"IESSRS. CARRERE AND HASTINGS: ARCHITECTS"
A Study of the Careers and Works of John Merven
Carrere and Thomas Hastings, Beaux Arts Architects
of New York City, New York
David L. Eve .hard
June 1, 1977
TABLE OF CONTENTS
"Messrs. Carrere and Hastings: Architects." ................1
"MESSRS. CARRERE AND HASTITGS: ARCHITECTS"
History 676-Philip Wisely, Inst.
David L. Everhard
John Merven Carrere was born in Rio de Janeiro in 1858, the
sIDE son of an American family of French, Scotch and Irish descent, his
father being a coffee merchant from Baltimore (also John Carrere).
JHis early education took place in Baropean schools and he later
attended the Institute Breitenstein in Switzerland. Spending his
vacations with his paternal grandmother in Dieppe, France, he proved
himself to be an adept draftsman by making careful sketches of her
old house and subsequently entered the Ecole des Beaux Arts in 1878.
He received his diploma in four years, 1882.1 While at the Ecole
he studied in the Atelier of Victor Robert, Charles Laisne, and
Leon Ginain. It is always interesting to try and note the influence
which masters have on the later work of their pupils as an author
points out in regard to Carrere's work. "Laisne, who was an exponent
of Gothic architecture, left no impression upon the works of his
pupil; but one may well believe that Ginain did, as the influence
of the 'Neo-Grec' master is more perceptible in all of the more
serious monumental works of the firm of Carrere and Hastings...
in all of which the great breadth characteristic of Ginain is
After graduating from the Ecole des Beaux Arts, Carrere re-
turned to America and became a member of the office of McKim, Mead,
and White where he worked for a period of three years until he and
Thomas Hastings, another employee in the same office, became disen-
chanted with subservience and branched off to form the office of
Carrere and Hastings. It is necessary to introduce Thomas Hastings,
however, before dealing with the partnership.
Thomas hastings wa-s a lifelong New Yorker, born in that city
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in which he was to become well-known on March 1, 1860. he was the
son of a reputable Presbyterian clergyman, Dr. Thomas S. Hastings,
was educated in private schools, and later entered Columbia Univ-
ersity to complete a two-year course of study. It was at this time
that he submitted a drawing he had done of a country house to the
American Architecture and Building News which was published in the
October, 1879 edition. Although its plan and elevations are some-
what muddled in function and composition, the draftsmanship shows
the quality which was to characterize his later work. (See Fig. 1,
p.h). hastings, like Carrere, attended the Ecole des Beaux Arts
until 188h when he returned to New York and entered the drafting
department of McKim, Mead and VWhite where he worked for about one
year and became acquainted with Mr. Carrere. Mr. Hastings recalls
their early meeting in a letter of 1909. "Mr. Carrere and I had
only met once while in Paris as students at the Beaux Arts, and it
was not until we had come together again in the office of kcKim,
Mead and White that the thought occurred to us to go into partner-
ship. ir. Carrere superintended an important house in Baltimore,
while I was working on plans of the same house, in the office.
This is what brought us together, and it was in the back part"of
their office, with nothing to do, that we first started doing it-
really waiting until something might come our way..."
The extensive influence that the office of McKim, Mead and
White exerted over the entire realm of architecture in their con-
temporary time period is a generally accepted fact, but the newly
formed partnership of Carrere and Hastings was to become one of
McKim, Mead and vThite's best competitors. The architectural crit-
iques written in periodicals of the time almost always seem to refer
to this competition and to the comparison and contrast between the
the two offices. It is also important to consider the effect that
the time spent in McKim, Mead and White's office may have had on
Carrere and Hastings. Francis Sw'ales makes this comment concerning
these subjects in Carrere's epitaph of 1911, "It may be said that
the 'Atelier' of McKim, Mead and White of that time was the nursery
(though not quite the cradle) of the present day school of American
architecture-architecture founded upon classic lines, but at once
modern, appropriate and original in the highest sense of the word.
I would be unjust to the younger men to promote any impression that
they were mere followers of a school of which McKim, Mead and White
were the masters. With more accuracy it may be said that McKim and
White-and the late Augustus Saint-Gaudens, the sculptor, too-were,
like the others, members of a circle of artists possessing many
ideas in common, who brought back to New York an enthusiasm nurtured
by their studies in France...From a close study and intimate knowledge
of the work of each of these men, the writer long ago came to the
conclusion that to (Cass) Gilbert and Carrere especially McKim, 1ead
and White owed more in point of influence than either owed to them.
