Architecture of Alachua County : from its origins to the end of the Victorian Era

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Title:
Architecture of Alachua County : from its origins to the end of the Victorian Era
Physical Description:
Pt. 1, 49p. : ill., maps. Pt. 2, 77 sls.
Language:
English
Creator:
Everhard, David L.
Browne, Bill
Publisher:
College of Architecure, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
Publication Date:

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General Note:
AFA HP document 157

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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All rights reserved by the source institution.
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THE ARCHITECTURE OF ALACHUA COUNTY
From its Origins to the End
of the Victorian Era















Regional History AE 678
Professor F. Blair Reeves

Fall 1977





David L.Everhard
Bill Browne







TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction............ ............3

Early History......**...............

The Bellamy Road....................9

The Seminole Wars....... ..........11

After the Seminole Wars............14

Architectural Description..........24

The End of the Era....... ..........40

Preservation in Alachua County.....43

Short Histories....................46

Footnotes........ .................51

Slide List.........................52

Bibliography.......................56

Appendix...........................58

























































2






INTRODUCTION

This is the study of the area of Florida known

as Alachua County. It is an area that has had an in-

teresting and dynamic history, for aver the years it has

been subjected to many changes of fortune. It has seen

peaceful and prosperous days, and it has survived days

of war and disease. We have attempted, in this study

to examine the architecture of the area and to correlate

it6to the influential factors which altered its style

and form; its quality and quantity; and its beauty or
functionality. We have traced this history from the

early days of the county, when it was just first being

pioneered, up until a period when the county had stag-

nated to some degree (1910) and would not be grossly

changed until the rapid, destructive urban renewal forces

began to operate in the 50's and 60's. This notion of

"urban renewal" was to cause some of the most signifi-

cant edifices of the county's architectural history to be

destroyed in the name of progress, especially in Gaines-

ville. On the other hand many of the historic properties

in the area's smaller towns (most of which are modest by

any standard) have been neglected and left unused for

years because of the fluctuating economies of the area.

Thee architecture of a region symbolizes and depicts

the lifestyle of an era and has an inherent value to a

community which is somehow nearly always ignored. It

is often hidden under an ugly facade of stucco and alum-






inum and bland pastel paints. The commercial structures

of downtown Gainesville show this problem shamefacedly.

Other buildings hawe fallen to the wayside and been

forgotten like the forts of the Seminele wars. Of the two

dozen forts constructed in Alachua County not one remains.

Just their memory lingers on in a few vague references

in the history books. Architectural heritage is all toQ

soon forgotten and abandoned, and once it is gone it is

almost surely gone forever.






EARLY HISTORY

Florida was, as were all territories, originally

Indian land. In the case of Alachua County the Eimuacan

Indians were the inhabitants of the region. The name

"Alachua" is derived from an Indian word that has a mean-

ing which is apparently subject to some discussion as

to its real derivation. It probably means "the big jug

without a bottom," but Mr. Frank Drew of the Florida

Historical Soci-ty has stated his opinion thusly, "Ala-

chua is a contraction of Atl-tah(r)-chu-ha, and means

respectively, the< 'great dark moon tree of the little

water (the rain); the oaks full of moonlike crown (the

moon in its shaded phases) having a proclivity for

growing in damp ground (affected by the soil water from

the rain); also as probably noting the dropping from the

leaves in transpiration like rain. '"*

The Spanish in their ventures of colonialism and

conquest first explored and sought to colonize this area.

The Spanish explorers sought mainly to acquire the riches

of the Indians and to convert them to their own brand

of Christianity. De Marvaez came through area and pro-

ably visited the Indian village which existed near Mic-

anopy. De Soto also later came through on his somewhat

disappointing trek for he was to find none of the rich,

populous cities in Florida the likes of which were found

in Mexico and South America. Instead he found swamps,

fever and hostile Indians and he reportedly fought with






the local tribes near Paynes Prairie.2

After the conquistadors had already pursued their

course of slaughter and plunder, Spanish Missions were

established in a righteous attempt to convince the natives

of their pagan sins. But the Spanish had such strenous

methods of convincing them that the area was totally

uninhabited by the year 171G. Creek tribes which had

seceded from their own lands and tribes in Georgia moved

south under the direction of Chief Secoffee and occupied.
the rich lands of Alachua left unoccupied. The "Seminole"

which the tribes became known as is derived from a Greek

word meaning "seceders."

There was little pressure from the outside world

on these Indians until the early 1800's when the descrip-

tion of the Alachua County area and its natural wonders

was written and published by the brothers, John and William

Bartram. These brothers were botanists who explored

lands in search of new and different botanical and natural

objects. Their description of this area's rich abundant

wildlife and fertile lands and their description of Paynes

Prairie and its wonderful nature is still a remarkable

document. Bartram met. with the Seminole Indians who

were at this time a peaceful and welcoming tribe, and

his reports of this reception by these Indians sometime

later reached an Havana merchant of an adventuresome

nature named Don Pernando de la Maza Aredondo. (See

Slide 1). Arredondo petitioned for and received a grant






from Spanish gerritorial authorities which granted him

authority to settle 200 families in an area centered at

Micanopy that was "20 leagues to eaeh wind" or twenty

leagues square. Mohis Grant, now well known as the "Arre-

dondo Grant," incorporated almost all of what is today
Alachua County. All the land titles to properties in the

Gainesvill area can be traced back to the Arredondo

Grant. Arredondo himself was never a settler here

however, so in order to find settlers he sold a partial

share of the grant to Don Peter Mitchell, who, together

with W.T. Hall and Pedra Mirandes began to enlist pioneers

to work the land. Mitchell and Mirandez in turn hired

John Smith and Patrick Lannan as explorers and trail-

blazers. Buchholz, in his History of Alachua County,

tells of their early efforts inihis way, "Smith, Lannan

and Hall reached Alachua November 7, 1820 and immediately

began clearing land one and a half miles east of Payne's

Old Eown. (On ani-oldmap this Indian Eown is marked as

a mile and a half north of Micanopy east of the Fort

Crane Raad.) The first dwelling built was fifteen by twenty

feet. It was to accommodate the two men and the settlers

who were to come. Another twenty by thirty feet was to

serve as a store and a dwelling for Hall. Hall fell ill

and returned to St. Augustine. Early in January John

Smith reported to Hall at St. Augustine that the houses

were complete except for locks and hinges confirming his

report by one Burgess, a half-breed whom he hadt brought






along for the purpose. Hall gave Smith the hardware and

forty dollars for the use of Smith and Lannam, but did

not accompany them back to Alachua because he did not

fancy some of the settlers employed by Mitchell and

Arredondo to make establishments there."3 (See slides

2, and three,Views of log cabin.)

The first settler was to be Edward M. Wanton who was

contracted to settle and arrived April 10, 1821. His

settlement which was called Wanton was on the banks of

Lake Tuscawilla just south of what is presently Mican-

opy's town center. It was to be the center of that set-

tlement for most of the early days.

Another early pioneering group was that of the

German Frederick S. Warberg. His agent, Moses Levy,

procured a grant from Arredondo which is now known as the

Levy Grant and is north of Micanopy several miles but

just on the South side of Paynes Prairie. Warberg and a

group of 21 other settlers (7 white and 15 slaves) came

to the grant in 1821. This settlement there was known

as Pilgrimmage Colony and was intended to be a settlement

for refugee-Jews from Europe. No trace of this early

settlement is now acknowledged despite the fact that as

early as 1823 it had 30 settlers and an outhouse, a stable,

a cornhouse and a blacksmith.5 Wanton's settlement had
50 settlers with a store, built like a stockade which

he used both as home and stronghold. The settlers at

The settlers at Wanton and Pilgrimmage later blazed a trail






wide enough for wagons and complete with bridges all the

way to Picolata so that they could have a direct route

to transport their goods.

In 1823 Micanopy was growing rapidly and between

July 15th and July 25th "the Micanopy settlement increased

from 13 houses, the largest of which was 25 by 30 feet,

to 25 houses with frames up for ten more. By that time

a water power sawmill was nearly ready for use."

Alachua County was organized and approved as a county

by the Florida Legislative Council in Tallahassee in

November of 1824. The original county was much more

extensive than the county line we know today for it

stretched from the Georgia border to Charlotte Harbor and

included all or part of more than 20 of Florida's counties

as they are delineated today. Micanopy was named county

seat at that time and the first Alachua County Court was

held at Micanopy in 1825. At this time it was ordained

that an election should be held to elect commissioners

whose duty it would be to select a site for the permanent

county seat.

THE BELLAMY ROAD

The Bellamy Road was to have an adverse effect for

a time on the little town of Micanopy. This road built

between Pensacola and St. Augustine which had a branch

reaching down to the piannee town of Newnansville opened

a route for easy immigration and trade to the area, but

at the same time shifted the county's growth away from






Micanopy to the northern section of the county. This

branch road which lead from Newnansville to Lake City

to Jacksonville opened up more of the Alachua land to

settlers and the town of Newnansville swelled until it

became the center of the County's population. Newnansville

was subsequently selected as the "permanent" county seat

and approved as such by the Florida Legislative Council

on Nov. 15, 1828. When Columbia County was formed from

part of the northern section of Alachua County, Newnans-

ville was incorporated as prt of Columbia so it could no

longer function as a county seat. The seat was moved to

the home of Edward Dixson at Spring Grove but around

1839, Newnansville was reincluded in Alachua County and

became County Seat again. A description of the Court

House and its function, which was apparently a pretty

modest building, follows. "The old court house still

stood and since it had been deserted by the county court,

had served to accommodate the Superior Court for the

two counties. Although it was necessary on such occasions,

to rent two jury rooms out in town, on account of the

necessity of housing the records and providing the Clerk

of the Superior Court and of the County Court with office

space, in the original jury rooms. With the addition

of two new jury rooms in 1847, this first court house

served until the completion of a new one in 1852, and

permission is granted to Sam'l Rupel to remove the old

court house and the two jury rooms from the Public Square,






provided that he remove and clean off all the rubbish and

rotten stuff that may fall from taking them down."8

25ii SEMINOLE WARS

As the new settlers started to increase the popul-

ation of the county, they also began to put pressure on

the Indian natives who up until this time had not been

hostile to the settlers since a state of peaceful coexis-

tence had been planned. The settlers believed however,

that the Indians were stealing cattle and harboring run-

away slaves from the Alachiafgrms. It was agreed at a

meeting of the Seminole Chiefs in 1823 that the Indians

would remain south of a line some twenty-three miles south

of Micanopy. As the number of altercations began to

increase from violations on both sides of this agreement,

the settlers wanted more and more to have the territory

altogether free of Indians. A deal was later struck with

the Indians to encourage them to emigrate to new terri-

tory in suitable lands west of the Mississippi, but

because of the white man's treachery in meting out pay-

ments for the Indians' relocation expenses and because

of confusion on the part of the Indians, the move was

never accepted by all of the tribes. The Indians later

refused to leave and the pressure between the two groups

began to build to an explosive peak. (See Slide 4).

