


static


conditions


but


vary


when


the


subject


accelerates


because


the


inertia


the


drums


take-up


weights


used


to wind


the


line.


Higher


accelerations


the


subject


can


tracked


increasing


the


tensioning


weights,


cost


increasing


the


forces


acting


on the


subject.


Thus,


there


is a remote


interact


possibility


with


that


measuring


performance


subj


system


ect.


may


Therefore,











1976


Although


these


researchers


report


that


careful


calibration


mechanical


sensors


will


minimi


the


poss


ability


introducing


confounding


variables


, it


seems


clear


that


other


forms


direct


measurement


that


yield


accurate


measures


same


dependent


variable


directional


attached


continuity


directly


walking


onto


speed),


subject'


and


body


which


may


are


more


desirable


When


standard


measures


walking


speeds


are


used


mobility


subject


research

ts with


researchers


greater


can


accuracy,


describe

as well


performances

as draw


inferences


with


greater


precl


sion.


For


example,


reduction


average


walking


speeds


the


total


path


length


traversed


per


unit


time


is a measure


impeded


walking;


however,


some


reports


suggest


that


ely


interpreting


changes


in average


speed


as means


evaluate


impeded


mobility


may


leading


(Brabyn


Strelow,


1977;


Dodds


et al.,


1983


A slower


speed


walking,


example,


may


indicate


impeded


mobility,


competent


walking


likely


to be characterized


moderate


speed


and


necess


arily


maximum


which


visually


impaired


individual


capable.


With


respect


effects


various


textu


res


used


in continuous











(Brabyn


Strelow,


1977


and


under


least


optimal


shoreline


conditions


(Templer,


1980


average


walking


speed


generated


under


these


two


control


conditions


can


compared


that


under


various


textured


surface


conditions.


Although


investigation


walking


received


in operant-behavior


extensive


research


laboratories,


is possible


to describe


walking


the


language


common


to operant


theorists


and


researchers.


For


example,


describing


how


forms


walking


can


affected


environmental


consequences,


Skinner


(1953)


suggests


that:


differential


contingencies


change,


topography


of behavior


responses

modified


changes


which


with


enable


them.


us to walk


environment.


When


Even


very


upright

we walk


common


continue

on the


to be


deck


a ship


sea,


a special


contingencies


prevails


maintaining


our


orientation


gravitational


field.


The


new


differential


reinforcement


sets


"sea


legs.


the


end


voyage


old


contingencies


work


reverse


change"


96) .


major


implication


conceptualizing


analysis


walking


walking


as operant


necessarily


behavior


expands


that


range


controlling


variables


examined.


this


analysis,


the











The


implications


conceptualizing


walking


operant


behavior


are


important


at both


the


levels


analysis


described


previously.


example,


within


context


motor


skills


involved


walking,


reflexes


employing


striped


muscles


are


involved


directly


maintaining


posture.


Some


these


well-defined


responses


are


effective


enough


to be


acquired


as part


the


genetic


equipment


organism.


The


role


the


environment


in controlling


these


various


motor


skills


involved


normal


walking


received


less


discussion


is concerned


res


with


earchers.


that


part


Walking,


as operant


environment


behavior,


which


conditions


effective


action


are


more


unstable


and


where


genetic


endowment


less


probable


(Skinner,


1953).


Some


experimenters


have


noted


that


walking


movements


produce


stimulus


changes


in an infant'


environment


(i.e.,


tactile


, visual,


auditory,


kinesthetic)


that


directly


reinforce


walking,


and


have


suggested


that


instrumental


learning,


as well


as reflex


activity,


critical


development


walking


(Zelazo,


Zelazo,


Kolb,


spatial


1972


Howard


behavior


is not


Templeton


only


(1966)


conditioned


suggest


way s


that


in which


body


is constructed


and


moves


, but


also


nature











the

each


consequences

movement or


stimulus


of walking


step,


conditions


i.e.,


posture,


under


whi


or gait,


ch particular


consequences


as well


consequences


control


these


behaviors).


An operant-behavior


perspective


would


also


examine


those


environmental


consequences


that


are


imposed


on the


individual


who


walking,


and


examine


the


manner


which


sion


contributes


to successful


walking


behavior


under


such


conditions.


In most


circumstances,


individual


develops


effective


walking


behaviors


and


adjusts


the


spatial


world


because


visual


stimulation


from


various


objects


occasion


upon


which


certain


responses


lead


to particular


consequences,


such


physical


contact


with


those


objects


visual


field


can


occasion


walking,


as well


as effective


manipulatory


action


related


to other


operant


behavior.


Under


these


circumstances,


contingencies


responsible


walking


are


generated


relations


between


visual


and


tactual


stimulation


characteristic


physical


objects


(Skinner,


1953)


The


contingencies


responsible


walking,


stimulation


however,


from


change


physical


considerably


objects


when


is no longer


visual


possible.


Under


these


circumstances


nature


stimulus


control











specialists


primarily


devote


their


skills


and


services


visually


impaired


population


in an effort


establi


However,

control


sh effective


the

are


stimulus


opportunities


severely


limited


control


establ


because


over


fishing

nearly


walking.


stimulus

all


environments


in which


people


walk


are


designed


to favor


individuals


with


vision,


individuals


without


significant


visual


impairment.


The


implications


conceptualizing


walking


operant


behavior


have


been


directed


towards


three


important


areas:


methodology


and


standardized


measures


walking;


integration


research


from


two


levels


analysis;


rehabilitation


and


technology


the


field


orientation


and


mobility.


Rather


than


invoking


a new


theory


of walking,


previous


review


describes


expansion


an operant-behavior


perspective


One


and


methodology


highest


forms


to the


analysis


integration


walking.


science


occurs


when


researchers


recognize


similarities


relevant


variables


between


experiments


in one


field


and


other


experiments


in an apparently


remote


area


research


Sidman,


1960).


For


example


detection


research


(which


typically


domain


psychophysical


laboratory











is a sophisticated


analysis


and


technology


the


detection


of small


tumor


simulations


a life-


like


model


a human


breast


(Pennypacker,


1986).


Thi


dissertation,


therefore,


addresses


some


the


methodological


issues


in orientation


and


mobility


research,


and


addre


sses


the


issues


that


arise


from


conceptualizing


walking


as operant


behavior.


following


experiments


examine


the


effects


different


ground


surfaces


that


affect


walking


behavior


visually


restricted


persons.


There


are


two


reasons


conducting


experiment

mobility


on thi


researchers


particular


and


topic.


rehabilitation


First,


many


specialists


have


identified


ground su

efficient


the


rfaces

and s


need


to aid


afe


and


visually


walking,


potential


impaired


particularly


modifying


persons


in complex


environmental


settings.


According


the


national


plan


report


Panel


on Visual


Impairment


and


Rehabilitation


1983):


Enhanced
to aid o


nonsighted


guidance
of wall


color


"human


artially


per


purpo
colors


and


enhance


function


inves


engineering"
sighted, le


sons


ses


and/or


textures,


visual


and


tigated.


fl nnr-t i 1 P


and


studies


!gally


Appropriate


example
textured


and s
nonvis


special


cue


mobility;


One


tswhnresC!F


ssiblity


tn n i de


are


blind,
coding


through t
surfaces,


lighting,
s to aid


these
is to


needed
and
for


use


floor


can


should


use


individuals


special
to


.










Thus,


is reasonable


to direct


an experimental


analysis


towards


an area


research


that


appears


to be


great


demand,


and


which


may


have


important


and


immediate


applications


field


of orientation


and


mobility.


The


second


reason


examining


effects


ground s

relative


particular


surface mo

to other


area


difications


areas


research


on walking


research


appears


behavior

mobility,


to be


that,


this


most


advanced

behaviors


terms


and


standardized


standardized


measures


experimental


walking


techniques.


Indeed,


integrating


results


from


an experimental


analysis


walking


behavior


into


a general


analysis


and


theory


operant


behavior


is a critical


step


in the


directing


orientation


mobility


towards


a natural


science


walking


behaviors


, then


most


reasonable


starting


point


this


analysis


would


examine


what


might


considered


sting


"state-of-the-art"


because


many


advantages


gained


from


such


integration


would


become


more


evident


in an area


research


that


on the


threshold


becoming


experimental


analysis.


Thus,


following


dis


sertation


develops


a measurement


system


compare


walking











that


which


describes


other


forms


operant


behavior


under


stimulus


control.


Although


previous


studies


have


examined


either


straight-line


walking


or decreases


in walking


speed


as a


function


shoreline


characteristics,


the


present


experiments


examined


both


measures


straight


-line


walking


and


walking


speed


as a function


walking


surfaces.


simultaneous


comparison


critical


because


these


change


measures


do not


in walking


necessarily


surface


designed


covary.


improve


example,


straight-


line


walking


may


create


a hazard


and


result


a decrease


walking


speed.