One has to turn back to old sketches and reproductions of designs
made by each in student days to get at the real calibration of the
finished architect....Hastings and Babb had a pronounced bent towards
the fifteenth century Italian and the Early French and Spanish
Renaissance...Carrere, however, appears to have had but one love,
and that the late French Renaissance..4 So, it seems that to
overestimate the effect of Carrere and Hastings office experience
with McKim, Iead and White on their later practice would be a
disservice. They were architects with individual ideas already
formed in their student days at tne Ecole des Beaux Arts who would
have been more apt to influence an office than to be influenced by it.
This may be merely supposition but it appears that for Carrere and
Hastings to work for McKim, Mead, and White too long may have indeed
been stifling for such individuals. Thus their emergence at such a
young age as an important architectural firm (mainly through the
grace and beneficence of Henry Flagler) probably had a practical
effect in allowing them to maintain an idealistic and resilient
nature in their work.
Mr. Thomas Hastings continues in his previously mentioned
letter of 1909, "At last the opportunity arrived when Mr. Flagler
sent for me to say that he wanted us to make a 'pretty picture'
for a hotel at St. Augustine, and that he had in his employ two
local builders who would make the working drawings and superintend
the putting up of the building, so that after the 'picture' was
finished our services would no longer be required."5 The "pretty
picture" that Carere and Hastings created for Flagler was named
S- 0 the Ponce de Leon Hotel, a work that covered nearly six acres of
ground. Carrere and Hastings soon became involved with the pro-
duction of the working drawings, the supervision of the construction,
and even the decoration of some of the interiors. The relationship
of Carrere and Hastings with Henry Flagler was to become more and
more involved as Flagler realized the potential of his two young
architects. In addition to the Ponce de Leon Hotel in St. Augustine,
11-15 the young team also designed the adjacent "Poor Man's Hotell,' the
K-20 Alcazar; the Grace i. E. Church and Parsonage; the Flagler House;
-2*- and the Flagler Memorial (Presbyterian) Church with its adjacent
Z7 Flagler Mausoleum; most of which were designed and built within
a period of about two years.
The buildings in St. Augustine were all designed in a Spanish
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PONCED DE LEON HOTEL (1887).
Renaissance motif (except for Flagler's residence whiich is a
neo-classical style) but, more importantly, they incorporated the
use of poured concrete as a major element in the construction, and
subsequently, the first use of concrete in a major edifice of this
size in the United States was in the Ponce de Leon Hotel. The concrete
2. is used as an infill material, poured in conjunction vrith brick
arches and terra cotta work. It is in remarkably good state today
and shows no major faults or deterioration in general.
Although the two churches have maintained their original func-
tions, both of the hotels have taken on different uses. The Ponce
de Leon is now the Flagler College although it has not been remodeled
or changed significantly. The Alcazar (which is directly across the
street from the Ponce de Leon) now houses offices for the city of
St. Augustine and the Lightner Luseum. The early drawings of the
PONCE DE LEON HOTEL-INTERIOR COURT.
St. Augustine, Fla.
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PONCE DE LEON HOTEL-MAIN FLOOR PLAN.
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PONCE DE LEON HOTEL-MAIN FLOOR PLAN.
PONCE DE LEON HOTEL-ROTUNDA.
t, Augustine, la.
t. Augustine, F~la.
THE ALCAZAR HOTEL (1888).
ALCAZAR HOTEL-GROUND FLOOR PLAN.
St. Augustine, Fla.
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PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH (1890).
St. Augustine, Fla.
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METHODIST CHURCH (1887).
It. Augustine, Fla.
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1i Alcazar show a colonnade on its front elevation which was never
built which would have greatly complemented the proportion of that
facade and the spatial approach from the street to the central court
yard. The interior has also been somewhat changed and abused by
the varying functions which have utilized the hotel. The Flagler
21 residence, which originally sat next to the Presbyterian Church,
was razed in the 50's to make way for several smaller houses.
