Messrs. Carrere & Hastings, architects : a study of the careers and works of John Merven Carrere & Thomas Hastings

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Messrs. Carrere & Hastings, architects : a study of the careers and works of John Merven Carrere & Thomas Hastings
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Everhard, David L.
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College of Architecure, University of Florida
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"IESSRS. CARRERE AND HASTINGS: ARCHITECTS"


A Study of the Careers and Works of John Merven
Carrere and Thomas Hastings, Beaux Arts Architects
of New York City, New York




















David L. Eve .hard


June 1, 1977









TABLE OF CONTENTS



"Messrs. Carrere and Hastings: Architects." ................1



Footnotes....................*.................. ..........***



Bibliography..... ...........................................36



Slide sources..........................................38












"MESSRS. CARRERE AND HASTITGS: ARCHITECTS"


History 676-Philip Wisely, Inst.

Spring 1977




David L. Everhard











John Merven Carrere was born in Rio de Janeiro in 1858, the

sIDE son of an American family of French, Scotch and Irish descent, his
father being a coffee merchant from Baltimore (also John Carrere).

JHis early education took place in Baropean schools and he later

attended the Institute Breitenstein in Switzerland. Spending his

vacations with his paternal grandmother in Dieppe, France, he proved

himself to be an adept draftsman by making careful sketches of her

old house and subsequently entered the Ecole des Beaux Arts in 1878.

He received his diploma in four years, 1882.1 While at the Ecole

he studied in the Atelier of Victor Robert, Charles Laisne, and

Leon Ginain. It is always interesting to try and note the influence

which masters have on the later work of their pupils as an author

points out in regard to Carrere's work. "Laisne, who was an exponent

of Gothic architecture, left no impression upon the works of his

pupil; but one may well believe that Ginain did, as the influence

of the 'Neo-Grec' master is more perceptible in all of the more

serious monumental works of the firm of Carrere and Hastings...

in all of which the great breadth characteristic of Ginain is

evident."2

After graduating from the Ecole des Beaux Arts, Carrere re-

turned to America and became a member of the office of McKim, Mead,

and White where he worked for a period of three years until he and

Thomas Hastings, another employee in the same office, became disen-

chanted with subservience and branched off to form the office of

Carrere and Hastings. It is necessary to introduce Thomas Hastings,

however, before dealing with the partnership.

Thomas hastings wa-s a lifelong New Yorker, born in that city




































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in which he was to become well-known on March 1, 1860. he was the

son of a reputable Presbyterian clergyman, Dr. Thomas S. Hastings,

was educated in private schools, and later entered Columbia Univ-

ersity to complete a two-year course of study. It was at this time

that he submitted a drawing he had done of a country house to the

American Architecture and Building News which was published in the

October, 1879 edition. Although its plan and elevations are some-

what muddled in function and composition, the draftsmanship shows

the quality which was to characterize his later work. (See Fig. 1,

p.h). hastings, like Carrere, attended the Ecole des Beaux Arts
until 188h when he returned to New York and entered the drafting

department of McKim, Mead and VWhite where he worked for about one

year and became acquainted with Mr. Carrere. Mr. Hastings recalls

their early meeting in a letter of 1909. "Mr. Carrere and I had

only met once while in Paris as students at the Beaux Arts, and it

was not until we had come together again in the office of kcKim,

Mead and White that the thought occurred to us to go into partner-

ship. ir. Carrere superintended an important house in Baltimore,

while I was working on plans of the same house, in the office.

This is what brought us together, and it was in the back part"of

their office, with nothing to do, that we first started doing it-

really waiting until something might come our way..."

The extensive influence that the office of McKim, Mead and

White exerted over the entire realm of architecture in their con-

temporary time period is a generally accepted fact, but the newly

formed partnership of Carrere and Hastings was to become one of

McKim, Mead and vThite's best competitors. The architectural crit-

iques written in periodicals of the time almost always seem to refer

to this competition and to the comparison and contrast between the









the two offices. It is also important to consider the effect that

the time spent in McKim, Mead and White's office may have had on

Carrere and Hastings. Francis Sw'ales makes this comment concerning

these subjects in Carrere's epitaph of 1911, "It may be said that

the 'Atelier' of McKim, Mead and White of that time was the nursery

(though not quite the cradle) of the present day school of American

architecture-architecture founded upon classic lines, but at once

modern, appropriate and original in the highest sense of the word.

I would be unjust to the younger men to promote any impression that

they were mere followers of a school of which McKim, Mead and White

were the masters. With more accuracy it may be said that McKim and

White-and the late Augustus Saint-Gaudens, the sculptor, too-were,

like the others, members of a circle of artists possessing many

ideas in common, who brought back to New York an enthusiasm nurtured

by their studies in France...From a close study and intimate knowledge

of the work of each of these men, the writer long ago came to the

conclusion that to (Cass) Gilbert and Carrere especially McKim, 1ead

and White owed more in point of influence than either owed to them.

