• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Index
 Introduction
 The Architect: Philip Johnson
 General Information
 Physical Description of the...
 Functional Use of the New Library...
 Special Architectural Consider...
 Bibliography and Sources of...
 Articles
 Letters
 Notes






Addition to the Boston Public Library
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00001637/00001
Finding Guide: Historic Preservation Documents
 Material Information
Title: Addition to the Boston Public Library
Physical Description: Pt. 1, 9p. : correspondence, plans, articles. Pt. 2, 35 sls.
Language: English
Creator: Fraga, Robert
Publisher: College of Architecure, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, FL
Publication Date: November 28, 1976
 Notes
General Note: AFA HP document 104
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution.
Resource Identifier:
System ID: AA00001637:00001

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Index
        Index
    Introduction
        Page 1
    The Architect: Philip Johnson
        Page 2
    General Information
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Physical Description of the Building
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Functional Use of the New Library and Related Data
        Page 7
    Special Architectural Considerations
        Page 8
    Bibliography and Sources of Information
        Page 9
    Articles
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Letters
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Notes
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
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Full Text












Addition to the Boston Public Library


By

Robert Fraga

















AE 581

November 28, 1976
























Index



Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

The Architect: Philip Johnson . . . . . . . . . . . 2

General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Physical Description of the Building . . . . . . . . 5

Functional Use of the New Library
and Related Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Special Architectural Considerations . . . . . . . . 8

Bibliography and Sources of Information . . . . . . 9



NOTE

Also all the information gathered by correspondence;
plans, articles and slides




















Introduction


The following report is a summary of the most important

information that I have gathered in my research of the new

addition to the Boston Public Library by architect Philip

Johnson.

I have organized this report in different sections

dealing with various aspects of the building.

I am also including in this report all the information

that I have gathered from personal references. This includes;

a set of reduced working drawings of the new addition to

the Boston Public Library, various articles that were sent

to me by Vappe and Company (the contractors in charge of

building the new addition), and a total of 38 slides of

interior and exterior shots of the building. I am also

including a copy of the questionnaires which I sent to

various sources and a copy of all of my notes which include

a large portion of information dealing with the old library.

I hope that the information gathered in this report

will be of service to those interested in this building.













The Architect: Philip Johnson


Philip Johnson was born in Cleveland, Ohio 1906, the

son of a prominent lawyer.

Mr. Johnson was first attracted to architecture while

studying classics at Harvard University in some articles

written by Henry Russel Hitchcock on the modern movement

of architecture. He became one of the principal propagan-

dists and historians of the modern movement of the 1930s.

He was influencial as the Director of the Architectural

Department of the Museum of Modern Art and as the author of

the book, International Style.

Philip Johnson was one of the most faithful disciples

of Mies Van der Rohe and his early works were greatly

influenced by the philosophies of Mies.

Presently, Mr. Johnson has shed some of his Misean

influences. He is considered to be a rigid neo-classicist

and a functionalist. He is interested in using sophisticated

historical allusions to bear on modern expression. Vince

Scully describes Mr. Johnson, "At his best, he is admirably

lucid, unsentimental and abstract with the most ruthlessly

aristocratic, highly studied taste of anyone practicing today.

All that nervous sensibility, lively intelligence and a

stored mind can do, he does."

Mr. Johnson is a significant figure in modern architec-

ture as the result of both his works and his writings and

criticism.














General Information


client: The Boston Board of Trustees of the Boston Public

Library.


architect: Philip C. Johnson in association with Archi-

tects Design Group of Cambridge.


engineer and engineering firm: Kenneth Wiesner, engineer

in charge of design. Le Messurier and Associates, 1033

Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Mass., Phone 868-1200.


general contractor and subcontracting firm: Vappe and

Company, Inc., Builders-contractors;Lawrence G. Hugo,

project manager. 240 Sidney Street, Cambridge, Mass. Phone

661-8200.

Golder Gass and Associates, 1033 Massachusetts Avenue,

Cambridge, Mass. Phone 868-1420.


method of obtaining the commissions for the job: Mr.

Johnson obtained his commission to design the addition to

the Boston Public Library by winning a competition in 1965.

(I was not able to obtain information concerning the compe-

tition location and criteria for submitting entries.)

Le Messurier and Associates, the engineering firm,

obtained their commission by arbitrary selection due to their

tremendous experience and reputation.

Vappe and Company, Inc., the general contractor, ob-

tained their commissions by bidding.
























client's input into the design: The Board of Trustees of

the Boston Public Library through Mr. Philip J. McNiff,

current director of the library, and Mr. John Doherty,

resident engineer representing the Board of Trustees and

current assistant director to the library, established the

program and closely followed the construction process for

the new addition. Mr. Doherty served as a liason between

the architects and the Board of Trustees; he described the

relationship between these two groups as one of great co-

operation. In his own words, "a marriage of ideas..."


cost of the building: Twenty-three million dollars or

approximately forty-six dollars per square foot.


completion date: The building was finished in late 1973.














Physical Description of the Building


The new addition abuts the old library on the side

opposite to Copley Square. It is square in plan with ten

stories altogether, providing a gross square footage of

500,000 sq. ft.


Structural System

The building rests on a 7 ft. thick floating slab

foundation, which is 27 ft. below street level.

Thirty-six steel box columns, 18 in. sq. rest on the

floating slab and provide the support for the 16 ft. deep

interconnecting trusses from which the seventh through

third floor hang from. The 16 ft. deep trusses span bays

of 58 ft.

The second floor is made out of a post tension two way

waffle slab 60 ft. sq. which rest on a built up composite

plate girder, 32 in. deep by 10 in. wide which spans from

column to column.

In the mezzanine level an orthotropic bridge design was

used to span 58 ft. modules with a maximum depth of 20 in.

Orthotropic design refers to the use of steel plate bridge

decks which serve as the structural element as well as the

walking surface. It is believed that this is the first time

that orthotropic design has been used in the interior of a

building.

For a more detailed discussion of the structural system





















used in this building, refer to the article "Unusual Struc-

tural Design Techniques Used in Library Expansion" included

with this report.


