Fences

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Fences
Physical Description:
23p.
Language:
English
Creator:
Cangelosi, Robert
Publisher:
College of Architecure, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
Publication Date:

Notes

General Note:
AFA HP document 24, part 1

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the source institution.
System ID:
AA00001891:00001

Full Text

























































FENCES
AE 686
ROBERT CANGELOSI














AN 1783 VISITOR TO THE UNITED STATES OBSERVED,

'FENCES CERTAINLY ARE NOWHERE ELSE TO BE FOUND IN SO

1 MANY VARIETIES AS IN AMERICA, WHERE AT ANY MOMENT THE

TRAVELLER COMES ON A NEW SORT AND CANNOT BUT BE ASTONISHED

AT THE INVENTIVE GENIUS OF THE INHABITANTS.' BECAUSE OF

2 THIS GREAT VARIETY IN FENCES ONLY AMERICAN FENCES PRIOR

TO 1900 WILL BE DISCUSSED. IN ADDITION. THE DISCUSSION

WILL NOT DEAL WITH SPECIAL FENCES OR TEMPORARY FENCES

AND WILL DIVORCE ITSELF FROM THE SUBJECT OF GATES, WICKETS

AND STILES. TYPES OF FENCES DISCUSSED INCLUDE WOOD,

STONE, MASONARY, EARTH, AND METAL. AN APPENDEX IS ALSO

INCLUDED CONTAINING INFORMATION ON FENCE LAW, FENCE

STATISTICS AND LIVE FENCES PLANTING MATERIALS.



3 I. WOODEN FENCES

A. PALISADE

ONE OF THE EARLIEST FORMS OF FENCES USED BY THE COLONIST

WAS THE PALISADE FENCE. BORROWED FROM INDIAN PROTO-

TYPES, THE PALISADE FENCE WAS CONSTRUCTED IN A VARIETY

OF WAYS AND HEIGHTS. MOST FENCES WERE COMPOSED OF HIGH

4 SPLIT OR WHOLE LOGS NAILED TO SCANTMINGS. THE ENTIRE FENCE

WAS ANCHORED WITH HEAVY POST SUNK INTO THE GROUND. THE

TOP OF EACH STYLE WAS GENERALLY SHARPENED TO A POINT,










-2-


B. PRIMITIVE FENCES

s A VARIETY OF EASILY CONSTRUCTED FENCES, WHICH WERE

GENERALLY TEMPORARY, WERE EMPLOYED THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY,

IN HEAVILY FORESTED AREAS, SECTIONS OF LARGE TREES, ABOUT

FOUR AND A HALF FEET WIDE WERE PLACED IN A LINE AND

MORTICED TO RECEIVE THREE TO FIVE RAILS. THIS TYPE OF

FENCE IS GENERALLY REFERRED TO AS THE LOG-POST FENCE. A

LESS EXPENSIVE TYPE OF FENCE WAS CREATED BY PLACING STUMPS

WITH ROOTS IN A LINE ALONG THE OUTER BOUNDARY WITH THE TOP

ENDS FACING THE INSDIE OF THE FIELD. GAPS BETWEEN THE STUMPS

ARE FILLED WITH BRUSHWOOD. IN THE FAR WEST. THE WICKER

FENGlE. CAN BE FREQUENTLY FOUND CONSTRUCTED ON A SMALL

EMBANKMENT OF EARTH FROM ONE TO TWO FEET DEEP, THE WICKER

FENCE IS CONSTRUCTED OF STAKES AND WILLOW BRANCHES AND WILL

LAST FROM TEN TO FIFTEEN YEARS IF ALLOWED TO DO SO. IN

THE SOUTHERN STATES, THE BRUSH FENCE IS FREQUENTLY EMPLOYED.

IT IS COMPOSED OF STAKES AND RIDER BRUSH.



C. VIRGINIA RAIL FENCE

6 IN NEARLY ALL STATES, THE VIRGINIA RAIL FENCE IS

EXTENSIVELY EMPLOYED. THE VIRGINIA, ZIG ZAG. OR WORM FENCE

AS IT IS VARIOUSLY REFERRED TO. IS A SUBSTANTIAL. INEX-

PENSIVE FENCE WHICH WILL LAST SEVERAL GENERATIONS IF

PROPERLY BUILT WITH GOOD MATERIALS ON A SUBSTANTIAL FOOTING.

WHEN LABOR AND WOOD IS PLENTIFUL, THE VIRGINIA RAIL FENCE










-3-


IS AN EXCELLENT TEMPORARY FENCE, SINCE IT CAN BE DISMANTLED

AND RECONSTRUCTED WITHOUT DIFFICULTY TO MEET CHANGING NEEDS.

7 GOOD CHESTNUT, OAK. CEDAR. JUNIPER, OR VIRGIN HEART

PINE WILL LAST FROM 50 TO 100 YEARS AS A RAIL FENCE,

SER\NG ONE OR TWO GENERATIONS. THIS FENCE IS USUALLY

BUILT FROM SIX TO ELEVEN RAILS HIGH WITH SUPPORTS AT THE

'LOCK' OR CORNERS. EACH RAIL IS USUALLY ELEVEN FEET LONG,

LAPPED ABOUT A FOOT AT THE LOCK AND LAID AT AN ANGLE WHICH

ADVANCES THE FENCE EIGHT FEET. A BASE OF 4 1/2 TO 5 FEET

IS REQUIRED TO WITHSTAND THE WIND FACTOR. THE HEAVIEST

RAILS ARE PLACED IN TOP TO GIVE ADDED WEIGHT AND DECREASE

BREAKAGE FROM CLIMBING. THE FOUR CAUSES NEAREST THE

GROUND SHOULD BE OF THE SMALLEST RAILS TO PREVENT THE

SPACING FROM BEING TOO LARGE. THE LOCKS CAN BE SECURED

IN SEVERAL WAYS. FIRST OF ALL THEY CAN BE PROPPED

FROM BOTH SIDES, WITH STRONG WHOLE RAILS SET FIRMLY ON

THE GROUND ABOUT TWO FEETFROM THE PANEL, AND CROSSED AT

THE LOCK SO AS TO HOLD EACH OTHER, AND THE TOP FIRMLY

IN PLACE.

8 ANOTHER METHOD IS TO SECURE THE CORNERS BY VERTICAL

STAKES AND WIRES, EITHER IN THE LOCKS OR ANGLES. USING

THIS METHOD THE LOWER THREE RAILS ARE LAID AND THEN THE

STAKES ARE DRIVEN CLOSE TO THE RAILS AND SECURED BY A

BANK OF WIRE. A SECOND WIRE IS APPLIED JUST ABOVE OR

9 BELOW THE TOP RAIL. A THIRD METHOD OF SECURING THE CORNERS












-4-


IS TO DRIVE SLANTING STAKES OVER THE CORNERS IN SAW-HORSE

STYLE. AND LAY THE TOP RAIL INTO THE ANGLE THUS FORMED.

HOWEVER BRACING IN THIS MANNER ENCOMPASSES A GREAT DEAL

OF EXTRA SPACE. THIS PROBLEM IS REMEDIED IN SOME CASES

BY PLACING THE STAKES IN THE MIDDLE OF THE PANEL. THIS

METHOD IS FREQUENTLY USED TO RAISE THE HEIGHT OF LQW

STONE WALLS.

10 IN ORDER TO CONSTRUCT A WORM FENCE STAKES ARE LAID

DOWN THE CENTER OF A FIVE FOOT CLEARED BED. FOR THE

SAKE OF APPEARANCE AND ECONOMY, THE CORNERS OF THE FENCE

ON EACH SIDE SHOULD BE IN LINE WITH EACH OTHER, IN ORDER

TO ACHIEVE THIS REGIMENTA'RY-APPEARANCE, A SIMPLE GAUGE

IS USED. THIS GAUGE CONSIST OF A SMALL POLE. EIGHT FEET

LONG, WHICH TAPERS AT ONE END AND HAS A HORIZONTAL ARM.

HALF THE WIDTH OF THE BED, ATTACHED AT A RIGHT ANGLE

NEAR THE TAPERED END. THIS GAUGE, IS SET IN LINE WITH

THE STAKES, AND THE HORIZONTAL ARM IS SWUNG OUTWARD AT

RIGHT ANGLES TO THE LINE OF THE FENCE. A STONE TO SUPPORT

THE CORNER IS LAID DIRECTLY UNDER THE END OF THE GAUGE'S

ARM. AND THE FIRST RAIL IS LAID ON THE SUPPORT. SIMILARLY.

THE NEXT CORNER AND ALL THE SUCCESSIVE CORNERS ARE LAID,

THE GAUGE BEING SWUNG ALTERNATELY FROM RIGHT TO LEFT'

SETTING THE CORNERS.










-5-


D. STRAIGHT RAIL FENCES

11 STRAIGHT RAIL FENCES CAN BE CONSTRUCTED IN A VARIETY

12 OF WAYS. ONE TYPE OF STRAIGHT RAIL FENCE IS COMPOSED

OF STAKES AND RIDERS IN SUCH A MANNER THAT FEWER RAILS

ARE REQUIRED THAN FOR THE WORM FENCE. WHEN CONSTRUCTING

THIS TYPE OF FENCE, CROTCHED STAKES ARE DRIVEN ONE FOOT INTO

THE GROUND, AT A DISTANCE APART CORRESPONDING TO THE LENGTH

OF THE RAILS. THE LOWER RAILS ARE LAID IN THESE STAKES,

AND TWO SPLIT OR ROUND POLES ARE DRIVEN OVER THESE RAILS.

THE NEXT POLES ARE LAID AND THE PROCESS IS CONTINUED

13 UNTIL THE FENCE IS TOPPED OUT. OTHER TYPES OF RAIL FENCES,

14 MERELY MORTISED THE RAIL INTO THE POST WHILE OTHERS SIMPLY

15 SNADWICHED THE RAILS BETWEEN TWO POST AND WERE WIRED

TOGETHER.



E. POLE FENCES.

16 A QUICKLY CONSTRUCTED FENCE IS THE POLE FENCE IN

WHICH POST PREVIOUSLY BORED WITH AN INCH AUGUR TO RECEIVE

PINS ARE SET IN A STRAIGHT LINE. PINS ARE THEN DRIVEN

DIAGONALLY INTO THE POST, AND THE RAILS ARE LAID IN

PLACE, GENERALLY SO AS TO BREAK THE JOINTS. A MODIFICATION

OF THIS FENCE IS SOMETIMES MADE BY USING WITHES INSTEAD OF

PINS TO HOLD THE POLES IN PLACE. A WITHE IS COMPOSED OF

A YOUNG SAPLING TWISTED UPON ITSELF. CREATING A STRONG

LOOP AT THE TOP, THROUGH WHICH THE BUTT IS SLIPPED.










-6-


F. BOARD FENCES.

17 THE BOARD FENCE IS ANOTHER COMMON FENCE FOUND THROUGHOUT

THE COUNTRY. IN BUILDING A BOARD FENCE, CONSTRUCTION IS

ALWAYS BEGUN ON THE RIGHT FOR EASE OF ERECTION. FENCE

POST WERE USUALLY SET TWO AND A HALF TO THREE FEET IN THE

GROUND, AND SPACED AT REGULAR INTERVALS. THE POST FOR

BOARD FENCES AS WELL FOR OTHER TYPES OF FENCES. WERE

GENERALLY SEVEN FEET LONG AND MADE FROM RED CEDAR, WHITE OAK,

CHESTNUT, BLACK LOCUST, OR THE PREDOMINATE WOOD USED IN

THE AREA. THE PORTION OF THE POST SET INTO THE GROUND

IS SATURATED WITH A MIXTURE OF BOILED LINSEED OIL AND

PULVERIZED CHARCOAL MIXED TO THE CONSISTENCY OF PAINT.

A COMMON TOOL FOR PACKING THE SOIL WAS A PIECE OF OAK,

ABOUT THREE INCHES SQUARE ON THE LOWER END, AND ABOUT

SIX FEETLONG, ROUNDED OFF ON THE UPPER END TO FIT THE

HANDS EASILY. WHEN PROPERLY USED THIS SIMPLE TOOL WOULD

RETURN THE SOIL AROUND THE POST TO ITS ORIGINAL STATE OF

COMPACTNESS. IN ATTACHING THE FENCE BOARDS, MOST

BUILDERS USED THREE NAILS AT THE END OF EACH BOARD AND

TWO IN THE MIDDLE. SMALL NAILS WERE SELDOM USED AS

THEY WOULD PRY OUT AS THE BOARDS WARPED. IDEALLY NAILS

OF AT LEAST 10 PENNY SIZE WERE USED.

18 A SLIGHT MODIFICATION OF THE BOARD FENCE WAS CONSTRUCTED

BY DIGGING POST HOLES ON ALTERNATING SIDES OF THE PROPOSED

FENCE LINE. POST SET A HALF AN INCH FROM THE LINE,















ALLOWED SPACE FOR THE BOARDS. THE BOARDS ARE THEN NAILED

FROM THE BOTTOM TO THE TOP. FOR THE FIRST LENGTH, THE

SECOND BOARD FROM THE BOTTOM AND THE TOP BOARD ARE ONLY 8

FEET LONG REACHING THE FIRST POST. THE OTHER BOARDS ARE

THE FULL 16 FEET. THIS IS IN ORDER TO STAGGER THE JOINTS

SO THAT ONLY TWO JOINTS OCCUR ON EACH POST. THE REASONING

BEING THAT A MORE SECURE FENCE IS OBTAINED SINCE THERE

IS ALWAYS TWO UNBROKEN BOARDS ON EACH POST TO HOLD IT

IN PLACE, PREVENTING SAGGING.

19 SOMETIMES A FENCE BOARD HOLDER WAS USED WHICH HELD

THE BOARDS IN PLACE WHILE THEY WERE BEING NAILED TO THE

POST. USING THIS DEVICE ONE MAN CAN NAIL AS MANY BOARDS

IN A DAY. AS TWO PERSONS CAN WHEN ONE IS HOLDING THE

BOARDS.

AFTER THE BOARDS ARE NAILED ON, THE TOP OF THE POSTS

ARE SAWED OFF SLANTING, FREQUENTLY CAPPED, AND THE WHOLE

PAINTED. SOMETIMES A COAT OF CRUDE PETROLEUM WAS APPLIED

BEFORE PAINTING, TO HELP PRESERVE THE FENCE.

18 A WOOD SAVING VARIATION OF THE BOARD FENCE INCORPORATES

CROSS BRACING INTO THE LOWER PORTION OF THE FENCE SAVING

ONE BOARD FOR PANEL. FENCES CONSTRUCTED IN SUCH A WAY

WILL INSURE A MUCH STABLER FENCE THAN THE PREVIOUS TECHNIQUE.

20 IN AREAS WHERE THE SOIL IS LIABLE TO HEAVE, A MODIFICA-

TION OF THE BOARD FENCE IS USED. BOARDS IN AREAS SUCH

AS THIS ARE ATTACHED SO THAT THEY MAY BE REDRIVEN, WITHOUT













-8-


SPLITTING THEM, OR REMOVING THE RAILS FROM THE FENCE. THE

POST IS DRIVEN IN THE USUAL MANNER. A STRIP BOARD IS

FASTENED TO IT BY THREE OR FOUR SPIKES. DEPENDING ON

THE HEIGHT OF THE FENCE.

A SPACE JUST SUFFICIENT TO INSERT THE ENDS OF THE

BOARDS IS LEFT BETWEEN THE POST AND THE STRIP AND THE

ENDS OF THE BOARDS REST UPON THE SPIKES. ANOTHER TECHNIQUE

USED IS THE EMPLOYMENT OF IRON RODS, 3/8" IN DIAMETER

AND 7 1/2" LONG WITH ONE END SHARPENED AND DRIVEN INTO

THE POST, WHILE THE OPPOSITE END FOR THREE INCHES, IS

BENT AT RIGHT ANGLES. AFTER THE BOARDS ARE PLACED'IN

POSITION. THE HOOKS ARE DRIVEN IN SO THAT THEY WILL FIRMLY

GRASP THE BOARDS AND HOLD THEM IN PLACE.

21 THE BEST TECHNIQUE TO FASTEN THE BOARDS IN AREAS OF

GROUND HEAVING IS TO TEMPORARILY HOLD THE BOARDS IN

PLACE, AND THEN BORE A HALF INCH HOLE THROUGH THE TWO

BOARDS AND POST. A COMMON SCREW BOLT IS THEN INCERTED

AND THE NUT SCREWED ON FIRMLY. THE ENDS OF THE BOARDS

ARE ATTACHED ON OPPOSITE SIDES OF THE POST, IN SUCH

A MANNER THAT ONE BOLT HOLDS THE ENDS OF BOTH BOARDS

FIRMLY TO THE POST. USING THIS TECHNIQUE. OLD RAILS OR

ROUND POLES CAN BE SUBSTITUTED FOR BOARDS.










-9-


G. PICKET FENCES.

23 THE PICKET FENCE HAS COME TO BE A HALLMARK OF THE AMERICAN

LAND AND CITY SCAPES. THIS TYPE OF FENCE IS WIDELY USED

IN A VARIETY OF FORMS RANGING FROM VERY CRUDE FENCES

TO THE VERY ORNATE. THE COMMON PICKET FENCE IS A GOOD

SUBSTANTIAL FENCE, WHOSE POST ARE NEVER SET FURTHER APART

THAN EIGHT FEET. TWO BY FOUR HORIZONTAL SCANTLINGS ARE

24 USED AND A SPLIT PALING IS OFTEN APPLIED TO THE BOTTOM

OF THE FENCE. THE PICKETS VARY IN WIDTH BUT THREE INCHES

25 IS A COMMON WIDTH. THE LATH AND PICKET FENCE DOES NOT

MATERIALLY DIFFER FROM THE COMMON PICKET FENCE, FURTHER

THAN THE FACT THAT THE PICKET ARE ALTERNATED WITH STRIPS

OF POINTED LATH. IN THIS MANNER FEWER PICKETS ARE REQUIRED,

SINCE THEY ARE SPACED FIVE INCHES APART INSTEAD OF THE

CUSTOMARY DISTANCE. THE PICKETS SERVE AS STRUCTURAL

ELEMENTS WHILE THE LATH SERVES MERELY AS FILLERS.

26 THE SOUTHERN PICKET FENCE EMPLOYS PICKETS WITH ONLY ONE

27 SLANTING SIDE. TO FACILITATE THE SAWING OF THESE PICKETS,

A SAW HORSE IS USED WHICH HAS A STOP AT ONE END AND TWO

UPRIGHT GUIDES AT THE OPPOSITE. THE GUIDES ARE SET SO

AS TO GIVE THE PROPER SLOPE FOR THE PICKET. BEFORE THE

PICKETS ARE NAILED TO THE SCANTLINGS, THE TWO SURFACES

THAT ARE TO BE IN CONTACT ARE PAINTED TO PREVENT ROTTING.

28 IN AREAS WHERE SAWN TIMBER IS UNAVAILABLE OR TOO

EXPENSIVE, A SPLIT PICKET FENCE IS USED. ROUND POST,










-10-


SPLIT STRINGERS AND RIVED PICKETS ARE EMPLOYED. THE

STRINGERS ARE EIGHT TO TWELVE FEET IN LENGTH AND USUALLY

ONE OF THE SIDES IS SUFFICIENTLY SMOOTH TO RECEIVE THE PICKETS.

EACH STRINGER PROJECTS A FEW INCHES BEYOND THE POST IN

ORDER TO ADD STRENGTH AND FACILITATE REPLACEMENT. WITH

WOOD THAT SPLITS READILY, A MAN CAN RIVE FIVE OR SIX

HUNDRED PICKETSA DAY.

25 ANOTHER TYPE OF SPLIT PICKET FENCE IS MADE BY DRIVING

RIVED PICKETS SIX OR EIGHT INCHES INTO THE GROUND AND

FIRMLY NAILED TO A STRONG STRINGER AT THE TOP.

29 A PICKET FENCE INDIGENOUS TO LOUISIANA IS THE PIEUX

FENCE WHICH EMPLOYS CYPRESS PICKETS USUALLY TEN INCHES

WIDE.

30 A LIGHT PICKET FENCE IS CONSTRUCTED IN SIXTEEN FEET

LONG PANELS, COMPOSED OF TWO ORDINARY SIX INCH FENCING

BOARDS FOR STRINGERS AND LATH SPACED TWO AND A HALF

INCHES APART IS NAILED PERPENDICULAR TO THE STRINGER.

31 ORNAMENTAL PICKET FENCES ARE CONSTRUCTED WITH FLAT

PICKETS, THREE INCHES WIDE AND THREE FOOT FIVE INCHES

IN LENGTH. NOTCHES ARE CUT INTO THE PICKETS WITH A

COMPASS SAW, OR A FOOTPOWER SCROLL-SAW. FREQUENTLY THE

FENCE WAS POLYCROMATIC. A PLAINER PICKET FENCE HAS NOTCHED

INTERMEDIATE PIECES.

32 A REFINED TYPE OF PICKET FENCE BEGAN TO MAKE AN APPEARANCE

AT THE END OF THE REVOLUTION. IN THIS FENCE THE PICKETS










-11-


SMALLER THAN THE SPACINGS BETWEEN THE PICKETS, AND -WAS

EITHER SQUARE OR ROUND IN SECTION. THE PICKETS OF THIS

TYPE OF FENCE ARE DISTINGUISHED FROM THE FORMER TYPE IN

THAT THEY PIERCE THE SCANTLINGS AND ARE EMBEDDED INTO A BASE.

33-4 THERE ARE TWO MAJOR TYPES OF REFINED PICKET FENCE, THE 'SINGLE

PICKET' AND THE 'DOUBLE PICKET.' IN THE SINGER PICKET,

35-7 ALL OF THE PICKETS ARE OF THE SAME HEIGHT. IN THE DOUBLE

PICKET, THE PICKETS ARE OF TWO ALTERNATING HEIGHTS AND

THE LOWER SCANTLING IS OFTEN HIGHER THAN IN THE SINGLE

38 PICKET. POST BECAME AN INTEGRAL AND DOMINATE FEATURE IN

39-40 BOTH TYPES. THEY ARE OFTEN QUITE ELABORATE AND TOPPED

41 WITH DISTINGUISHING FINIALS. SAMUEL MCINTIRE AND

CHARLES BULFINCH WERE NOTED DESIGNERS OF ELABORATE

PICKET FENCES.

OTHER ELABORATE FENCES INCORPORATED GEOMETRIC DESIGNS

42-3 WITH THE PICKETS; DESIGNS SUCH AS X'S, CIRCLES AND

44 DIAMONDS ARE FREQUENTLY USED DESIGNS.



H. LATH FENCES.

45 LATH FENCES ARE SIMILAR TO THE PICKET FENCES EXCEPT

FOR THE FACT THAT THE RAILS ARE NOT PICKETED. LIKE

THE PICKET FENCE THESE FENCES COME IN A VARIETY OF STYLES.

SOME ARE SIMPLE LATH FENCES, OTHERS HAVE DESIGNS CUT INTO
46
THEM. IN CERTAIN AREAS OF THE COUNTRY, LATH FENCES ARE

47-8 CAPPED WITH CONTINUOUS HANDRAILS.










-12-


I. OTHER WOODEN FENCES

49-56 OTHER WOODEN FENCES INCLUDE GEOMETRIC PATTERNS, LATTICE,

PLANK (BOTH HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL) PANEL, TURNED AND

RUSTIC FENCES.






II. METAL FENCES

A. BARB-WIRE FENCES:

S7 THE ORIGINAL PATENT FOR BARB-WIRE WAS ISSUED IN 1868,

BUT IS GENERAL USE WAS NOT ATTMEPTED FOR SIX YEARS, AND

IT WAS NOT UNTIL 1878 THAT THE INDUSTRY ATTAINED ANY

CONSIDERABLE MAGNITUDE. BY THE YEAR 1887 THERE WERE

FIFTY MANUFACTURERS, PRODUCING) AN ESTIMATED 140,000 TONS

OF BARB WIRE. LIKE ALL FENCES, BARB WIRE HAS IT ADVANTAGES

AND DISADVANTAGES. THE MOST COMMON OBJECTION TO THE

WIRE IS THE POSSIBILITY OF SERIOUS INJURY WHICH MAY OCCUR

UPON CONTACT WITH THE WIRE. THE ADVANTAGES, HOWEVER, FAR

OUT WEIGH THIS DISADVANTAGE. FIRST OF ALL, BARB WIRE IS

ECONOMICAL, NOT ONLY IN CASH OUTLAY, BUT IN LAND NEEDED

TO CONSTRUCT IT. SECOND, IS THE WIRE'S EFFECTIVENESS

AS'A BARRIER AGAINST MOST ANIMALS. THIRD IS ITS RAPID

CONSTRUCTION TIME AND EASE OF MOVING. FOURTH IS ITS

FREEDOM FROM HARBORING WEEDS, AND CREATING SNOWDRIFTS

AND FIFTH IS ITS DURABILITY.

58 ORIGINALLY BARB WIRE CONSISTED OF A DOUBLE POINTED










-13-


METALLIC DISCS, STRUNG LOOSLY ON A PLAIN WIRE. THE NEXT

ADVANCEMENT WAS TO TWIST AN ADDITIONAL WIRE WITH THE

ORIGINAL FORM. ANOTHER EARLY EXAMPLE WAS THE 'HORSE-NAIL

BARB' WHICH EMPLOYED A COMMON HORSE SHOE NAIL BENT

AROUND A PLAIN WIRE.

59-60 VARIOUS TYPES OF TWO POINT AND FOUR POINT WIRES WERE

MANUFACTURED, EACH HAVING ITS OWN DISTINCTIVE CHARACTER-

61 ISTICS. STILL ANOTHER FORM OF WIRE FENCE WAS A TWO STRAND

TWISTED WIRE WHICH WAS SIMILAR TO THE BARBED BUT WAS

UNARMED.

AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE BARBED WIRE FENCE IS THE FLAT

STEEL STRAP FENCE WHICH MANIFESTED ITSELF IN A VARIETY

OF FORMS. ONE COMMON FORM EMPLOYS BARBES BENT AROUND A

PLAIN STRAP AND THE ENTIRE UNIT IS GALVANIZED FIRMLY

AFIXING THE BARBS. ANOTHER TYPE OF WIRE FENCE CONSIST OF

A SOLID PIECE OF STEEL, RIBBED THROUGH THE MIDDLE AND HAD

BARBS CUT ON BOTH EDGES. STILL ANOTHER FORM OF FLAT

STELL STRAP FENCES HAS NO BARBES AND WAS TWISTED INTO A

SPIRAL.

THE WIDE SPREAD USE OF WIRE FENCES HAS BROUGHT ABOUT A

GREAT VARIETY FO DEVICES FOR THE CONSTRUCTION FO WIRE

62 FENCES WHICH INCLUDED THETRANSPORTATION, UNROLLING,

63-5 STRETCHING, HANDLING AND SPLICING OF THE WIRE. FOR

66 FASTENING BARB WIRE TO POST. STAPLES MADE FROM NO. 9

STEEL WIRE WAS FOUND TO BE SATISFACTORY.










-14-


AS FAR AS POST ARE CONCERNED. THEY ARE CUT DURING THE

DORMANT PERIOD. MIDWINTER OR AUGUST BEING THE IDEAL TIME,

AND THEN SPLIT AND BARKED. END POSTS OR BRACE POSTS OR

BRACE POSTS AS THEY ARE CALLED, ARE USUALLY PRODUCED

FROM THE HIGHEST QUALITY OF WOOD, ABOUT SIXTEEN INCHES

IN DIAMETER AND EIGHT AND ONE HALF FEET LONG. WHICH WAS

67 SPLIT INTO QUARTERS. THESE POST ARE SET THREE FEET IN

THE GROUND BY MEANS OF A POST HOLE DIGGER AND ABUTTED

BY A STONE RANGING FROM EIGHTEEN INCHES TO TWO FEET LONG,

TWELVE INCHES WIDE AND SIX INCHES THICK, SET AGAINST THE

POST EDGEWISE, OPPOSITE THE SIDE THAT IS TO BE BRACED.

SET BELOW GRADE THIS STONE SETS THE POST SOLID AGAINST

THE BRACE WHICH IS GENERALLY A TEN FOOT 'HEART RAIL'.

POSTS FOR A SINGEL BARBED WIRE FENCE VARY IN LENGTH.

LONG POST ARE INSTALLED EVERY SIXTEEN OR TWENTY RODS TO

ADD STABILITY, WHILE SHORTER LIGHTER POSTS ARE SET.

