How charms work

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Title:
How charms work a pragmatic approach to Old, Middle, and Modern English charms
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viii, 162 leaves : ; 29 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Cook, Leilani C
Publication Date:

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Subjects / Keywords:
Linguistics thesis, Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Linguistics -- UF
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bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1995.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 149-161).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Leilani C. Cook.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
Vita.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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aleph - 002060407
oclc - 33884454
notis - AKP8487
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Full Text











HOW CHARMS WORK:
OLD, MIDDLE, AND


A PRAGMATIC APPROACH TO
MODERN ENGLISH CHARMS


LEILANI


COOK


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
nr mnr DPnTTTRPMrAT.C; FfP THE raPfREE OF


































Copyright


Leilani


1995


Cook
































Dedicated


to the


memory


parents


Maria


Dora


Barbara
Junquera


Teresa


Nagle


Palacios


de la Creach


Robert


Cook














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


I would


like


thank


the


members


committee,


Diana


Boxer


, Dr


. Allan


Burns,


SPatricia


Craddock


, and


. Kevin


McCarthy


, for


their


patience,


insights,


and


editorial


This


expertise


valuable


when


assistance


was


was


writing


culmination


dissertation.


years


instruction


and


unwavering


support


on their


part,


and


that


wish


thank


them


most


of all


would


like


thank


chair


. Marie


Nelson


, and


my cochair,


Dr. Roger


Thompson,


extensive


intellectual


provided.


, emotional


, and


I asked


editorial


them


: to


support


teachers


they


, critics


taskmasters


, and


mentors


, and


this


they


did,


and


more.


They


taught


me how


to do


best


, and


that


wish


thank


them


most


of all
















TABLE


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


OF CONTENTS


. . . IV


ABSTRACT


CHAPTERS


ONE


INTRODUCTION


. a. .S* 1


Overview .
The Componen
Definition o
Definition o
Binding and
Notes .


S S S S
ts of Charms
f Magic .
f Charms .
Banishing Ch


* . . 1
rms . 2
* . . 2


TWO


ANGLO-SAXON


BANISHING


AND


BINDING


Overview


Bani
Bani
Bani
in
Bind
Bind
Conec
Note


ng
ng


J

[
J


the Wen . .
Sorcery from the Land .
Sorrow and Binding Strength


* . 28
. . 34


Anglo-Saxon Birthing Charm . 4
the Bees . . . . 4
Treasure in Beowulf . . 5
ion . . . . 6
. . . . . 6


THREE


BANISHING


AND


BINDING


IN MIDDLE


ENGLISH


. 65


Overview


S. . . . 65


ng
ng
ng
Th
On
Bi
sso


e Function
Nightspell


ger
lep
Ni
es


on a Journey
v and the Fever


tmare
the


Scene


If to Hearth an
His Victims in
tions in Mak's
of Performance


t
ti


d Hom
a Nic
Nights
in Mal


* . 6
* 6
* . 7
he Crime 7
e . 8
ghtspell 8
spell . 8
c's


S. . . . 87


CiA


* . 26


. . . . 426


!

L


ar








FOUR


MODERN


BANISHING


AND


BINDING


CHARMS


. . 95


Overview


. . . . . 95


Low-
A Du
High
Low-
Dual
High
The
Hi


Intensity
al-Inten
-Intensi
Intensity
-Intensi
-Intensi
Dynamic
ah-Inten


Notes .
Notes ..


y
si


Banishing Charms .
ty Banishing Charm
Banishing Charms


ndin
indi
indi
siti
Bin


Charms .
Charms
Charms
of Two
ng Charm


* .
* . .
* . .


Modern
s .


FIVE


CONCLUSION


Summary
Limitat
Direct
Closing
Notes


ions of
ons For
Remarks


the Research
Further Resear


*ch a *
* a a S S a a
ch S S


REFERENCES


BIOGRAPHICAL


SKETCH















Abstract


of Di


:he University
Requirements I


ssertation


of Florida


degree


Presented


in Partial
e of Doctor


Graduate


School


Fulfillment of
Sof Philosophy


HOW


OLD


CHARMS


WORK


MIDDLE


AND


: A PRAGMATIC


MODERN


APPROACH


ENGLISH


CHARMS


Leilani

August


Cook


1995


Chair:


Marie


Nel


son


Cochair:


Roger


Thompson


Major


Department


: Program


in Lingui


Analysis


of charms


involved


disciplines


anthropology


, metaphysics


folklore


, and


literary


studies.


Taking


an interdisc


iplinary


approach


order


to benefit


from


the


varied


insights


found


in earlier


work


with


charms,


dissertation


gives


attention


to charms


that


have


basic


purpo


ses


binding


bani


shing


Selecting


Old,


Middl


, and


Modern


English


charms


discu


sslon


terms


their


components


dissertation


gives


thought,

attention


word,

to the


deed


ways


this


charm


performers


have


used


language


to accomplish


their


particular


purposes.


The


analysis


of sound


patterning


discusses


the


ways


which


rhythm


, rhyme,


sound


symbolism


empower


charms


on a


phonetic


level


Hypermetricality


other


metrical








associations


of alliteration,


vowel


harmony,


repetition,


and


-rhyme


are


defined


, and


ways


in which


they


strengthen


charms


are


enumerated.


necess


ity,


a diachronic


perspective


informs


discussion


of how


surface


parameters


of sound


patterning


devi


ces


have


shifted


as the


language


has


evolved.


Aspects


the


physical


performance


of charms


are


explored


along


sociolingui


stic


lines.


The


elements


magical


performance


are


identified


as writing


, manner


verbal


delivery


, incorporation


of significant


objects


and


accompanying


phys


ical


action.


The


functions


of magical


performance


the


magical


are


then


, to


presented


inform


as threefold


reinform)


: to


accomplish


partic


ipants


traditional


schemas,


and,


process


, to reinforce


cultural


values.


Finally


reciprocity


of oppositional


performances


proceeding


culture


from


ascendant


is addressed.


The


descendant


dynamic


paradigms


in opposing


within


magical


performances


is defined,


illustrated


examples


within


our


modern


culture,


an argument


ultimately


beneficial


effect


upon


culture


upon


both


ascendant


and


descendant


paradigms


made.















CHAPTER


ONE


INTRODUCTION


Overview


Charms


are


carefully


crafted


, formulaic


utterances


used


to alter


the


charm


performer'


reality


drawing


upon


powers


perceived


as supernatural.


Although


charms


have


been


collected,


anthologized


, translated,


explained


and


historically


contextualized,


scant


information


about


the


semantic


, phonological,


performance


aspects


which


combine


currently


empower

available


charms

. That


in the

which


eyes

does


their


exist


users


is scattered


across


the


disciplines


of folklore


, anthropology,


literature,


history


, and


metaphysics.


The


purpose


sser


station


is to apply


an interdi


sciplinary


approach


analyze


linguistic


components


which


have


made


charms


widely


used


genre


of magical


language


the


past


present.


The


Components


Charms


The


phrase


"thought


, word,


deed


" which


signifies


.La -- -- n ...


4.. 4-1~4n


.,,,~


_ _ 1 _


~ ~-U~I.


L_








(thought)


(word


power


elements


sounds


of physical


words


performance


themselves


(deed)


which

thus


signify

enhance


complete


dedi


strength


cation


the


to a magical


magical


language


premise


of charms.


In Lancuaqe


Mind


(197


linguist


and


philosopher


Noam


Chomsky


tells


us that


At the
language


crude
e ass


way; to have
principle, t


signal
115)


with


st


level


ociates
command


of description


sound


o understand
an intended


ana meaning
language is


what


semantic


said


we may


that


in a particular
to be able, in
and produce a


interpretation


. (p


Based


on the


work


pragmatics


Green


(1989),


(197


and


Gumper z


(198


1982


we can


posit


that


have


command


of magical


language


also


requires


correct


interpretation


execution


intent


. Therefore


, this


discus


sion


will


address


how


magical


intent


the


charm


performer


is clarified


enriched


through


use


semanti


resonance


,speech


acts


, and


syntactic


manipulation.


With


the


pronunciation


words


of charms,


intent


translated


into


magical


action


(Sokolova


, 1992


Reichard


1944)


way


. The

in wh


i


upcoming d

ch rhythm,


discussion


rhyme


will


also


sound


inquire


symbolism


into

are


the

used


conjure


additional


strength


charm


performer'


magical


act.


Along


with


an inquiry


into


elements


"thought"


"word,


" this


ssertation


also


address


element


L








academic


fields


means


different


things


to different


disciplines.


Theoretical


linguist


Noam


Chomsky


(1965)


distinguished


between


innate


knowledge


of native


speakers


(competence)


what


they


actually


produce


and


understand


linguistic


exchange


(performance).


This


not


the


sense


in which


word


"performance"


will


be used


the


upcoming


discussion,


although


clearly,


Chomsky'


ideas


have


had


an impact


on the


analysis


of physical


performance


of certain


language


genres


in cultural


context


see


Briggs,


1988).


In his


work


on speech


acts,


philosopher


Austin


(1962)


used


the


word


performativee"


to describe


verbs


which


could


be evaluated


traditional


true/false


truth


conditions


which


rather


accomplished


an action


saying


word.


Along


with


other


elements


of magical


intent;


i.e.,


semantic


resonance


syntactic


manipulation,


speech


acts


are


discussed


this


text,


term


performativee


verb"


appears


in that


context.


Although


Austin'


subsequent


work


in speech


acts


contributes


much


toward


understanding


of magical


language,


term


performativee


verb"


is not


to be confused


with


concept


of physical


performance


in cultural


context--what


this


discussion


Here


is treated


word


as the


"deed"


"performance"


component


derives


of charms.


meaning


from


*.. I A


*


.5


-


i


*


_ -. 1^ -. _


__








characterize


performance


verbal


within


a culture.


Other


formula


genres


of supra-communicative


language


such


as myth,


folktales


, proverb


S --


even


jokes


--have


been


analyze


d under


aegis


of ethnopoetics


(Glassie


, 1982;


Gossen


, 1973;


Sherzer


, 1983;


Briggs


, 1988),


and


the


insights


gained


other


quarters


will


be applied


now


the


analyst


performance


performan

elements


of charms


addressed


considered


necessary


The


aspects


discussion

to perform


of magical


are

the


the


magical


deed,


then


functions


magical


performance


within


cultural


context,


finally,


dynamic


opposition


magical


performances


within


culture.


Based


upon


sights


of anthropologists


1 and


magic


ians


themsel


ves


, this


discu


ssion


identifies


the


elements


phys


ical


performance


in magic


as the


following:


writing


or inscribing


magical


language,


verbal


delivery,


use


of magically


significant


objects


accompanying


physical


actions.


Grounding


itself


work


done


sociolinguists


Dell


Hymes


(1981


, 1986)


Charl


Briggs


(1988),


discussion


also


addr


esses


functions


of magical


performance.


In hi


book


Competence


in Performance


(1988)


Briggs


documented


Lenten


traditions


of Mexican


Americans


the Southwest


. Drawing


upon


work


of sociolingui


- -


* 'S J .


a


I .k


1


kI








performance


is taking


place.


In his


book


In Vain


Tried


Tell


(1981)


Dell


Hymes


argued


that


there


is a


reciprocity


between


tradition


performance,


and


that


through


performance


, a community


informed


traditions.


that


Briggs


tradition


formulaic


speech


expounded


carriers


"become


on that


are


concept,


performing


a sounding


board


maintaining


genres


a chorus


innumerable


voices


" (p.l)


While


imparting


knowledge


tradition


to others


performers


are


external


zing,


"reali


zing"


their


underlying


cultural


traditional


knowledge


. 81)


. Dell


Hymes


had


spoken


Cassirer


length


about


, a refugee


from


theory


Nazi


Germany


the

who


philosopher


Ernst


struggled,


only


in hi


writings


life,


against


the


chasms


created

proposed


war


that


intellectual


consciousness


isolationism.


itself


entailed


Cassirer


connectedness


. the


'you'


st only


insofar


as they


exist


'for


each


other,


' only


insofar


as they


stand


functional


relation


of being


reciprocally


conditioned"


(1961,


107) .


speech


art,


" Cassirer


wrote,


"the


individuals


only


share


what


they


already


possess;


only


virtue


sharing


process


in speech


that


individual


have


attained


what


thev


possess"


(italics


mine


113)


Thus


functions


of performance


are


- A t


I A -


~t


t


*


A I_








inform-


-and


reinform--participants


of shared


cultural


schema


, and


thereby


to reinforce


cultural


values


Finally,


concepts


proc


feeding


from


such


unlikely


allies


as metaphys


scientific


historiography


are


used


argue


a dynamic


opposition


of magical


performances


within


culture.


In magical


parlance


the


idea


that


opposites


interact


through


their


polarity


often


called


"The


Union


of Opposites"


(Bonewits,


19707


Pennick,


1992


In scientific


historiography,


references


are


"ascendant


descendant


paradigms"


and


cynosuress"


(Hymes


1974;


Koerner


, 1976,


1982


Kuhn,


1970).


The


way


which


magical


engage


performances


in reciprocal


from


apparently


empowerment


opposing

enjoy a


paradigms


dynamic


relationship


their


opposition


the


final


aspect


performance


addressed


this


discussion.


Thi


dissertation


, then,


draws


on the


insights


scholars


who


have


worked


very


diverse


fields


proceeds


Chapter


examines


how


magic


general


charms


in particular


have


been


defined


literature


the


above-mentioned


definition


these


fields


terms


presents


ensuing


a working


discussion.


then


proposes


ass


ification


of charms


based


upon


their


adherence


being


to basic


types


magical


: those


precepts


seeking


and


pre


to bind


sents


des


them


irabl


elements


.1. -- 9 t 1


- ft J *


I~


I 1








Chapter


Two


focuses


on the


banishing


and


binding


intents


five


Anglo


-Saxon


charms


, and


doing


so gives


particular


attention


use


of homophones


similar-


sounding


words


with


reference


to a phenomenon


called


"semantic


semanti


resonance


of Cruse


Here


(1986),


draw


Hill


upon


(1985)


the

and


work


Lehrer


lexical


(1974)


Chapter


Two


also


calls


upon


the


theory


"speech


acts"


developed


Austin


(196


, Furberg


(1971)


Holdcroft


(1978)


Searle


(1969,


1979),


Vanderveken


(1990)


and


gives


brief


attention


to rhythm


as defined


Chickering


(1989)


Mitchell


Robinson


(1992)


, Rodrigues


(1993)


Storms


(1975);


rhyme


as defined


Creed


(1964)


and


Pope


(1981) ;


sound


symbolism


as defined


Jacobson


(1960)


Nelson


(1978)


, and


Yolen


(1981)


Chapter


Two


discusses


performan

elements


or "deed"


of physical


component


performance


of charms

in magical


in terms

action


mentioned


above.


The


treatment


verbal


magic


of Middle


English


charms


in Chapter


Three


involves


cussion


the


topic


"semantic


fields


," or lexical


meaning


relations


(Akmajian


1993


. 203)


Drawing


upon


recent


work


lexical


semantics


Schiffer


present


Grandy


(1988)


knowl


edge


(1987),


chapter


Lehrer


gives


of word-meaning


Lehrer


attention


connections


(1982)


way


may


and


our


have


-1- 1 J


-, -~-~----2---


- r -_- -


- a a a ~ -








traditional


performance


elements


discussed


Chapter


Two


endured


Middle


English


charms


then


proceeds


discussion


functions


of magical


performance


defined


above.


Chapter


Four


discusses


components


"thought


"word


" and


"deed"


relation


to Modern


English


charms


devices


of semantic


resonance


, speech


acts


and


lexical


meaning


relations


conjunction


with


sound


patterning


devices


are


shown


to continue


empower


modern


charms


Chapter


Four


then


offers


a brief


explanation


of how


syntactic


structures


can


have


a semantic


impact


on magical


language.


In doing


refers


to "syndetic


parataxis"


defined


Mitchell


Robinson


their


introductory


Old


English


text


(1992)


The


"deed"


component


of banishing


and


binding


charms


scussed


Chapter


Four


in terms


interaction


of ascendant


descendant


performance


paradigms


Finally

identifying


, Chapter


Five


implications


concludes


the


dissertation


research


while


address


limitations.


