Electronic Appendix Materials: Effects of predation, fire, and supplemental feeding on populations of two species of Per...

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Title:
Electronic Appendix Materials: Effects of predation, fire, and supplemental feeding on populations of two species of Peromyscus mice
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English
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Morris, Gail
Hostetler, Jeffrey A.
Oli, Madan K.
Conner, Mike
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Journal of Mammalogy
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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Electronic Appendix Materials


Effects of predation, fire, and supplemental feeding on populations of two species of
Peromyscus mice


GAIL MORRIS, JEFFREY A. HOSTETLER, MADAN K. OLI, AND L. MIKE CONNER*
Joseph W Jones Ecological Research Center, 3988 Jones Center Dr., Newton, GA 39870 USA
(GM, LMC)
Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611
USA (GM, JAH, MKO)
*Correspondent: mconner@jonesctr. org


TABLE S1.-Model comparison table for multistate capture-mark-recapture analysis assessing
sex, reproductive condition, breeding season, and time effects on capture probability (p), survival
(S), and transitions rates between reproductive states (') in cotton mice in Southwestern Georgia
between 2005 and 2009. See Table 1 for column definitions.
Model no. Model K AQAICc 0o

Effects on capture probability (p)a

1 p(session) 34 0.00 0.91

2 p(season) 14 4.74 0.09

3 p(constant) 10 12.84 0.00

4 p(years) 14 13.65 0.00




Effects on survival (S)b

5 S(reproductive condition*sex) 34 0.00 0.48

6 S(reproductive condition+sex) 33 0.47 0.38









32 3.83 0.07


8 S(reproductive condition)


32 4.14

31 6.44


9 S(constant)


Effects on rates of reproductive transitions

10 I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex)

11 (breeding season+reproductive condition)

12 I(breeding season+sex)


13 I(breeding season)


14 Y(constant)


33 0.00

32 0.93

32 245.32

31 254.10

29 348.35


a Additional parameters modeled as S(reproductive condition*sex)Y(breeding season+
reproductive condition+sex).
b Additional parameters modeled as p(session)Y(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex).
0 Additional parameters modeled as S(reproductive condtion*sex)p(session).


TABLE S2.-Model comparison table for multistate capture-mark-recapture analysis assessing
sex, reproductive condition, breeding season, and time effects on capture probability (p), survival
(S), and transitions rates between reproductive states (Y) in oldfield mice in Southwestern
Georgia between 2005 and 2009. See Table 1 for column definitions.
Model no. Model K AQAICc 0o

Effects on capture probability (p)a

1 p(session) 34 0.00 0.93

2 p(season) 14 5.33 0.07


0.06

0.02


0.61

0.39

0.00

0.00

0.00


7 S(sex)









3 p(years) 14 22.05 0.00

4 p(constant) 10 23.60 0.00




Effects on survival (S)b

5 S(reproductive condition) 32 0.00 0.43

6 S(reproductive condition+sex) 33 0.18 0.40

7 S(reproductive condition*sex) 34 1.98 0.16

8 S(sex) 32 8.32 0.01

9 S(constant) 31 8.55 0.01




Effects on rates of reproductive transitions ()0c

10 I(breeding season+reproductive condition) 33 0.00 0.54

11 I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex) 34 0.36 0.46

12 I(breeding season+sex) 33 51.21 0.00

13 I(breeding season) 32 51.34 0.00

14 T(constant) 30 93.94 0.00

a Additional parameters modeled as S(reproductive condition*sex)Y(breeding season+
reproductive condition+sex).
b Additional parameters modeled as p(session)Y(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex).
0 Additional parameters modeled as S(reproductive condition*sex)p(session).









TABLE S3.-Model comparison table for multistate capture-mark-recapture analysis assessing
occurrence of peak breeding seasons of cotton mice in general (Model set 1) and with respect to
winter prescribed bums (Model set 2) in Southwestern Georgia between 2005 and 2009. All
models had survival set as S(reproductive condition+sex) and capture probability set as
p(session).
Model no. Model K AQAICc Co


1 I(fall and early winter peaks)

2 I(winter, spring and fall peaks)


3 Y(fall peaks)


4 I(winter peaks)

5 I(fall and winter peaks)

6 I(constant)


7 I(fall and early winter peaks; late winter,

spring, summer non-peaks divided by

bum years and non-bum years )

8 I(fall and early winter peaks; late winter,


30 0.00 1.00

30 24.82 0.00

30 32.17 0.00

30 64.67 0.00

30 72.68 0.00

29 75.55 0.00


31 0.00 1.00


30 18.70 0.00


spring, summer non-peaks)


a Model set 1 considers only 2 classes of breeding season: peak (listed) and non-peak (all seasons
not listed for a given model).
b Model set 2 compares the best model from set 1 (model number 1) with a similar model that
considers 3 classes of breeding seasons by breaking down non-peak seasons into those that
occurred during bum years (late winters, springs, and summers of 2005, 2007, and 2009; bums
occurred in mid-winters of these years) and those that occurred during non-bum years (late
winters, springs, and summers of 2006 and 2008).


Model

set la


Model

set 2b









TABLE S4.-Model comparison table for multistate capture-mark-recapture analysis assessing
occurrence of peak breeding seasons of oldfied mice in general (Model set 1) and with respect to
winter prescribed bums (Model set 2) in Southwestern Georgia between 2005 and 2009. All
models had survival set as S(reproductive condition) and capture probability set as p(session).
See Table 1 for column definitions.
Model no. Model K AQAICc Co

Model 1 I(winter and summer winter peaks) 29 0.00 0.59

set la 2 I(spring peaks) 29 2.56 0.16

3 Y(no peaks) 28 2.73 0.15

4 Y(fall peaks) 29 3.49 0.10




Model 5 I(winter and summer peaks with peak 30 0.00 1.00

set 2b seasons divided by bum years and non-

bum years)

6 I(winter and summer peaks) 29 41.07 0.00

a Model set 1 considers only 2 classes of breeding season: peak (listed) and non-peak (all seasons
not listed for a given model).
b Model set 2 compares the best model from set 1 (model number 1) with a similar model that
considers 3 classes of breeding seasons by breaking down the peak seasons into those that
occurred during bum years (winters and summers of 2005, 2007, and 2009; burns occurred in
winters of these years) and those that occurred during non-burn years (winters and summers of
2006 and 2008).









