Essay on foreknowledge and free will

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Title:
Essay on foreknowledge and free will
Added title page title:
Ḳunṭres ha-ḥiyuv
Running title:
Kuntres hachiyuv
Physical Description:
33, 28 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Jacoby, Moses Dov
Publisher:
D. Shifrin
Place of Publication:
Brooklyn, N.Y
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Free will and determinism -- Religious aspects -- Judaism   ( lcsh )
Providence and government of God -- Judaism   ( lcsh )
Creation -- Biblical teaching   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Language:
In English and Hebrew.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Moses Dov Jacoby.
General Note:
"Contains an exposition of the doctrine that the universe was new-created out of nothingness ... also, sundry thoughts concerning divine foreknowledge and human free will".

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 36540163
ocm36540163
System ID:
AA00001687:00001


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Full Text




Essay on Foreknowledge

and Free Will

By

RABBI MOSES DOV JACOBY

SON OF

RABBI JACOB JOSHUA
Hassid of Habbad (Wisdom, Understanding, Knowledge)

Contains an exposition of the doctrine that the Universe
was new-created out of Nothingness, for He said:
LET THERE BE! and there was Also,
sundry thoughts concerning Divine
Foreknowledge and human
Free Will.

This book is distributed free of charge to all who request by
DAVID SHIFRIN, 770 EASTERN PARKWAY, BROOKLYN, N. Y.




UNIVERSIIfY FLORIDA LIBRARIES

I -- -- -









TREATISE ON FOREKNOWLEDGE
AND FREE WILL

Man is precious, for he was created with Wisdom.
Our sages interpreted the phrase "In the beginning
God created" to mean "With Wisdom God created,"
for Wisdom is called by Holy Writ, the beginning
of God's ways. We further find our sages saying,
"The Holy One, blest be He, gazed at the Torah
and created the world," the Torah being synonymous
with the Wisdom that existed before the Works of
Creation. A spark of the Divine Wisdom was im-
planted in us, that we might gaze at the works of
in Nature's garden, when we comprehend aught of the
His hands, namely, the structures of Nature fashioned
by God. When we eat of the fruit of the trees
in Nature's garden, when we comprehend aught of
the (designs) which the lines of Creation follow, we are
thereby inspired and led to walk in ways that
serve God, may He be blest. It is my intention,
therefore, to try my own feeble strength in climbing
the ladder of speculation concerning a problem
known of yore to philosophers and sages.
The problem we are setting out to discuss, may
be stated thus: We have the authority of many
verses in Holy Writ to support the axiomatic proposi-
tion that God absolutely foreknows all that is destined
to occur at any future time after He had conceived
His world. Our reason, too, affirms that He knows
all that has been done, that is being done, and that
will be done unto all futurity under the Sun. Since
He created the world from Absolute Nothingness,
it is self-evident that He knows all that befalls it
from its inception to its end. That being the case,
how can a human being choose between good and

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KUNTRES HACHIYUV


evil, and act after his own free will, and not after
the Will of the Supreme One? Since God foreknows
everything, man must of necessity act in accordance
with God's prior knowledge of the course and manner
of his action.
Now, the idea of the novelty of the world, i.e.,
the idea that the world was new-created by God and
is not of eternal existence-that is so firmly established
by reason that it has the assent of all the sages of
the various nations. As for ourselves, Israel, the
people nearest to Him, that idea is imbedded in
our hearts as an absolute belief, it is a heritage unto
the community of Jacob from our ancestors, it is
a firmly fixed principle from which one cannot turn
to right or to left. However, in order that this prin-
ciple might be useful to our present inquiry, I pro-
pose, within the insect-like compass of my intelligence,
to offer a justification for the same, so that the
belief of our fathers, handed down to us by tradition,
may be made plausible, at least intelligible to us.
A little son, however strongly he may love his father,
does so without seeking any reason for his love. That
is as it should be. However, when the son grows
older and arrives at the age of discretion, he knows
clearly why he loves his father, and he can give
adequate reasons for his love, when others inquire
of him concerning it. In similar fashion, I shall
attempt to give adequate reasons to justify our be-
lief in the creation of the world out of Absolute
Nothingness, in the issuance of Being from Non-being
by Divine Fiat, without any existence of the universe
or of matter from eternity. These reasons will serve
as an introduction which, link by link, leads into the
path of a solution to the problem of Foreknowledge
and Free Will.


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KUNTRES HACHIYUV


I say that before I offer proof to the effect that
the world was new-created, I shall pose certain ques-
tions which of themselves are sufficient to erase the
idolatrous viewpoint held by the philosophers of cer-
tain nations, namely, the viewpoint that the world
has existed from eternity. The mere formulation of
our questions will make that viewpoint flee like water
and vanish like a dream.
If we agree with the ignorant that the world
has existed from eternity, we have this absurdity
to face. It is known that there is no substance,
howsoever gross or refined, which does not contain
spiritual powers which actuate it, direct it, and im-
press it with whatever character or qualities it may
possess. The meteor-stone, hung on a woman's neck,
prevents premature birth. Now, there is no corklike
contrivance suspended from the meteor-stone to close
up the womb. The stone has an invisible virtue which
compels it to accomplish its function in a manner
not understood by us. Similarly, drugs and medi-
cines have it within their power to drive diseases
and fevers out of a man's body. These drugs and
medicines do not take hold of a cudgel to beat the
disease violently; nor have we ever heard a medicine
command or request, in a veritable voice, that the
disease leave its place; nor did ever the sound of
a clash between medicine and disease issue from a
sick man's body. No, it is noiselessly and
silently that the disease leaves. The body simply
could not contain two such greatly antagonistic forces
as the medicine and the disease. Now, if we say
that the world has existed from eternity, we should
have to affirm that both the medicine and the disease
had existed from eternity, on a par with the rest of
the world. We should then have to ask: How does

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KUNTRES HACHIYUV


a spiritual force (which has nothing in common with
matter) so affect matter that it can prevent premature
birth and hold the power of life and death over a
body? The same can be asked concerning the foods
that nourish us and maintain our lives. These foods
possess spiritual forces which attach themselves to our
own spirit. We may ask then: What has the food to
do with us, that it can feed our flame of life? Who
gave it the power and the government to maintain
the lives of living beings, seeing that the world is
of an eternal past, and that foods and living alike
have co-existed from eternity without any interde-
pendence? Yet it is palpable that no living being
can exist in the world without any food.
Now if we say that the world is the novel crea-
tion of an Author, all this is not difficult. The
Inventor has so calculated in His Wisdom, that it is
fitting that some creatures serve as food for others,
and He gave the proper creatures power to obtain
the foods that nourish them. Thus it is also with
drugs and medicines. The Author has decreed that
this drug or that stone should have the virtue of
healing. For, as our sages have declared, it is through
certain people and certain drugs that God Himself
chooses to heal us in a manner and after a reason
mysterious to us. It is true that even according to
our view, we still remain ignorant of the reason for
a certain thing behaving in a certain way, for in-
stance, as to why foods maintain life and drugs heal.
However, we are to some degree freed from the
necessity of getting to the bottom of the thing, for
there is a Master who governs all and has Himself
created and ordained all after His Will. Now, if
we see an expert doing a piece of work, broadening
and shortening after his will, particularly if that
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KUNTRES HACHIYUV


expert be of a grade of knowledge far superior to
ours, we should not dare to ask him: Why do you
that rather than this? For we should fear lest by such
questions we reveal our ignorance and be put to
shame. When we see the expert succeeding in his
manipulations by a hair's breadth, we should trust
his skill and knowledge, though the ways of these
were not understood by spectators not versed in his
craft. Indeed, though the spectators deem that he
is marring a thing rather than benefitting it, they
should still keep silent, for the expert's final design
is to do good. Thus, a patient is sometimes given
a bitter drug, say quinine, to a beneficial end. If
we were to see strong people take hold of a weak,
sick person, and force him to swallow bitter essences
against his will, we would, if we were ignorant of
the facts, protest this violence. Advised of the facts,
we should judge otherwise. So in life generally, many
a thing that is seeming evil, is meant for our good.
Accordingly, our Sages said: "Even as a man blesseth
over a good, so he should bless over an evil."
It is not for us to question the whys of things.
This would particularly apply to foods, which, as
Hassiduth and Cabbalah affirm, have mysterious
powers to atone and correct. We do not need to
inquire why a thing is thus and not so. It beseems
one ignorant of wisdom to hold his tongue rather
than speak. All this obtains if we assume that the
world has a Guide and Holy God, who had created
it and guides it with Wisdom. He had harmonized
it, and thought it out, and perfected it so that all
runs properly. However, if-God forbidl-we say that
the world is self-existent eternally, and it has no
Master and Governor, and all events that occur
therein occur of their own propulsion, without any

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KUNTRES HACHIYUV


Guiding Hand controlling it, who shall control our
lips? Who shall stop our mouth from asking and
wondering as our intelligence wills and affords? In
that case, our above question returns to its original
position. We may ask: How does the spiritual com-
bine with the non-created, eternally existent material,
to heal us and maintain our lives? If we assert that
the spiritual, even as the material, is non-created
and eternally existent, we still may ask: How does
the nourishing force enter foods and the healing
force enter drugs? Why did not the opposite happen?
And if the opposite were to occur, namely, that foods
heal and drugs nourish by secret powers within
them, we still should have the right to ask: Why
not the opposite? Yes, even then the question would
be justifiable. Not so, if we agree that the world
has a Creator. Then our questions vanish, seeing
that He takes care of the world, even to the exactness
of a hair's breadth, that things be so, and not other-
wise, lest the world be injured. And the reason
that we do not understand why things are just so,
and not otherwise, is that we cannot comprehend
aught of His Wisdom. Had we comprehended aught
of His Wisdom, we would not be wondering why
He did not cause to occur the opposite of what
does, in fact, occur.
If one were to argue: Even if we do not postu-
late a Creator and Guide, there is no room for
questioning the whys of things. Assuming that there
is no Wisdom and Understanding in any occurrence,
why bother about its reasons? What is done without
any design or purpose, simply does not allow for
inquiring after its whys and wherefores. Thus, if
we see an insane person following his caprice in doing
certain things, regardless of whether those things
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KUNTRES HACHIYUV


do have or do not have any semblance of reason, we
do not stop to ask: Why does the insane person do
thus and not so? For whatever such a person does,
he does it without any clear design. One might
argue, in the same way, concerning a self-existent
universe, and maintain: Thus and so things have
existed and acted from eternity without any reason.
Whether one way or the opposite way, their behavior
has nothing in it of Wisdom, Understanding, and
Knowledge.
Now, an argument of this kind is invalid. When
an insane person does incalculable things, and it
happens that he, for once, does something reasonable,
we cannot ask either why he does the queer things
or why, for an exception, he does the proper thing.
If we had seen all the deeds that are done under
the sun as disorderly and insane and had observed
one deed which is not insane, it were true that then
we should have no room for asking why all the deeds
are insane and the one deed is sane, for the general
run of deeds and the exceptional deed are equally
awry and lacking in reason.
What we mean to indicate is this: If the same
drugs that heal, had in them power to make sick
even to the extent that they make healthy; further-
more, if they could make a sick person even more
sick than he was, and that to the same extent that
they can make him healthy, that is, the same drug
had in it both the power of healing and the power
of weakening; and if one particular drug should
prove capable of healing only and not of weakening,
in that case we could not question why opposites
dwell in the same substance, and why one substance
has a single power and not its opposite; for they are
equally without reason. If, however, we see a man

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who for fifty years, to our knowledge, has behaved
properly and reasonably, without any error or folly
at all, and if certain wicked people would say that
he is insane, we should surely think that those wicked
people were themselves insane. Seeing that he had
never deviated from pure and proper ways all his life,
it would be clear to us that his calumniators are
stricken with a poison of hate even unto insanity.
This leads us directly to a consideration of the nature
of the universe. If the world were eternally existent,
that is, non-created and purposeless, there would be
no reason for things not acting contrary to their
virtue and function, so that the drug quinine, say,
should be capable of nourishing, while bread should
have the power to cure fevers. But we see that
these have maintained their function and acted accord-
ing to their proper virtues these five thousand years
and more. Moreover, we see that the motions of the
stars and the phases of the moon follow a mathemati-
cal order, correct even to the thousand-and-eightieth
part of an hour with no lag and no hurry; and that
summer never changes to winter. Thence, it is ob-
vious that everything is made with knowledge, under-
standing, and reason. And any man who dares say
that the world is non-created is insane. In reality,
the world was new-created and came into being by
the wisdom of the All-Creating King, who produced
it out of Absolute Nothing, Being out of Non-Being.
The King of Glory is His name.
We shall now give some thought to the opinion
which holds that the world was created out of a
single Primal Matter. This opinion says, it is true
that the world has a Maker who made all that at
present exists; but He did not make these out of
Absolute Nothing (as we have maintained above).
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KUNTRES HACHIYUV


There was a Primal Matter originally existing, and
the Maker fashioned and made thereof all forms and
creatures, as the potter makes his vessels from a
roll of clay and chalk. After some consideration,
we are forced to conclude that this opinion is based
on folly and leads to folly. For if we accept it, we
are faced with one of two alternatives: either the
Primal Matter was in quantity and size the same as it
is now, or it was less than it is now. If we say
that it was quantitatively the same as it is now, we
cannot but argue that something was added to it, for
originally there was, say, earthen matter alone.
Whence come then the other three elements, fire,
air and water? If we say that the Maker created the
other three out of Himself, we thereby admit that He
can New-create some things. Why, then, could he
not as well new-create the First Element, even as he
did the other three? If one denies the Maker power
to create the First Element, it is logical for him to
deny Him power to create any element whatsoever.
Such an one would then have to believe that earth,
air, fire, water, with all their mutually contradictory
properties-for fire consumes while water fructifies,
earthen matter falls and rests still while air rises and
flies were subdued by One Maker to act in
harmony so that earth and water, air and fire are
all intermixed in a working manner as we see in
Nature. Even then, he would have to admit that
some additions were made to the original four
elements, for do we not see various qualities and
forms of trees and animals? Should we attribute
these qualities and forms to a Seed or Drop, we still
have to wonder at the size of tree or animal. The
Seed is ever so much smaller than the grown tree,
the seminal Drop is ever so much smaller than the
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KUNTRES HACHIYUV


mature animal; we must believe, then, that something
was added to Seed and Drop; for the earth-element
was not in the least diminished by their growth.
The Earth stays the same, while the huge oak grows.
This we should have to believe, even if we ngelect
the difficulty that the seed loses its materiality, i.e.,
it rots before the tree can grow therefrom. If one
were to say that the Earth gives of its body to make
up the body of plant and animal, it were a wonder
that the Earth exists at all, considering the innumer-
able creatures that have lived on it, and have dim-
inished its body progressively from the beginning of
the birth of things. No one would seriously main-
tain that the bit of dust left after a tree rots, is suffi-
cient to compensate for the quantity of substance sup-
posedly drawn by the tree during its growth. Even
if we should obviate the difficulty of quantitative
calculations, by supposing a system of transformations
of airs and waters and other elements, by which all
the multitudinous creatures would be nourishing each
other, these growing while these diminish, the very
processes of growth and decay demand the supposition
of spiritual powers that govern them. For only by
presupposing the guidance of a spiritual power, could
we, in any measure, understand the rise of the huge
and many-branched oak from the tiny acorn, the
oak being thousands of times greater than the acorn
from which it issues.
Whichever way we look at the matter, we have
to posit the addition of spiritual power to the ma-
terial that goes into the composition of the tree.
We cannot admit that the material was increased
by a transformation of the spiritual into the material,
however obvious it be that the growth of the tree
is presided over by the spiritual. The spiritual is

