THE ARCHITECTURE OF ALACHUA COUNTY
From its Origins to the End
of the Victorian Era
Regional History AE 678
Professor F. Blair Reeves
TABLE OF CONTENTS
The Bellamy Road....................9
The Seminole Wars....... ..........11
After the Seminole Wars............14
The End of the Era....... ..........40
Preservation in Alachua County.....43
This is the study of the area of Florida known
as Alachua County. It is an area that has had an in-
teresting and dynamic history, for aver the years it has
been subjected to many changes of fortune. It has seen
peaceful and prosperous days, and it has survived days
of war and disease. We have attempted, in this study
to examine the architecture of the area and to correlate
it6to the influential factors which altered its style
and form; its quality and quantity; and its beauty or
functionality. We have traced this history from the
early days of the county, when it was just first being
pioneered, up until a period when the county had stag-
nated to some degree (1910) and would not be grossly
changed until the rapid, destructive urban renewal forces
began to operate in the 50's and 60's. This notion of
"urban renewal" was to cause some of the most signifi-
cant edifices of the county's architectural history to be
destroyed in the name of progress, especially in Gaines-
ville. On the other hand many of the historic properties
in the area's smaller towns (most of which are modest by
any standard) have been neglected and left unused for
years because of the fluctuating economies of the area.
Thee architecture of a region symbolizes and depicts
the lifestyle of an era and has an inherent value to a
community which is somehow nearly always ignored. It
is often hidden under an ugly facade of stucco and alum-
inum and bland pastel paints. The commercial structures
of downtown Gainesville show this problem shamefacedly.
Other buildings hawe fallen to the wayside and been
forgotten like the forts of the Seminele wars. Of the two
dozen forts constructed in Alachua County not one remains.
Just their memory lingers on in a few vague references
in the history books. Architectural heritage is all toQ
soon forgotten and abandoned, and once it is gone it is
almost surely gone forever.
Florida was, as were all territories, originally
Indian land. In the case of Alachua County the Eimuacan
Indians were the inhabitants of the region. The name
"Alachua" is derived from an Indian word that has a mean-
ing which is apparently subject to some discussion as
to its real derivation. It probably means "the big jug
without a bottom," but Mr. Frank Drew of the Florida
Historical Soci-ty has stated his opinion thusly, "Ala-
chua is a contraction of Atl-tah(r)-chu-ha, and means
respectively, the< 'great dark moon tree of the little
water (the rain); the oaks full of moonlike crown (the
moon in its shaded phases) having a proclivity for
growing in damp ground (affected by the soil water from
the rain); also as probably noting the dropping from the
leaves in transpiration like rain. '"*
The Spanish in their ventures of colonialism and
conquest first explored and sought to colonize this area.
The Spanish explorers sought mainly to acquire the riches
of the Indians and to convert them to their own brand
of Christianity. De Marvaez came through area and pro-
ably visited the Indian village which existed near Mic-
anopy. De Soto also later came through on his somewhat
disappointing trek for he was to find none of the rich,
populous cities in Florida the likes of which were found
in Mexico and South America. Instead he found swamps,
fever and hostile Indians and he reportedly fought with
the local tribes near Paynes Prairie.2
After the conquistadors had already pursued their
course of slaughter and plunder, Spanish Missions were
established in a righteous attempt to convince the natives
of their pagan sins. But the Spanish had such strenous
methods of convincing them that the area was totally
uninhabited by the year 171G. Creek tribes which had
seceded from their own lands and tribes in Georgia moved
south under the direction of Chief Secoffee and occupied.
the rich lands of Alachua left unoccupied. The "Seminole"
which the tribes became known as is derived from a Greek
word meaning "seceders."
There was little pressure from the outside world
on these Indians until the early 1800's when the descrip-
tion of the Alachua County area and its natural wonders
was written and published by the brothers, John and William
Bartram. These brothers were botanists who explored
lands in search of new and different botanical and natural
objects. Their description of this area's rich abundant
wildlife and fertile lands and their description of Paynes
Prairie and its wonderful nature is still a remarkable
document. Bartram met. with the Seminole Indians who
were at this time a peaceful and welcoming tribe, and
his reports of this reception by these Indians sometime
later reached an Havana merchant of an adventuresome
nature named Don Pernando de la Maza Aredondo. (See
Slide 1). Arredondo petitioned for and received a grant
from Spanish gerritorial authorities which granted him
authority to settle 200 families in an area centered at
Micanopy that was "20 leagues to eaeh wind" or twenty
leagues square. Mohis Grant, now well known as the "Arre-
dondo Grant," incorporated almost all of what is today
Alachua County. All the land titles to properties in the
Gainesvill area can be traced back to the Arredondo
Grant. Arredondo himself was never a settler here
however, so in order to find settlers he sold a partial
share of the grant to Don Peter Mitchell, who, together
with W.T. Hall and Pedra Mirandes began to enlist pioneers
to work the land. Mitchell and Mirandez in turn hired
John Smith and Patrick Lannan as explorers and trail-
blazers. Buchholz, in his History of Alachua County,
tells of their early efforts inihis way, "Smith, Lannan
and Hall reached Alachua November 7, 1820 and immediately
began clearing land one and a half miles east of Payne's
Old Eown. (On ani-oldmap this Indian Eown is marked as
a mile and a half north of Micanopy east of the Fort
Crane Raad.) The first dwelling built was fifteen by twenty
feet. It was to accommodate the two men and the settlers
who were to come. Another twenty by thirty feet was to
serve as a store and a dwelling for Hall. Hall fell ill
and returned to St. Augustine. Early in January John
Smith reported to Hall at St. Augustine that the houses
were complete except for locks and hinges confirming his
report by one Burgess, a half-breed whom he hadt brought
along for the purpose. Hall gave Smith the hardware and
forty dollars for the use of Smith and Lannam, but did
not accompany them back to Alachua because he did not
fancy some of the settlers employed by Mitchell and
Arredondo to make establishments there."3 (See slides
2, and three,Views of log cabin.)
The first settler was to be Edward M. Wanton who was
contracted to settle and arrived April 10, 1821. His
settlement which was called Wanton was on the banks of
Lake Tuscawilla just south of what is presently Mican-
opy's town center. It was to be the center of that set-
tlement for most of the early days.
Another early pioneering group was that of the
German Frederick S. Warberg. His agent, Moses Levy,
procured a grant from Arredondo which is now known as the
Levy Grant and is north of Micanopy several miles but
just on the South side of Paynes Prairie. Warberg and a
group of 21 other settlers (7 white and 15 slaves) came
to the grant in 1821. This settlement there was known
as Pilgrimmage Colony and was intended to be a settlement
for refugee-Jews from Europe. No trace of this early
settlement is now acknowledged despite the fact that as
early as 1823 it had 30 settlers and an outhouse, a stable,
a cornhouse and a blacksmith.5 Wanton's settlement had
50 settlers with a store, built like a stockade which
he used both as home and stronghold. The settlers at
The settlers at Wanton and Pilgrimmage later blazed a trail
wide enough for wagons and complete with bridges all the
way to Picolata so that they could have a direct route
to transport their goods.
In 1823 Micanopy was growing rapidly and between
July 15th and July 25th "the Micanopy settlement increased
from 13 houses, the largest of which was 25 by 30 feet,
to 25 houses with frames up for ten more. By that time
a water power sawmill was nearly ready for use."
Alachua County was organized and approved as a county
by the Florida Legislative Council in Tallahassee in
November of 1824. The original county was much more
extensive than the county line we know today for it
stretched from the Georgia border to Charlotte Harbor and
included all or part of more than 20 of Florida's counties
as they are delineated today. Micanopy was named county
seat at that time and the first Alachua County Court was
held at Micanopy in 1825. At this time it was ordained
that an election should be held to elect commissioners
whose duty it would be to select a site for the permanent
THE BELLAMY ROAD
The Bellamy Road was to have an adverse effect for
a time on the little town of Micanopy. This road built
between Pensacola and St. Augustine which had a branch
reaching down to the piannee town of Newnansville opened
a route for easy immigration and trade to the area, but
at the same time shifted the county's growth away from
Micanopy to the northern section of the county. This
branch road which lead from Newnansville to Lake City
to Jacksonville opened up more of the Alachua land to
settlers and the town of Newnansville swelled until it
became the center of the County's population. Newnansville
was subsequently selected as the "permanent" county seat
and approved as such by the Florida Legislative Council
on Nov. 15, 1828. When Columbia County was formed from
part of the northern section of Alachua County, Newnans-
ville was incorporated as prt of Columbia so it could no
longer function as a county seat. The seat was moved to
the home of Edward Dixson at Spring Grove but around
1839, Newnansville was reincluded in Alachua County and
became County Seat again. A description of the Court
House and its function, which was apparently a pretty
modest building, follows. "The old court house still
stood and since it had been deserted by the county court,
had served to accommodate the Superior Court for the
two counties. Although it was necessary on such occasions,
to rent two jury rooms out in town, on account of the
necessity of housing the records and providing the Clerk
of the Superior Court and of the County Court with office
space, in the original jury rooms. With the addition
of two new jury rooms in 1847, this first court house
served until the completion of a new one in 1852, and
permission is granted to Sam'l Rupel to remove the old
court house and the two jury rooms from the Public Square,
provided that he remove and clean off all the rubbish and
rotten stuff that may fall from taking them down."8
25ii SEMINOLE WARS
As the new settlers started to increase the popul-
ation of the county, they also began to put pressure on
the Indian natives who up until this time had not been
hostile to the settlers since a state of peaceful coexis-
tence had been planned. The settlers believed however,
that the Indians were stealing cattle and harboring run-
away slaves from the Alachiafgrms. It was agreed at a
meeting of the Seminole Chiefs in 1823 that the Indians
would remain south of a line some twenty-three miles south
of Micanopy. As the number of altercations began to
increase from violations on both sides of this agreement,
the settlers wanted more and more to have the territory
altogether free of Indians. A deal was later struck with
the Indians to encourage them to emigrate to new terri-
tory in suitable lands west of the Mississippi, but
because of the white man's treachery in meting out pay-
ments for the Indians' relocation expenses and because
of confusion on the part of the Indians, the move was
never accepted by all of the tribes. The Indians later
refused to leave and the pressure between the two groups
began to build to an explosive peak. (See Slide 4).
