The development of a cultural identity in colonial America

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Title:
The development of a cultural identity in colonial America the Spanish-American experience in La Florida
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xiii, 281 leaves : ill. ; 29 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Hoffman, Kathleen S
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Anthropology thesis, Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Anthropology -- UF
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1995.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 259-280).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Kathleen S. Hoffman.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002087001
oclc - 34679163
notis - AKS5513
System ID:
AA00002064:00001

Full Text











THE


DEVELOPMENT OF
THE SPANISH


A CULTURAL IDENTITY
-AMERICAN EXPERIENCE


COLONIAL AMERICA:
LA FLORIDA


KATHLEEN


HOFFMAN


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


number


institutions


and


individuals


contributed,


both


various


directly


and


aspects


indirectly,


this


study


this


was


research.


provided


Funding


State


Florida


Department


Military


Affairs,


Augustine


Preservation


University


Museum


Board,


Florida


Natural


Augu


Graduate


History,


stine


Student


and


Historical


Council,


Charles


Society,


Florida


Fairbanks


Scholarship


Fund.


The


Department


Anthropology


Florida


Museum


Natural


History


also


contributed


providing


me with


numerous


graduate


assistantships.


also


acknowledge


State


Florida


Department


Military


Affairs


and


Florida


National


Guard


recognizing


importance


their


property


site


Franciscan monastery,


and for their


cooperation during


our


excavations


on their


property.


The


enthusiasm


and


assistance


their


staff


as well


that


of Bob


Matthews


Construction,


particular


Bill


Dugan,


ensured


timely


completion


project.


Others


who


provided


invaluable


help


on that


project


included


members


of the


Augustine Archaeological


Advi


sory


I C


m









screening


artifacts


Historic


Augustine


Preservation


Board


who


provided housing


and


utiliti


field


team,


and


extremely


competent


field


crew


am also


indebted


to the


many


veterans


of St


Augustine


archaeology


who


preceded


, and


whose


diligent


and


capable


work


is represented


these


pages


. In addition


, Bruce


Piatek


and


Stan


Bond


Augustine


Preservation


Board


gracious


allowed


access


their


computer


collections


, and archaeological


data


from their excavations at


the Cofradia site


Susan Parker


freely


shared her


considerable


expertise


regarding


cofradias


Augustine


and


other


aspects


community


es' colorful


past.


Page


Edwards


generous


provided


me with


photographs


Boazio


map


, and


only


known


17th


century


depictions


Augustine


Page


enthusiasm


about


archaeology


support,


and


kindness


always


made


feel


like


welcome


member of


the very


special


Augustine historical


community


also


acknowledge


Ken


Barrett,


. for


his


photographs


historic


maps


along


with


Payne


, Greg


Cunningham,


and


Kelly


Evans


Office


Instructional


Resources


Univers


Florida


for


their


excellent


photographic


and


graphic


work


Myrna


Sulsona'


assistance


with


Spani


names


and


words


also


appreciated.


committee


members


have


each


made


invaluable


, hi









Murdo MacLeod have guided my


interpretations


the historical


record,


and


have


helped


clarify


difference


between


history


and


historical


archaeology.


. Gannon


has


also


been


a source

William


solid


Marquardt


advi


throughout


and


Jerald


graduate

Milanich


training

Shave


Dr.

been


exceedingly


helpful


and


supportive


every


way.


Milanich


enthusiasm


helping


truly


appreciated.


Clearly


, the


most


influential


member


committee


was


. Kathleen


Deagan


. Her


guidance


and


rigorous


training


have


helped


make


me a better


storical


Archaeologi


. Dr. Deagan


generously


allowed


free


access


to her


Augustine


data


base


and


library


, always


willingly


shared


her


considerable


expertise


, and presented me with important


field opportunities


Augustine


and


Dominican


Republic


. Her


knowledge


Spanish colonial


archaeology


truly impressive


, and


to study


with


her


was


a truly


enlightening


experience


Mention


also


needs


made


fellow


graduate


students


and


staff


Florida


Museum


Natural


History


Billy


Ray


Morris


, Donine


Marlow


, Mary


Herron,


LeCompte


Baer


, Ruth


Trocolli,


Donna


Ruhl


, Darcie


McMahon,


Jim


Cusick,


Maurice


Williams


, and Ann


Cordell


. They are


responsible


always


lively


and supportive work environment


am especially


grateful


Ruth


, Darcie,


Jim


, Donna,


Maurice


and


Ann


, who


helped


me in more


ways


than


they


know


. Jim's


perspective


, in









am extremely


grateful


to Ann


helping


me format


table


, for


excellent


coffee


breaks


, and


her


sense


humor


Donna'


insights


, encouragement,


helpfulness,


and


readiness


discuss


research


were


extremely


helpful.


Mauri


support


and


constant


friendship


helped


through


more


than


one


"rough


spot"


They


are


cTOOd


colleagues


friend


and


people


Finally


am deeply


appreciative


parents


and


rest of .

perspective


family

. Ben,


who

Jill


helped

, Rudy,


me keep


Bess


entire


and Robert not


process


only


helped


keep


priorities


order


, but


provided


unbelievable


atmosphere


of support


and


encouragement,


mention


great


beach


getaway


weekends


Robert,


especially,


earned


degree


almost


as much


did.


He knows


what


mean.









TABLE


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


OF CONTENTS


LIST

LIST


OF TABLES.

OF FIGURES


* S 0 4 4 5 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 IX

* S S S S 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 5 5 5 0 0 .,ci.


ABSTRACT.


S S S S S S S 0 0 5 5 5 5 0 5 xii


CHAPTERS


THE


QUESTION


OF COLONIAL


CULTURAL


DEVELOPMENT


Introduction. . . . .
The Problem of the Middle Period. .
Previous Research Into the Nature of
European-American Cultural Development.


* S 2.
* S 5 2

* 5


THE COLONIAL
PERIOD .


ATLANTIC


WORLD


DURING


THE


MIDDLE


S 0 4 4 5 0 5 0 0 0 0 S S 4 0 5 5 3~0


Economic
Atlant
Economic
The Grow
At plant
The Demo
Intera
Popula
Span
Popula


Church


and Political Challenges
ic World Monopoly. .
Problems in Spain and th
th of Intercolonial Trade


i

g
c
t
i
t


c .
raphic
tions


Char
of th


ion and Int
sh-America.
ion and Int


and


State


acter and
e Colonial
eraction i


in the


to Spain's


* S 4 0
Atlantic
in the


Social
Atlantic


tion in Anglo-Ameri
Atlantic World .


. 11
. 14


. 19


World.


. 2
ca. 3
3


MODELS


OF EUROPEAN-AMERICAN


CULTURAL


DEVELOPMENT.


0 5 0 0 0 5 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 5 5 40


Models
The
The
The
Models
The
The


of Development


Decl
Stru
Deve
of
Crys


ension Model
ctural Model
lopmental Mo
Development
tallization


Acculturation


for Anglo-American 4
* . 4
*del . 5
twcieL . J
for Spanish-America. 5
Model. . 5


Model.


. . 0 58


THE "MIDDLE
mt* jK 4rx^ j *jif


PERIOD"


IN ST.
-~qt0c


AUGUSTINE. .


. 6
C


44
9 0 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 9 5 5 0 0 5 5 Ii.










Economic Diversi
Haciendas. .
Intra-colonial
Other Economic
Demographic Chara
of the Colonial
The African Popu
Origins and Ro
The Native Ameri
The Repartimie
Relocation of
Augustine. .
The Spanish and
Gender Ratios
European Worn
Intermarriag
The Importance an
Church. .
Ecclesiastical S
Social, Cultural
Influences .
Summary .


ficatio

trade
Activi
cter an
Atlant
lation
les in
can Pop
nto Sys
Mission


. Augustine


. 83


.. 83
* a a a a a a a 83 <
* 4 0 85
ties. . 87


a Social
ic World


the Community
ulation .
tem .
Indians to St


S S S S S
European Population
and Intermarriage.


* S
. Augu
of the


structure
and Int


a


* .
tine
Catho


reaction


. a 8
* 4 9
* 9
. 9
. 9


. a .1
. 4 1.
. .1
. .12
* .1 a
Lic


S . . 107
* . .1L07
1lectual


. .* S L08
1 .14


ARCHAEOLOGICAL


STRATEGY


AND


METHOD


S .a .115


Sample
The
The


Sites


and


Convento de
Lorenzo Jos


Archaeological
San Francisco
ef Lorenzo de


Contexts .
Site (SA42A)
Le6n Site


(
The
The
The
The
The


6-1)
inity
menez
lm Ro
ifradi


* a
Ep
-Fa
w S
a S


O'Reilly


Hous


opal
Hous
(SA3
(SA3
e Sit


a
Chu
e S
6-4
0-3
e (


t a a J
rch Site (SA34-1) .1
ite (SA34-2). .1
) 1 .
) 1 .
SA35-1) . .1


THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL
SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY
ST. AUGUSTINE SITES


CHARACTERIZATION


MATERIAL


OF THE


ASSEMBLAGE


FROM


. . . a .142


Characterization


Early


Seventeenth-


Centur
Manuf
Charact
Centur
Manuf
Faunal
Sites


y As
actu
eriz
y As
actu
Rema
a .


semb
ring
atio
semb
ring
ins


iage
Loc
n of
lage
Loc
from


- n


nations of
the Late


S* a a a a
Pottery .
Seventeent]


* S S S S ft
nations of Pottery .
Seventeenth-Century


4 4 S S S S S S
- - a A-. -


. 144
. .156
h-
. 158
. ..165


a 4 S
S.- A- -~ ~,


. .173


I.









COLONIAL
AND IN
MIDDLE


CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
THE ATLANTIC WORLD
PERIOD. . .


IN ST
DURING


. AUGUSTINE
THE


4 ).89


APPENDICES


SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY


PROVENIENCE


GUIDE


. 207


INVENTORY
CENTURY

INVENTORY
CENTURY


OF ITEMS
CONTEXTS


OF ITEMS
CONTEXTS


FROM
BY


FROM
BY


EARLY
GROUP

LATE
GROUP


SEVENTEENTH-
AND BY SITE.

SEVENTEENTH-
AND BY SITE.


. 217


. 236


GLOSSARY


OF SPANISH


TERMS


. . . 256


REFERENCES C

BIOGRAPHICAL


ITED.

SKETCH


S. 258

H .280















LIST


OF TABLES


Table


Chronology of Key
Atlantic World


Events


Seventeenth-Century


pig~


Principal
Cultural


Models


European


Development


-American


Colonial


. a a a 42


Culture


Regions


Proposed


Colonial


America


Chronology


Florida


of Key


Events


Seventeenth-Century


S S S S S S S 5 0 0 0 5 63


Comparative Li
Franciscan and


Secular


sidy Payments
Communities i


Received
St. Augu


tine,


1617-1651


Summary


The


Cent


of St.


Augustine


Frequency of "Mix
ury St. Augustine


Summary of
Seventeenth-


ed"


Occupation


Century


Population:


Marriages


and


Sample


Excavation


Site


1600-1702


Seventeenth-


History


S a a a a a a a a


Characterization
by Functional Ca

Distribution of
Seventeenth-Cent


of Early
tegories


17th


Utilitarian
ury Contexts


Century


Wares


Ass


emblages


from


Distribution


Native


American


Pottery


from


Seventeenth-Century


Contexts


Distribution


Majolica


from


Seventeenth-


Century


Contexts


Distribution of


Tablewares


from Seventeenth-Century


Contexts


. 46









Distribution


Seventeenth-Century


Architectural


Artifacts


from


Contexts


Distribution


Items


from


of Non-Kitchen


and


Seventeenth-Century


Non-Architectural


Contexts


Origins


Ass


Pottery


from


Early


emblages


17th


Century


Origins


of Native


American


Pottery


Charact


erization


Late


17th


Century


Ass


emblages


Functional


Categories


Origins


Ass


Pottery


from


Late


17th


Century


emblages


Summary


of Faunal


Data


from Seventeenth-


Augustine


Century


Ranked


Order


to Proportions
Pottery .


Early


17th


of Majolica


Century


and


Sites


Native


According


American


Ranked


Order


Late


to Proportions
Pottery .


17th


Majolica


Century


and


Sites


Native


According


American


Summary


Middle


Period


Assemblages


Summary of
the Middle


Manufacturing
Period .


Locations


Pottery


from


Origin


of Ceramics


from


Middle


Period


. 1640-1700)


Plantation,


British


Virginia


Colonial


from


Kelso


Site
1984


s at Kingsmill
:213) .


Compare


son


Kingsmill
Florida


of Origin


Plantation,


Ceramics


Virginia


and


from
St. Augustine,














LIST


OF FIGURES


Figure


Augustine


17th


and


Colonial


Century


p~g~


World


C 0 0 0 0 S S 0 16


Colonial


Augustine


ca.


1764


Boazio


Engraving


of St.


Augustine


1586


. . 67


Anonymous

Anonymous


Engraving

Engraving


Augustine,

Augustine,


1671

1683


Location
Relation


Excavated


to the


1586


17th


Century


Sites


Townsite


Lead
17th


Fishing
Century


Weight,
Contexts


Straight


Pin,


and


Aglet


from


Examples


of Bordado


from


17th


Century


Contexts


. 164


Examples
Century


of Grog-Tempered


Pottery


from


Contexts


17th


. 0 169


Examples


17th


of Non-local


Century


Native


American


Pottery


from


Contexts


Glass


from


17th


Century


Contexts














Abstract


Dissertation


Presented


to the


Graduate


School


:he University
Requirements fi


of Florida


in Partial


Degree


Doctor


Fulfillment


Philosophy


DEVELOPMENT


OF A CULTURAL


IDENTITY


IN COLONIAL


AMERICA:


THE


SPANISH


-AMERICAN


EXPERIENCE


IN LA FLORIDA


Kathleen


December


Hoffman

1994


Chairp
Major


person:


Kathleen


Department


Deagan


: Anthropology


The


primary


purpose


study


to contribute


to and


refine


a general


understanding


forces


involved


emergence


unique


European-American


cultural


traditions


the Atlantic world


a multi-disciplinary


historical


. Thi


accomplished


-archaeological


through


approach


and


a comparative


assessment


process


ses


associated


with


development


cultural


identity


Spanish


and


Anglo-


American


colon


of the Atlanti


world.


In particular


study


emphasis


zes


choices


made


European


-American


colonists


during


seve


nteenth


century.


Archaeological


and


historical


data


from


Spani


colony


Augu


tine


and


British


colon









ways


which


European-American


colonists


adjusted


the Americas.


In both


colonial


situations


, the


colonists made


choices


that


recognized local


realities and emphasized


the use


and


reliance


American


goods


and


resources.


These


choices


, which were limited by environmental


constraints


, also


growing


separation


from


their


homeland


and


increasingly


local


and


regional


orientation.


archaeological


evidence


indicates


that


although


general


process


European-American


adjustment


and


identity


development


followed


same


path


Spanish


and


Anglo


colonies,


specific


manifestations


this


process


were


different.















