ATTACHMENT STYLE AND PERCEIVED QUALITY OF ROMANTIC PARTNER'S
OPPOSITE-SEX BEST FRIENDSHIP: THE IMPACT ON ROMANTIC
KELLY A. BURTON
DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
First and foremost, I would like to thank my family and friends for their
I especially would like to recognize my parents, Mr. and Mrs. Elliot
and Judy Burton, for their never-ending love and words of encouragement. Heartfelt
gratitude is also extended to my dissertation chairperson, Dr. Greg Neimeyer, and
committee members for their guidance, wisdom, and especially for the time they devoted
toward my scholarly and professional development. Finally, I would like to express
special appreciation to Ms. Jocelyn Saferstein for being such a supportive colleague and,
more importantly, a true friend. I could not have reached my goals without her.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKN OW LEDGEM EN TS ....... ..........................................................................................ii
1 INTRODU CTION .......... ..... .... .......................................... .................... ... ....... 1
Goals of the Present Study.......................................................................................2
H hypotheses ..............................................................................................................
2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE........ ........................................... .................. ...... ... ....8
Attachment Theory and Research........... .........
Influence of Attachment on Romantic Relationship
Influence of Attachment on Friendships...................
Jealousy .......................................... ... .... ........ ... .........
CC PP CC** Ct at*t*C~e CC.....
Ste P.C..... *5S-59D5 t* *P*e
M ETHODOLOGY t...................... .... ........... ............................... ...... ....... .. ... 17
Participants............................. ........................ .......... ..................................... ...... 17
RESULTS ............................................................................................................. 3
Prelim inary Analyses ............................................................................................23
Follow-up Analyses... .............. .............. ... ................ ...... .... ........ .... ............C. .... 25
DISCU SSION ............................................. Pe... ................ ............................ 28
R E FE R EN C E SS............................. ......... .......... ......*..C..... .......... ....... .C.........................C. ......- 3
A EDEMOGRAPHI INFORMATION .. ..... .............. ....... ............. .. ........... .. .......... 3 9
B FRIENDSHIP QUALITIES SCALE (MODIFIED)............................. ... .... ... ....... 40
C RELATIONSHIP ASSESSMENT SCALE.. ................................ ..... .................... 43
D DYADIC ADJUSTMENT SCALE ................ .......................... .. ............... ........... .44
THE INTERPERSONAL JEALOUSY SCALE. ................... ................... ..........,46
ADDITIONAL, QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS ................... ................... .................. 50
BIOGRA~AZ, SKETCH. ................... .........,,,,, .........,,,,, ..........
Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
ATTACHMENT STYLE AND PERCEIVED QUALITY OF ROMANTIC PARTNER'S
OPPOSITE-SEX BEST FRIENDSHIP: THE IMPACT ON ROMANTIC
Kelly A. Burton
Chair: Greg Neimeyer
Major Department: Psychology
The purpose of this study was to
whether romantic relationship satisfaction
influenced by not only a person's
but also by the quality of a
's best friendship with someone of the opposite
are identified in this study: (a) secure, (b) avoidant, and (c) anxious-ambivalent.
Prior research has suggested that securely attached
individuals tended to experience
higher levels of romantic relationship satisfaction than either avoidantly attached
individuals or anxious-ambivalently attached individuals.
The existing attachment
literature has largely ignored the potential influence of friendship quality on the romantic
relationship satisfaction a person experiences.
Data on participants'
romantic relationship satisfaction were analyzed using
anxious-ambivalent attachment styles, regardless of the quality of the partner'
Secondly, an interaction between attachment style and friendship quality was
predicted, with avoidantly attached participants reporting higher satisfaction when the
quality of their partners' friendships is high, and anxious-ambivalent participants
reporting lower satisfaction when the quality of their partners' friendships is high.
Satisfaction scores for securely attached participants were not expected to be affected by
friendship quality. Analysis of the data supported Hypothesis 1 but did not support
Romantic relationship satisfaction is a factor that can be found extensively
throughout the attachment literature (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991
Feeney & Noller,
1990; Hazan & Shaver, 1987; Simpson, 1990). However, the influence of attachment
style and an individual's
perception of the quality of his/her romantic partner's
sex best friendship on romantic relationship satisfaction is an area that has yet to be
As such, the current study will focus on the factors of attachment style and
perceived friendship quality to explore whether they affect romantic relationship
The current study wi
attempt to replicate the connections previously established
in the literature between attachment style and romantic relationship satisfaction
(Bartholomew & Horowitz,
Feeney & Noller, 1990;
990) and between attachment style and level
Radecki-Bush et al.
Hazan & Shaver, 1987
of jealousy (Guerrero, 1998;
Sharpsteen & Kirkpatrick, 1995). This study also will explore
whether differing levels of jealousy account for differing levels of romantic relationship
satisfaction among the various attachment styles.
In short, the present study seeks to
identify whether perceived friendship quality and attachment style of the perceiver affect
romantic relationship satisfaction, and will therefore explore the role of jealousy, not only
Goals of the Present Study
A substantial research literature has addressed the relationship between the quality
of early attachment to primary care givers and adult interpersonal relationships (Baranas,
Pollina, & Cummings, 1990; Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991
Feeney & Noller, 1990;
Simpson, 1990). As noted above, the correlation between early attachment styles and
adult romantic relationships has been a particularly prominent area of research (e.g.,
Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991; Feeney & Noller, 1990; Mayseless, 1995; Simpson,
In contrast to this long-standing line of research on attachment as it relates to
romantic relationships, relatively little research attention has been dedicated to adult
friendship and how the presence of such a relationship might affect the satisfaction one
has with his or her romantic relationship.
Therefore, the current study seeks to extend the existing literature by introducing
the element of friendship, in addition to the well-researched factor of attachment style, in
an effort to evaluate their separate and combined influence on romantic relationship
In other words, the goal of the current study is to examine whether the
perception one has about the quality of his or her romantic partner's
friendship with a person of the opposite
crossed with the perceiver's
style, has an effect on romantic relationship satisfaction.
This proposed differential effect of perceived high or low quality friendship on
romantic relationship satisfaction according to each of the three attachment styles has yet
to be investigated. The present study explores this area of adult friendships and romantic
The participants' self-identified attachment style, friendship quality, and romantic
relationship satisfaction were the variables of interest in the present study.
were asked to evaluate not only their romantic relationship satisfaction, but also their
perceptions of their current romantic partner's
opposite-sex best friendship. Each
participant identified his or her attachment style by selecting the most self-descriptive
paragraph out of a choice of three using Hazan and Shaver'
(1987) Adult Attachment
Specifically, each participant was asked to rate the friendship qualities outlined by
Bukowski et al. (1994) with the participant'
's opposite-sex best
friendship in mind. Higher levels of emotionally-charged qualities such as closeness and
conflict, as measured by the Friendship Qualities Scale (FQS; Bukowski et al.,
would be expected to be differentially related to romantic relationship satisfaction among
the three attachment styles.
For example, the level of romantic relationship satisfaction reported by secure
participants is not predicted to vary according to the quality of a romantic partner'
Not only do secure individual
tend to feel more satisfied in their romantic
relationships, but they also experience less jealousy than the other two attachment styles.
Romantic relationship satisfaction as reported by avoidant participants is expected
to be directly correlated with perceived friendship quality. In other words, an avoidant
individual would be likely to experience higher romantic relationship satisfaction when
he or she perceives his or her romantic partner's
friendship quality as high. The presence
emotional needs are being met in the friendship, thus easing the emotional demand on the
On the other hand, it is predicted that romantic relationship satisfaction for an
anxious ambivalent participant would be inversely related to perceived friendship quality.