Experiment


compared


measures


walking


generated


under


both


a continuous


shoreline


condition


and


under


no shoreline


condition


with


those


generated


under


two


different

Experiment


heights


applied


a textured


surface


procedures


material.


developed


Experiment


compare


two


emergent


cane


motions


used


the


subjects.
















EXPERIMENT


Introduction


Previous


research


on the


effects


walking-surface


conditions


a mobility


aid


usually


impaired


persons


examined


sual


walking,

frequency

(Templer,


utility


simultaneously


either


observers


measured


cane


1980)


straight-


recording


vis


or body


Other


a computer


changes


line


path


walking,


deviations


observers


contact


studi


means


in path


with


have


urement


measured


, or impeded


the


obstaci


recording

street


demonstrated


system


deviations


and


the
*


examine


changes


walking


speed;


however,


these


demonstrations


did


include


a examination


the


effects


various


walking


-surface


conditions


on these


measures


walking


(Brabyn


Strelow,


1977)


The


firs


t experiment


simultaneously


examined

forward


surface


changes


speed


directional


as a function


conditions.


Two


continuity


changes


four


and


in four


walking-


changes

walking-


surface


conditions


were


control


procedures


and


two


consi


sted


varied


textured


surfaces


first


control


condition


was











conditions


forward


generally


speeds


produce


representative


straight-line


mobility


walking


under


and


optimal


conditions


Blasch


Hiatt,


1983;


Brabyn


Strelow,


1977;


Templer,


1980


sec


ond


control


condition


was


a smooth,


open


surface


no joints


or surface


variation)


that


been


shown


to result


in poor


mobility


performance


and


greater


path


deviations


in comparison


those


performances


produced


continuous


shor


lines


(Aiello


Steinfeld,


1979;


Architectural


and


Transportation


Barriers


Compliance


Board,


1984;


Braf,


1974;


Templer


, 1980).


textured


walking


surfaces


are


useful


to maintain


straight


benefit


-line


cial


walking


to safe


visually


walking


impaired


visually


persons,


impaired


and


persons


general,


then


experiment


may


show


how


closely


walking


under


textured


walking


surfaces


approximates


walking


under


optimal


conditions,


particularly


with


respect


to the


two


dependent


measures


described


above.


Previous


research


suggests


that


textured


walking


surfaces


may


produce


straight


-line,


efficient


walking


visually


impaired


persons


However,


depending


on phys


ical


dimen


sons


(i.e.,


height,

textured


spacing

walking


between

surface


textured


may


stimuli,


impede


and


walking,


so on)


indicated


reductions


in walking


speeds


(Templer,


1980;


1983


This











compared

shoreline


to walking

or under


behavior


control


under

the


the c

smooth


control


surface.


a 90-

The


second


question


was


concerned


with


determining


whether


simultaneous


examination


of directional


continuity


and


walking


speed


these


subjects


would


reveal


orderly


changes


these


two


measures


as a function


variations


in the


walking


surface


conditions.


Method


Subi


ects


Three


subjects


volunteered


serve


in the


present


experiment


responding


to a subject


recruitment


notice


posted


Health


the


Center.


adminis


The


tration


age,


office


gender


South


height


Shore


each


Mental


subject


were


follows:


Subje


was


a 26


-year


-old


female


and


was


5'8"


(173


height;


Subject


was


a 27-year


-old


female


and


was


in height;


and


Subject


was


a 36-


year


-old


mal


and


was


5'6"


(168


height.


None


the


subjects


had


visual


deficits


or wore


corrective


lenses.


Additionally,


none


had


received


formal


training


the


area


sual


impairments,


cane


use,


or orientation


and


mobility.


In order


to eliminate


vision,


one


cm x 6.35


5'6"











constructed


of a black,


opaque,


flexible


plastic


with


circular


strips


foam


that


snug


against


each


eye


when


an elastic


subject


strap


s head.


was


tightened


Subjects


around


reported


that


back


the


the


was


comfortable


and


that


they


could


see


anything


following


this


preparation.


experimental


preparations


these


subjects


in some


way s


are


similar,


although


temporary,


those


conditions


encountered


persons


with


accidental


complete


visual


loss


(Brabyn


Strelow,


1977;


Olson,


1982;


Wel


1980).


Each


subject


also


wore


ear


plugs


order


attenuate


extraneous


sounds


that


may


contribute


orientation


or produce


results


that


may


confound


the


tactile


control

provided


produced


various


a round-tipped


surfaces.


Subjects


mm diameter),


were


aluminum


cane


fitted


(173


cm),


length


which


persons


between


approximate


5'5"


distance


(165


from


and


the


5'8"


tip


cane


touching


floor


the


top


the


handle


touching


the


subject


s breast


bone.


Subjects


wore


rubber


tennis


shoes


each


subject


wore


same


pair


shoes


the


duration


experiment.


Apparatus


Figure

constructed


shows


to record


vertical

pressure


section

exerted


of a detection


subjects


panel


as they





































FIGURE


A vertical


cross


-section


view


a detection


panel


meter


x 0.5


meter








33
h-
LJ
LJ
H
w
w
C')

C.)
r-J

(0
0:
4
w<

-J
OZO

w


aJ




r.











wU
~'a
--
W -
oU
w











utilization


maximum


amount


space


examining


walking


performances


within


limitations


dimensions

meters).


experimental


Detection


panels


room

meter


(9.75

x 0.5


meters

meter)


x 5.48

were


constructed


securing


pressure-sensitive


Tapeswitch


(under-rug)


placing


flexible


acrylic


relay


sheets


switches


over


to a smooth


runners.


tile


The


floor


relay


switches


were


connected


gauge


electrical


wire


transformers t

Detection


hat


activated


panels


were


the r

placed


running

next


time


one


meters.

another


form


three


adjacent


straight


pathways


meters


x 0.5


meter),


and


were


wired


together


forming


a series


of panels


measure


total


time


spent


on any


three


pathways


central


series


detected


pressure


exerted


subjects


walking


on the


central


series


under


the


various


surface


conditions


tested;


the


right


series


detected


pressure


central


exerted


series;


subjects


and


veering


series


right


detected


the


pressure


exerted


subjects


vee


ring


the


left


the


central


series.


Figure


shows


experimental


path


layout


and


electromechanical


equipment


placement.


The


width


the


central


Peel


series


(1974


(0.5


meters


as a width


that


was similar

would permit


that


subjects


described


to emit





















FIGURE


Path layout and placement of detection
time meters, response counters, and
electromechanical equipment.


panels,


















METERS


START SWITCH PADS


.,J


6 METERS


START SWITCH PADS


RUNNING
TIME
METERS


r


'ie~PI











male


population'


shoulder


width


plus


or approximately


cm from


center


pathway).


One


dependent


measures,


the


duration


time


spent


subjects


on each


the


panel


series,


was


recorded


directly


elapsed


time


meters


connected


to each


series


panels


subjects


stepped


on two


adjacent


series


with


one


foot


simultaneous


sly,


then

long


corresponding


as pressure


was


elapsed


applied


time


to the


meters w

flexible


ere


operated


relay


switches.


Two


sets of


cm x 58.4


cm start


switch


pads


Lafayette


Model


63515


located


at both


ends


the


pathway


were


each


wired


through


a latching


relay


a response


counter.


The


switch


pads


were


operated


pressure


exerted


subjects


stepping


three


series


pan


s after


walking


the


entire


meter


long


pathway.


The


latching


relay


circuitry


was


arranged


to allow


only


one


count


per


traversal;


latched


activation


start


relay


switch


became


pad


unlatched


on the


only


opposite


the


end


pathway.


The


response


counters


therefore,


recorded


each


complete


six


average


meters


speed


path


traversal


walked)


each


were


meter


used


panel


one


counter


to calculate


length


activation


the


walked


subjects


Walking


speed


was


defined


as the


number


one-


meter


panel


lengths


traversed


total


duration











included


in calculating


walking


speed).


The


duration


each


trial


was


controlled


a timer


that


was


operated


when


the


subjects


stepped


from


cm x 55.9


cm start


switch


pad


(Lafayette


Model


63516


located


before


panel


the


central


pathway


The


connection


between


start


switch


pad


and


the


timer


passed


through


an adaptor


switch


Lafayette


Model


63515AS


that


permitted


switch


opening


rather


than


a switch


do


sure


to activate


the


timer.


Prior


to each


session


the


recording


equipment


was


calibrated


experimenter


walking


the


length


each


series


three


times


Each


step


was


placed


approximately


the


middle


each


detection


panel


allowing


only


one


step


panel.


Each


elapsed


time


meter


was


compared


following


approximately


procedure


equal


ensure


clock


that


times


were


times


were


within


seconds


of each


other).


This


procedure


was


repeated,


one


foot


stepping


on the


center


series


simultaneously,


and


on the


center


and


right


series


simultaneously.


Following


thi


procedure,


elapsed


time


meters


were


compared,


again,


ensure


left


right


time


meters


were


approximat


equal


and


central


series


was


twice


the


amount


either


the


left


or right.


