The resolution of infertility and the acceptance of adoptive reality

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Title:
The resolution of infertility and the acceptance of adoptive reality
Physical Description:
ix, 175 leaves : ; 29 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Downs, Ernest R., 1946-
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Adoptive parents   ( lcsh )
Adoption -- Psychological aspects   ( lcsh )
Infertility -- Psychological aspects   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1993.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 163-173).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Ernest R. Downs.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001938134
notis - AKB4269
oclc - 30935137
System ID:
AA00002075:00001

Full Text










RESOLUTION
ACCEPTANCE


INFERTILITY AND
ADOPTIVE REALITY


THE


ERNEST


DOWNS


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE
THE UNIVERSITY OF
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE R
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF P


GRADUATE S
FLORIDA
REQUIREMENTS
PHILOSOPHY


SCHOOL

FOR



























To Joy


Rachel














ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


dissertation


process


would


have


been more


arduous


less


rewarding without


guidance


support


received


have


along


the way.


aided me


this


offer my


long


appreciation


trying


those


endeavor.


James


Archer


been


both


wise


caring


structuring,


guidance,


support.


He has


both


seen me


through


times


in which


doubted my


powers


perseverance


offered


expert


counsel


in matters


conceptualization,


implementation,


organization,


expression.


patience


during my


false


starts


periods


inactivity will


long


be remembered


and appreciated.


other


committee members


also


deserve my


thanks,


assistance


years.


their


academic


teacher


influence


James


both with my


Harry Grater


supervisor,


on my


interest


Morgan,


and remains

in and kno


teacher,


dissertation and


been an


the most


wedge of


student,


fellow


during my


inspirational


significant

psychotherapy.


committee


member,


always displayed


insight,


good


humor,


sense


of proportion


which make


endeavors


only


feasible


also worthwhile.


Mary


Fukuyama


been an


influential


supervisor,


valued


friend,


important


source










doubt


that


would


have


completed


this


project


without


faith,


support,


good


judgement


my wife


Joy.


She has


given


endlessly


of her


caring,


her


ideas,


babysitting.


Finally,


reawakened my


should


awareness


thank my


that


daughter,


life goes


Rachel,


change


who


can be


good,


and mastery


fun.


















TABLE


OF CONTENTS


Page


CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


S. . . 1I


Statement


Problem


S S S S SS S2


Purp


ose


Perspectives


e Study
on Adopt:


S S S S S S S S S 5 3
ion S S S SS S S SS S 4


Resolution


Infertilit


. S S S S 5 6


The A
Other


acceptancee


Variable


es.


Adoptive


Reality


S S S S S S 5 7


S S S S S S S S 9


Hypotheses
Definition


Terms


Organization of the

REVIEW OF LITERATURE


Study


* S S S S S S S .13
* S S S S S S 5 .16


S S S S S .17


Historic
Elements
Current
Theories
Infertil


1 Perspective
of Adoptive Oul


Adoptive


Issues


of Adoptee


. . . . .17
come . . .20
* . . . .33


Vulnerability


and Adoptive Coun


seli]


. . . .49
ng. . .67


Instrumentation.


Chapter

MATERIAL


Summary. .

S AND METHODS.


S S S S S S S S 5 71
* S S S S S S S .86


S. .. . .88


Procedures


Data


Collection


.... .88


Return


Rate:


Standards


Methodology


.t. . .89


Sample
Design .
Data Analy


.* . . . .93
. . . . .96
S. . . .97


Sis


RESULTS.


S. . . . 100


Descriptive


Results.


. . . 100


Further


Tests


and Relationships


. . 111











CHAPTER


Page


Conclu
Implic


sions.
nations


. . . . . 131
S . . 136


Summation.


. . . 141


APPENDICES


ADJUSTMENT


INFERTILITY


SCALE--REVISED


. . 143


ADOPTIVE


PARENT


QUE


STIONNAIRE--SHORT


FORM


. 146


INDIVIDUAL


STIONNAIRE


S . . 152


LETTER


TO POTENTIAL


SUBJECTS


S . . 153


SCORING


RULES


AND


PROCEDURES


S. 154


REFERENCES


* . . a a a . 163


BIOGRAPHICAL


SKETCH.


* . . . . 174














Abstract


School


Dissertation


University


Presented


Florida


the Graduate


Partial


Fulfillment


Requirements


Degree of


Doctor


Philosophy


THE RESOLUTION


INFERTILITY


AND THE


ACCEPTANCE


ADOPTIVE REALITY

By


Ernest


August,


Downs


1993


Chairman:


James


Archer,


Major


Department


Counselor


Education


Adoptees


splay markedly


higher


rates


of developmental


disturbances


than


do nonadoptees.


Particularly prevalent


adoptee


population


are


antisocial


characteristics


such


as criminalilty,


aggressiveness,


youthful


pregnancy,


adjustment


reactions.


Various


explanations


this


tendency


have


been


posited


current


research


focused


resolution


infertility


issues


adoptive


parents,


relationship


between


such


resolution and


the willingness


to both


openly


acknowledge


the differences


between


adoptive


biological


parenting


interact


with


others


regarding


adoptive


issues.


also considered


hypothesis


that


these


- A na a 4- a t, hr, r nn a r tn era r 1~-.


mt ~C hrt


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certain


demographic


conditions


through


a mechanism


termed


"role


handicap"


in past


investigations.


Adoptive


parent


three


adoption


agencies


were


asked


respond


demographic


to a mail

section,


questionnaire,

an acceptance


which


included


adoptive


reality


questionnaire,


resolution


infertility


questionnaire.


Confidentiality


procedures


insured


that


individual


responders


would not


identified


with


their


responses.


Resolution


infertility was


measured


with


Adjustment


Infertility


Scale.


Parental


belie


behaviors


regarding


adoptive


issues


were


calibrated


Adoptive


Parenthood


Questionnaire.


The r

acceptance


relationship of


adoptive


resolution


reality was


infertility


the measurement


primary


concern.


Other


relationships


examined


were


those


both


reality


religion


resolution


infertility


to postinfertility


sity,


stage,


differentiating


acceptance


gender,


adoptee


adoptive


religion,


characteristic


interracial,


foreign,


and/or


handicapped).


No significant


relationships


were


obtained


hypothesized


Adoptive


Parentho


relationships.

od Questionnaire


A factor

yielded


analyst

three


discrete


r a n an a ai h e


r-al olr244 nn rtF sntl


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~knen Cka


^^ rf-











relationship with


religiosity.


Reasons


questioning


veracity


this


relationship were


discussed.


feasibility


investigating


sensitive


aspects


infertility


through


voluntary


noncoercive


means


was


established


this


investigation.


Additionally,


the means


employed


measuring


current


effects


past


trauma


was


questioned,


an alternative


proposed.

















CHAPTER


INTRODUCTION


husband


always


thought


would


there


to stand


turned


the one


life


away.


the docto


hasn't


After
r is


really


all,


he's


examining
changed.


not
under


Even


a woman.


He's


a microscope.
if I did have


kids
he's


routine would


not


one going


be basically
through all


same.
tests


Because
he can't


fault


ed for


understanding when


dissolve


each


time my
able to
angry.
106).


period
make h


What


comes.


blame


understand my


can't


myself
pain.


understand?


not
then


(Menning,


being
I feel


1977,


The torment


this


female


member


an infertile


couple

involve'


imposes


includes


two major


adoptive


pain and di

(Harkness,


elements


parenting.


orientationn


1987;


The

which


Matthews


concern


focus


infertility


Matthews,


those


the quote


usually


1986a;


Menning,

Salzer,


1977;

1986;


Porter


Shapiro,


Christopher,


1982).


1984;


Strongly


Renne,


1977;


contributing


woman's


distress,


however,


lack


symmetry


between


role


that


of her


husband.


This


spawns


guilt


anger


seems


to preclude


understanding


support


they


both


need.


Elisabeth


Kubler-Ross


1969


best


known


Fnrrmii m1-4 nn


c4-nnoc


Ih rn it cr


*1: t


A71 fltn


nor cnn a


ncc


j r


la


r r i


r 1--^










difficulty,


tenuousness


this


resolution


are


primarily


function


characteristics


modern


society;


that


death


was


accepted much more


easi


before


this


inevitable


transition


was


denormalized


depersonalized.


The experience


adoption


, including


resolution


infertility


issues,


similarly


become


more


painful


problematic


interpersonal


current


alienation


state


role


(Brodzinsky,


fragmentation


Schechter,


Braff,


Singer,


1984;


Chapman,


Dorner


, Silber,


Winterberg,


1987;


Hoffman-Riem,


1986;


Miall,


1987


Rothenberg,


Goldey,


Sands,


1971).


Parental


denial


nature of


adoptive


relationship and


societal


ignorance


stigmatization


adoption


have


been


predictable


consequences


Carroll,


1967;


DiGiulio,


1987;


Kirk,


1964;


Kirk,


1981).


Statement


Problem


Problematic


resolution


infertility


issues


lack


parental


norms


role


relationships


conducive


healthy


honest


adoptive


parenting


are


two


nuclear


family


elements


most


frequently


cited


deleterious


raising


primarily


adoptive


concerned


children.


with


current


interaction


investigation


these


conditions:


resolution


honest


relationship


infertility


attitude s


U e


behaviors


between


their


adoptive


displaying


toward adoptive


parents'


open


issues.


v










difficulty.


summary


both


empirical


clinical


findings


indicates


that


adoptees


are


as well


adjusted


a variety


dimensions


as are


nonadoptees.


Adoptees


are


treated


in outpatient


psychotherapy more


frequently


(Marquis


Detweiler,


1985;


Simon


Sentura,


1966;


Talen


Lehr,


1984;


Toussieng


1962


Wieder,


1977),


measure


higher


psychopathology


(Brodzinsky,


Schechter,


Braff,


Singer,


1984;


Loehlin,


Willerman,


Horn,


1987),


are


convicted


criminality more


frequently


(Baker,


1984;


Van


Dusen,


Mednick


, Gabrielli,


Hutchings,1983),


and have


a higher


rate


illegitimate


births


(Berman


Bufferd,


1986)


than


populace


in general.


Purpose of


Study


"Adoption


diagnosis


not


the most


infertility.


appropriate


A period


sequel


grieving


s" (Renne,


1977,


465)


Despite


occasional


need


to rule


adoptive


applicants


basis


their


developmental


characterist


(Toussieng,


1962)


adoption


worker


today


primarily


providing


concerned


treatment


with


assessment


or education


readiness


defi


ciencies


to adopt


(Brown


Kelly,


1987;


Chapman


al.,


1987;


Daly,


1988;


Helwig


Ruthven,


1990;


Krugman,


1964;


Valentine,


1986).


Similarly,


infertility


therapists


adoption


counselors


are


concerned


.a4~~~ .4.i ,, ,,t A are 4- 1 n; A nnI


T.Tnr l 4I nfl


rrn~nr~C~n rl; nn


c r,


fJ17 rl oils


I I I











A meaningful


infertility


relationship


acceptance


between


adoptive


resolution


reality would


strongly


suggest


that


former


contributory


latter,


that


shame


prospective


their


infertility


adopters


they


work


shed


through


their


pain


defensive


layer


secrecy


denial.


Adoption


workers


could


consider


with


present


1987;


possibility


birthmothers,


(Baran,


Helwig


favored


Pannor,


Ruthven,


that


resistance


by most


Sorosky,


1990)


adopt


1976;


to communication

on organizations


Chapman


attributable,


least


part,


to a


temporary


state


pain and


upheaval.


Finally,


such a


causal


relationship would


link


successful


infertility


counseling


formation


more open


realistic


attitudes


toward adoptive


parenting.


Perspectives


on Adoption


Many


explanations


adoptee


vulnerability


have


been


offered.


children,


argued


even a


that


prenatal


genetic


bonding


similarity


of mother


parents


fetus,


enable


biological


families


achieve greater


caring


understanding


Palombo,


than


Mitchell,


families


Woods,


without


Schmidt,


blood


1985).


(Kraft,


Geneticists


point


low education,


intelligence,


income,


high


rates


criminality


parents


whose


children are


I II -


a ,


.. a -


fl 4 n n


n











their


birthparents


being


raised


adults


to whom


they


are


related


only


legally


(Berman


Bufferd,


1986;


Sorosky,


Baran,


Pannor,


1975


Talen


Lehr,


1984).


Finally,

damage t


some


.heir


investigators


adoptive


believe


children


that


parents


predicating


the


frequently

ir parental


attitudes


behaviors


feared


consequences


their


children's


create


adoptive


undesirable


status


consequences


heredity,


through


often


their


helping


anticipation.


Theoretical


frameworks


relating


adoption


abound.


The


belief


significance


of genetic


similarity


prenatal


bonding


derived


from


prenatal


neonatal


biochemical


analysis


of mother


child,


from


parenting


research


with


animals.


Psychodynamic


theorists


(Deutsch,


1945;


Kraft


al.,


1980;


Schneider


Rimmer,


1984


cite


both biological


important


bonding


parental


knowledge of


development


parenthood


sense


child


Matthew


an extension

s, 1986a; Me


self.


inning,


1977)


Grief


researchers


consider


(Matthews


infertility


devastation


akin


to a


death


family,


which must


worked and


suffered


through


before


couple


capable of


generativity.


1959)


examine


relationship


Role


theorists


foreign and


as one


needing


(Hoffman-Riem,


somewhat


normalization


1986;


stigmatized


before


Kirk,


adoptive


true










Resolution


Infertility


The awareness


researchers


infertility


clinicians


described


nearly


similarly


universally


traumatizing


event


to which


couples


react


through


series


stages


involving


considerable


time


extensive


suffering,


from which


a healthy


resolution


from


inevitable


(Harkness,


1987;


Matthews


Matthews,


1986a;


Menning,


1977;


Porter


Christopher,


1984;


Reene,


1977;


Salzer,


1986;


Shapiro,


1982).


painful


reality


infertility


one


which


couples


frequently


attempt


to avoid


pursuing


adoption


prior


resolution


(Kraft


al.,


1979;


Reene,


1977;


Talen


Lehr


1987).