The hostilities began in about 1835 about the time
that Osceola's wife was seized while shopping at Fort
King and claimed as a slave by white traders there.
Osceola was threatened and he was forced to agree to
emigrate from the area with his people, an agreement
which he made under duress to save his life and the life of
his wife and which he probably never meant to keep.
The skirmishes between the Indians and white settlers
over territory and goods began to iprease and soon full
scale war erupted. It is not the purpose of this paper
to depict the history of the Seminole wars however. It
should suffice it to say that Osceola and his companion
chiefs were captured or killed and the Seminole people
were driven further and further south until they no longer
could affect the Alachua County area.
The Seminole War did, needless to say, have a profound
effect on the area. (See Slide 5). Much of the fighting
had centered a& the area of Alachua County. Subsequently,
many settlers had been killed and many homesteads which
were vulnerable had been burned and destroyed. Disease,
famine and attack also took a toll of the people who
had been forced to move into the forts hastily constructed
to defend the settlers against the Indians. More than
two dozen forts had been built in the Alachua County area
on a 20 square mile "defense square" basis. Some of them
were of course built very near the centers of population,
(as at Newnansville and Micanopy),others were built in
strategic locations to defend against the Indians. (Slide
5, Map of Forts).
Information is lacking on the nature of the layout
and construction of most of these forts, but this descrip-
tion of Fort Micanopy was recorded by John T. Sprague, an-.
aide-de-camp to General MacComb. "There is a small village
some eight or ten houses besides the Garrison...the
fdrt is surrounded by thick dense Hammocks which has
given great serenity to the Indians and caused them to
contend until the last moment for a spot which is iden-
tified with their best days...The fort is a picket work
(with block houses at each angle) about two hundred and
fifty feet square, within which are the officers quarters,
small but very neat. In the center of the work are large
live oak trees which secure a delightful shade.'. Also,
this, "The pickets are made by splitting pine logs about
eighteen feet in length into two parts and driving them
upright and firmly into the ground close together with
the flatside inward; these are braced together by a strip
of board nailed on the outside. The tops are sharpened
and holes are cut seven or eight feet from the ground
for the firearms. A range of benches extends around the
work about three feet high, from which the fire is deliv-
ered. All our forts in that country are so formed."10
All of these forts of the area have been generally
located on some maps but few if any of the locations are
marked in situ. Fort Clark, for example, was west of
Gainesville on NBwberry road and is now marked only by
the Four O'Clock Church. Incidentally, 'Four O'clock" is
derived from the name Fort Clark. Fort Crane was east of
Gainesville and was located vaguely by a description in
Davis's History of Alachua County.after he visited the site.
Y states, "Some live oak trees mark the old fort site.
On top of the hill before reaching the site of the old
fort was an Indian burying ground. While grading the rQad
several years ago bones were found on the right bank.
Later excavations were made. Horace Zetrouer and I stayed
with a class form the University all night while they
found bones, remnants of old cooking utensils, parts
of guns and other articles buried with the bodies."11
There were many forts in this area including two
of which would now be included in the city limits of
Gainesville, (Fort Hogtown and Fort Tarver), but unfor-
tunately there is too little information available on
this important phase of Alachua County's growth. During
the Seminole War, the people of this area had changed
their habitat from a serene pioneer settlement to an
armed encampment environment. These forts are almost
all but forgotten as Buchholz states, "The little forts
have often no other distinguddng marks than an isolated
cemetery to mark the site today (1929). They were centers
of scattered settlers, or small villages, but reorgan-
ization has led the people to group themselves more
conveniently to roads more direct, and railways at that
time unconstructed. Fort Clarke, Crane, Drane, Harlee,
Fanning, Newnansville, Tarver, Wacahoota, and Walker are
almost indistinguishable from ordinary stretches of wood
AFTER THE SEMINOLE WARS
The Seminole wars started in the Alachua County area
but the Indians were slowly forced further and further
south. The northern part of Alachua became relatively
safe and Newnansville became a beehive of activity once
again. People who had been forced of their lands from
the South and people who were arriving in the area seeking
land to settle all came to Newnansville. The population
there swelled to 1500 persons and Newnansville became a
major Florida city.13
In 1842, Congress passed the Armed Occupation Act
which made it possible for farmers to obtain land by
occupying, farming and defending it. The land made avail-
able through this act were mainly in the southern parts
of Alachua County. Although most of the land permits
were issued from Newnansville, the consequence was that
the population once again began to shift away from that
city center to the southern part of the county.14 Soon
popular pressure began to build to have the county seat
moved, once again, from its location at Newnansville to
a more central location. In an historic meeting Gaines-
ville was created and Opdyke describes it in this way.
"In 1852, the state senator representing Alachua County,
John Boston Dell, secured passage of a law permitting
citizens of Alachua County to vote on a location of their
county seat. A huge barbecue and picnie was held at Boula-
ware Springs, off Southeast 15th Street in present day
Qainesville, at which Citizens decided to move the county
seat to a new town which would be called Gainesville.
The town was founded in 1854 and the new courthouse
completed in 1856. The town was located on land bought
from the plantation of Major James Bailey, whose pre-
Civil War house is located on present day Northwest 6th
One of the reasons that this location was chosen was
because the Yulee Railroad from Fernandina to Cedar Keys
had been planned to run through the area and would provide
a means of transportation that would be highly influential
in developing the area's economy. A building contractor
and sawmill owner by the name of Tilman Ingram offered, in
cooperation with Major Bailey, to build a county court
house for a very economical price. The subsequent vote made
it possible for the town of Gainesville to be born and laid
out on a regular grid plan with the Courthouse at its
center. By 1860, Gainesville had a population of 223
persons and the county had a population of about 8000.
The economy was of course agriculturally based with most
of the population living in outlying areas with the towns
as center of trade, transportation and services. The
economy of the area was described in this way. "Roads
in the territory were such that until the opening of the
Beelamy Road in 1826, expense of transportation ate up the
profit on crops whose value could no be condensed into
a small tonnage, as sugar, cotton, and indigo, and even
cotton was grown at first only on plantations near navig-
able streams. Each plantation was successful to the extent
that it could produce its own cloth, leather, soap and
foodstuffs for even the axles of wagons were of wood,
and the clapboards that covered the houses were fastened
by wooden pegs because of the scarcity of iron. Cotton
and tobacco, later to become important crops, were raised
only for home manufacture. The opening of the Bellamy
Road made the production of long stable cotton attractive
and settlers from the sea islands of Georgia and Carolina
began to raise it as a money crop. By the time of the
Seminole War the exports from the county were cattle,
timber (chiefly live oak for boat-building), cotton and
some indigo. Horses were raised but few apparently used
except for traveling 6n horseback."16
The completion of the Yulee Railroad through Gaines-
ville was the next major factor which was to influence
the growth of the county. It did again in the sixties
and seventies what the Bellamy Road had done in the
earlier part of the century. When Gainesville received
its first passenger train on April 21, 1859, it was evi-
dent that it would become the nucleus of the county and
that the other cities would be left behind in growth.
But the Railroad, which was completed from Fernandina
through to Cedar Key in 1861 had less of a positive
influence than the negative effect that the Civil War
was to bring to the county.
There were two major skirmishes between the Union and
Confederate troops during the Civil War, neither of which
accomplished anything strategically, but the Civil War
was to have a longer term effect on Gainesville and
Alachua County.. Although this area was to fair relatively
well economically during the period of military rule, the
social social changes which took place were the cause of
much suffering. The thought of Negro suffrage was hardly
acceptable to the local people for the population of
Alachua County at that time (1865) was 4,465 blacks and
3767 whites. There were many freedmen and other displaced
persons who were also moving to this area from :_- Georgia
and the Carolinas looking for land to homestead and in the
two years following the war the population of Alachua
County doubled with a two-thirds portion being black.t7
Alachua County and Gainesville had to provide housing
for all these persons and a building boom followed. Many
sawmills and lumbering operations sprang into service,
creating jobs and a relatively stable economy. The Rail-
raos had been stripped of its rails but stage coaches
had reinstated the county's mail service. The Gaineaville
Academy and the East Florida Seminary of Ocala moved to
Gainesville in 1863 and the State Seminary East of the
Suwanee was formed (later to be known once again as the
East FloridaL Seminary). The Academic Building of the
East Florida Seminary that was on the site of the present
day Methodist Church on NE First Street was on of the first
brick buildings in Gainesville. It bore a surprising
resemblance to one of the town's other brick buildings, the
Gainesville House ca. 1898.
Gainesville House, 1898.