(The


term


"calibration"


is used here


only


to describe


the


procedure











reason


to expect


times


to be


exactly


same


because


there


no reason


assume


that


experimenter


walked


each


series


precisely


same


speed.


more


precise


calibration


method


would


involve


using


a moving


object


that:


weighs


an amount


sufficient


to activate


the


relay


switches


controlling


timers;


moves


at a constant


speed;


and


generate


values


contains


compare


an internal


to those


clock

from


that

the v


can D

various


e used

time


meters.


Unfortunately


the


time


Experiments


and


were


conducted,


no such


object


was


available).


Procedure


Throughout


Experiment


, smooth


tiles


were


secured


onto


each


detection


panel


left


and


right


panel


series,


and


tiles


on the


central


series


were


either


textured


or smooth


depending

exposed


on the


to four


illustrated


experimental

walking-surfac


Figure


The


condition.

e conditions


four


Subjects


which


experimental


were


are


conditions


were


follows:


Continuous


900w


shoreline


- This


condition


served
central
surface


This


as one
panels


and


two


were


lined


arrangement


shoreline
central


control


covered


on both
provided


meters


pathway.


cm from


nannl c -


T~hs


long)


conditions.


with


sides


a smooth


with


wood


a continuous


on either


The height o
rubber-surface


hai rrh't


tJ I


thi s


the
base


shoreline


90-


The


rubber
panels


side


shoreline


was


central


corresponds


.






















FIGURE


A horizonal cross-section of the
and right panel series under each
condition (not drawn to scale).


left, center,
experimental











900 SHORELINE


~I


SMOOTH


BE






c F


Imm


2mm


D


/ /


L / /


XIX


p p


/III I


: I


n


i











Smooth


control
covered


those at
yielding


surface


condition.


with


the


tached
a 1.5


same


the


-meter


- This


served


central


smooth


left
wide


as the


panels


rubber


and
smoot


second


were


surface


right panels,
h single path.


Textured


surface


- There


were


two


textured-


surface


conditions:


mm texture


central
circular


diameter,


raised


panels


were


surfaces


and


rubber


- Under


cover
mm in


spaced 9
surfaces.


this


with


height,


mm from


condition,


raised
26 mm


other


rubber
in


adjacent


mm texture


central
circular


diameter,


raised


panels


were


surfaces


and


rubber


Under
cover
mm in


spaced 7
surfaces.


this


with


height,


mm from


condition,


rais
20


other


the


rubber


im in


adjacent


For


both


textured


surfaces


, the


height


the


tile


base


(i.e.,


excluding


the


height


raised


rubber


circular


surfaces


was


which


was


same


height


as the


tile


base


left


and


right


panels.


Thus,


there


were


gaps


or height


variations


any


points


at which


the


left


and


right


panels


contacted


central


panels.


Prior


to the


start


first


session


Experiment


the


experimenter


escorted


each


blindfolded


subject


into


the


experimental


room


an area


approximately


cm from


edge


pathway


and


delivered


following


instructions:


ease


step


nArin..


up t
wel 1


xinn1 r


path
rno


and


stop


1 7 fnnn


when


I | I


you


Un',


r a n r


n rn


I











again,


turn


around.


You


will


repeat


walking


back


and


forth


five


minut


es.


Let


me ass


moving


tip


pane
cane


was


and


(i.e.,


and
the
two


placed
Now,


moving
,e tip


central
path, I
points.


oriented


nest you
walking


stop


point,


ist you
of your
between


in lifting


cane
the


me assis


the
was


panel).


want
If
or i


can


between


walking,


and


you
you


you


to find


them.


remain


wait


over
left


you


your
between


walk


tip o
placed


AS yOU
to try
should


walk
these


When


standing


esc


the


here
panel


cane
(i.e.


and


in lifting


cane
n the
back


to stay


find
off
two


your
the p


points


say
at
ort


over
right
and


within


self
ath,


and


"stop"


that
you


and
. the


central


the


here
t panel
forth o


these


the


continue


, please


stopping


back


to the


beginning
additional


esc


you


steps
to the


path.
forward


ease


or backward.


beginning


take


After


will


path,


record
begin


data,


another


res


equipment,


and


we will


trial.


between
answer
If you


you w
trial
any qu
do not


to do
Once


stions


have


so, you
a trial


until


que


may


begins
trial


stions


take


a break


I will


not


is completed.


we can


begin.


For


conditions


Experiment


, there


were


direct


consequences


arranged


subjects


either


walking


speed


or for


remaining


within


specified


area.


Experimental


trial


were


5 min


duration.


Table


shows


number


trial


under


four


experimental


conditions


and


order


exposure


each


subject.


All


subjects


were


exposed


to experimental


conditions


until


two


the


dependent


measures


absolute


time


allocated


to left,


central,


and


right


panel


series


walking


speed)


appeared












Table


Summary of
Subjects 1
condition.


the


experimental


and


with


conditions


number


order)


trials


under


each


Subject Experimental Condition # of Trials



1 90 26
2 mm 20
1 mm 10
Smooth 16
1 mm 14
2 mm 10
900 12
Smooth 13


2 90 13
Smooth 18
2 mm 10
1 mm 20
Smooth 16
1 mm 13
2 mm 11
90 13


3 Smooth 15
1 mm 20
2 mm 14
900 15
Smooth 14
1 mm 10
2 mm 13
90 10











measure


under


each


experimental


condition).


A third


dependent


measure,


amount


time


subjects


were


the


pathway


per


trial


was


calculated


subtracting


sum


times


allocated


the


left,


center,


and


right


panel


series


from


300-s


trial


duration.


Time


the


pathway


data


are


included


results;


however,


the


stability


these


data


was


a factor


in determining


changes


experimental


conditions.


fourth


dependent


measure,


turnaround


time,


these


values


time


the


pathway


were


divided


the


mean


number


turns


per


trial


to determine


the


mean


time


per


turn


under


each


condition.


Experimental


sessions


were


conducted


three


to four


days


per


week


and


were


approximately


one-hour


duration.


Thus,


subjects


were


exposed


to approximately


on whether


condition


ten


was


trials


changed


per


session,


within


the


depending


session.


When


condition


was


changed


within


session,


subjects


were


escorted


outside


experimental


room


to a chair


waiting


area.


amount


time


required


to change


surfaces


on the


central


panels


was


approximately


5 min


the


smooth


and


textured


surface,


approximately


the


900-shoreline.


Results


mmn











panels


was


highest


under


90 -shoreline


condition


and


lowest


under


smooth-surface


condition


subjects.


Replacement


smooth


-surface


central


panels


with


either


textured


surface


resulted


in a reduction


time


spent


left


and


right


panels


and


increased


time


on the


central


panels


subjects


Figures


show


when


number


900-shoreline


of one-meter


was


panel


absent.


lengths


walked


minute


trials,


and


show


summary


data


mean


walking


time


allocated


subjects


to the


left,


center,

subjects


and r

were


ight

off


panel

the p


series,


athway.


and

The


amount


arrows


in the


time

top


portions


Figures


indicate


first


data


point


the


repre


sentative


trials


used


to determine


stability


under


that


condition.


Thus,


that


data


point,


and


points


right


it correspond


summary


data


the


middle


and


bottom


portions


that


same


figure.


During


first


exposure


90-shoreline


condition,


30 meters


walking


per


speeds


minute


Subject


first


were


trials


between


and


and


walking


speeds


increased


over


remaining


trials,


reaching


meters


per


minute


during


last


trials


(Figure


top


portion).


second


In contrast,


exposure


walking


to the


speeds


horeline


Subject


condition


during


were










surface


condition,


walking


speeds


Subject


decreased


approximately


meters


minute.


Under


IIUU -"


textured-surface


condition,


walking


speeds


this


subject


increased


to levels


similar


to those


under


the


90-


shoreline.


comparison


res


ults


from


the


experimental


conditions


described


immediately


above,


walking


speeds


Subject


were


lowest


during


first


eleven


trials


under


first


exposure


to the


mm-textured-surface


condition,


averaging


condition,


25 meters


Subject


per


minute.


walked


end


approximately


this


meters


per


minute.


During


second


expo


sure


the


mm-textured-


surface


condition,


Subject


walked


meters


per


minute


first


trial,


and


walking


speeds


increased


an average


meters


per


minute


remaining


trials


under


thi


condition


With


exception


results


under


mm-


textured-


surface


condition


and


the


initial


trials


under


the


900-shoreline


condition,


there


were


no discernible


differences


walking


speeds


between


the


first


and


second


exposure


to the


different


experimental


conditions


Subject


For


Subject


, walking


times


allocated


to the


central























FIGURE


Summary


and fi
the fi
condit
shows
walked
point
repres
stabil
walking
shows
the pa
bottom


data


led
st
on,
he
per
o t


boxes
and sec
respect
number
minute
he firs
- a


native
ty. The
time on


Subje
repre
ond e
tivel
of on


mi
pa


he amount o
hway. The
portions of


the representative
portion.


from
dat
of
ddle
nels
f ti:
data
thi


Th


sent the
exposure


y.
e-m
al
a p
dat
po


data


The
ter


1 tri
points
a use
rtion
The b
the s
the
igure


shown


e open


resul
to eac
top po
panel
als.
for t
d to d
shows
ottom
subject
middle
corre
in the


boxes


ts from
h
rtion
lengths
The arro
he
determine
mean
portion
was off
and
spond to
top


ws


*


re
















-J
w
zZ

HI f


~U
?I
*a

o
I


SMOOTH


1mm


2mm


TOTAL TRIALS


C L


SMOOTH


I n
C R


90 SMOOTH


o0 i
U.


