OCALA MULTI-MODAL TERMINAL
ATHLETIC CLUB AND RETAIL COMPLEX
AN ADAPTIVE USE and
A terminal project in partial fulfillment of requirements
leading to the Degree of Master of Arts in Architecture.
by JAMES B. BLACK
F. Blair Reeves
Charles F. Morgan
Department of Architecture
University of Florida
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Existing Buildings and Project Sites
Multi-Modal Terminal 19
Athletic Club and Retail Complex 24
Program Requirements and Site Considerations
Multi-Modal Terminal 26
Athletic Club and Retail Complex 38
Racquet and Swim Club
Program Summary Square Footage Requirements 54
Architectural Design Alternatives 58
Athletic Club and Retail Complex
The terminal project presented herein is an example of how urban
redevelopment can generate stimuli for architectural potentials.
Two such architectural potentials shall be presented in this
project as they fit within this framework of possible redevelop-
ment in Ocala, Florida. An adaptive use of the Ocala Union
Station into a multi-modal transportation center shall be the
first part of the project. The design of a contemporary build-
ing, adjacent to the train station site, shall be the second
part of the project.
The project sites are bounded by N.E. 1st Avenue to the west,
N.E. 5th Street to the south, N.E. 4th Avenue to the east, and
the Seaboard Coastline Railroad tracks to the north. Rails of
the old Atlantic Coast Railroad run north and south through the
area, dividing it and forming the two sites.
Ocala is not unlike many small cities, in that much of the down-
town area is experiencing difficulty in maintaining a productive
commercial environment. Growth has been largely spontaneous in
Ocala. The most recent and largest development of real estate
has been occurring away from downtown, along major transporta-
tion arteries and towards the newer developing areas.- Efforts
by public officials and Ocala businessmen have been successful
in stimulating an improving environment in the central downtown
PROJECT VICINITY MAP
FIVE BLOCK REDEVELOPMENT DISTRICT
ATHLETIC CLUB AND RETAIL COMPLEX
athletic club and..
__. I i w .
-- i -
-. ---- -_ _- _n.__ -"--+"
.0 '", --...... f.S_ .. ... -
OLL L z
business district. New buildings have been built in this area
and several existing, prominent buildings have been rehabilitated
and adaptively used, with new functions. Unfortunately there
have been buildings torn down in the name of progress, that
perhaps never should have been., The sensitivity to and
potential of old buildings was not what it is today. Attitudes
are changing and an awareness of growth management is evident
and producing results in Ocala. Preservation of the Union Train
Station will be positive action in this direction.
Continued improvement of the downtown environment has prompted
planning officials to further study the existing city fabric and
attempt to determine the best method towards its highest utili-
zation. As in the case of many preservation projects, an exist-
ing building of substantial quality can be the seed for action
taken to improve an entire urban area. The Ocala Union Station
has the potential to generate progressive action in the area
surrounding it. The Union Station is located five blocks north
of the heart of downtown Ocala. A brief overview of those five
blocks might not indicate immediate concern for redevelopment,
but planning studies have shown that this area, along with others,
should be given priority planning considerations whenever pos-
sible to ensure its most productive future.
It has been estimated that transportation costs can demand up to
ten percent of the average family's income. Recent fossil fuel
price increases will undoubtedly raise that value unless attitudes
about transportation change and action is taken by everyone to
reduce the acknowledged problems that will occur. Ocala's present
rate of growth along with the eminent energy concerns will demand
a much greater degree of action to be taken by city officials to
ensure continued productivity and growth. A business district
that can provide many services within a concentrated area might
prove to be successful within the growing transportation restric-
tions. This would require comprehensive planning and progressive
controls to ensure positive results.
Redevelopment of the five:block area between the Union Station
and the downtown business district falls within this concentra-
tion of concerns. People could come to this area and conduct
many of their commercial and public activities. Mass transit
could aid in this concept by providing transportation to various
areas of the downtown district as well as to outlying areas. As
growth continues in Ocala, and all sources indicate such, it will
become more profitable for a mass transit enterprise to succeed
financially and service the area. The Multi-Modal feasibility
study did not address mass transit concerns as a primary part of
the facility. As will be discussed the Multi-Modal Terminal shall
service major inter-city and interstate transportation concerns.
However intra-city vehicles shall be considered at the terminal
as necessary. The terminal could function very well as the northern
point along a five block route through this area. At the prelim-
inary level it is not anticipated that vehicle space would be
available for anything more than a transitory stop along the route.
The major function of the Multi-Modal Terminal shall be to provide
a centralized location for inter-city bus and rail transportation.
At the present time rail and bus transportation facilities are
very much underutilized in Florida and across the nation. Auto-
mobile and air travel have taken the. priority in personal travel
due primarily to convince and time savings,respectively. This
will undoubtedly see increasing change with the increasing cost
of fossil fuels. Ridership on trains is up almost thirty percent
over one year ago for people (primarily tourists) coming into
Florida from out of state. This figure continues to rise in the
face of minimal government support and threat of total service
Regardless of possible changes in transportation priorities, Ocala
is in a position to benefit from any reconcentration of these
transportation modes. "Nearly all the major north-south highways
of Florida, Interstate 75; US 441; 301; and 27, funnel through
Marion County. With the exception of 1-75, all of these run on
the western edge of the Central Business District of Ocala. These
highways are intersected by heavily travelled State Roads 40 and
200 to make Ocala highly accessible and attractive for commerce,
manufacturing and tourism.