TABLE S5.-Model comparison table for multistate capture-mark-recapture analysis assessing
term of effect of winter prescribed burns on survival of cotton and oldfield mice in Southwestern
Georgia between 2005 and 2009. See Table 1 for column definitions. All models had additional
parameters of capture probability (p) modeled as p(session) and rate of transition between
reproductive states (Y) modeled as T(reproductive condition+sex+breeding season) (for cotton
mice) or I(reproductive condition+breeding season) (for oldfield mice).
Species Model no. Model K AQAICc co

Cotton 1 S(fire effect over 10 weeks) 32 0.00 0.32

Mice 2 S(fire effect over 20 weeks) 32 0.35 0.27

3 S(fire effect over 5 (2009) to 10 32 0.81 0.21

weeks (2005 and 2007))a

4 S(fire effect over 30 weeks) 32 0.85 0.21



Oldfield 5 S(fire effect over 20 weeks) 32 0.00 0.28

Mice 6 S(fire effect over 30 weeks) 32 0.25 0.24

7 S(fire effect over 10 weeks) 32 0.26 0.24

8 S(fire effect over 5 (2009) to 10 32 0.31 0.24

weeks (2005 and 2007))b

a Models 3 and 8 show a range of intervals because the interval between trapping sessions
changed from 10 weeks (2005 and 2007) to 5 weeks (2009) before the 2009 prescribed burn.









1 TABLE S6.-Model comparison table for multistate capture-mark-recapture analysis assessing potential for site effects on survival (S)
2 and rate of transitions to reproductive states (Y) of cotton and oldfield mice in Southwestern Georgia between 2005 and 2009. See
3 Table 1 for column definitions. All models had capture probability (p) modeled asp(session).
Model no. Species Model K AQAICc co

1 Cotton S(reproductive condition+sex+sitea) 39 0.00 0.68

Mice I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site)

2 S(reproductive condition+sex+site) 36 1.49 0.32

T(breeding season+reproductive condition+ sex)

3 S(reproductive condition+sex) 36 19.99 0.00

T(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site)

4 S(reproductive condition+sex) 33 21.63 0.00

T(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex)



5 Oldfield S(reproductive condition+site) 38 0.00 0.68

Mice I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site)

6 S(reproductive condition)T(breeding season+reproductive condition+site) 35 1.53 0.32










7 S(reproductive condition+site)y(breeding season+reproductive condition) 35 16.43 0.00

8 S(reproductive condition)I(breeding season+reproductive condition) 32 17.80 0.00

4 a Site effects are paired site effects. This effect pairs each site treated with mammalian predator exclusion with a predator access site
5 with similar habitat.
6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13









14 TABLE S7.-Model comparison table for robust design capture-mark-recapture analysis
15 assessing demographic and time effects on abundance (N), capture probability (p), and recapture
16 probability (c) in cotton mice in Southwestern Georgia between 2005 and 2009. See Table 1 for
17 column definitions. Survival (S) was modeled as S(site+sex+fire*predation) for all models.
18 Emigration terms (y" and y') were modeled with a random emigration effect for all models:
19 y"0=y___
Model no. Model K AQAICc 0o

Effects on abundance (N)a

1 N(site) 41 0.00 1.00

2 N(.) 38 21.69 0.00

Effects on capture (p) and recapture (c)b

3 p(session+sex)c(p+c')c 41 0.00 1.00

4 p(session)c(p+c')d 40 29.03 0.00

5 p(sex)c(p+c')e 16 229.00 0.00

6 p(.)c(p+c')' 15 246.21 0.00

7 p(.)c(p)g 14 362.08 0.00

20 a Additional parameters modeled as p(session+sex)c(p+c').

21 b Additional parameter modeled as N(site).

22 c Indicates capture probability varies by session, with an additive effect of sex, and with a
23 constant trap happy response recapture response (c').

24 d Indicates capture probability varies by session with a constant trap happy response recapture
25 response (c').

26 e Indicates capture probability varies by sex with a constant trap happy response recapture
27 response (c').
28 fIndicates a constant capture probability with a constant trap-happy recapture response (c').
29 g Indicates constant capture and recapture rates (shared).









TABLE S8.-Model comparison table for POPAN capture-mark-recapture analysis assessing site
and time effects on abundance (N), capture probability (p), and entry probability (pent) in
oldfield mice in southwestern Georgia between 2005 and 2009. Effects are given separately for 4
paired mammalian predator exclusion and control sites. See Table 1 for column definitions.
Survival (0) was modeled as S(predation) for all models. Bolded models indicate those selected
as the best common model for all sites (based on ranking each model by AAICc score and
summing ranks across sites).


Model no. Model K AAICc co

Effects on abundance (N)a


Control/Exclosure 1


1 N(site)


16 0.00 0.88

15 4.08 0.12


2 N(constant)


Control/Exclosure 2


3 N(site)


16 0.00 1.00

15 14.42 0.00


4 N(constant)


Control/Exclosure 3


5 N(site)


16 0.00 0.70

15 1.71 0.30


6 N(constant)


Control/Exclosure 4


7 N(constant)


15 0.00 0.71

16 1.81 0.29


8 N(site)









Effects on capture probability (p)b

Control/Exclosure 1

9 p(year+season) 19 0.00 1.00

10 p(burn year+season) 16 30.74 0.00

11 p(season) 15 43.33 0.00

12 p(burn year) 12 59.00 0.00

13 p(constant) 11 60.36 0.00

14 p(year) 15 60.39 0.00

Control/Exclosure 2

15 p(year+season) 19 0.00 0.99

16 p(year) 15 9.29 0.01

17 p(season) 15 116.85 0.00

18 p(burn year+season) 16 118.94 0.00

19 p(constant) 11 132.72 0.00

20 p(burn year) 12 134.30 0.00

Control/Exclosure 3

21 p(year+season) 19 0.00 0.99

22 p(year) 15 10.00 0.01

23 p(burn year+season) 16 11.73 0.00

24 p(constant) 11 11.93 0.00

25 p(burn year) 12 14.11 0.00










26 p(season)

Control/Exclosure 4

27 p(year)

28 p(burn year)

29 p(constant)

30 p(year+season)

31 p(season)

32 p(burn year+season)


15 18.09 0.00


0.00

0.13

1.01

4.63

6.96

7.27









0.00

6.52

6.86

14.34

20.30

28.42




0.00

9.93

130.58


Effects on entry probability (pent)c

Control/Exclosure 1

pent(year+season)

pent(year)

pent(burn year+season)

pent(season)

pent(burn year)

pent(constant)

Control/Exclosure 2

pent(year+season)

pent(year)

pent(burn year+season)


0.37

0.35

0.22

0.04

0.01

0.01









0.93

0.04

0.03

0.00

0.00

0.00




0.99

0.01

0.00









pent(burn year)

pent(season)

pent(constant)

Control/Exclosure 3

pent(season)

pent(burn year+season)

pent(constant)

pent(burn year)

pent(year+season)

pent(year)

Control/Exclosure 4


136.50

161.11

182.66




0.00

1.06

6.45

7.57

9.49

15.81


0.00

0.00

0.00




0.60

0.35

0.02

0.01

0.01

0.00


51 pent(year+season) 19 0.00 1.00

52 pent(burn year+season) 16 21.86 0.00

53 pent(season) 15 30.39 0.00

54 pent(year) 15 106.40 0.00

55 pent(constant) 11 138.22 0.00

56 pent(burn year) 12 139.90 0.00

a Additional parameters modeled as p(burn year+season) and pent(burn year+season).
b Additional parameters modeled as pent(burn year+season) and N(site).