1mm


2mm


C R L C R


mm


poBloopoD
I
*


2mm


*Ui.i.


SUBJECT 1


SDT1

O v
Ow-
Zm
Ox
m "
rnv7
x O
-Dc,,
O c:
c m
rm
m


I











portion).


Under


smooth-surface


condition,


times


allocated


to the


central


panels


Subject


decreased


an average


seconds


per


trial


(first


exposure),


and


average


seconds


per


trial


(second


exposure)


and


times


allocated


to left


and


right


panels


were


approximately


seconds


per


trial.


When


mm-textured-surface


was


placed


on the


central


panels,


Subject


allocated


an average


seconds


per


trial


(first


exposure


and


an average


seconds


per


trial


(second


exposure


central


panels.


comparison


first


exposure


the


mm-textured-


surface


condition,


during


second


exposure,


Subject


allocated


less


time


on the


left


panels


(from


seconds


per


trial


to 20


seconds


trial


allocated


slightly


more


time


the


right


panels


(from


seconds


per


trial


to 21


seconds


per


trial).


Under


2 mm-textured-surface


condition,


this


subject


allocated


an average


seconds


walking


time


to the


central


panels


during


first


and


second


exposures.


Subject


decreased


average


time


allocated to the

(first exposure)


left

to 21


panels from

seconds per


seconds


trial


per


(second


trial

exposure),


and


decreased


average


time


allocated


the


right


panels


from


seconds


per


trial


(first


exposure


seconds


per


trial


(second


expos


ure).










turnaround


time


exclusively.


Subject


spent


approximately


seconds


and


seconds


pathway


during


first


and


second


exposure


900-shoreline


condition,


respectively


(Figure


- bottom


portion).


Under


the


smooth-


surface

panels


condition,


this


(approximately


subject


second


spent

s per


more

trial


time

\ and


the


these


time


values


were


more


variable


than


those


under


other


conditions.


Subject


decreased


amount


time


spent


the


pathway


under


both


exposures


to the


mm-


and


under


first


exposure


to the


mm-textured-surface


condition


(approximately


seconds


trial).


During


the


second


exposure


to the


mm-textured-surface


condition,


Subject


increased


average


amount


time


the


panels


approximately


seconds


per


trial.


This


increase


in time


off

more


the p

time


athway


is most


on either


likely


to this


pathway


than


subject

on the


spending

extreme


left


and


right


sides


because


time


allocated


to the


left


and


right


panels


lower


during


second


exposure


and


there


was


no concomitant


increase


average


time


allocation


the


central


panels.


Walking


speeds


Subject


during


first


exposure


the


90 -shoreline


condition


averaged


meters


per


minute


first


five


trials,


and


increased


an average











meters


per


minute.


Under


smooth-surface


condition,


walking

minute


speeds

during


for

the


first


subject a

exposure.


Averaged

During


meters


per


second


exposure


condition,


walking


speeds


this


subject


initially


decreased


during


the


first


trials


approximately


15 meters


per


minute;


however,


walking


speeds


gradually


increased


with


repeated


trials


under


this


condition


an average


21 meters


per


minute,


although


walking


speeds


never


reached


level


comparable


those


during


the


first


exposure


to the


smooth-


surface


condition.


Under


exposure


the


, walking


mm-textured


speeds


-surface


Subject


condition


averaged


(firs


meters


minute


first


eleven


trial


and


then


decreased


an average


meters


per


minute


last


nine


trial


When


mm-textured


-surface


condition


was


reinstated,


walking


speeds


Subject


increased


slightly


an average


meters


per


minute.


Introducing


the


mm-textured-surface


condition


(first


exposure


this


subject


resulted


in similar


walking


speeds


those


under


the


mm-textured


-surface


condition


(approximately


meters


per


minute


When


mm-textured


-surface


condition


was


reinstated,


thi


subject


showed


an abrupt


increase


in walking


speeds


similar


to that


described






















Summary data for Subject
shows the number of one-
walked per minute from a
portion shows mean walk
The bottom portion shows
the subject was off the


2. The to
meter panel
11 trials.
ng time on
the amount
pathway.


p portion
lengths
The middle
panels.
of time


FIGURE
















SMOOTH


cfiAtSR
UIP
+U'


1mm


2mm


TOTAL TRIALS


SMOOTH


1mm


F-


2mm


R


uI-,


SMOOTH

O

CPYb


1mm





Eu


2mm


SUBJECT 2


E D



0 -4
Zm
ox
rn-u
x c
-cc',


an


,~C~n


I











With


smooth


exception


-surface


condition,


walking


walking


speeds


peeds

for


under

Subject


were


higher


under


sec


exposure


to the


various


experimental


conditions


than


under


first


exposure.


For


Subject


, walking


times


allocated


to the


central


panels


averaged


sec


onds


per


trial


during


first


exposure,


and


increase


slightly


an average


seconds


per


trial


during


seco


exposure


the


shoreline


condition


mm-textured


-surface


(Figure


condition


- middle


(first


portion


exposure


Under


this


subject


allocated


approximately


seconds


per


trial


the


central


panel


and


seconds


per


trial


during


the


second


exposure


to thi


s same


condition.


These


decreases


times


allocated


to the


central


panel


were


accompanied


increases


in average


times


allocated


the


left


panels


from


seconds


to 9


seconds


and


to the


right


panels


(from


second


to 11


sec


Under


2 mm-textured


-surface


condition,


Subject


allocated


an average


seconds


per


trial


central


panel


during


first


expo


sure,


and


an average


of 200


seconds


per


trial


the


central


panels


during


the


second


exposure.


These


increases


in times


allocated


central


panel


were


accompanied


decreases


in times


allocated


the


left


panels


(from










allocated


central


panels


were


lowest


under


first


expo


sure


smooth-surface


condition


seconds


per


trial).


During


second


exposure


to the


smooth-surface


condition,


central


panel


time


allocations


this


subject


increased


an average


approximately


seconds


per


trial,

panels


whereas


decreased


average


from


times


sec


onds


allocated


seconds


the

per


left

trail,


and


average


times


allocated


to the


right


panels


decreased


from


seconds


to 3


seconds


trial.


Subject


was


pathway


greatest


amount


time


under


smooth-


surface


condition


(approximately


seconds


per


trial).


Average


walking


speeds


Subject


under


first


and


second


exposure


to the


900-shoreline


condition


were


approximately


meters


per


minute


(Figure


- top


portion).


During


the


first


expo


sure


smooth-surface


condition,


average

meters


walking


per


minute.


speeds


When


this


this


subject


condition


decreased


was


to 19


reinstated,


average


walking


speeds


this


subject


increased


approximately


meters


per


minute.


Average


walking


speeds


Subject


under


mm-textured-surface


condition


were


meters


per


minute


during


first


exposure,


and


increased


to 31 meters


per


minute


during


the


sec


exposure.


When


mm-textured-surface


condition


was























FIGURE


Summary
shows th
walked p
portion
The bott
the subj


data for
e number
er minut
shows me
om porti
ect was


Sub
of
e fr
an w
on s
off


ject 3. The top
one-meter panel
om all trials.
walking time on p
hows the amount
the pathway.


portion
lengths
The middle
anels.
of time
















SMOOTH


0


1mm


'mu

*1.FS

0
0


2mm


U
A


TOTAL TRIALS


Z 200



42


a180
21 0


SMOOTH


C L


SMOOTH


U
**I\ '
mit/*
.\*E


FP
@CP
rl


1mm


2mm


R L C R L C R


1mm


'P
0]


2mm


SUBJECT 3


'I


*0
o

m -0
OC-
Zm
0s x
rn -c
x 0
XC,
-Dc')
0 c
c m
33
m


D


I










subject


increased


to approximately


meters


per


minute.


Reinstating


this


condition


this


subject


resulted


variable,


and


generally


higher


walking


speeds


(approximately


meters


per


minutes).


For


Subject


, walking


times


allocated


to the


central


panels


were


highest


under


900-shoreline


condition,


averaging


seconds


trial


during


first


exposure


and


seconds


per


trial


during


the


second


exposure


(Figure


- middle


portion).


In contrast,


central


panel


allocation


times


seconds


Subject


per


trial),


were

and


lower

lower


under

still


first

under


exposure


second


exposure


seconds


trial


the


smooth-surface


condition.