- -- -m *_ 3 F- -71 I
L.a ,-. -*
Gainesville House, 1898.
Gainesville House, 1898.
E..W. Way Family
County Jail. Despite voting irregularities, party con-
frontations and some Ku Klux Klan activity, Alachua
County survived the reconstruction period and was on its
way to a new era of growth. As Sara Drylie states,
"Alachua County, blessed with good climate, fertile
soil, enterprising businessmen, together with capable
farmers and a growing labor force, was uniquely qualified
for rapid but stable growth in the 1880's and 1890's."t18
As the surrounding area grew in its economy and
production, the building themselves became more perman-
ent and more extravagant than the earliest homesteads
could have been. (See slide 6). The little one or two
room log cabins became little one or two room houses
constructed of the cut lumber which was available from
the local sawmills. (See slide 7). The next step in
the cabin's development simply expanded this into a larger
two or three room, 1* story house with an upstairs and
probably a fireplace at both ends. (See slide 8.) The
two story addition and the two story house seems to be
the next step in the development but these houses were
still plain and undecorated with a luxury such as shutters
probably added. (See slide 9.) The first decorative
elements such as scroll work and gabled windows marked-
the transition from a purely functional vernacular archi-
tecture which was able to afford decoration and ornament
in its vocabulary. (See slide 10). Scroll sawing soon
Site of Penney's Store on
West University Avenue
created fanciful brackets and balustrades on the wide
porches which wrapped around the house. (See slide 11).
This architecture was really a vernacular architecture, a
"Cabin Style" with decoration merely applied. The transition
to the more Victorian class of residencesurrounding
porches, turrets, classical cornices, rounded forms and bay
windows, marked the emergence of the upper crust in the
County as a monied class. This upper crust was able to
afford an Architect (or at least a contractor who called
himself Architect) who could supply plans and specific-
ations of houses in the styles most popular. The
detailing and wood work was available on a mass produced
basis and catalogs were available from which one could
select the style desired. The Victorian mansions were
built by a group of people who were a class apart from
the ordinary farmer/shopkeeper that inhabited the rest
of the county, but everyone in the area seemed to be
fairing pretty well.
Another type (see slide 12) of residence that dev-
eloped was the plantation house and typical examples of
this are the Bailey House and the Haile House. The
Bailey House, which is the oldest house in Gainesville,
was built between 1848 and 1854. Major Bailey took his
slaves to the woods and used a portable sawmill and
sawed all the timber for the house. The Haile House is
very similar to the Bailey house with its wide porch, and
stately columns. It is built of hand hewn timbers prob-
ably also done by slave labor just prior to the Civil
The town of Gainesville (see slide 13) at the begin-
ning of the 1880's was described by Carl Webber in his
book, The Eden of the South in this way. "Gainesville?,
therefore, by its peculiar position on the great peninsula
is destined to become by actual necessity and convenience
the most important city in the state...It is now the
County seat of Alachua, and the trading center of the
most populous and productive scope of the county, enclosed
within township 6 to 12, and ranges 16 to 23 S. and E.
Its population is about 4,000 which is rapidly increasing,
more so at present time than anytime in its history. (See
slide 14). The city covers an area of one mile square,
with a new addition known as East Gainesville, while the
new town of New Gainesville, closely connecting, with
its Hygienic hotel, cottege, sanitariums and fine business
and building lots will increase the power, importance
and influence of the place." (See slide 15). The town
of Gainesville at this time was, at this time, a wooden
town. It was never a rich town up until this time and
there was little room for luxuries such as brick buildings.
Timber was one of the main resources of the area at this
time and there were at least several sawmills, planing
mills and wood product industires in the area, (see
Appendix), which supplied the area with lumber, siding,
shingles, mouldings, scrollsaw work, and turned work.
Views of Gainesville's old
Wooden stores and shops
These materials were cheap and available and the Court-
house, and almost all the buildings on all four sides of
the square were wooden structures. Stores, shops, houses
and hotels were crowded closely around the square. Where
fires did start they often claimed more than one buildings
In 1883 a fire swept through the buildings on the block
on the west side of the square. Again in 1885, fire burned
out the block on the south side of the square. (See slides
16-21). Brick suddenly became a valuable commodity which
was evidenced by the Cou4ty's newspapers. In those years
following the fires, brickmakers and dealers from Georgia,
Jacksonville and locally started advertising and selling
brick which would have been transported into thearea by
rail. Most commercial buildingusafter 1885 were built
of brick and virtually nothing earlier than 1880 exists
in downtown Gainesville, (see slides 17 to 33).
The County Courthouse,which had been constructed of -
wood in 1854 at a cost of $5500, later outlived its use-
fulness and had apparently become unsafe for use. It
was a modest building, square in plan with a gabled roof
on each side. A small, gabled roof covered the doors in
the middle of each side. By 1880 the County Grand jury
reported"that the building was in a thoroughly dilapi-
date condition. The roof leaked, the plaster was falling
off the walls, the walls and floors were filthy and the
entire building was filled with an unpleasant odor.
The rooms were poorly lighted, ventilation was poor, and
? ." '. :. F, ,' 1 !0
4 '- '. ; ''
The East Florida Seminary
Two of Gainesville's original brick
L v ar .. ......." ..-.
^fli^maL f ^^^6., '.c
'COMFORTABLE AFFAIR'-An early historian described
the old, old County jail, pictured at left with new ad-
ditions on the right, as a "well arranged and comfortable
affair." Both sections of the jail have now been abandon-
ed for the detention of prisoners by the County which
recently constructed a new jail south of Depot St. (Sun
photo by Eddie Davis.) J, "
The Old Jail
East University Avenue ca.
..... -.2^1...^ .-". .
South side of Courthouse square,
Gainesville, ca. 1900.
The Cheops Building
The old Cox Theatre
the rooms arranged with emphasis on inconveniences. It
was recommended that the architectural eyesore be replaced
with a new courthouse more suitable to the needs of the
county. It was suggested that the present courthouse be
torn down and the public square be sold for business lots
to pay ifor the new structure which would be erected on
a lot owned by the county adjacent to the jail...When
the final decision was made, however, it was decided to
place the new building on the original site. The beauty
of the public square was placed over its cash value...Work
began early in 1885 and by the following year the county
seat of government which dominated the town from its
central position on the square. The building had been
constructed at a cost of $50,000."20 (See slide 34).
The 1885 Courthouse was a splendid Victorian structure
of which any town would be proud. It was a three story
brick structure with a fourth story clack tower topped off
by a huge eagle. The original structure had a curved
roof with gabled windows and an iron railed balustrade
atop which altogether gave the building a "French"
appearance. (See slide 35). A later photo shows a steeply
whipped apparently superimposed over the old roof. (We
have not found any explanation of this in our research,
however after examining the old photo and the complexity
of that roof, it seems that leakage, especially where the
roof meets the top of the walls and at the junction of the
curved surfaces, may have been a likely problem.) The
The County Courthouse
Gainesville, ca. 1888
___ -. _________- -;.-.--..' *
*t ~ -.-*.*. --.~-.~.*-
* ~- j 4-
The County Courthouse
Gainesville, ca. 1893
angular, hipped roofs give the courthouse a more Italianate
appearance. It defined the downtown's landscape and acted
as a focus for the entire county until it was thoughtlessly
torn down and replaced by the inside-out bathroom in 1960
that is there now.
After the fires of 1883 and 1885, brick commercial
buildings began to replace all the wooden structures around
the square in Gainesville and in many of the other small
towns in Alachua County. They are mainly built in the
vernacularstyle which apparently accompanied brickmasons
all across the country.
The completion of the County Courthouse marked the
apex of the Victorian architecture in Alachua County.
(See slide 36). The National Oddfellows Home which was
built just five years later (1893-94) was in a more class-
ical style in its detailing, although it still had the
lightness and delicacy of proportion in its columns and
balustrade that the Victorian generally had. The next
major building to be built in town, the Kirby-Smith School,
was erected about 1900. (It is possible that it was (
designed by Wilson and Edwards, two South Carolina arch-
itects who also did some work in Jacksonville. The same
Edwards may have gotten a new partner, Mr. Walter, and
become the Edwards and Walter who designed several buildings
on the University of Florida campus.) It is designed
in the New-classical style (Beaux Arts eclectic) which
the later buildings in Gainesville would be designed in.
The Kirby-Smith School
Gainesville, ca. 1900
The Masonic Hall (1908), the Post Office (1910)., and the
University of Floridd&buildings were of this design.
THE END OF THE ERA
An event in Hawthorne in1879 was to have a great
effect on the economy of this area and the economy of Florida.
Dr. C.A. Simmons made the first confirmed discovery of
phosphate rock in Florida near Hawthorne in 1879. His
mining operation soon began and continued until he ran out
of capital in 1883. Phosphate deposits of a relatively
low grade were soon being discovered in all parts of Florida
although there was no real excitement in the economy for the
deposits were not expected to compete with the phosphate
centers already established in South Carolina and Tennessee.21
Whin high yield deposits were discovered however the sit-
uation changed dramatically and a boom began which brought
capital, and prospectors into the area of Alachua County
from all over the nation.. The effect of this phosphate
money is evidenced in the architecture of the area for in a
period corresponding with the phosphate boom there is
evident in many of the small towns and in Gainesville
the more elegant and refined Victorian homes previously
described. The phosphate boom was a major factor in
making the monied class what it was. Phosphate money
was made by the county's families who already were able
to invest in it. The County's stable agricultural base
at the same time was being affected adversely. During this
period of time (1885-1900) there were two major economic
factors to consider in light of the phosphate boom. One
is that in 1894-95, a severe freeze blasted the area's
citrus industry so severely that it has never been re-
established. Secondly, an outbreak of yellow fever of
epidemic proportions also affected the population and set-
tlement of the area. Blakey states in his book about
the phosphate industry, "In spite of unfavorable economic
climate, the number of companies mining phosphate increased
rapidly from 1890 to 1896. By April, 1891 there were
eighteen mining companies in Marion and De Soto counties
alone, with a combined capital investment of over $5,000,000.