In doing


it also


suggests


possible


directions


further


inquiry.


Charms


are


nursery


rhymes,


snatches


of gnomic


wisdom,


or poems


, although


they


often


appear


those


ses


Rather


, they


are


overtly


magical


utterances


most


-.- -I - a


-, a .4.


I..1' An*


Llrn: u


A


nllru


-- A -- A .


wlr


L..








used


to make


magic,


first


task


here


is to


give


attention


to how


magic


been


defined


general


literature


fields


investigation


sted


above


then


to provide


a workable


definition


of magic


purposes


this


discussion.


Definition


of Maqic


Historian


Michael


Edwardes


cautions


us that


"Magic


dangerous


word"


(1977


. 1).


"Until


very


recently,


" he


states


, "hi


storians


who


bothered


cons


ider


magic


at all


could


be divided


roughly


into


schools--the


weak


stomached


embarrassed


is because,


traditionally


, magic


has been


defined


only


historians


but


anthropologists


, literary


scholars


, and


folklori


as a "primitive"


practice


containing


characteristic


which


rendered


substantively


different


from


religion.


is well


to remember


that


Latin


root


"dangerous


word"


derived


from


Persian,


which


referred


to a Medean


priest


the


state


sanctioned


religion.


In the


second


century


, Roman


writer


Apuleius


of Madaura


reminded


readers


If what
namely
what is


I read


large


that "magician"
there criminal


numbers


is the


being


Pers


a prie


authors


word


st and


true,


r pries
having


knowl


edge


sacrifice


science
duties


and
and


skill
the


--Apologia


in ceremonial


binding


rules


law,
of religion?


ADolocria


,. -- -- -


-. a


I .









Romans


were


unfamiliar


, while


word


"religion"


referred


their


own


spiritual


practices


which


the


general


populace


under


tood


approved.


In his


etymological


foray,


Apuleius


attempts


to illustrate


that


practi


ces


which


culture


contemptuously


referred


to as "magic,


were


consensually


revered


as "religion"


another


culture.


When


Catholicism


Western

called


was


Europe


"magi


c" while


widely


spiritual

those sa


accepted


spiritual


practices


nctioned


paradigm


Romans


Church


were


of Rome


were


called


"religion


And


again


when


the


Protestant


Reformation


swept


the


continent,


spiritual


practi


ces


Catholi


were


called


"magic


" and


"Popi


sh sorcery"


those


church


reformers


who


saw


their


own


spiritual


practi


ces


"religion.


more


recent


scholarship


, the


use


the


words


"magic"


"religion"


to refer


to unfamiliar


familiar


spiritual


practi


ces


res


pectively


endured


, and


delineation


naturally


entailed


a certain


denigration


that


which


unfamiliar


Some


anthropologi


like


Robert


Lowie


(1936),


have


seen


magic


as a primitive


type


religion,


while


certain


literary


scholars


portray


magic


atavi


, regressive


, irrational


or obsolete


(Taylor,


1979


Many


anthropologists


have


described


magic


as naive


logically


untenable


(Fra


zier


1922


Levi


-Strauss


, 1949)


Tn 1-1 -1 I _- --


- ^ 1 _


I-I_ I1 _I I- _


I-L -


1


IA


1


* *


1_


1,,








"folk beliefs"


(Aarne,


1961;


Brunvand,


1962;


Creighton,


1968;


Randolph,


1947).


the early part of


this century


, much research


magic was done


in societies considered by the researchers


themselves


to be less culturally


evolved than


their


own


(Buck,


1936;


Evans-Pritchard,


1929;


Levi-Straus,


1949;


Malinowski,


1926,


1935)


this may have contributed


notion that magic


is practiced by people whose cultures are


substantially


less complex or sophisticated


than


ours.


The


continuing


study


of magic


in third world societies


today


(Nutini,


1993)


could reinforce that notion.


Seeing magic as


something practiced by primitive,


"different"


people has naturally encouraged


tendency to


theorize about how the spiritual


practices of


these


"other"


people differed from our


own.


Many scholars who


have


addressed


issue of how magic differs


from religion


(Hall,


1990;


Idigoras,


1991)


have concluded


that magic


(practiced by primitive


"others")


imperious while


religion


(practiced by


our own


"civilized"


culture)


propitiatory.


Anthropologist Sir


James


Frazier saw magic as


imperious


(and


imperative)


and religion as


suppliant and


propitiatory.


This


led him to assert that religion was


therefore more advanced,


it entailed


the sophisticated


awareness that humans are actually powerless


to control


- *ir .


I --


* i. *! _


__________








Godfrid Storms


(1975) ,


whose collection


of Old English


charms will


be relied upon


Chapter Two


held a


similar


view.


Storms


believed


that


"The magician


inclined


regard his own powers as


equal


to those of


the gods,


so that


we frequently


see


an opposition between magic and religion"


This


view has


been more recently


expressed by


historian


Valerie Flint


(1991) ,


who articulates


the


distinction between magic and religion as


follows:


Religion,


then,


best perhaps demands of


practitioners a disposition rather different


from


that


required by magic at it
sense requires reverenc
be open and to please,


s mightiest.


Religion


an inclination


in this


to trust,


and be pleased by powers


superior


in every way to humankind;


subordinate and


to command


magic may wish


these powers.


Anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski's cultural


orientation propelled him to attempt


to delineate


differences


between magic and religion,


although his direct


observations


field showed more


similarities


than


differences


between


them


(Shack,


1985)


Religion and magic


were both,


in Malinowski'


cultural


schema,


within


the arena


sacred as opposed


to the


profane


(to which he


consigns


science,


it has no spiritual


component


in the


twentieth century).


Both were used to confront


the


terrors


and dangers


life


, but he saw magic as


intellectually


circumscribed and


ultimately pragmatic;


1.e.,


geared


toward


a future goal


, while religion encompassed moral


- - - -a n a. a a n a


34)


I r


1 -








I


A


* ^_ ^ .- -t -








illustrate


difficulty


maintaining


these


boundary


Of religion


Religious
valuable
tradition
confidence
prospect


faith


mental
, harmo
e in th


of death


establi


shes


attitudes,
ny with en
e struggle


, fixes


such


, and


enhances


as reverence


vironment,


with


courage


difficulties


for
and
and


. (p.


while


says


magic


It enable


important
integrity
unrequited


magic


man


tasks,
in fit


love


carry out
to maintain


anger,


of de


spair


to ritualize


man'


with
his


in the


confidence


poise


and


throes


anxiety
optimism


mental


of hate,


The


function


to enhance


faith
expre


in the


sses


victory
greater


of hope
value


over


fear


man


Magic


of confidence


over


doubt,


over


of steadfastness


ssimism


(italics


over


vacillation,


mine


, 1948,


of optimism


. 70)


Another


proposed


difference


between


magic


and


religion


that


religion


is beneficent


while


magic


malevolent


see


Marett,


1914;


Mauss


, 1972


and


Preuss


, 1914)


Although


attitude


has


strongest


proponents


outside


academic


this


arena,

effect


occasionally


their


scholars


discussions


betray


of related


their


opinions


issues


(see


Harri


, 1980).


One


stinction


between


magic


religion


which


received


while


intermittent


magic


attention


is hidden


that


occult,


religion


or that


is open


religion


democratic


while


magic


requires


spec


ialized


practitioners


Malinowski'


field-work


among


Trobrianders


Pacific


Archipelago


made


clear


that


these


distinct


tions


* t a a a Li .4S -a-.-:- ----2--


- C1 4


1- -1 -- --


- I i -- -


T 9 A


4


t.lAH CI








Malinowski


summariz


ed in


Young,


1988,


56-61


and


Malinowski,


1935)


In hi


recent


contribution


field,


Daniel


. Shaw


(1993)


confirmed


democratic


access


ible


nature


magic


as used


inhabitants


Papua


New


Guinea.


Just


as Shaw'


work


in anthropology


disproved


that


the


difference


between


religion


magic


one


access


ibility


community


, scholars


' contributions


other


fields


have


likewi


weakened


distinction.


literary


studi


Linda


Woodbridge


(1994)


called


into


question


the


postulate


that


magic


religion


differ


their


degree


of accessibility


community


when


acknowledged


widespread


zabethans


dominated


from


specialized


belief


classifying


practitioners


practice


magic


of magic


as a secret


, Woodbridge


sees


widespread


culturally


accepted


phenomenon


that


was


both


under


tood


and


respected,


she asserts


that


"the


boundary


between


religion


magic


always


been


fluid"


In recent


years


scholars


have


also


called


into


estion


other


distinctions


between


magic


religion


which


have


propose


ess


been


postulated.


pejorative


Folklorists


terms


magic


have


begun


al practice


(Dundes,


1961;


M.O


. Jones,


1967)


the "negative


connotations


unsophi


stication


ignorance"


which


these


terms


impli


A *~-------------------- -~ a t


. 32)


4 AC\


1


^ -


L . ..








those


subjects


stinction


versus


between


malevolence


they


religion


called


into


studied.


Her


magic


question


objection


as one

the n


of benevolence


olarity


civili


zed"


religion


over


"primitive"'


magic.


maintained


that


"high


ethical


content


is not


prerogative


'evolved'


religions"


(1966,


. 19).


Literary


historian


Barbara


Howard


Traister


(1984)


recogni


that


malevolence/benevolence


dichotomy


can


an artificial


construction,


which


illustrated


with


her


description


of seventeenth-


century


magus


Tommaso


Campanella,


who


saw


celebration


of "divine


magic"


as a gift


from


Chri


stian


god


who


approved


righteous


practice


of natural


magic.


Historians


have


also


begun


to question


the


legitimacy


premise


that


magic


is imperious


while


religion


propitiatory


two.


magic


of faith


, and


What


storian

in the


that


Frazier


Michael

capacity


therein


lies


identified


Edwardes


man.


difference


as the


(1977)


between


"imperiousness


calls


Literary


" of


"a statement


scholar


Richard


Kieckhefer


(1989)


asserts


that


from


being


readily


identifiable


their


users


imperious


or propitiatory


charms


prayers


were


often


indi


stinguishable


their


users


in the Middle


Ages.


leads


the


deduction


that


fact


, religion


were


identifiably
-- -I a S


propitiatory


i


L


L


I


1~...--~.-' _.__.


1 *








Finally,


Malinowski'


suggestion


that


the


difference


between


former

been q


magic


religion


as oppose


questioned


Isaac


practical


abstract

Bonewits


goal


who


goal


latter


holds


only


academic


degree


magic


granted


a university


modern


times


B.A


. in


magic


from


University


of California.


He states


a Catholic


drought
sorcerer
unrest,


prie


performing
performing


thus


using


t saying
magic or
a spell
non-phys


a mass


religion?
to damn a


ical


means


rain


How


during


about


In enemy
for a


to eternal
practical


end;


isn't


be made


separations


could


that


religion?


sometimes


are


through


must


so poorly


them.


Though


be made


cons
(1970


tructed


separations


can


Malinowski'


that


a hippogriff


. 32)


Although


historians


, anthropologists


folklori


and


literary


analysts


have


as yet


reached


a consensus


in the


definition


word


"magic


" magical


practitioners


theorists


themselves


display


surprising


agreement


about


what


magic


is--and


is not.


Writers


metaphysics


, who


actually


view


magical


paradigm


from


an insider'


perspective,


not


distinguish


between


magic


religion,


except


, perhaps


matter


of hierarchical


structure


, which


could


viewed


to exist


to a greater


extent


in the


latter


Rather


they


hold


that


magic


is of


ancient


provenance,


exists


universally


times


cultures


, and


been


essential


element


of all


religions


(Bonewits


, 1970;


Butler,


1949;


Cavendish,


1977;


Gleadow


,1976;


Guiley


, 1989).








through


nonphysical


means


Although


performers


of charms


acknowledge


role


that


human


will


plays


in magic


(Butler,


1949;


Crowley,


1940)


they


do not,


therefore,


conce


that


element


can


distinguish


magic


from


religion,


since


they


view


consc


ious


attempts


integration


within


a supernatural


paradigm


implying


will


the


individual


to do


(Gleadow,


1976).


Many


claims,


then


have


been


made


about


differences


between


the


meanings


words


"religion"


and


"magic


but


their


usage


seems


to be founded


ess


on any


universal


truth


than


on a possibly


unacknowledged


cultural


bias.


observation


is supported


work


of anthropologist


t Alan


Dundes


(1968)


who


pointed


how


cultural


privileging


insidiously


"affect


formation


of supposedly


ective


analytical


categories"


. 418).


Dundes


illustrated


how,


while


scholars


scienti


often


believe


they


can


see


"objective


scienti


reality


and


culture


scholars


-free


present


terms


as bona


" often


fide


"what


analytical


categories


are


fact


ethnocentric


extensions


their


own


native


categories"


. 418)


Since


the


task


at hand


a descriptive


analyst


lingui


stic


elements


which


serve


empower


charms


in the


minds


attempts


their


users


to avoid


, the discussion


as much


as po


to be presented


ssible


ere


ethnocentric


a t fnf -


rWh irie


/"i/"^^SC t^T


r^C s+- rf-r/-- ^


v^ ^4- ^r


-- AI


T.-TV


I


f- p 1 '








character


zation


savagery


, ignorance,


or malevolence


magical


paradigm


nor


on the


performers


of charms


purposes


scussion


, magic


is defined


as a spiritual


orientation


which


seeks


to affect


aspects


material


world


drawing


upon


power


perceived


supernatural


respect


nature


larger


Cavendish


This


belief


requires


, ultimately


orientation


forces


a willingness


uncontrollable


describes


inherently


unknown,


to participate


schema.


a desire


informed


an integrative


in a


As Richard


to be


included


"the


right


order


things"


(1977,


Having


defined


magic


, then,


next


task


to provide


a workable


definition


of charms.


Definition


of Charms


Charms


are


formulaic


utterances


which


translate


specific


magical


intent


into


reality


through


prescribed


articulation


phys


ical


performance


strategies


The


fact


that


charms


are


formulaic


utterances


is supported


Olsan


(199


who


reminds


us that


our


word


charm


comes


from


the Latin


word


carmen,


which


Oxford


Latin


Dictionary


defines


"a solemn


ritual


utterance


, usually


sung


chanted


in a metrical


form.


That


-*1


charms h
- _1-- .-


ave


a specific


_ .!-------------


magical


- m t


intent


. L-


has been
n2 r.. .3/*








results,


such


as getting


a cow


of a bog"


Anclo


-Saxon


Macic


(1975)


Storms


gives


a more


scholarly


corroboration


of just


how


specific


practical


charms


can


There


are


charms


to control


shivering


fits


(no.


a lame


horse


. 46


, p.


284)


, stop


a swine


herd


from


dwindling


(no.


. 254


-255)


, and


prevent


theft


(nos.


11-15


, pp.


-217)


While


magical


intent


many


charms


is to address


specific


physical


or emotional


goal


Thus


, the


there


goal


are


many


charms


others


to churn


spiritual


butter


, stop


hiccups,


of rats


; but


there


are


also


charms


win


love


, exact


revenge,


block


curses


, and


draw


good


luck.


Whether


their


application


physical


or spiritual


, charms


are


most


commonly


used


ordinary


people


to addr


ess


the


concerns


their


daily


lives


food,


health


, well


-being


and


love.


Support


assertion


that


charms


translate


intent


into


reality


through


prescribed


articulation


phys


ical


performance


strategies


comes


from


diverse


avenues.


generally


accepted


that


articulation


of charms


involves


strategies


which


imbue


them


with


supra


-communicative


quality


es.


Oxford


Latin


Dictionary


tell


that


charm


often


delivered


like


a song;


intoned


chanted


, rec


ited


, that


, it


possesses


aural


- - L ._


-- -a-


a


* a 1B


78),


-


q








ordinary


speech,


they


incorporate


elements


of physical


performance.


Storms


(1975)


points


component


and


maintains


that


incantation


without


some


performance


element


almost


never


seen


in magical


practice.


