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The Role of the Caribbean in Black Intellectual Movements, 1940s-1970s.


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The Role of the Caribbean in Black Intellectual Movements, 1940s-1970s. Part 2: From Garvey to Marley: A Look at Caribbean Leadership
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Presentation Slides
Smith, Matthew J.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Full Text

NOV. 22 -1979

^*Planiof Presentation^

e Recap ontheimprtnc o tavl o hain
the deve^^Hloment ofintejlleculmovement
AND the nature of Caribbean leadership
e Caribbean l^ead^^ersad lbal changs in the^^
^^^post-WWI lI era.^^^^^^^^^^^^^
e Profils of varous Caribean lea ers and
^thirvaredinterpretations ofintej^llectual^^^

Feel Freeto s kBQuesions atAnyTim

the 1940- I 970
back and forth from NorthAmerical
regCI Ion.II t
SWhiileImIIanysettledi n lNorth America, agreat
many returned to their home countries. Some^ H
go^^^ti i~nvlein national ad ntrntina

encounters, aind Rinfuneth ietino h
^movements t^Bhey were asociatedwith


Marcus Garvey Brn in St. Ann,

Jamaica in 1887.I

Left Jamaica for the U.S. in 1915(

with itentin of metingBooke
T. asingon

Wel tslieti:w

otesngos ityAdheew r rie l h

nere ewnttaewece fth at l h
anymore thtsuhleso utc acigt

i i.

economic oppressin, which translats into social an
poltialtems Tus te bjctvebaisofth
prole iscetailyth clssstrgge. he C

[Haitian Communist Paty] poses the problem
scientiically without in an way deying te vali
bai o h pyhlgcl ecino tebak


ERIC WILI M rersnaie of thaiben

Caiba trinit colonialism

foce laou adacs are-h
symbols of fragmntation, with it

concomitants of association withI

rival etroplitan conomes an

isoaton f ne eritoy ro

anoher Thre an e n ne
dispensation which does not mean

the interation f the fragment

economiesof the peple of th

Caribbean by the people of the




e ^MInfluencedheailbyNoiCjis n 90 Hii
W^^ Kas5Bne o the ladKlingiteletul o h
^^^^nKillste movemnt.n^^^^^^^^^^^^
^^^^e Studed a Uniersiy ofMichigan on short
e ^^i~iTra]nsfra5mednirs aioais n
^^Biincuiv~^e apoahitoDvlirs; a
more sin~iasiteriandMbrua arat
e Created a c^mult of personlty all the whil
^^^^maintain*ingtht is was a Qnoiriste^^^
SProcaimed himsellf Preidet orLie n96
^^and ibS~eam a utlesils dcttr.





~- ~ws

Guyanese historia

Studid in amaic

And England.Y~l((~Y ) ~(

Militant dvocate o

Black Poer in JA


PNP Mass Rally -sunorr on
New Coconut Boardepeople control of RJR *People cheer criticism of oleen r

;Yi .- ; +-- ^^ r&^,-1 -^ ^ L ,SL. I)Ir ,, ,,+. .-- Foward to full socialism

ST+ WILLIAM GRANT _*- ;"J:: ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^*
A fighter .. ...... ... .
spor for the C .. l.. c.. Fo .... .....
people .... .. .Wk.J-........

T WpoliticaM GAl education I i 2B M ore l Cl

Course Arnold Rd. & Comp ad. opp. Wolmers 01
+Starting soon special gu : .. .... .. Tel 9w.-213.0
fr -Lo-ol outh ore W Sollda, rl I [ Vt WL office
p pthe ln lnl0ll -0 0 --rOsou nl
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WHAT IS COMMUNISM? Friday, Sept. -- 6.30 .3khool. Kings ton.
-. 003~in 0333.1 00030 0304 03030 9-t 0 SCOC-3o



e CarTl~iEibbean leaes nplitcsad utue

^^^^^tinfluncedBthePir caeers
SAt the same tiImIthe rdon n
struglies in the Iregioch
Revolutioi moivatedthe diectio

^^^ English speaking Car^ibbean.j^^^^^^^
^E Therei wasiihowe er, iagreatdealof
abuse(as i the ase o Duvaier)

Further Reading^
Colin Grat, egr Wit a at. TheRis an
Fallof IMarcus GarveyIII
and WorkSof Jacques3Soumain
^^^^NColi PlmrEricillamsandheakigo
^^^ SthSe Moem Cribean.^^^^^^S^^^
Darrel ei, Michael Manley: The Makng of
StephenDavis, ob Marey.- CoqueringLion o
^^J^ames Ferguson, Ppa Doc, Baby Do
Rupert Lewis, The Itellectal and olitica
^^^ houh t of Walter RodBney^^^

Full Text


The Role of the Caribbean in Black Intellectual Movements, 1940s-1970s.Part 2: From Garvey to Marley: A Look at Caribbean Leadership


Plan of PresentationRecap on the importance of travel to shaping the development of intellectual movements AND the nature of Caribbean leadership.Caribbean leaders and global changes in the post-WWII era. Profiles of various Caribbean leaders and their varied interpretations of intellectual movements. Feel Free to Ask Questions at Any Time


Travel and Caribbean Identity in the 1940s-1970s The movement of people from the Caribbean back and forth from North America heightened Caribbean identification with the region. While many settled in North America, a great many returned to their home countries. Some got involved in national and international movements. This produced a host of charismatic and powerful leaders who would draw on these encounters, and influence the direction of the movements they were associated with.