CHAPTER


THE


QUESTION


OF COLONIAL


CULTURAL


DEVELOPMENT


One


most


profound


consequences


European


exploration and settlement


of the Americas


was


the development


distinctive


European-American


cultural


traditions


(Hartz


1964)


process


The


nature,


varied


timing,


between


(and


and


outcome


possibly


this


within)


development


colonial


areas


dominated


different


European


nations


and


resulted


varied


mosaic


of American


society


today.


The


character


effects


study,


these developments


which


define


contribute


primary


and


focus


refine


this


general


understanding


processes


involved


emergence


unique


European-American


cultural


traditions


in the


Atlantic


World

and s


. The


Spanish


eventeenth


colonial


centuries


experience


will


used


late


to provide


sixteenth


a case


study


these


processes


during


critical


"middle"


era


between


initial


encounters


and


emergence


well


established


colonial


identity.


The


middle


period


generally


regarded


formative


period in


the development


of colonial American society


because


*- -* .. -I 1.I










also


represented


time


when


colonists


made


choices


about


retention


and


change


both


European


and


American


traits


and


traditions


and


devised


new


syncretic


solutions


cope


with


special


circumstances


life


post-


Columbian


Americas.


This


period


of Spanish


colonial


social


development


will


studied


and


characterized


through


multi


-disciplinary


historical-archaeological


approach


and


comparative


assessment


general


Spanish


patterns


with


those


associated


with


Anglo-American


colonies


during


a comparable


period.


understanding


both


range


choices


made


within


colonial


society,


and


the consistencies and differences


across


societal


boundaries


can


contribute


more


comprehensive


model


post-contact


cultural


development


Americas.


The


Problem


"Middle"


Period


generally


accepted


that


initial


years


contact


and


settlement


witnessed


cataclysmic


change


European


world


came


into


contact


with


radically


different


Native


American


cultural


systems


and


unfamiliar


natural


environment.


Since


beginning


European


colonization


Americas


1492,


scholars


have


been


fascinated


impact


this


momentous


intermingling


Europe an













Americas


work r

focuses


regardingg

on the


the European co

sometimes fantastic


lonizatic

initial


adventures


European


explorers,


demise


native


populations,


and


European


political


and


economic


institutions


colonization.


Somewhat less attention has been


directed


to understanding


emergence


European-American


colonial


societies


(Deagan


1985;


Deetz


1977;


Greene


1984;


McAlister


1984


These


latter


efforts


have


tended


concentrate


either


initial


encounter


established


colonial


society


(Falk


1991


Thomas


1989


1990


, 1991),


leaving


much


immediate


post-contact


period


adjustment


ignored.


This


particularly


true


from


perspective


Spanish


colonial


archaeology.


In contrast


to the


rather


exciting


and


somewhat


colorful


exploits


that


took


place


during


initial


period


colonization,


middle


period


Spanish


settlement


was


not


a time


of world changing


events.


The


experimental


and


conquest


phase


colonization


had


drawn


end,


effective


adaptations


had


been


worked


out,


and


basic


cultural


patterns


had


already


been


established


(Handlin


1967,


King


1984,


Lockhart


during


and


late


Schwartz


1983


sixteenth


Consequently,


and


seventeenth


Spanish


centuries


America


often


been


characterized as an


"inwardly pulsating"


time of


relative










which


the basic


framework


or pattern


established


during the


initial


years


settlement


was


expanded


and


became


more


elaborate.


What


remains


unclear,


however,


are


processes


their


associated


archaeological


patterns


which


characterized


that


stage


Spanish


colonial


cultural


development


between


initial


settlement


and


established


society.


Using


archaeological


and


historical


data


from


Spanish


colonial


Augustine,


change


Florida,


in Spanish


this


colonial


study


culture


will


evaluate


during


nature


the middle


period


settlement,


and


compare


what


known


similar


processes


in British-American


colonies of


a comparable period.


Augustine


particularly


appropriate


colonial


setting


for


investigating


ces


involved


transformation


European


cultures


this


case,


Spanish)


into


European-American


traditions


reasons.


almost


two


hundred


years


continuous


Spanish


occupation--beginning


1565


and


ending


1763--provide


essential


temporal


control


tracing


change


through


time.


addition,


extensive


comparative


archaeological


(Deagan


1983,


1985


historical


(Lyon


1983;


Waterbury


1983;


TePaske


1964,


1975


data


base


relevant


sixteenth


and


eighteenth


century


occupations


exists


from which


assess


change during


late











multi


-disciplinary


perspective


and


access


to multiple


categories


Deagan


1988


and


contexts


data


Schuyler


1977


. The


use


and


application


of these


"multiple


categories"


this


archaeological


understanding of


case,


historical


records


the nature


allow


of cultural


, archaeobiological


more


development


, and


complete


during the


late


sixteenth


and


seventeenth


centuries


than


either


perspective


alone


can


render.


The


multi


-disciplinary


perspective


historical


archaeology


assumes


a particularly


significant


in this


study


because


unexplored


and,


at times


, "lost"


record


nature of


Augustine


seventeenth-


, and


because


century documentary


access


comparatively


sizeable


archaeological


data base


Perhaps


more


importantly


though,


historical


archaeology


provides


glimpse


into


"everyday


life"


and


behavior


and


lives


of the


common


people


who


represented


essential


component


colonial


society.


Previous


Raesarc... h


into


Nature


European-American


Cultural


Development


Spain,


Portugal,


England,


Scotland,


Sweden


, Denmark,


France


, and


Holland


established


settlement


Atlantic


world,


but


Spain


and


England


comprised


dominant


- --


.,.-% r j-' r- t~' ~ t~* a ~ I ~'-9 I- U V ,n I 1~ a -I ri (If-' 1' -at- ~ n r A '7 --- - -a


T


^ *


-t


A J


*


I-











summaries


and


reviews


this


work


see


Greene


1991;


Kicza


1974;


Weber


1992


Thomas


1989


, 1990,


1991)


. As


noted


above,


majority


environmental


this


, social


research


, and


addresses


political


either


adjustments


immediate


made


colonists


during


initial


years


colonization


or focu


ses


on the already


-es


tablished eighteenth century


colonial


world.


Those


studies


that


deal


with


cultural


development


during


middle


period


have


focused


British


colonial


experience


Deetz


1977


Greene


1988


Miller


and


King


1988


they have


approached


this


issue


from an exclusively


historic


perspective


(Boyer


1977;


Bushnell


1981;


Leonard


1959)


. With


the exception

1993), which r


research


presented


Spanish


a specialized


segment


missions


of the


McEwan


Spanish


world


, relatively


few


studi


concerned


with


formation


Spanish


-American


tradition


have


been


archaeological


in nature


(Deagan 1983


, 1985


, 1994


Ewen


1991)


Those


that


have


addressed


nature


Spanish


colonial


culture


have


focused


only


on the


sixteenth


century.


Only


one


previous

explored


endeavor

Spanish


(King 1

colonial


981) ,


conducted


culture


during


over

the


a decade

middle p


ago,


period


from


multi-disciplinary


perspective


and


integrative


approach


of historical


archaeology.


Juli


King


s preliminary


research


into


nature











population movements


, and changing economic patterns


As such,


King'


research


represents


notable


contribution


understanding


patterns


Spanish


adaptation


Florida.


However


, it


did not


encompass


entire


middle


period


was


limited


then-available


data


base


only


three


seventeenth-century


occupation


sites


Augustine.


addition,


King'


Florida-specific


focus


did


include


Augustine'


participation


a larger


Atlantic


world,


and


did


place


seventeenth-century


Augustine


within


a model


colonial


cultural


development.


In the


twelve years


that


have


passed since


completion


of King'


research,


additional


seventeenth-century


sites


have


been


excavated,


and


Spanish


colonial


archaeology


been


increasingly


cast


in a global


perspective.


In light


these


considerations,


following


chapters


will


re-evaluate


expand


our


knowledge


this


critical


period


of settlement


incorporating


these


"newer"


contexts


with


those


included


Juli


King'


earlier work,


and by placing


seventeenth-century


Augustine


within


context


of both


the middle


period and


larger


American


colonial


world.


Researchers


investigating


development


European-


American


colonial


culture


have


attempted


identify


factors


that


to a growing


independence


from


their


parent










include:


country


origin,


economic


organization,


demographic


composition


colony,


structure


degree


interaction


between


Native


American,


African,


and


European


peoples,


and


religious


traditions


European


colonists


(Greene


1988;


1991


Meinig


1986


. Because


these


aspects


have


been


studied


and


documented


wide


sample


and


colonial


ideological


societies,


aspects


and


incorporate


adaptation,


they


both


will


material


used


organize a


comparison between


Spani


sh and British


colonial


experiences


in the


Atlantic


world.


Chapter


will


consider


historical


and


social


contexts


colonial


Atlantic


world


that


provide


general


cultural


milieu


which


developments


middle period occurred.


Particular


emphasis


will


be placed


character


dominant


presence


Spanisi

in the


and


colonial


English s

Atlantic


ettlemeni

world.


Chapter


reviews


existing


models


Anglo


and


Spanish-American


colonial


cultural


development as


a basis


for understanding


development of distinctive European-American traditions


in the


Americas.


Chapter


examines


specific


economic,


demographic,


social


and


religious


circumstances


of the


middle


period


Augustine


and


provides


setting


interpreting the archaeological


record


. Chapter 5


outlines










Augustine.


The


final


chapter,


Chapter


assesses


immediate post


contact


period of


development


inSt


Augustine,


and


compares


to a similar


period


British


colonies.















THE


CHAPTER


COLONIAL


ATLANTIC


WORLD


DURING


THE


MIDDLE


PERIOD


The


middle


period


cannot


understood


without


some


reference to


the political,


social,


and economic circumstances


that


both


preceded


and


characterized


Shortly


after


initial

bulls a


Columbian


ranted


voyage


dominion


to the

! the I


West


[ndies


Indies


to the


a series


Crown


of papal


of Castile.


These


bulls


, along


with


subsequent


Treaty


Tordesilla,


constituted


Spain'


legal


claim


to the


lands


and


resources


Americas


Parry


and


Sherlock


1971


:6-7)


Spain'


interest


Americas


was


fueled,


in part


, by


mercantile


policy


that


prevailed


in Spain


and


throughout


Europe


(Braudel


1979


:544)


. This


policy,


which


economic


interests


metropolis


whole


were


more


important


that


those


of its


individual


parts


, placed


great


value


on and


defined wealth by the


accumulation of


precious metals


(Braudel


1979


:544;


Gibson


1966


:105


protect


Spain'


economic


interests,


colonies


were


permitted


import


from


export


Spain


alone


(Andrew


1978


Beginning











Silver,


particular,


represented


important


commodity


(Hamilton


1970)


, and


for


almost


years


Spain


maintained


commercial


and


territorial


monopoly


Americas.


Economic


and


Political


Challenges


to Spain


Atlantic


World


This


century


monopoly


northern


importance


was


challenged


European


Indies


and


powers


throughout

recognized


struggled


the

the


secure


sixteenth

economic


their


share


natural


wealth


(Hoffman


1980


; Lang


1975


. In order


obtain


resources


portion


wealth


the Americas


, England,


emanating


Holland,


from


mineral


and France


had


break


Spain


economic


and


territorial


monopoly.


One


method


used


to accomplish


this


goal


included


sanctioning


raids


Spanish


ships


and


settlements


northern


European


governments.


Contracts,


called


letters


marque,


were


negotiated


with


individuals


, and


allowed


them


legally


attack


and


take


goods


return


payment


respective


Crowns.


English


and


French


privat


eers


and


pirates


targeted


Spain'


treasure


ships


and


attacked


, looted,


and


burned


coastal


ports


and


settlements


throughout


Caribbean


(Lang


1975


:105


response,


Spain


initiated


fleet


system


, which


consisted


of two


convoys


ships


sailing


twice


a year


between










were established


in Havana,


Cartagena,


Santo Domingo,


Santiago


Cuba,


San


Juan


Puerto


Rico


and


Augustine,


Florida


(Hoffman


1980


:144;


Parry and Sherlock 1971


:36)


. The


settlement


of Florida


1565


strengthened


Spain


territorial


interests


Indies


, and


, at least


until


1670,


effectively prevented


French and English


settlement


along


coast


of Florida


Lyon


1983


:55)


Although


this


defensive


plan


did


protect


treasure


eets,


did


litti


anything,


to halt


raids


on towns


and


local


shipping


Caribbean.


Especially


hard


were


remote


and


isolated


regions


outside


boundaries


treasure


fleet


shipping


lanes


, such


Augustine


Puerto


Real


Deagan


1994


Parry


and


Sherlock


1971


:37-


English


pirates


, such


as Sir


Francis


Drake


and


John


Hawkins


burned and looted


coastal


ports


and settlements


throughout


Indi


, seized


silver


convoys,


stole


from


treasury,


and


forced


settlers


engage


rescate,


form


illegal


trade


transaction


(Andrews


1978


74-80,258;


Lynch


1984


:191


McAlister


1984:91


One


of the most


infamous


raids


took


place


during


1585


1586


when Drake


systematically


attacked


the major


seaports


land


bases


associated


with


treasure


routes,


including


Santo


Domingo,


Cartagena,


Nombre


de Dios


and


Havana


. The


town











England


(Parry


and


Sherlock


1971


:42)


Additional


acts


piracy

result


occurred

Spanish


throughout

towns,


include


seventeenth

ng St. Au<


-I


t


century


justine,


and


suffered


economically.


1627


, Piet


Heyn,


admiral


Dutch


West


India


Company


, captured


entire


Fleet


Indies


Matanzas


Bay


Parry


and


Sherlock


1971


:50)


The


fleet


carried


treasure


and


subsidies


(situados)


intended for


Augustine


and


other


Caribbean


settlements


(Bushnell


1983


:48)


Another


particularly


disa


strous


attack


on St.


Augustine


took


place


1668


English


pirate


, Robert


Searles.


In that


raid,


60 townspeople


were killed and


town


looted.


A small


band


of English


another


group


pirates


attacked


threatened


1685


town


Waterbury


again


1983


1683


:59)


The


success


piracy,


along


with


establishment


1607


Virginia


America,


weakened


Colony


Spain's


along


eastern


hold


Indies


coast


and


of North


allowed


England,

mainland,


France

and t


and


Holland


:hen


to slowly


island


gain


a foothold


communities


on the

Lesser


Antilles


Bailyn 1967


:262;


auer


1980


Watts


1987


:127)


. During


seventeenth


century,


French


settled


Quebec


1608


Dutch


explored


Hudson


Bay


region


(1609),


established


Fort


Orange


1614),


and


settled


New


York


(1620)


a small


group


Swedes


and


Finns


settled


Delaware


River


Valley










Charles Towne,


South Carolina


1670),


and settled Pennsylvania


(1681)


Gradually,


throughout


1600s,


Spain


hold


over


Indies


eroded


and


Americas


became


"mosaic"


(Axtell


1992


:218)


various


European settlements


Table


Figure


Economic


Problems


SDain


and


Atlantic


The


seventeenth


century


often


characterized


as a time


of economic


crisis


in Spain


(Hamilton


1970)


. This


suggested


have


been


result


reduction


silver


imports,


soaring


naval


expenses


, an eroding


power


base


Indies


warfare


Europe,


and


ever-increasing


need


protect


Spain'


territories


Caribbean


against


growing


northern


piracy.