Materials

The principal building materials are: steel, reinforced

concrete and a 2� in. granite facing supported by metal

angles.

Slate tile is used as the roof material. For details

see working drawings included with this report.


Method of Construction

For a detailed discussion on the methods of construction

refer to the article, "Boston Library Expands its Heritage"

included at the end of this report.


Note

The library is totally air conditioned except for the

data processing room. There is no accoustical treatment

whatsoever.















Functional Use of the New
Library and Related Data


The actual construction of the new addition to the

Boston Public Library grew out of the need to accommodate

a research department and to house a large collection of

prints, drawings and photographs of considerable value.

However, the Boston Board of Trustees decided that it would

be better to use the old library as the research department

and to make a new structure which would accommodate the func-

tions of the old library.

Currently, the new addition houses the following func-

tions: reading rooms on the first and second floor, admin-

istration offices on the third floor; floors four thru seven

house the stock areas, research and reference collections.

The basement floors are used as storage and there is also

a small auditorium on this level.

Liam Kelly, Assistant Director of the Boston Public

Library is very happy with the new addition. He claims

that the library staff as well as the public is very pleased

with the functional arrangement of the building and that

internal use of the building has increased 500%. Mr. John

Doherty, another Assistant Director to the library summarizes

the feeling of the library staff with the following state-

ment, "We feel that we have one of the most beautiful and

functional working libraries in the United States."













Special Architectural Considerations


In doing the addition to the Boston Public Library, Mr.

Johnson took some very special architectural considerations

in order to integrate his structure with the existing build-

ing and to protect the existing building from damage.

A sophisticated method of steel sheet piling cofferdam

with an elaborate recharging system to control ground waters,

was used to maintain the water table at a proper level to

protect the wood pile foundations of the old library.

Granite obtained from the same quarry that produced

the granite used byMcKim, Mead and White for the old library

was used by Philip Johnson in his new building. This opera-

tion required considerable expense since the quarry had to be

opened to obtain the desired granite.

Finally, Mr. Johnson in his design of the new addition

has managed to produce a structure that in Mr. Johnson's own

words "compliments Charles F. McKim design." He has done

so by having uniform rooflines, matching roof pitch and sug-

gestive architectural forms that create a sophisticated visual

expression. This visual expression which does not diminish

the original building and yet holds its own as a modern

architectural statement. Ada Louise Huxable, famed architec-

tural critic, describes Mr. Johnson's creation in the following

manner: "The new wing takes no back seat to its distinguished

predecessor; Mr. Johnson has had the good taste to indulge in

no false modesty."















Bibliography and Sources of Information


Books

Encyclopedia of Modern Architecture. Harry M. Abrams, publisher
1964.

Hamlin, Talbot. Architecture Through the Ages. Putnam's Sons,
1953.

Jenks, Charles. Modern Movements in Architecture. Anchor
Books, Anchor Press, 1973.

Jordy, William H. Progressive and Academic Ideas at the
Turn of the Century. Doubleday Company, Inc., 1972.

Stern, Robert. New Direction in American Architecture.
Brazilier, 1969.


Periodicals

Johnson, Philip. Boston Mass. Addition, Architectural Record,
December, 1972.

Kay, J. H. Boston Public Library: A Keeper with Many Keys,
Art in America, January, 1971.

Hitchcock, Henry Russel. The Current Work of Philip Johnson,
Zodiac, 1961.

Huxable, Ada Louise. New Wing of Boston Public Library
Quietly Embodies Architecture's Best. New York Times,
September 24, 1973.


Personal References

Mr. Liam Kelly, Assistant Director, Boston Public Library,
666 Boylston Street, Boston, Mass. 02117, Phone 536-5400.

Mr. John Doherty, Resident Engineer and Current Assistant
Director, Boston Public Library, 666 Boylston Street, Boston,
Mass. 02117, Phone 536-5400.

Mr. H. W. Kemp, Professor of Architectural History, Univer-
sity of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.








OCTOBER 1973


B. P. L. NEWS


NATIONAL RECOGNITION FOR LIBRARY

The Trustees of the Boston Public Library have been informed by the Massachusetts
Historical Commission that the Research Library building facing Copley Square was added
to the National Register of Historic Places on May 8, 1973. The Boston Public Library thus
joined a distinguished roll of irreplaceable resources which are tangible reminders of the
history of the United States.
The National Register is the official schedule of the nation's cultural property that is
worth saving. It is a guide to a richer environment in the future which has visible continu-
ity with the past. The Register is a major instrument in the National Park Services' pro-
gram of preservation of historic properties.
Although the building is not the first location of the Boston Public Library, it is the
surviving structure most importantly associated with the establishment of free, urban,
public library service. Established in 1852, Boston's Library first opened for public service
in 1854 on the third floor of a Mason Street public school building. A short while later, the
Library moved to a building specifically built for its collections located approximately on
the site of the Colonial Theater. It was there that John Deferrari, the Italian fruit peddler
later a millionaire, first used the Library's resources and then continued his search for
lucrative investments in the present Copley Square building.


Flag ripples gently above entrance to Boston's Central Library, a national historic site.


By 1888, the Trustees of the time
were participating in a groundbreaking
ceremony for the present monumental
building. Since it opened for service in
1895, the building has been a mecca for re-
searchers - students, businessmen, his-
torians, educators, artists, journalists and
many others - as well as for the
architects and tourists who want to see its
many world-famous art treasures and
special book collections. Designed by
McKim, Mead and White, the building in-
cludes works by major figures in the
history of American art - Augustus and
Louis St. Gaudens, Daniel Chester
French, Frederick MacMonnies, John
Singer Sargent, and Edwin Austin Abbey,
to name only a few. It is said to be the only
American building to have wall paintings
by the great French muralist Puvis de
Chavannes.
The Library has played a role of lead-
ership and served as a model for services
and for book collections for libraries
throughout the Western Hemisphere, and
often, in other parts of the world. Several
services, taken for granted by library
users all over the country, were first
attempted in Boston. The Library's serv-
ices were in some instances the forerun-
ners of services later given elsewhere.
For example: the Boston Public Library
was the first to open branches thus bring-
ing its wealth closer and making it more
accessible to residents in the neighbor-
hoods of the city. The first two to open
were the East Boston and South Boston
Branches of the Library which celebrated
their centennials within the past two
years.