Hastings commented on this period of their work, saying, "So large
a building so early in life was in some ways a great advantage and
in others quite the contrary. We made mistakes, but we learned
faster than we could otherwise have done. I have always thought
that the principal lesson taught us in this building was that where-
ever our plan was most faulty, from the artistic point of view, we
were given the most trouble in construction, and that the weakness
of American architects at that time was in planning, more especially
in monumental buildings."6
Carrere and Hastings also did studies for the layout of the
town of St. Augustine including a survey of the water system and
a proposal for a series of canals "which would have been both
economical and interesting" according to Mr. Hastings.7
The buildings in St. Augustine were quite different from the
later work of Carrere and Hastings however. They are perfectly
suited to the nature of the town of St. Augustine for they are
simultaneously grand and mysterious and have a feeling of roman-
ticism and adventure connected with them that is totally appropriate
for a town that depends so greatly on tourist trade. Francis Swales
says this about them, "The appropriate well designed gardens and
landscape setting and even the painted interior wall decorations of
the hotels were the work of the young enthusiastic architects and
the few architectural assistants. The work gave great promise of
new qualities of refinement, sentiment, and beauty-promiises partly
fulfilled in later c-:ork, in which, however, sentiment was soon replaced
by academic formalism; and modern demands were often constricted
to fit the architectural forms of the eighteenth century."0
COMPETITIVE DESIGN FOR THE CATHEDRAL OF ST. JOHN THE DIVINE (1892).
New York City.
Upon completing their successful association with henry Flagler
in St. Augustine, Carrere and Hastings returned to hew York City to
reestablish their practice. In 1892 they submitted a design in a
29)3t) competition for the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York
City. Although it is not modelled in the Spanish renaissance style
of the St. Augustine works, it seems to have the same quality of
youthfulness in its uninhibited design. It is a soaring, vertical
composition vhich is not seen in their later more academic works.
It is a Renaissance Revival work and does not reflect the more popular
Gothic revivalism characteristic of its time period. it seems that
this really marked the beginning of the formation of Carrere and
Hastings design principles as is stated in this article of 192$.
"This ithe Cathedral of St. John the Divine) brought out clearly
the position hastings has always maintained in the matter of design
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COMPETITIVE PLAN FOR THE CATHEDRAL ST. JOHN THE DIVINE.
New York City
character or style, for he firmly believes that we should solve
our architectural problems in harmony with the traditions of our
more immediate predecessors in the art-that we are living in a con-
tinuation of the Renaissance and should not go back of that to
the Gothic for inspiration or guidance. He feels strongly that to
do so is unnatural, and not the right way to express modern life."9
Carrere and Hastings then did not accept the design philosophy that
a particular style should be chosen to fit a particular function,
in fact, Carrere and hastings were devoted almost totally in their
later years to the French Renaissance style and used it almost
exclusively. According to at least one scholar, this philosophy
put them at least one cut above the even more successful firm of
KcKim, Mead and ,Vhite, as he states, "The Renaissance passed
through many different forms during the several centuries of its
architectural development, and McKim, Mead and White did not identify
their work specifically with any one of these phases...Carrere and
Hastings, on the other hand, have been for the most part faithful
in their allegiance to a certain phase of the French Renaissance.'"1
Thomas Hastings himself stated this position in a lecture for the
Art Institute of Chicago in 1915. "The irrational idiosyncrasy of
modern times is the assumption that each kind of problem demands a
particular style of architecture. Through prejudice, this assumption
has become so fixed that it is common to assume that if building a
church or a university we must make it Gothic; if a theater, we must
make it Renaissance. One man wants an Elizabethan house, another
wants his house Early Italian. With this state of things, it would
seem as though the serious study of character were no longer necessary.
Expression in Architecture, forsooth, is only a question of selecting
the right style...Style in its growth has always been governed by the
universal and eternal law of development...It has manifested itself
unconsciously in the architects' designs, under the imperitives of
new practical problems, and of new requirements and conditions
imposed upon him. This continuity in the history of architecture
is universal...We are still living today in the period of the Ren-
aissance. With the revival of learning, with the new conceptions of
philosophy and religion, with the great discoveries and inventions,
with the altered political systems, with the other manifold changes
all over Europe, came the dawn of the modern world; and with this
modern world there was evolved what we should now recognize as the
modern architecture, the Renaissance...This Renaissance is a dis-
tinctive style in itself, which, with natural variations of character
has been evolving for almost four hundred years."11
So despite all of the true eclecticism and revivalism of their
contemporaries, Carrere and Hastings felt that indeed their work was
the natural descendent of the total history of architecture. Their
work,however, was not necessarily restricted to any absolute con-
straints of style but really used a particular style, the French
Renaissance, as a base on which to build. In all of the works of
Carrere and Hastings, the plan and elevation of the Cathedral of
St. John the Divine seems to express this most clearly; however,
the creative potential expressed here seemed to be diminished or lost
in a philosophy later more devoted a more academic style of compos-
ition and detailing.
