• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Procedure
 Historical Background
 The 1800 House
 Conclusion
 Footnotes
 Bibliography
 Images
 Blueprints






1800 house
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00001635/00001
Finding Guide: Historic Preservation Documents
 Material Information
Title: 1800 house
Physical Description: 47p. : elevations, photos., plans, 36 pls., section.
Language: English
Creator: Cangelosi, Robert
Aldridge, Heath
Layton, Nancy
Publisher: Preservation Institute: Nantucket
College of Architecure, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Nantucket, MA
Publication Date: Summer, 1974
 Subjects
Genre:
Spatial Coverage:
Coordinates: 41.279473 x -70.102121
 Notes
General Note: AFA HP document 836
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution.
Resource Identifier:
System ID: AA00001635:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    Introduction
        Page ii
    Procedure
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Historical Background
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    The 1800 House
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Conclusion
        Page 33
    Footnotes
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Bibliography
        Page 36
    Images
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
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        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
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        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Blueprints
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
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THE 1800 HOUSE


By

Heath Aldridge
Robby Cangelosl
Nancy Layton





AE 583

University of Florida

Preservation Institute: Nantucket

Summer 1974

Faculty and Consultants:
F. Blair Reeves
Paul Buchanan
Susan Tate











TABLE OF CONTENTS


I1 INTRODUCTION
II. PROCEDURE
Ao Conversations
Bo Research
C. Field Work
III. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
A, Nantucket Architecture
B, Architectural Trends at the Turn of the 19th Century -
New England and Nantucket
IV. THE 1800 HOUSE
Ao Background History
1, Deed Tracing
B. Interior. Details
1. Floors
2. Panelling
3, Stairs
4o Doors
5. Mouldings
C, Furniture
1, New England Developments
2o Furniture in 1800 House
a, Secretary
bo Country Chippendale Chair
c. Primitive Chippendale Chair
Do The House Frame and Its Construction
1. The Foundation
2, Roof framing
3, Exterior Detailing
a. Front facade
b. Window
c. Cornice and rake board
Vo CONCLUSION
FOOTNOTES
BIBLIOGRAPHY










I. INTRODUCTION


Studying a single building is one approach to understanding the architec-

tural and building traditions of a particular area. Through archival research

and careful examination of the actual structure, it is usually possible to de-

termine the approximate date of construction and the sequence of any additions

or alterations,

The integrity of a building is wholly dependent on those who did the origi-

nal construction, the generations who inhabitated it, and of course, on those

who study and record its history, A building cannot defend itself against poor

craftsmanship, alterations and truncations, a student's incomplete research or

oversight and misinterpretation of the physical evidence. In this particular

study, it was hoped that research notes, belonging to the late Everett U. Crosby,

would be found in order to substantiate and to clarify certain data on the 1800

House. It was found, however, that these notes have either been lost or destroy-

ed since the time of Mro Crosby's death. Without this information there is much

concerning the 1800 House that may never be known. However, by working with the

materials at hand, this study attempts to trace the history of the house and to

place it in the development of America's building tradition.













IIo PROCEDURE

A. Conversations

1. Mr. Paul Buchanan - July 7

After examining the house frame and its construction, Mr, Buchanan

considered the interior detailing of the 1800 House, He looked for un-

usual structural elements which indicate changes had been made to the

original house plan. Mro Buchanan's findings will be discussed in de-

tail in the text.

2. Mr. Edouard Stackpole - July 15

Familiar with the restoration of thel800 House by the Nantucket

Historical Association in the early 1950's, Mro Stackpole said that

considerable changes had to be made to the interior of the building at

that time. It was his belief that the house had been converted into

two apartments in the late 1920's. He suggested we contact Mr, Clarence

Swift, the carpenter during the 2 1/2 year restoration, since he was

knowledgeable about the subject,

3. Mr, Clarence Swift - July 16

Mr. Swift informed us that the 1800 House was purchased by the

Melhados solely for the purpose of donating it to the Nantucket Histori-

cal Association0 He also dispelled Mr. Stackpole's idea that major al-

terations were necessary during the restoration process to return the

house to its 1800 authenticity, That is, according to Mr. Swift there

were no partitions or other structural signs indicating that the house

had been converted into an apartment dwelling as Mr. Stackpole had

suggested. However, the following changes were made,












(a) the privy, a "two and a half holer," was built during the res-
toration (1953-55). Old lumber was used,
(b) a wood and coal shed in the backyard was torn down When we
asked if the clothes press and spinning rooms on the southern
end of the kitchen ell were added during the restoration, Mr.
Swift said the rooms were there prior to 1953o
(c) although the well hole had been dug at an earlier date the old
pump was replaced.
(d) floor boards had to be replaced in three-quarters of the first
floor,
(e) corner posts and studs required patch work - in some places
studs were replaced
(f) windows and sills had to be replaced throughout the house,
(g) a new front door was hung; an older one remains in the attic
(h) there was no fireplace in the kitchen ell when the restoration
was initiated, Because Mr, Everett Crosby, the primary re-
searcher on the house, found an old photograph showing such a
fireplace, it was added during the restoration,

4. Mr. Leroy True - July 18

We called Mro True, President of the Nantucket Historical Associa-

tion, with the hope of obtaining (a) names of persons who had informa-

tion on the 1800 House other than those at the Folger Library and the

Atheneum. Mro True referred us to Mr. Stackpole, Mso Marie Coffin and

Mr, Clay Lancaster. He also told us all records of the Nantucket his-

torical Association with respect to their historic properties were in

the Folger Library.

5o Ms. Marie Coffin - July 18

Although Ms, Coffin wrote the pamphlet on the 1800 House she said

the research was done by Mr, Everett Crosbyo Unfortunately, it was

Ms. Coffin opinion that all his notes on the house were destroyed after

his death0

6, Mr, Clay Lancaster - July 18

Mro Lancaster expressed little familiarity with the 1800 Houseo He

suggested we contact Mr. Arthur Crosby, Everett Crosby's son.











7o Mr. Arthur Crosby - July 25

Contrary to opinion many of Everett Crosby's notes were preserved,

Mr. Crosby said he would check through the notes while he was in Phila-

delphia, We should contact him again August 4 upon his return,


Bo Research

1. The Atheneum

Literature


and the Peter Folger Library


General - books on the architecture of New England; books on
structural elements, interior furnishings, and other
interior details of the period

Nantucket - books and articles on Nantucket architecture; arti-
cles pertaining to the 1800 Houses as part of the pro-
ceedings of the Nantucket Historic Association; Nan-
tucket histories

Photographs & Maps - Nantucket - historic maps; old photographs;
photographic collections of Nantucket buildings.