Flicks . . .
(Continued from page 2)
For those who like a lighter vein in
their film viewing, there's a choice of
three comedies to see. The Shameless Old
Lady, based on Bertolt Brecht's story, will
take the viewer on a "jolly good time"
with a seventy-year-old widow. It will
offer a painless way of checking up on
one's ability to understand French (Eng-
lish sub-titles are supplied for those who
cannot). West End Branch is showing this
one on October 30. West End is showing
another French comedy, Mr. Hulot's Holi-
day, on October 9. Done mostly in panto-
mime, Jacques Tati, the French comedi-
an, produced, directed, and stars in it.
Katherine Hepburn is a very wealthy,
confused young lady who upsets the
orderly life of a staid paleontologist, Cary
Grant, in the comedy directed by Howard
Hawks entitled Bringing Up Baby to be
shown at the Faneuil Branch Library on
October 29.
For more details - i.e. film listings
for each branch library, times, addresses,
etc. - please turn to colored insert pages
of this newspaper.

BPL NEWS
Issued monthly, except during the sum-
mer, by the Boston Public Library, Copley
Square, Boston, Massachusetts.


Page 3





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Unusual structural design


techniques used in

library expansion


The Boston Public Library's main downtown facility, designed at the close of
the nineteenth century) by McKim, Mead & White, is considered a landmark
of American architecture. One of the earliest of the nation's monumental
public libraries, the structure set a new standard of elegance.
A seven-story addition now rising on Copley Square includes several innova-
tions in building design which may place it in the same class as the original
structure.


Among the features in the $23-mil-
lion addition are:
* engineering design incorporating
orthotropic pedestrian bridges, in
what is believed to be their first use
in buildings.
* complex structural steel framing
which "hangs" four floors from a
grid of roof trusses.
* a steel erection technique which
involves not only building from the
ground uip, but from the roof down.
* and an interesting steel sheet piling
colTerdam w ith an elaborate recharg-
ing system to control ground water.


Four floors of the library addition are "hung" 'rom an interconnecting truss grid 16 ft deep. The huge trusses also support a heavy equipment area
on the seventh floor, as \well as the sloping steel-framed roof. After the foundation and building framework were in place, slab floor construction
took place in this order: (1) seventh floor, (2) roof, (3) third through -i\th floors.


-7T




































Owner: Trustees of the Boston Public Library; architect: Philip Johnson and Architects Design Group-a joint venture; engineer: LcMessurier
Associates, Inc.; steel fabricator and erector: A. 0. Wilson Structural Company: general contractor: Vappi & Company.


Steel box columns, 18 in. square, support
most of-the deep trusses. Wind bracing is
provided by sets of these two- and four-
column towers, some of which -contain/
stairways.


Four floors "hung" from
trusses
An unusual aspect of-the framework
for the Central Library addition in-
volves "hanging" floors three
through six from a main grid of 16-
ft-deep interconnecting trusses, most
of which also span the building's
nine basic 58 ft bays.
Nearly all of these deep trusses are
supported on 36 steel box columns,
18 in. square, rising from the base-
ment foundation slab 27 ft below
street level. The balance of the trusses
are supported on welded plate girders
9 ft deep, spanning the 58 ft between
columns.
The lower level of the trusses, the
bottom chord, carries the top floor
(seventh level) of the addition which
houses large, heavy pieces of mechan-
ical equipment and additional book
storage. The steel framework is de-
signed to support a total live load of
up to 165 psf for the seventh floor. In
floors three through six the struc-
tural design makes provision for
similarly high live loads ranging up
to 120 psf in book stack areas (re-
duced to 100 psf for hangers and
columns). In comparison, a Boston
office building normally might be


designed for a minimum live load of
75 psf.
Three of these hanging floors ac-
commodate book stacks. The fourth
is given over to staff office use.
The upper level of the trusses, the
top chord, supports the sloping steel-
framed roof, designed in a style
which virtually maintains the same
configuration as that of the existing,
original library roof. Also at this
level, 33 in. deep wide flange com-
posite beams span 58 ft over the
interior court to support pyramidal
skylights.
In the lower floors, other interesting
features include built-up composite
plate girders, 32 in. deep by 10 in.
wide, which span from column to
column at the second floor and
support post-tensioned, two-way
waffle slabs 60 ft square. At the
library's main entrance, 27 in. deep
cover-plated composite beams span
60 ft over a below-ground lecture
hall seating 374 persons.
The Central Library Addition mea-
sures 252 by 230 ft and encompasses
480,000 sq ft. The steel framework
was fabricated from 1,700 tons
of Bethlehem structural shapes.
Another 2,000 tons of Bethlehem








high-strength (ASTM A615 Grade
60) reinforcing bars were used in the
project, mostly in the foundations
and in the hanging floors which are
essentially flat slabs of lightweight
concrete. Shear brackets connect
these slabs to 8 in. wide flange
hangers suspended from the all-
welded trusses.


The roof trusses were completely assembled
in the shop and delivered to the site in one
piece.