Within a year more than 215 companies were operating state-
wide. In 1894 Florida mines outproduced those of South
Carolina for the first time. One year later the peninsula
sported over 400 companies mining the mineral. After 1896
each year saw a steady decrease in the number of mining
companies, until by 1900, there were only fifty in the
state. The recession, increasing competition, and spiraling
costs of operations had resulted in the consolidation of
many small companies into a few major ones. The great
phosphate boom was over."22
After the phosphate boom had ended, Alachua County
didn't change appreciably for many years. When the First
World War erupted in 1914, the phosphate industry declined
even further. Alachua County maintained its agricultural
base (without the citrus industry) through thick and thin,
although it would not have-the growth potential it had
it exhibited from 1870 to 1890 for a long time. The
period of the 1890's and to about 1900 was this grand
phase when the Victorian homes were built and an edifice
of such civilized urbanity as the Alachua County Courthouse
was constructed. Unfortunately this architecture has
largely been lost in the rapid growth of the Gainesville
area caused by the urban renewal pressures of the 50's and
60's. Alachua County has had a rich and exciting history,
but it cannot afford to lose more of the evidence of its
heritage that the architecture symbolizes and leaves
behind. Each little city and town must be responsible
to its buildings and sites which make up the history of
each area. Each town must be responsible to the preser-
vation of the part it played in the history of the greater
region. These histories taken together make up the
heritage and history of Alachua County.
The only preservation organization that we encountered
in our study of Alachua County was Historic Gainesville,
Incorporated. In the other towns around the county,
there probably are local historians, but there are not
any organized preservation groups to speak of. (See slides
37-40, views of Gainesville projects).
We talked to Mary Barrow, who is the past president
of HGI, and to Sam Gowan, who is an active member in the
organization. HGI is presently in the process of completing
the nomination of the Historic Gainesville District for
the National Register. This should be completed shortly
andhopefully the district will be on the Register by the
middle of this coming year. What is significant about
this particular historical district, is that within its
bounds lie the few remaining examples of Gainesville's
past. Many of the other structures of historical signif-
icance outside the district have been either demolished
or altered beyond recognition, (i.e., Alachua County Court-
house, the old Presbyterian Church, the White House Hotel,
etc.) In the recent past HGI was able to salvage the McRay
residence (seeslide 41), which was on the site of the new
Judicial Center, by moving the entire house down to a vacant
lot in the 800 block of E.University Avenue. Although
it is presently unoccupied and looks to be in a poor state
of repair, it does show that the organization does have
some power within the community. What is unfortunate
about this project is the amount of money already spent
on the House. It cost $20,000 to move the house, $40,000
to install plumbing, electricity, etc, (this figure may
be inaccurate), and an additional $3,500 initially. The
home also has three mortgages on it. The future of the
house is questionable and it may eventually be lost,
but at least the intent was good.
3GI is presently involved in a similar project. With
the proposal for the traffic loop almost completed, only
the section of NE 2nd Avenue between NE 1st and Main Street
completed, the Hodge house (Slide 42) on the corner of
NE 1st Street and NE 2nd Avenue is in a precarious situ-
ation. The house is presently on the State Register and
the loop is being funded by the State. So the State
cannot tear the building down to widen that part of the
loop. The Episcopal Church, which owns the property, has
control over the building and they are considering tearing
it down. HGI is trying to stop this by helping the Church
do a feasibility study on the building to see if they could
possibly rent it out and get enough money to maintain it.
Another project that HGI just completed was the pur-.
chasing of the Bodiford House (See slide 43). It was
bought for $44,000 which was the assessed value after the
structure had been stabilized by HGI. A few years previous
the building could have been bought for about $20,000. The
plans for the house are to rehabilitate the exterior and
then look for a developer for the interior. In the mean-
time they are going to continue to rent the house to the
students at a slight increase in the rent.
In the near future, HGI is planning to select a
few of the houses in the district and try to stabilize
them in the same manner as the Bodiford house. They also
have plans to survey the 1644 district which is the North-
west sector. The organization is a very active one, but
they need more support from the public, especially volun-
teers,to get some of the work done. (See also Slide 44).
SOME SHORT HISTORIES OF LOCAL TOWNS
Newberry was settled in the late 1800's and was
mainly an agricultural town. A well established citrus
industry area was centered here that was wiped out in the
freezes in the 1890's. It became a boom town for a short
period of time because of the phosphate mines, but after the
phosphate boom ended, the town dwindled. It has seen
virtually zero growth in the 20th century and,though
there has been little threat to the area's historic homes
and structures, there has been little effort to maintain
their integrity. (See slides 45-50).
The town of Archer was laid out in 1858 after the
Florida and East India.Transit Co. railroads were laid
in 1857. The town was named after Gen. James Archer who
was an officer in the Indina Wars. T wn was 40 acres
square and was mainly settled by South Carolinans. It
was the leading trading post in the county. In the 1880's
the churches were built and in 1905 the Maddox Foundry was
established. The Foundry today maintains the economy of
the town and there are some very interesting historic
buildings scattered throughout the general area that have
been very nicely maintained. The local churches whichh
very similar to the county's other modest Victorian
churches) are beautifully preserved. (See slides 50-
The first record of any settlement of the site was
around the Indian village of Ouscowilla in 1791. Apparently
the site of Micanopy became a military post to check the
Indians in the first quarter of the 19th century. In 1834
the Indians were informed that they had to emigrate either
willingly or by force. This was the beginning of the
Seminole wars. By this time (as mentioned earlier in
the text of this paper) Fort Micanopy was an established
In 1845 Florida became a state and this brought
development and growth to middle Florida. In 1850 land
was was divided and the town of Micanopy was mapped. It
was an agricultural center growing mainly cotton and oranges.
During this time the town was settled mainly by georgians
and South Carolinans. In the late 1850's the railroad came
through, but missed the town of Micanopy. Transportation
to the railroad was by barge across Payne's Prairie.
After the Civil War the economy recovered slowly and
agriculture still remained the base of the economy. The
town was dealt a severe blow when the Southern Railroad
bypassed the area entirely with its new line to Tampa.
It finally did build a freight line branch in 1883. The
freeze of 1894 devastated the citrus drop. In fact,
oranges were not shipped again until 1903. The town
of Micanopy is a designated historical area now and has
a row of several old brick stores and quite a few older
homes. The old fort is said to have sunk many years
ago and is no longer easily accessible-to the site.
No hint of its existence apparently exists. (See slides
We could find no history of High Springs in the
resources which we had available. (See slides 60-64).
Melrose did not begin to develop until after the Civil
War. Many Northeners were attracted to Florida by the
tales of the warm climate and possibilities of gaining
wealth through the citrus industry. In 1881 steamer ser-
vice began from Waldo, bringing in many settlers. Melrose
became a resort for the northern tourists who built large
homes for winter residences and growing citrus crops. The
Railroad came in 1886 and the economy boomed. By 1893
Melrose had become a thriving community with several
churches, a hotel and a woman's club. But then the
freezes hit destroying the citrus crop and many of the
Yankees farms. Businesses closed and the steamer and
train service ended, and Melrose sank into a depression
from which it has never recovered.
Newnansville was located about 1j miles northeast of
present day Alachua. It was first settled in the 1820's,
making it one of the earliest settlements in Alachua
County. Newnansville was made the county seat in 1828.
The town's economy was agricultural and by 1835-3& the
town had grown to a population of 650 and by 1840 it had
reached 1500. The town continued to grow and prosper
until 1854 when it was decided that a more central
location was needed for the county seat. So the county
seat was moved to Gainesville in that year. This had an
immediate effect on the town's economy and the population
began to dwindle. The final blow to the town occurred in
1884 when the Railroad bypassed the town in favor of
Alachua to the south. Gradually the town was abandoned
and today it is non-existent. All that remains are a few
paths and roads through the landscape, indicating an exis-
tence of a town at sometime. The site has been nominated to
the National Register as a Historic Agricultural Site.
Alachua: No History available. (Slides 70-73).
Windsor: No History available. (Slide 74-76).
Rochelle: No History available. (Slide 77).
Campville: No History available. (Slide 78).
Santa Fe: No history available. (Slide 79).
Hawthorn: No history available. (Slide 80).
IBuchholz, F.W., History Bf Alachua County, Record
Book Company, St. Augustine, FTorids, 1929, p. 15.
2Davis, Jess G., History of Alachua County, Published
by Appropriation of Beard ofCounty Commissioners to
Alachua County Historical Commission, 1959, p. 1.
3Buchholz, op. cit., p. 45.
4Davis, op. cit., p. 2.
5Buchholz, op. cit., p. 49.
61bid., p. 49.
7Ibid., p. 49.
8bid., p. 63.
90pdyke, John B., Alachua County: Sesquicentenniel
Tribute, Alachua County Historical Commission, 1974, p. 19.
10Ibid., p. 24.
