The relationship between Herzberg's motivator/hygiene theory and work behavior types of academic librarians in Florida

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Title:
The relationship between Herzberg's motivator/hygiene theory and work behavior types of academic librarians in Florida
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xii, 126 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.
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Kem, Carol Ritzen
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Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1994.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 114-125).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Carol Ritzen Kem.
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Typescript.
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Vita.

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HERZBERG'S
MOTIVATOR/HYGIENE THEORY AND WORK BEHAVIOR TYPES
OF ACADEMIC LIBRARIANS IN FLORIDA








BY

CAROL RITZEN KEM


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY











































Copyright 1994

Carol Ritzen Kem
















Dedicated to

my mother,


Thelma


Summers


Ritzen


and

to the memory of my father,


Franklin


Wheeler


Ritzen













ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The


development


work


from


an assortment


ideas


to a


completed project represents the collaborative efforts of several


deep and most sincere thanks are extended to Dr.


people.


John Nickens, chairman of


supervisory


committee.


will


never


forget


willingness


to take


chance on a stranger.


He was instrumental in helping me focus my ideas and


shape


project,


prodding me


to keep


providing


encouragement


working when


progress


when


was


slow.


needed


a lift


been


advocate for me and


the project,


a source of unrelenting


support,


empathetic mentor.

doctoral advisor.


Dr. Nickens exemplifies to me the best qualities of a true


James


Hensel,


David


Honeyman,


and


Tom


Fillmer


supervisory committee members, have provided advice and expertise critical


to the successful completion of this work.


I both acknowledge their assistance


and thank them for it.


I am also grateful to Dr.


Gordon Lawrence


who first


sparked my interest in


"people types."


John


Dixon,


CIRCA,


provided


invaluable


recommendations


concerning methods of data analysis appropriate for the study.


Brent Coule,


who was initially contacted to provide computer analysis assistance, did that


and more.


He became a friend, developed a personal interest in the project,


and patiently discussed s


statistics with me over a period of several months.







manner


and


professional


expertise,


both


vital


to the


completion


manuscript.


Paula Chain Gebhardt used her exemplary talents to assist me in


the presentation of a professionally edited manuscript.

I am grateful to all the friends and colleagues who encouraged me as I


worked


toward


the completion of the study.


particular


thank Pamela


Pasak Sawallis and


Dolores


Jenkins for


their


steadfast


support


caring


friendship.


Finally


express my


deepest gratitude to my


husband


sons, Reade and Eric.


They


knew I


could and would successfully


complete


this project and


were unwavering in their


love and support throughout the


past several years.















TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS..............................................................................................1v

LIST OF TABLES.........................................................................................................viii

LIST OF FIGURES............................................................................................................x


ABSTRA


CHAPTER


Background and Rational


e..........


Statement of the Research Problem........
Delimitations and Limitations ...............
Justification for the Study .......................
Definition of Terms....................................


General Term s .............................
Marcus Paul Placement Profile


Terms


Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Terms......
Organization of the Study.................................................


O organization of the Chapter................................... ...............
Job Satisfaction......................... ..............................................
Definition ........................................................................
H historical O overview ........................................................


Herzberg'


Two-Factor


Theory of Job Satisfaction..


Measuring Job Satisfaction


Work Behavior


Type.................


CT.....................................................................................................................xi


r'lu


IN TRO DUCTION .... .......................... ....... .......... .......................................... 1


REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE .................................................13


Definition ............................










Job Satisfaction of Academic Librarians..................................
Studies Related to Maslow and Herzberg................................
Studies Using the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire.
C on clu sion ............................................................................................


Summary....


Organization of the Chapter.......................
Statement of the Research Problem...........


Population...
Procedures...


Data Collection .........
Instrumentation...........


Marcus Paul Placement Profile......


Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire......................................
Statistical Procedures...................................................................
Summary of Design and Methodology............................................


RESULTS AND


Description of the Sample Population..
Research Questions .................................
Summary of Results and Analysis..........


SUMMARY


, CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS .......................93


Research Problem and Procedures
Research Questions .... ......................
Research Question One..........
Research Question Two...........


Research Question


Three


Research Question Four..


Implications..


Work


Behavior


Type........


Job Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction.


Recommendations for


Further Research


A 1 _.* e a #"__-* n oif


........50


.. .. .56
...... .63
...... .67
.......68


DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY.. .................................. ......... ................... ........53


. .


ANALYSIS OF DATA ................................ ......... ..........69


A PPEN DIC ES................................................................................................................108
















LIST OF TABLES


Table

1

2

3

4


Page

Response to Survey.... .......... .... .... .................... .......... ...... ....................... .. 71

Characteristics of the Participating Academic Librarians.................. 73

Work Behavior Type by Gender.............................................................74

Mean Score and Standard Deviation by Item,


MSQ Short Form.................


Mean Score and Standard Deviation for Intrinsic, Extrinsic,


and Total Scores, MSQ Short Form ..


............ 78


Factor Loading on Job Satisfaction Items,


MSQ Short Form...


... ... .... ................ .. .......... .............. 80


Simple Correlations Between MSQ Items and


Work Behavior Types................


f .** .*.. .....*. **. .*.*******t 83


Correlation Between the Three Factors on the MSQ and


Work


Behavior


Type...


...... .......... ..................83


Within-set Correlations among the Original Variables............ ........84

Canonical Correlations of Factors and


Work Behavior


Types...


First Canonical Correlational Analysis:


Canonical Coefficients.


First Canonical Correlational Analysis:


a ~ i eL--s t a


Or


..... .... .......... .... .. ........ ...... .... ...77


..................................................................85


.......................................................884











Second Canonical Correlational Analysis:


Canonical Coefficients ...............


Second Canonical Correlational Analysis:
Canonical Structure ..... .. .. ...... ..... ...... .. .... ... .... ......... ... .... .......... ..".....-..9 1


.............................................................89















LIST OF FIGURES


Figure


Maslow'


Bockman'


Herzberg's


Traditional Model of Job Satisfaction .............................. 19

Two-Factor Attitude Model.............................................20

Two-Axis Model..................................................................... 32


Marston's


Marston's Behavioral Description of the Four


Primary Emotions.......


Geier'


....... .. ........t.. ....o........... 36


Revised List of Traits Which Correspond


to the Four Primary Emotions.


Marcus Paul Placement Profile List of Traits........... .................. .........38


Illustration of a Marcus Paul Placement Profile "Box"


Sample MPPP Profile ....... ... ....... .......... ................................................59

Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Scales......................................65


. ......................... ... .. .......37


Page


Hierarchy of Needs ..................................... ..... ............................... 18


..................... 58














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy


THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HERZBERG'S
MOTIVATOR/HYGIENE THEORY AND WORK BEHAVIOR TYPES


ACADEMIC LIBRARIANS IN FLORIDA


By

Carol Ritzen Kem


December


1994


Chairman:


John M.


Nickens


Major Department: Educational Leadership


The problem this study investigated was to relate the Herzberg theory


that job satisfaction and


job dissatisfaction are


affected


by motivators and


hygienes to the theory derived from Nickens and Bauch that motivators and
hygienes are perceived differently by different work behavior types.


specific


questions


were


as follows:


What


are the


academic


librarians work behavior types as measured by the Marcus Paul Placement


Profile


(MPPP)?


What


are the


motivators


hygienes


perceived


academic librarians as reported on the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire









MPPP, relate differently to the motivator and hygiene scores derived from the


MSQ


A group of 350 potential subjects was identified through


in one or more appropriate professional organizations.


membership


The MPPP and the


MSQ were administered


to determine work


behavior type and


to measure


intrinsic, extrinsic, and total job satisfaction.


The potential subjects


were mailed MSQ,


MPPP


, and supplementary


demographic forms along with an explanatory


cover letter.


The letter sent


with the instruments promised the participants the results of their individual


MPPP type analyses,


if they indicated that they wished


to receive them.


summary


of study results


was also offered


to participants.


total of 202


subjects provided usable response sets.


types,


Participants

a finding


were


consi


unevenly


stent


with


divided


most


among


previous


four


studies.


work


behavior


Concentrators


predominated,


followed


producers,


with


inducers


and


energizers


accounting for fewer than 10 percent each of the total sample.


general,


participants


were


satisfied


with


their


jobs


although


differences


between


groups were apparent.


strong relationship between


intrinsic,


or job


content,


scores


was


found


concentrators.


weak


moderate relationship


between some individual MSQ items


producers


was found.

Implications for academic librarians include the use of work behavior

type and factors in job satisfaction or job dissatisfaction for recruitment to the


profession,


placement,


J


development


training,


academic


library














CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


For the majority of adults in the United States today,


factor and defining characteristic of life.


work is a central


More than at any other period in our


history,


paid employment fills a large portion of time for


both


women and


men.


Accordingly, it is even more important to realize that:


In order that people may
things are needed: They m


much of it.


be happy in t
iust be fit for it.


heir work,


these three


They must not do too


And they must have a sense of success in it.
(Ruskin,


1851)


Two of the three things Ruskin set forth as necessary for happiness in one's


work


are major


elements


study-namely,


work


behavior


type,


"fit,"-and job satisfaction, or "sense of success."


Background and Rationale


Research into work behavior and job satisfaction has been conducted

since the early years of the twentieth century when industrial psychologists


such as


Frederick


Taylor (1911) began to show an interest in job satisfaction


studies.


Although


Taylor'


major research interest was


using


time


motion studies


to increase productivity


he did mention


the importance of


human factors in completing tasks (Wellstood,


1984/1985).


About 20 years


1 a --- Tr1 a __ l 1 -. I t 1 1 .






2
/
theory based upon an ascending hierarchy of human needs, beginning with

the lowest order, basic physiological need, and extending through the highest


level,


self-actualization.


Although


lower-order


needs


had


to be


satisfied


before higher-order needs began to assume any importance, when a need was


met, it no longer served


as a motivating force (Maslow


1943).


Maslow'


work


was


a foundation


Herzberg


(1966


Herzberg,


Mausner,


Snyderman,


1959)


who


developed


a two-factor


theory


of job


satisfaction


(Glenn, 1982/1983


Wellstood,


1984/1985).


Two types of work


variables, the motivators and hygiene factors,


were theorized to influence job


satisfaction and job dissatisfaction.


Motivators


, which included achievement,


recognition,


advancement, responsibility, and interest in the work itself were


classed as satisfiers as they exerted a positive effect on workers'


output.


motivators corresponded


to the higher-order needs


in Maslow'


ascending


hierarchy of needs.


Analogous


to Maslow'


lower-order needs


, hygiene factors included


pay, security


supervision and physical working conditions.


The absence of


these factors was limited to job dissatisfaction.


It is critical to recognize that


Herzberg et al.


(1959) emphasized


that the presence of a particular hygiene


factor


necessarily


lead


to job


satisfaction


that


lack


motivator


automatically


create


dissatisfaction.


That


"the


opposite of job satisfaction is not job dissatisfaction, it is an absence of job


satisfaction.


Conversely


opposite


dissatisfaction


is not


satisfaction, it is an absence of job dissatisfaction"


Since the first publication of Herzberg'


(Olson, 1988/1990, p.

theory, hundreds of


32).


studies









aspects


Herzberg'


theory


among


various


groups


including


academic


administrators.


Additional studies (Glenn,


1982/1983; Wellstood,


1984/1985;


Olson, 1988/1990; Poston, 1988/1989; Barber, 1989/1990) added the application


Marcus


Paul


Placement


Profile


(MPPP)


their


studies


medical


technologists,

officers, faculty


vocational


and deans in


educational


admini


strators,


colleges of nursing and


college


placement


cooperative-extension


service mid-level managers.


Three studies (Plate & Stone,


1974


Dahlstrom,


1982; Hamshari,


1985/1986) investigated aspects of the theory in relation to


professional librarians.


Plate and


Stone used the Herzberg "critical incidence


technique"


(Herzberg,


1966)


in an analysis


incidents.


The


study


population

motivational


included

workshops


American


held


Canadian


conjunction


with


librarians

professional


attending

meetings.


They concluded that the theory applied with as much force to librarianship as


to other


occupations


studied.


Hamshari


compared


job satisfaction of


professional librarians in the technical and public service departments in 20


academic


libraries


Jordan.


Dahlstrom


investigated


motivation


participating in continuing education.


He administered a questionnaire to a


random sample of 550 librarians throughout the southwestern


United States


and identified 20 factors that were classed as motivators for participating in


continuing


education.


The


seven


items


that


were


shown


to be


most


significant were identified as Herzberg motivators.

The theory of work behavior types suggests that basic differences in


personality traits may have an impact upon


work behaviors.


Investigators


from


Wundt in the 1890s to Nickens in the


1980s have added to the body of









Marston'


work and


the research of Nickens (1984) and Bauch


(1981)


led to the development of the Marcus Paul Placement Profile (MPPP).


designed


A tool


to determine work behavior type in order to facilitate correct job


placement,

environment


(Holland,


the MPPP is intended for use in

ts. Different personality types e


1959).


both educational and business


!xcel at different types of work


If this construct is accepted, then a successful matching of


jobs and personnel can be expected to increase satisfaction in the worker, lead


to greater


productivity


more


adequately


needs


both


organization and the individual (Nickens, 1984).


Previous


studies have investigated the personal characteristics and the


personality


type


professional


librarians


(Bryan,


1952;


Douglass,


1958;


Morrison,


1961


Clift, 1976; Agada, 1984/1985; David,


1990/1991).


Numerous


studies


have


investigated


aspects


of job


satisfaction among


librarians


example, D'Elia, 1975


Chwe, 1976; Miniter, 1975/1976; Rockman, 1985/1986).


However


no research


studies


were


found


that


specifically


related


satisfaction and work behavior types among librarians, particularly librarians


employed

behavior


institutions of higher


types


academic


education.


librarians


Thus,


a study


potential


work


to add


a new


dimension to knowledge in the area of work behavior and job satisfaction as

well as in the area of characteristics of academic librarians.


Statement of the Research Problem


The problem this


tudy investigated was to relate the Herzberg theory


that iob satisfaction and


dissatisfactinn arp


a ffprtpd


hv mntivatnrc and


. .






5

What are the work behavior types of academic librarians in Florida
as measured by the Marcus Paul Placement Profile (MPPP)?


What


are the


librarians


motivators


Florida


hygienes


as reported


on the


perceived 1
Minnesota


y academic
Satisfaction


Questionnaire (MSQ)?


factors


derived


from


factor


analysis


MSQ


show


characteristics of motivators and hygienes?

Do the different work behavior type scores of academic librarians in


Florida,


measured


MPPP,


relate


differently


motivator and hygiene scores derived from the MSQ?


Delimitations and


Limitations


In answering the preceding questions,


the following delimitations were


observed:


The


tudy


was


limited


librarians


currently


employed


professional positions in post-secondary institutions in Florida.

The study was limited to librarians holding the Master of Science in
Library Science (MLS) or an appropriate equivalent academic degree.


tudy was


limited


to librarians


with membership


in one or


more of the following professional organizations:


the Association


College


and


Research


Libraries,


American


Library


Association, or the Florida Library


Association.