The hostilities began in about 1835 about the time

that Osceola's wife was seized while shopping at Fort

King and claimed as a slave by white traders there.






Osceola was threatened and he was forced to agree to

emigrate from the area with his people, an agreement

which he made under duress to save his life and the life of

his wife and which he probably never meant to keep.

The skirmishes between the Indians and white settlers

over territory and goods began to iprease and soon full

scale war erupted. It is not the purpose of this paper

to depict the history of the Seminole wars however. It

should suffice it to say that Osceola and his companion

chiefs were captured or killed and the Seminole people

were driven further and further south until they no longer

could affect the Alachua County area.

The Seminole War did, needless to say, have a profound

effect on the area. (See Slide 5). Much of the fighting

had centered a& the area of Alachua County. Subsequently,

many settlers had been killed and many homesteads which

were vulnerable had been burned and destroyed. Disease,

famine and attack also took a toll of the people who

had been forced to move into the forts hastily constructed

to defend the settlers against the Indians. More than

two dozen forts had been built in the Alachua County area

on a 20 square mile "defense square" basis. Some of them
were of course built very near the centers of population,

(as at Newnansville and Micanopy),others were built in

strategic locations to defend against the Indians. (Slide

5, Map of Forts).

Information is lacking on the nature of the layout

and construction of most of these forts, but this descrip-

tion of Fort Micanopy was recorded by John T. Sprague, an-.






aide-de-camp to General MacComb. "There is a small village

some eight or ten houses besides the Garrison...the

fdrt is surrounded by thick dense Hammocks which has

given great serenity to the Indians and caused them to

contend until the last moment for a spot which is iden-

tified with their best days...The fort is a picket work

(with block houses at each angle) about two hundred and

fifty feet square, within which are the officers quarters,

small but very neat. In the center of the work are large

live oak trees which secure a delightful shade.'. Also,

this, "The pickets are made by splitting pine logs about

eighteen feet in length into two parts and driving them

upright and firmly into the ground close together with

the flatside inward; these are braced together by a strip

of board nailed on the outside. The tops are sharpened

and holes are cut seven or eight feet from the ground

for the firearms. A range of benches extends around the

work about three feet high, from which the fire is deliv-

ered. All our forts in that country are so formed."10
All of these forts of the area have been generally

located on some maps but few if any of the locations are

marked in situ. Fort Clark, for example, was west of

Gainesville on NBwberry road and is now marked only by

the Four O'Clock Church. Incidentally, 'Four O'clock" is

derived from the name Fort Clark. Fort Crane was east of

Gainesville and was located vaguely by a description in

Davis's History of Alachua County.after he visited the site.






Y states, "Some live oak trees mark the old fort site.

On top of the hill before reaching the site of the old

fort was an Indian burying ground. While grading the rQad

several years ago bones were found on the right bank.

Later excavations were made. Horace Zetrouer and I stayed

with a class form the University all night while they

found bones, remnants of old cooking utensils, parts

of guns and other articles buried with the bodies."11

There were many forts in this area including two

of which would now be included in the city limits of

Gainesville, (Fort Hogtown and Fort Tarver), but unfor-

tunately there is too little information available on

this important phase of Alachua County's growth. During

the Seminole War, the people of this area had changed

their habitat from a serene pioneer settlement to an

armed encampment environment. These forts are almost

all but forgotten as Buchholz states, "The little forts

have often no other distinguddng marks than an isolated

cemetery to mark the site today (1929). They were centers

of scattered settlers, or small villages, but reorgan-

ization has led the people to group themselves more

conveniently to roads more direct, and railways at that

time unconstructed. Fort Clarke, Crane, Drane, Harlee,

Fanning, Newnansville, Tarver, Wacahoota, and Walker are

almost indistinguishable from ordinary stretches of wood

and field."12
AFTER THE SEMINOLE WARS

The Seminole wars started in the Alachua County area






but the Indians were slowly forced further and further

south. The northern part of Alachua became relatively

safe and Newnansville became a beehive of activity once

again. People who had been forced of their lands from

the South and people who were arriving in the area seeking

land to settle all came to Newnansville. The population

there swelled to 1500 persons and Newnansville became a

major Florida city.13

In 1842, Congress passed the Armed Occupation Act

which made it possible for farmers to obtain land by

occupying, farming and defending it. The land made avail-

able through this act were mainly in the southern parts

of Alachua County. Although most of the land permits

were issued from Newnansville, the consequence was that

the population once again began to shift away from that

city center to the southern part of the county.14 Soon

popular pressure began to build to have the county seat

moved, once again, from its location at Newnansville to

a more central location. In an historic meeting Gaines-

ville was created and Opdyke describes it in this way.

"In 1852, the state senator representing Alachua County,

John Boston Dell, secured passage of a law permitting

citizens of Alachua County to vote on a location of their

county seat. A huge barbecue and picnie was held at Boula-

ware Springs, off Southeast 15th Street in present day

Qainesville, at which Citizens decided to move the county

seat to a new town which would be called Gainesville.






The town was founded in 1854 and the new courthouse

completed in 1856. The town was located on land bought

from the plantation of Major James Bailey, whose pre-

Civil War house is located on present day Northwest 6th

Street."15

One of the reasons that this location was chosen was

because the Yulee Railroad from Fernandina to Cedar Keys

had been planned to run through the area and would provide

a means of transportation that would be highly influential

in developing the area's economy. A building contractor

and sawmill owner by the name of Tilman Ingram offered, in

cooperation with Major Bailey, to build a county court

house for a very economical price. The subsequent vote made

it possible for the town of Gainesville to be born and laid

out on a regular grid plan with the Courthouse at its

center. By 1860, Gainesville had a population of 223

persons and the county had a population of about 8000.

The economy was of course agriculturally based with most

of the population living in outlying areas with the towns

as center of trade, transportation and services. The

economy of the area was described in this way. "Roads

in the territory were such that until the opening of the

Beelamy Road in 1826, expense of transportation ate up the

profit on crops whose value could no be condensed into

a small tonnage, as sugar, cotton, and indigo, and even

cotton was grown at first only on plantations near navig-

able streams. Each plantation was successful to the extent






that it could produce its own cloth, leather, soap and

foodstuffs for even the axles of wagons were of wood,

and the clapboards that covered the houses were fastened

by wooden pegs because of the scarcity of iron. Cotton

and tobacco, later to become important crops, were raised

only for home manufacture. The opening of the Bellamy

Road made the production of long stable cotton attractive

and settlers from the sea islands of Georgia and Carolina

began to raise it as a money crop. By the time of the

Seminole War the exports from the county were cattle,

timber (chiefly live oak for boat-building), cotton and

some indigo. Horses were raised but few apparently used

except for traveling 6n horseback."16

The completion of the Yulee Railroad through Gaines-

ville was the next major factor which was to influence

the growth of the county. It did again in the sixties

and seventies what the Bellamy Road had done in the

earlier part of the century. When Gainesville received

its first passenger train on April 21, 1859, it was evi-

dent that it would become the nucleus of the county and

that the other cities would be left behind in growth.

But the Railroad, which was completed from Fernandina

through to Cedar Key in 1861 had less of a positive

influence than the negative effect that the Civil War

was to bring to the county.

There were two major skirmishes between the Union and

Confederate troops during the Civil War, neither of which






accomplished anything strategically, but the Civil War

was to have a longer term effect on Gainesville and

Alachua County.. Although this area was to fair relatively

well economically during the period of military rule, the

social social changes which took place were the cause of

much suffering. The thought of Negro suffrage was hardly

acceptable to the local people for the population of

Alachua County at that time (1865) was 4,465 blacks and

3767 whites. There were many freedmen and other displaced

persons who were also moving to this area from :_- Georgia

and the Carolinas looking for land to homestead and in the

two years following the war the population of Alachua

County doubled with a two-thirds portion being black.t7
Alachua County and Gainesville had to provide housing

for all these persons and a building boom followed. Many

sawmills and lumbering operations sprang into service,

creating jobs and a relatively stable economy. The Rail-

raos had been stripped of its rails but stage coaches

had reinstated the county's mail service. The Gaineaville

Academy and the East Florida Seminary of Ocala moved to

Gainesville in 1863 and the State Seminary East of the

Suwanee was formed (later to be known once again as the

East FloridaL Seminary). The Academic Building of the

East Florida Seminary that was on the site of the present

day Methodist Church on NE First Street was on of the first

brick buildings in Gainesville. It bore a surprising

resemblance to one of the town's other brick buildings, the


























































































Gainesville House ca. 1898.


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Gainesville House, 1898.


























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Gainesville House, 1898.











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Gainesville House, 1898.