Additionally,


mean


walking


time


on all


panels


Subject


decreased


during


second


exposure


the


smooth-surface


condition


which


indicates


that


this


subject


spent


nearly


as much


time


three


panel


series


as on


them.


These


increases


in times


the


panels


between


first


and


second


exposure


to the


smooth


-surface


condition


are


shown


exposure


Figure


to the


smooth-


(bottom


surface


portion).


condition,


During


Subject


first


was


panels


an average


seconds


trial.


When


this


condition


was


reinstated,


time


pathway


this


subject


increased


an average


seconds


per


trial


and










increased


to approximately


seconds


per


trial,


and


left


and


right


panel


time


allocations


decreased


to 21


seconds


per


trial


and


seconds


per


trial,


respectively.


Figure


(bottom


portion)


shows


an upward


trend


time


the


panels


during


first


exposure


to the


mm-textured-


surface


ranging


condition,


from


averaging


36 seconds


seconds


seconds


per


per


trial


trial.


and


During


second


exposure


this


condition,


time


allocations


central


panels


Subject


decreased


from


seconds


per


trial


seconds


per


trial,


time


allocations


the


right


panels


decreased,


on the


average,


from


seconds


per


trial


to 32


seconds


per


trial,


and


time


allocations


the


left


panels


increased,


on the


average,


from


seconds


per


trial


to 28


seconds


per


trial.


Additionally,


the


time


the


panels


increased


from


an average


seconds


per


trial


to approximately


seconds


per


trial.


When


mm-textured-surface


condition


was


introduced


to Subject


, central


time


allocations


increased


to 180


seconds


per


trial


first


exposure)


and


seconds


per


trial


second


exposure).


Subject


during


second


exposure

panels d


this


ecreased


condition,


from


time


seconds


allocations


seconds


the

per


left

trial,


and


time


allocations


to the


right


panels


decreased


from











second


exposure


to the


mm-textured-surface-condition


this


subject.


Mean


walking


speeds


and


mean


times


per


turnaround


subjects


are


shown


in Table


There


were


some


instances


in which


increases


in walking


speed


were


accompanied


decreases


turnaround


time,


that


conditions


were


that


correlated


were

with


correlated

quicker tu


with


rning.


quicker

For e


walking


example,


also

walking


speeds


Subject


were


higher


(approximately


meters


per


minute


and


times


per


turnaround


were


lower


(approximately


seconds


per


turnaround)


under


9O"-


shor


eline


than


those


speeds


and


turnaround


times


under


the


smooth-surface


conditions


approximately


meters


per


minute


and


5 seconds


turnaround,


respectively).


comparison


to those


values


under


900-shoreline


conditions,


walking


speeds


this


subject


were


slightly


higher


and


turnaround


times


were


slightly


lower


under


the


mm-textured


-surface


condition,


whereas


under


nun-


textured-surface


condition


(i.e.,


last


trials


during


first


and


second


exposures),


walking


speeds


were


slightly


lower


and


times


per


turn


were


slightly


higher


Subject


Comparisons


those


data


from


the


first


and


second


exposures


to each


experimental


condition


show


a less











Table


summary or
turnaround
condition.


the
for


mean


walking


Subjects


speeds
, and


and


mean


under


times


each


per


experimental


Subject Exp. Condition Exposure Walking speed Time/turn



1 90 1st 38.4 s 3.2 s
2nd 40.5 s 3.1 s
Smooth 1st 29.1 s 4.8 s
2nd 29.2 s 5.0 s
1 mm 1st 40.5 s 2.7 s
2nd 40.8 s 2.7 s
2 mm 1st 32.4 s 3.3 s
2nd 39.9 s 3.4 s


2 900 1st 29.0 s 4.4 s
2nd 33.2 s 3.7 s
Smooth 1st 27.0 s 5.6 s
2nd 21.5 s 7.1 s
1 mm 1st 21.9 s 5.1 s
2nd 25.3 s 4.4 s
2 mm 1st 23.8 s 5.2 s
2nd 33.9 s 3.2 s


3 90 1st 31.5 s 4.1 s
2nd 30.3 s 4.7 s
Smooth 1st 19.6 s 4.5 s
2nd 27.2 s 6.1 s
1 mm 1st 17.7 s 4.7 s
2nd 30.7 s 3.3 s
2 mm 1st 23.2 s 4.2 s
2nd 29.7 s 3.3 s











(90-shoreline


and


mm-textured-surface-conditions),


slightly


slower


turnaround


times


(smooth-surface


and


mm-


textured-surface


conditions


Similar


to the


results


from


this


subject,


data


Table


show


that


Subject


, quicker


walking


speeds


under


second


exposure


to the


900-shoreline


and


the


mm-


textured-surface


condition


were


accompanied


quicker


turns.


For


this


subject,


slight


reductions


walking


speeds


first


exposure


to 900-shoreline


and


first


exposure


to smooth-surface


condition)


were


accompanied


slightly


slower


turns,


whereas


larger


reductions


walking


speeds


(first


exposure


to 900-shoreline


and


second


exposure


smooth-surface


turns.


between


However,


first


condition)


were


Subject


exposure


accompanied


reductions


to smooth-surface


even


slower


walking


and


speeds


first


exposure


to the


mm-textured-surface


conditions


were


accompanied


slightly


quicker


turns


under


these


conditions.


In general,


comparisons


mean


walking


speeds


and


mean


time


per


turn


within


each


condition


show


consistent


results;


under


each


these


conditions,


increases


walking


speed


were


accompanied


decreases


in times


per


turn


(900-shoreline,


mm-textured-surface,


and


mm-[1


textured-surface


conditions),


and


decreases


walking


speed











comparison


first


exposure


the


9Oo-


shoreline


condition


Subject


slower


walking


speeds


under


first


exposure


smooth-surface,


mm -


textured-s


surface,


and


mm-textured-surface


conditions


were


accompanied


only


slightly


slower


turns,


and


when


these


three


conditions


were


reinstated,


Subject


increased


walking


speeds


these


conditions.


However,


these


increases


were


accompanied


quicker


turns


under


mm~-


and


mm-textured-surface


conditions.


Under


the


smooth-


surface


condition,


accompanied


exception


increases


slower


the


turning.


smooth-surface


in walking


speed


Similarly,

condition,


wit

all


were

h the

increases


walking


speeds


within


each


experimental


condition


were


accompanied


decreases


in times


per


turn.


Faster


walking


Subject


under


smooth-surface


condition


was


accompanied


slower


turning.


Discussion


When


a continuous


shoreline


placed


on an open,


smooth surface

shoreline can


area,

exert


the stimuli

control over


that

the


comprise


walking


that

a visually


impaired


individual


and


produce


a straight


line


walking.


the


open


absence


areas,


of specific


accuracy


"guiding"


stimuli,


straight-line


such


walking


behavior











optimal


conditions


unsighted


walking,


respectively


These


two


conditions


served


as control


conditions


the


present


experiment.


results


from


two


control


conditions


were


compared


to each


other,


results


from


the


two


textured-surface


conditions


order


examine:


controlling


effects


textured


stimuli


on maintaining


straight


line


walking


(directional


continuity


the limiting o

these textured


r impeding

stimuli o


factors,


n walking


any,


speeds.


the


Time


heights


allocations


from


central


conditions


were


panel


slightly


series


lower


under


than


both


those


textured-surface


under


shoreline


condition


indic


eating


that


textured


surfaces


can


produce


directional


continuity


functionally


similar


to that


produced


a 900-shoreline.


These


results


support


those


from


previous


studies


suggesting


that


textured


surfaces


can


used


as a continuous


shoreline


to maintain


straight-line


walking


(Aiello


and


Steinfeld,


1979;


Brabyn


and


Strelow,


1977;


Braf,


1974;


Templer,


1980;


1983).


The


present


study


differs


from


previous


studies


least


two


ways.


The


first


diff


erence


involves


methods


used


assess


various


characteristics


of walking.


For


example,


some


previous


studies


have


examined


straight


-line











standard,


quantitative


measures


straight-line


walking


that


are


vital


to conducting


an analysis


and


necessary


order


compare


results


from


different


experiments


straight-line


walking.


In contrast,


other


studies


that


demonstrated


utility


computerized


measurement


systems


acquire


various


standard


walking


measures


surfaces


did


on these


examine


measures


effects


(Brabyn


Strelow,


1977).


to specific


present


areas


the


study


experimental


utilized


pathway


time


and


allocated


changes


walking


speeds


subjects


as standard,


dependent


measures


of straight-line


walking


and


impeded


walking,


respectively.