European


Throughout


threat


late


form


sixteenth


both


century


settlement


and


and


early


years


of the


1600s


, Spain had become


increasingly


dependent


silver


from


mines


Peru


and


Mexico


to meet


expenses


home,


and


finance


Phillip


military


and


naval


expenditures


both


Spain


and


mdi


(Hamilton


1970;


Haring


1947;


Sauer


1966


. These


war


expenses


were


a result


conflict between Spain and


Protestant


countries


of France,


England,


and


Netherlands


. They


escalated


1621


when


truce


with


Dutch


expired


Netherlands


mounted


aggressive


campaign


territorial


and


economic


power


in the











Chronology of Key
Century Atlantic


1605:


Spain
Cristi
attempt
Englan
Company
Nether
Englan
Nether


and
to
set
of
ands
set
ands


Yagu
stop
tled
New
exp
tled


Events
World


settlers


ana to move
smuggling.
Jamestown.
France estab
lored Hudson
Bermuda.


established


Albany


Puerto


lished
Bay.


Fort


Orange,


Fort


Monte
coast


Quebec


Nassua


Plymouth
Dutch We
truce wi
England
seized B
New Amst
England
England
Massachu
England
Spain pr


1632
1634
1635
1640


1648:



1652:
1655:


1660:


France
Dutch s
France
Portuga
between
of Braz
Spain's
Munster
Martin,
between
Dutch-E
English
Jamaica
around
Acts of
sugar,
goods t
France
Treaty
Anglo-S
title t<
establi


1665
1667
1670


g
e
s
1


SCol
st I
th N
sett
ahia
erda
and
sett
sett
sett
ohib
aine
ized
ettli
sec


ony
ndi


d
n
e
t.
d
B
d
s
cc
u

e4
a:


ar


Spain
il.
80 ye
recog
Saba,
Dutch
english
attem
; Engl
Belize


Tra
toba
o En
seiz


f Bred
anish
terri
hed.


de


establish


a Company
erlands ex
St. Kitts
Brazil, b
established
herlands s
Nevis.
ay Company
Antigua a
trade bet
control of
racao.
Guadeloupe
d from Spa
nd Portuga


war


with


SDutch
St. Eus
Spanish
began.
to seiz
oggers


Navigati


on,
Eng
1 o
d S
of
in


la ende
Treat
stories


Espafola
established

on limited


indigo, ginger
lish colonies
f the island o
second Dutch Wa
Madrid recogni
the Indies; Ch


and.
Spain's


dos;
d by


Dutch
Spanish;


Croix.


chartered.
nd Montserrat
ween Mexico and
Acadia.


Peru.


and Martinique.
in; Battle of Itamaraca
1 fought off coast


St


and captured
themselves


export


O
0
f


or dry
nly.
Tortuga.


r.
zed
arl


English
es Towne


- -* a -. -. -' a S


Table


ordered


Seventeenth-


Plata,
south


base


1624:


ed by Engl
chartered;
pired.
and Barba
ut repelle

ettled St.


ended;


Dutch
title
tatius
Indie


Treaty


nized
and
and
war
pted
ish 1
and
and


Curacao,
but trade
forbidden.


cco, cott
gland or
ed control


*






















Atlantic Ocean


Virginia & Maryland


harleston


t. Augustine


Gulf of Mexico


BAHAMAS


Havana


Pacific Ocean


Merid


o ESPANOLA


racruz


RICO


r Territory occupied or claimed by
Spain in the 17th Century
EW1 Territory occupied or
" claimed by Northern European


powers


in thel17th Century


Antil~~


Acapu


Domingo


Caribbean


Figure


Augustine


and


Coloni


World


17th


Century


a BERMUDA










1650s,


and Spain


was


faced


with


an ever


increasing


need


protect


Caribbean


against


this


growing


threat


(Elliott


1987


:104;


Goslinga


1971;


Haring


1966


The


decline


silver


exports


Spain


contributed


only


to a continual


shortage


of silver,


but


also


fueled


inflation


and


devaluation


Spanish


currency


(Davis


1973


:145


Silver


and


silver


coinage


was


major


export


product,


and


Spain


had


become


dependent


on American


silver


finance military operations


(Hamilton 1970


:44-45


Because of


these


rising debts


, inflation,


and exploding defense expenses,


Spain


was


often


unable


provide


basic


commodities


and


supplies


, such


oil


, flour,


and


wine,


colonies


(Andrews


1978


:57)


Several


Spain's


circum-Caribbean


colonies,


such


settlements dependent


Augustine,


on a


Florida


regular annual


royal


were


subsidy


military


called


situado.


They


often


received


little


financial


support


during


1600s


and


were


forced


to look


elsewhere


their


financial


and subsistence needs


(Bushnell


1981


Sluiter


1985


These


situado


problems


can


with


related


arrival


several


and


factors,


payment


least


which


was


Spain'


dwindling power


in the emerging world


system


(Elliott


1987,


1989;


Lang


1975;


Parry


and


Sherlock


1971;


Wallerstein


1974


, 1980


The


unreliability


situado










Florida


situado,


also


faced


economic


and


political


problems,


which


precluded


timely


payments


subsidy.


With


renewal


global


war


between


Spain


and


Netherlands


1621


, the


powerful Dutch


West


Indies


and East


Indies


companies


mounted


offensive


naval


campaign


against


Spain.


Their


presence


Atlantic


and


Pacific


greatly


disrupted


both


Indies


and


Manila


galleon


trade.


Dutch


corsairs


threatened


and attacked


shipping


and


coastal


communities


, and


their


presence


settlement


Atlantic


other


European


helped


powers.


open


These


area


assaults


Dutch


brought


hardship


to the


merchant


of Mexico


City


, which


were


only


compounded


Spain


s prohibition


trade


between


Mexico


and


Peru


1648


. Natural


disasters,


such


a major


flood


1629


Boyer


1977


:477


and


heavy


livestock


mortality


also


contributed


Mexico'


economic


problems


Elliott


1987


:103


However


more


central


to Mexico'


problems,


terms


long-term


economic


impact,


was


drop


silver


production


from


mines


both


Mexico


and


Peru.


Various


arguments


attribute


this


decline


labor


shortages


resulting


from


decreasing


Indian


population


(Borah


1951


MacLeod


1973


:375-


, 1987


:315-360),


problems


with


credit


Bakewell


1975


depl


etion


major


silver


depo


sits


(Elliott


1987)


, or











ultimate


causes


were,


result


was


a decline


trans-


Atlantic


and


Manila


trade.


Consequently,


smaller


less


economically


important


colonies,


such


Augustine,


received


less


financial


support


from


Spanish


Crown


and


were


forced


become


more


self


-sufficient


and


reliant


local


resources


or goods


imported


from


other


regions


Atlantic


world


order


to meet


their needs


Consequently,


economic


relationship


between


Spain


and


her


American


colonies


egan


weaken


during


time


and


new


patterns


erc


olonial


trade


and


local


economies


developed


(Elliott


1987


:95)


The


Growth


Intercolonial


Trade


Atlantic


Concomitant


unwillingness


with

send


Spain


inability


provisions


and


Americas


frequent


was


emerging inter-colonial


trade network and


the establishment


colonial


economies


(Lang


1975


:54)


Trade restrictions


, piracy,


profiteering,


and


Spain


s dwindling power


acted


as a stimulus


an increase


during


in trade


seventeenth


among


century


various


(Elliott


Europ


1987


ean


colonies


:107;


Lang


1975


:54;


Lockhart


and


Schwartz


1983


:153)


, and


been


suggested


that


colonies


were


growing


less


dependent


both


Europe


and


Native


American


population


for provi


sions











regulations


prohibiting


(Lang


1975


:156-161;


Parry


and


Sherlock


1971)


Colonial


merchants


New


England


shipped


fish,

with

(Lang


lumber,

France,

1975: 1


and


tobacco


Holland

.56-161)


to other


Spain


. Dutch


and

salt


British


their

ships


colonies


colonies

to the Ve


and

the


inezuelan


traded

Indies

Coast


carried


European


goods


which


were


sold


Indies


exchange


hides,


tobacco,


and


dyewoods


(Parry


and


Sherlock


1971


-48;


Sluiter


1948


:178-180


Spanish


America


, much


silver


from


great


mines


Zacatecas


and


Potosi


never


reached


ended


European


market.


Instead


went


Pacific


(Elliott


1987


:97)


where


was used


to purchase


silk


, satin


, porcelain,


spices,


perfume,


and


jewelry


(Lynch


1984


:245


. These


goods


arrived


in Acapulco,


via


Manila


trade,


then


went


overland


to Veracruz


export.


Peru


was


forbidden


direct


access


Asia,


so Mexico


became


entrepot


re-exportation


Asian


goods


Peru


(Lynch


1984


:245


The


Crown


tried


unsucces


sfully


stop


this


intercolonial


trade


1631


prohibiting


trade


between


Mexico


and


Peru


(Elliott


1987


:97)


but


this


met


with


only


limited


success.


As a result,


much


silver


produced


Spanish


colonies


remained


Americas


and


never


reached


European


market


(Elliott


1987


Lang


1975;,


Lynch


1984)










Initially,


trade


between


various


British


colonies


was


allowed as


long


as it


was


conducted by


subjects


of the


British


crown


(Lang


1975


:152


. However,


as English


settlement


in the


Atlantic


expanded


and


colonial


agricultural


production


increased,


Crown


attempted


to limit


coastwise


trade


with


passage


Navigation


Acts


1660,


1663


, and


1673


(Table


These


acts


not


only


prohibited


trade


with


other


European


colonies


, but


they


also


banned


trade


certain


important


colonial


agricultural


products,


such


dyewoods,


sugar,


tobacco,


and


cotton


(Lang


1975


:153


England,


like


Spain,


operated


under a


trade


policy that


attempted


to channel


American


raw


materials


through


ports


England.


colonies


were


to supply


metropolis


with


raw


materials


agricultural


products


in the


case


of England and


silver


case


Spain


which


then


acted


entrepot


distribution


manufactured


goods


their


respective


colonies


However,


Europe'


inability to meet


colonial


demands


grew


during


seventeenth


century,


and


colonial


trade


network


expanded


and


commercial


agricultural


endeavors


also


intensified.


A measure of


the emergence


colonial


economies


was


development


examples


local


include


enterprises


creation


and


mints


production.


New


Some


Spain











shipbuilding


operations


in many


coastal


settlements


both


British


and


Spanish


America


McCus


ker


and


Menard


1985


McAlister


1984


:366-367)


addition,


iron


forges


and


blacksmith


shops


were


establi


shed


several,


most


Atlantic


community


order


to produce


weaponry,


tack,


and


construction hardware


, such as hinges


, spikes


, nail


, staple


screws


local


use


Deagan


1987


:24;


Hudson


1980


:22-26


Glasshouses


and


pottery


works


were


also


established


Atlantic


colonies


. The


type


and


amount


glass


produced,


and


success


seventeenth-


century


ventures


in gl


ass


making


British


colonies


, such


those


Jamestown,


Salem,


and


Philadelphia


remains


uncertain


No~l


Hume


1969


1970


Spillman


1976)


Considerably


more


known


about


glassmaking


Spanish


colonies


. The


documents


note


presence


of glassblowers


and


glass


furna


ces


Puebla


Angel


as early


as 1542


(Toussaint


1967


:270)


. By


1547


, gl


ass


produ


ced in


Puebla


was


being


exported


to Guatemala


, Peru


, and


possibly other regions of


Spanish America


Puebla


remained


center


of the glass


industry


throughout


late


sixteenth and


seventeenth


centuries


(Frothingham


1963:58;


Toussaint


1967


:270


At least


three known


classes


glass


were


produced


in the


glasshouses


of Puebla


: "white


crystal


" "green


ass


and


"blue


glass"


Toussaint


1967


:270











were


probably


potteries


other


colonial


regions.


"white


and


Chiney ware"


was manufactured


at a pottery near modern day


Burlington


, New


Jersey


, at


least


early


1684


pargo


1974:55,59)


This


pottery


, which


been


identify


possible


white


salt-glazed


stoneware


, was


produced


export


to Barbados


and


Jamaica


Spargo


1974


:59)


Although


unglazed


pottery


was


produced


Spanish


colonies


early


1493


Cruxent


1990,;


Deagan


and


Cruxent


1993)


, pottery


making


became


special


1500s,


important


centers


production


emerged


Barnes


1980


; Deagan


1987


: Lister


and


Lister


1982)


. The


most


notabi


centers


were


Mexico


which


City


and Puebla


produced


ster


majolicas,


and


and Lister


possibly


1974,


1987)


unglazed


both


and


lead-


glazed


coarse


earthenwares


, that


were exported widely to other


Spanish


colonies,


including


Augustine,


late


sixteenth


century


Deagan


1987


early


1600


, obral


or textil


workshops


New


pain


Wineri


supplied


and


cloth


olive


Indies


orchards


Peru


(McAlister

produced


1984


suffi


cient


quantiti


wine


and


export


to other


regions


of New


Spain


McAlister


1984


Smith


1991)


.Haciendas


Mexi


Peru


and


Colombia


were


supplying


maj or


areas


panish


America


with


stapl


such


wheat


, potatoes


, maize


, cattle










growing


export


trade


both


within


Atlantic


and


with


Europe


(McCusker


and


Menard


1985)


The


Democraohic


Character
Colonial


and


Socic


Atlantic


al Interactions
World


European settlement


the Atlantic world represented


catalyst


meeting


three


distinct


groups


of people


Europeans,

interaction


Native

among


Americans


these


and


different


Africans.


groups


The

people


forms

played


critical


Patterns


role


development


of interaction varied and


were


colonial


influenced by


culture.


a number


factors.


These


included


immigration


policy


European


power


(Haring


1947:


29-35)


, the


economic


base


religious


background


European


colony


McAlister


1984


Native


:334-345)


Americans


settlement


(Gibson


1966


patterns


:113-115


and


density


Fitzhugh


1985),


the

and


attitudes


about


racial


mixture


(Breen


1984


:198;


Morner


1967)


In the


case


of Spain,


these


attitudes


were


shaped,


part,


700-year


occupation


Spain


Moors,


and


coexistence


during


that


period


of multiple


ethnic,


religious,


racial,


and


cultural


groups.


also


important


note


that


much


Native


American


population


Atlantic


World


had


already


av-n r, _a r' aA_


A at r~ e 4- a 4-.; nn Fan 4-n a ~- A ~ t~ -% ~I a *-. a 4- n a a -


T-- F-% L:


J


b











disappeared


1548


(Crosby


1972


:45)


. Disease


contributed


demise


most


native


population


Antilles


(Crosby


1972


:38) ,


and


many


Indians


what


today


known


coastal


epidemics


during


southeastern


sixteenth


United States

century and


succumbed


seventeenth


centuries


(Milner


1980


:44)


. It


also


been


suggested


that


pandemics


swept


Americas


during


1500s


Dobyns


1983


Population


and Interaction SnRni qh Am0ri n~
- -------.---.----. -- w- a a a a a...