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Presbyterian Manse
Gainesville, 1898.
E..W. Way Family






County Jail. Despite voting irregularities, party con-

frontations and some Ku Klux Klan activity, Alachua

County survived the reconstruction period and was on its

way to a new era of growth. As Sara Drylie states,

"Alachua County, blessed with good climate, fertile

soil, enterprising businessmen, together with capable

farmers and a growing labor force, was uniquely qualified

for rapid but stable growth in the 1880's and 1890's."t18

ARCHITECTURAL DESCRIPTION

As the surrounding area grew in its economy and

production, the building themselves became more perman-

ent and more extravagant than the earliest homesteads

could have been. (See slide 6). The little one or two

room log cabins became little one or two room houses

constructed of the cut lumber which was available from

the local sawmills. (See slide 7). The next step in

the cabin's development simply expanded this into a larger

two or three room, 1* story house with an upstairs and

probably a fireplace at both ends. (See slide 8.) The

two story addition and the two story house seems to be

the next step in the development but these houses were

still plain and undecorated with a luxury such as shutters

probably added. (See slide 9.) The first decorative

elements such as scroll work and gabled windows marked-

the transition from a purely functional vernacular archi-

tecture which was able to afford decoration and ornament

in its vocabulary. (See slide 10). Scroll sawing soon






































Dutton Residence
Site of Penney's Store on
West University Avenue






created fanciful brackets and balustrades on the wide

porches which wrapped around the house. (See slide 11).

This architecture was really a vernacular architecture, a

"Cabin Style" with decoration merely applied. The transition
with its
to the more Victorian class of residencesurrounding

porches, turrets, classical cornices, rounded forms and bay

windows, marked the emergence of the upper crust in the

County as a monied class. This upper crust was able to

afford an Architect (or at least a contractor who called

himself Architect) who could supply plans and specific-

ations of houses in the styles most popular. The

detailing and wood work was available on a mass produced

basis and catalogs were available from which one could

select the style desired. The Victorian mansions were

built by a group of people who were a class apart from

the ordinary farmer/shopkeeper that inhabited the rest

of the county, but everyone in the area seemed to be

fairing pretty well.

Another type (see slide 12) of residence that dev-

eloped was the plantation house and typical examples of

this are the Bailey House and the Haile House. The

Bailey House, which is the oldest house in Gainesville,

was built between 1848 and 1854. Major Bailey took his

slaves to the woods and used a portable sawmill and

sawed all the timber for the house. The Haile House is

very similar to the Bailey house with its wide porch, and

stately columns. It is built of hand hewn timbers prob-






ably also done by slave labor just prior to the Civil

War.

The town of Gainesville (see slide 13) at the begin-

ning of the 1880's was described by Carl Webber in his

book, The Eden of the South in this way. "Gainesville?,

therefore, by its peculiar position on the great peninsula

is destined to become by actual necessity and convenience

the most important city in the state...It is now the

County seat of Alachua, and the trading center of the

most populous and productive scope of the county, enclosed

within township 6 to 12, and ranges 16 to 23 S. and E.

Its population is about 4,000 which is rapidly increasing,

more so at present time than anytime in its history. (See

slide 14). The city covers an area of one mile square,

with a new addition known as East Gainesville, while the

new town of New Gainesville, closely connecting, with

its Hygienic hotel, cottege, sanitariums and fine business

and building lots will increase the power, importance

and influence of the place." (See slide 15). The town

of Gainesville at this time was, at this time, a wooden

town. It was never a rich town up until this time and

there was little room for luxuries such as brick buildings.

Timber was one of the main resources of the area at this

time and there were at least several sawmills, planing

mills and wood product industires in the area, (see

Appendix), which supplied the area with lumber, siding,

shingles, mouldings, scrollsaw work, and turned work.

























































Views of Gainesville's old
Wooden stores and shops






These materials were cheap and available and the Court-

house, and almost all the buildings on all four sides of

the square were wooden structures. Stores, shops, houses

and hotels were crowded closely around the square. Where

fires did start they often claimed more than one buildings

In 1883 a fire swept through the buildings on the block

on the west side of the square. Again in 1885, fire burned

out the block on the south side of the square. (See slides

16-21). Brick suddenly became a valuable commodity which

was evidenced by the Cou4ty's newspapers. In those years

following the fires, brickmakers and dealers from Georgia,

Jacksonville and locally started advertising and selling

brick which would have been transported into thearea by

rail. Most commercial buildingusafter 1885 were built

of brick and virtually nothing earlier than 1880 exists

in downtown Gainesville, (see slides 17 to 33).

The County Courthouse,which had been constructed of -

wood in 1854 at a cost of $5500, later outlived its use-

fulness and had apparently become unsafe for use. It

was a modest building, square in plan with a gabled roof

on each side. A small, gabled roof covered the doors in

the middle of each side. By 1880 the County Grand jury

reported"that the building was in a thoroughly dilapi-

date condition. The roof leaked, the plaster was falling

off the walls, the walls and floors were filthy and the

entire building was filled with an unpleasant odor.
The rooms were poorly lighted, ventilation was poor, and







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The East Florida Seminary


Two of Gainesville's original brick
buildings.


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'COMFORTABLE AFFAIR'-An early historian described
the old, old County jail, pictured at left with new ad-
ditions on the right, as a "well arranged and comfortable
affair." Both sections of the jail have now been abandon-
ed for the detention of prisoners by the County which
recently constructed a new jail south of Depot St. (Sun
photo by Eddie Davis.) J, "

The Old Jail

































Storefronts on.
1900.


East University Avenue ca.


..... -.2^1...^ .-". .
44* i


South side of Courthouse square,
Gainesville, ca. 1900.






























C -


The Cheops Building


The old Cox Theatre






the rooms arranged with emphasis on inconveniences. It

was recommended that the architectural eyesore be replaced

with a new courthouse more suitable to the needs of the

county. It was suggested that the present courthouse be

torn down and the public square be sold for business lots

to pay ifor the new structure which would be erected on

a lot owned by the county adjacent to the jail...When

the final decision was made, however, it was decided to

place the new building on the original site. The beauty

of the public square was placed over its cash value...Work

began early in 1885 and by the following year the county

seat of government which dominated the town from its

central position on the square. The building had been

constructed at a cost of $50,000."20 (See slide 34).

The 1885 Courthouse was a splendid Victorian structure

of which any town would be proud. It was a three story

brick structure with a fourth story clack tower topped off

by a huge eagle. The original structure had a curved

roof with gabled windows and an iron railed balustrade

atop which altogether gave the building a "French"

appearance. (See slide 35). A later photo shows a steeply

whipped apparently superimposed over the old roof. (We

have not found any explanation of this in our research,

however after examining the old photo and the complexity

of that roof, it seems that leakage, especially where the

roof meets the top of the walls and at the junction of the

curved surfaces, may have been a likely problem.) The


































The County Courthouse
Gainesville, ca. 1888












___ -. _________- -;.-.--..' *
,
*t ~ -.-*.*. --.~-.~.*-
*J*-

* ~- j 4-


-

.


The County Courthouse
Gainesville, ca. 1893





Page 36
Missing
From
Original






angular, hipped roofs give the courthouse a more Italianate

appearance. It defined the downtown's landscape and acted

as a focus for the entire county until it was thoughtlessly

torn down and replaced by the inside-out bathroom in 1960

that is there now.

After the fires of 1883 and 1885, brick commercial

buildings began to replace all the wooden structures around

the square in Gainesville and in many of the other small

towns in Alachua County. They are mainly built in the

vernacularstyle which apparently accompanied brickmasons

all across the country.

The completion of the County Courthouse marked the

apex of the Victorian architecture in Alachua County.

(See slide 36). The National Oddfellows Home which was

built just five years later (1893-94) was in a more class-

ical style in its detailing, although it still had the

lightness and delicacy of proportion in its columns and

balustrade that the Victorian generally had. The next

major building to be built in town, the Kirby-Smith School,

was erected about 1900. (It is possible that it was (

designed by Wilson and Edwards, two South Carolina arch-

itects who also did some work in Jacksonville. The same

Edwards may have gotten a new partner, Mr. Walter, and

become the Edwards and Walter who designed several buildings

on the University of Florida campus.) It is designed

in the New-classical style (Beaux Arts eclectic) which

the later buildings in Gainesville would be designed in.































H- CD


0


*o P

(D PD




0J H
0 0
Pi
































The Kirby-Smith School
Gainesville, ca. 1900






The Masonic Hall (1908), the Post Office (1910)., and the

University of Floridd&buildings were of this design.

THE END OF THE ERA

An event in Hawthorne in1879 was to have a great

effect on the economy of this area and the economy of Florida.

Dr. C.A. Simmons made the first confirmed discovery of

phosphate rock in Florida near Hawthorne in 1879. His

mining operation soon began and continued until he ran out

of capital in 1883. Phosphate deposits of a relatively

low grade were soon being discovered in all parts of Florida

although there was no real excitement in the economy for the

deposits were not expected to compete with the phosphate

centers already established in South Carolina and Tennessee.21

Whin high yield deposits were discovered however the sit-

uation changed dramatically and a boom began which brought

capital, and prospectors into the area of Alachua County

from all over the nation.. The effect of this phosphate

money is evidenced in the architecture of the area for in a

period corresponding with the phosphate boom there is

evident in many of the small towns and in Gainesville

the more elegant and refined Victorian homes previously

described. The phosphate boom was a major factor in

making the monied class what it was. Phosphate money

was made by the county's families who already were able

to invest in it. The County's stable agricultural base

at the same time was being affected adversely. During this

period of time (1885-1900) there were two major economic






factors to consider in light of the phosphate boom. One

is that in 1894-95, a severe freeze blasted the area's

citrus industry so severely that it has never been re-

established. Secondly, an outbreak of yellow fever of

epidemic proportions also affected the population and set-

tlement of the area. Blakey states in his book about

the phosphate industry, "In spite of unfavorable economic

climate, the number of companies mining phosphate increased

rapidly from 1890 to 1896. By April, 1891 there were

eighteen mining companies in Marion and De Soto counties

alone, with a combined capital investment of over $5,000,000.