Up-and-down floor installation
The construction and erection
schedule involved working from the
ground up and from the, roof down.
After the foundation work, addi-
tional concrete work was completed
to the top of the second floor slab
in order to provide a solid base for
the subsequent erection of columns,
trusses, girders, and hangers.
The roof trusses were completely
assembled in the shop and delivered
to the site in one piece. The main
columns, tied together in bents with
temporary diagonal vertical bracing,
were erected first, followed by the
58-ft-long trusses and girders. Half-
way between the third and fourth
floors a level of temporary hori-
zontal struts and x-bracing was then
installed. A full working floor of'
planking laid on a grid of steel
beams was installed a few feet below
the seventh floor level. These two
levels of bracing tied the main
columns and hangers together and
provided sufficient stability to the
framework to support wind and
erection loads during the balance of'
the construction. In the finished
structure this stability is provided by
the floor framing and the concrete
walls of the column towers.
Slab floor construction then pro-
ceeded in the following order: (1)
seventh floor, (2) roof, (3) third
through sixth floors.
The structural and loading details in
the library addition are so intricate
and varied, particularly in the upper
floors, that the engineer called on
the services of STRESS, the struc-
tural engineering system solver -a
computer program developed at
Massachusetts Institute of Tech-
nology. This program was especially
useful in providing information for
a variety of loadings on member
forces, reactions, joint displace-
ments, and support displacements.
Unusual crescent-shaped windows
presented another engineering and
construction challenge. These win-
dow areas are based at the second
floor level. The granite archly above
them provides architectural continu-
ity with the existing library. How-
ever, because the arch is outward-
leaning and varies in cross section,
the granite could not act as a true
arch system. The problem was solved
by suspending the granite in arch
configuration from the third floor


with special hangers and brackets.

Ground water a necessary evil
Extensive ground water exists on
the site. Many nearby buildings, in-
cluding such historic structures as
Trinity Church, Old South Church,
and the present Central Library,
rest on wooden piles. To prevent
rot, these foundations 'had to he
kept submerged.
Steel sheet piling driven around the
entire construction site maintained
the existing ground water level, and
an extensive water recharging sys-
tem was set up. While the sheet
piling wall prevented inundation of
the pumped-out site by ambient
subsurface water, some lowering of
the water table was unavoidable.
Ground water which had drained
away was replaced by pumping ad-
ditional water into the soil through
a conventional well-point system
installed outside of the sheet piling.
Numerous observation wells around
Copley Square were checked twice a
week to assure the contractor that
the surrounding water level remained
high enough to protect the nearby
wooden foundations.
Heavy 7-ft-thick reinforced concrete
spread footings up to 40 ft square
were used for the foundations. In-
terconnecting, these footings is a 3-ft-
deep pressure slab designed to resist
water uplift of 1,000 psf.
Because the basement of the addi-
tion is only nine feet from the pres-
ent library -although it is 18 ft
deeper-a soil engineering firm
monitors subsurface soil strains with
special instruments and keeps watch
on any settlement of both the old
and the new buildings during con-
struction.
The addition is scheduled for occu-
pancy next year. The concourse
level, first floor, mezzanine, anid
second floor will serve Bostonians
with a ready-access, open-shelved
collection of more than a half-
million volumes. The concourse
auditorium, adjacent to other audio-
visual rooms, will be used as a cen-
ter for the library's educational pro-
grams. With the addition, the
enlarged library will be better
equipped to I'ulfill its increasing role
as a general library, reference, and
information center not only for resi-
dents of the city, but also for other
metropolitan and regional areas, and
for the entire state.













































Through the use of orthotropic design, pedestrian walkway bridges were fabricated to enable
the builder to span 58 ft over an interior courtyard with a "bridge" depth of only 19 1/4 in.


TYPICAL AT
EACH W16
3/16" 4-12


Orthotropic bridge design
The architectural concept for the
library addition required eight pedes-
trian bridges at the mezzanine level,
with an absolute maximum depth of
20 inches, to span 58-ft modules in
the interior courtyard. To meet this
requirement, the structural engineers
borrowed a technique from bridge-
builders-orthotropic design, which
provides shallow-depth bridging
over long spans.
This term generally refers to the de-
sign of a steel plate bridge deck which
serves the double purpose of being a
structural member of the bridge as
well as the roadway surface.
Everything from Vierendeel trusses
to W14X426 structural steel sections
was considered for the visitor walk-
ways, but only orthotropic design
could provide the necessary 11 ft
height from the first floor to the
mezzanine level and still permit a
required 9 ft ceiling clearance from
the street to the second floor.
The low-profile bridges which re-
sulted from the application of this
design concept are only 19 14 in.
deep and either 6 1/2 ft or 13 ft wide,
as required, spanning the 58-ft-wide
courtyard. They incorporate a 2 3
in. deep concrete walking surface
held by welded stud shear connectors
to /4 in. steel deck plate.










ABRIC MEZZANINE
/ FLOOR 244'


FABRICATED IN ONE
PIECE, CAMBERED 11/2"


Orthotropic bridge cross-section.










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S r ., Haen ,' ' 900 Chapel Street ................ .06510
* FL ID . ." " .
J.acIs.on.ille "Prudential Building .............. .32203

i.TIanI-a ' 235 Peachtree Street, N.E..;......... 30303 -
' ' ILLI C'lI , ' ' - ' ' ' ' . -. .. ' " '
Cr.:ago Prudential Building ..... . ; . .......60601
. . ' .oh e ' IBM Building ..... ...... . ........61265
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Indanapol; " Indiana liaiional Bank Tower ..... ...46204

Des M,:.-nes " Central National Building., . .... .... .. 50309
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Lu .ile . ' 200 West Broadway '... .. ...... .40202
MI R 1'L ArD
Ballimore '..One North Charles ......... . ... . . 21201 :
.1' ' HCHUSEJETTS
E',*i.-n , . 4400 Prudential Tower ............ .02199

ro' " ? 3044 West Grand Boulevard ...... ,.48202
,r-,r,,id Rapids One .Vandenberg Center .......... 49502
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'l FP ul 332 Minnesota Street ... ............55101 .