Information


about


work


behavior


type


was


limited


that


measured by the Marcus Paul Placement Profile.


Information


regarding


satisfaction


satisfaction


was


limited


to those


facets


measured


short-form


Minnesota


Satisfaction Questionnaire.
In addition, the following limitations were inherent in this study:






6



Since this study was limited to academic librarians, it is not possible


generalize


these


findings


other


librarian


other


occupational types.


Justification for the Study


According


to Moran


(1989),


in a paper


tracing


development of


academic libraries from 1939-1989,


academic
sufficient


libraries


have


institutions


evolved


large,


from


relatively


multifaceted


small,


organizations


electronically


interconnected


envisioned fifty years


ago.


and


linked


The librarians who


'I


ways not
work in t


:hese


institutions


. are called upon to have knowledge of processes


and to provide services unforeseen in 1939.


However,


demands


as the


upon librarians,


profession


particularly


librarianship


matured


those in academic institutions,


have


become more complicated, requiring higher levels of education and training,


15 professional schools of library science have closed since 1978 (Paris,


and the number of new entrants to the profession is declining.


1990)


With only 52


institutions


now


offering


graduate


training


library


science


and/or


information science and a number of states and large metropolitan areas with


no library


schools


it is


logistically more


difficult in


United


States


become a librarian than a lawyer (there are 180 law schools) or a physician, as


students can select from


142 medical


schools


(Manley,


1991).


Some in


profession believe these negative factors can be balanced in part by the more

diverse backgrounds of those individuals who do enter the profession and by


advanced


level


educational


niatta m en t


xe hibited


at least


-- - -- - -






7

which the modal entrant is a white female in her mid-thirties who majored

in English, education or history" (p. 102).

The basic studies on the personality of the librarian date back to the


period from


1952 to


1961.


Only one substantive study has been completed


within


years


(David,


1990/1991).


Although


studies


satisfaction among librarians abound, some are of negligible value because of


simplistic


statistical


analyses,


poorly


designed


research


methods


questionable population samples.


Research into the work behavior type of


librarians is generally only addressed as a minor factor in studies designed for

other purposes.

Of particular interest to the proposed study is the finding reported by


Lynch and


Verdin


(1983)


that


"new entrants


. into


the profession report


some


lowest


levels


satisfaction"


445).


They


find


troublesome


suggest


several


possible


explanations


finding,


including problems of accommodation


to working within an organizational


context,


difficulty with


work-flow


demands,


the nature of


"entry-


level work for professionals in large research libraries [which] may be more


routine and non-professional than librarians expect" (p.


446).


Studies of


announcements


academic library


positions


reveal


increasingly


stringent


educational


requirements


including


advanced


academic degrees, subject specialization and language capability (Creth, 1989).


According to Moore (1981),


a glut in subject Ph.D.


's and master'


degrees led


many academic libraries to add either a requirement or a preference for these


degrees


to job


descriptions


reasoning


that


, given


market


, they


^ / V J~


could


[job]









profession


may


expect


that


their


advanced


academic


credentials


subject specialization


will


translate into


more


professional


responsibilities


lack of


a match


between


expectation and


reality may


lead


to job


dissatisfaction or, in extreme cases, to highly trained individuals prematurely


leaving the profession.


Reporting on a study of librarians


10 years after their


graduation,


White (1990) wrote:


"The graduates


report that


... they


thought they knew what their preference for both type of library and type of


work was before they enrolled in library


school.


By the time they graduated, a


significant percentage had changed their minds"


(p. 61).


More importantly,


White continues


"almost


half


. end


doing something


different from


what they

specialized


originally


preparation,


thought


recent


they would


graduates


ibidd).


appeared


Further,


to be selected


terms of


for first


professional positions almost casually,


with employers later complaining that


new hires did not possess sufficient specialized skills (White and Mott, 1990).

Given the ever increasing costs of recruitment and training, it would seem to


be in


best interest of


academic


libraries


to attempt to determine what


aspects of work will provide satisfaction for librarians or, at a minimum, at

least to avoid those aspects that cause dissatisfaction.


According to Geier (1979),


people in


working situations


exhibit


specific qualities and patterns of behaviors.


If individuals are provided with


information about their particular work behavior styles and are placed into


jobs


that


require


encourage


those


styles,


opportunity


satisfaction and success in employment will be increased.


In addition, the


possibility that an employee may become frustrated and leave a specific job or









academic libraries it


appeared


that a study


combining the theory


of work


behavior type and the theory of job satisfaction would be of great potential


value


to the


profession.


Such


a study


been


conducted


among


librarians in general or among academic librarians in particular.


Research in


area


could


use


recruitment


profession


assignment of responsibilities


to positions in


the profession.


Further


tudy may add


to current knowledge of work behavior type by studying a


population that has not previously been studied in this manner.


Definition of Terms


General


Terms


Academic


librarian


refers


a professional


librarian


currently


employed in an academic library in Florida.


Academic


library refers to the library of a post-secondary institution


(community or junior college, college or university) in Florida.


American


Library


Association is the major professional organization


for librarians in the United States.


Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) is a division of


American


Library


Association


with


approximately


11,000


members


nationwide.

Factors refers to any of the six motivators or eight hygienes descriptive


those


facets


which


dissatisfaction (Herzberg et al.,


may
1959).


contribute


satisfaction


or job


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include, for example, company policies,


working conditions, supervision and


administration and co-worker relationships.


content


refers


to factors


such


as achievement,


advancement,


recognition, responsibility and the work itself.


When present in a job,


they


are related to job satisfaction.


context refers


to factors


such as


pay, security, supervision, and


physical working conditions which, when absent from a job, are linked to job

dissatisfaction.


Tob dissatisfaction refers to feelings associated with


"the built-in drive


to avoid


pain


from


environment,


plus


learned


drives


which


become conditioned to the basic biological needs"


(Herzberg, 1966, p. 28).


Tob satisfaction is the positive effect derived from those factors which
most often contribute to higher needs (Herzberg et al., 1959).

Motivators refers to factors which contribute to employee satisfaction


and are related to the job content portion of work.
achievement, responsibility and recognition.


They include, for example,


Professional


librarian


refers


an individual


holding


master


degree in library science from a program accredited by the American Library


Association.


That


"the


master


degree


is the


minimum


educational


requirement for employment in a professional program"


(Robbins,


1990, p.


Marcus Paul Placement Profile


Terms


Marcus Paul Placement Profile (MPPP) is an instrument developed by






1

Energizer type (result oriented),


1


a work behavior type which describes


an individual


who


typically


assertive,


direct,


impatient


with


detail,


interested in getting results and quite creative in the work situation.


Inducer type


(veople-oriented),


a work behavior type which indicates


an individual who is sensitive and optimistic and who places more emphasis

on interpersonal relations and getting things accomplished within the group

rather than on the organization itself.


Concentrator


tvvpe (technically


oriented),


a work behavior type which


indicates an individual who is a loyal,

patient, systematic, and effective.

Producer type (quality oriented),


steady worker and who tends to be


a work behavior type which indicates


an individual


who


strives


quality,


follows


guidelines


carefully


supports his/her work and decisions with documentation.


Work


behavior


refers


a description


categorizing


individual'


general qualities and predisposing behavior traits as they relate


to the work situation and are defined by the Marcus Paul Placement Profile.


Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire


Terms


lob satisfaction


score refers to a participant'


score on the Minnesota


Satisfaction Questionnaire.


The short-form MSQ yields the following three


scores, extrinsic, intrinsic and general.


Extrinsic


Scale


context


score


short-form


MSQ


determined


by summing


the individual scores of 6 of the 20 items on


measure.


type









General


Satisfaction


Scale


is a score


determined


summing


individual scores on all 20 of the items on the short-form MSQ.


Minnesota Satisfaction


Questionnaire (MSO),


or the short-form MSQ,


a 20-item


measure


consisting


statements


about


various


aspects


person


's job


which


an individual


asked


to rate on


a 5-point scale with


responses


ranging from


"not satisfied"


through


"extremely satisfied."


scales utilize descriptors derived from the work of Herzberg.


Organization of the Studv


The remainder of the study is organized into four chapters.


A review


literature


presented


Chapter


Included


are major


areas of


research


and


related


literature


relevant


satisfaction


and


dissatisfaction, and


the development


of the


theory


of work


behavior type.


The chapter concludes with a review of the literature on these topics as they

relate to academic librarians.

The design and methodology of the study are presented in Chapter HIII.


Research design, population, data collection,


instrumentation and procedures


are addressed.


Chapter IV


contains the results and analysis of the data collected from


the Marcus Paul Placement Profile, the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire


and the demographic and career information questions.


The data specific to


each question presented in the study are addressed and discussed.


Chapter


includes a


summary


the study,


conclusions


about the


findings. and recommendations for additional rpsparrh















CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


Organization of the Chapter


This review covers three areas.

of research on job satisfaction. The s


The first section presents an overview

secondd section reviews the research and


theories leading to the development of work behavior types and the Marcus


Paul Placement Profile.


The final section provides a synthesis of the research


satisfaction,


personality


type


work


behavior


and


career


development as related to academic librarians.


Tob Satisfaction


Definition


According


to Chwe


(1976),


more


than


5,000


articles,


books,


and


dissertations were written on the subject of job satisfaction from the 1930s to


the mid-1970s.


the effective management of human resources is one of


the most important tasks for any organization, it is not surprising to find such


a large and varied volume of research focused on this subject.


If the activities


employees


are to contribute


to the


realization


organizational


goals,


successful


management,


including


direction


motivation,


important.


Thus,


research


on employees


variety


work


situations


been


A .1 .. ,.. : c 4 La...: nt an -


/-'/^Tt/"I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ An C1 Yt t(/^- fW ^ W ^.~-f ~^^-






14

job satisfaction is the pleasurable emotional state resulting from


the appraisal
achievement of


one


one


's job


as achieving


values, and


facilitating


job dissatisfaction is


unpleasurable emotional


state


resulting from


appraisal


one's job values or as entailing disvalues.


316)


Most


researchers


determine


their


own


operational


definition


(Gruneberg, 1979).


For example, Wanous and Lawler (1972) list nine different


operational

satisfaction


definitions


including


each


need


related


fulfillment,


a different


equity


theoretical


and


work


basis of


values


while


Bockman (1971) described the traditional theory of job satisfaction as being the


total body of feeling an individual has about his or her job.


Porter and Steers


(1973)


defined


satisfaction


as the


"sum


total


an individual'


expectations


on the


job"


167)


while


Smith


Kendall


, and


Hulin


(1969)


defined


concept


as "feeling


or affective


responses


to facets


situation


According to O'Reilly and Roberts (1975),


individual traits


referred


to as


"personality"


are obvious antecedents


to job satisfaction.


particularly relevant definition for this study


that of Davis (1977) because he


related


the degree of job


satisfaction


to the fit between an employee and a


particular job.


Davis


tated that


satisfaction


favorableness


which employees view their work.


or unfavorableness


with


It results when there is a fit


between


characteristics


wants


employees.


expresses the amount of congruence between one'


of the job and the rewards that the job provides.


expectation


(p. 74)


It is


important


to distinguish


term


satisfaction


from


morale.


satisfaction is an individual state of mind and refers


to the response of an


individual


to the job


whereas morale is


the feeling of


commitment to and









satisfaction


and


those


that


determine


motivation


different;


thus,


"satisfaction reflects an employee'


attitude toward the job while motivation


refers to a drive to perform" (Glenn, 1982/1983, p.


Historical Overview


Interest in job satisfaction and


phenomenon.


the quality of work life is not a recent


Davis (1971) asserted concern with job satisfaction was evident


in industry over 1


years ago.


Initially, psychologists studied job satisfaction


as a factor in increasing the productivity of workers.


Frederick


Taylor (1911)


introduced


principles


scientific


management


to work


settings


applying


results


compartmentalized


time


work


tasks


motion


an effort


studies.


increase


simplified
efficiency


and,


correspondingly, the productivity of workers.


Taylor also called attention to


the importance of the human element as a factor in job success.


According to


Nauratil (1989),


"Taylorism,"


or scientific management,


was widely accepted


libraries


early


years


20th


century.


The


philosophy


was


advocated by


Melvil Dewey who even urged librarians to


"keep a watch or


clock hanging before you" (p.


1927


Elton


Mayo


(1933)


began


a series


experiments


which


stimulated


development


Human


Relations


School


organizational


psychology and occupational sociology.


The studies, named


Hawthorne


involved


plant


manipulation


Western


various


Electric


physical


Company


conditions,


such


Chicago,

as light,


temperature control, rest,


work hours and payment systems in an attempt to









and attention from supervisors (Glasgow, 1982).


The studies, which ended in


1932, were later speculated to be invalid (Gruneberg, 1979).


However, they are


significant


historical


interest


because of


importance


Human


Relations


School


in psychological


research.


According


to this


body


thought,


"satisfied


workers are more productive


than


dissatisfied


workers,


and job satisfaction is influenced by


human relationships


within work


organizations" (Glasgow


1982, p. 5).


Two important early


studies of job satisfaction


took place during the


1930s.


Kornhauser and Sharp (1932)


tudied a group of female factory workers


isolated


supervision"


as the


major


factor related


to job


dissatisfaction.


Further, they found


that negative feelings caused by poor


supervision influenced


other areas.


Another early study


of job satisfaction


involved 500 teachers who were questioned about different aspects of their


jobs.


Hoppock (1935) analyzed the 100 most satisfied and the 100 least satisfied


responses and concluded


that job satisfaction consisted of many factors, the


presence of which in a work situation led to satisfaction whereas their absence


to job


dissatisfaction.


Based


on his


research,


he formulated


a theory


suggesting that satisfaction and dissatisfaction form a continuum.
Following World War II, interest in job satisfaction research developed


into an interdisciplinary approach with


ome emphasis on


problem-solving


relationship


between


employee


satisfaction


and


performance


(Brayfield & Crockett, 1955).


1957


, Frederick Herzberg and his associates published an important


review of the literature of job satisfaction research.


Herzberg et al., challenged


"character









methodology was improved.


With a variety of additional related issues such


as the psychological characteristics of workers under investigation, the decade


1970s


saw


satisfaction


research


well


established


interdisciplinary


field.


Many


major


theories


satisfaction


were


developed

hierarchy

fulfillment


between


theory


theory,


1950s


two-factor


equity


theory,


early


theory


group


1980s.


"They


need-fulfillment


theory,


and


include


theory


perception


need-


value-


theory"


(Glasgow, 1982,


These theories have been classified as either content or


process
theorists


theories

were


(Campbell,

interested i


Dunnette


Lawler


determining


those


Weik, 1970).

factors related


Content


motivation

explain job


an individual


satisfaction in


to work while process theorists attempted


terms of the interaction between the individual's


needs and what the job actually offers" (Wellstood, 1984/1985,


p. 15).


Abraham


Maslow's


(1943)


general


theory


motivation


need-


hierarchy theory, is a major content theory and has been used as a frame of


reference for many job satisfaction


studies.