11Davis, op. cit., p. 168.
12Buchholz, op. cit., p. 100.
130pdyke, op. cit., p. 14.
14Ibid., p. 14.
16Buchholz, op. cit., p. 107.
170pdyke, op. cit., p. 23.
18Ibid., p. 25.
19Webber, C.H., Eden of the South, Leve and Alden's
Publications, New YorTN7.,-Y.T885,.
20Gainesville Daily Sun, May 2, 1954.
21Blakey, A.F., The Florida Phosphate Industry, Wertheim
Committee, Harvard Un Eersity Press, Cambridge, Mass.,
1973, p. 22.
1. 1838 Map: Alachua County: Sesquicentenniel Tribute,
2. Cracker Farm at Morningside Nature Centerv
3. Cracker Farm at Morningside Nature Center.
4. Osceola: Florida Old and New, p. 213.
5. Map of Forts of Seminole War era: Florida Old and New.
6. Gainesville Residence, 1898, P.K. Yonge Library.
7. Gainesville Residence, 1898, P.K. Yonge Library.
8. Gainesville Residence, 1898, P.K. Yonge Library.
9. Gainesville Residence, 1898, P.K. Yonge Library.
10. Gainesville Residence, 1888, P.K. Yonge Library.
11. Gainesville Residence, 1898, P.K. Yonge Library.
12. Presbyterian Manse, 1898, P.K. Yonge Library.
13. Sanborn Map, 1884, Gainesville.
14. Gainesville 1884, Beck and Pauli, Milwaukee, Wisconsin,
J.J.Stoner, Madison, Wisconsin.
15. East side of Courthouse Square: Alachua County:
Sesquicentenniel Tribute, p. 44, 1890's.
16. West side of Courthouse Square, 1890's, Ibid.
17. West side of Courthouse Square, 1977.
18. Dutton Bank (1886), P.K. YOnge Library, ca. 1900.
19. Similar view of above, 1977.
20. South side of Square, Alachua County: Sesquicen-
tenniel Tribute, p. 44.
21. Similar view to above, 1977.
22. 311 NW 4th Avenue, Gainesville, 1977.
23. 232 NW 4th Avenue, Gainesville, 1977.
24. Seigler House, Gainesville, 1977.
25. Eva Dell House, Gainesville, 1977.
26. Richards House, Gainesville, 1977.
27. Layton House, Ca. 1897, Gainesville, 1977.
28. Denham-Webb House, ca. 1897, G,4nesville, 1977.
29. 414 NE 4th Avenue, 1977.
30. Phifer House, ca. 1903, 420 NE 5th Avenue, Gainesville
31. 221 SE 7th Street, Gainesville, 1977.
32. Fowler House, ca. 1905, 805 E. University Avenue, 1977.
33. Hattle House, 309 SE 7th Avenue, 1977.
34. Alachua County Courthouse, 1888, P.K. Yonge Library.
35. Alachua County Courthouse, 1893, P.K. Yonge Library.
36. Oddfellows Home, 1893, P.K.Yonge Library.
37. Gainesville Storefront, 1977.
38. The Sovreign, ca. 1910, 1977, Gainesville.
39. S.B. Duke Saloon (Main Street Bar), Gainesville, 1977.
40. Hotel, vacant; Gainesville, 1977.
41. McRay House, 800 block of E. University Avenue,
42. Hodge House, 116 NE 1st Street Gainesville.
43. Bodiford House, Gainesville.
44. Wittstock House, Gainesville.
45. New erry, 1977.
46. Newberry storefronts, 1977.
47. Newberry residence, 1977.
48. Newberry residence, 1977.
49. Newberry residence, 1977.
50. Archer residence, 1977.
51. Archer train station, 1977.
52. Train station, Alachua County: Sesquicentenniel
tribute, in Archer p. 44.
53. Church, Archer, 1977.
54. Residence, Archer, 1977.
55. Storefront, Micanopy, 1977.
56. Storefront, Micanopy, 1977.
57. Residence,,Micanopy, 1977.
58. Residence, Micanopy, 1977.
59. Church, Micanopy, 1977.
60. 525 NW 1st Avenue, High Springs, 1977.
61. 410 NW 1st Avenue, High Springs, 1977.
62. 220 SW 1st Street, High Springs, 1977.
63. 30 NE 1st Avenue, High Springs, 1977.
64. 30 NE 1st Street, High Springs, 1977.
65. Darlington-Bigelow, ca. 1886, Melrose, 1977.
66. Sexton-Williams House, 1886, Melrose, 1977.
67. Caldwell-Dennis House, ca. 1900, Melrose, 1977.
68. Vogelbach House, ca. 1879 Melrose, 1977.
69. Barnett-Tollus House, ca. 1880, Melrose, 1977.
70. 111 s. Main Street, Alachua 1977.
71. 75 S. Main Street, Alachua, 1977.
72. 11 SE 1st Street, Alachua, 1977.
73. 110 S. Main Street, Alachua, 1977.
74. Neilson House, SR 235,Windsor, 1977.
75. Lankford House, SR 235, Windsor, 1977.
76. Baptist Church, SR 235, Windsor, 1977.
77. Rochell School, Rochelle, 1977.
78. Tillman House, US 301, Campville, 1977.
79. Residence, SR 236, Santa Fe. 1977.
80. Methodist Church, Hawthorne, 1977.
Blakey, A..F., The Florida Phosphate Industry, Wertheim
Committee, Harvard Univesity Press, Cambridge,
Buchholz, F.W., History of Alachua County, Record Book
Company, St. Augustine, Florida, 1929.
Dau., Frederick W., Florida Old and New, G.P. Putnam
and sons, N.Y., 1903.
Davis, Jess G., History of Alachua County, Published
by Appropriation of Board or County Commissioners
to Alachua County Historical Commission, 1959.
DeSha, Bettee V., East Side of Eden: A History of The
Waldo Area, Arck u-blIThers, GaTnesville ,-7976.
Hamiter, Lucille S., The History of Waldo, Zerm,paper for
Hy 352, 1950.
Haworth, Esther Bernice Howell, Jottings and Echoes
RElated to Newnansville, Oe of Floridas Earliest
Settlements of Alachua and Columbia Counties,
Austria: B.B. and F., 1973.
Nomination of Newnansville Town Site for the National
Register of Historic Places.
Opdyke, John B., Alachua County: Sesquicentenniel
Tribute, Alachua County Historical Commission, 1974.
Petricka, E.A., History of the City of Archer, 1855-1949,
Term paper for Hy 352, 9T49.
Ross, ..: harles Perrin, Historical Development of
Archer Florida, Project for AE 581, 1974.
Southern GbidAlogist Exchange Society, 1850 Census
of Alachua County,
Suggs, Kenneth D., Newberry, Term paper for Hy 352, 1952.
Watkins, Caroline B., The Story of Historic Micanopy,
Alachua County Historical Commision, 1976.
Webber, C.H., Eden of the South, Leve and Alden's
Publications, New York, N.Y., 1883.
The tattone States
The New Era
The Florida News
Gainesville Evening News
Wallack's Melrose Delight
Gainesville Weekly Sun
Maps and Photos
Photo Collection of Alachua County and Gainesville at
P.K. Yonge Library, University of Florida.
Sanborn Maps of Gainesville; 1884, 1887, 1892, 1897,
at Map Room of University of Florida Library.
Map of the Seat of War in Florida, Bureau of Topographical
Engineers, Washington City, 1838. +
A Plat exhibiting the State of the Surveys in the State
of Florida, Sept., 1853.
A New Sectional Map of Florida, 1909, Issued by Dept of
Agriculture, 1901, J.N. Matthbws Co., Buffalo, N.Y.
Gainesville, 1884, Beck and Pauli, Milwaukee, Wisconsin,
J.J. Stoner, Publisher, Madison Wisconsin.
This appendix is a report written for ae 681 in
the Fall of 1977 at the same time this report was written.
Thbe research was done in conjunction with this report
with the intention of supplementing the historical
information developed in this report.
Alachua County was organized and approved as a county by
the Florida Legislative's Council in Tallahassee in November
of 1824. Micanopy and Newnansville had already been establish-
ed as pioneer towns of the area and Micanopy was need the
first Alachua County seat. This county seat switched back and
forth from Micanopy to Newnansville during the early days of
the county's history, until it was finally agreed that a new
county seat should be established in a more central location.
Gainesville was thus founded in 1854. The site of the town
was located on property owned by Major Bailey and had an
existing sawmill already located nearby, which provided lumber
for the first courthouse. A railroad was already planned to
run nearby, which was completed from Gainesville to Ferandina
in 1859. It was about this time that Gainesville became an
established hub for the county, having a population of 225
persons. Our first advertising sources were found in news-
papers about this time, 1861-67. The building industry at
this time was almost all wood structured for lumber was read-
ily available and cheap. These early ads reflected the simpli-
city and plainness of the available materials amd craftsmanship.
Carpenter and Builder
Offers his services to the citizens of Micanepy
and surrounding county as Contractor and Super-
intendant of Public Buildings, Villas, Towns and
County Houses and hopes by strict attention and
detail and merit a liberal patronage.
Plans and Specifications of Work and Materials
Furnished at Short Notice
CS, Sept. 28, 1861, p.2, c.4.