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attached to the material as a flame is attached to
the coal. But we cannot comprehend the spiritual,
since we may comprehend only material such as we
are. True, there is some slight spirituality in us,
but we have no exact measure whereby to measure its
quantity; but we can measure the quantity of material
phenomena. Our eyes see palpably the growth and
expansion of the tree from season to season. And
when it whithers and wastes away, we can watch
its diminution from season to season, until finally
it becomes some rotten dust, unfit even to bear
the name of tree. Whither went its fatness and
freshness which caused it to swell and flourish? You
might say that its small, invisible parts left it moment
by moment, flying off to form parts of new growths
that arise elsewhere; so that even though we watched
carefully, we could never see the departure of those
small parts, nor their incorporation in new saplings
on a different spot of ground, for they move as
thin and exceedingly minute vapors. In that case,
you would have no difficulty in explaining whence
the Maker took the materials that go to make the
great expanse of a tree. The tiny parts that flew
off from decaying and shrinking trees came into
the rising, growing trees. In the proverb of the
Rabbis you could say: "Tyre was built up out of
the destruction of Jerusalem;" or in market language:
"One merely exchanged a cow for a donkey." Even
if you thus argue, you should have another considera-
tion to contend with. If the Primal Matter out of
which all things are made is perishable, it were
a matter of course that the things made therefrom
should also be perishable. But that perishable things
should be made from an imperishable substance-
such action were a shame for a craftsman of flesh-
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KUNTRES HACHIYUV


and-blood, not to speak of the Maker of the world.
And if you, the Maker of the world is indeed a
faulty craftsman, we may ask you: Where did you
ever see a pupil teaching his master? For man him-
self was, according to this opinion, made out of
the same Primal Matter. Yet man, if he were given
an eternal and imperishable material, he would
fashion therefrom an eternal and imperishable vessel.
Man, mortal and perishable man, ought (according
to your view) be considered wiser than his Maker
who taught him wisdom, seeing that the Maker made
perishable things out of an imperishable material,
something that man would never do. If we are sure
that man, who cannot so much as create a tiny living
thing out of the Primal Matter, would not make
rotting and perishable things out of an imperishable
material, how can we say this of the Maker of this
beauteous, glorious universe?
Surely, the beauty and glory of this universe
testify to its origination in the thought of a marvelous
Artist. What opinion would we have of an artist
who has so little regard for his work, that no sooner
does any piece of work of his grow to perfection
and fullness then he shatters it as worthless? Yet that
is the condition of plants and animals in our world.
No sooner does a creature reach perfection then it
begins to decay and disintegrate. If one, in defense
of the World Artist, should say: The Primal Matter
of which things are constituted, itself has the quality
of changing form continuously, putting them on
and off like a garment, and the Maker never made
imperfect things out of an eternal Matter: he only
made changeable things out of a changeable matter!
One who argues thus has indeed come into narrow
straits, wherefrom he cannot turn to right nor to
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left. For, as we have pointed out above, whatever
happens continuously, happens by will and design.
If the Primal Matter had this virtue of doffing and
donning forms continuously even before the world
was created, why, it is no longer primal. It acts
and has its being by the will and design of a Willer
and Designer. And if the first matter is new-made,
there is no further reason keeping us back from
believing that all matter is new-made. For God can
originate out of Nothing, four elements as well as
one element. It were foolish, then, to give credence
to the idea of a Primal Matter-the invention of fools
to satisfy a reasoning of folly.
If you should say: Even according to your idea,
you still leave unanswered two questions. If God
created the world in absolute newness out of nothing-
ness and Himself, for what purpose did He create
it? Moreover, having created the world out of His
Own Eternal self, how is it that the things in the
world are changeable and corruptible? Surely, we
should expect an Eternal Being to create eternal
things These questions are rightly put and lead us
to deeper insights into the meanings of existence.
Our Rabbis, may their memories be blest, said that
we should ever liken our own characteristics to the
characteristics of the Almighty: "Even as He is merci-
ful, be thou merciful." We learn therefrom that God
made the world perishable and non-eternal, so that a
man might remember his own perishability and God's
everlastingness, and thus be humbled into accepting
the truth of God's existence and the necessity of walk-
ing in His ways. It is God's mercy which maintains this
perishable world, consisting of perishable things. It
behooves us to see his mercy and goodness and great-
ness filling this world. If again you should say:
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Could He not have made man eternal, yet of such
a character that he should acknowledge his Maker?
Our answer is: What need would a creature then
have of God's mercy An eternal creature would
continue in existence even without it! Also, an
eternal creature would have his characteristics eter-
nally fixed, and there were no room for choice between
good and evil, and no reward and punishment. Man
was made perishable and endowed with free choice,
that by good acts he might draw upon himself God's
mercy, and by evil acts he might draw upon himself
God's punishment. According to the scriptures, the
number of Divine virtues a man should cling to,
is thirteen. We can see that an eternally existing
man would be hard to break into believing. Observe
that mortal Pharaoh, how he boasted: "My river
is mine, and I have made myself" Had he been
made of imperishable material, there would have
been no curing him of his boast; nothing would
have subdued him. As Rashi observes: "Man, being
flesh, is insubordinate. What if he be fire or some
other strong substance?"
All this is justified if we accept the belief of our
tradition that the world is new-created out of
nothingness. But if we say that the world was
made out of a Primal Matter, we cannot argue that
man was made perishable lest he deny his Originator.
First, because then man would not be originated
solely by God, but with the help of the Primal
Substance; if a man should then say, he is made
of his own substance, he would be saying the truth,
regardless of his denial of God as the giver of form.
Second, because the subject of form would be inex-
plicable, for we should then have the impossible
task of showing whence God took corruptibility and
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mortality and compounded them with an eternal
stuff.
In view of these considerations, we return to
our original stand, that the world has an Originator
who new-invented it out of His Own Being, and
made it after his will. The Same converted spiritu-
ality into materiality, and even after spiritual sub-
stances had been materialized, some spirituality still
clings to them, guiding them and giving them their
virtues. As to the manner of conversion of the
spiritual into the material, also the manner in which
the material is affected by the spiritual, we must
necessarily remain ignorant. For we cannot rise to
the estate of spiritual beings above us, even as a
speechless animal cannot rise to the estate of man
who is endowed with speech. We cannot compre-
hend that portion of spirituality which is resident
in us, nor can we measure it. All the more so, must
we fail to comprehend the nature of our Creator,
the Spirit of Spirits. Nevertheless, we do comprehend
that there are spiritual powers, else how account for
the virtues of precious stones and drugs. Our failure
to know these powers intimately, is due to our lowly
worth, that we may not lift our heads to question
the nature of the Highest Spiritual Power, may He
be blest. He, may He be blest, can convert spirituality
into materiality, and to bind spirituality unto ma-
teriality, in such a way that the material creature
will not understand the manner of its relation with
the material. Only He knoweth all, even from before
any creature was created; He then foresaw, even
unto the end, all generations and the last of last
things. For all are His Own Self and of His Own
Self. As Maimonides, may his memory be blest, said:
"He is the Knower, and He is the Knowledge."

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Since our investigation has reached the conclu-
sion that He is All-Knowing, we might think that
man must do as God foreknows; for if man were
to do otherwise, there would be a fault in Divine
Knowledge. How then did the Torah command us:
Do thus or Do not do thus! else thou shalt be
punished! Why, if a man acts according to the
Commandments of the Torah, it is because God
foreknows that he will act that way; contrarywise, if
a man disobeys the Commandments of the Torah,
it is also because God foreknows that he will act that
way. Why should the transgressor be punished? On
the contrary, he ought to be rewarded for acting
according to Divine Foreknowledge. And if you
argue that neither the transgressor nor the observer
of the Torah ought to be rewarded, for either of
them acts as he is predistined to do by Divine Fore-
knowledge of his action, we arrive again at the prob-
lem of reward and punishment. This problem has
kept busy some of the greatest philosophers of our
people the philosophers who delved in Divine
Science, and none of those great minds has suc-
ceeded in solving this problem. A few of them
simply gave it up, passing it by with a few words
in confession of their ignorance. And though I,
in my poverty, do not reach up to the ankles of
their feet, and I am unworthy of thrusting my head
into this deep matter, as much as to say: See, they
dived into deep waters, and have brought up only
shard, while I, who am unfit to plow with their
calf, have solved this problems No, my brothers.
Such a thing has never entered my mind. However,
I did deem that perhaps our Fathers have left me
a corner in which I might labor, and invent a
thought or good idea, seeing that God accounts a
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good idea even like a good deed. These deep mat-
ters purify the mind more than the pursuit of folly,
the types of business wherein a man speculates how
to cheat and deceive people. We may arrive at
spiritual wisdom through parables from the material
world. Because we move about habitually among
material objects, we get some insight into their idea;
whence we may climb further and get some insight
into spiritual matters. I, too, have seen fit to follow
my betters, and to employ a material parable for
the ways of Divinity. Have not our Teachers em-
ployed to similar purpose the Writ: "From my flesh,
I envision God?" It shall not be accounted to me
as a stumbling that I follow their ways. Now comes
my parable, wherein the Divine is illustrated by the
human. Listen:
There are three powers that reside in man. One
is an inner power attached to the vitality of his
body, his brain, his heart, and all his organs. The
second is a power that surrounds him in one envelope
from head to foot. The third is a circumjacent
power that envelopes the second. This illustration
will be made clearer by another illustration. A
barrel, made by a human being, has three parts.
There are the boards that hold the wine. There
are inner bands that connect the boards. There are
outer hoops that strengthen the entire barrel. Now,
one might deem that these outer hoops are superflu-
ous, and that only the inner bands hold the barrel
together. But the fact is, that without these outer
hoops, the barrel would fall apart and revert to
fragmentary boards. Our meaning becomes still
clearer if we liken the body to a palace, and man's
will to the builder. The builder climbs up and
down, and seeks to perfect the compartments of the
[ 19 ]





KUNTRES HACHIYUV


palace, that he may have pleasure of it. But this
will to pleasure is a lower type of will. There is
a higher type of will, which decides that this pleasure
is permissible and is worthy of seeking. This higher
will, which gives assent to the will to pleasure, may
be considered the motivating power, that reigns over
all, for it is by permission of this higher will that
all the labor of building for many years-a labor
that aims at pleasure, is carried on. The higher will
activates the desires and motivates the movements
of the body. It may be considered the soul proper.
A few remarks on time and space are here in
order; they will contribute towards our solution of
the problem of Divine Foreknowledge and human
free will. A cursory glance at the time might make
us think that time is not of the essence of creation,
that is, time existed for aeons and aeons before the
world was created, and will continue to exist for
aeons and aeons after the world disappears; thus,
endlessly into the past and into the future. Yet if
this were so, why was the world not created some
years before God created heaven and earth. More-
over, why do we not worship Time, since Time is
eternal, and in it we live and have our being. How-
ever, we never worship Time, nor have we seen in
history any nation or tongue that takes Time for its
deity. Similarly, it might seem to us that space is
an emptiness, and we fill the emptiness. The saying
of our Rabbis that the Holy One, Blest Be He,
contracted his Light to create the world, would be
interpreted as meaning that before creation, God's
Light filled infinity. He removed His Light from
a certain space to make room for the world. I can
ask you: What is the measure of this emptiness?
Is it the same as the extent of the Spheres and Worlds

[ 20 ]





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that he created, or is it greater than that? In asking
that, I would not be disobeying the dictum of the
Sages, that a man must not inquire concerning what
is Above, what is Below, what is Before (the creation
of the world) what is After (the destruction of the
world). If the Sages had made this prohibition be-
cause of the uselessness of this inquiry (since we
could not arrive at truth in these matters though
we speculated years upon years), they would have
subsumed this prohibition under the head of other
prohibitions of useless activities, such as the gazing
on a pretty field or pretty tree while studying. Their
prohibition had a deeper intention. They believed
that time and space were new-created together with
the world, and feared that inquiry into Above, Below,
Before and After, would lead a man to speculate
concerning the nature of the Deity. But according
to an opinion that conceives space and time as eter-
nally existed, there is nothing to prevent us from
asking: How big is space? Is there any emptiness
beyond the confines of the universe, or is the uni-
verse co-extensive with space? We may also ask:
What is the nature of space? Is it a materiality or
not? And why should we not be grateful to Space,
seeing that it is eternal, and if it weren't for Space,
there would be no space for us to live in? Why
not bow before the footstool of Space?
To get a satisfactory answer to these questions,
we must go over ground covered before. Let us
return to the craftsman who builds a palace. We
must say that the craftsman originally pictured in his
mind the length, breadth, and appearance of his
building. Thereat, he proceeded to cut logs of
sycamore, and with axe and plane to construct the
actual building. Let us say, that it took him twenty
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KUNTRES HACHIYUV


years to complete the building, from the laying of the
foundation to the knocking in of the last nails in
the walls. Yet all the work that was done in twenty
years, was contained, to the least detail of roofbeam,
floor, walls, halls, and ornaments, in a momentary
spiritual glimpse within the mind of the craftsman.
We must conclude that the twenty years of construc-
tion are-materialization of the original flash of wis-
dom that came to the craftsman. If this wise crafts-
man had labored a hundred years at construction,
these. hundred years would be equal to twenty years
as far as the flash of wisdom and vision is concerned.
The time required to conceive a small vision is not
less than the time required to conceive a great vision.
For Reason is a spiritual power, and as such it is
beyond time. It is only when a conception of Reason
is to be materialized in the actual world that a greater
conception may require more time for realization;
so that one structure may require one hundred years
for its completion and another may require only
twenty years. A deeper, i.e., a higher, spiritual vision,
lengthens into a longer time. The very purity of a
thought militates against its gross materialization,
so that the purer a thought is, the longer is the
time necessary for its materialization. Time, then,
is not what the ignorant suppose it to be-a self-
existent infinitude. It is the materialization of
thought, thought itself being timeless. We do popu-
larly confuse thought with time in the same manner
as-we speak of blood being life, or the heart being
desire. These things do influence one another in
this manner: When the heart desires something, it
sends a flood of blood to the brain, which is the
seat of thought. Thought dwells upon the desired
object, plays with it in imagination, and sends back

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KUNTRES HACHIYUV


floods of blood to the heart to activate all limbs.
The flow of blood through veins and arteries from
heart to brain, and from brain to heart, and from
heart to limbs, and back again-a continuous flow
which ceaseth not day and night-takes time. Every
whim of thought makes an impression on the blood,
and every leap of the blood arouses thought, so that
our souls dream even at night when we sleep. It
is only when the connection between soul and body
is severed in death, that all imagination stops. A
sick person, in whom the flow of blood runs at
terrific speed, has his imagination speeded up cor-
respondingly so that the fevered and the sick seem
to speak disconnectedly and insanely, seeing that their
speech organs and speech habits cannot catch up with
the speedy phantasmagoria of the imagination, and
can render them only intermittently, with many
breaks and confusions. This leads us to a considera-
tion of a creature's length of life. Most animals live
less than man. There are a few exceptions, such
as the elephant. Some, indeed, live only a few months
or so. We may wonder: Wherein have these
creatures sinned and transgressed, that they are per-
mitted to live for such a short span, so that even
short-lived man can consider them ephemeral? Ac-
cording to the idea herein promulgated, it may be
that a two-month creature really lives seventy years.
Its blood-flow and heart-beat are so fast, its mental
activity is so speedy, that it lives in two months the
amount of living that a man, in comparative slug-
gishness, has to creep through in seventy years. For
every single circulation of our blood, that creature's
blood has circulated, say, a thousand times. In this
way, that creature's hour, may correspond to, say,
[ 23 ]





KUNTRES HACHIYUV


our year. All length of life is measured by the
quantity of imaginative experience.
In the same fashion we must consider space,
and dress it in such language that it be made under-
standable. Before we discuss the term, we must
define its meaning. Space isn't as is generally con-
sidered, an extended emptiness, which we and other
objects fill by our presence. Know that there is no
emptiness in the world. Emptiness is a false con-
ception. Actually, the world, in all its expanse, is
filled with grosser and finer materials, as the case
may be. When we speak, in ordinary language, of
a space being emptied, what we really mean is, that
a grosser material has moved out and a finer material
has moved in to take its place. When we speak of
a space being occupied, what we really mean is, that
a grosser material has come in to force out the finer
material. A solid body having six sides, and
possessed of an impenetrability greater than that of
air, drives out the air to move elsewhere, and itself
takes up the position of the air. Properly speaking,
we must identify matter and space, regardless of
which matter it may be; and matter is always limit-
able and cannot exceed its given size. When we
speak of a concrete space, it is a limited extension
that we mean, the given extension of the material
body involved. We shall aid our argument by an
example. A drop in the brain is the beginning of
the seminal drop. In the brain itself, the drop is
purely spiritual. If it had been a material thing
occupying the brain, the brain, after a number of
cohabitations, would have been completely emptied.
The drop proceeds from the brain to pass through
the spinal column and to enter the vital organs.