Within a year more than 215 companies were operating state-

wide. In 1894 Florida mines outproduced those of South

Carolina for the first time. One year later the peninsula

sported over 400 companies mining the mineral. After 1896

each year saw a steady decrease in the number of mining

companies, until by 1900, there were only fifty in the

state. The recession, increasing competition, and spiraling

costs of operations had resulted in the consolidation of

many small companies into a few major ones. The great

phosphate boom was over."22

After the phosphate boom had ended, Alachua County

didn't change appreciably for many years. When the First

World War erupted in 1914, the phosphate industry declined

even further. Alachua County maintained its agricultural

base (without the citrus industry) through thick and thin,

although it would not have-the growth potential it had






it exhibited from 1870 to 1890 for a long time. The

period of the 1890's and to about 1900 was this grand

phase when the Victorian homes were built and an edifice

of such civilized urbanity as the Alachua County Courthouse

was constructed. Unfortunately this architecture has

largely been lost in the rapid growth of the Gainesville

area caused by the urban renewal pressures of the 50's and

60's. Alachua County has had a rich and exciting history,

but it cannot afford to lose more of the evidence of its

heritage that the architecture symbolizes and leaves

behind. Each little city and town must be responsible

to its buildings and sites which make up the history of

each area. Each town must be responsible to the preser-

vation of the part it played in the history of the greater

region. These histories taken together make up the

heritage and history of Alachua County.






PRESERVATION ORGANIZATIONS
INiALACHUA COUNTY

The only preservation organization that we encountered

in our study of Alachua County was Historic Gainesville,

Incorporated. In the other towns around the county,

there probably are local historians, but there are not

any organized preservation groups to speak of. (See slides

37-40, views of Gainesville projects).
We talked to Mary Barrow, who is the past president

of HGI, and to Sam Gowan, who is an active member in the

organization. HGI is presently in the process of completing

the nomination of the Historic Gainesville District for

the National Register. This should be completed shortly

andhopefully the district will be on the Register by the

middle of this coming year. What is significant about

this particular historical district, is that within its

bounds lie the few remaining examples of Gainesville's

past. Many of the other structures of historical signif-

icance outside the district have been either demolished

or altered beyond recognition, (i.e., Alachua County Court-

house, the old Presbyterian Church, the White House Hotel,

etc.) In the recent past HGI was able to salvage the McRay

residence (seeslide 41), which was on the site of the new

Judicial Center, by moving the entire house down to a vacant

lot in the 800 block of E.University Avenue. Although

it is presently unoccupied and looks to be in a poor state

of repair, it does show that the organization does have






some power within the community. What is unfortunate
about this project is the amount of money already spent

on the House. It cost $20,000 to move the house, $40,000

to install plumbing, electricity, etc, (this figure may

be inaccurate), and an additional $3,500 initially. The

home also has three mortgages on it. The future of the

house is questionable and it may eventually be lost,

but at least the intent was good.

3GI is presently involved in a similar project. With

the proposal for the traffic loop almost completed, only

the section of NE 2nd Avenue between NE 1st and Main Street

completed, the Hodge house (Slide 42) on the corner of

NE 1st Street and NE 2nd Avenue is in a precarious situ-

ation. The house is presently on the State Register and

the loop is being funded by the State. So the State

cannot tear the building down to widen that part of the

loop. The Episcopal Church, which owns the property, has

control over the building and they are considering tearing

it down. HGI is trying to stop this by helping the Church

do a feasibility study on the building to see if they could

possibly rent it out and get enough money to maintain it.

Another project that HGI just completed was the pur-.

chasing of the Bodiford House (See slide 43). It was

bought for $44,000 which was the assessed value after the

structure had been stabilized by HGI. A few years previous

the building could have been bought for about $20,000. The

plans for the house are to rehabilitate the exterior and






then look for a developer for the interior. In the mean-

time they are going to continue to rent the house to the

students at a slight increase in the rent.

In the near future, HGI is planning to select a

few of the houses in the district and try to stabilize

them in the same manner as the Bodiford house. They also

have plans to survey the 1644 district which is the North-

west sector. The organization is a very active one, but

they need more support from the public, especially volun-

teers,to get some of the work done. (See also Slide 44).








SOME SHORT HISTORIES OF LOCAL TOWNS


Newberry

Newberry was settled in the late 1800's and was

mainly an agricultural town. A well established citrus

industry area was centered here that was wiped out in the

freezes in the 1890's. It became a boom town for a short

period of time because of the phosphate mines, but after the

phosphate boom ended, the town dwindled. It has seen

virtually zero growth in the 20th century and,though

there has been little threat to the area's historic homes

and structures, there has been little effort to maintain

their integrity. (See slides 45-50).


Archer

The town of Archer was laid out in 1858 after the

Florida and East India.Transit Co. railroads were laid

in 1857. The town was named after Gen. James Archer who

was an officer in the Indina Wars. T wn was 40 acres

square and was mainly settled by South Carolinans. It

was the leading trading post in the county. In the 1880's

the churches were built and in 1905 the Maddox Foundry was

established. The Foundry today maintains the economy of

the town and there are some very interesting historic

buildings scattered throughout the general area that have

been very nicely maintained. The local churches whichh






very similar to the county's other modest Victorian

churches) are beautifully preserved. (See slides 50-

54).


Micanopy

The first record of any settlement of the site was

around the Indian village of Ouscowilla in 1791. Apparently

the site of Micanopy became a military post to check the

Indians in the first quarter of the 19th century. In 1834

the Indians were informed that they had to emigrate either

willingly or by force. This was the beginning of the

Seminole wars. By this time (as mentioned earlier in

the text of this paper) Fort Micanopy was an established

pioneer town..

In 1845 Florida became a state and this brought

development and growth to middle Florida. In 1850 land

was was divided and the town of Micanopy was mapped. It

was an agricultural center growing mainly cotton and oranges.

During this time the town was settled mainly by georgians

and South Carolinans. In the late 1850's the railroad came

through, but missed the town of Micanopy. Transportation

to the railroad was by barge across Payne's Prairie.

After the Civil War the economy recovered slowly and

agriculture still remained the base of the economy. The

town was dealt a severe blow when the Southern Railroad

bypassed the area entirely with its new line to Tampa.

It finally did build a freight line branch in 1883. The






freeze of 1894 devastated the citrus drop. In fact,

oranges were not shipped again until 1903. The town

of Micanopy is a designated historical area now and has

a row of several old brick stores and quite a few older

homes. The old fort is said to have sunk many years

ago and is no longer easily accessible-to the site.

No hint of its existence apparently exists. (See slides

55-59.)


High Springs

We could find no history of High Springs in the

resources which we had available. (See slides 60-64).


Melrose

Melrose did not begin to develop until after the Civil

War. Many Northeners were attracted to Florida by the

tales of the warm climate and possibilities of gaining

wealth through the citrus industry. In 1881 steamer ser-

vice began from Waldo, bringing in many settlers. Melrose

became a resort for the northern tourists who built large

homes for winter residences and growing citrus crops. The

Railroad came in 1886 and the economy boomed. By 1893

Melrose had become a thriving community with several

churches, a hotel and a woman's club. But then the

freezes hit destroying the citrus crop and many of the

Yankees farms. Businesses closed and the steamer and

train service ended, and Melrose sank into a depression

from which it has never recovered.






Newnansville
Newnansville was located about 1j miles northeast of

present day Alachua. It was first settled in the 1820's,

making it one of the earliest settlements in Alachua

County. Newnansville was made the county seat in 1828.

The town's economy was agricultural and by 1835-3& the

town had grown to a population of 650 and by 1840 it had

reached 1500. The town continued to grow and prosper

until 1854 when it was decided that a more central

location was needed for the county seat. So the county

seat was moved to Gainesville in that year. This had an

immediate effect on the town's economy and the population

began to dwindle. The final blow to the town occurred in

1884 when the Railroad bypassed the town in favor of

Alachua to the south. Gradually the town was abandoned

and today it is non-existent. All that remains are a few

paths and roads through the landscape, indicating an exis-

tence of a town at sometime. The site has been nominated to

the National Register as a Historic Agricultural Site.

Also

Alachua: No History available. (Slides 70-73).

Windsor: No History available. (Slide 74-76).

Rochelle: No History available. (Slide 77).

Campville: No History available. (Slide 78).

Santa Fe: No history available. (Slide 79).

Hawthorn: No history available. (Slide 80).



















































50







FOOTNOTES


1
IBuchholz, F.W., History Bf Alachua County, Record
Book Company, St. Augustine, FTorids, 1929, p. 15.

2Davis, Jess G., History of Alachua County, Published
by Appropriation of Beard ofCounty Commissioners to
Alachua County Historical Commission, 1959, p. 1.
3Buchholz, op. cit., p. 45.

4Davis, op. cit., p. 2.
5Buchholz, op. cit., p. 49.
61bid., p. 49.

7Ibid., p. 49.

8bid., p. 63.

90pdyke, John B., Alachua County: Sesquicentenniel
Tribute, Alachua County Historical Commission, 1974, p. 19.
10Ibid., p. 24.

11Davis, op. cit., p. 168.

12Buchholz, op. cit., p. 100.

130pdyke, op. cit., p. 14.

14Ibid., p. 14.

!'Ibid., p.14.
16Buchholz, op. cit., p. 107.

170pdyke, op. cit., p. 23.

18Ibid., p. 25.

19Webber, C.H., Eden of the South, Leve and Alden's
Publications, New YorTN7.,-Y.T885,.
20Gainesville Daily Sun, May 2, 1954.

21Blakey, A.F., The Florida Phosphate Industry, Wertheim
Committee, Harvard Un Eersity Press, Cambridge, Mass.,
1973, p. 22.