ABOUT SIXTEEN FEET APART. FOR AN EXTRA SOLID WIRE FENCE,

POST WERE BRACED WITH TWO DIAGONAL SUPPORTS EVERY EIGHT

POST. THE BRACES WERE NOTCHED INTO THE TOP OF THE POST,

JUST BELOW THE TOP WIRE. AND A SPIKE IS DRIVEN THROUGH

BOTH THE BRACE AND THE POST. THE BRACES ABUT LARGE

STONES WHICH GIVE THEM GREAT FIRMNESS.
J
68 THE PRODUCTION OF GOOD FENCE POST REQUIRES A GREAT DEAL

OF KNOW HOW. IDEALLY EVERY POST CONTAINS HEARTWOOD FOR

TWO REASONS. FIRST OF ALL, HEARTWOOD PROVIDES A GOOD










-15-


MATERIAL INTO WHICH NAILS MAY BE DRIVEN AND SECONDLY THE

HEARTWOOD IS LESS LIKELY TO ROT THAN SAPWOOD. IF A LOG

IS LARGE ENOUGH TO MAKE TWELVE POSTS, IT-WAS SPLIT IN

A PIE SHAPED FASHION. THE LOG WAS JUST CUT INTO HALVES,

THEN QUARTERS, THEN TWELFTHS. SPLITTING THE WOOD IN SUCH

A MANNER PRODUCED POST WITH TRIAGULAR CROSS SECTIONS. THE

CURVED BASE BEING GREATER THAN HALF OF EITHER SIDE, WHEN

A LOG WAS LARGE ENOUGH TO BE SPLIT INTO MORE POST IT WAS

CUT INTO A MORE COMPLICATED PATTERN WHICH PROVIDED ENOUGH

HEARTWOOD FOR EACH POST. THIS OF COURSE IS ONLY ONE OF

MANY TECHNIQUES USE FOR PRODUCING POST. ROUND AND SQUARE

POST WERE ALSO USED.

IN ORDER TO BORE OR MORTISE A POST, A SIMPLE ARRANGEMENT

FOR HOLDING THE POST WAS USED. IT SONDISTED OF TWO LONG

PIECES OF TIMBER LYING PARALLEL TO EACH OTHER ON THE

GROUND, SURMOUNTED BY TWO SHORTER MEMBERS LYING PERPENDI-

CULAR TO THEM. THE UPPER MEMBERS HAVE SADDLES CUT INTO

THEM FOR THE POST TO REST. A LARGE IRON HOOK, KNOWN AS

A DOG, IS DRIVEN INTO THE PORT. HOLDING IT FIRMLY SO THAT

6( IT MAY BE MORTISED. POST. WHEN DRIVEN INTO THE GROUND.

ARE VERY LIABLE TO SPLIT. IN ORDER TO AVOID THIS, THE

TOPS OF SAWN POST HAVE THEIR SIDES BEVELED. THE PART

OF THE POST REMOVED WAS GENERALLY NEVER MORE THAN AN HALF

INCH. EXCEPT WHEN ONLY THE CORNERS ARE REMOVED, THE CHIP

70 WAS THICKER. WHEN DRIVING POST OVER A LONG DISTANCE, A









-16-


WAGON WAS EMPLOYED. A TWO TEAM MAN COULD DO THE JOB

QUITE EFFICIENTLY. ONE MAN RODE THE WAGON AND INITIALLY

DROVE THE POST WHILE THE SECOND MAN HELD THE POST. WHEN

THE POST WAS DRIVEN AS FAR AS IT COULD BE FROM THE WAGON

71 THE GROUND MAN FINISHED THE JOB. A WOODEN MAUL WAS

GENERALLY USED TO DRIVE THE POST. THIS MAUL USUALLY HAD

AN EIGHT OR NINE INCH HEAD WITH AN IRON RING WEDGED ON

EACH END. THE ENDS OF THE HEAD WERE HOLLOWED SLIGHTLY, BUT

NOT ROUNDED OUT SLIGHTLY, BUT NOT ROUNDED OUT, TO PREVENT

THE POST FROM SPLITTING. ANOTHER PRECAUTION TAKEN WHEN

DRIVING POST IS TO USE A WOOD SCANTHING, EIGHTEEN INCHES

LONG WITH TAPERED ENDS TO EQUALLY DISTRIBUTE THE FORCE

72 OF TEH BLOW. LATER TECHNOLOGICAL INVENTIONS SIMPLIFIED

THE LABOR REQUIRED TO SET THE POST.

WHEN THE SOIL IS TO HARD, COMPACT AND/OR ROCKY. POST

HOLES WERE DUG INSTEAD OF DRIVING THE POST. EITHER CAN

73 AUGER OR SPADE WAS USED TO DIG THE HOLES. THE POST WAS

THEN SET IN THE CENTER OF THE HOLE AND FILLED. ONE MAN

COULD ONLY SET FOUR POST IN AN HOUR USING THIS TECHNIQUE.

74 IN AREAS SUBJECT TO GROUND HEAVING, FENCE POST NEED

SPECIAL CONSIDERATION. POST WHICH ARE LARGER AT ONE

END THAN THE OTHER ARE BEST SUITED FOR THIS SITUATION. THESE

POST ARE BRACED IN ONE OF THREE WAYS. ONE METHOD USES A

STRONG PIN BORED THROUGH THE BOTTOM OF THE POST, ANOTHER

TECHNIQUE BRACES THE POST WITH FLAT STONES AND THE FINIAL

WAYS SPIKES THE POST WITH A WEDGE SHAPED PIECE OF WOOD.










-17-


75 IN THE MIDWEST PLAINS, WHERE TIMBER WAS DIFFICULT TO

OBTAIN TREES STANDING IN THE PATH OF THE FENCE ARE USED

AS POST. FREQUENTLY THE BARB WIRE WAS NAILED DIRECTLY TO

THE TREES, AND THE TREE IN TIME EVENTUALLY GROWS OVER

THE WIRE. TO OBVIATE THIS, A BATTEN WAS NAILED TO THE

GREE AND THE WIRE NAILED TO IT. IN AREAS WITH DAMP SOIL,

WHITE WILLOW POST. FOUR INCHES IN DIAMETER. CUT GREEN

AND SET IN SPRING, WILL TAKE ROOT AND GROW. THE NEW

GROWTH SOON FORMS A BUSHY HEAD.

76 SEVERAL FORMS OF IRON POST WERE DEVISED FOLLOWING THE

ADVENT OF WIRE FENCES AND THE CALL FOR POSTS IN THE TIMBER-

LESS REGIONS OF THE WEST.


($eE F-OL^.-OVhJCD ?l Cbb)

C. WROUGHT IRON FENCES.

79-83 WROUGHT IRON FENCES WERE FIRST USED IN THIS COUNTRY

IN THE LATE 1700'S. THESE FENCES REFLECT THE PROPERTIES

OF THE METAL AND ARE LIMITED BY THOSE PROPERTIES. GENERALLY

WROUGHT IRON FENCES REFLECT A VERY FLUID STYLE AND ARE

OFTEN COMBINED WITH CAST DECORATIONS.



D. CAST IRON

84-90 CAST IRON FOR FENCES WAS ORIGINALLY USED IN COMBINATION

WITH WROUGT IRON FOR DECORATIVE FEATURES SUCH AS PICKETS,

FINIALS AND ROSETTES. WHEN CAST IRON PRODUCTION BECAME

LESS EXPENSIVE. ENTIRE FENCES OF CAST IRON SOON BECAME








B. Woven Wire Fences

77-78 The first woven-wire fences were constructed in the earlyl880's

At that time lines of w ire were stretched and nailed to post and the

vertical stays were woven in by a hand cranked apparatus. Later woven w

wire fences were factory made and had standard spacing. These later

fences were shipped in large rolls and were unrolled as they were stapled

to the post. Later still, woven wire fences became very elaborate

incorporating geometric patterns.









-18-


NUMEROUS. BY 1858 A NEW ORLEANS REPRESENTATIVE OF PHILA-

DELPHIA FIRM. WOOD AND PEROT ADVERTISED THE AVAILABILITY OF

'50 PATTERNS OF HIGH FENCES.' BY THE LAST QUARTER OF THE

19TH CENTURY SEVERAL FIRMS SPECIALIZED IN THE MANUFACTURE

OF FENCES. AN 1895 ADVERTISEMENT BOASTS 'IRON FENCES

CHEAPER THAN WOOD.' THE FENCES PRODUCED EARLIER IN THE

CENTURY ARE GENERALLY HEAVIER. RICH IN DESIGN, AND OFTEN

SURROUND LARGE HOMES. POSTS COULD BE PURCHASED IN A VARIETY

OF STYLES AND COMBINED WITH DIFFERENT RAILING PATTERNS.

THE VARIETY OF RAILING PATTERNS WAS ENORMOUS, REFLECTING

POPULAR DECORATIVE AND HISTORICAL STYLES. RAILINGS COULD

BE PURCHASED IN GOTHIC. CLASSICAL AND GEOMETRIC PATTERNS.

THE NATURALISTIC DESIGNS WERE PERHAPS MOST POPULAR. THE

ENORMOUS POST WERE EITHER CAST IN THEIR ENTIRETY OR

COMPOSED OF DECORATIVE PLATES BOLTED TOGETHER AND REINFORCED

WITH RODS. LATE 18TH CENTURY FENCES ARE GENERALLY SMALLER

THAN THE EARLIER FENCES AND ARE COMPOSED OF BARS JOINED

BY CAST-IRON DECORATIVE DETAILS.



E. OTHER METAL FENCES

91 METAL CHAIN FENCES ARE OCCASIONALLY FOUND, BUT ARE

GENERALLY CONFINED TO PUBLIC PARKS. SQUARES, AND CEMETERIES,

CHAINS ARE STRUNG BETWEEN STONE, METAL, WOODEN. CONCRETE

OR MASONARY POST. THE NUMBER OF CHAINS USED VARY FROM

FENCE TO FENCE BUT THESE FENCES GENERALLY TEND TO BE VERY

LOW.









-19-


92 FENCES OF GALVANIZED PIPE SET BETWEEN POST CAN BE OCCA-

SIONALLY FOUND.



III EARTH FENCES

A. SOD FENCES

93 THE SOD FENCE WAS PREDOMINATELY USED IN THE PRAIRES.

AN' IMPLEMENT FOR CUTTING THE SOD HAD FOUR WHEEL COULTERS

FROM A COMMON BREAKING PLOW. THERE COULTERS ARE SET TO

CUT THREE OR FOUR INCHES DEEP AND ARE RUN THREE TIMES

ALONG THE LINE OF THE FENCE, CREATING NINE CUTS. A MAN

RIDDING THE SLED PROVIDES THE PROPER WEIGHT NEEDED FOR

THE COULTERS TO CUT. A BREAKING PLOW IS USED TO TURN

THE INITIAL FURROW. THE ADDITIONAL FURROWS ARE CUT,

DIMINISHING IN SIZE AND LAID ON THE INITIAL FURROW. CARE

BEING TAKEN TO BREAK JOINTS AND TAPER THE WALL. AFTER

THE FENCE IS LAID. A DEEP FURROW IS RUN ON EACH SIDE OF

THE FENCE THROWING THE EARTH AGAINST THE BASE. FREQUENTLY

THIS FENCE IS ONLY MADE THREE FEET HIGH AND SURMOUNTED

WITH A BARBED WIRE FENCE.



B. ADOBE

FENCES OF ADOBE ARE FREQUENTLY FOUND IN.THE SOUTHWEST.



IV STONE FENCES

THE VARIETY OF STONE FENCES IS AS DIVERSIFIED AS THE

KINDS OF STONES AVAILABLE. STONE FENCES CAN BE MADE OF









-20-


94-6 LOOSE FLAT STONES, QUARRIED STONES OR FIELD BOULDERS.

97-8 STONE FENCES MAY BE CONSTRUCTED LOOSE(WITHOUT MORTAR),

99 100 WITH MORTAR, OR WITH OCCASIONAL MORTAR TIES.

TO CONSTRUCT A 'LOOSE' STONE FENCE REQUIRES A GREAT

DEAL OF SKILL. THE FOUNDATION IS GENERALLY DRY A FOOT

DEEP, AND THE EARTH USED TO TERRACE THE WALL FROM GRADE

SO AS TO TURN WATER FROM THE BASE OF THE WALL. LARGE

STONES ARE LAID IN THE TRENCH. AND LONG STONES PLACE

CROSSWISE UPON THEM. THE STONES ARE ARRANGED SO AS TO

BREAK JOINTS AND DISTRIBUTE THE WEIGHT. SMALL CAVITIES

ARE FILLED WITH CHIPPED ROCK, SO AS TO MAKE THEM FIT

SNUGLY.

101 STONE FENCES BUILT WITH MORTAR NEED NOT BE TAPPERED

AS THE LOOSE FENCE. STONE USED MAY BE QUARRIED OR

FIELD.

102 THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN 'OCCASIONAL MORTAR TIE FENCE

IS DESCRIBED IN THE AMERICAN FARMER MARCH 3, 1820:

'MY FENCE WAS BUILT BY A SCOTCHMAN WHO CAME OVER ABOUT

TWO YEARS SINCE AND IS NOW LIVING ON MY LAND AND BUILDING

STONE FENCES. HE BRINGS WITH HIM ALL THE LATE IMPROVEMENTS

IN SCAOTLAND AS THIS FENCE. THE FOUNDATION IS DUG 2 1/2

FEET WIDE AND 6 INCHES DEEP FILLED TO THE SURFACE WITH

SMALL STONES. HE THEN PLACES STONES ON THE EDGE OF THE

FOUNDATION THAT WILL REACH BEYOND IT ABOUT 6 OR SEVEN

INCHES. HE THEN STARTS THE WALL UPON THE HORIZONTAL .

AT THE HEIGHT OF EIGHTEEN INCHES HE PUTS ON A BINDER










-21-


THAT REACHES FROM SIDE TO SIDE OF THE WALL THESE

BINDERS ARE ONE YARD APART THE WHOLE LENGTH OF THE WALL.

HE BUILDS EIGHTEEN INCHES HIGHER AND RUNS THROUGH ANOTHER

BINDER. NOT IMMEDIATELY ABOVE THOSE LAID AT THE FIRST

EIGHTEEN INCHES. BUT IN THE SPACE BETWEEN SO AS TO

FORM A TRIANGLE. HE CAPS WITH STONE WHICH REACH ACROSS

THE WALL WHICH IS ONLY A FOOT AT THE TOP. TWO STONES ONE

OVER THE OTHER COMPOSE THE 'CAP'.



V BRICK FENCES

103 IN THE MID 1700'S BRICK BEGAN TO IMMERGE AS A COMMON

104-5 MEDIUM FOR FENCES. THE VARIETY OF BRICK FENCES IS ENOR-

MOUS. BRICKS WERE FREQUENTLY USED IN COMBINATION WITH

106-8 ASHLAR COPING, MOULDED BRICKS, OR CAST COPINGS.

109-10 SERPENTINE BRICK FENCES AND BRICKS STUCCOES AND SCORED

TO RESEMBLE QUARRIED STONE ARE COMMON.

111-13 BRICK FENCES ARE LAID SIMILAR TO BRICK WALLS FOR STRUCTURES.




VI MASONARY FENCES

114-5 A VARIETY OF MASONARY FENCES, OTHER THAN COMMON BRICK

IS USED. THESE UNITS ARE LAID SIMILAR TO BRICK.



VII CARVED STONE FENCES

116 FREQUENTLY MARBLE LIMESTONE, AND SANDSTONE ARE CARVED

TO LOOK LIKE BALISTERS AND ARE EMPLOYED IN FENCES USUALLY










-22-


FOR THE PRESTIGIOUS HOMES OR FOR INSTITUTIONAL ARCHITECTURE.



VIII LIVE FENCES

117-22 WHEN THE SETTLERS OF THIS COUNTRY CAME FROM EUROPE

THEY BROUGHT WITH THEM A TRADITION OF HEDGE PLANTING.

TWO PLANTS THE HAWTHORN AND THE BUCKTHORN IN PARTICULAR

WERE USED WITH VARYING DEGREES OF SUCCESS. HOWEVER

THE ABUNDANT TIMBER MATERIAL IN THE COLONY MADE HEDGES

IMPRACTICAL, EXCEPT FOR ORNAMENT. BUT WHEN THE COUNTRY

HAD SPREAD TO THE TREELESS PRAIRIES HEDGING AS A MEANS

OF FENCING BECAME POPULAR.

PERHAPS THE BEST ADOPTED PLANT FOR HEDGING IN THIS

COUNTRY IS THE OSAGE ORANGE. NATIVE TO ARKANSAS. THE

OSAGE ORANGE CAN BE GROWN ANYWHERE THE WINTER IS NOT

TOO SEVERE. OTHER COMMON PLANT MATERIAL INCLUDE BUCK-

THORN, JAPAN QUINCE AND HONEY LOCUST.

HEDGE FENCES ARE SOMETIMES CUT INTO ELABORATE DESIGNS

BUT THIS GENERALLY LIMITED TO LARGE ESTATES. LESS EXPEN-

SIVE LIVE FENCES USE A TRELLIS FOR VINES TO GROW ON.

INFORMATION ON PLANT MATERIALS IS CONTAINED IN THE

APPENDIX.



IX COMPOSITE FENCES

FENCES COMBINING ALL OF THE PREVIOUSLY DESCRIBED

FENCES ARE JUST AS ABUNDANT AS THE FENCES USING ONE TECHNIQUE.







-23-


FREQUENTLY ONE MEDIUM SUCH AS WOOD IS COMBINED WITH ITSELF

123 BUT IN A DIFFERENT F9RM. FOR EXAMPLE PLANK AND LATHE,

124-6 PLANK AND TURNED, LATH AND LATTICE, AND PLANK AND LATTICE.

127-29 ARE NOT UNCOMMON. OTHER COMPOSITE FENCES MIX MEDIUMS SUCH

AS WOOD AND BRICK. WOOD AND STONE, WROUGHT IRON AND

130-32 BRICK. CAST IRON AND BRICK, WOOD AND CAST IRON. CARVED

133 STONE AND BRICK AND WOOD AND WIRE. COMPOSITE FENCES CAN

134-35 EITHER BE CONSTRUCTED AT THE SAME TIME OR BE AN ADDITION

TO AN ORIGINAL FENCE IN ORDER TO OBTAIN GREATER HEIGHT.





















APPENDIX

LIVE FENCES

FENCE LAW

FENCE STATISTICS





892


AGRICULTURAL REPORT.


r 0 S
a a l


Lbs. Lbs. Lbs.
Avenn flaveseens, (Yellowish oat-grass) ..... ................ 1 0 0
Cynosurus cristatua, (Crested dogs' tail) .......... ............. 5 6 7
Festuca duriuacula, (Irardishfnscue) ........................... 3 3 4
Festuca tenuifulia, (Fine-leaved fesczue) .......................... 2 2 1
Lolimn perenne tenuo, (Fine ray rass) ....... ....... ......... 210 20 20
Poa nemoralis, (W1ood meadow-r rass) .......... ............... ] 1 2
Poa nemoralis sempervircne, (Evergreen meadow-grass) .......... 14 1 2
Pea trivioli,, (Rough stalked meadow-grass)-------------.................------- 1 1 2
Trifliumn repcns,( Ilhite clover) ............................... 7 7 7
Trifbium minus, (Small yellow clover).......................... 2 1

The above mixtures are enough for an acre. Where the ground is
overshadowed with trees, both kinds of festuca should be omitted,
and similar quantities of the two kinds of Poa nemoralis be substituted.
In France, according to M. Vilmorin, Lolium perenne is that most
generally employed for sowing lawns. The quantity used is about
100 pounds to the acre. In small plots or enclosures, where a
thick fine turf is required, the quantity is doubled; but from experience
it has been observed, that the thicker the grass, the less it resists
drought, which probably is owing to the roots not penetrating sufli-
ciently deep into the earth. Ray-grass appears to be admirably
adapted to a deep, rich soil, provided it is constantly watered by artifi-
cial irrigation or by rain. When the ground is dry, sandy, or only cov-
ered with a thin stratum of soil, this grass dries up and perishes in
summer ; but there are other species which, when mixed, result much
better-such as common meadow-broom (Bromus pratcensis); smooth-
stalked meadow-grass (Poa pratensis); red hardish fescue (i'esiuca
duriuscula vd rubra) ; sheep's fescue (Festuca ovina) ; crested dogs'
tail (Cynosurus cristatus) ; sweet-scented vernal grass, (Antowxarnthutn
odoraitnm), and creeping white clover (Triflipum repcas.)
In the park at Fontainbleau, beautiful lawns have been formed over
almost pure white sand by means of sheep's fescue, mixed with ray-
grass, which, however, disappears after the first year, and leaves the
former alone. The common meadow-broom makes an excellent turf
over a dry, caua;rcous soil, where no other grass would resist the
drought. A good turf ma:y also be obtained in open woods, provided
the trees are pruned high enough to allow of a free circulation of
air, and that the tops are not too thick. The best kinds for this pur-
ose are the red hardish fescuc, sweet-scented vernal grass, narrow-
leaved wood meadow-grass (Poe nemorali vel angustif/lia.) If the place
is very dry and shady, the two following may he added: various-leaved
fescue, (Festuca heterophylla,) and the slender-leaved fescue (Festuca
tenuiolia.) As these grasses are of slow growth, it is better to mix ray-
grass with them, as it makes an early show and then gives way for the
others. These fbstucas, it may be remarked, have the disadvantage of
forming isolated tufts.


LIVE FENCES. 393

The time for sowing lawns is in spring or autumn. But where a
large amount of dry land is to be sown, the beginning of autumn is
regarded as the best; although bfr small parcels or strips of ground,
which can easily be watered, almost any period of the year will suit.
Sow broadcast, and as uniformly as possible, slightly covering the seed
with a sprinkling of vegetable earth, and, if practicable, roll it well.
A lawn once established, should never be neglected; with constant
care, it will last a long time; if abandoned to itself, it will be necessary,
in a few years, to make it anew. In its management, it requires to be
weeded in spring, and again in the beginning of autumn, in order to
get rid of strong-rooted and large-leaved plants-such as sorrel, plan-
tain, lucerne, &c., which naturally may have sprung up, or have been
brought there by manures. The grass should be mown often enough
to prevent it from coming to seed, and the ground rolled after every
mowing. It should be top-dressed in autumn, either with long manure,
raking off the straw in the spring before the grass begins to grow, or
with a mixture of guano and soot. A sprinkling of vegetable earth is
the best fertilizer that can be applied to a strong soil. This operation
should be repeated once in three years. When a lawn, from age, be-
comes filled with moss, its surface should be loosened several times in
autumn with an iron rake, in order to tear it up. Notwithstanding the
grass will appear to be much disturbed, it will not suffer from the ope-
ration. Should there be any vacant or exposed places, let them be
sown with grass, covering them with a thin sprinkling of vegetable
earth. Small lawns should be improved by re-sowing every year, in
order to keep them thick and fresh.




LIVE FENCES.



PLANTING AND MANAGEMENT OF QUICKSET HEDGES.

Hedging, in various parts of the Old World, has been a favorite
mode of enclosure from remote antiquity, and has neither lost its inte-
rest nor its utility by the tardy lapse of time. Indeed, it forms, up to
the present, an essential tLatilre in tlhe European landscape, lparlicu-
lariy in Germany and England, where the utmost attention is paid to
it in fencing their fields. It was practised by the ancient Iomans, as
well as by the Greeks, as appears from Homer in his "Odyssey:"
When Ulysses returned from Troy to his father Laertes, alter many
years' absence, the good old man had sent his servants into the woods
to gather young thorns for forming hedges, and while occupying himself
in preparing ground to receive them, his son asked him, Why, being
now so fir advanced in years, he would put himself to the fatigue and
labor of planting that which lie was never likely to enjoy." Laertes,
taking him fbr a stranger, gently replied: I plant against my son
Ulysses comes home." The thorns, to which the allusion is made,





394 AGRICULTURAL REPORT.


might have been the common hawthorn, or some Oriental species of
craIagus or some other thorn-bearing plant. Varro calls a thorn
hedge "a natural and living guardian;" and Columella prefers it before
the constructed or dead hedge," as being more lasting and less
expensive.
In more modern times, we find, from Cresentius, that hawthorn
hedges were used in Italy before the year 1400. In England, they
appear to have been in use from the time of the Romans. In all the
old works on husbandry, directions occur for quicksetting ditches and
forming hedge-rows. Standish, in his Commons Complaint," pub-
lished in 1611, gives directions for a new method of pruning quick-
wood sets of white thorne," so as to make them thick at bottom; and
advises, in certain cases, that "three rows of quickthornes" shall be
set in each ridge, instead of two, as appears to have been the ordinary
practice. In a black-letter tract called An Olde Thrifte newly
revived," &c., published in 1612, very particular directions are given
for enclosing young plantations "with a good ditch and quickset of
white thorne, crab-tree, and hollin, mixed together, or else any one of
them (and by no means, if you can chuse, set any black thorne amongst
it, for that will grow into the fields ward, and spoyle pasture, and teare
the wool of the sheepes back "!) In Tusser's "Five Hundred Points
of Good Husbandry," directions are also given for making hedges:
Go plough or delve up, advised with skill.
The breadth of a ridge, and the length as you will,
Whore speedy quickset for a fence you will draw,
To sow in the seed of the bramble and haw."
Most of these hedges, however, appear to have been made to enclose
plantations of trees, and hedges of hawthorns; for fields probably were
not in use in England before the establishment of nurseries, about the
beginning of the seventeenth century. The first planted hedges in any
country would doubtless consist of shrubs, transplanted fiomn the
neighboring woods; and those which appeared the most formidable
from their thorns, or spines. But this, doubtless, would give rise to
Ledges firmed of difL:rcnt plants. For instance, in some parts of
England, the sloe, or black thorn, (Prunus spinosa,) might prevail; while
in others, the hawthorn, (Cratcegus oxyacantha,) or the buckthorn,
(RIhamnus carthrticus,) might have had a preference. In all of these
hedges, there must necessarily have been a mixture of species, from
the ditlicuilty of obtaining a sufficient number of one kind \without
sowing the seed.
From the success attending the hawthorn and buckthorn for hedges
in Europe, early attempts were made to adopt them in the older-settled
parts of the United States; but in most instances, they have proved in-
ellicient, if not an entire failure, owing to the excessive droughts which
ofien prevail here, as well as to the intense heat of our summer sun.
The buckthorn, in several instances, when sufficient attention was paid
to the selection and preparation of the soil and to the use of the shears,
has been formed into beautiful hedges, which bid fhir to resist our cli-
mate, and endure for many years. The "Washington Thorn" (Cratcs-
gus cordata) was also brought into notice as a hedge plant towards the
close of the last century, and was subsequently emoloved for that rur-


pose in various sections of the Union; but, owing to improper manage-
ment, and the tendency to disarm itself of its spines after a certain age,
it has been discontinued. Similar results have attended the adoption
of other species of thorny trees and shrubs in this country, with the ex-
ception of the "Osage Orange," the "Spanish Bayonet," and the
" Cherokee Rose." These are all natives, and remind us of the im-
portance of experimenting more extensively with other indigenous
plants with the view of growing live fence.
GENERAL REMARKS ON THE FORMATION AND TREAT-
MENT OF HEDGES.
In the formation of a quickset hedge, the main things to be considered
are, the nature of the land, whether wet or dry; the preparation of the
ground; what kinds of plants will thrive best in the soil, whether it be
clay, loam, peat, gravel, or sand; the nature of the soil whence the plants
are to be removed; the character of the roots of the plants, whether
they creep near the surface or penetrate deep into the earth; the age
and size of the sets; and the modes and seasons of planting, pruning,
repairing, &c. If the land be low, moist, or wet, it must either be
ditched or drained, or planted with willows or other aquatic shrubs; if
it be moderately moist or dry, the plants may be set on the embank-
nient of a ditch, or on the plain surface of the ground, without a ditch.
Those plants which are raised in a nursery are to be preferred to all
others, and if produced on a spot near the place, it will be best. As a
general rule, the better the ground is prepared, the sooner the hedge
will arrive at maturity, and the longer will be its duration. Again, the
modes of planting and pruning, as well as the soil, manure, situation,
temperature, &c., should be varied to suit the nature of the plant; and,
on the contrary, the plants should be selected and treated in reference
to the condition of the climate, situation, and soil. And in no case
should a hedge be fmed where any other kind of fence can be made
cheaper, whether it be composed of iron, wood, or stone, always taking
into account its durability, as well as its first cost.
In the management of live fences of every description, an important
point to be considered is, to keep them dense near the ground, and as
impervious as possible to wind and animals; for which purpose tile
transverse section of the hedge should be made broader at the base
than at the top, in order that the exterior leaves of the plants may
receive in an equal degree the full inlnCen1ce of light, air, ind perpien-
dicular rains. But let it be remembered that, notwithstanding it takes
time to form a good hedge, it makes the cheapest fence in the end, par-
ticularly in parts of the country where other fencing materials are
costly or scarce. The ground occupied by a hedge on a ;trm is not
available either for grazing or tillage, and the f-irmer, therefore, in
forming his fences, where land is costly, should be careful to have as
little land thus occupied as possible. The larger the enclosures the
less will Le the waste of ground, and a straight fence will occupy less
room than one which is crooked. In the ploughing of a field, more-
over, there will be a material saving of time and labor, and the work
will be better done, if the fences are straight; and if there is a good


LIVE FENCES. 395





396 AGRICULTURAL REPORT.

In respect to the training and general culture of hedges, in general,
it may be observed that all such as are liable to be eaten by cattle
must be fenced until the plants are fully trained. For the first two
years, the hedges must be kept free of weeds; and if it is designed to
train them in proper form, close and neat, they must be clipped both
on the sides and tops, once or twice a year, but never less than once,
say from the last of June to the end of August. They should always
be clipped into a conical or elliptical form, as the diminution of the
branches towards the top increases the development of the plants at
the bottom, in consequence of the greater elaboration of the sap in
those parts and the free admission of air, light, and rain.