''* r,4-. " y "ly 830 Commerce Tower ........... ...64105
c-i L.-'ui . '.,7701 Forsyth Boulevard ....... .; . .63105
SNE'. 'ORK ""
i Lar, - , .. Executive Park Tower ..... .......... 12203..
, Pful l:, * ".10 Lafayette Square ............ .... 14203
,ev' :,r-k ' 375 Park Avenue ................. 10022
...- .:u-e 831 James Street ..................13203
'.; TH C';ROLINA
,.:ensLr-.ro 101 North Elm Street . ............ . 27401
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S Ci_7.r, rnai. :,-. " 511 Walnut Street ........... ..... .45202
' "* , ,I'i .:Ura n , " -,100 Erieview Plaza ............... 44114
,'.:.hjnj, ".0 ",' '100 East Broad Street ............ ..43215
:, i, ; , 42 North Main Street ......... . . .. 45402
T,.jedo * 811 Madison Avenue ... ....... .... , .43624'. �.,
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' ., Tjl ' 16 West Sixth Street ..... .... ... 741'9

Po'll,,and ; 2525 Southwest Third Avenue .... ..97201 .
PE Ir i 1', L. 'I IA
Se-.r-.:m .Eighth and Eaton Avenues ..... .:....18016 ,
F r,I .ldelphia . 1617 John F. Kennedy Boulevard ..... 19103
PIi.ourgrh, Four Gateway Center ............... 15222
S ork . 25 North Duke Street ........ . . . ... . 17405
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Dall-a . . One Main Place ........... .... '. 75250
. Houon 800 Bell Avenue ............... ..77002
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EaU La e eCity J., East Fourth South . ..... 8......4111
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Richmona ., 3600 West Broad Street .... .. ; .23230
* W riiin i.-:, D.C. 1000 Sixteenth Street, 'i ' . .. .. . .20036
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'.*Seipe ..' 1200 Westlake Avenue, North ...... .,.98106

Mi'uk .ee 1,11 East Wisconsin Avenue ,..,:.. 53202


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VIEW OF $23 million, 10-level addition to the public library In Copley Square,
Staff Photos by Leo Tierney

New Library Annex -7



Carols Planned n



SIn Great H alf


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Christmas carols will be
sung in the "Great Hall" of
Boston's $23 million, 10-level
addition to the public library
s in Copley Square, if all the
last-minute construction odds
and ends are completed. in
time.
All the major . structural
work is done and the new
wing which is about the same
size as the 70-year-old original
* library but with three-times
as much usable floor space,
promises to be an equal
architectural attraction.
No official opening date has
been set by the library's
board of trustees.
Presently crates of library
equipment to be unpacked,
some electrical installations
and the placement of furni-
ture, is all that remains to be
done in order to open the new
wing publicly.
For weeks student volun-
teers from Boston area
colleges have been busy un-
packing and putting thousands
of newly acquired books in
their proper places.


Nearly one-half million
/ books, purchased by the li-
brary department since it first
learned the addition had been
approved, are being trans-
ferred from the library serv-
ice building in Charlestown
where they have been stored
for months.
Other books are being
brought in daily from storage
at the former Nike missile
site on Long Island, two
college and several branch
libraries as well as the New
England Deposit Library in
Brighton.
The new wing contains
480,000 square feet of space. It
was designed by Philip John-
son and Architects Design
Group and was built by Vappi
and Company.
Two floors are below sttreet-
level and eight are above.
Library Director Philip J.
McNiff, stated that the open-
shelf area which will house the
half-million books stored in
Charlestown, will be available
to as many as 1200 persons at
one time.


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Library annex

opens in Nov."

A $23 million 10-level addi-
tion to the Boston Public
Library, being constructed
by Cambridge builder V.api
& Company,. is now nearing
Completion.
The main facility, a neo-
Renaissance structure de-
signed more than 70 years
ago by McKim, Mead &
White, was one of the earli-
est of the nation's monu-
mental public libraries and
set a new standard of ele-
gance.
The 480,000 square-foot
extension, designed by
Philip Johnson and Archi-
tects Desigi. Group and
slated to open to the public
in mid-November, incorpo-
'rates several innovative
construction techniques .
which, among other advan-
tages, will give it a compar-
atively large amount of usa-
ble floor space and make
possible an.: easy flow-, of
people from,one area to an-
other. .
Although the ' addition
appears to be about the
same size as ,the original
building, it actually has
three times as much usable
floor space. A contributing
factor is that it contains two
floors below street-level as
well as eight stories, includ-
ing a mezzanine, above
ground. According to Li-
brary Director Philip J.
McNiff, the .extension will
provide open-shelved access
to over half a million vol-
umes, and reading space
will be available to as many


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The prime example of
roomniness is -found in the
second floor reading area'
where one can look for al-
most the length of a football
field without seeing any col-
umns or other visible meens
of support. Vappi project
manager Lawrence G. Rugo
Ssaid.that the. uninterrupted <
" expanse of ,pape Is thye,-e 'l
Ssult-of a, complex stru4a.al.
steel framing technique i '
which "hangs" the third
through the sixth floors
from a set of 16-foot-deep
interconnecting trusses on
the top floor::-
The steel erection tech-
nique used was unusual in
tlat it involved :working
from the roof down as well
as from the ground up. In
order to "hang" four floors
from the trussesiabove, thus
putting most. f the weight
at the top, the'seventh floor
and the rdof were con-
structed before the third
through sixth floors.
The library addition's
sloping roof, -also designed
to attain architectural integ-
rity with the original library
structure, not only provides
a contrast to the flat roofs of
most of the city's other new [
buildings but contributes to
the pyramidal effect offered ,
by a large skylight above the
interior court.


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as 1200 people at one time. . ." .." -
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Philip Johnson packs a Boston
Public Library addition with
suspended space that
pays tribute to tradition and
memorializes learning


Bookshelves notoriously mix pairs as
incompatible as Ada Louise Huxtable
and high-rise buildings. A similar
incongruity seemed inevitable when
architect Philip Johnson was asked to
design an addition to the Boston Public
Library.
lie the clean-lined monumentalist
matched with the ornate Beaux Arts
style of the 1895 original designed by
McKim, Mean & White. But the result
reads true, a denouement with a
clarity that doesn't confuse, yet
evoking a monumentality "symbolic of
the devotion to the muses."
In doing it, Johnson had to provide
more space than the older building,
maintain the roof line of the structure,
harmonize their facades, and keep


1'


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The addition's entrance opens into a
60-foot-tall Great Hall. Lunette windows
(below) accent 58-ft bays of the main
reading room. At ground level, a granite
fence conceals a full glass wall. Three
levels up, office windows hide behind
slots.