SLIDE LIST
1. 1838 Map: Alachua County: Sesquicentenniel Tribute,
p. 44.
2. Cracker Farm at Morningside Nature Centerv

3. Cracker Farm at Morningside Nature Center.

4. Osceola: Florida Old and New, p. 213.

5. Map of Forts of Seminole War era: Florida Old and New.
p. 229.

6. Gainesville Residence, 1898, P.K. Yonge Library.

7. Gainesville Residence, 1898, P.K. Yonge Library.

8. Gainesville Residence, 1898, P.K. Yonge Library.

9. Gainesville Residence, 1898, P.K. Yonge Library.

10. Gainesville Residence, 1888, P.K. Yonge Library.

11. Gainesville Residence, 1898, P.K. Yonge Library.

12. Presbyterian Manse, 1898, P.K. Yonge Library.

13. Sanborn Map, 1884, Gainesville.
14. Gainesville 1884, Beck and Pauli, Milwaukee, Wisconsin,
J.J.Stoner, Madison, Wisconsin.

15. East side of Courthouse Square: Alachua County:
Sesquicentenniel Tribute, p. 44, 1890's.

16. West side of Courthouse Square, 1890's, Ibid.

17. West side of Courthouse Square, 1977.

18. Dutton Bank (1886), P.K. YOnge Library, ca. 1900.

19. Similar view of above, 1977.
20. South side of Square, Alachua County: Sesquicen-
tenniel Tribute, p. 44.

21. Similar view to above, 1977.

22. 311 NW 4th Avenue, Gainesville, 1977.

23. 232 NW 4th Avenue, Gainesville, 1977.

24. Seigler House, Gainesville, 1977.






25. Eva Dell House, Gainesville, 1977.
26. Richards House, Gainesville, 1977.
27. Layton House, Ca. 1897, Gainesville, 1977.
28. Denham-Webb House, ca. 1897, G,4nesville, 1977.
29. 414 NE 4th Avenue, 1977.
30. Phifer House, ca. 1903, 420 NE 5th Avenue, Gainesville
1977.
31. 221 SE 7th Street, Gainesville, 1977.
32. Fowler House, ca. 1905, 805 E. University Avenue, 1977.
33. Hattle House, 309 SE 7th Avenue, 1977.
34. Alachua County Courthouse, 1888, P.K. Yonge Library.
35. Alachua County Courthouse, 1893, P.K. Yonge Library.
36. Oddfellows Home, 1893, P.K.Yonge Library.
37. Gainesville Storefront, 1977.
38. The Sovreign, ca. 1910, 1977, Gainesville.
39. S.B. Duke Saloon (Main Street Bar), Gainesville, 1977.
40. Hotel, vacant; Gainesville, 1977.
41. McRay House, 800 block of E. University Avenue,
Gainesville, 1977.
42. Hodge House, 116 NE 1st Street Gainesville.
43. Bodiford House, Gainesville.
44. Wittstock House, Gainesville.
45. New erry, 1977.
46. Newberry storefronts, 1977.
47. Newberry residence, 1977.
48. Newberry residence, 1977.
49. Newberry residence, 1977.
50. Archer residence, 1977.
51. Archer train station, 1977.






52. Train station, Alachua County: Sesquicentenniel
tribute, in Archer p. 44.
53. Church, Archer, 1977.
54. Residence, Archer, 1977.
55. Storefront, Micanopy, 1977.
56. Storefront, Micanopy, 1977.
57. Residence,,Micanopy, 1977.
58. Residence, Micanopy, 1977.
59. Church, Micanopy, 1977.
60. 525 NW 1st Avenue, High Springs, 1977.
61. 410 NW 1st Avenue, High Springs, 1977.
62. 220 SW 1st Street, High Springs, 1977.
63. 30 NE 1st Avenue, High Springs, 1977.
64. 30 NE 1st Street, High Springs, 1977.
65. Darlington-Bigelow, ca. 1886, Melrose, 1977.
66. Sexton-Williams House, 1886, Melrose, 1977.
67. Caldwell-Dennis House, ca. 1900, Melrose, 1977.
68. Vogelbach House, ca. 1879 Melrose, 1977.
69. Barnett-Tollus House, ca. 1880, Melrose, 1977.
70. 111 s. Main Street, Alachua 1977.
71. 75 S. Main Street, Alachua, 1977.
72. 11 SE 1st Street, Alachua, 1977.
73. 110 S. Main Street, Alachua, 1977.
74. Neilson House, SR 235,Windsor, 1977.
75. Lankford House, SR 235, Windsor, 1977.
76. Baptist Church, SR 235, Windsor, 1977.
77. Rochell School, Rochelle, 1977.






78. Tillman House, US 301, Campville, 1977.
79. Residence, SR 236, Santa Fe. 1977.
80. Methodist Church, Hawthorne, 1977.






BIBLIOGRAPHY
Blakey, A..F., The Florida Phosphate Industry, Wertheim
Committee, Harvard Univesity Press, Cambridge,
Mass., 1973.
Buchholz, F.W., History of Alachua County, Record Book
Company, St. Augustine, Florida, 1929.
Dau., Frederick W., Florida Old and New, G.P. Putnam
and sons, N.Y., 1903.
Davis, Jess G., History of Alachua County, Published
by Appropriation of Board or County Commissioners
to Alachua County Historical Commission, 1959.
DeSha, Bettee V., East Side of Eden: A History of The
Waldo Area, Arck u-blIThers, GaTnesville ,-7976.
Hamiter, Lucille S., The History of Waldo, Zerm,paper for
Hy 352, 1950.
Haworth, Esther Bernice Howell, Jottings and Echoes
RElated to Newnansville, Oe of Floridas Earliest
Settlements of Alachua and Columbia Counties,
Austria: B.B. and F., 1973.
Nomination of Newnansville Town Site for the National
Register of Historic Places.
Opdyke, John B., Alachua County: Sesquicentenniel
Tribute, Alachua County Historical Commission, 1974.
Petricka, E.A., History of the City of Archer, 1855-1949,
Term paper for Hy 352, 9T49.
Ross, ..: harles Perrin, Historical Development of
Archer Florida, Project for AE 581, 1974.
Southern GbidAlogist Exchange Society, 1850 Census
of Alachua County,
Suggs, Kenneth D., Newberry, Term paper for Hy 352, 1952.

Watkins, Caroline B., The Story of Historic Micanopy,
Alachua County Historical Commision, 1976.

Webber, C.H., Eden of the South, Leve and Alden's
Publications, New York, N.Y., 1883.
County Newspapers
The tattone States
The New Era







Alachua Citizen
The Florida News
Gainesville Times
Gainesville Evening News
Alaahua Advocate
Micanopy Gazette
Wallack's Melrose Delight
Daily Democrat
Daily Advocate
Gainesville Weekly Sun
Daily Sun
Newberry Miner
Tuskawilla News
Daily Gazette
Florida Sentinel
Daily Leader
Evening Ledger
Weekly Sun
Maps and Photos
Photo Collection of Alachua County and Gainesville at
P.K. Yonge Library, University of Florida.

Sanborn Maps of Gainesville; 1884, 1887, 1892, 1897,
at Map Room of University of Florida Library.

Map of the Seat of War in Florida, Bureau of Topographical
Engineers, Washington City, 1838. +

A Plat exhibiting the State of the Surveys in the State
of Florida, Sept., 1853.

A New Sectional Map of Florida, 1909, Issued by Dept of
Agriculture, 1901, J.N. Matthbws Co., Buffalo, N.Y.

Gainesville, 1884, Beck and Pauli, Milwaukee, Wisconsin,
J.J. Stoner, Publisher, Madison Wisconsin.







APPENDIX


This appendix is a report written for ae 681 in

the Fall of 1977 at the same time this report was written.

Thbe research was done in conjunction with this report

with the intention of supplementing the historical

information developed in this report.








Dave Everhard
Bill Browne








Alachua County was organized and approved as a county by

the Florida Legislative's Council in Tallahassee in November

of 1824. Micanopy and Newnansville had already been establish-

ed as pioneer towns of the area and Micanopy was need the

first Alachua County seat. This county seat switched back and

forth from Micanopy to Newnansville during the early days of

the county's history, until it was finally agreed that a new

county seat should be established in a more central location.

Gainesville was thus founded in 1854. The site of the town

was located on property owned by Major Bailey and had an

existing sawmill already located nearby, which provided lumber

for the first courthouse. A railroad was already planned to

run nearby, which was completed from Gainesville to Ferandina

in 1859. It was about this time that Gainesville became an

established hub for the county, having a population of 225

persons. Our first advertising sources were found in news-

papers about this time, 1861-67. The building industry at

this time was almost all wood structured for lumber was read-

ily available and cheap. These early ads reflected the simpli-

city and plainness of the available materials amd craftsmanship.



L.M. McCullen
Carpenter and Builder
Offers his services to the citizens of Micanepy
and surrounding county as Contractor and Super-
intendant of Public Buildings, Villas, Towns and
County Houses and hopes by strict attention and
detail and merit a liberal patronage.
Plans and Specifications of Work and Materials
Furnished at Short Notice

CS, Sept. 28, 1861, p.2, c.4.








Lumber, Lumber
Great Reduction in Frice
at Pardee's Steam Mill
North of Gainesville
From and after this date we will furnish first
quality lumber at $15 per thousand feet and
rough edge at $7 per thousand for cash at the
mill. If not paid at the time the lumber is
carried away, the old price of $18 will be
charged. We wish it distinctly understood that
we will not do a credit business hereafter and
all lumber must be paid for within six days of
its removal from the mill. F.H. Pardee

NE, Oct.5, 1867, p.2, c.4.



T.H. Blake, S.A. Fewell
Carpenters and Housebuilders
G., Fla.
Having formed a partnership for the transaction
of business in the above respectfully solicit a
share of public patronage. Calls from town or
country promptly attempted to and work done in
a workmanlike manner.
T.H. Blake, S.A. Fewell

NE, May 18, 1867, p.2, c.4.



Most-manufactured building elements and materials were

shipped into Gainesville for the most part during the 1870's,

as the ads indicated Products such as doors, sash, paints,

lime, plaster and bricks were imported from the East coast,

cities such as Fernandina and Jacksonville.



*P.P. Teale
Manufacterer of Doors, Sash,
Blinds, Flooring, Etc.
Dealer in Builders' Hardware,
Paints, Oils, Etc.
Sole Agent for
The Nat'l Mixed Paint Co.
The Great American Fire Extinguisher Co.
Page Mabhine Belting Co.