One has to turn back to old sketches and reproductions of designs

made by each in student days to get at the real calibration of the

finished architect....Hastings and Babb had a pronounced bent towards

the fifteenth century Italian and the Early French and Spanish

Renaissance...Carrere, however, appears to have had but one love,

and that the late French Renaissance..4 So, it seems that to

overestimate the effect of Carrere and Hastings office experience

with McKim, Iead and White on their later practice would be a

disservice. They were architects with individual ideas already

formed in their student days at tne Ecole des Beaux Arts who would

have been more apt to influence an office than to be influenced by it.

5









This may be merely supposition but it appears that for Carrere and

Hastings to work for McKim, Mead, and White too long may have indeed

been stifling for such individuals. Thus their emergence at such a

young age as an important architectural firm (mainly through the

grace and beneficence of Henry Flagler) probably had a practical

effect in allowing them to maintain an idealistic and resilient

nature in their work.

Mr. Thomas Hastings continues in his previously mentioned

letter of 1909, "At last the opportunity arrived when Mr. Flagler

sent for me to say that he wanted us to make a 'pretty picture'

for a hotel at St. Augustine, and that he had in his employ two

local builders who would make the working drawings and superintend

the putting up of the building, so that after the 'picture' was

finished our services would no longer be required."5 The "pretty

picture" that Carere and Hastings created for Flagler was named

S- 0 the Ponce de Leon Hotel, a work that covered nearly six acres of

ground. Carrere and Hastings soon became involved with the pro-

duction of the working drawings, the supervision of the construction,

and even the decoration of some of the interiors. The relationship

of Carrere and Hastings with Henry Flagler was to become more and

more involved as Flagler realized the potential of his two young

architects. In addition to the Ponce de Leon Hotel in St. Augustine,

11-15 the young team also designed the adjacent "Poor Man's Hotell,' the
K-20 Alcazar; the Grace i. E. Church and Parsonage; the Flagler House;

-2*- and the Flagler Memorial (Presbyterian) Church with its adjacent

Z7 Flagler Mausoleum; most of which were designed and built within

a period of about two years.

The buildings in St. Augustine were all designed in a Spanish







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PONCED DE LEON HOTEL (1887).


Renaissance motif (except for Flagler's residence whiich is a

neo-classical style) but, more importantly, they incorporated the

use of poured concrete as a major element in the construction, and

subsequently, the first use of concrete in a major edifice of this

size in the United States was in the Ponce de Leon Hotel. The concrete

2. is used as an infill material, poured in conjunction vrith brick

arches and terra cotta work. It is in remarkably good state today

and shows no major faults or deterioration in general.

Although the two churches have maintained their original func-

tions, both of the hotels have taken on different uses. The Ponce

de Leon is now the Flagler College although it has not been remodeled

or changed significantly. The Alcazar (which is directly across the

street from the Ponce de Leon) now houses offices for the city of

St. Augustine and the Lightner Luseum. The early drawings of the







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PONCE DE LEON HOTEL-INTERIOR COURT.
St. Augustine, Fla.


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THE ALCAZAR HOTEL (1888).


ALCAZAR HOTEL-GROUND FLOOR PLAN.


St. Augustine, Fla.























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PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH (1890).
St. Augustine, Fla.
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METHODIST CHURCH (1887).


It. Augustine, Fla.


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1i Alcazar show a colonnade on its front elevation which was never
built which would have greatly complemented the proportion of that

facade and the spatial approach from the street to the central court

yard. The interior has also been somewhat changed and abused by

the varying functions which have utilized the hotel. The Flagler

21 residence, which originally sat next to the Presbyterian Church,

was razed in the 50's to make way for several smaller houses.

Hastings commented on this period of their work, saying, "So large

a building so early in life was in some ways a great advantage and

in others quite the contrary. We made mistakes, but we learned

faster than we could otherwise have done. I have always thought

that the principal lesson taught us in this building was that where-

ever our plan was most faulty, from the artistic point of view, we

were given the most trouble in construction, and that the weakness

of American architects at that time was in planning, more especially

in monumental buildings."6

Carrere and Hastings also did studies for the layout of the

town of St. Augustine including a survey of the water system and

a proposal for a series of canals "which would have been both

economical and interesting" according to Mr. Hastings.7

The buildings in St. Augustine were quite different from the

later work of Carrere and Hastings however. They are perfectly

suited to the nature of the town of St. Augustine for they are

simultaneously grand and mysterious and have a feeling of roman-

ticism and adventure connected with them that is totally appropriate

for a town that depends so greatly on tourist trade. Francis Swales

says this about them, "The appropriate well designed gardens and

landscape setting and even the painted interior wall decorations of









the hotels were the work of the young enthusiastic architects and

the few architectural assistants. The work gave great promise of

new qualities of refinement, sentiment, and beauty-promiises partly

fulfilled in later c-:ork, in which, however, sentiment was soon replaced

by academic formalism; and modern demands were often constricted

to fit the architectural forms of the eighteenth century."0


COMPETITIVE DESIGN FOR THE CATHEDRAL OF ST. JOHN THE DIVINE (1892).
New York City.