He supports


point


with


observations


that


there


is a striking


conformity


of magical


gestures


around


world


which


may


well


because


history


of nonverbal


acts


of magic


longer


than


that


of verbal


acts


Popular


usage


occasionally


applies


word


charm


written,


rather


than


spoken


magical


language


Thus


magical


formula


inscribed


Similarly


language


over


written


a barn


, magically


either


on paper


door


potent


written


worn


is often


phys


or oral


ical

, are


around


called


objects

also r


neck,


a "charm


devoid


referred


charms.

discussion

classify


attention


Although

n employs


such


only


that


usage


a more


objects


as they


accepted


precise


"amulets"


are


terminolog


many,

y and


or "talismans


used


this

will


" giving


practice


them


verbal


magic.


Although


more


unusual,


the


performance


of actions


without


accompanying


formulaic


language


is sometimes


referred


as a


"charm


In fact


we still


see


people


throw


salt


over


their


shoulders


, knock


on wood,


make


sign


cross


, and,


more


recently


, the


anti


-vampire


sign


- -' A- -- - -I -A--- .- -A-I-------------I- A- I-


. 32)


* -


A


LI


_ .. *


L1


La_ t








physical


actions only


in terms of


their relationship


prescribed acts of


magical


utterance.


Although


every


charm does


incorporate


intentional,


aural,

degree


and physical


performance components


the charms selected


for discussion


to the same

in this


linguistic analysis display


a magical


intent which


verbalized

of physical


will


formulaic


performance.


language and accompanied by


In other words,


focus on charms which draw upon


elements


this dissertation

three components of


thought,


word


and deed


to bind


or banish


elements


performer's reality.


Bindincr and Banishinq Charms


Charms vary


in the degree of


completeness of


the


elements of


thought


, word,


deed as well


their use


of magically


significant objects.


They


also differ widely


length and,


Conceivably,


course,


in surface application.


of these differences could be


used


classify


charms,


for this


discussion


propose a


classification system based upon the


intent of


the charm


performer


it conforms


to the basic precepts of


magic.


The most


famous magical


precept


is the


Law of


Sympathy


also often


called the Law of


Association.


James


Frazier


articulated this


in his exhaustive work


on magical


-I-- ~ S.' ~ fl ---21 '2- -- 1- A.. -


B ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ -- -


^ 4j-^f^ ^


I_ *








The


Association


holds


that


things


can


powerfully


connected


in surprising


way


and


that


finding


making


connection


, we acquire


power


Modern


chaos

assert


theory

s that


also

there


illustrates


are


connections


aw of Association

between seemingly


when

alien


elements,


that


these


connections


, if


they


could


only


per


ceived,


would


show


order


rather


than


chaos


in our


world


design.


Binding


charms


which


seek


to make


or enhance


the


possible


and


sometimes


surprise


connections


between


elements


of Assoc


our


nation.


world


Charms


, proceed


which


directly


seek


from


to bind


the


elements


magical


in our


world


can


vary


intensity,


their


intent


to bind


can


of a phys


ical


or a spiritual


nature


A butter


churning


charm


to obtain


butter


from


clabber


a binding


charm


with


a concrete


phys


ical


intent,


intensity


because


it seeks


to reinforce


a physical


connection


which


already


exists


To wit,


an actual


churn


is working


toward


same


on the


phys


ical


plane.


simple


essing


which


seeks


to bind


divine


energy


well


-being


to a named


recipient

it seeks

performer


also


to enhance


world,


a binding

e an assoc

although


charm


national


intensity


pattern


a spiritual


in the c

1 rather


because


harm


than


phys


ical


intent.


1 -- a--- -


_r__ _* _


. 22)


A __ 1_ -- -1


A


nl








in the


of stealing


(like


charm


from


the


Second


Shepherds'


Plav


to be di


scussed


Chapter


Three),


or to


prevent


a murderer


from


leaving


scene


the


crime


(like


Gainesville


charm


of Chapter


Four)


are


binding


charms


high


intensity


These


charms


seek


translate


serious


magical


intent


into


physical


reality


of ambitious


proportions


and


to create


connections


between


elements


the


charm


performer'


world.


The

connected


magical


Law


surprl


of Association


sing


ways,


holds

also


that


things


contains


the


are

idea


opposing


elements


being


connected


through


their


polarity


Polariti


, because


they


are


connected,


each


contain


something


essence


other


within


their


own


essence.


polarities,


connection


germinal


which


exis


essence


ts between


opposite


contained


within,


which


grants


charmer


power


to prevent


or sever


unwant


ed connections


concept


is often


expressed


magical


sublaw


called


"Union


of Opposites"


(Adler,


1986;


Bonewits


, 1971;


Pennick,


1992;


Zolar


, 1970)


but


which


prefer


to call


"Dynamic


of Opposition"


because


expresses


notion


that


opposites


are


connected


and


fourth


ermore,


that


their


connection,


oppo


sites


share


dynamic


reciprocity


Some


charms


, then,


rely


upon


the


notion


Dynamic


of Opposition


to banish


unwanted


__





r I -


i








prevent


disease


or using


poisons


in minute


doses


to effect


cures.


Charms


which


seek


to banish


elements


from


the


performer'


reality


can


also


have


either


a physical


or a


spiritual


goal,


they


vary


in intensity


as well


. Some


banishing


charms


have


a passive


, rather


than


an active


quality.


They


seek


to keep


negative


elements


away


from


the


charmer,


"bounce


them


off"


like


time-honored


schoolyard


charm:


Plavyround


Protection


Charm


rubber


you're


glue.


Whatever
And


bounces


sticks


you.


A protective


charm


against


"flying


venom"


(the


plague)


is a


bani


shing


charm


with


a concrete


phys


ical


goal,


and


inte


nsity


an element


because


but


only


it does


prevent


seek


from


to actively


entering


cast


A protective


charm


against


"the


night


mare"


(terrifying


evil


spirits


who


stalk


at night)


is al


intensity


since


seeks


banish


keeping


rather


than


casting


out,


here


goal


is not


phy


sical.


Rather,


it is spiritual--to


prevent


an attack


on the


soul


during


vulnerability


of sleep


Of high


intensity


are


banishing


charms


which


actively


seek


within


cas

the


t out a

reality


n element


once


charm


performer.


isinuated

These


itself

high-


- -


1


*


* *


I


I








concrete


physical


goal,


while


a charm


to cast


out


demons


has


a spiritual


goal.


Just


as the


magical


Law


Association


and


sublaw


the


Dynamic


binding


practice

intents

chapter


of Opposition


bani


with


shing


can


elements


contained


will


illustrate.


are


inextricably


interconnected


of bot

same

Let


binding


charm,

us turn


as the

now t


interwoven,


in magical


banishing

following


o a discussion


how


components


thought


, word


, and


deed


collaborate


reali


the


binding


banishing


intents


of Anglo


-Saxon


charm


performers.


Notes


1.See


Barbara


Tedlock'


doctoral


dissertation


: Quiche


Mava


Divination:
Microfilms


A Theory


Of Practice


Ann


Arbor


: University


International.


.For


binding
Tablets


more t
spells


horough
in the


Bindinsc


scusslon


ancient


Spells


world


From


applications


see


Gager


Ancient


(199


Curse


World















CHAPTER


ANGLO


-SAXON


BANISHING


AND


BINDING


Overview


In Anglo


-Saxon


times


, charms


were


concerned


with


things


like


having


a baby


, keeping


bees


from


roaming


into


the


wood


(where


is difficult


to find


them


and


take


their


honey)


getting


good


crops


, and


safely


completing


a journey


And,


course


every


, there


conceivable


were


charms


disease


from


to heal


tumors


people


the


animal


mysterious


"elf


-shot.


Godfrid


Storms


, who


public


shed


a collection


eighty-


charms


under


the


title


Anqlo-


Saxon


Macic


in 1948


clearly


saw


that


some


charms


were


medical,


others


agricultural,


still


others


spiritual


their


appli


cation.


Along


with


a diversity


in structure


ritual


atmosphere,


magical


Storms


principles


also


: the


recognized


presence


adherence


animism


to certain


in some


ancient


magical


practice;


use


of symbolically


potent


subs


tances


such


as blood,


saliva


, water,


honey


, and


wine;


practice


transference,


Law


Association


, which


Storms


called


"idea


of similarity


Tn a ml 1 ri n


. 1 rl


lnnl i -


nno* r\7


ti tlor


Tho Anrn n-








or Christian,


justify"


said


cxxxii)


that


. He


"such


also


distinctions


recogni


are


that


easy


the


twelve


charms


he had


ected


previously


been


ass


ified


"herbal


charms


" but


pointed


that


they


contained


other


incantatory


elements


which


united


them


with


many


"non-


herbal"


charms


. Dobbi


therefore


stated


that


he did


pretend


to class


sify


charms


he selected


the


basis


form


content";


he himself


selected


only


those


charms


whose


metrical


form


was


sufficiently


regular


warrant


their


inclusion


an edition


of Anglo-


Saxon


poetry.


Dobbie'


principle


of selection,


then


, was


form.


Mine


will


purpose.


Charms


have


primary


purposes


: they


seek


to either


keep


or cast


unwanted


elements


from


performer'


reality


, or they


attempt


to reinforce


or establish


desired


connections


within


that


reality;


.e.


, they


seek


to either


bani


or to bind


. Thi


scussion


will


focus


first


on two


high-intensity


bani


shing


charms


of popular


provenance.


The


charm


Against


a Wen


whose


goal


is to


cas


t out


a tumor


from


body


demonstrates


similar


sounding


words


homophones


, by


a process


call


semantic


resonance,


can


enrich


meaning


of a charm.


Field


Ceremonies


a more


complex


charm


designed


remove


a sorcerer'


curse


which


could


prevent


fertility.