2. Town Hall

In order to trace the ownership of the property we. used the Nan-

tucket County Records, We also looked through the wills of past owners

of the 1800 House hoping to find data on the interior furnishings. It

was thought that descriptions of furniture in the old wills might coin-

cide with the descriptions of pieces currently in the house Unfortu-

nately none of the wills adequately described any furnishings such that

we could substantiate the relationship.


Several observations about the 1800 House can be made at this point0

First, the house has not distinguished itself architecturally or histor-

ically as evidenced by its vertual anonymity in local books Its sig-

nificance has arisen because of its donation by the Melhados to the

Nantucket Historical Association, Secondly conversations with persons


























familiar with the house demonstrated a frequent problem of historical

documentation - that of separating fact from fiction, As a result the

investigators will rely on sources with sufficient documentation to

warrant credibility and on field work observations in compiling this

study,


Co Field Work

The most important aspect of the investigator's procedure involves

the actual field work done at the 1800 House, Mro Paul Buchanan's ob-

servations and comments on the interior and exterior structuring cre-

ated a basis for our study.







5



III. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND


Ao Nantucket Architecture

Nantucket's early houses were merely reptitions of forms that had

been built in England since the fifteenth century0 The main unit of

construction was probably a medieval style, framed house; a form that

the colonists had known in England, A typical dwelling of this type

would have been a two story, single room deep, structure oriented to-

ward the south with the entrance and fireplace located at one endo

These dwellings, built without basements, were constructed on founda-

tions that were made from the abundant fieldstone found on the island

Sills were laid directly on these foundations and corner posts were

mortise and tenoned at each corner, Studs were also mortise and ten-

oned into the sill, but unlike the corner posts they were nailed

rather than pegged at the joint For insulation the spaces between

the studs were filled with mud and sea weed, In the earliest build-

ings the exterior walls were made by nailing clinkers, boards, and

battens, or bevel-edge siding directly to the studs. Because this

form satisfied the colonist's initial needs and because the area pro-

vided the necessary materials, the craftsmen continued to build what

they were most familiar with and saw no need to create radically new

, forms, As one historian points out, there was considerable variation

to the plan at the one-room deep house The two principle variations

were the two-room deep plan and the added lean-to plano2 The appear-

ance of these different types was not as-dependent on chronology as on

eaWi�' family's needs and circumstances. Whenever more space was re-

quired, the simple English plan was enlarged by adding a parlor to the











other side of the chimney The lean-to plan was created by making

a further addition to the back of the two room house, Williams

points out that, like the one room deep house, the lean-to was not

a colonial invention but an English type that was constructed in

wood and masonry. He goes on to explain that there was practically

no variation in the organization of the lean-to plan; any differ-

ences in the main floors were largely governed by the depth of the

rear rooms, In the lean-to the front door opens into a small entry

that occupies the full width of the chimney (usually 6 to 8)� On

either side of the entry are doors which open into two rooms, the

keeping room and the parlor, which are on opposite sides of the chim-

ney. In the lean-to section is a large kitchen which opens onto a
4
buttery on its north side and onto a borning room on the south side

On the mainland the lean-to plan began to appear in 1675. How-

ever, it did not appear on Nantucket until after 1700 when one was

added to the Jethro Coffin House0 The impact of the plan was by no

means lessened by this delay, Between 1700 and 1760, 77 integral

lean-to houses were built on the island. Nantucketers must have been

very satisfied with the room arrangement created by the lean-to be-

cause they soon began to build structures whose initial stage resem-

bled the lean-to plano These were called lean-to half houses, Lan-

caster explains that the "organic requirement of the half-house is that

it provide for expansion on either side of the chimney," When expanded

the half-house is referred to as a "full-house"0 Being made at the

chimney, the half house addition was very similar to the way a one

room English house was expanded to create two rooms and unlike the lean-

to addition which was constructed at the rear of the original structure











Chandlee Forman points out that in addition to the lean-to several

other building innovations were introduced on Nantucket aroung 1700o

These included sash windows, wide use of split shingles for roof,

and wall covering, gradual abandonment of mud filled walls, and round

cool cellars. The cool cellar was originally built only under the

lean-to addition but it outlawed that style and was later incorporated

into other plans. Both Lancaster and Williams agree, except that

Williams mentions that shingles were being used in southern Connecticut

in 1639 and suggests that they may have been used on Nantucket before

the turn of the century. 1700 was also a significant year in the his-

tory of the island, for the year Capaum Harbor was blocked off and the

populace of Sherburne began its transmigration to the present harbor

location of Nantucket.

In 1720 clay beds were opened and brick production was begun.

Prior to this date all bricks had to be imported to the island, However,

this production could not have been on a very large scale, because un-

till 1775 (when Rotch Market was built) masonry construction was limited

to chimneys and ovens It was not until the 1830's that brick housing

construction began to appear, When compared to Connecticut and Massachu-

setts, where brick was in general use after 1675, Nantucket was very

far behind. The increased use of brick during the thirties can be ex-

plained by the introduction of mechanized brick production on the island.

After 1726 one of the original characteristics of the lean-to was lost

This change first occurred in buildings constructed on the fish lots,

Because these lots were laid out in an east to west direction, the lean-

to houses that were built on them could not be accommodated with their

customary southern orientation,












The next major building innovation came to Nantucket in the 1750's

when the back wall of the lean-to was heightened to two full stories,

This change had been occurring on the mainland since 1700o In both

areas, this two story house, known as the upright, was built on the

same plan as the lean-to. However, just as the lean-to was appearing

on Nantucket a major change to floor plan was taking place on the main-

lando In the new plan a central hall runs from front to back with two

rooms off each side This plan could only be facilitated by rearrang-

ing the fireplaces and replacing the central chimney with dual ones

Clay Lancaster points out that the major significance of the plan is

that,

."with the introduction of this type, the dark medieval house cul-
minating in the lean-to variety had truely become a thing of the
past, Now the entrance had not only a transom above but side-
lights flanking ito The staircase was of easy ascent being total-
ly without windows More important, circulation took its most im-
portant leap forward, One no longer had to walk around the cen-
tral chimney and pass through rooms to get from one to another;
now one could enter each room directly by means of the middle hall-
way. "5

this central hall, two story house completely replaced the upright after

the Civil War, on the mainland. However, on Nantucket the lean-to plan

remained the most popular dwelling structures, Between 1750 and the

early 1800's only 29, 2 1/2 story twin chimney houses were built while

93, 2 1/2 story central chimney houses were built at the same time.