TREES AND SHRUBS USUALLY EMPLOYED FOR HEDGES.
The trees and shrubs, which have been adopted in Europe or in this
country for ornamental hedges in gardens or for enclosing fields,
include the following sorts. Although many of them may not be
adapted to our economy, soil or climate, the hints herein given may
be the means of suggesting ideas in experimenting with similar or
analogous native plants, of which we have a great variety. The
chief point to be arrived at is to find such as are hardy, dense, or
spiny, and rapid in their growth, which will not extend their roots nor
suckers in a manner that will interfere with the crops in the adjoining
enclosures, and those that will form an efficient barrier, without repair-
ing for years:

EVERGREENS.
ALATERNUS, NARROW-LEAVED.
(Rhamnus alaternus angustifolia.)
A dense, hardy evergreen shrub, native of the south of Europe, grow-
ing to a height of 15 or 20 feet. From the rapidity of its growth in
almost any soil and situation, it is particularly valuable for an orna-
mental hedge, for concealing unsightly objects; and it may also be
clipped, by the aid of the shears, into almost any form.
This plant was formerly much cultivated in Europe to form hedges
for enclosures; but its branches were found to be too pliant for this
purpose, being frequently displaced by strong winds; they also shoot
very irrcgiilayrly anid tin, so that the middle of the hedge is frequently
open and wide, and only the sides can be kept tolerably close. If
we add to this its being frequently laid or broken down by snow in the
winter, it must be deemed an improper plant for this purpose.
ARBOR VIT2E.
(Thlja occidentalis.)
This species of thuja, the only one discovered in America, is par-
ticularly valuable for an evergreen hedge, not only on account of its
hardiness and wide geographical range, but from the beauty of its
foliage and compactness of growth, which render it well adapted
trn nnnip1 .n;r(ihthr1 nl tirts. nnd i as a heller for Prardens and nursery


grounds exposed to chilling winds. It bears the knife well, and also
the shears.





,'4. ,


,. V



t .
far apar, leaving s s we eu ,, to a it s l a s; but



















form as complete a barrier as the holly or broom.
** * *
























with figures of animals cut out in box-trees, answering alterowtely to

being cut into a variety of shapes and letters; some expressing the
name o e f ter, nd of the artifice, &c. The s




















practice is followed in several Roman gardens at the percent day; for
instance, in theothe Vatican, thoe -name the Pope and the dte of
The young shrubs may be planted alternately in two rows fiom
20 to 24 inces apart on a ridge of earth slightly elevated above the
common level of the ground, or on an embankment with one or two
ditches, as indicated in the diagram above. The branches of one row

mass, which' should be constantly kept clipped in order to preserve
uwifthrmity. oVhen first planted, the young trees may appear to be too
for apart, leaving spaces wide enough to admit small animals; but in
.the course of a few years, tlycir stems will increase in thickness, and






form as complete a barrier as the windholly of the Palace in otters broom.






box.
THE EVERGREEN BOX.
( Buu.,S scmpcrvirens.)
This tree appears to have been much employed in verdant sculpture,
and close-clipped hedges in the gardens of Roman villas in the Augus-
tan age. Pliny describes his Tusculan villa as having a lawn adorned
with figures of animals cut out in box-trees, answering alternately to
one another. In another part of the same villa, the box is mentioned as
being cut into a variety of shapes and letters; some expressing thle
name of the master, and others that of the artificer, &c. The same
practice is followed in several Roman gardens at the present day; for
instance, in that of thle Vatican, the name of the Pope and the date of
his election may be read fiom the windows of the Palace in letters of
box.


LIVE FENCES.


397






308 AGRICULTURAL REPORT.


The l ox may be propagated by layers, either in spring or autumn,
both of the young and old wood. When the plants have attained a
suilicient size, they may be planted in the hedge-rows in double, alter-
nate lines from 10 to 12 inches apart. They may be clipped at almost
any season except mid-winter; but June is considered the most appro-
priate time for this operation, when the plants have nearly completed
their year's growth; because they will afterwards make shoots from
half an inch to an inch in length, or, at all events, put forth new
leaves, and thus, in a few weeks, conceal all appearance of the use of
the shears. When this practice is followed, it is necessary to go over
the hedges in July, in order to cut neatly off; with the knife, any shoots
that may have protruded too far, taking care not to injure the leaves.
When intended to be kept low, the hedges require occasionally to be
cut in, and the operation performed on one side in one year, and not on
the other side till two years after. Treated in this way, on good loamy
soil, they will endure for a long time; whereas, if they be continually
clipped on the surface only, a net-work of shoots will there be formed,
which, by excluding the air from the stems within, occasions decay,
and the hedge becomes unsightly and naked below. The form of the
cross section of a box hedge or edging should always be that of a.
truncated triangle, with the broadest end near to the ground, as in all
cases, the base should be broader than the summit, in order that the
rain may fall on the sides, and the light of the sun strike on them with
equal force. Next to the holly, a box hedge has the most beautiful
appearance in winter, more especially when the ground is covered with
snow.
FUEZE.
(Ulex europaus.)
An erect evergreen shrub, native of Europe, sometimes growing to
a height of 10 or 12 feet, and putting forth, in England, yellow
flowers from September to May. Indeed, it may be said to be more or
less in flower during the year; and hence the proverb : Love goes
out of fitshion when the turze is out of bloom." In the province of
Brittany, in France, as well as in Normandy, this shrub has been used
as fodder for cattle ifom time immemorial. In England, it is cultivated
for hedges as well as for fodder, and as underwood for the protection
of young trees and game. It is chiefly employed for hedges in situa-
tions where the hawthorn and the holly will not thrive; because the
furze is not a plant of long duration, and after being some time in cul-
ture as a hedge, it is liable to become naked below, even if clipped or
pruned on the sides; and to extend to a great width if left untouched by
the knife or shears, unless prevented by ditches cut sufficiently deep.
It makes one of the best and handsomest of hedges when kept regu-
larly clipped.
The most ancient, and perhaps the most simple of all fences, are
walls made of turf. These walls, however, are much injured by
atmospheric influences, and the rubbing and butting of cattle. To
guard against this, they should be planted or sown with furze. The
roots of this plant will soon penetrate the turf, and tend to bind the


wall. The most expeditious mode of forming a fence in this way is to
raise a bank of earth, say 6 ftbt wide at the bottom, 3 feet wide
at the top, and 3 feet high. The seeds may then be sown on a drill
along the middle of the top, and the plants either left to grow and hang
down at random on the sides, or be clipped into regular shape as a
hedge, according to the taste or convenience of the owner. A very
good mode is, to clip the hedge on each side, so that its transverse
section may complete the upper part of a triangle, of which the earthy
bank forms the lower portion, as indicated in the diagram below.






.-- .
A ..
%.. a" -- .
S" ,' ', ,
-" ,- .t i :'4 .','. "l '
:' ". 'o' :: ' : ^ '.;o .. ,' *; '* -
-. .lr ,lJ.I. "Al. ',i .';i.- .!..-f.'.;l .... .J H ,- : '. '.L ...

The proper time for clipping such a hedge is either in autumn, after
the growth of the shoots is completed, or in the spring, before it has
commenced.
When an evergreen hedge is wanting in a garden for shelter or orna-
ment, the Irish or fastigiate variety (Ulex strict) is preferable, as it
grows very compact and requires but little or no pruning.
IOLLY, EUROPEAN.
(Ilex ayql/olium.)
Formerly, when it was customary in England to enclose and sub-
divide gardens by hedges, the holly was employed by all who could
procure the plants, and wait for them to grow. In the temperate parts
of the United States, say at the south of the river Potomac, it would
form, perhaps, a most impenetrable and the most durable of all live
fences ; and it has this superior advantage over deciduous-leaved trees,
that it is seldom attacked by insects, and at all seasons of the year
glitters with its armed and varnished leaves, or blushes will its
natural coral. Its chief objection is the very indillercnt progress which
it makes for the first few years after planting; but after it becomes estab-
lished in a suitable soil, or about the third or fourth year, there are but
few hedge-plants that will surpass it in their growth. It may be carried
to a considerable height, and, consequently, is well adapted for situa-
tions where strength and shelter are required, especially during winter,
when most other hedges are deprived of their leaves.
When the holly is to be planted as a hedge, if it is desirable that
the growth may be rapid, the soil should be trenched to a depth of
three or four fect. If the subsoil be poor, it is recommended to dig a
trench in the direction of the intended hedge, three or four feet wide,
and as many deep, and fill up the space with good surface soil, taken


LIVE FENCES. 399







AGRICULTURAL REPORT.


from the neighboring ground or elsewhere. The soil in the trench
should be raised at least a foot above the adjoining surface, to allow for
settling; and along the middle of this ridge, the plants should be set
from 12 to S1 inches apart. According to Miller, holly hedges should
never be clipped, because when the leaves are cut through the middle,
they are rendered unsightly; and the shoots should therefore be cut
with a knife, close to a leaf. This mode, undoubtedly, is more appro-
priate for hedges of gardens and pleasure-grounds, when it is desirable
to preserve an effect more pleasing to the eye; but as this method leaves
a rougher exterior surface, and involves a much greater cost than
clipping, it is unsuitable where the object is to prevent birds from build-
ing their nests, and to maintain- effective fences at the least expense.
The proper time for clipping appears to be just after the leaves have
arrived at maturity, because, at that season, the wounds are repaired in
a measure by the healing over produced by.the remaining sap, still in
circulation.
The seasons most usually adopted for planting the holly, as well
as other evergreens,. are the spring and in mild weather in winter,
although summer and autumn are generally stated to be the proper time
for performing that work. The principle which justifies the practice of
removing them in winter or spring is, that most plants are more safely
planted when they are in a comparative dormant state, and when the
weather is temperate, the air moist and still, rather than dry, and in mo-
tion; for it is well known that the greatest degree of torpidity in plants
or trees exists a short time before they begin to germinate or push:out
shoots; consequently, as evergreens begin to grow only a week or two
later than deciduous trees of the same climate, the proper time for trans-
planting them must be nearly the same. The chief difference to be ob-
served is, the circumstance of evergreen trees being at no time whatever
in so completely a dormant state as deciduous ones; and hence such
weather in winter, autumn, or spring, must be chosen for removing them,
as will least affect their fibrous roots and leaves by evaporation.
HOLLY, AMERICAN.
(Ilex opaca.)
In parts of the country where the European holly will not thrive, and
where the soil is gravelly and dry, or in shady places, the American
holly may be formed into hedges in its stead. As it is rather difficult
to transplant, it is best to sow the seed at once along the line where the
hedge is intended to grow.
IVY, IRISH.
(Iledera helix vegeta.)
A fast-growing climber, with large-lobed leaves, which, when trained
against espaliers, lattice-work, iron hurdles, or wire frames, forms in a
very short time most beautiful evergreen walls, or hedges, for the shelter
or separation of flower gardens. It is readily propagated by layers or
slips taken off or planted in the sites where they are to remain.


JUNIPER, OR WHITE CEDAR.

(Cupressus :/ ,... 7.....
For: swampy grounds,- or the, extensive,marshes which lie ..-;1.v:,i-tii to
the salt mr ri, ., : M .i.ir .. 1..;:i, a d are exposed in h;'' i.I s t
be overflowed .', tl:- ,,1.i. i r' -.'hbite cedar, cai I..-- t1.rrn,.
into a :._r 11- i ait o,1 etlici.. l I..: :., by planting young trees.in
double r,:v.: i a iianner. recommended and described fbr arbor
vita..
LAUREL, OR SWEET BAY.
(Laurus noslis.)
An.ever '"-cnTrl',hl., n. tr : .t. ..- u fi E. ur,:,., ;ldv .' : .1ispl',y-
ing : t' l r.: y.to I tn u -p -u l:,:r. l .tr. it c'.cr, r ij .i a l,.:-
li .: li i, .l':t r, v. ih' i I. :' *i ';,.[1 r, tr. A il. t.,rn,; td n ,Ju ,., iical
:.u h, v.l, ni t r ill .i.i : -ni.l: ii it .:ll a. pti J lfor an orna-
n' nr ii h.: i .. Ii. i- i .:n: i,.; 1i .: tl r: .. r s.izImp of it w ill
:, rn -., p l, .I:.-:r ''.n a:-- ..tiIr lh appeared to be dead. It
i t- i. iai.1 r i;,r I t:..it ti.hern and ;.:i I, ,' ; ,r the M middle portions of the

LATIRESTINUS.
(Viburhaum tius.)
Th, l.'ia : li.i- .1 ,..ut.f1 : -n shrub. .with shining leaves
ndi .v ,.in .. f *..: .', ii_ [.- diin til: -Avinter months.- It
I a nItive otf h' Aihu0 bf Eurr--: : 1;,. N, ,. : rl, Ar i':i ii ,l re ioh of
lIh: .:!,'., : :ri, I h ii..- ;- i- ;i;, l. i. the 'c l'.itC of our Southern' St'tes.
Like th L ir.., h i :- -. lx i to rr'nde'r i :. '.. dili-
cul to h .: I 1' .. .- : ,.' '- .,i.h ..:- ll ,7 1 w i i l it,'i l n I t.il: i m I p. .
besides, ;i .:--: l..ii '. -' -, 1 .:.d .- is chlppedwith,
shears, l!, '.-. 1:ill b.- ,i: tI.rn l il. which, would give them' an unsightly
appearance ; i. t t l i.- i]:i t 1' .. iii this plant is in its.
1.,,, ...,n=, !..i, the.pla 's ,c, -l._:,n ':.1. .110 lt,-,v.:-.;-r vr. _:.: 'll cut
-Tl ..v'\ v.\ i. i,, nuch'of.th. r i1.11. i 1..: .. N.-.r ,i il, I... avoided,
pt.in' -.11
.li':.r:' ili: ... .1'.'L i i'L ..l kept in -:,., .-. i r. Ti i,:t,: ti, pla titis
nP:tI. 'i pr. 'r i i:.r -: the purpose; but. i, .,: ii: t -. .-1 '.h. diL or other
i:: .: .i :'l i.l ..I I ... : i .. ri thl -- : i i .: : :l. bL :t,:r adaptedthan
i!ii :, i.. i. .: h.: ..: l .i i 1 -.:, -.i i- ': be trained close
to tih w all, -'. r:.- it m.i t i.' .-.ii.. -, cn L-: l. Il, instead of
CliIp[ii :. thn h.I..1_,:. i- p U :.r. ':..*il, hib 1l:ii J, it m ay be
u !i i .'._. to havee the plr t i Cjl! C 1' i!),.:-.r; h.'n the ground
lJI'i[ '.v.-!..-. ''h;; n, ,*v, ." 1 ::f :. cd J Lv ii i.' i,',,,, A p;ri, :--,,= :;fi,.r '[ho
lo r. .: r ..l; pp.- r, cU,..unrg ou.tl lti lo;_ ". oi,.7 h J d) 1',, l.-... r'- d,
or'proj'-.'. i.... r r:rI n Iii. ll :ri. .i'.- ciiit ii' '-. t, i I.. in
order that i -;t.t[ oiy, hI left; b t t' :. :-i.' : ,:.i it i '. : i e
spring. ri'u i. ri,- ro n !.: cL,.' n.: h. b -. us l.: l!'..,'.:r~ r a1 d .a s
produc:-d I t the \i:xtr ij. y .' itt..,e :,I th e i sam year.
26


LIVE FENCES,





402 AGRICULTURAL REPORT.


THE COMMON: .MYRTLE.

(Mlyrlus communis.)
A well-known evergreen shrub of lc 1.ltilu1: appearance( and sweet
odor, growing to a. height of 5 or .3 t;:..t in a wild\'state; a native
of the south of.Europe, Northern Africa and Wcstern Asi .. It is suffi-
ciently hardy to withstand,the climate of England, and will even thrive
within the reach of the spray of the seh. On the Isle of Wight and in
Devonshire, it forms hedges to ar'I:-. r. It'-is also cultivated near
Toulon and-Nice, in .France, !;:r ilte ir:- purpose. It would, not
probably succeed in our climate north of the Potomac.
OAK, EVERGREEN.
(Quercus, ilex.)
The ilex, or evergreen-oak, is, employed.'for; hedges where they are
intended to gfow rather tall, and is a fit plant for the purpose. ..Tien
these hedges are planted very young, and kept closely trained from the
beginning, they may be made very dense from the ground to the height
of 20 or morei'eet; but they must always be kept narrower at the'top
than below,-iri order that not too much. snow may lodge upon them in
winter,,which is apt to break and displace the branches.
ORANGE,:WILD.
(Cerasus caroliniana.)
The Carolinian cherry, usually called "Wild Orange,"'is considered
as one of the most beautiful vegetable productions of the' South,'where
it is generally'selected by the'inhabitants to plant near their dwellings,
not only on account of its large, dark, shining leaves, numerous white
flowers, which put forth in March or April,: and its black, oval fruit, but
because it growswith rapidity; it'stands the knife and shears well, and
affbrds an impenetrable hedge.
PHILLYREA, BROAD-LEAVED.
(Phillyrea latifolia.)
A hardy evergreen, native of the :south of Europe, called' by: old
gardeners the True Phillyrea," to distinguish it from the Alaternus,
which they simply call Phillyrea. The branches bf .this shrub: are
strong, the leaves rather large, and of adark-green color. 'As this is a
plant of middling stature, hedges planted with it mnv be. trained to a
height of' 10 or 12 feet; and -if these are kept ]inrr.-.'.' :,r tl : p, in
order that not too much snow may lodge upon them,:they may be ren-
dered very close .and thick; and being of a fine green, they'will.make a
handsome appearance.. This plant .s probably too tender to withstand
our climate north, of the.Potomac.


PRIVET.
(Ligusirum vulgare.)
In British gardens, the privet: has been held in high estimation for
centuries for its use in making hedges, either alone or mixed within
the 'hawthorn,.' and as affordingg a screen for concealing objects.
Trained against a white stone or plastered wall, it produces a pleasing
effect, suggesting the.idea of the myrtle, for which it answers well as a
substitute. It isa' native of Europe, and is sufficiently hardy to with-
stand the climate:ofNew.York.
ROSE. CHEROKEE.
(Rosa laeigata.)
This -plant, though known by the: name of "'Cherokee Rose,". is
believed to'be a native of China, and has been adopted as a hedge-
plant in the. Sojutihl-.rr States, as far north as latitude 340, for at least
sixty years. 'It is noted for its long, flexible branches, large, white
flowers, bright-green foliage, and long, straggling and rapid growth.': It
is readily propagated .by cuttings, and may be formed into a hedge by
throwing up a ridge of four or six furrows with the plough, afterwards
opening the centre by another furrow, and planting the slips therein,
about a foot apart, covering ,them 6 inches deep, leaving one end out,
pointing towards the sun; taking care to press the earth compactly
around them with the feet. If properly trimmed, a hedge of this sort
will afford a sufficient barrier against all stock in four years. If.left
unpruned, the, shoots are liable to extend in all directions from 10 to 20
eet. The cost per mile has been estimated at $15.
ROSEMARY, WILD..
(Rosmarvnus oficinalis.)
A native ot' the south of Europe, growing to a height of 4 or 5
feet. At Narbonne, in France, it is so abundant, that it is frequently
formed into hedges to gardens, where its flowers are very attractive to
bees. :-It may be propagated either by cuttings or seeds, and is thought
to thrive best near the sea.
SPANISH BAYONET,
(Yucca aliifolia.)
The leaves of this elegant plant are furnished at the extremity with
most formidablee spines; and spreading out horizontally, they inflict
serious wounds,'if encountered by animals or man. Its growth is prin-
cipally confined to Florida, where it is used as an impenetrable.hedge.
SPRUCE, HEMLOCK.
(Abies canadensis.)
This tree being a hardy native, and possessing a geographical range
from Upper Carolina to Hudson's Bay, may be formed into.a beantifhl


LIVE FENCES.





404 AGRICULTURAL REPORT.


LIVE FENCES. 405


hedge, resembling that of the arbor vitae, if treated in the same way.
It is somewhat rapid in its growth and bears the knife well.
SPRUCE FIR, NORWAY.
(Abies excelsa.)
This tree, like the preceding, bears the knife well, and as it is rapid
.in its growth, it makes good hedges for shelter.
YEW.
(Taxus baccata.)
The yew makes excellent hedges for shelter as well as for orna-
,ment. When wanted to be of one shade of green, the plants should
.all be raised from cuttings from the same tree; and when they are in-
tended to show berries, only female plants should be chosen; and
the hedge, like that of the holly, should be cut in with the knife, and
never clipped with the shears.
In planting yew for hedges, the advantage of having large-sized
plants is obvious; and it is recommended, that they should be of seven
or eight years' growth, and as many feet high. The season for trans-
planting, whether of a large or small size, is, as is the case with most of
the evergreens, when the sap is in a comparatively dormant state-that
is, between autumn and spring, when the weather is open, mild, and,
if possible, showery. If transplanted in frosty weather, or while a dry
wind prevails, they should be covered with mats or straw. The proper
season for clipping is towards the end of June, or when the growth of
the shoots has been completed; and to retain a hedge in the greatest
beauty and verdure, for the greatest length of time, it ought to be done
near the end of July or the beginning of August; and the points of all
those twigs which have become stubby from repeated clippings, cut
back from 3 to 4 inches. If this be not attended to annually, the entire
surface of the hedge will have to be cut into the same depth, every five
or six years; otherwise, the surface would become so thick and matted
with shoots, as to exclude the air of the interior, and kill a number of
the branches, so as to form here and there a gap. These openings are
the means of keeping the hedge alive.



HEDGE PLANTS, W ICII ANNUALLY SHED THEIR
LEAVES.
AILANTUS.
(A ilantus gladullosu.)
This tree, although bearing a bad name in American cities and large
towns, in consequence of a disagreeable odor emitted from the male
flowers, for a few days only, if thickly sown in a line where it is desira-
lle, will form a live fence, in almost any kind of soil, sufficiently strong
to ward olf cattle, in lour or five years.. Like most other rapid-grow-
ing trees, however, its endurance will be comparatively short.


ALDER, EUROPEAN.
(Alins glutinosa.)
This shrub is sometimes planted for hedges in moist meadows; also
along the margins of streams, to protect their banks by its numerous
creeping roots.
ALTHEA FRUTEX.
(Hibiscus syriacus.)
A deciduous shrub, native of Syria and Carniola, from 6 to 8 feet
in height, with numerous upright, white-barked branches, which are
rather fastigiate than spreading. It has long been cultivated in the
open air, in the neighborhood of London, Paris, and New York, where
it is perfectly hardy. It is used principally as a garden or lawn orna-
ment, of which it is one of the most conspicuous, producing its single
or double purple, white, red or variegated flowers, at a time of the year
when few other shrubs are in bloom. It also forms beautiful garden
hedges, more especially when the dillhrent sorts are planted in harmo-
nious order of succession, according to the colors of their flowers. In
this case, the plants should not be clipped with the shears, but carefully
pruned with the knife.
ASH, PRICKLY.
(Zanlthoxy lum Jfraxineum.)
This shrub, when young, is armed throughout with powerful prickles,
which are thick at the base, and angular and sharp at the point, but
become less numerous when it is old. It is found indigenous on the
borders of rivers and other waters from Canada to Virginia, and as
far west as the Mississippi. From its rapid growth and the formida-
ble character of its prickles, it doubtless would lbrm an excellent
hedge, while young; but how long it would endure, experience alone
must in future show.
BEACH PLUM.
(P1runvs mIaritima.)
This shrub abounds along the sandy sea-coasts from Maine to Ala-
bama, and is well worthy of the experiment as a hedge plant in the
sand-drifts, where few if any other shrubs will grow, both for protec-
tion against the encroachments of the ocean, or as a shelter from tem-
pestuous winds. It can readily be propagated by planting the stones
of the fruit.
BEECH, EUROPEAN.
(1'agus sylvatica.)
For shelter, especially those lofty narrow hedges, such as formerly
were much used in Europe, for enclosing and protecting gardens, or-
chards, and small fields affording early grass, from strong chilly winds,
the beech has few if any equals among deciduous-leaved trees; for, by
retaining its withered leaves during the winter, it aflbrds a similar pro-
tection as an evergreen





AGRICULTURAL REPORT.


A beech hedge may be trained to a height of 30 or 40 feet, and still
be kept quite narrow at the base, like the hornbeam;, but it is greatly
superior in the richer color of its foliage.. In Belgium, particularly in
the village of St. Nicholas, between Ghent and Antwerp, very.close
and handsome hedges are made with young beeches, planted 8 or more
inches apart, with their heads inclining in opposite directions at an
angle of 450, so as to cross each other at right angles, and thus form
a wall of trellis-work, the open squares of which are 6 or more inches
on aside, as indicated in the following diagram.



i. .... .... ...... .




During the first year, the plants are bound together with osiers at
the points of intersection, where they finally become en"grafted and
grow together on the principle of inarchimg, or grafting by approach,
asTshown in the diagram below. Two of the young trees are bent
towards each other, and at the point of intersection, two corresponding
cutsare made quite to the pith, and the parts bound together by a liga-
turein the manner represented at the letter A'.