[ 24 ]





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It is in the spinal column that the materialization
of the drop occurs. The fluid of the spinal column
itself, is not forced out by the entrance of the drop
from the brain. Had the fluid been forced out, the
spinal column would have been deadened. Its dead-
ness would have affected the seminal drop to rob
it of all vitality. Far from robbing it of vitality,
the spinal column lends fructifying power to the
seminal drop. We here face a quandary. We say
that something had been added, in fact, materialized,
in the spinal column, yet we insist that nothing was
removed to make room for it. A statement of ouz
Rabbis, may their memory be blest, can help us
here. They said: "The Ark is not of the measure
of the Holy of Holies." The Ark really was there
in all materiality, yet it was not counted as part of
the volume of the Holy of Holies. That was, because
the Holy of Holies was filled with such strong
spiritual Light, that the material Ark was accounted
as nothing in comparison with that Light. So it is
with the condition of the seminal drop in the spinal
column. The spinal column is filled with such
spiritual power, potent enough even to convert the
spirituality of the brain-drop to materiality. In the
face of that power, the ensuing material drop is
accounted as naught.
Scientists have invented an instrument whereby
the air may be pumped out of a vessel, leaving it
empty. That might seem to contradict what we said
about emptiness. But the truth is that it is only
the gross air which is pumped out of the vessel.
The finer air remains there. It is of the nature of
material objects that the grosser elements tend down-
ward, and the finer elements tend to fly upwards.
So it is with air. The grosser air lies close to earth,
[ 25 ]





KUNTRES HACHIYUV


while the finer air gathers about the mountain tops.
We who are used to thick air, and need to breathe
an amount of it to maintain our lives, if we go up
in a balloon to where the air is thin, and a single
inhalation brings into our lungs one-eighth the
amount of air our lungs are habituated to receiving,
find that our trachea and lungs collapse, and we
suffocate. The air pumped out of a vessel, is only
the thick air which we normally breathe. The
thinner and purer air, the finer oxygen, remains
there. A glass vessel, habituated to the pressure of
normal air, if placed in a vessel emptied of normal
air, will break. But that is no evidence to lack air.
It is merely evidence to lack of thick, gross air. The
finer air is as material as the grosser air. It is not
nothingness, it is not emptiness. There is no empti-
ness at all in the world, however it may seem so to
our gross senses.
And now we go back to our main thought con-
cerning space. The world and the fullness thereof
are one material body. This applies to our Earth
and to all the Spheres surrounding it. They all have
a limit and are three dimensional. Should we
ask: Whence came these Spheres?-the only answer
that can be given is: They were created by ten
Divine Statements. They might have been created
by one Divine Statement. The subject of statements
may be clarified by a resumption of our parable
about a builder.
The craftsman who builds a palace has to have
in his mind beforehand, a picture of the palace in all
its halls and parts and panels. There can be nothing
in the structure of the palace which did not have its
existence first in the mind of the craftsman. Of
course, what exists in the mind of the craftsman, can-
[ 26 ]





KUNTRES HACHIYUV


not be seen with the eyes or grasped by the other
senses. The senses can grasp only the resulting
material structure. We may call the mind's picture
of the palace, a spiritual palace. Out of the sub-
stance of the spiritual palace, no man could build
a material palace; for that, there are required bricks,
stones, mortar, wood. (Therein, the development of
the human seminal drop is more wonderful; for
the drop, which has its origin as a spirituality in the
brain, is actually finally converted into a material
child). If, concomittantly with the details of the
palace, there exists in the mind of the craftsman
a picture of the size of the palace, we can by no
means say, that the palace occupies a larger space
in the material brain then would a palace smaller
than itself. Indeed, even the physical effort necessary
for the picture in the brain has naught to do with
the size of the palace. If the man conceiving the
palace, were to do no physical work at all, would
direct others how to use axe and hammer, the palace
would still be called by his name; it would be said
that so-and-so was the builder, though so-and-so never
touched the building with his hands. If it weren't
for his thought and guidance, the palace would
not have come into existence. The length of time
needed to construct the actual building, and the
size and form of the building become measurable
and palpable to the senses, only after its construction.
When the Rabbis said that the Holy One, Blest
Be He, contracted Himself to create the world, they
did not mean that he left an empty space within
Himself, any more than we would be justified in
saying that an empty space was made in the crafts-
man's mind so that there may be room for his con-
ception of a palace. There was no empty space in
[ 27 ]





KUNTRES HACHIYUV


the builder's mind-neither before the palace was
conceived nor after it was built. Space does not
apply at all to what is spiritual. Similarly, we can-
not say that there was any empty space in Him
before the creation of the world, or that there will
be any empty space in Him after the world shall
have returned to what it was before creation. Indeed,
even now, the works of creation, including ourselves,
exist in His Thought. It is only we, created beings,
who deem that we occupy space, for all matter is
space, as we have explained above. Our saying that
we exist in His Thought even now, in the Period
of Creation, is merely a popular way of speaking.
It has been said: "Not like your thoughts are My
Thoughts." After the world shall have returned to
the state of obtaining before creation, God, if we
pronounce such words, will remove His Mind from
the world, and will remain nothing-neither time
and space nor all created beings.
We shall say one more thing about the powers
of the soul; then we shall be ready to suggest a
solution to the question which is the main subject
of our discussion. We explained that the first power
of the soul is the power of assent. It is fitting that
we show forth its value, and declare wherein it is
the first in importance among all the powers of the
soul. Take wisdom. When a man is wise with one
thought, he cannot at the same time be wise with
another thought, for the instruments of his mind
are occupied. In common parlance: the mind cannot
think two things at the same time. Take pleasure:
You cannot enjoy a thing, and at the same time
enjoy the opposite of that thing. The opposite of a
thing that gives pleasure would give pain. Not so
the power of assent. It is the nature of the soul to
[ 28 ]





KUNTRES HACHIYUV


maintain the life of the body. Yet, if the higher will
so decides, it may compel the soul to the opposite,
that is, the body may be commanded to go into fire
-and it will go into fire, though this be opposed to
the natural inclinations of soul and body alike. When
people discuss desirable or undesirable things, they
take for granted a common ground of assent. The
will might assent to put sweet for bitter, and bitter
for sweet, without any outer force interfering. It
may happen that a soul, confronted with an alterna-
tive of living, in denial of its own sources of life
or dying, will choose death. The soul might
say, "If I live in the body without consideration
for myself, it is as though I were removed from the
body already. Better, then, that I be killed, and do not
suffer the evil that will befall me." So Mishael,
Channaniah and Azoriah decided to let themselves
be cast into the furnace rather than worship the
idol, that is, admit that they owe their life to the
idol. This is the reasoning of all who die for the
hallowing of God's Name. They reason: "If we
admit that the idol is our life-giver, we are denying
the true life-giving Power which is within us. A
life on such terms is accounted like death." We thus
see that the power of assent may assent to its own
disappearance, yet do no wrong. Such self-abolition
may be praiseworthy. Often assent to an evil is a
good, as when we know what evil may result from
following the opposite of the evil. King Hezekiah
was confronted with an alternative of either giving
birth to children who will sin and make Israel sin,
or stay in celibacy, which is itself a sinful disobedi
ence of the prime commandment: "Be ye fruitful
and multiply!" He would fain avoid the dilemma,
but he had to choose one of the two evil alternatives.
[ 29 ]





KUNTRES HACHIYUV


He chose to beget sons, though he knew that it is
an ill thing he is doing. So we see that a man may
assent even to a course he does not like. We see,
then, how foreknowledge and free will work them-
selves out in material existence. Though knowing
evil, a man may choose it. He is enabled to do
so by the power of assent, which surrounds all his
physical and spiritual powers, even as the outer
hoops of a barrel hold the boards of the barrel
together. Though the hoops are external to the
bairel, they maintain it; so the power of assent,
though external to the body, maintains the body.
The power of assent may also destroy the body, as
when it offers it to die in the hallowing of God's
Name. What is bad for the body, may not at all
seem bad to the power of assent; and under the im-
pulsion of that power, what is bad for the body
becomes the body's good, so that it willingly and
fearlessly goes into tortures and death.
You will say: What has all this to do with
our subject? We still ask: Why does God punish
the evil deeds of men, seeing that He foreknew
their evil deeds and did nothing to prevent them
from occurring?
Know that all that we said was simply to awaken
our reason and to make it acceptable to our mind
that foreknowledge of evil results and choice of a
path leading to them, may dwell together. In us,
at least, foreknowledge and free choice do not neces-
sarily contradict each other. From this we may learn
something concerning Divinity; and gain an inkling
of the manner in which Divine Forekowledge does
not preclude human free will.
An instance of the choice of pure evil will
strengthen our argument. Jeroboam's hand withered.
[ 30 ]





KUNTRES HACHIYUV


This was an unmistakable sign that he will come
to a bad end if he does not desert his evil way. It
is as though God had taken hold of his garment
and said to him: "Repent, and I, and the son of
Jesse (the Messiah) will walk together in Paradise.
Jeroboam knew both the good and the bad that
will befall him, according to his choice. Yet he
chose the evil through his power of assent.
We see, then, that a man can choose to do as he
wills, even though he knows the positive and negative
results of his choice one way or the other. The
power of assent is superior to the body, and is not
interested either in the welfare of the body or its
harm. Therefore, a man's action follows as his
spirit lists.
Now we approach the heart of the problem of
Divine Foreknowledge and human free will. God,
too, if we be permitted to speak of him in a parable
of human terms, has the same three powers. One is
a Power that spreads and is contained in all the
worlds; this is His Immanence in the great body
called "the universe and the fulness thereof." The
second is a surrounding power, which may be called
Joy, namely, the Joy which God has of the becoming
of the world, though we cannot by any means know
the nature of that Joy, seeing that we are ignorant
of spiritual forces residing in us; infinitely greater
is our ignorance in what pertains to our Creator.
Now if a man disobeys one of God's commandments,
he violates God's purpose in creation, and God has
no Pleasure of his action. Therefore, that man in-
curs punishment. God's Will-His Power of Assent-
(for it is by His Will that he created the world),
is superior to God's Pleasure. The making of the
world by God's Will, was done at a single Moment
[ 31 ]





KUNTRES HACHIYUV


of Vision. It is only when God's Moment of Vision
is revealed to us externally that it seems to us like
a matter of six thousand years. In reality, the
Moment of Vision and the Moment of Assent are
occurring right now. To the Power of Assent, yea
and nay are equal in value, as we have concluded
in our previous investigations and discussions. The
Power of Assent can suffer a quality, also the opposite
of that quality. This Power is All-Powerful to do
what It wills. To this Power, if you are righteous,
what matters it? If you are wicked, what matters it?
This Power is not within the world at all, and It
sees and knows all that is being done, and sees and
knows what any doer will do, all the future being
present to the Seer, and all actions being alike
indifferent to Him. For, as we have said, the time
of His making the world is now, for to God all the
thousands of years of the world's existence are a
single Moment of Vision. It is said: "And in His
goodness He new-makes the works of creation every
day, steadily." The meaning of this text is, that the
time of the new-creation of the world-which is the
Moment of Vision-is now. Because the Power of
Assent is not included in the process of creation,
though It is its very essence, it can suffer also the
opposite of creativity. It gives strength to the main-
tenance and existence of the worlds, but it would
suffer no less in their disappearance. This Power
is not tied up with the central being of the world,
which is man. Therfore a man can do what he wills
freely, without any coercion. It devolves upon our-
selves to choose good and shun evil in order to give
pleasure to the Surrounding Power, which is Joy.
By this we come to a clearer understanding of a
statement attributed to the Baal Shem Tov, may
[ 32 ]





KUNTRES HACHIYUV


his memory be blest. Concerning the Writ: "Forever,
0 God, Thy Word standeth in the heavens," he said:
It means that God's Words perpetually stand and
give being and life to the heavens and all their
hosts and to the earth and the fullness thereof. Ac-
cording to our study, the Moment of Vision, which
is the creation of heaven and earth, is now. It
follows, as a matter of reason, that God's statements
or Words, which give being and life to the heavens
and earth are standing, that is they are existent and
active, right now. God's saying of the Words and
His new-making of the worlds are simultaneous
and identical. As His Words unceasingly blow the
spirit of life into all creation, may He blow a spirit
of life into us, and privilege us to rejoice in the
Pleasure of God: Amen. So be His Will.