Spanish


immigration


policy


"formally


excluded"


non-


Iberians


and


Non-Catholics.


Although


Jews


and


other


ethnic


groups,


such


as Asians,


existed


Spanish


colonies,


they


did


comprise


(McAlister


1984


significant


:338


proportion


. Spanish policy also


population


favored single males


and


been


estimated


that


"probably


90%"


of the


migrants


to the Americas


consisted


men


(Gibson


1966:


112-113


. Wives


and


other


female


relatives


were


encouraged


to emigrate


to the


colonies


with


their male


sponsors,


but


single


women


often


had


difficulty


obtaining


required


licenses


raising


money


pay


passage.


Although


a few


women


travelled


alone,


either to


join


their


husbands


or as servants,


most


came


with


their


(McAlister


husbands


1984


:97-98)


, parents,


. Consequently,


other


single


family


European


members


women











In general,


Spanish settlement


was


concentrated


those


areas


Atlantic


World


with


dense


Native


Amern


can


populations.


Interaction


with


Indians


was


structured


formal


policies


designed


to apply


Christian


principles


to the


their


governance,


and


fulfill


economic


motives


settlement


Deagan


1985


:282


. This


was


due,


in part,


need


for


large


labor


pool


work


mines


and


various agricultural


settlement.


endeavors


, and


Consequently,


the evangelical


primary


spheres


motive


formal


eraction


between


Spaniards


and


Indians


included


religious


missions


and


economic


arrangements.


Conversion


native


peoples


was


an integral


part


the colonization process


Large-scale mission efforts began in


1520s


Mexico


(Gibson


1987


:376


and


continued


into


seventeenth


century.


The


structure


mission


system


involved


"reduction"


of the native


population


to permanent


settlements


overseen


resident


VIS


iting


friar


, who


conducted


religious


services,


offered


instruction


basic


Catholic dogma


and ritual,


and managed any


farming


or bu


siness


ventures


conducted at


the mission settlement


Because of


their


location


on the


missions


frontier

provided


or on the

only ]


outskirts

limited o


of Spanish


pportunitieE


towns,

3 for


interaction


between


colonists


and


Indians.










primarily


structured


through


encomienda-re artimiento


system,


which


was


formally


established


West


Indies


during


early


years


sixteenth


century


(Gibson


1987


:366


The


encomienda


was


a system


that


granted


Spanish


colonists


jurisdiction


over


a particular


region,


and


"gave"


them


grants


Indians


native


received


labor


protection


tribute


and


exchange,


religious


instruction.


Although


encomienda


survived until


the end of


colonial


period


some


regions


Spanish America


(MacLeod


1987


:321)


Caribbean,


gradually


gave


way


repartimiento


or labor


draft.


The


renartimiento


consisted


paid


labor


draft


which healthy,


male


Indians


were obligated


to provide


labor


services


Spanish


officials.


Those


chosen


serve


labor


draft


travelled


from


their


villages


work


assigned


project


specific


places,


and


for


specified


amount


of time


. Most


of these


obligatory


assignments


involved


public


works


projects,


such


construction


forts


and


monasteries


agricultural


chores


, considered


vital


welfare


colony


(MacLeod


1987


:321)


native


American


population


dwindled


from


ravages


of di


sease,


African


slaves


were


brought


into


parts


Spanish America,


primarily


to the


tropical


coastal


regions










form

the


slavery


Native


and


American


various

is with


other

whom


labor

Spain


arrangements.


had


Unlike


experience,


Africans


their pr

eleventh


had been


esence


century


a part


in Spain


Spanish


probably


(M6rner


1967


society


dates

:16).


for


back

Some


centuries


least


Africans


and


the

were


enslaved,


Moslem


while


armies


others


and


served


intermarried


as soldiers


with


and


couriers


people


southern


Spain.


result,


system


dealing


with


Africans


slavery


had


long


been


established


time


America


was


colonized.


Slavery was


rationalized


concept


of a "just


war"


which


meant


that


Spain


was


justified


enslaving


those


Africans


who


rejected


Spain's


attempts


convert


them


Christianity.


There


was


also


a legal


code


that


protected


them


from


cruel


members,


masters


and gave


, prohibited


them


right


separation


to hold and


family


transfer property


initiate


Africans


were


lawsuits.


still


But,


viewed


despite

inferior


these


legal


Spain


rights,


and


colonies


(Landers


1990


:315-328)


third


and


informal


arena


interaction


included


intermarriage


and


concubinage.


Miscegenation


among


Spaniards


and Native Americans


and Africans


began


early


years


settlement


and


continued


throughout


seventeenth


century


(Gibson


1966


:115)


. Although


encouraged


initial










Despite


these


efforts,


Spanish,


Indian,


and


African


intermarriage


and


concubinage


continued,


and


late


sixteenth


century,


when


Spanish


settlement


Indies


was


almost


one


hundred


years


old,


creole


population had already


emerged.


The


seventeenth


century,


therefore


, witnessed


birth


and


maturation


fourth


through


eighth


generation


native-born


colonists.


Although


some


these


creoles


represented


offspring


parents


~1


Iberian


descent,


many


people


identified


as creole


were


in fact


some


combination


Spanish,


Indian,


and


African


(McAlister


1984


:338-339;


M6rner


1967)


The


creole


and


racially


mixed


population


increased


through


character

regional


seventeenth


variation


century


and


Spanish colonial

(McAlister 1984


specific


world


:339


often


For


"ethnic"


exhibited


instance,


those


areas


Atlantic


World,


such


West


Indies,


where

contact


the

witi


Native An

1 European


erican r

diseases


population


(Crosby


died


1972


rapidly


after


demographic


character


consisted


of a Spanish


minority


and


an African


mulatto


person


African


and


European


heritage)


majority


(McAlister


1984


:339


1650


, population


estimates


Antilles


indicate


a Spanish


to African


ratio


of roughly


, or 80


Spaniards











places


such


as Mexico


which


had


a large


indigenous


population


(McAlister


1984


:344


. In presidios


, such


as Spani


sh Florida,


where


Native


American


population


was


completely


decimated


and


whose


military nature


did


necessitate


large


numbers


African


slaves,


creole


population


was


more


mestizo


person


of Indian


and


European


heritage


than


mulatto


character


In general


(Bushnell


1983:55;


characteristic


Deagan

Spanish


1973


colony


: Dunkl


was


1958


Catholic


Iberian


and


predominantly


mal


was


also


one


which


Spaniards


politically


dominated Native Americans


and Africans


(Gibson


1966:


112)


Whatever the


specific ethnic


heritage of


creol


was


these


native


-born


Americans,


unlike


their


parents,


shared


"New"


World


upbringing.


Most


likely


they


also


became


increasingly


aware


of their


separateness


from Europe


Leonard


1959


Pagden


1989


:51-94)


. During


seventeenth


century


Spani


h Florida,


evidenced


their


creol


rose


securing


to positions


important


of authority


treasury


positions


previously


held


only


those


born


Spain,


they


were


still


prohibited


from holding


highest


offices


n colonial


government


(Bushnell


1981:


31-36;


Shephard


1983


:68-69)


Example


first


generation


Anglo-Americans


sing


positions


power


have also


been


documented among


British


.










Population


and


Interaction


Anglo-America


difficult


generalize


about


demographic


character


European


population


Anglo-American


colonial


world


except


to note


"extraordinary


demographic


diversity"


(McCusker


and


Menard


1985


:235)


Unlike


Spain,


England


did


impose


restrictive


immigration


policy


their Atlantic


colonies,


and


European population exhibited


more


national


and


religious


diversity


than


that


found


Spanish


colonies.


In addition,


other


Europeans


, such


French,


Dutch


, and


Swedes,


established


communities


adjacent


and


sometimes


within


various


British-American


colonies.


close


proximity


of these different


communities,


along with


diverse


social


and


economic


motivations


settlement


contributed


to the


development


"complex


regional


mosaic


of colonial


life"


that


scholars


are


just


beginning


to define


Mitchell


1987


:111)


The


British


Crown,


unlike


Spanish,


did


limit


colonial


case


migration


Anglican


to members


or Church


official


England.


church,


Instead,


this


members


different


denominations


and


religious


dissenters,


such


as the


Puritans


Society


and


in New


of Friends


wnorshi n


England,


Catholics


Pennsylvania,


r nl1 rnn-i oca


were


ill I II~ --'I


Maryland,


rmitted


1 QA7


and


to migrate


mr~n n


!


^ "^ I










children,


and


worked


communal


family


farms


(McCusker


and


Menard


1985


:217)


other


parts


Anglo-American


colonies,


contrast,


immigration


plantation


based


colonies


Virginia


males


and


, many


West


whom


Indies


arrived


consisted


indentured


primarily


servants


single


Potter


1984


:149)


. These


colonies were


founded by mercantile companies


interested


making


a profit


by producing


export


crops


, such


tobacco,


sugar,


and


cotton.


When


initial


attempts


follow


futile


Spain


, they


s example


turned


using


first


Native


to European


American


indentured


labor


proved


servants


and


then


to African


slaves.


The


presence


African


slave


dramatically


altered


ethnic


composition


these


colonies.


ca.


1660,


Afri


cans


comprised

colonies


more


than

West


Indies,


the p

11.5%


population


British


population


Middle Atlantic


colonies


, and 5


southern


colonies


Virginia,


Maryland,


and


Carolina


(McCusker


and


Menard


1985:


-227)


. In


comparison,


Africans


accounted


"for


only


handful"


ca.


1670


population


of New


England


(McCusker


Menard


1985


:227


general,


economics


also


shaped


nature


interaction


between


Anglo


colonists


and


Indians










colonist


survival


some


regions,


these


early


interactions


were


also


marked


military


subjugation


native


peoples


as the


colonists


sought


to acquire


land


control


natural


Eventually,


however,


resources.


a more entrepreneurial relationship,


and one


that


often been


characterized as


a "patron/broker-


client


relationship"


(Thomas


1985


:140)


, developed


that


was


based


trade.


Beaver


represented


most


sought


after


because


layer


soft


hair


next


skin


that


was


felted for


hats


and


cloth


fashionable


in Europe


(Wolf


1982


:159)


Furs


were


acquired


through


one


three


means


local


hunters,


local


villager


who


acted


middleman,


directly


from


distant


areas


via


overland


trade


routes


. By


late


1600s,


trading


posts,


especially


New


England,


became


primary


sphere


interaction


between


Indians


coloni


(Zuckerman


1989


:141-155


Although


officials


Virginia


and Massachusetts


colonies


proclaimed


importance


of proselytizing


among


native


population,


no concerted


effort


to convert


Indian


ever


developed.


Some


colonial


groups,


primarily


Puritans


New


England


and


Jesuits


Maryland


attempted


convert


Native


Americans


, but


these


efforts


represented


informal


undertakings


, not


formal


institutions


sanctioned










1985


:141) ,


even


in those


colonies


with


shortages


European


women.


Likewise,


concubinage


was


not


sanctioned,


and


been written


that


"English pioneers prided


themselves


from


first


on their


self-denial"


(Zuckerman


1989


:145


Church


and


State


Atlantic


World


The

influenced


development


of .the


relationship


Atlantic

s between


colonies

church


was

and


also


state.


Church


and


state


in all


areas


colonial


Latin


America


were


inextricably


linked


virtue


Patronato


Real


(Royal


Patronage)


. As


forth


series


papal


bulls


issued


between


1501


and


1543,


Catholic


church


with


king


secular


1947


head


:167


constituted


Greenleaf


a branch


1971


of royal


Spanish


government


monarchy


(Haring


exercised


authority


over


ecc


lesiastical


matters


colonies


except


religious


doctrine


and


discipline


(Haring


1947


:167;


McAlister


1984


:194


outlined


representative


1501


crown


bull,


royal


collected


treasurer


tithes


under


condition


that


they be


used


to maintain


church


and


clergy.


This


included


missions,


construction


support


church


clergy,


buildings


purchasing


of olive


oil,


wine


, and


wheat


celebration


of the


mass


, and










ecclesiastical


leaders


and


establish


churches


and


monasteries.


Archbishops


and


bishops


were


nominated


king


and


installed


pope,


while


appointees


lower


offices,


parish


such


priest),


parish


or sacristan


priest,


(the


curate


person


(assistant


responsible


maintenance


selected by viceroys


sacristy,


church


or governors


and


and


content)


inducted


into


were


office


bishop


(Gannon


1983


:37-38;


Gibson


1966


:76-78;


McAlister


1984


:194-195;


Scholes


1971


:21-22


The


crown


acquired


even


more


control


with


1543


bull


which


gave


monarchy


right


to establish


office


bishop


and


to define


boundaries


diocese


under


jurisdiction


a bishop.


addition


these


fundamental


powers,


monarchy


Council


Indies


representative

missionaries,


also


to obtain a


required


royal


clergy,


license


prior


including


to emigrating


the colonies,


and mandated


that


church officials


swear


loyalty


Crown.


The


Council


Indies


also


examined


and


certified


church


correspondence


(McAlister


1984


:194


-195)


One


of the


more


important


means


of maintaining


religious


orthodoxy


and


guarding


royal


patronage


was


Holy


Office


Inquisition.


This


powerful


and


well-


known


tribunal


was


instituted


Spain


during


reign


sabela










American


tribunals


existed in


the viceregal


capitals


of Mexico


City

Peru


Lima,


and


and


New


Cartagena


Granada


with


respectively


jurisdiction


(Lockhart


New


and


Spain,


Schwartz


1983


:157-158


. St.


Augustine


fell


under


jurisdiction


court


Mexico


City.


Although


Inquisition


was


not


active


many


peripheral


areas


of the


Spanish


world,


such


as St.


Augustine,


influence


judge, Father

emissary to St


was


Don


still


evident.


Francisco


Soto


1991


jongoc

:34)


an ecclesiastical


served


. The


Inquisition


operated as


an independent


agency


that


could defy


and


overrule


both


civil


and


secular


authorities.


exerted


control


over


non-Indian


population


and


dealt


primarily


with


such


religious


offenses


blasphemy,


heresy


, apostasy,


bigamy,


lack


respect


ecclesiastical


authorities,


and


uttering


"evil


sounding


words"


(Lockhart


and


Schwartz


1983


:157-158;


Scholes


1971


:28-29


. It has


also


been


suggested


that


some


regions


Spanish


America


, the


Holy


Office


Inquisition


functioned


as a powerful


means


of controlling


both


civil


authorities


at odds


with


clerical


community


and


clergy


itself


(Scholes


1971


:29)


Unlike


Spain,


England


was


not


united


under


one


religion


and


did


share


same


link


between


church


and


state.