Maslow stated that man has five


basic categories of needs arranged in an ascending hierarchy of five levels.
Lower-order needs were (a) physiological needs, (b) safety and security needs,


(c) social


(affection) needs.


Higher-order needs were (d)


the need for


esteem


, including


need


mastery


achievement


along


with


recognition and approval and (e) the need for self-actualization, that is,


desire to be all one is capable of being.


Although lower-order needs had to be


met before higher-order needs assumed importance, the satisfaction of a need
removed it as a motivator. (Figure 1)






18






SELF-
ACTUAL-
IZATION:
to become
everything that
one is capable of
becoming
(measure up to one's
own criteria for success)


ESTEEM NEEDS:
self-respect, positive
self-evaluation, prestige
(dependent on others)


BELONGINGNESS AND LOVE NEEDS:
love, affection, friends, companionship
(dependent on self and others)


SAFETY NEEDS:
protection from the elements
(dependent on self and others)


PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS:


hunger, thirst, sex, et
(dependent on self)


Figure 1.


Maslow'


Hierarchy of Needs


Note.
iob s<


Adapted from An application of the refomulated (Herzberg) theory of


satisfaction


to selected


administrative


affairs


taff in


Florida


State


University System, by A. P


. Kozal, 1979.


Maslow's


theory concerned


the relationship of each need level


to the


I









or the ability to become all one is capable of becoming (Maslow, 1943).


Thus,


the need-hierarchy


theory is


based


on the


idea


that


lower-order needs are


never totally satisfied.


Deprivation of satisfaction over time causes the needs


to evolve into strong motivators.


contrast,


higher-order needs


must


continuously


sought


are seldom


completely


satisfied.


an article


entitled


"The


Herzberg


Controversy,"


Bockman


(1971)


discussed


traditional theory or the total body of feeling an individual has about a job,


which includes both job-related and environment-related factors.


The feeling


moves


along


a single


continuum


between


satisfaction


dissatisfaction.


Neutrality


a condition


which


an individual


neither


satisfied


dissatisfied, is mid-way on the continuum.


(Figure 2)


Job Factors


Negative or Absent


Positive or Present


Dissatisfaction Neutrality Satisfaction


Figure 2.


Bockman's


Traditional Model of Job Satisfaction


Deprivation


pay,


recognition,


some


other


factor


will


move


individual toward


the negative end.


salary, will cause positive movement.


The improvement of a factor, such as

Finally, if the presence of a variable in


the work situation leads to job satisfaction, one could logically expect that its

absence would lead to job dissatisfaction.









associated


with


feelings


dissatisfaction.


Herzberg


and


associates,


employing the critical incident method developed by Flanagan (1954), tested


concept


male


engineers


and


accountants


Pittsburgh,


Pennsylvania.


From these data, Herzberg et al. (1959) developed the theory of


job attitudes called the


Two-Factor


Theory or the Motivator-Hygiene


Theory.


Since


1959


, the


Two-Factor


Theory


been


used


extensively


satisfaction


research.


emphasis


on the


contribution


psychological


growth


to job


satisfaction


and


recognition


that


opportunities


psychological


growth


can


found


within


work


itself


particular


importance in the development of general job satisfaction theory.


Two-


Factor


Theory


states


that


motivation


does


exist


on a continuum,


postulated


Hoppock,


consists


continue,


satisfiers


motivators


, and job dissatisfiers,


or hygienes.


(Figure 3)


(Satisfiers/
Motivators)


Satisfaction


No Satisfaction


(Dissatisfiers/


No Dissatisfaction


Hygienes)


Dissatisfaction


Figure 3.


Herzberg'


Two-Factor Attitude Model


Cummings and El Salmi


(1968) divided


the Herzberg theory into the


r* a a


Lrr


n ~H nnw ~n ~









The opposite of job satisfaction is not job dissatisfaction; it is no job


satisfaction
satisfaction


Conversely, the opposite of job dissatisfaction is not job


,it is no job dissatisfaction.


satisfaction


determined


feeling


employee


towards
factors


content


ire classified


of his job or job environment.


Content job


achievement, recognition, advancement,


responsibility and work itself.


These factors were mentioned most


often by those interviewed as factors that gave the most satisfaction.

Job dissatisfaction is determined by the feelings the individual has


toward
policy


the context of his job.


and


administration,


Context factors include:


technical


aspects


company


supervision,


interpersonm
conditions.


al


relations


with


supervision,


salary


and


working


These factors were mentioned most often as causing the


employee the most dissatisfaction.
133)


(Cummings & El Salmi,


1968, p.


Motivators


responsibility


such


and interest in


achievement


, recognition,


work itself were


advancement


intrinsic factors


which,


when present in a job,


productivity.

recognition.


acted as satisfiers with a positive effect on employee


Of the motivators, achievement was the strongest, followed by


The motivators corresponded to Maslow'


higher-order needs.


The six motivators or satisfiers as defined by Herzberg et al. (1959) and

Herzberg (1966) follow:

1. Advancement refers to actual changes in the status or position of an


individual in an organization.


It also includes the probability of or


hope of advancement.

Achievement refers to all events that lead toward realization of the
worker's personal objectives (successful completion of a job, finding


a solution to a problem, or seeing the results of one'


own work).


The definition also includes the opposite-failure to achieve.


Recognition


comprises


acts


praise


and/or


notice


(positive


. .


- ~ I- -~ t 1.. 1 ~ ~ ~ -- 2 t2 -' -. .3 tt. 1 -


,.










Responsibility relates to authority and includes those sequences of


events


in which


the worker mentioned satisfaction


derived from


being given responsibility for his own work or the work of others,


or being
incidents


given


new


in which


responsibility.


there


was


Also


a loss of


included


were


satisfaction from


those


lack


responsibility.

Possibility of Growth refers to growth in specific skill areas as well as


growth


in status


which


would


enable


individual


move


onward and upward in a company.


This factor also encompasses


the lack of opportunity for growth. (Herzberg, 1966,


pp. 193-198)


Hygiene


factors


included


security,


supervision


physical


working conditions and corresponded to Maslow'


lower-order needs.


They


were extrinsic to the job and, when absent, linked to dissatisfaction.


Herzberg


and his associates made it very clear, however "that the presence of a hygiene


factor


doesn't automatically produce


satisfaction and


the absence of


motivator doesn't necessarily lead to dissatisfaction" (Wellstood, 1984/1985, p.

16).

The eight hygienes or dissatisfiers as defined by Herzberg (1966) are as

follows:


Salary


includes


compensation


sequences


events


which


SOI


(wage or salary increase) plays a role.


ne type of
Unfulfilled


expectations of a salary increase are also included in this category.


Working


condition


refers to the physical conditions of work and


facilities


available


performing


work


(adequate


tools


space, lighting and ventilation).


Supervision-technical


includes


those


events


which


competence or incompetence of the supervisor is the critical factor.


Statements concerning a supervisor'


willingness or unwillingness


to delegate


responsibility


or his


willingness


or unwillingness


v






23



Company policy and administration includes factors in which some


overall


aspect


company


involved.


Herzberg


(1959)


identified two types:


of a company'


the first concerns the adequacy or inadequacy


organization and management; the second involves


the positive or negative effects of the company'


personnel policies.


Status


refers


to the sequence of


events


in which


the respondent


specifically mentioned


that a


change in status affected his or


feelings about the job (attaining a larger office, use of a company car
or having a personal secretary).


. Personal


life involves situations


which some aspect of the job


affects


individual'


personal


in such


a manner


that


respondent'


feelings about his job are affected


(a family-opposed


job transfer).

Tob security refers to signs of job security (continued employment,


tenure


financial


safeguards).


Feelings


alone of


security


insecurity were not accepted.


Herzberg stated


(Herzberg, 1966, pp.


that there could be situations in


193-198)

which a motivator


could act as a hygiene and vice-versa (Herzberg et al.,


1959).


After


12 studies


involving


percent


1,685


employees,


all factors


related


however,

Sto job s


Herzberg

satisfaction


(1966:

were


) concluded

motivators


that


while 69


percent of all factors related to job dissatisfaction were hygienes.

Salary was difficult to classify in the original study as it appeared in


reports


labeled


satisfaction


as well


as in reports of high


satisfaction.


Researchers concluded that the former reports were related to employees who

felt they deserved higher pay or that increases were not based on performance


while


latter


were


from


employees


who


increases


were


based


performance and that their own salaries were fair (Herzberg et al.,


1959).


Herzberg's


theory


been


very


popular.


Since


first


published


S* I I --


-^ ,






24


Burr (1980/1981) listed 13 studies conducted over a 10-year period in the


field of education alone.


Between 1982 and 1991, at least 56 dissertations have


dealt to some extent with Herzberg'


theory.


Of these, approximately 15 were


related


to higher


education


faculty


or staff.


Only


three


were


related


librarians (Dahlstrom, 1982


Hamshari, 1985/1986;


Timmons, 1991).


Initially


criticism of Herzberg's theory focused on the narrow range of


jobs


investigated,


the absence of reliability and


validity


data,


the lack of a


measure


overall


satisfaction


use


only


one


attitude


measure for overall job satisfaction (Burr,


1980/1981).


Although replication


studies rendered most of these criticisms moot (Herzberg et al,


1959), other


critics claimed


that the


"theory is bound by its methodology


that only one


method, the critical incident method, could provide empirical support for [it]"


(Burr, 1980/1981,


p. 38).


Herzberg refuted this criticism by stating that "the fact


that another method of testing motivation-hygiene theory has not supported


it is meaningless unless it can be demonstrated that such a method i


valid


appropriate.


One cannot logically


employ


a typing


skill


measure


and


use


results


to evaluate


theory


intellectual


development" (Herzberg, 1976, p.


246).


Work and Motivation,


Vroom


(1964) wrote that the results of the


critical-incident


method


were


due


defensive


processes


within


individuals interviewed.


Further


he criticized the methods used as neither


correlational nor experimental.


Although


there


been


trong


reaction


Herzberg'


Two-Factor


Theory,


it has led to the analysis of specific work characteristics in studies of









Measuring Tob Satisfaction


Typically


satisfaction


been


measured


an objective,


descriptive


or a projective


survey.


Objective


surveys


generally


contain


questions with pre-determined responses while descriptive surveys are more

subjective, allowing for unstructured replies through open-ended questions.


Projective surveys


are devised


psychologists


or psychiatrists


assess


mental health and are not normally used in a work setting (Glenn, 1982/1983;


Wellstood, 1984/1985).


The critical incident technique used by Herzberg was a


form of descriptive survey.


Thomas (1977),


Kozal (1979), and Burr (1980/1981)


used modified

college, college,


versions


university


technique


administrators


their

and


studies


community


staff members.


Glenn


(1982/1983)


standardized


and


Wellstood


(1984/1985)


both


measures of job satisfaction and


reported

selected


lack


many


Descriptive


Index (JDI) to measure job satisfaction and dissatisfaction for their studies of
vocational education administrators and medical technologists, respectively.


Olson


(1988/1990) used


the Minnesota Satisfaction


Questionnaire (MSQ) in


his study of college placement officers.
In a comparison of the JDI and the MSQ, Robert Gulon wrote in The
Eighth Mental Measurements Yearbook that both were the result of research


in the


1960s


, had an underlying rationale,


provided reliable scores, showed


evidence


construct


validity


were


extensively


normed


. 1680).


Campbell et al.,


(1970), in reviewing the


JDI, stated


that "nowhere do


authors] mention
vs. extrinsic factors.


Herzberg'


two-factor theory and the notion of intrinsic


It would have been interesting to


see how they relate









The MSQ is one of several measures


developed in


conjunction


with


Minnesota


Studies


Vocational


Rehabilitation


as they


are better


known


, the Work Adjustment Project.


The studies


began in


1957 with two


objectives,


development


diagnostic


tools


assessing


work


adju


stment


rehabilitation,


'potential'


and


of applicant
evaluation of


work


vocational
adjustment


outcomes. These primary goals are embodied in ... the Theory
of Work Adjustment [which] uses the correspondence or lack of


it between the work personality and


the work environment as


principal


reason


explanation


observed


work


adjustment outcomes


satisfactorinesss, satisfaction, and tenure).


Work adjustment is predicted by matching an individual'


work


personality


with


England & Lofquist, 1967,


work
p.v)


environments.


(Weiss,


Davis


The MSQ is a paper and pencil inventory.

employee's satisfaction with his or her job. The


information on the aspects of job


It is designed to measure an

; MSQ provides more specific


satisfaction than do more general measures.


It is available in both long and short form and is suitable for distribution
through the mail, as it is self-administering with directions on the first page.

A detailed description of the MSQ is provided in Chapter II.


D'Elia (1975


1979) was the first investigator to use the MSQ to measure


the job satisfaction of librarians.


Chrisman


(1975),


Chwe (1976;


1978), and


Rockman (1984;


1985/1986) also used it,


with D'Elia and Rockman selecting


the short form while Chwe used the long form.


Chwe felt strongly that the


short form should be used for subjects with high educational levels, such as


librarians


(Chwe


1976


The


MSQ


is appropriate


use


with


individuals who can read


at the fifth grade level or higher.


The


100-item









Work Behavior


Type


Definition


Neff (1969) describes adult work behavior as "the complex product of a


long


series


of learned


habitual


styles


perceiving


coping


with


demands


environment


That


an individual


coping


behaviors consolidate to form a particular work style.


Industrial Psychology

The field of industrial psychology developed specifically to explore the


behaviors


people


work


environment.


Researchers


claimed


that


work be

separate


?havior


theories


a distinctive


to explain


area


human


behavior


behavior


people


which


at work


(Ne


requires
ff, 1969;


Wellstood


,1984/1985).


Historically


industrial


psychologists


have


viewed


entry into a field from the organization'


perspective rather than from that of


individual.


Although


"from


an organizational


standpoint,


questions


concerning the matching of a


job candidate'


abilities


to organizational


requirements


[are]


more


important


than


individual'


perspective


matching


individuals


jobs


that


right


them


important"


(Wellstood, 1984/1985, p. 43).
Recruitment and training costs are a practical reason to be aware of the


match between organization and individual.


"When an employee leaves the


organization, a drain is placed on the recruiting/training budget, and there is


much loss of time and


productivity"


(Nickens,


1984


Further, a


"job-


employee mismatch"


causes both emnlovee and administrator to Pxnerience






28


personnel do not meet organizational standards and, of those who survive


the first year, almost 44 percent leave during the second year.


This is both an


enormous


financial


drain


organization


and


an emotional


financial problem for the individual.


Although the majority of employers state that their


human resources


are their most important asset, organizations typically do not substantiate this


claim (Jelinik, 1979).


She writes that "employees may be used ineffectively in


sense


that


their


existing


skills,


knowledge,


aptitudes


are poorly


matched with the requirements of their jobs


. .


the abilities


. of employees


also are often underutilized in terms of what they are expected to do in their


jobs"


287).