MAJOR TRANSPORTATION ROUTES
SIX GUN TERRITORY
OCALA VICINITY MAP
MAJOR COMMERCIAL ESTABLISHMENTS
Added to this concentration of major highways is one of the two
Amtrak routes through Florida. The rail line crosses each of
these highways as it passes through the northern and western sections
of the city. Four trains daily stop at the Union Station which
is five blocks north of the downtown square. The 24,325 passengers
who boarded and disembarked at Ocala last year made it the 148th
busiest station of the 500 on the Amtrak schedule."1
These 1977 figures for rail travel are exceeded by Greyhound bus
ridership. Arrivals and departures to and from Ocala in 1977
exceeded 25,000 people. This combined inter-city passenger turn-
over exceeds Ocala's population by almost 15 percent. Compared
to similar train and bus terminals, across the nation this may not
seem like a very large number. However these values and the po-
tential that combined facility holds, indicates the rather large
impact that a Multi-Modal Terminal could have on the citizens of
Beyond the obvious passenger service that the Multi-Modal Terminal
could provide, is the impact that the station has on tourists
traveling through Florida and specifically Ocala. In 1978,estimates
were that a minimum of one quarter of a million people passed through
Ocala on the four daily trains. With over all rail ridership
increasing this value shall also increase. Presently the rail
corridor through Ocala is not a very attractive one.Light indus-
trial and commercial establishments as well as depressed,.under-
utilized properties line the majority of track through Ocala. It
would be costly and improper to try and beautify the entire cor-
ridor, beyond just improving the quality of the existing environ-
ment. The rehabilitation and adaptive use of the Union Station
would be a priority measure towards this improvement. Redevelopment
of the five block area between downtown and the station would
further this attempt at improving Ocala's image to potential tourists
In 1978 the architectural firm of Edward Snowden d'Avi, AIA con-
ducted a study towards determining the feasibility of such a multi-
modal terminal and its best possible location. Improvement of trans-
portation facilities and services has been a concern of Marion
County and Ocala businessmen, government leaders and average, citi-
zens. This interest was responsible for the funding of the study
by Florida's D.O.T. Consolidation of rail and bus services within
the existing and presently underutilized Union Station was seen
as the best alternative to not only the concerned individuals
but also as a conclusion of the feasibility study.
Multi-modal transportation centers have proven successful in var-
ious locations throughout the United States. A review of these
facilities along with the particular qualities of the Union Station
and Ocala generated the following concepts and objectives for a
Multi-Modal Terminal for Ocala. These concerns were the guide-
lines for the adaptive use alternative explored in this text.
"The concept of a multi-modal terminal involves the combination
of passenger oriented transportation services; i.e. rail, bus,
taxi,airport limousine, and rental car agencies at-a single lo-
cation. Additional related travel services; travel agencies, eat-
ing facilities, newsstands, gift shops, etc. may also be provided
as space and economic considerations allow. There is a wide range
of possible combinations of modes; but, by usual definition, the
terminal must include some form of rail passenger service.
This transportation center would operate ideally in much the same
manner as an airport terminal with separate passenger boarding/
debarking areas and ticketing facilities for each system; but
common waiting rooms, baggage areas, and rest rooms/janitorial
The advantages of shared facilities are the increased opportunity
for passenger and baggage interchange between.modes and.the reduc-
tion of duplicated or underutilized spaces.
The objectives relative to transportation systems for the proposed
Ocala terminal are:
to encourage greater use of passenger transportation modes
by providing high quality facilities.
to offer co-ordinated transportation services to the community
by establishing a "call-one-number" location for passenger
to reduce traffic congestion and passenger confusion over
available transportation options.
to assist the well-ordered growth of existing and projected
Of equal importance are the goals of the terminal involving
community improvement, which areas
to enhance the appearance and economic viability of the ter-
minal's immediate vicinity through exemplary design and
planning practices and; thereby, increasing the tax base and
promoting an economically healthier and more social downtown
to project a positive image of Ocala as a "gateway" to the
agricultural, industrial, tourist and natural resources with
th3 central region of Florida.
to reestablish th.e depot as a community "hub" generating a
multiplicity of functions for community involvement.
to restore the passenger station as a symbol of civic pride,
giving visitors and residents a sense of the community's
to relate, wherever possible, to existing community amenities,
green spaces, historic resources, attractions, etc.
to promote the thoughtful use of the community's natural
and man-made resources." 2
A combination of progressive planning, transportation and preser-
vation concepts are the generating force behind Ocala's Multi-
Modal Terminal. The success of this project shall act as an
example and reference for other projects in Ocala that deal with
each of the three concepts mentioned above.
ATHLETIC CLUB AND
Architectural development within the urban fabric requires very
careful consideration of many urban planning problems. An effec--
tive program will delineate guidelines that do not restrict pro-
gressive and innovative design alternatives. Order must be main-
tained within the system of many diverse components. The Multi-
Modal Terminal project and subsequent redevelopment of the five
block area between it and downtown Ocala represent a definite
attitude of growth management. This project would respond to not
only the urban planning problems but it would show definite con-
cern for planned action by public officials.
Part two of this terminal project is the design of a potential
contemporary building that would respond to the redevelopment
momentum generated by The Multi-Modal Terminal. There is no real
client for this project and none was intended. The potential
project would be a private racquet and swim club, combined
with commercial retail space and a child care facility. A large
scale public restaurant would also be part of this organization
but owned by and accessible to the club.
Support for a recreational and retail complex such as this can
be found without a great deal of comprehensive research. An eval-
uation of financial feasibility, existing social and recreation
facilities would immediately show the need for such a facility
in Ocala. Despite other major recreational enterprises such as
"Wild Waters", "Six Gun Territory", and "Silver Springs", a pri-
vate athletic club as described, has .been considered and .could
be successful. The planning issues previously discussed and the
architectural potential of the chosen site further support this
The chosen site is directly east of the Union Station, across
the old Atlantic Coast rail lines. N.E. 5th Street runs east
and west at the southern end of the site and would provide the
largest amount of vehicular access to this complex as well as to
the Multi-Modal Terminal. The Seaboard Coastline's rails curve
to the northeast and form the northwestern boundary of the site.
At a point approximately seven hunded and forty feet from the
center of N.E. 5th Street the site boundary breaks from the rail
right of way to the east, following the lot lines of the northern,
wood working and lumber supply establishments. The eastern bound-
ary is N.E. 4th Avenue, which runs north and.south and separates
the site from the existing Tuscawilla Park.
The described site has a great deal of potential for the proposed
use due to the following considerations. On an overall evaluation,
the existing structures are in an underutilized and depressed
condition. Many of the surrounding business establishments,
which are light industrial and commercial, also fall within this
condition. There are, however, several very successful businesses
in the area, two of which directly border the site. Their busi-
ness operations would not be harmed in any way by the athletic
club and retail complex. The businesses that are presently op-
erating on the site utilize less than fifteen per cent of the
site with the rest of the existing structures being badly damaged
and almost beyond salvage. The businesses are small enough to
relocate and might profit more from a better building and loca-
tion. This generally depressed condition of the site improves
the financial feasibilities for purchasing the property, removing
the existing, low value structures, improving the site and build-
ing the new complex.