Thus,


the


present


experiment


demonstrates


that


experimental


questions


regarding


utility


textured


surfaces


walking


behavior


can


answered


with


respect


two


standard


and


direct


dependent


measures.


second


difference


between


present


study


and


previous


(Brabyn


studies


Strelow,


that,


1977),


with

prior


the


exception


studies


had


one


limited


study

the


number


trials


under


each


experimental


condition


more


than


two


or three


trials


(cf.,


Templer,


1980;


1983).


the


present


study,


subj


ects


were


exposed


to a minimum


ten


trials


min)


under


each


experimental


condition.


ass


essing


degree


control


various


surface










both


within


experimental


sessions


with


repeated


trials,


between


sessions


following


repeated


exposure


to experimental


conditions.


change


walking


speeds


(both


within


and


between


sessi


subjects


as a function


the


various


experimental


conditions


ranged


from


slow


and


gradual


behavior


transitions


(such


as the


performance


Subject


during


the


first


exposure


to 90


horeline


condition),


abrupt


and


pronounced


changes


walking


speeds.


The


abrupt


changes


walking


speeds


three


subjects


under


mm-textured-surface


conditions


serves


as a good


example


the


limiting


or impeding


factors


some


textured


stimuli,


as well


as demonstrating


importance


using


repeated


trials


or exposures


to experimental


conditions.


During


the


second


exposure


the


mm-textured-surface


condition,


walking


speeds


Subject


increased


abruptly


between


trials


and


to levels


comparable


those


speeds


generated


under


horeline


and


under


mm-textured-


surface


condition.


differences


in speeds


between


first


and


second


exposure


mm-textured-surface


condition


were


a function


of different


cane


motions


used


Subj


(These


different


cane


motions


were


measured


directly


but


were


identified


experimenter


viewing


the











in an arc


motion.


Consequently,


Subject


frequently


caught


the


cane


tip


between


the


mm raised


round


stud,


thereby


impeding

second e


walking


exposure


and

to 2


decrease


walking


Subject


changed


speeds.


the


During

sweeping


the

arc


motion


to placing


cane


to a stationary


position


directly


front


body


with


cane


tip


between


column


raised


studs.


This


change


resulted


cane


tip


catching


less


frequently


and


increased


walking


speeds


this


subject.


The


and


experimenter


from


viewing


noted


similar


video


cane


recordings


motions


from


Subjects


their


experimental


sessions.


During


mm-textured-surface


condition


(first


exposure),


Subject


used


a sweeping


arc


motion


and


cane


tip


frequently


caught


raised


round


studs.


placing


the


cane


tip


between


two


columns


raised


studs


during


second


exposure


this


condition,


Subject


reduced


frequency


catching


the


cane


tip


and


increased


number


of meters


walked


per


minute.


For


Subject


, the


sweeping


arc


motion


impeded


walking


during


first


exposure


mm-textured-surface


condition,


indicated


low


walking


speeds.


comparison


these


results


using


sweeping


arc


motion,


performances


this


subject


during


second


exposure











exposure


the


mm-textured-surface


condition.


Subject


however,


alternated


between


the


sweeping


arc


motion


and


placing


the


cane


tip


between


two


columns


studs


during


subsequent


expo


sures


to textured


surface


conditions.


These


suggesting


results


that


support


a surface


those


material


from


previous


used


studies


a shoreline


may


improve


may


one


become


aspect


a potential


walking

hazard


(directional


or impede


continuity)


walking


but


(Templer,


1980;


1983)


The


present


study,


however,


differs


from


the


previous


studies


that


did


examine


these


two


aspects


walking


behavior


simultaneously.


Templer


(1983


did


identify


any


specific


cane


motions,


nor


were


there


any


indications


these


studies


that


cane


motion


was


controlled


as an independent


variable.


Although


measured


directly


this


experiment,


cane


motion


used


the


subjects


appears


to be


one


several


critical


variables


that


determines


the


effect


textured


surface


height


(and


most


likely


texture


configuration


shape


on walking


speeds.


Other


variables


that


may


affect


walking


speeds


include


design


and


dimen


sions


the


cane


tip,


amount


pressure


exerted


subject


on the


cane,


the


size


arc


the


sweeping


motion,


so on.


Other


questions


can


asked


regards


to stimulus-











and


time


required


turn


around


the


ends


the


pathway


in order


to repeat


pathway


traversals.


For


three


subjects,


the


second


exposure


mm-textured-


surface


condition


resulted


increases


in time


allocated


central


panels,


decreases


in the


time


allocated


the


left


and


right


panels,


and


increases


in walking


speeds.


consistent


these


results


appear


these


subjects,


examination


third


dependent


variable,


amount


time


subject


was


pathway,


reveals


differences


performances


that


are


immediately


apparent


examining


just


time


allocations


and


walking


speeds.


For


example,


under


mm-textured


-surface


condition,


Subject


increased


the


amount


time


pathway


from


an average


seconds


per


trial


(first


exposure


an average


seconds


per


trial


(second


exposure).


When


the


mm-


textured-surface


condition


was


reinstated,


straight


-line


walking


the


and


increases


walking


speeds


in walking


Subject


speeds


did


increased,;


result


however,


this


subject


remaining


on the


pathway


a greater


period


time


the


the


during


length


pathway


the


trials.


the


pathway


primarily


On the


quicker


because


contrary,


and


there


Subject


increased


were


more


walked


time


opportunities


turning


around


to repeat


pathway


traversals.


The


mean











An examination


amount


time


Subject


was


pathway


reveals


an interpretation


different


from


that


Subject


Under


mm-textured-surface


condition,


Subject


decreased


amount


time


the


pathway


from


an average


seconds


trial


(first


exposure)


average


this


seconds


condition,


trial.


straight-line


During


walking


the


and


second


walking


exposure


speeds


increased


this


subject.


In contrast


to Subject


although


this


subject


increased


number


opportunities


turning


around


increasing


walking


speeds,


the


time


pathway


decreased


primarily


because


reductions


mean


times


per


turnaround.


In other


words,


Subject


walked


greater


distances


within


300-s


trial


because


this


subject


executed


turnaround


quicker


rather


than


just


walking


quicker.


The


amount


time


Subject


was


the


pathway


under


mm-textured-surface


conditions


was


slightly


higher


during


the


second


exposure


(approximately


seconds


per


trial


than


during


first


exposure


(approximately


seconds


this


per


subject


trial).


also


was


walked


described


a greater


number


Subjects


and


pathway


traversals


during


second


exposure


to the


mm-textured-


surface


condition


and,


therefore,


increased











turnaround


that


accompanied


these


increases


in walking


speeds.


As a dependent


measure,


amount


time


subjects


were


the


pathway


is useful


clarifying


how


variables


such


as walking


surfaces


affect


walking


speeds


and


straight-


line


walking,


particularly


when


the


experimental


sign


requires


order


subjects


to repeat


manner


to step


pathway


in which


these


traversals.


measures


pathway


and


turnaround


Unfortunately,


were


due


derived


present


experiment,


these


data


provide


no basi


to determine


quantitatively


whether


subjects


was


the


pathway


extreme


right


or left


sides


, or off


the


pathway


either


end


pathway


length.


reasonable


assume


that


when


subjects


decreased


times


allocated


the


left


panels


and


right


panel


, as


in the


case


mm-texture


-surface


condition,


any


increases


time


pathway


were


most


likely


a function


increases


times


spent


turning


around


to repeat


pathway


traversals


Under


smooth-surface


condition


in which


subjects


increased


time


allocated


left


and


right


panels


, the


probability


that


subjects


were


pathway


on the


extreme


left


and


right


sides


increased.


For


example,


under


the


smooth-


surface


condition,


mean


walking


speeds










increased


as well.


Although


mean


time


per


turn


this


subject


increased


during


second


exposure


from


approximately


seconds


per


turn


to 6


seconds


per


turn,


these


Increases


could


account


the


substantial


increases


in time


pathway


from


approximately


seconds


per


trial


(first


exposure


seconds


per


trial


second


exposure).


Additionally,


the


stribution


mean


time


on the


left,


center,


right


panels


Subj


ect 3


(Figure


shows


that


during


second


exposure


the


smooth


surface


distributed


condition,


across


walking

these t


appears


hree


to be


panels.


more

Thus,


evenly

Subject


appears


to be


spending


substantial


amounts


time


the


pathway


on the


extreme


left


right


sides


during


second


exposure


to the


smooth-surface


condition,


which


accounts


large


increases


in the


values


the


amounts


time


spent


pathway.


Another


problem


with


manner


which


times


the


pathway


were


derived


was


that


these


measures


were


directly


influenced


degree


to which


subjects


walked


on two


panel


series


simultaneously


and


activated


both


running


time


meters.


frequency


activating


both


running


time


meters


increased,


there


was


a greater


likelihood


assuming


more


time


was


allocated


to remaining


on the


pathway


than,











panels


whereas


under


textured-surface


conditions


and,


particular,


under


smooth


-surface


conditions


this


dependent


measure


may


have


resulted


in erroneous


interpretations


of walking


performances


Similarly,


because


ese


values


were


used


to determine


the


mean


time


per


turn


(i.e.,


time


spent


pathway


per


trial


divided


number


turnarounds


trial),


same


problems


apply


these


measures


as well.


Under


these


limiting


conditions


interpretation,


careful


viewing


video


recordings


experimenter


offered


some


validation


interpretations


described


above.