1672,


Augustine


(Kapitzke










1988


:18-19)


This


religious


diversity


can


traced


Protestant Reformation,


a sixteenth century religious movement


that


questioned


"worldliness"


Catholic


Church,


rejected papal


authority,


and resulted


the establishment


disparate


religious


denominations


and


more


secular


orientation


(Parrinder


1971


:436-444)


This


trend


towards


diversity


extended


colonial


world.

members


Most


Sthe Virginia

Anglican church,


colony

the c


1607)


olonists


was

who


settled


established


Plymouth


Colony


(1620


were


Puritan


Separatists,


more


moderate


group


of Puritans


migrated


Massachusetts


Colony


1629),


followers


Catholic


faith


founded


Mary


s City


Maryland


colony


(1634) ,


and


members


of the


Society


Friends


settled


Pennsylvania


1681


(Lemon


1987


:126


,132;


Mitchell


1987


:96)


. By the end


of the


seventeenth


century,


Middle


colonies


eastern


seaboard


(Pennsylvania,


New


Jersey,


and


New


York)


contained


a mixture


religious


groups


that


included


Reformed,


Anglicans,


Presbyterians,


Lutherans,


Baptists,


and


Huguenots


Greene


1988


:49)


Although


Anglican


Protestantism


was


faith


British


Crown


and


predominant


religion


British-


American


colonies,


relationship


between


Church


and


State











dominate


settlement,


and


general,


British


colonial


settlement


was


a more


secular


enterprise


(Greene


1988


:11)


been


suggested


that,


least


Chesapeake,


"intensity


religious


conviction


was


never


sufficient


constitute


primary


shaping


influence"


and


religious


diversity,


not


orthodoxy


, was


rule


(Greene


1988


:16)


summary,


British


and


Spanish


colonial


systems


differed


three


important


respects:


economic


basis


settlement;


relative


characters


demographic


colonies


and


, religious,


nature


and


and


national


degree


ethnic


interaction.


general,


Spanish


colonization


represented


uniform


effort


secure


mineral


wealth


Spain,


and


to Christianize


native


peoples


. The


Crown


Church


controlled


aspects


colonization,


including


immigration


policy


and


treatment


of Native


Americans


Africans.


contrast,


British


colonization


was


more


entrepreneurial


in nature


, and


Crown


exerted


less


central


control.


The


British


colonial


system


also


differed


relative demographic


, religious


, and national


diversity


of the


European


migrants;


lack


a uniform


mission


effort;


apparent


absence


widespread


miscegenation


between


Europeans,

remote fr


Native


ontier.


Americans,


The


and


"creole"


Africans,


except


population


le British










The


economic,


demographic,


and


religious


conditions


highlighted


this


chapter


provide


framework


understanding


seventeenth-century


Atlantic


world.


They


also


furnish


context


within


which


Spanish-American


British-American


colonial


cultures


developed.


The


specific


archaeological


and


historical


models


used


explain


nature


Spanish


and


British


cultural


development


Atlantic


world


are


discussed


next


chapter.
















CHAPTER


MODELS


OF EUROPEAN-AMERICAN


CULTURAL


DEVELOPMENT


This chapter reviews existing models of


European American


cultural


this


development


development


as a basis


considering


seventeenth-century


processes


Spanish


Florida.


such


, it


lays


groundwork


understanding


both


general


phenomenon


cultural


formation in


the Atlantic world


and


more


specific


evolution


Spanish


colonial


cultural


during


"middle"


period


Florida.


previous


chapter,


Spanish and British settlements


Caribbean,


Chesapeake,


and


New


England


are


used


comparative


base.


Most


models


colonial


cultural


development


have


been


derived


from


documentary


record


alone


and


only


such


Deagan


acculturation


model


1983


and


Deetz


cognitive


model


1977),


have


been


based


on the


integration


historical


and


archaeological


records


. These


models,


therefore,


assume


particular


importance


historical


a


- -- -. a -


4


,m











necessary


for


cross-cultural


research


strategy


used


here


Although


most


comprehensive


historical


models


are


summarized


below


, emphasis


will


be placed


on those


that


have


been


archaeologically


derived.


synop


s1S


of the


various


model


of cultural


development


European-


American


society


presented


Table


. Most


these


development


are


descriptive


while


others


model


attempt


characterizing


to provide


temporal


explanation


change


. For


example


Deetz


1977


uses


shifts


cognit


process


ses


as an explanatory


devi


, Deagan


(1983


, 1985


, 1990)


uses


nature


of gender


relations


and


roles


as well


increased


incorporation


native


traits


explain


change


and


Greene


(1988)


emphasis


zes


importance


of both


European


origins


and


specific


American


colonial


realiti


as important


forces


in the


emergence


an American


culture.


Despite


their


fundamental


differences,


most


these


model


view


cultural


development


evolutionary


process


with


identifiable


embrace


idea


and


that


specific


some


stages


point


Most


their


them


development,


colonial


culture


underwent


period


regionalization


and


localism


. Thi


emphasis


on localism


and


separate


experiences


diff


erent


parts


colonial


America


recognizes


emergence


of di


stinctive regional


cultures


in various part







Table


Principal


Models


of European-American


Colonial


Cultural


Developmer


AUTHOR FOCUS STAGES OF TIME PERIOD MAJOR CHARACTERIST
~___~~_______ ~________DEVELOPMENT__________________


Deetz


1973
1977


1974,


Fischer
1989


Greene
1984,


1988


Massachus
Plymouth


etts Bay
colonies


British-American
colonies


Chesapeake


colonies


Medieval


Folk


Georgian


(Reconnaissance)


Trans


ition


Crisis


Consolidation



Devolution


Simplification


Elaboration



Replication


pre-1660


1660-1760


post
pre-


1760


1629


varied


varn


varied



ca.1770


1607-1630


1630-1680



1680-1760


identify
England;


cation


wit


corporate


regional
variation;conserva


zation


re-Angli


exploration

transition

internal co
poor; auton

dominant cu


institutions


of


nfl


reco

cult

ict:


omy

lture


forme


localism


regional identity
flourished;foundin
lost

unsettled;disorien
simplified;individ
oriented


acculturation


environment
sufficient;


to 1


;self-
creole


forms

elites replicate
regionalization;


E
c







Table


. Continued


Foster
1960


Lockhart
Schwartz
1983


MacLeod
1973


McAlister
1984


Gibson
1966


I I *


Spanish-American
colonies


Conquest


culture


(Crystallization


Colonial


Culture


varied


varied


van mor ricul
I I I I -


rapid change;flui
outlines


basi


more


forms


stabi


Spanish-American
colonies


Guatemala


Conquest

Maturity


1492


-ca.1580


ca.1580


-1750


I I I-


Conquest

Crisis


1500-1578

1580-1630S

1630S-1690S

1690-1720


fram


work


establi


elaboration;stabi
localization;dive
economy

extractive

experimentation

depression


revival


trade


population


I I I I


Spanish-American
colonies


Discovery
Conquest


Post


-Conquest


1492-1560s


1560s-1700


exploration;flexi;
experimental;fram
established


American


lidation;fori


society;
_____________________ ____________________elaboration__


Spanish-American
colonies


Conquest


Post


Conquest


Established


1500s


1600s


1700s


exploration
simplificat


identity


settlel


ion;


crystallization;e
slow change


rigid soc
resistant


I I ________j influence


i


al boun'
to Iber


a







Table


Continued


Meinig
1986


Breen


1984


Karras
McNeill


1992


Atlantic


World


I I


Outreach


Implantation


Reorganiz


action


1492-ca.1600


ca.1600

ca.1750


-ca.1750

-ca.1800


settlement;conques
introduced


diver


II i a 3 a


British-American
colonies


Charter



Charter

Creole


groups



societies


soci


early


1600s


1600s


1700s


homoaeneitv
I I I I -~


Atlantic


World


Implantation





Maturity





Transitions


1492-ca


.1650


ca.1650-ca.1770





ca. 1770-1888


sity;regional


formation
republics
empires


groups;scattered
area;set rules


of feder
disinte


immigrants


religious,
boundaries


social,


rigid bound
homogeneitv


economic


aries;


exploration;conque


territory;s
destruction
initial set
transformat

creole soci
markets eme
classes dev
Europeans a


ubjugat
of Ame
tlement
ions


ety, 1
rge; s
elop w
t top;


growth; European
governmental insti


I I I | nationalistic move


away


s
O


.0
I
Ti











(1986


:80),


regional


culture


refers


"that


which


characteristic


a group


people


who


are


deep-rooted


and


dominant


a particular


territory,


who


are


conscious


their


identity


deriving


from


common


heritage,


and


who


share


a common language


and basic patterns


life"


(see


Table


a list


culture


regions


that


have


been


suggested


colonial


America)


The


remainder


this


section


will


review


and assess


the dominant


models


colonial


development


for the


Anglo


and


Spanish


colonial


societies,


respectively.


Models


of Development


Anqlo-America


The


Declension


Model


Historians


explained


colonial


development


America


an American


have


traditionally


society


within


framework


of a declensionn"


model


(Boorstin


1964


Lockridge


1981


:7-52;


Miller


1952


:19-148,


1978


:58-70


. This


older


model


was


derived


from


somewhat


unique


experiences


Puritans


New


England


colonies


, and


was


used


characterize development


in all


parts


of British America.