As an anxious ambivalent person perceives higher friendship quality, it is expected that
his or her romantic relationship satisfaction would be lower. The rationale for this
prediction stems from research indicating that these individuals experience the greatest
jealousy of all three attachment styles, tend to fear abandonment the most, and often
doubt their partners'
love for them (Feeney & Noller, 1990; Hazan & Shaver,
1 98 7;
The current study will be conducted to determine the ways
style and the perception of a romantic partner's
in which attachment
opposite-sex best friendship are related to
romantic relationship satisfaction. Therefore, two hypotheses are proposed.
First, it is
believed that securely attached participants will report higher levels of relationship
satisfaction than will those who possess avoidant or anxious-ambivalent attachment
styles, regardless of the quality of the partner's
Second, an interaction between attachment style and friendship quality is
I will investigate whether the level of perceived friendship quality (high or
low) between a romantic partner and the partner's
best friend of the opposite sex has a
differential effect on romantic relationship satisfaction for each of the three attachment
romantic relationship satisfaction for secure, avoidant, and anxious ambivalent
attachment styles. Whereas secure individuals would not be expected to be affected by
varying levels of perceived friendship quality,
I am predicting that the perception of
friendship quality would have significant and opposing effects for avoidant individuals as
compared to those who are anxious ambivalent.
Specifically, I propose that, for a securely-attached participant, romantic
relationship satisfaction will not be affected by the quality of the participant'
friendship. The literature suggests that securely-attached individuals experience closer,
more intimate relationships and tend not to be worried about the dissolution of the
relationship (Guerrero, 1998
Hazan & Shaver, 1987).
Secure attachment also tended to
be correlated with satisfying and lasting relationships (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991
Feeney & Noller, 1990; Guerrero, 1998; Hazan & Shaver, 1987
because of this sense of stability and comfort within the romantic relationship that this
assertion is proposed.
It is expected that neither a high quality friendship nor a low
quality friendship between the participant's
partner and the partner's
will affect romantic relationship satisfaction.
Research has indicated that avoidant adults prefer to keep some emotional
distance from significant others and may feel mistrustful of them (Hazan & Shaver,
987). The literature has also suggested that those who are avoidantly attached may have
very few encounters with feelings of love (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991
Noller, 1990; Hazan & Shaver, 1987
If it is true that avoidantly-
then it stands to reason that these individuals may be more satisfied with a romantic
relationship if the partner's needs for intimacy are met by a high quality close friendship.
Those who are anxious-ambivalent may experience feelings of insecurity
regarding the stability and likelihood of longevity in their romantic relationships, leading
them to expend a lot of energy toward obtaining reassurance from their partners
(Guerrero, 1998; Hazan & Shaver, 1987).
These individuals are also characterized by
jealousy and dependency within their romantic relationships and have been shown to
have the lowest relationship satisfaction (Feeney & Noller, 1990; Mayseless, 1995).
When an anxiously attached person is faced with the potential threat of a partner'
quality opposite-sex friendship, it is expected that this
individual will become jealous and
exasperating to his/her partner. The individual may be apt to experience lower
relationship satisfaction as a result.
In summary, I predict that securely attached participants
' romantic relationship
satisfaction will not be affected by the perceived quality of their partners'
best friendships. However, an interaction of attachment style and friendship quality
In short, I predict a difference in romantic relationship satisfaction between
avoidant individuals and anxious ambivalent individuals depending on the high or low
perceived quality of their partners'
In other words, I predict that those who
are avoidantly attached will report greater romantic relationship satisfaction when they
their romantic partners' friendships to be of high quality
In contrast, I expect
that anxious ambivalent participants wil
endorse lower romantic relationship satisfaction
To offer some examples, all heterosexual scenarios for the purpose of the current
study, consider a woman who identifies as securely attached. Her romantic relationship
satisfaction, while more likely to be high than the other two attachment styles, is not
affected by her perception of the quality of her boyfriend's
friendship with his female
friend. He may have a very close, high quality friendship with his friend, or he may have
a strained, low quality friendship with her. Neither the former nor the latter
characterization of the nature of the friendship would be expected to influence the
securely attached woman'
romantic relationship satisfaction.
The second example is that of an anxious ambivalent man. Due to his
embodiment of anxious ambivalent characteristics, his level of romantic relationship
satisfaction is low as his perception of the quality of his girlfriend's
male friend is high. By the very nature of hi
man is more likely to feel threatened by his girlfriend'
regarding his girlfriend's
friendship with her
attachment style, the anxious ambivalent
male friend, jealousy, and doubt
feelings for him than the other two attachment styles.
The final example depicts an avoidantly attached woman. She has a hard time
getting close to her boyfriend and feels uncomfortable with intimacy. Therefore, she
experiences increased romantic relationship satisfaction when her perception of the
quality of her boyfriend's
friendship with his female friend is high. A potential
explanation for this might be that her boyfriend is able to get most of his emotional
needs/need for intimacy met by his close female friend, which relieves the pressure for
the avoidantly attached woman to fulfill her boyfriend's
Attachment Theory and Research
Bowlby (1982), often thought of as the father of attachment theory, defines
attachment behavior as any type of behavior that causes an individual to search out or
keep in close physical contact with another significant individual who is considered more
capable of dealing with events in the world.
Bowlby (1969, 1973,
empirical research on attachment theory as it relates to infant behavior. He suggested that
emotional attachment to their caregivers causes them to suffer emotional distress
upon separation. He considers the biological role of attachment to be that of protection,
staying close in proximity to a caregiver because of feelings of familiarity and the
expectation that he/she will be there to help in the case of an emergency.
Later research on infant attachment focused on the development of three
prototypical attachment styles to primary caregivers: secure, avoidant, and anxious-
ambivalent (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall,
Ainsworth et al.
secure style infant as more constructive and functional than the insecure styles
found that these infants do not struggle when in close physical contact with their primary
caregivers, but rather are soothed by them.
nfants use their primary caregivers as a
safe foundation from which they can investigate the world and believe that their primary
There are two branches of the insecure style, avoidant and anxious-ambivalent.
The avoidant style infant is found to detach from or avoid primary caregivers in times of
need, opting for emotional detachment, and also doubting the intent of others. The
anxious-ambivalent style describes infants who cling to their caregivers and thus more
frequently seek them out in distressing situations. However, once in contact with their
caregivers these infants show anger and bitterness towards them.
Expanding on these studies was the idea that throughout social growth people
build affective/cognitive models of the self and of the interactional characteristics within
interpersonal relationships (Ainsworth et al.,
1978; Bowlby, 1973).
affective/cognitive models are thought to systematize the growth of personality and to
direct later social behaviors and close relationships (Kerns, 1996; Simpson, 1990).
Repeated findings on these mental models (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991; Feeney &
Noller, 1990; Hazan and Shaver, 1987
Simpson, 1990) reveal that securely attached
people are relatively self-confident, trusting of others, and usually quite positive in their
general relations with others.
Mikulincer (1995) studied the relationship between attachment style and several
facets of the mental representation of the self
n high school students. He found that
secure and avoidant styles are more likely than anxious-ambivalent styles to have a more
positive view of self. Securely attached participants were also more likely to have a more
complex and coherent self-structure than the two insecure types. Shulman (1995) found
securely attached individuals to have more flexibility as well.