This


felt


to be


destructive


newly-formed


family


(Carroll,


1967;


Chapman et


al..,


1987).


words


Kraft


al.:


For those


are


unsuccessful


in confronting


psychological
result is not


a failure
parenting
(1979, pp


tasks
only


come


presented
failure


terms


as a developmental
620, 621)


by their


to meet


with


infertility


a crisis,


issues


step


, the
also


related


life


cycle


Theoretically,


impact


infertility


is most


productively viewed


from


prospective


crisis.


Caplan


1964


typified


a crisis


problem which


cannot


be solved


either


directly


or quickly


and which both


threatens


significant


life


goals


brings


fore


incompletely


resolved


developmental


issues.


awareness


infertility










More


resolved


specifically,


satisfactorily,


infertility


involves


a crisis


an evolving


which,


emotional


cognitive


struggle.


crisis


which


is worked


through


successive


stages


framework


originated


Kubler-Ross


seminal


volume


On Death and


Dying


1969).


Menning


(1977)


pioneered


adaptation


this


model


process


reso


lution


infertility.


The Acceptance of


Adoptive


Reality


Adoption


certainly


not


only


possible


outcome of


successful


resolution


infertility.


Child-free


living,


even


divorce,


can


be healthy


alternatives.


those who do


adopt,


however,


frequently


stated


that


acceptance


unambivalent


circumstances


acceptance


adoption


the adoptive


requisite


children


themselves.


Such


behaviors


willingness


to have


communication


with


birthmother,


disclosure


discussion


adoption


with


adoptive


children,


celebration


announcement


adoption,


seeking


contact


with


other


adoptive


families


are


regarded


positive


adoptive


clinicians


researchers


various


orientations


(Carroll,


1967;


Chapman


et al


-


1987;


Dukette,


1984


Kirk,


1964;


Raynor,


1980


Ripple,


1968;


Talen


Lehr,


1984).


The c


concept


w-


acceptance


doptive


reality was


_










publication,


Kirk was


struck


with


a polarization


adoptive


parents


toward


either


an open


realistic


or a covert


somewhat


fanciful


description


adoption.


first


position


with


was


other


marked


adoptive


such


families,


>ehaviors

contact


as active


with


involvement


birthmothers


searching


information


about


birthmothers


through


adoption

growing


agency,


love


and

and


the

feel


ability

entitled


to describe


their


child.


process

The


second


orientation


was


typified


(sometimes


rude


deflection


discussion


adoption,


wanting


information about


child's


birthmother,


descriptions


instantaneous


bonding


such


having


"chosen"


child,


or the


child


having


recognized


couple


immediately


parents.


former


position Kirk


termed


"acknowledgement


differences"


parenthood);


(between


latter,


adoptive


"rejection


biological


differences.


Kirk was


convinced


that


"acknowledgement"


position


indicated a better


outcome


both


family


child.


Part


justification


this


preference


was


a study


Kirk,


1964)


in which


acknowledgement


of differences


was


positively


related

adoption


to parental

issues, pa


ability


rental


to empathize
a


communication


with

with


child

child


around

about


adoption,


parental


expression


researcher)


cnct-,~~~~ 1- cfmrl-in xoi' An4Rn f nn -it


h T1,


Ena~; c~


wh;~h


~ rl nnt ; tta


thnt


naranfe


I










Kirk


conceptualized


difficulty


accepting


adoptive


situation


framework


role


theory.


Biological


parenthood,


Kirk


argued,


role


which


children


look


forward


prepare


from an


early


age,


infertility


a possibility


rarely


entertained


until


reality.


role


difficulties


continue


after


awareness


infertility.


Role


autonomy


eroded


dependency


adoption

years) r


workers,


productive


irthmothers,

physicians


and

and


(increasingly

technologists.


recent


Most


significantly,


after


the adoption


adoptive


parents


are


left


in a


position


without


established


or unambiguous


roles,


either with


their


child


or with


society


large.


Other


Variables


populations


and methodology


this


study


permit


the examination


relationship


several


other


variables


resolution


infertility


acceptance


adoptive


reality.


Postinfertility


stage


studied


to determine


whether


resolution


infertility


acceptance


adoptive


reality


are


conditions


which


quantitatively


change


over


time.


Subject


gender,


couple


duration


childlessness,


differentiating


adoptee


characteristics


are


identified


purpose


assessing whether


ot they


- -


-


v w


w










Postinfertility Stage


Whether


or not


subjects


adopted


was


indicated


two available


empirical


studies


impact


infertility


(Sabatelli,


Meth,


Gavazzi,


1988;


Taratsky,


1986),


although


from


means


used


to obtain


subj


ects


likely


that


most


participants


were


parents


time.


Similarly,


studies


employing


a comprehensive


instrument


to measure


acceptance


adoptive


reality


Carroll,


1967;


DiGiulio,


1987),


former


used


adoptive


applicants


latter


selected


adoptive


parents


report


impact


long


couples. had


infertility


therefore,


been


nor


their


acceptance


empirically


children.


adoptive


investigated


with


Neither


reality,


regard


family


development


stage


infertile


adoptive


couple.


significance


stage


a developmental


model


such


that


resolution


infertility


immediately


apparent.


significance


acceptance of


adoptive


reality


versus


clear.


rejection as


Kirk


fairly


1964)


stable


presented


trait


acceptance


dimension,


primarily varying with


societal


evolution


norms


roles.


other


hand,


Krugman


1964),


reporting


from


extensive clinical


experience,


observed a


"washing


out"


f~Ann 4 7 'Frt'ii 1 f n~r~o hom 4-H n~r~n 4 n fnm 1n 4 oc ci nno nr


1 rl nnC; tra


f~m; i; aE


s~ hnC ttn


ha~lCh


Fh~ll i?


h n\nva


BI










destructive


after


served


purpose


establishing


a common acceptance


how the


family


came


formed.


current


study,


three


postinfertility


stages


are


examined:


attempting


adopt


prior


receipt


child,


greater


zero


than


three


three


years


years


after


after


initial


initial


adoption,


adoption.


An additional


stage,


that


infertile


couples


actively


pursuing


adoption,


could


informative


include


infertility


study


involving


adoptive


attitudes.


This


stage


was


rejected


current


study


because


validity,


especially


ethical,


issues


which


soliciting


such attitudes


prepared


from persons


to consider


possibly


them would


emotionally


elicit.


Role


Handicap


Kirk


(1964)


observed


that


conditions


associated with


adoptive


situation


can be


alienating


to adopters.


This


alienation


the motivating


element


the denial


associated


with


"rejection


differences"


Adopter


characteristics,

characteristics,


such

such


traditionality;


as a handicap;


adoptee

societal


characteristics,


such


as a


lack


of general


knowledge


about


adoptive


issues


are


potential


sources


alienation.


Kirk


termed


such


problematic


aspects


adoption


"role


handicap"










parent


role


models


a general


stigmatization


adoption,


than


with


differentiating


individual


ones.


Kirk


did,


however,


empirically


isolate


three


such


individual


factors:


duration


infertility,


presence


biological


children


born


family


after


adoption,


traditionalism as


measured by


religious


orientation.


Role


handicap


provided much


explanation


either


acceptance of


adoptive


reality


or of


resolution


infertility.


most


extensive


investigation


employing


such


variables,


Taratsky


1986


found


either weak


relationship


between


role


handicap


items


and measures


distress


dissatisfaction


infertile


couples.


Since


role


handicap


information


relatively


easily


obtained


from


subjects


form


an identifying


questionnaire,


however,


such


information


was


obtained


current


study.


Subject


gender,


religion,


religiosity


differentiating


adoptee


characteristics--interracial


adoption,


foreign adoption,


and


handicapped


adoption--are


aspects


role


handicap


investigated


current


study.


Hypotheses


There


s no


relationship


between


resolution


infertility


acceptance of


adoptive


reality.


UA ~ a al~:


i: C1I


1~ A L '1A A A


mt. ,,,









There


stage


There


relationship


acceptance


relationship


between


postinfertility


adoptive


between


reality.


gender


resolution


infertility.


There


relationship


between


gender


acceptance


adoptive


reality.


There


relationship


between


religion


resolution


infertility.


There


no relationship


between


religion


acceptance


adoptive


reality.


There


relationship


between


religiosity


resolution


infertility.


There


is no


relationship


between


religiosity


acceptance of


adoptive


reality.


There


no relationship


between


differentiating


adoptee


characteristic


resolution


infertility.


There


no relationship


between


differentiating


adoptee


characteristic


acceptance


adoptive


reality.


Definition


Terms


Acceptance of


Adoptive Reality


an open


realistic


posture


toward


adoption


taken


adoptive


parents.


Adoptee


Vulnerability


greater


probability










Adoption


refers


legal


addition


a minor


a family


headed


by persons


other


than


biological


parents.


"Adoption"


this


investigation means


"unrelated


adoption"


unless


otherwise


indicated.


An Adoptive


Parent


adult


legally


admits


minor


not


born


to him or


into


family.


An Agency


Adoption


one


in which


agency


receives


legal


custody


a child


subsequently


confers


that


custody


adoptive


parents.


A Biological


Parent


a genetic


parent


maintains


custody


or her


progeny.


. A Birthmother


a genetic mother who confers


legal


custody


progeny


(Although married and


children


agency


unmarried


adoption,


adoptive


couples


also


preponderance


parents.


their


such


behavior


single


overwhelming


women without


use


birthfather


"birthmother"


involvement


adopting-away


party


occasion


use


this


investigation.


Closed Adoption


adoption


which


there


contact


or communication


between


birthmother


adoptive


parents,


one


in which


no contact


communication


adoptive


between


parents


birth


child


parents


subsequent


either


adoption


envisioned.










Developmental


means


evolving with


general


physical,


psychological,


social


maturation


individual.


Differentiating


Adoptee


Characteristic


refers


to an


interracial,


foreign,


handicapped


attribute


adoptee.


Independent


Adoption


is adoption


in which


legal


custody passes


directly


from


birthmother


adoptive


parents.


Infertility


serious


impairment


ability


individual


technical


couple


publications,


to procreate.


"nonfecundity"


some more

term employed.


primary


definition


infertility


having


given


birth rather


than


inability


to do


so.


This


study


uses


"infertility"


indicated


because


similar


employment


large majority


publications,


and because of


popular meaning.)


An Open Adoption


one


involving


intention


communication


contact


between


birthmother


adoptive


parents


and/or


children after


transfer


legal


custody.


(There


approximately


equal


usage


"open


adoption"


above


sense


usage


to mean


situation


which a


t-hrnlah


birthmother


I


information


selects


suDolied by


adoptive


an adoption


parents,


acencv.


generally


"Open


L


I










Postinfertility


Stage


stage of


family


development

15. Rel


infertile


igiosity


couples


choosing


importance


to adopt.


religion


individual.


Role Handicap


sum of


adopter,


adoptee,


societal


characteristics


or conditions


associated


with


adoptive


situation


which


alienate


an adopter


from


adoptive


situation.


Unrelated Adoption


an adoption


in which


adoptee


a blood


relative


adopters.


Organization of


Study


Relevant

presented


theoretical,


Chapter


empirical,


Two.


clinical


In Chapter Three


material

research


questions


gathering,


are operationalized


population,


presentation


statistical methodology.


data


Results


are


presented


interpreted


Chapter


Four.


Finally,


Chapter


Five


is a discussion


implications


study


infertility


adoption


theory


practices


adoptive


social


work


adoptive


infertility


counseling.


also


contains


suggestions


future


research


extension


knowledge


garnered


this


previously


conducted


research.
















CHAPTER


REVIEW O

Historical


F LITERATURE

Perspective


Adoption


probably


dates


earliest


human


communal


structures.


The


adoptive


practices


given


culture


can


seen


reflective


that


society's


circumstances


values.


Two


continue


are


paramount


in understanding


place of


practice

whether


adoption


more


adoptees


in any


avorably

more cl


given


serve


osely


society:


adopters


identify with


whether


laws


adoptees,

their bi


logicall


or their


adoptive


families.


existing


traditional


societies


of Oceania,


adoption


occurs


in a number


instances


other


than


death


incapacity


biological


parents.


Common


reasons


are


commerate or


solidify


bonds


between


families,


to allow


for parenthood


couples


unable


to procreate.


Whatever


reason


adoption,


children


remain members


are


valued


periods


with


both

their


families,

biological


sometimes


families


some


live

time


extended


after


adoption.


cultures


these


identity


socially


immersed


racially


within


homogenous


culture,










placed


in more modern


cultures


(Baran,


Pannor,


Sorosky,


1976;


Carroll,


1970).


An exception


this


benevolent


treatment


respect


adopted


children


traditional


society was


observed

literate


China


and more


before

highly


communist


organized


than


revolution.

Oceania, C


Although


'hina


remained


twentieth


largely


century.


traditional


There


society well


practice of


into


adoption


future daughter-in-law


shortly


after


birth


(sim-pua)


remained


approximately


prevalent


raising


one's


own


daughter


into


1930s.


Until


her marriage,


sim-pua


was


from her


biological


family


treated


like


slave


adoptive one


(Wolf


Huang,


1980).


twenty-third


century


Babylonian


Code


Hammurabi

adoptive


is the oldest

practice. The


known 1

ancient


egal


system which


cultures


of Assyr


formalized

ia, Egypt,


Greece,


and Rome


also


laws


delineating


adoptive


mechanisms,


rights,


responsibilities.


In all


these


early


civilizations


purpose


formal


adoption


was


maintain a


family's


line.


Early


law,


then,


served


adopters


over


adoptees,


identified


adoptees


with


their


adoptive


families


exclusively


(Carroll,


1967;


Schwartz,


1984).


first


child-centered


adoption


law on


record


was


rn. nn 4-1 n


rCntl"


IS*U *U


nf A nhnns^ t


e Fifth of


"r.~P;lf











Similarly,


French


Civil


Code


Napoleonic


era


provided


"benevolent


guardianship"


(Carroll,


1967).


English Common


Law,


upon


which most


American


based,


made


no provision


adoption


until


1926


due


to British


concern with


purity

United


family


States,


bloodlines


adoption


(Schwartz,


remained


1984).


a quasi-legal


entity,


indiscernible


from indentureship,


until


mid-nineteenth


Children Act


century,


1851


when


established


the Massachusetts


court


Adoption


jurisdiction over


adoptive


placement


insure


that


adoption


was


child's


interest.