More


recent archaeological


and historical models


(discussed below),


however,


have


questioned


validity


applying


eianl anc~4 ni-I


~~~3~~


A- a


Tn fl~ fl r r~ n M~ -% -. a n an a a lia-1 ~nJ~.Z - ----ZI


. K.LA


A-- --S











Table


Culture


Regions


Proposed


Colonial


America


Researcher Proposed Regions
Bailyn 1986 New England
(United States Hudson River Valley
perspective) Delaware River Valley
Chesapeake
_________________ Carolinas
Boorstin 1964 Massachusetts Bay
(United States Pennsylvania
perspective) Virginia
_________________ Georgia
Fischer 1989 Massachusetts Bay
(United States Virginia Tidewater
perspective) Delaware Valley of Pennsylvania
Appalachian Highlands
Greene 1984, 1988 Chesapeake: Virginia, Maryland, northern North
(North American Carolina,southern Delaware
perspective) New England: Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode
Island, New Hampshire, Nova Scotia
Atlantic and Caribbean Islands: Bermuda,
Bahamas, Barbados,Antigua, Nevis,
Montserrat, St. Kitts, Jamaica
Middle Colonies: New York, New Jersey,
Pennsylvania, northern Delaware
Lower South: southern North Carolina, South
_________________ Carolina, Georgia
Meinig 1986 Canada
(Atlantic World Greater New England (including Long Island)
perspective) Hudson Valley (including eastern New Jersey)
Greater Pennsylvania (including western
Jersey,
parts of Maryland and Virginia)
Greater Virginia (including Tidewater Virginia
and
parts of North Carolina)
Greater South Carolina (including Georgia,
parts
of North Carolina)
Tropical Islands
Lower Rio Grande
Florida,Louisiana, Texas
Mitchell 1978 southern New England
(U.S. perspective) southeastern Pennsylvania
western Chesapeake Tidewater
Carolina low country










with


expressed


purpose


establishing


orthodox


religious


community


based


on their


theological


belief


Old


Testament


"one


true


doctrine"


(Boorstin


1964


Greene


1988


Initially,


settlement


consisted


small


family


and


farmsteads


a number


organized


years


around


a communal


Puritans


were


meeting


able


house,


to maintain


their


"ideal"


religious


communities.


Beginning


1670s


as the


population


grew,


religious


conflicts


arose,


and


demand


New


England


fish


lumber


increased,


Puritan


communities


began


splinter


new


mercantile


centers


developed


port


cities,


such


Boston


and


Salem.


The


growth


these


urban


centers,


and


emergence


mercantile


class


gradually


led


more


secular,


individual,


and


material


orientation


than


that


originally


envisioned by


Puritans.


From


Puritan


point


view,


this


change


represented


"moral


and


social


decline"


breakdown


establishing


an orthodox


their original

religious communil


Puritan goals

ty (Greene 1988


Structural


Model


One


few


archaeological


considerations


evolution


British


colonial


culture


been


explained


terms


three


successive


stages


known as


"Medieval


" "Folk,










(Glassie


1968;1975),


were


first


used


explain


general


behavioral


characteristics


shared


colonists


Massachusetts


Bay


and


Plymouth


colonies


of rural


New


England.


The


"medieval"


or yeoman


tradition,


included


initial


reaction


colonization,


and


was


period


close


identification

conservatism,


with

cultural


England.


homogeneity,


was

and


characterized


corporate


communal


emphasis


both


secular


and non-secular


life


(Deetz


1977


:28-45)


contrast


"folk"


period,


which


coincided


with


middle


period


colonization,


was


characterized


time


increasing


regionalization


and


localism


coloni


diverged


from


their


European


parent


culture


(Deetz


1974


:22)


Archaeologically,


this


diversity


reflected


dining


etiquette


, mortuary


art,


and


internal


organization


space


Deetz


1977


,1987;


Deetz


and


Dethlefson


1978


Little


Shackel


1989


. This


emergence


Anglo-American


soc


iety


with


local


orientation


was


reinforced


part


a growing


number


individuals


born


in the


New


World.


The


third stage of


development


, the


"Georgian"


tradition,


been


called


of influence


a re-Anglicization


from


English


because


homeland.


resurgence


is marked


transition


from a


"corporate"


world


view to


a secular


one


that


emphasized


order


and


individuality.


this


particular










used


to denote


cognitive


rules


that


organize


material


world


(Deetz


1977


:67)


According


to this


tripartite


scheme,


British


system


carried


colonists


experienced


sudden


loss


complexity due


to the


colony'


isolation and weakened


economic


links


with


England.


Following


initial


adaptation


new


environmental


and


economic


conditions,


concomitant


with


increase


population


, settlements


expanded,


regional


identities


formed,


and


older


frontier


areas


began


replicate


national


culture


parent


country.


Like


declension model,


this


archaeologically


derived


model


also


exemplified


experiences


of the


settlers


Plymouth


and


Massachusetts


Bay


Colonies


New


England.


recent synthesis of archaeological


investigations at


Flowerdew


Hundred,


colonial


British


"plantation"


settlement


Virginia,


however,


suggests


that


this


model


can


be applied


other


regions


the


British


colonial


world


(Deetz


1993


also

middle


indicates

Period c


1987, 1993

viewed the


. The


period


of development


cognitive model


formation


colonial


relative


stability


Chesapeake


differed,

culture,


during


region


however,


(Deetz


in that


as breakdown


social


order,


but


movement


from


"traditional"


rural,


agricultural,


communal,


and


religious)


"modern"


. It












The


Developmental


Model


Like


Deetz


' structural


model,


"developmental"


mode


postulates


three


sequential


stages


development


Anglo-American


culture


social


simplification,


social


elaboration,


and social


replication


Greene and Pol


1984


:1-3


1988


:81-100)


Social


simplification,


characterized


period of


"disorientation and unsettledness"


took place during


initial


stages


of settlement


as the


colonists


attempted


adjust


to their


new


environment


Greene


1988


:167


. This


first


stage


represented


a simplified


version


of English


society


was


distinct


high


male


to femal


gender


ratio,


a high


death


rate


, weak


social


institutions,


and


"rough


economic


equality


among


free


people"


Greene


1988


:81)


late


more


1600s


elaborate


environment


, Chesapeake


settlers


Chesapeake


society


society


adapted


during


gradually


local


stage


became


soc


soc


elaboration has been described as


a "highly


creolized


variant"


of English society

neighborhoods formed


population


, opportunities


grew


new


more


land


dense,


ownership


diminished


, life expectancies


improved


and native-born whites


dominated


population


Greene


1988


:168


. Another


important


feature


this


period


was


growing


importance


of African











The


final


phase


development


Chesapeake,


social


replication,


was


characterized by


a strong desire


among


provincial


elites


replicate


power


shared


rural


English


gentry.


This


stage


was


not


harmonious


cons


and


iderable


less


conflict


affluent


existed between


members


the elites


population


who dominated


whom


acquisition


land


and


independence


was


not


always


possible.


Greene


suggests


that


other


regions


of British America,


notably


British


Caribbean


and


Middle


Colonies


New


Jersey,


New


York,


Pennsylvania,


and


Delaware,


underwent


similar


process


simplification,


elaboration,


and


replication,


that


specific


nature


and


timing


depended


demographic


situation,


economic growth


, territorial expansion,


date


settlement


Greene


1988


:81-100


The developmental


model


described above differs


from both


declension


and


structural


models


explanation


change


as a movement


towards


stability


and


materialist


interpretation.


It also


rejects


notion


that


colonial


New


England


represented


total


British


experience


Atlantic


World.


Rather,


transition


of New


England


soc


iety


from


corporate


community


one


that


emphasis


individuality may be atypical


when


compared


to the development


of British


colonial


culture


other


regions


the Americas.











economic


ventures.


such,


overall


"mindset"


these


colonies


during


their


initial


stage


settlement


been


described


secular,


materialistic,


exploitative,


individually


oriented


with


weak


sense


community


(Carr


1987;

Greene


Carr,

and


Morgan,

Pole 1


and Russo


.984;


1989


Rutman


Diamond


1971)


1967


Morever,


Greene


whereas


1988;

SNew


England


was


predominantly


settled by


family


group


in pursuit


religious


freedom,


Chesapeake


conformity


area,


with


, and


exc


orthodoxy


eption


, the


majority


Maryland,


was


establi


shed


as an economic


venture


with


young men,


family


groups,


comprising


dominant


percentage


colonial


population


(Greene


and


Pole


1984


This


development


distinction


of the


only


Chesapeake


influenced


region,


specific


also contributed


important


ways


regional


diversity


within


British


America.

provincial


The


formation


elite,


economic


regions,


and


demographic


emergence


diversification,


and


overall


movement


direction


of a "more


complex,


differentiated,


and


Old-World


style


society"


are


thus


seen


signs


of stability


(Greene


1988


:12-13


,167;


Tate


and


Ammerman


1979)


addition,


rather


than


relying


predominantly


cognitiv


interpretations


developmental


framework











response


environments,


different


demographic


motivations


compositions,


settlement,


and


natural


relationships


between


Europeans,


Indians,


and


Africans.


These


distinctions


are


most


evident


spatial


organization


newly


established


colonies


their


participation


emerging


global


economy,


and


their


reactions


multi-cultural


worlds


thrust


upon


them


colonization.


Models


Development


Spanish-America


The


dominated


study


more


Spanish


schemes


colonial


development


periodization


than


been


models


evolutionary development


Although influenced by Poster's work


(1960


, historians


colonial


Latin


America


have


tended


operate


much


more


particularistic


scale


than


historical


archaeologists,


who


tend


to be


more


concerned


with


general


patterns


human


behavior.


Latin


American


historians


have


also


couched


development


Spanish


America


somewhat


different


terms,


discussed


below


and


shown


Table


Most


identify


initial


years


colonization


period


"conquest"


and


agree


that


basic


phase


structure

remained


of

in


society


place


establi


throughout


shed

the


during t

colonial


:his


initial


era


Most


have


also


recognized


a middle


period


development


that was











Gibson


(1966)


three


phases


development


"conquest


"post


conquest


and


"established"


perhaps


follow


Foster


model


most


closely.


Like


Foster


, Gib


son


agrees


that


conquest


phase


which


encompassed


initial


years


exploration


and


settlement,


was


marked


"simplification"


Iberian culture as


the colonists


struggled


to meet


their


immediate


needs


. He


noted


tendency


Spani


sh-American


culture


to "crystalli


ze" early


and


conc


that


"the


middle


period


colonial


history


was


a period


very


slow


change"


(1966:135


MacLeod

emphasized e


"conquest


1973)


Economic


" "crisis


period


conditions


zation

, and


" "depression


" anc


Central


included

i "revival


four


America

phases:


first


or "conquest"


phase of


colonization


Ca.


1500-1578


was marked


extraction


of gold and


silver


and


"exploitation"


Native


American


labor.


Towards


end


century,


gold


and


silver


deposits


dwindled


, the


Native


population


declined


due


to epidemic


and


their


exportation


slaves


Cuba


and


Panama


, and


colonists


were


forced


to search


other marketable


products


. The


conquest


phase


, therefore


, was


followed


1580


period


-1630s


crisisi


coloni


and


experimentation"


ed unsuccessfully


to develop


first


cacao


and


then


indigo


export


crop


When


these











number


of Native Americans


MacLeod argues


that


these


economic


pressures


Spani


created


sh-owned


social


and


in the


economic

foothills


divi

and


sions


Indian


large,


communities


mountains)


that


continued


into


modern


times.


Lockhart


and Schwartz


1983)


separated


the development


Spanish

"conquest


colonial


and


society


"mature"


into


periods.


Like


major

Foster


periods


and Gibson,


the

they


asserted

establi


that


shed


during


basic

the


outlines

"conquest"


Spanish

initial


America

phase.


were

They


defined


this


phase


chronologically


beginning


with


Columbian


voyage


1492


and


ending


with


decline


Spain'


power


in the


Indies


ca.


1580.


Lockhart


and


Schwartz'


maintained


that


although


social


and


cultural


modifications


took


place


during


mature


period


(ca.


1580-1750),


"framework"


left


conquest


society


"remained.


" When


compared


with


initial


years


colonization,


mature


colony


repres


ented


time


"slow


evolution"


during


which


this


original


"framework"


became


progressively more


elaborate


and


locally


oriented.


evidence,


Lockhart


and


Schwartz


noted


steady


increase


in a creole


population,


growth


local


industries


such


obralies


and


haciendas,


and


continued


reliance


Native


American


labor,


although


reduced


scale


because c


their


rapid


decline


in number


rs.


estates











phase


Spanish


settlement


formative


period


"discovery"


and


"conquest"


(1492-


ca.


1560s),


but


labelled


second


phase


of settlement


as the


"post


conquest"


(ca.


1560s-


1700) .


In its


most


general


form,


McAli


ster' s


scheme,


like


others


outlined above,


portrayed


conquest


as a time during


which


colonial

controlled


underlying


society

economic


economic


emerged.

structure


and


These

based


social


included


on non-Iberian


foundations


centrally


sources


labor,


and


pattern


trade


whereby


Indies


produced


export


products


(primarily precious


metals


, hides


, cochineal,


sugar,


and


dyewoods


exchange


for


imported


European


manufactured


goods


and


luxury


items


, such


flour,


wine,


olive


oil,


weaponry,


hardware,


household


items,


and


clothing.


It also

headed


included


Spanish


fluid


but


colonists


hierarchical


and


based


social


structure


domination


Native


American


and


African


people


es.


These basic


forms


continued


post-conquest


period,


their style


was altered,


and


they


became more


diversified.


example,


pattern


trade


shifted


from


one


with


primary dependence

(more specifically


Seville


Mexico


and


City)


Spain


oriented


more


and


American


controlled


market


. In


addition,


social


structure


became


more


complex


as new


social


groups


, including


both native born


Spaniards











seventeenth


American


century,


societies,


these


[sic]


economies,


basic


and


forms


political


Hispanic


behavior


had


become


. firmly


fixed.


The


Cultural


Crystallization


frLQd.ei


From both


an anthropological


and historical


perspective,


first,


and


most


influential,


characterization


development


of Spanish-American


culture


was


offered by George


Foster


Conacuest


and


Culture


1960


this


important


monograph,


Foster


defined


initial


phase


Spanish


settlement


and


exploration


Atlantic


world


"conquest


culture.


The


concept


"conquest


culture"


entailed


existence


both


"donor"


and


"recipient"


group

channels


Each g

, those


roup


chooses,


cultural


through


elements


deemed


formal


and


essential


informal


coping


with


contact


situation.


Formal


"planned"


situations


include institutionally sanctioned and directed policies,


such


as the


Franciscan mission


program or


implementation


of the


gridded


town


plan.


These


types


change


were


in motion


and


directed


groups


in authority,


such


government,


church


or the military.


In contrast,


informal


change


took


place


individual


level


and


included


such


lifestyle


deci


sions


social


attitudes


, food


preferences,


folklore,










immediate


social,


environmental,


and


psychological


needs


first


group


Iberian


colonists


Foster


1960


:10-20


described


Foster,


initial


phase,


which


was


"relatively


short


and


highly


fluid


represented


formative period


in which


"the basic


answers


to new


conditions


life


had


to be


found,


and


rapid


adaptation


changed


conditions


blocking


was


colonial


imperative.


cultures"


This


(Foster


was


period


1960


:232


Following this


initial


period of


adaptation,


during which


the

new


basic


framework


societies


accept


new


became


elements


of colonial


more

from


society


was


"rigid


developed,


and


parent


less


culture"


these


prone


Foster


1960


:233


. This process


of stabilization


took place after


"the


first


several


decades"


and


was


referred


"cultural


crystallization"


(Foster


1960


:232-


234)


. By


beginning


middle