Given the many advantages of the central hall plan, why did Nantucketers

continue to build their dwellings with central chimneys and the lean-to

floor plan? Historians waver response to this question and are unable

to concur on any one answer. Some maintain that the continued building

of the central chimney represents Nantucketer's tenacity to a particular











form while others maintain that it reflected a "retarded" native in the

architecture on the island,6

B. Architectural Trends At the Turn of the 19th Century - New England

and Nantucket

The "Federal Style" is a term loosely applied to architecture of the

colonies between the dates 1780 and 1820 and was the first stage of the

Neoclassical movement in America7 The early stage of Federalism in

New England did not represent, by any means, a radical revolt against

any earlier style, It was rather the next step in an architectural

evolution armed at refinement, New interest in classical antiquities,

predominately Roman, brought about an emphasis on scale, proportion,

harmony and detailing. In New England this awareness manifested itself

in the Federal Style. Because of the provincialism and conservation

in New England, the Federal style developed slowly in the 1780's; this

was due to an ardent reliance upon the merits of earlier architecture.

The chief change made to a building's exterior with the emergence

of the Federal style was a refinement of scale and proportions. These

new spacial relationships were made possible through the use of detail-

ed handbooks on architecture and classical antiquity, During this peri-

od, however, major changes were made to the interior of the structure.

The standard rectangular room arrangement began to give way to the more

fluid forms of circles, aspses, ovals, and vaults Complimenting these

spacial relations were elegant decorative motifs which were based on

the delicate, refined manner of classicism. The catalyst behind this

internal evolution was the Adam Brothers of England whose handbooks

were widely read and used in New England, Catering to these trends were


















two men in New England, Charles Bulfinch and Samuel Mclntireo Through,

the works of these two men the "traditional" phase or early stage of

the development of the Federal style was the introduction of the pro-

fessional architect, Epitomizing this phase was Benjamin Henry Latrobe

who brought to America a high degree of professionalism, both techni-

cal and theoretical, Through Latrobe's efforts American architecture

ceased to be "colonial" and began to strive for a national identity,

While the Federal style was emerging in the large cities on the

mainland, earlier style persisted for a longer duration in Nantucket.

Granted, the island's dependence on the sea for her economic liveli-

hood necessitated contact with the mainland, Consequently, some ex-

amples of the Federal style were built during the 1780-1820 period as

evidenced by the larger homes of the whale merchants, However, to, a

good extent the availability and expense of materials, religious factors,

and the island's isolation retarded architectural transition. This led

Nantucket to have two architectural philosophies - one following earlier,

established building traditions and the other conforming to Federal in-

fluenceso The 1800 House, an upright two story with a lean-to plan,

exemplifies the former tradition.











IV, THE 1800 HOUSE

Ao Background History

1. Deed Tracing


June 18, 1798


June 20, 1798


December 23, 1888


May 5, 1801


February 9, 1807






August 14, 1856






April 5, 1865


April 19, 1903



May 17, 1950


October 13, 1951


Charles Gardner passed to his son Joseph Gardner a tract
of land "to the Northward and Westward of the House that
was Stephen Chase containing four acres and 16 rods"

"Do for and in consideration of Sixty-Six Dollars" Jo-
seph Gardner, the blacksmith, sold the property to his
son Amiel Gardner, the mariner,

The land left to the Gardner family- was sold to Thomas
Marshall by Amiel Gardner.

The property was then bought by Richard L. Coleman,
housewright, who paid two hundred dollars to Thomas
Marshall.

Jeremiah Lawrence, High Sheriff of the County, purchas-
ed the property from Richard L. Coleman a piece of land
"a little to the westward of Stephen Chase House so-
called containing about 40 rods together with dwelling
house and other buildings standing thereonoo." This is
the first time the 1800 House is mentioned; the earlier
transactions dealt with the land only,

Having owned the property for 49 years Eunice Lawrence,
widow of Jeremiah Lawrence, sold the house and other
buildings on the property to Love Calder. It was de-
scribed as follows: "on the East by land of Reuben
Hallett, on South by road or highway, on West by land
belonging to heirs of Robert P. Wyer, and on North by
Mill Street..."

James Monroe Bunker buys the property "free from all
incumbrances" from Love Calder.

Upon taking out a mortgage for three hundred dollars,
Leonora Roberts James purchased "a certain tract of
land with the dwelling house and all other out-build-
ings" from the estate of James M, Bunker,

After living in the house for nearly half a century,
Leonora R, James sold the property to Louise Anderson
Melhado, the resident of Moor's End.

Louise A, Melhado donates the property to the Nantucket
Historic Association as a free gift.8










B. Interior Details

1L Floors

Double floors were the general rule for the first floor while single

ones commonly would be found on the second level and attic Floors tended

to be constructed in the following manner:

Over the joists were first laid a subfloor of "slit-stuff" or mate-
rial about 1/2" thick, the boards often being irregular widths and
having unsquared edges0 Over this land with the joists running in
the same direction or at right angles to the joists) the finished
floor was laid. This top floor was 7/8" to 1" thick and the boards
were quite wide - never less than 10" - 12" and often 18" - 20"o
These two floors were laid in such a manner that the joints on the
top or "finish" floor were always broken by the boards of the sub-
floor0 This arrangement was necessary because the joints on the
upper floor never matched with a tongue-and-groove as is used today.9

A basic tenet of construction demands the floor joists run parallel to the

chimney girt and perpendicular to the summer beam, In the 1800 House the

top flooring in the east and west parlors parallels the floor joists and is

perpendicular to the summer beams. This indicates there must be two or four

layers of floor boards. (The floor joists in both these rooms run from the

front to the rear of the house - that is, north to south), In the keeping

room the same construction technique is used0 Again the number of floor

boards appears to be even - either two or four. Because the summer beams on

both sides of the chimney run north-south the corresponding floor joists

must run east-west. Consequently in order to have the final flooring running

parallel to the joists, there must be an even number of boards.