People with avoidant styles
Mikulincer (1995) found anxious-ambivalent styles to have a lower positivity score, a
more negative self-schema, and more negative affective experiences than that of the other
Influence of Attachment on Romantic Relationship Satisfaction
The literature has shown that the effects of attachment style extend beyond
interpersonal relationships in general to adult romantic relationships specifically. Hazan
and Shaver (1987) have facilitated this work by developing a self-report instrument for
assessing adult attachment styles that consists of three short paragraphs, based on the
attachment typology of Ainsworth et al. (1978).
Hazan and Shaver's
(1987) study investigated the idea that romantic love is an
attachment process, similar to the process that occurs early in life between an infant and
his/her primary caregiver. The study focused on the three attachment styles identified by
Ainsworth et al.
(1978) and the belief that these styles persist into adulthood due to
of self and others that direct social behavior. Hazan and
Shaver (1987) propose that these models of self and others, and consequently a person's
attachment style, are partially determined by childhood relationships with parents.
findings of the study included the incidence of the three attachment styles is
approximately the same in infancy as it is in adulthood, the different attachment styles
differ accordingly in the ways they perceive romantic love, and attachment style is
associated with mental models
of self and relationships, as wel
as relationship with
perceptions about family of origin relationships, while avoidant participants were more
likely to report maternal separation during childhood and to convey a mistrusting attitude.
Interestingly, participants identifying as anxious ambivalent were less likely to perceive
their fathers as supportive than avoidant participants. The authors found that anxious
ambivalent participants also lacked independence and yearned for a strong commitment
Hazan and Shaver (1987) found that secure adults expressed greater comfort in
relation to dependency and intimacy, and were not as concerned with the possibility of
being deserted by a romantic partner. Additionally, secure adults'
tended to be the most enduring and satisfying (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991
& Noller, 1990; Hazan & Shaver, 1987
Avoidant adults, by contrast, are relatively uncomfortable getting too close
emotionally to others and have trouble depending on and trusting others (Hazan &
987). Many other researchers (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991
Noller, 1990; Hazan & Shaver, 1987; Simpson, 1990) conclude that avoidant adults also
are more apt never to have been in love and have the fewest love experiences.
Hazan and Shaver (1987) found anxious-ambivalent adults to become overly
close to their romantic partners, frequently questioning their romantic partners' love for
them, and having constant concerns that their partners are going to abandon them. Others
(Feeney & Noller, 1990; Mayseless,
995) found that anxious-ambivalent styles were the
most iealous and dependent in their relationships. have the least amount of satisfaction in
Influence of Attachment on Friendships
Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991) asserted that the effect of attachment style on
romantic relationships extends to other intimate relationships, such as friendships. Close
friendships possess qualities that are quite unique. For example, friendships are the least
institutionalized and most freely chosen of all interpersonal relationships (Blieszner &
Grabill and Kerns (2000) conducted a large study with over 800 college student
participants in an effort to study attachment style and intimacy in adult friendship.
authors identified three intimacy characteristics: self-disclosure; responsiveness to a
's disclosure; and feeling understood, validated, and cared for by a partner during
conversations. They found that those with a secure attachment style were higher on all
three intimacy characteristics and are therefore more likely than those who are insecurely
attached to possess the qualities necessary for close relationship (e.
formation. Gender differences in intimacy were also found. Womei
of disclosing, responding, and feeling responded to than did men (Grabil
n showed higher rates
There are many qualities that contribute to the composition of friendships. This
study utilizes the friendship characteristics outlined by Bukowski, Hoza, and Boivan
(1994). Bukowski et al. (1994) conceptualize close friendships as consisting of five
defining qualities. These include companionship, conflict, help, security, and closeness.
First, companionship refers to the quantity of time that two friends freely choose to spend
that they do not always agree in their relationship. Third, help is evaluated by looking at
reciprocated help and support in times of need and also by wanting to come to a friend's
relief if another person were bothering him/her. Fourth, they measure security by faith
that a friend can be depended on in times of need and also the notion that ifa fight should
occur between two friends, the friendship would endure this fight. Lastly, the fifth aspect
of friendship in their measure is closeness. Bukowski et al.
(1994) measure closeness as
the feeling of affection in the friendship, and also by strength of the bond between two
When an individual'
someone of the opposite
romantic partner is engaged in a close friendship with
the individual may have a positive or a negative reaction.
This variability in reaction from person to person may be the result of a person'
attachment style, or mental model for approaching relationships with others (Ainsworth
, 1978; Bowlby, 1973). Based on earlier research on attachment (Bartholomew &
Horowitz, 1991; Feeney & Noller, 1990; Hazan & Shaver, 1987
Simpson, 1990), it
seems reasonable to expect that people with an avoidant attachment style would be likely
to react positively to the presence of a high quality friendship between a romantic partner
and the partner's
The avoidant attachment style individual has been
shown repeatedly to dodge inner experiences or outward displays of emotion when
possible, and might therefore feel a sense of relief from having someone else (the
's friend) to help fulfill the emotional needs of the romantic partner.
presumably due to feeling as if the security of the romantic relationship were threatened
or, put simply
, jealousy. Although the presence of an opposite-sex friendship outside the
romantic relationship could have a negative effect on romantic relationship satisfaction
for any number of reasons (e.g.,
concern over how outsiders might interpret such an
arrangement, decrease in the amount of time romantic partners have to spend with each
other, feeling left out), it is suspected that jealousy,
or the threat of losing a romantic
partner to the partner'
opposite-sex friend (i.e.,
rival), is the most salient (Guerrero,
Bowlby (1973) asserted that attachment systems are activated in response to the
potential of abandonment or any threat to a significant relationship. Mathes and Severa
p. 23) define jealousy as "the negative emotion resulting from actual or threatened
loss of love due to a rival.
According to Guerrero (1998), one cannot ignore the
contribution of jealousy when examining romantic relationship satisfaction, and it has
been found to be a contributing factor to romantic relationship satisfaction in many
studies on the topic (Bringle, Evenbeck, & Schmedel, 1977
Mathes, Roter, & Joerger, 19
Mathes & Severa, 1981
and Mathes, 1986). Previous studies on jealousy by
Guerrero (1998) and others (Radecki-Bush et al.,
Sharpsteen & Kirkpatrick, 1995)
suggest a connection between jealousy and attachment and have shown that securely
attached individuals have lower amounts of jealousy in their romantic relationships than
people who have an insecure attachment style. Bringle,
Evenbeck, and Schmedel (1977)
studied married couples and found a negative correlation between jealousy and romantic
Guerrero (1998) studied 144 college students who were involved in enduring
romantic relationships at the time of the study. All participants completed questionnaires
assessing their jealousy experience, jealousy expression, and attachment styles. She
found that those who possessed negative self-models (characterized by lack of confidence
and need for ongoing external validation) reported experiencing more jealousy than those
with positive self-models (characterized by self-sufficiency and confidence). The author
also found that jealous participants with negative other-models (characterized by seeing
relationships as relatively unrewarding or nonessential) felt fear to a lesser extent, used
less relationship-maintaining behavior, and participated in more avoidance/denial than
participants with positive other-model
(characterized by a belief that relationships are
rewarding and future or potential partners will be supportive, receptive, and accepting).
In contrast, studies by Mathes and Severa (1981) and Mathes (1986) reported a
positive relationship between jealousy and romantic satisfaction. Mathes and Severa
(1981) studied 79 dating or married couples, with at least one of the partners enrolled in a
university introductory psychology class.