0 Additional parameters modeled as N(site) andp(burn year+season).









48 TABLE S9.-Model comparison table for multistate capture-mark-recapture analysis examining the effect of predation, feeding, and
49 fire treatments on survival (S) and transition probabilities (Y, between reproductive and non-reproductive states) of cotton mice in
50 southwestern Georgia, 2005-2009. All models had capture probability set at p(session). See Table 1 for column definitions. Bolded
51 text indicates treatment effects (all other effects are similar among models throughout the set).
No. Model K QAICc co
1 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+predation*fire) 45 0.00 0.39
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food*predation)
2 S(reproductive condition+sex+site) 42 2.08 0.14
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food*predation)
3 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+fire) 43 2.73 0.10
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food*predation)
4 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+predation) 43 3.81 0.06
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food*predation)
5 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food) 43 4.07 0.05
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food*predation)
6 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food*fire) 45 4.22 0.05
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food*predation)
7 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+predation+fire) 44 4.39 0.04
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food*predation)
8 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food+fire) 44 4.66 0.04
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food*predation)
9 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food+predation) 44 5.80 0.02
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food*predation)









10 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food+predation+fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food*predation)
11 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+predation*fire)y(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site)
12 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food*predation)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food*predation)
13 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+predation*fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food)
14 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+predation*fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+predation)
15 S(reproductive condition+sex+site) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site)
16 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+fire) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site)
17 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+predation*fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food+predation)
18 S(reproductive condition+sex+site) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+predation)
19 S(reproductive condition+sex+site) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food)
20 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+predation)T(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site)
21 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site)
22 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+fire)W(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+predation)
23 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food*fire) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site)
24 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+fire) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food)
25 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+predation+fire)y(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site)
26 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food+fire) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site)


45 6.32 0.02


6.47
7.23


0.02
0.01


43 7.97 0.01


43 7.97 0.01


8.57
9.22
9.48


10.06
10.07
10.29
10.56
10.71
10.71
10.72
10.87
11.16


0.01
0.00
0.00


0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00









27 S(reproductive condition+sex+site)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food+predation)
28 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+predation)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+predation)
29 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+predation)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food)
30 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+predation)
31 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food)
32 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food*fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+predation)
33 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food*fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food)
34 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food+predation)
35 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food+predation)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site)
36 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+predation+fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+predation)
37 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+predation+fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food)


41 11.57 0.00


41 11.79 0.00


41 11.79 0.00


41 12.06 0.00


41 12.06 0.00


43 12.21 0.00


43 12.21 0.00


42 12.22 0.00


41 12.28 0.00


42 12.37 0.00


42 12.37 0.00









38 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food+fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+predation)
39 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food+fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food)
40 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food+predation+fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site)
41 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+predation)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food+predation)
42 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food+predation)
43 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food*predation)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site)
44 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food*fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food+predation)
45 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food+predation)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+predation)
46 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food+predation)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food)
47 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+predation+fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food+predation)
48 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food+fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food+predation)


42 12.65 0.00


42 12.66 0.00


42 12.81 0.00


42 13.30 0.00


42 13.56 0.00


42 13.67 0.00


44 13.71 0.00


42 13.78 0.00


42 13.78 0.00


43 13.88 0.00


43 14.16 0.00









49 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food+predation+fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food)
50 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food+predation+fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+predation)
51 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food*predation)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+predation)
52 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food*predation)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food)
53 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food+predation)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food+predation)
54 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food+predation+fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food+predation)
55 S(reproductive condition+sex+site+food*predation)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+sex+site+food+predation)


43 14.31 0.00


43 14.31 0.00


43 15.17 0.00


43 15.17 0.00


43 15.29 0.00


44 15.81 0.00


44 16.68 0.00









TABLE S10.-Model comparison table for multistate capture-mark-recapture analysis examining the effect of predation, feeding, and
fire treatments on survival (S) and transition probabilities (Y, between reproductive and non-reproductive states) of oldfield mice in
southwestern Georgia, between 2005 and 2009. All models had capture probability set at p(session). See Table 1 for column
definitions. Bolded text indicates treatment effects (all other effects are similar among models throughout the set).
No. Model K QAICc co
1 S(reproductive condition+site+food*predation) Y (breeding season+reproductive condition+site) 40 0.00 0.14
2 S(reproductive condition+site+food+predation) T(breeding season+reproductive condition+site) 39 0.81 0.09
3 S(reproductive condition+site+food*predation) 41 1.29 0.07
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+predation)
4 S(reproductive condition+site+food*predation) T(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food) 41 1.69 0.06
5 S(reproductive condition+site+predation*fire) T(breeding season+reproductive condition+site) 40 1.90 0.05
6 S(reproductive condition+site+predation) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site) 38 1.96 0.05
7 S(reproductive condition+site+food+predation) 40 2.10 0.05
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+predation)
8 S(reproductive condition+site+food+predation) T(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food) 40 2.50 0.04
9 S(reproductive condition+site+food+predation+fire) V(breeding season+reproductive condition+site) 40 2.66 0.04
10 S(reproductive condition+site+food*predation) 42 3.09 0.03
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food+predation)
11 S(reproductive condition+site+predation*fire) 41 3.20 0.03
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+predation)
12 S(reproductive condition+site+predation+fire) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site) 39 3.24 0.03
13 S(reproductive condition+site+predation) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+predation) 39 3.25 0.03
14 S(reproductive condition+site+food*predation) 43 3.45 0.02









I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food*predation)
15 S(reproductive condition+site+predation*fire) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food)
16 S(reproductive condition+site+predation) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food)
17 S(reproductive condition+site+food+predation)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food+predation)
18 S(reproductive condition+site+food+predation+fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+predation)
19 S(reproductive condition+site+food+predation)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food*predation)
20 S(reproductive condition+site+food+predation+fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food)
21 S(reproductive condition+site+food*fire) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site)
22 S(reproductive condition+site+predation+fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+predation)
23 S(reproductive condition+site+predation+fire) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food)
24 S(reproductive condition+site+predation*fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food+predation)
25 S(reproductive condition+site+predation)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food+predation)
26 S(reproductive condition+site+food) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site)
27 S(reproductive condition+site+predation*fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food*predation)