period,


(although


cultural


always


crystallization


labelled


such)


Foster's


thought


sense


have


occurred


most


parts


Spanish


America


(see


Table


Acculturation


Model


Archaeologists


interested


development


Spanish


colonial


culture


have


relied


Foster's


model


help


organize


their


research,


and


this


present


study










research


into


eighteenth-century


community


Augustine


revealed an admixture of


Iberian and Native American


cultural


elements.


More specifically,


Deagan demonstrated that


land


use,


spatial


organization,


architectural


style,


construction


techniques,


clothing,


tablewares,


and


other


highly visible


aspects


of the


material


world


remained


Spanish


style


and


form.


Elements


local


Native


American


culture were,


however,


incorporated


into


less visible


equally


important,


domestic


phere


of life,


such


food


preparation


technology


and


subsistence


practices


colonists.


This


mixing


Spanish


and


Native


American


traits


was


attributed


to the


intermarriage between Spanish men and Native


American


women,


practice


common


areas


Spani


America.


This


admixture


may


also


indicate


presence


Native


American


domestic


help


(Jerald


Milanich


personal


communication


1994)


. Native


Amern


can


women


probably


assumed


duties


and


responsibilities


childrearing,


cooking


and


home


maintenance,


and


their


influence


seen


use


Indian


cooking


vessels


and


cooking


methods.


This


adoption


Native


American


ceramics


been


regarded


important,


potentially


universal,


form


Spanish


adaptation


to the


Americas,


and


one


that


sharply


distinguished


this


adaptation










Except


Isabela


site


(1493-ca


.1498


where


Spanish


goods


dominated


(Deagan


and


Cruxent


1993


, thi


pattern


seen


subsequent


Spanish


colonial


sites


studied


to date


(Deagan


1973


1983


1985


. One


earli


these


Puerto


Real,


Spanish


city


modern


Haiti


founded


1504


, only


years


after


establishment


Isabela


admixture


(Ewen


have


1991;


also


Deagan


been


1988


noted


, 1994


for


. Similar


patterns


sixteenth


century


community


Augustine


(Deagan


1985


Reitz


and


Scarry


1985


at the


sixteenth


century


town


of Nueva


Cadiz


modern


Venezuela


Willis


1976


and


the Moquegua


Valley


southern


Peru


(Smith


1991


. These


studi


demonstrated


immediacy


Spanish


adjustments


new


lands


, and


indicated


cultural


continuity


between


various


regions


Spani


colonial


world.


and


The


eighteen


similarities

ith centuries


between


also


sixteenth,


suggested


that


seventee


after


nth,


an initial


and


rapid


transformation,


Spanish


colonial


culture


cry


stalli


zed


early


and


remained


relatively


unchanged


period


years


The


model


British


and


Spanish


cultural


development


discussed


study


s chapter


of colonial


Archaeological


research


underscore


cultural


in Briti


striking


traditions


colonial


contrast


areas.


America










perspective,


Spanish


colonial


models,


however,


are based on an


incomplete


understanding


that


period


between


initial


adaptation


to a new


social


, political


and physical


environment


and


established


pertain


this


society.


middle


The


archaeological


period


Spanish


studies


colonies


that


King


1981


,1984;


Reitz


1993


have


been


preliminary


nature


local


orientation.


Therefore,


evaluate


using


nature


Augustine


cultural


, Florida,


development


this


during


study will


middle


period


Spanish


America


, and


compare


to what


known


similar


processes


British-American


colonies


same


period.


Specifically,


will


question


whether


process


local


and


regional


elaboration


that


characterized


middle


phase


British


cultural


development


evident


archaeological


record


comparable


period


Spanish


colonies.


The


next


chapter


provides


historical


and


soc


context


within


which


developments


middle


period


Augustine


unfolded.

















CHAPTER


THE


"MIDDLE


PERIOD"


IN ST


. AUGUSTINE


The


Augustine


chronological


obviously


boundaries


cannot


of the


defined


middle


precisely.


period


However,


can


suggested


that


period


contact


and


colonization


was


well


over


closing


decades


of the


sixteenth


century


(ca.


1580),


and


that


a well


-established


colonial


society with


an identity


America


distinct


existed


from


1700.


that


The


other


historical


colonies


events


Spanish


(Table


social


organization


assessing


middle


this


period


period


provide


development,


context


and


interpreting


archaeological


data


that


will


be presented


subsequent


chapters.


order


provide


"sense


place


this


discussion


first


presents


an overview


of the


physical


setting


St. Augustine


parameters


general


SFollowing


those


(Chapter


this


, it


discussed


facilitate


is organized


Atlantic


comparisons


same


world


between










Table


Chronology
La Florida


Key


Events


Seventeenth-Century


to St
Guale


1597
1599
1602


1605:


1606
1612


1614-1617:


1627:

1633:

1638:
1647:
1649-1659:

1653:
1655:
1656:


1659
1668

1670
1672
1674


1675:

1677:


1680:
1 fil"


. Augustine.
revolt.


and f
onduc
. Aug
n de
copal
Sant
e San


Three epidemics
Hurricane struc
Florida subsidy
Augustine coast
Dutch corsair P
Indies with sub
Franciscan miss
province.
Major storm hit
Revolt in Apala
Yellow fever, a
reported in mis
Maize crop dest
Smallpox epidem
Timucuan Rebell
San Luis de Tal
Measles epidemi
British pirate
Augustine and k
British establi
Construction of
Hurricane and f
Gabriel Diaz Va
Governor Salaza
experimental wh
Wooden fort des
Salazar.
Lack of funds si
Marcos.
Abandonment of
Rnrtl i cl- rn4 rvrat-


des
to
ine.
Cab
sit
lena
anci


k


troyed
decide


St. Augustine.
whether or not


ezas Altamirano conducted
to St. Augustine.
de La Florida formed.
sco designated a province


killed 1/2 of Ind
St. Augustine.
lost in shipwreck


.
iet
sidy
ions


St.
chee


.nd small
sions.
royed by


ic struck La
ion in Potano
imali establi
c struck La F
Robert Searle
illed 60 colo
shed "Charles
the Castillo


Blood leveled
ra Calder6n
r Vallecilla
eat farm in


troyed

:opped

Guale


i-h ra ~ -an on


ian p

off

Fleet


pox


windstorm.


St. Augustine; E
visited Florida;
began
Apalachee.


Pablo


Castillo


Timucua


in, in f 4 a


1573
1587


Franciscan
Santa Elena


mission effort
abandoned and


began.
colonial


capital


moved


Hurricane
Hearings
abandon S
Bishop Ju
first epi
Custody o
Convento
house.


population.

St.


Heyn captured
for Florida.
expanded into


Apalachee


Augustine.
province.


epidemics


and


famine


Florida.
and Utina
shed.
lorida.
s attacked
nists.
Towne".
de San Mar


provinces;


St.


t


)egan.
bishop



Hita


de San


by

wor)

and


Governor

c on the

raids on


)
)


L











The


Physical


Setting


Aucustine


Little


known about


layout


of the


first


townsite


Augustine,


except


that


Pedro


Men@ndez


Aviles


established


fortification


village


Seloy,


Saturiwa


this


Timucuan


initial


cacique.


settlement


Although


uncertain,


exact


recent


location


excavations


Fountain


Youth


Park


Site


suggest


that


original


landing


and


settlement


were


located


within


cinity


this


park


(Chaney


1987


:14-15


Gordon


1992


. Fire


, floods


, and


Indian


rebellions


necessitated


rebuilding


fort


several


times


during


first


years


settlement.


exact


locations


these


various


forts


remain


uncertain


, but


most

of th


scholars a

e original


gree

site


that


they were


Chatelain


rebuilt


1941


:54-56;


within


Connor


1925


cinity

; Lyon


1983


. This


initial


phase


experimentation


closed


sometime


around


1570


when


town


was


relocated


a more


permanent


location,


which


today


situated


south


modern


plaza


(Figure


Archaeological


and historical


research indicates that


ca.


1570


town


Augustine


was


organized


according


grid


system


conformity


1563


official


Spanish


ordinances


town


plans


Deagan


1982


:182-191


, 1985


:13;


nTT-c C -- f^* A* l-


*


*


-^
























1 /
Matanzas Bay / /
/ /7'


/ /


16th Century town


17th Century town expansion


Figure


Colonial


Augustine,


1764


Adapted


from


Elixio


de la


Puente


I










archaeological


investigations


(Deagan


1982


:192,


Deagan


1981


:626


-633,


1983


:183-206;


Deagan,


Bostwick,


and


Denton


1976;


Hoffman


1977)


, St.


Augustine


consisted


a nine


block


area


individual


houses


spaced


approximately


to 15


feet


apart


along


street


front


(Figure


These


blocks


were


divided


into


equal


lots


that


measured


approximately


44 by


feet


Spanish


pies)


Detached


kitchens


and


individual


garden


plots


were


located


rear


houses


Circular


trashpits


and


barrel


wells


fairly


uniform size


and location


were


also


situated behind


living


quart


ers


near


kitchens.


church,


and


possibly


other


public buildings


formed


northern boundary


of the


town,


and


a hexagonal


fort


was


situated


a short


distance


to the


north


townsite


(Deagan


1981,


1982;,


Hoffman


1977)


. Neither


Boazio


map


nor


archaeological


evidence


indicate


presence


of a central


town


nlaza


(Deagan


1982


:184-191


Only


three


visual


representations


seventeenth-


century


town


are


known


to exist,


fanciful


engravings


a map


showing


general


location


Augustine


within


Florida


The


quite


imaginative,


and


most


likely


inaccurate


engravings,


date


1671


and


1683


respectively,


and


portray


Augustine


quaint


coastal


community


set


against


mountainous


backdrop


Figures


and


. The


anonymous


map,



























-* ir -^ ^


* -


-S


-w -


a- xi
-


-* -


-" a


-I


-. -. t '-. *%, -
* -
'3 -.
-' 0
-,
-
4.' -
-
S
Vt>
-7 -


.- -I m
-*** -


- --
-


*
- -- 7~..
-
C -
.5 -


- a
- -


*;.' -
~
* -
- sia-


~.- -
-


- -^ a -


-I S




4^

C


p.


'A,


.4 '-4
-'S
-t
--"C.

.9.' -t %~


p


- -^ -


- -s


- ~ -~


Figure


Boazio


Engraving,


1586


(Courtesy


Augustine


Historical


Societ


- 9










* It ~
.tr1Tr~


~1,


Figure


Engraving
Montanus.


Historical


of St. Augustine,


1671.


From


The


ca. 1671


Unknown


Woric


Society)


"Pagus
d, 1673


Hispanorum
, Courtesy


Florida"


Augu


































































S .. ... .... ..- -


- ~2S ,~ -- - -




* -




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-


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-
~.


- ##


-
- -


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- a-~~-~~ -- -~= .a






a- ~ -.- - -~= --4- -
-* -~- -~z---~~ -~=a .
- -- *- -
-

- --- --
-- - -
-
~ --


- - -* -
-
-~ ----r----l-------- -


*- --aa-~~~* -
-a--


. ss-. ** -:


---*

- -,Ia---- t- -
-a
..


'I


- ~- -w


- -t -


ai


m


-


i











depiction


town


Augustine


(see


Chatelain


1941:


Appendix)


town


. Information


therefore


regarding


spatial


dependent


evolution


contemporary


verbal


descriptions


Although


and


the physical


research


seventeenth-century


has


town


evidence of a

specifically


plan,


preliminary


archaeological


focused


historical


data.

the

Sand


archaeological


investigations


into


nature


seventeenth-


century


spatial


organization


indicate


that


basic


gridded


pattern established during the


late


sixteenth century remained


same,


today


and


in modern St


fact,


original


Augustine


(Deagan


grid


plan


1982


is still


Bushnell


evident


1983


:33)


Changes


did


occur


during


1600s,


result


several


natural


transformed


not


disasters


the


appear


and


physical


have


population

appearance


altered


expansions.


These


Augustine,


previously


events

Lt they


established


underlying


structural


organization


or configuration.


In 1599,


a hurricane


and


fire


destroyed


many


sections


settlement.


Accounts


rebuilding


Governor M&ndez


Canzo


indicate


that


additional


lots


were


laid


to the


south


original


townsite


and


that


a plaza,


which


measured


feet


feet,


was


marked


to the


north


town.


The


rebuilt


town


consisted


approximately


blocks


with


wooden


houses


with


cypress


plank


walls


and


palm-thatched










north


edge


colonial


town


(Arnade


1959


Bushnell


1981


:46,


1983


new


hospital,


Nuestra


Sefora


Soledad,


with


six


beds


administered


sick,


and


new


bridge


crossed


cran mosauitero"


- the


swamp


at the


western


edge


town.


Despite


Augustine


this


rebuilding,


during the mid


1600s


cultural


did not


differ


landscape


appreciably


St.

from


that


which


existed


on the


eve


seventeenth


century.


Augustine


was


still


small


and


isolated


Dresidio


with


approximately


wooden


houses


wooden


fort


with


"rott


timber


" dirt


streets with


free


roaming animals


, a remodel


parish


church


with


a tile


roof


, a small


hospital,


a Franciscan


monastery


at the


far northern


end


town,


a plaza,


and


rse-


powered


mill


grind


corn.


Arnade


1959


:9-10;


Boniface


1971


:71-73;


Chatelain


1941


Manucy


1978


:18)


Towards


changes


transformations


established


end


built


still


during


1600s,


environment


did


late


other


took


alter


sixteenth


century


more


place,


basic


substantial


these


pattern


Archaeological


investigations


revealed


evidence


late


seventeenth-


century

townsite

monastery


occupation


and


located


that extended

including the


south


vicinity


southeastern


the

the


edge


original


Franciscan


town


(Arnade











wattle


and


daub


more


permanent


wood


and


tabby


with


some


coquina.


Some buildings became larger and architecturally more


detailed,


and


activity


areas


expanded


(Herron


1979;


Hoffman


1990


Several


late seventeenth-century accounts describe


houses


and


buildings


"wood


with


board


walls"


(Chatelain


1941


:129


Dickinson


1696


:84;


Manucy


1978


Wenhold


1936


Tabby


used


foundations


which


would


have


been


sible


casual


visitor,


was


also


part


architectural


history


seventeenth-century


Augustine


(Chatelain


1941


:129)


. Coquina


was


yet


widespread


end


century


, it


was


slowly


becoming


more


common.


Augustine had been


threatened and attacked by pirates


seve


times


during


seventeenth


century.


The


1668


midnight


raid


a British


pirate


named


Robert


Searles,


raids


against


Carolinians


Port


Royal,


and


fear


retaliation


spurred


construction


secure


and


sturdy


coquina


fort


, and


construction


Castillo


de San


Marcos


began


1672


(Arana


and


Arana


1972:51


Arana


and


Manucy


1977:12-13;

the Castillo


Manucy

was by


1978

far


:20;

the


Wright


most


1959


impress


:135-144)

ve example


Although


coquina


construction,


other


coquina


buildings


did


exist


As indicated


correspondence


Governor


Rebolledo


1655


and Bi


shop


Calder6n


in 1674, the


governor'


s house


may


have been,


at least











best


estimate


private


coquina


construction


1708


inventory


houses


destroyed


during


James


Moore


raid


1702.


According


this


inventory,


total


houses


existed

these r


Augustine


reported houses


were


1702


privately


and


owned


almost


coquina


structures


with


value


addition


to its


least


use


1000


in buildings


pesos


, coquina


(Arana


was


1969


also


:30)


used


1690s


to construct


a seawall


that


extended


from


Castillo


south


town


plaza


(Boniface


1971


:70)


Despite


these


physical


alterations,


basic


gridded


layout


Augustine


did


change,


and


locations,


orientations,


and functions of


specific public buildings


, such


as the


church,


Convento


San


Francisco


and


Castillo


Marcos,


spatial


remained


organization


settlement


time


unchanged


established


great


. The


fundamental


during


change


and


initial


pattern


years


experimentation


stabilized,


also


began


grow


into


a more


elaborate


form.

grander


A similar

scale,


monasteries,


process


occurred


and


of amplification,


throughout


government


although


Latin America


buildings


grew


on a much


as churches,

architectural


splendor but


retained


their original


locations


, functions,


basic


structures


(Lockhart


and


Schwartz


1983


:127










The


Economic


Organization


Community


Throughout


existence


Spanish


presidio,


Augustine


relied


on the


situado,


an annual


subsidy provided by


Crown


Spain


that


was


intended


cover


such


governmental


construction


expenses


fortifications


administrative


and


salaries,


support


garrison.


The


situado


was


created


a royal


c.dula


1570


provide


financial


support


Florida


because


vital


strategic


role


defense


panic


shipping


lanes


between


the Americas


and


Europe


(Gibson


1966


:183


-185;


Hoffman


1980


:146;


McAlister


1984


:310


. Initially,


situado was paid


from


Panama/Nombre


Dios


treasury


(Hoffman


1980


:146)


Beginning


1574,


payments


came


from


Vera


Cruz


treasury,


and


1595,


Mexico


City


had


assumed


responsibility


Florida


situado


(Sluiter


1985


The


amount


paid


Augustine


from


Mexico


City


Treasury


depended on


number


of plazas


or positions


held by


garrison,


and


took


form


wages


and


supply


Bushnell