The average length of relationship was 9.9
The authors found a positive correlation between jealousy and romantic love,
suggesting that jealousy may be beneficial.
relationship was, the more
Results showed that the more romantic a
ikely it was to contain jealousy. Mathes (1986) conducted a
longitudinal study whereby he compared the jealousy scores of 65 undergraduate couples
to their relationship status seven years later. He found a positive long-range effect of
jealousy on romantic relationships and concluded that jealousy led to lasting love and
Neither study accounted for level of commitment or seriousness of the
relationship; therefore it is impossible to know how invested the participants were in their
current romantic relationships. Given the young age of the participants, it is possible that
at least some of the relationships were emotionally casual in nature. This could explain
lower levels of jealousy, as well as a higher likelihood of eventual relationship
dissolution. Participants who were more jealous may have been so because they were
more committed to their romantic relationship and, therefore, more invested in seeing it
remain intact. This higher level of commitment could explain why these couples were
more likely to have remained together seven years later. Commitment may be a major
confounding variable in these studies. Rather than jealousy contributing to commitment,
perhaps commitment contributes to jealousy for some individuals.
It is possible that, for some people, jealousy may arise in reaction to a romantic
's high quality friendship with someone of the opposite
According to the
studies detailed above, jealousy appears to have an effect on romantic relationship
Therefore, when attempting to study the potential influence of attachment
style and various friendship qualities on romantic relationship satisfaction, it appears
necessary to assess and control for the potential contributing effect of jealousy on any
findings that emerge.
The participants for this study were
1 undergraduate psychology students. All
participants were enrolled in introductory psychology courses and were recruited from
the general psychology research pool and from foundation-level psychology courses at
the University of Florida. Only the data gathered from participants who reported being in
a committed, heterosexual romantic relationship at the time of the study were used.
The first two items of the questionnaire addressed
sex of the participant and
ethnicity of the participant (see Appendix A).
The Friendship Qualities Scale (FQS). The FQS (Bukowski, Boivin, & Hoza,
1994) is a 23-item, self-administered, paper-and-pencil measure showing high reliability
and validity (Bukowski et al.,
1994) designed to
the quality of nonromantic
friendships (see Appendix B). For the purpose of the current study, the language of this
measure was modified so that the questions inquired about the quality of the participant'
's opposite-sex best friendship.
This scale wil
be used to assess the friendship
quality of the best opposite-sex friendship of the participant's
partner, as perceived by the
their free time together"), conflict (e.g.,
"My partner can get into fights with his/her
friend"), help/aid (e.g.,
friend would help him/her if he/she needed it"),
security ( e.g.,
"If my partner has a problem at school or at home, he/she can talk to
his/her friend about it"), and closeness (e.g.,
"If my partner'
friend had to move away,
he/she would miss him/her"). Each par
whom he/she deemed to be the partner'
this friend while completing the measure.
ticipant was asked to identify a specific person
best friend of the opposite sex and think only of
They were required to rate the friendship on a
standard five-point Likert scale (ranging from 1 (never or almost never true) to 5 (always
or almost always true) to respond to the questions, with higher scores reflecting higher
scale has been shown to have high internal consistency with
alpha levels ranging from .69 to .83 (Bukowski et al
., 1994). In the current study, the
reliability of the instrument was found to be adequate with an alpha level of .89.
Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS). This self-administered, paper-and-pencil,
seven-item scale was designed by Hendrick (1988) to be a generic measure of romantic
relationship satisfaction (see Appendix C).
such as "How wel
Respondents are asked to answer questions,
does your partner meet your needs?" using a five-point Likert scale,
ranging from 1 (very poorly) to
(very well), with higher scores reflecting higher
relationship satisfaction. Hendrick, Dicke, and Hendrick (1998) deemed thi
to be a
practical and effective measure for assessing love relationship satisfaction. Hendrick
(1988) reported the scale'
mean inter-item correlation to be .49 with an alpha level of
.86. Reliability of the RAS in the current study was found to be .83.
topics which could potentially create agreement or conflict (see Appendix D). The DAS
taps such areas as "Handling family finances"
and "Matters of recreation"
respond to a six-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (always disagree) to 6 (always agree),
with higher scores reflecting higher relationship satisfaction. Data from the current study
show good overall internal consistency reliability (alpha
.81). The validity for the DAS
previously has been checked with logical content validity procedures. Additionally, each
item of the DAS has been found to differentiate between married and divorced couples,
demonstrating concurrent criterion-related validity.
Interpersonal Jealousy Scale (US). The US (Mathes & Severa, 1981) is a 28-
item paper-and-pencil measure of relationship-specific romantic jealousy (see Appendix
E). The US has high reliability (alpha
.89) and validity as reported by Mathes, Roter,
and Joerger (1982) and Mathes and Severa (1981), with the same value found when
analyzed in the current study. Items are responded to using a nine-point Likert-type scale
ranging from 1 (absolutely false, disagree completely) to 9 (absolutely true, agree
completely). Sample items are "If (participant'
partner) went out with same sex friends,
I would feel compelled to know what he/she did"
someone of the opposite sex I would feel irritated" (Mathes & Severa, 1981).
Adult Attachment Measure. The Hazan and Shaver (1987) measure (see
Appendix F) is a self-report measure consisting of three short paragraphs designed to
categorize persons into attachment styles:
secure, insecure avoidant, or insecure anxious-
Respondents choose the one paragraph that best describes their feelings.
contingency coefficient of.60.
An analysis that measures the strength of association
between categorical variables (Kerlinger, 1986) indicated acceptable consistency of the
In a study of construct validity, a factor analysis of the 13 individual
statements comprising the three-paragraph measure yielded three factors: Comfort With
Closeness, Concern About Insufficient Closeness, and Discomfort With Closeness factors
(Hazan & Shaver, 1987).
These factors were used in an analysis of variance that
differentiated among styles of attachment in the predicted way.
discriminant functions analysis (Hazan & Shaver, 1987) revealed that combinations of
responses to the individual statements successfully predicted categorical responses to the
original measure. Additional questions of interest were included at the end of the
questionnaire (see Appendix G).
The researcher or the researcher'
assistant met with participants in small groups
and explained that the study was about interpersonal relationships. Prior to receiving the
packet of materials, participants' anonymil
time without penalty was reviewed, as wel
ty and right to terminate participation at any
as the availability of the results from this
study. All participants were given an informed consent sheet and asked to read it
carefully before signing.
Copies of the informed consent were made available to
Brief instructions were given, including the definition of "romantic partner'
friend of the opposite sex"
as being someone who was the opposite sex of the partner
approximately 30-45 minutes to complete the questionnaire. All participants were
compensated for taking part in the study by receiving credit in their introductory
The data from the current study will be analyzed using a 3 x 2 x
Analysis of Variance (MANOVA), with independent variables of attachment style with
three levels (secure, avoidant, anxious-ambivalent) and two levels of friendship quality
(high, low) and dependent variables of romantic relationship satisfaction as measured by
the DAS and RAS.
Secondary analyses. If the primary data analysis supports the second hypothesis
by showing that an interaction exists between attachment style and friendship quality in
the predicted direction, then secondary analyses will be performed using data from the
US and the subscales of the FQS.
If a correlation is found between FQS scores and
romantic relationship satisfaction scores, further investigation will be done to determine
the effect of jealousy as a contributing factor. It is presumed that anxious-ambivalent
I have lower romantic relationship satisfaction scores when their partners
have high quality friendships because of a feeling of jealousy or perceived threat to the
stability of the relationship.
If this is found to be true, then it would be expected that
scores on the US would differ between attachment styles.