Although the Cathedral of St. John the Divine was never built
according to Carrere and Hastings plan, they had received a good
deal of recognition and notoriety through this and their work in
St. Augustine. In all probability their contacts pith Flagler enabled
them to meet the wealthy clients for whom they were to design several
31 32 large estates in the following years. The Estate of E.G. Benedict,
Esquire which they designed in 1891, for example, shows in plan the
typical axial Beaux Arts planning and a modified Italian Renaissance
architecture. Also in 1891 they designed the Hotel Laurel-in-the-
Pines at Lakewood, iIew Jersey, which begins to show a more French
influence in the emphasized vertical lines of the chimneys and the
more steeply pitched roofs. In comparing an earlier and later work
it is possible to note the transition of their work from a Lixed
styling to a more conscious French emphasis. In the AVmherst Chapter
Lakewood, N. J,
Amherst Chanter house 3'. 8
house, in Amherst, Massachussetts designed in 1688, Carrere and liastings
*3"5 have used an Italianate styling with rusticated stonework, shallow
pitched roofs, a classical, semi-circular portico and applied ped-
iment over the central bay. The later residence of i's. i.t. Tovnsend
NO designed in 1893 ('Washington, D.C.) shows the more classical detailing
Krs. R.H. To~msend House 1893
vertical massing and line and more steeply pitched French roof.
Their public buildings of this period show a similar influence in
vertical composition and classical detailing. Note also for example
37 the Life Building (New York City, 1893) and the Paterson City Hall
38 (Paterson, New Jersey 1893).
The work which was to give Carrere and Hastings national
recognition however was the onewhich was also the favorite of
3' John Carrere. This work was the New York Public Library. Carerre
and Hastings won the national competition for the structure which
was built on Fifth Avenue at 40th to 42nd Streets in New York City.
It was, from the outset, regarded by the majority of contemporary
architects as one of the most important edifices erected in this
country and was built on a lavish budget which spared no expense in
construction. In order to test the facade of the library, the
q0 architects had erected, insitu, a full scale model of one bay,
simulated in every detail in the real materials, in order to deter-
mine the true visual impact of the scale and proportion.12 A.C. David
described the importance of the Library this way in 1910, "The
New York Public Library is not, then, intended to be a great monu-
mental building, which would look almost as well from one point of
view as another, and which would be fundamentally an example of
pure architectural form...The facade on Fifth Avenue has poise,
as well as distinction; character, as well as manners. But still
it does not insist upon its own peculiar importance, as every monu-
mental building must do. It is content with a somewhat humbler
role, but one which is probably more appropriate. It looks ingrat-
iating rather than imposing, and that is one reason for its popu-
larity. It is intended for popular rather than official use, and
FIFTH AVENUE FRONT-NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY.
qew York City. Carrfre & Hastings, Architects.
the building issues to the people an invitation to enter rather
than a command...In the realism of its plan and in the mixture of
dignity and distinction in the design, the New York Library is typ-
ical of that which is best in the contemporary American Architectural
movement, and New York is fortunate, indeed, that such a statement
can be made of the iost important public building erected in the
city during several gener:1tions.13
The plan is the typical Beaux Arts axial design with its
implied symmetry, but the main reading room, seemed to be a fan-
tastic space in its time; it was 395 feet long, 75 feet wide, and 50
feet high, although the exterior elevations do not really reflect
the immensity of this room. In fact, the contrast of the front and
rear elevations shows clearly that the front elevation only is meant
to be viewed, whereas, the rear elevation with its vertical slit
windows kon the stack levels) is an unclassical concession atypical
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NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY-DETAIL OF CENTRAL PAVILION.
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of Carrere and Hastings work. The style of the Library is a mod-
44 14 ified French renaissance design but it lacks the ornamentation and
extravagant detailing typical of their residential work. It is
stoic and, in a Beaux Arts sense, the epitome of an institutional
building. The success of the deisgn led the firm to the commissions
of fourteen of the city's branch banks.
Following the successful competition for the New York Public
Library, Carrere and Hastings took on several very large commissions
for the design of palatial estates. These estates were designed
very much in the French influence and showed that the firm was a
successful landscape designer team also. The following was written
of Thomas Hastings in 1929. "Mr. Hastings chiefly was credited with
creating and fostering the fine technique and that kind of designing
"BLAIRSDEN," RESIDENCE OF C. LEDYARD BLAIR, ESQ. (1898).-HOUSE AND APPROACH.