All floors in the house are painted with the-exception of those in

the west parlor, This makes it difficult to determine what woods were used

The problem is compounded further by the fact that the floor boards were re-

placed during the restoration. In general white pine was used in the more

formal parlors and sometimes in the chambers directly above. The wood found

in the remaining floors were usually oak due to its durability,10










2. Paneling

Fireplace

The use of paneled woodwork on the fireplace wall did not per-

sist past 1800o After that date plastering took its place and builders

concentrated their talents on mantel detailing,11 Until then as is evi-

dent in the 1800 House the fireplace wall was entirely covered with an

arrangement of rectangular panels secured in place by stiles and rails

No attempt was made at a symmetrical configuration since the fireplace

was rarely on the central axis of the room. A common design was a sin-

gle, large panel above the fireplace held in place by bolection mould-

ing, White pine, free from knots with a clean even grain, was the ideal

material for such panelingo2

Basically all the fireplace paneling appears to be of the same

period. However, subtle differences are detected throughout the house

with respect to the paneling arrangement near the ceiling. For instance

in the last parlor the paneling is two-sectioned directly above the fire-

place while in the keeping room and west parlor the top row forms one

piece, Upstairs less. attention was paid to paneling details Of partic-

ular interest is the poor craftsmanship of the fireplace paneling in the

spinning room, Instead of forming a symmetrical rectangTe the paneling

is irregularly shaped One also notices that no paneling exists above

the mantlepiece in the summer kitchen ell. Due to the utilitarian nature

of such a oom paneling was impractical0

Wainscot

B$thf the east andyest parlors have wainscotting to the hand-

rail moulding, This was often the case in the formal rooms of any house

of this area In both rooms the wainscotting is less than three feet
,ft., j










high and coincides with the window stool One quickly observes that

the chair-rail moulding in the last parlor is more elaborate than that

in the west parlor. Presumably the simpler of the two shows the work

of an earlier craftsmanship. One also notices the baseboards forming

the bottom of the wainscotting, In both parlors the baseboards pro-

ject about 3/4" from the wall and are about 3" in height. In the rooms

where plaster covers the wall surface the baseboards are about 6" in

height with or without a beaded edge. These baseboards, set virtually

flush with the plaster, form the transition between the floor and the

wall.

3. Front Stairs

In the houses of the central-chimney type the front stairs occupied

a position in front of the chimney stack. The location of the front

stairs was governed by the depth of the entrance hall. That, in turn,

depended upon the chimney's placement. The nearer the chimney was to
13
the front wall of the house, the narrower and steeper the stairs.

In the 1800 House the space allotted the stairway is shallow Ac-

cordingly the risers are high and the treads are narrow The use of

winders or "pie steps" at the turns is a distinguishing feature.

The earliest stairs in New England had no handrail or baluster, and

the entire flight of stairs was encased by a single thickness of wain-

scotting, The next development precipated the omission of enclosed

wainscotting and the introduction of the plain, square newels and a

railing. In the third stage, of which the 1800 House is representative,

one witnesses the emergence of turned newel posts which are finished

with a moulded cap. The balusters placed upon the moulded box string

also received greater attention from the craftsman.











In the earliest stairs enclosed by wainscot, a square oak post
of 3" - 4" was commonly found into which the diagonal treads or
"winder" were framed, When wainscot was superseded by hand-rails
and balusters, the newel posts remained and served the same pur-
pose. Two more newel posts were added: one at the top and bot-
tom of the flight to receive the ends of the hand rail,

Note: the molding under the balusters, the so-called box string In

most houses on the mainland built during this period a box string would

bear elaborate detailing, Yet, in the 1800 House it is comparatively

simple. Likewise the balusters themselves are a plain, rectangular form

which again contrasts the turned baluster designs on the mainland The

favorite material for baluster construction tended to be hard pine while
15
the handrail and newel posts were frequently oak.

4o Doors

Interior Doors

With the exception of the Christian, transomed doors lead-

ing to and from the east and west parlors the doors of the 1800 House

are: (1) of the plain two paneled type or (2) of the more rudimentary,

batten form, As evidenced in the pictures the two paneled door in the

upstairs chamber and the one in the keeping room are quite similar, It

was typical for the parlor doors to be more detailed since they were in

the formal area of the house. However in the back of the house and up-

stairs, plainer doorways were used.

Front Door

The present front door,(commonly called a "Christian" door

due to the cross-like motif in the paneling) has six panels formed by

recessed bevelled edges and raised inside panels Both the exterior and

the interior of the door are the same. Of note is the fact that the

original, hand-planed door remains in the attic, Several distinctions











between the original and the present door can be described. First, the

composition of the panels differs. The two smaller panels are in the

middle of the original door while they appear in the upper section of the

present door, Second, the inside of the original door is of batten con-

struction as opposed to the six paneled inside of the present door

In cross section paneled doors are almost invariably the same.
The panel edge is beveled on one side and held in place in the
rabbets of the stiles and rails by a quarter round head and
moulding which is integral with them. Inasmuch as the panels
were generally a quarter of an inch thinner than the stiles and
rails, a simple sinkage occurs on the reverse side of the door0
Rails and stiles never measured greater than 1 1/2 " in thick-
ness, The jointing of the stiles and rails always by means of
mortise-and-tenoned, held together by wooden pins. Whilg pine
without exception is the material used for these doors.

5. Moulding

The first mouldings were semi-utilitarian such as those at the joints

of wainscot or the joinery connecting the boards of the batten doors.

These examples and the chamfering of exposed beams may be registered as

the first attempt at ornamentation by means of moulding, Ornamental

mouldings in the modern sense of the word were probably not generally

employed until late in the first half of the eighteenth century. Mould-

ings of this sort were made by hand from one inch boards-by means of a

special plane. The introduction of plastering and the resultant casing

of the formerly exposed structural members probably had much to do with

the innovation of purely ornamental mouldings,

Because of the variations in the abilities of craftsmen, it became

difficult to date mouldings,, Consequently the investigators shall focus

upon the different types of mouldings rather than attempting to date

them within a specific time frame. With regard to dating the moulding

in the 1800 House, one determinant can be made, All mouldings made











prior to 1810 were made by hand, After that date the sophistication in

tools and the methods of production led to the creation of new profile

characteristics which are readily discernible,

The trim in the 1800 House represents the earliest type of moulding

which Kelly describes as being "rather heavy and clumsy and having bold

and steep contours".18 Historians explain that these early profiles

were merely adaptations of classical forms which had been cast in stone,

The original forms were largely determined by the materials and proved

to be of stylistic interest to the eighteenth and early nineteenth cen-

tury craftsmen. It was not until after 1810 that wood was freed from

heavy classical forms and started to be used in lighter, more intricate

moulding profiles,

The types of wood mouldings that are found throughout the 1800 House

are as follows: cyma recta ogeee), cyma reverse, cavetto, ovolo, and

scotiao These moulding profiles are shown on the next page0

Different trims can be found in different rooms of the house. These

variations were created by changing the combination of moulding profiles,

At first glance, the three part ceiling trim in the downstairs parlors

seem similar. However on closer examination many differences can be

noted The components profiles of the ceiling trim in the east parlor

are cyma recta, cyma reverse, and scotia, and in the west parlor they

are cavetto, ovolo, and cyma reverse. Even when the same type of mould-

ing appears in different trims it is not always found in the same posi-

tion. For example, while the cyma recta profile is in ceiling parlor

trims - in one it is as the bed moulding and in the other it is as the

fascia. These variations seem to reflect the craftsmen's individuality

and design preference. Even though they chose to work within the limi-











stations of uniform profiles styles, they ordered the elements as they

chose. The moulding over the paneling in the spinning room has only two

parts: a cyma recta over a cyma reversal This variation is not unusual,

for as already noted, elements in the rear rooms were often modified or

crudely constructed. Variations can also be seen in the window trim of

different rooms of the house. When compared to the trim in the keeping

room, the buttery, and the east and west second floor chambers which are

all similar, the trim in the east and west parlor seems much more elab-

orate. However the elements are the same, and it is only their arrange-

ment that differs.