Great Reduction in Frice
at Pardee's Steam Mill
North of Gainesville
From and after this date we will furnish first
quality lumber at $15 per thousand feet and
rough edge at $7 per thousand for cash at the
mill. If not paid at the time the lumber is
carried away, the old price of $18 will be
charged. We wish it distinctly understood that
we will not do a credit business hereafter and
all lumber must be paid for within six days of
its removal from the mill. F.H. Pardee
NE, Oct.5, 1867, p.2, c.4.
T.H. Blake, S.A. Fewell
Carpenters and Housebuilders
Having formed a partnership for the transaction
of business in the above respectfully solicit a
share of public patronage. Calls from town or
country promptly attempted to and work done in
a workmanlike manner.
T.H. Blake, S.A. Fewell
NE, May 18, 1867, p.2, c.4.
Most-manufactured building elements and materials were
shipped into Gainesville for the most part during the 1870's,
as the ads indicated Products such as doors, sash, paints,
lime, plaster and bricks were imported from the East coast,
cities such as Fernandina and Jacksonville.
Manufacterer of Doors, Sash,
Blinds, Flooring, Etc.
Dealer in Builders' Hardware,
Paints, Oils, Etc.
Sole Agent for
The Nat'l Mixed Paint Co.
The Great American Fire Extinguisher Co.
Page Mabhine Belting Co.
This research paper was written in an effort to examine
the history of the building crafts and the materials related
to them, in the Alachua County area. This was accomplished
by looking at the advertising sections of the county's news-
papers from the earliest available date, the 1860's, up until
1905. City directories, history books, and photographic
collections at the P.K. Yonge Library were also examined.
The Sanborn maps, which begin in Gainesville in 1883, are an
excellent source of information and show plans and descriptions
of the buildings in the Gainesville area. The earliest period
of the county's history, 1824-1860, is undocumented in this
paper since we were unable to find data pertaining to our topic.
We also talked with Sam Gowan at the University of Florida
and examined information collected by Historic Gainesville,
What we have put together is a general overview of this
information. We have listed the advertisements verbatum, as
found, and placed them in chronological order. We have also
tried to relate the advertisements to the county's history by
making some accompanying comments, appropriate to the period.
There is of course room for more interpolation in this col-
lection of data, but we hope this paper will assist others
in subsequent research.
Send for Prices
Office & Warerooms
Nos 20 & 22 Hayne & 33 & 35 Pickney Sts.
Factory and Yards
Ashley River, West End Broad St.
AC, Jan. 1, 1876, p.?, c.4.
cem ent hair
slate & marble mantles
AC, Feb. 12, 1876, p.6, c.3.
Doors, Sash, Blinds, Etc.
& Central Hardware
at low prices for case
send for prices to S.B. Hubbard & Co.
FN, Sept. 14, 1878, p.1, c.5.
Up until 1880, there were few advertisements for con-
tracters er builders. However, those who did advertise
offered services of drafting, surveying, carpentry, and
estimationg. There also.was the first notice of a local
architectural firm, J.O. Goodale & Co., in 1877. The term
architect was used very loosely at this time and it is not
knowM if they were architects in the modern sense of the word.
Thomas L. Carter
Contractor & Builder
Gainesville, Alachua Co. Fla.
Will do any kind of carpentry work at short notice
and in a good substantial manner
Prices low and satisfaction guaranteed
AC, Feb. 12, 1876, p.6, c.3.
Surveyor & Draftsman
At the General Land Office
All kinds of surveying done: estimates ef water
power made: height of mill dams on streams or
depth of canals from lakes or pends at any given
point, correctly ascertained.
Tracing and establishing lost lines amd corners
strictly in accordance with the U.S. laws,
specially provided therefore.
Tracts of land of any shape measured and divided
into pieces of any req'd size
Maps made: old raps copied, and field notes plotted
Maps of any township of the state furnished at
land office prices.
All work warranted to be correct & lawful
AC, Feb. 12, 1876,p.6, c.3.
T.L. & W.F. Carter
Contractors & Builders
Plans, specifications, estimates, etc. furnished
free. Our prices are reasonable and our work good
First class references always ready and satisfact-
GT, Apr. 14, 1877, p.1, c.6.
Thomas A. Hall
Contractor & Builder
Satisfaction Guaranteed at Every Job
GT, Apr. 14, 1877, p.1, c.6.
Surveyor and Draughtsman
Commissioned Surveyor of Alachua County
Official surveys- made strictly in accordance with
the laws and records of U.S. survey.
An experience of several years in the U.S. Land
Office, and in surveying in this vicinity. Has
given a familiarity with the lines that enables
work to be done without otherwise necessary dekays.
Maps of any part of the county or state furnished
at land office prices.
GT, Apr. 1877, p.1, c.5.
J.O. Goodale & Co.
Architects & Builders
Draughts, estimates, etc. furnished at short notice
Contracts made and executed in any portion of state
GT, Apr. 14, 1877, p.1, c.6.
With the date of the establishment of the Gainesville
Planing Mill in June of 1873, the list of items available
through this company probably soon provided a good deal of
the materials utilized in the area. Wood products continued
to be the mainstay ef building construction. The tragic
fires of 1883 and 1885 which destroyed the blocks west and
south of the courthouse square were evidence of this. Until
1884 the entire town except for the jail, the iron foundry,
and the new building of the Est Florida Seminary were con-
structed of wood.
At the Gainesville Planing Mill
is the Place to Get
Moulding, in great variety of styles
Bracket Sawed, the largest to the smallest
Newel Post, turned from cedar or other woods
Balustere, in any pattern to suit
Hubs, for wagons turned to order
Felloes & Shafts, sawed when desired
Matched Flooring, ceiling and partitioning
Lumber Planed, and ripped to order
Pickets for fencing, pointed or cut to any shape
Wood, oak or pine sawed and split for the stove
Corn ground into fine meal or hominy everyday
For planing lumber are as follows:
Planing one side $4.00 per 1000 feet
Planing two sides $7.00 per 1000 feet
Planing four sides such as 2 inches square and
upwards $10.00 per 1000 feet
Planing one side and one edge weatherboardss)
$5.00 per 1000 feet
Matching flooring and ceiling 36.00 per 1000
feet, for 6 inches wide and upwards
Matching flooring and ceiling less than 6 inches
wide an increase of $1.00 per 1000 feet, will be
added for each inch narrower in width
Lumber planed from 3/4" to 5 inches in thickness
and 24 inches wide
FN, Sept. 14, 1878, p.2, c.5.
Established June, 1873
Planing Mill, Grist Mill, Rice Mill
Gainesville, Alachua County, Florida
Having lately made many additions and improvements
in machinery, I am prepared to do all kinds of
house furnishing work, such as Window amd Door
Frames, Mantle Fronts, etc., at short notice and
I have constantly on hand a large variety of Mould-
ings, also hand rail for stairs and balustrades.
Saw and turned balusters, Bracket and Scroll sawing
of any desired pattern done to order.
Seasoned lumber constantly on hand, I would invite
those contemplating building houses, yard fences,
etc., to give me a call and get prices.
My mills are right in the heart of the city, and
only three miles from the Public Square and bus-
iness portion of Gainesville.
ES, 1883, p.114. (see slide)
Dodd & Cavey
Practical Tin Roofers and
Workers in Metals of All Kinds
Roofing, Spouting, Valley Tin
and Jobbing of All Descriptions
in City and Country
Roofing over old shingles without extra expense
Estimates given. Correspondence solicited
ES, 1883, p. 118 (see slide)
Artist in Frescoing
General House & Sign Painter
Churchs, lodge rooms, hotels and residences
decorated in the highest style of the fresco
art, in new and original designs or after
architects' plans. Fine house painting,
graining, paper hanging, etc. at moderate
ES, 1883, p.119
P.H. Young, C.E.
Land Surveyor and Conveyanger
for State of Floida at Large
Special attention given to the examination of
records and to the perpetuating of titles
ES, 1883, p.122 (see slide)
Dennis & Wallis
L.G. Dennis L. Wallis
ES, 1883, p.123 (see slide)
James Doig's Foundry
I am prepared to make castings,. either brass or
iron, of any dimension or form; also machine works
of all kinds, such as
Steam Engines, Sawmills, Cotton Gins, Sugar Mills,
Sugar Kettles, Etc.
also manufacturers Agents for anything in the machine
line, properly and promptly attended to and work
ES, 1883, p.118 (see slides)
An indication of the prosperity of the town during 1880's
was the number of houses and business buildings constructed.
At the end of 1883 it was reported that at no time were there
fewer than twenty homes being built in town during the year
and as of that date at least fifty buildings were in various
stages of construction. This upsurge in building was due
mainly to the growth of the town as an agricultural base and
the steady growth of the railroad.
The Gainesville Variety Works
are now pre-ared to manufacture sash, doors, blinds,
mouldings, brackets, bedsteads, safer, tables and
desks, and all kinds of wood turning done.
We also have in connection in our factory.a first
class sawmill! and will keep in stock all kinds
of rough and dressed lumber.
Parties wanting anything in our line will find
it in their interest to call us. office and
factory on Seminar Street. Two blocks N. of
GN, Apr. 1, 1885, p.3, c.4.
Crescent City Cornice Works
Backus & Brisbin
galvanized iron cornices, window caps, Haye's
patent sky light, tin roofing, corrugated iron,
metallic shingles, Austin patent conductor pipe
express both ways paid by us on plans submitted
251 274 to Magazine St. New Orleans
GEN, Feb. 10, 1885, p.2, c.6.