Peapack, N. J.
which adheres closely to precedent. He recognized that France in
the 18th Century did better with the combination of architecture
and landscape accessories, than had been previously done or since,
and he chose the monuments of the periods of the Louis as the models
upon which to base nearly all his designs whenever they provided a
precedent that could be adapted. He loved the rich decorative arch-
itecture and the formal gardens designed by the architects of the
period of the late Renaissnace and was highly interested in the books
upon such subjects.14
The estates which they designed between 1897 and 1901 give much
H6 evidence of the preceding statement. For example, there are "Belle-
41q-* Fountaine" the residence of Giraud Foster in Lenox, Massachussetts, 1897;
"Blairsden," the residence of C.Ledyard Blair in Peapeck, New Jersey, 1898;
SO and "Whitehall," the residence of Henry M. Flagler in Pal], Beach, Florida,
1901. In all probability it is this type of planning which lead to
the anoointment of Mr. Carrere as the chief architect and chairman of
the Board of Architects in charge of gardens, grounds, and decor-
ative features of the Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo, New York
"WHITE HALL," RESIDENCE OF HENRY M. FLAGLER, ESQ,
"WHITE HALL," RESIDENCE OF HENRY M. FLAGLER, ESQ.
in 1901. The firm was also responsible for the design of the
5l Triumphal Bridge and pergolas, but this particular exposition has
not come down to us today as a matter of such great success and
Carrere and Hastings planning and design was also subject to some
criticism at the time. It seems that the grand bridge with its
grandiose entrance pylons, designed for a major entry port, was
PAN-AMERICAN EXPOSITION (1901)-ENTRANCE PYLONS.
Buffalo, N. Y.
not actually utilized by the crowds entering the exposition. An
Si entrance which had electric cars was however, and "...Probably
two-thirds of the visitors made their approach from this direction,
and, as they strolled up the path diverted only by an uninteresting
building, some extremely energetic sculpture, and some stupid and
uneffective beds of flowers, they would have no reason to suppose
that they were approaching anything more important than, say, the
Central Park Casino. When, however, they reached the forecourt and
faced around, they would suddenly find themselves upon the edge of
the Triumphal Bridge, which, according to the plan, was supposed to
have been approached from the Park and Lake. But it is absurd to
design a chief approach, which as a matter of fact, people rarely
It is hard to find precise information on who designed what at
an exposition but as architect in charge of such design, Carrere
must have also borne the brunt of this criticism. Because the staff
was able to reproduce a large amount of sculpture by copying and
enlarging, they were able to do so very inexpensively, also. "It is
perhaps for this reason that, very decidedly, there was an excess
instead of a dearth of sculpture scattered throughout the exposition
grounds. It was made altogether too cheap, so that at times the rows
of statues seemed to claim one's attention in almost as insistent
and tiresome manner as they would at a sculpture exhibition. It
follows, of course, that far from being situated only in spots,
made appropriate for their use by proper landscape gardening, they
were in many cases placed in an ineffective background or in spots
which would have been better off without them.,l6
The firm was, despite this criticism, not adversely affected
in the years following the Pan-American Exposition and continued
53 to attract large commissions such as the Goldwin-Smith Hall for
SCornell University, Ithaca, New York (1903); the Richmond Borough
S 5 Hall, St. George, Staten Island (1903), and the Murry Guggenheim
Residence, Elberon, New Jersey (1903), which won the Gold Medal
of the New York Chapter of the A.I.A. for that year.
In this time period Carrere and hastings designed what -.,as
perhaps their most significant works: The House and Senate Office
buildings for the Congress of the United States. The two buildings
S-o7 are almost identical in plan and appearance, however the general
office layout expresses the difference in the function and intent
S5cS of Representatives and Senators. The design itself seems to reflect
strongly the New York Public Library being stately, sedate and class-
ical in form. An article of 1908 describes them as they neared
completion, "Note here should be made of the reticent handling and
scholarly treatment of these two buildings. Artistic 'intemperance'
and architectural 'wantonness'-both common faults-have been avoided
and in their place are found refinement and restraint. whereass
the appearance of these two facades, at a distance, is simple, one
will discover upon them, at close range, much ornament finely designed
(o0 and judiciously placed. It is this refinement of detail which charms
and for which both the House and Senate buildings are notable. Without
Washington, D. C.
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES OFFICE BUILDING (1906).
Washington, D. C. Carrfre & Hastings, Consulting Architects.
question the finish externally is exquisite and betokens infinite
study-infinite pains. 17
The design of the House and Senate Buildings in 1905 and 1906
probably marked the zenith of the career of Carrere and hastings
although there were many significant and important commissions which
they were to accept for many more years. Some of this work showed
the expanding capabilities of the office, being of a very diverse
and specialized nature. In 1906 they made a design for the Lanhat-
tan Terminal for the Brooklyn bridge in New York City; this soxme
S(P\3 project led to a design for the Lanhattan Approach on the Manhattan
Bridge in 1912. Both these designs naturally involved the classical
detailing and style which by this time become typically French in
all their works. About this same time they also designed the
L4 Memorial Buildings at Yale University (1906) and a somewhat similar
(tS,; I structure for the Century Theatre in New lork City. Another
THE NEW THEATRE (1906).