Planning issues very strongly support the athletic club and retail
businesses. Tuscawilla Park is part of a planned recreation area
and the proximity of this private enterprise with the public
facility further strengthens the planning concept. The private
club can work to form a buffer and link between the park and the
planned commercial redevelopment to the five block area towards
In direct relationship to the recreation concept is the need to
maintain the planned green space. The grounds of the Multi-Modal
Terminal are intended to be the start of a green space belt that
will link the planned commercial redevelopment with the green
space of Tuscawilla Park. The athletic club and retail store
site is large enough to permit a great deal of foliage as a
compliment to this idea. The architectural potential of the new
building will be greatly increased by this condition.
Functionally there are few uses that can be maintained so
close to the railroad traffic and noise. The various activies
of the racquet and swim club could work compatably with this
noise,, and the architectural environment will suffer very little.
Vehicular traffic will have very little problem in getting to
the facility due to the close relationship with N.E. 1st Avenue
and Magnolia Avenue via N.E. 5th Street. Magnolia and 1st Avenue
are major one way arteries, south and north respectively and their
continued use and capacity has been well planned.
The user group remains one of the most important issues that seems
to resolve itself. Most of the private club members will be the
upper and middle class residents of Ocala. Membership will prob-
ably draw most heavily from the young people and professionals
that work either along Ocala's major arteries or within the down-
town central business district, both existing and planned. In
both cases the facility will be well located. Residential areas
exist to the east of Tuscawilla Park that would make the facility
very desirable to those interested residents. In terms of the
desired concentrated business district that can provide many
business, recreational, entertainment and social activity estab-
lishments, this facility will compliment and fulfill that priority.
PROJECT VICINITY MAP 18
PRIMARY CIRCULATION PATTERNS
ATHLETIC CLUB AND RETAIL COMPLEX SITE
MULTI-MODAL TERMINAL SITE
_::::___ ___ ___ ___ I '
athletic club and
l:1 ~:~:~:~: :;: gfretail complex -
AND PROJECT SITES
The two part project site is located within the city limits of
Ocala as described in the project statement of this program.
This section of the program shall present the information on the
project site as it will influence design alternatives for both
the Multi-Modal Terminal and the athletic club complex.
The site is located five blocks north of downtown Ocala, on the
northeast corner of N.E. 5th Street and N.E. 1st Avenue. "In the
northeast corner of the property is the primary building of the
complex, the passenger station with Amtrak's waiting room, ticket
office and baggage room. This one-story building has a second-
story, wood shingled tower rising at the northeast corner of the
structure. The predominant exterior'wall material is a dark red
brick with red-tinted mortar and a sandstone course running com-
pletely around the building directly below the window sill level.
The steep, hipped roof decreases in pitch from the ridge to form
seven-foot overhanging eaves around the building.
The structural system is composed of wooden roof trusses on frame
bearing walls with concrete spread measuring typically 9" x 24".
The only interior structural walls are those of the central ticket
office. All other interior walls are non-structural.
The condition of the building structurally is excellent. No
signs of foundation settlement can be found.
The primary interior materials are ceramic tile flooring, tongue
and groove wood wainscotting, plaster walls, and tongue and
groove beaded ceiling. Other noteworthy interior features are
the dark brick fireplaces and mantels in the waiting rooms and
the metal-grilled ticket windows. The ceilings are also notice-
ably high, 13'-71". The interiors of the station are intact and
in good condition."
"Located sixteen feet directly south of the passenger station is
the Railway Express Building which is of the same width, materials
and general form as the primary building. It is rectangular in
plan, 40'-0" x 29'-10". Few changes have been made to the basic
fabric of the building. The original asbestos roofing and ridge
ornaments are in place. The roofing has a worn appearance and
has been pierced insensitively in one place for a tall antenna
exposing structural, sheathing and soffit material to potential
The interior finishes are similar to those used in the main
building and are in relatively good condition. The major change
from the original open floor plan has been the addition of two
small offices in the southwest corner of the building."
"Southwest of the passenger station along the railroad track is
the rectangular, one-story building of approximately 2200 square
feet. It has a simple hipped roof. The exterior wall materials
are identical to the other buildings although the brick and sand-
stone have been painted over. A number of changes have been
made to the building in its conversion to a laundromat. This
is particularly apparent in altered window and door openings.
Many signs have been tacked on to the building, further covering
its; original appearance.
Dominant features are two large brick chimneys which rise above
the south elevation of the building. The location of the build-
ing near the merging of N.E. 1st Avenue with Magnolia Avenue
make it prominent to motorists traveling north.
The interior is filled with equipment associated with laundromat
business. Some damage has been done to the building's fabric
as a result of overflowing water and holes punched through the
walls for dryer vents." 3
The Cheatam Marine building is located on the southwest corner
of the site. The After Hours Garage is located on the south-
east corner of the site. Both of these buildings would have to
be removed in order to complete the Multi-Modal Terminal as
planned. Little or no significance can be attributed to these
buildings and both occupants can be relocated. Both buildings
are in various stages of disrepair and neglect. A great deal of
expense would be necessary to improve their character. Acqui-
sition and demolition costs were accounted for in the Multi-
Modal feasibility study.
SITE DESCRIPTION Except for differences between paved and landscaped areas, the
grade level does not change more than twelve inches on the ex-
isting Union Station site. At the southwest corner of the site
there is a level change of approximately 1.5' between the crown
of N.E. 5th Street and the unpaved areas.
The only trees of any age are several forty to sixty foot palm
trees that add very little to the site due to their extreme height.
The other trees are twenty-five years or younger and are cedars,
magnolias, and dogwoods. Conservation of these trees should be
exercised with any develpoment of the site. Due to the parking
and circulation problems associated with the buses and cars,
several of these trees will have to be removed or transplanted.