If both secure and avoidant participants'
satisfaction scores are associated with
higher FQS scores, it is presumed that different mechanisms contribute to that correlation
participants. Research has shown that avoidant individuals separate themselves, or
dissociate from strong affect (Hazan & Shaver, 1987). This characteristic would be
expected to be reflected in an avoidant individual'
responses to items on the FQS that
assess qualities such as closeness and conflict.
Of the 220 participants identifying as being in a heterosexual committed romantic
relationship who took part in this study, 21.82% (N
= 48) were male and 78.18% (N
172) were female. Additionally, 66.1% (N
= 145 total; N
= 30 males, N
= 115 females)
identified themselves as securely attached, 19.9% (N
= 44 total; N
= 9 males, N
females) as avoidant, and 14.0% (N
= 31 total; N
= 9 males, N
females) as anxious-
ambivalent, using the Adult Attachment Measure (Hazan & Shaver, 1987). This
distribution across attachment styles is consistent with that which has been reported
previously (Hazan & Shaver,
Prior to conducting the main analysis of the data, a series of preliminary analyses
were designed to determine the successfulness of the designations of the attachment style
assignments. A series of one-way analyses were conducted on the ratings of the three
attachment descriptions. Results of the ANOVAs demonstrated that those participants
identifying themselves as securely attached rated the secure attachment profile as being
significantly more self-descriptive (M
= 0.70) than the avoidant (M
= 1.18, SD
= 0.95) or anxious-ambivalent (M
= 0.97) profiles, F(2, 146)
Similarly, the participants identifying as avoidantly attached rated the avoidant
Participants who chose the anxious-ambivalent attachment style
also rated that version as significantly more self-descriptive (M
= 3.13, SD
= 0.81) than
the secure (M
= 1.00, SD
1.04) or avoidant (M
1.11) profiles, F(2, 31)
These findings provide confidence in the accuracy of assigning
participants to the various attachment groups, as well as characterizing the robustness of
As a second preliminary analysis, a high friendship quality group and a low
friendship quality group were formed by using overall scores from the FQS in a median
split. An ANOVA was conducted to determine the robustness of the assignment of people
to each of the two groups. This assignment was shown to be robust, F(1
= 104.74, p
, suggesting that, when examining friendship ratings across attachment styles,
there was a significant difference between perceived friendship in the high friendship
quality group (N
= 105: M
= 8.90) and the low friendship quality group (N
= 67.90, SD
11.81) as measured by overall
Additionally, the distribution of gender across attachment groups was analyzed. In
particular, a 3 (secure, avoidant, and anxious ambivalent) x
was conducted and found to be insignificant, Chi Square =
2 (female, male) Chi-Square
(2, 220), p
This is consistent with previous literature (Hazan & Shaver, 1987),
suggesting that gender does not covary with attachment style.
In addition to examining the distribution of gender across attachment groups, the
duration of the romantic relationship was also assessed. Overall, relationships tended to
6 months, and 11.4% (N
= 25) lasting 3 months or less. To ensure that relationship
duration was not confounded with attachment style, an attachment style by relationship
duration Chi-Square (2,
.076 was conducted. Results were not
significant, indicating that relationship length did not differ according to attachment style.
A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted using attachment
style and friendship quality as the independent variables, with the DAS (Spanier, 1976)
and RAS (Hendrick, 1988) serving as dependent variables reflecting romantic
relationship satisfaction. This 3 (secure, avoidant, or anxious-ambivalent attachment
2 (high or low friendship quality) factorial analysis was conducted along the
romantic relationship satisfaction scores of the DAS and RAS.
The two between subjects
factors include the three attachment styles (secure, avoidant, or anxious-ambivalent) and
friendship quality (high or low) as measured by the overall scores on the FQS (Bukowski
., 1994). The high and low designations for friendship quality were achieved using a
median split, resulting in a high friendship quality group (M
= 8.91) and a
low friendship quality group (M
= 67.90, SD
This MANOVA revealed a significant main effect for attachment style, F(2, 193)
= 8.32, p
No significant main effect was found for either friendship quality F(2,
, p < .092 or an interaction of attachment style and friendship quality F(2,
insignificant effect for attachment on the DAS F(2, 193)
< .062, (M
11.73), however there was a significant effect for attachment on the RAS F(2, 193)
= 8.31, p
= 28.33, SD
= 4.46). The direction of the differences showed that
the secure attachment style (M
= 29.18, SD
= 4.15) differed significantly from the
avoidant attachment style (M
= 4.71), Tukey's, p
as well as the
anxious ambivalent attachment style (M
= 26.96, SD
= 4.49), Tukey 's, p
avoidant attachment style and the anxious ambivalent attachment style did not differ
significantly from each other, Tukey 's, p
The current study sought to investigate whether romantic relationship satisfaction
was influenced by attachment style and friendship quality. The relationship found in the
current study between attachment style and romantic relationship satisfaction is
consistent with related research in the area (Collins & Read, 1990; Feeney & Noller,
1990; Simpson, 1990).
Similar research has also noted differences in levels of jealousy
according to attachment style (Guerrero, 1998; Hazan & Shaver, 1987
., 1993). Due to the findings of previous research that jealousy is correlated with both
attachment style and romantic relationship satisfaction (Guerrero, 1998; Radecki-Bush et
,1993), the relationship-specific jealousy of participants' in the current study was
measured and analyzed in an effort to determine whether jealousy was influencing the
findings of the current study.
Thus, the current study attempted to replicate the finding in the attachment
literature that there are, in fact, differences in levels of jealousy according to attachment
< .002. The direction of the differences revealed that the secure attachment style
= 27.52) significantly differed from the anxious-ambivalent attachment
= 154.70, SD
= 29.83), Tukey 's, p
.002. However the avoidant attachment
= 145.44, SD
= 28.77) did not significantly differ from either the secure (p
.113) or the anxious-ambivalent (p
In an effort to determine whether these differences in jealousy accounted for the
differences in relationship satisfaction associated with different attachment styles, an
ANCOVA was conducted, using the IJS scores as a covariate in a two way ANOVA,
with the factors being attachment style and friendship quality. Results indicated that the
effect for attachment style on relationship satisfaction (using the RAS) was again
significant, F(2, 177)
= 4.29), indicating that
differential levels of jealousy did not account for the differences among attachment styles
in relation to their levels of relationship satisfaction.
Findings of the Present Study
The current study sought to investigate whether attachment style and perceived
quality of a romantic partner'
opposite-sex best friendship have an effect on romantic
relationship satisfaction. Two hypotheses were proposed. The first hypothesis predicted
that those individuals identifying as securely attached would report higher levels of
romantic relationship satisfaction than those endorsing either the avoidant or anxious-
ambivalent attachment styles, regardless of friendship quality. The second hypothesis
suggested that an interaction would occur between attachment style and friendship
quality. This hypothesis proposed that avoidantly attached participants would report
higher romantic relationship satisfaction when the quality of the friendship between their
partners and their partners'
best friends of the opposite
sex was high. The second
hypothesis also proposed that participants who identified as anxious-ambivalent would
possess lower romantic relationship satisfaction when their partners' friendship quality
was high. Romantic relationship satisfaction for securely attached individuals was not
expected to be affected by friendship quality.
The results of the current study support the first hypothesis. A main effect for
attachment style was found, showing that, when measured with the RAS, securely
that demonstrated a relationship between attachment style and romantic relationship
satisfaction (Collins & Read, 1990; Feeney & Noller, 1990; Simpson, 1990).