Upon completing their successful association with henry Flagler

in St. Augustine, Carrere and Hastings returned to hew York City to

reestablish their practice. In 1892 they submitted a design in a

29)3t) competition for the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York

City. Although it is not modelled in the Spanish renaissance style

13








of the St. Augustine works, it seems to have the same quality of

youthfulness in its uninhibited design. It is a soaring, vertical

composition vhich is not seen in their later more academic works.

It is a Renaissance Revival work and does not reflect the more popular

Gothic revivalism characteristic of its time period. it seems that

this really marked the beginning of the formation of Carrere and

Hastings design principles as is stated in this article of 192$.

"This ithe Cathedral of St. John the Divine) brought out clearly

the position hastings has always maintained in the matter of design


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COMPETITIVE PLAN FOR THE CATHEDRAL ST. JOHN THE DIVINE.
New York City


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character or style, for he firmly believes that we should solve

our architectural problems in harmony with the traditions of our

more immediate predecessors in the art-that we are living in a con-

tinuation of the Renaissance and should not go back of that to

the Gothic for inspiration or guidance. He feels strongly that to

do so is unnatural, and not the right way to express modern life."9

Carrere and Hastings then did not accept the design philosophy that

a particular style should be chosen to fit a particular function,

in fact, Carrere and hastings were devoted almost totally in their

later years to the French Renaissance style and used it almost

exclusively. According to at least one scholar, this philosophy

put them at least one cut above the even more successful firm of

KcKim, Mead and ,Vhite, as he states, "The Renaissance passed

through many different forms during the several centuries of its

architectural development, and McKim, Mead and White did not identify

their work specifically with any one of these phases...Carrere and

Hastings, on the other hand, have been for the most part faithful

in their allegiance to a certain phase of the French Renaissance.'"1

Thomas Hastings himself stated this position in a lecture for the

Art Institute of Chicago in 1915. "The irrational idiosyncrasy of

modern times is the assumption that each kind of problem demands a

particular style of architecture. Through prejudice, this assumption

has become so fixed that it is common to assume that if building a

church or a university we must make it Gothic; if a theater, we must

make it Renaissance. One man wants an Elizabethan house, another

wants his house Early Italian. With this state of things, it would

seem as though the serious study of character were no longer necessary.

Expression in Architecture, forsooth, is only a question of selecting

15










the right style...Style in its growth has always been governed by the

universal and eternal law of development...It has manifested itself

unconsciously in the architects' designs, under the imperitives of

new practical problems, and of new requirements and conditions

imposed upon him. This continuity in the history of architecture

is universal...We are still living today in the period of the Ren-

aissance. With the revival of learning, with the new conceptions of

philosophy and religion, with the great discoveries and inventions,

with the altered political systems, with the other manifold changes

all over Europe, came the dawn of the modern world; and with this

modern world there was evolved what we should now recognize as the

modern architecture, the Renaissance...This Renaissance is a dis-

tinctive style in itself, which, with natural variations of character

has been evolving for almost four hundred years."11

So despite all of the true eclecticism and revivalism of their

contemporaries, Carrere and Hastings felt that indeed their work was

the natural descendent of the total history of architecture. Their

work,however, was not necessarily restricted to any absolute con-

straints of style but really used a particular style, the French

Renaissance, as a base on which to build. In all of the works of

Carrere and Hastings, the plan and elevation of the Cathedral of

St. John the Divine seems to express this most clearly; however,

the creative potential expressed here seemed to be diminished or lost

in a philosophy later more devoted a more academic style of compos-

ition and detailing.
Although the Cathedral of St. John the Divine was never built

according to Carrere and Hastings plan, they had received a good

deal of recognition and notoriety through this and their work in










St. Augustine. In all probability their contacts pith Flagler enabled

them to meet the wealthy clients for whom they were to design several

31 32 large estates in the following years. The Estate of E.G. Benedict,
Esquire which they designed in 1891, for example, shows in plan the

typical axial Beaux Arts planning and a modified Italian Renaissance

architecture. Also in 1891 they designed the Hotel Laurel-in-the-

Pines at Lakewood, iIew Jersey, which begins to show a more French

influence in the emphasized vertical lines of the chimneys and the


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LAUREL-IN-THE-PINES (1891).