1981;


Hoffman 1980


:146


, Sluiter


1985


The


supplies


needed


to sustain


town


were


purchased


an agent


governor,


collect


called


subsidy


a situadi


. Upon


who


arrival


travelled


, the


to New


agent


Spain


presented


or ~ r oman r


F 1 Cg~ nr~ A *-v* F, n r-'.- --- -~ -


n iar a e^


r ^--











ships


bound


Havana.


From


Cuba,


money


and


supplies


were


transhipped

officials d


to St.


Listribut


Augustine

:ed them


where

among


the

the


governor

garrison


and

and


treasury


family


TePaske


were


1964


protected


:77)


and


Those


goods


stored


immediately


Royal


distributed


warehouse


fort


Augustine


(TePaske


1964


-78)


Throughout


seventeenth


century


hard


specie


was


scarce


St. Augustine


consequently,


wages


were


often


paid


imported


goods,


obsolete


items


wage


certificates


that


declined


value


Bushnell


Changes


1981


in the


:68)


situado


Several


important


changes


occurred


within


situado


early


years


seventeenth


century


that


financially


benefitted


Augustine


and


La Florida


. Two


new


cedulas


were


issued


that


Dresidio


increased

e first c


amount


:6dula


money


issued


1617


received


addressed


problem


financial


compensation


spoiled


goods


mermas


Prior


to the


1617


dula,


sses


due


to spoilage


goods


warehouses


or enroute


to St


Augustine


were


deducted


from


Florida


subsidy


The new ruling


eliminated


this


practice,


and


ordered


Mexico


City


reimburse


Florida


resultant


losses.


A second


law


, issue


1624


, altered


method


used


.


F --


w w











subsidy


was


changed


more


accurately


reflect


actual


daily


record


of plaza


holders


garrison.


Another


ruling


that


indirectly


affected


amount


subsidy


paid


Augustine


included


creation


separate


subsidy


support


Franciscan


mission


program.


Beginning


1616,


Franciscans


received


separate


religious


subsidy,


that


issued


to each


friar


same


pay


rations


(158


nesos.


received


soldier


garrison.


This


was


supplemented


with


additional


provisions,


such


wine


1985


as gifts


needed


:6)


Table


Indians


perform


5 shows


cloth,


their


amount


shoes,


religious


subsidy


maize


duties


, oil


Sluiter


received by


both


Franciscans


Franciscan


and


subsidy


Secular


began,


community


through


from


1651,


1616,


last


year


year


which


figures


are


currently


available.


number


missionaries


increased


during


1600s,


number


of friars


paid


from


subsidy


was


limited


forty


three,


and


separate


fund


was


created


1646


cover


additional


missionaries.


1673,


support


Franciscans


shifted


to this


separate


fund.


This mission subsidy benefitted


community


Augustine


by making more


money


available


increase


substantial


size


coquina


garrison


fort,


and


Castillo de


to construct


San Marcos


a more


Bushnell











Table


Comparative


List


of Subsidy


Payments


Received by


Franciscan and Secular Communities


from


Sluiter


in St


Augustine


1617


-1651


1985)


Year Received Religious Secular Total
1617 6.619 63.026 69.645.00
1618 2.675 62.688 65.363.00
1619 7.793 62.749 70.542.00
1620 3.542 65.133 68.675.00
1621 3.052 63.995 67,047.00
1622 2.623 66.915 _________69.538.00
1623 4.390 62.823 67.213.00_______
1624 3,963 65.783 _________69.746.00
1625 5.678 53.003 58.681.00
1626 5.089 66.971 72.060.00
1627 5.,090 66. 971 72,061.00
1628 5.118 69,899 75.017.00
1629 3.766 68.679 72.445.00
1630 3.507 42.759 46.266.00
1631 2.730 99.367 102.097.00
1632 3.264 66.306 69.570.00
1633 0.00
1634 0.00
1635 74,409 74.409.00
1636 1.692 64.389 66.081.00
1637- 0.00
1638 65,124 65.124.00
1639 1.458 32.455 33.913.00
1640 9.476 13.500 22.976.00
1641 1.287 20.325 21.612.00
1642 49,755 49.755.00
1643 45.627 45,627.00
1644 2.422 65.124 67.546.00
1645 73.747 73.747.00
1646 3,353 56.274 59.627.00
1647 .0___________000
1648 0.00










communities


subsidy


exists


payments


latter


irregular


half


1600s,


times,


presumably


continued


throughout


remainder


century.


Problems


with


the


situado


beginning


seventeenth


century


, situado


payments


to Florida


fluctuated because


fiscal


difficulties


Mexico


City.


The


treasury


only


had


to meet


their


new


subsidy


responsibilities,


but


also


had


pay


outstanding


debts


that


Vera


Cruz


Treasury


had


been


unable


meet


because


war


and attacks


on the


flota


system


These


overdue


debts


leveled


around


1616


trade


and


mining


activities


brought


a new


prosperity


to Mexico


City.


According


to Engel


Sluiter'


records


actual


subsidy


payments


Florida,


situado


payment


was


received


fairly


regularly


until


1630s


(Sluiter


1985


:Table


. With


two


exceptions


- the


1626


subs


idy


that


was


lost


shipwreck


coast


Augustine


and


was


not


paid


until


1629,


and


capture


1628


treasure


fleet


carrying


Florida


subsidy


Piet


Heyn


Dutch


West


Indies


Company


situado


arrived


regularly


during


early


years


1600s.


The


amounts


fluctuate


d somewhat,


but


subsidy


was


paid


one


lump


sum


sometime


April


or May


(Sluiter


1985


:Table










Mexico


City


Treasury


started


fall


into


arrears.


For


example,


payment


granted


Augustine


1637


was


paid


in seven


separate


payments


between


February


1639


and


August


of 1646


. The


1638


situado


was


paid


to St.


Augustine


three


1639


different


, in January


payments


of 1641,


three


and


separate


in August


dates


of 1649


May


No records


payment s


made


to St.


Augustine


have


been


found


for


years


1646-1650


continued


, suggesting


through


that


least


irregular


1651


payments


(Sluiter


subs


1985:Table


These


delays


situado


often


forced


governor


Augustine


to obtain


loans,


and


to look


elsewhere


food


and supplies,

power of the


usually


situadista


Cuba.

and r


This


resulted


weakened


both


the bargaining

high interest


rates


on the


money


borrowed


and


high


prices


goods


bought


credit.


Consequently,


when


subsidy


finally


arrived,


most


available


specie,


which


was


scarce


to begin


with,


went


pay


debts


and


interest


to merchants


Havana


(TePaske


1964


:78)


. The unreliable nature of


situado during


these


contract


years


also


system


influenced


whereby


individual


emergence


merchants


private


Augustine


obtained


permission


to bypass


situado


and


trade


directly


with


Havana,


Campeche


, Spain,


and


Canary


Islands.


These


merchants


often


used


their


houses


warehouse


sell











cotton


cloth,


linen,


serge,


silk


ribbons,


stockings,


wooden


buttons,


shoes,


saltpork,


maize,


flour


, cassava,


olive


oil,


wine,


wax,


hemp


, nails


, and


tobacco.


Private


merchants


also


acquired and


sold munitions,


such as


arquebuses


, spears,


molds


making


cannons,


290)


shot,


match


. Other


lead


cord,


ways


sheets,


and

which


copper


cannon

the


for


balls


officials


ladles


used


(Gillaspie


and


to load


1984


people


:286-

: St.


Augustine


dealt


with


irregular


arrival


situado


obtained


goods


included


use


illegal


trade


networks


development


economic


enterprises


within


colony.


. Aucustine'


Inter-Colonial


Economy


Trade


during


between


seventeenth


various


century


European


due


colonies


piracy,


increased


profiteering,


and


Spain'


dwindling


power


Atlantic


world.


Augustine,


example,


Spanish


goods


dominate


sixteenth


early


seventeenth-century


archaeological


inventories,


late


1600s,


frequency


non-Spanish


goods


entering


colony


increased


owing


Spain'


unwillingness


inability


to meet


consumer


demands


and


attempts


other


European


powers


break


Spain's


economic


monopoly


Deagan


1983


:22-23


King


1984


:77-78


. Not


of this


trade


was


legal,


and


historical


record


documents


existence


-- v










augment


government


supplies


and


to evade


royal


restrictions


trade


both


British


and


Spanish


colonies


(Ewen


1991


Lockhart


and


Schwartz


1983


:153;


Schmidt


and


Mrozowski


1988


:32) ,


and


seventeenth-century


Augustine


was


certainly


no exception.


Dutch


traders


from


New


York


often


entered


Matanzas


Bay


under


pretense


of distress,


carrying


prisoners


or news


imminent


pirate


attacks


, to


sell


goods


townspeople


(Arana


1970


:10;


Bushnell


1981


:10)


. There


are


also


reports


circumventing


foreign trade restrictions by


sending


vessels


sea


to purchase


much


needed


military


and


naval


supplies


, suc


artillery,


ammunition,


canvas,


and


cables


(Bushnell


1981


:10)


. In 1683


, the Governor


himself


, Juan Marquez


Cabrera,


waived


ban


trade


with


foreign


merchants


and


traded


produce


saltpork,


Dutch


gunpowder,


merchant


ironpots,


exchange


and


guns,


grindstones.


flour,


This


transaction


took


place


at the


Castillo,


which


was


techni


cally


outside


the boundaries


of the


city proper


(Arana


1970


:19)


Another

interesting


incident


example


illegal


of colonial


trade,


resistance


and


to royal


rather

control,


took


place


1690s


and


involved


King


Spain,


Governor,


Royal


Accountant


in St.


Augustine


and


Martin


River


(known


today


as the


Suwanee),


a major


artery










Charles


ordered


Governor


Quiroga


seal


port


San


Martin.


1693,


Quiroga


constructed


a palisade


pine


logs


and


brush


which


floods


soon


after


washed


away.


When


King

order


ordered t

claiming


hat


rebuilt,


that


because


was


Governor


planting


appealed


season


Native American villages


insufficient


labor existed


(Boniface


1971


:207-208


Despite


documented


existence


smuggling,


archaeologists


Augustine


have


not


yet


been


able


identify


many


items


associated


with


this


type


of trade


beyond


occasional


piece


British,


Dutch,


French


pottery.


Undoubtedly,


this


archaeological


absence


record


contraband


related


material


types


items


obtained


through


illegal


trade


networks.


Gunpowder,


cloth,


flour,


hides,

saline


and

soils


wooden

of St.


objects


simply


Augustine.


It is


not

also


preserve

possible


well

that


contraband weapons


, ammunition,


and raw materials


such


as iron


and


lead


have


been


recognized


such


. And,


also


plausible


that


types


sites


excavated


Augustine,


predominantly


private


domestic


households,


simply


would


contain

likely


large


amounts


associated


with


of contrabax

commercial


material.


or military


may


sites


more


. Whatever


the reasons


, the lack


readily


identifiable


contraband


items











importance


integrating


archaeological


and


historical


data.


Economic


Diversification


St. Aucustine


As mentioned


, the


unreliabi


nature


situado


in mid


century


means


forced


the official


provisioning.


Augustine


result,


new


to explore


forms


other


economic


activity


developed,


but


these


enterprises


were


based


structures


that


were


already


place,


existing


systems


were


used


to implement


these


new


programs


. One


way


which


officials


attempted


remedy


. Augustine


periodic


establi


food


farms


shortages


and


and


cattle


provide

ranches.


an export


The


product


existing


was


Franciscan


mission


system


was


used


open


new


lands


for


agricultural


pursuits


and


provide


Indian


labor


needed


operate


these


businesses


successfully.


1633


, two


Franciscans


pushed west


and formally began


the missionization


of Apalachee


province


Hann


1988


, 1990


:469


Haciendas


The


largest


and


better


known


these


haciendas


included


la Chua


cattli


ranch and an


experimental


wheat


farm


called


-- 4 -


m











Asile


, supposedly


located


east


Aucilla


River


on the


Apalachee-Timucua


border


Hann


1988


:30)


, was


started


Governor


Benito


Ruiz


de Salazar


Vallecilla


, and


operated


five


years


1645


-1650


before


was


dismantled


and


sold


. The


property


inventory for Asile


indicated a


large-scale operation


that


included


six


square


leagues


wheat


fields


, several


buildings,


granaries,


two


slave


eight


horses


and


mules


plows


, and


eleven


yokes


oxen


(Bushnell


1981


:81)


Other


haciendas


also


existed,


but


less


s known


about


their


scal


suggested


specific


that


as many


operations


as 37 ranches


. Although


existed


been


provinces


Timucua


and


Apalachee


Baker


1993


:82;


Boniface


1971


:140


exact


number


haciendas


and


their


locations


are


uncertain.


In addition,


the


extent


cattli


industry


Florida


has


not


been


thoroughly


explored


from


either


economic


spatial


perspective


. By


end


century,


however


, it


known


that


least


four


main


clusters


ranches


or farms


existed


(Arnade


1965


Hann


1988


:137)


. They


included


at least


seven


ranches


Chua


, la Rosa


Diablo,


Acuitasiaue,


Abosava,


Chicharro,


and


Tocoruz)


modern


Alachua


County near Gainesville;


approximately


nine


ranche


including


Asile,


westernmost


Timucua


and


Apalachee


with


Tallahassee


as the


focal


point


; an


unknown


number


east


of the











has


been


assumed


that


these


ranches


represented


important


source


beef,


possibly


produce


community


Augustine.


The


historical


record


indicated


that


cattle


ranch


Chua


and


smaller


haciendas


near


Augustine,


missions


Apalachee,


provided


Augustine


with


bulk


produce


and


cattle


product


needs


(Boniface


1971


: 145;


Bushnell


1983


:10-12;


Hann


1988


:137)


The


extent


to which


outlying


farms


and


ranches


supplied


people


Augustine


remains


poorly


understood,


and


should


investigated


further.


However,


preliminary


zooarchaeological


research


suggests


that


little


beef


actually


reached


Augustine


during


seventeenth


century


(Reitz


1993a,


1993b


Intra-colonial


trade


Evidence


some


trade


between


Apalachee


and


Augustine


exists


, but


appears


to have


operated


on a rather


small

the w


scale.


western


There


were


provinces


least


and


three


Augustin<


trade

e over


routes

which


between

Native


American


laborers


carried


goods


on their


backs


and


canoes.


These


routes


included


an overland


road,


known


Camino


Real;


sea


route


used


heavy


and


bulky


items


and


combined


sea


and


land


route


originating


Wakulla


River,











There has been little


research on


trade between Apalachee


and


Augustine,


but


trade


between


areas


certainly


existed.


1646,


frigate


from


Apalachee


arrived


Augustine


with


supplies,


and


1650s


, Governor


Pedro


Benedit


Horruytiner,


noted


arrival


Augustine


four


five


shiploads


"foodstuffs"


from


Apalachee


(Hann


1988


:152)


. It


also


known


that


1680,


Enrique


Primo


Rivera


vestments,


obtained


and


contract


royal


for


transporting


stipend


friars


clothing


from


Augustine


to western


Timucuan


and


Apalachee


(Hann


1988


:151


The most


detailed account


measures


corn,


occurred


1703


measures


when Apalachee


beans,


two


sent


hogs


chickens,


eight


arrobas


tallow


and


eight


deerskins


to St.


Augustine


(Boyd,


Smith


and


Griffin


1951


:46-47)


growing


body


historical


and


zooarchaeological


data


suggests


that


majority


of livestock


and


crops


raised


and


grown


in Apalachee


may


never


have


reached


Augustine


(Hann


1988


:152;


Reitz


1993a)


There


more


evidence


development


export


trade


main


products


being


beef,


hides


, tallow,


corn,


rum,


and


possibly,


wheat


between


Apalachee


and


Havana,


Cuba,


that


bypassed


Augustine


(Bushnell


1983;,


Hann


1988;,


Reitz


1993a,


1993b)


. The


rise


trade


between


Apalachee


and


Havana


expense


, 32










Zooarchaeological


data


also


suggest


existence


extensive


Florida


trade


and


network


mission


between


missions


headquarters


throughout


. Augustine


that


excluded


secular


community


Reitz


1993a)


Other


Economic


Activities


noted


, cattle


ranches


, farms


, mi


ssions


, private


contract


systems,


and


seemingly


lively


export


trade


developed


during


latter years


of the


seventeenth


century.


other


economic


enterpri


ses


, which


have


not


been


fully


explored


and


which


certainly


played


an important


role


in the


community


between


, also


Native


existed.


Americans


Despite


and


royal


Spanish


restrictions


colonists


, trade


did


There


was


a market


in the


olaza


to which


Indian


women


brought


pottery


, baskets


, painted


wooden


trays,


deer


and


buffalo


pelts


dried


turkey


meat,


lard,


salt


pork


rope,


fishnets,


charcoal


, leather,


tobacco


, fish


, game


, and


maize


to sell


trade


with


Americans


townspeople


also


traded


Bushnell


sassafras,


1981


amber


:11)


, canoes


The


, bear


Nati


grease,


and


nut


in exchange


European


weapons,


tools


, nail


cloth,


blankets


, beads


, and


rum


Bushnell


1981


Coquina


deposits


on Anastasia


Island


, worked


Nati


American


and


African


quarrymen


, were


used


construct