BEECH, RED, AMERICAN.
(Fagrsi ferruginea.)
The American red beech being, of the same genus as the above,, and
resembling it in the habit of its growth, doubtless, if cultivated, would
form eouallv as good a hedee. It ramifies auite as near to the earth;


LIVE :FENCES. 407

is. as numerouslyy divided, and has quite as massy a summit in the
appearance of its tufted foliage, which is of equally as brilliant a green.
The tree is particularly hardy, as, it abounds in great abundance. in
New Englaid, New York, Canada, ard the-lLower British Provinces.
BERBERRY, OR PIPPERIDGE.
(BerLcris vulgaris.)
A small prickly shrub, found'wild in rocky places on the hills and
lower mountains in most parts of Europe,;and in many parts of Asia
and America, growing to a height of0 7or 8 feet.
The American variety (BI: i; c enadensis) 'is found in abundance on
fertile hills, and among rocks, especially in the Alleghany mountains,
from Canada to Tennessee. -:It makes excellent hedges, and doubtless
would have been much in use, had there not been a prejudice existing
against it among the agriculturists both of Europe and America,' from
its supposed in ;.:'ne ice producing blight or mildew on the grain grow-
ing near it. This i:lpniion, though totally unfounded, is of unknown
antiquity. .'The blight on grain is generally a species of Uredo, and
does not correspond in botanical characters with the iEcidium berberi-
dis, which infests the berberry.
BIRCH, WEST-INDIAN.
(Bursera gummnfera.)
This tree, although a native of Cuba, Jamaica, and the Bahamas,
grows equally well in Florida and other parts of the extreme South
When employed for live fences, it is only necessary to cut' truncheons
of any size, at the commencement of the rainy season, and plant thl-in
in a continuous row 10 or 12 inches apart, with the but-end down-
ward, buried from'a foot to a foot and a half deep.: For ordinary fence,
they may not be cut more .than 6 :or 8 feet in length, and 3 or
4 inches in diameter; when thus planted, they immediately take
root, and in a. short time become a durable barrier. This tree,
however, is of rapid .growth, and consequently will not live to a great
age. It is known at Key West by the name of Gumbo-limbo."
BIRCH, WHITE, EUROPEAN.
(Betia alba.)
The young plants.of this tree' have been formed into hedges in Eu-
rope, in poor, mossy, or sandy soils, where it is said they bear the
shears as well as any other shrub.
How far aany of our American species of birch would answer for
hedges, can only be determined by experiment.
BRAMBLE, EUROPEAN.
(Rlubus fruTicosus.)
The common bramble, or "High blackberry," of Europe, has fre-
quently been used in forming live hedges in a poor sandy soil; but can-
not be recommended for this purpose on account of the great space it
occupies, caused by suckers springing up from its trailing roots.'. This





AGRICULTURAL REPORT.


side. It forms an excellent barrier against animals, in closing: up the
gaps of old hedges, or in entering into the composition of those which
have lost their spines, or have become naked near the ground.
The same application in this country might be made of.our common
"High blackberry," (Rubus mvillosus,) remembering the precaution -to
confine its roots within bounds by ditches sufficiently deep.
BUCKTHORN, PURGING.
(Rhamnlaus cat harticus,.)
This product is a low tree or shrub, growing, when wild, to a height
of 8 or 10 feet, and from 12 to 15 feet in a state of cultivation. It
naturally partakes of the character of a bush, unless it is carefully
trained to a single stem. Its branches are numerous and irregular, and
when old, are rough and armed with short thorns. It is indigenous- to
Europe and the north of Asia.. 'It also grows spontaneously in the
vicinity of Boston, in Massachusetts, and near-West Point, New York.
In common with most plants of its genus, this plant may be easily
propagated by seeds or by cuttings and layers. It prefers a rich, moist
soil, in rather shady situation; but it will thrive in any place where
the currant or gooseberry will succeed. It is cultivated in Europe
chiefly as an ornamental shrub, and is becoming of great utility in this
country as a hedge plant, as will be seen by the following extract from
a paper by.Mr. E.--Hersey Derby,- of Salem, Massachusetts, published
in the Transactions of the Essex County Agricultural Society: "In the
year 1808, I happened to have some young plants which had come up
,from the chance scattered seeds of the Buckthorn, and finding'they
had made a good growth in the nursery to which they had been re-
moved, I determined to try to fbrm a hedge of them, and I have been
well pleased with the result. They were set out in 1809, and very
soon became a fine hedge, of about 20 rods in length, which has re-
mained so until the present time, (September, 1842,) not a single plant
having failed from it, nor have I ever known it to be attacked by any
insect. This hedge being my first experiment with the Buckthorn,
I did not keep it down so closely as I have since found it expedient to
do, and consequently it is not quite so impervious at the bottom as some
of my younger hedges, which have been more severely pruned. Being
fully satisfied that I had at last found the plant I wanted, I have, since
that time, set out various hedges of it, at different periods, until I can
now measure 160 rods of them-all, in my opinion, good hedges; and
I do not hesitate to pronounce the Buckthorn the most suitable plant
for the purpose that I have ever met with. It vegetates early -in the
spring, and retains its verdure late in autumn. I have often seen it
green after the snow had fallen. Being a hardy plant, it is never in-
jured by a most intense cold; and its vitality is so great that the young
plants may be kept out of the ground for a long time, or transported
any distance without injury. It never sends up any suckers, nor is
disfigured by any dead wood. It can be clipped into any shape which
the caprice or ingenuity of the gardener may devise; and being pliable,
it may be trained into an arch, or over a passage way, as easily as the
vine; it needs no plashing nor interlacing, the natural growth of the
plants being sufficiently interwoven, It is never cankered by unskilful


clipping, but will bear the knife to any degree. During the last win-
ter, I found-oneof.my-hedges had grown too high, casting too much
shadow over a portion of my garden; and wishing to-try how much it
would endure, I directed my gardener. tb cut it down within 4 feet: of
the ground.i; This was done in mid-winter, and not without some mis-
givings on my part, and much discouraging advice from others; but
it leaved out as early in the spring as other hedges, and is now a mass
of verdure. I have been applied to for young plants by persons who
have seen and admired my,hedges, and have sent them to various
States in the:Union, and I have never, in any instance, heard of their
failure.
"My method of forming a hedge is to set the young plants in a single
row, about 9 inches apart, either in the spring or autumn; if the lat-
ter, I should clip it in the following spring within 6 inches of the
S ground;, this 'will cause the hedge to be thick at the bottom, which I
regard as a great point of excellence; after this, all that remains to be
done is to keep it from weeds, and clip it once a year. I consider June
the best time to trim it, as it soonest recovers its beauty at that sea-
son. :The clipping may be done either with the guaden shears, a
hedge knife, or even with the common scythe."



-, ........, ..

S .. I, ,,..' i .' .
al L,,! .;- L


The al:'.-- diagram shows a pleasing mode of growing a hedge of
this species in. front of a dwelling, or for dividing a garden or orna-
mental ground. As the plants will attain a considerable height, they
may be trained over an arch or trellis, and form a beautiful, densely-
shaded arbor or walk.
BUCKTHORN, SEA.

(Ilippopiae rhamn;iides.)
A plant common throughout Europe and Asia, which is sometimes
cultivated for hedges near the sea to fix drifting sands, in connexion
with the sea-reed (Arundo arenaria) and the sea-side Lyme grass
(Elymus arenarius.)
CAPER BUSH.
(Capparis spinosa.)
This well-known shrub, trailing and rambling like the bramble, is
found on the rocks of Spain, Italy,'the Grecian islands, and various
parts of Western Asia.. When cultivated, it attains a .height of 4
or :5 feet,.with a head covering a space of about the same .diameter.
From the numerous spines which cover the branches, it might form an


408


409


LIVE FENCES.






410 AGRICULTURAL REPORT.

recommended for firs. It is altogether too tender to withstand much
frost.
CHINQUAPIN.
(Castanea pumila.) .
This shrub, which is a native, from its thick, branchy, and dwarfy
growth, and facility of cultivation from its nuts in almost any soil which
is not actually wet and springy, in the Middle and Southern States,
doubtless would form an economical hedge.
CHRIST'S THORN.
(Paliurus aculeatus.)
A branching deciduous shrub, or low tree, native of both shores of
the Mediterranean, and the west of Asia, growing to a height of 20 or
30 feet. In Italy, hedges are formed of it in a similar manner as the
hawthorn is in England. The poet Virgil, when describing in figura-
tive language Nature as mourning for the death of Julius Cesar, says:
The earth was no longer covered with flowers nor corn, but with this-
tles, and the sharp spines of the Paliurus." Columella recommends
excluding this plant entirely from gardens, and planting them with
brambles in its stead, for the purpose of forming hedges. In the south
'of France, wherever the Paliurus has been adopted for hedges, the
same objection is made to it as to those of the common sloe in England,
namely, that it throws up so many suckers in a short time as to extend
the width of a hedge considerably on both sides. This objection, how-
ever, could be overcome by digging ditches on each side of the hedge
sufficiently deep to stop the spread of the roots.
As this species abounds in Judea, and as the spines are very sharp,
and the branches very pliable, which allows them very easily to be
twisted into almost any figure, Belon supposed the crown of thorns,
which was put on the head of Christ before his crucifixion, was com-
posed of them. Josephus says: This thorn, having sharper prickles than
any other, in order that Christ might be the more tormented, they made
choice of it for a crown for him." Hasselquist, however, thinks that
the crown of thorns was formed of the Zizaphus spina-christi; while
Warburton contends lhat it was the Acanthus mollis, which can hardly
Sbe considered as prickly at all.
,HAWTHORN.
(Orategus oxyacantha.)
Thc hawthorn, on account of the stiffness of its branches, the sharp-
ness of its thorns, and its capability of resisting a northern climate
without injury, is universally preferred in England to all other trees for
hedges, and, may be so managed as to present a barrier to all kinds of
cattle, and not to be passed, without difficulty, even by such persons as
might attempt to intrude upon the grounds of others. But it will do no
good unless planted in a soil that is naturally dry and ftrtile, or one
:that has been made so by art. The plant is never found in its native
Ianl'tnt .r. f'vrot Cr,-n annl if nInniod c n qnclh it sonn hbconme stinted


LIVE FENCES. 411,
in its growth. The situation should be airy, although it will grow
either in exposed places, or in such as are sheltered, and even shaded
by other trees. In cases of this kind, however, it neither forms a hand-
some tree, nor a close, thick hedge.
The common practice of making hawthorn hedges in Europe, is to
plant the young trees in a straight line from 4 to 6 inches apart, either
upon an embankment or on the level surface, according to the wetness
or dryness of the soil. In the preparation for planting, a suitable bank
is first constructed for the reception of the plant. The direct line of
the hedge being staked out in the usual manner, the bank is commenced
by ditching, by forming it with the excavated earth. It should be so
constructed, that the plants when placed upon it have a slight inclina-
tion upwards. A sod, or turf of earth, say a foot in length, somewhat
broader than a spade, of a wedge-shape, 5 or 6 inches deep at the
thick end, should then be raised and inverted with the grass-side down-
ward along the edge of the marked line, which, when neatly pared and
beaten down with the back of the spade, forms, as it were, an inclined
plane, upon which the plants are afterwards to be placed, as indicated
m the following diagram by the letter t.


a. .
\. /
zILL


Then a ridge e, is formed just back of the foot of the inclined plane
referred to above, of the best mould or soil taken from near the surface,
a. In making choice of plants, a good fibrous root, and a clear stem,
are essentially necessary for a quick growth, and, if possible, those
which have been transplanted two years in nursery lines should be
preferred. Previous to planting, the top of the stem should be cut off
with a sharp knife about 5 or 6 inches above the roots, giving the cuts
an inclination upwards. The long part of the tap-root, as also any
diseased or decayed fibres, should be removed. If cut in frosty
weather, immediately alter the operation they should be covered with
earth; and, when likely to be frosty, planting in the afternoon should
carefully be avoided, as there may not be time to cover the plants with
a sufficient quantity of earth to resist the effects of the cold at night.
Indeed, in such weather, it is much the best way to defer the business
altogether. On the other hand, if planting be commenced in spring,
and the hedge is to be laid upon dry land, the plants, aficr they have
been cut, should be placed in a puddle of earth and water in a shady
place till wanted; for by so doing, their germinating powers will be
greatly accelerated. When quite ready, the plants may then be placed
along the inclined turf from 4 to 6 inches apart, so that their points,
where they are cut, may be about an inch beyond the sod towards the






LIVE FENCES. 413


41z


AGRICULTURAL REPORT.


ditch, as indicated by c, covering them over with the ridge of rich earth,
e. Then the' remainder of the earth is taken from the bottom of
the ditch d, and thrown up in a neat ridge over and behind the'plants,
as indicated in the diagram by the dotted line. If the land is not too
costly, the ditch may be made from 4 to 6 feet wide at, the top, a foot
and a half wide at the bottom, and 2 or 3 feet deep, leaving a berm
b, between it and the bank, 21 feet wide, in order that each side of the
ditch may have a proper slope, and to prevent the washings from run-
ning directly into it; for when the banks are made too upright, they
are very subject to fall down after every frost or hard rain ; besides, if
the ditch is of sufficient width and depth, it aids in increasing the effects
of the hedge in forming a barrier against animals.
If the bank for a hedge be without a ditch, the plants should be set
in two rows, almost perpendicular, at a.distance of 10 or 12 inches
from each other in the alternate or quincunx order, so that, ini effect,
they will be but 5 or 6 inches asunder.
Sometimes, when hedges are designed for middle fences, to divide
fields, a two-sided bank is raised a yard high, and as broad at the top,
having a slight ditch on each side; and each side of the bank is formed
with square spit turves, from the adjoining ground, and the middle filled
up with mould from the'ditches on each side, so that when finished
it forms a yard-wide border all the way along the top, and along .the
middle of which are planted too rows of hedge-sets, or seeds, in drills,
at 'distances as before described. But in places where no ditch nor
raised bank is required, as may be the case for middle hedges in the
interior parts of grounds, especially in gardens, then, the plan for the
hedge being marked out on the level ground 2 or 3 feet broad, it is
dug along one good spade deep, at least, and then planted with sets
of any sort in two rows ranging along the middle; or if it is designed
to sow seeds, &c., of any sort ,at once, where it is intended to have
a hedge, they are placed in two drills, a foot asunder the whole length,
In respect to general culture of these hedges, it may be remarked,
that all such as are exposed to cattle must be fenced as soon as
planted, either with a stake and bush hedge, with hurdles, or with rails
and open paling, for four or five years, till the hedge grows up, taking
care not to place the fbnce too close to the hedge to interrupt its growth.
The hedge must also be duly weeded while young, and this should be
particularly attended to the first two years. With respect to the trim-
ming or pruning, it should be done'with the greatest precaution and
nicety, as upon this, the beauty and future value of the hedge very
much depend. The proper time for this operation is either late in
autumn, or early in the spring, or about mid-summer, but not late
in the spring'season, when the sap is flowing; the check and in-
jury the plants would unavoidably receive, from such a -practice,
may be readily conceived. All straggling branches, growing over
the ditch, may be trimmed off, leaving those behind towards the bank
untouched. A hedge, however, will hardly be found to require much
pruning the first year; but should any branches grow so luxuriant
as to overtop the rest, they should be switched off to a uniform
height. In trimming, it is the practice with some to use shears, but the


" switching bill" or a scythe would undoubtedly be. the best instrument
for the purpose, as with it the stroke can be made upwards, forming a
clean, smooth cut. If, on the contrary, the stems and branches, instead
of being cut 'off smoothly, are splintered, which would allow the wet
to lodge in the heads of the stems, they would soon decay.
It may here be remarked that plants will not prosper in an old
hedge-bank which had previously been planted with the same species;
therefore, it is generally advisable to throw down the old bank, and put
in plants of a different description.
HORNBEAM, EUROPEAN.
(Carpinus betulus.)
In France, a trained hornbean hedge. (charmille) is formed in the
following manner': The ground is trenched one or two months before-
hand. 'The nursery from which the sets' are taken may be three, four, or'
even six or seven years old.' The former is the least expensive, and the
most certain of success ; bu the latter sooner produce the desired effect.
The plants, whether they be large or small, have their side-shoots
severely "cut in;" they arc planted in a single line from to 8 inches,
and even a foot apart, according to the height at which the intended
hedge is to grow. The.second year, any straggling shoots which may
appear are shortened, and the vacancies filled up, if any plants may
have failed. The third year, if the plants were tolerably large when
put in, the hedge may be regularly clipped or sheared; but if they are
small,.the clipping should not take place before the fifth year. As a
general rule, when it is desirable that the hedge should have a consid-
erable height, the clipping is postponed longer than when it is to be
kept low. .
With regard to the after treatment, it is recommended that the clip-
ping of a hedge of this'sort should be done only once a year, and this at
about mid-summer, orjust before the plants have completed their annual
shoots, as they will soon afterwards make new ones, or at all events
protrude a few leaves, and thus in a week or two conceal the effects
from the use of the shears. The hedge may be from 8 to 10 feet high,
and from'S to 24 inches thick.
In Germany, when the husbandman erects a liornbeam' fence, he
first throws up a parapet of earth, with a ditch on each side, and
plants his sets, raised t'bim layers, in such a manner that two plants
may be brought to intersect each other, in the manner as recommended
with' the European beech. Instead of cutting the wood, as there
described, he scrapes off the bark, and binds them closely together with
bast or straw. In consequence of this operation, the two plants grow
together, in a kind of indissoluble knot, and push from them horizontal
or slanting shoots, which form a living palissade, or chevaux de frise,
so that such a protection: may be called a "rural fortification." These
hedges, when pruned annually and with discretion, in a few years, form
an impenetrable barrier against animals in every part.






LIVE FENCES. 415


HORNBEAM, AMERICAN.
(Carpinus americana.)
How far the American horbeam, ii,: :lly called "Blue" or BBastard
Beech," would answer :for hedges, if treated after the'manner of the
European species, can only be determined by experiment.. 'Its branches
are numerous, short, and thickly set-so much so, 'as to give the whole
tree a stunted -appearance.': It is sufficiently hardy to withstand the
climate from the mountainous parts of Tennessee nearly to Hudson's
bay.... It will e-rn. in Ilmot 'ny; soil or situation, and may be:propa-
gated either 1.y ; I!'y.: .. t;i tl!:i eeds.
LARCH, EUROPEAN.
(Larix europcea.)
In England, the larch, when .10 or .12 feet high, is sometimes set
from 15 to 18 inches from centre to centre in the embankment of a four-
foot ditch, at an angle of about 300 with the horizon, having the tops
inclining a little over the ditch, towards the interior of the field, which
forms an efficient I,,.lg,:- against cattle. The top of the ditch-bank
might be from 20 .to 24 inches above the ordinary level of the ground,
and the upper part of the roots about 3 inches below the surface. When
the earth' is dressed off, ev,.:-r. other 1:r. ii might be made to rest on: a
e:.rkl:i take. driven p.,- i. p. .. -:' ul : 1' r i, i..- t ,.- ground near the edge of the
dlit- h, illto .v i .'H ini Ill ,,; 1. ii .1 t-, prevent the trees fiom assuming an
lj'priighl p-j.-ii.-i;, :t i to prevent them from being injured in their growth
by waving from the wind. In this- manner, fewer trees would form a
more efficient fence than if standing upright. The trees should be
well feathered at the bottom with side-branches, which should be
allowed to remain on the stems.. The transplanting may be done any
time from November till April.
LILAC.
(Syringa vulgaris.)
The lilac, when mixed with the sweet briar, the sloe, the guelder rose,
or the scarlet thorn, can be made to form a beautiful hedge to a cottage
garden, in any situation where there is an abundance of room.
LOCUST, HQNEY. '
'L( '": '."'. tr"acaLt, 'os.)

The honey-locust or three-thorned acacia, when L''', i's armed with
large prickles, which, though not 'l;n.:. .j:, becorrme I,..1, and remain
attached to the bark often for several years. They are not only prd-
duced from.the young wood, but;occasionally protrude themselves from
the trunk, even when the tree is of considerable bulk and age.- From
this circumstance, attempts have been made, both in Europe and in this
country, to form hedges of this plant; but in no instance have they
proved effectual beyond a few years.


MAPLE, EUROPEAN FIELD.
(Acer campestre.)
Thi i. iith-r : sn ll tree,with 1.. ; I:.1 r. !m:h,: native-through-
ot C'..nirr. Eurr,:'p,: anr. the north of Asia. In Ln 'igI.lit is common
in .d ; -n.il n France; it is used for filling up gaps in old fences.
The variegated variety (A. c.foliis veriegatis) is' quite showy and orna-
mental. If a 'hybrid could be produced with red flowers by:cross-
fecunda.!i .-. th i.!,:r An .ri.r red-flowered maple, (Acer rubrun,) the
i...i v.,.., I ;. il, ijllr!:- handsome little tree;. Even a red, tinge,
,j:,1.-d t ,:. i. r a, n ,j ., '-nl tl: would be valuable. To produce a hybrid
ofthis *..., .,:.,l ,:,iun;,: variegated to be forced forward in a
green-house, or the red maple to be retarded in an ice-house, as the two
species flower .i i!lf: I.,:r periods.
MAY, ITALIAN.
('S,'.-...._: hyperic'folia.)
A low ,u. i..-, :" E,_i..p, which -nmti;mc? forms a handsome
g1.-n l ..-I v.,d 1..':,. the ,ir, .F rm, ,:,rly, when topiary
w,.:.!l was fhs-ionable :i scenery, it was often, applied and cut
into a variety of'artificial forms.
MULBERRY, WHITE.
(Morus alba.)
Ir. n n,'., 1 i the north of France, also in some parts of Italy,
th.:'i.h; mull,,:.rr,, is cultivated as ahedge-plant, or as a pollard, a
portion ,:ii e I :.- l'. being annually plucked for the food c.l .i!k-v.orms.
OAK. ErI-:.:.EAn
fZ.
(Qeer, ... ..-.. .)
The E n:ii,-.:au ,:,k [(C' ..!.: de haics) is mentioned by Bosc.as com-
mon on tl:.:. Jn ir-i rl in the mountains of the Vosges, where it is planted
for hedges, which seldom exceed the height of 6 or 8 feet
The American Bear," or Black Scrub oak," (Quercus ilicifolia,)
rnltr probably be usefully employed in the Middle and Northern
States lor hedges, by sowing the acorns in furrows, which, in a few
years, would be sufficient to prevent the passage of cattle or sheep.
ORANGE, OSAGE.
(Maclura aurantiaca.)
The Osage orange, the favorite hedge-plant of the United States, is
'1. well nr...' r to require a lengthened description here. From its
hardihood,; r:' i growth, tenacity of life, facility of propagation, as
,11 as its unrivalled ..,.:,i' and protection against animals of various
]i.:,i, i, -"utility no longer remains an experiment.
LI. longer an experiment.
H.:I-, l.t the rarest beauty and excellence have long been growing
r -. L;, .., Philadelphia, and Cincinnati, as well as in Kentucky, Ten-
n-..-' N..,, u,:-rn Missouri, and, in short, in all the AMiddle and South-
' 'I 'i: S,.5e of these fences have been standing for twelve or
fourteen years, and their branches have become so interlocked, guarded


414 AGRICULTURAL : REPORT.





AGRICULTURAL REPORT.


as they are by their enormous spines, that no farm-stock can pass
through them. They are also fiee from the attacks of insects and
animals of all kinds.
This tree may readily be propagated by'seeds, from which it will
grow sufficiently large in three years to form a hedge. : It succeeds
best on land moderately rich-such, for instance, as will produce
good Indian corn; but it will grow in almost any soil that is not too
moist. The line of ground intended for a hedge should first be dug
and well pulverized-say from 12 to 18 inches deep, and 2 feet wide,
along the centre of which the plants may be set.
When the Osage orange is to be planted as a hedge, if the sub-soil
be poor, it is recommended to dig a trench in the direction of the in-
tended hedge, 2 or 3 feet wide, and as many deep, and to fill up the
space with good surface-soil taken from the neighboring ground or else-
where. The soil in the trench should be raised at least a foot above
the adjoining surface, to allow for. settling; and along the, middle of
this ridge, the plants should be set from a loot to 18 inches apart.
The seeds, befbre'sowimg, should be soaked in tepid water, in a
warm room, for three or four days; or they may be mixed with equal
parts, by measure, of moist earth, and exposed a few weeks, in open
boxes, to wintry weather, on the sunny side of a building, in order to
freeze and thaw. It is preferable to sow them early in the spring, in
:a garden or nursery, where they will shortly after germinate and form
young plants. :These should be carefully weeded or hoed during the
first season's growth, and transplanted in the hedge-line in the month
of March or April of the following year.
PEAR TREE.
(Pyrus comaimis.)
In France, and in some parts of England, wild pear trees and crabs
spring up accidentally in the seed-beds of hawthorns in nurseries;
and, consequently, they are planted out with the thorns in the hedge-
rows, where they become trees and produce fruit. .From this source,
fine new varieties of fruit have been obtained in both countries. This
naturally suggests the idea of planting pear and crab stocks in the
hedge along with hawthorn and other plants, in a regular systematic
manner, and grafting or budding them with suitable varieties when
they have attained sufficient height fo" standards. Though this
is not the most rapid mode of introducing fruit trees into hedge-
rows, yet it might in the end prove economical. It has been recom-
mended that pear stocks be planted in hedges, at a distance of 20
or 30 feet apart, and allow them to grow, up to a single stem, or be
grafted; for they could never do any harm to the hedge, as it is well
known that good live fences have been made of crabs and wild pears
alone. The common objectionto planting fruit trees in hedges is, that
depredations would be made upon them by the poor; but if we would
avoid such depredations on the trees of the rich, we should assist in
humanizing and rendering better and happier their condition, by thus
furnishing them with an abundance of fruit. Girard, who wrote on
-the subject three hundred years ago; says: "The poor will break
done our hedges, and wee haue the least part of the fruit. Forward,


LIVE, FENCES. 417
in the name of God, grafte, set, plant, and nourish up trees in euery
corner of your ground ; the labour is small, the cost is riothing; the
commodity is great;.yourselues shall haue plenty; the poor shall hauc
somewhat in time of want to relieue their necessity: and God'shall re-
ward your good minds, and diligence."
POPLAR, LOMBARDY.
(Populus fJstigiata.)
In England,'hedges for shelter have frequently been made of the
Lombardy poplar, in which case they are trimmed off at a certain
height; and regularly cut in on each side, so as to form a verdant wall
8 or 10 feet high, 18 inches wide at the bottom, and 6 inches at the top.
It is an excellent tree for sheltering or shading either gardens or fields
in a flat country; but care must be taken to plant it sufficiently far
where shelter .is not wanted without shade; that is, not to introduce it
in the south side of any garden or orchard, unless at a distance of at
least twice its ordinary height.
ROSE, CULTIVATED AND WILD.
(Rosa.)
Hedges are formed both of the wild and cultivated rose; but they
are not all well adapted to the purposes of protection and enclosure,
from their rambling habit of growth, the large space they occupy when
untrimmed, and their liability to become naked below, when cut on
both sides, so as to occupy only the space usually allotted to a haw-
thorn hedge. For garden hedges, however, many of the varieties are
eligible, more especially the fastigiate gr6oing kinds, such as China
roses, (Rosa indica,) which, in warm and temperate climates, form -a
very handsome evergreen hedge, flowering, nearly all the year. The
small-leaved rose (Rosa microphylla) may also be used for hedges, both
on :,::.u I i of its rambling habit and thick, sharp spines. The "Chero-
kee Rose" has already been described as an evergreen under another
head.
SWEET BRIER.
(Rosa rubiginosa.
A good: hedge may be formed of this plant by sowing the heps,"
or fruit, in tihe m, :s oon as ripe, or, what is better, early in the
spring, h.i-.ii. i::p th.:l, n the mean time mixed with sand. But it is
far more convenient to try young plants, and set them a foot apart early
in November. Let them grow as they like for the first year, then
cut them down to the ground the second, and they will afterwards
spring up and require no other care than occasionally trimming with
the pruning knife or shears, to keep the hedge in shape. When the
stalks become naked at the bottom, they should again be cut down.
SLOE, OR BLACK. THORX.
(Prunus, spinosa.)
A. spiny hlirub, native of the north of Europe, and may be used in
connexion with other. plants, as the bramble or firs, when ditches are





LIVE FENCES. 419


dug sufficiently deep oif both sides to prevent the spread of the roots,
which would otherwise throw up.numerous suckers to the detriment of
the-crops in the adjoining fields. This shrub is very hardy, and has
become indigenous in Pennsylvania, and other parts of this country.
S : THORN, WASHINGTON.
(Cratcegas cordata.)
A handsome, low shrub, growingto height of 15 or 20 feet in greater
or less abundance in rocky places, and on the banks of streams which
issue from the Alleghanies, from the Canadas to Georgia.' Its head is
close and compact,-with branches armed, with very long, slender,
sharp spines. 'It was first cultivated in the nursery of Mr. Main, of-
Georgetown, in the District of Columbia, towards the close of the last
century, and has since been much employed in other parts of the United
States for hedges under the name of "Washington Thorn." ,But,
either owing to its unsuitableness for the purpose, or to want of proper
care and knowledge in the management, the hedges did not prove du-
rable and efficient, and-it has for some time been abandoned.
WILLOW.
(Salix caprea.) .
In Europe, fences of: live willows in some cases are, formed by in-
serting into the soil. rods of two years' growth, such as are used for
making hoops, reduced to the length of 6 feet; from 12 to 1S inches of
which are buried below the surface. These make a fence at once from
4 to 4 feet in height. The rods may be inserted, if .desirable, in a
vertical direction parallel to each other, 6 or 8 inches asunder; or they
may be disposed in an inclined position, also parallel to each other,
crossing each other at right angles, after the manner noticed in the
hornbeam and beech, by inarching. A top-pole, or rail, is required to
unite the ends of the parallel'rods; or the fence may be wattled to-
gether by horizontal rods. .D. J. B.