[ 33 ]


















In Sacred Memory Of

MY FATHER, THE AUTHOR

MY MOTHER, PESSYAH HASSYAH

(Departed on the 18th of Shvat, 5645)

and MY WIFE, REBECCA DEBORAH

(Departed on the 29th of Kislev, 5701)

I issue this book

JACOB JOSHUA JACOBI



















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tBvn wipa inix ranisn linn omrm turinan na xs w5axn~v

MIX 135 111 M3n W an t51Yi 1111oi5 in 112Yn. 15 VIIV 5"l
110K 'i31 DJil 1 i3y $s o'7i5?n nnnnn TWy 'li H819 ">rT 11"i

*1m 1mn1n '3V 'D Y 'nrn 13xlll MD rvh15 5nu xw "Inai nan
a13 'T' 15 1' X51 -2 X "SI 1i m12=a -IY" X5 a3M? Iwn"
nn 1n7 1)i n137n 1V13n p im m, t5m K"x 3B"1' nTrm ,my1
awin z imm isizm n'in v in iy r1 n wi5 1Vs- i'17 unu'n

In=V nT11'l B Kn n 1' p o r1 nn nmru 11157? 1xi rn i rmrmp
rinni my? sn tnomm mrpon rny nnxa x ruv ,n~ 27 i
iasamv m-rnm zirmn nn nBBxWBBnn riv i~r nn xsm7n Qomi
301 1iy7vy 57nB 5nn r in xim x1r1 10 n am 5=i riun -ry
m's In,= 15 mvys1n nn y1n isi *1 Inn na rin pTusr1 n mm inn
ivy, 1v 5n lNs 8aim nimn -Tnxn s1 'min -rn 55n=5Y -ram
nmrx x7i) niyni nWy1 -iv 5D rns 5"#3 misn ?Tl' iyvn 121
153X In I97M? XIM a13l I 11 1n19i I=T 131W X57i 'I (5D 15
wVI 121021 1B'BB i T'pon nW XM N B N 17S '1'7 "3V 'DX An"Wm
Nv vrT'nr ibT sin xi imB1v sin min mnn :rYn -rnzi Or ?
nX-1B12 55n Y113 WX 13O M- MD III= IXBD tA 7 r n M m117po
[ 27 1





ai 'nn oi a i p


nwx vy wlm n i 117B my-a "1vT n npy rila ,nsnn ns niwy 111xv
x'87 n1ffnl 1D vpna nTl2 12 rim n ipv VI= n7nf ri riv7 xN
' 1' mnv, D'ft' t oswu wan Trin 17' x5 5 s iv'x 3l1r

5?"a nv7, wrs7r T'ImB mynaa unni rin nwiy5 BT'pT' s1? si5


Yrn 5 ~y k13I '10 U2 n Al1 1~~L -1 7'MylT 2f131151 X5i M,
715 8fl'V U? iT'15271 '71 'Zn 3ip X'i '7V 5Y MY'l nXiitn











V~bVS 3711"1D 928701 3781 W12737 T'919 371 Xl'
375 12i o"pa 1l7n 31" min H153 ST'W S1N 1or'a1 isn'2 y x'fn "y'2
i 13nZ a1 a n ?3n :it 1 7 mip fl7 rTV rin i37n nnT ns 'tV S'i1
s137' f1i71 s2n'V 1"'s'7 Iniw 5KM 1oUwi v "l'2 "2nn 'i 151
nI5 ln:15 am 71n9nn tp s"0 2in ]RD3 l00r "15D Rim 1wx 5y
01VIV 1302 5MD n5 MPrD DpNW-15 E351Y WYVI AVIX X'10 17 -1
s1nw *'SBE 9817' ^s1? n@pn an119 a$1? 1 aSW1n Dn N'in1? n
Xl 1W3 DtiKMbl 51V -1171: 15 INTI "113 t311j 0 5 'T5 111VY5 A0
TTND on'3twv 5?n' 1-il nA7pn wn'- M1s? rsy V31y nnp71 niyn
nn1=5 min mn-rn nas rN i't uirpri' ra1 msi s i a lni x5
qxtv m8 w ylrn2 9193'ri n.T5a 1 1: IIM35 -n01 Qni'3wa Tsa
a"a 11"2 1311 13 NI niv? min awu s&7iyV nyrn 152mn'ri'v
rnn n-rnai rn T' ims5wi TWm wo1 T"BB uisn -ri n1i=7 5in
nv! DYUB min T"BT n1 -willin -oa s Tl'% Ims m-'=m13 nnx
MD 1=a1 Ti M 1 1mi3in 11171 1 1 iin1? 3=0a MD sVn 03OM1
min a"ww rnrtrn15 v3 wvW zn'ann yw Qr'pipinn 7B ris'nn
t1p rnx m1 ixa rnTBnn -= n01x 0ns p'binn mv il ran *1p'7y
ql1 s1123 11'XWI isx 911 B DP pin noanr rnn 7D Inn nirinn
TR nx t1n is DWn W1TP y y"s 1noB? a'n'B l0lv "I' i3rm wii1 ynn nnaTi nnin rnB -rrynn 7n ST &1? rn s&? rryn
i T7B 107n qii,6 ni aiu Qtonw rin nana ,on na1 D B 57yn
98-In. n1n 1nI' r 7n W Inmi 13ml Y'l 'In1F Y T' sXl ) M-1' ,&
ST r"apnmv irit y-) nwWsn n w Ab? nnirn i$mv x9n n
rWy1v ina -pntv n nnn mon uwwn inn m1iv T'ns iyW ni7nn
71yB 1p-i nrl,8n rftn Irv= nn nW 1 yT eBp irr12
iTWn nn1- vihW TS rimn rn nB? 12na nn rim ns fyn
r 26 1





' i 1 01 I1 p


1in ,1f7f lb ,n 3 'i8ay lain 'r ?Tf im n1 im' n"y
ias3iw aan ''? m~~i innnasn niynnaa TKaIM1

nin1-n 5riu v5n 13 r~mm -m-~rm'n zl~'i ri 'm razz -mz'i nyr
-172m -i1 'nn l' 12 1 miW'm 0'?Inx i o5nnn nn n Ir 1i3'n'ar





Allym pimmu nzr~ awn 1poymm V rinnn m rn zimm~ rm"v
0m1i,- rimm 'm) 12', r~imW LT 091 111nn rimm ',m2 p11
iAI3S~n m'ipi' miniv nn na ml ,mri'm iwrnm llyziT?'7 l'x'
Qrirn inz ni 7n xp ya3 min ainy inimn rim- Tn i'D'r1i n
non1? mi3 iyna 5wn5 v=I ,in lirno irm-n 7Tryn 'ri n 'mum










m139 m 131,T nn ,1r rlvWr P~li vvbrih Mr D'molit TWWn
m ma5 m' ryn irri' t'Bo as B"B n rim mis W'n W Tatn

I M5 IN 1 n"n TN? 131 -m 111 1=n0 I1 n 7V IAN TVX X3a
[31M 13nM "INV1 17n 1112-1 IZ1112 17 Yl n
,-it `1=15 111 MpDO0 pM al W'' C11 DM M'y9 1T'3S P T"'T atCmNtv
Y-Ima 5D 7'm m1u )l n N8I plina? TZMn ZIN Ul t3V' M'SDD W8 I
13IT12 01oa 1a3V in pIl pilln 1 "n' M7 A1lyinnn n33 :)"
mann naa In3 jmvi ixa no min ono mn ann n3 nx pin=5
mCpa n5= mp'mi' Qm '1 3 mm ,1n11 ililn 'il ,wilW 0wSl
itumn m97w n-tr min i1rvT rrm n v0n inim iTwz't a in x5

mT1s sN? D ^inty 'CTAE 11p91b *'T' 13 ra1 i }'2 ra0 nan as
nasvm nairi mIN f iv '*i z' s'7ins -m- rims tIn 'In x'vi
sN? 3"s1 1'B1H "I' 'Diln n'nTin -I,8 'in I'mC8 Nn 7'mW min T
12nNaW 1as1 #771M5 nss M 7S1 3111,'1 X ua MM s n1aI ,'I33 ,'BS
X5ny D"MI n s'1 Wiys I3 y "I'm v1in T M7n1 inhNW Min7in
Q'3-110 n 73Y n0 ITI "'nV XVi tchwI 171s M 5"1 Mf7S sVI
&$1 "Mt D"iDynt mV I K CXW t=8 Q1 ZIM 7TP nY r1Ut =XY
onit nfs win *i rai iasy? ririma nmi1 s1n sn x 7Saa pbwi
rinn nsii mt nn nninsy rmm1 wm i -mm z D' i D trin 1 wp
"ll a11= 1m1t SSBt ,lY nvy, M51 ryn m75y M=,`15 QnnM
My0n1 as 117n tilWlu' Ms 7Tsn 1 xiph ip' as zia ,11my
1asy nT3 DAT ,s9i nws?'' s'7iF 25 1n1s? 'n^'?
r 25 1





2 1 nI u 1 I p


i3s wri-im iv 7y wipa rit nrnai ia 5ii s'7t qx aft onrin nMn
ma irti nwrin Ts1 rm51 T1S rnn- -Y w"y nian -iA na1*
xxna 7pimn n? "- x5 sin x5 mst rinm p1 1ai 5y 7anm wip?
7,ayn min 1m r21 nan min w1i? rTa ir$i7?5 inwthnn t^ilnw nra
n1i0D rinm rW liay7i nm in mwy5 inm n"apn asiy n n'75?
7:)5 IIY5? VIn 51 '73 5MV s0 mi nIII1l n aM t7s lyn 719 01pa
IlIY 7iD3 (nim 0i2?3 miann) irm ri ?BT-un n'?mn ixiin, wsin
in 5D Rn-aTh (131P 'Ina Ia3) I'n 115iT '12-M X51 n198Z
m17vY ir'm mnr7nn irilin, rNin mm1 rw,' 5? y rfn maa nfnmv
rn MoVtll MIN M byW W131M nW ^5U "TY n" a Ml= Y W'nt
inbn 5-1 mi5?n ns win -Tn inbm in vinp7 i",1 aa ia mv n niri
inasmy 18In) ^5 517=3 .IT ninly Iaixs Ill-11 zinw r'7 nW
5nm DtBS x3 5n qu t'n 1S1n3 T"'Syi ixinT5 is31 7= Sn3
1la n~nin ipr -iy "n i 1s 1v inp mif am Drom r"n x5
m5 linum0 rs rum -nom 7niB 5t inzitnwa lp- nutv ,0 n x"tv
mmi mpa own iDmps mrvi n 12W inw ins sx7i inix mnva vrp
Mlpni MA RIM 917M InW i -Inlin 2nnW' n388iD11 tip^ -nTAa
1M oi5Yn s-a3 yw7 5y1 115Y 'InI5 1 11V 71b7 T D rs IB 7Wmil
'D5 m11np'1 vstowD mvrpb bWr'wv ",,-i rnn:)5 m9n itrmv -ns=5
rinbt sn nawrnnil 7niy inaiurnaa nmwi ms-in nsm ainy tma
nainaw 1XaIMIOTb n W iMIi 1IMM llW mpa oInZ ODI7 -MT` 7TW
5"3D ipani MX RsI s Wn 5= -ItD M11M Dipa a01IN Isi 125
13aM MR112M nlYs NnY MAI 13l-2asi MW 15 FT ZINT a3 1 s
ila trsx-ma r= mny xvin lTTu xns -=57 pn vin 7Bwy inlliyna
nins1 ,wrin tsn'mawina 'lmniina x5 4) rnas b awrinn u-ms
nxtv x'71 Qilyn lB iny1 7133 n'oi "wo i mai5 lniTr n nT't
.ina t'sinl sM1 IpbM M$1 lInX IN Ms m15?
n1a 5x S3n -imns inmn nitin rim 5y ra3t nnx 'TIY .:
mnlm T'35?a Iasnma 12- mua nlnlu "m s n7SibRvn
TWsin KiM IUs IMNsI ,7"3JD tDOMnn MN s 3i51n IIXa^ 7t VWDI
r 24 1







?i riai zi 15n 5z risW n x53 irnw rnKi -im Tliina 'niyn




,rn31'.'ib flV 1 '912 WI3 U?'8 N' fl 1 DIPZr WI0 W 1flUrI 21 yt
ta xTI? viN B" 5:x inn t3 Pwrin? an1p in v ri 7rion n3sa
Kin '"in 1'km1 1'Ks 1w" K' 1W 'A isn11 17ivK Qiiba -"i a
.M3 1117 ,17 TIWM 11 I V 31I 1 c1hRM2 121 WU 13 3p'M1 5`1 1aIn
.,n= 1pn 35 winnn &s 5wn t*iayn rnp-i r w n np i m .i in

nl I- ^n il m"'I nsimaw atiynlv lasnK 5worn 51=1
!R "fTU 1? a1 Kn D'Ift 1'n1r o T1?Z 5DI '73I nov (nran










'i"911 I 0.TT K 0U? P11 ,TIZ C'fl D'1J1N ODI1U VS 1U?7 D'K1z"?
,m5?? nWivii 513n an1?5 w r 0ini ptri on om iawn' 23n ]?
n111M WI V 7 TMD 'IM 13i 131TIn 15H 1'n13 7IND uIPMIVD
18nnn J'Iyn 7,2"151 51n,20 '13m TIn 1na N5"1 051yn M-123
M5M2 IWT M 89 181 I 2 1351V 5V65i W 21IV5 13H 00'3DI2
1irnB nin tB s rim inn 1ivri n pwmns rAim ;nnzTS iivin lN
non m5 (innn ,inx rin ) 15 nu7m wo-isn ?31i 19B11 iw 5n5
NsB3 90 n 1 TCI r 1a ITS s? i19 ,11)"S 19 17s 10tynaa 1^aT
1nawnai -i iw n ,iw515 n7 xinrs* -ivy vin na ra8n-
112I1: -VI XT81 23W I 8ln 51tv Ir718r 1n23 x21 ri8N priT'N
ns OR ID InsnI 13M msvin wIVIM5 Ivin ar P-I' pivris nTrs
ns121= 'Inm1 i1nns 13)Ip3 3"DI If9n p nolnv "Inn s51 'iTW3n
vn *ws rn-wrn rim n iinawnna vis nwN rn DTN =5 nWin1
-,an) 'wn tipBw 3tir rim1sa man w"naz w'syn irnawimn
-ir Tv wn tWh anim ina3nn x1i3nin x17v9 57i i,'s numvW
T,5innn nna INx) (Q'SS? x a 'a p inawna rin 111i3 ilt 1773
riinWi nv51 iiniin zirnrnltv ino3 7zi3 mun wiy -win won
inwpa7 Tilinmin ni5? Tw ni T5? s1 an rW nTa aw x$7 ivin
WTii visn mi n x inn n vi 1m1 n nxa 71inum nivi 5Sn (Tr1v
-i;5 ln-n xavz pI Timi 'tvW wpn o0nv 181* 1itvN x B"a
illoint wyl Ivxn 57,1 mnw 111NI tilli oT7 nsil Tx 15,1
rinina ivo3r rnxvin mun rawn3 0inni trpi x5 5nx m1aw=
ms,' -iv3 pvi inn zirnp rs vnipa nsp, inniv anrina ixtW
1nu 1 pan ni8 nn7 in l5y pr mn wip, w 1iryn3 rnivy5 1ift10
[ 23 ]