Central Park West, 62d and 63d Streets, New York City.
THE AUDITORIUM OF THE NEW THEATRE.
(Copyright, 1909, by The New Theatre.)
MEMORIAL BUILDINGS, YALE UNIVERSITY (1906).
New Haven, Conn.
New Haven, Conn. MEMORIAL BUILDINGS, YALE UNIVERSITY (1906).
significant structure which followed in 1909 was the Carnegie
Institution of Washington which showed a strongly classical motif
in keeping with other institutional projects they designed. For
, -m477 T.IIM
CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON (1909).
Washington, D. C.
the most part, Carrere and Hastings stayed away from "Skyscraper"
design and steel frame construction, for Mr. Hastings reputedly
disliked this work, calling it "greedy." But it seems in keeping
that this work would be obviously difficult to tune into their styl-
istic criteria. They did however do some of this work as is evi-
407 denced by the United States Rubber Building in New York City which
has a "modern" look in its facade but maintains a classical cornice
of unusual proportion.
In February of 1911, it seemed that Carrere and Hastings were on
a wave of success, receiving many important commissions and acting
as one of the most important architectural firms in this country.
But on the twelfth of that month John M. Carrere was killed tragically
in an automobile accident. however, he was accorded a great honor
at the time of his death as is described in a letter of appreciation
written in Architectural Review, "It is perhaps a satisfaction to
those who cherish his memory to recall that the people of New York
accorded him the highest last honors by opening the New York Library
in order that his body might lie in state in the building which
his imagination had conceived and his brain had planned."18
Thomas Hastings maintained the office in the name Carrere and
Hastings until his death in 1929. During this period of time the
volume of work did not reflect the earlier work which he and Carrere
had created jointly but some of his significant works of this time
period include the Plaza Theatre in New York City; the National
Amphitheatre in Arlington Cemetary; the Victory Arch in Madison
Square, New York; the McKinley Monument in Buffalo and the John
Paul Jones Monument in Wasehington. All these works were basically
consistent with the style of architecture that the team had produced.
previously in their careers.
Carrere and Hasting represented the best, ethical practitioners
of architecture in their works and professional standards; in fact,
John Carrere was one of the first American architects to preach and
practice a code of professional ethics.19 He was also co-founder
(with Thomas Hastings) of the Society of Beaux Arts Architects-
a group of architects dedicated to architectural education and prac-
tices-and founder of the Art Commission of New York. In 1891 he
was elected as a fellow of the A.I.A. and served on its National
Board. In addition he was an active member of the Architectural
League, the Academy of Arts and Letters, and the National Academy
Thomas Hastings was also a very active member in the social
organizations of this period, being a Fellow of the A.I.A.; founder,
president and director of the Architectural League of New York.
In June of 1922, he received the Royal Institute of British Architects
Gold Medal Medal Award, and also was named a Chevalier in the Legion
of Honor by the French Government. He died of complications fol-
lowing surgery for appendicitis in November of 1929.
Perhaps one of the most significant effects that the office of
Carrere and Hastings had on the profession of architecture however,
involved the art of draftsmanship and its relationship to the pres-
entation of architectural drawings. The Ecole de Beaux Arts was
greatly influential in developing this mode of dramatic and artistic
presentation but it has been considered that Carrere and Hastings
were among the first architects to import it and use it as a profes-
sional standard. Carrere and Hastings were influential in their
technical regard for competition and working drawings throughout
their careers, accordingly, John Carrere was the author of the
Code of Ethics (for competions) adopted by the New York Chapter
of the A.I.A. which was later adopted by the National A.I.A. In
an article written about Hastings in 1925, this comment was made
about his office work, "That an architect should always remain a
draftsman, that he should continue to draw with T-square and tri-
angle, and not fall into the practice of designing with a roll of
thin paper and a soft pencil, is a conviction that Thomas Hastings
reiterates and puts into practice."20 The article goes on to describe
how Hastings always spent at least part of his day working on the
(bf70 drafting table producing "rough sketches" (which looked like final
drawings) to transmit his designs and ideas to his organization.
Despite whatever kind of architectural biases people carry
(since the Beaux Arts philosophy is so greatly disdained currently)
it is nevertheless important to respect and regard the opinions and
works of earlier architects who in fact have left, however inadvert-
ently, the heritage we have today. Carrere and Hastings are two
of these architects.