C. Furniture

1. New England Development

American Chippendale (1755-90)19

While the English Chippendale displays a mixture of Chinese,

rococo, and Gothic design details in combination with the Georgian clas-

sical forms, American Chippendale is more strictly al-igned with the

Georgian forms. Furthermore, in American furniture there is more evi-

dence of the survival of Queen Anne influences.20 Generally American

furniture during this period was of a simpler design than the English.

It was less square in its proportions and emphasis was placed upon the

vertical line. Chairs were narrower, the rake of the rear legs was
21
less pronounced and the carving was less embellished,21

Classical Period (1790-1830)22

As Comstock points out there is much confusion with respect

to terminology during this period To clarify the styles and their

dates, Comstock categories them as follows:











Hepplewhite 1790-1810
Sheraton 1800-1810
Empire 1810-1820
23

Although Adam as a style name is sometimes incorrectly used to

designate a phase in the Classical period, the direct influence of Adam

did not come to America in its purity except in a few cases of archi-

tecture, As to furniture it can almost be said that none in America was

made in Adam style. By the time close relations were established with

England following the Revolution, English cabinetmakers had abolished

with Adam mode and were working in a freer fashion, Preserving the gen-

eral proportion, form, straight lines and curve suggested by the archi-

tectural tastes of Adam, cabinetmakers created their own designs,

The two books which formed the basis of furniture design during

the early years of the republic were: The Cabinet Maker's and Uphol-

sterer's Guide by A. Hepplewhite and Co. and The Cabinet Maker's and Up-
24
holsterer's Drawing Book (1792) by Thomas Sheratono24 In these books

one notes the transition from the stricter.Adam treatments to those of

a practical cabinet maker0

We see some pieces in almost the straight Adam style,
and others in which the softening of lines shows the
influence of some of the French work of the late
period of Louis XV. Many of the cold mechanical curves
of the Adam usage are translated into finer, free hand 25
curves, and the moulding of forms is more freely handled.

Hepplewhite furniture is characterized by straight, tapering legs, square

in section; serpentine lines; emphasis on inlay Adamesque urn finials;

the flaring bracket foot on chests of drawers. Chairs tended to have

heart-shaped shield or oval backs. Sheraton, on the other hand, becomes

familiar due to the reeded leg; square backs on chairs and sofas; convex

ends on case pieces; projecting sections and colonettes. Most American













work is representative of the Sheraton rather than the Hepplewhite in-

fluenceo27 The proportions are light and delicate; inlay and veneering

predominate in decoration. In general there is a preference for the

lighter wood, mahogany often being a light, sherry color combined with

broad veneers of satinwood and curly maple.

Country Furniture

The periods and their representative styles as mentioned

above pertain primarily to the furniture movement in the larger design

centers: Boston, Newport, New York, Philadelphia, and Charleston. At

the time these furniture trends in such centers were taking place the

more rural areas were also experiencing design changes, However, these

changes tended to be more limited as well as more gradual Consequently

terms like "country, "primitive," and "rustic" designating the furni-

ture design traditions of the less urban areas have emerged Although

some pieces in the 1800 House are representative of the high style,

most of the furniture would appropriately be described as "country."

This term suggests that the furniture was made by craftsmen working in

a provincial area who had less sophisticated training, Admittedly some

of them were trained in a "high style" center such as Boston, Yet due

to personal choice, the purchaser's taste, the availability of materials,

and for finances, they made furniture akin to their provincial setting28

At this level a highly personal attitude was created by rethinking tra-

ditions from the large design centers and by introducing a strong streak

of individualism - an individualism always with the context of the furni-

ture's purpose and utilitarian qualities.











2, Furniture in the 1800 House

For the purpose of discussion three pieces of furniture were

chosen - a secretary, and two Chippendale chairs

ao Secretary

This mahogany secretary (desk and bookcase) can be character-

ized by its directness, starkness and simple arrangement of wal-propor-

tioned rectangles of particular interest is the juxtaposition of these

rectangles - the paneled cabinet doors, the slant lid, and the four-

drawered front Due to the secretary's lack of elaborateness, this

would probably be classified as a "country" piece. It is a reinterpre-

tation of European traditionso9 A feature that helps to classify this

as a country piece is the saw markings on the beveled, two paneled doors.

This suggests the act of a rural craftsman as cabinetmakers in a high

style-center such as Boston would produce a more refined piece of furni-
30
ture due to the availability of better tools.

Joinery

The main joints on both the lower case (the desk) and the upper case

(the bookshelves) are mortise-and-tenoned while the joints of the four

desk drawers and the smaller drawers within the slant lid section are

dove-tailed. If larger dove-tailing had been used, it would be indica-

tive of an early or rural piece. However, in this case the dove-tailing

is of an average size; thus no aid in dating the piece The bracketed

feet as well as the cornice are mitered,

Moulding

Two main forms of moulding are visible0 Around the desk drawers and

the, cabinet doors one sees a lip moulding while around the shelves one












sees a double-beaded edge, Note also the ogee motif on both the cabinet

doors and the feet of the desk Most of the cornices in the late 1700's

were characterized by elaborate fret work, broken-arch pediments, and

other embellishments, Dissimilar from these features of "high style"