Introduction

This research paper was written in an effort to examine

the history of the building crafts and the materials related

to them, in the Alachua County area. This was accomplished

by looking at the advertising sections of the county's news-

papers from the earliest available date, the 1860's, up until

1905. City directories, history books, and photographic

collections at the P.K. Yonge Library were also examined.

The Sanborn maps, which begin in Gainesville in 1883, are an

excellent source of information and show plans and descriptions

of the buildings in the Gainesville area. The earliest period

of the county's history, 1824-1860, is undocumented in this

paper since we were unable to find data pertaining to our topic.

We also talked with Sam Gowan at the University of Florida

and examined information collected by Historic Gainesville,

Inc.

What we have put together is a general overview of this

information. We have listed the advertisements verbatum, as

found, and placed them in chronological order. We have also

tried to relate the advertisements to the county's history by

making some accompanying comments, appropriate to the period.

There is of course room for more interpolation in this col-

lection of data, but we hope this paper will assist others

in subsequent research.


Dave Everhard
Bill Browne







Send for Prices
Office & Warerooms
Nos 20 & 22 Hayne & 33 & 35 Pickney Sts.
Factory and Yards
Ashley River, West End Broad St.
Charleston, S.C.
AC, Jan. 1, 1876, p.?, c.4.



Mason Materials
J.L. Burch
Jacksonville, Fla.
lime laths
cem ent hair
plaster bricks
slate & marble mantles
AC, Feb. 12, 1876, p.6, c.3.



Doors, Sash, Blinds, Etc.
& Central Hardware
at low prices for case
send for prices to S.B. Hubbard & Co.
Jacksonville, Fla.
FN, Sept. 14, 1878, p.1, c.5.



Up until 1880, there were few advertisements for con-

tracters er builders. However, those who did advertise

offered services of drafting, surveying, carpentry, and

estimationg. There also.was the first notice of a local

architectural firm, J.O. Goodale & Co., in 1877. The term

architect was used very loosely at this time and it is not

knowM if they were architects in the modern sense of the word.



Thomas L. Carter
Contractor & Builder
Gainesville, Alachua Co. Fla.
Will do any kind of carpentry work at short notice
and in a good substantial manner
Prices low and satisfaction guaranteed
AC, Feb. 12, 1876, p.6, c.3.








James Voyle
Surveyor & Draftsman
At the General Land Office
Gainesville, Fla.
All kinds of surveying done: estimates ef water
power made: height of mill dams on streams or
depth of canals from lakes or pends at any given
point, correctly ascertained.
Specialty
Tracing and establishing lost lines amd corners
strictly in accordance with the U.S. laws,
specially provided therefore.
Tracts of land of any shape measured and divided
into pieces of any req'd size
Maps made: old raps copied, and field notes plotted
Maps of any township of the state furnished at
land office prices.
All work warranted to be correct & lawful
AC, Feb. 12, 1876,p.6, c.3.



T.L. & W.F. Carter
Contractors & Builders
Gainesville, Fla.
Plans, specifications, estimates, etc. furnished
free. Our prices are reasonable and our work good
First class references always ready and satisfact-
ion guaranteed.
GT, Apr. 14, 1877, p.1, c.6.



Thomas A. Hall
Contractor & Builder
Gainesville, Fla.
Satisfaction Guaranteed at Every Job
GT, Apr. 14, 1877, p.1, c.6.



Joseph Voyle
Surveyor and Draughtsman
Gainesville, Fla.
Commissioned Surveyor of Alachua County
Official surveys- made strictly in accordance with
the laws and records of U.S. survey.
An experience of several years in the U.S. Land
Office, and in surveying in this vicinity. Has
given a familiarity with the lines that enables
work to be done without otherwise necessary dekays.









Maps of any part of the county or state furnished
at land office prices.
GT, Apr. 1877, p.1, c.5.



J.O. Goodale & Co.
Architects & Builders
Gainesville, Fla.
Draughts, estimates, etc. furnished at short notice
Contracts made and executed in any portion of state
GT, Apr. 14, 1877, p.1, c.6.



With the date of the establishment of the Gainesville

Planing Mill in June of 1873, the list of items available

through this company probably soon provided a good deal of

the materials utilized in the area. Wood products continued

to be the mainstay ef building construction. The tragic

fires of 1883 and 1885 which destroyed the blocks west and

south of the courthouse square were evidence of this. Until

1884 the entire town except for the jail, the iron foundry,

and the new building of the Est Florida Seminary were con-

structed of wood.



At the Gainesville Planing Mill
is the Place to Get
Moulding, in great variety of styles
Bracket Sawed, the largest to the smallest
Newel Post, turned from cedar or other woods
Balustere, in any pattern to suit
Hubs, for wagons turned to order
Felloes & Shafts, sawed when desired
Matched Flooring, ceiling and partitioning
Lumber Planed, and ripped to order
Pickets for fencing, pointed or cut to any shape
Wood, oak or pine sawed and split for the stove
Corn ground into fine meal or hominy everyday






My Prices
For planing lumber are as follows:
Planing one side $4.00 per 1000 feet
Planing two sides $7.00 per 1000 feet
Planing four sides such as 2 inches square and
upwards $10.00 per 1000 feet
Planing one side and one edge weatherboardss)
$5.00 per 1000 feet
Matching flooring and ceiling 36.00 per 1000
feet, for 6 inches wide and upwards
Matching flooring and ceiling less than 6 inches
wide an increase of $1.00 per 1000 feet, will be
added for each inch narrower in width
Lumber planed from 3/4" to 5 inches in thickness
and 24 inches wide
B.C. Drake
FN, Sept. 14, 1878, p.2, c.5.



Established June, 1873
PIONEER
Planing Mill, Grist Mill, Rice Mill
and
Jobbing Shop
Gainesville, Alachua County, Florida
Having lately made many additions and improvements
in machinery, I am prepared to do all kinds of
house furnishing work, such as Window amd Door
Frames, Mantle Fronts, etc., at short notice and
low prices.
I have constantly on hand a large variety of Mould-
ings, also hand rail for stairs and balustrades.
Saw and turned balusters, Bracket and Scroll sawing
of any desired pattern done to order.
Seasoned lumber constantly on hand, I would invite
those contemplating building houses, yard fences,
etc., to give me a call and get prices.
My mills are right in the heart of the city, and
only three miles from the Public Square and bus-
iness portion of Gainesville.
B.C. Drake
ES, 1883, p.114. (see slide)



Dodd & Cavey
Practical Tin Roofers and
Workers in Metals of All Kinds
Roofing, Spouting, Valley Tin
and Jobbing of All Descriptions
in City and Country
Roofing over old shingles without extra expense
Estimates given. Correspondence solicited
ES, 1883, p. 118 (see slide)










S. Keeler
Artist in Frescoing
-also-
General House & Sign Painter
Gainesville, Fla.
Churchs, lodge rooms, hotels and residences
decorated in the highest style of the fresco
art, in new and original designs or after
architects' plans. Fine house painting,
graining, paper hanging, etc. at moderate
prices.
ES, 1883, p.119



P.H. Young, C.E.
Land Surveyor and Conveyanger
Notary Public
for State of Floida at Large
Special attention given to the examination of
records and to the perpetuating of titles
Gainesville, Fla.
ES, 1883, p.122 (see slide)



Dennis & Wallis
Lumber Merchants
Gainesville, Fla.
L.G. Dennis L. Wallis
ES, 1883, p.123 (see slide)



James Doig's Foundry
and
Machine Shops
Gainesville, Fla.
I am prepared to make castings,. either brass or
iron, of any dimension or form; also machine works
of all kinds, such as
Steam Engines, Sawmills, Cotton Gins, Sugar Mills,
Sugar Kettles, Etc.
also manufacturers Agents for anything in the machine
line, properly and promptly attended to and work
guaranteed.
ES, 1883, p.118 (see slides)









An indication of the prosperity of the town during 1880's

was the number of houses and business buildings constructed.

At the end of 1883 it was reported that at no time were there

fewer than twenty homes being built in town during the year

and as of that date at least fifty buildings were in various

stages of construction. This upsurge in building was due

mainly to the growth of the town as an agricultural base and

the steady growth of the railroad.



The Gainesville Variety Works
are now pre-ared to manufacture sash, doors, blinds,
mouldings, brackets, bedsteads, safer, tables and
desks, and all kinds of wood turning done.
We also have in connection in our factory.a first
class sawmill! and will keep in stock all kinds
of rough and dressed lumber.
Parties wanting anything in our line will find
it in their interest to call us. office and
factory on Seminar Street. Two blocks N. of
transit depot.
GN, Apr. 1, 1885, p.3, c.4.



Crescent City Cornice Works
Backus & Brisbin
galvanized iron cornices, window caps, Haye's
patent sky light, tin roofing, corrugated iron,
metallic shingles, Austin patent conductor pipe
estimates furnished
express both ways paid by us on plans submitted
for estimates.
251 274 to Magazine St. New Orleans
GEN, Feb. 10, 1885, p.2, c.6.


Central Lumber Yard
J.O. Goodale
Dealer in Building Materials








rough lumber, dressed lumber, worked flooring,
worked ceilings, cypress shingles, laths, building
brick, oil press brick, dressed granite, arti-
fical stone, cements, lime, plaster, hair
Agent for Chemical Lime Co. Alabama
Agent for Felt-Roofing Materials
Agent for Florida Fence Co.
GN, Apr. 1, 1885, p.2, c.2.



As mentioned earlier, the fires of 1883 and 1885 had a

great effect on the area and fireproof materials were soon to

be seen advertised highly in the newspapers. Brick goods

which were once sold by general building material retailers

were then being sold by brick companies dealing mainly in

that product. Cast iron and tin roofs also became popular

apparently due to their fireproofing aspect. Most of the

brick was Georgia brick rather than local brick which came

into use about a decade later.