Jelinik


further


states


that


"even


most


sophisticated


organizations


are relative


novices


when


comes


proper


development and utilization of human beings" ibidd).


Evolution of Work Behavior Types


The study of work


behavior traits and


types as


they


are understood


today began with the work of William Moulton Marston, a psychologist and


scientist who published Emotions of Normal People in 1928.


Marston built


early


theories


on the


work


German


psychologist


Wundt,


who


established the first official psychology laboratory in 1879. He is considered

the founder of experimental psychology because of his research with nerve,


muscle and emotional responses (Olson,


1988/1990).


Wundt departed from


the view, then current, that pleasantness and unpleasantness are the only two


emotions


proposed


addition


four


other


emotions:


excitement









Marston


also


reviewed


work


Jung


who,


book,


Psychological


Types,


wrote


about


clusters


characteristics


"collective unconscious"


that helps to mold


the personality and behavior of


an individual.


Jung


emphasized


that people


choose


a dominant attitude


toward life:


introversion,


which is an orientation toward inner processes, or


extroversion, which is an orientation toward the external world of people and


events.


conscious


also


values


viewed


human


unconscious


personality


values


terms


sublimation


and


polarities:

repression,


rational and irrational functions and the previously mentioned introversion


and extroversion.


Finally, Jung wrote that each person has only four ways in


which


to orient


toward


world:


"rational"


functions


thinking


(recognizing meaning) and feeling (experiencing pleasure or pain) and two


"irrational"


functions


sensation


or perceiving


by means


of unconscious


and subliminal processes (Jung, 1923).


Through


review


work


of Wundt and


Jung


and


based


research


into


motation


(emotions


as measured


motor


consciousness,


nerve, and muscle response),


Marston


(1927


1928) identified four primary


emotions


which


termed


dominance,


compliance,


inducement


and


submission.


He defined a primary emotion as "an emotion which contained


the maximal amount of alliance, antagonism, [and] superiority of


strength of


the motor self in respect to the motor stimulus" (Marston, 1928, p. 106).


Marston


(1927)


then


defined


dominance


"central


release


additional motor energy directed


toward dominating obstacles to a reaction


already in progress" (p.


349).


He continued


it is


"an increase of the self to


r






30

triumphs, the creation of art or music and the primary emotion of infants in


their first


three


years


are all


examples of


dominant


behavior


or emotion.


(Wellstood,


1984/1985


Nickens


1984).


However


emotion


uncontrolled


, it may be viewed negatively.


In a person with a position of


authority


such


behavior


may


cause


dissatisfaction


or unhappiness


subordinates.


Compliance, according to Marston


(1927), ranks as a basic emotional


response.


"Compliance means


control


(but not inhibition)


of tonic motor


discharge reinforcement by a phasic reflex" (p. 350).


Marston (1928) further


defined compliance as a

decrease of the motor self to let an opponent move the organism


as if by will; either passively,


dominant


activity, or


actively


by making the self give up some
, by compelling the organism to


move


In some


anti-dominant


way


. l [It


feeling


acceptance of


an object or


force


as inevitably just what it is,


followed by self-yielding sufficient to bring about harmonious
readjustment of self to object. (p. 183)


Compliance

surrender.


may


occur


because


sudden


change,


fear


or voluntary


An individual may believe or come to recognize that forces of


stimuli


outside


oneself


stronger


than


internal


forces.


Intense


conditioning,


or repeated


environmental


stimuli,


may


lead


to compliance


just as moderate repetitious


punishment may produce compliance while a


harsh occasional punishment may not (Nickens,


1984).


Marston


(1927)


tated


that submission


was


a "voluntary yielding to


whatever


stimuli


may


imposed.


does


seem


to overwhelm,


dominate the subject organism by force, but rather brings about a spontaneous









takes


form


consideration


service


other


selflessness,


accommodation and generosity" (Wellstood,


1984/1985, p. 34).


Inducement can be seen by observing the behavior of individuals who


gain voluntary submission from others.


Marston's 1928 definition states that


inducement consists of an increase of the self, and making of the


self more


completely


allied


with


the stimulus


person,


purpose of establ
The definite cha
utterly necessary


fishing control


racteristic


win


over that person's behavior.


induceme
voluntary


is a feeling


submission


that


of another


person to do what the subject says.


This feeling [is] increasingly


pleasant in proportion as the other person submits.


273)


Inducement


may


involve


"persuasion,


personal


charm,


friendlines


frequently seduction or subtle manipulation


. Every positive relationship


contains


some


inducement


behavior,


there


must


inducement


submission for alliance to occur"


(Nickens,


1984,


In modern


culture,


advertising is an example of inducement.


Marston


's Two-Axis Model


Marston


illustrated


four


emotions


as forming


a two-axis


model


with dominance and compliance constituting one axis and inducement and


submission constituting the second axis.


Individuals attempt to maintain a


balance between


the extremes of


each axis and


the point of balance varies


which, according to Marston, explains differences in behavioral tendencies.


In Marston


's model, as seen in Figure 4,


dominance and


compliance


form one axis.


Inducement and submission form the second axis.


The two


emotions of each


pair are located at opposite ends of a continuum and are


e an arl krr i-i, a"t A*< a wnn a^ t nf an ^t, a^ Va 4% 4 -^^ yr av -f- n4 ta a -^ n'* 4 ^ tw a- r. A 1 i-i












Dominance


Inducement


Active


Process


Orientation






Passive
Orientation


Orientation



m m m m m S m *


Product
Orientation


Submission


Compliance


Figure 4.


Marston'


Two-Axis Model


Note.


From The Marcus Paul


Placement Profile


Work


Behavior


Analysis by J.


M. Nickens, 1984.


axes


are divided


horizontally.


The


active component and


outward


orientation


are seen


in the


upper


dimensions


dominance


inducement while the lower dimension includes the inward orientation and

the passive component made up of submission and compliance.

Geier (1979) both updated and clarified some of Marston's terminology.

He defined the four emotions as follows:









Submission
environment.


passive


aggressiveness


favorable


Inducement
environment.


active


positive


movement


favorable


(p. 2)


He also added the idea that persons whose traits cluster predominantly in the


upper dimension of the model have a process orientation.


These individuals


"want to shape the environment according to


their particular view.


are individuals who continually test and push the limits"


ibidd, p.


These

Those


people whose traits cluster in the lower dimension are more product-oriented

and "focus on the how and why" ibidd).


The


dimensions


Marston


Two-Axis


Model


indicate


behavioral


tendencies.


The behavior traits of an individual tend


to cluster around one


dimension more than the others but each individual exhibits some or all of

the types of behavior to at least some degree.


The inability of Marston's


model to explain the simultaneous presence


of feelings of dominance and compliance and of inducement and submission


has been cited as the major limitation of the model.


Interpretations that fac-


tor in environmental considerations as influences are


, however,


worth con-


sideration. According to Nickens (1984),


"people will display work behavior


that


is not


normal.


normal


Thus,


them


when


this is not the normal


induces


behavior


pressures


. and


beyond

beyond


theory.


However


, behaving


differently


under


different


circumstances


normal" (p.


Clustered Traits


. is









researchers (Allport & Odbert, 1936; Cattell, 1946; Geier, 1967


1979


, 1980) sub-


stantiated trait clusters


, with Geier (1980) reporting that "many of Marston'


suggested adjectives for each of his four emotions had correlated together at


least R


= .60"


Marston's


model has a non-pathological orientation


with four categories supported by cluster traits.


This is in contrast to other


theories


which


are pathologically


oriented


and


contain


multiple


clusters


(Wellstood,


1984/1985; Nickens,


1984).


Marston'


non-pathological orienta-


tion makes the model particularly appropriate for work behavior analysis as

work is a normal activity for adults.

Geier (1980) stated that "one must consider semantic change, or change


of meaning.


Then


, too, some words acquire negative connotations over time,


or with much repetition have lost their original vividness and become worn


and faded"


(p. 12).


Accordingly,


he built on the work of Marston (1927


1928)


and Alpert and Odbert (1936) in developing an updated list of traits.


whole, most traits were listed as adjectives


On the


which made them easier to review


Figure 6.


Marcus Paul Placement Profile


and use in additional research.


Geier'


list of clustered traits is presented in


Building theoretically on Marston'


model and Geier'


research, Bauch


(1981)


Nickens


(1984)


developed


Marcus


Paul


Placement


Profile


(MPPP).


The instrument was designed to measure work behavior type for the


purpose of matching individuals and jobs.


Counseling, career development,


recruitment


placement,


training,


team


building,


enhancement






35

individuals possess a variety of qualities and patterns of behavior in any work


situation (Glenn, 1982/1983,


Bauch (1981) did not view work behavior traits and types as judgments


of work


behaviors


but rather


as terms


that


could


used


to increase


understanding of work behavior, to the benefit of both the organization and


the individual.


He advocated positive or neutral


terminology with specific


terms


reflective


work


behaviors.


particular,


replaced


some


Marston


's and Geier'


terms which had negative connotations with positive


or neutral


terms


applicable


a work


environment.


example,


Geier


changed


Marston


original


categories


dominance,


inducement,


submission


compliance


dominance,


influence,


teadiness


and


compliance


while


Bauch


Nickens


designated


four


work


behavior


types as energizer, inducer, concentrator and producer.


The


behaviors


that


cluster


on the


dominance dimension are


placed


under the energizer work behavior type.


The term energizer is more positive


also


more


descriptive of


type


as found


in a work


environment.


Marston'


inducement and Geier'


influence became inducer, a positive and


descriptive

Placement


term


Profile


representation


than


second


(MPPP)

Marston


work


type,


behavior


type.


The


concentrator


submission


Marcus


more


dimension


and


Paul


positive

broader


description of the type than Geier'


term,


teadiness, which is only one aspect


of the trait.


Finally, the more descriptive and more positive term producer


replaced


compliance.


In all four instances,


the MPPP labels were changed


from adjectives to nouns to indicate a type as opposed to a trait (Bauch,


1981).























bO


tU0


'5
(U
0) '.-


4-'
U)

oJ bo


Sn.
n


a.
-4
U

*1*1


U,
<0




a :


rt r










Dominance


Influencing
(Inducement)*


Steadiness


Compliance


(Submission)*


adventurous
aggressive
argumentative
arrogant
assertive
bold
brave
competitive
daring
decisive
defiant
determined
direct


eager
fearless


firm


force of character
forceful
inquisitive
inventive
irritable
nervy
original
outspoken
persistent
pioneering
positive
rebellious
restless
rigorous
self-reliant
stubborn
unconquerable
vigorous
will power


admirable
affectionate
animated
attractive
boastful
charming
companionable
confident
convincing
cordial
energetic
expressive
fervent


flexible
fluent


good mixer
high-spirited
inspiring
jovial
joyful
life of the party
light-hearted
open-minded
optimistic
persuasive
playful
polished
popular
prideful
proud
responsive
self-assured
spirited
talkative
trusting


accommodating
attentive
cheerful
companionable
confidential
considerate
contented
controlled
deliberate
earnest
easy mark
even-tempered
friendly
generous
gentle
good-natured
gracious
hospitable
kind
lenient
loyal
mild
moderate
modest
neighborly
nonchalant
obedient
patient
peaceful
possessive
reliable
sentimental
sympathetic
trustful
willing


accurate
adaptable
adherent
agreeable
calculating
calm
cautious
conformist
consistent
contemplative
cultured
devout
diplomatic
easily-led
exacting
fearful
fussy
God-fearing
harmonious
humble
logical
objective
obliging
peaceful
precise
receptive
resigned
respectful
soft-spoken
strict
systematic
tactful
timid
tolerant
well-disciplined










Energizer
(Dominance)*
(Dominance)0

aggressive
bold
certain
competitive
decisive
demanding
determined
direct
dominant
eager
forceful
independent
leader
new ideas
original
outspoken
sure
takes charge
venturesome
vigorous


Inducer


(Inducement)*
(Influencing)0

attracts people
change agent
convincing
enthusiastic
expressive
friendly
happy
hopeful
inspiring
playful
personable
persuader
popular
respected
seeks new ideas
sociable
talkative
team leader


Concentrator
(Submission)*
(Steadiness)0

accepting
attentive
caring
committed
contented
considerate
diplomatic
disciplined
easy going
exacting
loyal
orderly
patient
peaceful
reasonable
respectful
satisfied
sharing
steady
tolerant
trusting
understanding


Producer


(Compliance)*
(Compliance)0

accurate
agreeable
careful
cautious
compliant
conforming
contented
devoted
exacting
follows orders
follows procedures
governed
logical
precise
resigned
respectful
responsible
systematic thinker


Figure 7


Marcus Paul Placement Profile List of Traits (Bauch, 1981)


Note: Marston'


(1928) original terms; 0 Geier'


(1980) revised list of traits.


The theoretical basis of the MPPP is similar to Herzberg'


motivator-


hygiene model for job satisfaction.


That is


, Herzberg recognized


that


factors which enhance job satisfaction (the motivators) do not automatically
produce dissatisfaction when absent and the factors that induce dissatisfaction


1_









pairs" in statistical models.


The recognition of trait independence provided a


more powerful tool for explaining complex behaviors on an individual basis

(Nickens, 1984, p. 13).

A major contribution in work behavior analysis was the automation of


the response analysis and reporting.


Nickens developed a system in which


responses


marked


MPPP


response


sheet


can


entered


into


microcomputer,


analyzed,


and


results


printed


immediately


a form


easily used for discussion.


The report can be retained by an individual for


future reference and further discussion.


There


are 24 sets of forced


choice


items


the MPPP


. In


each set,


respondents indicate the term most descriptive of their work behavior and


the term least descriptive of their work behavior.


Work behavior types are


then


profile


reported


includes


as energizers,


a narrative


inducers


description


, concentrators,


and


an individual'


producers.

s strengths


The


tendencies


work


setting.


more


complete


description


administration, analysis and reporting of the MPPP is provided in Chapter iI.


Academic Librarians


Personality Studies


considerable


literature


exists


on the


personality


librarian.


Bryan


(1952),


Douglas


and


Rainwater


(1965)


studied


various


populations of librarians between 1948 and 1965.


All three studies showed the


average


librarian


to be


more


submissive


or deferential


than


general


nonulation


and to


Dossess


a set of


qualities


summarized


term


.. ....









However,


Bryan (1952),


who studied public librarians in one of the earliest


comprehensive studies of librarian


personality,


used


the Guildford-Martin


Inventory


of Factors


(GAMIN)


which


fallen


into


disuse.


It has


been


criticized for several reasons but especially because of its subjectivity (Agada,


1987).


Douglass (1957) sought to determine the extent to which the profession


selects members


having a


characteristic personality pattern.


Between


1947


1948


administered


a series


measures


, using


Minnesota


Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) as his major instrument.


This test


was designed for use in psychopathological testing and could be inappropriate


for understanding normal behavior (Agada,


1987


Fisher,


1988).


Rainwater


(1965) administered the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS) to 94


student


librarians.


findings


suggested


greater


tendencies


toward


nurturance and succorance


, as well as low heterosexuality


conform


the broad groupings of behavior described by Bryan (1952) and Douglas (1957).