design, the cornice on this secretary exemplifies a simple treatment of

detail,

Brass

The locks on the upper and lower case are original; an old nail in

one of the locks confirms this belief However the pulls on the desk

have been changed as indicated by the markings on the interiors of the

drawers,

b. Chippendale Chair - Country

Also a country piece this Chippendale chair is made of Honduras

mahogany, As mentioned earlier each major American style center had

its own interpretation of a particular design trend0 Nantucket by vir-

tue of its proximity to Boston tended to copy its design traditions

In the Massachusetts Chippendale chair the ears have a slightly swell-

ing center and simple serpentine ends; the crest rail moves from the

ears to the center lambrequin motif; under the lambrequin the crest

rail divides and continues into the strapwork of the splat; the area

,,where the straps start is at the first filled; the outer strap terminates

in small scrolls that rest upon the inner straps which have joined each

other and moves outward into a tight circular movement to twist in upon

themselves; they touch again, then separate to terminate in tight scrolls

as found in the inner straps. Below this scrolling is supported by the
31
lower part of the splat0 One might note the change of emphasis in the











strapwork of this chair - in the upper strap there is a focus on the

horizontal while in the lower strap one notices vertical movement,

Joinery

With the exception of one dove-tail joint on the front stretcher,

all joints are mortise-and-tenoned with or without a dowel,

c. Chippendale Chair - Primitive

Like the preceding piece this chair is also Chippendale, How-

ever one quickly notices the difference in craftsmanship and design so-

phistication of the two pieces due to the dissimilarites this chair

would appropriately be considered "primitive". The primitive crafts-

man was to a good extent removed from the traditions of European de-

sign as well as the traditions of the high style domestic cabinetmakers.

Granted the maker of primitive type furniture borrowed from both tra-

ditions to some extent but he always built the pieces to correspond to

their use, which encouraged a mixture of styles. Often this mixture

made the pieces seem more original. Indeed they are in a sense more

original since the primitive pieces were designed to suit specific re-

quirements of a purchaser rather than to cater to whims of European

stylistic trends. One witnesses greater lightness of touch, more pat-

terning and a certain eccentricity. Being less expensive the primitive

pieces tended to be of lesser woods and were frequently painted32

Evidence of such paint is seen on this chair,

In order to explain points of interest comparisons between the two

Chippendale chairs are helpful. First, like the "country" piece this

primitive maple chair also has strong, vertical thrusts upward to the

ears. The vertical styles are connected by strong, horizontal members:

the crest rail, the rail supporting the bottom of the splat, and the











front seat rail. Second, there is the pierced splat (called the violin
33
or vase form) which terminates in the crest rail and ears Although

the maple chair has double beading on its stretchers which the mahogany

chair does not, both chairs have simple stretchers and chamfering on the

two rear marlborough legs. Of equal importance are the differences.

Perhaps the most visible difference is the degree of detail within the

strapwork0 The primitive chair treats the pierced splat with simple

design while the country piece interpreted the Chippendale trends in a

more elaborate detailing, Reflecting a more formal design upholstery

was chosen to cover the mahogany piece. The more utilitarian use of

the maple chair is epitomized by the woven rush seating, Note also the

method employed to support the chair back. On the country Chippendale

piece there is a continuation of the rail whereas on the maple chair a

separate rail joins the vase splat.

Joinery

Like the mahogany chair the joinery is mortise-and-tenoned with or

without a dowel - the dowels being placed in the joints with the great-

est stress (the legs and the stretcher joints)'. The plain mortise-and-

tenon joint is used.at the points where the styles and crest railing

meet as well as where support is needed for the vase splat.

D. The House Frame and Its Construction

1. The Foundation

The foundation is of rough-laid field stone whose mortar has

been reprinted and patched in several places. Like most houses on the

island the 1800 House is built on grade with no cellar under the main

portion of the structure, A round, cool cellar does exist under the

summer kitchen ell. (However this was excavated when the ell was added -











not as an original part of the house), Oak sills were laid directly on

the foundation; these large handhewn members measure 7 1/2" by 9"o The

four corner posts of the main house (excluding the kitchen ell) are mor-

tise-and-tenoned into the sills as are the floor joists. These joists

are 32" apart when measured on center. An interesting feature with re-

spect to the alignment of the floor joists is that the joists run in two

directions in the central portion of the house. Underneath the flooring

in the parlors, the joists run from the front to the rear of the house,

However under the keeping room "galloping" joists run east to west. This

structural arrangement is determined by the placement of the summer beams,

for the two must be perpendicular. The summer beam was framed into the

end and chimney girts by means of the dovetail joint. The advantage of

such construction lay in the fact that the summer beam could not sag be-

neath the floor loads transmitted to it through the joists unless it
34
first gave way at the ends. Unfortunately in the 1800 House one can-

not analyze the structural facets in depth. There are two reasons for

this: (1) visibility under the house is limited (2) the presence of

ceiling plaster encases the structural members which in the homes of

earlier periods had been left exposed.

A chimney foundation of 10-12 feet in both dimensions was not uncom-

mon in a central-chimney plan. The upper part of the foundation was of-

ten corbelled out to provide support not only for the hearthstone but

also for the timbers extending from the front to the rear sills,35 It

is generally the case that the chimney was laid on a stone foundation,

It is impossible to discern whether this is true of the 1800 House. All

that can be said is that the stack of this six-flued, beehive chimney is

brick from the first floor through the roof.









Up to this point nothing has been said about the foundation of the

summer kitchen ell. Because it is not part of the main house the inves-

tigators chose to discuss its structure only limitedly. Several points

can be made: (1) the foundation is of field stone. If the buttery is

any indication these field stones go into the ground about six feet

(2) the ell is stud or balloon construction, the studs being mortise-

and-tenoned into the plate (3) the floor joists run the length of the

summer kitchen - that is, north to south.

2. The Roof Framing

Because the framing is not visible In the first and second floors

the investigators shall restrict their discussion of the framing to the

attic construction. The framing system there is of the common rafter

type with ten pairs of rafters spanning the breadth of the house spaced

approximately four feet apart, When the roof frame consists of common

rafters it is typical to see collar beams like those in the 1800 House,

Used to prevent the rafters from sagging inward at the center under the

weight of the roof boards and shingles are ten collar beams (unusual to

find them on the end rafters), They form the third member of a simple

truss acting as a "struct" or a member in compression. Although it is

possible to see the arrangement of the floor joists running parallel to

the gabled ends, the plate construction is a matter of conjecture be-

cause two large planks in the north and south sides hide it from view,

Since the roof frame was constructed on the ground and then lifted

into place, it was necessary to number each member. All but one of the

rafters are, 'numbered, indicating that nine are original. Not original

are the two small rooms located on the west side of the attic On the

basis of the flat, quirk and the beaded moulding it can be assumed











that these rooms were built after 1810,

The end rafters are supported by studs. These members are joined by

hand made nails, This form of joinery is different from the others in

the roof system. For example, the tusk-tenon-and-mortise joint was the

means by which the collar beams were framed into the rafters. As in

this house the joints are always secured with wooden pegs, about 3/4"

in diameter. The rafters which meet at the ridge of the house were

framed together by means of a tenon joint. Presumably the footing for

the rafters was a double notch cut into the plate at the point of inter-

section. This double notch provided a bearing for the rafter butt

which was further held in place with a peg.