This should not be considered extremely detrimental in that many
new trees, shrubs, and smaller plants will have to be planned
into the project in order to fulfill the concept of a planned
Presently all utilities (telephone and electrical) are above
grade and only functionally placed. During the extensive site-
work required for parking and circulation these utilities should
be placed below grade. This single factor will greatly improve
the overall aesthetic quality of the building and the site.
These lights should be replaced with lighting of more compatible
character and scale. Thought should be given to the lighting
placement with regard to aesthetics, security of people and main-
ATHLETIC CLUB COMPLEX
The site is located on the Northwest corner of N.E. 5th Street
and N.E. 4th Avenue. One very large warehouse type building
runs along the entire western edge of the site, from N.E. 5th
Street to the Seaboard Coastline rails, at the northern edge
of the site. Two smaller structures border the northern edge
of the site.
The large warehouse building is less than twenty-five percent
utilized at the present time. The remaining seventy-five
percent of the building is in such bad repair that no functions
could take place in it. Considerable cost would be required
in order to utilize the space. The entire building is an eye-
sore as viewed from the train station and from Tuscawilla Park.
Structurally, most of the building is in tact but the enclosure
is so badly damaged that use of the building would probably not
The two smaller buildings can be categorized with the warehouse.
Both are in very bad condition and improvement of them for use
would be very costly. One of the structures is a wood frame
building that is presently being occupied by a small woodworking
company. The second of these smaller buildings is simply a con-
crete block hulk. The building is an eyesore and without doubt
q and attractive nuisance to the neighborhood.
The only substantial vegetation on the site consists of twelve,
ten to twenty year'old pine trees, along the northern edge of
the site. There is a gradual two foot drop in elevation from
the Atlantic Coastline rails on the western edge of the site,
to the eastern edge of the site.
Telephone and electrical utilities are-.all above ground. There
is one old and unused railroad spur that runs through the center
of the site.
A comprehensive statement about the site would be that it is
totally underutilized and in its depressed condition, very
much and eyesore to the entire area. This does not however,
detract from the architectural potential of the site.
A multi-modal transportation center is a facility that incorpo-
rates several independent and different transportation concerns
within one organization. Typically, these facilities handle
companies of similar operation and requirements. In this case,
buses, trains, and taxi companies will have their base in Ocala's
Union Station. Rental car service will be possible by a telephone
link to their various distribution centers.
The feasibility study conducted for Florida's Department of Trans-
portation has concluded that the main terminal buildings of the
Union Station could fulfill the functions of a multi-modal trans-
portation center in Ocala. Not only was the site chosen for its
building potential, but it was also chosen when compared to other
potential sites in and around Ocala. The qualitative decision
making factors were presented in the previous section of this
An adaptive use of the Union Station would require the use of
one building by at least two major competitive transportation
concerns. The combination of these two transportation and
commercial operations would require a degree of compromise on the
part of both transportation carriers. Having both companies
under one roof would primarily serve to provide better trans-
portation service for the people of Ocala. A satisfied customer
should improve future use of the facility. The situation here
would not be unlike conditions found in most airports, where
several airlines compete for similar markets. Multi-modal
transportation centers for buses and trains have proven effective
and profitable in several cities. The "Multi-Modal Terminal
Feasibilty Study" indicates that there is very definite potential
for this project.
In the study, several possible functions were discussed for the
Terminal buildings in addition to the primary rail and bus trans-
portaion operations. These functions were suggested as potentials
and were not thoroughly investigated for programming. This pro-
gram development indicates that after application of code restric-
tions and detailed functional requirements, some of these addi-
tional functions will have to be eliminated, due to lack of space.
The lack of these functions do not in any way hamper the operation
of the Multi-Modal Terminal, as a transportation center.
Amtrak uses part of the Union Station at the present time and
has indicated a need for continued use of the facility. Grey-
hound Bus Lines has shown definite interest in relocating its
entire operation from the existing bus station to the Multi-Modal
Terminal. The passenger station and railway express buildings,
which are only sixteen feet apart, were designated to fulfill
these compatible functions. General categories for programming
and organization of separated functions are administration,
ticket sales, baggage and freight.
Administrative offices must be provided for both Amtrak and
Greyhound. These offices will be used by the operation managers
for conducting business operations and will hold most company
records. A secure location must be provided with a locked
enclosure. These offices must be located near the ticket sales
and baggage areas. Spatial configuration must allow for a three
foot by six foot desk and two chairs, three full size file cabi-
nets and an eighteen inch by six foot shelving assembly. These
are general requirements for both offices and the space must be
flexible to allow for individual organization as needed.
Ticket sales counters with direct access to the common waiting
area are needed by both carriers. Each of these areas must be
separated for privacy of operation and security when closed.
Travel information and tickets will be available at these loca-
tions. Baggage will be collected here for placement on the train
and/or bus. Three or four people may be working this area at one
time. Circulation and counter space should be provided to allow
for the people and baggage. A counter top must be provided with
minimum dimensions of six feet long by two feet deep. Greyhound
and Amtrak have standard under counter ticket storage and pro-
cessing that must be utilized. A minimum eighteen inch wide
opening must be provided for baggage collection. A schedule
board will be necessary for each of these areas.
Space must be provided for the collection, processing, storage
and distribution of baggage and freight. Greyhound is the larger
carrier of this material and will require a much larger amount
of area for it. Primary relationships and circulation should
be provided between the interior waiting area, the ticket counter,
the buses and trains, and the exterior circulation areas. Some
baggage and freight may be stored for a period of time before
being loaded or picked up by the receiver. This will allow the
possibility for a separate storage space to be used, that is in
close proximity to the transportation vehicles and the exterior
pedestrian circulation areas. All of these baggage and freight
related spaces should be able to be well locked and secured.
Preliminary program considerations showed that railroad and bus
requirements should be shared whenever possible. There are
several common program concerns that can fall into this category.
Space for a central transportation administrator and the large
waiting room are the only requirements that directly relate to
the transportation functions. Other common requirements are
necessary to provide proper services for the general operation
and maintenance of the terminal buildings. Public toilets, a
janitorial and maintenance space, a vending machine area and
a privately concessioned gift shop will all be required in the
operation of the Multi-Modal Terminal.