This


became


the model


other


states


until


1917,


when Minnesota


inaugerated


a comprehensive


program of


protective


services,


including preadoptive


investigation


home,


a period


trial


placement,


alteration


of birth


certification,


confidentiality


adoptive


procedures


Informal


records


open adoption


(Carroll,


remained


1967).


common


United


States


until


World


War


was


common


couples


take


unwed


pregnant


women


into


home,


care


them and


their


deliveries,


then adopt


children.


This


was


practice


sanctioned more


custom


than


(Baran


al.,


1976).


difficult


to get


either


a quantitative


or a


... 1 - r a


-S a n a h-.. 1 -A d '-- 4 Uf -* N.44n


I1~r:LA~


,,L~. ~t


nu~ rrL;


"nnnn


CkA


A










provided


Zietz


1959,


70),


who quoted


an official


that


one of


York

the


Foundling

hospital's


Hospital,

missions


founded


was


1869,


"to alleviate


stating

the


prevalent


pract


infanticide"!


principal


adoptive


statistics


have


varied


greatly


over


past


three


decades.


Public


agency,


private


agency,


independent


adoption


accounted


averages


33.8,


35.8,


30.4


percent


unrelated American adoptions


respectively


between


1960


1986,


with


little


variance


from y

period


ear


ranged


year.

from


Number

89.2 t


such


thousand


adoptions


1970


during

47.7 t


this


thousand


1975


Department


of Commerce,


1990,


370)


A national


unrelated


survey


adoptions


conducted


were


1976


couples


estimated


or women


that


who were


noncontraceptively


sterile


and/or


no children


time of


adoption


(Bachrach,


1983).


Elements


of Adoptive Outcome


Were


population


adopt


ees


to equal


or exceed


that


nonadoptees


critical


socialization measures,


there


would


no basis


criticizing


either


adoptive


institutional


or adoptive


parental


practices


without


equally


criticizing


corresponding


practices


raising


biological


children.


current


section


begins


with a


raIn Oh


n rlr^nt- Co


f 11n r'i-4nn III


1 *i 0-'T-l-nr _


1+0 hulkk


I II


rio










possible


contributing


factors


areas


adoptive


parenting


adoptee


heritability.


Adoptee Outcome


Psychometric


studies.


Adoptive


nonadoptive


child


functioning


have


been


compared


employing


a variety


instrumentation and


although not


procedure.


universally,


favored


results


have


nonadoptive


generally,

children.


Results


include


following:


Better


personal


adjustment


children


biological


and mixed


than


those


in all


adopted


families.


differences


in child-parent


relationship


(Ternay


wilborn,


1984).


More


internal


locus


control,


more


positive


evaluation


parents,


and more


favorable


attribution of


others


in adopted


than


nonadopted


children


(Marquis


Detweiler,


1985).


No difference


self-concept


between adopted


nonadopted


college


students


(Norvell


Guy,


1977).


Two


large


well-conceived


studies


merit


particular


notice.


Texas


Adoption


Project


is a


study


white,


middle-class


adoptive


families


birthmothers


from similar


backgrounds.


Although


primarily


a heritability


study


(and


therefore


considered more


extensively


later


the current


section)


10-vear


foll OW-UD


study


(Loehlin


al.,,


1987)


.


.


^. I










ratings


child


socialization


stability,


which


slightly


favored


adoptees


latency


children,


were


now


clearly


higher


biological


children.


The most


significant


findings


on standardized


instruments


were


greater


adoptee


juvenile


delinquency


ratings


California


Psychological


Inventory,


greater


adoptee


assertiveness,


impul


sivity,


radical


views


as measured


16PF.


second


study,


Brodzinsky


et al.


(1984)


matched


elementary


school


adoptees


with


an equal


number


biological


children.


Child


Behavior


Profile,


parental


rating


completed by


mothers,


adopted


children


were


evaluated


significantly more


negatively


in approximately


half


social


behavioral


categories,


with


largest


differences


hyperactivity


problems,


in aggression,


girls;


externalizing


delinquency,


hyperactivity


boys.


problems,


externalizing


teacher


evaluations


Hahnemann


Elementary


School


Behavior


Rating


Scale,


subscale


results


significantly


favored


biological


children,


most


dramatically


those


inattention,


independent


learning,


social


overinvolvement.


Clinical


observation.


Certain


categories


frequent


adoptee deficiency


are


cited


repeatedly


the clinical










viewed by


their


parents


as emotionally


fragile


lacking


self-control.


Possibly


related


this


are


frequent


parental

children


standards

(Ripple,


and

1968;


lack


Talen


requirements


Lehr


1984).


their


A prevalence


identity


concerns,


such


as existential


questioning


pervasive


searching


real


self"


is also


reported


(Berman


Bufferd,


1986;


Sorosky


al.,


1975).


Other


commonly


cited


problematic


characteristics


include


early


unmarried pregnancy


(Berman


Bufferd


learning


difficulties


(Andrews,


1978;


Berman


Bufferd).


Male


adoptee


problems


were


more


common


serious


than


female


(Raynor,


1980).


The Ripple


study,


both


large


extensive,


strongly


suggests


both


high


levels


of developmental


difficulties


adoptees


extreme


parental


acceptance


such


problems.


Adoptive


family members


seven-through-ten-year-old


children


placed


at birth


were


interviewed


separately


about


the children;


one


mothers


hour,


two and


children


one-half


themselves


hours,


fathers


one-half


hour.


Twenty-four


problems


percent


children


an additional


were


displayed


having


serious


difficulties


outside


"normal"


range,


these


troubled


children

parents'


were described


expectations


their

high


parents

degree.


as meeting

Discipline


the

was


w










Incidence


treatment.


proportion


extrafamilially


adopted


persons


receiving mental


health


services


varies


from moderately


to massively


higher


than


that


other


persons


across


number


studi


es.


variously


reported


that


such


adoptees


are


highly


overrepresented


1984),


at mental


psychiatric


health


facilities


centers


Wieder,


Talen


1977),


Lehr,


across


a range


treatment


facility


Marquis


Detweiler


, 1985;


Toussieng,


1962).


These


studies


each


cite


a number


other


sources


in making


their


conclusions.


Externalizing


behavior


appears


to be


relatively more


frequent


adoptees


than


other


persons


receiving


treatment.


This


typified


antisocial


(Goodman,


Silberstein,


Mandell,


1963;


Schechter,


Carlson,


Simmons,


1964),


Fanshel,


19


as aggressive

65). In a si


milar


sexual

vein,


acting


Weiss


out


1984


Borgatta


detected


much


higher


adoptees

major di


tha


incidence

n in other


agnostic


adjustment


hospitalized


category,


psychoses,


reaction


adolescents


was


hospitalized

The other


considerably


higher


nonadopted.


overrepresentation


Correcting


adoptees


facility,


psychoses


rate


two groups


was


approximately


equal,


while


adjustment


reaction


adoptees


was


quadruple


that


a 41, r










generally


found.


Adoptees


were


overrepresented,


adoptees,


opposed


nonadoptees,


were


categorized


as personality


disordered.


Antisocial


behavior


accounted


presenting


symptomology


adoptees.


Both


overrepresentation and


pattern


disorder


faded


when


adoptees


reached


perhaps


suggesting


that


much


adoptee


pathology


this


study


could


be better


described


adjustment


reaction.


Simon and


Sentura


additionally present


percentage


extrafamilial


adoptees


from


studi


including


their


own.


Figures


range


from


2.4%


with


an average


10.0%.


United


States


Department


Health,


Education,


Welfare


estimate of


incidence


extrafamilial


adoption


time of


study was


one


percent


(Simon


Sentura,


1966).


Adoptive


Parenting


Adoptive


parents


are


considerably


older


higher


socioeconomic


status


when


they


initially


become


parents


than


are


nonadoptive


parents


(Adamac,


1987


Bachrach,


1983;


Raynor,


1980


Ripple,


1968;


Starr


al. ,


1970).


large


study


adoptees


nonadoptees


ranging


in age


from


thirteen


parents more


twenty-one,

favorably


adoptive

on most


children


measures,


rated

most n


their


notably


protectively


concerned,


comforting,


and nurturance


(Marquis


fntlat-ta 4 1


1QRW~ (










parenting.


Most


frequently


noted


amongst


these


are


projection


inconsistent


genetic


deficiency,


disciplining,


ineffective


resistance


age-appropriate


differentiation


autonomy.


While


overwhelmingly


clinical


source,


these


report


are


suffi


ciently


pervasive


that


some


consideration


them


in order.


Deutsch


1945


Toussieng


1962)


are


amongst


those


noting


frequency


adoptive


parental


projection


incompetent,


especially


unsavory,


characteristics


their


children.


Toussieng


noted


clinical


examples


parents


having


determined


that


their


children


were


nonscholastic while


they were


preschoolers,


persevering


this


belief


despite


subsequent


evidence


contrary.


Deutsch


observes


mothers


projecting


lascivious


characteristics


their


adoptive


daughters,


a projection


Deutsch


believed


stemmed


from


their


own


repressed


tendencies.


Deutsch


was


joined by


Lawder


, Lower,


Andrews,


Sherman,


Hill


1969


Raynor


1980)


belief


that


such


projections


frequently


function


self-fulfilling


prophecies,


leading


to defiance,


excessive


sexuality,


violence.


Deutsch


believed


common


that


"this


behavior


mobilized


child


suggestive


force of


j-ric n nr'n1 nf


o-n m lana n


s-hit-


fnr~P


~nr7


ha ~vit ran


1


n r











Schechter


(1970)


attributed


inconsistent


discipline


above


projective


sources,


claiming


that


parental


anxiety


fantasy


about


their


child's


heritage


can


"create


tremendous


uncertainties


within


parents


causing,


times,


wide


swings


discipline


- from excessively


harsh


suppressive


to unrestrained,


provocative,


even


seductive

common (R


behavior


aynor,


toward


1980;


their


Rothenberg


children.

et al. ,


,, (p.

1971;


364).

Starr


More

et al.,


1970)


contention


that


ineffective


inconsistent


disciplining


related


to a deficiency


in parental


sense


entitlement


children.


As Rothenberg


reported


from


their


experience


with adoptive


parent


groups:


With


one group of


children


we could


parents
forsee


or very young
difficulties i


adopted
handling


parent-child


discipline
to tolerate


children.


child


because
hostile


This


continue


situations


they


had


such


already


or negative


a current


to love me?"


those


shown


expressions


group
1971,


theme:


involving
inability


from
"Will


their


592)


Given

histories


that


infertile


being


adoptive


childless


couples


have


reported


painful


prevalence


concern/projection


about


unstable


biological


parents,


surprising


that


they


are


frequently


fearful


resistant


when


adolescence


inaugurates


social


separation


process


(Schechter,


1970;


Starr


et al.,


1970;


Talen


Lehr,


1984).


common


belief


adoption writers


that


this


normal










The Genetic


Factor


Adoptive


studies


reveal


genetic


influences


least


equal


usually


considerably


stronger


than,


those of


adoptive

adoptive


environment.

custody was


Studies

achieved


reported

shortly a


are


after


ones


birth.


which

Domains


investigated


are


psychological


testing,


intelligence


testing,


psychopathology,


criminality.


large


studies


same


adoptive


population


Loehlin


al.,


1987;


Loehlin,


Wilderman,


Horn,


1985


indicate


a modest


genetic


factor


a negligible


environmental


one


in personality


development.


The


population


was


that


from a


single


private


agency.


Both


biological


and


adoptive


parents


were


primarily white


middle-class.


Parent,


adoptive


child,


and,


when


present,


biological


child


scores


the California


Psychological


Inventory


Thurstone


Temperament


Scale


(Thurstone,


1953


were


variously


child


correlated


initial


correlations


respectively:


Unrelated


scales


parent/biological


sibling


child


correlations


study.


Parent/adoptive


were


.02,


figures


were


were


.03,


respectively:


related


second


sibling


study,


figures


16PF


were


and


MMPI


.23.


were


, neI4-rnmani+


fDlanran '' r an'O /nrtn+- -1 TA


n~; 1


nC mn3El~r amnnC










Birthmothers


were


also


administered


MMPI;


correlation


between


their


scores


those


their


children


adopted


away


at birth


was


.18.


Scarr,


Webber,


Weinberg,


Wittig


(1981


measured


adoptive


families


extraversion-introversion


instruments;


(Eaves,


1973


Differential


Personality Questionnaire


(Tellegen,


A measure


trait


anxiety,


the Activities


Preference Questionnaire


(Lykken,


Tellegen,


Katzenmeyer,


1973)


was


additionally


employed,


correlations


three


instruments


combined.


Parent/adoptive


child


correlation


was


.06;


parent/biological


child


.20.


Utili


zing


same


procedures,


unrelated


sibling


correlation


was


.07;


related


sibling


.20.


Combining


figures


from


above


studies,


the mean


correlation


genetically


unrelated


persons


family


.04,


while


figure


genetically


related


.17.


Horn


1983


utilized


same


population


initial


personality


studies


discussed


above


in a


large


investigation


effects


of heredity


environment


development


intelligence.


Subjects


were


administered


age-appropriate


Adoptive


child,


Wechsler


parent/adopted


biological


child


performance

, adoptive


parent/adopted


subscales.

parent/nonadoptive


child


correlations were


Y*

TTnrlIt P+ir


ci hi inn


IA


SII


rlllr


n 17 ii










heredity was


environment,


approximately


and,


in cases


twice


that


a genetic


those


sharing


relationship,


there


was


no additive


effect


environment.


Major mental


illness


appears,


likewise,


to be more a


matter


genetic


than


environmental


transmission.


Wender,


Rosenthal,


and Ketz


1968)


found


that


schizophrenic


adoptive


parents


were


no more


likely


raise


schizophrenic


adoptees


than


were


nonschizophrenic


adoptive


parents.


Similarly,


Mendlewicz


bipolar


Rainier


adoptees


1977)


much more


found


likely


biological


suffer


parents


from


affective


disorders


than


adoptive


parents.


large


Danish


adoption


studies


(Baker,


1986;


Dusen


et al.,


1983)


attest


significance


of heredity


development


criminality


in males.


former


study


both


history


birthmother


property


birthfather


crime


were


antisocial


significant


disorder

the


development


these


respective


characteristics


their


adopted-away


significant


children.


relationship was


adoptive


that


parents


father


only


history


property


crime


to development


this


condition


son.


second


study


social


class


adoptive


biological


parents


were


approximately


equally


related


development

Neither


adoptee


property


personality


crime.


intelligence mean


nor mental










adopted away.


