|Digital Library of the Caribbean||english español français|
|About dLOC | Topical Collections | Partner Collections||| RSS|
|UFDC Home | Search all Groups | Digital Library of the Caribbean | Florida International University | FIU: Special Collections|
Cabsbean in B
ovmns 194( ~^'' ^^
" Bacgroun to Cribben conectios wit Nort
^^America andIntellectual Movements.^^
" Histoical exmpl o heHitj^^ian Revolution
" Caril^^bbean Movments) ndInelecual^^^^^^^
FEEaKL FE OAiSK QUESTION A AYTIE
RITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS -- STL
DA / S. EUSTATIUS
S/AN .TIGUA &
ST. MARTIN / BARBUDA
US. VIRGIN ISLANDS SABA / GUADELOUP
ST. KTS&NEVIS / t
_' IOUK"A IIU
ST. VINCENT AND -
O miles 20-'"
-1830 1841-1850 1861-1870 1881-1890 1901-1910 1921-1930 1941-1950 1961-1970 1981-1998
Some Caribbean Intleta
^^^^^^^^^e -> RTstafarfif
Li *FnVIJE UIOF-tJHE1
Les Anrs ET LA VI'u
fIrrecfur E. ItocMER
(tirrran-Rerria .snble : P.-T omv-Ma-r.crJx
J. Ren AX
Pt.-Tiot.-MnIet tn y-v
IJ.I'.IIe. HE iroatT n
C..RI. liesr tUtlt
l-emimr< 1 II.- 4uarcia LLari-cn
Q(ueulueq Ir-llaisionrie l- La Pne-i.-
L'.\ngICn tlarao..ud kaJlel
A ILramnial IL~-lirg.t
'remI i-* lie M; auiJnr,.
.rsl nme d. I' aur (szuitaI
KeaI No-.o Jx-..m l4l0.a nasl
Le mlt'.la wl; AiWarj.
ENIL&: Ift-I ILN
Trl. par J %al'L- lioitut s
Ife l'Ac.AJi uisi ftrf;an
C'AI.L l Iaal:allou
Pi. Tilenv MAlrar.cty
Pe. Tina; MAscraCLlr
V"Ltra- dr MIou L.aiNpr
At m.arn Vner-
Iac Ors ROCan:it
Trl. pr JaQ ers Rercals'
InWiL lliroTXUar, l.r.itc
Rtrsir FsWn. aiui
Tnl. par aLMa Acs
Pu. Tlrnan MasrruLc
t1a*. Awxtrdn rm a Cnmrbe & Mar&jjom
iURT.Al.PRINCE. I HAITI I
I" Anstem N* 3
S.wrlmc:- e 1927.
SignBnce teHperiodo h ratDpeso
radicalpolitics.TheI nle cs
U.S. (CPUSAl asfwell ~as ..SR
After WWII te MrxHist ovmet epade
and iinflunied party poiCticepcilyi
^Cuba, JaRmaica, and Hiti
^^^^^^^^ P7 ^^^^^^H^^^B m^^^
d^emocratic socialim in te 190s. Bilt n thePNP
reputatfiionasbeing le ft fromcentre.
"1) Incorporated several of theideas f contmporar
`':~, ~Wi: ?
S "- THE RISE OF
S....... ;...- *
I I NEDNESOA. l IFED
S"-- l MARK RICKETTS
The Caribbean has lwaysbeenintegratedwith other
"~ ~ ~~rlY~ In th twetieh ceturythee conectonstighene
as a result of increased movement across the region.1
As te Carbbeanenterd a trnsforativephase
1940-190s.,it rew eavly n curens coingfro
Nor^ilBth America, ndin trn nlecdteevr
current. Thisinfluene guidd the dvelopmnt of
complex interchange of movementsand idesacros
^^^th regin.BiM|^^^^i^^ ^^^^^
Matthew J. SmitmhBl Rdnd lak in Hit
J Maichael Dashl Literature and Ideology in Haiti^
Sam FarbierOrigHMBfi^ifinso h ubnRvlt^^ion Reconsidered.
Brin ees, adca Caibea
BaryCevnes asaar: otsad dolg
The Role of the Caribbean in Black Intellectual Movements, 1940s 1970s.Part 1: From Ngritudeto Natty Dread: An Introduction. W.E.B. Dubois in Haiti, 1940s.