There


is no substitute,


however,


direct


measures


time


subjects


were


the


pathway


Thus,


arranging


additional


detection


panels


around


perimeter


pathway


would


provide


these


direct


measures


subj


location


when


subject


was


pathway.


Similarly,


attaching


an additional


running


time


meter


to record


relay


switch


osures


from


any


three


panel


series


is one


way


to record


the


total


time


the


pathway,


and


would


eliminate


the


problem


described


above.


Unfortunately,


these


direct


measures


were


used


the


present


experiment,


nor


were


they


used


Experiment


Measures


overall


walking


speeds


can


influenced











number


one-meter


panel


lengths


traversed


within


300-


s trial


For


subjects


under


the


shoreline


condition,


were


lateral


restricted


movements


wooden


left


shoreline


and


and


right


walking


panels


was


confined


movement


to the


from


central


central


panel


panel


series


series


, whereas


was


lateral


unrestricted


under


other


conditions.


Another


important


variable


that


affects


overall


walking


speed


the


amount


time


spent


turning


around.


There


were


several


instances


which


Increases


in mean


walking


speed


between


first


and


second


exposures


to the


experimental


conditions


were


accompanied


decreases


mean


time


per


turn,


or decreases


in mean


walking


speed


between


exposures


were


accompanied


increases


in mean


time


per


turn.


Assuming


that


limitations


data


describing


time


the


pathway


and


mean


time


per


turnaround


are


minimal


(i.e.,


simultaneous


running


time


meter


activations


or small


amount s


time


spent


extreme


left


and


right


sides


pathway


then


ese


results


suggest


that


there


may


a relation


ship


between


walking


speed

what


and t

aspect


urnaround


speed.


"turning


However,


around"


is affect


is unclear


ed under


as to


the


experimental


conditions


For


example


, subj


ects


could


900-











time


subjects


spent


engaging


in orienting


motions


with


their


canes


following


spin,


prior


to stepping


on the


pathway.


The


behaviors


involved


turning


around


between


pathway


traversals


need


to be


identified


more


precisely


and,


possible,


measured


directly.


Although


the


computerized


system


described


Strelow,


Brabyn


and


Clark


(1976


provides


more


accurate


measures


subject


position


than


those


present


experiment,


detection


panels


have


an advantage


over


the


computerized


measurement


system


described


previously.


The


tension


weights

subjects


used

and,


the

the


computerized


absence


system may


of careful


be detectable


calibration


mechanical


could in

position


sensors


troduce


and


tension


extraneous


detection.


weights,


variables
S S


detection


p


the


that


anels


experimenter


may

used


affect


the


pre


sent


experiment


removes


recording


device


from


subject


s body


and


places


the


device


directly


on the


walking


surface,


thereby


eliminating


these


variables.


However,


s since


the


extreme


edges


detection


pathway


were


flush


to the floor


experiment


introduces


smooth-surface


condition.


experimental


an extraneous


Thus,


room,


variable


smooth


the


under


surface


present


the


served


as the


st optimal


condition


examined


present











Additionally,


walking


speeds


subjects


should


lower


under


allow


completely


lateral


smooth


surfaces


movements


with


because


greater


design


stances


would


and,


general,


fewer


panel


lengths


traversed


per


trial.


above


cons


iderations


suggest


that


further


research


on walking


that


utili


zes


detection


panels


should


control


extreme


edges


the


left


and


right


panels


, as well


those


edges


on either


end


pathway.


Thi


can


accomplish

be placed


hed


in at least


on the


floor


two


way


next


More


extreme


crylic

edges


sheets


the


can

left


and


right


panel


so that


entire


walking


surface


one


level.


Another


possible


modification


is to countersink


the


entire


pathway


so that


edges


pathway


rise


the


level


rest


floor


surface.


summary,


the


results


from


Experiment


support


previous


research


on supplementation


of environments


with


textured


persons


surfaces


A textured


a mobility


surface


aid


either


visually


mm or 2


impaired


mm can


produce


straight


-line


walking


comparable


to that


produced


when


a 900-shoreline


is used,


and


can


produce


a speed


walking


comparable


to a 90


-shoreline,


depending


upon


the


manner


which


the


cane


is used.


These


result


clarify


the


sugge


stion


Templer


(1980;


1983)


that


textured


surfaces











experiment,


only


those


cane


movements


perpendicular


to the


direction

decreases


of walking


walking


speeds.


a sweeping

These an


arc


ecdotal


resulted


descriptions


cane


motions


suggest


that,


depending


on cane


motion


used


subjects,


a textured


surface


that


varies


mm can


impede


walking


and


decrease


walking


speeds.


Experiment


examined


the


effects


two


cane


motions


on walking


speed


straight


motions


that


-line

were


walking


described


measuring

anecdotally


directly,


the


these


present


experiment.















EXPERIMENT


TWO


Introduction


When


or no structures


demarcate


a distinct


travel


path


in an open


area,


a continuous


textured


surface


placed


walking


surface


can


serve


a stimulus


to control


walking


visually


impaired


individuals.


In Experiment


blindfolded


subjects


walking


on a 1


mm and


mm textured


surface


maintained


a straight-line


walking


similar


that


maintained


under


a continuous


90-shoreline


condition.


Subjects


who


maintained


contact


between


cane


tip


and


the


textured


textured


surface


surface


allocated


from


nearly


panels


walking


on which


time


surface


the


was


placed.


Although


a textured


surface


may


increase


straight-line


walking,


some


the


physical


dimensions


or the


design


textured


material


may


impede


walking


speed


and


counteract


the


benefit


directional


continuity


gained


using


the


continuous

variation


textured


surface


surface.

materials


Previous studies

exceeding (12 m


suggest


that


height


can


become


a tripping


hazard


to visually


impaired


individuals


or can


impede


forward


movement


catching











studs


as small


in height


can


reduce


walking


speed


blindfolded


subjects


walking


with


a cane


temporarily;


however,


the


amount


or duration


of reduced


walking


speed


may


be a function


cane


method


used


subjects.


Other


variations


textured


material


may


contribute


reduced


walking


speed


these


subjects


such


as the


distance


between


rubber


studs,


uniformity


or configuration


design


and


so on.


In Experiment


, cane


motion


was


measured


directly,


nor


were


these


variations


in textured


surfaces


described


immediate


above


directly


manipulated


independent


variables


Therefore,


these


interpretations


are


anec


dotal


and


are


based


on ob


servations


of video


recordings


experimental


sess


ions


experimenter.


When


mm-textured


-surface


was


placed


on the


walking


surface


central


pathway


(Experiment


the


predominant


cane


method


used


subjects


was


most


similar


the


touch-drag


method


which


subject


holds


the


cane


waist


level


center


body


and


cane


extended


so that


tip


is approximate


one


full


step


front


subject.


subject


moves


forward,


the


cane


is dragged


from


side


-to-side


ian an arc


motion


perpendicular


to the


direction


travel


so that


the


cane


always


checks


advance


area


in which


the


subject











between


the


touch-drag


method


and


a variation


cane


trailing


method


which


cane


placed


between


two


columns


raised


2-mm


studs


and


tip


moves


forward


between


these


two


columns


as the


subject


moves


forward


(Hill


Ponder,


1976).


Some


mobility-instruction


manuals


suggest


that


degree


pressure


applied


to the


cane


during


either


drag


motion


or during


forward


motion


may


critical


to the


degree


snagging


or jamming


that


may


occur


between


cane


tip


and


surface


variations


related


to surface


materials


or surface


configuration


(All


Griffith,


Shaw,


1977;


Hill


Ponder,


1976;


Peel,


1974).


When


subjects


Experiment


used


touch-drag


method


with


the


mm-


textured

raised s


surface,


tuds


cane


during


drag


frequently


motion.


jammed


between


Alternatively,


when


each


subject


began


using


cane


trailing


method


they


generally


encountered


fewer


incidences


cane


jamming.


Once


again,


these


variations


in cane


motion


were


not


manipulated


systematically


and


these


results


were


not


measured


directly.


Therefore,


these


descriptions


the


subjects


are


anecdotal.


The


present


experiment


(Experiment


systematically


examined


the


touch-drag


method


and


cane


trailing


method











this


study


will


extend


current


literature


on mobility


providing


data


on the


effects


using


two


different


cane


methods


on textured


surfaces.


Previous


studies


on the


effects


textured


surfaces


on walking


behavior


did


not


examine


cane


methods


directly.


The


results


from


this


experiment


may


provide


a quantitative


basis


mobility


specialists


to determine


which


cane


method


visually


impaired


individuals


should


use


when


encountering


a certain


type


textured


surface.


Method


Subjects


Three


subjects


volunteered


serve


in Experiment


responding


to a subject


recruitment


notice


posted


the


administration


office


South


Shore


Mental


Health


Center.


Subject


from


previous


experiment,


participated


and


two


other


subjects


were


recruited


Subject


was


a 38-year-


old


female


and


was


height,


and


Subject


was


a 20-year-old


female


was


5'6"


(168


height.