Brick!
Georgia Brick
Delivered to Gainesville for 48.25 per M., and
to other points in Florida for less than any
other first-class Georgia brick. We have advan-
tages in freight. .Write us.
Flint River Brick Yard
Albany, Georgia
AA, Jn 26 1885, p.4, c.7.



Architectural & Builders Iron Work
Cast & Wrought Iron
Building Material of Every Description
Columns, lintels, sill-plates, window-guards,
sash-bars, sills, shutters, railings, cresings,
posts, brackets,r etc., galvanized iron cornice,
pediments, window caps, fire & water proof sky-
lights, plain & corrugated iron roofing & siding








Walter's steel shingle & siding plates, both
ornamental & plain. Tin shingles, tin plates,
solder, etc.
Graters common & basket, low down and raised
iron backs and jambs for open fires
art tiles for mantle facings and inlaid work
Minton's tiles for floors, hearths, etc. The
zigzag tiles- Italian and marble
Slate roofing slate, slate martles(marbelized),
slate fencing, hearths,etc.
Glars Ondoyant Cathedral Plate, colored, embossed,
ground & enameled plaster centers & brackets
Brass Work andirons, fire screens, etc. fine
hardware mantles; cast, wrought iron and wire
fencing
H. Magee
E. Main St. Gainesville
AA, Jn 26, 1885, p.4, c.8.



T.J. Swearingen
Keeps a General Tin Shop
Roofing, Guttering, and Sheet Iron Working
Tinware, Fruit Cans, Valleys, Roof
Collars, Stove Pipe & Elbows
Having arranged my shop in a better style and added
new tools, I am much better prepared for manufact-
uring of all kinds of tinware. Only the best mat-
erial used. Your patronage solicited.
West Main St., S. of Square
AA, Jn 26, 1885, p.4, c.8.



Geo. Hacker & Son
Manufactures of Doors, Sash, Blinds,
Mouldings & Building Material
Charelston, S.C.
Order direct form factory & save dealer profits
AA, Jn 26, 1885, p.3, c.1.



William Burch Builder
Tacoma, Fl., Micanopy P.O.
To the people of Micanopy and vicinity. After
many years practical experience I would say that
I am ready to do all kinds of building, either by
contract or day work.
First Class Work Guaranteed
MG, July 23,1885, p.2, c.4.










T.L. Carter first advertised in 1876 as a contractor

and builder in Gainesville, as shown in earlier ad in report.

A year later a relative, W.F. Carter, joined him in the

same business. Then in 1885 an advertisement in the

Micanopy Gazette listed him as an architect and builder

in Miicanopy.



T.L. Carter
Architect & Builder
Micanopy, Fl.
Would respectfully inform the citizens of Micanopy
and surrounding county that he is permanently lo-
cated at this place and understands his business.
Will build any kind of a house by contract and
guarantee satisfaction.
Plans, Specifications, Estimates, etc, Furnished
Can furnish best of References
MG, July 23, 1885, p.2, c.4.



This period of the 1880's to the 1890's showed a

multiplication of the industries involving the building

trades and materials. The number of diverse advertisements

reflects this growth. Many different persons advertised

their services and many .companies, both local and out of

state, were listed in the newspapers.



Wm Lee-Contractor and Builder
Park Ave.- and Cypress Street
Melrose
specialty economy in lumber, also have three
or four hundred choice budded trees for sale.
WMD, Mar. 27, 1886, p.2, c.4.








G.W. Davis and Co's.
Sawmill
Melrose Florida
Lumber cut, dressed and delivered to order at
lowest prices also shingles, laths, and wood
always on hand.
WMD, Mar. 27, 1886, p.3, c.4.



Edward J.E. McLaurin
Jobber & Retailer of
Wall papers, window shades, mouldings, picture frames,
cornices, straw and pine mattings, etc.
Estimates made and work executed with promptness and
dispatch in first class manner. Correspondence solicited.
Samples mailed on application.
Corner Laura&.'F6rsyth St. Jacksonville, Fl.
DD, Aug. 30, 1888, p.2, c.4.


S.B. Hubbard Co.
Corner Pine & Forsyth St. Jacksonville, Fl.
Wholesale and retail dealers in hardware, stoves
& tinware, sash doors, blinds, paints, oils, varn-
ishes, pumps, lead & iron pipe, leather & rubber
belting, and mill supplies of every description.
Water, steam and gas fittings, roofing & tinsmith-
ing done to order, sanitary plumbing in all its
branches. Agents for Hazard's powder, Deer's im-
proved agricultural implements, Planent Jr.'s
garden tools, Washburn & Moen's barbed wire fenceing,
Henty Disston & Son's saws and the American inject-
or, the best in use. Write for prices.
DD, Aug. 30, 1888, p.2, c.4.



Shingles! Shingles!!
Moseley & Goode
Manufactures of Cypress & Pine Shingles
Fairbanks, Fla.
DA, Feb. 17, 1889, p.4, c.5.



D.E. Cooper was the owner/ operator of a large mill seven

blocks north of the courthouse (possibly at or near the











location of today's Comb's Lumber Co.) and was an exclusive

operation, which can be noted by the contents of his various

advertisements. (Also note the slide of the mill and the slide

of the mill's location on the Sanborn map. The slide of the

mill is a view looking south towards the old part of the mill

before the new mill was built).



Lumber! Lumber!!
Notwithstanding the heavy draw on my yard by large
sales of lumber at home and abroad, I keep my yard
well stocked with dry material from my mill at May-
field. I have over five huxdrel thousand feet of
pine boards and scantling now in stock, and keep a
g'od supply of both
Fine & Cypress Shingles
Mouldings & Stair Rails
Balusters, Brackets, Etc.
Brick, Lime, & Cement
Plaster, Building Hardware
Also cabbage and vegetable crates, strawberry baskets,
and ventilated packages.
Estimates promptly made, and buildings erected on
short notice. If you want a cow shed call and see me:
if you want the finest house in the land call and see
me, and you never will regret having done so.
Very Truly Yours,
D.E. Cooper
DA, Feb. 17, 1889, p.2, c.5.



D.E. Cooper
Dealer in-
Lumber, Laths & Shingles, Crates,
Sash, Doors, Blinds, Moulding &
Building Material
Gainesville, Fl.
Estimates furnished & buildings erected on short notice
Coorespondence respectfully
solicited


GWS, Aug. 17 1889, p.7, c.2.







Geo. S. Hacker & Son
Charleston, S.C.
Building Materials
Doors, Sash, Mouldings, Blinds
Factory Direct Order Wolf St.,
Railroad Avenue
E.M. Hacker, Proprietor
DS, Aug. 9, 1890, p.1, c.4.



Fowler and Son
Wholesale Dealers
Flooring, ceiling, novelty siding, shingles, and
all kinds of building materials.
We are prepared to meet all emergencies.
Give us a call. Orders on short notice
Will recieve prompt attention
NM, Feb. 21, 1891, p.3, c.6.



Talbott & Sons
Factory Richmond, Va.
Manufacturers of
Engines, Boilers, Saw Mills, Etc.
Timber guages graduated by 16th's of an inch
Independent Rope Feeds for Saw Mills
Wood- Working & Shingle Machinery -
Irrigating outfits for orange groves&veg. farms
J.Q. Weaver Talbott & Sons
: TN, Mar. 2, 1891, p.4, c.6.



Wood, Wood, Wood
Delivered to any part of city
at lowest prices
G.J. Hagood
TN, Mar. 2, 1891, p.2, c.6.



Ocala Novelty Works
Mallett & Co.
(Successors to Younge Bros. & Co.)
Manufacturers of
Sash, doors, moulding, newels, brackets, casing,
flooring, ceiling, turning, scroll sawing of all
kinds, a specialty.
tI '-T ( Agents for Averill's paints & fillers
U !, i








Agents for Averill's paints & fillers
Small sail & row boats built to order
TN, Mar. 2, 1891, p.4, c.3.



ET Henderson
Contractor & Builder
& Dealer in
Lumber, Shingles, Laths, Sash, Doors, Blinds, Etc.
Micanopy, Fla.
Satisfaction Guaranteed& Correspondence Solicited
TN, Mar. 2, 1891, p.2, c.6.



Brick
We carry a full stock of
first class builder's brick constantly
on hand. When you are in need, write
us for price.
Fleming & Co.
Albany, Ga.
DS, Jn 14, 1891, p.1, c.5.



Benton and Upson
Machinery and mill supplies, engines, boilers,
saw mills, shingle mills, woodworking machinery
Irrigating Machinery a Specialty
Office and Warehouse, Jacksonville, Fla.
Write for estimates and mention this paper
DS, Jn 14, 1891, p.1, c.5.



A.O. Steenberg
Wholesale & Retail Dealer in Hardware,
Tinware, Mill Supplies, Furniture, Etc.
E. Side Courthouse Square Gainesville
DS, Aug. 1, 1891, p.4, c.5.



E. Baird & Co.
We keep a full line of hardware
stoves, tinware & useful utensils, mill
supplies, paints, oils, glass,
harness, saddery
refrig., ice cream, frezzers, water coolers,
screen windows & doors









Tin Shop
is in charge by a competent mechanic and we are
prepared to do all kinds of tin roofing, gutter-
ing, sheet metal iron work, piping for hot and
cold water, etc. Promptly and Satisfactorily
W. Side of Courthouse Square
Ds, Aug. 1, 1891, p.8, c.4.
(see slide)



Baird Hardware started in Gainesville in 1890. The company

came from Ohio via Palatka and had an interest in saw mills.



Just Received
from Hoshkosh, Wis.
Two car loads of white pine sash, doors and blinds
of all sizes and grades for sale at prices that
will defy competition. Call me at my mill or at
A.O. Steenberg's Hardware.
D.E. Cooper
DS, Aug. 1,1891, p.8, c.4.