3.67
3.73
3.90


0.02
0.02
0.02


41 3.96 0.02


42 4.14 0.02


41 4.36 0.02


4.39
4.54


5.01
5.06


0.02
0.01


0.01
0.01


40 5.11 0.01


5.19
5.32


0.01
0.01









28 S(reproductive condition+site+predation)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food*predation)
29 S(reproductive condition+site+food+predation+fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food+predation)
30 S(reproductive condition+site+food*fire) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+predation)
31 S(reproductive condition+site+food+predation+fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food*predation)
32 S(reproductive condition+site+food*fire) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food)
33 S(reproductive condition+site+predation+fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food+predation)
34 S(reproductive condition+site+food) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+predation)
35 S(reproductive condition+site+predation+fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food*predation)
36 S(reproductive condition+site+food) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food)
37 S(reproductive condition+site+food+fire) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site)
38 S(reproductive condition+site) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site)
39 S(reproductive condition+site+food*fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food+predation)
40 S(reproductive condition+site+food*fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food*predation)
41 S(reproductive condition+site+fire) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site)
42 S(reproductive condition+site+food+fire) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+predation)


41 5.35 0.01


42 5.76 0.01


5.79
6.01


6.08
6.40


6.59
6.64


6.88
6.95
7.13
7.58


0.01
0.01


0.01
0.01


0.01
0.00


0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00


43 7.76 0.00


8.14
8.36


0.00
0.00









43 S(reproductive condition+site+food) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food+predation)
44 S(reproductive condition+site) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+predation)
45 S(reproductive condition+site+food) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food*predation)
46 S(reproductive condition+site+food+fire) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food)
47 S(reproductive condition+site) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food)
48 S(reproductive condition+site+fire) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+predation)
49 S(reproductive condition+site+fire) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food)
50 S(reproductive condition+site+food+fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food+predation)
51 S(reproductive condition+site+food+fire)
I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food*predation)
52 S(reproductive condition+site) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food+predation)
53 S(reproductive condition+site) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food*predation)
54 S(reproductive condition+site+fire) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food+predation)
55 S(reproductive condition+site+fire) I(breeding season+reproductive condition+site+food*predation)


8.38
8.53
8.56
8.65
8.90
9.55
9.91
10.15


0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00


42 10.33 0.00


10.39
10.57
11.40
11.59


0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00













06
Non-reproductive females

0.5-

05 -




04 4

03 0.3 -


Con1 Con3 Con2 Con4 Ex1l Ex3 Ex2 Ex4 b Con1 Con3 Con2 Con4 Exl Ex3 Ex2 Ex4


0 65
Reproductive females Reproductive males

060 0.6 -


055 -


1 050-





0 40- O


035 Con1 Con3 Con2 Con4 Exl Ex3 Ex2 Ex4
Con1 Con3 Con2 Con4 Ex1 Ex3 Ex2 Ex4 -x ------_---_-----
cd d i No fire/No food EZZ Fire/No Food m Food/No Fire E= Food/Fire




FIG. SI.- Model-averaged estimates (+ unconditional SE) of survival of cotton mice in southwestern Georgia between 2005 and
2009 in response to prescribed fire, supplemental feeding, and predator control treatments. Estimates are given for non-reproductive (a
and b) and reproductive (c and d) female (a and c) and male mice (b and d). Estimates were generated using multistate capture-mark-
recapture models. Survival was estimated over 13-week intervals. Estimates are given by site: "Ex" refers to areas treated with
mammalian predator exclusion and "Con" refers to mammalian predator access sites. Supplemental food was added to Con and Ex
sites 2 and 4 from summer 2007 through 2009. All sites were burned during the winters of 2005, 2007 and 2009.
















0.6- 0.6-



0.35

0.3

0.2
0.2
O.1
Con1 Con3 Con2 Con4 Exl Ex3 Ex2 Ex4 b Con1 Con3 Con2 Con4 Exl Ex3 Ex2 Ex4



1.0
1.0 Males: R to R
Females: R to R

0.9 -
0.9 -


0.8 0.8 -


0.7 0.7 -


0.6 -I
0.6 J
Con1 Con3 Con2 Con4 Exl Ex3 Ex2 Ex4
Con1 Con3 Con2 Con4 Ex1 Ex3 Ex2 Ex4 Peak/No foodE=Z Non-peak/No fire/No foo Non-peak/Fire/No food
c d Peak/Food M Non-peak/No fire/Food 2= Non-peak/Fire/Food


FIG. S2.- Model-averaged estimates ( unconditional SE) of reproductive transitions for male and female cotton mice in
southwestern Georgia between 2005 and 2009 during peak breeding seasons (fall and early winter), non-peak seasons during which
burning did not occur and non-peak seasons during which burning did occur. Transitions include non-reproductive individuals
entering reproductive states (N to R, a and b) and reproductive individuals remaining reproductive (R to R; c and d) for females (a and
c) and males (b and d). Estimates were generated using multistate capture-mark-recapture models. Transitions occurred over 13-week
intervals. Estimates are given by site: "Ex" refers to areas treated with mammalian predator exclusion; "Con" refers to mammalian
predator access sites. Supplemental food was added to Con and Ex sites 2 and 4 from summer 2007 through 2009. All sites were
burned during the winters of 2005, 2007 and 2009.











0.6



0.5



0.4

CO)

0.3



0.2



a

0.7



0.6



: 0.5
C/)


0.4



0.3


b


Non-reproductive


Con1 Con3 Con2 Con4 Exl Ex3 Ex2 Ex4


Con1 Con3 Con2 Con4 Exl Ex3 Ex2 Ex4
mi No fire/No food EZZ] Fire/No food =-I Food/No fire = Food/Fire


FIG. S3.- Model-averaged survival estimates ( unconditional SE) of oldfield mice in
southwestern Georgia between 2005 and 2009 in response to prescribed fire, supplemental
feeding, and predator control treatments. Estimates are given for non-reproductive (a) and
reproductive (b) individuals. Estimates were generated using multistate capture-mark-recapture
models. Survival was estimated over 13-week intervals. Estimates are given by site: "Ex" sites
refer to areas treated with mammalian predator exclusion while "Con" sites refer to areas where
mammalian predators were allowed access. Supplemental feeding treatments were added to Con
and Ex sites 2 and 4 from summer 2007 through 2009. All sites were burned during winters of
2005, 2007 and 2009.


