: i I n 1 0 1 o I I p





S1i n 0 1 0 2 o 1 p


'-ins >iTin 1wn Tin WT wun nn'n ik nwpri n"n in im in n
rY VinW 1i n'w TrY mipm ri nr' ma s i-Twn mrn napnwavr
70u13 NYW nsW mW n31n3.i main in i3s Iimn mip rimvs
/ ,'Kin Win yvn n1K n r 1 1'ai1 in w iswx'snn
,'3SB tw rim vi'pi ivo mipa wl D x1 B"ai vtK irnvinW
X1in RN 7'Di 1-713 7'ND V11K 17V 03 'iI l'IX 11fl nY! U
0nv 138 iu3w-i1,K int1v zinaP? inr'3I rlrnnW i3 IlK iaIpa ODK

li5n nvph 13 rirn Nw "n 5ran n0n xvia 'ani r"a3 ?p pt
iB3v 1"'inx tinK nw'Dn '3S3 min i 11KN 1n 8 inn3 iaim nn'lv
zi3rnin rn fWnAmn vT s2nn 'in wnriv -T 3"3 22a ]n Binn3
13 nlivinat x uinn3 mim iocir Firm inWsy r'Dn v i 7nsi r
.Aln 3OT3 Fli nnamnn3
viri rim -"y rv*s n3ina Qnnu, nnn w1inri nai .TI'
YTI i3ia-T5 vi0o ris35 nan P-i mvin oimn Nx uwim
DIM '191M-1 `I XVI) M131=3B ISM1 DAMI IIX PN I7 n Xn 15
ri x 73 (w3ns inia33 uyn xvii PT Tix 1T1 TIS? my 3isya
*nni7 na ni -3i 0n13"5 w 0V tr'vix 37,y 15 Y-1 ,iTn .1NiS
Tn3i 13 n nu s ,=5 5wB1?ii ri1- virri 'vin vi3 =A
TV nI?5 ily "I'Mr3i win', Imp '?Par IT,- Inw11 r invW 5v=5
l3no0o -I= 13=1 Inv' iwn, 5"s 1121itv nB 7n31 Q0B1,=
5=51i =31in3 D9n 5?B3 -"*yi 1331? 5xs ix 3ns=5 min visn my
'5D3 ris7?b5 135 .1 ^ nTi r3B 5?V2 nims 213Vs3 nxN nB'i33
1911 WIpN TI 1ps3 i'M n M INI 5113 Y MIM 13XI 125V '^n
nwss x' inx ins n 3a n s T 3"3 -T n n-D In 1n 5ft ivx 'pinn
5N xS 3 xi sD5 3 NY- x5 n3av rnri ns3 3 n 3at 3wstn=5 135
lin3z 13ift invin '5z nr rn1s28 na3 3"n 135 noin' i33n1
i?3nn i n~i rin n xvin rn~pr t>y lispnui rimn ns ivnr n-ix,1,
ON70 TIMM r11X MIn M1321n MXTIR U17p? 3I2n M178 'llIMI
01n 191sn ns QS '3 Q'2'SSIB9 B31 180s cp yiawa nmi i~ms
jurn 5*2n 1rmn viv 'pinr vixn 1 ?3 nwvn vimi vinv it37
[ 22 ]







wpan nx flini Ihi iainpa rim an3n min nrn rinn mvp inain
Vgi DNII RNMO In 1 T 1Mt T ,fIl9 flT0TV '19'K 13UM
tnin vinr crIn ns by? mia 1 s "in nwri1 yn i' linn DWi i97ni
mil '71Tp "1 5 'a 3 55z "T' 1 V 'y nnam nTn 5xln n1' mtpa

i'1rm 5T=T 1iTp flinzV 5 -in n 5zT riti ain w ,Nw Vins lin1 in
wIn iftpiniy1 vin? in mint *-w rrn rnu xs r7i ynnn''






Tirs '71P? n1?~ fi^V "TIm '7? ~lan fi7T1 ,'^nprnrIs "'n IasVT TVT
DWmr l2T fl5 "7a 1f Tyn 1*n ,n 'TI lnW 'f1 U?5 1vTx pin'tn
DiX -IntV "7 MRMU Il lthi M1 W 7n71 M1NSM flb111Y-It2
*3 1881 312T in1? }'9 3 131? 90' 17 $A 1a $17$8 01WBSWm'Bm

mmn na NTW Tnin uin in n7m iman in n5Ns ,iT nl'?M nwimn
nlltWn li -M 3SY 01111 N1 1n3M VDKW IV=i Ml3 011 1MIl
n'oizin n'n inx nn'onxfl n" i nri'n ni n nr nwni Ivni nvi
10nni *'in nns00 n3''3 n 3"s1 asn mat m''bmb TWB2 sinn
nnin xTs un nin rnT 3 'n 'fT Yn r"1' i'n 1vi5 1nh on 'in
uyt nanti Tm rrwn ziil in 5x rmt 1i 'mini ni pI rWmW
ww ,?s nwl ilrai1 mm it nTxiTvJ1 2 n ?3'in nam"n i ,'uya
wriniv min n2i 1n]n nx npnn 73w 55 wpn nin rs
.yl 111 a ip 5 m nsInmin "'n uwmw ma in71Ilpm- i15I '7a1-7v'.
nxmix Binw main, i nin ri n muW1 ninr zitv 501 nWun
TpBn rinp uicw ninriv -sin tm wna nInl nt1nr nBwwT tv nyt
uinn nvyi 7yv nms nin nnsnwtn -Tya ~p 'n inimrrni is,3X1V
.ipin ntnaa2X 01M5 qmn1 in 'Bimtl Xmp3 vr iana rin iasy
nTinx nrx B{< n nn=i vinn Dn nO iass? usn zrn rinwri
nit Tya a3ilpa Uwin nnvna -'i ninil ,ntta nitamn x9x n"A
nOIB -'in r' inn nw'uin n? i nan T1w 5"-a Dn uinn ryi 'ni
nx -'= nin T1w nnim' Dwnin-6 at nziin nya nt'BB nn uinn
wIpa x5 x- Wi O7 rin nr ,rr'1 'm ianW Iw'n nyatin inn
MpanM s 771X 1311M 110II ?B Mn-)YnM011 SM^in a-ai ;D-nsl i TiU-YI
ox Qwpw\ trya n3vn x5? rr-ni toiumnw ninni inarinv xn noswn
niwn tny xvpi in iny nalinn 7y t nm n7an n inamty x5
'aln 1I3M m01-M X-3M IMYin MVI TRM?'21a D rna li;Wn VaSY1?
[ 21 ]


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m in n D i I1 p


sx1i mm, tv9mi TnxAD *irin 71n$ rpmvft1 wranni m m "
rivibn isx trpnT QwrtvW i3n min 7m mumWI I UWh onu'
B3DInaI an tEDi~ WB I aV 1 a1nan lInWibI KY ms< iiA -p11r
7rbti rainbinn DS ay ziritim-6 rin 1tx- 7, '-r n"n,1y TKT
Pm-T nn"w niatrnnn 111WIZIn Y 'D B2 m'l -a 12 1 MI
MT$1 ",3tvn rnawb nn iR n?* DrT naibnb nnri -na Dsryipa
9'Din' nll 1 '7m Ina, p3 ri [wm (Ibtv r DImn 13 nru
wmrmn '-Ixt 'pn y nmpsl 7sY= Ua'23 a3mtv Inxl znnx rrMI nt'
t-mx Taln) niysa ,ni ri,'' ann ti a3'xxsa3 t: ivt Y^mm
p7i aTn qp n im t imum miva (nanm i 01 n ia nn in

inn mtv t'-2n nana mv rmW n '731'r i3r D1 :ax ,1i=0% 7nm
ni aWn1? rvinnaW nrft rn3 nsiri ina Yantriv 'D lamm
In? nvis3i nrs ayxn mmrin i^nvi pI'nn ni's ntyr nanaivi naniv
Tit 8031^1 8928l sc'nn n1??'t^a 198a a1n3 iTWa' Ti''a" Mait
tr11 imn trT mm~l I?= sitv rrm nnnm mmN m1'bT n 7,.nT v

mrnr if m3ytv sw= n,, y BvnyBSB ri~s x7s trmsrnn rimm ta
B3am i3rip-nyn iWrr rnn"nt D0 naw1t nito ^it a? vit n -iK nn
mBi'7n &'a! .,nnx mytv mm n'C i31m x 3In0 ID 89n -in
triwa an 'C 'ato '-6 n' 0h 13 aiiT-na nw inntu "p'na m 'Ti
r1wri n-win i ain n1p inirinnt wNr jn'1 natunan 7i'rT pi min
.iii3 w B'nvT 'itv Itmna rms mzi~i mav iolymai mmw~i ,wa'
msnn vt vmiyi sawx i, is aipn m m3 mnai 'Tl *
l'j? -ntv rftm 7nin ny-1? iirmx Pra-s *mintv n83w1
inn M1 1D1ipa n'7a z im 72 m ,iB nnplp 13n3rim ph 113T1
B 1i3S lam xin iup'nv1 ril w rpI m t i 13" 111to miyn
&7 miy8 a mp-ri r7, xtW 1 ST Im nr in 1p x1 iapa B7BWai
as B3n11 t-1'p1 A21 in W-I Br M73 a nip'1n D WAian IWa'
t9v mswa ivxna a'is? t in 731 nmpi tft 7wy Im wwpi
Ift? -11mya pIBl ,nopm 7a?3B3yin wtvp'n 13-ni Inn P'a t^ ipn
r oz I







nrilli 11ill pin 21w? -7;;o in v ran. 5= nrai nw "3V ivy
tDw=6nirl .IT% 3on -Ini1 '1:1' 12 mr-oa -17il' .6 1 1520 1 rot
mnl-nn 123 7=1v n 3r *'i PM onr xmaa vil'a r"io riny rfil nVA5
nanED its limnc 13n11pi naa Rss ,10m92 no11 nay ml'BaY
iBT IwO9 1i32 nwTri nawinan nTv min 5nm 177in minv i1
5nD 135 in-TV 71'rT pl Min rinm 5m rnyT'i 5?vimn 'ny 1 5
wnr'nan imrin5n inn iriwnvi *irmni zva'n'3 uriamw warnn
BS7Dn 1as3 13M 1W= nriamIt 135 nwu In =a 5D7B 5H M lp51
MMIas MIM MW1T wIO3,7D51 VDVI D`1nnI onTW IWSB XaV I1n

nvmn p'7i rnawrin in 7 wt n mpain Di iwv m ta? at mn rTi
,an rs-ir sn rins zma1 =5 n 7? ,ia mn *'iv 11- ,7i~m -Tn ann
177 B3 n iWvinan Tim rTa Dimnni 0n mv a ninnw rnnan rini
wwrzinm ?mS n155 ww a iain saiwn -WSB T-,Ti ritn in wrinn
S'l M=20 INI 7MY IB S 1`5 InD7 M 1i36n "'Y Q3'-as 0-5
n7DI 1113WI n'?sN 13TiN -11 B3B awn w, y IT'B 5n 1301 7B
niln nit nin n9n b 117n vniv x5 ,6,1 ow1, ,i5,5 w-vin un



7D91 iDipWI M51 T113' M5 m1nVWiW 'I51 7t IW W17 Q' 13T mn- JIM
5ni ni0nwin rim tvinW n waTvn nsinn iti3' x5? n inio
'13sa *'InV InT IllnI I=B ntIVY3 IVIY 13nwI -;P"D-T -yiPID
v'oi nn w t rinbn 'it ,nv in'iD Ta1n wpr uir n,3 n mianw
,inrin zirp ,m =A xvl 5nPnW1,DBi rnyw riti iyvnbi
, i~nwrni rovI vnsvn nT,,n *1 ina~ ni~nwrinn rivin in ninvini
,zin n =ay risn g'im-in v^vi -rvirprn Tmsa rrs nns~y,

Qi~x 5r^is qm iwrnan maivi s1? nii "*n ,,ri w v 'iv 7ni 5n
o's~in nr7inn 572m p1?i on'7na 7ao min i m~o rnno nawrnan
posr B mn awrn nT -nv rTiS-i nT in nT ma mraWn nv ia wisi
nsx rowilln pni 5x5 ;uWivin nivinan nis nwi nawrnn ,ri5- 5y
[ 61 1


Si 1' n I o I u 3 i p





S1' n 0 1 I 21 p


s'W 1ra 11s?1O ran ivnvw nS ri nr TWS T" ri rn 1sa 115y
miriv nuxinn o's1 am 1Da nvws x' rn ininun in awvn1 rn imn,
-n nnimnB Dnnpwri '01? Wna ubil 1v inipa rim i1a rr"n ipam
vina wA n0il risnn ipr6 rlin rivin T7t in a 0n9n nan rvB
p'Tni m1 nn1 at im1 w m ,t% v aN tw min im wpN ap w Cvin
M1 VIn M*l HIMp 1nl 'in1 1n1M 01Ws UIP m X ni110 Mv
.tipnn 7w 1 9xi mi-nv mnirwi B"81i z1ir- rm nipm 135 ,'1
,-1n*0o 75 niBB 1i'T wv im73 1ifw 01ir7 lr SnD '?3l .nl
nur D'3 r1aimN rn onnn wmN1l W y X3 731:1112 t Dsyon ?nsn
nrnW ir1nawrnn rwimn rim i,,y b1n mian 1ara on0nznw in 13 b
mN1wn 5ninn 'wini l18y =1111M "'iXI "3011nn PPI WWW-1
mina n2p'1i ,mn1nn lnm mn rTann rinam -an i 5yior 5m ixiwvin
7132" 187 I-mnl v51=5 np31 Illy' ins vy' I oinpWn nilmp zN
nwx iznms~n '7 nvn nnm~nn ^an'Wn mnvr I,= -i? ry rw auriv
mninnu Tyi Tonn 19nl rin rn Piba* ; N*n owyn 07yi riy

rmiS3 ai 1,301 rip=a irft rnns rrponi In=a nT-smn nr-ian
,13,W 013l,79 -11 M1111111- MM$ III= MD W1WMV NWMI -Illt rim
MW71 t3l'llV7lV N151 IIN MMD~It Wtt YIDI JIVIRM nYl
n2winnil 'm in n1p aan '-,11 nl'Ponw rsp'innn n1 iv uns

-uri niv rint 7npi0 npuson *>i rJp In= 5937n nit am
nvpo nT3 It nInsi.,n "orlm'12 ritI^ hs? wporl p1t s'In*
m*in niv u ns raw pniv* n1^7''IWrin inanar navn nt 7ivyra5

8im inr rin inW nw 7y, nnw n7y pini ^a Qn niri7 lb
sDWn minn 1- 21nn In? r t ri"yt im arn4 Int t3ivn owia
$7Wn s12a pwiit 11T 1ruin 1133m2 znirnnin ir lnT rinv 00n