It will


discussed


terms


~~~A-.~~~, ---- -I aI -- -- a 0,.. 1-a- n na


, -


~r A U C A U~ ~ ~ CI A


1


A


_" J_ -








combined


in the


same


magical


utterance


. The


discussion


this


charm


gives


special


attention


ways


in which


speech


acts,


as defined


J.L.


Austin


(1962)


John


Searle


(1969


, 1979,


1989)


can


increase


the


potency


utterance


in the


mind


performer


The


last


two


Anglo-


Saxon


charms


are


high-


intensity


binding


charms


: one


ancient


-binding


folk


charm,


and


other


a binding


charm


embedded


epic


poem


Beowulf


A descriptive


analysis


these


ways


charms


in which


is then


sound


associations


presented.


strengthen


us begin


with


charm


from


popular


culture.


Banishina


Wen


Charm


Wib


Wennum


: Against


Wens


From
154).


REGIUS


A XIV


Manuscript


(Storms,


1975


Wenne


, Wenne,


Wenchichenne


her


scealt
scealt


timbrien,


norp


heonene


ne nenne


to pan


tun


nihgan


habben.


berhge


per pu
He he
Under
under
Clinge
scoring


weorne
litel
miccli
alswa


haves
sceal
fot w
earnes


t ermig
legge
olves,
clea.


alswa
alswa


alswa


sse


litel


enne
leaf
under
a u


broker.
et heafde.


veper


earnes,


geweornle


on heorbe


scern


weter


gewurpe


alswa


awage,
on ambre


alswa


anes


linsetcorn


handwurmes


gewurpe


nawhi


hupeban,
t gewurpe.


Against


Wens


, wen,


Here


thou


little
shalt


wen,
ot build


, nor


make


a town


thou


shalt


north


the nearby


hill


1-1 -


mi


ft


I1


J i








And
May


fade
thou


as water


become


in a pail.


small


as a linsetcorn,


Smaller


than


an itchmite'


hipbone


And


so little


may


thou


become


that


thou


become


nothing


at all.


The


intent


English


charm


to banish


harmful


wen,


or tumor


, from


body.


It accompli


she's


addre


ssing


the


wen


directly


telling


clearly


that


is being


banished


from


the


body


to a northern


hill


oss


ibly


a euphemism


a burying


ground)


wen


then

wolf'


conjured


paw,


with


an eagle'


powerful


magical


feather


and


objects,

an eagle'


i.e.


claw


leaf


which


are


intended


cause


to wither


away


until


"becomes


nothing.


Thi


, then


basi


approach


prescribed


words


Old


English


wen


charm,


would


suggest


that


Wib


Wennum


reinfor


ces


intent


to banish


tumor


bringing


charm,


to bear


using


numerous


a process


sub-s


call


trata


semantic


meaning


resonance.


within


Archibald


Hill


(1985)


textual


defines


"signal


phenomenon


s" which


bring


as the


incorporation


meaning


text


assoc


national


meanings


Hill


gives


attention


two


way


enriching


meaning


in a text


: modification


meaning,


double


meaning


punning).


Wen


Charm


makes


use


both


these


meaning


enrichment


techniques


example,


modification


meaning


provides








address


is used


throughout


(Cockayne,


1866)


so the


suffixival


cannot


indicative


the


dative


case.


Why


then


we have


wenne


instead


of wen?


It certainly


serves


to maintain


trochaic


metrical


structure


also


may


meaning


charm


since


the


verb


wenan


means


to believe


imagine


to expect


or hope,


but


also


despair


(Hall


, 1970)


Thus


, on a deeper


level,


sound


resemblance


two


words


may


further


meaning


wenne


can


be construed


to be


an exhortation


tumor


give


an exhortation


possible


faith


to the


in success.


charmer


verb


to bring


wenian


to bear


add


aspects


meaning


as well


: it


means


to break


off,


wean


from


, to become


tame


broken.


The


word


wenne


is repeated


twice,


building


power


through


Then


repetition


charmer


, of


says


course


, through


wenchichenne,


alliteration.


which


Storms


(1975


Storms


158)


suggests


admits


that


diminutive


throughout


meaning


"wen


experience


-chicken


with


Old


English


, he has


never


encountered


another


noun


with


suffix


"chicken"


to denote


diminutive


If Magoun'


interpr


etation


originally


been


holds,


wende


(1937


. 21)


heonene,


line


or "send


could


hence


have


" and


through


reduction


may


have


evolved


into


wenchichenne.


This


original


meaning


"I send


(you)


away,


" could


remain


- a .


A


1 J


I


1 1


L








In line


, the


wen


is banished


from


the


body


north


(where


terrifying


frost


giants


abide)


to a nihaan


berhce.


This


phrase


illustrates


how


both


meaning


modification


and


double


meaning


can


enrich


power


the


charm.


adjective


nihqan


is usually


taken


mean


"nigh"


"neighboring


" but


bears


a very


close


resemblance


the


Anglo-Saxon


word


nine,


niaon.


Why


should


underlying


concept


number


nine


be used


to modify


meaning


of nihcan


Storms


tells


us that


number


nine


was


a magically


addition,


English


powerful


there


calle


one


is a certain

d a furuncle


kind

(O.E.


Anglo-Saxons,


tumor


cyrnel)


and


which

which


Modern


shows


precisely


nine


protrusions


or eyes,


called


necenooa.


(1975


:153)


Berhoe


usually


translated


"hill,


" but


modification


meaning


occurs


when


the


primary


meaning


beorq


"hill"


secondary


further


meaning


refined


"burial


enriched


mound";


thus


the


wen


banished


just


hill,


to a hill


where


dead


are


buried:


hence


banished


to its


own


destruction.


There


may


also


be a double


meaning


involved


with


the


word


berche,


similar-sounding


word


burg


can


also


mean


town


(Anderson,


1949) .


Accessing


another


contextual


web


meaning


related


to town


metaphors


can


reinforce


the


concept


t-


n ir I


)


_ _


1


mI


I








two


, which


means


an enclosure,


garden,


dwelling


or a group


of dwellings


, as


in a


town.


Line


obscure;


which


Storms


refers


(1975)


wretched


postulates


wen'


that


brother


due


lacuna


in the


text.


From


our


understanding


Dynamic


of Opposition,


we could


see


brother


as related


wen

the


similar


dynamic


disease


spirit


of opposition


fact.


Storms


Through


. 157)


what


call


call


notion

could


"like


be called


destroys


upon


like


to destroy


" the

y the


power


wen


brother


the


power


snake


skin


called


upon


to prevent


snakebite.


This


idea


borne


line


five


, which


informs


wen


that


brother


will


participate


magical


banishment


placing


a leaf


on his


head.


Starting


contributes


line


to the


, the


semantic


use


precise


resonance


metaphor


charm


. Lines


, and


7 refer


to what


have


been


accompanying


magical


actions


: laying


a leaf


over


tumor


, passing


a wolf'


foot


over


actions


, an eagle'


derive


feather


sympathetic


an eagle'


power


claw


symbolic


These


attack


on the


tumor


ferocious


animal


may


well


have


other


significance


possi


more


that


obscure


us.


intent


It is neverthel


charm


performer


ess


enhanced


through


symbolism


totemi


animal


-~~~ ~~~ .m S-- -- f tf


.. I I


1 _








tumor


will


shrink


like


coal


(col)


on the


hearth.


The


word


col


can


also


mean


cool


, or cold,


another


element


which


banished


heat


hearth


The


tumor


will


shrink


away


like


dung.


There


also


another


dimension


word


awace.


Aside


from


adverbial


connotation


movement


away


from


something


the


verb


awaeqan


means


destroy


or annul


, and


verb


awacian


means


grow


weak


little


, to decline


away.


In line


, the


tumor


conjured


to vanish


or evaporate


like


water


when


left


pail


In lines


through


relentl


ess


onslaught


on the


tumor


continues.


Incrementally


now


-ravaged


tumor


further


objects


contracted


grain


comparing


linseed


to specific


(linsetcorn)


minus


which


cule


tiny


although


one


can


see


, then


an in


sect'


hipbone,


which


one


cannot.


are


certain


what


kind


insect


a handwurm


was


Storms


words


suggested


compound


was


hipbone


itchmite


are


ban


155)


and


genitive


case


of handwurmes


along


with


the


overall


comparative


surface


context


meaning


suggests


word.


that


correct


interestingly,


there


verb


, hupeban


, in


English


(sometimes


spelled


hupian


which


means


to retreat


, or retire.


Thus


the


secondary


meaning


word


huDeban


reinfor


ces


the


hYpe


I


* ~ I


II .








Turning


next


much


longer


and


more


complex


charm


we see


that


while


wen


charm


uses


words


to reduce


entity


to nothing,


following


charm


, which


Storms


call


eld


Ceremonies


, uses


words


and


prescribes


phys


ical


actions


to banish


negative


effects


sorcery


from


land


order


to promote


growth.


Banishincr


Sorcery


from


Land


The


Old


English


charm


ensure


fertile


land


powerfully

various pa


enriched


rticipants,


a complex

language


performance


registers


schema


, symbolic


in which

objects


and


actions


are


incorporated.


Since


purpose


here


focus


on performance


elements


individual


words,


provide


only


Storms'


English


translation


charm


. The


full


Anglo


-Saxon


charm


available


Storms


(1975,


. 172-


177)


Field
From


Ceremonies


MS. Cotton


Caligula


. (in


. 172).


Storms,


1975


Here


fields,
has been


Take,
four
Then
cattle
tree
of ev


hol


f they
done t


then
sides
take


that


remedy
will no
them b


at night b
f the land
1 and hone
are on the


growing


erv


y wate
botto


And


well-known
r on them,


m


then


which


grow


you


can


improve


properly,


sorcery


before
and
y and
land


land
herb
and


sods.
these


any


or witchcraft


daybreak


mark
yea


, except
, except
then let


how t
st and


part
hard


four sods
hey stood
milk of
of every
trees. a


burdock
it drip


only,
three


your
harm


from


before.


the


kind


d part
and pour
times on


words:








d afterwards carry the sods to church and have a
iest sing four masses over the sods, and turn green
des to the altar. And afterwards, take the sods back
where they stood before, before the setting of the


sun.
And he must h
(aspewnwood)
Mattheus and
at the bottom
sods).


ave
and
Mar
of


four
let
cus,
the


crosses
him write
Lucas and
pit (made


made of 'quickbeam'
on the end of each:
Johannes. Lay the cross
by cutting away the


then:


Crux


Crux Matheus.
Sanctus Johannes.


Crux


Marcus.


Crux


Lucas.


Then
then


take
nine


the
time


ods and
these


lay them
words:


on the


crosses


and


Eastwards I
I pray the
prince
I pray the
Kingdo


stand, for
great Lord,


favours
I pray


Guardian


the


pray.
mighty


Heavenly


Earth


pray


sky,


and
and
that
I ma
raise
fill
make

that
who


the
heav
by
y pr
e up
thi


tru
en'
the
ono
th
s e


beauti
prophe
he wou


dealt
the


e Ho
s mi
gra
unce
ese
arth
ful
t sa
ld h


out
will


ly M
ght
ce o
thi
crop
by
thes
id
ave
1ms
f th


ary,
and h
f the
s cha
s to
firm
e gra


hall,
rd
by my f
worldly
th,
ands, as


favors on e
judicially,
e Lord.


irm will
benefit,

the


iarth
according


Then
stre
their
end.
Maqn
land
prail
the
When
begg
them
bore
^ i


turn
tch y


e.


a
I__--i


three
oursel


And
ing
cat
Chr
and
d an
1 th
and
And
hole


say
then
and
ist
wors
d al
is i


giv
coll
in
-'I


times
f alon
then
Bened
Our Fa
and Ho
hip an
1 those
s done
e them
ect al
the pl
-I


with
g the
Sanct
icite
their
ly Ma
d to
e who
, the
twic
1 the
ow-ta
1- ^


course


ground


Sanctus
th arms
ee times
and to
benefit
e subject
ake unkn
s much a
owing im
and put
*t -* .


of
Ssa
San
out

the


the
y th
ctus
stre
And
Hol


of the


sun, th
e litany
to the
tched an
commend
y Rood i


en


d
the
n


owner


to h


wn s
you
leme
ncen
* i


e


.d f
ake
s t
San


rom
from
together,
d fennel
S


An
pr
si
to








fields


growing


flourishing


nd thriving
bountiful,


bright
and of
and of
and of


May
and


that


shafts


broad
white


all


eternal
saints


produce


of millet


barley
wheat


crops
Lord


crops,


crops,
crops,


grant


are


may


earth.
him,


in heaven,


be safe


against


every


and
from


Now


that


secure


foe,
against


witchcraft


pray


no woman


sown


every


harm


throughout


sovereign
world


may


Who


the


created


so eloquent


and


land.
this


no man


so powerful


that


they


can


the


words


thus


spoken.


When


you


drive


forth


plow


first


then:


furrow


Hail


may


thee


you


filled


, earth


be fruitful


with


food


mother


under
the


God'


men,
protection


benefit


men


Then


take


as the
with h


flour
palm


oly


water
then:


every
your
, and


kind


hand
lay


have


knead


under


a loaf


with
first


the


baked


milk


furrow


Field


full


brightly
in the h


God


grant
that


O


of food


blooming
Iv name


earth


who


us the


each


hbo thou


o, -
of Him


on which


made


gift


grain


this


Who


race


man


blessed
created


heaven


we live.


earth


of fertility


may


be profitable


And


three


benedicti


, Amen


times


. And


: Cresc


. In


say)


Nomine


Father


Patris


three


sitis


times


As Storms'


title


suggests,


Field


Ceremonies


gives


evidence


of a far


greater


degree


of performance


complexity


than


charm


sa ainst


Wens.


Sebeok


(1964)


, speaking


* I I -


IIVU


,L ,,,,


-- A d A A A -- -


' -


I








as opposed


to individual,


while


Nelson


(1984)


posited


double


audience:


one


explicit


(the


magical


objects


and


sacre


d entities


directly


addressed)


one


implic


(the


community


The


and


charm


complexity


performer


of Field


indirectly


Ceremonies


addressed)


provides


further


opportunity


identification


of magical


performance


elements.


These


can


include


writing


ins


cribing


symbols


text


in a particular


manner


, the


method


of verbal


delivery,


incorporation


of magically


symbolically


significant


objects


, and


accompanying


phys


ical


action.


In Field


Ceremonies


four


crosses


must


be each


scribed


with


names


four


gospelers


, Matthew


Mark


, Luke


and


John


. The


physical


of writing


inscribing


symbols


external


or text


charm


a particular


performer'


intent,


manner


which


serves


to gather


power


to banish


sorcery


from


land


. Merrifield


(1987)


tell


us that


use


letters


to represent


sounds


widely


acknowledged


of magical


empowerment


both


focu


ses


reinforces


translation


the


performer'


will


into


magical


reality


. Thi


was


certainly


true


Anglo-


Saxons


whom


letters


symbolized


magical


maxims


(Guinn


, 1959)


For

present


example,

within th


magical


le finite


(see


notion


that


Pennick,


infinite


1992


1 1 1 1- C5+=-n


S.- -


GI~~'I~~~A


,L,,,


1


__


r^1 -%xT


A








below,


is also


symbolized


of writing


, for


the


same


microcosmic


relations


that


exist


between


letters


function


larger


of writing


magic


macrocosm


illustrates


summarized


of language


the


integrative


of Association.


. Furthermore


nature


as the


Just


metaphorical


properties


language


require


shared


schema


impart


meaning


, letters--the


ible


signs


used


to represent


our


language--al


symbolize


concepts,


abstract


properties


whole


webs


interconnected


ideas


, but


only


within


consensual


format


(Gombrich


, 1966)


Nig


magicality


Pennick


(199


of writing,


when


reminds


us that


speaking


"can


about


express


non-verbal


experiences


that


can


alter


one'


consciousness


drastically


Contemplating


esoteric


properties


letter


one'

Thus


into


we use


mind


to write


, diverting


can "

into


inscription


performance


change


new


helps


allowing


direction


unexpected


translate


charm


magical


performer


of flow


channel


intent


an avenue


of phys


ical


behavior


to parallel


reinforce


the


verbal


and


inte


national


devi


ces


used


to perform


magic.


It provides


another


means


to focus


spiritual


energy


charm


performer.


Another


element


of magical


performance


method


verbal


delivery


magical


language.


This


can


include


, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~I n -1 a1 I-- -


- -1--


nka~C~S


rk^I^km r- nw "


1,1


~lY~


l


-^ -~I -








concretely


shows


that


verbal


delivery


is acc


omplished


two


languages


: one


is the


approved


language


register


spiritual


matters


in the


newly


established


Chri


stian


church


the other


English


, the


time-honored


language


pagan


magic


. During


time


transition,


first


invocation


the earth


done


a parallel


register


: first


Latin,


then


Old


English.


next


invocatory


passages


also


alternate


between


delivery


Latin


Anglo


-Saxon.


Latin


invocation


Matthew


, Mark,


Luke


John


immense


magical


power


, for


draws


upon


symbolic


potency


four


gospelers


their


crosses.


Although


contains


some


Chri


stian


elements


, the


Anglo


-Saxon


invocation


which


follows


contains


many


pagan


references.


invokes


earth


the


, refers


back


"high


hall"


the


Teutoni


Gods


states


that


a charm,


acknowledges


the


will


charm


performer


next


three


invocations


, clearly


ancient


provenance,


are


in Anglo


-Saxon


appeal


"Erce


Erce


, Erce


an earthen


mother


parity


spiritual


traditions


is reestablished


giving


Latin


"last


word


The


charm


ends


with


a Latin


invocation


Latin


benediction


The


, and


alternation


Father


language


is one


, a Christian


way


prayer


in which


performance


furthers


intention


charm


performer


? .-- A-- 1-- -


TT A A


,~,,~


.__ __ __ 1 -