more steeply pitched roofs. In comparing an earlier and later work

it is possible to note the transition of their work from a Lixed

styling to a more conscious French emphasis. In the AVmherst Chapter

17


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Lakewood, N. J,





























Amherst Chanter house 3'. 8

house, in Amherst, Massachussetts designed in 1688, Carrere and liastings
*3"5 have used an Italianate styling with rusticated stonework, shallow

pitched roofs, a classical, semi-circular portico and applied ped-

iment over the central bay. The later residence of i's. i.t. Tovnsend
NO designed in 1893 ('Washington, D.C.) shows the more classical detailing


Krs. R.H. To~msend House 1893









vertical massing and line and more steeply pitched French roof.

Their public buildings of this period show a similar influence in

vertical composition and classical detailing. Note also for example

37 the Life Building (New York City, 1893) and the Paterson City Hall
38 (Paterson, New Jersey 1893).

The work which was to give Carrere and Hastings national

recognition however was the onewhich was also the favorite of

3' John Carrere. This work was the New York Public Library. Carerre

and Hastings won the national competition for the structure which

was built on Fifth Avenue at 40th to 42nd Streets in New York City.

It was, from the outset, regarded by the majority of contemporary

architects as one of the most important edifices erected in this

country and was built on a lavish budget which spared no expense in

construction. In order to test the facade of the library, the
q0 architects had erected, insitu, a full scale model of one bay,

simulated in every detail in the real materials, in order to deter-

mine the true visual impact of the scale and proportion.12 A.C. David

described the importance of the Library this way in 1910, "The

New York Public Library is not, then, intended to be a great monu-

mental building, which would look almost as well from one point of

view as another, and which would be fundamentally an example of

pure architectural form...The facade on Fifth Avenue has poise,

as well as distinction; character, as well as manners. But still

it does not insist upon its own peculiar importance, as every monu-

mental building must do. It is content with a somewhat humbler

role, but one which is probably more appropriate. It looks ingrat-

iating rather than imposing, and that is one reason for its popu-

larity. It is intended for popular rather than official use, and




































FIFTH AVENUE FRONT-NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY.
qew York City. Carrfre & Hastings, Architects.

the building issues to the people an invitation to enter rather

than a command...In the realism of its plan and in the mixture of

dignity and distinction in the design, the New York Library is typ-

ical of that which is best in the contemporary American Architectural

movement, and New York is fortunate, indeed, that such a statement

can be made of the iost important public building erected in the

city during several gener:1tions.13

The plan is the typical Beaux Arts axial design with its

implied symmetry, but the main reading room, seemed to be a fan-

tastic space in its time; it was 395 feet long, 75 feet wide, and 50

feet high, although the exterior elevations do not really reflect

the immensity of this room. In fact, the contrast of the front and

rear elevations shows clearly that the front elevation only is meant

to be viewed, whereas, the rear elevation with its vertical slit

windows kon the stack levels) is an unclassical concession atypical
20









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NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY-DETAIL OF CENTRAL PAVILION.


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of Carrere and Hastings work. The style of the Library is a mod-

44 14 ified French renaissance design but it lacks the ornamentation and

extravagant detailing typical of their residential work. It is

stoic and, in a Beaux Arts sense, the epitome of an institutional

building. The success of the deisgn led the firm to the commissions

of fourteen of the city's branch banks.

Following the successful competition for the New York Public

Library, Carrere and Hastings took on several very large commissions

for the design of palatial estates. These estates were designed

very much in the French influence and showed that the firm was a

successful landscape designer team also. The following was written

of Thomas Hastings in 1929. "Mr. Hastings chiefly was credited with

creating and fostering the fine technique and that kind of designing


"BLAIRSDEN," RESIDENCE OF C. LEDYARD BLAIR, ESQ. (1898).-HOUSE AND APPROACH.