What


evidence


does


exist,


however,


suggests


that


areas


such


parents


(Bohman,


would


1981;


rate quite


Horn,


1983;


negatively


Raynor,


four


1980).


one


were


accept


proposition


genetic


deficiency


in Americans


whose


children are


adopted


away,


that


benevolent


environment


adoptive


home;


would not


latter would


apparent


have


what

the f


counterbalancing


ormer.


effect


Major mental


illness


appears


to be


strongly


related


to heredity


negligibly


associated


with


environment,


other


areas


interest


lack this


clarity


attribution.


With mean


correlations


considered


across


unrelated


family members


studies


family members


in personality


genetically


genetically


factors,


related


corresponding


figures of


respectively


intelligence,


effect


size


rates


vary


from mode


to miniscule:


.0016


environment


personality,


on personality,


.0256


.0289


environment


heredity


intelligence,


.0841


heredity


intelligence.


It can be


argued


that


coefficient


of determination


underestimates


influence


independent


upon


dependent


variables.


That


would appear


to be


case


this


instance,


and 11% of


in which


approximately


intelligence


was


personality


attri blutahl =


factors


to hPradi -v










What


figures


plain


that


with


environment


interpretation


varies


above


from approximately


strong


heredity


to much


weaker


than


heredity


development

as powerful


adoptee


as might


characteristics,


be desired


adoptive


is nowhere


parents


near


worried


about he

desirous


reditary


having


factors


from


children


unknown


who


resemble


progenitors,


themselves.


Summary


Psychometric


studies,


incidence


treatment


statistics,


clinical


observation


indicate


that


adopt

than


ees exhibit

those of th


developmental


general


failures


populace.


rates much


Particularly


higher


elevated,


especially


adopted


adolescents,


are


antisocial


characteristics,


delinquency,


including


aggressiveness,


hyperactivity,


youthful


juvenile


pregnancy,


adjustment


reactions.


Adoptive


parents


are


frequently


noted


to exhibit


behavior

general


Projection


sociopathi

excessive


believed


contributing


antisocial


inherited


nature;


resistance


to disturbed


characteristics


deficiencies,


inconsistent


to normal


development


specific.


especially


discipline,


independence


maturation


are


commonly


cited.


these


impressions


are almost


always


nn !l inical


observation.


however.


nv conclusion


h;r cP~










Finally,


heritability


studies


indicate


that


pathological


nonpathological


personality


characteristics,


intelligence,


criminality,


and major mental


illness


are moderately


related


to genetic


factors.


Taken as


a whole,


these


findings


suggest


that


adoptees


constitute


an at-risk


characteristics,


that


population


adoptive


antisocial


parenting may well


contributing


factor,


that


least


some of


difficulty


probably would


arise


under


even


most


optimal


adoptive


parenting


conditions.


Current


Adoptive


Issues


the discussion


adoption


across


time


culture


was


stated


that


much


can


understood


about


nature


adoption


continue


former


within a


protected


continuum,


culture


party


current


through


adoptee


American


analyst


identification.


adoptive


practice


are


strongly


(although,


can be


argued,


exclusively)


structured


protection and


benefit


adoptee


rather


than


adopter.


latter,


existing


structures


primarily


serve


adoptee


identification


with


adoptive


family,


although


several


trends


are


leading to more


balanced


identification


through


increased


adoptee


knowledge


contact


with


biological


family.


... -


following


three


issues


in American


doDtion are


a










societal


shifting


around


dimension


acceptance


adoptive

Means of


reality.

Transition


Close


unrelated


domestic


adoptions


pass


through


state


agencies.


This


percentage


varies


widely


from


state


to state,


varying


directly with


restrictions


on other


forms


adoption.


adoption are


permitted,


some s

state


states


agencies


which

may


other

place


forms

few


children


, and most


these will


have


been


taken


into


state


custody


Private


to parental


adoption


abuse or


agencies


neglect


function


(Adamec,


in several


1987).


ways.


Some


simply


facilitate


adoptions


already


arranged


between


birthmothers


which


extraagency


adoptive

adoption


parents,


primarily


illegal.


Others


states

work as


referral


services,


distributing


resumes


several


perspective adoptive


parents


to perspective


birthmothers,


then


decide


which


adoptive


applicants


adopt


their


babies.


This


latter


group


includes


"black market"


companies:


those which


are


given


or buy


babies


which


they


turn


sell


high


prices.


Finally,


those


states


permitting,


many


couples


locate


birthmothers


and arrange


adoption


themselves,


usually with


an intermediary


such


an attorney,


clergyman,


or physician.










QpeX


Versus


Closed Adoption


Guarantee


anonymity


certification


child


normality,


policies


designed


to protect


adoptive


parents


from


intrus


birthmothers


adopting


a defective


child


respectively,


remained


standard


adoptive


practice


until


1970s


(Schwartz,


1984).


Newborns


were


placed


foster


homes,


where


they were


tested


abnormalities


characteristics


on which


they


could


be optimally matched


with


prospective


adoptive


parents.


Parents


received


their


tested and


certified


child


with


an altered birth


certificate,


original


identifying


data


remaining


legally


sealed


under


governmental


control.


Current


practice,


although


varying widely


from


state


state,


changed


considerably


over


past


two decades.


Testing,


especially matching,


proved


unreliable,


changing


nurturing


figures


was


frequently


traumatic


both


child and


adoptive


parents


(Raynor,


1980;


Schwartz,


1984).


And,


although


legal


proceedings


remain


sealed


from


public,


varying


degrees


communication


and/or


contact


between


birthmothers


and


adoptive


parents,


sometimes


including


children


themselves,


is common,


sometimes


demanded by


adoptive


institutions.


The ev

refer red


olving practice


I.~t-J nfl


communication


"onaFn d i "tn


, I l


1 Ir I


and/or

1 anrnmark


contact

ar ti ni s










placement
nurturing
continuing


process,
rights t
contact


relinquish


the
and


child,


all
but


legal,
retain


to knowledge


moral
the


right


child's


whereabouts


welfare.


In practice,


continuum


openness


attitude


is most


behavior.


accurately perceived as


ramifications


various


with


sorts


the majority


degrees


openness


writers


remain


agencies


in contention,


finding


least


some


communication meritorious.


traditional


practice


no contact


specific


information


been


founded


analytic


principles.


Adoptive


parents,


was


argued,


need


feel


entitled


their


children


authentic


their


role


parents.


Birthmothers,


to go


on with


their


lives,


need


to achieve


unambiguous


separation


from


their


offspring


possible.


Adoptive


children


need


single


pair


parental


images,


both


their


security


their


development


perceptions


people


complex but


integrated.


these


are


mitigated


against


system and


conceptualization


shared


parenthood.


Kraft


1985),


frequently


cited


article


both


theoretic

adoption


clinical


practices.


They


in basis,


saw


strongly


reluctance


support

adoptive


closed

parents


to maintain


contact


with


birthmothers


a healthy


impulse


serving the


intrapsychic


process


attachment


child.











agency


implication


that


such


contact


is owed


birthmother


further


erodes


adoptive


parental


sense


entitlement


full


parenthood.


Rothenberg


(1971),


writing


from


their


experience


independent


experience


child


observation


guidance


equally


center,


expressed


in support


closed


position.


They


reported


a prevalence of


tentativeness


and


apprehension


adoptive


parenting,


a condition


which


they


feel


could


only


be worsened


continual


reminder


their

the s


lack


uperficial


biological

informati


relationship.


about


In addition,


birthmothers


even


provided


adoption agencies


intensify


years


fantasies


seemed


genetic


sufficient


defectiveness


to create


their


clients.


given


The

the


parents

choice,


who come


their


they would have


bee


center

n told


state

nothing


that,

q about


birthmother.


Open


adoption,


though


less


consistently


rooted


theory


than


closed,


generally promoted


through


Ericksonian


view


development


identity.


Identity


seen


forming,


primarily


during


turbulence


adolescence,


through


individual's


developing


sense


personal


cultural


continuity.