ZWr MKI a13 Umn IT "ni'v 1'.S pity Dw "'7 Inv av3 7'12w
DR n' nn=2 s$1 13BT & 1nw ISit TS B"- Pity 133W i'32aiv
[ ST I





a 1'i n 01 a1 p


mrlit nvr 73 n'3 n 0onn nan 1nr 00oin inSt ynai aw nn
7 ri yinri KriW 't i ,71-in pyirin mwy1 pi min ran 3nyri
.i s3n t2 y 9nmrin n xvil jumW mn0al
m112 nT sn0 wipvll l7am n178m n'TArI wain 1nl TY 111iY .T
13,M1 7pi nI -mas3i irntm nr'Tn iftw inn1?
w3 v'l''ty Ns v 1? nT' Q1333a npayn npln itwin rspwinn
Iv~an'i ririi nn linirp jvni "n 7nTnw v n* nini riminn m
I'm 7Tnip zinmn ufti t1 DTP un '? x m r n ginm 11 0 7 N 7y
,n ri'WK B D:il 157 0y n 9iyn' a1i ,xnn3 T-SI' n aiua
rim nf'pb7 win 01 lm1 a 3 iWno Dnlyn X1=2 X1 nnB1 D"m nl .=
,im wi tnv ntn mit nwi ntv1 mirinnv3 m1 nan Tiny ,w'tui
M!yn I35?n^ X 11MR1 nM YA1 IN 1111M X1 77aT X9nl tMn 13M 1:1
"7Y :pntM 71V$1 Mi X NTSW wbnW D'yn nriz n3oa r'sn m$1
mixnD nD ,i3n iy in rmnw "an 3 xianr3 wipwi 751 7ni8 nri
ni08w mn nSWv ns ,T' pritow nW 3 i i Nlpa nipi im-ii
YI IM 1 32Y ZN i" S =i 72 1 }3YI M p I-M-i 21M 131&3n
1BlYn nlt' "'M MKs'n IBT 7W 0W nTt 'M1 10-11E) n'V B37IY- Mn
TnipBB nmz 1-11m rim r'D a ny ina ntv=8 n"apn Iw 1IINB 89B
rina -fttom min n"si ,inny riria1 mvin riuv rivyi n1iyn 7vW

rntyrn wnr1n ri-rtn ipTi mini 139RVI M 17V n Mt1 711V Ml2n
n? 7.xi anwjwn nn-Ba mi nin yK imn nnprix ma% im1 xn35?
nTI MT^ "In"ID? MtlsXa MW W7D -Ma 71= 71Mn -ft7tS rit la
-Til MN MW W210Tt IM- MY1@ 213YI IUIMMI -In "? 08 98 131
ntnn =-P MYD'WIMt17 & y W=19 13M Mi X,- "W- D1 U
in7mi niT rins nvi B^,tn naor nti nn"y n'7Sa a 7ftN

1n 1 XV a !) n B n 1,11-0M aB'107 Wlu Wnn ll1lnSY1Z i3'B111
naann "nIM?! n"Mli "M 7I C13W npM UM I~N MM- M u'X w MM B' Xl ?a
8938 ps n n"TB an 0n7 ^'Tn nos'N na1?! ,ifa 2y Bwr12 829 p

7nva r*'-n a~tv "'ny Bw3i s nnn "rr] nw n nnn1 vna inn? Bin
ItPiO 711101?^ -1: BDS nain 9" MA 13'M 1naa M3 Bn 1:3bt
p0ms1 n3171 ii ftna ra 191 2w ri nD niB i7 12?
182 s ba 1 na'71 /IBI 19na ibyB n i Th'n AN$ M 1[ T I 33tya





SI 'I n 0 1i u ai p


i'pinn Ti 71vrrn S '2 ,rann ranbi- '10= n B'pTirrin 'pvnnn
rn' Wa 7"9n rs 7a 1winn W 9130s Tsn1? aaDv p, X1Pi
wrin ;0* T3 ia ,n1m otin fpy nwinri Xp2 nRan -1- iw ma
WIN 219 113 11 -lnrii-n WN-1 Th -TD11PY13M~i 11 X- 080 UDVbn

ISM 'M X 'lii 091PIWIM 'IWIV- IS ZIM MUMt 7i121n,-i TV
71271 MI llY t' OR In N? iJs Tn fiTin Mt ITn aoPTIn mn IsD

wjpivrin ivW ITn,= -7vil 01 in-n lrnnn zr1=8 0nx81i'P

*nn "' s1?'in aT'pn Xna Kl ri 072 fl 1s fln D'n f l
18x''n as T'1?; 'i s1?3 K'an r2 h'7 1T N 0 'an
DTNDW 1BS31 DTs^ mnsa8 plan Bs n1?;? naabl ,C''3p )s? '103
W1PVITM 1 1 IS9 M 18012i 11i1hn2 11WS71 MMM 013'T1Y W' 17 17

1as 731S2 T'-rX ,nhi X$nn 11M1M B; MWM 72 '13YI 1733M
im-niv m7m3 ^In Brvsm innis nIiSnn n-Bn ms tripiv n~si


fnlv inur31 "w7mn rnisnB ini a ti hnni triulp w' T'
1prrn Dn T'lvn1w wTl 7isti pvim rianT tnn t?1 ivam nm1ii Dn iv
rl i~t irs-i rito8 rwyn linn rinta irntun r iinu w'10 iy
pisin x rani1-wity niw1 lms O'nit ran 12, na73inr7 poyn
inrwi~n ii3ynntv rnt 7is-1 na itn ,nTB anjr =73ri wsnn va
vi'a iiaYnn nn tsy w-itupi nlain in r 111 aa3 pn sipa i3s
1iTr' zlinz D ift iyx nms nav Tiy m3n ms tns rnmr1
,A3SipI 7T'075 7121 W13 0its a nn na s13m 09a 99 X8 sil
-ft W=n 7121- } ',1i'W inTB 112Y11 ",MV ''BI o M0 =t IDW 1
riyn 1i) *1 ',i m m0oan I',i s D as rTa Aiiyn r1 wv 7B'i
Bxnn2it ',inxtv nasi ,nintv rfn rnn1nr sip3 nn1 -lBl nTB
ijun min nn 1rw sin t"-i inniwna limn rn Tvnum it 1ana
I'li' T"n YD Illyin, 12=0$ -lnl n-Ii-IIt 711W1M 772 WIMIM
rnrinn n r7im wnnnn mrasa -inwa ion m nna i ii vrinna a'nvip
nmri ns 7, an s nin wtv :iy -7rrn nia In= a1yn ww7

n'7I a21TI8n Mn,7 MIYMI 7Yb n'1 1: 1 YP a sI ? Abi M I
71B8 nnonfnal w WB si ? x ivnn 7,WW '3SB ivinh nAni in
AMYnni 0BD18 -iaMi '"'Y s IYM =AY117n MD 'InTi 7t? Wn 3t
1 16 1





2a 1 -) i31 p


nabi ,1irmir "in vir x ]N iriayl mv?17 min rrin "n-ti i]w
,m1ypTr tripw ty MID a17= imyn m"15 TIrl "' naI-lim ,iwy3S
,n1ln itin 17W 1rinm nTM I-W Ir'm 310 -In mv In1I nwoml
rim ipw 1 rix nMT im nvm 17 imi niyT- rfv1 imn min riTa1
mip'7 na1na a095nin 3 a1T Bio^ 01015W 13nY '91Tfna Mna
1p'nByn M5 lyi?' s15 mnrirm'D Cm. 'T' wri 7^n vim 5z ixro &
D.'T'h51tp TVy 0t 'zmNs X51 "a '3mi 0mri mI0'11a DrinT Ti'w lm
Div -8*11 Wimnmi iT pity 1arl vx-l 0=,-6 'XiS 'I'rm
-,rivnri x1 mribyn m itti vi nT'2 mrn ftrn Q'raa 1*s
,a" 5?sy n 1f &7i aiyan 'r'i B m i N x r nx m T'n w'yn0 i
na iTin1 ,'mas 'rnnx75 iman mim i'xW 'vman yo iNTS rim n=
mawrin ivmsm ny7& msw =50? O wB y9 -m 'T 'yDn l9im ny'y
'X.11 12 B5? T inyinm I9l T'"I ,mvyn5 nria n"aprW nmo
ipri'vtB Iin' it1n nix wrissna trplyn t3,3,yn 7y, iaIn1
,'3xi xamrm1i i'1ian nx r1nw* T1 n $5n m5Dmn mmi tS Tnx
aM12b 18tr lilrin nswn ainn Ivx 7y, oam 1351V
ran1? ns? n'1: Anbn insa 1n1ni'l Awwan x 13 In1p, a"avirn
wWx Dn T ,i irr a un n8f7B3 nox rnnin rn DA '"m, 5'1nvi
Xllnin 5Y 5V nnp 1?T iTM IVWIAT DM aw 'Inn t3lIa M101511
B"SP ,Px imx -iwat nimm 5y D7T57 linbr trwvi, wa m in 'n,
x7vx Qnrmapyn, mss? uniT mtm r"n mpu1D nriT ,'an x5
T'3Sm rin, 1iw1? Pnn 1'til rri5 0 ni t3N N msn 5'wn
8nain nn 'x tio oit 'a m1 n MXII Z nIn ,98a nv y 1a i1xw
m mom insx 'arin n5n tr-inwr 5ni 1ii imina ilm nTn lzn0 -rpin
mlion mn5 MA naoanr in mm 'a n I nmx DSB iyi 157i1i inix
T15y inn,' X5 .Twx 7ip 5vB Tly 1T,30 I'Sm it wnT Bnix,11 '"In
nx rna5"Ii niin f t97p "Ipl nwn 0 17 mnsi mmnd -5y 'n Inn'=
I Vin 'Inr mWl? msiB mn 15 IniSm in Ploy 3x -Ivx ran 'Iry-I
yi ,Tr mN r ilix mni7iyn nainn in mwa irm 'i rnmimm
,wimi is 'x ,imn 'n w, 0nai ,ry9 vipw trpwrna npannm
[ 15 1





21 'i n 0 1 1 p


1in' *'7m 1s 1 p T7i tip innn um in ims3f Dn' Iu n m 5i 'in Ni
B7fl' nlps1 nT Zw K.S! as D 'am1 VV nas' 'n VI s19 n7'
Brl^ rBS=5 'n? niDB -i= 'sa' an mis ina In unsin tri














an 757.1f K'1fl 311l'n Kpi in 7i"T 3 rP. nI iosK?1~' lflZs??1l ln1?.1T
nanw ns iaaT'os'? r~ni rin^ -T= rpish rap; In
inriv -nx insa a1?o,16 iinr mtnia rin ri?1i n riami Bii Q nan
mSn'p -V Hnnn na 1 wit?? inni na rnwy sry5 tp'7i .'isa, m'nry

fnlioaV 1 ziriri5 ?Bv'1? ia oirinin lnvni'Y 7p imsnn f nsl .na
x5 zimT pni II o2i 1 fil w0m nT'K 517an -rnn i "min'ri
m-nvp -nY Inn, nn W1 n n 11nmi rirnwi rm unrn 9 min T] 5
rir,1a7? m1i?15 ir~i i3nm sm siz !a mini uvirna Dnnn mn
*ivx m0s nr DTn lin nirrna Tirm Dnn inw nri mnrn iin
B5?n '"in rniww 9m nin srip i'rni i 1 iani rn7p mr''i*
zirriin = rnTivp 1,, r=6' unin^Bn nri rm n-a nrmi~nnn
,-nru rnrl, i'Sim mina rvn1 trin, i rmw n-wni rmina
ilaws ma 1rs rm r8ninrivw 3o;3 I=N usna rii m1nnn 7n nnzi
lr minTl zi,' irmnn rivn rW-W t0iB z s, rmw 7nw D'7iB1,
tr'nin rmisns nairv ii=3 trrvn in a;ra m t,a,'3rn-vn 5n5
1ni trnwn nW 7ri 13Tomn myn'in 1ni nniWi ri1onn 5I,3n Qt0
IWSn 1IVX 113D`I rl I=1 XVIi 13111 7n 1831 lilVth 13H l
na lasii )iy 01laa sW niaa) 1isa7 s 1nT TWn a^'a 111s rsi




s ina imna 1nva r'n an=5 wri mi3' m?5 7O zi, ir"mn rnn
zirr-in rmni wp5 MAI rnnvi ziman-na mni?15 5in, ^ n' ,rsin
pni nriiin Dro MW rnnlT'S v I2x rn1, sm? awinwi rn mnv
5nt io ry trn nWs sma= Drr '5D mna mi rim ns ltn sin
on Qnn in IX? s 5y ny i,-, y-n i3rnmsal Iritimn rxi mninrn
yvwri mi ?-'in sin 5-t D"3B-in innmI ini0syni innsy
in0in n3"s 5n rs rrn xinw i3rpnn inli wx 019 '1nI .1W
,n, 3aB nsrrm xvn nwinn n -tBB rnwy5 Mum1 msn sin
way %5isxoi IBnws riyinizn rnis SI~m iryrr w~nn, ,iln v5
m,=5n iny?^r, nni n in nisnni Winizin nwym s1i as m v 35?n
r 14 1





S1 n 0 "1 ~ I p


ainni? Ti1tr &? inN -min ny xn;, .* 12z'7:1 tv In 15K 1 nI
lnin sn x'2sB' mini Mn -rVX nX 13 D'pl1ini 1 "M-T,7 0np1
ni170' imn nx qlovi 15 na9i sim wanm -m i5n 7Sr 1313 r1 Tin
iTIn y'a SmTv -7m winr 5m10 w? Wi mT' i 'tyy tvyn mw Sin wKnn
.15 i Mn'l 10 ID D'5 Q*) i *ID nX WMO1 -il2 ITi
U07man omn rinmna 051yav linnin E D Dm Inxn DM1 .M
ma1' lnx 3 ripWW n7pn nT mlb DI wxtri Inwim'a nsyni
'0nsl isy min 1Im -10TO31 1n) "0iz p1im lwln mni ml1 ,IN1:1
ni'tilpn *K7V J1 :WR rTy ? msl U51yl t3A MOY5 17 "Mn WT-1:
a1'!ltv? WtW 7rp n Tm' t 7^1 5yi2i m-am miann1 7 ,,n x-imn rn3113 n'bi7l N= t,3 DT' ? yr, n1 n3 rbim 1 &:n x-mi
ln71rz I Tmm 7m, r 1") M-oin 0 1 31 3 11-7:1 "Tr .1i83a nl '-rlx
-Imn n3NT ns t3 a '- 33 mi nIN gm mmn11 vin na m"2pi 7v
7T13iVl T"'SY UTn T11DViV 'l1 n'1D3 RNMO iB7Iy 111m'1S 1:3113
3mnnli xrma M231 '. 1ith m ltn7za Xn'B myl '? 1 13W3
nX InIM212 313113 1115=1 MNM 1331 nl 1212 m=IUn i InaNVI
'71T3'' 1B71 '7yis ?y in%3Bm mm-in1 -r1n nl Min ialisly
s31D' KY 08n3 mi' m mm1n nT3 nmy, 1"81 ,rr is7y N8nr 13101
,in nuR Ii no's mvririnin W-) ',",'W 1 W T"Y ,M-11nn
t8t wtw im ps-in nnvo B 5 J1 3 nitvin mani min rrii3a
nixinm? Tm iniw 1? ',-i I n 'y m aoy &7 nmv sx x 7n N
,15?y t 1Pn,' imamr' x5 ax mA -19y t '''pi 'In p5nn irn3B im-am
Dt3n M1 IiMM5 O'l3nS "'1,T7 W 11V nT3 lyn MM n M-1 Y'y
&Vi 0M1 I= 5X Ia pios3 nBi= IsB v0 Y"> FY Mn11M3 MINSWiB
III=3 011 10:1 11it7 tvB12n 1 n73 ri0 i 1 yiw .mTlSx *'Ti'1r 1XI31
'I'rl'mS -1 x',5 'Ix *BS r1 oW n310 311 n119Ai 'I3DB IN tioa
?"a3i ,pis wtv3 ?3n3 ,,- x1 mw "Wm rsi 'nw3 i nin ",i a
i3minx i:s1 ? pIr TS nT m3 1273 mn QW3 pim0 7y "t '-"v1
-r Wt irW wp -min -iTfxn awmxn,* 5ix 07 osm wninB niyntv
0 131 13 E35 Dnm'SBB3 11m3, x9v mini i'33 I1M3 1327it 1B1?
[ 13 1