Peapack, N. J.









which adheres closely to precedent. He recognized that France in

the 18th Century did better with the combination of architecture

and landscape accessories, than had been previously done or since,

and he chose the monuments of the periods of the Louis as the models

upon which to base nearly all his designs whenever they provided a

precedent that could be adapted. He loved the rich decorative arch-

itecture and the formal gardens designed by the architects of the

period of the late Renaissnace and was highly interested in the books

upon such subjects.14

The estates which they designed between 1897 and 1901 give much

H6 evidence of the preceding statement. For example, there are "Belle-

41q-* Fountaine" the residence of Giraud Foster in Lenox, Massachussetts, 1897;

"Blairsden," the residence of C.Ledyard Blair in Peapeck, New Jersey, 1898;

SO and "Whitehall," the residence of Henry M. Flagler in Pal], Beach, Florida,

1901. In all probability it is this type of planning which lead to

the anoointment of Mr. Carrere as the chief architect and chairman of

the Board of Architects in charge of gardens, grounds, and decor-

ative features of the Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo, New York


"WHITE HALL," RESIDENCE OF HENRY M. FLAGLER, ESQ,

"WHITE HALL," RESIDENCE OF HENRY M. FLAGLER, ESQ.









in 1901. The firm was also responsible for the design of the

5l Triumphal Bridge and pergolas, but this particular exposition has

not come down to us today as a matter of such great success and

Carrere and Hastings planning and design was also subject to some

criticism at the time. It seems that the grand bridge with its

grandiose entrance pylons, designed for a major entry port, was


PAN-AMERICAN EXPOSITION (1901)-ENTRANCE PYLONS.
Buffalo, N. Y.


not actually utilized by the crowds entering the exposition. An

Si entrance which had electric cars was however, and "...Probably

two-thirds of the visitors made their approach from this direction,

and, as they strolled up the path diverted only by an uninteresting

building, some extremely energetic sculpture, and some stupid and









uneffective beds of flowers, they would have no reason to suppose

that they were approaching anything more important than, say, the

Central Park Casino. When, however, they reached the forecourt and

faced around, they would suddenly find themselves upon the edge of

the Triumphal Bridge, which, according to the plan, was supposed to

have been approached from the Park and Lake. But it is absurd to

design a chief approach, which as a matter of fact, people rarely

use.,15$

It is hard to find precise information on who designed what at

an exposition but as architect in charge of such design, Carrere

must have also borne the brunt of this criticism. Because the staff

was able to reproduce a large amount of sculpture by copying and

enlarging, they were able to do so very inexpensively, also. "It is

perhaps for this reason that, very decidedly, there was an excess

instead of a dearth of sculpture scattered throughout the exposition

grounds. It was made altogether too cheap, so that at times the rows

of statues seemed to claim one's attention in almost as insistent

and tiresome manner as they would at a sculpture exhibition. It

follows, of course, that far from being situated only in spots,

made appropriate for their use by proper landscape gardening, they

were in many cases placed in an ineffective background or in spots

which would have been better off without them.,l6

The firm was, despite this criticism, not adversely affected

in the years following the Pan-American Exposition and continued
53 to attract large commissions such as the Goldwin-Smith Hall for

SCornell University, Ithaca, New York (1903); the Richmond Borough

S 5 Hall, St. George, Staten Island (1903), and the Murry Guggenheim

Residence, Elberon, New Jersey (1903), which won the Gold Medal

of the New York Chapter of the A.I.A. for that year.








In this time period Carrere and hastings designed what -.,as

perhaps their most significant works: The House and Senate Office

buildings for the Congress of the United States. The two buildings

S-o7 are almost identical in plan and appearance, however the general

office layout expresses the difference in the function and intent

S5cS of Representatives and Senators. The design itself seems to reflect

strongly the New York Public Library being stately, sedate and class-

ical in form. An article of 1908 describes them as they neared

completion, "Note here should be made of the reticent handling and

scholarly treatment of these two buildings. Artistic 'intemperance'

and architectural 'wantonness'-both common faults-have been avoided

and in their place are found refinement and restraint. whereass

the appearance of these two facades, at a distance, is simple, one

will discover upon them, at close range, much ornament finely designed

(o0 and judiciously placed. It is this refinement of detail which charms

and for which both the House and Senate buildings are notable. Without













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26


Washington, D. C.


































HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES OFFICE BUILDING (1906).
Washington, D. C. Carrfre & Hastings, Consulting Architects.


question the finish externally is exquisite and betokens infinite

study-infinite pains. 17

The design of the House and Senate Buildings in 1905 and 1906

probably marked the zenith of the career of Carrere and hastings

although there were many significant and important commissions which

they were to accept for many more years. Some of this work showed

the expanding capabilities of the office, being of a very diverse

and specialized nature. In 1906 they made a design for the Lanhat-

tan Terminal for the Brooklyn bridge in New York City; this soxme

S(P\3 project led to a design for the Lanhattan Approach on the Manhattan

Bridge in 1912. Both these designs naturally involved the classical

detailing and style which by this time become typically French in

all their works. About this same time they also designed the
L4 Memorial Buildings at Yale University (1906) and a somewhat similar

(tS,; I structure for the Century Theatre in New lork City. Another













































THE NEW THEATRE (1906).
Central Park West, 62d and 63d Streets, New York City.