When


person's


origins


are


clouded


secrecy


shame,


a cohesive


sense


self


Iinl 4 Vo T7


~~~It L~ '1-.4 'I,


trnfl P10 1n fl


A onrocc4 n n r


rm no


pI n r i


;In


1-










stated


that


development


of a healthy


"genetic


ego"


adoptees


precluded


traditional


lack


information


they


have


about


their


biological


parents.


This


absence


combines


with


adoptee's


knowledge


rejection


birthmother


creation


a negative


self-image.


Open


advocates


claim


that


reality


biological


parenthood


perseveres


the minds


many


particulars


whatever


procedures


are


used


suppress


Both


adopted


children


Dukette,


1984)


and


birthmothers


(Sorosky

knowledge


Birthmothers


al. ,

and


1974


interest


prefer


open


frequently


their


to closed


spontaneously

biological r


adoption,


express


relationships.


a number


unwed mothers


would


choose


open


adoption


while


closed


alternative


them


unimaginable


(Baran


1976;


Helwig


Ruthven,


1990).


Perhaps

claim that o


more


point,


penness


concerns


open


better


of Kraft


adoption pr

concerned.


1985),


less


opponentss

Contrary


fear


negative


fantasy


regarding


birthmother


found


open


than


1987;

that


closed


Sorosky

adoptive


adoption


al.,


parents


(Baran


1975.

work


al.,


Helwig

through


1976;


Ruthven


their


Chapman


(1990)


infertility


al .,


found

issues


more


easily under


open


adoption


conditions.


They


also


found


that


birthmothers


become 1


overwhelmed


by mourning,


loss,


al.,










feel


considerably


less


rejected


under


conditions


least


some


contact


with


their


birthmothers


(Baran


al.,


1976


"Telling"


instances


adoption


of older


children,


interracial


adoption,


some


forms


open


adoption


there


no need


to disclose


adoptive


aspect


parent-child


apparent


relationship


children.


because


On most


eventually


occasions,


becomes


however,


adoptive


parents


are


confronted


with


issue


of when,


how


extensively,


factually


acquaint


their


children


with


nature


their


biological


origins


the means


reasons


their


adoption.


first


half


this


century


was


common


parents


status


simply


(Krugman,


to never tell


1964).


children


Clinical


their


accounts


adoptive


clients


traumatized by


belated


discovery


their


adoption


began


accumulate,


however,


until


both


therapist


adoption


worker


communities


came


to believe


that


this


practice


needed


to be eliminated.


What

parents w


resulted


ere


was


instructed


several


decades


to discuss


adoption


which

n with


adoptive

their


children


very young


age.


Parents


were


advised


"introduce


word


'adoption'


their vocabulary


affection


even


when


their


baby


- -


too


vounq


to understand










told


over


over


again.


" (Rothenberg


al. ,


1971).


Even most


the members


Panel


on Adoption


1966


American


Psychoanalytic


Association


Meeting,


whose


dynamic orientation


would


seem


to be


odds


with


disclosure


of dual


children


parenthood


their


an early


age,


adoption


recommended


three


(Wieder,


telling


1977).


There


research


as well


clinical


support


discussing


adoption


an early


age.


A study


which


emotional


adjustment


Scottish


adults


who


been


adopted


was


related


to communication


patterns


their


adoptive


homes


concluded


that


children


should


told


before


age of


rigorous


five


(McWhinnie,


study


1967).


British


unusually


adult


adoptees


extensive


their


adoptive


parents


(Raynor,


1980)


found


that


later


telling


adoption

parents


often


happens


revealing


under n

adoption


negative circumstances

in anger or outsiders


such as

being


communicating


agent.


Those


who were


told


later


childhood


sometimes


reported


being


hurt


the disclosure,


while


this


was


never


occasion


those


told


younger.


An unfortunate


common aspect


early


telling


been


use


of mythical


idealized


explanation.


Raynor


1980)


found


that


British


social


workers


late


1940s


early


1950s


were


encouraging


found


woods"


cnr~r*


c-nri 0C


-wns mv-hhc


mnsct


'1 .l~rP~T II I ,


I l


r i


I E|I--










you.


" (Kirk,


1959;


Toussieng,


1962),


"Your


birthmother


gave


love.


" (Helwig


Ruthven,


1990;


Pannor


al.,


1978).


chose


you.


" story


attacked


analytically


oriented

implying


writers


rescue,


(Deutsch,


1945;


therefore


Toussieng,

birthmother


1962


equalling


annihilation and


a grave debt


owed


rescuers.


most


benign,


these are


tales


geared


youth


their


audiences,


whose


veracity


comes


into question


children mature

birthmothers wh


(Helwig


o gave


Ruthven,


their


1990


children


In a


(Pannor


study c

et al.,


1978)


overwhelmingly


frequent


reason


given


was


that


they


were


unmarried


wanted


their


child


to have a


family.


The


authors


seem


express


a common


sentiment


in believing


this


to be


an appropriate


as well


accurate explanation


to make


to adoptees.


A countermovement


against


early


discussion


adoption


began


to be


heard


the early


1960s.


Coming


from


analytical


perspective,


these


writers


(Andrews,


1978;


Krugman,


1962;


1964;


Wieder


Lawder,


, 1977)


1969;


expressed


Schechter,


concern


1970;


that,


Toussieng,


with


knowledge


having


sets


parents,


children


told


their


adoption


prior


to Oedipal


resolution are


prone


separation


of qood


parental


images,


with


subsequent











difficulties


integration,


including


that


forming


cohesive


self-images.


According


to Freud


adoption


fantasies,


allowing


splitting


"good"


"bad"


parental


characteristics,


are


common


in all


children


during


the Oedipal


stage,


fading


fantasy


signifies


incorporation


characteristics


both


valences


into


single


entity.


apparent


such


resolution


could


thwarted


knowledge

compelling


dual


parenthood.


psychoanalytic


case


Wieder


studies


1977)


strong


presented

ly suggesting


that


being told


adoption at


or three


can


contribute


to negative


self-image


split


parent


images,


to an


insecurity


child's


future


family


characterized


a hostile-dependent


relationship with


adoptive mother.


The common

frequently also


instruction


began


to discuss


to be challenged.


adoption


Peller


(1961),


inaugural


repeated


article


allusion


this


child'


countertrend,


s adoption


stated:


can


"The


achieve mainly


one


thing:


convey


child


that


really


stranger


family"


147).


Miall


1987


Schechter


(1970


identified


persistent


telling


adoption as


a counterphobic mechanism


serving


to deny


- 2 .ff r - a-s


~,,,


--------











biological


parenthood.


Continued


telling


thus


felt


to be


both


destructive


self-serving.


Between


the early


practice


total


secrecy


more


recent


advice


to deluge


children


with


their


adoptive


history


there


seems


to have


emerged a more


consistent


voice,


least


adoption


amongst


scholars,


in nature and


emotional


advocate


quantity


development


disclosure


suitable


the child.


cognitive


Deutsch


(1945


Schechter


1970


likened


dialogue


about


adoption


that


about


sex


a process


which


complexity


emotionality


discussion


increases


with


maturity


the child.


Specifically,


been


noted


(Andrews


, 1978;


Wieder,


1977


that


an attempt


to explain


infertility to


young


children


can


lead


their


identifying


their parents


To put


as defective,


issue


fragile,


perspective,


or even


discreet


transitory.


behaviors


such


which adoption


initially


discussed


seem


certainly


less


significant


than


manner


which


discussion


other


sensitive


interactions


are


managed


the parents.


As Andrews


1978)


stated:


less


which a


child


begins


learn


of his


adoption


than


feelings


behind


choice


of words


that


creates


psychological


problems"


321).


as Krugman


1964


,~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ .. a. .-


''


r\


1


r


y *" I











entitlement


their


children


secure


will


damage


their


children


Some


whenever


final


however


notes


they


go about


process


"telling"


adoptive


disclosure:


difficult


frightening


parents.


Rothenberg


1971


noted


their


adoptive


parent


discussion


groups:


parent


come


to our


group


secure


about


handling


timing


or the


presentation


information"


85).


apparently


differ markedly


common


their memory


parents


what


children


specific matters


have


been


discussed


satisfied


children have


been


with


comprehensiveness


information


given.


Jaffee


(1974)


Raynor


1980),


in large


studies


interviewing


grown


adoptees


and


their parents,


both


found


lack


agreement


"striking"


with


parents


remembering


having


told


more and


answered


questions more


completely.


Finally,


a study


based


around


interviewing


both


adopted


and nonadopted


children


different


ages


(Brodzinsky


et al.,


1984)


revealed


that


the majority


adopted


children


below


age 6


cannot


differentiate


between


adoption


birth


as paths


to parenthood.


More


surprisingly,


children averaged


given age


close


adopted


same


and nonadopted

their understanding


-- --










about


adoption


than


objective


information


which


children


learn


in the


"telling"


"Searching"


The most


emotionally


debated


adoption


issue


past


decade


gain


been


legal


that


access


involving


their


adult


original


adoptees


birth and


attempting to


adoption


records


without


acquiescence


either


their


birthmothers


their


adoptive


parents.


Some


states


are


routinely


currently

adoptees.


common,


transplanting


unsealing


phenomenon


contention


infants


records


to petitioning


searching


Sorosky


with


becomes


1975),


no planning


adult


more


that


eventual


discovery


their


origin


does


provide


sense


completeness,


becomes


increasingly


obvious.


Sorosky


supported


rights


adoptees


their


birth


records


service


their


sense


identity,


noting


that


need


track


down


birthparents


felt most


urgently


those


with


rejecting


uncommunicative


adoptive


parents,


or those


with


somewhat


tenuous


senses


self.


surprisingly,


Guilio


(1987)


found


a modest


positive


relationship


between


adoptive


parental


acknowledgement


differences


between


adoptive


and biological


parenting,


previously


found


to relate


I;~


,-,nmrnhlfl, nn~I-4 nfl


nn~; C; tr~l~r ~n


nnran~~l


am n s ~ h II










their


children


around


adoptive


issues


(Kirk,


1964),


support


adult


adoptee


access


sea


records.


An apparently


unequivocal


finding


that


searching


behavior


relates


positively


to disturbed


relationships


within


adoptive


family


and/or


developmental


disturbance


searcher


(Andrews,


1978;


Aumend


Barrett,


1984;


Isaac,


1965;


Raynor,


1980


Shireman


Johnson,


1986;


Sorosky


et al.,


1974).


Disturbed


family


relations,


lack


family


openness,


adoptee


dissati


sfaction


with


self,


adoptee


identity problems,


previous


adoptee


behavior


personality problems


are


among


correlates


cited.


More


seven


re characteristic


noted


in searchers


are


intense


feelings


separation and depression


stemming


from


abandonment


fantasy


perpetual


searching


always


stopping


In a


short


rare


reunion


empirical


Sorosky


study


al.,


comparing


1975


searching


nonsearching


adult


adoptees,


Aumend


and Barrett


1984


found


nonsearchers


better


adjusted


in all


areas


examined;


self-concept,


overall


happiness,


attitude


towards


parents,


quality


adoptive


experience.


This


seemingly


universal


finding


of more disturbance


lives


searching


than


those


nonsearching


adult


adoptees


does


lead


writers


to conclude


that


searching


should


be discouraged.


leaallv


or otherwise.


rP a~ nn


t J I










searchers


a primarily


disturbed


population.


More


point,


when


searching


does


have


frenzied


or compulsive


aspect,


the disturbance


can


shown


to predate


search.


Montalvo


conference on


1978),


family


opening


child


comments


placement


a national


practices,


searching


process


into


perspective


larger


context


adoptive


even


nonadoptive)


parenting.


"We may


find"


, he


said,


less


"that


critical


issue


than


'compulsive'


difficulties


identity


involved


search


establishing


intrafamilial


boundaries


developing


optimal


conditions


raising


children.


287).


Summary


Recent


trends


in adoption


have


been


toward


greater


openness


honesty.


two continue


analysis,


this


change


signifies


increasing


protection and


concern


adoptees


an attempt


to balance


adoptees'


identity


through


increased


knowledge


sometimes


contact


with


their


birthmothers.


institutionalization


adoptions


varying


degrees


openness


allows


both


birthmothers


adoptive


parents


select


arrangements


with


which


they


are


comfortable.


prescription


of honest


age-appropriate


discussion


adoption


adoption


writers


highly


encouraging,


although


extent


to which


this


turn,


recommended


dootion


workers


or out


into


practice


v- V











success


origins


searching


meeting


adult


their


adoptees


birthmothers


in uncovering


marks


their


significant


albeit


belated


breakthrough


their


achievement


identity.


seems


to be generally


hoped


that


increased


openness


adoptive


process


will


mean


only


greater


ease


success


adult


adoptees


uncovering


their


origins,


also


fewer


adoptees


needing


to do


so.


above


are


not


only


current


significant


issues


adoptive


policy


practice,


were


selected


focus


because


their


relationship


to openness


honesty.


Other


current


significant


adoptive


issues,


in no particular


order


importance,


are


American


adoption


foreign


children.


somet imes


adoptees


argued,


in a


especially


stressful


foreigners,


situation


that


robs


this


them


puts


their


heritage.


Subsidizing


birthmothers.


states


allow


prospective


adoptive


parents


to cover


birthmother medical


expenses.


Some


also


allow the


payment


living


expenses,


including


spending money.


sometimes


argued


that


such


payment


amounts


"black market"


adoption,


whether


done


individually,


through


an agency,


"business"


S: S A I~t1


L,,,S


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1'1


r ;*I










viable


pregnancies


previously


infertile,


many


patients


have


found


them


emotionally


physically


wrenching,


expensive,


Subsidized


ultimately


adoption.


Payment


futile.


parents


hard-to-place


been


practice


children


tentatively


could


been


tried.


temporal


proposed


Another way


stabilization


decades,


considering this


foster


placement.


Adoption


of black


babies


by whites.


argument


similar


that


against


foreign


adoption,


usually


voiced by


blacks.


Theories


of Adoptee


Vulnerability


Psychodynamic


analytic


frame


reference


dominated


adoptive


theory


through


1950s.


From infertility through


parenting


adolescent


adoptees,


adoptive


parents,


especially mothers,


were


seen


frequently vulnerable


interplay


traumatic


events


unresolved


conflicts


subverting


their


development


parenthood


performance


parenting.


Dynamic


result


"Has


theory


female


fear


posits


fear


that


infertility


resistance.


reproductive


function


frequently


Questions


proved


such


stronger


t-h~n


h~r wni r~h


1-n 1,0 mnthnf~hr


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cqn mriih


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s. r ilr


<-










397)


suggest


that


female


factors


prior


infertility


frequently


further


compromise


both


infertility


parenting.


Pregnancy


self


a narcissistic


reinvested


state;


idealized


one


object.


in which


Infertility


correspondingly,


a narcissistic mortification;


one which


both


contorts


body


image


into


something


disgusting


defective


and,


in some women,


raises


fears


ranging


from


castration


to annihilation


(Kraft


al.,


1980).


Those


women


envy


unable


them their


to heal


their wounds


children.


Upon


hate


fertile


adoption


women and


child


becomes


an omnipresent


reminder


woman's


own


failure


success


beginning


others.


envy


ambivalent


converts


attachment


reaction


which,


when


formation,


threatening


to break


into maternal


awareness,


frequently


suppressed


excessive


age-inappropriate


coddling


protection


the child.


As mentioned


Oedipal


previously,


resolution


a critical


development


episode


object


in both


constancy


"family


children


romance"


typically


come


(Freud,


1977).


to believe


that