Thomas Hastings throughout his career had been a very vocal
participant in the debates on style and education and he often had
articles appearing in the periodicals stating his point of view.
It is also important to realize how involved Carrere and Hastings
were in the formation and organization of proper architectural
schools in this country. Despite the criticism lowered on the
Beaux Arts schools, they nonetheless provided an architectural
education based on high ideals of intellectualism, creativity and
ethics, an education available mainly in European schools only,
prior to that time. As Hastings states, "There are some who have
been prejudiced against the 'Beaux Arts Architecture,' so-called.
In answer to such criticism we should remember that any system of
education finds its chief justification in raising the general
standard of mentality and character, and this has unquestionably been
done in the case of architectural education-and greatly through the
efforts and influence of these Beaux-Arts associations. A school
does not produce a genius without the necessary natural material;
education helps most the man who thinks, and it is not everyman
who can be taught to think; but it is such stimulus to the
development of mentality that these associations have accomplished."21
1Rathburn-Whitney, Elsie; Whitney, Henry F., AIA; Biographical
Dictionary of American Architects (Deceased), New Age Publishing
Company, LosAngeles, Calif., 1956, p. 109.
2Swales, F.S., Architectural Review, May, 1911, p. 283.
3American Architect, v. 96, Jy-Dec., 1909, p. 3.
hSwales, F.S., op. cit., p. 286.
American Architect, v. 96, Jy-Dec., 1909, p.3.
1bid., p. 4.
7Ibid., p. 4.
8Pencil Points, v. 10, Dec. 1929, p. 869.
9Pencil Points, v. 6, Dec. 1925, p. 49.
10Architectural Record, v. 27, Jan. 1910, p. 4.
11Cram, Hastings, and Bragdon, Six Lectures on Architecture,
Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill., 1917, p. 100-108.
12David, A.C., Architectural Record, v. 12, Nov. 1902, p. 637-640.
13Architectural Record, v. 28, 1910, p. 148.
14Pencil Points, v. 10, Dec. 1929, p. 869.
15Croly, Herbert, Architectural Record, v. 11, Oct. 1901, p. 602-3.
161bid., p. 606.
17Architectural Record, v. 24, Sept. 1908, p. 187-188.
18Architectural Review, kay 1911, v. 29, p. 293.
19Ibid., p. 287.
20Architecture, v. 37, May 1918, p. 116.
21Pencil Points, v. 6, Dec. 1925, p. 48.
"Borough of Manhattan approach to Manhattan Bridge, No. 3, New
York," American Architect and Building News, v.102, 1912,
"Building of the U.S.Rubber Company," American Architect, v.102,
July 10, 1912, p.14.
Cram, Hastings and Bragdon, Six Lectures on Architecture, Univ.
of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill., 1917.
David, A.C., "The New York Public Library," Architectural Record,
v.28, p. 145-172, Sept. 1910.
Desmond, H., "A Beaux-arts Skyscraper-The Blair Building, New York
City," Architectural Record, v.14, p. h35-4h3, Dec. 1903.
"The Flagler Memorial Church, St. Augustine, la.," American Archi-
tect and Building News, v.96, no. 1750, Jy 7, 1907, p. 5.
Hastings, Thomas; "Design for a Country House," American Architect
and Building News, v.6, Oct., 1879, p. 132.
"How the Beaux Arts Institute has helped our architectural
Schools," Architecture, v.37, May, 1918, p. 115-116.
"A Letter from Thomas Hastings, Reminiscent of the early work
of Messrs. Carrere and Hastings," American Architect and
Building News, v.96, 1909, p. 3-4.
"Modern Architecture," Architect and Engineer, v.34, Oct. 1913,
"An Innovation in Architecture," Architectural Record, v.12, Nov., 1902,
"Interior decoration of the New York Public Library; Carrere and
Hastings, Architects," American Architect and Building News,
v.98, 1910, p. 153-156,-T3. -
"John Merven Carrere," Brickbuilder, v. 20, 1911, p. 1$.
"Master Draftsman, Thomas Hastings," Pencil P ints, v.6, Dec. 1925,
"'Monumental' Engineering Bridge Design," Architectural Record,
v. 11, Oct. 1901, p. 615-640.
"New Public Buildings at Washington," Architectural Record, v. 24,
Sept. 1908, p. 180-206.
Price, C.Matlack, "A Renaissance in Commercial Architecture; and
Recent Buildings in uptown New York," Architectural Record,
v.31, May 1912, p. 449-469.