could


be expected


to realize


this


intent


through


the


method


of delivery.


Another


element


of magical


performance


which


Field


Ceremonies


illustrates


incorporation


of magically


symbolically


significant


objects


To perform


this


charm


vital

large,


importance

special


the


formulaic


performer

language


and

must


the


community


be used,


and


accompanying


manipulation


of significant


objects.


The


accessories


which


symbolize


fertility


include


from


the

from


four

the


corners

beasts


on the


land

land,


, oil

and


honey,


parts


yeast

every


and

plant


milk

on the


land


made


(except


hardwoods


"quickbeam,


burdock)


seed


from


Holy


land


water


seed


crosses


from


unknown


beggars


the


plow


, incense


, fennel,


hallowed


soap


and


salt


also


contribute


symbolic


significance


as crucial


elements


of performance


charm.


Finally,


baking


then


"planting"


loaf


of bread


field


charmer


makes


a statement


through


performance.


Since


the


best


possible


loaves


of bread,


one


which


contains


"every


kind


of flour,


" and


made


with


milk


holy


water,


performance


says,


"Give


me back


what


have


given


you.


Give


me back


your


very


best.


Along


with


incorporation


of phys


ical


objects,


appropriate


accompanying


physical


action









performer'


intent.


physical


action


serves


to focus


the


energy


of the


charmer


upon


magical


task


at hand.


this


charm


, taking


sods


from


land


and


anointing


them


with


obvious


symbols


of abundance


(oil


, honey


yeast)


a sympathetic


magical


act,


conforming


the


magic


al rule


that


like


influences


like


pouring


symbols


of abundance


on pi


eces


land


charm


performer


hopes


to make


reality


correspond


: the


entirety


fields


will


also


flooded


with


abundance.


Likewise


, objects


from


living


creatures


land


, milk


from


cattle,


pieces


ees


and


herbs


are


blessed


with


holy


water


, magically


encouraging


real


creatures


on the


land


itself


to thrive.


Both


the


Chri


stian


the


pagan


magical


potency


cross


is placed


direct


phys


ical


contact


with


sods


follows


the


magical


of Contagion


, which


holds


that


objects


their


symbolic


"proxi


es")


once


placed


physical


contact


will


continue


to retain


a phy


sical


connection


see


Fraz


1922


Bonewits


, 1970).


Thus


charm


clearly


intended,


as Nil


suggests


, for


performance


a whole


community,


invol


ves


multiple


performance


elements


- calling


upon


magic


spoken


human


written


beings


words


who


depend


upon


phy


their


sical

mother


acts that

earth for


place

their


sustenance


into


a right


relationship


with


her.


, is









physical


performance


This


charm


is especially


interesting


because


it combines


both


banishing


binding


intents


in a


single


formulaic


utterance


in order


ensure


a happy


pregnancy


, delivery,


nursing


period.


Banishing


Sorrow


Analo


-Saxon


Binding
Birthinci


Strength


In An


Charm


Anglo


-Saxon


birthing


charm


below


was


intended


insure


a healthy


happy


delivery


Miscarriage,


stillbirth,


birth


defects


must


be banished


while


the


infant


must


simultaneously


bound


womb


appropriate


period


of gestation


. The


mother


, who


might


need


must


charm

also


because


banish


miscarriages


sorrow


in order


to have


the


past,


a healthy


happy


pregnancy


nurse


Positive


infant'


elements


strength,


must


such


also


as the


ability


be summoned


and


bound


circumstances


at hand.


Charm


Wib


Misbvrde


: Against


Misbirth


From


the


Harley


585,


Storms,


Anglo


Saxon


Macic


Drukkerij


(1975).


N.V


Folcroft


., Nijmegen


Library
. 196.


Editions


Central


Se wifman
gewitenes


se hire
mannes


child


afedan


birgenne


ne maeg
staeppe


, gange
bonne


to
briwa


offer
Uis
tis
pis
And


pa byrgenne,
is me to bote


me to bote
me to bote


ponne


paet


hlaforde


baer


paere
paere


cwepe p
e laban


swaeran
laban 1


seo


mid


onne


briwa


word


laetbyrde.
swaertbyrde,


ambyrde.


earned


heo


to hyre


on rest


--.


bonne


cwebe


heo:









ponne


cume


cyrican,
, cwepe


and ponne
bonne:


toferan


pan


weofode


Criste


IC sae


de, bis


gecyped.


Se wifmon


se hyre
sylf


beam


afedan


ne maege


, genlme


heo


hyre


agenes


cildes


gebyrgenne


dael,


wry


after


blace


bonne


wulle


and


bebicge


to cepemannum.


And


cwepe


ponne


Ic hit


bebicge


, ge


bebibgan,


sweartan


wulle


sse


sorge


corn.


man


se ne maege
bleos cu


beam


afedan,


nime


ponne


anes


meoluc


on hyre


handae,


gesupe


ponne


mid


hyre


mupe,


ponne
And h
fulne


gange
to yrnendum


lade
and


bonne


waetere


mid


forswelge


paere
. Cwebe


and spiwe
ylcan hand
ponne bas


paer i
paes
word:


meolc.


waeteres


mud


Gehwer


mid
bone


ferde


pysse


ic me pone


maeran


ic me will


mete p
habban


maeran


ihtan.
and ham


maga


bihtan,


gan.


Ponne
bonne


heo


to pan
banan


broce


, and


no beseo


ponne


heo,


heo


no ne eft


oper


hus oper


ut ofeode


paer


gebyrge


metes


Against


Misbirth


That


woman


who


child


may


not


bring


forth,


must


a dead


man'


grave


step


then


thrice


over


the


grave


quoth


then


thrice


these


words


Thi


this
this


to help
to help
to help


me for
me for
me for


hate
sad
hate


d


latebirth.


stillbirth
d lamebirth.


And


when


to her


that


rest


woman


goes


be with


then


child


quoth


she


to her


lord


she:









quoth


then:


Christ,


said,


this


performed.


That


woman


who


may


bring


forth


her


bairn,


take


herself


of her


own


child'


grave


a part;


wrap


afterward


blac


wool


sell


to merchants.


And


quoth


then:


this


sell, ye
sad wool


sell


this


sorrowful


seed.


one


who


may


nourish


a bairn,


take


then


milk


from


a one


colored


cow


in her


hand,


then


with


her


mouth,


then


o running
draw


water


spew


therein


the


milk.


And


then


and


with


swallow.


same


Quoth


hand
then


a mouthful


these


the


water


words:


Everywhere


took


me this


fine


powerful


strong


one


from
then


this


fine


me will


food
have


strong.


home.


When


to the


brook


goes,


her


not


look


about


her,


nor


after


another


when


house


from
than


thence


left


goes,


from


then


there


her


take


food.


in Field


Ceremonies


, the


performance


elements


this


grave,


charm


black


include


wool,


symbolic


milk,


objects:


running


earth


water.


from


a child'


Here,


too,


accompanying


erformer'


physical


performance


intent.


charm


reinforces


Against


the


Misbirth


charm


, physical


acts


include


stepping


over


a man'


grave


Lines


3-4) ,


and


over


a living


man


in his


(line


going


to a church


standing


oppos


altar


(line


13) ,


selling


"sorrowful









house


(line


31) .


This


charm


illustrates


how


non


-verbal


acts


of phys


ical


performance


are


paralleled


verbal


acts


of performance.


Nelson


(1985)


identified


ess


than


five


pairs


phys


ical


speech


acts


charm:


I. Step
II. Step


over
over


grave /
husband


Speak
/ Spea.


incantation i
k incantation


n lines


lines


III


to church


IV. Wrap


sell


incantation


Spew


milk,
-^r 8


2z-2O.


Speak


"sorrowful
in lines


drink


water


incantation


seed"
19-20.
Speak


line


Speak


incantation


lines


The


linguis


theory


of speech


acts


was


introduced


J.L.


Austin


(1962)


and


later


developed


John


Searl


(1969


1979)


Holdcroft


(1978)


Vanderveken


(1990) ,


and


others


theory


of speech


performance


can


effectively


illustrate


how


words


actions


are


inextricably


bound


magical


language


of charms.


called


verbs


which


perform


action


saying


word


whose


force


contained


within


verb


itself


, performati


ves


. Austin


identified


these


performative


verbs


as typically


conjugated


the


first


person


singular


, indicative


active


form


present


ten


se.


this


charm


, some


language


intended


to change


the


physical

which co


world


nform


appears


to Austin'


tense

maxim


and

, yet


person

other


configurations

incantatory


I brn


Anna


r r r t T


Tn v^l n


1 nm i rr


__ I_


nv~ mnln


nAA


T.T^m









serve


to focus


magical


power


in the


future,


in line


see


how


an assertive


preterit


is used


turn


present


When


charmer


goes


into


church


and


stands


opposite


altar


past-tense


utterance


which


ected


to alter


present


: "Christ


said


performed.


Lines


6-28


constitute


very


interesting


use


tense


performatives,


first


lines


are


the


preterit


("Everywhere


took


me thi


fine


powerful


strong


one,


from


this


fine


food


strong


last


S ")


line


appears


to be in


tense


future


is extremely


rare


tense,

("then


although


me will


Anglo


have


-Saxon


and


home")


The


context


this


charm


such


that


the


moment


utterance


is completed,


whether


present,


future,


or the


preterit


tense


, it


success


fully


taken


effect


Thus


charmer


encirec


contingency


one


literally


time


-encompassing


assertion.


Bach


Harnish


(1979)


Recanati


(1987


have


suggested


that


in utterances


which


do not


conform


the


performative


verb


profile


of firs


person


, present


tense


indicative,


performative


implicit


, rather


than


explicit


. Thus


performative


language


explic


past


tense


utterance,


"Christ


said,


performed"


would


contained


an implic


assertion


in the


first-person









difficulty


with


this


explanation


is that


determination


precise


implicit


performative


can


problematic


assert/I


promise


believe,


Furthermore,


tense


conflicts


between


implic


performative


present


explicit


magical


language

proposit


in the


ional


preterit


integrity


or future


tenses


utterance


can

(ex.


compromise


assert


that]


"Christ


said,


performed")


. In


case


, our


discu


ssion


will


illustrate


that


charms


often


contain


past


future


as well


as the


present


tense


in the


propositional


content


their


incantatory


language.


Subsequent


work


in speech


acts


also


acknowledges


difficulty


distinguishing


between


constantive


"locutionary"


statements


, which


merely


state


something


and


performative


or "illocutionary"


statements,


which


something.


Filho


(1984


. 24)


states


that


"there


is a


sense

anyone


which


speaks


all

there


utteran


are


ces


many


are


performative


different


things


--whenever


many


different


sorts


that


he could


be said


there


Indeed


, speaking


can


accomplish


many


different


things,


and


one


stinction


which


Austin


made


lectures


continues


to fascinate


linguists


today


Aside


from


the


original


categories


locutionary


acts


illocutionary


acts


, Austin


recogni


a third


type


of utterance









charm


Against


Misbirth


illustrates


how


charm


performer


uses


illocutionary


statements


to produce


an extra,


perlocutionary


result.


The


first


example


of perlocutionary


consequence


occurs


lines


Here


speaker


makes


locutionary


statements


about


charm'


application.


these


locutionary


statements


are


also


illocutionary


assertions


that


the


charm


valuable


will


work.


Since


this


magical


language


making


an assertion


entail


an additional


perlocutionary


consequence:


attention


energy


charmer


are


focused


on the


result,


which


means


which


magical


success


ensured


Again


lines


locutionary


utterance


informs


hearer


of a state


or condition:


With
With


over


quick


thee


child,


fullborn


, not


step
ot with


with


quelled


one


fated.


we also


know


that


same


statement


appropriate


context


can


an assertion,


an illocutionary


utterance


designed


to affirm


charm


performer'


ability


ensure


good


pregnancy.


In fact


, the


charm


performer'


statement


would


be interpreted


many


scholars


to contain


implicit


performative


: "[I


ass


that]


step


over


thee


with


quick


child


, not


with


quelled


one. ."


Again


magical


language


a perlocutionary


consequence


beyond









focused


on the goal,


in the hopes


that


will


translate


into


successful magical


action.


stating


assertion


"I sell


you sell


entails the additional


the charmer's


perlocutionary


consequence


of magical

physical a


transference.


actions,


With


she ensures that


the appropriate accompanying


the possibility


"sad,


sorrowful


seed"


literally removed


from her


sphere


of possibilities.


preceding discussion,


we have seen how


semantic


resonance,


performance elements,


and speech acts worked


three Anglo-Saxon charms


that banished


unwanted


elements:


wen,


or tumor;


effects of


negative


forces


on the


land;


threats to


life of


an unborn child.


turn


now to


the charm that Godfrid Storms titled For


a Swarm of


Bees


(1975


, p.


133) .


The purpose of this charm is


to bind a


swarm of


bees


to a


farmer'


field and prevent


the hive


from


relocating


in the woods,


where


it would be difficult


to find


and take


the honey.


Binding the Bees


including


A Swarm Of


Bees


in his anthology


metrical


charms,


Dobbie


(1942)


recognized


important


role


rhythm,


as did Storms


(1975,


132) ,


who also


commented


on its alliterative


pattern and


called WiP


Ymbe









important


than


fertile


land


modern


reader,


is well


to remember


that


that


was


honey


a vital


was


Anglo


component


-Saxons'


in many


medi


only


sweetener


cines


. Honey


was


a crucial


ingredient


mead,


a much-


loved


beverage


those


times.


Wib


Ymbe


Corpus
Storms


Editions


: Charm


Christi


. Anglo
Central


Against
College


Saxon


Bees


41, Cambridge


Macic


Drukkerij


(1975)


N.V


, llth


. Folcroft


., Nijmegen


Century


, in


Library
. 132.


Nim


eorpan


swibran


, oferweorp
pinum
t and cwet:


mid


pinre


swibran


handa


under


ic under


fot,


funde


Hwaet


and


eorde


wit
wit


maeg


andan


micelan


wia
wit


ealra


wihta


gehwilce,


aeminde,


mannes


tungan.


And


sitbon


forweorp
cwet:


offer


greot


konne


swirman


, and


Sitte
Naevre


swa


ge,
ge
swa


bi6


sigewif
wilde t


, siga6
o wuda


gemindige


manna


gehwilc


to eorpan.
fleogan.


mines
metes


godes


epel


Charm


A Swarm


Of Bees


Take
under


earth,


your


throw
right


over


with


your


right


hand


foot


grasp i
. earth


underfoot


powers


found


over


creatures


the


while


And
And


again
again


st enmity and
st the mighty


against
tongues


jealousy


men.


And


then


throw


grit


over


them


when


they


swarm


and


, ye slegewives


Never


wild


, sink
hie wood


to earth.


fly.


so mindful


every


man


of my goods
of food and


home.


charm


begins


with


a brief


performance


instruction


es.









creatures.


Thus


in order


charmer


to have


sway


with


bees


, it


is necessary


to derive


authority


from


earth

mere


herself.

statement


In what would,

of a fact, here


another


the charmer


context,

actually


seizes


control


over


flinging


power

earth)


earth


parallel


through


action


affirmation


(grasping


: "I


grasp


under


foot;


found


earth'


superior


powers


are


then


enumerated


: it


"powers


against


creatures


is stronger


than


enmity,


jealousy,


other


magical


language.


Thus


first


four


lines


the


charmer


binds


him


or herself


the


power


earth;


a power


which


will


then


be directed


toward


ees.


After


a second


prose


instruction


, the


charm


contains


another


four-


line


incantation.


This


one


intended


to bind


bees


to the


keeper


When


look


closely


the Anglo-


Saxon


text


, we see


that


both


binding


power


and


then


binding

Holland


sounds


the bees

(1968, p


can


are

. 146


provide


reinforced


asserted


a feeling


on the

that r


phonemic


petition


of dominance


over


level.

of certain


meanings


whi


sounds


represent


son


(1985)


illustrated


how


alliteration


assonance


could


enhance


cohe


sion


in charms.


Here


the familiar


alliterative


pattern


of Anglo


-Saxon


poetry


provides


cohesion


throughout


both


the


preparative


portion,


where


links


to the


earth'


power


are


established









inflections.


Moreover,


alliteration


provides


"bridge"


across


pause,


or caesura


, linking


two


-stress


dimeters


on either


side


cre


eating


traditional


Anglo-


Saxon


tetrameter


effect


is highly


formal


and


dignifie


sounds


"rather


like


chanting


to a 4/8


musical


tempo"


(Chickering,


1989;


The


key


to alliteration


beginning


sound


third


stressed


syllable


tetrameter


. This


sound


determines


alliteration


one


both


preceding


ess


words


. For


example


, in line


the


third


stress


tetrameter


syllable


funde


, which


begins


with


. The


beginning


sound


funde


alliterates


with


initial


sounds


and


fot


under


fot,


funde


Noti


that


alliterating


words


are


three


mos


important


words


initial


affirmation


, i.e.


, fo


(grasp),


fot


(foot),


funde


(found).


Dobbie


recognized


how


alliteration


provides


sound


concordance


links


across


caresura


in thi


charm;


fact,


that


led to