around


their


actual


three,

parents


are


like a


fairy


tale


couple who will


one


appear


take


them


land


and


life


wonder


wealth


which


their


due.


Resolution


this


fantasy


hindered


rL,


w ----


v


L h










child develops,


mother


fears


that


the child


is defective,


converting


the causal


factor


from her


own


negative


body


image


to sexual


aggress


ive


tendencies


inherited


projections

(Deutsch, 1


from


are


945;


birthparents.


reattributions


Schneider


Rimmer,


Typically,


these


own repressed


1984).


impulses


The weaker


incest


taboo


in adoptive


than


biological


relationships


deters


parental


creates


adopted


another


child


communication


source


acts


on maturational


projection.


parental


issues


Typically,


projections,


while

the


least


partly


loyalty


as a means


aligning with


maligned


birthparents.


adoptive mother,


whose


trauma


being


unable


to procreate


evolved


into a


fear


of being


deserted,


now


finds


ample


justification


fears


in her


child's


attitudes


behaviors.


common


belief,


supportive


the dynamic


position,


that


adoptive


pregnancy


parents


shortly


afte


frequently

r adoption,


are

the


able


adoption


achieve

g signifying


society'


(and


thus


their


own


parents'


belief


that


they


deserve


parenthood.


Salzer


1986)


found


that


this


actually


occurs


in only


five


percent


cases,


eroding


this


cornerstone


dynamic


position.


More


instrumental


than


research


the waning


nt al a f a'F C


n~ nnCaa


~r ntt Flkn~tr n am; a


; n F1 rr an nn


3knrrC










1950s


1960s


was


position


similar


that


of much


psychology;


an area


focus


ready


competing


paradigms.


Role Theory


initial


comprehensive


challenge


to the


analytic


position


on adoptee


sociologist


vulnerability was


Kirk.


made


theoretical


1964


framework


with


which Kirk


operated


was


role


theory.


William James


is generally


credited


first


role


philosopher.


social


self


James,


1892),


one


James


four


components


personality,


recognition


which


comes


from


others,


especially


one


s peers.


James


stated


that


groups


a person's


whose


social


opinion


self


as many


individual


forms


covets.


there


The


social


are


self


referred


to as


"role"


subsequent


writers.


concept


role


is entertained


three


levels


analysis:


individual


personality


subgroup,


societal


(Neiman


Hughes,


1951).


individual


level,


personality


sum and


organization


roles.


In a


single group,


role


dynamic


aspect


one's


status;


what


transforms


one


position


into


behavior.


Finally,


societal


level,


role


sum of


one's


subgroup


roles


modified by the


person


s ability to


shift


perspective


Writ


ers


acknowledge


inner


processes


, nl 7i dual1~


snIIal-p


~nrrS


mis


ci mn1 v wi th


nDRl-tprn










The most


central


issue


role


theorists


been


that


of societal


versus


individual


determination,


represented


schools


structuralism and


interactionalism


respectively.


structuralist


extreme


uniqueness


individual


submerged


or not


even


recognized;


interactionalist,


roles


are


fluid


or even


evanescent.


Role


theory


lacks


specificity,


predictability,


consensus


most


orientations.


Wrightsman and


Deaux


(1981


described


loosely


linked


network


of hypotheses


a set


rather


broad


constructs"


(pps.13-14).


such,


is probably


something


better co

cohesive


nsidered a


as a


frame


theory.


analysis


Nonetheless,


than

there


exist


certain


commonalities


across


role


theorization.


Significant


amongst


those germane


adoptive


theory


are


Roles


are externally,


or perceived


as externally,


dictated;


Some


an individual


s roles


may


conflict


with


others


them;


To be


integrated,


a role


needs


to reaffirm


individual's


sense of


self.


summary,


role


theory


highly


societal,


behavioral,


contemporaneous;


individual,


dynamic,


certainly


antithesis


developmental


theory


the

attempted


I-tn cn nnl .an*- _






Page
Missing
or
Unavailable











Enchantment


versus


disenchantment


- Idealization


adoption


alternative


acceptance


light


best


infertility.


Integration


versus


differentiation


- The


nonadoptive


nuclear


child's


family model


biological


acknowledgement


relationships.


Ignorance


versus


knowledge


Avoiding


seeking


information


about


child's


blood relations.


Reproductive


morals


versus


respect


individual


personality


- The dilemma


when


child


illegitimate.


The above


deficiencies


conflicts


comprise


core


Kirk's


basic


concept


role


handicap;


i.e.,


societal


constraints


upon


normalization


the adoptive


situation,


and,


less


directly,


source


anxiety


contributor


maladjustment


adopted


child.


The difficulties


engendered


this


role


handi


cap work


towards


a repression,


suppression,


or distortion


adoptive experience


"rejection


adopters,


differences"


a position


Kirk


(between biological


terms


and


adoptive


parenthood),


or RD.


above dichotomies,


enchantment,


integration,


ignorance,


reproductive


morals


would


be RD


stances.


Associated


behaviors


include


deflection


-1 4 L.i. 1


- l a..


LL LL


r











such as


other


parents


adoptive


having


families


"chosen"


or the


child's


child,


and avoidance


birthmother.


Opposed


this


entrenched


stance


impulse


accurately


integrate


adoptive


experience


into


family


history


despite


role


handicap,


a position


which Kirk


calls


"acknowledgement


referred


this


differences"


investigation as


(AD),


which


"acceptance of


adoptive


reality"


above


dichotomies,


disenchantment,


differentiation,


knowledge,


respect


individual


personality


celebration


are AD positions.


adoption,


Behaviors


open


such


discussion


annual


adoption


with


child


and with


outsiders,


contact with


birthmother,


and


seeking


and maintaining


relationships


with


other


adoptive


families


are


indicative


an AD response


challenges


adoption.


Kirk


believed


acknowledgement


position helped


families


Kirk


adjust


predicted


that


their


situation.


openness


societal


education about


level,


adoption


would


decrease


the degree of


role


handicap associated


with


adoption.


Amongst


Kirk's


findings


substantiating


positive effects


acknowledgement


(Kirk,


1964)


are


associated


positively with


empathy with


adoptee.













is associated


with


readiness


think


about


child's


birthparents.


AD and


empathy


are


both


related


to adopters


believing


that


their


situation


especially


satisfying


some ways.


Support


Kirk's


conceptualization


adoptee


vulnerability


come


from various


research


efforts


and


clinical


observations.


The


strong


preference of


adopters


Carroll,


1967;


Leahy,


1933


, especially more


traditional


adopters


(Dembroski


Johnson,


1969)


female


adoptees su

attributed

bloodlines)


Lpports Kir

to greater

in more t


protection and


support


k's


rol


similar fi

e handicap


traditional


adopted


nding,

(conce


groups.


children


which Kirk

rn with

he excessive


in blended


families


(Ternay,


Wilborn,


Day,


1984)


supports


Kirk's


contention


handicap.


this


Talen and


being


Lehr


situation


1984)


of extreme


found


role


parents


symptomatic


Deutsch


adoptees


(1945)


very


Toussieng


secretive


(1962)


about


believe


adoptive


that


issues.


"chosen


child"


myth


is damaging to


child.


The general


rubric


that


adoptive


parents


should


respect


the characteristics


their


children


Kirk's most


accented


prescription,


probably


Kirk's most


consistently


n, YL:I11S


-I 1-a.


- -- a L~ e wr a a


SA n 4 r -4 an*


L.tr:


L,'IIC











by parents


force


adoptees


to be


"like


one


who might


have


been


born


them"


single most


damaging


parental


behavior


or characteristic.


least


as convincing


empirical


support


however,


been


contrary


evidence.


Carroll


(1967)


hypothesized


positively with


measured


that A

mental


Tennessee


D orientation


health


Self-Concept


would


prospect


Scale.


correlate

ve adopters


The opposite


turned


out


to be


case.


Krugman


1964),


extensive


clinical


experience


with adoptive


parents


their


3-to-7-year-old


biological


children,


background


found


that


information


"washing


child


was


out"


part


process


the achievement


reality


adoptive


parenting,


and a


condition which


contributed


to successful


parenthood.


The empirical


findings most


damaging


to Kirk's


theory


come


from an


interview study


forty


adoptive


blended


families with


teenage


children


(Kaye


Warren,


1988).


Children measuring


self-esteem or with a


history


developmental


difficulties


revealed


higher


levels


discomfort

difference


with adoptive discussion,


between adoptive


more


and biological


sense


families


the

, and


more


frequent


thinking


about


birthmothers


than


those


C q n-! -S --


m


--


L


^













Research


clinical


findings


contrary


those


predicted


Kirk


should


automatic


ally


challenge


entire


theory.


Kaye


Warren


1988


found


that


position


correlated


positively


with


education,


suggesting


possibility


that


education


primary


relationship


that


correlation


to pathology


spurious.


Perhaps


a more


compelling


conceptualization


suggested


frequent


clinical


observation


that


needs


unmet


issues


remain


unaddressed


significant.


appropriate


Perhaps


developmental


"washing


out 1


stages


adoptive


focus


noted


Krugman


1964)


healthy


adoptive


families


product


resolved


earlier,


adoptive


issues


adoptive


having


focus


been


found


addressed


Kaye


Warren


teenagers


residue


avoidance


delicate


topics


an earlier


age.


Whatever


state


evidence


contradicting


Kirk,


Kirk


position


remains


a vital


theory


adoptee


vulnerability


adoptive


principle


reasons.


by many


First,


adoptive


writers


accepted a

Brodzinski


al.,


1984;


Carroll,


1967


Chapman


al.,


1987;


DiGiulio,


al.,


1987;


1971).


Hoffman-Riem,


Elements


1986;


are


Miall, 1

variously


987;


Rothenberg


disputed,


remains


singular


comprehensive


theory


adoptee


Tn1flnrqh Ih itv~v











adoption


supported,


sometimes


quite


forcefully,


workers who make

Acceptance of th


adoptive rec

differences


commendations


between


adoptive


decisions.

and


biological


parenting


willingness


to establish


communication


critical


or contact


factor


with a


ability


birthmother


of a couple


can


to be granted a


child.


Crisis


Theory


Crisis


theory


rooted


psychodynamic


concept


signal


anxiety,


situation


in which


child


learns


anticipate a


potentially


traumatizing


situation and


react


with anxiety


Thus


although


before


psychological


resulting


devastation


reaction may


can


be both


occur.


painful


disorienting,


anxiety


operates


in defense


the ego.


The concept


the developmental


crisis


evolved


from


life


cycle


model


Erickson


1950).


Erickson


posited


eight


stages


transition


psychosocial


next


stage


development,


involving


with


both


each


challenge


loss.


Since


successful


transition


next


stage


assured,


each


change


point


presents


both


promise


more mature


fulfillment


threat


thwarted


passage,


resulting


Lindemann


stagnation


provided


initial


or even


regression.


disaster


counterpart


Sm m 0


I-'----~~~~,,,L, *,3 A


L ..


r_ n..l


t,


I:











severity


grieve


them.


bereavement


deceased,


Lindemann


also


was


thus


inversely


weaken


refined


related


to ability


emotional


concept


bondage


individual


vulnerability


to a


particular


crisis


to personality


factors,


and,


like


Erickson,


stated


that


the outcome


crisis


frequently


leads


to either


a more


generalized


mastery,


case


failure,


a more


serious


impairment.


Caplan


1964


pioneered


crisis


orientation


domain


public


health.


Working


Harvard


School


Public


Health


1950s


1960s,


Caplan developed


concept


"acute


situational


disorder"


Caplan


found


that


this


crisis


state could be


superimposed


on an


otherwise


generally


therefore


healthy


better


personality.


directed


Treatment,


acute


Caplan


reaction


reasoned,


condition


than


a presupposed


underlying


pathology.


Although


"The


parameters


are


probably


broad


and


amorphous


to grant


recognition


as a systematic


theory


sense


being


an internally


consistent


body


verified


fairly


hypotheses"


consistent


(Golan,


body


1986),


of hypotheses


there does


around


exist


nature


course


sis.


They


are,


in order


A period


I\ h, --


increased


stress.


--- ..1I-


* r r -Ir -










The crisis


situation may


become


linked


to previously


unresolved


conflicts.


Because


recompensatory measures


ineffectiveness


in addressing


past


threat,


individual


tends


to be


amenable


to help,


reconceptualization,


change.


Thus


personal


growth


chronic


impairment


are


both


potential


outcomes.


Crisis


treatment


psychotherapy.


takes

the


basic


former,


forms;


recompensation


situational


stressor


focused


goal


being


restore


client


previous


level


functioning.


latter,


therapist


takes


advantage of


temporary weakness


characterological


defense mechanisms


to help develop a


stable


pattern


with


less


rigid


defenses


than


prior


crisis.


The choice


between models


needs


to be predicated


upon


client


strength,


frequently


a difficult


commodity


to gauge


uncharacteristic


crisis


condition.


Infertility


as crisis.


Infertility


functionally


defined as


inability


to achieve


pregnancy


resulting


live


birth after


a year


noncontraceptive


sexual


relations


(Menning,


1977;


Porter


Christopher,


1984).


Menken,


Trussell,


Larsen


1986),


however,


noted


that


this


currently


accepted


definition


should not


cause


undue


alarm


v-v -r -r et .- ar -~ *


S


t.t; ck; 1I1


CLI: 1~)3


L L L~ C ~


L, *..~


r


n ~r


r.rk











only


4.6%


total


sample


was


unable


to eventually


procreate.


Infertility


currently


afflicts


approximately


American


couples


(Chapman


al.,


1987;


Cook,


1987;


Higgins,


1990;


Kraft


al.,


1980;


Matthews


Matthews,


1986a;


Matthews


Matthews,


1986b;


Menning,


1977;


Porter


Christopher,


1984).


rate


infertility


been


found


to have


held


constant


(Menken


, 1986


increased


somewhat


(Matthews


Matthews,


1986a)


over


recent


decades.


Primarily


responsible


there


being


improvement


overall


infertility picture


despite modern medical


procedures


are


use


birth


control,


especially


IUD' s;


delayed


attempting


initial


pregnancy;


increased


rates


venereal


disease;


infection


from abortion


(Matthews


Matthews,


1986b;


Menken


et al. ,


1986;


Menning,


1977).


Almost


researchers


agree


that


infertility


nearly universally


disturbing


frequently


traumatic


life


event.


Valentine


1986),


in-depth


interview


study,


identified

confusion,


feelings


desperation,


sadness,

hurt, f


depression,


ear,


anger,


embarrassment,


humiliation,


behaviors


exhaustion,


disappointment,


such


and


as disorganization,


moodiness,


unfulfillment;


distractibility,


unpredictability,


obsessive


I I 1


I II I


1' '


r 1 I


I'










Infertility


not


only


hugely


disappointing,


also almost


always


personally


devastating.


Menning


(1977)


quoted a


woman


in a


common


reaction


to discovering


infertility:


mutually


"The


words


exclusive.


'infertile'


could


be either


'woman'


infertile


seemed


or a woman


both


'I (p.


The developmental


crisis


stage


resolution model


developed


Kubler-Ross


1969)


terminally


become


primary


pattern


analysis


for the


resolution of


infertility.


The Kubler-Ross


progression


that


from


denial


isolation,


anger,


to bargaining


(with


fate),


to reactive


depression,


final


acceptance.


Menning


(1977)


pioneered


this


conceptualization


for the


understanding


treatment


infertility,


ending


long


era


in which


infertility


issues,


though


minimized


in the


literature,


were


never


comprehensively


analyzed.


Menning's


progression


from surprise,


to denial,


isolation,


anger,


to guilt,


prototype


to depression,


similar


resolution


resolution


infertility


served


sequence


models


(Harkness


, 1987;


Matthews


Matthews,


1986a;


Porter


Christopher,


1984;


Renne,


1977


Salzer,


1986;


Shapiro,


1982).


Althou

^cr~tnc nf


systematic


i nfP rl-i 11


TrV 1e Qw -


analysis

i-ho a


psychological


I *1 E


th sr t


'~rPnPeC










poignant


perspective


psychoanalysis:


"For


during


period


mourning


even


the woman's


own


children are