Rathburn-Whitney, Elsie; Whitney, Henry F., AIA; "Carrere, John
Merven," and "Hastings, Thomas," Biographical Dictionary of
American Architects (Deceased), New Age Publishing Company,
Los Angeles, Calif.,11956.
Swales, F.S., "John Merven Carrere, 1858-1911; An Appreciation,"
Architectural Forum, v. 29, 1911, pp. 283-293.
"The Work of Messrs. Carrere and Hastings," Architectural Record,
v.27, Jan. 1910, p. 1-120.
Brickbuilder, v.20, Mar. 1911, p. 45, portrait of Carrere.
Pencil Points, v.10, Dec. 1929, p. 869, portrait of Hastings
American Architecture and Building News, v.6, Oct. 1879, p. 132,
"Design for House," 'y-Iastings.
Architectural Record, v. 27, 1910, p. 2, Ponce de Leon photo.
Ibid., p. 5, plan of Ponce de Leon.
In situ, Exterior of Ponce
Ibid., Doorway detail, front.
Architectural Record, v. 27, 1910, p. 8, Drawing of Alcazar.
Ibid., p.9, Plan of Alcazar.
In situ, Front elevation.
Ibid., Interior court.
Ibid., Terra cotta detail.
Architectural Record, v. 27, 1910, p. 7, Methodist Church.
In situ, front elevation.
Ibid., detail of tower.
American Architect, v. 96, July 1909, p. 4, Flagler House, St. Aug.
Architectural Record, v. 27, 1910, p. 11, Flagler (Presbyterian Church.)
In situ, sane view.
Ibid., detail of tower.
Ibid., main entry detail.
Ibid., front elevation.
Ibid., Flagler Mausoleum.
28. Ibid., brick and concrete detail, Presbyterian Church.
29. Architectural Record, v. 27, Jan. 1910, p. 24, Cathedral of St. John
the Divine, Elevation.
30. Ibid., plan of St. John.
31. Ibid., p. 19, Residence of E.C.Benedict, Site plan.
32. Ibid., p. 21, Photo of E.C.Benedict House.
33. Ibid., p. 22, Plan of Laurel-in-the-Pines.
34. Ibid., p. 23, Photo of Laurel-in-the-Pines.
35. Ibid., p. 26, Amherst Chapter House photo.
36. Ibid., p. 27, R.H. Townsend House photo.
37. Ibid., p. 32, Life Building, photo.
38. Ibid., p. 33, Paterson City Hall, photo.
39. Ibid., p. 36, New York Public Library, photo of front.
40. Architectural Record, v. 12, Nov. 1902, p. 637, model of facade, N.Y.P.L.
4b. Architectural Record, v. 27, Jan. 1910, p. 38, 2nd floor plan, N.Y.P.L.
42. Architectural Review, v. 29, May 1911, Reading room, N.Y.P.L.
43. Ibid., Rear elevation, photo.
44. Architectural Record, v. 27, Jan. 1910. p. 36, elevation of N.Y.P.L.
4$. Ibid., Detail drawing of N.Y.P.L., p. 37.
Belle Fountaine., photo of front.
Blairsden, front view.
Vista at Blairsden.
Garden and Pergola at Blairsden.
Whitehall, Flagler's residence, front view.
Triumphal Bridge of Pan-Am Expo.
Site plan of Pan-Am Expo.
Goodwin-Smith Hall, front view.
Richmond Borough Hall, front view.
Marry Guggenheim Kouse, front view.
$6. Ibid., p. 102, Plan of House of Rep.'s Office.
57. Ibid., Front view of House of Rep.'s Office.
58. Ibid., Plan of Senate Office.
59. American Architect, v. 96, Jy 1909, p. 9, View of Senate Bldg.
60. Architectural Record, v. 27, Jan. 1910, p. 101, Caucus Room, Senate.
61. Ibid., p. 96, Manhattan Bridge Approach.
62. American Architect, v. 102, Jy 1912, p. 63, Manhattan Approach, Plan.
63. Ibid., p. 62, Elevation of Manhattan approach.
64. Architectural Record, v. 27, Jan. 1910, p. 104, Yale Memorial Bldgs,
6$. Ibid., p. 113, The Century (New) Theater, front.
66. Ibid., p. 11$, The Century (New) Theater, interior of auditorium.
67. American Architect, v. 102, Jy. 1912, p. 16, U.S.Rubber Bldg., photo.
68. Pencil Points, v. 6, Dec. 1925, p. $9. Detail of Study drawing, Hastings.
69. Ibid., p- $2, Rough sketch for office building, Hastings drawing.
70. Ibid., p. $0, Study for Altar of Liberty, N.Y., Hastings drawing.