Experiment


neither


novice


subjects


had


visual


deficits


nor


wore


corrective


ses


, and


none


the


subjects


had


ever


received


formal


training


the


area


orientation


and


mobility


visually


impaired


persons.


All











Apparatus


The


experimental


apparatus


and


data


collection


system


present


experiment


were


same


as those


Experiment


, and


were


located


in a room measuring


meters


x 5.2


meters.


All


detection


panels,


clocks


and


counters


were


Experiment


calibrated


ensure


same


proper


and


manner


consistent


as described


functioning.


Each


subject


wore


a Count-a-Step


II quartz


digital


pedometer


on the


wris


t of


arm


that


held


the


cane.


The


pedometer


was


positioned


to detect


side-to-side


movement


and


to provide


a cumulative


count


arm


movements


which


exceeded


(i.e.,


approximate


width


of each


subject'

session,


body


at waist


pedometer


level).


was


Prior


calibrated


to each


experimental


experimenter


ensure


side-t


o-s


arm


movement


subjects


during


touch-drag


In order


condition


to calibrate


approximately


met


pedometer,


cm criterion.


experimenter


hung


and


secured


two


taut


eces


string


from


ceiling


floor


experimental


room


that


were


separated


from


each


other


pedometer


cm.


to his


The


wrist,


experimenter


placed


wrist


strapped


between


the


the


strings,


and


moved


arm


side-to-side


fifty


times


such


that


each


movement


resulted


arm


alternate











was


less


than


sensitivity


control


pedometer


was


adjusted


and


this


calibration


procedure


was


repeated.


Following


this


first


phase


the


calibration


procedure,


the


two


strings


were


moved


closer


together


(i.e.,


cm apart


from


one


another


the


calibration


procedure


was


repeated


experimenter.


count


on the


pedometer


pedometer


exceeded


was


two,


adjusted


sensitivity


this


portion


control


the


calibration


procedure


was


repeated


at a di


stance


the


count


was


two


or less,


then


pedometer


was


removed


from


the


experimenter'


wrist,


reset


zero,


and


carefully


aside


until


experimenter


placed


pedometer


on the


wri


st of


the


subject.


Although


this


calibration


procedure


ensured


that


side-to


-side


arm


movements


approximately


cm or more


were


recorded


directly,


pedometer


was


sensitive


sudden


impact


arm.


Thus,


side-to-side


arm


movement


that


did


exceed


cm rarely


resulted


pedometer


activation;


however,


pedometer


was


activated


arm


came


an abrupt


stop,


such


as when


tip


the


cane


was


caught


between


two


rubber


studs.


Procedure


Prior


start


Experiment


experimenter


escorted


each


blindfolded


subject


into


the


experimental


room











Plea
the
grip
Now
of y
walk
want
you


se step
edge.
aligne
place t
ou. Wh
to the
you to
are now


will repeat
minutes.


up to
Hold y
d with
he tip
en I s
end o
turn
stand


th
our
th
on
ay
f t
aro
ing


walking


,e


path


cane
*e mid
the
you c
he pa
und a
and,
back


in
sec
sur
an
th
nd
ag


d stop
front


tion
face
begi
and
walk
ain,


alr
, I
tep
bac
tur


when
,f you
your
ectly
want
off.
k to
n aro


forth


you


reach


with t
abdomen
in fro
you to
Then
the pla
und. Y


five


I
ce
ou


L
*


moving
cane
panel
lifti
here
panel


g
t


et m
the
ip w
and
g th
i.e.
andc


e

'a
c
e
I
e


ass
tip
s li
entr
tip
the
ntra


t you
your
ed and
panel
f your
ip was
panel)


in li
cane
plac
). N
cane
plac


fting the
over here
ed between
ow let me
and movi
ed between


ane
i.e
the
sis
it
the


and
., the
left
t you
over
right


Cane
path
point
you
(The
colu
the
from


t
a

m
c


trail
I wa
s. I
nd tr
tipof
ns of
entra


pan


- As
nt you
want
y not
the c
rubber
1 pane


you


wal


' tr
to
mov
wa
uds
and


k b
to
eep
yo
pl
loc
the


k and forth on
tay within the
he cane in fro
arm left or r
ed in between
ed in the midd
ane was pushed


the
e two
t of
ght.
he two
e of
forward


to panel


Touch-dracr


path, I
points.
you by
right.
between
cane wa
the joi
Then, t
the tip
central


- As


you


want you
I want y
moving you
(The tip
the left
I


s pusnea
nt between
he cane w
reached
panels).


h
p
F.


the


walk
try
to m
arm t
the
nel a
the r
he ri
pushe'
* a


t
0

c
n
i
g
d


joint


back a
o stay
ve the
the 1
ane wa
d cent
ght un
ht and
back
betwe


forth
a* a


witn
cane
eft a
s lif
ral p
til t
cent
tothe
en th


in
in
nd
ted
ane
he
ral
le


on the


t

t

1
t


hese
front
o the
and p
and
ip re
panel
t unt
ft an


two
of


1
t
a
s
i
d


aced
he
ched


you


walk
these
When
+i san A


should


off
two
I sa
I nn


the


1'


poi
4-4-
. .


find


path
nts
top"
1, -+


yourself


I
an


C. nflr


the
nti
ase
* -


be
nue
st


disoriented


op
a


you c
walking
walk
4-


an
be


or i
to fi
tween
rema
. 4. S Ca


r you
nd
them.
in


Q


i


r.rrr











ir you
trials.


wish


Once


to do


you


a trial


may


begins


take


a break


will


between


answer


question
not have


until
any q


trial


questions


is completed.


we can


you


begin.


Each


trial


was


conducted


in the


same


manner


Experiment


and


experimental


trials


were


mmn


duration.


Table


shows


number


trials


and


mean


number


side


-to-side


arm


movements


under


the


four


experimental


conditions,


seen


and


in Table


the

all


order


subjects


exposure

showed


to each

a greater


condition.


number


pedometer


activations


under


touch-drag


conditions


than


under


the


cane


trail


conditions,


thus


indicating


that


greater


under


number


touch-drag


side-to-side


conditions


arm


than


movements


under


were


cane


emitted


trail


conditions.


example


under


touch-drag


conditions,


Subj


ects


and


emitted,


average


, twelve


times


more


arm


movements


per


trail


under


touch-drag


conditions,


and


Subject


emitted,


on the


average,


thirty-six


times


more


movements.


The


values


number


movements


Subject


under


these


conditions


seem


too


excessive


to be


strictly


determined


side-to-side


arm


movements


(i.e.,


approximately


arm


sweeping


motions


per


second).


However,


as mentioned


previously,


pedometer


was


sensitive


abrupt


interruptions


motion


or jolts


to the


arm


or wrist.


C C~~rH


-l a -


*


L Aa a a ea


la...~ a am


A rJ ~ ; C ; An ~ 1 1 r


*


mLA












Table


Summary of the
Subjects 2, 4,
movements per
condition.


experimental conditions (in order) for
and 5 with the mean number of side-to-side
trial, and the number of trials under each


arm


Subject Experimental Condition # Movements # of Trials



2 1 mm touch-drag 355 10
2 mm touch-drag 261 12
2 mm cane trailing 14 13
1 mm cane trailing 36 11
1 mm touch-drag 452 10
2 mm cane trailing 43 10
2 mm touch-drag 225 10
1 mm cane trailing 12 10


4 1 mm cane trailing 21 12
1 mm touch-drag 684 13
2 mm cane trailing 14 12
2 mm touch-drag 687 13
2 mm cane trailing 22 10
1 mm cane trailing 13 10
1 mm touch-drag 603 12
2 mm touch-drag 663 10


5 2 mm touch-drag 225 15
1 mm cane trailing 21 13
2 mm touch-drag 297 11
1 mm cane trailing 22 10
2 mm cane trailing 25 10
1 mm touch-drag 343 13
2 mm- cane trailing 23 10
1 mm touch-drag 315 10











these


factors


may


account


excess


values


arm


movements


recorded


under


touch


-drag


conditions


Subject


All


subjects


were


exposed


to experimental


conditions


until


two


dependent


measures


(time


allocated


to left,


central,


right


panels


series


, and


walking


speed)


appeared


stable


at lea


st five


consecutive


trial


(Appendix


B contains


representative


data


statistical


points


analy


of walking


ses


speed


the

used


determine st

experimental


ability


condition


dependent


third


measure


dependent


under


each


measure,


the


amount


time


subjects


were


pathway


per


trial,


was


calculated


same


manner


as described


Experiment


and


the


stability


these


data


was


a factor


determining


changes


in experimental


conditions.


The


values


the


turnaround


time


were


calculated


the


same


manner


as described


Experiment


Experimental


sessions


were


conducted


days


per


week


and


were


approximately


one


-hour


duration.


suits


All


subj


ects


walked


back


forth


on the


pathway


different


speeds


, depending


upon


the experimental


condition.