3. Exterior Detailing

a. Front facade

An unusual characteristic of the front facade is the fact that

the four windows are not evenly spaced across the front of the house,

Why this assymmetrical look was created is not known. The door and the

porch are constructed of both old and new members. For example, two old

joints exist under the steps; however, the steps themselves and the rail-

ing elements are all modern. Likewise the existing front door (the

original remains in the attic) was put on during the 1953 restoration.

The doorway itself has a mixture of old and recent features, The crown

moulding and flat board above the door frame appear modern, while rows

of moulding below the crown detailing seem to be early Federal. Also

old and presumably original are the fluted pilasters. Yet the plinth

blocks as well as the riser under the door sill were obviously added re-

cently.

While water tables were customary for brick or stone masonry build-











ings, it is not common to find one on a shingled house. In the 1800

House such a water table is found on the front facade of the house

Sections of it are original while other parts have been replaced. Of

note is the reworked cove moulding found on the left-hand side of the

doorway.

b. Windows

"In the double-hung window of the period, the upper sash was

rived being rabbeted into the frame. The lower sash, thus, was the only

operative one; it slid up and down by a spring catch on the jambo

Frames for the window were generally oak. Jambs were framed into the

head and sill by means of the customary tusk-tenon-and-mortise joint

and secured in place by wooden pegs. Like the earlier casement window

type the frame was held into place by mortising the projecting ends

of the head and sill into the studs on either side,"38 The corners of

the sashes themselves were mortis-and-tenoned together and held with

wooden pins. Rails were narrow and the meeting rails were still smaller,

rarely being more than an inch wide. The bottom rail which joins the

sill tended to be less than two inches in height. Sash bars or muntins

experienced a gradual narrowing through the eighteenth century; during

the last decades of the 1700's the average sash was about one incho39

In the 1800 House none of the original window sashes remain. Pres-

ently the sashes are nine over nine; this indicates they are replace-

ments since windows of this period would have been six over six. On the

front facade there are several original window frames whose jambs have

a rough beaded edge. The first story windows have "ears" or lugs, on the

top of the frame at the sill; these project over the shingles. On some

of the window frames on the first story these "ears" have been added per-











haps to protect the mortise-and-tenon joinery. No "ears" appear on the

window frames of the second story windows; instead they have beaded, imi-

tation jack arches. On the westside of the 1800 House there seem to be

three original windows which is determinable by the pane size and the

framing. These are the two attic windows and the northernmost window on

the first floor, The windows on the back of the kitchen ell can be con-

sidered twentieth century additions due to their closeness to the struc-

ture's framing, During the 1800 period windows would have been placed

towards the center of the building wall. On the east side the only orig-

inal windows are those on the northernmost corners of the first and
40
second stories.

c. Cornice and Rake Board

Being of a simple box cornice construction the gutter takes the

place of the crown mouldings. The cornice also lacks the embellishment

of a bed moulding. Adjacent to the cornice is the rake board found at

both gabled ends of the house at the junction of the roof with the side

walls, The rake afforded a "stop" against which the outside covering

of the house terminated, in much the same function as the corner board,

In width, this rake is rarely more than five or six inches; as such kept

tight against the sides of the house, it is a distinctive feature of
41
Colonial work, On the east side of the 1800 House the original rake

boards have been replaced; whereas, on the west side of the house and on

the right side of the kitchen ell the original rake boards remain. This

can be determined by the presence of a beaded edge on the original mem-
42
bers.42

4. Evolution

From the archival information it is possible to determine that the











1800 House was built between 1801 and 1807 by Jeremiah Lawrence. How-
ever, no conclusive evidence appeared to affix a more accurate date to
the buildings construction. The Nantucket Historical Association cites
1801 as the building date. Unfortunately no primary sources have cor-
roborated this fact. The destruction of Mr. Everett Crosby's records

upon his death have compounded the difficulty since he was the major
researcher for the house,
Although vw could not substantiate 1807 as the date (suggested by

the Nantucket Historical Association), there is no doubt that the kitchen
ell was an addition to the house, The ell was undoubtedly an outbuild-

ing, possibly the wood or coal shed, moved to adjoin the main structure
as a family expanded. Upon viewing a map done by William Coffin in
1833, the investigators can establish that the el was put on prior to
his survey. Several findings within the house confirm the fact that the
kitchen ell was not original, First, the markings of a window are visi-
ble within the buttery. It is assumed that this was an exterior window
which was closed, The top of this window frame can also be seen on the
northern wall of the kitchen ello Second, in the "cool" cellar one can
see the original shingles which demarcated the former end wall Another
finding relating to the kitchen ell is that a fireplace existed at the

southern end of this wing. Presently only a fake chimney remainSo Con-

sequently the investigators questioned the authenticity of such a chim.
ney, even in earlier days. Yet a hole in the sheathing of the roofl ne
eliminated conjecture,

Nor only was the kitchen ell an addition to the 1800 House but also
two small rooms, the clothes press room and the spinning room, were ald-
ditions to the kitchen ell, No means of deriving a date for their annex-











ation could be found. What confirms the belief that they are additions
are the following:
(1) rafters In the attic of the 1 1/2 story addition are placed next

to each other at the point where the rooms join. In normal construction

rafters would not be side by side: However, it would be a common occur-

ence if an addition were being made; (2) the plate changes at that same
point. If the entire kitchen ell had been one room originally, the plate
would be continuous; (3) it would be unusual to find a single chimney
43
placed on the interior rather than an exterior wall.

Other features with respect to the evolution of the house are less
consequential changes. The "two and a half holer" outhouse was built
during the 1953 restoration; both the cistern and the well were original

to the site. Most pieces of the pump indicate 20th century replacements;
only the hardware is oldo44 The investigators also noticed that once the

buttery had been partitioned to create a closet. Markings of the floor

show such partition lines. There are also lines 'on the eastern well of

the buttery where shelves had been in the past - presumably built .at the

same time as the closet. Markings on the vertical wainscotting (sepa-
rating the buttery and keeping room) further indicate a door led from the

keeping room into this partitioned space,
A point ef greater speculation concerns the existence of back stairs

In homes of the central chimney plan they are commonly found at either
end of the keeping room. Unually enclosed and covered with vertical wains-
45
cotting, these stairs tended to be soley utilitarian Because back

stairs were such a common occurence the investigators searched the 1800
House for clues which might substantiate their former existence, Marks

were found along the eastern end of the keeping room; nails were also

























visible. Furthermore the length and width of the markings were suffi-
cient for such a stairway. Because these marks run through the verti-
cal wafnscot wall (between the keeping room and buttery), it was specu-

lated that the wall was a later addition. It is thought that a plaster

wall originally separated the keeping room and the buttery. That appear-
ed reasonable since plaster was used on the wall separating rooms on the

opposite walls. Unfortunately we did not find more conclusive informa-
tion to support this belief. Upstairs no markings could be found where
the stairway presumably would have projected into the second floor.