windows to a minimum. The solution,
produced in association with Archi-
tects Design Group of Cambridge,
squeezes 10 library levels into the
same height as the old three-story
structure.
At the same time, the space is
anything but cramped. The main
reading room is almost as big as a
football field. Located on the second
floor, it surrounds the Great Hall, an
open central court rising 60 ft from
street level to a skylit roof. Each street
side of the addition has only three
windows-large and arched. The
fourth side is adjacent to the old
library, Which faces onto Boston's
famous Copley Square and H. H.
Richardson's Trinity Church.
Bridging a gap
The key to Johnson's plan is the
suspension of five floors from a trussed
grid. It permitted much thinner floor
slabs and helped pack 500,000 sf into
the addition, compared to 300,000 sf in
the original building. It also allowed


.. I


FEBRUARY, 1973 BUILDING DESIGN & CONSTlUCTION/41


Bo0toH library ORIands its hIoritge3






1 . 1 . 1 I


floors three through six to remain
nearly column-free.
Construction by Vappi & Company,
Inc., of Cambridge went from te top
down after completion of the first and
second floors. It implemented a strong,
shallow pedestrian bridge system to
span the nine 58-ft bays at the
mezzanine level. Essentially an ortho-
tropic technique, the system was
adapted by Cambridge engineers
LeMessurier Associates from the kind
used for highway overpasses. In effect,
the walking surface becomes an
integral part of the bridge structure.
The surface helps carry its own weight
and eliminates the need for additional
support from below. The walkways
thus have a maximum depth of only
20 in., permitting a clearance of 11 ft
from the first floor to the mezzanine.
To lighten the main reading room
floor, Johnson used two-way, post-
tensioned concrete waffle slab 20 - in.
thick. The hollowed-out pockets form-
ing the waffle reduced by two-thirds
the slab's mass while retaining its


strength. The slab acts compositely
with the steel girders at each of the
four sides of the bays. Floors three and
above are of flat slab construction
suspended from the trusses.
From bottom to top the building
demanded engineering inventiveness
to arrive at the design goal. "We really
had to go through the old bag of tricks
to make it work," said Kenneth
Wiesner, engineer in charge of design.
First challenge involved the addi-
tion's 27-foot-deep foundation which
extended below the pile caps of the
main library. These couldn't be
disturbed. In post-tensioning the
concrete floor slab, engineers also
faced the problem of preventing the
steel support members from reacting
with the concrete during the post-
tensioning. Yet in the end,steel and
concrete had to act together as a
structural unit.
A thin film
"This was done by putting a plastic slip
sheet over the concrete during the


H






1 *'


FEBRUARY, 1973 BUILDING DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION/43


1.


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A conring spacionenoss
wrapped in tradition








The bag of tricks contained
trusses, orthotropic designs


post-tensioning," Wiesner said. "It
broke the bond between the concrete
and the steel by its thin film." Pockets
we're left in the concrete at points
where it was to be joined to the steel.
After the post-tensioning, fresh con-
cr cte was poured to fill the pockets and
"this welded them together," Wiesner
said.
The windows in the addition arch
outward, providing a horizontal ele-
ment that counterbalances the window
line of the old library. They lean
outward and do not form a true arch,
and so their granite facing was
suspended by hangers and brackets
from the third floor. The exterior
granite comes from the same quarry
used for the original library and was
reopened especially for that purpose.
Johnson said his approach was to
consciously complement Charles Fol-
len McKim's original design. The
heaviness of the building's appearance
is unusual for Johnson and is not a
direction he is pursuing, he said. The
roof was given a pitch "that normally I


A grid of interconnecting trusses suspends
the upper five levels, helping to pack in
extra space and produce a second-floor
reading room that is nearly column free.
Roof slopes to the roof line of the old
library.


.4
I -i


would never use," he added. But it
matches the pitch of the older
building.
Now that the new wing is open, the
original library will be devoted to
reference and research. Due to the
efficiency of the addition, only six new
members had to be added to the
library's staff and 20 additional
maintenance personnel although the
extra space is nearly double the old.
Second go 'round
Actually this is the second plan by
Johnson for the addition. In the early
1960s he was asked to design a
building to house the research depart-
ments. When the new director, Philip
J. McNiff, came in 1965 the library's
goals were re-examined. The decision
was to make the new addition serve
general library needs and to turn the
old building over to reference and
research.
Doing the job a second time "was a
pleasure," Johnson said. "The new
director was right." El




















COP Y.
Juno 2nd, lS90.


The Gunstavino Fireproof Construction Co.,
De.r Sirs:
The telegram which we sent you from Boston on

Saturday in no sens,' ovor-stated the grave condition of affairs nRovW e itiin
at the New Public Li.brary. The delay caused by -ant of material in Sho oon-
st-!mtion of Bates kall floor for the completion of v;hich repcaoed efforts

have been made in vain, has caused the suspension of the granite wor-k: on
,tartmouth St. and Blagden St., to the great loss of the contractor ";2 US.-
advtantage to the building Our reputation being called into question thereby

SwvcCre compell0.d t> send you thie telegrarn referred to. Alot.. Yi th 6o
built by you in Boston is of excellent charmctei', thczre so,:'s h a ni-

mnangcmcnt regarding the supplies of mate oial tsad in tho. p.'pop ~tsupeiUt.ii-.
onco of its construction We feel that we ar I entitled at yo }ur ::.3 to
very considerations -d beg that you will give this matter yo~ur li;.diat
attcnt ion. A force of men ought to be put on i a idiately. Kohirn lec;

can possibly vuswer or satisfy the Trustees
Yours respectfully,
(Si nd) McKIt1, ME-AD AND WI7Th.












November 12, 1976


Vincent Babby & Sons
240 Sidney Street
Cambridge, Mass.


To whom it may concern,


I am a graduate student at the University of Florida Architectural
Preservation Program, under the direction of Prof. Blair Reeves. I am
currently undertaking a project that involves gathering information to
determine the architectural and historical importance of the addition
to McKim, Mead and White Boston Public Library.