choice


include


in his


twelve


metrical


charms.


alliteration


also


serves


a special


function


Charm


Against


Bees:


It provides


a vehicle


onomatopoeic


sound


imitation


which


binds


intent


the charmer


task


at hand.


example,


in the


2_


Sa t n rala ii htcra


I__


A


/"*T a-yrr


a a mn a a C


nnanC~C nrrr


I r ft-


r rno










itte


sigewif


sigat


to eortan


Although


alliterative


properties


this


charm


have


previously


been


recogni


Storms,


Dobbie,


and


others


,perhaps


what


ess


obvious


the


way


which


vowels


collaborate


on the


most


minute


physical


level


reinforce


intent


action


speaker


The


bees


, remember


, are


swarming


, and


charmer


must


throw


some


previously


consecrated


dirt


over


them


while


exhorting


them


to mid


to sink


to earth.


to low


actions


> a)


required


movement


this


bees;


command


.e.


tha


vowels


directly

t they "


from


high


parallel


sink


down


The


trochaic


metrical


pattern


contributes


the

weak


sensation: the

stress, where


stress


"sinks


remains


" from


anoth


initial

er beat


stress

This


sinking


ess


pattern


repeated


identically


three


times


the


charm'


command,


each


instance,


linked


an important


element


imperative


imperative


verb)


siegewi


ves


(the


creatures


ordered


obey)


sink


imperative


verb)


now,


discussion


has focused


on acknowledged


charms


argued


an analy


Sls


their


poetic


elements


based


on three


factors


: their


inclusion


in Dobbi


s Analo-


Saxon


Poeti


Records


, their


adherence


to metri


nnnv=nt+ i nns


cQ u -F inori


Ph +mnar


( 1QQ Q


Un 1 el 1


: 1)


/1QO 1\


n


1 \









turn


to something


different,


unlike


those


charms


popular


provenance


previous


discussed,


following


egalc


passage


, which


critics


have


chosen


to call


"The


Lay


Of The


Last Survivor"


(Greenfield,


1969;


1982)


comes


down


literary


context


of Beowulf


In it


last


survivor


a warrior


nation


conceals


weapons


and


treasure


of hi


lost


people,


recites


a spell


to keep


them


undisturbed


Bindinac


Treasure


in Beowulf


Last


MS. Cott.


Fiqht


Vitellius


Survivor


. XV


At Finnsbura


, in


. (1950)


Company,


Klaeber


. Boston


, FR


: D.C


Beowulf
. Heath


And


And


Heald


eorla
gode


2250


ahte


hruse


Hwa


begeaton;


feorhbealo


leoda


gesawon
ope fe
dryncfa


2255


Sceal
fatum


minra


frecn
bar


seledream


(o)r(mie)
t deore;


se heard
befeallen;


6e beadogrima


t, hyt e
gutdeat
e fyra
a 6e bis


Nah


fated w
dug(u6)
helm (hy
feormyn
n bywan


nu halet
r on te
fornam,
gehwylcne


[lif]


aege,
ellor


r)


ne mostan,


ofgeaf,


sweord


wege


s[c]eoc.


stedgolde,
swefat


sceoldan;


ge swylce
ofer borda


2260


snao


after wig
haletum b
gomen gle
geond sal
2265 burhstede


fela


seo


herepad


gebraec


after


fruma


bite


beorne.
n wide


e healfe.
obeames,
swinger,
beaten.


eorhcynna


S10


at hilde


gebad,


irena,


Ne maeg
feran,


Nas hearpan


ne god


byrnan


hring


wyn,


hafoc


ne se swifta


Bealo


fort


onse


cwealm


mearh
hafat


nded


Last


Survivor









None


have


now


carry


sword


To polish


goblet


the drinking-cup


dear


2255


They
Now


have
shall


Surrender


gone.
hard


helm


plating;


, wrought
the burn


out
shers


in gold
sleep


Who
And


would
likewi


shine


the battle


warcoat


e-mas
that


in valor


withstood


breaking


2260 It decays


of boards


with


warmaker;
heroes' s


No gleeman'


man


they
ide.


gladness


, the
. The
fare


biting
byrnies
ot wide


No harper's j
, and no good


iron


ring


hawk


Swings


through


hall.


2265 No swift


mare


Bale-killing


the
hath


courtyard


sent


clatters


forth


life-kin.


The

recognize


poetic


(Ayer


properties

s, 1933; B


this


onjour,


passage


1950;


are


Chamber


universally

s, 1932).


From


a literary


perspective


we can


immediately


recognize


undercurrent


of grief


which


qualifies


as an elegy


, and


ironi


tone


first


line


, which


illustrates


notion


that


wealth


victory


become


dust


in the


end.


The


challenge


upcoming


scussion


see


The


from


a magical


perspective


to show


, through


examination


rhythm,


rhyme,


sound


symbolism


Beowulf


poet


uses


that


is more


than


poetry;


is an incantation--a


high


-intensity


binding


charm--embedded


within


a poem.


fact,


sound


associations


The


Lav


, the


last


survivor


able


give


a magical


idea--that


through


sheer


force


language


will


possible


to bind


treasure


earth--a


shape


material


world.


re-state


ess


ential


features,


Old


English


poetry









beats


and


between


halves


of each


line


a sharp


pause


, or casura


wherein


flow


of sound


broken


ending


of a word


within


a foot.


Within


normative


four-stress


metrical


pattern


, the


Last


Survivor


contains


an unusual


amount


variation


metrical


types


defined


Sievers


(1893


eber


. Ixix)


recognized


that


rhythmical


variations


in lines


2247


-2266


which


he called


simply


"the


elegy,


" made


"quite


expressive


While


, perhaps


over


-subj


ective


to attempt


assign


emotional


content


elements


of meter


agree


with


Klaeber


that


is possible


to di


scern


echoes


effect


these


metrical


forms


may


have


had


on the


hearer.


a-dimeter


line


2248


example


the


least


amount


of syllables


possible


Sievers'


metrical


type


eorla


ahte


This


lends


"slow


mournful


movement"


which


even


modern


hear


ers


of Beowulf


can


recognize.


Again


line


253


feeling


"eagerness


checked


or excitement


held


suspense


" is


generated


type


first


diameter


, which


tells


quick


, yet


constrained


movement


involved


in poli


shing


a drinking


cup.


This


sound


pattern


works


oppos


ition


to the


second


diameter


line


2253,










CONJ
Ore
Or


ADJ


fe(o)r(mie)
polish


fated
plated


wage
cup


In these


opposition


numerous


of metrical


other


types


instances


enhances


this


power


sage,


reinforcing


the


meaning


in the


meter.


Although


four


stresses


line


are


the


norm


, in the


first


line


we al


see


hypermetricality


the


unusual


spondee


metrical


foot


beginning


line


2247


Thi


anomalous


hypermetrical


pattern


contains


three


stresses


in the


first


diameter


prec


eding


caesura,


which


allows


speaker


stress


both


command


(Heald)


command'


addr


essee


(both


appositive


hruse


This


hypermetricality


makes


the


line


"seem


somewhat


aloof


oracular"


(Pope


1981


, setting


language


apart


diverging


from


the


normal


metrical


pattern.


Following


Pope


Klaeber


, then,


we are


able


to hear


some


Last


Survivor


suggestive


power


us now


of rhythm


consider


words


onomatopoeia


suggestive


capabilities


of sound


symbolism


in thi


passage.


On a directly


imitative


level


, a preponderance


voiced


bilabial


stops


infuses


sounds


of destruction


and


violence


into


lament


kinsmen


destroyed


battle.


order


to articulate


a stop


, one


must


violence"


the


*t 1 -V $F1 d^tt lr71r


arA i Mn


44- ts44-1~


,rT'.nm1l o 1" I \7


rc- neon


a krr* IV^^ I r T


I T %


[









this


utterance,


words


beginning


with


are


directly


related


Line


the

2256


instruments

befeallen


, carnage

"be d


devastation


deprived"


(helmets


war


losing


their


plating)


Line


2257


beadocriman


"battle


mask"


bvwan


"prepare"


(preparation


the


ins


tru-


ments


of war)


Line


2258


(cre) bad


"withstood"


standing


fast


Line


2259


borda


"(of)


(qe) brac


boards"


"break"


in battle)
(spears)
(breaking c


bite


spea
(the


"bite"


rs)
bite


iron)


Line


2260


brosnat


"decays"


(the
and
are


warrior


his
now


armor


decaying)


beorne
bvrnan


"warrior"
byrniee"


Line


2265


burhs


tede


beaten


bealocwealm


style


courtyard"


"beats


"bale-killing"


level


of suggestion


, sound


symbolism


also


empowers


language


here,


associating


combinations


sounds


with


awareness


ideas


. In


to heighten


firs


emotional


t line


Last


and


magical


Survivor'


speech,


example


, the


dominant


alliterative


pattern


is det


ermined


ess


glottal


fricative


word


haled


which


alliterates


with


beginning


consonants


both


command


(Heald)


address


see


(hruse)


first


diameter


which


are


preceding


ess


words


The


a1 1 inr! ~n an r a in eraaa


nhnnh nC: nn~


knra


milnn ^ \


khC bIA A A


c. c,,,









that


intent


because


invol


ves


magical


properties


breath.


Alice


Bailey


(1951


. 151)


maintains


that


exhalation


meditative


magic


drives


thought-


form


from


the


body


"sends


forth


to do


work


fulfill


mission.


Here


Last


Survivor


pronounces


glottal


fricative


expe


lling


breath


from


back


the


throat


outward.


conformance


with


the


magical


Law


of Association,


thi


method


articulation


parallels


thus


reinfor


ces


the


performer'


magical


intent


, focusing


power


"with


thought


and


conscious


binding


charm


purpose"


They


on three


are:


main


elements


of holding


(Heald)


earth


(hruse


something


essence


lost


race


(haleO).


Occasionally


both


imitative


and


suggestive


properties


of sound


symbolism


are


used


same


line


.The


consonant-glide


combination


occurs


twice


line


2264


geond


swinge6,


ne se swifta


mearh,


Within


the


prescribed


parameters


utterance,


sound


symbolism


of swince6


may


imitate


sound


of a hawk


moving


rapidly


through


. The


word


swifta


the


second


diameter


, however,


suggests


image


flight


description


a war


horse


: one


which


is powerful,


impatient,


swift


Here


combination


succests


that









Because


proximity


, we associate


suggestion


of rapid


movement


through


air


with


last


line


lay,


which


speaks


slaughter


which


"sent


forth"


the


Last


Survivor'


people.


A dynamic


of opposition


is at work


here


mares


as well,


, and


images


"life-kin"--are


of swift


flight--of


in opposition


the


hawks


binding


intent


charm


, which


seeks


to hold


treasure


fast.


This


juxtaposition


of opposites


empower


both


concepts


through


their


polarity,


thus


further


strengthening


charm.


Thus


The


Last


Survivor


qualifies


as a high


intensity


binding


charm


because


in thought,


word


, and


deed


seeks


Last


to accompli


Survivor


a magical


of high


act.


intensity


The


and


magical


seeks


intent


to bind,


purpose


is to establi


a connection


between


two


elements


Last


Survivor'


reality


: relics


and


earth.


intent


is verbalized


a formula


utterance


using


words


which


, through


poetic


tools


of rhythm


alliteration,


sound


symbolism,


reinforce


and


translate


binding


intent


into


reality.


Although


the


Beowulf


text


oes


tell


Last


Survivor


makes


use


of symbolic


objects


or actions


physical


performance


, since


passage


occurs


within


an epic


poem


, we know


that


the


manner


verbal


delivery


sets


apart


from


ordinary









helmet


links


cannot


once


keep


bound


gold


together


plating;


intricately


coat


linked


of mail,


circles


metal


now


moulders;


men


themselves


could


hold


their


wealth.


on a magical


level,


Last


Survivor,


who


speaks


the


words,


"Hold


thou,


now


earth


" does


create


something


which


will


endure.


sounds


of his


words


bind


their


meaning,


even


as the


words


themselves


bind


the


treasure


earth.


Conclusion


In order


to explain


how


five


Anglo-Saxon


charms


work,


have


drawn


upon


linguistic


poetic


theory


to demonstrate


ways


in which


components


thought


, word,


and


deed


heighten


magical


power


charm


performer.


charm


Against


Wens,


semantic


resonance


reinforces


the


charmer'


meaning


intent


through


incorporating


manipulation


numerous


sub-strata


of similar-sounding


words


double


meanings.


The


charm


Storms


called


Field


Ceremonies


illustrates


how


physical


deeds


can


help


to make


a charm


work.


The


inscription


focuses


energies


upon


magical


act,


while


the


alternation


of Old


English


Latin


encircles


two


magical


hand.


traditions


Incorporating


, bringing


symbolic


their


object


power


task


performance


acts









With


charm


Against


birth


we see


a performer


acting


both


means


of physical


movement


meaningful


utterance


, while


charms


Against


Bees


the


"Lay


Last


since


Survivor"


language


illustrate


in ge


William


neral


Schuyler'


charms


claim


in particular


that


are


representational


, the


use


of sound


association


patterns


crucial


charm'


success


(1982


, p.


Rhythm


must


be appropriate


meaning,


rhyme


must


provide


coh


esion,


sound


symbolism


both


imitative


and


suggestive


capacities


invokes


of Association


, thereby


increasing


charm'


effectiveness.


we will


see


Chapter


Three,


language


used


banish


bind


may


drastically


change


but


underlying


components


which


make


charms


work


display


a remarkable


continuity


. The


lexicon


may


vary


, rhythm


rhyming


styles


can


be set aside


only


to be revived


later


, yet


semanti


resonance


, rhythm


and


rhyme,


sound


symbolism


continue


empower


banishing


binding


intents


charm


performer


Notes


.Elf


over


shot


extended


delectable


quotes


pertains


belly


green


Carr'


"When


havs


to herbivores


cause


grasses


Craven


cattle


are


frn ~,nt1 Il \r


ed by


excessive


of early


ssary


swollen
1rrnT7n


spring


(Vol.II,


they


f~rmo


are


probably
eating


an
on the


. Cockayne
. 401):


said


(1864)


to be degbowed.


*nt erilra


I


1 r









2.This passage addressed


30 35,
the earth
no substa
normally
which tra
through p
strategic
address C
Occasiona
Teresa ch
carriage:
way you t
magical i
communica
it apart


which pray to


and s
ntive
recogn
nslate
rescri
s are
hristi
lly pe
ided h
"It's
reat t
ntent;
tive i


ky
dif
ize
a
bed
ana
an
opl
er
no
hem
it
n n


itsel
feren
d as ]
speci
arti
lysed


deities,
e extemp
creator
wonder
!" This
was spo
ature.


from non-magical


magical performance state
address a deity, but they


to mother earth,


od and Mary
. illustrate


between ch
years. All
magical i
action and
charms in
earth mot
orize to d
after taki


you have
utteranc
ntaneous
It had n
speech,
gies. Ut
are not


s
e
I
o
no


as well


in heaven,


that
arms
formu
ntent
physi
1 .


tnis
hers,
eitie
ng a
o few
did n
non-f
aural
r did


there


and
lai
in
cal
te
or
s,
spi
fr
ot
o~rm


terances
charms.


- ALl


lines


as well


is usually


what are
c utterances
to reality
performance
xt, whether
bees.
as when Sain
11 from a
ends, Lord,
have a speci
ulaic, and


they

t

the
fic


properties to set
it incorporate any
like this do


3.For an excellent discussion of magical practices
objects, see Planer (1988), Superstition.


4.Niles (1980) suggests that hardwoods were exempted
because they did not play a direct part in the agricultural
cycle.

4. This has variously been interpreted to refer to either
the aspen or the rowan, but we should remember that the term
itself merely means "living wood."

5.The complete intermingling of pagan and Christian
referents in this charm culminates by requiring not only the
approbation of the Church, but the active participation of a
priest--one of its authorized representatives.


6. Although the applications and contexts are different,
note again the ubiquitous metaphor of the "sorrowful seed,
which must here be banished as it was in Field Ceremonies.


7. The
taking
verbal
already
suggest
perform
protect


last
food
acts
bee
ions
ance
the


two physical actions, confining one's gaze and
in a strange house, are not accompanied by
I suggest that this is because the charm has
completed with the last incantation. Those two
for appropriate behavior after the charm's
seem to be cautionary measures designed to
integrity of the completed charm.


V


&









0. The
poetry
mention
omplet
lliter


are
side
her
inqu
ion


othe
s the
e. S
iry i
in Ol


r pa
mos
ee P
nto
d En


erns
comm
e (1
eva
ish


f alliteration in Anglo-Saxon
one, a a :a x, which I have
1) p. 102-105 for a more
ous permutations of
rse.


(198
ythm
casu
two
tea
f a


1) argued
Sis an au
ra is a v
verses. I
ural comp
word with


at t
rat
al e
e (a
nt,
a me


casura wa
than a v
orial con
hear) the
it repre
c foot.


s not
visual
venti
casu
sents


ernible
omenon,
space
a
scernable


12.1I am aware
this line as
composed of t
/ x / x


that Bliss (196
hypermetric. He
wo type A verses


, p.
ees
with


154)
this
this


does not cat
line as being
basic stress


egorize

type:


13. In the text, this /h/
h, which was pronounced by
when it occurred as it doe
(Sweet, 1989, p. 2).


sound i
Anglo-
s here,


symbolized
axons much
i.e., word-


by the letter
as it is today
initially
















CHAPTER


THREE


BANISHING


AND


BINDING


IN MIDDLE


ENGLISH


CHARMS


Overview


Middle


English


charms


reflect


tend


ency


magic


"shape


itself


according


natural


spirit


the


people"


(Ennemoser,


1854,


73),


thus


provide


alteration


func


tion


form


acc


ordance


with


the


society'


needs


. In


Middl


Engli


sh there


are


fewer


hunting


charms


example


since


need


animal


to hunt


husbandry


had


animal


to a greater


food


. There


extent


continue


obviated


to be


the


numerous


agrl


cultural


charms


, however,


since


inherent


risks


farming


have


endured


. In