CULTIVATION OFi THE OSAGE ORANGE FOR
HEDGES..
S BY JAMES McGREW, OF DAYTON, MONTGOMERY COUNTY, OH110.
In cultivating the Osage orange, great care should be taken in the
selection of good seed. The most certain way of testing it is to take a
tumbler and fill it two-thirds full with warm water; then put sufficient
cotton in it to keep the seed you put on it just above the surface. The
*cotton in this way will keep the seed moist, which will also have the
benefit of the air; and if kept in a warm room, it will sobn vegetate.
It may be necessary to change the water in the tumbler several times
in the course of the process. "'.': i -* "
The best method ofsprouting the seeds is s follows: Soak them
warm water from thirty to forty hours; then put them into. shallow


boxes; not.more than -1 .:-r inches deep; to every bushel of seed, put
half a btihAcl of sand, (smaller quantities in the same proportion,) then
mix thI:.i- iI1,ly, keep it in awarm place, and wet it as often as twice.
a day withtepid water stirring it well as often as three times in twenty-
four hours. .The seed should be put to soak from the 15th to the 20th
of April, ift this latitude. I do not know the precise temperature, but
should think from 650 to 750 F. would be about right. Seeds attended
to as above, and kept in a warm place at a proper temperature, would
sprout sufficiently in..ten days, to put into the ground.. It will be
necessary, however, to .have the seeds well separated from each other
before planting..
Much care should also be taken in the selection of a good piece of
ground for. the nursery, or place of sowing the seed. It should be
new, fertile, and.as free as possible from the seeds of grass and weeds.
It should be mellow, rather inclined to moisture, but not subject to
"bake."' .Good prairie land, which has been broken up the year pre-
vious, is undoubtedly preferable. It should. be well ploughed, har-
rowed, and rolled, if necessary.
When the ground has been prepared -as described above, and well
pulverized,, th., seed may be sown by hand in' dibbles, or drills, 16
inches. apart, at the rate of a quart to each 3 or 4- square rods,
Which would'amount to from 5 to 6 pecks to the acre. The cov-
ering of the seed can best be done with light steel rakes. The hands
employed in this operation should walk upon the side where the seed
is covered, in order that they may draw all the earth one way, to fill
the holes or drills. The sowing being once completed, nothing more
is necessary to be done before the plants begin to come up in sufficient
numbers, to indicate the direction of the drills. -The spaces between
the. drills should then be hoed, after which all weeds and grass that
may beamong .the. plants should be pulled out by hand. This pro-
cess of .oeing the spaces between the rows, as well as the weeding,
should be repeated as often as necessary, in order to keep down the
weeds, and the ground loose and in good condition. Then, if the soil
be rich, the season favorable, and proper cultivation given to the plants,
they will be sufficiently large for removing the following spring.
In removing the plants, a subsoil plough may be used to cut them off,
the share of which should be of steel, quite large, and as flat as possi-
ble. The depth of its running may be regulated by a wheel in ifont,
at the end of; the beam. : The plants should be cut off about 8 or
10 ;n.:h-i. below. the surface of the ground. They may then be
gatheredmin bunches, stored away in some suitable place, with the
roots ._,-l.c~P'I, to keep.them moist, in order that they may afterwards
be taken out, assorted, tied into bundles of from fifty to one hundred,
with their .tops cut off upon a block with a hatchet or an axe, when
they will be in readiness for boxing or shipping. In packing them, the
boxes should not be. too tight, as some air is necessary to prevent the
plants from moulding [?] Small boxes, or those of moderate size, are the
best, say about 3 feet long and 18 or 20 inches deep and wide.
Preparatory to setting a hedge, the ground should be thoroughly
brokenup to a depth of 12 or 14- inches, the e "lands" being at least 10
feet wide.: By setting the plants in, the: centre of the "lands." there


AGRICULTURAL. REPORT.






420 AGRICULTURAL REPORT.


MISCELLANEOUS. 421


would,;be left spaces 5 feet wide on each side to cultivate. When a
hedge is to be set along the site of an old fence,' the latter should be
removed the year previous, and the land broken up and cultivated.
After the ground has been fully prepared, the row should be staked off,
and a line stretched along its length to work by.' The holes for insert-
ing the plants should be made with a pivoted iron, 12 inches in length,
and 31- inches in diameter at the top, with a socket into which is
inserted a handle, with a pin at the top of the socket, to bear the foot
updn in forcing the instrument into the ground in making the holes.
These holes should be about" 8 inches' apart, into which the plants
should be inserted about an inch- deeper than they originally grew in
the nursery;. This being done, the earth should be well packed about
the roots. .
Next comes the operation of cultivating, hoeing, ploughing, &c.. The
spaces on both sides of the hedge require thorough cultivation, and.the
ground kept clear of grass and weeds, during the season. No stock
should be allowed in the enclosure where the hedge is set until after
harvest, and not even then, if it can be avoided. After first year,.the
growth will be sufficiently robust for the hedge to protect itself.
The next spring, or one year after the hedge is set, the plants must
be cut off near the ground, below'all the buds, just above the top of the
roots. The roots will then swell and put out a number of strong shoots
near the surface o ground.- The hedge then needs thorough culti-
vating: until about the middle' f June, when it should have another
trimming, within two inches of the former cut, and again cultivated as
before. By this process of cutting, there is formed at once a strong,
'firm base, which, if properly carried out, will render success certain
The second spring after transplanting, the hedge may be trimmed 6 or
:S inches above the former cutting, and again in June, S inches higher,
.after which, the latter part of the summer's growth will make it suffi-
ciently strong to answer the .purpose of a good fence. After this,
trimming once a year will be all that is needed, which should be done
in the latter part of summer or early in autumn, before the hardening
of the new wood. The first cutting, which will be one year after the
hedge has been set, can best be done with a pair of shears made for the
purpose. The second cutting can be done with a short heavy bush-
scythe, hung upon a strong, stiff snathe. The cutting of the. second
year can also be done w;ith a scythe. The best way is to walk along
the row with it at the right hand and cut'half way to the centre of the
row. When arrived at the end, turn about to the right and comeback
upon the other side of the row and trim off the other half as before.
In so doing, the hedge will be cut in an oval shape. Th taking a
large corn-cutter, it can bb trimmed into proper form, Great care
should be taken to secure a close, stron, strong, firm base.' This can be done
by allowing the lower branches to extend out in all instances, so as to
form-a base at the end of the secobnd- season, at least 4 or ieet wide.
Thle trimming of the third yea-r can be done in the i: i;_- ,anner as that
of the second. The fourth and subsequent years' trimmings will have
to be done'rmonthly with the .knife, preserving at all times the shape
above described.


MISC CELLANE OU S.

PROPOSEDi RULE IFOR MEASURING BUSHELS-
BY. J. I. FORmAN, OF OAK BOWERY, CHAMBERS COUNTY, ALABAMA.
Having frequently seen published rules fbr the measurc-
mnc-,t of (:r;l-,. boxes, bins, wagon-bodies, &c.; and per-
ceivng:'that .bheusels st as determinate a'quatityas a
foot, and these rules are allbased upon the fact thatfour
Winchester bushels are 'nearly equal to five cubic feet,
I .:i..ill propose the following method, which, will ap
proximate nearly to ti, ih ,. :
First, take a rod of convenient size, say 51o- inches :.n- .
moree exactly, 51-,3,] 1-} inches; wide, and half. an : ,iI)
thick,-and divide its length into fouhr equal parts, number-
ing them with -large plain figures. Then divide each"
division into ten equal .parts with smaller figures. The
larger, divisions will be the lineal dimensions of a cubic
bushel, and the smaller ones, decimals, or tenths. Now,
to apply the rule, one has only to take the three dimensions, --
length, breadth, and height, or depth, of the box in bushels .
and fractions; and multiply them together, and the result
will .:..- n' l ui :l-,:. and the decimals of a biushel. .
NOTE--I would ?'ic--st that. the side indicating bush-
els .first -be divided into- four equal parts, as proposed
ab -.e, iian. l-'l1 ,0-:.:i division also into four equal parts,
v. h w,,.!,l I. .- i,:- loiurtths of a bushel, or pecks, and each
o0 the minor divisions into twenty-five equal parts, which
would indicate hundredths of a bushel. To those who are ,
familiar. with decimal arithmetic, the application will be
obvious. For instance, if it were desirable to ascertain
the number of'.,,. .i,-r :v r charcoal in a cart of any size, it
would' only be '"r.-- -.Iy to.measure with this rule its >
length, width, and height, in bushels and hundredths 6of a
bushel, and multiply each of the dimensions continually
C'.:'.!,.:r. and the product would be the number of bushels
and the decimal of a bushelsought. Again, if itwere ne-'
cessary to, make abox or a bin to contain a given num-
ber.:-of b.l1,: .] first fix upon: its length- and width in N -^
bushels, as per, rule, divide the number of bushels in its
contents by the product of its desired length and. width;
and the result will be the height, or depth. The contents
in '.,u..l',1. of all other regular boxes, cellars, cylinders,
&c.; may also be determined by this rule, subject to the
laws of mensuration, exactly in the same manner as though
the rule werre expressed in feet and its parts. :
Thet other three.sides of the rule might be divided and .








their congeners in Englanid and Prussia, nrie more apt than theso others
to prse-it i he Thicthinv, upon microscopic investigation. It is therefore
aldvisable to keep pigs intended for human consumption in clean sties,
cointaini/iag unly oneo or two each, and impervious to rats. The animals
;util b' plon tifuilly cited with sound grain, buttermiilk, &e., well watered,
Inid all;o\ved some salt ecaosionally; iln other words, placed in good
hygieniiU conditions, and excluded froin diseased food. It may perhaps
seem unnecessary to dwell upon the value and necessity of measures
which comment themselves at once as affording not only the best safe-
guard against the special disease under notice, but as going far toward
the prevention of other diseases to which the hog is subject. Yet in
view of the oegleet and even positive abuse with which pigs are treated
throughout the land, it is well that breeders should understand the fear-
ful consequences liable to result from careles-sness, which, in matters of
such vital importance, is closely allied to criminality.



LAWS RELATING TO FENCES AND FARM STOCK.

In the older States the laws regulating fences are substantially alike.
As to height, a legal fence is generally four and a halt feet, if con-
structed of rails or timber. Ditches, brooks, ponds, creeks, rivers, &c.,
nulliciont to turn stock, are deemed equivalents for fence. In caso a
stream or other body of water is considered inadequate to the turning
of stock, the facts are investigated by officers known as fence-viewers,
who will designate the side ol the water upon which. a ftenc shall be
erected, it' the fence be deoined necessary, the cost to be equally borne
by the parties whose lands are divided. Occupants of adijoinig lands
which are being improved are required to maintain pmartdion fences in
equal shares. i f.-I t to build or to keep in repair such fences subjects
the negligent party to da'n:m.ges, as well as doable, and in some States
treble, tile cost of building or i,, 1, ., to ttlhe aggrieved party. A
person ceasing to improve land cannot remove his fence unless others
interested refuse to purchase within reasonable time. A provision in
the laws of several of these St ate', which i: well calculated to serve the
interests of neighbors, saving the expense of fence building, is one per-
nmitting persons owning adjoining lots or lands to fence them in one com-
mon flild, and for tie greater advantage of all, allowing them to form
an asIsoiation, and to adopt binding rules and regulations for the nuan--
ag ,eliiet of their colt-uon concerns, and such equitable modes ol' ilt-
provement as are require d by their common interest; but in all other
Ieslpect etah proprietor may, at his own expense, inclose, Illanage, and
improve his own land a heI thinks best, maintaining his proportion of
the general inclosure.
' Thei lawi's *rgtul;it ing, ('rnees in the' New Eng'land States difler only ill
a few pAIrticulari. The required height of a fence in Mairno, Mlashsiactlu-
sett:I, ,rnd New [arup.shire, is tour feet; in Vermont, four and a hall
fIet; in Rthodi island a lthedge \with al ditch is required to be thire feet
higllh uponl tihe bank of the diiclh, well staked, at thie distance of two
aI1ndl halt' fe'et, bound together at the top, and sufllcienuly killed to pre-
vent small stock frol creeping through, and the bank of the ditch not
toi li hI s tlan otne hI't t above the surface of the ground. A hedge
wiltihout ditch, to be fiou'r f'cet high, staked, bound, and killed; post-and-
rail fenlco on ti he-bank of a ditch to be four rails high, each well sat in


LXWS IML.AIING TO FENCES AND iAR'i STOCK. 305


post, and not less than four and a half feet high. A stone-wai. fence is
Cequiired to lb four feet high, with a flat stone over .tle top, or sur-
mounted by a good rail or polo; a stone wall without such litl stone,
rail, or post on top to be four a.nd a half feet high. In each of the New
Etngland States there are plain provisions in regard to kcepinlg up di-
vision fences on equal shares, and penalties for refusal to build them, antd
when built for neglect to keep them in repair. Vence-viewers in the
respective towns settle all disputes as to division fences. Owners of
adjoining fields are allowed to make their own rules and regulations
concerning their nmaagemLent as coLnnmons. No one not choosing to in-
close uncultivated land can be compelled to bear any of the expense or
a division fence, but afterward electing to cultivate, lie must pay for
one-half the fence erected on his line.
Similar provisions for the nmtintenance of division fences exist in New
York; whenever a division fence has been injured by flood or other
casualty, each party interested is required to replace or repair his pro-
portion within ten days after notification. When electors in any town
have made rules or regulations prescribing what shall be deemed a suf-
ficient fence, persons neglecting to comply are precluded from recover-
ing compensation for damages done by stock lawfully going at large on
the highways, that may enter on their lands. Tlhe sufliciency of a fence
is presumed until the contrary is established; assess;ors and cominis-
sioters of highways perform tlhe duties of fence-viewers.
in Pennsylvania towns and counties secure special legislation as to
the runini g of stock or other cattle at large. Fences in New Jersey
are required to be fior feet two inches in height, if of0 p0ost3 and rails,
timber, boards, brick or stone; other fences must ble ,our and a half
feet, and close and strong enough to prevent horses and neat cattle from
going through or under. Partition fences must be proof against sheep.
.itches and drains made in or through salt marshes anti meadows for
fenciing and draining the sale, being live feet wide and three feet deep,
and all ditches or drains made in or thronglh other meadows being nine
ftit wide at the surtaheo and four and at half feet wide at the bottom,
three feet deep, and lying on mud or miry bottom, are considered law-
fll fences. Division fences nust be equally maintained. If one party
ceases improving he cannot take away his fence without first having
given twelve months' notice. lcdge-growing' is encouraged by law.
In Newcastle and Kent C(ounties, Delaware, a good structure of wood
or stone, or well-set thorn. four uand a, half feet high, or four feat with a
ditch within two feet, is a lawful fence; in Sussex County four feet is
Slite height required. Fenice-vi'owlers arc pointedtd Iby the court ot gin
eral sessions in each hundredd" Partition fences are provided for as in
other States.
There is no general law in lMaryland regulating fences, tlhe law being
local and applicable to particular counties. In Virginia a lawiul fence
is live feet in height, including the mound to the bottom of the ditch,
if' the fenco is built, on a inounul. (Certain water courses are ispecilfied
as equivalent to felces. I"Four feet is the height of a legal Jence in
West Virginia, and five feet in North Carrolina. In the latter Sate
pvl'rsons neglecting to keep their fences in order; during the season of
crops are deemed guilty of misdocanlor, and aree also liable to damages.
Ce 't:ain rivers are declared sauficient fences.
In South Carolina fences are required to be six feet high around
Provisionss" All fences strongly and closely made of rails, boards:, or
posts tanl d rail, or of an el balkmtentt of earth capped with rails or tim-
ber of any sort, or live hedges live feet in height, measured from the







LAWS RELATING TO FENCES ANP FARM 8'TOCK


level or surface of the earth, are deemed lawful; and every planter
is bound to keep such lawful fence around his cultivated grounds, ex-
cept where a navigable stream or deep water-course may be a boundary.
No stakes or canes that might injure horses or cattle are allowed in an
inclosnre.
The laws of Georgia provide that all fences, or inclosures commonly
called worm fences, shall be five feet high, and from the ground to the
height of three eeot the rails must not be more than four inches apart.
All paling fences are required to be five feet from the ground, and the
poles not more than two inches apart. Any inclosure made by means
of a dtcch or trench must be three feet wide and two feet deep, and if
made of both fence and ditch, the latter must be four feet wide and the
fence five feet high from the bottom of the ditch. All water-courses that
are or have been liavigable are deemed legal fences as far up the stream.
as navigation has ever extended, whenever, by reason of freshets or
otherwise, fences cannot be kept, and are subject to the rules applicable
to other fences. The fences in Florida are required to be five feet in
height, but where there is a ditch four feet wide the five feet may be
measured from the bottom of the ditch. If the fence is not strictly ac-
cording to law, no action for trespass or damages by stock will lie. In
Alabama all inclosures and fences must be at least five feet high, and,
if made of rails, be well staked and riderod, or otherwise sulficiently
locked; and from the ground to the height of three feet the rails must
be not more than four inches apart; if made of palings, the poles must
be not more than three inches apart; or if made with a ditch, four feet
wide at the top; the fenee, of whatever material composed, must be
five feet high from the bottom of the ditch and three feet from the top
of the bank, and close enough to prevent stock of any kind from getting
through. No suit for damages can be maintained if the fence is not a
legal one. For placing in an inclosure any stakes, pits, poison, or anything
which may kill or injure stock, a penalty of $50 is provided. Partition
fences must be equally maintained. Fences in Miissssippi are required
to be five feet high, substantially and closely built with plank, pickets,
hedges, or other substantial materials, or by raising the ground into a
ridge two and a half feet high and erecting thereon a fence of common
rails or other material two and a half feet in height. Owners of adjoining
lands, or lessees thereof for more than two years, are required to con-
tribute equally to the erection of fences, if the lands are in cultivation
or used for pasturing. No owner is bound to contribute to the erection
of a dividing fence when preparing to erect a fence of his own, and to
leave a lane on his own land between himself and the adjoining owner;
but the failure to erect such fence for sixty days is deemed an abandon-
ment of intention to do so, and determination to adopt the fence already
built.
In Texas every gardener, farmer, or planter is required to maintain
a fence around his cultivated lands at least five feet high and sulli
ciently close to prevent hogs from passing through it, not leaving a
space of more than six inches in any one place within three feet of the
ground. Fences in Arkansas must be five feet high. In all disputed
cases the sufficiency of a flince is to be determined by three disinterested
householders, appointed by a justice of the peace. Division fences are
provided for as in tile majority of the other States. In Tcimesiel e every
planter is required to make a funco around his cultiva'td land at least
live feet high. When any trespass occurs a justice of the peace will
appoint two freeholders to view tioe fence as to its sufficiency, and to
ascertain damages. If a person, whose fence is insullicient, shoulil


injure any animal which may come upon his lands, he is responsible in
damages. In case of dispute between parties as to a division fence, a
justice of the peace will appoint three disinterested freeholders to de-
termine the portion to be maintained by each. No owner, whose fence
is exclusively on his own land, can be compelled to allow his neighbor
to join it. In Kentucky all sound and strong fences of rails, plank, or
iron, five feet high, and so close that cattle or other stock cannot creep
through, or made of stone or brick four and a half feet high, are deemed
legal fences. Division fences cannot be removed without consent of
the party on adjoining land, except between November 1 and March 1
in any year, six months' notice having been given. In Missouri all
fields must be inclosed by hedge or fence. Hedges must he five teet
high; fences of posts and rails, posts and palings, posts and plank, or
palisades, four and a half feet; turf, four feet, with trenches on either
side three feet wide at top and three feet deep; worm fence at least
five feet high to top of rider, or, if not ridered, five feet to top rail, and
corner locked with strong rails, poles, or stakes. Double damage may
be recovered from any person maiming or killing animals within his
inclosure if adjudged insufficient. In Illinois fences must be five feet
high. The laws regulating division fences are similar to those of the
New England States. In cases of dispute three disinterested house-
holders decide as to the sufficiency of any fence. Proprietors of com-
mons may make their own regulations. Line fences are protected on
public highways. In Indiana any structure or hedge, or ditch, in the
nature of a fence, used for purposes of inclosure, which shall, on the
testimony of skillful men, appear to be sufficient, is a lawful fence.
The laws of Ohio provide that whenever a fence is erected by any per-
son on the line of his land, and the person owning the laud adjoining
shall make an inclosure on the opposite side, the latter shall pay one-
half the value of the fence as far as it answers the purpose of a division
fence, to be adjudged by the township trustees. A legal fence in Wis-
consin is four and a half feet high if of rails, timber, boards, or stone
walls or their combinations, or other things which shall be deemed
equivalent thereto in the judgment of the fence-viewers. While adjoin-
ing parties cultivate lands they must keep up fences in equal shares;
double value of building or repairing may be recovered from delin-
quents. The law regulating division fences is similar in most particu-
lars to those of the New England States and Illinois. Overseers of
highways perform the duties of fence-viewers.
Fences in Michigan must be four and a half feet high, and in good
repair; consisting of rails, timber, boards, or stone walls, or any com-
bination of these materials. Rivers, brooks, ponds, ditches, hedges,
&c., deemed by the fence viewers equivalent to a fence, are held to be
legal inclosures. No damages for trespass are recoverable if the fence
is not of the required height. Partition fences must be equally maiin-
tained as long as parties improve their lands. When lands owned in
severalty have been occupied in common, any occupants may have lands
divided. Fences extending into the water must be made in equal
shares, unless otherwise agreed by parties interested. If any person
determines not to improve rany portion of his lands adjoining a partition
fence, he must give six months' notice to all the adjoining occupants,
after which he will not he required to keep up any part of theo fence.
rOvers:enrs of highways act as flncc-viewers.
la Minnesota four and a half feet is the legal height. Partition fences
are to be kept in good repair in equall shares. In case of neglect, cotm-
plaint mnay be made by the .aggrieved party to the town supervisors,


397


AGRICULTURAL REPORT.







AGRICULTURAL REPORT.


who will proceed to examine the matter, and if they determine that the
fence is insufficient, notice will be given to delinquent occupant of land;
and if he fails to build or repair within a reasonable time, the coiiplainu-
ant may build or repair, and may recover double thie expense, with in-
tere;st at the rate of one per cent. per month, in a civil action. No part
of a division fence can be removed if the owner or occupant of adjoiing
land will, within two months, pay the appraised value. When any in-
inclosed grounds are afterward inclosed, the owner or occupant is re-
quired to pay for one-half of each partition fence; the value thereof to
be determined by a majority of the town supervisors. If a party to a
division fence discontinues the improvement of his land, and gives six
months' notice thereof to the occupants of adjoining lands, he is not
required to keel) up any part of such fence during the time his lands
are unimproved, and he may remove his portion if the adjoining owner
or occupant will not pay therefore. County commissioners are the fence-
viewers in counties not divided into towns.
A legal fence in Iowa is four and a half feet high, constructed of
strong materials, put up in a good, substantial manner. In all counties
where, by a vote of the legal voters, or by an act of the general assem-
bly, it is determined that hogs and sheep shall not run at largo, a fence
made of three rails of good, substantial material, or three boards not
less than six inches wide and three-fourths of an inch thick, such rails
or boards to be fastened in or to good, substantial posts, not more than
ten feet apart where rails are unse d; or any other fence which in tlhe
opinion of the fence-viewers, shall be equivalent thereto, is deemed a law-
ful fence, provide that the lowest or bottom rail shall not be more than
twenty nor less than sixteen inches from the ground, and that the fence
shall be lifty-four inches in height. The respective owners of inclosed
lands must keep upl fences equally as long as they improve. In case of
neglect to repair or rebuild, thle adjoining owner may do so, and the
work being adjudged sufficient by tbe fence-viewers, and the value de-
termined, the complainant may recover the amount, with interest at the
rate of one per cent. per month. If an owner desires to throw his field
open, he shall give the adjoining parties six months' notice, or such
shorter notice as may be directed by the fence-viewers.
in Kansas fences may be of posts and rails, posts and palings, or
posts and planks, at least four and a half feet high; of turf, Iour
feet, and staked and ridered, with a ditch on either side at least three
feet wide at top and three fet deep; a worm fence l usutl be at; least four
and a half feet high to top of rider, or if not ridered, four and a half feet
high to top rail, the corners to be locked with strong rails, posts, or
stakes. The bottom rail, board or plank in any fence must not be moroe
than tlwo feet from the ground in any township, and in those townships
where, hio!ns ir not prohibited Irom runninlrg at largo it must nou lbeI
more thlln six inches fr'oi the ground. All such ofenes lmlust bu ,sbl-
stantially built and sufficiently close to prevent stock from going
through. Itone fences are required to be four feet high, eighteen
inches wide at the bottom, and twelve at the top. All hedges must b
of nt'lli-cienut icight and thickness to protect tith field or inclosure. A
wire fence must conlsi.st of posts of ordinary size for fencing purposes ,
set in the ground ait least two 'ct deep and not more than twelve fbet
apart, with holes t.lironugh posts, or staple:t-oio the aide, not more than
liftcen inches apart, and tour separate lines of fence wire, not smaller
than No. 9, to be provided with rollers and levers at suitable distance!,
to strain and hold the wires straight and firm. Owners of adjoining
lands lmust maintain fences equally. In case of neglect of one party to


898


LAWS RELATING TO FENC7CS AND FARM STOCK 399

build or repair, another party may do so and recover the amount ex-
pended. with interest at the rate of one per -ent. per month. A person
not imnpro\vin his land is not required to keep up any portion ot a
division tenlce. The trustee, clerk, and treasurer in each township act
as fence-viewers, to adjustt all disputes concerning fences. A legal
fence in Nebraska is described :s any structure, or hedge, or ditch in
the nature of a fence, used for the purposes of enclosure, which is such
as good husbandmen generally keep. Division fences must be equally
maintained. A party may remove his portion of division fence by giv-
ing sixty days' notice. If removed without such notice the party so
doing is liable for full damages. Where a fence is injured or destroyed
by fire or flood it must be repaired within ten days after notice by in-
terested persons. Justices of the peace are ex officio fence-viewers.
Legal fences in California are described with great particularity.
Wire fences must consist of posts not less than twelve inches in cir-
cumference, set in the ground not less than eighteen inches, and not
less than eight feet apart, with not less than three horizontal wires,
0ach one-fourth of an inch in diameter, the first to be eighteen inches
from the ground, the other two above at intervals of one foot, all well
stretched and securely tfastened from post to post, with one rail, slat,
pole, or plank, of suitable sizp and strength, securely fastened to the
post, not less than four and a half feet from the ground. Post and rail
fence must be made with posts of the same size and at the same distances
apart and the same depth in the ground as above required, with three
rails, slats, or planks of suitable size and strength, the top one to bo
four and a half feet from the ground, the other two at equal distances
between the first and tlhe ground, all securely fastened to the post.
Picket fences must be of tile same height as above, made of pickets
not less than six inches in circumlference, placed not more than six
inches apart, driven in the ground not less than ten inches, all well so-
cured at the top by slats or caps. Ditch and pole fence: the ditch
must not be less than four feet wide on the top and three feet deep,
with embankment thrown on inside of ditch, wihl substantial posts set
in the embankment not more than eight feet apart, and a plank, pole,
rail, or slat securely fastened to posts at least five feet high from tlh
bottom of the ditch. Pole fence must be four and a half feet;high, with
stakes not less than three inches in diameter, set in the ground not less
than eighteen inches, and when the stakes are placed seven feet apart
there must not be less than six horizontal poles well secured to the
stakes; if the stakes are six feet apart, live polls; i' three, or lbur feet,
four poles; if two feet apart three poles, and the stakes need not be less
than two inches in diameter ; it one foot apart, one pole, and the stakes
need not be more than two inches in diameter. The above is a lawful
fence so long as the stakes and poles are securely fastened and in a fair
state of preservation. liedgo fence is considered lawfult[ when by reli-
able evidence it shall be proved equal in strength and as well suited to
the protection of inclosed lands as the other fences described. Brush
fence must be four and a half feet high and at least twelve inches wide,
with stakes not less than two inches in diameter, set in the ground
not less than eighteen inches, and on each side, every eight feet,
tied together at the top, with horizontal polo tied to the outside stake
five feet from the ground. In the case of partition fences, if one party
refsce or neglect to bill or maintain his sihar the other imay doI ti
andt recover the value. Three days' notice to repair is snllicient. 'he
uinllicieney of a feuce is to lie determined by throo disinterested house-
holders.