0.6
()












Con1 Con3 Con2 Con4 Exl Ex3 Ex2 Ex4
a


09 R to R
0.9 (R to R E tel

08

07

06 06
Fa
05

04


Con1 Con3 Con2 Con4 Exl Ex3 Ex2 Ex4
iaa h Peak/No fire/No food \ r Peak/Fire/No food Sem Non-peak/No food
SPeak/No fire/Food Peak/fire/Food Non-peak/Food


b

FIG. S4.- Model-averaged estimates of breeding transitions (+ unconditional SE) for oldfield
mice in southwestern Georgia between 2005 and 2009 during peak breeding seasons (winter and
summer) in bum and non-burn years and non-peak breeding seasons. Transitions include non-
reproductive individuals entering reproductive states (N to R; a) and reproductive individuals
remaining reproductive (R to R; b). Estimates were generated using multistate capture-mark-
recapture models. Transitions were estimated over 13-week intervals. Estimates are given by
site: "Ex" sites refer to areas treated with mammalian predator exclusion while "Con" sites refer
to areas where mammalian predators were allowed access. Supplemental feeding treatments were
added to Con and Ex sites 2 and 4 from summer 2007 through 2009. All sites were burned
during the winters of 2005, 2007 and 2009.




Full Text

PAGE 1

1 Electronic Appendix Material s Effects of predation, fire, and supplemental feeding on populations of two species of Peromyscus mice GAIL MORRIS, JEFFREY A. HOSTETLER, MADAN K. OLI, AND L. MIKE CONNER* Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center, 3988 Jones Center Dr., Newton, GA 39870 USA (GM, LMC) Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA (GM, JAH, MKO) *Correspondent: mconner@jonesctr.org TABLE S1.Model comparis on table for multistate capture mark recapture analysis assessing sex, reproductive condition, breeding season, and time effects on capture probability ( p), survival ( S between 2005 and 2009. See Table 1 for column definitions. Model no. Model K Effects on capture probability ( p ) a 1 p (session) 34 0.00 0.91 2 p (season) 14 4.74 0.09 3 p (constant) 10 12.84 0.00 4 p (years) 14 13.65 0.00 Effects on survival ( S ) b 5 S (reproductive condition*sex) 34 0.00 0.48 6 S (reproductive condition+sex) 33 0.47 0.38

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2 7 S (sex) 32 3.83 0.07 8 S (reproductive condition) 32 4.14 0.06 9 S (constant) 31 6.44 0.02 Effects on rates of reproductive transitions c 10 33 0.00 0.61 11 32 0.93 0.39 12 32 245.32 0.00 13 31 254.10 0.00 14 29 348.35 0.00 a Additional parameters modeled as S reproductive condition+sex). b Additional parameters modeled as p c Additional parameters modeled as S(reproductive co ndtion*sex) p(session). TABLE S2.Model comparison table for multistate capture mark recapture analysis assessing sex, reproductive condition, breeding season, and time effects on capture probability ( p), survival ( S), and transitions rates between repro Georgia between 2005 and 2009. See Table 1 for column definitions. Model no. Model K Effects on capture probability ( p ) a 1 p (session) 34 0.00 0.93 2 p (season) 14 5.33 0.07

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3 3 p (years) 14 22.05 0.00 4 p (constant) 10 23.60 0.00 Effects on survival ( S ) b 5 S (reproductive condition) 32 0.00 0.43 6 S (reproductive condition+sex) 33 0.18 0.40 7 S (reproductive condition*sex) 34 1.98 0.16 8 S (sex) 32 8.32 0.01 9 S (constant) 31 8.55 0.01 c 10 33 0.00 0.54 11 34 0.36 0.46 12 33 51.21 0.00 13 32 51.34 0.00 14 30 93.94 0.00 a Additional parameters modeled as S reproductive condition+sex). b Additional parameters modeled as pcondition+sex). c Additional parameters modeled as S(reproductive condi tion*sex) p(session).

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4 TABLE S3 .Model comparison table for multistate capture mark recapture analysis assessing occurrence of peak breeding seasons of cotton mice in general (Model s et 1) and with respect to winter prescribed burns (Model set 2) in Southwestern Georgia between 2005 and 2009. All models had survival set as S(reproductive condition+sex) and capture probability set as p(session). Model no. Model K Model set 1a 1 fall and early winter peaks) 30 0.00 1.00 2 winter, spring and fall peaks) 30 24.82 0.00 3 fall peaks) 30 32.17 0.00 4 winter peaks) 30 64.67 0.00 5 fall and winter peaks) 30 72.68 0.00 6 constant) 29 75.55 0.00 Model set 2b 7 fall and early winter peaks; late winter, spring, summer non peaks divided by burn years and non burn years ) 31 0.00 1.00 8 fall and early winter peaks; late winter, spring, summer non peaks) 30 18.70 0.00 a Model set 1 considers only 2 classes of breeding season: peak (listed) and nonpeak (all seasons not listed for a given model). b Model set 2 compares the best model from set 1 (model number 1) with a similar model that considers 3 classes of breeding seasons by breaking down non peak seasons into those that occurred during burn years (late winters, springs, and summers of 2005, 2007, and 2009; burns occurred in midwinters of these years) and those that occurred during nonburn years (late winters, springs, and summers of 2006 and 2008).

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5 TABLE S4.Model comparison table for multistate capture mark recapture analysis assessing occurrence of peak breeding seasons of oldfied mice in general (Model set 1) and with respect to winter prescribed burns (Model set 2) in Southwestern Georg ia between 2005 and 2009. All models had survival set as S(reproductive condition) and capture probability set as p (session). See Table 1 for column definitions. Model no. Model K Model set 1a 1 winter and summer winter peaks) 29 0.00 0.59 2 spring peaks) 29 2.56 0.16 3 no peaks) 28 2.73 0.15 4 fall peaks) 29 3.49 0.10 Model set 2b 5 winter and summer peaks with peak seasons divided by burn years and non burn years ) 30 0.00 1.00 6 winter and summer peaks) 29 41.07 0.00 a Model set 1 considers only 2 classes of breeding season: peak (listed) and nonpeak (all seasons not listed for a given model). b Model set 2 compares the best model from set 1 (model number 1) with a similar model that considers 3 classes of breeding seasons by breaking down the peak seasons into those that occurred during burn years (winters and summers of 2005, 2007, and 2009; burns occurred in winters of these years) and th ose that occurred during nonburn years (winters and summers of 2006 and 2008).

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6 TABLE S5.Model comparison table for multistate capture mark recapture analysis assessing term of effect of winter prescribed burns on survival of cotton and oldfield mice in Southwestern Georgia between 2005 and 2009. See Table 1 for column definitions. All models had additional parameters of capture probability ( p) modeled as p(session) and rate of transition between Species Model no. Model K Cotton Mice 1 S (fire effect over 10 weeks) 32 0.00 0.32 2 S (fire effect over 20 weeks) 32 0.35 0.27 3 S (fire effect over 5 (2009) to 10 weeks (2005 and 2007))a 32 0.81 0.21 4 S (fire effect over 30 weeks) 32 0.85 0.21 Oldfield Mice 5 S (fire effect over 20 weeks) 32 0.00 0.28 6 S (fire effect over 30 weeks) 32 0.25 0.24 7 S (fire effect over 10 weeks) 32 0.26 0.24 8 S (fire effect over 5 (2009) to 10 weeks (2005 and 2007))b 32 0.31 0.24 a Models 3 and 8 show a range of intervals because the interval between trapping sessions changed from 10 weeks (2005 and 2007) to 5 weeks (2009) before the 2009 prescribed burn.