The .".Multi-Modal Terminal Feasibility Study" did not indicate
the need for a central transportation administrator for this
facility. Further research into the operation and possible
problems of similar facilities has indicated the need for such
an administrator. This position would hopefully be only a
temporary one. A great deal of effort will be required in order
to achieve a smooth operation of these combined transportation
systems. As this will be a city owned and operated facility,
the person filling this position could be recruited from the
existing municipal administration. It has been planned that the
city will continue to take a controlling role in the operation
of mass transportation requirements. The development of this
municipal concern and the length of time necessary to insure
smooth operation of the Multi-Modal Terminal, shall determine
the period for which the administrator shall need a space at
the terminal. The vacancy fo this space will permit the leasing
of the space by another transportation operation or the expansion
of the existing transportation concerns.
Minimum spatial requirements shall be for two large office desks,
file cabinets and several office chairs. Generous space should
be allowed for circulation and seating of up to six people.
Furnishing and utility connections should be so located as
to permit maximum flexibility for future occupants.
A waiting room will be required that can provide generous space
for up to seventy people. These individuals will be passengers
and friends of passengers. Evaluation of the existing waiting
room indicates that it will be sufficiently large enough to
handle all of the required occupants. The designer should
make sure to provide a well organized layout of seats and lighting
and other waiting room amenities. Consideration will have to
be shown for entrances, exits, public toilet access, and ticketing
areas as required by applicable building codes. This general
area will be the interior space of greatest interaction between
people and the Multi-Modal Terminal. Maintenance of the building's
historical significance and character should be given a very
high priority. It is these special features and details that
make this building the chosen structure for this function.
An area must be provided within or adjacent to the waiting area
that will allow the advertisement of Ocala's resources. It
would be unfeasible at this time to have a supervising individual
on duty to operate this function. All advertisements will have
to be self-representing and regulated by the operating staff of
the terminal. Telephone hot lines to particular enterprises
could be placed here on a leased arrangement. Rental car services,
and the Chamber of Commerce might have need for this type of
communication and advertising arrangement.
Another function that must be located within close proximity to
the waiting room is a magazine sales/gift shop space. This
facility would be a privately run concession providing the
basic goods normally found in transportation terminals. Small
gifts, magazines, newspapers, stationary items, candy, gum, and
tobacco products would be the type of goods sold. The shop would
be located near or as part of the waiting area. A secure enclo-
sure will be necessary due to possible problems caused by
lack of supervision in the area, during late hours.
Public toilet facilities will be required for the terminal fa-
cility and accessible to all occupants and users of the building.
Handicap requirements must be met for access and use of these
toilet fixtures. Projected occupancy levels will require a min-
imum of six soil fixtures, divided evenly between the men's and
women's rest rooms. Lavatories should be provided as required
One janitorial and maintenance storage space will be necessary
for the care of the passenger terminal and the old Railway Express
buildings. This space must be sufficiently large enough to hold
all materials and equipment: for custodial work. Water must be
supplied to this space. Maintenance of the grounds will not be
carried out from this space other than collection of litter and
debris., As a municipal building, city employees will be assigned
as necessary to maintain the exterior of the building and grounds.
Vending machines will be necessary for the transportation center
and careful thought should be given in the placement of them.
These machines can be considered income producing and the proper
environment will encourage their usage. It would not be necessary
to place the machines in the center of the waiting room and such
a condition would, in fact, detract from the overall desired
character of the waiting room. Arbitrary placement along exterior
wall surfaces would be undesirable for similar reasons. Protec-
tion from vandalism and theft would indicate the need for a
lockable enclosure for the area during periods of low supervision.
There are several factors in support of a cafeteria-restaurant
facility as a part of the Multi-Modal Terminal. The Post House
Cafeteria that presently operates in the Greyhound Bus Station
would be interested in relocating along with Greyhound into the
new terminal. In the overall redevelopment plan of the area and
as a viable income producing opportunity, a restaurant has been
designated as necessary and potentially successful as a part of
the Multi-Modal Terminal. The old "Davis Brothers Cafeteria"
and presently "Launder-It" building would be the best location
for the eatery. This is the most visable building of the three
railroad style buildings and the exposure adds substantially to
its potential success.
A combination of cafeteria and short order meals would be necessary;
to allow for bus passengers who require fast service and for
local customers who have time for a individually prepared meal.
If the food is good and prices reasonable, this restaurant has
the location to make it very successful. Seating should be
provided for between sixty-five and eighty-five people.
Due to the small scale of the dining area, a full size kitchen
would not be required. A typical cafeteria front counter and a
short order back bar, along with a small additional cooking and
storage area would be all that would be required. The required
cold and dry storage areas, that typically come with the mentioned
work areas, would be sufficient storage space. A separate ser-
vice entrance would be necessary for deliveries and waste removal.
Security must be well thought out and the overall layout of the
food service line should generate this as typically done in
cafeteria-short order type restaurants. The simplicity of the en-
tire operation should allow a great deal of flexibility in the
layout of the seating.
A large storage room should be provided to accommodate any possi-
ble food preparation and dining needs. Part of this space will
be necessary for mechanical equipment such as a hot water heater
and HVAC equipment if space is not available within the roof voids.
Public toilets would be required for this restaurant establish-
ment. A minimum of four soil fixtures would be required, to be
divided evenly between the men's and women's restrooms. Handi-
cap requirements must be met within these minimum number of
fixtures as required by code.
Provisions must be made for rentable office space if possible.
Priority must be placed on the functions previously mentioned in
the program. There are tenants that have already expressed in-
terest. Both of these are taxi companies that are already oper-
ating on the site. Their spacial requirements are minimal and
limited to our simple office space for each. These spaces
should be included if at all possible due to their desired, com-
patible transportation function and as a means of introducing
a greater diversity and number of income producing potentials
to the Multi-Modal Terminal.
Development of the Union Station site for use as the Multi-Modal
Terminal will require the resolution of three major concerns
vehicular circulation and parking, pedestrian circulation and
landscaping. Each of these concerns is equally important if a
successful terminal is to exist on this site.
The largest and most inflexible requirement is for the circula-
tion and parking (loading and unloading) of eight typical Grey-
hound Buses. These buses are forty feet long and eight feet wide.