I have exhausted all the information that is available in the
University of Florida library and other various research centers, thus,
I am requesting your help in obtaining additional information. I am
including a questionnaire with specific questions concerning this
project in order to facilitate your response!

I would greatly appreciate a prompt response to this letter, since
the information that I am requesting is essential to my study. I am
including a self-addressed stamped envelope for your convenience. Thank
you very much for your conce

Sincerely yours,



J Vobert Praga
















My intentions in making these questions is that their answers be as
simple as possible in order to facilitate your response. Please feel
free to omit any answers you feel are not applicable to your involve-
ment in this project.



In what aspect of the construction of the Boston Public Library Addition
was your firm involved?



What major problems did your firm encounter in the fulfillment of your
responsibility? Specifically in the areas concerning the erection of
the building?








How did your firm go about solving the previously mentioned problems?









In solving the previously mentioned problems, did your firm use innovative
methods in the areas pertaining to your field?


If so, specify.




Can you briefly describe your relationship with the client?


Architect?























Can you briefly describe your relationship with other members of the
construction team?






Was the architect receptive to your firm's input into the fulfillment
of this project?







If you have any additional information that was not covered by the
previous questions and you feel it is relevant to this project, please
specify below.


Name and Position in the firm




375 Park Avenue
New York NY 10022


Johnson / Burgee


Architects


Mr. Robert Fraga
309-123 S.W. 16th Street
Gainesville, Florida 32601





















Johnson / Burgee Architects


375 Park Avenue
New York, NY 10022
212/751-7440


December 2, 1976








Mr. Robert Fraga
309-123 S.W. 16th Avenue
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Dear Robert Fraga:

I appreciate your predicament about the Boston Public Library.
I don't have time for the 20 Questions game just now. May I
suggest a brief telephone interview. It seems to me we could
chat about some of these questions in a very short time. You
may call me collect.


PJ/kaw





BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY
. P. 0. BOX 286
BOSTON MASSACHU.$ETTS 02117


A


Mr. Robert Fraga
309 - 123 S.W. 16th Avenue
Gainesville, Florida 32601






CABLE ADDRESS, "DARTMOUTH BOSTON"



Boston Public Library.

Boston, Massachusetts 02117




December 7, 1976



Mr. Robert Fraga
309 - 123 S.W. 16th Avenue
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Dear Sir:

Enclosed please find the list of questions that we have endevored
to answer to the best of our ability. The Johnson addition was in the
true sense an addition to the McKim Building, and only minor-alterations
were made to the McKim Building.

The answers are as follows:

1. Philip Johnson and John Burgee Associates of New York.
The Architect's Design Group of Cambridge worked on the site.

2. William Le Messurier of Cambridge, Massachusetts.

3a. Vappi Company of Cambridge, Massachusetts.
3b. HVAC - Limbach of Boston, Massachusetts.
Plumbing - Frank Sullivan of Boston, Massachusetts.
Electrical - William Gens Company of Boston, Massachusetts.
Structural Steel - A. 0. Wolson of Cambridge, Massachusetts.

4a. All contractors selected by bidding procedure - Low man was
qualified bidder.
4b. The engineer was selected by the architect.

5. Trustees of the Boston Public Library.

6. The extent of involvement by the Trustees on the design was one
of functional use of space for now and in the future.

7. The architect was selected by the Trustees after a national
search and after interviews with the final candidates.

8. Yes.

9. In excess of 500,000 square feet.

10. The basic structure is a structural steel with reinforced concrete
and exterior wall, and a reinforced concrete basement slab.

11. The building was built on a vacant lot adjacent tothe existing
McKim Building. The area separating the two buildings is












Mr. Robert Fraga


approximately 2 1/2 inches.

12. The external finish is Milford pink granite skin supported by
reinforced concrete walls. The granite facing is from the
original quarry of the McKim Building.

13. Public interior areas: granite skin and English oak finish.
Non-public areas: Plaster walls and unfinished concrete.

14. The existing McKim Building is a tile roof; the Johnson Building
is a slate roof.

15. No major undertaking on existing McKim Building for many years.

16. The exterior finish of the Johnson Building was deliberately made
of granite skin to blend the two buildings together. The buildings
are completely different from the exterior view, but, in the writer's
opinion, blend very nicely together. The interior design of the
new addition is extremely practical for present day library use and,
yet, maintains the architect's aesthetic values. Both interiors are
completely different.

17, There was no major problem in adapting the new structure. There
were, of course, many challenges to the very unique design of
this building - just to mention a few: the massive slab poured
beneath the water table; the structural system: hanging floors,
post-tensioning of slabs, highway design bridges.

18. The use of both buildings was arrived at by the Trustees, the
Director, and the Library Staff, with emphasis on functional use
of the new addition for the 1970's and also for the future.

19. The new addition to the McKim Building cost $ 23,267,463.00.

20. The cost per square foot was $ 42.00 for the new addition.

I hope the above information will be of some help to you. If we can
be of any more service to you, please contact us again.

Sincerely yours,



,John J. Doherty
Assistant Director

JJD:sms


Enclosure


-2-


December 7, 1976













My intentions in making these questions is that their answer be as
simple and brief as possible in order to facilitate your response. Please
feel free to omit any answer you feel is too complicated or not applicable
to your project

1. Architect or architects involved in the design.

2. Engineer or engineering firm.

3. General contractor and subcontracting firms involved.

4. On what basis were the contractors and engineers selected?

5. Who is the client?

6. What was the extent of involvement of the client on the design?

7. How was the commission obtained for this job?

8. Was the firm or architech experienced on this kind of work?

9. What is the square footage of the building?

10. What is the structural system of the building composed of?

11. How was the new structure (if any) integrated with the remains
of the original building?

12. What material or materials is the exterior of the building made of?

13. What materials were used on the interior of the building?

14. What is the structure and materials used in the roof of the
building and was the original roof structure maintained?

15. Had any prior work been done on this building?

16. Did the exterior style of the building greatly influence the
redesigning of the interior and if so, how was this carried
through?