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7 TABLE S6 .Model comparis on table for multistate capture mark recapture analysis assessing potential for site effects on survival ( S) 1 mice in Southwestern Georgia between 2005 and 2009. S ee 2 Table 1 for column definitions. All models had capture probability ( p) modeled as p(session). 3 Model no. Species Model K 1 Cotton Mice S (reproductive condition+sex+site a ) season+reproductive condition+sex+site) 39 0.00 0.68 2 S (reproductive condition+sex+site) 36 1.49 0.32 3 S (reproductive condition+sex) 36 19.99 0.00 4 S (reproductive condition+sex) 33 21.63 0.00 5 Oldfield Mice S (reproductive condition+site) 38 0.00 0.68 6 S season+reproductive condition+site) 35 1.53 0.32

PAGE 8

8 7 S 35 16.43 0.00 8 S 32 17.80 0.00 a Site effects are paired site effects. This effect pairs each site treated with mammalian predator exclusion with a predator a ccess site 4 with similar habitat. 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

PAGE 9

9 TABLE S7 .Model comparison table for robust design capture mark recapture analysis 14 assessing demographic and time effects on abundance ( N ), capture probability ( p), and recapture 15 probability ( c ) in cotton mice in Southwestern Georgia between 2005 and 2009. See Table 1 for 16 column definitions. Survival ( S) was modeled as S (site+sex+fire*predation) for all models. 17 18 19 Model no. Model K Effects on abundance ( N ) a 1 N (site) 41 0.00 1.00 2 N (.) 38 21.69 0.00 Effects on capture (p) and recapture (c) b 3 p (session+sex) c ( p + c ) c 41 0.00 1.00 4 p (session) c ( p + c ) d 40 29.03 0.00 5 p (sex) c ( p + c ) e 16 229.00 0.00 6 p (.)c( p + c ) f 15 246.21 0.00 7 p (.)c( p ) g 14 362.08 0.00 a Additional parameters modeled as p( session+sex) c ( p+ c ). 20 b Additional parameter modeled as N (site). 21 c Indicates capture probability varies by session, with an additive effect of sex, and with a 22 constant trap happy response recapture response ( c ). 23 d Indicates capture probability varies by session with a constant trap happy response recapture 24 response ( c ). 25 e Indicates capture probability varies by sex with a constant trap happy response recapture 26 response ( c ). 27 f Indicates a constant capture probability with a constant trap happy recaptu re response ( c ). 28 g Indicates constant capture and recapture rates (shared). 29 30

PAGE 10

10 TABLE S8 .Model comparison table for POPAN capture mark recapture analysis assessing site 31 and time effects on abundance ( N ), capture probability ( p ), and entry probability ( pent ) in 32 oldfield mice in southwestern Georgia between 2005 and 2009. Effects are given separately for 4 33 paired mammalian predator exclusion and control sites. See Table 1 for column definitions. 34 models indicate those selected 35 36 summing ranks across sites). 37 38 39 40 Model no. Model K Effects on abundance ( N ) a Control/Exclosure 1 1 N (site) 16 0.00 0.88 2 N (constant) 15 4.08 0.12 Control/Exclosure 2 3 N (site) 16 0.00 1.00 4 N (constant) 15 14.42 0.00 Control/Exclosure 3 5 N (site) 16 0.00 0.70 6 N (constant) 15 1.71 0.30 Control/Exclosure 4 7 N (constant) 15 0.00 0.71 8 N (site) 16 1.81 0.29

PAGE 11

11 Effects on capture probability ( p ) b Control/Exclosure 1 9 p (year+season) 19 0.00 1.00 10 p (burn year+season) 16 30.74 0.00 11 p (season) 15 43.33 0.00 12 p (burn year) 12 59.00 0.00 13 p (constant) 11 60.36 0.00 14 p (year) 15 60.39 0.00 Control/Exclosure 2 15 p (year+season) 19 0.00 0.99 16 p (year) 15 9.29 0.01 17 p (season) 15 116.85 0.00 18 p (burn year+season) 16 118.94 0.00 19 p (constant) 11 132.72 0.00 20 p (burn year) 12 134.30 0.00 Control/Exclosure 3 21 p (year+season) 19 0.00 0.99 22 p (year) 15 10.00 0.01 23 p (burn year+season) 16 11.73 0.00 24 p (constant) 11 11.93 0.00 25 p (burn year) 12 14.11 0.00

PAGE 12

12 26 p (season) Control/Exclosure 4 15 18.09 0.00 27 p (year) 15 0.00 0.37 28 p (burn year) 12 0.13 0.35 29 p (constant) 11 1.01 0.22 30 p (year+season) 19 4.63 0.04 31 p (season) 15 6.96 0.01 32 p (burn year+season) 16 7.27 0.01 Effects on entry probability ( pent ) c Control/Exclosure 1 33 pent (year+season) 19 0.00 0.93 34 pent (year) 15 6.52 0.04 35 pent (burn year+season) 16 6.86 0.03 36 pent (season) 15 14.34 0.00 37 pent (burn year) 12 20.30 0.00 38 pent (constant) 11 28.42 0.00 Control/Exclosure 2 39 pent (year+season) 19 0.00 0.99 40 pent (year) 15 9.93 0.01 41 pent (burn year+season) 16 130.58 0.00

PAGE 13

13 a Additional parameters modeled as p(burn year+season) and pent (burn year+season). 41 b Additional parameters modeled as pent (burn year+season) and N (site). 42 c Additional parameters modeled as N (site) and p (burn year+season). 43 44 45 46 47 42 pent (burn year) 12 136.50 0.00 43 pent (season) 15 161.11 0.00 44 pent (constant) 11 182.66 0.00 Control/Exclosure 3 45 pent (season) 15 0.00 0.60 46 pent (burn year+season) 16 1.06 0.35 47 pent (constant) 11 6.45 0.02 48 pent (burn year) 12 7.57 0.01 49 pent (year+season) 19 9.49 0.01 50 pent (year) 15 15.81 0.00 Control/Exclosure 4 51 pent (year+season) 19 0.00 1.00 52 pent (burn year+season) 16 21.86 0.00 53 pent (season) 15 30.39 0.00 54 pent (year) 15 106.40 0.00 55 pent (constant) 11 138.22 0.00 56 pent (burn year) 12 139.90 0.00