Buses shall enter the local vicinity as they do now, from both
the north and south, on Magnolia Avenue and N.E. 1st Avenue
respectively. To avoid congestion and possible accidents the
buses will have to enter the site from N.E. 5th Street and leave
the site onto N.E. 1st Avenue. This will permit the highest
visibility and best decision making time for both the bus driver
and the other vehicle drivers. Parking is not a problem for
the buses except that they must be as close to the main passen-
ger terminal and not block the flow of traffic during loading
and unloading. There must be space for backing, and clear passage
by other buses while parked. Buses will not circulate constantly
through the site. Their movement will be scheduled and only for as
long as it takes to enter and exit the site. If and when mass
transit vehicles are called into use, this site shall be con-
sidered for a stop. This circulation should be planned for as
not to generate problems at that time.
Parking and circulation must be provided for seventy-two auto-
mobiles. Standard parking issues,-code restrictions and handi-
cap requirements must be resolved. It would be extremely desir-
able to provide several spaces close to the passenger terminal
exclusively for loading and unloading passengers and baggage.
Direct conflicts between automobiles and buses should be absolutely
Service vehicles should be accomodated on the site with as little
interference to the other vehicles as possible. The Cafe-Res--
taurant will require the most regular service of all functions,
however this could be regulated due to its small scale.
One of the most important factors in the planning and implemen-
tation of the Multi-Modal Terminal was the importance that this
facility holds in the urban redevelopment process. As a city
owned and public facility this site is to be developed as a
green space with the intention of providing a link between
Tuscawilla Park to the east and the five block redevelopment
that is planned. Landscaping could also be used very effectively
to accentuate the buildings on the site and act as visual buffers-
to block undesirable views. All trees, shrubs, and plantings
should be as maintenance free as possible. The site is quite
large and people will often be required to traverse most of it.
Considerations should be made for this pedestrian scale-issue.
ATHLETIC CLUB AND
Development and location of an athletic club and retail complex,
on the chosen site, is supported by several important and con-
trolling issues. Financial considerations are well addressed
due to the relatively low property cost and the promise that
this particular location holds for making money, with these par-
ticular functions. Planning issues are resolved successfully
with regard to the need for this site to be developed as a green
space and recreational facility. Both concerns have very high
potential. Finally, a new, productive private enterprise is
necessary in order to complete the planned urban redevelopment
concept of this area.
The club and retail complex shall be comprised of three major
elements. A large restaurant shall be the third part of the
organization. These three components should be seen as parts
of one larger system. People coming to one of these elements
would also utilize or experience the others.
The athletic club will be developed with primary emphasis placed
on the racket, swimming and exercise facilities. The club shall
be controlled by having private memberships required to utilize
the facilities. Club members will provide some degree of support
for the retail shops and restaurant. People coming to utilize
the stores and restaurant shall become interested in the athletic
club and purchase a membership. Spontaneous memberships shall
be secured as a result of advertising and promotional activities.
The restaurant shall be operated by the athletic club. There
should be sufficient flexibility in the layout of the restaurant
to permit one section of dining to be available for club social
functions and another section still useable by the general public.
A bar and lounge area would be desired as part of the restaurant
facility. It would be preferable to have this space within one
localized area so as not to interfere with all the dining areas.
A progressive, quality restaurant and lounge environment could
fill a very large gap in the overall entertainment scene of Ocala.
Quality retail stores have been designated as important in the
redevelopment and growth of this section of Ocala. Successful
operation of the. stores will be very difficult, initially.
There is no existing commercial fabric for the stores to draw
people from. Primary exposure and success, other than that
drawn from advertising, will come as a result of patronage by
club members,, their visitors and restaurant customers. Several
of the spaces will be designed as speculative retail shops.
Several types of shops would benefit by locating in this complex,
as much as the racket and swim club would benefit from their
presence. Stores that specialize in athletic equipment and
clothing, bicycles, and health food should all do well in this
area. Clothing boutiques and specialty shops could be supported
if the club develops the quality and number of members that have
The general concept behind the operation of this complex, as
presented should provide the designer with an idea of the poten-
tial architectural quality that the system must have in order
to stimulate the necessary cooperative interaction.
Four major types of athletic related activities shall take place
within this club. Racket and handball sports, swimming, exer-
cise and conditioning, as well as social and recreational games
shall be provided within this facility. The club shall be a
private one, without any conditions on becoming a member other
than maintaining good credit with the club. Membership and
activity fees will limit membership to those people that can
afford it. These fees are not expected to be higher than similar
racket clubs in other areas, and probably less than most golf
and country clubs. It will be necessary to have as many members
as possible to ensure complete utilization of all the facilities.
An activity fee structure is necessary'to produce a continued cash
flow, above the initial membership fee. The organization of the
club and its activities should encourage a great deal of social
interaction. The overall success of the club will depend a great
deal upon having people in the club at all times. Their pres.
ence will encourage others to stay. Having a diversity of ac-
tivities will allow greater interaction between members while
also permitting each member to explore as many athletic potentials
as possible. Refreshment and game areas will further develop
this concern. It is most important to get people to come to the
facility for at least one reason. If they are enjoying them-
selves they will stay and patronize the other elements of the
club. It is these additional services and enterprises that can
often produce the largest amount of cash flow.
Athletic activity spaces, social and recreational game areas,
administrative offices, and support facilities are the four main
types of spaces and functions necessary for athletic club opera-
handball Racquetball, squash.and handball will be the major sports activ-
ity for this club. There shall be total of nine courts that will
be variously sized for the different requirements of squash,
racquetball, and handball, both doubles and singles. The courts
shall be regulation size and top quality materials. Glass rear
walls should be considered to allow maximum visibility for spec-
tators. It is generally preferred to locate the courts along
a major circulation element or lobby. This permits casual viewing
and encourages use of the courts.
There must be a control point for the courts. This control area
must be located in an area where visual contact can be made
between the courts and any lobby or circulation paths. Court
reservations would be phoned into this control desk and all
spontaneous use would be organized here. Players would be re-
quired to sign in and out for billing purposes. Lights for each
of the courts would be controlled at this desk. These last two
procedures would protect the membership by disallowing
There would be ongoing challenge tournaments as typically done
in most clubs. Large scale invitational and public tournaments
would be organized for the club. These tournaments shall be
geared at soliciting new members for the club. Various charities
may sponsor tournaments and activities that will benefit the
cause as well as increase exposure for the club.