0D3 15inyi1 -T3 nhn2 msyn a1'' -aininp UP i st -ra iVwn hi r' m5
r'n' W=3 IMX57Z ,l1l in- 03h5YI *'I MR.13 ON MiM ,1ipil
D0w1ih rnim 1ninw n"tir ,n'ri rrn nn 7 inix rn'Di <3a3 i
ini3 1311 "7MTY 0=1 o'sIT 7-730op WN 13 nin n TN' R51
K'-3 nn l'9n5 117 1 7 i 1311W i^I Bn 10Oa3 inMRin wWy '>m0l
Wiy ianriw1 va' r nBis7 i1,= ilpin nps,' nTRn n27nni a'i
via, & 7inn xhi riy1 n naw xhi n1ip'1-il Tovin va'wn m91
5ri 1im' -In 81 ril 1=5 'na u n ?z 29 ri' =51 mTz i 7wr y
n-win y7, inwrni n=5i -innii a'3uwn nx nritn In nAn vinri
inisyn aw'3snn m1w niun 113 rnpn 3"zw innxha n9w ^nr nv
lII3'I7iy Mna RDl 7M X1B 1 -17ZIa 13M Wn-inIn MAI 5YI p- I$i1
D7iyn rim iinn niyw 1nwrin =1 m0iy9 3n xAn n TIMM Inn MK rm
Ds m11=5 ian,,ith noni Tovnn ri vn z"R rin9i I'n=2 71inlp rin
iinmt 8n3 ri0n trii ir3n ysn hiS? 3rwy 1nyw 0iyn rt ri o 1 rn
MV '17 I MI 31y,-i7n 5a -01 las1 n110o lly MMM MINXD 71N
Difp rv onuni 0t n= -, 11-n3 o1nu ha or1Tpn -1i1r 'n nri nixn
ili ris vwhi mriis u1vE1 3"^ -n -,T ainp1? nwrn Qii rix
Dt3x h3i ryinwn Dwtan *inn rivy ivx -inx QA p9i niw-nn
n"ntii nirinn w-inn a hnai i3r Trrr D'ann w:illb i ti naD" t3,7
Drv nnyn xl i n .roni m'in nwyW nT3 n,,x ia'ntw3 mhi t31 ina
7,n nim= 7,x -im 12 -ips ti l ist un-1pi n 3 Wi1mn min i
i3m13 hy niT'rnn aniinn 1nat- nh5yah main nz n ,hxaiy
I'n "'M T lni ina 7RD aM n-I 712-11 i13113 7TIM NlmW -aR3
IT'1BI n3ai 1 ''a }0 Wi *in n3n33Kinty IT7 119 ,nilin Kin 'vi 7n
,nMa niY3 ",'I X5 1:111p "Mn MV alnp 721M 1W 1i 711tn VIV
'W0na X-33 MhIY,` a'Ian ipW? '1M 1 '0 1n0ID nnDDI ,a713=
h3 ihD' Wrin Tx xhn flinn 7up "/n anp niainv -iBx3 0x1 W1p
xhn arEsoiii 9,1ori5 rn in v, tR ir3rr ,hWi=5 i3'rwlpmW xi'twipm
wxn, 3 npn 51ai hsy Nwsww nn j 0n5 15 nabb imansyn Etwy
wshin inhiw.trv ww zB trt ,r'Winnn wnin 'T "m -R in1ain -y
[ 12 ]


2 1 1 n n 0 1 0 2 1 p





2 I 1 nln 0 i p


Inv 13 1v 2 (xs mll9) r?7 5in "m 2p-r 1vs Trn? y 5m na
U5? as '3 1a1pbna IsVI x3 s 1o'X's 13s 1ryl 1,5 y Ism3 X5






w'r-im Q'pin wpimn' 5y mbm nov5 Tr'n nip p1z "K nfl iW'
I'liK 1'101n2aw trp'nln 'm3 lmnr ruiTyln nnD 7 i5y '1W
'I l n1?T 1i1 D35' ,o tny MIa = "mF h lin M'syn 'nin2 .11
TW'13 I'n '7f "FT aa V ns ai 0011 w, T T TAl7 aKifNT Fi'Vw
I1v iTl lmn3',s 1 T Wn n"'y K', FITI nI-I'm rpf Nm n1TI rKaI
m5 witnn 'll rns fl', r mv 5yTF DIK a o1T 'zilri 5"mi Iv n '1
1V, imlsim'Kn xm III mx1K u M51 0r n3 rw llw 1 FIT' ivTf
x9m IrW mrn? trwor-I In? t3llvn ri D"M '7 N]1 D'9511'
nsmw nrnxr n'7sva 'irT lioni awiv 7m n 3- min ana rms 95i~nn
IDIMs nral nmv n61' nylnB na1 Inn Mina s-w X1IV3 110 19Ia
5n 1mna nvym nwimn ln m s N mnbva-T .wTinm riina
'ir 3"m 13BB mu1?O winn 'i "Tom W1ini 6rii tminI
tri Do 3 038m wmi1 pxiCn mwv rT mv nn i7 ia3 mvY1nm its D
ma I anssnna 7IsN P'l 13 na 1m3Wi -11=5 I'm nBrI'iTZ Im N51
rrmi mm orms nnnx 7nix urxS z33inaso Isnmr zi to5iy wn5ma n
'InimnI '"'y otny *'M5 ni2y3t7 ms *'mitw 12) ns 'a15' T uhnnW
miBnn irmirn 1wyw7 "inm 5ru 1i1 S mix mr Di m inB-pi
nm *9 w 3m3 ,'t 0sx ini5n 5s? by -T A17n mun rl iT 'l
ln x"ni 'm1 IsY Q13P Im2n 3"I I3B "I n ,,,I 'W T Dpri nnin
in1P 'InTn nI5 1n85?a n'n XN imu mr1pri 11'. 7n rm DTNsi
7Wm n33v ni? IBn insy mrnt m3Na nwx ITsiy ox nxT 1nT rms
15 1:2W Ilm '15Pri gmDTD 13,7wiv ry W13,11 11mv 01301 m,lt 7173
o'rTi rmnn m3 n n iy iti m1ir ,ram a1pni Initi 7n wi1
-=59 r1i=5 nxin nyBim In Im T1w x903 IBis vivw In1* rrin
[ 11 ]





n i n r t n u 1 p


Q'wrttnnai tnivmini man inixn u9in rapr TW1 w'Tina taipni
n n ia I-T'rl 7nT 7n1 -Don r^WX 0wK1I n wyn r r 131' nn
,VWTnInaI I1TU W"Tin nnn Y"m tnTpnl TRn IN= Ia3a bW11nin
1inW 9,1V ro 7Bnn ii wn n nwyn urn nwlain rN mr!) nmis
n1vyv P mTv ili *1n mn n51D ann,5 Diny 1 iwx Dn wAniTp
M-n1 Y15 MM5 n1U '131^ XTnI a3 TOD31 o5 anD '131n
zs xwm:1:5i oapin1n win mpi? ,imp nin tnrs nnS jrrn miW
D"mi ,rft3 nmvinnai rna hysisn o"m3nri mnit iu wiv naiw X5
wTrosn x5 $ nO18 n 017i ow ona winn tiu ,1- anrT n rin ,,-I
mra1 71 5 13 aIn nIvyw mDipv '1715 laN 131'i D"N Txn INim
inn Dt'ipni man'? 9,ovi nin rnm ir m xnn 1 '7a mrlainn
n 131B rA nnas nr9ninni rnoii Dn',1;? ow Dm-nrvi mnin '",Y
m wv mtr i1' 0 aw >Tpaa rr1nni t 0l1nrin mnirin nya r1i
-rl, Qt3n7, 09y 8 nftW inm yyn r'iani wni m5 na? p5
.nns? s innnt
nfipibmn itopri 0"3nri rnn '-Ytv ri 55n5 imnv T7 11il .-T
mn3 &NBB 7yn nix 5'?Bin nvoll an11 tQw m.a3 7nlyv
iinnpIn 5n xS' vintv r0oii -i5y oW n"aW ran1? nT 55D5
,"'y ni na 1 .ril1 mrain niniv i3nmT w5-7ann mt nvnWv
pi mrinrin i5wi 7wa nn3 9o= n,15?y QWW NSB m i"3anr mnin
T5?n &unw inn rnwam rann rnw TW I7ni5 ti7i& a 1Wx
ria mv ^wx iTWx -Y zii'"5 itv mswn a rw" nn r'J lli v f>yi
rnn13tirv ow1n uxi r1n 5 r1 nl3nin j0nxiii -)m n-n 135
i3Tnia TWW Dsua mini ,ribn=a -nvjin r1zrn7w zir1nawi rinip
ns ?a amiya ssan aNani inia nw winm ova DN 'n rwn5
1up -n9?vi inasisa rr'a nvWm un m nivi min r m'ilnrn
zi'ran-inin -iB nar sT1 ia =2937 7,m ,W r T ma '-i crauprn
'raw lam vin Dwin 5na ava x1 i 5nT 7x ri n-in im uyn 2na msna
TW wiO mmv17 s tiynl izlnnis nym ryn 1-i' Ti ,'-in3 y 1irm
in3 wtn rftl' TialpT ?1& 7T''si 7iT 7331 n1?9 r sB Pyn 1owi 5
[ 10 ]







\'a0m n111a in) nna $inm 1PD ua72 ps8 nan 17S Ty on'
po ri83 ,ibiin grin riz3n m-rn18 mir u ?wW y ix ,rinn ns 7 n
I;= mr ibu nr?3 7nsna ns vB miwi mro vTsn 7 a mrix nTD'
)rn anma riBIn nx-nn1 rim i^nn wvwitnp ni aassi 71 tio r

08 ~ ~ ~ ~ U NtSin MV 781MN W I 0172111P 10,7 =1SYM rwih
nam ny-75 nrriinr nn *v ,rnii rsi,5ny Dtyt z ninw-f iu^na,
rss'im bsni nvy nw-irim wnirin m asy 5=5? rnvy5; wrin njP5?

s'7n 1022na1Wi Q^ 131 D n18n n3''un1 i T'y0 n DTTpyi 'Tai ^B3as
t~bi t i 7= 11VnA-11'12 IN 111WRI i it3YDM M'1?1j'C 7 1b 111 D
X5b- En718 M't 581=2 Wi 'YI PlMMI j1Y-IITW 71Y"INInto -)3ml tb
7a3 ix ns' 7n riB -inain w'nn wnan is rcyn 5in rannr a'ulp rnan
nrsT tM s1n'r -nyi nbiw nnmann rn nran inp753 rmWb ry}nr
MSYI Y111 ,n3Na 1y1 m-w 7 I'm z on -ron Im 1'3 '$Wn nab n 7n W
jinjrw rnT t i tQ x Ds rs i rnnaix z-ni n91 in njr 1W yinn
7;3 nrix nQ'"a nip, ryuna tai mai1 r5n 5?i3ni -init iarm' ry-wrin
-rTly 1,5y1 7 NtvW X5 asm ,n^ 7up DwAn nIV?1 5?3I3 M51 yi-'n
ynwn nipri riT1 1nmy n7S n@sn n"s TS1i n1nm tavi o'pn
noiua nana nfan = 5 n=3 rnpnm= nT 7su Impnn m5 mAn
nsyn' w1tt= -Y rawn9 niaa w3upm DWWrl misWri5 5unn
n153 nw-'1 an 8s frw nsy 5-1 19W1 rillwbrin myos 1I1 57I I'm
-ur rN 599y DS31 a3BT w m73 n 'ins nix ,main 7 i nn rix
WSTi nnwint ion Di5yn ivy5?i xss3 -in ,xrosm in in
,arn?3 MAn 3"s1 ,aWiw3n nx I3aa ni1 nTTP nrinrim nwrio0nt
T\vW ssa3 Dlyn 7n p'0non'151 nplinr an n71,y an15 nnn i-)tv
MbI TI iaIph Y713 s1 531s TV v"3 1DX 1Y Dpn libTP i;itn
7"2?a 5n run ,7inr- uyn nir nijpn3 yn 7n 1nWi3W DWmn ii3m
jrinn ia rnb6O rimy -iasiv fT 7tp 5n Irmo' mw 7 ai rT'
Armfsi n 7rnWB nniNW 1 ua3 n1 -7 yy rininyi irim nrritv rsyn

,wTir tV' U11 a'lnIVn o'n 11SYI t311=1 111Vs3 ina nT'inn1
IT Isw II 71nn i '15'n "Y A11=3B1 731' Xs 71-10n mil '3
BP5?i W'Din an MITInI it31nTy CWI-I 13M U11 ,tW -yY 1w
[ 9 ]


2 1 1 n n o 1 t ia i p







nra nfy 2 nnw s1w ran ,ayo mwn pinI5 Dinrl irW Pr i
,nipT Q7P "1ny v'11V a15 125s'? 1an fllv Irmn "in YrWnhi ,'?31V
o0im n.siu n3n n, 15n rina n na 11n71 nirnn inlyn inmn '5na
.(TiBnwl 1fn ,v'5 rsWi u0n1i
Ii min it?3 afiyrv ziTuI nn nyT -inmI ipnI a'T infly .1
rim riyi 75?s 5i!) Q1?i vv1 min inx 1 -i"} ,ni-p Irn

nnisn Dn -'r I = 130 f rvny 5 rman r isn i', 7ny o 'ipn '3i
mInI1 rl73 1171 IIY DIM -12i1 -m1'sa "in -lrlp MVIn
8lai n w1a mpitp nW1sw 0inr riv' rayn 1-iiym a', IW, mo
uTD nwio n5n 15n Dz s1i rnTn im'pinm Ti yn rix t1inm ,TtOw
uta1 Bai 208 ,Th ^1971 18111?1 ^5?3 imnit ms3ia u'?m8n 0BSB
,II1a IN Mn 13111'1wis ni nWmaa nnS? ina w'in Iy-n -1935n
,iawz Tjp -B W amlW ix *1,ui irisn riny iln3 ,n imiTP n1iaMW

119 1 Disy a'7153 s '111syn 18inn pl NW s9n *'3 ,m11o03 *3 rDw
np1m niti 5nni u0na m5 amn a 'i iny Qinsa3 5o a m 1r1i t"
Iv Im nrasi iyn m osw lrw nnns1 pn m5 mn n oxnmw 5y7 nw "

n12 3"sY X m111DYn ain 1a3 a"am 'n1 W1 n11117101 11m'1=11I
(QnDfW Tipm nainnisn amtv 1- ybn) awnN asnam -ny Ap5
M5n ,7 AInas5 st3Wan ,"in 5" a tb 'ANIV nasn' MI1 0'17 =m5
Ww own In nxi rniWn wsann rin wnMn 115 wtv nObsyn III
tySpxin rim wxnn5 ni ia w7ni hiB a"us no1Tw 'w ynrI5 rn ia
,Dni mrTp nrinn imoi n5inn n yili nin lnrsDyn Iov0 xvit
n3T' 57V '573 s'7n '1T'1 R51 sn'h15 nn 15 v '1510 7tnxs1 asi
5MM 71W}8 11IM59 V775 111 5 bIPI 5Y0 nYl -151'71 75XVI980
Dpsiy TW'T' Nth31? n'92 1nn 1'^aa opis '8'Y 9 'B Tihy n7n nAs

i73 rm -TipbW nT 5n5 '3 iinn ns c n I mE i 15 rin n t'3 ain
n719 liv n'75 raw nW IrwiBn3 T"5T Q'Tr B 0=11 as11= I3S Tm
III, 'M Tl y 1:1 riWt 10D1 llMin pi 'nzln IllrK wani nnnn
mirrnwn 1in5? tin'a' n iny n nnn ?i wnvia irns rft ai 5iiB
11n1na nf7Bb QIO'1 nt nT DSIU1 DB'310 1 sim Fy 89 1WW
S8 1