Many studies have shown a connection between attachment style and jealousy
(Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991; Collins & Read, 1990; Guerrero, 1996a, 1996b, 1998;
Hazan & Shaver, 1987; Radecki-Bush et al.,
1993; Sharpsteen & Kirkpatrick, 1995;
White & Mullen, 1989). Therefore, jealousy was assessed and analyzed to determine its
effect on the results of the current study. Consistent with the literature (Hazan & Shaver,
1987; Radecki et al.,
1993; Sharpsteen & Kirkpatrick, 1995), jealousy varied according to
attachment style. Securely attached participants endorsed lower levels of jealousy than
did anxious-ambivalent participants. Avoidantly attached participants'
level of jealousy
did not differ significantly from either secure or anxious-ambivalent attachment styles, a
conclusion that supports Sharpsteen and Kirkpatrick'
(1995) finding that avoidantly
attached individuals were less likely to have lingering feelings of jealousy because they
tended to feel anger toward the rival instead.
After differing levels of jealousy were taken into account, support for the first
Therefore, it can be concluded that varying levels of romantic
relationship satisfaction across attachment styles were not due to jealousy alone. Further
research will need to ascertain what does, in fact, account for those with a secure
attachment style having higher romantic relationship satisfaction than those with insecure
The second hypothesis of the current study proposed that the variance in romantic
several potential reasons why the second hypothesis was not supported. The
questionnaire required judgements about the quality of a friendship as perceived by the
participant, who was not a part of the friendship. This may have led to guesses rather than
accurate assessments of the nature and characteristics of the friendship. Secondly, due to
the college student population used, it is likely that many of the participants' partners'
opposite-sex friends lived somewhere other than the location in which the participants
and their partners lived. This could have caused the participant to know even less about
the friendship, and to perceive it as less of a threat. In this situation, it is possible that
many of the participants may not have ever met their partners' friends, let alone seen their
partners interact in the friendship. Thirdly, attachment style may be such a strong
predictor of romantic relationship satisfaction that other factors, such as outside
friendships, are not salient enough to affect satisfaction in either direction.
Future research in this area could address some of these limitations by sampling
either a younger (e.g.,
high school students) or older population where the friend is likely
ive in the same location as the romantic couple. Researchers may also want to include
quality of the partner'
romantic partner in the study for purposes of accurately assessing the
Contribution to the Existing Literature
study has contributed to the area of attachment research by producing results
that replicate the findings of earlier studies by Hazan and Shaver (1987) and others that
demonstrated differing level
of romantic relationship satisfaction across attachment
Based on the results of the current study, it appears that securely attached people
are more satisfied with the nature of their romantic relationships than those who are
insecurely attached. This finding is in agreement with the existing literature (Hazan &
Shaver, 1987; Feeney & Noller, 1990; Simpson, 1990; and Bartholomew & Horowitz,
1991) which found securely attached adults to have the most enduring and satisfying love
Results did not produce evidence that the two insecure types, avoidant and
anxious-ambivalent, differed from each other in romantic relationship satisfaction.
Previous studies (Feeney & Noller, 1990; Mayseless, 1995) found anxious-ambivalent
to have the least satisfaction in romantic relationships of the three attachment
styles. Other research (Hazan & Shaver, 1987
Simpson, 1990; Bartholomew &
Horowitz, 1991) has concluded that avoidantly attached adults are more likely to have
never been in love than the other two styles and have the fewest love experiences. It
would appear that the two insecure types are both less
ikely to have fulfilling romantic
relationships than securely attached individuals. Though the two insecure styles may have
different processes to account for less romantic satisfaction, they both had significantly
lower levels of romantic satisfaction than the secure style as measured in the current
The present study did not find support for the idea that the interaction of
perceived friendship quality and attachment style affects romantic relationship
satisfaction. No significant difference was found in friendship quality as a function of
relationships has been found to extend to other relationships like friendship
(Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991), the current study did not find evidence of differences
in romantic relationship satisfaction based on perceived friendship quality across
attachment styles. This may be due to the indirect method used to explore friendship
quality. Participants were asked to evaluate the friendship quality of their romantic
' friendship with the partners' best friend of the opposite sex.
Thus, the friendship quality scores that were obtained reflected an outside
(the participant) opinion of the quality of a friendship in which s/he is not a
participator. The friendship quality scores are therefore a perception of a biased
individual and may have been affected by interfering factors (lack of knowledge, lack of
direct observation). For the purposes of the current study, the perception of friendship
quality by the study participant was the desired
information, and whether this perception
was in agreement with the perceptions of the actual members of the friendship was of no
Future research could explore how attachment style affects the degree of
agreement between an individual'
perception of a romantic partner'
when compared to the romantic partner'
Similar to previous studies on jealousy (Radecki-Bush et al.
,1993; Sharpsteen &
Kirkpatrick, 1995; Guerrero, 1998), the current study found a significant relationship
between jealousy and attachment style. Jealousy was explored to assess its contribution to
the current study's
findings. Anxious-ambivalent participants had significantly higher
of jealousy than securely attached participants. This was expected based on
The avoidant attachment style did not differ significantly from the other two
styles on the jealousy measure in the current study. Again, this finding is consistent with
previous research (Hazan & Shaver, 1987) that has shown avoidant individuals to be the
most uncomfortable with emotional intimacy and the most likely to avoid inner
experiences of emotion of the three attachment styles.
Guerrero (1998) asserted that jealousy must be taken into account when studying
romantic relationship satisfaction. Jealousy was found to be a contributor to romantic
relationship satisfaction in several studies on the topic (Bringle, Evenbeck, & Schmedel,
1977; Mathes & Severa, 1981; Mathes, Roter, & Joerger, 1982; Mathes, 1986). However,
results from the current study show that differential levels of jealousy alone did not
account for the differences across attachment style in relation to romantic relationship
satisfaction. In other words, differing levels of romantic relationship satisfaction among
the three attachment styles remained, even after controlling for differing level
jealousy. Therefore, it appears that one or more factors are contributing to differences in
romantic relationship satisfaction other than jealousy.
In sum, the current study found
differences in romantic relationship satisfaction based on attachment style and differences
in jealousy based on attachment style, but differences in jealousy did not account for
differences in romantic relationship satisfaction.
Implications for Future Research
The existing attachment literature has focused on dyadic relationships.
current study attempted to expand the focus from just the dyad to a larger, systemic
this area could build upon this idea by assessing friendship quality first-hand through the
romantic partner and the partner's
friend. A comparison or contrast could be made of the
perception of the quality of the friendship with both the romantic
's perception and the friend'
perception. Differences in agreement according to
the original participant'
attachment style could then be investigated.
The area of attachment and friendship has produced little research to date. The
current study attempted to form a link between the well-researched area of romantic
satisfaction and attachment with the relatively new area of friendship and attachment.
Although attachment has been described as a dyadic process and therefore studied in that
manner, it could be argued from a systemic perspective that any dyadic relationship is
influenced by the broader social context and various external relationships that extend
from the dyad.
This concept produces fertile ground for attachment researchers.