However


Rainwater'


interpretations


are now


considered


questionable


(Agada,


1987).


In the decade of the 1960s


, Baillie (1961/1962) studied a small sample of


librarians


and


found


that


although


they


conformed


"normal"


personality patterns, they were aloof, suspicious and wary.


McMahon (1967)


reported


on librarians'


lack


of leadership


potential


and noted


that


"people


with certain personality traits are drawn towards librarianship as a career" (p.


Morrison (1961),


Clayton (1968), and Magrill (1969) produced three doctoral


studies


related


librarian


personality


The


Ghiselli


Self-Description


Inventory was used to study academic librarians (Morrison, 1961).


He stated









orientation


academic


librarianship


and


found


subjects


disinterested in decision-making and lacking in initiative and assertiveness.


During the


1970s studies reporting the docile nature and passivity of


library students were published.


The works of Segal (1970),


Goodwin (1972),


and Plate and Stone (1974) are representative of this research


particular,

generally

librarians


with Segal,


reporting male librarians to be practical, somewhat unfeeling and


suspicious.


they


studied


Presthaus


to be


(1970)


bureaucratic


Hamilton


resistant


(1976)


found


to change,


both


sociological and


(1976)


technological.


investigated


In a study


personality


of 160 full-time librarians,


character


Clift


group,


accuracy


of library patron'


stereotype of librarians.


Results revealed high


needs for achievement, endurance, and order and low needs for exhibition,


aggression and change.


Males but not females had high needs for nurturance


deference


and a low need for


autonomy.


Both


sexes


scored high


measures


self-control


personal


adjustment.


and


Hall


(1973)


employed


the Sixteen Personality Questionnaire


(16PF)


to determine mean


differences in selected


personality


characteristics


between a female college


norm group and a group of female prospective librarians.


In contrast to the


occupational stereotype of librarians as


rigid,


conventional,


tense


and less


stable


library


science


students


were


found


to exhibit


these


characteristics to any greater degree than the norm group.


In addition


three scales with significant differences (more intelligent, experimenting and
self-sufficient) were favorable to the prospective librarians.


Personality studies of librarians and


prospective librarians continued









"university


librarianship


constitutes


occupational


sub-culture


characterized by very distinctive and potentially very dysfunctional


values,


attitudes


and


work


preferences"


163).


found


that


academic


librarians studied lacked self-confidence, avoided aggression, were resistant to


job challenges,


were primarily motivated by


extrinsic rewards and showed


little


inclination


toward


leadership,


assertiveness,


social


interaction


change.

related


Moore (1981) reported no differences in personality characteristics as


to managerial


talent for those who selected librarianship as a first


career, those who worked in another field which required graduate training
prior to entering librarianship and those who chose it as an alternative career.

"Regardless of the route by which a person comes to academic librarianship, it


appears that the same type does ultimately come"


146).


Moore did find


librarians


closer


to the


norm


on general


personality


characteristics


than


earlier studies


backgrounds


had reported.


men


Lemkau


employed


(1984) studied


the personalities and


female-dominated


professions,


including


nurse,


elementary


school


teacher


and


librarian.


They


were


compared with 63 men (S's) employed in sex-typical fields.


A's showed lower


adherence


traditional


sex-role


expectations


such


household


responsibilities and exhibited greater "tender-minded"


emotional sensitivity.


"There


was


also


evidence


that


upward-mobility


strivings


may


have


contributed


to atypical


career


choices


with


more


frequently


being


members of social minorities and/or of lower socio-economic background"


110).


The data suggest that disadvantaged youth seeking upward mobility


may


choose


female-dominated


professions


as easier


to permeate


- .


and









students with counterparts in law and liberal arts.


Both third-year library and


liberal


arts students


were less assertive


than first-year students


while law


students


maintained


a comparable


degree of


assertiveness


at both


levels.


Agada suggested that library education does not enhance student assertion.


He recommended that the profession focus on the socialization of


students to


an appropriate


professional


demeanor.


Webreck'


findings


(1985/1986)


suggested


that librarians exhibit introverted and


judging personality types.


This was consistent with Agada'


(1984/1985;


1987) assertion studies.


Finally,


a study of 500 first-year library school students from eight European countries


(Bruyns,


1989) revealed that library schools attracted students who were less


technical, less creative, less sports-loving and,


possibly, less ambitious when


compared with other Higher Vocational Education students.


was found between male and female students.


Little difference


The research indicated "future


librarians


are still


humanities" (p.


persons
Further,


who


in general


"the profession


are interested


culture


attracts students who are, in


general, conservative, who do not show a tendency towards taking initiatives,


who


have


an attitude


inclining


towards


rendering


services


who,


general, cannot be characterized as having dynamic personalities" ibidd).


one


most


recent


studies


available,


David


(1990/1991)


concentrated


on librarians


working


technological


environments.


reported


that


librarians,


independent


their


sub-specialties,


were


dominant on Holland'


Artist


Type" (p.


164).


the groups tested were dominant on Holland
they conservative, as both earlier studies and


She also found that none of


's Conventional Type nor were

stereotypical representations of









"ideological and not a little farcical" (p.


For example, replying "true" to


question


think


would


work


a librarian"


indicates


feminine orientation.


In other words


, the very job of librarian is considered a


feminine activity.


Fisher argued strongly that there is doubt in the utility of


entire


psychological


approach


to librarianship.


reviewed


several


studies and concluded that each attempted to generalize from samples which


were frequently very small and


used


personality tests shown


to be largely


inappropriate.


"No real attempts have been made to link the individual and


the social, personality traits are mostly viewed as absolute, existing across all


situations" ibidd, p.


Agada (1984) also criticized earlier studies of librarian


personality


using


questionable


control


groups,


limited


and/or


non-


random sampling,


use of other career professionals as


"norms"


and lack of


replication.

Most important, most of the studies used dated multitrait global


personality


inventories


which


meet


current


high


standards of reliability and validity, failing especially to show a


high degree of convergent and discriminant validity.


Most of


these


instruments


have


a psychopathological


basis


which


usually inappropriate and inadequate for the understanding of


normal behavior.


38-39)


Fisher (1988) advocated a more sociological approach to this area of study, one


which acknowledges the interaction


between the individual and


the social,


which


uses


techniques or instruments


suitable for varied


and normal


individuals.


"The conflicting


results


would lead


one


to believe


that


libraries like other organizations are populated by staff with varied interests


and attributes" (p.


Agada (1984) wrote


"there is a need for personality






45

personal influencing factors, and on the process of people's decisions to enter


librarianship" (p.


173).


One additional factor which should be considered is


the "strikingly homogeneous demographic characteristics" (Heim and Moen,
1992, p. 95) displayed by library and information science students over the last


years.


1988


study


students


(then)


American


Library


Association


accredited


library


information


science


programs


United States revealed survey respondents to be overwhelmingly white (93.7

percent) and female (80.9 percent).


Tob Satisfaction of Academic Librarians


previously


stated


interest in


satisfaction


can


be seen


number of studies related to it.


Locke (1969) estimated that more than 4,000


articles on the subject had been published while Chwe (1976) increased that


number to


5,000.


Of those


5,000,


Chwe was able to identify only about


studies of job satisfaction in the field of librarianship in the United States (p.


23-27).


Additional studies were completed after


1976 including at least eight


relevant dissertations.
Frankie (1980/1981) studied university catalog and reference librarians


using worker analysis techniques.


Lindstrom


(1980) compared


community


college


and


college / university


librarians


and


found


different


levels


satisfaction for each area.


Swe (1981/1982) compared bibliographers and non-


bibliographers


in academic research libraries while Hook


(1981) concluded


that


library


administrators


in academic


libraries


were


significantly


more


satisfied


with


higher-level


intrinsic


aspects


their


work


than


non-









University


North


Carolina


system


investigated


relationship


between communication satisfaction and job satisfaction.


Hegg (1982/1984)


and Rockman


(1985/1986)


used


MSQ


in studies


designed


to reconcile


inconsistent findings regarding job satisfaction and to produce a demographic
profile of academic librarians.


As early as


1937 the twin issues of job satisfaction and work behavior


type of librarians were addressed in contributions to a symposium entitled


"Square Pegs in Square Holes-Bringing


Together


Talent and Opportunity in


Library


Profession."


particular,


deficiencies


staff


management


techniques,

creativity,

promotions,


monotonous


lack


and


routine


professional


inadequate


salaries


work


with


development


(Nourse,


1937)


little


opportunity


opportunities,


and


lack


limited


clear


specifications and classifications (Timmerman, 1937) were described as factors


related to dissatisfaction.


The issues of salary and advancement opportunities


were


studied


again


Hoage


(1950)


who


investigated


reasons


resignations in two large university libraries.


Salary and advancement were


cited


most


frequently


respondents,


after


marriage


or following


husband.


Herrick (1950) found these same issues of importance in her study


morale


working


college


environment


librarians


although


relationship


with


proper


other


equipment,

employees


physical


were


ranked as "essential"


or "important" slightly more frequently.


A number of


studies related


to the job satisfaction of librarians have


appeared in


the past


years.


Vaughn


(1972/1973)


found


the concept of


multidimensional job satisfaction to be an important research concept useful









multidimensional


nature


satisfaction,


in addition


the causal


influence


managerial


performance


upon


employee


productivity


satisfaction.


Miniter (1975/1976) found women to be generally more satisfied


their


work


than


men,


Scammel


Stead


(1980)


reported


relatively


constant levels of job satisfaction across different age and


and Limpiyasrisakul


tenure categories


(1980/1981) identified involving librarians in decision-


making processes as a factor in improving job satisfaction.


Lindstrom (1980)


determined that the work itself and pay were the most critical areas related to


satisfaction


with


independence,


challenging


work


service


opportunities related


to higher satisfaction


while Smith and Reinow (1984)


reported that a perception of low professional status and lack of professional
development and advancement opportunities were related to dissatisfaction.


Additional


research


(Hook,


1981


Glasgow,


1982;


Lynch


Verdin


, 1983;


Chopra,


1985;


1984;


Allison


Bernstein &


Sartori


Leach


, 1988;


, 1985;


Bengston


Washington,


1988


& Shields,


Mirfakharai


1985; Sherrer,


1991


Horenstein,


1993) revealed library


administrators


to be more satisfied with


intrinsic aspects of their work than non-administrators, management style to
be the best predictor of librarian satisfaction in an academic setting and faculty


status


or rank


to be


a predictor


overall


satisfaction.


Intellectually


challenging work,


advancement opportunities,


independence and autonomy,


support for professional travel and research and salary continued to appear as
factors in job satisfaction/job dissatisfaction.


theory


role


dynamic


focusing


stress


resulting


from


expectations derived from the work environment defined two main types of






48

context of librarianship suggested both were significantly related to overall job


satisfaction (Stead & Scamell


, 1980).


The bureaucratic nature of librarianship


and the limited discretionary power given to professionally trained workers is


stated


to be


professional


unusual


when


education, such


compared


as engineers,


to other


professions


with


teachers, scientists and


specific
hospital


personnel


ibidd).


addition,


relationship


appears


to be


affected


individual and environmental variables and to be moderated by self-esteem,


particularly for lower-level librarians (Hosel,


1984).


Studies Related to Maslow and Herzbera


Maslow'


need hierarchy theory and Herzberg's dual-factor theory were


specifically considered in a series of studies.


One of the earliest (Wahba, 1973)


provided an empirical


test of the applicability of the theories


to librarians.


Promotional


opportunities,


levels and


security were sources of strong


dissatisfaction with women reporting greater dissatisfaction with the factors


addition


to that


supervision.


Women


also


expressed


greater


need


deficiencies


than men in esteem, autonomy


administrators expressed


higher


satisfaction


and self-actualization.


these


areas


with


Library

technical


services librarians expressing the lowest levels.


Wahba


(1985) explored the


differences


job satisfaction for men and


women in a later study which


concentrated


their


perceived


degree


need


fulfillment


need


deficiencies.


Similar levels of fulfillment were reported in lower-order needs,


such as social


or security needs,


with


women reporting significantly


lower


levels of fulfillment than men in esteem and autonomy needs.


In the area of









& Stone,


1974).


These authors reported findings corresponding to those of


Herzberg, most notably that


factors


involved


producing


satisfaction


(and


motivation) are distinct and different from the factors that lead


to job dissatisfaction and


(and


motivation)


are con(


the factors producing job satisfaction
earnedd primarily with the actual job


content (or work-process factors):


the reasons for dissatisfaction


(or hygiene factors)


context in


which


deal
, job


primarily with factors relating to the


done--the job environment.


Both


sets of factors are closely interrelated.


(p. 97)


Partial support for


Herzberg'


theory was reported in a study of academic


librarians in


Jordan


(Hamshari,


1985/1986).


Both motivators and hygienes


contributed to overall job satisfaction and technical services librarians scored


significantly


higher


than


public


service


librarians


on most


dimensions.


Additional


support


theory


was


provided


Nzotta


(1987)


who


determined


compensation,


physical


environment


and


advancement


to be


major


sources


dissatisfaction


with


security,


actual


work


itself


autonomy producing satisfaction in his study of Nigerian librarians.


Additional


studies


librarians


which


drew


upon


Maslow'


Herzberg's

satisfaction


theories investigated


(Isacco,


1985),


the role of work space in productivity and


decision-making and staff morale (Nitecki,


1984),


expectations c

administrators


administrators


(Alley,


1987),


(Price,


1987


work-related


Fink,


stress


1987)


(Bunge,


expectations


1987)


and


satisfaction of ethnic minority librarians (Squire,


1991).


Baker and Sandore


(1991)


considered


Maslow'


hierarchy


relation


to the


rapid


pace


institutional and technological change in libraries.


Building on their earlier


1A In n rIlr-llrl r w r rwi ir TC Pllilr lmA


I-W~rn rt l r ~rf-^ n -l/Ir~-


r& AIal






50

with starting all over, possibly to satisfy beginning or basic job security needs"


(p. 43).
change


They concluded,


rather


than


however, that it is the uncertainty and turbulence of


specific individual


events,


such


as the


introduction


new


technologies


into


libraries,


which


have


caused


ambivalence


and


insecurity and lowered the reported job satisfaction of librarians.


Studies Using the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire


The


Minnesota


Satisfaction


Questionnaire


been


used


in several


studies related to librarians.


One of the first studies to use the instrument was


a short


longitudinal


investigation


which


data


pertaining


to vocational


needs and


job expectations were collected


prior to subject entry into work


environments with data on


vocational need, environmental reinforcers and


job satisfaction collected after subjects had been working at least six months


(D'Elia, 1975).


Job satisfaction was determined to be a function of both need


gratification and expectation fulfillment.


A later study (D'Elia,


1979) found


two


factors


related


supervision


(human


relations


and


ability


utilization) to be most related to satisfaction.