THE AUDITORIUM OF THE NEW THEATRE.
(Copyright, 1909, by The New Theatre.)


28
















































MEMORIAL BUILDINGS, YALE UNIVERSITY (1906).


New Haven, Conn.


Dining Hall.
New Haven, Conn. MEMORIAL BUILDINGS, YALE UNIVERSITY (1906).










significant structure which followed in 1909 was the Carnegie

Institution of Washington which showed a strongly classical motif

in keeping with other institutional projects they designed. For


, -m477 T.IIM


CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON (1909).
Washington, D. C.
the most part, Carrere and Hastings stayed away from "Skyscraper"

design and steel frame construction, for Mr. Hastings reputedly

disliked this work, calling it "greedy." But it seems in keeping

that this work would be obviously difficult to tune into their styl-

istic criteria. They did however do some of this work as is evi-

407 denced by the United States Rubber Building in New York City which

has a "modern" look in its facade but maintains a classical cornice

of unusual proportion.








In February of 1911, it seemed that Carrere and Hastings were on

a wave of success, receiving many important commissions and acting

as one of the most important architectural firms in this country.

But on the twelfth of that month John M. Carrere was killed tragically

in an automobile accident. however, he was accorded a great honor

at the time of his death as is described in a letter of appreciation

written in Architectural Review, "It is perhaps a satisfaction to

those who cherish his memory to recall that the people of New York

accorded him the highest last honors by opening the New York Library

in order that his body might lie in state in the building which

his imagination had conceived and his brain had planned."18

Thomas Hastings maintained the office in the name Carrere and

Hastings until his death in 1929. During this period of time the

volume of work did not reflect the earlier work which he and Carrere

had created jointly but some of his significant works of this time

period include the Plaza Theatre in New York City; the National

Amphitheatre in Arlington Cemetary; the Victory Arch in Madison

Square, New York; the McKinley Monument in Buffalo and the John

Paul Jones Monument in Wasehington. All these works were basically

consistent with the style of architecture that the team had produced.

previously in their careers.

Carrere and Hasting represented the best, ethical practitioners

of architecture in their works and professional standards; in fact,

John Carrere was one of the first American architects to preach and

practice a code of professional ethics.19 He was also co-founder

(with Thomas Hastings) of the Society of Beaux Arts Architects-

a group of architects dedicated to architectural education and prac-

tices-and founder of the Art Commission of New York. In 1891 he

was elected as a fellow of the A.I.A. and served on its National









Board. In addition he was an active member of the Architectural

League, the Academy of Arts and Letters, and the National Academy

of Design.

Thomas Hastings was also a very active member in the social

organizations of this period, being a Fellow of the A.I.A.; founder,

president and director of the Architectural League of New York.

In June of 1922, he received the Royal Institute of British Architects

Gold Medal Medal Award, and also was named a Chevalier in the Legion

of Honor by the French Government. He died of complications fol-

lowing surgery for appendicitis in November of 1929.

Perhaps one of the most significant effects that the office of

Carrere and Hastings had on the profession of architecture however,

involved the art of draftsmanship and its relationship to the pres-

entation of architectural drawings. The Ecole de Beaux Arts was

greatly influential in developing this mode of dramatic and artistic

presentation but it has been considered that Carrere and Hastings

were among the first architects to import it and use it as a profes-

sional standard. Carrere and Hastings were influential in their

technical regard for competition and working drawings throughout

their careers, accordingly, John Carrere was the author of the

Code of Ethics (for competions) adopted by the New York Chapter

of the A.I.A. which was later adopted by the National A.I.A. In

an article written about Hastings in 1925, this comment was made

about his office work, "That an architect should always remain a

draftsman, that he should continue to draw with T-square and tri-

angle, and not fall into the practice of designing with a roll of

thin paper and a soft pencil, is a conviction that Thomas Hastings

reiterates and puts into practice."20 The article goes on to describe








how Hastings always spent at least part of his day working on the
(bf70 drafting table producing "rough sketches" (which looked like final

drawings) to transmit his designs and ideas to his organization.



Despite whatever kind of architectural biases people carry

(since the Beaux Arts philosophy is so greatly disdained currently)

it is nevertheless important to respect and regard the opinions and

works of earlier architects who in fact have left, however inadvert-

ently, the heritage we have today. Carrere and Hastings are two

of these architects.

Thomas Hastings throughout his career had been a very vocal

participant in the debates on style and education and he often had

articles appearing in the periodicals stating his point of view.

It is also important to realize how involved Carrere and Hastings

were in the formation and organization of proper architectural

schools in this country. Despite the criticism lowered on the

Beaux Arts schools, they nonetheless provided an architectural

education based on high ideals of intellectualism, creativity and

ethics, an education available mainly in European schools only,

prior to that time. As Hastings states, "There are some who have

been prejudiced against the 'Beaux Arts Architecture,' so-called.