A racquetball pro willibe a necessarystaff.member. It will be
his responsibility to organize all activities and ensure the
the smooth operation of the courts. His responsibilities will
also include instruction of members, individuals and privately,
as well as by providing a competitive opponent for skilled players.
There is a projected potential need for up to nine courts serving
all of the particular games. However, until a sound membership
base has been developed, six courts would more than fulfill the
needs of this facility. Design and construction of the courts
should be considered with special concern given for this required
flexibility and growth. The courts average twenty feet wide,
twenty feet high and forty feet deep.
swimming Swimming will probably be the next most popular activity of the
club. The area around the pool will be, usually, very active
due to both the social and exercising values of the function.
The swimming pool should be twenty-five meters long to allow
for exercising. A more shallow lounging area would also be re-
quired. Due to the family nature of the club, a shallow children's
pool is required. The pool.should be so organized and located
to ensure its privacy and discourage non-members from using the
facility. Locker rooms should be located near the pool, as
typically required in public pools.
A lifeguard will be duty during the busiest times, if such a
need is seen. The lifeguard could also provide swimming instruc-
tions during scheduled, low use periods. The two pools will need
to be heated in order to extend the swimming season as long as
possible. An alternate energy source other than fossil fuels,
should be explored.
Two spaces or a very large-dividable space will be required for
exercising and conditioning activities. Approximately 1000
square feet will be required for each of these functions. A
minimum clear ceiling height of ten feet will be required within
each of these spaces. The exercising room will have padded floors
and walls within one section. Special exercise programs will
be conducted in this space such as karate, ballet, etc. The
conditioning space will involve weight training equipment and
related exercise equipment.
These spaces should have limited access to the general public
to insure privacy and exclusive membership use. If possible
they can be located near a staff control point. Staff will be
required to supervise these areas and their offices could be
located nearby if possible. Both spaces should be closely re-
lated to the locker rooms.
There shall be recreational game areas for adults and young people.
These activities are intended to fill out the total recreation
programs of this facility. Club members that do not seek the
highly active sports shall have a means of occupying their time
and socializing, while other members of their family pursue
One pool table and one ping-pong table should be provided for
both adults and young people. Tables should be provided for
card play, checkers, chess, and backgammon, in an area primarily
designated for adults. Technological improvements have provided
a great deal of potential for the use of audiovisual equipment.
Considerations should be given for a space which will allow the
production of closed circuit television monitors, and an advent
screen television. This space could be used to view major sporting
events within a comfortable environment. All of these social
and game areas should be closely related to an area where re-
freshments can be purchased.
Three different levels of administrative offices will be required
for operation of the club. General office space for executives
of the complex, athletic club operations and staff offices will
all need similar spacial requirements. If possible these spaces
should be located near each other to aid in communication and
The general office space for complex executives will be the base
office for all decisions about the athletic club and retail com-
plex. There shall be one director/developer responsible for
all operational decisions. One large office will be required
with adjoining office space for one secretary. Two offices will
be required for the managers of the athletic club and.the res-
taurant. Adjoining office space should be provided fortwo
secretaries. These two secretaries will share the duties of
bookkeeping and billing for both the restaurant and athletic
club. It would important to keep these top office personnel to-
gether, as long as the restaurant manager can be reasonably,
close to the restaurant.
One of the most important administrative areas for athletic club
operations is the control center for the courts. This area will
be the point at which all interaction will occur with higher
administrative concerns. Registration of new club members and
problems shall be handled at this space.
Four spaces must be provided for staff personnel. These offices
will be shared if necessary and are intended to provide a space
for administration of necessary program concerns. The most im-
portant issue for these spaces is that they provide a private
space away from the activity areas. Access should be provided
to the exercise and conditioning spaces as well as primary cir-
ancillary and support
facilities Ancillary and support facilities can be categorized in reference
to actual mechanical equipment spaces and spaces actually utilized
by club members. The mechanical equipment spaces includes
janitorial closets, laundry rooms, HVAC,equipment spaces, and
pool pump and filter rooms. These mechanical equipment spaces
will require consideration after definite design .decisions have
been made. The largest of the support facilities that the mem-
bers will utilize is the locker room, whirlpool and sauna.
Separate locker rooms will be required for men and women. Gen-
erally, more lockers are necessary for men. 175 lockers should
be provided for the men and 125 for the women. At least 60% of
the lockers should be a minimum of twenty inches deep, for both
sexes. Four private stall showers should be provided for the
women and six shower heads should be provided in a common space
for the men. Restroom soil fixtures should be provided as
required by code. Considerations should be made for organization
of the locker room as required to separate wet and dry circula-
tion paths. A whirlpool and sauna should be provided for both
sexes. Treatment rooms should be adjacent to the locker rooms
for massages, rubdowns and treatment of minor athletic related
discomforts. A central control point will be necessary for
checking into the locker room, and distributing towels. Public
toilets, water fountains and space for vending machines should
be provided as the design alternative requires. Public toilets
should be accessible to the public, rather than in limited access
areas. Handicap toilet facilities should be provided at some
point in the building. All of these facilities should be located
as necessary to serve social, circulation and exercise spaces.
Investigation of existing eating establishments in Ocala indicates
that a quality restaurant, with a bar and entertainment lounge,
would be successful. This type of dining and entertainment
facility would work within the proposed redevelopment plan.
Successful redevelopment would need a night time entertainment
establishment to be located at the northern end of the five block
area. The restaurant and lounge would serve in this planning
capacity as well as by drawing people to the athletic club and
retail shops. Increased use of the Multi-Modal Terminal could
provide additional customers. A minimum of 200 dining patrons
should be planned for.
Several important issues must be dealt with in organizing the
restaurant and lounge. It would be beneficial to be able to
have at least two areas for dining. One area could be used for
club functions while the second area would serve regular customers.