The level of general


job satisfaction showed no significant difference


for university catalogers or reference librarians in a study that used the long-


form MSQ, although some specific areas, such as


"variety," "compensation,"


or "working conditions" did show substantial differences (Chwe, 1976; 1978).
Additional studies using the MSQ concluded bibliographers were more


satisfied


than non-bibliographers on intrinsic satisfaction


(Swe,


1981/1982),


was


associated


with


satisfaction


while


participation


continuing









difference was determined


(Nzotta,


1985).


Autonomy


decision-making


opportunities were more important in predicting job satisfaction than gender


(Rockman,


1984


1985/1986)


factors


related


to superior-subordinate


relations


(supervision) were significantly related


to general


job satisfaction


(Swasdison,


1989/1990).


Conclusion


Controversy surrounds the study of librarian personality as well as that


the job satisfaction


academic librarians.


No study was found


which


combined an exploration of personal characteristics,


such as work behavior


type,


with


satisfaction


results.


Such


a study


would


appear


to be of


potential interest to graduate schools of library and information science as

they select students for admission and to academic institutions as they recruit


and


hire


librarians.


The


entire


process


recruitment,


selection,


compensation and retention of manpower in an occupation is of interest in

any study of the socialization of professions (Schmidt and Hunter, 1979) and


tudy may be of benefit in this area.


Finally, the study has the potential to expand current understanding of


work


behavior


type


studying


a population not previously


included


MPPP studies.


Summary


This review


of the


literature includes


information on


theories of job


, nl W n^ r. V/1%^ aN^ &- at I^lk n ,. C-. n4 n. -i A st. a n4 an ...


r" t- ""r /*<<- EI- ^ %









librarians.


The following chapter outlines how work behavior type and job


satisfaction were explored in this study.















CHAPTER mI
DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY


Organization of the Chapter


The design and methodology of the study are described in this chapter.


It contains an explanation of the research problem,


the research population


and procedures,


which include data collection, instrumentation and


statistical


treatment.


Statement of the Research Problem


The problem this study investigated was to relate two well-established


theories


about


atisfaction/dissatisfaction


library


work


environment.


The


first


theory


(Herzberg,


1966;


Herzberg,


Mausner,


Snyderman,


1959)


suggests


that


satisfaction


relates


a set of


work


environment conditions called "motivators"


and job dissatisfaction relates to


a different


set of


work


environment


conditions


called


"hygienes."


The


second


theory


(Nickens,


1984


Bauch


, 1981)


suggests


that workers


related


differently to the same work environment and that their different reactions


are predictable by the Marcus Paul Placement Profile scores.


In this context,


the following questions guided the study:


What a


ire the


work


behavior


types


academic


librarians


-- -


w


...


__









factors


derived


from


a factor


analysis


MSQ


show


characteristics of motivators and hygienes?

Do the different work behavior type scores of academic librarians


in Florida, as measured


by the MPPP


relate differently to the


motivator and hygiene scores derived from the MSQ?

Population


The majority


of potential subjects in


the sample population


were the


1993


Florida members of a national organization, the Association of College


Research


Libraries


a division


American


Library


Association.


Additional members of the subject pool were the members of the Academic


Caucus


Florida


Library


Association


1993.


Membership


professional


organization relevant to academic librarianship


was


the initial


criterion for inclusion in the subject pool.


This yielded 350 potential subjects.


The


subjects


retained in


sample


group


consisted


of individuals


currently employed as professional librarians in academic libraries in Florida.


Academic libraries were defined


as those in


post-baccalaureate institutions


(community or junior college, college, university or special library connected


with


a post-baccalaureate


institution).


Only


those


individuals


holding


Master'


degree in Library Science (MLS) or an appropriate equivalent degree


were


included


analysis


data.


Although


academic


librarians


increasingly hold additional subject-related graduate degrees,


an accredited


MLS is the usual required degree for entry into the profession (Robbins,


1990).


Procedures






55

reporting forms, described as appropriate for distribution through the mail.


Instrument


packets


were


numerically


coded


eliminate


personal


identification but to permit correlation of responses.


Study participants who


wished to receive a printed profile reporting their work behavior type were


instructed to put their names on the MPPP form.


Following the distribution


of the MPPP reports and before the analysis of data, responses were recorded

with a second numbering scheme to ensure confidentiality.

The national office of the Association of College and Research Libraries


(ACRL)


provided


researcher


with


mailing


labels


ACRL


members


living


in Florida.


Mailing labels


for members


Academic


Caucus of the Florida Library


Association were provided by the state office of


organization.


cover


letter


(Appendix


explaining


study


requesting participation and assuring confidentiality for participants was sent

to the 350 individuals who constituted the subject pool, along with an MPPP


form,


an MSQ


form


a demographic


form


which


supplemented


demographic


section


MSQ.


A stamped


envelope


addressed


to the


researcher was included for ease of return.


Those contacted


were asked to


reply within one week.


Approximately two weeks after the first mailing, a


second letter requesting participation was sent to non-respondents (Appendix


Along with


personal reminders


for individuals


who


could


be readily


contacted


telephone or


electronic mail,


a second


reminder


letter,


sent


approximately two months after the initial mailing,


was distributed


to non-


respondents.


This


final


mailing


included


a second


complete


instrument


packet.


These three mail contacts completed the data collection sequence.









describing the theoretical basis of the MPPP profile,


thanking them for their


participation


including


their


personal


profile


(Appendix


Finally,


participants who wished to learn more about the results of the study or who


had


individual


questions


were


encouraged


to contact


researcher


separate


letter


or message.


Some


questions


were


answered


immediately;


those requesting information


concerning results were retained in a file for


later response.


Instrumentation


The


study


based


on two


constructs.


The first


construct is


work


behavior


type.


Marcus


Paul


Placement


Profile


(MPPP)


was


used


measure work behavior type. The

job satisfaction/job dissatisfaction.


second construct addressed in the study is

The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire


(MSQ) was used to measure the second construct.


Marcus Paul Placement Profile


MPPP


was


designed


to describe


individual


work


behavior


patterns of people for the purpose of matching individuals and jobs.


It can be


used in an educational setting to facilitate the job placement of students and

in a business setting as an aid in the recruitment, placement and assignment


of personnel.


It may also be used as an element in the development of work


teams by assisting team members to understand and appreciate different work


behaviors


as a training


(Bauch,


1981).


long


as the


work


environment


stable,


work


behavior


patterns


are s


table


over


time.


individuals exhibit all


thP wnrk


hphavior nattPrnms


to .cnmlP cp1rpp hbult nnp









corresponded


to primary emotions which could be assigned


to one of four


categories:


dominance,


inducement


submission


and


compliance.


addition, Marston determined behavioral traits for each of the four categories.

Statistical confirmation of these traits was provided by Cattell (1948) and Geier


(1967).


Bauch


(1981) and Nickens (1984) drew on this research base in the


development of the MPPP as a tool which could increase understanding of


work behavior.


A more complete discussion of the theoretical basis of the


MPPP is included in Chapter II.


Theories


form


related


an additional


to management,


basis for


the MPPP


placement a

In addition


career


the work of


counseling


Argyris


(1964),


Blake and Mouton (1964) and McGregor (1960), who were instrumental


in integrating humanistic principles into the work place,


were incorporated


into the design of the MPPP with the intent of developing an instrument that


would


increase


understanding


work


behavior


employer


employee alike.


The terminology used in the MPPP is


positive or neutral.


This reflects the philosophy of Bauch (1981) who believed that work behavior

traits and types are terms that can be used to increase understanding of work


behaviors rather than as judgments of work behaviors.


Finally,


the terms


used in the profile do not reflect social behavior but reflect work behavior


(Nickens, 1984).


The MPPP can be completed in less than 10 minutes.


Test-


retest reliability is about .98, as reported by Wellstood (1984/1985).
The MPPP consists of 24 sets or "boxes," each containing four forced-


choice


terms


from


which


individual


selects


one


that


most


descriptive of his or her self-perceived


work behavior.


The individual then









category.


An example of an MPPP "box" is illustrated in Figure 8.


Only one


"most" and one "least" choice is made in each of the 24 boxes.


Sample Box


Most


Least


careful

fast

alert


nice


Figure 8.


Illustration of a Marcus Paul


Placement Profile


"Box"


entering


these numbers into a


computer program


that associates


them with a MPPP behavior type score, a profile is developed.
Four independent scores are reported on the profile derived from the


MPPP


The scores relate


to four work


behavior


types: energizer, inducer,


concentrator and producer.

that extends from -15 to +1


The 4 independent scores are plotted on a scale

At the center of the scale is the norm score, zero.


This allows for easy observation of the relationship of each individual score


to the norm as well as to each other score.


The scores are scaled, a graph with


the scores


plotted


on it is produced


, following the graph,


a narrative


description of the behavior associated with the score of best fit is provided. In
addition, an interpretation of the behavior associated with the relative scaled






























* XN


* L


*.c


* i


*


^ 0
O u







'S
AD




.0
8 .8
tl: N-i


ow5
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60

The four terms listed in the profile represent the four primary work


behavior types.


The highest score of these four is the individual's


type of best fit" (Nickens,


1984, p.


"primary


The description of the four primary


types, as they would be included in a report of a profile, are included below.


Energizer


type


worker:


These


workers


are actively


engaged


getting results.


They are assertive, choosing a direct approach as they pursue


goals.


High


type


workers


are impatient with


detail


, desiring


a direct


answer and action from associates.


improving the work processes.
Concentrator (C) type worker:
in orderly ways, resisting distractions

to the organization, showing great p


They are creative and have many ideas for


Normally, the 'C' types apply their skills
. They are steady workers and are loyal

,atience. They are systematic, effective


and help to maintain moderation in tense situations.


Inducer (I) type worker:


These people involve others as they pursue


their objectives.


They


are sensitive


to needs of their associates, and share


optimistic outlooks as they influence others.


They are good at using group


processes to accomplish goals, being able to clarify ideas for themselves and


others.


They place


more emphasis on


people and


interpersonal


relations


than on their organization.


Producer (P) type worker:


follow procedures,


Producers


guidelines, or standards.


trive for quality as they carefully

They can support their decisions


and actions with irrefutable documentation. Producers expect clear directions
but they can be relied on to meet their deadlines, follow orders and carry out

their assignments with precision.









the work of John Nickens, a program


was devised


which allows the words


selected as "most"


or "least" in the 24


"boxes" on the MPPP response sheet to


be entered into a microcomputer with results analyzed and a profile printed


almost immediately.


In addition to classroom use, the MPPP lends itself to


use in career development workshops or training sessions.


Reliability


and


validity


instrumentation


important


considerations


in any


decision


use a


particular measure.


"Validity


reliability refer to different aspects of a measure'


believability.


Judgments of


validity answer the question:


Is the instrument an appropriate one for what


needs


to be


measured


And


reliability


indicators


answer:


Does


instrument yield consistent results


(Henerson, Morris & Fitz-Gibbon,


1987


133).


Further,


impossible for a measuring instrument to be reliable


without being valid. However

(Ary, Jacobs & Razavieh, 1985,


r, it cannot be valid


226).


unless it is first reliable"


"So if one demonstrates a satisfactory


level of validity


at least internal reliability must be assumed"


(Nickens,


1984,


P. 14).


With


reliance on


a sound


theoretical


basis


MPPP


reflects


validity called face validity.


The statistical procedures that were employed to


obtain the 96 MPPP "most/least" adjectives and to associate them with work
behavior type, although not discussed in detail here, also provide evidence of

reliability and validity.
In addition, a study of 96 Santa Fe Community College career education

students demonstrated that 88.4 percent of the students, after analyzing their


own responses to the MPPP


, rated the accuracy of the analysis components as









in a criterion measure are rarely reported in the literature.


"This high degree


of congruence between


students'


perceptions of their work behavior and the


descriptions provided by the MPPP suggests that the MPPP is sufficiently valid


helping college students understand


their work behavior"


(Nickens,


The MPPP also has been shown to have predictive validity when used


career


planning.


Glenn


(1982/1983),


Wells tood


(1984/1985)


Olson


(1988/1990) and Barber (1989/1990) studied work behavior types as they relate


to job satisfaction, attrition, specific vocations,


perception of individuals in


leadership

(1982/1983),


positions


occupational


stressors.


According


to Glenn


. significant relationships were found between (MPPP) work


behavior types and areas of job satisfactions.


Additionally, specific areas of job


effectiveness were found


to be significantly related


to work behavior type.


These findings were consistent with expectations ..


" (p. ix).


Glenn concluded,


in order


maintain


maximum


effectiveness


and


worker


satisfaction, employees


need


to be placed


jobs which


meet


their


needs


degree


structure,


autonomy,


supervision,


feedback, and contact with co-workers.


One way to understand


these various needs


to have knowledge of individual


work


behavior types and personality functions.


(p. 135)


Wellstood


(1984/1985) further reported


"results indicate that work behavior


type relates to overall and to specific aspects of job satisfaction


MPPP]" (p.


Supervisors


and


managers


could


make


valuable


use


knowledge about work behavior


types as


well as


the types of


. [on the


w






63

The results of these and other studies have shown that information on work

behavior types can be useful in a variety of work-related areas, including job

satisfaction and career planning.


The face validity of the MPPP


the concurrent validity demonstrated


through research at Santa Fe Community College and additional research at


University


of Florida


have demonstrated


that the MPPP "is


valid as a


career advisement tool for helping people understand


their work strengths,


and for suggestions for writing effective letters of reference for individuals


seeking job placements"


(Nickens,


1984,


Although all


theoretically


valid


uses of the instrument have not yet been researched,


the MPPP "was


designed to be utilized as a tool in the business setting for recruiting, job


placement,


work


assignment,


team


building,


training"


and,


accordingly, it was chosen for this study


. Use of the MPPP in this study also


provided insight into another theoretically valid use for the instrument.


Minnesota Satisfaction Ouestionnaire


The


Minnesota


Studies


Vocational


Rehabilitation


or the


Work


Adjustment Project, are a series of research studies which began in 1957


which have led


to the development of a


indicators of work adjustment.


variety of instruments


Minnesota


Satisfaction


to measure


Questionnaire


(MSQ) is a measure for one of the primary indicators of work adjustment.


allows


attainment


a more


individualized


assessment of worker


satisfaction, that is,


two individuals may express similar amounts of general


satisfaction with their work but the reasons for this satisfaction may be very









D'Elia used the short form MSQ and Chwe used the long form MSQ.


Chwe


argued strongly that, because of the repetitive format of the long form, the


short form was more appropriate for subjects, like academic librarians,


high levels of education (Chwe, 1978, p. 50).


with


Finally, the short form MSQ was


considered more appropriate for


distribution


though


the mail


as it can


completed


about


10 minutes,


thus


making it more likely


that potential


subjects would participate in the study.

directions on the first page. Although i


The MSQ is self-administering with

no time limit is imposed, respondents


are encouraged to complete responses quickly.


The


short


form


MSQ,


consisting


questions


that


measure


dimensions


satisfaction


(ability


utilization


, achievement,


activity,


advancement, authority


compensation, co-workers, creativity, independence,


moral


social


values,


service


policies


social


practices,


status,


recognition,


supervision-human


responsibility,


relations,


security


supervision-


technical,


variety and working conditions) was selected for this study.