$25,000 Invested
in plant and materials
Est. 1887
Do not be deceived. All persons desiring to build
or wishing building materials will consult their
own interest in calling on me before making arrange-
ments elsewhere. A full stock of dry lumber. The
best factory south of Jacksonville and the best
mechanics in the country. I am prepared to meet all
fair competition.
Lumber, Mouldings, Brackets
Lime, Brick, Cement
Doors, Sash, Trim.
Manufacturers of Furniture
"Mantles a Specialty"
My plant and stock speaks for itself as well as
buildings erected, plans furnished, estimates made
on short notice. Satisfaction Guaranteed
Factory: Seven Blocks North of Courthouse
D.E. Cooper,
Contractor & Furnisher
DS,Sept. 10, 1892, p.1, c.5.







S.J. Stewart
Tinsmith
Gainesville, Fla.
Chop corner Liberty and University Streets
Plumbing, gas fitting, corrugated iron and tin
roofing, stove repairing and all work in my line
promptly and carefully done.
DG, Feb. 9, 1892, p.4, e.5.



T.B. Ceruti
Contractor & Builder
Also keeps constantly on hand a fresh
supply of fine groceries, fruits, and
confectionaires
Central Ave. Tampa, Fl.
FS, Oct. 28, 1892, p.4, c.5.




J.R. Eddins
Manufacturers and Dealers in
all kinds of building material
Ornamental and Embossed Work a Specialty
Rough and dressed lumber, laths, shingles, mantles
Buildings erected on short notice
"The Only Embossing Machine in the State"
Factory: foot of Main Street, Gainesville, Fla.
DS, Mar. 17, 1893, p.1, c.5.



It is interesting to note here that Eddins says he has

the only embossing machine in the state. The slide ef the

old Land Office of Gainesville shows .an elaborate tin ceil-

ing, which could possibly have come from Eddins! presses.



Wm Sumner
House & Sign Painter
Paper Hanging
Graining & Kalsomining, Etc.
25 yrs practical experience. All work guaranteed
to be as good as the best and do at short notice,
Gainesville, Fla.
DL, Nov. 18, 1892, p.5, c.4.










D.E. Cooper
Special size doors & sash of yellow pine
Cypress mantels and all fancy interior finish
Buildings erected, plans furnished.
Dealer in white pine doors, sash, and blinds.
Manufacturers of cheap furniture, sapes, bedsteads
Satisfaction guaranteed in all cases.
DS, Mar. 17, 1893, p.4, c.5.



William T. Cutter
Architect and Superintendent of Buildings
City Blocks 13 & 14, Jacksonville
DS, May 30, 1893, p.5, c.2.



Lumber
Rough & Dressed
Yellow Pine & Cypress Lumber
Orange Box Heads a Specialty
Anything in the above line on short notice
and at lowest prices
R.F. Tillis
Mill at Prarie Creek Rochelle, Fla.
DS, Feb. 1, 1894, p.4, c.6.



Wm Coldham
Painter, Grainer & Sign Writer
Paper Hanging a Specialty
Wall Paper in Stock
Shop one door north of white house
DS, Jn 2, 1894, p.4, c.6.



C.G. Fagan
Painter & Contractor
House painting, coach painting, sign writing and
graining, paper hanging and upholstering, etc.
done on short notice. Office and shop above Cash
Hardware Store.
Leave Orders at Cash Hardware Store
EL, Feb. 26, 1895, p.4, c.5.









New Wood Yard
wood yard on Leonard's mill lot 2 blks from sq.
We have o-tr new machinery all up and are ready to
fill your orders for wood oak, hickory, and pine
cut to any size. Leave orders at Phillip Miller &
Co.'s Grocery
Lilly & Thomas
EL, Feb. 26, 1895, p.4, c.5.



D.W. Merritt
Contractor & Builder
Estimates furnished on all buildings
Call at Magnolia House
EL, Feb. 26, 1895, p.4, c.4.



Successors to James Doig
Gainesville: Foundry & Machine Works
All kinds of castings made to order.
Repairing and building of all kinds of
machinery a specialty
Satisfaction Guaranteed Address
Gainesville Foundry & Machine Works
P.O. Box 198
L, May 27, 1895, p.3, c.2.



Brick, Brick, Brick
The Gainesville Brick Works
Chas. S. Thompson, Proprietor
I have now on hand.150,000 first class hand-made
bricks. I am now prepared to offer parties want-
ing bricks in small or large amounts at very low
prices.
Yard on Florida Southern Railway
DS, Jn 23, 1895, p.3, c.5.



C.E. King
Contractor & Builder
Jobbing-& Repairing a Specialty-
Estimates & Drawings Cheerfully Furnished
WS, Oct. 26, 1895, p.5, c.6.








J.R. Eddins
Contractor & Builder
Makes a specialty of ornamental embossing work
Plans & Specifications furnished on application
Factory foot of West Main St., near depot
WS, Oct. 26, 1895, p.4, c.5.



R.W. Hall
Contractor & Builder
Gainesville, Fl.
Plans, specifications and estimates on application
Correspondence Solicited
and Satisfaction Guaranteed
Will take pleasure in referring to any-
one for whom I have done work.
DS, Dec. 18, 1898, p.10, c.4.
(see slide)



R.W. Hall, the building contractor who has put up
nearly all of the elegant residences during the
past year, is a man having that through knowledge
that his business requires. He is an architect,
and his knowledge of this branch of work enables
him to execute plans in every minute detail. Those
who have tested him in the past can testify as to
his reliability.
DS, Dec. 18, 1898, p.6, c.4.



E.J. Baird
Rough and Dressed Yellow Pine Lumber
Large-Veneering Hill
Basket and Carrier Crates
DS. Dec. 18, 1898, p.3, c.4.



E.J. Baird
Rough and Dressed Yellow Pine Lumber
Large Veneering Mill
Basket and Carrier Crates
Mail Orders Promptly attended to.
We have every capacity for the manufacturer of
baskets and carrier crates in large or small quan-
tities. Your orders solicited
Office & Mill S. F & W Depot Gainesville
DS, Jn 16, 1899, p.1, c.6.










During this period, 1885-1900, there were several factors

which had an effect on the economy of Alachua County. The

phosphate boom, which began around 1890, had a very positive

effect on the economy. Between 1885-98, Alachua County's

production comprised nearly one-half of the entire production

of the state. The phosphate industry actually challenged

agriculture as the economic base of the county, but did not

over take it. In 1894 and 1899 the citrus industry was dealt

a severe blow, when the two famous "freezes" struck, wiping

out the groves to such an extent that the industry never

recovered. Also, in 1888, a yellow fever epedemic swept the

state and its effects were severely felt throughout the county.

So there were both positive and negative factors working

simultaneously. By 1896 the phosphate industry was rapidly

becoming monopolized and within several years was no longer

a great source of income for the county. A recession and the

first World War eventually stopped the phosphate mining in the

county almost entirely.

This period, 1900-05, really begins the end of Alachua

County's boom. By 1903,. advertising in the newspapers had

dropped off considerably. The construction industry slowly

came to a halt and the county remained virtually unchanged

untilthe urban renewal program of the '60's, which began to

destroy the many fine buildings which had been built during

the county's period of economic prosperity (i.e. County

Courthouse).








The Old Reliance
Tin, Sheet Metal and Plumbing Establishment
Satisfaction Guaranteed
G.A. Perret Lessee and Manager
DS, Apr. 7, 1903, p.3, c.4.



Alfred S. Taylor
Painting and Paper Hanging
Gainesville, Florida
Agent for Decorators Wallpaper Company, New York
DS, May 3, 1903, p.7, c.3.



Wm. Anderson
Contractor for Electrical WiriAg
Electric Bells and Burglar Alarms
Leave orders at Waits Bicycle store
or Thomas Hardware and Seed Store
Gainesville, Florida
DS, May 3, 1903, p.2, c.3.



G.A. Perrett
Lessee and Manager
The Old Reliable Tin, Sheet Metal,
Plumbing Establishment, Etc,
Roofing and Guttering a Specialty
223 W. Main St. S P.O. 553
Gainesville, Fl.
GCD, 1905-06, p.8.



August Wenske
Journeyman Carpenter & Cabinet Maker
All work promptly and neatly executed
Carpets and Matting sewed & laid
Upholstering
1102 Alachua Ave.
GCD, 1905-06, p.95.



J.W. Patton
Civil Engineer and Surveyor
GCD, 1905-06, p.42.






















E.C. McKahan
Contractor of Brick Work
All work guaranteed Service prompt Estimates
furnished Correspondence solicited
P.O. Box 332 Gainesville, Fl.
GCD, 1905-06, p.42.



Stanton Foundry & Machine Co.
Founders & Machinists, Palatka, Fl.
Mill supplies & machinery of all kinds
Brass & iron castings made to order.
Pattern work a specialty
Correspondence solicited
G-CD, 1905-06, p.42.



J. Dudley Williams
Journeyman Brick Layer
Estimates Cheerfully Furnished
304 S. Roper Av. Gainesville, Fl.
GCD, 1905-06, p.95.













Burtz' Gainesville City Directory, 1905-06


Contractors p.102
Brickwork McMahan, E.C.
it Williams, J.D.

Decorating & Paper Hanging p.102
Taylor, A.S.
Waters, E.H.

Manufacturers p.107
Sash, Doors, Blinds, Etc. Eddins Mfg Co., J.R. Eddins mgr

Mill Supplies & Paints, Oils, & Glass p.108
Baird Hardware Co.
S.J. Thomas Co., The

Stone Cutter p.111
Schafer, C.D.

Wood Dealers p.112
Bone, J.H.
Diamond Ice Co.
Thomas, W.R.


Whites
M.A. (Sallie) Bennett, architect
S.H. (Fanny L) Dempsey, contractor
H.A. (Sarah) Fisher, brick mason
R.W. (Ada) Hall, contractor
V.J. (--) Herlong, mfr lumber
W.F. (Ada) Lewis, brick mason
H.W. Malphers, contractor
F.A. Roux, tin & repair shop
Colored
B. Berry, brick mason
James Daniels, plasterer-
Edgar Daniels, a
John Daniels, t
Alfred Davis, brick mason
Adam Scriven, brick layer

Note: Numerous citizens listed with occupation of "carpenter"