Limitations of the Present Study
Several limitations to the current study can be identified. The study is
correlational, thus preventing the ability to determine cause and effect.
may affect romantic relationship satisfaction, romantic relationship satisfaction may
affect attachment style, or a third variable could be responsible for the relationship.
college student population, where individuals are often living away from home and close
friends, may have limited the ability for participants to observe directly their romantic
Friendships, and some participants may have never even met their partners'
friends. These factors could seriously hinder a participant'
ability to assess friendship
satisfaction, jealousy, and friendship quality. The order of instruments within the
questionnaire was the same for all participants, which meant that the attachment measure
always came after measures of friendship quality, romantic relationship satisfaction, and
jealousy. It is possible that responding to the earlier measures activated certain feelings or
beliefs that affected participants'
selection of an attachment style. Future research should
vary the order of the measures in an effort to control for contamination. Additionally, no
assessment was made to determine whether the best friend of the participant's romantic
partner was a best friend of the participant as well.
Future research could explore the option of turning this study, which is
correlational in nature, into one that can be experimentally controlled. This might involve
provoking jealousy in the participant by creating a scenario (real or imagined) where the
romantic partner spends time with his/her friend rather than the participant, then
assessing factors like romantic relationship satisfaction, friendship quality, and
attachment style immediately following the event.
Within the context of these considerations and limitations, the findings of the
current study nonetheless provide qualified support for the association between
attachment style and romantic relationship satisfaction. Despite interpersonal jealousy
and romantic relationship satisfaction relating in theoretically predictable ways to
attachment style, jealousy alone failed to account for differences in romantic relationship
satisfaction. Future work that more effectively measures or manipulates levels of jealousy
in the context of specific relationships may be able to more effectively test an
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Directions: Please bubble in the answers on the bubble sheet in the order in which they
Sex: M (bubble 1)
FRIENDSHIP QUALITIES SCALE (MODIFIED)
Choose the person whom you regard as your romantic Dartner's opposite
sex best friend and write their name at the top of the page.
Answer the following
questions in the scale in reference to your romantic partner's relationship with this
Rate each item on the following scale:
- the item is Almost Never or Never true about their relationship
- the item is Seldom true about their relationship
- the item is Sometimes true about their relationship
- the item is Often true about their relationship
- the item is Almost Always or Always true about their relationship
Think about each item carefully and be sure to rate their friendship according to its
current state ('the way it is now') and not according to how you want it to be.
My partner and my partner'
(Almost Never or Never)
friend spend all their fee time together.
(Almost Always or Always)
4. My partner'
friend thinks of fun things for them to do together.
(Almost Never or Never)
5 (Almost Always or Always)
5. My partner and my partner'
(Almost Never or Never)
friend go to each other's
houses after school and on
(Almost Always or Always)
6. Sometimes my partner and my partner'
school, sports, and things they like.
(Almost Never or Never)
friend just sit around and talk about things like
ictimes) 4 (Often) 5 (Almost Always or Always)
7. My partner can get into fights with her/his friend.
1 (Almost Never or Never) 2 (Seldom) 3 (Sometimes)
(Almost Always or Always)
friend can bug or annoy my partner even though my partner asks her/him
(Almost Never or Never)
(Almost Always or Always)
11. If my partner forgot her/his lunch or needed a little money,
loan it to her/him.
my partner's friend would
(Almost Never or Never)
(Almost Always or Always)
My partner's friend helps my partner when s/he is having trouble with something.
(Almost Never or Never)
(Almost Always or Always)
friend would help my partner if s/he needed it.
(Almost Never or Never)
(Almost Always or Always)
14. If other kids were bothering my partner, my partner's friend would help her/him.
(Almost Never or Never)
(Almost Always or Always)
15. My partner's friend would stick up for my partner if another kid was causing her/him
(Almost Never or Never)
5 (Almost Always or Always)
16. If my partner has a problem at school or at home, my partner can talk to her/his friend
(Almost Never or Never)
(Almost Always or Always)
17. If there is something bothering my partner, s/he can tell her/his friend about it even if
it is something s/he cannot tell to other people.
Almost Never or Never)
(Almost Always or Always)
18. If my partner said s/he was sorry after s/he had a fight with her/his friend, the friend
would still stay mad at my partner.
(Almost Never or Never)
19. If my partner or my partner'
them, they can make up easily.
(Almost Never or Never)
friend does something that bothers the other one of
(Almost Always or Always)
If my partner and my partner'
friend have a fight or argument, they can say 'I'm
' and everything will be all right.
(Almost Never or Never)
(Almost Always or Always)
If my partner'
friend had to move away, my partner would miss her/him.
(Almost Never or Never)
(Almost Always or Always)
My partner feels happy when s/he is with her/his friend.
(Almost Never or Never)
(Almost Always or Always)
Mv partner thinks about her/his friend even when the friend is not around.
25. Sometimes my partner's friend does things for her/him, or makes her/him feel special.
1 (Almost Never or Never) 2 (Seldom) 3 (Sometimes) 4 (Often) 5 (Almost Always or Always)
RELATIONSHIP ASSESSMENT SCALE
Please answer the following questions about your relationship with your romantic
26. How well does your partner meet your needs?
26. How well does your partner meet your needs?
1 (Very Poorly)
3 (Neither Poorly nor Well)
In general, how satisfied are you with your relationship?
1 (Very Dissatisfied)
3 (Neither Dissatisfied nor Satisfied)
28. How good is your relationship compared to most?
I (Much Worse)
3 (About the Same)
29. How often do you wish you hadn't gotten into this relationship?
30. To what extent has your relationship met your original expectations?
1 (Did Not Meet Any of My Expectations)
4 (Met Most of My Expectations)
(Met Very Few of My Expectations)
(Definitely Met My Expectations)
How much do you love your partner?
1 (Not At All)
(Not Very Much)
4 (Very Much)
How many problems are there in your relationship?
2 (Hardly Any)
3 (A Few)
4 (A Lot)
5 (Too Many to Count)
DYADIC ADJUSTMENT SCALE
Most persons have disagreements in their relationships. Please indicate below the
approximate extent of agreement or disagreement between you and your partner for each
item on the following list.
1 = Always disagree
2 = Almost always disagree
3 = Frequently disagree
4 = Occasionally disagree
5 = Almost always agree
6 = Always agree
33. Handling family finances
34. Matters of recreation
35. Religious matters
36. Demonstrations of affection
38. Sex relations
39. Conventionality (correct or proper behavior)
40. Philosophy of life
41. Ways of dealing with parents or in-laws
42. Aims, goal, and things believed important
43. Amount of time spent together
44. Making major decisions
45. Household tasks
46. Leisure time interest and activities
47. Career decisions
4=More often than not
5=Most of the time
6=All the time
50. In general, how often do you think that things between you and your partner are
51. Do you confide in your mate?
Do you ever regret that you married?
(or lived together)
How often do you and your partner quarrel?
How often do you and your mate "get on each other's nerves?"
Do you kiss your mate?
4=Almost Every Day
Do you and your mate engage in outside interests together?
l=None of them
2=Very few of them
3= Some of them
4=Most of them
5=All of them
How often would you say the following events ocacur between you and your mate?
2=Less than once a month
3=Once or twice a month
4-Once a day
57. Have a stimulating exchange of ideas
58. Laugh together
59. Calmly discuss something
60. Work together on a project
These are some things about which couples sometimes agree and sometimes disagree.
Indicate if either item below caused differences of opinions or problems in your
relationship during the past few weeks.
61. Being too tired for sex
1 = No 2 = Yes
Not showing love
The numbers on the following
ine represent different degrees of happiness in
your relationship. The middle point,
" represents the degree of happiness of most
relationships. Please bubble in the number that best describes the degree of happiness, all
things considered, of your relationship.
64. Please bubble in the number of the following statements that best describes how
you feel about the future of your relationship.