49G AGRICULT URAL REPORT.


are various forms of pump, more or less costly, for i'oruhingi ";:ti, .:,n,<
of which answer the !)purpo.Ie admirably, at a cost of 1i I to $I;, ,n ,; ,a
ig. 7. in Fig. 7. No arragi'wmli,, l---
ever, would bo complete wiithu 'it
some system for emptying chaiuitwM.
slop.s, without carrying idow nst.l-rit
A simple wooden spout, irmado oi iifii
boards, running down ouitith. ofl tle
building, ventilated au thi t.op,
^.i would be the cheapest, alil lnill'
i I !j better than nothing. I. will bl l,:it.
however, in ll d casCe, to u-ic iitlher
earthenware drain-pipes or tih Il ii
So lead pipe, madt etxpres.sly for thii
purpose. :With a strainer in tlhe hop
I *., per, a one and a lalf inch )pilpi %ill
,.' *- suffice. As it is dinlicult to lcep
*" "- '. such pipes from Sfreezing in county i
Sia' houses, it is better to have thrn ~j
I, arranged that the water will livcr
il fo stand in them. This will require
tlohe trap to bo placed in tlho cvilar,
i or under tlh surieae of thu ground,
I and the hopper must t su lpplii{
with a cover to prevent hIlo high, lt
St odlor thallit will gather'1 in lli" I41
itself from escaping into tle hoiltit.
X (There will be no danger of t lui tir'.
ing of the pipe leading from the pump to the second floor, na in wuinier
the stop-cock is left open, so that its contents may run out.
This simple arrangement for water supply is not, of course, a r( i; of
"Monle's dry-earth system." Indeed, it has no necessary collnntctioii
with it, and may easily be adopted where earth-closets are lnot dleaimivd
It has been described in connection with the earth-closet system, bIcau:X'
it supplies the only thing wanting to give that every advantage ilch:h
the water-closet has.
This article cannot be more appropriately closed than with the lnas
paragraph of a letter concerning the system from l'rofessor J. W. ,Ja;k-
son, of Union College:
As to the vale of this joint result of discovery and inivrenion, considlcre
in all its relations, sanitary and economical, as productive of d'tcency and
comfort, and u I ph,.,t au important desideratnum for every hmumaut habUii-
tion, it is impossible to overestimate it."


STATISTICS OF FENCES IN TIIlI UNITErD STATES. 497

STATISTICS OF FENCES IN THE UNITED STATES,

It has been a mooted point, in the past, whether fences were intended
to avert the destruction of corn by the cattle of neighbors, or to restrain
one's own stock from similar depredations. For a long time the popular
idea, logically interpreted, appeared to be that corn should be restrained
to prevent depredations upon cattle. Another question, of which a
solution has been desired, is whether the money invested in farm-stock
or that in farm-fences is the greater sum. It is certain that the fence
investment is a large one, and strongly suspected that much of it is
avoidable and unprofitable. While rapidly paying the national debt,
it is possible that the American people may discover a means of reduc-
ing another of almost equal proportions. In the one case the annual
tax is a fixed sum, which is less than legal interest upon the entire prin-
cipal'; in the other, it is legal interest on the whole amount, and a still
larger tax for depreciation of the principal, thus more than doubling
the tax, and rendering the fence debt a heavier burden than the war
debt.
It is beginning to be seen that our fence laws are inequitable in a
greater degree than is required by the principle of yielding something
of personal right, when necessary, for the general good. When a score
of young farmers" go West," with strong hands and little cash in them,
but a munificent promise to each of a homestead worth $200 now, and
$2,000 in the future, for less than $20 in land-office tees, they often find
that $1,000 will be required to fence -scantily each farm, with little
benefit to themselves, bat mainly for mutual protection against; a
single stock-grower, rich in cattle, and becoming richer by feed-
ing them without cost upon the unpurchased prairie. This little
community of twenty families cannot see the justice of the requirement
which compels the expenditure of $20,000 to protect their crops from
injury by the nomadic cattle of their unsettled neighbor, which may not
be'worth $10,000 altogether. There is also inequality in the tax which
fencing levies upon the farmers, the rate of which increases with the
decrease of the area; for example, a farmer inclosing a section of land,,
640 acres, with a cheap fence costing but.$1 per rod, pays $1,280 for as
many rods of fence, or $2 per acre; another, with a quarter section, 100
acres, pays $040, or $1 per acre; while a third, who is only able to hold
40 acres, must pay $320, or $8 per acre. Thus the fencing system is
one of differential mortgages, the poor man in this case being burdened
with an extra mortgage of $G per acre which his richer neighbor is not
compelled to bear. All these acres are of equal ininsic and productive
value, but those of the larger farm have each but a fourth of the a unnal
burden thrown upon the smaller homestead, and the whole expense
may be for protection against trespassing cattle owned by others.
But it is not proposed to discuss the fence question. It is necessary,
first, to obtain possession of its facts, ascertain what kinds of fence are
used,the number of rods of each, and the cost of each. The census fur-
nishes nQ light upon it, and local collections of these essential facts are
few and imperfect. The best that can be done at present is to seek
county estimates of kind, amount, and cost, from cuarefl analysis of
ascertained facts. As a preliminary effort in this direction, in the
absence of a thorough census, the following series of questions was ad-
dressed to the regular statistical correspondents of this Department;
1. What descriptions of farm-fences are made in your county; if of
32 A







STATISTICS OF FECES IN THE UNITED STATE'S.


umore tIhi.! one kindl, thil proportions of enb, cp1ssii' ;io a-Wi t .i .( ,
of the lal lqantity"!
2. WVhitt is the average height and prevailing motde of onr i o ,!;,,;i ofo
eli;C ll I d
3. What is your estimate, for the farms of your county, of tlmti a ,i pri
Number of rods of fence to each one hundred acres of farlth-linds, iiclil.
ing together improved and unimproved lands I
4. What is your estimate, for the whole county, of the avcr.ag Mt
numberr of acres) of incioSures or fields
5. Average price of boards used for fences, per thonrsand I
(. Average price of rails per thousand I
7. What proportion of openings have bars and vwhat proportio i;t g't.* i
style and cosi of gates >'
'8. Average cost per rod of wormn-fence; of post and rails; of Ix;uard-
feice ; of stone wall; of other kinds ?
9. Average cost per hundred rods of ninutal repairs of all farin-flernc-s I
10. What kinds of wood are used as fence material, and wlhai. thli n-iv
tive cost of each ?
11. What is the comparative durability of each kind I
Iteturns were made from 846 counties, nearly all answering Ve, vry
question, some very fully. As a sample of the most e(xlailhtive, llo
following, from lion. John M. IMillikin, of butlerr County, Ohio, i gIl\ ca
in full:
1. Our farlm-fenccs consist of colunlon worm rail fence, and (what can IerlIly I)
called a fence) of osago-orluigo hedge. There ar n110o dift by whillh ti dolt 1i1,1a
accritdy tho iproportioln of each. My estimate is 80 per cent. rail-feice, 1. p..r rcnt.
boarld-fnce, anld 5 pr cent. hedgo-feuce.
2. Our worms rail Ituco vaLriu icl height. They are from seven to nilIn rti high, ll-
clutling rillors.' Our boiard-fence is usually matlo of lj-loot bou:rlts, 1 inh thik ald i
inches wide. PIAts 8 feet apart. Black locust Iposts always Ir.T:(cr.lfd. tlId c.-A!i,
wlhit c ldar, llll oak posts all usedand esteemlied for dulra iliLy, i I thi oril.r- his,,> c.L
MlosL peoplo ml;1:1 o :eir board-lenco five bo:nds bigh', 'and thInlcap it. IllCCii ro. ,)
care only using tour boards, at. 1 It ,i'I '. hi the lifth. e o f
3. In 1557 1 Inado it very ( ,,.iCI tl .. 0, of the nuIl ib r of rodf ol f,.c in tl.
county, antl tho cost. oI the same. I also estimated the annual interscit onl tho ..i .,,
and the annual expense of keeping tho. san it ill repair. TIhe:a ctltitlll;,t h wl: 11 C11.A
ior t.ho pulrposo of ishowinC g the noccssity of haviiig a law UCtactId to p .liCt CL li i,
from running at large. I pl rcunted my statement to the State Agricultural C(lin rlllj,l,
and the ultimate result was tho passage ofa very valuable law restlrainung caIli- hm 11
running at large. As yet, it is not generally oenbrced, but is aecic pli.ujiig gmI i lI **I
My data thlln sed, I cannot lind, lad must, thereihro, hastily maku anot ir -,n..i. i.
So ]micit prCliilaCi ,y. Our farms, of 100 acres acil, will average IromC t., lO .5) i Vh
of fenico-say fully 900 rods.
4. Wo hCave il thi colmty about 4,000 farms, varying in sizo fLroin .) srv 0 .1- liCO nCe
Of tie latte r weav1me forty. Each IarI, oi a verag, .ill ,av~ l
eigt f11,ld1, ,and weo iavo, therefore, CC of incloaurcs or 'ildl.s," at least 'I, 't. 11 C4-
tinlalt, dCoes not includio nimlclrouas slall lots which every farmer lbuau i iUnicilui.i cra-
ulctction with tile bar n-vat rd. p
5. TIe lfvetrageico rtior lilC O nciCg-bontlcds is about 623 per' tholCslLand.
(i C oij ( oaik ,ial0 aro wortlii 6,U por ti usand.C .
7. Noal ly il1 iCCl. llre Ct .'ow nowi provided with gates. There a1rC bcarct-ly ganlr ti1. .
one, pair bari to liftucln gatcces. In LinCe neighborhood barn havIe h COi n ti. I h r-
Sidcld bICy g: it a. G llte6 e usuai Il ll y i1aitdo wvillb CO I CII 1;un i -ho-di) ,l a i .SC i .h Cil "
a dr. i i. cli ldo ; a. posi t a by 4 a't one(C ud ( nd 2 by 3 at thl o1lr CwrCl. Io.'C.tom I
boar.ts of liko fCizc, cxtcnlill fCroul botto of t r t th l topI IC tho L ... t>..
Cost aboCut $3.
H. Nov. wormlL-f ic -will cost alwlbout $1..i5 per roll. 'ost and rail fClli I.tC ll i,.- 4 -.~
outC OCf u8. I hlviV ,oln n1IC1 Mado wi till tt o latst twenty iCSii, iri CC" I :
of ICio bil ClC. It would ,o'C t Pur p ClI of0 ten tel ot, about $1. oarI "oi i I" C 'I
good I IunIhITr, 11IId locSlll 3 redl. Cedarh l)post, will cost about fiur Ifiour ii I. gli, 66-4
to 15 to 2.0 hIvo boairds-i li. ISiloie walU:I r' not conltreuctud aICnd ulIstd la li,.c* A
thia eCounty.
I. i ksi w (if 11( way of answerin g this question sati c 1ltorily1 as t1l nCllCJl lI.-Mi ,
will Io (Inchl dcpull ,11 oil tio agoC InatItiaI C., t of thile l noic, Fli'o aI tll Cv. llC. 111..


tioil 1 have madel, I an: sa tisid that it -ill take lI pir cin t. pcr iaiminnt of the origii-
nal cos, ofi the Inucco to pay interest and keep up repairs,
10. Faitrmers prefer 0o1.: luCd walnut rails. The litt er iwoud probol;Cy cust rai;0 par
tLhoimilud, and 11arC ot nuow used. Wher rails a1ri Inscd now, li'rnwir; arfo1 wiii'g to
lako.tl Oemut o f almost any kind of timber. Where board-foncu is nmad; pino board,:
are prn-lrred. Locust and red cedar posts are prelbrrid, cotiing, abou3lt ;i conta Iach1.
Oak posts are somewhat cheaper but less durable.
11. Locust posts are believed not only to be sitrngeor than cedar, Ibut they 1hod1 naili
better aud are n1iore durable.
Permit me1 to add further. We have in this county 293,000 acres of land, lll in-
closed, We have at least '2,00,000 rods of f ,,., :,. c.:mo costing lat gely Imoro, yt:s,
flur-fold the price at which I have estimated ..,,, I.. C je rold. UCi, ,u.' ithe Inl.Cio:,o
of estimating the manual cost of lintaintinug our fenec's, including inter.Cst, l t mio
put tho average ;at per rod; 2,000,000 rods of fence, at t2, will cost ,5,2(0,0000. Annual
cost of ulaintaining samco, includingg interest,) at 15o pr cent. on o original cost,t7,;0,000.
'hoeo figures Care astounding, and yet I believe that they are not too hiigh. MIatrial
fo' rail-'untccs will soon be out of tho question, and luo b r of every L:in c is annually
becoming scarcer, and necessarily will increase in price. Is it not, -ic-etre,, highly
important that laws restraining stock from running at l.rgo should Cnet v\ith mor
favor; that tioldls should be enlarged ; that soiling should be moro praetiCed, Ind that
farmers should thereby be- relieved from the great iburdeu of 1i'yinig tIch ilmmenlso
sums for fencing ?

KIND OF FENCES AND JIOODE OF CONSTl'II.ICTI'ON.

The replies are necessarily monotonous from their repetition of de-
tails; they show that the common forms of fencing are setnust:antially
alike in all parts of the country, yet varied everywhere to atccom-
modato the differences in kind, quality, comparative scarcity, and cost
of timber; and present the Virginia rail-fence as tho pioi'er in all
timbered districts, from the simplicity of its construction, Ino; evel re-
quiring nails, but rails only. The tendency to supersede this tbrm with
a fence requiring less timber and occupying less space, while present-
ing t tthe eye more artistic features, is maniflestly growii)g. 'Tho fl-
lowing extract from the returns of our correspondent in ]tiutherford
County, Tennesses, shows that this tendency is already pervaditig a
State which has yet half its farm-lands in forest:
There can be no 1objectiol to the rol cedar rail-fence on the (eoro of firat cost or du-
rability; but there is a most serious objection to all worn-funcus. The writer hla, upon
a farm of 475 acres, about five aud a half miles of worm-fonce nd oIne 1ilU of pliank-
touce; also ono-fourth miloof good stone fcnco. The stone and plank fllcs occupy
only the ground they stand oil. 'The live and a half mliles of worlll-IoCLCeo occullpy live
acres of land, auld kerp out of cultivation nearly if not qulilo eleven iCervI ; of hind.
l'ho cost of tkeepingdown weeds, briars, &c,, along these livo and a half mIiles of fncu--
leoven miles of fence-corners-is a tax greater than my State and county tCx for thia
year, and was poorly dono at that.
A description in detail of the minute differences in construction, evon
ts reported from tile counties of any single large State, would require
a score of printed pages; and the additional informiil1,n in dvti1',ings
ald descriptiois necessary to a thorough understanding of lJi pcutiat--
ities and variations of each kind of feIce would fill a hvolmiln. Only
a brief c1l i~ill..llull Of the more essential fltetS embraced ini tlhei re-
tuLius will therefoiro be given at present, with the hope of appiroximiat
ing the total amount and cost of the fences of the United States.
The fences of Maine are of many kinds and of va,'ris n, otrtlinelf i ll.
SBone-wall is more generally di:.aributed thalln ally othor o.ildtalttiAl
fence, abolt one-fifth of the inelosures being walled in, Yorkl C(unity
reporting 301 per cent., Hancock 2), Waldo 25, and ol.lir coru.!ti',; a
smaller proportion. The post and rail style is next in plromillniIine,
especially in Somerset and HIancock, surrounding nearly thlrec-fuC-irithS;of
(iwi inllosli'res of those counties. 3oard-lfence is lused for four-tclith;3 of


AGRICULTURAL REPORT.


49)







STATISTICS OP FENCES IN THE UNITED STATES.


tie fields of C(umberland; for one-fifth of those of York and Oxf ;il,
ntid lne-ioburth 01 the flums of W\aldo. Brush-feince lriedomninat
Oi,:. ;ard, being; used for threlt-fourths of all inelosre.,. T1 he i.;hit i
Mai;Tn felnci's rin:.ges from -1 to *..r feet. There arue 1tructlrls whii h i ,-..
;i, fle;cees that are still lower. The board-fenc.s are oif variuIl; pllti .
in Oxd'ord a desirable style is made of 8-inch boards, miiild I pi t
feet apart, and battened with a perpendicular stnip upon each pu:s. i
York, except near buildings, the boards are confined with witles. In
Sagadahoc, where timber is getting scarce, three or four boards to ;:'hi
length are used, and posts' are set on stone, iron dowels CenIlring the!
wood S inches. A "cap and bunk" fence of cedar is the stylein Aroo.tik i;
the rails cut 18 feet long, and lapped to make each lengtll ;a rod; a "bank,l,
or block, about 4 feet long, laid under the end of each length, and a cap Iat
the top, holds the stakes together. "Hedge-fence" is made of fallen tr. I..
In Waldo half the inclosures have worm-fences. As material for bi II i ,
cedar is used wherever it can be obtained, and hemlock, spruce, .ca.,
pine, poplar, and other woods.
A similar variety is found in New Hampshire. The worm-fence (\ r-
ginia) surrounds one-fourth of the fields of Coos. Board-fences pridoni.
inmate in Coos and Stratford, half of all being of that sort. The post and
rail is largely used in all parts of the State; and brush, stump, pole, log,
&c, are common. Stone-wall is largely used in all rocky districts, uoi l
single and double, of all widths, from 2 feet to 6 or more, according tu,
the quantity of stone for which no other disposition is so convenient.
In Billsborough it constitutes three-fourths of the fence; in Str;fallt l,
one-half; and a large proportion in all other counties.
Worm-fence is common in 'several counties in Vermont, the plr-o.
portion being 90 per cent. in Grand Isle, 65 in Addison, 25 in WN\\at
ington. In the latter county the rails generally rest on istitw
8 inches high, and six rails to the panel are used. Ioard.s a;
used for half the fences of Washington and Essex, and lar lUargily
employed in Orleans and Windsor. One-fifth of Addison flen:c.es ia,
made of stumps, standing about 5 feet bigh, roots upward. About on-
fourth of the fencing of the State is made with stone, the proport ion itl
Essex and Windsor being fully 50 per cent., and 25 in Washington, 2o(
in Orleans, and in Addison and Grand Isle scarcely more than 5 1 "pi
cent. Stono at bottom, with stakes and rails above, is used to sionm
extent. Cedar rails are common in Orleans.
Stone-wall is the main fence in Massachusetts, its proportion riach-
ing to 75 per cent. in Essex, 67 in Norfolk, 40 in Dukes and Bristol, iI
Plymouth 00 per cent. stone and wood combined, and 10 per cei;t. of
stone alone. Nearly half the fences are of stone, or stone and woou
combined; fully one-third post and rail fence, 3U to 41 feet hig.h, of
which Dukes has 60 per cent., IHampden and Bristol 40, Norlolk 3.,
Plymouth 30, and Essex 20. In Hampden stone-walls are \ery an,-
stantial, many being 4 feet wide at bottom, and ;3 at top.
Ahodo Island is mainly fenced with stone, scarcely any other mauln i.i
being known in Newport, Bristol having 75 per cent., and Waitshingleton
60; height, about I feet. A foundation two fectl deep is omictri, im'
laid with small stone. The rail-fence is 4.- feet high, of 5 raii,;
and the posts of board-fence are set 2- to 3 feet in the ground, S i1..t
apart. All fences and gates are comparatively substantial aml llirou0-ii
in construction.
Stone is the material for one-third of the.fences of Connecticill, N<.t
London having 70 per cent. of wall, Fairfield 50, and other countit:3 i


smaller proportion. Post and rail fence incloses three-tenths of the
fields; worm-fencenearly one-fourth; board-fenceoue-eighth; height, 3.4
to P,- feet. In Middlesex, where a poor qualityof stone is ava ilble, walls
3 feet high are common, with stakes and rails above. JI New Haven
similar fences are made, the wall 24 feet high. These walls are pre-
ferred to the regular stone-wall for sheep-pastures. Six rails are said
to make a legal worm-fence; heavy rocks are often placed c inder the
corners; and a fence built with l to 2 feet of stone, with 3 rails above,
is deemed a good fence.
An averaging of thirty-three reports from New Yo'rk indicate
a predominance of worm-fence, of which there appears to be 45
per cent.; 18 per cent. of post and rail, and 19 of board; 18 per cent.
being stone-wall and other kinds, including a small amount of wire,
picket, hedge, &c. Orange has 80 per cent. of wall; Putnam 75, and
Greene, Dutchess, Columbia, and Delaware, 50 per cent. each. Of
post and rail, Kings has 95 per cent., Warren, 80, Cattaraugus,
70, Saint Lawrence, 67, Steuben, 65, Saratoga, 50. Worm-fence is
found in large proportion in the following counties: Orleans, 90 per
cent.; Yates, 85; Niagara, Jefferson, Monroe, 80; Wayne, Gencsee,
Schuyler, Otsego, Livingston, Ontario, Lewis, 75; Wyoming, 70; Che-
uango, 60; Seneca, 55; Onondaga, Cortland; Queens, Greene, 50 per
cent. Madison reports 80 per cent. of board-fence; Schnectady, 50;
Tioga, 45; Fulton, 33; Cattaraugus, 30; Saratoga, Washington, and
Onondaga, 25 each. A part of the worm-fence is staked andl ridered,
and some is wired, and varies from 4 to 5. feet high, the latter only in
Livingston. Post and rail is usually 4 to 5 feet high, averaging about
V4 feet; breadth of worm, usually 4 feet. Where poor stone prevails
rived sticks are used in stone-wall, to bind it. Stone-wall is built en-
tirely of stone, or is combined with rails or boards for the upper por-
tion of the fence. In Seneca, wire and picket fence meets with general
commendation for cheapness and durability. Board-fences differ con-
siderably in length of panel and number and quality of boards.
Hemlock is much used, in the scarcity of other material. In
Erie, "a beginning has been made to dispense with fences."
A large proportion, not less than 60 per cent., of New Jersey fences,
are of the post and rail style; the posts of white oak, chestunt, whito
and red cedar, and fat" pine, 6 or 7 feet long, round or sawed, set 25
feet in the ground, 11 feet apart, some having three or four mortises for
the rails, (which are cut 12 feet long, and sharpened,) and others are
nailed to the posts. About 30 per cent. of inclosures are surrounded by
the worm-lfnce, of chestnut or cedar rails chiefly, which are laid in
angles of 25 degrees, with stakes set in the ground, and double ridered.
The post and board fence is found in HIunterdon, Ocean, Morris, and
other counties, being used in the former for one-fifth of the inclosures.
The osage-orango hedge is employed to some extent. A few stone-walls
may be seen, and brush, turf, and other modes of fencing. In 1ergon
and Union all the fence is reported to be of posts and rails, and 90 per
cent. in Essex and Hudson, and 60 in Morris.
Two-thirds of the fences reported in thirty counties in Pennsylvania
are of the zigzag "Virginia" style, one-sixth are of post and rail varie-
ty, one-oighth constructed of boards, and the remainder stone-wall,
osage-helege, stump, pole, or other kinds. Most of them are 41 feet
high, some 4 feet, some 5. In Luzerno worm fence is 51 feet, and in
\estmoreland it is 6 feet. In Beaver there is no other f'cce reported-
little else in Butler, in Warren, or in Somerset; 90 per cent. in Craw-
ford, Armstrong, and Elk; 85 in Westmoreland and Lehigh; 80 in


.~C;J.:Li'llLTLI:~hL liErCSI:'P.


,00,


501







502 AGRICULTURAL REPORT.
Canu and Clearfield; 75 in Berks, Snyder, and Washington; (p In
Lnwrenc(' and York; 00 in Clinton and Susquelialna. Ma itgomnter
claims 70 per cent. of post and rail; Sullivan, 67 Dauphin,500; Union,4,'!
Clinton, Hluntingdon, and York, 30. Bradford reports 90 per co(ei, of
bonard-fncce, Lycoming50, COlarfield and Luzerne 20, and others declining
to 2 Iper cent. Wayno has 50 per cent. of stone-wall, 8usqluclhan ua 35,
Sullivan 'i, Tioga. 15. There is a small amount of osnge-chedgo in Cl(h-
ter, Bucks, Northumberland, Montgomery, Washington, York, and other
counties. There is a style of fence known as "rough and ready,"
useed in some counties, made by sett.:ng rough posts dressed with
an ix on both sides, upon which, rails about 1) feet long are inilfd
alternately on either side; in Fayetto 18 per cent. is of this kind. The
stone-fence is usually quite substantial, rarely less than 2N or 3 feet
wide at bottom and U4 to 5 feet high though some is lower. The ima-
terial is various as the kinds of wood in the Pennsylvania forests. Lo-
cnst and cedar are preferred for posts, and for rails much use is made of
chestnut, whiut-oak, cherry, cucumber, pine, ash, and basswood. Theo
growing scarcity of timber tends to decrease the amount of worta-fence,
which is often replaced with post and rail, and with board-fclee in dis-
tricts of greater scarcity of timber; and still moro substantial forms, as
the stonc-f'nce, or osage or other hedge, are growing in favor.
The farms of Delaware are inclosed with worm and post and rail fencc,
with a small proportion of osage-hedges and other modes of fencing.
Kent County reports 60 per cent. of Iost and rail fence. White oak or
chestnut posts, with cedar rails, are much used; and osage-liedges are
popular and of thrifty growth.
The zigzag rail-fence surrounds nearly two-thirds of the inclosnurll of
Maryland; post and rail one-sixth; board-fence, stone-wall, polc-lfiuc,
and other styles making up the remainder. Chestnut rails and lorlcst
posts are largely used. In Kent the osage-hedge is plashed and wat-
tied upon stakes until well grown.
As indicated by returns from forty-one counties, four-fifths of tihe
fence of Virginia is that to which her name is commonly given. Few
counties report more than a small proportion of other kinds. Allbe-
marle, Fauquier, and Culpeper have 20 per cent. of post and rail, which
is the largest percentage reported. Chestcrlield has 60 per cent. of po1st
and board, and Bottourt and ottrt Culpepcr 20. Rappahannock, Srotl,
Albcmarle, and Fauquier, among other counties, return a fair Ipropor-
tion of stone-wall. lu King George the battling or brush-weaving st le
is extensively employed, being used for one-fifth of the inc losAreI.
In Scott County black-walnut rails are still used, costing $15 per
thousand. Among the material used are found locust, cedar, several
kinds of oak, chestnut, poplar, walnut, cucumber, pine, ash, and ne'1 yi
all other woods of the forest. The legislature of the State has cinrt4*l
a no-fence law, subject to.acceptance by each county, and many ihave
ratified it, and find no inconvenience in the exemption fron fenclles, inl
the change is recciyed with great satisfaction by the people. 'The c r-
respondent in Buckingham says of those counties which have no fencel
that "more crops are raised, and nearly as much stock as before. One
correspondent in King George County thus describes the lawful feitr
of that State:
A 1 'ffl fence mist bo 4 feet high if mad with t r fthi if mdo, with i, al 6 t h if nil ii
any nolhr nrmalt ria, and so clso tlhat tho beast bul king iu io l thle S ould1"t f'-,
throligh; or w1 it an hedge 2 locl higll upo dli llitch foo c, ldeep d feet '" l: o ,'
,tena of such Iledgc., a rail-fence of 2o foot lig, Igh o liodg or renco being -o i '
none of the crel'i.ures aforesaid can crcot! through.