deprived


love


exposed


painful


silent


reproach:


"Why


instead


other?'"


. 415).


Absence


feeling


of entitlement


to a


child


Carroll,


1967),


lack


openness


in discussing


sexual


matters

1990),


and

and


general


fear


sense


eventual


inadequacy

abandonment


(Helwig

by the


Ruthven,


child


(Sorosky


al.,


1975)


are


among


more


specific


common


consequences


adopting


before


a primary


resolution


infertility trauma.


Menning


1977)


stated


that


resolution


infertility


never


absolute;


that,


like


other major


trauma


loss,


infertility


causes


pain


uncertainty which


will


periodically


reappear


in manageable


levels


even


those


who


have


done


their


grief


work well.


question,


then,


how


satisfactorily,


rather


than


how totally,


grieving


couple


dealt


with


loss.


Adoption


researchers


indicate


that


couples


frequently


adopt


before


they


are


emotionally


ready


Some


parents


adopt


in reaction


to miscarriage,


death


a child,


or discovery


infertility


a means


escaping mourning


through


denial


replacement


(Kraft


al.,


1980;


Talen


Lehr,


1984).


In other


cases


couples


,


adopt


in the mistaken


folk











child


serving


an omnipresent


reminder


parents'


failure


(Deutsch,


1945


Schneider


Rimmer,


1984;


Toussieng,


1962


Medical


advances


in recent


years


have


to biological


parenthood


for many


couples


for which


this


would


have


not


been


possible


in an


earlier


age.


These medical


procedures


have


also,


in numerous


cases,


prolonged and


exacerbated


adaptation


includes


infertility.


psychologically


Medical


invasive


infertility


procedures


treatment


such


repeated analysis


genitalia,


production


sperm samples


on a


regular


basis,


medical


investigation


within


two


hours


intercourse,


male's re

(Matthews


attempted


cently produced


Matthews,


artificial


sperm,


1986b).


semination


coitis


Repeated


with


interruptus


surgical


procedures


can mean,


as a husband


described


his wife,


"she


looks


like


these


zippers


when


takes


top off"


(Daly,


1988).


common


dilemma


expressed


interview quoted


Daly


in which


woman


stated:


"Four years


knowing.


think


would


easier


to handle


they


just


said


'You


can't


this


'maybe'


this


back


forth


which


hard


live


with.


" (1988,


52).


even


held


that


"infertility patients


are


surpassed


only


. a I. S -' -- -


r


_ *


..


,I r


*


L










Clearly

infertility


a critical


aspect


decision


resolution


to reconstitute


life without


further


potential


medical


solutions.


Summary


Theoretical

from a dominantly


attribution


psychodynamic


adoptee


vulnerability


to a primarily


role


passed


theory


perspective


in the


1960s.


last


years


a crisis


developmental


orientation,


although


as comprehensively


formulated,


competed


with


latter.


focus


pathology


thus


flowed


from


unresolved


conflicts


societal


deficiencies


trauma.


None


these


approaches


been


well


researched.


The


analytic position


was


founded more


case


study method


adoptive


into


totality


psychodynamic


theory than


on empirical


results.


Role


theory


been


only


lightly


researched,


contradictory


found


they


results


have


to be distressing


have


supportive.


(Sabatelli


frequently


been


Infertility


al.,


1988;


been


Taratsky,


1986


been


empirically


linked


to adoptive


parenting


attitudes,


behavior,


or outcome.


Infertility


and Adoptive Counseling


A variety


forms


counseling


around


adoptive


issues


have


begun


evolved


in recent


years.


Couples


infertility


theraov


i-I~ LA a 0J~ 3r 1 1 OV* f


expanded


hpcrnmp


n i" h P LS Y$" Lln t


n | c


.


. .











previously


greater


treated


rate.


couple,


Counseling


has

for


grown


prospective


an equal

e or new


adoptive


parents

to be u


is often


understood and


recommended.


Finally,


treated


adoptive


therapy


issues


families


need

with


symptomatic


adolescents.


range


issues


and


focuses


are


explored


in couples


individual


cohesion,


infertility


reacquiring


treatment.


sense


Couple

control


strength


over


individual


couple


destiny,


are


stressed


significant


Cook


1987).


Renewing the


sexual


relationship


reaffirming


self-worth


are


deemed


critical


Sabatelli


(1988).


Porter


Christopher


(1984)


believe


that


is paramount


initially


help


couples


deal


with


feelings


anger,


guilt,


depression,


worthlessness;


that


only


after


such


work


can


issues


such


as marital


difficulties


possible medical


adoptive


courses


be entertained.


Menning


1977),


Renne


1977),


Shapiro


(1982)


work


with


counseling models


successful


infertility


predicated


resolution.


upon


stages


During


phase


denial,


couples


information


which


frequently


will


need


clarify


help


their


pursuing


situation


the medical


options


rather


than


that


which


will


be most


palatable.


During


stage


anger,


couples


often


need


to become


aware


CA--',nt l 1-a-C-


CAA1


,C Lt\A:


C,,1


rrurr~n~


Ln Lk


1











and help


identifying


avoiding


events


such as


baby


showers


which


would


unnecessarily


increase


their


suffering.


When


couple


arrives


point


acceptance,


counselor


needs


to explore


affirm


their


direction;


adoption,


medical


procedures,


or child-free


living


Bresnick


(1981)


reminded


clinicians


that,


therapy


in general,


course


content


infertility


counseling


needs


to be predicated


clients.


Bresnick


somewhat


presented


upon


the mental


cases


couples


health


with


chronic


emotional


pathology,


underlying


unresolved


conflicts,


and


general


emotional


health;


described


treatment


intervention,


choice


and


(predominately


psychotherapy


education,


respectively.


Group counseling


infertile


couples


frequently


recommended.


Such


therapy


ranges


from


primarily


supportive


(Valentine,


1986)


analytically


oriented


Mazor


Simmons).


increasingly


available


option


group


infertility


treatment


RESOLVE,


a nationwide


organization


founded


Menning


1977).


Education,


support,


and


counseling


are


offered in


short-term groups


usually


a couple


were at


one


time group members.


RESOLVE


cited


as a


source of


competent


infertility


counseling


a number


'1*


* -- 3


Inn-,'


f L.. ..Y? L


_. -*











Prospective


place


adoptive


unsupported


especially when


birthing


couple


traditional


primary


sometimes


feel


pre-parenthood


focus.


classes,


Adoptive


parenthood


education


support


groups


are


increasing


both


number


demand


Brown


Kelly,


1987).


Some


newly


adoptive


parents


either


have


sufficiently


resolved


their


infertility


adoption


issues


find


parenting


different


from


or more


difficult


than


they


imagined.


Krugman


1964)


believed


it critical


that


such


persons


receive


professional


guidance


to enable


them


accept


situation,


particularly


reality


their


parenthood.


Rothenberg


(1971)


conducted


new


adoptive


parent


support


counseling


groups


at a child


guidance


center,


found


services


both


needed


great


demand.


Berman and


Bufferd


(1986)


Talen


Lehr


(1984


are


family


systems


clinicians


who


identify


specific


treatment


needs


adolescents.


Both


families


work


with


symptomatic


treatment


adoptive

respective


losses


adopters


adoptees,


secrecy


emotional


cutoffs


which


generally


characterize


adoptive


issues


in such


families.


Such


treatment


helpful


both


enabling


adoptees


to progressively


separate


in enabling








71

Instrumentation


instruments


subjects


were


current


selected


study.


administration


Adoptive


to all


Parenthood


Questionnaire--Short


Form,


or APQ-S


(Appendix A),


developed


DiGiulio


1987)


as a condensation


original


Carroll


(1966)


questionnaire,


acceptance


adoptive


reality


instrument.


Adjustment


Infertility Scale,


(Appendix


developed


Sabatelli


1988),


resolution


infertility


instrument.


In addition,


individual


questionnaire


devised


this


investigation


(Appendix


contains


items


statistical


comparison


with


the AIS


the APQ-S.


such


relationships


proved


significant,


possibility


that


role


handicap


is an


important mechanism would


be supported.


For purposes


attractiveness


cohesiveness,


three


instruments


were


distributed


to subjects


form


single


pamphlet


pages,


entitled


"Parenting


Attitudes


Infertility


Issues


in Current


Adoptive


Practice"


The


first


page


consisted


title,


a drawing


researcher's


of a couple


name,


holding


address,


an infant,


institutional


primary


affiliation.


final


page


provided


space


comment s


or suggestions,


instruction


to note


return


envelope


snhlicts


wished to


rec riv a


snummar v


results


uinon










The Adoptive


Parenthood


Questionnaire--Short


Form


(APQ-S


initial


instruments


chain


which


APQ-S


were developed


Kirk


1964)


pioneering


identification


investigation


acknowledgement


differences


(AD)


versus


rejection


differences


RD).


first


Kirk


instrument


was


11-item Guttman


scale which


measured how


frequently


adult


acquaintances make


insensitive


comments


relating


adoption.


This


25-item binary


response measure,


first


true


AD measure.


. Carroll


study


(1966)


relationship of


developed


original APQ


AD-RD orientation


various


measures


adjustment,


primarily


obtained with


Tennessee


Self-Concept


Scale.


Carroll


instrument


92-item


extreme AD,


forced-choice questionnaire;


a moderate


a moderate


each


item offering


an extreme


response.


Two


scores


can


be obtained.


Total


Weighted


(TW)


score


yields


an AD


score


assigning


responses


above


four


categories


a value


respectively.


An Unweighted Ratio


(RU)


score


is obtained


simply


dividing


or moderate,


retest


number


by the


reliability


total

studies


number

, with


responses,


whether


items.


intervals


between


extreme


test-

testing


ranging


from


to 41


days,


TW reliability


scores


were


.74:


RU were


.68


F 3


(vr uriu


LJ.Ar \-











Results were


somewhat


opposite;


AD orientation


correlated


with


positive


adjustment


Tennessee


Self-Concept


four measures


with


negative


adjustment


on sixteen


using


scoring;


with


positive


adjustment


from


four


five


measures


with


negative


from sixteen


to seventeen


using


One measure


using


TW system


was


neutral.


This


seemed


to constitute


failure


support


hypothesis


rather


than


invalidation


the APQ.


DiGiulio


1987)


reduced


from


items


through


three


stages


discrimination.


First,


items


which


failed


to differentiate


between AD


the Carroll


study were discarded.


remaining


items


were


analyzed


construct


(role


theory)


validity.


Thirty-nine


items


were


retained.


items


test-retest


contributing


reliability


to scale


study was


reliability


conducted,


deleted,


yielding


26-item instrument


with


reliability.


DiGiulio


study was


concerned


with


relationship


between AD orientation


and attitude


toward


adult


adoptee


access


sealed


adoption


records.


The measure


latter variable

As hypothesized,


was


a brief


there


was


instrument


designed


statistically


DiGiulio.


significant


.27)


correlation between AD orientation and


favorable


attitude


toward


access


sealed


record


_, _?, S,


r,, IL:


C~j LA


rrn n










original.


DiGiulio


form


(Appendix A)


that


employed


current


study.


DiGiulio


used


only


scoring


system


above


investigation,


APQ-S

the T


including


therefore


W system,


reliability


been measured


TW yielded


greater


study.


reliability

reliability


Because


only


Carroll


pretest-posttest,


TW allows


a greater


range


self-description


than


does


TW was


chosen as


sole


scoring


system


current


study.


The Adjustment


to Infertilit


Scale


AIS)


(Sabatelli


al.,


1988


a 32-item


, 5-point


forced-choice questionnaire


designed


investigation


positing


that


infertility


a psychological


social


stressor


event


whose


impact


mediated


characteristics


coping


responses


affected


individuals


couples.


investigators


compiled


items


indicating


affective,


cognitive,


behavioral


responses


infertility


from


literature.


Coefficient


alpha


reliability


investigation


characteristics


five


sample


coping


was


.91.


resources


were


employed


the coping


study.


resources


Four


were


the characteristics


significantly


two


related


resolution


infertility.


Four


characteristics


- -


c rf- ui Fnn f4 f l*


ma a rrn r -


trao ma


ml C -o


4-,- 2flV1 0*1


crA


~nn~nn










relationships


characteristics


or coping


resources


to resolution


infertility,


anxiety,


or depression


were


statistically


significant


these,


positive


relationship of


help


seeking to depression


es,


was


the direction


contrary


that


hypothesized.


characteristics


coping mechanisms most


strongly


related


the measures


distress


were,


in order:


self-esteem


sser


distress),


infertility


passivity


(lesser


(greater


distress),


distress),


marital


reframing


commitment


lesser


distress),


and marital


locus


control


internal


correlating with


lesser


distress).


Resolution


infertility was


additionally


related


anxiety


and depression,


yielding


correlations


-.34


-.68


respectively.


correlations


was


The


intermediate


interpreted


range


to suggest


these


construct


validity


the AIS;


that


tapped


into


was


distinct


from


the more


global


indicators


dysfunction.


was


infertility was


developed


a current


for use with


source of


subjects


distress.


for whom


Some


items are


phrased


in such


a way that


no response


would


indi


cate


total


resolution.


Item number


find


helpful


talk


to my


partner


about


infertility"


case in

ongoing


point.


A positive


disturbance or


need


response

, while


would


indicate


a negative


response would











Because


primarily


sample


composed


current


individuals


investigation


who


was


years


resolve


their


infertility


crises,


response


indicating


total


resolution


was


needed


such


items.


solution


arrived


was


to place


these


items


AIS,


with


an optional


response


"does


apply"


This


response was

resolution c


scored


choice.


same as


items


original


treated,


wit


highest

h their


original


item numbers,


are:


spouse


willing


listen


to me


talk


about


infertility.


hesitate


talk about


this


problem with


other


people.


look mostly to myself


coping with


infertility.


couldn't


deal


with


this


period


infertility


without


help of


spouse.


feel


that my


spouse


are


speaking


"different


languages"


when


comes


to communication about


infertility.


Because my partner


same


sex


as me,


don't


know whether


he/she


can


really understand


how


infertility


issues


affect


me.










These


items


were


maintained


same


relative


order


the end


the AIS.


this


alteration,


form of


used


current


investigation


hereafter


referred


AIS-R


revised).


An instrument


similar


AIS,


Emotional


Reaction


to Childlessness


Scale


(Taratsky,


1986)


was


constructed


an investigation


relationship of


resolution


infertility


to depression,


anxiety,


self-esteem,


Correlations


marital


were


sati


.61,


sfaction,


, -.40,


sexual


-.32,


satisfaction.


-.28


respectively;


Emotional


significant


Reaction


hypothesized


to Childlessness


direction.


Scale was


designed


couples


who


adopted,


contains


wording potentially


confusing


or offensive


(such


"childlessness"


to adoptive


couples.


This


limitation


was


primary


reason


that


the AIS


was


chosen


current


investigation,


two


instruments


being


otherwise quite


similar.


Individual


Questionnaire


This


brief


form


contains


items


interest


investigation


religiosity,


foreign,


role


whether


handicap.


or not


or handicapped are


Gender,


adoption


indicated


religion,


interracial,


in subject


responses.


mslffi ri ent


donIumentai on iin tfhe


1 i t'etrat irt'T


I iJ


~hPr Fl j










handicap.


A brief


summary


such


contained


ensuing


paragraphs.


variously


hypothesized


(Deutsch,


1945;


Menning,


1977)


that


infertility


adoptive


solution are more


difficult


for women


than men.


Kirk


(1964


found


that women


described


their


infertility more


negatively


found


adoption


process


more difficult


than


their


spouses.


Taratsky


1986)


found


that


women had more


difficult


reactions


to childlessness


than


did


their


husbands,


were


more


anxious


depressed


(but


similar


levels


self-concept,


marital


satis


faction,


sexual