Middle


English


we see


appearance


of charms


again


seemingly


uncontrollable


horrors


plague,


or "flying


venom


" which


was


the


pandemic


Middle


Ages.


Safety


charms


continue


revolve


around


success


completion


journey


and


imperviousness


thieves


, bandits


assassins


, although


Middl


English


charms


show


tendency


to attempt


to control


the behavior


people


involved


more


than


the


objects


Middle


English


charms


are


decidedly


Christian


tenor


since


state


-sanctioned


magic


the


Church


had









only


specific


applications


of charms


alter


accordance


with


needs


society


, the


language


charms


adapted


to the


changing


language


as well.


every


student


history


English


language


knows


, Middle


English


very


different


from


Englis


as a result


linguistic


forces


accelerated


the


Norman


Conquest


1066.


Along


with


a radical


leveling


inflections,


number


of sound


changes


took


place;


even


a cursory


inspection


language


used


Middle


English


charms


shows


lexical


enrichment


that


resulted


from


borrowing


from


Norman


French.


Furthermore,


to the


changing


structure


language,


rhythm


and


rhyme


conventions


vary


(Marsh,


1871;


Miller,


1989;


Thomson,


1923).


example,


head


-rhyme


or alliteration


was


more


serviceable


Old


English,


with


gradual


elimination


of word-final


inflections


Middle


English,


rhyme


became


more


prevalent.


in spite


these


changes


, the


language


continues


serve


banishing


binding


intentions


of performers


of charms.


either


Middle


to prevent


English


banishing


or eradicate


some


charms c

negative


continue

element


to seek


the


charm


performer'


reality.


Similarly


, Middle


English


binding


charms


also


seek


to either


reinforce


or establish


positive


connections


in the


charmer'


world


through


use









predecessor


carefully


crafted


patt


erns


of sound


meaning


to realize


their


magical


banishing


binding


intentions


This


Middl


popular


chapter


English


presents


banishing


provenance


while


descriptive


charms


fourth


analy


first

comes


ses


three


down


four


are


us within


literary


context.


The


first


charm


to be discussed


Journey


Safety


Charm


that


see


to protect


performer


from


injury


The


second,


a Charm


Against


Epilepsy


and


Fever


, has


more


ambitious


goal


of casting


unwanted


phys


ical


threat


from


body.


third


bani


shing


charm


, a Charm


Against


Nightmare,


once


again,


popular


origin;


while


fourth,


also a charm


intended


banish


nightmare,


comes


us embedded


a literary


context


charm


Chaucer'

as we will


"Miller'


see,


Tale


includes


The


detail


first


nightmare


concerning


performance;


while


second,


grounded


larger


literary


schema


, provides


us with


an opportunity


see


how


performance


elements


function.


Following


discussion


of banishing


charms,


three


Middl


Engli


sh binding


charms


will


be presented.


Here,


once


again


, Middle


English


charms


taken


from


popular


culture


will


followed


a charm


that


comes


us preserved


literary


context.


first


binding


charms


have









victims


in order


to avoid


being


caught


in the


act


stealing


from


them


. This


third


binding


charm


comes


from


Wak


field


Second


Shepherd'


Pageant


Townley


Cycle


liturgical


Niqht


plays


spell


, and,


literary


case


context


with


provides


Chau


cer'


us with


additional


information


that


can


facilitate


an inquiry


into


the


conditions


performance.


turn,


then


our


first


Middle


English


banishing


charm.


Banishinq


Dancer


on a Journey


Journey


Safety


Charm


Here


And


am and
Jesus


fourth


Criste


mouste


is all


trust.


no dare


No wicked


thing


Another


here


[injury]


nor


elleswhare


either]


The
The


Fathe
Holy


with


Goste,


me;
and


Sonne


with


Trinitee,


Be betwixte


my gostly


Enimie


and


me.


name


And


Holy


Goste


Father
, Amen.


, and


Sonne.


(Middle
Hoffman


Engli
(1974


sh Lyrics


; p.


, ed.


Luria


and


121) .


charm,


which


has several


Anglo


-Saxon


antecedents,


is a historically


derived


charm


of popular


provenance.


reference


"Jesus


Criste


" the


"Father


" the


"Sonne


"Holy


Goste


" and


"Trinitee"


borrowed


word)


show


it seeks


to ward


danger


placing


powerful


Holy


mr, n *i *'tr


Hah +a t --* A -.l


kd a^ T T A


n A u C A ur* A u


|I 1_ _


AY~I


1









naming,


renaming


in the


concluding


lines


, of


"the


Father,


Sonne,


And


Holy


Goste


constitutes


, perhaps


, the


most


powerful


performed


charm,


references


speaker


makes


to him


self


need


to be


taken


into


account


. Saying


"Here


opening


line


charm


requires


that


speaker


identify


himself


, which


requires


courage


in the


face


lurking


"enimi


a sini


ster


force


that


cannot


be allowed


harm


the


speaker


"Here


here


also


an assertion


the


charmer'


self


-determination


, since


directly


followed


words


"and


fourth


must


An antonymic


inclusiveness


is established


line


through


juxtapo


sition


synonymic


words


relationship


"here"


between


or elleswhare


"wicked


thing"


while


and


the


"dare


word


glossed


"injury


" help


insure


completeness


charm


covenant.


Turning


to Banishincr


EDilepsy


Fever


from


the


Body


which


was


, again,


a part


of popular


tradition,


we see


high-


intensity


banishing


charm.


Here


performer'


intention


is to drive


a dangerous


condition


that


has


invaded


body.


Banishina


Epilepsy


Fever


Charm


Medicine


Against


pro


Epilepsy


morbo


Fever


caduco


le fevre


*~~~a *1; 0+ o -7t- %


nnTh m ni


fl riC i c


-1- 1 Pi 1 "i ,


C!inrtC;


ImAl~~


| r









That


Jesus


counjere


was


done


thee with


on with
nailes


fors.
three


That


Jesus


was


nailed


upon


tree.


counjere


thee


with


crown


thorne


That


on Jesus


counjere


thee


hede


was


with


done


with


precious


score
blode


That


Jesus


coun ere


shewed
thee w


upon


ith


wounded


rode.
s five


That


Jesus


counj ere


That


Longeus


suffered


thee


with


to Jesus


be his


that


hert


live
holy


can


spere
bere.


counjere
With all t


thee


nevertheless


vertues


Masse


And
In


nominee


e holy
Patris


prayers
et Filii


of Seint


Dorathy


et SPiritus


Sancti,


Amen.


(From


Middle


English


Lyrics


, Luria


Hoffman,


. p.


112)


The


first


lines,


with


their


use


learned


language


with


naming


of Father


, Son,


Holy


Spirit,


place


eaker


relationship


two


sources


authority:


established


medical


tradition


Holy


Trinity,


which,


as we have


already


seen


above


Journey


Charm


, has


potent


protective


power


Middle


English


charm


performers.


power


formulaic


charm


then


juxtaposition


augmented


of direct


line


address


through


a second


very


strong


linguistic


tool


With


performative


speech


act


"I conioure


thee


" in


line


, the


evil


to be banished


straightaway


identified


then


immediately


brought


under


the


charmer'


control


Fever


charm


continues


sympathetic


imagery


of metonymy


harnessed


increase


magical


force.


Metonymy


is the


lexical


meaning


relation


whereby









nails,


a crown of


thorns,


blood,


lesions,


and a


spear)


are


enumerated metonymically not


only to allude


to Jesus,


but,


more


interestingly,


to the magical


of suffering which


has


purchased


eternal


life


for humanity.


Each metonymic reference


thee


is preceded by


" and thus with his six references


suffering,

ailment toc


calls on


the charm performer


be banished.


power of


conjoure


to the metonyms of


confronts his opponent:


As he does so,


metonymic reference


the charm performer


Savior


himself


to the suffering that made that power


available


to him.


Finally,


conjuring his opponent


"with


vertues


the masse,


" the


performer


once again asserts


belief


that


Christ'


suffering was


not pointless.


Christ'


death


purchased eternal


message here


that,


life


properly


for humanity,


called upon


impli


, Christ'


sacrifice can also purchase


freedom from physical


suffering


followers.


O'Keefe


(1982,


delineates


various


permutations of metonymy


outlining how magical


sympathy


links


are


based


on tradition.


Every


culture,


says O'Keefe


(1982,


, possesses certain parameters of


possible


metonymic associations to


be used


in magical


language,


and


these


parameters are determined by


cultural


tradition


asserts


that because of


variety


of cultural


paradigms,









we recall


that


in metonymy


attribute


or associated


part


can


used


to refer


broader


element


then


each


these


five


metonymic


param


eters


can


seen


to be


viable.


Here


would


suggest


that


relevant


metonymic


schema


that


"the


part


stands


whole


a traditional


representational


paradigm


Western


culture,


and


that


each


enumerated


part


stands


suffering


mercy


iful


Chri


who


would


sh hi


loyal


servant


to suffer


Banishinq


Nightmare


following


charm


seeks


to protect


the


performer


from


dreaded


nightmare


. The


ancient


belief


an evil


spirit


which


could


possess


paralyze


one


during


the


vulnerability


of sleep


was


widespread


in medieval


England


Like


the


previously


cited


Charm


Against


EDileDsv


And


Fever


, it draws


upon


metonymic


force


to accompli


a magical


end.


Charm
(From


for


Middle


Nightmare


English


Lyrics


, Luria


Hoffman


. 113)


Take


flint


stone


that


hath


an hole


thorou


of his


[through]


owen
[own]


growing


, and


change


over


the


stabil


doore,


or ell


over


horse


, and


write


charme:


[else


nominee


Patris


, etc.









Till


that


he found


that


foule


wight
[creature]


And


whan


that


he here


found


[her]


He here


bete


he here


bounde


Till


trewly


there


here


trouthe


sche


plight


[troth]


That


sche


sholde


come


be night,
[by]


Withinne


Ther


seven


as Seint


rode
[rods


Jeorge


of londe


named


space


was


[Where


Jeorge.


Jeorge


. St.


Jeorge.


nominee


Patris


, etc


. And


write


a bille
[letter]


change


hours


mane.


[horse


this


charm


a narrative


interlude


recounts


the


exploits


"Seint


Jorge


" who


triumphed


over


dragon


medieval

happened


, the


lore.

before,


charm


The metonymic

" for as Saint


performer,


paradigm

George


through


at work


was


magical


here


victorious


association


in the


with


previous


victory,


derives


sufficient


power


triumph


over


nightmare


in the


present.


This


charm


illustrates


an interesting


aspect


homophony


Words


which


have


same


pronunciation


yet


nri- ow0


thrcic


cn ra r a


Thnn, nnc


r.1 ~cyctPaA


p


~rd









meanings

certain


involved

semantic


in punnin


"slippage


g. Her

" due


we get


to the


a glimpse


homophonous


connection


between


"mare"


title


Charm


the


Nightmare


surface


the word


meaning


monster


word


in Old


obviously


English--


mara.


associated


with


horses,


or mares


, while


underlying


meaning


of a night


monster


may


still


have


some


former


force


(St.


George,


after


, killed


a monster


, not


a horse)


This


Charm


for


Nightmare


also


illustrates


the


continuing


importance


of performance


elements


Middle


English


charms.


As outlined


Chapter


Two,


elements


performance


in charms


can


include


writing


or inscribing


symbols o

magically


r text

and s


accompanying


in a particular


ymbolically


physical


action,


manner,


the


significant


or symbolic


incorporation


objects,


and


gestures.


As in


the


Anglo-Saxon


banishing


charm


Fertile


Land


Charm


Nightmare


continues


incorporate


these


elements


performance


order


insure


magical


efficacy.


The


charm


performer


instructed


to incorporate


an object


of magical


significance


flint


stone


with


a natural


hole)


, write


charm

action


on paper,

(hanging


and

the


accompany


charm


inscription


with

flint


the appropriate

over the


stable


door).


Chaucer'


Charm


Against


Nightmare2


, below,


also









Canterbury


, which


makes


possible


a glimpse


possible


functions


of magical


performance


within


culture


. In


order


to understand


these


oss


functions


must


place


charm


within


context


"Miller'


story


concerns


a love


tangle


among


an aging


cre


dulous


Alison


carpenter,


their


effeminate


cunning


church


clerk


John,


young


named


buxom


lodger


Absalom.


child


, Nicholas


In order


-bride


and


tryst


with


Ali


son


, Nicholas


fakes


a trance


a "vi


sion"


an impending


cataclysmic


flood


. Terrified


that


Nicholas


been


pos


sessed


an evil


spirit


while


trance


, Old


John


performs


a charm


nightmare.


Nights
(From
lines


pell
"The
3474


Miller'


3480


Tale"
Edited


from


Canterbury
e Hengwort


Tales


Manuscript


. Blake


, 1980)


Therewith

On four


the nyghtspel

halues of the


seyd

house


he anon-rightes


about


And


on the


thresshfold


on the


dore


without


'Jesu


Crist


seint


Benedight,


esse


house


from


euery


wikked


wight;
[creature]


nyghtes


nerye tn
[monster]


White


Pater


Noster


Where


wentestow


seinte


Petres


suster?'









thinks


is the


cataclysmic


flood,


cuts


himself


free,


crashes


to the


ground


, breaks


arm,


suffers


derision


of his


neighbors


lunacy


. Not


only


charm


performed


story'


biggest


fool


, Old


John


, he


cannot


even


recite


correctly


well


known


that


incantatory


language


summons


power


in order


to accomplish


des


ired


effect


through


magical


means


(Huxley


, 1956),


but


clearly


no power


can


be summoned


performance


the


charm


is mangled--through


ignorance-


-into


an apparently


ineffective


question


: "Where


wentestow


seinte


Petres


suster?"


In The


Miller'


Tale


Chaucer


creates


a charm


performance


context


which


audience'


expectations


are


that


charm


will


be a ridiculou


abortive


attempt


magic


, and


reason


performance


is a comic


attempt


individual


a buffoon


who


to ward


performs


an imagined


charm


danger


is a credulous


The


nincompoop


who


earns


contemptuous


deri


sion


of his


wife


, hi


neighbors


certainly


audience.


while


the


expectations


audience


are


at odds


with


those


charmer


, the


functions


magical


performance


are


fulfilled


: for


Old


John


, the


performance


elements


in the


charm


thus


serve


to further


repeats


it at the


strengthen


four


bani


shing


corners


efficacy;


house


and









Chri


stian


paradigm,


which


denigrated


old


folk


magic


foolish


ineffectual.


Binding


Thieves


Scene


Crime


turn


now


to a descriptive


analyst


of Middle


English


binding


charms


. The


intent


following


charm


against


eves


is to bind


villains


to their


crime


, there


to await


discovery


justice


upon


charmer'


return


. This


charm


draws


force


from


most


sacred


images


of Christianity:


stical


Trinity


, the


cumulative


undi


ssipated


magical


energy


every


mass


"that


ever


was


sayde


--more


and


lasse"


although


surreptitiously


retains


several


pagan


elements


"the


vertu


of herb,


grass,


ston


and


tree


Here


we see


emerging


ascendancy


of Chri


stianity


as the


symbolic


infrastructure


-Christian


practices.


The


charms


which


have


come


down


us from


period


generally


(but


always


aspire


to accomplish


magic


within


Chri


stian


theological


infrastructure,


although


traces


pre


-Christian


elements


remain


incorporated


usage.


A Charm


Against


Thieves


(From


Middle


English


Lvri


Luria


and


Hoffman,


Eds.,


. 120)


con our


hem


name


the


Fader


, and


Sone,


[them]


Holy


Gost,


Tn hm


1 C 11


1 thcrmnc+


I









vertu


vertu


Holy


every


Trinitee-


Masse,


That


ever


was


seyde


, more


asse-


vertu


of here


, gr


ass,


ston


and


tree-


vertu


that


ever


may


If here


come


[foes]


Me to robbe


, other


me to scion


[or]


slay]


They

They


stond

have


as still

no power a


vertu


as eny


way

Holy


ston,

gon


Trinitee


Tille


they


have


life


me.


Lord


Jesu


, graunte


me thi


even


Christian


charm


gathers


power


through


antonymy,


wherein


words


have


different


sound


sequences


and


opposite


meanings--yet

in a semantic


are


connected


field.


"Small


through]

" and


their


"large"


shared


are


inclusion


antonyms


They


sound


different


have


opposite


meanings


, but


they


are


both


entailed


within


semantic


field


of size.


fact,


they


are


both


size


determiners,


only


of different


degree


"Cold"


"hot"


are


both


within


semantic


field


temperature


descriptive,


"beginning"


and


"ending"


that


time


sequence,


"more"


ess


" that


amount.


SS.


!









In line


, the


charmer


summons


virtue


that


existed


within


dimen


sion


time


: "In


beginning


ending


" and


line


the


virtue


that


and


was,


ever


shall


antonyms


quantity


are


also


used


to encircle


gather


power


magical


power


generated


mass


"more


and


lasse"


conjured.


In charms,


antonymy