Central Lumber Yard
Dealer in Building Materials
rough lumber, dressed lumber, worked flooring,
worked ceilings, cypress shingles, laths, building
brick, oil press brick, dressed granite, arti-
fical stone, cements, lime, plaster, hair
Agent for Chemical Lime Co. Alabama
Agent for Felt-Roofing Materials
Agent for Florida Fence Co.
GN, Apr. 1, 1885, p.2, c.2.
As mentioned earlier, the fires of 1883 and 1885 had a
great effect on the area and fireproof materials were soon to
be seen advertised highly in the newspapers. Brick goods
which were once sold by general building material retailers
were then being sold by brick companies dealing mainly in
that product. Cast iron and tin roofs also became popular
apparently due to their fireproofing aspect. Most of the
brick was Georgia brick rather than local brick which came
into use about a decade later.
Delivered to Gainesville for 48.25 per M., and
to other points in Florida for less than any
other first-class Georgia brick. We have advan-
tages in freight. .Write us.
Flint River Brick Yard
AA, Jn 26 1885, p.4, c.7.
Architectural & Builders Iron Work
Cast & Wrought Iron
Building Material of Every Description
Columns, lintels, sill-plates, window-guards,
sash-bars, sills, shutters, railings, cresings,
posts, brackets,r etc., galvanized iron cornice,
pediments, window caps, fire & water proof sky-
lights, plain & corrugated iron roofing & siding
Walter's steel shingle & siding plates, both
ornamental & plain. Tin shingles, tin plates,
Graters common & basket, low down and raised
iron backs and jambs for open fires
art tiles for mantle facings and inlaid work
Minton's tiles for floors, hearths, etc. The
zigzag tiles- Italian and marble
Slate roofing slate, slate martles(marbelized),
slate fencing, hearths,etc.
Glars Ondoyant Cathedral Plate, colored, embossed,
ground & enameled plaster centers & brackets
Brass Work andirons, fire screens, etc. fine
hardware mantles; cast, wrought iron and wire
E. Main St. Gainesville
AA, Jn 26, 1885, p.4, c.8.
Keeps a General Tin Shop
Roofing, Guttering, and Sheet Iron Working
Tinware, Fruit Cans, Valleys, Roof
Collars, Stove Pipe & Elbows
Having arranged my shop in a better style and added
new tools, I am much better prepared for manufact-
uring of all kinds of tinware. Only the best mat-
erial used. Your patronage solicited.
West Main St., S. of Square
AA, Jn 26, 1885, p.4, c.8.
Geo. Hacker & Son
Manufactures of Doors, Sash, Blinds,
Mouldings & Building Material
Order direct form factory & save dealer profits
AA, Jn 26, 1885, p.3, c.1.
William Burch Builder
Tacoma, Fl., Micanopy P.O.
To the people of Micanopy and vicinity. After
many years practical experience I would say that
I am ready to do all kinds of building, either by
contract or day work.
First Class Work Guaranteed
MG, July 23,1885, p.2, c.4.
T.L. Carter first advertised in 1876 as a contractor
and builder in Gainesville, as shown in earlier ad in report.
A year later a relative, W.F. Carter, joined him in the
same business. Then in 1885 an advertisement in the
Micanopy Gazette listed him as an architect and builder
Architect & Builder
Would respectfully inform the citizens of Micanopy
and surrounding county that he is permanently lo-
cated at this place and understands his business.
Will build any kind of a house by contract and
Plans, Specifications, Estimates, etc, Furnished
Can furnish best of References
MG, July 23, 1885, p.2, c.4.
This period of the 1880's to the 1890's showed a
multiplication of the industries involving the building
trades and materials. The number of diverse advertisements
reflects this growth. Many different persons advertised
their services and many .companies, both local and out of
state, were listed in the newspapers.
Wm Lee-Contractor and Builder
Park Ave.- and Cypress Street
specialty economy in lumber, also have three
or four hundred choice budded trees for sale.
WMD, Mar. 27, 1886, p.2, c.4.
G.W. Davis and Co's.
Lumber cut, dressed and delivered to order at
lowest prices also shingles, laths, and wood
always on hand.
WMD, Mar. 27, 1886, p.3, c.4.
Edward J.E. McLaurin
Jobber & Retailer of
Wall papers, window shades, mouldings, picture frames,
cornices, straw and pine mattings, etc.
Estimates made and work executed with promptness and
dispatch in first class manner. Correspondence solicited.
Samples mailed on application.
Corner Laura&.'F6rsyth St. Jacksonville, Fl.
DD, Aug. 30, 1888, p.2, c.4.
S.B. Hubbard Co.
Corner Pine & Forsyth St. Jacksonville, Fl.
Wholesale and retail dealers in hardware, stoves
& tinware, sash doors, blinds, paints, oils, varn-
ishes, pumps, lead & iron pipe, leather & rubber
belting, and mill supplies of every description.
Water, steam and gas fittings, roofing & tinsmith-
ing done to order, sanitary plumbing in all its
branches. Agents for Hazard's powder, Deer's im-
proved agricultural implements, Planent Jr.'s
garden tools, Washburn & Moen's barbed wire fenceing,
Henty Disston & Son's saws and the American inject-
or, the best in use. Write for prices.
DD, Aug. 30, 1888, p.2, c.4.
Moseley & Goode
Manufactures of Cypress & Pine Shingles
DA, Feb. 17, 1889, p.4, c.5.
D.E. Cooper was the owner/ operator of a large mill seven
blocks north of the courthouse (possibly at or near the
location of today's Comb's Lumber Co.) and was an exclusive
operation, which can be noted by the contents of his various
advertisements. (Also note the slide of the mill and the slide
of the mill's location on the Sanborn map. The slide of the
mill is a view looking south towards the old part of the mill
before the new mill was built).
Notwithstanding the heavy draw on my yard by large
sales of lumber at home and abroad, I keep my yard
well stocked with dry material from my mill at May-
field. I have over five huxdrel thousand feet of
pine boards and scantling now in stock, and keep a
g'od supply of both
Fine & Cypress Shingles
Mouldings & Stair Rails
Balusters, Brackets, Etc.
Brick, Lime, & Cement
Plaster, Building Hardware
Also cabbage and vegetable crates, strawberry baskets,
and ventilated packages.
Estimates promptly made, and buildings erected on
short notice. If you want a cow shed call and see me:
if you want the finest house in the land call and see
me, and you never will regret having done so.
Very Truly Yours,
DA, Feb. 17, 1889, p.2, c.5.
Lumber, Laths & Shingles, Crates,
Sash, Doors, Blinds, Moulding &
Estimates furnished & buildings erected on short notice
GWS, Aug. 17 1889, p.7, c.2.
Geo. S. Hacker & Son
Doors, Sash, Mouldings, Blinds
Factory Direct Order Wolf St.,
E.M. Hacker, Proprietor
DS, Aug. 9, 1890, p.1, c.4.
Fowler and Son
Flooring, ceiling, novelty siding, shingles, and
all kinds of building materials.
We are prepared to meet all emergencies.
Give us a call. Orders on short notice
Will recieve prompt attention
NM, Feb. 21, 1891, p.3, c.6.
Talbott & Sons
Factory Richmond, Va.
Engines, Boilers, Saw Mills, Etc.
Timber guages graduated by 16th's of an inch
Independent Rope Feeds for Saw Mills
Wood- Working & Shingle Machinery -
Irrigating outfits for orange groves&veg. farms
J.Q. Weaver Talbott & Sons
: TN, Mar. 2, 1891, p.4, c.6.
Wood, Wood, Wood
Delivered to any part of city
at lowest prices
TN, Mar. 2, 1891, p.2, c.6.
Ocala Novelty Works
Mallett & Co.
(Successors to Younge Bros. & Co.)
Sash, doors, moulding, newels, brackets, casing,
flooring, ceiling, turning, scroll sawing of all
kinds, a specialty.
tI '-T ( Agents for Averill's paints & fillers
U !, i
Agents for Averill's paints & fillers
Small sail & row boats built to order
TN, Mar. 2, 1891, p.4, c.3.
Contractor & Builder
& Dealer in
Lumber, Shingles, Laths, Sash, Doors, Blinds, Etc.
Satisfaction Guaranteed& Correspondence Solicited
TN, Mar. 2, 1891, p.2, c.6.
We carry a full stock of
first class builder's brick constantly
on hand. When you are in need, write
us for price.
Fleming & Co.
DS, Jn 14, 1891, p.1, c.5.
Benton and Upson
Machinery and mill supplies, engines, boilers,
saw mills, shingle mills, woodworking machinery
Irrigating Machinery a Specialty
Office and Warehouse, Jacksonville, Fla.
Write for estimates and mention this paper
DS, Jn 14, 1891, p.1, c.5.
Wholesale & Retail Dealer in Hardware,
Tinware, Mill Supplies, Furniture, Etc.
E. Side Courthouse Square Gainesville
DS, Aug. 1, 1891, p.4, c.5.
E. Baird & Co.
We keep a full line of hardware
stoves, tinware & useful utensils, mill
supplies, paints, oils, glass,
refrig., ice cream, frezzers, water coolers,
screen windows & doors
is in charge by a competent mechanic and we are
prepared to do all kinds of tin roofing, gutter-
ing, sheet metal iron work, piping for hot and
cold water, etc. Promptly and Satisfactorily
W. Side of Courthouse Square
Ds, Aug. 1, 1891, p.8, c.4.
Baird Hardware started in Gainesville in 1890. The company
came from Ohio via Palatka and had an interest in saw mills.
from Hoshkosh, Wis.