satisfaction).


Sabatelli


1988)


found


that


women had


more


difficult


reactions


to childlessness


and were more


anxious


(though


not more


depressed)


than


their


husbands.


a somewhat


contradictory


note,


however,


Carroll


(1967)


found


that


women


had higher


AD orientations


than


high


self-concepts


as did


their


husbands.


Childlessness


means


a severance


past


future.


The extent


to which


adoption reconnects


family's


sense


ties


past,


belonging


present,


continuing


into


future


may well


related


level


of belonging


primary to


family.


this


level


increases


in size and


abstraction,


from


family


tribe


to religion


nfl C armn ai a i


3a -A---


nsCi nn


1,,,,~:


n










Kirk


(1964)


measured


this


traditionalism by


religious


affiliation.


Kirk


hypothesized


that,


Catholicism and


Judaism being more


traditional


than


Protestantism,


Catholics


Jewish


people


would


be operating under


a more


severe


role


handicap


than


Protestants


under


adoptive


circumstances.


Kirk


boys


been


tested


firstborn


found


this


hypothesis


child,


to be quite


strong


indirectly.


especially


as only


in biological


Preference


child,


families


(Dinitz,


Dyner,


Clarke,


1954).


This


preference


was


considerably more


Protestants.


girls


pronounced


Additionally,


been noted


for Catholics


strong


with


Jews


preference


perplexity


than


adopters


decades.


Kirk


analyzed agency


adoption


records


from a


past


investigation,


found


that


adopter preference


girls


was


stronger


among Catholics


Jews


than among


Protestants.


Kirk


synthesized


this


finding with


that


Dinitz


et al


(1954),


hypothesizing


that


traditionalism was


causal


factor


in both


investigations.


appeared


Kirk


that


social


value


a male


heir


carry


family name and


traditions


seriously


compromised


adoption,


traditional


that


infertile


solution


couples


arrived at


adopt


by many


a girl.


Kirk

handicap


tested


used


this

the


hypothesis


Dast.


with


other measures


Prospective adooters


who


role


, --


.L.











other


prospective


adopters.


Both


these measures


been


associated


with


relatively


high


role


handicap


prior


investigations.


Higher


than


role


handicap


Protestants


Catholics


received


some


Jewish


support


people


in subsequent


research.


Silverman


Feigelman


1977)


found


higher


rates


of willingness


adopt


a black


child


among


religiously


unaffiliated


than


among


Protestants,


higher


rates


among


Protestants


than


Catholics


Jewish


people.


They


also


found


that


unaffiliated,


Protestants,


Catholics


were


more


were


more


likely


Jewish


likely to


to be willing


people,


to adopt


that


be willing


a retarded


Catholics


to adopt


child


than


Protestants


a handicapped


child


were


or an


older


child


than


were


Jewish


people.


terms


actual


behavior,


religiously


unaffiliated had


higher


rates


adoption


of black


children


than


those


with


religious


affiliations.


Bonham


1977)


cited


data


from


National


Center


Social


Statistics


indicating


that


percentages


Protestant,


Catholic,


Jewish


families


that


ever


adopted were


2.3%,


2.0%,


1.6%


respectively.


higher


rate


Protestants


would


suggest


lower


role


handicap,


although


other


factors


could


certainly


have


been


involved.


S ~ ~ ~ '9 '


I% t


I t a 4' ..-


I


1I 1










people,


suggesting,


anything,


lower


role


handicap


Catholics


than


for members


other


religions.


summary,


various


measures


role


handicap


suggest


that,


by virtue


less


religious


traditionalism,


Protestants


than


have


less


do Catholics


religiously


Jewish


people.


associated


This


role


seems


handicap


to be


particularly


pronounced


Religiosity,


sometimes


Jewish


people.


referred


religiousness,


currently


employed more


than


religion


a predictor


variable.


with


the work


dominant

of Allport


religiosity


(1954),


frame


a study


reference


began


factors


related


to prejudice.


Allport


constructed a


bipolar


division


religiosity,


varying


from


Extrinsic


(utilitarian


self-serving)


Intrinsic


(faith


supreme


value).


These constructs


were


operationalized


(Allport


Ross,


1967)


into


scales.


Donahue


1985),


in a metaresearch


project


the Allport


between


constructs,


Intrinsic


found' an


self-rated


average


correlation


importance of


religion.


Gorsuch

between


and McFarland


Intrinsic and a


1972) f

Likert


ound


similar


response


relationship


single


question


"How


important


your


religion


to you?"


above


question


being the


religiosity measure


current


investigation,


religiosity


this


study


can


be considered


i-n hcP nniI- t


similar


to Alloort's


Intrinsic


reliaiositv.











positive

showed p


locus


relationship with


positive


control,


social


relationships


negative


desireability.


to dogmatism and


relationships


also


internal


to prejudice,


trait


anxiety,


feminism.


addition,


Sapp


Gladding


1989)


found


a strong


negative


relationship


S- .33)


between


Intrinsic


and moral


reasoning.


Although


Intrinsic-Extrinsic


conceptualization


was


given a


large


amount


of qualitative


empirical


attention,


it was


criticized


simplistic,


judgmental,


incomplete.


One

that


specific

Extrinsi


complaint


had


was


strong


that, a

negative


although

social


it was


apparent


implications,


social


utility


Intrinsic


varied


with


investigation


variables


under


consideration.


bipolar


relationship


hold.


These


criticisms were addressed


Batson


(1976)


in a


three-dimensional


model


adding Quest


the existing


Extrinsic

search fo


Intrinsic.


r meaning


Quest


morality.


defined


Although


an open-ended


criticized


Donahue


1985)


as an agnosticism


sca


Quest


appears


capture


the moral


searching missing


in both


other


scales.


three-dimensional


model


almost


totally


supplanted


original


bipolar


formulation


in current


usage.










instrument


operationalizing


three-dimensional


schema.


They were


further


given


instrument


in which


they


rated


themselves


helpers.


Finally,


they were


individually


role of


confederate,


help.


Although


potential


who was


helper


either


Intrinsic wa


to a


distressed


requesting o

s positively


r not


related


peer


requesting


to higher


self-rating


More


helper,


significantly,


this


Quest


translate


related


into


behavior.


strongly to offering


help


those


who wanted


those


who did


not,


while


Intrinsic


showed


slightly


greater


offering


of help to


those


not


asking


The authors


concluded


that


Intrinsic


suggests


a rigidity


social


and moral


reasoning more


motivated


self-validation


than


helping


others.


Because


this


rigidity


internal


focus,


as well


level


Intrinsic


hypothesized


of moral


Sapp


reasoning


Gladding


as a role


found associated


1989


handicap


with


religiosity was


current


study.


would


appear


that


resolution


infertility


and acceptance


adoptive


needs


reality


one's


require


spouse


sensitivity to


one's


feelings


adoptive children


respectively,


that


religiosity mitigates


against


such


awareness


behavior.


Lewin


1948),


in a


seminal


discussion


raising


n,, nar 4-ti


*AC *t~R *


Ak; 1 F1*nn


n~r~llhl


P4A


m~nn rrrh










need


a strong


sense of


their


origins


traditions


counteract


negative


attitudes


of others.


Lewin


thus


identified


both minority


adoptive


states


role


handicap,


for which


Lewin


prescribes


a parental


orientation.


Domestic


interracial


adoption


primarily


take


s the


form


of whites


adopting


blacks


(Shireman


Johnson,


1986).


Kirk


stated


that


racial


prejudice


creates


state


"social


deprivation"


North American


blacks.


Kirk


also


noted


that


obvious


interracial


adoption


whether


"betrays"


adoptive


adoption,


family


making


so chooses.


Both


these are


conditions


role


handicap.


Other more


specific


factors


contribute


role


handicap when


whites


adopt


blacks.


A strong


black


sentiment


against


this


form of


adoption


been


voiced


black


groups during


past


years


(Shireman


Johnson,


1986).


Not


unrelatedly,


uncommon


white


parents


feel


guilty


about


having


participated


adoption


feeling


that


they


have


caused


child


pain


harm


(Simon


& Alstein,


1981).


Finally,


a high


incidence of


family


child


problems


are


encountered


when


child


approaches


reaches


adolescence


Foreign


adoptions


(Shireman


being


Johnson,


1986


overwhelmingly


of nonwhite


children


DePartment


Commarce -


199q1.


rh1ar3r~n;n sni


ur u


.


U









interracial


adoption.


instance


older


adoption,


adoptees


their


parents


face


additional


burden


differences


language


culture.


Finally,


Kim


1978)


posited an additional


orientation;


sublimation


aspect


the denial


role


impact


adoption


handicap


and RD


infertility


children


different


through


in origin


from oneself.


As Kim


sees


situation


"the


noble


cause of


raising


other


people's


children


seems


to embrace a


new


element


self-righteousness,


outright


selfishness"


(p.479)


role


handicap


involved


handicapped


adoption


both


tautological


very


real.


Katz


(1980)


cited


unrealistic parental


expectations


frequent


source of


handicapped


Rosenthal,


adoption


Bombeck


difficulties


1988)


failures.


found


Schmidt,


inability


children


attach,


inability


such


older


adoptees


emotionally


go of


their


birth


families,


parental


expectation


receiving


less difficult


child as


primary


reasons


failures


in handicapped


adoption.


Despite


categorization


the above


conditions


"role


handicap"


, it


should


noted


that


validity


concept


assumed


this


investigation.


Although


is not


contested


that


each


them does


tend


to make


adoptive


situation more


difficult, it i


apparent


that










infertility


can


be considered


a competing


covariate.


Thus


gender


reality would


a strong


suggest


relationship with


a role mechanism,


acceptance


while


adoptive


a strong


relationship with


resolution


infertility would


lend


support


crisis


position.


final


observation,


would


appear


that


interracial


foreign


adoption


are


role


handicap


paradoxes.


the one


hand,


difficulties


such


forms


adoption


engender


apparent.


other,


since


adoptive


relationship


obvious


these


instances


this


would


seem


to predispose


parents


toward


an AD orientation


despite


high


degree


role


handicap.


Chapter


Summary


Psychometric


incidence


studies,


psychological


clinical


observation,


psychiatric


treatment


suggest


that


adoptees


do not


thrive


develop as


well


children


raised by their


biological


parents.


Innate


advantages


biological


family,


adoptive


parental


attitudes

societal


and


behaviors,


conditions


are


adoptee


genetic


somewhat


factors,


convincingly


and

portrayed


contributory.


common


hypothesis


that


increased


openness


honesty


around


adoptive


issues


would


address


this


condition


a-1 a- a t_ -


a a--i-- a -


1~~L11


r~rrr


A











adoption


relationships,


more


thorough


factual


depiction


adoption


adoptee,


increased


access


birth


adoption


records


adult


adoptees


wishing


trace


their


ancestry


have


been


the most


significant


trends.


Resolution


infertility


role


handicap are


primary


factors


impacting


adoptee


outcome


by way


adoptive


parent


practices


considered


current


adoption


theory.


Both


have


been only


lightly


researched,


and no


study


theoretically


considered


both


conditions


until


current


one.


A variety

developed and


counseling


become more


and


prevalent


pportive

in recent


practices

t years,


have

with


demand


for these


services


concurrently


increasing.















CHAPTER


MATERIALS


AND METHODS


Procedures


Data


Collection


Three


adoption


agencies,


private


other


affiliated


with


Roman


Catholic


Church,


were


solicited


for participation


the current


study.


private


agencies


opted


to be part


investigation,


another Catholic-affiliated


agency was


substituted.


private and


one


the Catholic


agencies


contacted


couples


had adopted


from them as


potential


subjects;


the other


Catholic agency


contacted


couples


adoption waiting


list.


Methods


data


collection were


worked


with


three agencies


individually,


the differences


in procedures


based


upon


each


agency's


consideration


best


ensure


confidentiality


appropriate


treatment


clients.


The


private


agency,


Friends


in Adoption,


located


in Middletown


Springs,


Vermont,


mailed announcements


upcoming


study


former


clients


on its mailing


list.


Individuals


interested


participation notified


the agency,


packets


containing


a questionnaire


combining


the AIS-R,


4-hanL mnrrw n.U r* i -


rnA: *t .,4 A,~.


Ckn hDn_~


ann rnh


L.










St.

Maine, t


Andre,


:ook


a Catholic-affiliated


an additional


agency


confidentiality


Biddeford,


safeguard.


Skipping


the announcement


stage,


it mailed questionnaires


an explanatory


letter


former


clients


mailing


list,


with


return


envelopes


addressed


to St.


Andre.


opened


questionnaires


investigator


were


Andre,


then

thus


transferred


keeping names


the

and


principal

return


addresses


confidential.


Catholic Charities


New


Hampshire,


a Catholic


agency


located


Manchester,


New


Hampshire,


mailed


letter


from


principal


investigator


brief


note


describing


Catholic Charities'


participation


project


prospective

individuals


questionnaire


adopters

notified


packets


on its


waiting


list.


investigator,


to be completed and


Interested


who mailed


returned


investigator.


In each


instance


was


decided


to allow


days


from


questionnaire mailing


data


return,


after


which


returned


questionnaires


would


tabulated.


Return Rate:


Standards


and Methodology


The mailed questionnaire


the most


common method


data


collection


Michael,


employed


1981).


in educational


primary


drawback


research


to it


(Isaac


lack










associated


with


response


lack


response.


Isaac


Michael


state


that


a return


rate


less


than


should


discount


results.


Kerlinger


1973)


found


return


rates


common,


believed


that


researcher


must


usually


settle


rates


between


60%.


varied


procedures


subject


solicitation


necessitated


question


agency


to definition


confidentiality


return


concerns


created a


rate.


Andre


sample


was


obvious


that


number


possible


returns


was


number


of distributed


questionnaire


es.


was


not


apparent


with


Friends


in Adoption


Catholic Charities


samples whether


to consider maximum possible


return


number


couples


initially


solicited


or the


number


actually


mailed questionnaires,


since


research


packets


were mailed


only


to clients


expressing


interest


participation.


was


decided


instances


use


standard


clients


actually


distributed questionnaires.


Balancing


this


less


stringent


definition


was


somewhat


rigorous


criterion


return


rate.


return


rate


was


appreciably


lower


Andre


significance


then


this


other


would be


agencies,


considered.


The

obtaining


literature

a desired


contains

response


variety


rate,


methods


including


invasive


. a .


,1


I I










follow-up


letter


monetary


incentive


only


effective


tactics.


Heberlein


and


Baumgartner


1978)


found


additional contacts,

questionnaire length


questionnai

additional


salience,


contributory


and

factors.


Powers


and Alderman


information o

investigation


offered


feedback


1982),


SAT takers


was


study


found


significantly


the

that


helpfulness

offering


positively


related


return


rate;


approximately


important


as questionnaire


length


considerably


less


than


follow-up


letter.


Three


factors


influenced


minimum


return-


augmenting


adopters


procedures


prospective


utilized


adopters


current


have


study.


historically


First,


provided


high


return


rates


investigators.


Carroll


l967)


obtained a


sample


94 while


having


only


"several"


subjects


declining


to participate.


Taratsky


1986),


while


having


only


return


rate


instruments


given


physicians


distribution,


received


back


packets


distributed


directly


potential


participants.


Sabatelli


1988)


a 64%


return


rate


their


infertility


investigation.


Thus


adopters


satisfactory


preadopters


return


rates


have


without


historically


employment


provided


return-


enhancing


research methods.


Secondly,


adoption


infertility


are


sensitive