CARIBBEAN LEADERS-> Marcus Garvey -> Jacques Roumain -> Eric Williams -> Franois Duvalier -> Walter Rodney -> Michael Manley -> Bob Marley


Marcus Garvey & Garveyism Marcus Garvey Born in St. Ann, Jamaica in 1887. Left Jamaica for the U.S. in 1915 with intention of meeting Booker T. Washington. Was heavily influenced by Booker T and the Tuskegee Institute. Started the UNIA, the largest Black movement of its time 9the 1920s), with chapters in countries across the Caribbean and North America. Was deported from the US to Jamaica. Left Jamaica for England where he died in 1940.


Jacques Roumain Well, it's like this: we others negroes filthy negroes we won't take anymore that's right we're through being in Africa in America your negroes your niggers your filthy negroes we won't take anymore that surprises you to say: yessuh while polishing your boots oui mon pe to the white missionaries or master while harvesting your sugar cane coffee cotton peanuts in Africa in America poor negroes filthy negroes that we were that we won't be anymore We're finished you'll see our Yes Sir our oui blanc our si Senor And here we are arisen All the wretched of the earth all the upholders of justice marching to attack your barracks your banks like a forest of funeral torches to be done once and for all with this world of negroes niggers filthy negoes Filthy Negroes


Jacques Roumain & the Communist Party It is easy to see that the question here is one of economic oppression, which translates into social and political terms. Thus, the objective basis of the problem is certainly the class struggle. The PCH [Haitian Communist Party] poses the problem scientifically, without in any way denying the valid basis for the psychological reaction of the blacks wounded in their dignity…But the duty of the PCH, after all 98% black…where the color question is systematically relieved of its epidermic content…is to put the proletariat, the poor petty bourgeoisie and the black intellectual workers on guard against the black bourgeois politicians, who would like to exploit to their profit their justifiable anger. Analyse schmatique, 1934


Trinidadian Head of State, 1956-1981 Rhode Scholar; Worked in the U.S. at Howard University. Author of landmark study Capitalism and Slavery Led the anti-colonial struggle in Trinidad. Founder of PNM (People’s National Movement)Norman Washington Manley, JamaicaEric Williams, TrinidadEric Williams


ERIC WILLIAMS All of us here today, the genuine representatives of the Caribbean, with a common history based on the Caribbean trinity -colonialism, mono-culture with its polytechnic forced labour and racism -are the symbols of fragmentation, with its concomitants of association with rival metropolitan economies and isolation of one territory from another. There can be no new dispensation which does not mean the integration of the fragmented economies of the people of the Caribbean by the people of the Caribbean, for the people of the Caribbean. It is with this larger aspiration, ladies and gentlemen, that my colleagues and I sign this Treaty this morning. All our strength is in our union, all our danger is in discord. -Eric Williams, 1973 at signing of -Treaty of Cha g uaramas


Franois Duvalier


DuvalierInfluenced heavily by Noirisme in 1940s Haiti. Was one of the leading intellectuals of the noiriste movement. Studied at University of Michigan on short fellowship. Transformed noirisme’s nationalist and inclusive approach into Duvalierism; a far more sinister and brutal variant. Created a cult of personality all the while maintaining that his was a noiriste presidency. Proclaimed himself President for Life in 1964 and became a ruthless dictator.


Duvalier’s Rule Created the Tonton Macoute. Created a dynasty With his son, Jean-Claude who succeeded Him in 1971. Forced mass migration Dictatorship ended in 1986.


Walter RodneyGuyanese historian Studied in Jamaica And England. Militant advocate of Black Power in JA. Banned from Jamaica in 1968. Ban causes widespread riots. Advocate of Pan-Africanism And radical Marxist social change In Guyana. Formed the Working People’s Alliance in Guyana in 1974.


Michael ManleySon of Norman Manley Elected Prime Minister In 1972. Highly charismatic Leader. Introduced democratic Socialism in Jamaica In 1976.


Democratic Socialism in JA


Bob MarleyBorn in St. Ann, Jamaica. Lived in Delaware temporarily. Heavily influenced By US RnB and Black Power in his youth. Epitomized the linkages of the movements of the era found in Rastafari. Devout Rastafarian up to his death In Miami in 1981. Popularized Reggae Music.


ConclusionsCaribbean leaders in politics and culture, evolved at a time of incredible change in the region. Their experiences living temporarily overseas, shaped their lives personally and influenced their careers. At the same time, they served to influence each other. Nationalist and anti-colonial struggles in the region, especially the Castro Revolution of 1959, motivated the direction taken by Caribbean leaders in the French and English speaking Caribbean. There was, however, a great deal of controversy (as in the case of Manley) and abuse (as in the case of Duvalier).


Further ReadingColin Grant, Negro With a Hat: The Rise and Fall of Marcus Garvey Carolyn Fowler, A Knot in the Thread: The Life and Work of Jacques Roumain Colin Palmer, Eric Williams and the Making of the Modern Caribbean Darrell Levi, Michael Manley: The Making of a Leader. Stephen Davis, Bob Marley: Conquering Lion of Reggae James Ferguson, Papa Doc, Baby Doc Rupert Lewis, The Intellectual and Political Thought of Walter Rodney

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