Plan of Presentation Background to Caribbean connections with North America and Intellectual Movements. Historical example of the Haitian Revolution. Caribbean Movement(s) and Intellectual Movements. Intellectual Movements and Caribbean Connections. Conclusions. FEEL FREE TO ASK QUESTIONS AT ANY TIME.
The Haitian Revolution as Example of Caribbean Connections TO TOUSSAINT LOUVERTURE
Caribbean Migration as a factor in Intellectual Exchange Source: Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics, 2003 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics (September 2004).
Some Caribbean Intellectual Movements > Garveyism >Ngritude/Negrismo > Noirisme >Marxism > Black Nationalism >Anti Colonialism > Democratic Socialism > Rastafari
Garveyism Black Nationalism based on the teachings and philosophies of Marcus Garvey, from Jamaica. The UNIA (United Negro Improvement Association) was based in Harlem, NY and Had over 1,000 chapters in 40 countries. The height of Garveyism was 1930s but the movement would have enduring impact.
1930s 1940s:Ngritude/Negrismo Black cultural movement that began in Paris in the 1920s and spread in the 1930s among French colonial students. Was heavily influenced by the Harlem Renaissance. Involved a celebration of Black aesthetics and culture in art, poetry, writing, and intellectual thought. Ngritude influenced the Cuban variant, Negrismo in the 1930s. For French and Spanish Caribbean intellectuals it was the defining black consciousness movement of the interwar years.
1930s 1940s: Indignisme (Indigenous Movt Haiti) Jean Price Mars
1940s 1970s: Marxism Since the period of the Great Depression Marxist ideas took firm root in Caribbean radical politics. The influences were from the U.S. (CPUSA) as well as U.S.S.R. After WWII the Marxist movement expanded and influenced party politics, especially in Cuba, Jamaica, and Haiti.
Marxism Cuba Socialist Party Headquarters, Havana. 1920s 1950s Formed in 1920s. Had strong connections with U.S.S.R Suppressed by various governments. 1950s onward Influenced the revolutionary movement in Cuba that led to the Castro Revolution of 1959. Became the guiding ideology in Cuba from 1960s to present. Had a MAJOR influence on communist movements elsewhere in the Caribbean.
Marxism Jamaica 1940s 1950s Marxism in JA begins with Party formation in the early 1940s. The early Marxists were expelled during the Cold War pressures of the 1950s. 1960s 1970s Marxism grows among radical youth. They are influenced by the radical movements in Cuba following the Revolution and the radical movements in the U.S. in the 1960s. Several movements are created by Marxist Youth including: Young Socialist League; Workers liberation League; and Workers Party of Jamaica.
Democratic Socialism Launched by the PNP Government in Jamaica in 1974 as a response to the global crisis caused by recession in the early seventies. Had earlier roots; Norman Manley drated a plan for democratic socialism in the 1960s. Built on the PNPs reputation as being left from centre. Incorporated several of the ideas of contemporary currents Marxism in particular, as well as Black Nationalism and anti Colonialism.
Black Nationalism Drew heavily from the Civil Rights and Black Power in the U.S. Many of that era had Caribbean links, such as Stokely Carmichael/Kwame Ture, who was from Trinidad.
Black Power in the Caribbean Walter Rodney, (Guyanese intellectual )1969: Black Power in the West Indies means these three closely related things: 1)The break with imperialism which is historically white racist. 2)The assumption of power by the black masses of the islands. 3)The cultural reconstruction of the society in the image of the blacks. These are the areas with which we as black people must concern ourselves hereafter.
Rastafari Movement brings together many of the currents of the previous decades: Garveyism; Ngritude; Black Nationalism; Black Power; Anti colonialism.
Conclusions The Caribbean has always been integrated with other countries in the Americas, particularly the U.S. In the twentieth century these connections tightened as a result of increased movement across the region. As the Caribbean entered a transformative phase, 1940s 1970s, it drew heavily on currents coming from North America, and in turn influenced these very currents. This influence guided the development of a complex interchange of movements and ideas across the region.
Further ReadingEvelyne Stephens & John Stephens, Democratic Socialism in Jamaica Matthew J. Smith, Red and Black in Haiti Selwyn Ryan, Race & Nationalism in Trinidad and Tobago Elizabeth Thomas Hope, Caribbean Migration Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey Magdaline Shannon, Jean Price Mars, the Haitian elite and the American Occupation J Michael Dash, Literature and Ideology in Haiti Sam Farber, Origins of the Cuban Revolution Reconsidered. Brian Meeks, Radical Caribbean Barry Chevannes, Rastafari: Roots and Ideology