PAGE 14

14 TABLE Model comparis on table for multistate capture mark recapture analysis examining the effect of predation, feeding, and 48 fire treatments on survival (S) and transition probabilities ( reproductive states) of cotton mice in 49 southwestern Georgia, 20052009. All models had capture probability set at p(session). See Table 1 for column definitions. Bolded 50 text indicates treatment effects (all other effects are similar among models throughout the set). 51 No. Model K QAICc 1 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ predation fire ) food *predation ) 45 0.00 0.39 2 S (reproductive condition+sex+site) food *predation ) 42 2.08 0.14 3 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ fire ) food *predation ) 43 2.73 0.10 4 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ predation ) food *predation ) 43 3.81 0.06 5 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food ) food *predation ) 43 4.07 0.05 6 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food fire ) food *predation ) 45 4.22 0.05 7 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ predation + fire ) food *predation ) 44 4.39 0.04 8 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food + fire ) food *predation ) 44 4.66 0.04 9 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food + predation ) food *predation ) 44 5.80 0.02

PAGE 15

15 10 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food + predation + fire ) condition+sex+site+food *predation ) 45 6.32 0.02 11 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ predation fire 42 6.47 0.02 12 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food predation ) condition+sex+site+food *predation ) 45 7.23 0.01 13 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ predation fire ) food ) 43 7.97 0.01 14 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ predation fire ) season+reproductive condition+sex+site+ predation ) 43 7.97 0.01 15 S (reproductive condition+sex+site) 39 8.57 0.01 16 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ fire condition+sex+site) 40 9.22 0.00 17 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ predation fire ) food + predation ) 44 9.48 0.00 18 S condition+sex+site+ predation) 40 10.06 0.00 19 S food ) 40 10.07 0.00 20 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ predation 40 10.29 0.00 21 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food 40 10.56 0.00 22 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ fire predation ) 41 10.71 0.00 23 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food fire 42 10.71 0.00 24 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ fire food ) 41 10.72 0.00 25 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ predation + fire 41 10.87 0.00 26 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food + fire ) 41 11.16 0.00

PAGE 16

16 27 S (reproductive condition+sex+site) food + predation ) 41 11.57 0.00 28 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ predation ) predation ) 41 11.79 0.00 29 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ predation ) food ) 41 11.79 0.00 30 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food ) predation ) 41 12.06 0.00 31 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food ) season+reproductive condition+sex+site+ food ) 41 12.06 0.00 32 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food fire ) predation ) 43 12.21 0.00 33 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food fire ) season+reproductive condition+sex+site+ food ) 43 12.21 0.00 34 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ fire ) food + predation ) 42 12.22 0.00 35 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food + predation ) season+reproductive condition+sex+site) 41 12.28 0.00 36 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ predation + fire ) predation ) 42 12.37 0.00 37 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ predation + fire ) season+reproductive condition+sex+site+ food ) 42 12.37 0.00

PAGE 17

17 38 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food + fire ) predation ) 42 12.65 0.00 39 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food + fire ) season+reproductive condition+sex+site+ food ) 42 12.66 0.00 40 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food + predation + fire ) 42 12.81 0.00 41 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ predation ) season+reproductive condition+sex+site+ food + predation ) 42 13.30 0.00 42 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food ) food + predation ) 42 13.56 0.00 43 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food predation ) 42 13.67 0.00 44 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food fire ) food + predation ) 44 13.71 0.00 45 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food + predation ) predation ) 42 13.78 0.00 46 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food + predation ) food ) 42 13.78 0.00 47 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ predation + fire ) food + predation ) 43 13.88 0.00 48 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food + fire ) food + predation ) 43 14.16 0.00

PAGE 18

18 49 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food + predation + fire ) food ) 43 14.31 0.00 50 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food + predation + fire ) predation ) 43 14.31 0.00 51 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food predation ) predation ) 43 15.17 0.00 52 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food predation ) food ) 43 15.17 0.00 53 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food + predation ) food + predation ) 43 15.29 0.00 54 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food + predation + fire ) food + predation ) 44 15.81 0.00 55 S (reproductive condition+sex+site+ food predation ) food + predation ) 44 16.68 0.00 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

PAGE 19

19 TABLE S10.Model comparis on table for multistate capture mark recapture analysis examining the effect of predation, feeding, and fire treatments on survival (S) and transition probabilities ( reproductive states) of oldfield mice in southwestern Georgia, between 2005 and 2009. All models had capture probability set at p(session). See Table 1 for column definitions. Bolded text indicates treatment effects (all other effects are similar among models throughout the set). No. Model K QAICc 1 S (reproductive condition+site+ food predation season+reproductive condition+site) 40 0.00 0.14 2 S (reproductive condition+site+ food + predation 39 0.81 0.09 3 S (reproductive condition+site+ food predation ) predation ) 41 1.29 0.07 4 S (reproductive condition+site+ food predation food ) 41 1.69 0.06 5 S (reproductive condition+site+ predation fire 40 1.90 0.05 6 S (reproductive condition+site+ predation 38 1.96 0.05 7 S (reproductive condition+site+ food + predation ) predation ) 40 2.10 0.05 8 S (reproductive condition+site+ food + predation food ) 40 2.50 0.04 9 S (reproductive condition+site+ food + predation + fire 40 2.66 0.04 10 S (reproductive condition+site+ food predation ) food + predation ) 42 3.09 0.03 11 S (reproductive condition+site+ predation fire ) predation ) 41 3.20 0.03 12 S (reproductive condition+site+ predation + fire 39 3.24 0.03 13 S (reproductive condition+site+ predation predation ) 39 3.25 0.03 14 S (reproductive condition+site+ food predation ) 43 3.45 0.02

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20 season+reproductive condition+site+ food predation ) 15 S (reproductive condition+site+ predation fire food ) 41 3.67 0.02 16 S (reproductive condition+site+ predation condition+site+ food ) 39 3.73 0.02 17 S (reproductive condition+site+ food + predation ) food + predation ) 41 3.90 0.02 18 S (reproductive condition+site+ food + predation + fire ) condition+site+ predation ) 41 3.96 0.02 19 S (reproductive condition+site+ food + predation ) food *predation ) 42 4.14 0.02 20 S (reproductive condition+site+ food + predation + fire ) condition+site+ food ) 41 4.36 0.02 21 S (reproductive condition+site+ food fire 40 4.39 0.02 22 S (reproductive condition+site+ predation + fire ) predation ) 40 4.54 0.01 23 S (reproductive condition+site+ predation + fire food ) 40 5.01 0.01 24 S (reproductive condition+site+ predation fire ) food + predation ) 42 5.06 0.01 25 S (reproductive condition+site+ predation ) food + predation ) 40 5.11 0.01 26 S (reproductive condition+site+ food 38 5.19 0.01 27 S (reproductive condition+site+ predation fire ) food *predation ) 43 5.32 0.01