In answer to such criticism we should remember that any system of

education finds its chief justification in raising the general

standard of mentality and character, and this has unquestionably been

done in the case of architectural education-and greatly through the

efforts and influence of these Beaux-Arts associations. A school

does not produce a genius without the necessary natural material;

education helps most the man who thinks, and it is not everyman

who can be taught to think; but it is such stimulus to the









development of mentality that these associations have accomplished."21









FOOTNOTES

1Rathburn-Whitney, Elsie; Whitney, Henry F., AIA; Biographical
Dictionary of American Architects (Deceased), New Age Publishing
Company, LosAngeles, Calif., 1956, p. 109.
2Swales, F.S., Architectural Review, May, 1911, p. 283.

3American Architect, v. 96, Jy-Dec., 1909, p. 3.

hSwales, F.S., op. cit., p. 286.

American Architect, v. 96, Jy-Dec., 1909, p.3.
1bid., p. 4.

7Ibid., p. 4.

8Pencil Points, v. 10, Dec. 1929, p. 869.
9Pencil Points, v. 6, Dec. 1925, p. 49.

10Architectural Record, v. 27, Jan. 1910, p. 4.
11Cram, Hastings, and Bragdon, Six Lectures on Architecture,
Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill., 1917, p. 100-108.
12David, A.C., Architectural Record, v. 12, Nov. 1902, p. 637-640.

13Architectural Record, v. 28, 1910, p. 148.

14Pencil Points, v. 10, Dec. 1929, p. 869.
15Croly, Herbert, Architectural Record, v. 11, Oct. 1901, p. 602-3.
161bid., p. 606.

17Architectural Record, v. 24, Sept. 1908, p. 187-188.
18Architectural Review, kay 1911, v. 29, p. 293.

19Ibid., p. 287.
20Architecture, v. 37, May 1918, p. 116.

21Pencil Points, v. 6, Dec. 1925, p. 48.









BIBLIOGRAPHY

"Borough of Manhattan approach to Manhattan Bridge, No. 3, New
York," American Architect and Building News, v.102, 1912,
p.61-62.
"Building of the U.S.Rubber Company," American Architect, v.102,
July 10, 1912, p.14.

Cram, Hastings and Bragdon, Six Lectures on Architecture, Univ.
of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill., 1917.

David, A.C., "The New York Public Library," Architectural Record,
v.28, p. 145-172, Sept. 1910.
Desmond, H., "A Beaux-arts Skyscraper-The Blair Building, New York
City," Architectural Record, v.14, p. h35-4h3, Dec. 1903.
"The Flagler Memorial Church, St. Augustine, la.," American Archi-
tect and Building News, v.96, no. 1750, Jy 7, 1907, p. 5.
Hastings, Thomas; "Design for a Country House," American Architect
and Building News, v.6, Oct., 1879, p. 132.

"How the Beaux Arts Institute has helped our architectural
Schools," Architecture, v.37, May, 1918, p. 115-116.

"A Letter from Thomas Hastings, Reminiscent of the early work
of Messrs. Carrere and Hastings," American Architect and
Building News, v.96, 1909, p. 3-4.

"Modern Architecture," Architect and Engineer, v.34, Oct. 1913,
p. 47-58.
"An Innovation in Architecture," Architectural Record, v.12, Nov., 1902,
p. 637-640.
"Interior decoration of the New York Public Library; Carrere and
Hastings, Architects," American Architect and Building News,
v.98, 1910, p. 153-156,-T3. -

"John Merven Carrere," Brickbuilder, v. 20, 1911, p. 1$.

"Master Draftsman, Thomas Hastings," Pencil P ints, v.6, Dec. 1925,
p. 49-60.
"'Monumental' Engineering Bridge Design," Architectural Record,
v. 11, Oct. 1901, p. 615-640.

"New Public Buildings at Washington," Architectural Record, v. 24,
Sept. 1908, p. 180-206.

Price, C.Matlack, "A Renaissance in Commercial Architecture; and
Recent Buildings in uptown New York," Architectural Record,
v.31, May 1912, p. 449-469.








Rathburn-Whitney, Elsie; Whitney, Henry F., AIA; "Carrere, John
Merven," and "Hastings, Thomas," Biographical Dictionary of
American Architects (Deceased), New Age Publishing Company,
Los Angeles, Calif.,11956.

Swales, F.S., "John Merven Carrere, 1858-1911; An Appreciation,"
Architectural Forum, v. 29, 1911, pp. 283-293.