STATISTICS OF FENCES IN' TIE UNITED STATES


Throughout the Southern States, a section in every State of which
moro than one-half of the farm area is woodland, the worm-fence in
almost tile exclusive mode, except in the vicinity of tle better class of
buildings. Garden fences are usually of palings. In returns from
thirty-seven counties in North Carolina, there is only one record of post
and rail fence 10per cent. in Sampson County; and in Chowan one-
half is board-fence. In Onldwell the Van BIren fence is coming into
use; the worm 3 feet in width, panels 5 to 10 feet long. A very liltli of
stone-wall and of other kinds. appears in a few of the reports. The pro-
portion of worm-fence is 96 per cent. In South Carolina the proportion
of crooked-rail feuce rises to 98; it is 95 in Georgia and 94 in Florida.
In the latter State, stone is placed at 10 per cent. in Gwinnctt, and hedge
of Cherokee rose is reported in Wilkes and Monroe. The reported
height varies from 4 to 6 feet in South Carolina; in most of the coun-
ties 43 and 5, and more reports place th'o height of'North Carolina
fences ait to 5( feet thanifrom 4 to 5. Georgia, which represents fairly all
this section, makes the average height 5 feet in nineteen counties, 5g
feet in six counties, 6 feet in six counties 4X feet in four counties, and 4
feet in two counties. Five feet is the legal height fixed for fences in
most if not all of the cotton States. The proportion of worm-fence in
Alabama is 90 per cent., 10 per cent. representing many kinds, no one
of which has much prominence in any locality, except board-fence in Col-
bert, 20 per cent., and post and rail in Montgomery, 15 per cent.
Osage-hedge is marked 10 per cent. in Montgomuery. The height of
fences is placed quite uniformly at 4} and 5 feet in this State.. For
posts, chestnut, oak, and heart-pino are much used.
In Mississippi 95 per cent. are worm-fences, the remainder osago and
rose hedges, wire, board, and post and rail; Claiborne County having
28 per cent. of the latter. Half of the counties report a.ll worm-fences.
In Claiborne, post and rail fence is made by setting two posts, dropping
the rails between, and fastening with caps; wire-fence, by stretching
wire upon posts eight feet apart,, with a rail or slab-cap from post to
post.
Only about two-thirds of the inclosures of Louisiana are surrounded
with tho Virginia fence. In the parish of La Fayette all fences are post
and rail. There are many hedges of Cherokee and McCartney rose, and
of osage-orange. In the Creole section, a fence made of cypress, and
known as Pieux fence, is the prevailing style, as in Iberia, where no
other is known, and in Saint Landry it amounts to 60 per cent. of the
aggregate fencing. It is 5 to 56 feet high. Slabs of cypress, 9 feet in
length, are split from the circumference of the log, in size about 10 by
2 inches, one of which is mortised as a post, for every four tenoned, to
be used as boards, making a rough but strong and durable board-fence.
In West Fclicianla, nearly all inclosures wero surrounded by Cherokee-
rose hedges; and they were so effectual and popular that most planters
cut down all wood except what they reserved for fires and plantation
repairs. They died out during the war, probably from frost, and now
poles and other make-shifts are common, and every year the destnrc-
tion of a portion of the crops results. Sngar-plauters on the river often
fence oily on the levee.
Worm-fence constitutes three-fourths of all fencing in Texas. Rai],
board, brush, and picket are styles frequently emul,oyed, and osage-
orangre, or Bois (Arc, (from its employment a in making bows,) is used
inll mny portions of the State as live fence. C(Jedr, live-oak, and mes-
quite are used for posts. The latter, Prosopis (Alqarobia) glanduhlo:a, is
used extonsi eily in brush-fonce. Ditches 5 fiLt dke-p, 6 lit, wide at top,
and -3 fei' at bottom, the earth thrown up ou the sidt of the iicid inclo'h l,







5014 AGRICULTURAL REPORT.

ore made whero timber for fencing cannot be obtained readily. In ;iiomi
counties thereis only a snall area inclosed; not one rod to one hiiiilr.td
acres" in LTardin. Thero are sections where stone is obtaihable tr
walls; one-fifth of the fences of Lampasas being made of that material.
In De Witt a Mexican fence is built, constructed of logs and brush, pihed
together 18 inches in thickness, between parallel rows of posts, 7 feet
long, set 18 inches in the ground, and3 feet apart. A citizen of William-
son County proposes the present season to fence live thousand acres with
wire, for pasturage.
The worm is almost the exclusive fence of Arkansas, not more than 2
per cent. of other kinds being used, generally 5 feet high; in soinoe ca~c
less, very rarely more. Tennessee has 95 per cent. of the prevailing
style; Giles has 15 per cent. of post and rail, and 10 per cent. of stomun
wall; Haywood 20 per cent. of lath and orauge-hedge, and a small pro.
portion of other kinds is found scattered through the State.
In VWest Virginia the worm-fence amounts to 85 per cent., the remainder
being of almost all kinds in use; some having but seven to nine rails to
the panel; in Kentucky about the same proportion, from 4 to 5A. fet:
high, with post and rail, board, and stone, 4 or 5 per cent. of each. \\ orn-
fences, of eight to ten rails to the panel, are common.
In forty-seven counties in Ohio, the percentage of worm-fence is also
about 85, board-fence about 10 per cent., post and rail, stone, picklAl
hedge, and patent fences making the remainder. The height in moat,
localities is from 44 to 5 feet. The proportion of worm-fence in Michigan
is about four-fifths, board being also used quite generally, with a sinall
amount of stone, brush,log, and other structures, and some hedging. T1hI
height is in most counties 4N feet. Indiana, which is well wooded, uses.
the Virginia style for four-filths of all fencing. In Lake.County there is
little else than board-fence; 50 per cent. in Newton, 40 in Warren, and,
20 in Switzerland, Fountain, Jefferson, and Vanderburgh. Small quain-
tities of osage-hedge are found in all sections of the State. WoVrmln.fcet
vary in height from Iseven to eleven rails to the panel, being highest in
the cattle-farms of the southwestern part of the State.
In the prairie States the worm-fence has less prominence. The scarce y
of timber limits the use of rails, except for a fence of three or four rails
to the panel, with posts, where native wood is to be obtained at all,
fronl margins of streams or artificial plantations of forest-trees. Thel
open prairies, having railroad communication, are fenced with oards
front the northern pineries, with cedar and locust posts, ii oltainaill
without great cost, otherwise with oak and sometimes chestnut. In
Southern Illinois timber is abundant, and the old-fashioned rail.flince i
la gely used. From fifty-sixcounties of Illinois, which may be assumn e
to represent the State quite fairly, returns make a percentage of 413 fr
worm-fence and 32 for board, osage-hedge standing next ill proliell('c.
Some counties already have a very large proportion of this hedge, Aiz
Ka1kakcee, 75 per cent. ; lienderson and Stark, 50; MarPhall, I40; Mli >,a l-
pin, 33; Knox, 30 ; Rock Island, Warren, Lee, Adams, Madison, \V Whit
side, 25; and Bureau, Fulton, Peoria, Crawford, 20. It is coining into
general use witll great rapidity. Iin Richland osage-hodge is not popular,
te expense of trimnning being deemed greater than repairs of other fences.
In thirty-four counties in which osage-hedges are particularly mentioInel,
tile average percentage is about 20.
Wormi-fenc constitutes 54 per cent. of the reported fencing of Wiil.
cousin, and board fence 32 per cent. Post and pole, log, bnrsl, stoun,
litch, Shanghai," and various fancy styles, are made. ilngenuity I
exercised in prairicregions for the invention and building of feuced


STATISTICS OF FENCES IN TIHE UNITED STATES.


505


requiring the smallest p)os!iblc amount of material. A hurdle-fini:(: is
pIopularI in Itock, supported by short stakes which reach to the third
rail, which is longer than the others, thus lapping over and connecting
one panel with another.
In Minnesota the proportions of the principal kinds are as follows:
worm, 33 per cent.; post and rail, 27; board, 26; and 14 per cent. of
other kinds, including tamarackck) pole, wire, "leaning," and other
fences. Average height, about 44 feet. Oak and pine are used. in con-
struction of board fence, while walnut; ash, cottonwood, tamarack, ehn,
liln, and other woods are used for rails.
No 'greater variety of fencing exists in any State, than is found in
lowa. An average of 48 county returns indicates 24 per cent. of worm,
23 of board, 14 of post and rail, and 30 of a, miscellaneous list of styles,
among which osage-hedge is most prominent, reaching 60 ller cent. in
Cedar, 33 per cent. in Clinton, 25 in Scott, and smaller proportions in
many other counties. In Muscatine the proportion of board is 90 per
cent., 80 in Ilarrison, 75 in Scott, and 50 in Henry and Jasper. In
Mitchell 63 per cent. is post and rail, and 50 in Carroll andPFloyd. The
"Shanghai fence is made of rails, three to five to the panel, laid on
the crotches of forked stakes driven into the ground, staked and sur-
mounted with riders. In Mahaska, as in other counties, some inclosures
include a dozen farms in a tract of 2,000 acres or more. A "mleaniurng
fence is used in some places, the posts set at an angle of 40o. The
Bloomer" is made with three rails and stakes to the panel. Several
counties have no fences, animals being prohibited by law from ran-
ining at large. Five wires, 8 inches apart, stretched upon posts 8
feet apart, with one stay midway, makes a popular fence in some places
The worm-fonce again predominates in Missouri, amounting to 71 per
per cent., while there is 26 per cent. of board-fence, and corduroy"
(poles nailed to posts) hedge, post and slat, stone, palings, "roughr
and ready," and fancy styles. There is 30 per cent, of osage-hedge in
Henry, 20 mnGreene, and a large amount of growing hedges in dilferent
part of the State. From seven to twelve rails to the panel are used in
worm-fences. Post and rail fence is often made with three rails for
cattle and six for hogs, and board-fence with three or five boards.
It is difficult to calculate the comparative prominence of styles in
Kansas. Averaging the returns, the worm-fence appears to constitute
but 18 per cent., board 12, and post and rail 9: leaving 61 per cent. for
a great variety of fences reported somewhat indefinitely. The osng.r
hedge is very prominent, apparently bidding fair to be the principal
fence of the State. It is reported at 100 per cent. in Cloud; 1) in
Bourbon, Franklin, Liun, and Osage; 40 in Leavenworth; 33 in Doug-
las 30 in Anderson. Dickinson reports 400 rods of stone-wall, built
at $2 per rod. The Shanghai fence is also found in Kansas. Cherokiee
county reports fences with names hitherto unheard of, th eccentricity
of whose construction language very feebly conveys."
In many counties of Nebraska few fences are to be found. About 30
per cent. of existing fences are post and rail, 25 per cent. board, and the
remainder hedge, wire, Shanghai, and carth-walls 3.1 feet high; Hall
County having 25 per cent. of the latter.
Board-fenc appears to predominate in California; two-fifths being
of that style in the counties reported, nearly one-fourth post and rail,
and thb remainder brush picket, worm, &e., including a small amount
of live willowy. Napa and Humboldt have a considerable proportion of
woron-fen c.
A large proportion, fully 90 per cent. in the returns received, of the








AGRICULTURAL REPORT.


fencing of Oregon, is of Virginia style. The remainder is mainly con.
structed with boards. A few picket-fences are reported.
In Washington Territory wood is abundant; worm-fence is the pre.
vailing style. Utah has poor material for fencing; is inclosed with poles,
brush, post and rail, and inferior forms of fences. Red pine is much
used for rails, and aspen poles are abundant. Fence material i:
scarce in Colorado, except among the mountains. In the dry atmos-
phere of the mountains, pilles, firs, aspen, and other soft woods last
well. A Utah correspondent says the aspen will last twenty years if
not resting on the ground. There are few fences in New Mexico.
There is a law against trespass, and each county is allowed to regulate
the time when cattle may be turned loose, which is generally froin No-
vember 1 to March 1. From corn-planting till harvest is finished cat-
tle must be herded, and the owner is made responsible for any damages
they may commit. The Doail Alia correspondent says there is not a
rail in Now Mexico. Walls are built for small inelosures of adohe,
or unburned brick. A fence is sometimes built of cedar poles, set up.
right and close together, with a horizontal pole bound to each upright,
near the top, by strips of raw-hide an inch wide. In Arizona and No-
vada small lioles are much used for fencing, though a small area only
is inclosed.
In recapitulation it will be seen that worm-fence predominates in Ver-
mont, New York, and in all the States west and northwest of New Jersey,
except Kansas, Nebraska, California, and Nevada, and the Rocky Mloun-
tain region, though but slightly in Vermont, Minnesota, and Iowa. Its
proportion in the former States exceeds that of all other kinds com-
bined, except in Vermont, New York, Illinois, and Iowa, in the latter
constituting scarcely one-fourth of the total fencing. It may fairly
be ranked as the national fence, though it is temporary, giving way
gradually to kinds requiring less lumber, and covering less land, as
well as making a less awkward appearance hot at all indicative of
the straight-forwardness of the American character. Board-fence is the
prevalent style in California, and next to worm in Vermont, New York,
in all the Southern States south and west of Maryland, (though the per-
centage is still small,) and in all the Western States in which worm-lfenco
predominates, except Minnesota and Nebraska. The post and rail style is
the main fence in New Jersey, and stands second to other kinds in Maine,
Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Minnesota, and No-
braska. Stone-wall is the principal felcein Maino New lamplshire, Ma:ss:i-
chusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut; and tho next in prominence ill
New Hlampshire, Rhode Island and Connecticut, is board-fence. For
hedges, the osage orange stands Ilrst, being already in efficient condi-t
tion in Illinois, and largely planted west of the Mississippi ; while it is.
coming gradually into use in all of the Middle and Western States south
of the forticth parallel of latitude, and, to soim extent, for orlnaIllnetal
purposes in the Southern States. The Ohorokee and McCartncy roso
(botanically, Rosa laevigata and R. Macartnea,) are preferred by many
as hedge-plants in the States of the Gulf coast. The white willow,
Salix alba, and other plants are employed for hedging purposes to
a very limited extent. The following table shows the proportion of
tlh principal kinds of fence in the several States, as averaged from the
reports:


STATISTICS OF FENCES IN THE UNITED STATES.


507


Proportion of cac7h laid of fence,
i I ii ~ ~ --------;-----


States.


ain .................. 5
New Hampshiro ......... 8
Vermont ................ 3
Masachusetts-8 ......... 6
Illiu1 Island l ........... .....
Connecticut... ......... I
Neo York .............. 4.
New Jersey ............. -_-
Pcnlusylvaia. ........... (;7
Delawaro ............... r,0
i[aryland --............. (;5
Virginia ................ -
North Carolin:-.......... %ii
South Carolina ..---...-.. "0
Georgia ................. 95
Ioida .................. 9.1
Alabliam ................ 9-
Misissippi- .........-.. 95
Loulsiana. ........... 1l


-- i------ ----II-- I--


17


S10


1



1


Texas..............
Arkansas ............
TDnsIesseo.............
West Virginia .........
leniacky ..............
Ohio ...................
Micahi!gaun ............
Indiuaa ...............
Illoiis ................
WVisconsin ..............
Minnesota .............
Iowi ..................
Missouri ...............
Kantsas ...............
Nelraska .............
Calilir uia .............
O]rgon .............
Noevala and Territories.


Gates.-Many descriptions are received of different styles of gates
used, with plain drawings in many cases; but the variations are so
numerous and wide, even in the same State, and the description in
many instances so indefinite and incomplete, that it would be impossi-
ble to attain perfect accuracy in an exhaustive exposition. The
gates of wooded regions are of a heavier pattern, and those of the
settled States which have not given place to recent improvements are
very clumsy in constriction and movement. The common slat-gate is
in very general use. The balance-pole is largely employed in nearly all
sections of the country, especially in the older settlements. Gates turn-
ing upon hinges, fastened with hook and eye," moving in a socket,
those with wooden latches and Mvery imaginable style of fastening,
are found of such variety and form of material and mode of con-
struction as almost to defy description. Lattice-gates and fancy
styles are common near dwellings and in the viciility of towns. The
tendency in the new farming regions is to lightness of material, facility
of movement, and cheapness, with the requisite degree of strength.
Many of them arc patented. Large numbers of new patterns are built
in the Western States at 81 to $2 each. Perhaps the most popular is a
slide-and-swing gate, which moves back on rollers part way, balancer
on a pivot in the post, anl turns round at right angles. In ma!.y couln
ties in the South, few, if any gates, are reported, while in others nearly
all the openings are gates; in a few there are neither gates nor bars,
but slip-gaps." The correspondent in Henry County, Virginia, says
that the lilds there are entered by pulling down a corner of tho fenco;
that it becomes less substantial every time it is taken down, until it
will no longer restrain stock, when the exasperated farmer rights it up,
props it, and perhaps cuts thorn rushes to lay upon it, and finally pull
down another portion of the fence where the same experiment is
repeated."
TheI following table gives the estimated percent of openings guarded
respectively by gates and bars, and the average cost of gates. A small
proportion of the inclosures of certain States have neither gates nor bars.
It is, of course, understood that, these statistics include only faitr-gates:


I' '


506


States. '*







50 AGRICULTURAL REPORT.



stae a. |5 States.



Manir ... ... .... ... .. 531 C6 Texa+ ............... ... 3. i 1 | 0 0.
N w llanimpshiro ....-- ... .. -- -; a Ar ansas ......... .. ... m; '
Vcnoi...it ...................... ) 3 50 T'ennesseo ................ .. 17 jl 4
l lt 1s., o tl -- ---t-s .............- 10 930 (1 25 W est Virginia .............. 3 7 I;
liuodlu Island ..-- ........... 31 6 7 606 lontucky................... 16 1;
Connecticult.. ....... 8 4 1: Ohio .....i..-....- ...........- 49 17 3J t
Now York ...............--- 72 3 J5 Michi n ....... ...... :13 47
SJcr -y..............-...-- -1 7( 25 Indiana ............... .. .
liylv a-u-ia ....-. ....---- -. 76 4 55 Illinois .. ............ 7 ;:
Dehtw o ................... 5 4 51) \W isconsin. .................. 41 ;1 1
,hVyla1mld. ... .... 4.-- 51 ..t .Miml Sotl.................. 4 14 9*
irli a .............. 71 Iowa-...-..............- .. '
XNorth Cnarolli:naL..... ...0 57.1i 40 5 issouri..................- 4 ") '
South Carolina... ....... 4 .,1 1 1 1Ka nsas .......-............ 1: 3 t
G eorgia ....... ..... 37 *1B 3 10 N lraska .... ......-........ 1 2 01
loi ............- ........-- -- 47 5: 3 Calilbrnif ............. ... 7.1 i6 7
Alabama .................. ..--- --33 ii 3 21 Oregon-- .........-...-- ........- 40 O
Mlissisisippi .................. 35 4 53 ov;tda and TerTitories.... a3 l 1 14
-Louisian .---..-- ...- .. 4 45 00

The average proportion of bars, in the whole country, is about 53 per
cent.; of gates, 43; leaving about 7 per cent. of openings bfor"ip gap39
or other mode of entrance.
COST OF PARIM-FENOES.
Cost Qf material.-A. great variety of material is used for board-fences.
Of course, inferior qualities of lumber are taken-that which is rough
and knotty, or those kinds of wood less in request for house-finishing or
furniture-making. Where oak is abundant, it is often employed; hem.
loci and spruce are used largely in New England, New York, anmd elsa
where, as other timber increases in value; and the cheaper grades of
pine are extensively used in the Northwest, and culls froin oak, poplar,
ash, and other woods.
The average cost, as reported, is given in the accompanying table
from which it appears that boards used for fences are dearest in Texais,,
costing $29.53; $28.95 in Kansas; :-'7.' in Nebraska; $27 in l)ela].
ware, and $25.66 in Ihode Island. The cost is least in Georgia, $1-2;
$12.37 in Oregon; and $12.85 in Florida. The cost of rails are highest
in New Jersey; next in order, Nevada, Rhode Island, Masacllusetts,
and Connecticut. The lowest figure is $8.12 per M, in Florida; then
Georgia, Alabama, South Carolina, and Mississippi.

Price of material.

Slate Boards, IRailR, Statos. lra.il, r.
SSates per M. per Lf.s.rL. r

Mainl .---............- ..-............ 0 t71 60 Texas ........................... - M- '3
Now llthimpoliro .... ......... 25 00 Arlansas ....................... --
V ........................ 1 33 47 50 TlN lseihoo ....................... I 1
ln.s: tt:hus.etls ....... .. .--.-- 1 i4 lOi 4"2 \Vc, Virinia ..............-- .. 15 1
Ilh lo lIal.d ................... 120 Ini uict y...... ..... .---- -- I 7.
(G il elicut ............. .... .. I l 102 85 Ohio ........................ ..--17 I : -
1 Yor ...................... 1" 0 l I r- i chigia ............... ...... 1 -- 4
SJ ny................. ..... 00 120 00 indian, .-- -- ..........-.---- ...- ..... i ) t
,'erlsy ani .n.........-....-----. 15 'J 5I 26 Ilinoi ....................... -1 "1) 45 I
)lrual'o ................-........ !27 Oil U5 01 W iIConii ll- ............--.........-. Ii I 0
a.Iryl .ind ............... ... Ha -,1 59 51 l M tio sutl ... .......... ....... 38 t. J7 I1
Vi"l il : .. 7. I Iow an ..........- ..- --. --.. -1 :I
irt ... ...... ............ ........ 1 7 1 0 4 l I .li .o l ..... .......... .......... 3 Wi
(; th ,,,ia ................ 13 0 10 1 i N e, iasLt ....-.......-..-- .....--.- -1 "
(h2 ,rgi ............. .... ... 12 0I 10 5 nl i ............. ........ 1
;luis lia........................... I on 85 8 12 C lifr -ii .......-I
Alalantma. ....................- 13 88 11 6I Oreg ................... .. 12
Aliassisilppi .................. 19 07 1 51 Nluvadla, andl Tcrlitorios ........1. ; 1* 0 W
,ouisai; a ........................ 2.1 00 23 00


STATISTICS OP V'ENCES IN TIE UNITED STATES 509

Cost of fences per rod.-There is a great dimleulty in estimating tho
cost of fenttes, from the variety :lnd differing value of material uedl,
and the many kinds of fences built, as well as the diferlenccs in their
height, nmssiveness, and thoroughness of construction. The best bill,
fences in the United Slates are in hliode Island, if the returns are cor-
rectly made, and their average cost is the highest. The best fences are
of stone, and they are also cheapest, repairs costing little, thought their
first cost exceeds that of any other kind.
Tlhe cost of fellces, as stated below, is lowest in the Southern States.
It is deemed best to give the averages of the figures returned for
those States, though they do not adequately express the real cost.
It is stated in many of these returns that the price per'rod returned
is simple the cost of "mauling the rails" and laying them,
without counting expense of teams for hauling, and in some cases
of board while doing the work. Nothing is reckoned usually for the
value of timber, and the estimate is often based on the bare wages of
hands employed by the month. The work is done by tenants as odd
jobs, or in the winter interval between cotton-picking and cotton-plant-
ing, as one of the requirements of their contract, and so the expense is
scarcely considered. While giving these average avergas they are made in this
table, an enlarged estimate, intended to include all the actual elements
of cost, is used in calculating the total cost of farm-fences, which may
be found in a subsequent table. 'Tle rotuT'ns are very complete as to the
cost per rod of worm, post and rail, board, and stone fences, but not so
full as to the various other kinds. The estimate of average cost per rod
in each State is based uponiprices and proportions of each kind of fence.


States.


PS


Main ............. .. 0 6 G0 S3l '0 72
NUow Hamlpsho ---..-...... 8-2 (
Vorimont..lI.. ............ 9 91 1 00
Moassanclimnott ......... 1 1 D7 1 :)L
Ithode islanil .......... 2 00 2 0 2 51
CollCnoirlit .......... 3I 17 1 (14 1 17
Now Yor.......... ..... 1 10 1 f5 1 47
New Jersey ............. 1 3 1 61 1 1
Pelnsylain ............. 1 35 1
PIelawaro ...............1 o) I :: 1 7)
Mla'.vlalld .............. 0 I I 1il 1 l
Viriui;im ............... ...1 17 1 lt;
Nortl Carolina ........... 33 .*, 93
Sonth Carolinia......... 1.5 *-13 76
Gorgia.l ................. :Q 4I9 9
l'lorida ................. 3U :17 78
Alabama ............... :31 1 0)1 1 05
Irlissisppi ............. 4:1 87 1 57
LouaiUia............... ) 1 235 3 00


Cost per rod.



Si Statoe.


1 57
I 37


2 13
* 50


7 1111
211..


... ..


T(la ..............
Al']an11s52 ..............
I'l ll IrtSL'O ..............
Vit Viriia..........
I ill1 ..........
MJlirii- .............
Milihi;an i ..............
AliNio.ia...........

li110 ..1...............
lissI i .................
2ill.Is m ..... ........
NhriliiaI;,; ...............
(lalilfrnI. .............
Ore mou..................
liv.ta ld a T0 1'1rri tOL'i s. _


1,
a

n A


.-1








3 '20
2.10
91 5

: 75

81
2 D9
3 50


Amount and cost offencing.-The inquiry was: made for "the number
of rods of fence to each one hundred acres of farm-lands, including to.
gether improved anll unimproved lands." As a few in the older States,
and many in the South and West, answered with reference only to the
" improved acres, it was deemed proper, in calculating the acres fenced,
to avoid an exhibit erroneously large, to exclude, oneiic-iirth of the, inim-
proved area in the New England States, (with the exception of Maine,)
the Middle States, and Marylani; one-half in tih unimproved portion
of farms in the States of the Ohio Valley and lake region, between Ken-
tucky and Wisconsin, and in Maine; three-fourths of unimproved lands


I I I








AGRICULTURAL REPORT.


STATISTICS O0 FENCES IN THE UNITED STATES.


'in the States between Virginia and the Mississippi, where only tile
" improved area is usually reckoned as the farm; all of the uniim-
proved land in Virginia,(where a no-fencelaw has beie enacted,) Florili,
and Louisiana, where water boundaries save much fencing; and in lMi-.
ncsota, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, and California, where some impnlrov
land is uunfenced, only three-fourths of the improved area was taikci.
In calculating the number of rods of fencing, the estimate of tlhu
number of rods to each one hundred acres was carefully made from tho,
returns, as follows:


States.


fMaino ............. 713 00
Now ufai psriro... 873 1 20
Vermont- .-...... 75 1 331
Iasncl nisota ..... ~50 1 75
Ihllodu I lallI ...... 1,0010 20
Colhuclcut ........ 910 1 70
Now York ......... Sj65 1 35
Now Jersioy ........ I1 1 60
Pullduylvania ...... 93, 1 15
l)law\lu'o .......... 1 10
M.rylandi.......... 6:u0 1 2
Virginia........... 50 00
Morlh Caroliua..... 50 75


States. States.
o 0 c

South Carolina.... 500 $0 80 Indiaina........... 60o
G eor"ia ........... 510 75 Illiniois ........... 475
1,o rila ........... 4i.l 723 WVicollsiu ........ -' 5
Alal)anin.......... fi10 Alillsot:r ........ 100
Tliasissippi ....... 42U I owa.............. 4"
Lounisiana......... 400 1 0h Alismisri .......... 5"
loxas ............. 4-10 1 10 liaCn. ........... ,1N5i
Arkansas ......... 5!10 5 5 Nubiaskl.......... 110
TeInI os Ceo ........ ;i5 95 Cililur nl ....... .. 4 .)
West Virginia .... 900 90 Orogon........... 4501
Kentucky...... ........ 00 Nvad ...... 4
Ohioi ............. i60 1 00
Michigan......... 800 95


se

1 03(
1 5

1 i4
1 10
1 05
1 10
1 5L


From all this data, the calculation of amount and cost of fences in the
United States leads to the following result:-

States. Acres fenced., Roilsof fencig. Tota i,. of


aiin......................... ...... ..... ......... ..... 1,377,9 5 31, .1, 605 211,
Naw nIarupthiro u ....... ............................. --- --.- 117 8, 771, 0,02': I 5", :7

Sahouo Island......................................... 418,8 08 4, 489', 8,0 9, b l, 7.i
r'^ Srt-- .....-"----------:-;--:----*****::--- ---: i ; Irc;^ ii; :
'ov 'rk. ..tul .............. ........................ 20, 5S19, 909 16. 536, 74.19 Q 21'. -'. '11
Now Jersey ............................................. 7311, 51 5; 310,321 40, 4C0, 51:.
ci;mrylvania ........ ---- ... .....1 4, 41 156,377, 8,21 17, 1, C i
PLsylarol6,a .......-.-..-; 96J.770 6, 013,010 4(.:, 241
l awar e .............................................. 4, oo 5,611, 500 :'. H', "
T-irginia.... S, 000 40, 825, 00 1,: -0
) i Carolina.......................................... 8, 102, 0.10 41, 850, 361 7;1,1 2, 6.0l
o'gia ........ .......................................... 11, 0:15,7 60, 25, c8 45, 1111, 91
'1,h pida ................................................. 76, 172 4It r 1) 4I
Ala tlill ................................................. 7,5; i -17 45, 0)75, 3176 :I, 7."6, ,')
IiM siaHppi .............................................- 1 30 7, 1 0'5, I
L,.inHlaua .........................................-...... 2, 045, (1 0 5 ., IV'1. 540
T s 82...... .............................................06,8 757 10, 021), 130 '31, -:l 44)
ns .... ................................................ 3,--- --- -- ---- -- --, 9 1 135, 715 1,, 13,
._ r BH o ...................................... ............ 10,0 7 65, 6 1, tl I .
Vo 1l V irginia ........ ............... :.............. ........ 0147, 9 3 :w 0,, 001 :I!, V 15, A1
t..llhiicLk.iy ............ .................... 1:1, 1 78 0, ilm 7, 11. ...i
(jVilii .. .............-..-...... ...................... ... 8, oU, 71 15:), 54,l-:i I.'5, ". 1.,1
Mlicigan ............... ........................... ------ a, 0 ) 7, 1,
lndia m ............................ ... ......... .... 14, 11071, 9 3 15, 9 *l,3 3 1 1, -.1, 4 15
Illnoia .................. ......................... .. ... 0"2 ,61 1,40 107, -06, h2) jl0, .4,,
m 1, 4, 3 7111
Wsinoi.ao ..............--...........-- ..--------......-----.. ---,
lionlsut.. ..................................................7,1,,.71 I :),,1172. 1 0 w,7,! 7.1
lol't .................................................... 1 ',27 ,7) 1 610 112, 5 1N o I1, il" 54
l ..................................... .....-.....--- ----- ------ -----.---- 17 1,
lR aa!al ......................., 7 ......... ............ .. 5-, C" r,02 ws
Nlo ;isl ....... ................................ .7.. 4617 621 o.0l
hliilhraia ............... .. ....................-...... 4,. 14, 1 !1, 141,1;1 1, W 1 La, Of
O( ioalln ..................- -.. ..... ... .. 1, 11 0:' ,305 5, 1I, ;
owN .-l... ............................................... 74,115 21,I(10 111. -iM
Total.....................---.............. ...... 0,505o, 1L 1,(il9,t10, l42 1, 17T, 5 a ,

a4vcrigo roda puLr acro, 0.40. Avcrago cost ipr acro, l1.od.