Casual to semi-formal attire will be expected of the diners and
accommodations should be made to seat similarly attired people
together whenever possible. It would not be desirable to have
the entire restaurant dominated by the entertainment and lounge
environment. The building should be responding to many other
organizational concerns and these should be reflected in a var-
iable spacial experience. Such spacial differentiation should
also provide the desired, diversified seating arrangements.
The bar and lounge should be easily accessible to the Athletic
Club members as well as the general public as the need requires,
without necessarily disrupting dining areas. The bar and lounge
should be able to hold between fifty and seventy people. The
potential complexity and diversity of the spaces should not re-
duce the security of the restaurant.
The actual amount of space needed for this function will depend
on the final number of customers that the restaurant will be
serving. Food preparation space can demand up to one third as
much square footage as the actual dining space. Facilities for
200 people will require a great deal of space. Much of this
area is used for other than specific food preparation. There
are six major concerns and processes that must be considered
for total kitchen operations. These are: service access, stor-
age, specific food preparation, general preparation, washup and
waiter service area.
Service access must be so located as to allow delivery of goods
and removal of refuse on a daily basis. Garbage should be com-
pacted and provisions made for sanitary storage until removal.
Food storage shall fall into four categories: dry, frozen, cold,
and undercounter. Undercounter storage is the only type that
will not require at least 100 sq.-ft. per room. Dry storage
space at the service-delivery level. The deep freeze and cold
storage rooms should be located next to each other to make use
of common insulated walls and refrigeration supply lines. The
deep freeze room may prove more efficient if a vestibule is used
that is kept slightly colder than cold storage and warmer than
the deep freeze. Undercounter storage shall be those areas re-
quired for food and utensil storage, either incorporated within
specific units or built into the space. All storage areas must
have access to service and deliveries as well as direct access
to food preparation areas.
Specific food preparation areas and equipment are those concerns
directly associated with preparation of meats, fish, poultry,
vegetables, and salads. Equipment is available to serve these
functions and the manufacturer's specifications would be necessary.
General preparation space would be required as countertop
storage and countertop work space. Food that has been specifically
prepared and waiting to be served would be stored here. (ie.
bain marie) Counter space would be necessary to place prepared
dishes before serving.
Washup requirements involve both equipment and built space.
Mechanical equipment provisions must be made for a dishwashing
machine, glasswasher, and drying and storage space. Several
pot washing sinks with drying racks must be included. Noise
will be a problem and it must be controlled. Some form of
preliminary garbage collection and/or compaction will occur here.
Waiter service areas will be necessary for storage of place
settings, condiments, and specialty items. This space shall be
used for filling out checks, receiving payment, and organizing
Space for the restaurant manager will be included as one with
the athletic club administration offices. This space will be
required primarily for billing and keeping of operational records.
A space should be provided as part of the actual restaurant
organization. An office will be required for use as a chef's
office and receiving room. This space might also serve in a
capacity for the manager. Alternatives to all of the function
food requirements are possible, as long as the specific issues
Depending upon the organization of the restaurant a space might
be required to place a cashier, and service a hostess or maitre
d'. Reservations would be handled here. This could act as a
major element in security for the restaurant. Public toilets
should be provided as required by code.
Approximately 10,000 square feet of commercial space would be
required for six to ten different retail shops. This value is
based on two major criteria. The site is primarily designated
for recreational uses. A large retail complex, like many malls,
would generate a different atmosphere about the site due to
high density automobile, pedestrian, and service traffic. The
retail shops are intended to provide a consistent cash flow
source for the complex. Parking limitations are also a concern.
Space is available for utilization as parking, however the site
must also function as a green space. This concept must be carried
through, resulting in reduced parking potential.
There are several potential retail categories that could be
developed within this retail organization. These were mentioned
in the introduction of the programming section. Considering that
many of the people that will come to the complex will have athletic
interests, the athletic related stores should be located in such
a way as to provide exposure for the speculative establishments
that will move in at a later time. General administration for
these stores shall be handled by head director of the entire club
In design of the stores several relationships must be addressed.
Service access, mechanical equipment placement, and storage
facilities should be consolidated whenever possible. Pedestrian
circulation and orientation to and from parking areas and side-
walks should be considered for handicap accessibility. The layout
of the stores must be flexible enough to accommodate a great
many potential users for the future.
SUMMATION OF PROGRAM
Vending machine area
Baggage and freight
Baggage and freight
Eighty patrons @15 each
Rentable office space three @180
ATHLETIC CLUB AND
Racquet courts six @ 800
three @ 800
Swimming adult pool
offices six @ 140
staff six @ 110
Support and ancillary
lockers 300 members @ 16
Social space and recreational games
youths and children
Dining 200 patrons @ 18
Bar 12 patrons @ 12
Lounge 50 patrons @ 15
ATHLETIC CLUB AND
Anderson Notter Finegold INC., Recycling Historic Railroad
Stations: A Citizen's Manual, Washington,D.C.,
City of Ocala Planning Office, Ocala Land Use and Thoroughfare
Plan, June 1977.
d'Avi, Edward Snowden, AIA, Feasibility Study For A Multi-Modal
Terminal At The Ocala Railroad Station, Ocala, Florida
Frizzel/Vickrey, Architects and Planners, Orlando Multimode
Transportation Center, Orlando, Florida, no date.
Plan Ocala Transportation Analysis, Environmental Design Group,
INC., Winter Park, Florida, November, 1975.
Traffic Safety and Operational Improvement Needs Study, Ocala,
Florida, Kimley-Horn and Associates, INC.,West Palm Beach,
Florida, February, 1975.
Webber, Margo B., and McGinley, Paul J., Reuse of Historically
and Architecturally Significant Railroad Stations for
Transportation and Other Community Needs: Documentation,
Analysis, and Evaluation., Washington, D.C., November, 1978.
Withlacoochee Regional Planning Council, Marion County-Major
Highway, Land Use and Development Trends Study, Silver
Springs, Florida, May, 1976.
OCALA MULTI-MODAL TERMINAL
ATHLETIC CLUB-RETAIL COMPLEX
AN ADAPTIVE USE and CONTEMPORARY DESIGN ALTERNATIVE
JAMES B. BLACK
1 it~x ~:2
WI M =,
FIRST LEVEL PLAN
1, 1;,.. .. Io