"The Work of Messrs. Carrere and Hastings," Architectural Record,
v.27, Jan. 1910, p. 1-120.











Slide #1.

2.

3.


4..

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

1-.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.


SLIDE SOURCES

Brickbuilder, v.20, Mar. 1911, p. 45, portrait of Carrere.

Pencil Points, v.10, Dec. 1929, p. 869, portrait of Hastings

American Architecture and Building News, v.6, Oct. 1879, p. 132,
"Design for House," 'y-Iastings.

Architectural Record, v. 27, 1910, p. 2, Ponce de Leon photo.

Ibid., p. 5, plan of Ponce de Leon.

In situ, Exterior of Ponce

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid., Doorway detail, front.

Ibid., Detail.

Architectural Record, v. 27, 1910, p. 8, Drawing of Alcazar.

Ibid., p.9, Plan of Alcazar.

In situ, Front elevation.

Ibid., Interior court.

Ibid., Terra cotta detail.

Architectural Record, v. 27, 1910, p. 7, Methodist Church.

In situ, front elevation.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid., detail of tower.

American Architect, v. 96, July 1909, p. 4, Flagler House, St. Aug.

Architectural Record, v. 27, 1910, p. 11, Flagler (Presbyterian Church.)

In situ, sane view.

Ibid., detail of tower.

Ibid., main entry detail.

Ibid., front elevation.

Ibid., Flagler Mausoleum.









28. Ibid., brick and concrete detail, Presbyterian Church.

29. Architectural Record, v. 27, Jan. 1910, p. 24, Cathedral of St. John
the Divine, Elevation.

30. Ibid., plan of St. John.

31. Ibid., p. 19, Residence of E.C.Benedict, Site plan.

32. Ibid., p. 21, Photo of E.C.Benedict House.

33. Ibid., p. 22, Plan of Laurel-in-the-Pines.

34. Ibid., p. 23, Photo of Laurel-in-the-Pines.
35. Ibid., p. 26, Amherst Chapter House photo.

36. Ibid., p. 27, R.H. Townsend House photo.

37. Ibid., p. 32, Life Building, photo.

38. Ibid., p. 33, Paterson City Hall, photo.

39. Ibid., p. 36, New York Public Library, photo of front.

40. Architectural Record, v. 12, Nov. 1902, p. 637, model of facade, N.Y.P.L.

4b. Architectural Record, v. 27, Jan. 1910, p. 38, 2nd floor plan, N.Y.P.L.

42. Architectural Review, v. 29, May 1911, Reading room, N.Y.P.L.

43. Ibid., Rear elevation, photo.

44. Architectural Record, v. 27, Jan. 1910. p. 36, elevation of N.Y.P.L.


4$. Ibid., Detail drawing of N.Y.P.L., p. 37.


Ibid.,

Ibid.,

Ibid.,

Ibid.,

Ibid.,

Ibid.,

Ibid.,

Ibid.,

Ibid.,

Ibid.,


0o,

52,

56,

56,

65,

67,

68,

80,

92,

89,


Belle Fountaine., photo of front.

Blairsden, front view.

Vista at Blairsden.
Garden and Pergola at Blairsden.

Whitehall, Flagler's residence, front view.

Triumphal Bridge of Pan-Am Expo.
Site plan of Pan-Am Expo.

Goodwin-Smith Hall, front view.

Richmond Borough Hall, front view.

Marry Guggenheim Kouse, front view.


46.

47.

48.

49.
50.

51.
52.

53.

54.

55.







$6. Ibid., p. 102, Plan of House of Rep.'s Office.

57. Ibid., Front view of House of Rep.'s Office.
58. Ibid., Plan of Senate Office.

59. American Architect, v. 96, Jy 1909, p. 9, View of Senate Bldg.
60. Architectural Record, v. 27, Jan. 1910, p. 101, Caucus Room, Senate.

61. Ibid., p. 96, Manhattan Bridge Approach.

62. American Architect, v. 102, Jy 1912, p. 63, Manhattan Approach, Plan.
63. Ibid., p. 62, Elevation of Manhattan approach.
64. Architectural Record, v. 27, Jan. 1910, p. 104, Yale Memorial Bldgs,
6$. Ibid., p. 113, The Century (New) Theater, front.

66. Ibid., p. 11$, The Century (New) Theater, interior of auditorium.

67. American Architect, v. 102, Jy. 1912, p. 16, U.S.Rubber Bldg., photo.

68. Pencil Points, v. 6, Dec. 1925, p. $9. Detail of Study drawing, Hastings.
69. Ibid., p- $2, Rough sketch for office building, Hastings drawing.

70. Ibid., p. $0, Study for Altar of Liberty, N.Y., Hastings drawing.