Two car loads of white pine sash, doors and blinds
of all sizes and grades for sale at prices that
will defy competition. Call me at my mill or at
A.O. Steenberg's Hardware.
DS, Aug. 1,1891, p.8, c.4.
in plant and materials
Do not be deceived. All persons desiring to build
or wishing building materials will consult their
own interest in calling on me before making arrange-
ments elsewhere. A full stock of dry lumber. The
best factory south of Jacksonville and the best
mechanics in the country. I am prepared to meet all
Lumber, Mouldings, Brackets
Lime, Brick, Cement
Doors, Sash, Trim.
Manufacturers of Furniture
"Mantles a Specialty"
My plant and stock speaks for itself as well as
buildings erected, plans furnished, estimates made
on short notice. Satisfaction Guaranteed
Factory: Seven Blocks North of Courthouse
Contractor & Furnisher
DS,Sept. 10, 1892, p.1, c.5.
Chop corner Liberty and University Streets
Plumbing, gas fitting, corrugated iron and tin
roofing, stove repairing and all work in my line
promptly and carefully done.
DG, Feb. 9, 1892, p.4, e.5.
Contractor & Builder
Also keeps constantly on hand a fresh
supply of fine groceries, fruits, and
Central Ave. Tampa, Fl.
FS, Oct. 28, 1892, p.4, c.5.
Manufacturers and Dealers in
all kinds of building material
Ornamental and Embossed Work a Specialty
Rough and dressed lumber, laths, shingles, mantles
Buildings erected on short notice
"The Only Embossing Machine in the State"
Factory: foot of Main Street, Gainesville, Fla.
DS, Mar. 17, 1893, p.1, c.5.
It is interesting to note here that Eddins says he has
the only embossing machine in the state. The slide ef the
old Land Office of Gainesville shows .an elaborate tin ceil-
ing, which could possibly have come from Eddins! presses.
House & Sign Painter
Graining & Kalsomining, Etc.
25 yrs practical experience. All work guaranteed
to be as good as the best and do at short notice,
DL, Nov. 18, 1892, p.5, c.4.
Special size doors & sash of yellow pine
Cypress mantels and all fancy interior finish
Buildings erected, plans furnished.
Dealer in white pine doors, sash, and blinds.
Manufacturers of cheap furniture, sapes, bedsteads
Satisfaction guaranteed in all cases.
DS, Mar. 17, 1893, p.4, c.5.
William T. Cutter
Architect and Superintendent of Buildings
City Blocks 13 & 14, Jacksonville
DS, May 30, 1893, p.5, c.2.
Rough & Dressed
Yellow Pine & Cypress Lumber
Orange Box Heads a Specialty
Anything in the above line on short notice
and at lowest prices
Mill at Prarie Creek Rochelle, Fla.
DS, Feb. 1, 1894, p.4, c.6.
Painter, Grainer & Sign Writer
Paper Hanging a Specialty
Wall Paper in Stock
Shop one door north of white house
DS, Jn 2, 1894, p.4, c.6.
Painter & Contractor
House painting, coach painting, sign writing and
graining, paper hanging and upholstering, etc.
done on short notice. Office and shop above Cash
Leave Orders at Cash Hardware Store
EL, Feb. 26, 1895, p.4, c.5.
New Wood Yard
wood yard on Leonard's mill lot 2 blks from sq.
We have o-tr new machinery all up and are ready to
fill your orders for wood oak, hickory, and pine
cut to any size. Leave orders at Phillip Miller &
Lilly & Thomas
EL, Feb. 26, 1895, p.4, c.5.
Contractor & Builder
Estimates furnished on all buildings
Call at Magnolia House
EL, Feb. 26, 1895, p.4, c.4.
Successors to James Doig
Gainesville: Foundry & Machine Works
All kinds of castings made to order.
Repairing and building of all kinds of
machinery a specialty
Satisfaction Guaranteed Address
Gainesville Foundry & Machine Works
P.O. Box 198
L, May 27, 1895, p.3, c.2.
Brick, Brick, Brick
The Gainesville Brick Works
Chas. S. Thompson, Proprietor
I have now on hand.150,000 first class hand-made
bricks. I am now prepared to offer parties want-
ing bricks in small or large amounts at very low
Yard on Florida Southern Railway
DS, Jn 23, 1895, p.3, c.5.
Contractor & Builder
Jobbing-& Repairing a Specialty-
Estimates & Drawings Cheerfully Furnished
WS, Oct. 26, 1895, p.5, c.6.
Contractor & Builder
Makes a specialty of ornamental embossing work
Plans & Specifications furnished on application
Factory foot of West Main St., near depot
WS, Oct. 26, 1895, p.4, c.5.
Contractor & Builder
Plans, specifications and estimates on application
and Satisfaction Guaranteed
Will take pleasure in referring to any-
one for whom I have done work.
DS, Dec. 18, 1898, p.10, c.4.
R.W. Hall, the building contractor who has put up
nearly all of the elegant residences during the
past year, is a man having that through knowledge
that his business requires. He is an architect,
and his knowledge of this branch of work enables
him to execute plans in every minute detail. Those
who have tested him in the past can testify as to
DS, Dec. 18, 1898, p.6, c.4.
Rough and Dressed Yellow Pine Lumber
Basket and Carrier Crates
DS. Dec. 18, 1898, p.3, c.4.
Rough and Dressed Yellow Pine Lumber
Large Veneering Mill
Basket and Carrier Crates
Mail Orders Promptly attended to.
We have every capacity for the manufacturer of
baskets and carrier crates in large or small quan-
tities. Your orders solicited
Office & Mill S. F & W Depot Gainesville
DS, Jn 16, 1899, p.1, c.6.
During this period, 1885-1900, there were several factors
which had an effect on the economy of Alachua County. The
phosphate boom, which began around 1890, had a very positive
effect on the economy. Between 1885-98, Alachua County's
production comprised nearly one-half of the entire production
of the state. The phosphate industry actually challenged
agriculture as the economic base of the county, but did not
over take it. In 1894 and 1899 the citrus industry was dealt
a severe blow, when the two famous "freezes" struck, wiping
out the groves to such an extent that the industry never
recovered. Also, in 1888, a yellow fever epedemic swept the
state and its effects were severely felt throughout the county.
So there were both positive and negative factors working
simultaneously. By 1896 the phosphate industry was rapidly
becoming monopolized and within several years was no longer
a great source of income for the county. A recession and the
first World War eventually stopped the phosphate mining in the
county almost entirely.
This period, 1900-05, really begins the end of Alachua
County's boom. By 1903,. advertising in the newspapers had
dropped off considerably. The construction industry slowly
came to a halt and the county remained virtually unchanged
untilthe urban renewal program of the '60's, which began to
destroy the many fine buildings which had been built during
the county's period of economic prosperity (i.e. County
The Old Reliance
Tin, Sheet Metal and Plumbing Establishment
G.A. Perret Lessee and Manager
DS, Apr. 7, 1903, p.3, c.4.
Alfred S. Taylor
Painting and Paper Hanging
Agent for Decorators Wallpaper Company, New York
DS, May 3, 1903, p.7, c.3.
Contractor for Electrical WiriAg
Electric Bells and Burglar Alarms
Leave orders at Waits Bicycle store
or Thomas Hardware and Seed Store
DS, May 3, 1903, p.2, c.3.
Lessee and Manager
The Old Reliable Tin, Sheet Metal,
Plumbing Establishment, Etc,
Roofing and Guttering a Specialty
223 W. Main St. S P.O. 553
GCD, 1905-06, p.8.
Journeyman Carpenter & Cabinet Maker
All work promptly and neatly executed
Carpets and Matting sewed & laid
1102 Alachua Ave.
GCD, 1905-06, p.95.
Civil Engineer and Surveyor
GCD, 1905-06, p.42.
Contractor of Brick Work
All work guaranteed Service prompt Estimates
furnished Correspondence solicited
P.O. Box 332 Gainesville, Fl.
GCD, 1905-06, p.42.
Stanton Foundry & Machine Co.
Founders & Machinists, Palatka, Fl.
Mill supplies & machinery of all kinds
Brass & iron castings made to order.
Pattern work a specialty
G-CD, 1905-06, p.42.
J. Dudley Williams
Journeyman Brick Layer
Estimates Cheerfully Furnished
304 S. Roper Av. Gainesville, Fl.
GCD, 1905-06, p.95.
Burtz' Gainesville City Directory, 1905-06
Brickwork McMahan, E.C.
it Williams, J.D.
Decorating & Paper Hanging p.102
Sash, Doors, Blinds, Etc. Eddins Mfg Co., J.R. Eddins mgr
Mill Supplies & Paints, Oils, & Glass p.108
Baird Hardware Co.
S.J. Thomas Co., The
Stone Cutter p.111
Wood Dealers p.112
Diamond Ice Co.
M.A. (Sallie) Bennett, architect
S.H. (Fanny L) Dempsey, contractor
H.A. (Sarah) Fisher, brick mason
R.W. (Ada) Hall, contractor
V.J. (--) Herlong, mfr lumber
W.F. (Ada) Lewis, brick mason
H.W. Malphers, contractor
F.A. Roux, tin & repair shop
B. Berry, brick mason
James Daniels, plasterer-
Edgar Daniels, a
John Daniels, t
Alfred Davis, brick mason
Adam Scriven, brick layer
Note: Numerous citizens listed with occupation of "carpenter"