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21 28 S (reproductive condition+site+ predation ) food *predation ) 41 5.35 0.01 29 S (reproductive condition+site+ food + predation + fire ) food + predation ) 42 5.76 0.01 30 S (reproductive condition+site+ food fire predation ) 41 5.79 0.01 31 S (reproductive condition+site+ food + predation + fire ) food *predation ) 43 6.01 0.01 32 S (reproductive condition+site+ food fire food ) 41 6.08 0.01 33 S (reproductive condition+site+ predation + fire ) food + predation ) 41 6.40 0.01 34 S (reproductive condition+site+ food predation ) 39 6.59 0.01 35 S (reproductive condition+site+ predation + fire ) season+reproductive condition+site+ food *predation ) 42 6.64 0.00 36 S (reproductive condition+site+ food food ) 39 6.88 0.00 37 S (reproductive condition+site+ food + fire condition+site) 39 6.95 0.00 38 S 37 7.13 0.00 39 S (reproductive condition+site+ food fire ) food + predation ) 42 7.58 0.00 40 S (reproductive condition+site+ food fire ) food *predation ) 43 7.76 0.00 41 S (reproductive condition+site+ fire 38 8.14 0.00 42 S (reproductive condition+site+ food + fire predation ) 40 8.36 0.00

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22 43 S (reproductive condition+site+ food food + predation ) 40 8.38 0.00 44 S condition+site+ predation ) 38 8.53 0.00 45 S (reproductive condition+site+ food food predation ) 41 8.56 0.00 46 S (reproductive condition+site+ food + fire food ) 40 8.65 0.00 47 S food ) 38 8.90 0.00 48 S (reproductive condition+site+ fire predation ) 39 9.55 0.00 49 S (reproductive condition+site+ fire food ) 39 9.91 0.00 50 S (reproductive condition+site+ food + fire ) food + predation ) 41 10.15 0.00 51 S (reproductive condition+site+ food + fire ) season+reproductive condition+site+ food *predation ) 42 10.33 0.00 52 S food + predation ) 39 10.39 0.00 53 S condition+site+ food predation ) 40 10.57 0.00 54 S (reproductive condition+site+ fire food + predation ) 40 11.40 0.00 55 S (reproductive condition+site+ fire food predation ) 41 11.59 0.00

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23 a Non-reproductive females Con1 Con3 Con2 Con4 Ex1 Ex3 Ex2 Ex4Survival 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 b Non-reproductive males Con1 Con3 Con2 Con4 Ex1 Ex3 Ex2 Ex4 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 c Reproductive females Con1 Con3 Con2 Con4 Ex1 Ex3 Ex2 Ex4Survival 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 d Reproductive males Con1 Con3 Con2 Con4 Ex1 Ex3 Ex2 Ex4 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 No fire/No food Fire/No Food Food/No Fire Food/Fire FIG. Model averaged estimates ( unconditional SE) of survival of cotton mice in southwestern Georgia between 2005 and 2009 in response to prescribed fire, supplemental feeding, and predator control treatments. Estimates are given for nonreproductive (a and b) and reproductive (c and d) female (a and c) and male mice (b and d). Estimates were generated using multistate capture mark recapture models. Survival was estimated over 13 week intervals. Estimates are given by site: Ex refers to areas treated with ma mmalian predator exclusion and Con refers to mammalian predator access sites. Supplemental food was added to Con and Ex sites 2 and 4 from summer 2007 through 2009. All sites were burned during the winters of 2005, 2007 and 2009.

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24 a Females: N to R Con1 Con3 Con2 Con4 Ex1 Ex3 Ex2 Ex4Transition rate 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 b Males: N to R Con1 Con3 Con2 Con4 Ex1 Ex3 Ex2 Ex4 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 c Females: R to R Con1 Con3 Con2 Con4 Ex1 Ex3 Ex2 Ex4Transition rate 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 d Males: R to R Con1 Con3 Con2 Con4 Ex1 Ex3 Ex2 Ex4 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 Peak/No food Non-peak/No fire/No food Non-peak/Fire/No food Peak/Food Non-peak/No fire/Food Non-peak/Fire/Food FIG. Model averaged estimates ( unconditional SE) of reproductive transitions for male and female cotton mice in southwe stern Georgia between 2005 and 2009 during peak breeding seasons (fall and early winter), nonpeak seasons during which burning did not occur and nonpeak seasons during which burning did occur. Transitions include nonreproductive individuals entering rep roductive states (N to R, a and b) and reproductive individuals remaining reproductive (R to R; c and d) for females (a and c) and males (b and d). Estimates were generated using multistate capture mark recapture models. Transitions occurred over 13week i ntervals. Estimates are given by site: Ex refers to areas treated with mammalian predator exclusion; Con refers to mammal ian predator access sites. Supplemental food was added to Con and Ex sites 2 and 4 from summer 2007 through 2009. All sites were burned during the winters of 2005, 2007 and 2009.

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25 a Non-reproductive Con1 Con3 Con2 Con4 Ex1 Ex3 Ex2 Ex4Survival 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 b Reproductive Con1 Con3 Con2 Con4 Ex1 Ex3 Ex2 Ex4Survival 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 No fire/No food Fire/No food Food/No fire Food/Fire FIG. Model averaged survival estimates ( unconditional SE) of oldfield mice in southwestern Georgia between 2005 and 2009 in response to presc ribed fire, supplemental feeding, and predator control treatments. Estimates are given for nonreproductive (a) and reproductive (b) individuals. Estimates were generated using multistate capturemark recapture models. Survival was estimated over 13week intervals. Estimates are given by site: Ex sites refer to areas treated with mammalian predator exclusion while Con sites refer to areas where mammalian predators were allowed access. Supplemental feeding treatments were added to Con and Ex sites 2 and 4 from summer 2007 through 2009. All sites were burned during winters of 2005, 2007 and 2009.

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26 a N to R Con1 Con3 Con2 Con4 Ex1 Ex3 Ex2 Ex4Transition rate 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 R to R Con1 Con3 Con2 Con4 Ex1 Ex3 Ex2 Ex4Transition rate 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 Peak/No fire/No food Peak/Fire/No food Non-peak/No food Peak/No fire/Food Peak/fire/Food Non-peak/Food b FIG. Model averaged estimates of breedin g transitions ( unconditional SE) for oldfield mice in southwestern Georgia between 2005 and 2009 during peak breeding seasons (winter and summer) in burn and non burn years and nonpeak breeding seasons. Transitions include nonreproductive individuals e ntering reproductive states (N to R; a) and reproductive individuals remaining reproductive (R to R; b). Estimates were generated using multistate capture mark recapture models. Transitions were estimated over 13 week intervals. Estimates are given by site : Ex sites refer to areas treated with mammalian predator exclusion while Con sites refer to areas where mammalian predators were allowed access. Supplemental feeding treatments were added to Con and Ex sites 2 and 4 from summer 2007 through 2009. All sites were burned during the winters of 2005, 2007 and 2009.