Cost of repairs.--Tio annual cost of repairs of fences varies with
the cost of material of.which they are constructed, 7and the durability
or that material. It is comparatively low in the New England State;;,
on account of the large proportion of stone-wall in that section; and
low in the South because of the abundant and cheapness of material.
It is undoubtedly too low in that section, few of the reports recognizing
any value whatever in the wood used for rail-splitting. The cost is
relatively high in the older States, where timber is becoming scarce,
and in the prairie States, which are nearly destitute of home supplies.
In the Rocky Mountain section the cost is increased in consequence of
the perishable nature of the material' employed, much of it being
brush or poles of soft woods. The true average, as nearly as possible,
of the figures received from the several counties reporting in each State,
have been taken'as a basis of the calculation, and the resulting total
cost of repairs for all the States, (not including Territories,) is $93,-
963,187-a total which may be accepted at a low estimate. A proper
allowance for low estimates in the Southern and some of the Western
States, would make it fully equal to the annual interest on the cost.


State.


Maiuo .......................
Now aiupalmiro ............
Vormont ....................
MUassachuastts .............
Rhodla Island ................
Connecticut .................
New York ..................
Now JersoHy..................
Puuusylvauia ................
bDeolawalr ...................
Ilaryl;ad .. ................
Virginia. ...................
North Carolina..............
South Carolina .............
eorgla......................
ilorida ......................
AlU;iLb; na .....................
lis8siHsippi .................
Louisiana....................
Texas ........................
Arkansas...................
Terulssaoo ...................
WVodt Virginia ...............


o








7 50
73 O0


9 80
4 00



6 3-2
7 50




3 40
7 00



.4 O
9 80
B 36


5 50
7 80




3 51
5 50
3 40
4 00



5 00
8 50
5 02
5 00
*I 50


-1

9055, 160
1,0 31, 21,8

258, 168
1,491, 262
11, 9U1i9, 2!4
2, 480, 411
9, 8S3,078
451, 767
a,021,0 )0
1, 4:2, 004
1, 115, 113
1, 051i, t84
2, 410, 235
129, 801
2, 137, 853
1, 422, 0112
512, 684
2, 551, 7112
1, 150, 5;14
3; d4, 0012
1, 647, 252


States.


Kentuckly ..................
Olhio ........................
Mlichigan ..................
Indiana..... ................
Illinoia .....................
Wisconsin .................
Minncsot ..................
Tiown.......................
Missouri ....................
K/Iin ......................
Nxbraska ..................
C;ililobr ia ...................
Oregon .....................
NevaiL........................
Total coat of annual re.
] Lira... .... ..........
Interest on the original
coat at per cent......
Grand total, oeelnsivo of
rebuilding of lonces...


o 0
o H

$) 15 .1, 0:l,, O l
15 1 8, (i7, 085
*1 00 ,. 18, 5w7
0 40 5, 181, 812
S50 10, o01, 110
4 55 2,103, 851
5 10 378, 06
9 so 3, 001, 063
4 go 1,. 1 7, l13
C 75 .15, 95
8 .i 0 175, 0.0)
8 50 1, 797, 039
7 50 370, 7.17
0 00 26, 6681

93, 963, 187
.......10t, 852, 095

190, 06,182


This exhibit makes the cost of fences nearly equal to tlhe total
amount of the national debt on which interest is paid, and about the
same as the estimated value of all the farm animals in the United
States. For every dollar invested in live stock, another dollar is
required for tlhe construction of defenses to resist their att1;cks on tllrm
production. Experiment has proved that at least half this expe)ns is
unnecessary. Wherever it has been tried, wherever farlu-anitmau;s are
restrained, and their owners are placed under (fence) bonds tfor tbo good
behavior of their restless dependents, the system is regarded with
general and growing satisfaction, capital is released from uiprofitablo
investment and made available for farm improvement, soiling is en-
couraged, the manurial resources of stock husbal(ledl and the way
prepared for larger production and higher profit. Even where a herd
law of some sort has not been enacted, the tendency is strong, as many
correspondents assert, toward the reduction of the amount of fencing;
as repairs are needed, division fences are tak9n down and the material


510'








r512 ACEICULTUit.L REPORT.

usied to keel outside fences ill repair; fields aret almost ecerywhil:r
be ng h';cr in tho yO ger States,:L a tilgle field often answeir.i
all rcnitl oclelIs aldl soetires aL single inclosurl' embraces witlli
itis bouudtiir mly firms. lsTh entire town of 3reeley, in Color:uli,
with its slburbs fbr gardtuls amlltl slall market farilms, is surunid'd

with a single ii'ce, tlh cattle being excluded and kept outside uponl
the illimitable plains. It is possible to dispense wilh fencing to the
value of one thousand million dollars, and the advantages of the chlage
would greatly overbalance the inCOlnveCuieDC of it. Let the flrmIret.
discuss the sulIject in the light of actual experiment, rather than under
the influence of ancient prejudice, and their views will soon coincide
with. their true interests.


])ONAIT'ONS TO MUSEUM.


Nane. .

A dains, T. (i ...........
Ak ldira, John.........
Androws, J. 1 ........
Andvrson. I .( ........
.Antisoll, Thomas ......
Army Medical Mtuscmui
Auslin, .P...........
laker &. HIn;ch.i......
Birglfld, ..........
lliss, IB. K, & Son.....-
Boeruor, C ............
Bonclli, Daniel.......
Bhrower, Cijptain......
Ilrown, Jamos C .......
Bruminell, J. 1l ........
Bryant, A. II. .......
IBurpoo, 1E. 1' ......
bUnrton, lion.A. A.....
Intterfield,O. E .......
Capron, lion. U1........
(haipmin, Gorgoo T ....
Clark, A.F ... .......
Coates, Lainiln........
Cook, Thomas I.........
Dean, WVilliam S ......
Dcitz, W. .............
DIonogro, Taylor .......
SDownward, Jamts .....
Erne, I ...............
F iudloy, S. .......

Floming, J.............
Froderil:l, "William ....
'rencli, L. ...........
Galdb, William it.......
Gardener, William.....
Getty, ..................
Glover, Towilniid ......
Goodrich, Williaiim .....
Grecu, William N......


taill, J-. C -............
Hartt, Cli. Fred........
lfHeaton J. .........
llilliarn, ( ... .........
ioiligbrodl, T ........
lol muns, Williamn......
lHIaitinio, 1). ........
Jiuldon, Thonman WIV ....
rloini, )r, G. II........
]LIt(ollugs,. r .......
J.l)alpH: G ( .IIvii.ilIeni ,. I..
Julhiling's, 111'. X' .....
Jewell, Dr. JT. G ........


.513


DONATIONS TO MU SE UM.1


S Ioeidence. Article.

W ashinl"o ,ll, D.C ........ -.ii 1.-.11 : cecropia.
"lhrooklyn, L. I....... .....-. 1 ,,, .. muori.
I lanaseas, Va ....... ...... Specimens o woul.
i. .. 1, n. ......... akes and ants.
".\\ '.I .., L' ......... Onnpdumrinav wood.
.....do .................. I....... ,i I of a corncob, rs inbliug a Ihmano
hand. Insect, Dynasuls tityus.
Boston,ass .............. Alcoholic insects.
Ih-lcol, Pa ............... Apples for modeling.
VWshington, ).C........ 'Thlio varicica of corn.
New York CitN. Y ..... Sainples of potatoes.
Vevay, Ind .............. ..: ,- ;.. ... .1 ,. ,1 i"i i .. G .11. u, ,.1 r-oak.
Saint 'Thomas, Nov ....... .. i ,,.i i.,..m ., .,
WV;aslhil"ton, .C ........ i ,, i. i 1. ... i.,
tarnwill, S. C........... Ti..... .,, i ,....non proliflo cottons.
VWashington, 1). C......... Sacks of Indian mannlactiro from Dogota, South
America.
Clarksvilln, Tox ........ Insects and specimens of natural history.
Now London, N.11........ Specimlen of excelsior oats.
Secretary Santo Domingo Specimens of crdlo and reined wax, toffeo, cocoa,
Coniniission. ullgar-cano, &c.
Wilmiington, Vt ........... S ilics oi' i, ...
Ycdddo, Japan.............. Japanes.i ] .1 j. .. I .. -wormn oggs, celds, &c.
Now York City.......... .. indo in London.
Nowtoni, N.( ............ .,,.. ,, oI ton.
Nuw Zealand ............. Wheat nd oats.
Victoria, Tex. .......... Wild lemp. (I)
Ilonollavllo, N. Y........ Crystalizod maplc-sugar.
Kinigton, T'cnn.......... In.fctm.
Now Orleans, La........... Iachinc-cleand ramio.
Wilmiington, Dol........ Sisal emnip.
Biaslo, Switzerlad ........ Silk-woven sashes, badges, &c.
,111................. Grain from burned elevator, froin Chicago, 11l.;
liazol-nut, and lcuious growth of a sweet-lolato
vine.
Toronto, Canada ........ Twenty speciullens of grain, seeds, &o.
Eddyvillo, Iowa. ......... Large corn, two samples.
............................ oe -wax.
............... Sp cinlns of seeds.
Hawaiiln Illands ......... Specimicns of nuts, secds, &c.
Washington, D. C........ insocts.
...... do ................... ,., ; .,, .,,,. ilirds,' sixtelnn specimniu s.
Paxl on, Ill................ .1 .. .. t o sp!:illlellns.
Troy, N. Y................ i .. i... ,.I 1 nilnznitla and cocom wood froin
( Clifornia and VWest Indios.
Argetniim Rheplublio....... Alpaca-wool.
]'ro\. do Para, lrazil...... ( Gilranii-pa.se.
La vaica, 'Ix.............. 'lxas coeoosl,(I. mori,) arrow.H-ads; hornedfrog.
Nortl tiUlldl'arius, Mass... Spi:inll.n of ipl.-corn,
Austin, Tex ............... Collections f insects.
VWashilgjtonl, D. C......... La-rg asps)arals.
1'hliladelphlia, Fl'......... hlill'tCorhin, llrala, and other fowls.
]i.son11, Mass .... ..... 'Mannmoth ltlato.
plhillad lphia, Pa ....... C ollhc.tioll of bel el les.
Yoasni t i Valle ', .al...... lJnac.t food of Indliains Irmii Molto Laklo, Cil.
.- .l..-...... .. ... ai lp of ipa c &c., lroi1i Jilaill.
-'.2 1".... i I Samples of cotton.
11 ," ,, ,.~ A, ., variety of paper miado fronmi the bark of a tree.


ii ire. i., j.i.i.
so o .A ........ ................... i I ..i ,, I ,.,ier ottons.
Jo4hnson, Hlenry ......... \aliniigtonl, I). c......... i i. I. ,I I..... Miliiin'.
]KeeinaniiJ.. ......... I'.,.. i ,, I],uar.igrmsan t ii thtr libters; ;iapipos Indian relics.
k1ingsbury, V.G ....... f. .i ,,I CocoOli ofan i it lnion sl.
irol, ]g. A............... Allumnrlo, N......... I ., ... otln.
Jilllibl.rg, W ......... ----, .Swedrn........... 1, 1. ,... ... ,,it.loelihollu,SwidoI, 187.
;likr, l'r stoiin ......... Jaiacksoni Collilnty, lon .. .. .. .. .... 1. I
LewiH, It. I.. ......... Coiiiiandi r CtUnil id Slltiats Spiecininiis of coioni, Now ZNallnd l.l, coffoo.
slOtimer 'Olisac.
Loc(liart, J.. ...... .. igonicr, Inl ............. IREgyptian ollilt.
1 ........ It .......... E trN ........... .. I ,_ .. .11. t of corn.
:i1 l. r, '.. J. V..... University of Virginia.... "i i. .... 1 rosin, &e.
MUarblo, W. 1. .... ...................... Spring grown Mr. ill, on Dig TITump
son, Colomraio.
Mfeeliling, MrAs. F. 1'. J. h.lize, Iritish HIoudiras.. HSpeciieis o iniae1ets, rlI.ils, &c., In alcohol.
.1oolllli ,F. WV ....... N2iasilhl,, 'Tnii ....... A uricil-inoi. iow opniiu.
Moilloni, li. At ........... itoicillho, Iowa.......... Locusts, (Ciedas.m.)
llines, Itobert......... Philadelphia, Pl......... Liie lbrk froi, imauica.
Uliver, Al. N ............Ci.... cilrni, Ohio ...s. lickso, (,sedliig froni ,Sckel), and
Julnchesse D'Angulolulo.
33 A


I





PENROSE PUBLIC LIBRARY, COLORADO SPRINGS


.- -- -

The Colorado Springs headquarters of the Hassell Iron Works
Company, founded in the early 1890's by William W. Hassell




CAST-IRON


FENCES

In Colorado Springs, ornamental ironwork-

once thought merely old-fashioned-

is today being lovingly preserved


by Elaine Freed


THE OLD NORTH END of Colorado Springs, Colora-
do, looks today much as it did at the turn of the
century. Within this twenty-square-block residential
area, there are spacious lawns, shade trees, rambling
wood-frame houses, and, skirting the sidewalks,
extraordinary decorative iron fences-spearheads
and blossoms, crosses and arches, scrolls and double
scrolls, fleurs-de-lis and garlands, and a host of
other Victorian fancies forever frozen in black iron.
Once thought simply old-fashioned, these hand-
some fences are now being carefully catalogued and
preserved. High school students, working in pairs
with cameras and clipboards, photograph and
measure each fence, carefully noting its condition
and design. This survey is funded by the city's
Bicentennial Committee and a local environmental
group called the Springs Area Beautiful Association.
As a part of the project, brochures outlining self-
guided walking tours are being prepared for the
Old North End and for three other only slightly less
well preserved, areas of the old central city.
Most of the fences are the legacy of William W.
Hassell, a New York book salesman who came to
Colorado in the mid-1880's in search of a cure for
his tuberculosis. He tried homesteading for a while,
pronounced himself cured, and went into the
fencing business after buying a novel machine that
strung wire through wooden pickets. He subse-
quently built a foundry for the casting of orna-
mental iron just in time to take advantage of the
building boom that followed the discovery of gold
at nearby Cripple Creek in 1891.


An unusual Hassell design, above, combines double-daisy picket
heads and simple scrollwork with gently curving channel bars and
tall converging pickets at the gateway. Other picket heads shown
are a fleur-de-lis, left, and an elaborate medallion cross, right.






There are sixty-odd fences in the Old North End,
and additional remnants found in side yards indi-
cate that there may once have been twice as many.
All except a few date from the 1890's, but orna-
mental ironwork is now enjoying a revival, and more
fences will probably be added before long-either
new fences using traditional designs or old ones
imported from elsewhere in town. One aim of the
current survey is to identify and photograph existing
fences before further changes occur.
Hassell's firm designed and made its own fences
and thus dominated the region, but Hassell also
acted as the local agent for other foundries. A half-
dozen fences in the Old North End were made by
the Stewart Iron Works at Cincinnati, Ohio, then re-
puted to be the largest iron-fence manufacturer in
the world; Hassell may have been the Stewart firm's
Colorado Springs representative. Other fences were
made by other firms, but since many bear no identi-
fying foundry mark and rival firms shamelessly
copied one another's designs, it is often impossible
to tell who made what.
The enthusiasm of Colorado Springs citizens for
iron fencing was part of the national Victorian craze
for ornamental ironwork. The lavish hand-wrought
gates and fences that graced the estates of the
wealthy provided the inspiration. More modest
home owners had always had to content themselves
with wooden pickets. Hassell and other foundry men
soon learned to imitate in cast iron the scroll and
spearhead patterns used most often by blacksmiths
and then combine them with the humbler scale of


the picket fence. The result-three-foot-high iron
pickets embellished with decorative castings-
nicely suited the pattern-book houses then going up
from coast to coast as new suburban neighborhoods
spread out from older urban centers. The balance
was right: the fences were decorative but not osten-
tatious, neatly symbolizing both republican virtue
and aristocratic taste.
Foundries developed a standardized fence struc-
ture. The weight-bearing elements of each fence-
the vertical rods and the horizontal channel bars
that held them together-weie made of malleable
iron and could be bent or twisted without breaking.
Ornamental elements were made of cast iron and
were far more brittle. Advertisements invariably
labeled these elements as wrought iron because they
imitated earlier hand-crafted work, but almost all
of them were machine made. By the end of the nine-
teenth century, only the most elaborate and costly
custom-made fences included any handwork at all.
The designs Hassell used were typical of the time.
Scrolls, arches, crosses, and spearheads predominate,
all venerable forms with military or religious asso-
ciations stretching back for centuries. But he also
used two distinctive motifs drawn from nature
-a fan-shaped, stylized blossom that looks some-
thing like a lotus, and a jauntier, equally stylized
daisylike flower. Both these forms reflect the power-
ful late-nineteenth-century resolve to bring the
simplicity and grace of natural forms to common-
place manufactured goods.
Because this movement toward designing from


fancy (the one at top has daisy picket heads
and intricate scrollwork). At left is a leaf-
and-berry design; at right, a garlanded lotus.


~o~-,m-



i:.


m


-t i-i ;*,'^-r i A \r !. 1. A-il !__1 -A I






nature began just as the Gothic Revival and other
eclectic styles were waning, modern and medieval
motifs often appear side by side in the Old North
End. Some fences feature only daisy or lotus picket
heads and seem linear, spare, modern. But next door
or down the block may stand a heavier, more formal
fence, its elements harking back to pre-Renaissance
times. Still others combine both kinds of design,
displaying up to a dozen motifs in a single stretch.
There were practical limitations on any foun-
dry's ingenuity, inventory, and casting capabilities.
But the shrewdly organized system of interchange-
able parts that Hassell devised allowed each cus-
tomer to become his or her own designer, combining
components to suit the family taste and pocketbook.
Handsomely engraved catalogues laid out the


possibilities, and choosing one's own "custom"
fence must have been an adventure. The options
were almost infinite. Should there be a single picket
height or a pattern of alternating tall and short rods?
How about an elegant arch over the pickets? Should
they be linked by two channel bars or three? How
would decorative braces or fill tracery look? Which
picket heads would be best? Which gate and line
posts? Finally, should the finished fence be sunk
in the ground or mounted grandly on a stone base?
In Colorado Springs, this
mix-and-match system yielded
a most charming assortment
of architectural treasures, each
at once distinctive and har-
monious with its neighbors.


A hand-wrought thistle, top, em-
bellishes simple overlapping arches
on a gate. Above is a plain fence
with a gate that combines fleur-de-
lis picket heads and scrollwork. In
the detail below, more elaborate
scrollwork appears with fleurs-
de-lis and delicate leaf castings.


A typical Hassell mix-and-match
design, above, includes leaf-and-
berry picket heads, fluted spears,
scrollwork, and Hassell's trade-
mark, shown in detail at the end of
the article. The unusual curved
fence in the upper' photograph
has spearheads and Gothic tracery.


...






LJLJI


Fences of the ii


Old North End '
2 o a0


THE OLD NORTH END f Colorado Springs contains some
sixty well-preserved examples of cast-iron fences. In
surveying, the neighborhood, local students have iden-
tifiedc-eighteen decorative elements, which are de-,
-scribed below and located by number on the map
:; above. A brochure outlining a self-guided tour of the
area will be available this summer. For further informa-
S tion write Elaine Freed, 2111 North Tejon, Colorado
Springs, Colorado 80907, or call (303) 636-2251.


1. The fluted spear picket head was a popular design.
On Nevada Avenue between Del Norte and Caramillo,
three sections remain of a fence that originally con-
Snected four lots. On San Miguel Street a recently in-
S stalled fence combines fluted spears with arches, a
.l design frequently used by the Stewart Iron Works.
f-t 2. Fences incorporating simple arches over plain pickets
Were probably made by the Stewart works. The example
on Wood Avenue near Caramillo has pickets that are
flattened and slightly pointed at the tip.
3. A fan-shaped, stylized lotus picket head was one
N of Hassell's most distinctive designs. It was often com-
bined with scrollwork and arches. On Nevada Avenue
a mix-and-match fence uses lotus picket heads, scrolls,
f and an acanthus-leaf pattern on the gate posts.
S 4. The leaf-and-berry picket head, shown in detail
on page 21, was used extensively by both Hassell and
-:. Stewart. The fence spanning two properties on Tejon
near Caramillo combines leaf-and-berry picket heads
with a tulip design topping the vertical line posts
that gave the fence stability. The richly decorated gate
on the opposite page, lower right, is on Tejon Street be-
tween Buena Ventura and Columbia streets.
5. The garlanded-lotus picket head (a detail is on page
21) appears only on a fence on Nevada Avenue near
Columbia, combined with tall and short uprights.
6. Overlapping arches produced a simple, classical
design that was extremely popular and can be found
throughout the Old North End. The example on Tejon
Street at Buena Ventura encloses a house built in 1885,
one of the oldest in the district.
S 7. A fleur-de-lis picket head (in detail on page 20) was
used frequently by Hassell for plain or mix-and-
;,.. '. match fences. One of the most intricate designs is on
San Rafael Street (see detail at bottom of opposite page).
S The fleurs-de-lis, acanthus leaves, and scrollwork
S create an airy Gothic effect.


, .., -






4

~I' .1I






















1
I 1




t-*'
e

i


S7 6 322 1
Nevada



S44 6 33338 7
Tejon
L7 6 4 6 12

S;13_ 3 4a
0 D m Cascade
E >4 -0 18 ^ I '
SI =3 0 18

Wood
p- 123 10 78. 6 [1 1 17T


8. Hassell's distinctive stylized double-daisy picket
head appears in numerous fences in the Old North
End, particularly on Wood Avenue. The house on Wood
between Buena Ventura and Columbia originally be-
longed to the Hassell family. The unique fence that ap-
pears on page 20 is located on Wood near Fontanero.
9. A cast-iron flat spear picket head decorates the prop-
erty at the corner of Nevada and Fontanero Street.
This fence is mounted on a stone pedestal base.
10. The medallion-cross picket head (see page 20) is an
elaborate version of a traditional-cross. The example
on Tejon Street was cast by the E. T. Barnum Iron and
Wire Works of Detroit. Hassell rarely used this de-
sign: the only known example (shown in the lower pic-
ture on page 21) is located on Wood Avenue.
11. A hand-wrought thistle adorns the gateway of a
simple overlapping-arch fence on Tejon Street. This
gateway also appears page opposite, at upper left.
12. Another variation of the spear picket head was
combined with intricate scrollwork for an unusual in-
ward-curving fence on Tejon Street between Columbia
and San Miguel. Crafted by an unknown manufacturer,
the gateway is also shown page opposite, upper right.
13. Hand-wrought flat spearheads were used for an
ambitious fence half a block long on Cascade Avenue
between Caramillo and Buena Ventura. Custom-made
fencing often had cast-iron pickets and decorative
details of more expensive hand-wrought iron.
14. Three-leaf-clover picket heads appear on a single
Example on Cascade Avenue between Del Norte and
Caramillo. Also a custom-made design, the fence has
a decorative gate and ornamented line posts.
15. Modestly scrolled line posts are the only decora-
tion for a fence located on Cascade Avenue north of
Del Norte. Such simple designs gave variety to other-
wise plain, relatively inexpensive fences.
16. Ornamental scrollwork appears on the gate of a
fence farther north on Cascade Avenue. The manufac-
turer of this custom-made fence alternated plain pickets
with short twisted uprights.
17. This intricate scrollwork is from a gate on Wood
Avenue near Uintah. It may have been a European im-
port, since the fence itself consists of a plain, un-
decorated chain-and-post arrangement.
18. Even plain pickets could yield interesting fences,
while keeping the cost of fencing low. The exam-
ples on Wood Avenue use alternating tall and short
pickets to create a classic yet decorative design.


I 18 18 8










REFERENCES.

1. ARCHITECTS 'EMERGENCY COMMITTEE. 'FENCES AND GATES,
PENCIL POINTS FOR NOVEMBER 1932.'

2. CUSHMAN ALLERTON SERVOID. 'INFORMATION IN REGARD TO
FABRICATION OF WIRE FENCES AND THEIR PURCHASE,' UNITED
STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (USDA). WASHINGTON,
D.C.: UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
(USGPO), 1909.
C
3. DEL"RUETO. BETTY. NANTUCKET FENCES. PI: N. 1975,
UNPUBLISHED.

4. DOWNING. ANTOZNETTE AND VINCENT SCULLY, JR, THE ARCHITEC-
TURAL HERITAGE OF NEW PORT RHODE ISLAND. NEW YORK,
BRAMHALL HOUSE PUBLISHERS, 1967.

5. GARDEN CLUB OF AMERICA. GARDENS OF COLONY AND STATE.
NEW YORK: C. SCRIBNER'S SONS, 1931-34.

6. HOPKINS, ALFRED. 'AN ARCHITECTURAL MONOGRAPH ON
FENCES AND FENCE POSTS OF COLONIAL TIMES.' ST. PAUL:
WHITE PINE BUREAU, 1922.

7. HUMPHREY, HAROLD NELSON. 'COST OF FENCING FARMS IN
NORTH CENTRAL STATES.' WASHINGTON D.C.: USGPO, 1918.

8. LANCASTER. CLAY. THE ARCHITECTURAL OF HISTORIC
NANTUCKET NEW YORK: MCGRAW-HILL BOOK CO., 1972.

9. LOCKWOOD. CHARLES. BRICKS AND BROWNSTONES. NEW YORK:
MCGRAW-HILL CO., 1972.

10. KELLY, MANLY ALEXANDER. 'FARM FENCES.' WASHINGTON,
D.C.: USGPO 1946, 1940. 1944.

11. KEMP, JOHN & LINDA KING. LOUISIANA IMAGES. BATON
ROUGE, LA: LSU. PRESS, 1975.

12. MAASS, JOHN. THE VICTORIAN HOME IN AMERICA NEW YORK:
HAWTHORN BOOKS, INC., 1972.

13. MARTIN, GEORGE A. FENCES. GATES AND BRIDGES A PRACTICAL
MANUAL. CHICAGO: ORANGE JUDD CO., 1909.

14. MASSON, ANN M. AND LYDIA I. OWEN. 'CAST IRON AND THE
CRESCENT CITY.' GALLIER HOUSE 1975.

15. MOLANDER, EDWARD GORDIR. FARM FENCES.' WASHINGTON,
D.C.: USGPO, 1954.









16. STANFORTH, DEIRDRE. RESTORED AMERICA. NEW YORK:
PRAEGER PUBLISHERS. 1975.

17. SUNSET. HOW TO BUILD FENCES AND GATES. MENLO PARK,
CALIFORNIA: LANE PUBLISHING CO, 1951.

18. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (USDA)
FARMERS BULLETIN 'CONCRETE FENCE POST' WASHINGTON,
D.C. UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1910.

19. USDA, FARMERS BULLETIN FARM FENCES WASHINGTON D.C.
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE (USGPO) 1970

20. USDA, REPORT 'COST OF FENCING.' WASHINGTON USGPO 1855.

21. USDA REPORT 'LANDSCAPE GARDENING' WASHINGTON USGPO 1869

22. USDA REPORT LIVE FENCES WASHINGTON. USGPO 1854

23. USDA REPORT STATICS OF FENCES IN THE UNITED STATES
WASHINGTON USGPO 1871

24. UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 'REPORT 1844 'FENCING AND
DITCHING WASHINGTON USGPO 1845

25. USPO REPORT 1842 MODE OF FENCING AND DITCHING
WASHINGTON USGPO 1843

26. UNITED STATES PUBLIC ROADS ADMINISTRATION. THE CONSTRUCTION
OF CONCRETE FENCE POST WASHINGTON. USGPO. 1910.

27. WILSON. SAMUEL, AND BENARD LEMANN. THE LOWER GARDEN
DISTRICT. GRETNA, LA.: PELICAN PUBLISHING CO.. 1971