I ,rnn .art4salt C"^ nrt lut ^nn h n r. unr-on&4 onAl urnnjms 1nn In -inet nu, fnnntL. taf lj-U^T U
THE INTERPERSONAL JEALOUSY SCALE
In responding to each item place the name of your romantic partner in the blank
of each item. Then use the scale below to express your feelings concerning the truth of
the item. For example, if you feel that the item is "absolutely true" of you, bubble in a 9
on your bubble sheet for that item.
bubble sheet, etc.
If it is only "definitely true" bubble in an 8 on your
= absolutely true; agree completely
= definitely true
= slightly true
= neither true nor false
= slightly false
= definitely false
= absolutely false; disagree completely
120. If_______ were to see an old friend of the opposite sex and respond with a
great deal of happiness, I would be annoyed.
121. If_______ went out with same sex friends, I would feel compelled to know
what he/she did.
admired someone of the opposite sex I would feel irritated.
were to help someone of the opposite sex with their homework, I
would feel suspicious.
likes one of my friends I am pleased.
125. If__ were to go away for the weekend without me, my only concern
would be with whether he/she had a good time.
were helpful to someone of the opposite sex, I would feel jealous.
would be flattered.
were to become displeased about the time I spend with others, I
and I went to a party and I lost sight of him/her, I would become
to remain good friends with the people he/she used to date.
were to date others I would feel unhappy.
132. When I notice that_
something in common, I am envious.
and a person of the opposite sex have
133. If were to become very close to someone of the opposite sex, I
would feel very unhappy and/or angry.
I would like
to be faithful to me.
I don't think it would bother me if
flirted with someone of the
If someone of the opposite sex were to compliment
that the person was trying to take
I feel good when
, I would feel
__ away from me.
makes a new friend.
138. If_________ were to spend the night comforting a friend of the opposite sex
who had just had a tragic experience, _________'s compassion would please me.
139. If someone of the opposite sex were to pay attention to
become possessive of him/her.
140. If were to become exuberant and hug someone of the opposite
it would make me feel good that he/she was expressing his/her feelings openly.
. The thought of
kissing someone else drives me up the wall.
If someone of the opposite sex lit up at the sight of
I would become
I like to find fault with
IfI saw picture of
and an old date I would feel unhappy.
were to accidentally call me by the wrong name, I would
ADULT ATTACHMENT MEASURE
Which of the following best describes you? Please choose only one.
I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others; I find it difficult to trust them
completely, difficult to allow myself to depend on them. I am nervous when
anyone gets too close, and often love partners want me to be more intimate than I
feel comfortable being (mark 0 on your bubble sheet if you choose this one).
I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I often worry that
my partner doesn't really love me or won't want to stay with me. I want to get
very close to my partner, and this desire sometimes scares people away (mark 1
on your bubble sheet if you choose this one).
2. I find it relatively easy to get close to others and am comfortable depending on
them. I don't often worry about being abandoned or about someone getting too
close to me (mark 2 on your bubble sheet if you choose this one).
Please rate each of the following descriptions using the following scale:
Very much unlike me-
I am somewhat uncomfortable being
completely, difficult to allow myself
anyone gets too close, and often love
feel comfortable being.
-Very much like me
close to others; I find it difficult to trust them
to depend on them. I am nervous when
partners want me to be more intimate than I
I find that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I often worry that
my partner doesn't really love me or won't want to stay with me. I want to get
very close to my partner, and this desire sometimes scares neoole away.
ADDITIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS
152. Are you in a committed romantic relationship at this time?
153. How long have you been with your partner?
0 0 to 3 months
1 4 to 6 months
2- 7 to 9 months
3 10 to 12 months
4 more than a year
5 Not currently in a committed romantic relationship
154. How would you characterize your romantic relationship with your current partner?
0. Opposite-sex romantic relationship
1. Same-sex romantic relationship
and your romantic partner live:
in the same city most of the time
not in the same city, but in the same county most of the time
not in the same county, but in the same state most of the time
not in the same state, but within 500 miles of each other
more than 500 miles apart
Your romantic partner and your romantic partner's best friend of the opposite sex
y most of the time
city, but in the same county most of the time
county, but in the same state most of the time
state, but within 500 miles of each other
When answering questions about the
romantic partner's best friend of the
answers are accurate?
friendship between your romantic partner and
opposite sex, how confident do you feel that
158. Has your romantic partner ever engaged in sexual activity with his or her opposite
sex best friend?
1. I'm not sure
2. Yes, while we were together
3. Yes, while we were not together
(Note: Items 65. 119. were used for a separate study.)
Means, Standard Deviations, and Cell Sizes for each Attachment Style and
Friendship Quality Group along Two Measures of Romantic Relationship Satisfaction
Attach Friendship Mean Standard
Low 27.12 4.94 17
Avoidant High 25.29 4.43 17
Total 26.21 4.71 34
Low 27.75 3.73 16
Ambivalent High 25.92 5.33 12
Total 26.96 4.49 28
Low 29.75 3.44 68
Secure High 28.56 4.74 63
Total 29.18 4.15 131
Low 28.99 3.89 101
Total High 27.61 4.92 92
Total 28.33 4.46 193
Low 123.00 14.75 17
Avoidant High 122.18 15.12 17
Total 122.56 14.71 34
Low 126.38 13.19 16
Ambivalent High 123.83 8.83 12
Total 125.29 11.40 28
Low 127.69 10.67 68
Secure High 127.73 10.92 63
Total 127.71 10.75 131
Low 126.69 11.84 101
Total High 126.18 11.67 92
Table 2: Correlations between Dependent and Independent Variables
Length FQS US RAS DAS Avoidant Anxious Secure
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
Table 3: Descriptive Data
Currently in a
Male = 48
Female = 173
Asian = 15
Yes = 221
Latino/a = 29
Length of 0 to 3 months = 4 to 6 months = 7 to 9 months = 10 to 12 months = More than ]
relationship 25 18 29 17 -= 130
Sexual Opposite sex
orientation of (heterosexual)= a/ei 1
relationship 221 (gay/Iesian)= 1
participant and elWithin 500 miles Mon than 5
romantic Same city = 148 Same county = 9 Same state = 41 Within 500 miles More than 5
romantic 10 miles= J
Within 500 miles = More than 5
partner and Same city = 115 Same county = 23 Same state =41 With 500 miles Morethan
romantic 12 miles =3(
partner's friend___________ __
aerceivd wNot at all Somewhat Very confident Extremely
auraicy when confident= 9 confident = 64 =98 confident= 51
between Yes, while we w
romantic No = 176 Not sure = 17 were together = Yes, while we were
partner and 3 not together = 24
The author obtained her undergraduate education in the major of psychology at
the University of Florida. She graduated with honors and received a Bachelor of Science
degree in May 1998.
In August 1998, she began her graduate training in the counseling
psychology doctoral program at the University of Florida. The author received the degree
Master of Science in December 2001 and will graduate with a Doctor of Philosophy
degree in counseling psychology in August 2004.
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and
quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Greg Neimeyer, Chair
Professor of Psychology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and
quality, as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Associate Professor of Psychology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and
quality, as a dissertation for the degree of D tor of Philosophy.
Cy/^1 L ,
kW .Keth Berg L7
Professor of Psychology
I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it conforms to
acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully adequate,
quality, as a dissertation for the degreefWDoctorof Philosophy.
in scope and
Associate Professor of Counselor Education
This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Department of
Psychology in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and to the Graduate School
and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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INGEST IEID EUNWKGFBF_SQR0QE INGEST_TIME 2011-09-21T15:00:15Z PACKAGE AA00002035_00001
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