increases


magical


force


delineating


a sphere


of reference


including


elements


within


polarity


that


reference.


This


charm


also


illustrates


how


end


-rhyme


emerged


as a


sound


ass


ociation


device


to enhance


magical


power


Middle


English


charms.


Because


case


endings


and


other


inflections


had


been


simplified


or eliminated


time,


Middle


English


charms


dominant


alliteration


rhyming


technique


no longer


served


as it did


as the


Anglo


-Saxon


The


usual


rhyming


pattern


in Middle


English


charms


is the


couplet


A/B/A


(occasionally


structure)


punctuat


ed with


In A Charm


a variation


Against


Thieves


such


, couplet


rhyme

plays


transcends

a crucial


its

role


regular


sound

actual


association

binding con


duti


juration:


If here


come


[foes


Me to robbe


, other
[or]


me to sclon


[slay]


They


stond


as still


as eny


ston,









harm


they


might


their


"paralysis


are


bound


tightly


same


-rhyme


structure.


Although


-rhyme


predominates


in thi


charm,


alliteration


does


endure


as a sound


patterning


devi


ce.


line


which


seal


charm


They


stond


as still


as eny


ston,


alliterative


sound


symbolism


employed


to maximum


effect.


Within


proscribed


parameters


particular


universe


of discourse,


/st/


consonant


cluster


suqqests


the


conc


of remaining


fixed


one


spot


, .e.


standing


still


as a stone.


Bindina


Oneself


to Hearth


and


Home


The


following


charm


against


thieves


seeks


to bind


, not


only


the


thieves


the


scene


their


crime


, but


a portion


the


charmer'


essence


goods


left


behind


Against


Thieves


(From


Middle


English


Lvrics


, Luria


Hoffman


120)


To the


Holy


Goste


godes


bequeth


That


place


be set,


Father


theves


Sone


to let


[hinder]


goodes


away


to fet


[fetch]









Till


again


come;


Thorough


vertu


Holy


Gost


[power?]


Father


Sonne.


Now


go my


way


tide


what


may


betide


theves


hither


come


, here


shall


abide.


bind


And


you

you


theves

conjure,


So St.


Bartelmew


bound


Devil


With


bearde


so hoare


*The


line


is incomplete


Here,


as in the


Charm


Against


EDilepsy


and


the


Fever,


above


, the


charm


performer


makes


use


juxtaposition


direct


address


powerful


speech


acts


insure


safety


of hearth


home.


Any


thieves


that


might


"hither


come"


are


addressed


directly


simultaneously


brought


under


charmer'


control


with


strong


performatives:


I bind
And do


you,
you


thieves
conjure


This


charm


also


provides


an example


of a different


permutation


of antonymy


, for


here


intent


not


encirc

include


le all

e the


degrees

binary o


within


pposites


a semantic


going


field


and


rather


coming


. The


charmer


going


away


wishes


to prevent


theft


while


on a


journey


. The charm


asks


that


thieves


that


come









introduced


when


charmer


thieves


hither


come,


here


shall


abide


And


thus,


even


though


the


concluding


line


, with


reference


to St


. Bartelmew'


of binding


devil


with


own


beard


incomplete


, the


impre


sslon


that


success


all-encompassing


opposites


bound


together.


A Thief


Binds


Victims


a Niahtsnell


The


following


charm


comes


from


state


-sanctioned


religious


drama


The


Wakefield


Second


Shepherd'


Pageant


from


the


Townley


Cycle.


Religious


plays


evolved


from


a church-


sanctioned


liturgical


cycle,


Officium


Pastorum,


which


turn


provenance


from


a Latin


Chri


stmas


trope


(Cawley,


Since


charm


contained


within


a much


larger


text


a brief


explanation


context


in order


. Three


shepherds


Mak,


near


an unsavory


their


character


flocks


on a bitterly


, appear


the


cold


night


darkness


and


asks


hospitality


shepherds


, against


their


better


judgement,


allow


him


to bed


down


with


them


night.


When


they


drift


to sleep,


Mak


recites


a nightspell


which


allows


him


to make


with


a sheep


while


they


remain


in a


deep,


oblivious


slumber.


A Nicht


Spell


Mak


cst P a 1 PrT


Thr


Walkfi


. 79)


(Rec


cited by




r- _L


t | l


IP~









Now


were


time


a man


that


lacks


what


he would


To stalk


privily


then


unto


a fold,


And
For


nimbly
he might


to work
t abuy


then
the b


too b
were


again


old,
told


ending.


Now
But


were


time


he needs


to reel;


good


couns


That


fain


would


fare


well


And


has but


little


spending


about


a circle


as round


as the


moon


To I
That


And
'On


have


done


what


stone


shall


will,


still


till


theretill


till


that


of good


that


have


works


noon


done;
fone


Height


Over


your


go your


heads


eyes


hand
Fordo


lift.


your


sight


I must


make


better


shift


And


be right.


When


shepherds


finally


awake,


they


discover


their


ssing


sheep


go straightaway


to Mak'


cottage


, where


they


accuse


Mak


wife


of wrongdoing


which


the


couple


deny


. Whil


shepherds


discuss


whether


or not


lynch


Mak'


wife


, they


notice


a horned


infant


a cradle


(actually


ssing


sheep


in di


sguise


The


shepherds


are


shocked


eas


identify


a witch'


mark


on the


"child's"


ear


but


doting


mother


sees


nothing


except


perhaps


a little


magic.


This


induces


shepherds


to depart


without


seeking


vengeance


(except


tossing


Mak


a blanket).


They


are


rewarded


choirs


their


of angels


kindness


to attend


being


birth


summoned


Jesus


heavenly


in a manger


Bethlehem.


Thev


arrive


oonortunelv.


see


the


Chri


st child.


i









Mak'


nightspell


is a high-intensity


binding


charm


whose


intent


is to bind


victims


so completely


that


they


are


paral


vse


lying


"stone


still"


until


he has


done


. Mak


wishes


to blind


shepherds


to his act


and


apparently


he is successful


they


see


nothing


while


steal


sheep


, and


later


, they


cannot


tell


the


difference


between


a sheep


an infant


a cradle.


Mak


sheep


stealer'


Nichtspell


gathers


additional


power


manipulating


lexical


properties


of several


word


through


polysemy


Poly


semy


as defined


Akjamian,


et al


(1987)


, Grandy


(1987)


Lehrer


(1974)


the lexical


meaning


relation


which


words


sound


alike


have


different


meanings


, yet


they


cannot


be classifi


homophones


because


their


meanings


are


obviously


related


When


Mak


says


"For


might


abuy


bargain


were


told"


we can


see


an example


of polysemy


the


verbally-


derived

meanings


adjective

. In its


"told

older


sense,


two

"to


different


tell"


means


related

to count


enumerate


, while


more


modern


usage


means


to relate


recount)


Again


when


"Now


were


time


ree


we see


three


related


properties


word


"reel


In its most


ancient


sense


"reel"


comes


from


the


Old


Engli


hreol,


a bobbin


on which


carded


wool


was


wound.


Mak


course


intends


to steal a sheep,


which


will


, if











nocturnal


dances


held


in opposition


sanctioned


church


this


time.


Finally,


a related


usage,


reel"


means


waver


or fall


back,


as from


a blow.


This


course


what


Mak


hopes


will


happen


to his


victims


after


his


charm


is complete.


Thus


do polysemous


meaning


relations


increase


power


magical


language.


Mak


makes


connections


between


need,


orientation,


goal


drawing


on three


polysemous


aspects


one


word.


Since


magic


integrative


essence,


Mak'


charm


solid


form,


intent.


He has


integrated


schematic


aspects


of his


action.


Sound


Associations


Mak'


Niqhtspell


Anglo


-Saxon


charms


a four-stress


rhythm


still


the


prominent


metrical


character


stic


in most


Middle


English


charms.


In Mak'


Middle


English


binding


charm,


in the


Anglo-Saxon


binding


charm,


Lav


Last


Survivor,


metrical


economy


climactic


moment


of sealing


the


charm


sets


the


most


important


language


apart.


The


rhythmic


regularity


Mak'


Niahtspell


a constant


xx) x/(x) x/(x) x/xx/


iambic


with


minor


syllabic


variations,


crucial


moment,


metrical


pattern


changes:


U JU L


ao Vyor


eV S


Fnrin


vnhir


si1 rh t !











example,


body


in Mak'


sheep


charm


-stealing


line


charm,


with


he begins


phrase,


"But


the


actual


about


you


a circle


as round


moon


" and


very


sounds


uses


to cast


spell symbolize


magical


intent.


Although


we see


letters


[ou]


written


on the


page


, in


Middl


English


they


repr


sent


diphthong


/aw/


present


in the


modern


pronunciation


word


"hou


Rather


, the


[ou]


spelling


was


merely


Norman


orthographic


convention


representing


phoneme


, a high


back


tense


rounded


vowel.


opening


line


of hi


binding


charm


Mak


draws


a circle


with


manner


of articulation


well


as with


words


, using


no fewer


than


six


mid


and


high


back


rounded


vowels.


Thus,


through


use


of sound,


Mak


reinforces


magical


circle


-drawing


intent.


After


drawn


circle,


both


semantically


phonemically,


then


proceeds


raise


hands


expel


magical


energy


toward


victims.


The


sounds


Mak


uses


also


serve


to focus


mind


on the


task


at hand


through


symbolic


association.


intones


On height
On hixt/


Over
/over


your
yor


heads
hSdz


hand
hand


lift
lift/


Out
Ii1+-


run


your
rTyf


eyes
S ^r


Fordo


p.


your
''7.-w


sigh
t4 ,


. ,


I


I











from


back


of his


mouth


front.


the


first


line,


the back


vowel


followed


the


front


high


vowel


, while


even


consonants


parallel


this


outward


movement.


velar


cative


then


followed


alveolar


plosive


/t/,


which


launches


utterance


decisively


dramatically


into


world.


Mak


repeats


this


symbolic


articulatory


expulsion


the


subsequent


vowels


consonants.


Notice


forward


motion


the


~ /8/


, /a/


~ /i/


alternations


line


and


the


parallel


progressions


line


saw


Anglo


-Saxon


charms,


sound


symbolism


can


enhance


power


charms


reinforcing


charm


performer'


intent


through


imitation


and


more


elegant


cousin,


suggestion.


Here


we also


see


how


sound


symbolism


can


Increase


power


of a magical


utterance


paralleling


intent


charm


performer


on a phonetic


level.


The


Functions


of Performance


in Mak'


Nichtspell


In order


to understand


function


of performance


within


a culture


, Charles


Briggs


(1988)


reminded


us that


have


to know


who


performer


what


audience


expe


why


performance


taking


place.


Because


tradition


performance


interact


reciprocally,


members


, /u/











innumerable


vo1C


(p.1).


Whether


magical


performance


private


or public


, individual


or communal


, its


functions


are


threefold.


The


first


function


of performance


is to help


accomplish


elements


specific


of performance--i


charm


* .e.,


writing


performer


verbal


Thus,


delivery,


incorporating


magically


significant


objects


and


symbolic


gestures--focus


energy


charmer


on the


magical


task at

elements


hand.

inform


Second,

s (or r


this


incorporation


*einforms


of performance


participants


traditional


knowledge.


Third,


reiterating


this


traditionally


values


shared


England


knowledge


of Mak


reinforces


sheep


shared


stealer


cultural


, the


traditional

performance


knowledge


shared


Niaht


cultural


should


values


reinforce


which


were


Mak'


actually


in conflict


pre


-Christian


Christian


magical


paradigm


were


locked


a power


struggle


cultural


ascendancy


This


struggle


evolved


gradually


Anglo


-Saxon


did


view


practice


magic


as a concerted


conspiracy


overthrow

standards


Christianity,

of evidence.


and

the


rules


early

trial


Middle

, and


Ages

the D


"the


enalti


tended


to be


like


those


other


anti


-social


act"


(Robbins,


1970;


161)


. In


other


words


, it


was


what


people


spell











ancient


religion


their


forebears


throughout


Europe


while


they


incorporated


cosmology,


vocabulary


and


symbolism


Chri


stianity


into


their


cultural


schema


eters


, 1978)


Three


centuries


before


Mak,


Chri


stian


ritual


competed


with


pagan


practice;


so much


that


Canon


EDiscoDi


of 906


explicitly


condemned


custom


of worship


at nocturnal


feasts


(Hole,


1977,


24) .


century


before


The


Second


Shepherd'


Pageant


, a pagan


sect


devoted


to Aphrodite


still


flourished


Norman


capital


of Rouen,


and


French


manuscripts


Church


of Coureans


corroborate


the


particular


country


Norman


sympathy


folk,


towards


extent


magical


that


ladies


rituals


their


nobility


Religion


attended


nocturnal


(Crossley-Holland,


1982;


celebrations


Murray,


Old


1921,


72).


Across


channel


in post-conquest


England,


folk


who


also


inhabited


continued


wild


with


heath,


their


"heathens"


pre-Christian


(from


ceremonies,


O.E.


and


haeb)


were


often


prized


manorial


Norman


lords


as grooms


and


hunters


their


horse


whispering


hunting


magic.


6 Yet


the


pre-


Christian


paradigm


had


assumed


a descendant


status


was


wholly


sanctioned


society.


Philosophy


flourished


again


wisdom


the


ancients


was


no longer


discounted


of hand:


Magicians











view


paradigm


itself


(Griffon


strong


, 1991)


opposition


therefore


pre


-Christian


simultaneously


found


itself


obliged


increase


papal


pres


sure


to check


spread


of heretical


belief


some


of which


had


been


imported


from


East during


crusades


, but


many


of which


were


ancient


folkways


resurfacing


(Seligmann


, 1968)


Mak'


time,


tension


between


the


folk-ways


Christian


church


begun


take


the


shape--not


much


a philosophical


debate--as


a power


struggle


cultural


sanctioned


ascendancy


magical


conflict


practice


between


independent


state-


folk


practi


ces


people


became


more


evident,


many


individuals


executed


unauthorized


magical


practi


ces


were


prac


cing


Christians


whose


magical


language


was


entirely


Christian


tenor


(Dalyell


, 1973;


Kittredge


, 1956).


They


were


burned


because


they


operated


without


author


zation


hierarchy


, thereby


compromising


the


church'


control


over


magical


practi


ces


people.


Wakefield


Second


Shepherd'


Pageant


, the


character


of Mak


illustrates


church'


negative


stance


toward


unauthori


zed magical


practice.


Although


consummate


buffoon


like


Old


John


in Chaucer'


Charm


Against


the Nightmare,


above


, neither


Mak


an admirable


character











He and


later


wife


"Thi


are


hungry


twelvemonth


tells


was


wife


so fain


one


little


sheepmeat"


(Line


324)


He al


says


that


those


who


would


survive,


"fare


are


well"


in need


have


"good


no money


counsel


"but


Directly


little


spending,


after


Mak


demonstrates


that


he does


intend


to seek


"good


counsel"


foot


Chri


stian


cross


, but


rather


from


more


ancient


magic


circl


He begins


incantation


Latin,


saying


Manus


tuas


commendo


, Pontio


Pilato


("Into


your


hands


commend


myself,


Pontius


powerful


Pilate")


we saw


language


in Chapter


Church


been


Two


used


, Latin


since


, the


Anglo-


Saxon


times


within


charms


more


pagan


origin


(Storms


1975)


Here


we see


no Christian


overlay


within


the charm;


on the contrary


, in


Latin


statement


Mak


rejects


Church


giving


himself


over


to Chri


s executioner


Mak


cannot


ignore


Christian


paradigm;


rejecting


cons


titutes


a degree


of participation--however


unwilling---within


that


schema


. This


reactive


phenomenon


explained


folklori


st Kay


Cothran


(1979;


444),


who


holds


that


S. rejection


particular


tradition


. amounts


an ironic


twist


to participation


that


very


same


tradition


now


have


a profile


of who











way


impedes


him


from


fulfilling


functions


charm


performance.


Mak'


delivery


incorporation


magically


symbolic


gestures


speech


help


him


fulfill


firs


t function


of magical


performance,


which


attain


magical


goal.


Mak


wishes


to steal


a sheep


and


away


with


, and


Nirhtspell


helps


him


precisely


that


now


also


have


an understanding


of what


audience


charm


performance


expects


: to


informed


reinformed


traditional


knowl


edge


, which


the


second


function


of performance


, according


to Briggs


(1988)


surface


level,


we see


that


audience


expects


to be


reinformed


esirability


of adhering


the


pre-


Chri


stian


magical


paradigm


Mak


after


all,


mistrusted


neighbors,


tossed


in a blanket,


wife


is almost


lynched,


he mi


sses


visit


to Bethlehem


explanation


virgin


birth.


on a deeper


level


Mak'


reliance


upon


timel


ess


binding


charm


formula


serves


to reinform


audience


traditional


pre-


Christian


knowledge


now


in conflict


with


that


the


Church.


When


Mak


deiti


draws


, and


ancient


relies


on the


magical


circle


well-known


"stone


refers


still"


to lunar


phrase,


demonstrates


remarkable


continuity


between


Old