Each


item


refers


a possible


motivator


or hygiene.


The


first


items


measured


a Likert-type scale


which


asks


respondents


to indicate


their


degree


agreement


with


a statement


related


to that


dimension


satisfaction.


Five response


possibilities


(strongly


agree,


agree,


undecided,


disagree or strongly disagree) are provided for each item.


The responses are


weighted

assigned


from


one


a maximum


five


descending


points


order


while strongly


so that


strongly


disagree is


agree


assigned


minimum


one


point.


The


21st


dimension,


general


satisfaction


interpreted


an aggregate


scores


dimensions


measured


1


w


w

















Figure 10.


Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Scales


The most meaningful way to interpret the MSQ is to use the most appropriate
norm group for the individual and then to use percentile scores for each scale


obtained for the norm group.


The most appropriate norm group would be


one that corresponds exactly to the individual'


As norm groups are not


available


occupational


areas


a similar


norm


group


which


shares


characteristics such as tasks performed

conditions and so on, may be used.


, type of supervision, physical working
If no appropriate norm group has yet


been developed,


the MSQ raw scores can be converted


to percentile scores


using Employed Disabled or Employed Non-disabled norms.
raw scores for all scales can be interpreted by ranking them. TI


Finally, MSQ

hs will indicate


areas of relatively greater or lesser job satisfaction (Weiss et al.,


4-5).


When


used with an individual subject,


percentile scores of 75 or greater generally


represent a high level of job satisfaction, scores in the 26 to 74 percentile range


indicate average satisfaction, and a percentile score of


or lower indicates a


low level of satisfaction.
The current MSQ manual reports norms for seven occupational groups


for the short-form MSQ.


Based on educational requirements for employment






66

Validity for the short-form MSQ is inferred, in part, from validity for


the long-form as the short-form is based on a subset of the long-form.


That is,


the short-form MSQ was developed by choosing 20 items, each representative


of one of the 20 scales on the long-form MSQ.
frequently with a respective scale were selected.


Those items correlating most

A group of 1,460 employed


individuals completed


the measure.


A factor-analysis of the resulting data


yielded


two factors, intrinsic satisfaction and


extrinsic satisfaction.


The


items that loaded high on one factor constitute the Intrinsic Scale.


factors


constitute


Extrinsic


Scale


and


items


constitute


General


Satisfaction Scale.


This allows for scores on all three scales.


The construct validity of the MSQ is primarily


derived from the fact


that it


generally performs according to


theoretical


expectations.


Construct


validation


studies


other


questionnaires,


based


on the


Theory


of Work


Adjustment and developed


through


Work Adjustment Project, support


this conclusion.
Additional evidence supporting the validity of the short-form MSQ is
provided by studies of group differences by occupation and studies on the


relationship between job satisfaction and satisfactoriness.


Occupational group


differences in mean satisfaction scores for the seven available norm groups
were statistically significant for each of the three scales.


The Hoyt reliability


coefficients for each norm group and each short-


form scale were reported to be, in general,


ranged from


Extrinsic Scale


high.


.84 (assemblers and electrical assemblers) to


range


was


(electrical


For the Intrinsic Scale, they


(engineers).

! (engineers


assemblers)









The stability of scores obtained from


the short-form MSQ is currently


being studied but no data have,


as yet, been reported.


However, data on the


General Satisfaction Score for the long-form MSQ show correlations of .89 for


a one-week


test-retest


period


a one-year


test-retest


interval.


Stability for the General Satisfaction


Score of the


hort-form MSQ may be


inferred from these data.


Research on both forms of the MSQ continues,


focusing on improving


psychometric


characteristics


the scales


expanding


the range of


dimensions which may be measured by the MSQ.


A 30-scale form has been


developed and is being tested.


Finally


researchers using the MSQ agree to


report results to be used in the development of new norm tables.


Results of


this study will be reported to the Work Adjustment Project at the University


of Minnesota for possible use as another


occupational


norm


group for the


short-form MSQ.


Statistical Procedures


The data gathered for the


tudy were analyzed


within the context of


each of the research questions set forth in Chapter I.


The


Marcus


Paul


Placement


Profile


was


analyzed


using


MPPP


software.


The procedures for the analysis are well-validated.


Scaled scores


were calculated and scores were plotted on a graph.


scores


subjects


were


then


analyzed


computer


determine the number of subjects in each

divided into male and female sub-groups.


type,


with


these numbers further


The percentile of type by total and









done which resulted in loadings on three, four and five factors.


The three


factor

results


loading was selected.

. The purpose of thi


e facto:


Promax rotation

r analysis was t


was used


to report the


o allow responses


to be


characterized as motivators or hygienes.

The mean score and standard deviation for each of the 20 items on the


MSQ,


mean


score


standard


deviation


Intrinsic


Scale,


Extrinsic


Scale


General


Satisfaction


Scale


and


mean


score


standard deviation for each item and the three scales by type were calculated.

The CANCORR Procedure was used to produce canonical correlations.


This is a technique used for analyzing the relationship between


two sets of


variables


each


which


can


contain


several


individual


variables.


The


canonical


correlation


procedure was


used


to determine


the relationship


work


behavior


type


scores


revealed


MSQ


to the


motivators


hygienes identified through the factor analysis of the MSQ.


Summary of Design and Methodology


This chapter outlined the procedures of the study.


Data were collected


from academic librarians employed in Florida for the purpose of determining


relationship

satisfaction.


among


The


work


Marcus


behavior


Paul


type,


Placement


work


Profile


environment


and


and


Minnesota


Satisfaction Questionnaire were selected as the instruments used to measure


each


these


areas.


Data


treatment


methods


utilized


were


frequency


distribution, factor analysis and canonical correlation.
presents the results and analysis of these data.


The following chapter















CHAPTER IV


RESULTS AND


ANALYSIS OF DATA


The


problem


study was


to determine


relationship of


theory that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are affected by motivators


hygienes


to the


theory


that


motivators


hygienes


are perceived


differently by different work behavior types.


In addition


to describing the


sample population, the chapter contains the results of the study and provides

answers to the research questions posed in Chapter I.


Description of the Samele Povulation


The sample population in this study was comprised of 350 individuals


selected from


the membership of


Association of College and Research


Libraries, a division of the American Library


Association, and the Academic


Caucus of the Florida Library


Association.


A limited number were members


other


divisions


American


Library


Association.


participants were members of one or more of these Associations.


prospective

The criteria


for the use of data received from respondents included current employment

in an academic library in Florida and holding a Master in Library Science


(MLS)


degree


an appropriate


other


degree


example,


Master


Librarianship,


Master


Media


or Master


Information


Science.)


S. . .. .. a I -"- I 1 I


-1


I









An academic library was defined as a library in a


institution


post-baccalaureate


, including community or junior college, college or university, as


well as special libraries connected with post-baccalaureate institutions.


Thus,


respondents worked in all levels of higher education and in both large and


small schools.

ranged from


Correspondingly, the libraries in


which they were employed


those with a staff of five or fewer to those employing


100 or


more.


However, the commonality of employment as an academic librarian


was viewed as more basic to the selection of the study sample than individual


differences in institution or specific professional responsibilities.


All subjects


for whom data


were used


were currently


employed academic librarians in


Florida


who


showed


an orientation


commitment


to the


profession


through


active


participation


one


more


major


professional


organizations.


subjects


contacted


258 or


percent responded.


One


response option requested subjects to return blank forms if they did not wish


to be included in the study.


A group of 15 people, or 4.3 percent of the subject


pool,


selected this option.


Another


16 individuals, or 4.6 percent, responded


that they were retired.


An additional


18 people,


percent, responded that


they were not eligible and reported a variety of reasons including having left

the profession, having left Florida for employment in another state, returned

to graduate school or not presently being employed in an academic library.


Finally


seven respondents,


or 2.


0 percent, returned incomplete or invalid sets


of measures


were eliminated from


the data


analysis.


addition,


individuals, or 26.3 percent, did not respond in any way.


The data analysis


.









Table 1

Response to Survey


The data on


the academic librarians obtained from the demographic


section


MSQ


the supplementary


data


form


are summarized


Female subjects accounted for 71.78 percent of the usable responses,


or 145 of 202 subjects, while the

of the usable responses. The 1l


had been in their current position for


57 male respondents constituted 28.22 percent
largest percentage, 39.6 percent or 80 subjects,


2 to 5 years while 22.28 percent, or 45


subjects had been in their current position for 6 to 10 years.


Over 85 percent of


the subjects had been in the profession for 6 years or more, a sufficient time to
evaluate their employment, attain promotions, or change specific jobs one or


more


times.


This


corresponds


with


that


over


percent


subjects were aged 40 and over.


included in


Thus, the individuals whose responses were


the data analysis were, for the most part, mature, experienced


Type of Response N Percent


Usable Responses 202 57.7
No Response 92 26.3
Other 18 5.1
Retired 16 4.6
Blank Forms Returned 15 4.3
Invalid Responses 7 3.0

Total 350 100.0


Table









employed in a community college,


while 20, or 9.0 percent, were employed at


a 4-year college.


All subjects


held


an appropriate


masters degree for


their


particular


position


with


or 27


percent, holding one or more additional masters


degrees and


or 1


38 percent, holding a Ph.D. or


Ed.D. degree with the


Ph.D. predominant in this latter group.


Research Ouestions


Question


What are


the work


behavior types


(WBT) of


academic


librarians


Florida


as measured


Marcus


Paul


Placement


Profile


(MPPP)?


The


frequency


distribution


work


behavior


types


found


among


academic librarians in Florida is shown in


Table 3.


Overall


, 45.54 percent, or


92 individuals were concentrators.


Of these, 65 were female (44.83 percent of


145 female subjects) while


or 47.37


percent, of the


male subjects


showed concentrator as their dominant work behavior type.


The second largest group were producers with


individual


or 38.12


percent of the total sample.


Sixty females, or 41.38 percent of their total,


males


those


, or 29.82 percent of their total, constituted


individuals


with


either


concentrator


or producer


this group.


as their


Together,

dominant


work behavior type totaled 167 or 83.66 percent of the total sample of 202.

By comparison, previous studies of members of a variety of professions


showed quite different results.


Glen (1982/1983) sampled vocational educa-


tinnal amrninictratnrc


ShP fnlind


47 nprro rnn rpnc pnfrfnrc


nnprrpn t nrn-


/ |






73


Table 2

Characteristics of the Participating Academic Librarians


Percent


Characteristic


Gender


Male


Female


28.22
71.78


Age


30-39
40-49
50-59


2.48
13.86
46.53


5.45


No response
Education Level


100.00


Master in Library Science
or appropriate equivalent
Additional Masters degree
Doctoral Degree
Ph.D.
Ed.D.
Other advanced degree or certification
Years in Current Position


27.23


9.40
3.00
3.96


15.84
39.60
22.28
14.36


6-10
11-20
21-30


5.94


No response
Total Years in Profession


6-10


11-20
21-30


12.87
14.36
36.63
27.23


5.94


No response
y- S--_. T----------- -_ .


/r T.. ... s









Table 3


Work Behavior


Twpe by Gender


Row variable: work behavior type as percentage of same sex respondents


Column vari;

Cell format:


able:


work behavior type as percentage of same type respondents


frequency/ percent: total/percent: row/ percent: column


Gender Concentrator Energizer Inducer Producer Total

Female 65 9 11 60 145
32.18 4.46 5.45 29.70 71.78
44.83 6.21 7.59 41.38
70.65 64.29 57.89 77.92


Male 27 5 8 17 57
13.37 2.48 3.96 8.42 28.22
47.37 8.77 14.04 29.82
29.35 35.71 42.11 22.08


Total 92 14 19 77 202
______45.54 6.93 9.41 38.12 100.00


Poston (1988/1989) sampled nursing faculty and found that 39.13 percent were
concentrators, 36.96 percent producers, 17.39 percent inducers and 6.52 percent


energizers.


Olson


(1988/1990)


studied


college


placement officers.


group


found


percent


to be


concentrators


percent


producers,


percent inducers and


percent energizers.


Barber (1989/1990) examined the


work


behavior


types of


Cooperative


Extension


Service


mid-managers


found


them


to be


more


evenly


divided


among


four


categories.


I-f 7


with






75

According to the MPPP user manual, approximately 60 percent of the general

population are either concentrators or producers, with producers dominating.


this study it was found


concentrators


producers,


that academic librarians are


concentrators


almost 84


are predominant.


percent
Female


academic librarians are even more predominantly producers or concentrators


percent),


contrast,


again
male


with


concentrators,


academic


librarian


about 45


are 77


percent,


percent


dominating.


concentrators


producers, although concentrator is still the largest group, accounting for 47

percent of the male subjects.


Those who are categorized


as concentrators and


producers are most


likely to work to maintain their organization in its present form.


They tend


to follow the rules and regulations of the organization and can be relied upon


to do the job assigned


to them.


In contrast, energizers and inducers,


who


represent about 20 percent each of the general population,


tend to seek to alter


system


and


to effect


change


their


organization


(Bauch,


1981).


Energizers are represented in this study by 6.93 percent of the subjects (6.21


percent of the females and 8


percent of the males) while inducers account


for 9.41 percent of the subjects or 7.59 percent of the females and 14.04 percent


males.


Thus,


concentrators


and


producers


are represented


substantially higher numbers among academic librarians than in the general


population and


the results on


MPPP


support the


theory


that different


work behavior types are attracted to different professions.


Question


What


are the


motivators


and


hygienes


perceived


academic


librarians


Florida


as reported


on the


Minnesota


Satisfaction






76

study generates three scores; that is, an Intrinsic score, an Extrinsic score and a


General Satisfaction, or


Total score.


Higher scores by area or a higher total


score imply a greater degree of job satisfaction either with job content or job


context


or in general.


Further,


scores


individual


items are presented


allowing for more specific analysis.
Table 4 presents the mean score and standard deviation for each item.

The scores are presented for each work behavior type along with the score for

the total sample population.

As shown on Table 4, inducers had the lowest mean score on 11 of the


items,


producers


lowest mean


score


on 7 of


items


while


energizers had the lowest mean score on one item.


had identical mean scores on one item.


Inducers and producers


On 19 of 20 items, concentrator mean


scores were above the total mean; producer mean scores were below the total


mean on all 20 items.


The lowest individual mean score per type was item 13


for concentrators (pay and amount of work),


for advancement) and item 12


item 14 for energizers (chances


(how company policies are put into place) for


inducers and producers.


Although


the mean score differences are not particularly


large, they


reveal a pattern.


Concentrators, the largest number of subjects, are consis-


tently more satisfied


with all aspects of their position,


followed


closely by


energizers,


the smallest numbers of subjects.


Inducers and producers consis-


tently show the lowest mean scores per item
(relationship of co-workers with each other),


with


the exception of item


the only item on which one of


these two types did not show the lowest mean score.