17. Were there major problems in the adaptation of the new function
structurally or asethetically?

18. How was the program arrived at, concerning the new use of the
building?

19. What were the major single expenses in renovating this building?

20. What was the cost per square foot of the new building?
(Please indicate if this includes the cost of the original
building)




PROCLAIM LIBERTy


FRTU' IN P 'F ! ''? -,




--M. 2ff y.A-4'.


-[n"p PrF.


Robert Fraga

309 - 123 S.W. 16th AVE.

Gainesville, Florida. 32601


17 DEIG







S4M La

My intentions in making these questions is that their answers be as
simple as possible in order to facilitate your response. Please feel
free to omit any answers you feel are not applicable to your involve-
ment in this project.


In what aspect of the construction of the Boston Public Library Addition
was your firm involved?


What major problems did your firm encounter in the fulfillment of your
responsibility? Specifically in the areas concerning the erection of
the building?
S9W (.Xp) *aC /3p.�04 of 4A44 'AMA" c ev, r4 c 1T&1 <
&4 0A v'v,44e A 040A ;<( 06f 0N. irco4 A'" */ w' r^
I 4.4 '. S AP i # ' A KO M iVX �s� I- -"LaCA4WAA

How did your firm go about solving the previously mentioned problems?




14 ht C^ 44,#-aeg 2Ak *dA 44 OQ( wa-
4^it" wow # ) 0 4. d' .4Aj PwAALf Af **r Ol.
04 old 19A4 a, ou t'* &.4 A9 a*.$ r yso A -04 Asn ; C
In solving the previously mentioned problems, did your firm use innovative
methods in the areas pertaining to your field?
Ye - see ad4V 4.
If so, specify.



Can you briefly describe your relationship with the client?

Ar Capt AOLt? 6f A.U,,,, ,.-, #, 4 - .

Architect?





' ft.W ^ &










Can you briefly describe your relationship with other members of the
construction team?




Was the architect receptive to your firm's input into the fulfillment
of this project?
1cl 4a^k A 4< iv t
^ f~e ^ u hAS �.,,4 fo i4.* wke kA iena//

If you have any additional information that was not covered by the
previous questions and you feel it is relevant to this project, please
specify below.


Name and Position in the firm
6504 Go. c,,cAia S 2�7- c
) - A 44mA - /of 4*�
0j - .Ii



4/ *^ <* '44o^ &^^y1}^-><^^^


A4 /94"


IASe
















My intentions in making these questions is that their answers be as
simple as possible in order to facilitate your response. Please feel
free to omit any answers you feel are not applicable to your involve-
ment in this project.



In what aspect of the construction of the Boston Public Library Addition
was your firm involved?



What major problems did your firm encounter in the fulfillment of your
responsibility? Specifically in the areas concerning the erection of
the building?








How did your firm go about solving the previously mentioned problems?









In solving the previously mentioned problems, did your firm use innovative
methods in the areas pertaining to your field?


If so, specify.




Can you briefly describe your relationship with the client?


Architect?























Can you briefly describe your relationship with other members of the
construction team?






Was the architect receptive to your firm's input into the fulfillment
of this project?







If you have any additional information that was not covered by the
previous questions and you feel it is relevant to this project, please
specify below.


Name and Position in the firm













My intentions in making these questions is that their answer be as
simple and brief as possible in order to facilitate your response. Please
feel free to omit any answer you feel is too complicated or not applicable
to your project

1. Architect or architects involved in the design.

2. Engineer or engineering firm.

3. General contractor and subcontracting firms involved.

4. On what basis were the contractors and engineers selected?

5. Who is the client?

6. What was the extent of involvement of the client on the design?

7. How was the commission obtained for this job?

8. Was the firm or architech experienced on this kind of work?

9. What is the square footage of the building?

10. What is the structural system of the building composed of?

11. How was the new structure (if any) integrated with the remains
of the original building?

12. What material or materials is the exterior of the building made of?

13. What materials were used on the interior of the building?

14. What is the structure and materials used in the roof of the
building and was the original roof structure maintained?

15. Had any prior work been done on this building?

16. Did the exterior style of the building greatly influence the
redesigning of the interior and if so, how was this carried
through?

17. Were there major problems in the adaptation of the new function
structurally or asethetically?

'18. How was the program arrived at, concerning the new use of the
building?

19. What were the major single expenses in renovating this building?

20. What was the cost per square foot of the new building?
(Please indicate if this includes the cost of the original
building)










Nov. 1351976


Mr. John Doherty
Assistant Director,
Boston Public Library,
666 Boylston St.
Boston, Massachusetts. 02117



Dear Mr. Doherty,


I will begin this letter by thanking
you for your most valuable information concerning Mr.
Philip Johnson addition to Mckim,- Mead and White Boston
Public Library.

Once again, I must appeal to your ge-
nerosity and ask you to complete the questionair which
I am including with this letter. I am aware that you
have answered most of these questions already during the
conversation we had over the telephone on Nov. 10, how-
ever, for the purposes of documentation, I must ask you
to answer these questions again in a written form and to
include your signature with your reply.

I am happy to informed you that I have
received the set of drawings which you send me, and that
they have been a tremendous contribution to our project.
I will send you a copy of our study as soon as the report
is finished.
Once again, thank you very much for your
time and your helpful information.
Sincerely ours,

Robe6it ragaa





















November 12, 1976


Mr. Philip C. Johnson
AIA 54, FAIA 65, New York Chapter
375 Park Avenue
New York, New York 10022


Dear Mr. Johnson:


I am a graduate student at the University of Florida Architectural
Preservation Program, under the direction of Prof. Blair Reeves. I am
currently undertaking a project that involves gathering information to
determine the architectural and historical importance of the addition
to McKim, Mead and White Boston Public Library.

I have exhausted all the information that is available in the
University of Florida library and other various research centers, thus,
I am requesting your help in obtaining additional information. I am
including a questionnaire with specific questions concerning the
project in order to facilitate your response!

I would greatly appreciate a prompt response to this letter, since
the inforamtion that I am requesting is essential to my study. I am
including a self-addressed stamped envelope for your convenience. Thank
you very much for your concern.

Sincerely yours,




Robert Fraga




















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