2 1 n "o u I I p







7 1=1 pinn v1 s ri nimn ms Kf11=1 nvy 1;3 v'W5 7W TN nm'D

I' TSN s11? I AiYW InM -12T= Ml Pni p'P1 71TAl1 n170 '5.
TiniB DiB '3 7wal s51 1mI Il- n r1it 71 o~w n135 r 5' b 1MV
'i'p X 'i07 wi= run n a15 '31211 prwi B in maa nl^r 15 2'
rn, wnipz ni ri ai n'-n "n'r nn ana iw B'nnav ripm
r1D 12 I'lVDY 1119 iy"Wn n=2 m-13"5 MD 13 v7 lnx 18 11 y'w'"
M3 D 131 t T" ',1110 TiTl Mi NV37 1' 111 ial 51 NB11M X2W
N1 I' 13 ln' Tri 1n -p, 'fI'l n Ta l? nhinnp m 'nn"1
22 lt1' w-lBB p- nt sTna 135 mvp ",, M5 TIN wIVn N?1 m Inn
in 11i rip, X1? N3 o ny^ 'a Sin In 7n in 7,aW ':2w I= 0won
,Q'13B= 1310w Ana(11 91231 n 5D 5y nlvpn 7,mv I= 08a m wn l Ivn
n'wirnr wir=5 irur nbrw yawa15 viwin'nipT WIN nxs1 ti 5nx
riy,1 a0y0 3ioni u0wnn rin9T z9nw ziri 95zwr rin1ix-i n03v
QT3a 7,Wr 1 *T D 17n TSk s3 T 8 18? TV 1'ifi VT s N n',1a
urn rvin oi-I *wip in ? xx m5 nx -7y DT'n 5z ]im wrn
1X SiVO MDM Y'hi73 'WI 1Y T3 RM `77 MVI -Ty TIM 1311Mn
891 Q'921Wityn Cn DAY Dw'y 1BI nB3 ,nrn yin DW Dn 199?!
N1Y mpa ml? N N DanSTo 1' 1v 0" *5 ,1);=% =innl1W im wr
O1ywiy Wia jwa Invya it vlyns nvy' niw wir'tin wnaw : 11
nwly 09w1 a13minw 1 rwyn rim uaw -int rna n yT 5'y=
ftN ,riy-T i:a naw BraW m15 -i trwynn wy, m nB nDyT 5n
Tnri arWn lv8 nn rhy 1nin r'ii rripa mnp 9vw 7rDn xWTi
*1?rinin ui= *Yin un IN ==7 min rit maw ml-is wnw 135
716-p 01351 "Ml' X15 a3 0913Iw I T7I 7D oM 113 MMa ,ry1A1Wi
131 71-1 `1110,1 Y20? b n 1mp'N X5 b 7173 D7 `7ws3 13113 M521
,nrBn rina rnmpn rmiii w nn Cni S3wi3r n noina Dtn n3wn81
,on p13ri T 1 ,ini? Q "VIV w pDx 11mi s 1aiin 311 13=1
13,1. 13nix lip '"wil -13V w 0m a wnwn nT unn sri & yn
p*,nn p7prna pnawn -oys uizin 3n''nan w'ininoBin 15,-773
0a voninv W imTy7iw ana Yns x9 Diph n n'-iv nywr rn
[ 7 1


n i n a0lt21 p







02 na1 '131 I -la in nliun 73 1p12tv 0 "ri 11n In'Ci
12TB WI1a Pn a wry '172n ra'3pin tmav $3sxn 3'3yn
In nOB 51=5i n", nipnnin 135 7W xinv 7 m n11 Bpi zirron
t"D ns rni'nT nsw imp'rw nBmn SwTr rWmw 'a in in n1i?
11=3 1i113 11mi D WTTp wp9xl I'm7 n 09l1y Im ri 327
a17i5?nn 1 I2 i" m as mD, ns v rwy z5 1vnD nn 7p1m nip'm n7
Wmamyna 1P12.n D lWyl t3myni ,Wlnl luiv lisp 1h 7l W1 0bTp
'a 1iin rim B 17 Ca "n- 5ym mix rum amn n0iyn my cawn
NW1 130n1 7 nblyn 1 D'BD 1:13 3s 1310 Mionn B'i 13 777n
"1twn num wvr31 ,riftvi zlift3 u3'73 T' uni31 wx $7=
mibmlinn nwrin t0? 1rp3mlin mv7p3 TI =IpO1 riam.n"
rimvin nA m rirnn m1w 1883 D ,immi3x imwm8i unrmn1? m'rnpi
[3,Dnmia 0333 nI n3 rna "10 nX Tln? t3" n wnBl0 p ina3 na3
/'m Ca txv 9xi Tis* v'r ,-6iuon r'3si inxiwin non mm1n r3i
"-TE vo 'isn3 ri31, aa n rft7w mftiv i3,', Tx m xAn lionn nn"ir
13h 7W TR p- will th1?i 1 v, t pni -n7n wi-nin Tx Daw 7nmB
I3 sn "XnV 1v yWn sN7B qs nma PTp^in sin i1n xNT ltv
'Im Dryll1 lax .WW riT thwlym 1o01I NYv '" inN IDI72 &91
ms 01x 3 wn iinmnA wwm a xsW '3on sin nin mms &01 i in rin
,jsn' inW x na i3r 1''3r7 rim'n nrlt3 x1 Tx iin0nn in mvn i1
,nn 0wy3 mrirmiv 'rinx rvns QClph 7W nrly nA -wri 0i8
n*Bnm mBns? 1Nx iv5i wnr Tn inrp maianm nnnn 7,xm rW T
na' ^vw'? r n2r3m IlyF ns nBvyin 1:1.1 n .=3 nm3mn '7P 1111'
mV nill w Yw wm7? n Ir om n Ws) 1ni1 ,IBD sN ib? ix In
i1f nip' x50 zirn?^ x9v r zly- rin i Wn r P imw wPil-
X5 ,min I'l mm3 y, I' ny-r -lonw 1 3SB In N51 In wImy yrna
n1n3a nwy3 x1 nrTiv 71mn nlbpm I,= nuri pni mvy, nlyTS
,inD na 11i i im raw ^B liaD'a s'7i iIB nn1 ixWv 7s
fls Is123 tas P1 P00 N1 mTu ri'lizn r3n ,nrTaP nwn rny'n n3la
1IM mPS nvsl mipt -p, DNx 1 i T 31 Am', B11.0 '5W s2V a
[ 6 1


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S1 n n D oi 1 p


D13w Ini Ywrli 1I' 7s sNv Ir 1n3? m DW'11 o I fiT 1 ,Anyl
.013Y -Mn~Il 011 P
,nT 73 1? nnpn' s1 ,K'XBi iTT? D'13?fY! '3 DN M3'1 1 T .2
9i'n^ m19a'7 00 21 s37 li inaSn nT '73 1SPW N'Saa '3
atraispri ilniair y; -rw -^ 7ri n rni inan zn ornnai p -Trim
o'2IMpI, 1'fllflTT '1 1j W rfl A rD1111 11rT M iK OA1OO1 fT ZITMf
immn 11TW 13 0 l" t i r11WINa "Y 39- I-M I= I- 112 7INM 1I
'3 'n3I71f DD 1sn D'"11319 WW '"? W"nYMI 1n3a1a1 1 1RD I'l "in
DwV sf1 1f '377 0'flO21 KWn >i0'?O1 D'3'n37 12KD11 '1 1in
naO' 'v' ia3 xpi T 't "y iT 1-ri naO pnnn -1y 7W 1unu1 '10
viv nV r" n iprI3 n 1i3' rm TWP' tr i DW niK1 ",nt 1'vn
rim ntvyi YD insyni *' nwxs '7n3 tvn rr'yn vv inm nn-rn
finn arn K 7si -i3-7 17V ar O xv 1 Wi K v "m7 rTw'o v= 7n.
0l3n f i 'a1i ,137 fis137 'm fi'p 1K'13 3 7m DIsT ,fn131r
W~IMM Ml flin ,111 1tI n3la -12,7 712 ny121 wn-n it lI '11322 121n
wnmi3 m &hn u3nny y zi7yB nns nnin2 rfth bnn "rn8 xin
'?1 ny fiw1O nvy nnn yni 1T 13Inmf I' nm 7mvD 13tvf2 f7iy
1331a??p rn1 7D ii23'7 x153 'z u3ni 13iv33 nn^3 itmn3 n nWyn
in11 131n7 Wsn 111M x"In InBin 13sly"T' 7ip Wtn v ry5
TI' Ylsin min N plW I=a ,Irll sun' Run 1 & 0wn m rn &91p
qs irs;-ii Iwon rna nwivi jn'7i nnurwn tru x -w3n rix mnftn
ntiy, -InVK nwYnan UDIVI UIIV WIN '7D1 '&vpt 9XI I&T? 7ran rsa
srm'?s n n'r bi aw n n1x nw10 &W 7n m7 n1r nTn ^ ntn onWn
131-TR 181 M Y P R llVX Il89n 171 ITD 71M ith Ml-I0M MW 0
1270 123ns $as ST N s17* ''3Da pl nsr1 rW a"a ,n3T'oD' QW
-Tn -T7 awinn nwmrin n'BO nin1 owa3= I=ST rwu in3n3
*V Mnal M18n -WM 7t=71 nYll1 I1 TWW In Uni (s3t3n) MOnD
tft MT Inti 1307 II0 211 1111* MIZDIV 1"713 WMIRW MK1'I Tmn
riwnmn *ian ri Qna irnjpna in1? Dwanii na ;7irmi v 1-t,3 ptnn
DBS? 8~32 *'31 nan '715 iwWs? ''a 0Ns 'W9 y 07!? ww $ 1u 31218
1188 s 3 '7BS 1 8299n3? illpt~n'i nT3 Whm nbin WW nTa p-'Tnh1
MIMYT ni-MUM -3 MMn ZIY-n V1-331 tWsn MUMa sIn Btn3l M=
011:1:2 nX13Y10 ZIM 73It 11917 1M2 7IWA 07Z 81Y 'IrM 7Mn B MI
rny-vi xs QRiyn nw in"pin nnn ;73=5 1 a 1 75 y 731 ,nn rion1
m11s18 83n 1 sNW s111? 1n^3113 5alu 1? }K [f s^^ 15?^^ 3 's1c n
L 5 I





S1i 010 1 I p


nlon minx -11v '7Y T('ly r3a 7"ay n I mm; ,ninjp ?= I-an'm
iniml nlyxi rnivnri nispr 3ay3 naw n rimnx ,nm nzf n ?iyn
nan30n n ruinbm ri w197 Y rn= ni3mn wa' x trim 'n
*^snD 'ria1 ,m1mpn rm8 sNW ,n tmyn rwan mrim In irnwri
nmrnan un aftn nr m any rift iw '7y TvyS iin- '7^3 rna
,mn nn ,ysnn m00n1 nW m -my2rn inny otri niw 7103 nrTn
13 i7UV XM1? TiMyn Ilnp a13yIW oyaMn nIa 7'nal MM
05p7tw pT & ny x5 tWm Qmiya 7,xv ymy In ia x1ri mvprm
I'ml1ryau nx in try'munl ,Tms ili 113'1 oT11n 11 In T*Ys1 MsW
nslyn "tiv 7,-iyul, /N1pin jawn In .1 1- ,hwn T'n17"1A'
1m101 im1ism 2ihr 7amn nin ,mn0a ,I vm anr xlw trm 0 7n
,Q7 sain nrin v0 m moi T71T1"' rYs 11nsIAn XV YI-9i ,inaI 1Ty
1lvlpn IT J'iln ,ml 73 f na 'wI nl-n 17S mm ino tna IN
zlixiim tnonm 0'3rn pni ,1ia nysi rinmh r3w3 ripT pm n
U0TMIN MIX i nIMmp17 mnaW *l% Zn MMM 11 IB t Vjti
T'n r1pm2 13 InaBi '1W nIt it m lnm zim tvni: m,min r71pB
ipa IN Y'Annn anift z1s2 w1il ?ip tDaoin l3aya X MA
ni ribiw n1T5?n mnaxr nm1n rnsw T-1m in pil ,mnn7B nlynn
a'll3I Qn30n W l 9'31 "'77 Y111wit7 5an'" n1^p' 'D ,naipa
DW13WIn 71?71 P MIYnW 1)an N0I ,t n1mirr rftnmn i3nn n3n
D1 nim n"A D"wi D ip a imTini 7 31 n%1wmwn 117 1 -n Il3m
(nlinn 05 13Yt any 01 T*Wv) 'inl nn ?1s' D"N nabl ,a7lysn
IN M1* ni-1n nX X00 n1 ,*13 n 1`71T "V n'-iy T 1 blainn 3'3
Min 'Il Tnsn t111 73DM' ItVX WDMh r1sn ta -mn Tsn -1120
1an'"3 m1m1 "'Y p1 3 Mt nW 1I 1231311m Mn Zn W1Ms '"IM
am1 735y nT rim ,nfi nTln Q3 l1mrn1 xn61 13 mn 3"D nwp'1
Ws3 111n1 -fntrii n0n *1 in3 ml w irmnn17 nin msy 0t vznm W
irmam-7,p Dint nT11 inimb73ip x'n 7iraip WEiymtv irm l n 73
oIa''1P an'l3tv nrllvl mm3'Inni wrn-Tp a'xsnl3 mrm'tv "I'm 7T '7v
rig TNMM t1'1 P 73 x "tm3a '-3w3 -rnx ri171n mn 0tv0-3 vB71
[ 4 1






n1TlMm rynrr oritnip


ina nris1B ri9n y Y"all Wan ,nina sia3w TmN 'rin .A
xr-nxms r"apn znimv $-r0ma i"yn 13 .-bri wnbina,,
uinin zrm Irinv -m i 31n ripm3 umi-i xnDiwi ,Nby siai
13n uim -nu snaun UTNs inan In i", vynna jaim I1y irpm
TTT "- $1io inb0 sianom n r 7 -ion ririp mo81 1iown
9on02 m1 :ix ms a n ri$ xn mch Pv izmi pi ,r'n' ir1=O ri91t
yTT "'-pBiv *n9 x &r? Nwm ,Tmom ny-rian fNtim r3ya nmpin
a11 ,BS3i2 n11 Flinnys ,wrf? fW6 1z m i 7 1091Y ns Ix'sw ns
nWS?' nii wwnv rnn nis?3 -iv 73 n rim y-nW nvv 1 ny-ri
iws ?3 STTn n Sa BD7man o0a nwi3 lm lirixn n'? y T i y1?
Ix auD3 lilnm DITNi n' TW' D"N ,ns'io -Ty? nnh5 nay "'W'
n"3pnin ,t\^ rsi'9713 N7il ,23^ 70rion, -it7 5n rnvyy71 si3
0131i9n vir tCl1 I "13n '1Z Z11* '1 1s mlrW w XW-1 y-1,9
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