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*?*< o *0* ^ *"
"S6 S-^csi E mQ cso Nt-^yq o oc t^ 2 'fs
f/ r ^c^^c^K i ^coinMO o 2 ^oou- *0tH.a'
wjr ^c U C U i i< w
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78

Table 5 presents means and standard deviations for the Intrinsic score,

the Extrinsic score and the Total score by type and for the entire sample. The

means for concentrators and energizers are both above the total mean while


the means


for inducers and


producers


are below


total


mean.


This


consistent for both Intrinsic and Extrinsic scores.


Table 5


Mean Score and Standard Deviation for Intrinsic,


Extrinsic and Total Scores


on the Minnesota Satisfaction Ouestionnaire (Short Form)


Note:


Intrinsic score range 12-60 for 12 items; Extrinsic score range 6-20 for 6


items; Total score range 20-100 for 20 items.


The


lowest


mean


score


intrinsic


items


, or those


related


to job


content, is that of the producers while the lowest mean score for extrinsic, or


context,


items


that of


inducers.


Overall,


concentrators


Work Intrinsic Items Extrinsic Items Total by Type
Behavior Type Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev.

Concentrator 49.68 6.54 19.16 5.1 76.23 11.94

Energizer 50.64 7.04 18.43 5.49 75.86 13.24

Inducer 48.47 6.21 15.89 4.05 71.05 9.03

Producer 46.65 7.24 17.39 4.97 70.78 12.55

Total: All Groups 48.48 6.94 18.13 5.07 73.64 12.25






79

In Herzberg's two-factor theory of job satisfaction/job dissatisfaction,


motivators correspond to Maslow'


higher-order needs.


They are intrinsic or


content


factors,


such


achievement,


recognition,


advancement,


responsibility and the inherent interest of the work itself.


are present in a job,


When these factors


they act as satisfiers because they have a positive effect on


employee job satisfaction and


they may


function


to provide the individual


with personal psychological growth.

Hygienes correspond to Maslow'


lower-order needs and are extrinsic,


or job context factors,


such as pay, security


supervision and physical working


conditions.


When


absent


from


these


items


linked


dissatisfaction.

The MSQ provides an Intrinsic, or job content, and an Extrinsic, or job


context, score.


As indicated on


Table 4


the intrinsic items on


the MSQ are


numbers


16 and


With


the exception of 2


(freedom to work alone) and 8 (opportunity for


teady employment), two of


Herzberg'


hygienes,


these items all correspond to Herzberg motivators.


extrinsic, or job context items, on the MSQ are numbers


13, 14 and 19.


The first 4 and


19 correspond


to Herzberg hygienes.


The exception is


(advancement on


current job).


Numbers


(working


conditions)


(relationships of co-workers) correspond to Herzberg hygienes.

they contribute to an overall general score.


Table 6 shows factor loadings on the MSQ.


In the MSQ,


Factor I includes items 5


1, 19,


13 and 8.


These all correspond


to Herzberg hygienes, or job


context


item


with


exception


item.


- -


number


8 steadyv


, 7, 8,


, 6, 1


I _


___lr~_ _I






80

Table 6

Factor Loading on lob Satisfaction Items from the Minnesota Satisfaction
Questionnaire (Short Form)


MSQ
Item Number


N=202


Factor I


0.70157
0.69630
0.59752
0.57007
0.47441
0.45858
0.38671
0.30778
-0.00164
-0.04466
-0.02269


16444
10487
31146
11126
00205
15959
29114
12019
16303


Factor II


-0.13713
-0.22041
0.09730
0.21418
0.11522
0.16487
0.29018
0.10257
0.63928
0.55972
0.52428
0.47476
0.47332
0.44883
0.42545
-0.22953
0.16746
0.16151
0.26234
0.26466


Factor m


0.11158
0.11110
-0.03583
-0.13415
-0.08747
0.18808
-0.12743
0.06334
-0.10148
0.29152
-0.02346
0.20258
0.15867
-0.13036
0.37365
0.71932
0.53505
0.44019
0.41843
0.40113


Notes: Factor I (items 5, 6, 12, 19, 18, 17, 13, 8); Factor II (items 9, 11, 10, 20, 4,
14, 3); Factor HI (items 2, 1, 7, 15, 16); Variance explained by: Factor I, 2.639930;
Factor II, 2.306518; Factor I, 1.759460.









Factor II includes items 9


motivators, or job content items.


1, 20, 4, 10, 14 and 3 which are all Herzberg

They are all part of the MSQ Intrinsic score,


except number


14 (opportunity for advancement).


This item shows a loading


of 0.449 in Factor II and a loading of 0.311 in Factor I.


Factor III includes items


I .*,


and 16.


They all form part of the


MSQ Intrinsic score and, except for item


2 (opportunity to work alone) are all


Herzberg motivators.


Thus


, the factors derived from a factor analysis of the MSQ do show


characteristics of motivators and hygienes.


all related


to Herzberg hygienes.


Factor


Factor I includes eight MSQ items,

II includes seven items which all


relate to Herzberg motivators.


Finally


Factor III includes five items, four of


which are motivators while one is a hygiene.


Question


Do the different work behavior type scores of academic


librarians


Florida,


as measured


MPPP


relate


differently


to the


motivator and hygiene scores derived from the MSQ


In order to analyze the relationship


between scores on the MSQ and


work behavior types,


the technique of canonical correlation


was employed.


Given two sets of variables, a computer analysis finds a linear combination


from each set, the canonical variable,


which leads to the maximization of the


correlation


between


canonical


variables.


This


results


first


canonical


correlation.


"The


coefficients


linear


combinations


canonical coefficients or canonical weights.


It is customary to normalize the


canonical coefficients so that each canonical variable has a variance of one."


(SAS/STAT User'


Guide,


1989


, p. 368).


The procedure then finds a second set


" "









variable is not correlated with all the other canonical


variables of either set


except

(ibid.).


one


corresponding


canonical


variable


opposite


Finally, the first canonical correlation will be at least as large as the


multiple correlation between any variable and an opposite set of variables.


The


correlations


between


individual


items


Minnesota


Satisfaction Questionnaire and the four work behavior types as determined by


the Marcus Paul Placement Profile are shown in Table


The correlations between the four work behavior types and individual


items


on the


MSQ


are weak


with


largest


absolute


value


being


negative


correlation (-0.2772) between Producer and MSQ item four,


"chance


to be somebody in the community."


Following


factor


analysis


procedure


on the


MSQ,


correlations


between work behavior type and the three factors derived from the MSQ were


established.


These are illustrated in Table 8.


Again,


the correlations are weak.


The largest in absolute value is 0.1952 for Concentrator to Factor I (hygiene or


context


items;


elements


MSQ


extrinsic


score).


This


closely


followed


a negative


correlation


(-0.1944)


Producer


to Factor


(motivator or job content items,


elements in the MSQ Intrinsic Score).


The within-set correlations are larger as can be seen in Table 9 with the


absolute


value


being 0.6798


Factor


to Factor


Closely


following is a negative correlation,


-0.6769, for Concentrator to Energizer.


The


canonical


correlations


three


factors


four


work


behavior types are shown in Table 10.






83

Table 7

Simple Correlations Between MSO Items and Work Behavior Types


Table 8

Correlation Between the Three Factors on the MSO and Work Behavior Tvype


MSQ Item Concentrator Energizer Inducer Producer


1 -0.0463 0.0956 0.0728 -0.0715
2 -0.0877 0.0883 0.0464 -0.0809
3 0.0361 -0.2160 0.1254 -0.1169
4 0.0541 0.0746 0.2260 -0.2772
5 0.1145 -0.1086 0.0217 -0.0169
6 0.1042 -0.0989 -0.0402 -0.0536
7 0.1149 -0.0592 0.0799 -0.0625
8 0.0685 -0.0194 0.0828 -0.0769
9 0.1349 -0.0027 0.1739 -0.2259
10 0.0419 0.0256 -0.0338 0.0234
11 0.1853 -0.0225 0.0341 -0.1328
12 0.1703 -0.0821 -0.0553 -0.0094
13 0.1243 -0.0848 0.0349 -0.0438
14 0.1747 -0.1155 0.0577 -0.0050
15 0.1352 -0.0204 0.0129 -0.0867
16 0.1061 -0.0051 0.0596 -0.1197
17 0.1704 -0.0440 0.0124 -0.0994
18 0.1170 -0.1206 0.0662 0.0128
19 0.1767 -0.0808 0.0314 -0.0535
20 0.1478 0.0049 0.1221 -0.2368


Concentrator Energizer Inducer Producer


"Ir-. T A 1019 A 191) l nA flA n nAAn-






84


Table 9

Within-Set Correlations Amon2 the Orikinal Variables


Factors Derived from the MSQ


1.0000


0.6398


0.5987


0.6398


1.0000


0.6798*


0.5987


0.6798*


1.0000


Work Behavior


Types Determined by the MPPP


Energizer


Inducer


Concentrator


Producer


Energizer


Inducer


1.0000


0.0860


Concentrator

Producer


-0.6769*

-0.5249


0.0860

1.0000


-0.2839

-0.6160


-0.6769*

-0.2839


-0.5249

-0.6160


1.0000


0.1599


0.1599


1.0000


Note:


= Largest Within-Set Correlations


Table 10


Canonical Correlations of Factors and Work Behavior


Types


Canonical


Likelihood


Annrox.


Num.


Den









The first canonical


correlation is 0.3078.


The first squared


canonical


correlation is 0.0947


0.0092.


. The probability level for the first canonical correlation is


Thus, the first canonical correlation is significantly different from zero


at the


level.


The


second


third


canonical


correlations


were


considered as probability levels provided no evidence that they are different
from zero.


Table 11

First Canonical Correlational Analysis: Canonical Coefficients


Standardized Canonical Coefficients
MSQ Factors Canonical Variables
1 2 3
I 0.0074 -1.3271 0.2966
II 1.1689 0.4286 -0.8096
III -0.2881 0.6935 1.2111
Work Behavior Type Canonical Variables
1 2 3
Energizer 0.6984 1.0139 1.3896
Inducer 0.7709 0.4893 -0.1832
Concentrator 1.2547 0.0135 1.0727
Producer 0.0106 0.2308 0.6267

Table 12

First Canonical Correlational Analysis: Canonical Structure

Correlations Between MSQ Factor Variables and
________________MSQ Factor Canonical Variables
MSQ Factors 1 2 3
I 0.5287 -0.6377 0.5038
II 0.9778 0.0509 0.2035
III 0.5109 0.1902 0.8383
Correlations Between WBT Variables and









As shown on


Table 11


, the first canonical variable for the MSQ factor


variables


is a weighted difference


FACTOR II (1.1689) and


FACTOR


(-0.2881) with more emphasis on FACTOR II.


The coefficient for FACTOR I is


near zero.


In Table 12


the correlations between FACTORS I


II and III are all


positive.


FACTOR HI is a suppressor variable as its coefficient and correlation


have opposite signs.

the other variables.


A suppressor variable enhances the correlation between


Table


the first


canonical


variable


work


behavior


type


variables indicates


greatest emphasis on


Concentrator (1.2547),


followed by


Inducer (0.7709) and Energizer (0.6984).


zero.


The coefficient for Producer is near


Two of the correlations between work behavior type, as shown in Table


are positive,


Producer,


Inducer


(0.4683)


is negative (-0.6302)


Concentrator


Energizer,


although]


(0.5648)

h near


) while

zero,


one,


is also


negative.


Thus,


work


behavior


type,


Energizer


Producer


suppressor variables.


The


therefore


general


that


interpretation


FACTOR


first


Producer


canonical


as suppressor


correlation


variables


enhance


the correlation


between FACTOR II


and


Concentrator.


Factor


includes seven items which are all Herzberg motivators (job content).


the seven are part of the MSQ Intrinsic Score.


Six of


Concentrators, the largest work


behavior type group, have the highest total mean score, 76.23,


on the MSQ.


The canonical redundancy analysis shows that neither of the first pair


canonical


variables.


variables


The


is a good


cumulative


overall


proportion


predictor


variance


opposite


explained


set of


first


_


, "









The


squared


multiple


correlations


indicate


very


limited


predictive


power.


The first canonical


variable of the FACTORS has minor predictive


power for FACTOR II (0.0906),


less for FACTOR I (0.0322),


and even less for


FACTOR III


(0.0247).


The first canonical


variable of Work


Behavior


Type


shows


almost no


predictive


power


with


highest


correlation,


Producer


(0.0376),


followed by Concentrator (0.0302) and Inducer (0.0208).


Energizer is


almost zero;


was also


the smallest sample group


(n=14),


followed


Inducer (n==19).


In addition


to determining


correlations between


work behavior type


and the 3 factors derived from the MSQ, a second set of canonical correlations


was


established


between


individual


MSQ


items


and


4 work


behavior types.


The correlations


between individual MSQ items and Work


Behavior


Type are shown on Table 13.


with


correlations


displayed


Table


7 and


Table


correlations are weak.


The largest in absolute value is MSQ item


4 (social


status)


to Producer


.2772


followed


MSQ


item


(achievement)


Producer (-0.2368) and MSQ item 4 (social status) to Inducer (0.2260).


The


canonical


correlations


MSQ


items


4 work


behavior types are shown in Table 14.


The first canonical correlation is 0.4457


squared,

0.0824.


it is 0.1986.


Thus,


zero at the


The probability level for the first canonical correlation is


there is some evidence that the correlation is different from


.05 level.


The remaining correlations were not considered further


as probability levels provided no evidence that they are significantly different
from zero.









16 (0.1868),


17 (0.1464) and 20 (0.6094).


The coefficients for items 1, 2,


8, 18


and 19 are near zero.


Table 13

Correlations Between the MSO Items and Work Behavior Type


Table 14

Canonical Correlations of MSO Items and Work Behavior Tvype


Canonical
Correlation


Likelihood
Ratio


Approx.
F


Num.
DF


Den
DF


Pr>F


MSQ Item Energizer Inducer Concentrator Producer

1 0.0956 0.0728 -0.0463 -0.0715
2 0.0883 0.0464 -0.0877 -0.0809
3 -0.0216 0.1254 0.0361 -0.1169
4 0.0746 0.2260 0.0541 -0.2772
5 -0.1086 0.0217 0.1145 -0.0169
6 -0.0989 -0.0402 0.1042 -0.0536
7 -0.0592 0.0799 0.1149 -0.0625
8 -0.0194 0.0828 0.0685 -0.0769
9 -0.0027 0.1739 0.1349 -0.2259
10 0.0256 -0.0338 0.0419 0.0234
11 -0.0225 0.0341 0.1853 -0.1328
12 -0.0821 -0.0553 0.1703 -0.0094
13 -0.0848 0.0349 0.1243 -0.0438
14 -0.1155 0.0577 0.1747 -0.0050
15 -0.0204 0.0129 0.1352 -0.0867
16 -0.0051 0.0596 0.1061 -0.1197
17 -0.0440 0.0124 0.1704 -0.0994
18 -0.1206 0.0662 0.1170 0.0128
19 -0.0808 0.0314 0.1767 -0.0535
20 0.0049 0.1221 0.1478 -0.2368