However, the upstairs has been reworked so often that all evidence of a
former back stairs may have been removed.














V. CONCLUSION


It appears that the 1800 House is undistinguished both historically and archi-

tecturally. So few records were kept of this building that there is not even writ-

ten evidence to substantiate a date of construction or to indicate when additions

were made to the original structure. At the time of its donation to the Nantucket

Historical Association, the house was considered an eye-sore to an otherwise pleas-

ant streetscape. More significantly, the house detracted from its imposing neigh-

bor Moor's Endo It may have been with the hopes that repairs would be made to

the property that the owner of Moor's End purchased the 1800 House and gave it to

the Association as a gift. Restoration began in 1953 and when completed the build-

ing was opened as a house museum, It is ironic that such an obscure house should

now be the focus of any attention.

While the name "1800 House" implies that significance can be affixed to that

house as representative of a certain era. However, this is misleading, First,

the house was not built in 1800 (but a year later), and secondly, the construc-

tion and stylistic trends that it exemplifies had teen common to Nantucket since

1750o As previously mentioned, some historians maintain that the only signifi-

cance of a house of this type is that it reflects the retarded nature of the de-

velopment of building on the island This modest house has made no impression,

on the architecture of Nantucket for it contains no stylistic or structural inno-

vations. However, the major significance of the 1800 House is that it is an ex-

cellent example of the typical dwelling type that was built on the island for

over 150 years,












FOOTNOTES


1. H. Chandler Forman, Early Nantucket and Its Whale Houses (New York:
Hashings House, 1966), p. 238.

2. Hugh Morrison, Early American Architecture (New York: Oxford Press,
1952), p. 20-21.

3. Clay Lancaster, The Architecture of Historic Nantucket (New York:
McGraw-Hill, 1972), p. 25.,

4. Henry L. Williams, Old American Houses (New York: Bonanza Books,
1947), p. 59-60.

5. Lancaster, p. 82.

6. Ibid., p. 81.

7. William H. Pierson, American Builders and Their Architects (New York:
Doubleday and Co., 1970), p. 210.

8. Nantucket County Records
Book 15, p. 281-2 Book 58, p. 321-2
Book 16, p. 298 & p. 399 Book 85, p. 227
Book 19, p. 548-9 Book 112, p. 537
Book 53, p. 96 Book 113, p. 337

9. John F. Kelly, The Early Domestic Architecture of Connecticut (New York:
Dover Publishing, 1952), p. 132.

10. Ibid., p. 133.,

11. Ibid., p. 160.

12. Ibid., p. 151.

13. Ibid., p. 176.

14. Ibid., p. 178.

15. Ibid., p. 177.

16. Ibid., p. 138.

17. Ibid., p. 90.

18. Ibid., p. 191.

19. Helen Comstock, American Furniture (New York: Bonanza Books, 1962),
p. 115.











20. Ibid., p. 121.

21. IbO, p. 122.

22. bd, p. 191.
23. Ibid., p. 195.

24. Charles 0. Cornelius, Early American Furniture (New York: Century Com-
pany, 1926), p. 204.

25. Ibid. p. 202-3.

26. Ibid., p. 195.

27. Ibid., p. 205.

28. Jolin T. Kirk, Early American Furniture (New York: Knofp, 1970), p. 95.

29. Ibid., p. 95

30. Ibid., p. 98.

31. Ibid., p. 57.

32. Ibid., p. 99.

33. Cornelius, p. 122.

34. Kelly, p. 65.
35. Ibid., p. 71.

36. Paul Buchanan, July 7, 1974.

37. iarry Parker and Merrick Gay, Materials and. Methods of Architectural
Construction (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1953),-p.

38, Kelly, p. 131.

39. Ibid., p. 94.

40. Paul Buchanan, July 7, 1974.

41. Kelly, p. 131.

42. Paul Buchanan, July 7, 1974.

43. Paul Buchanan, Jily 7, 1974.

44. Paul Buchanan, July 7, 1974.

45. Kelly. p. 186.
















BIBLIOGRAPHY

Comsteek, Helen, American Furniture, New York: Bonanza Books, 1962.
Cornelius, Charles 0. Early American Furniture. New York Century Co., 1926.
Katz, Laszlo, The Art of Woodwork*in and Furniture Appreciation. Mew York P.F.C,
Publishing Co., 1970.
Kelly, John Frederick. The Early Dmestic Houses of Connecticut. New York:
Dover Publishers, 1954.
Kimbell, F. Domestic Architecture of the American Colonies and the Early Republic,
tiew York: Dover Press, 1950.
Ishal, Nrman Morrison. Early American Houses and a Glossary of Colonial Archi-
teailral.Terms. New York: Da Capo Press, 1967.
Lancaster, Clay. The Architecture of Historic Nantucket. New York: McGraw-Ril1,
1972.
Morrison, Hugh. Carly American Architecture. New York: Oxford Press, 1952.

Nantuckt CoGity Records (Books 15% 16, 19, 53, 58, 85, 112, 113).
Osboeme, H.P. An Outline of Home Furnishing Periods. New York: Outline Publish-
in Coe., 1941.
Parker f Rary and Merrick Gay. Materials and Methods of Architectural Construc-
tlan. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1952.
Piersin, William H., Jr. American Builders and Their Architects. New York:
b&ubleday and Co., 197n
SayTow, Nenty. Dictionary of Architecture. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1952.
The 18D0 House", The Nantucket Historical Assoctation.
Wtllams, teiry L., Old Armrican Rouses 1700-j80. New York: oimanza Books, 1947.





I


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bovep Henry F. Wa 11 ing
I Survey Map, 1858
I Below- William Coffin
I Survey Map, 1833




























Transom and Moulding
West Parlor


Wainscotting
West Parlor






PANELING


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9 .


West Parlor


Keeping Room


East Parlor






FLOORING


Spinning Room
and
West Chamber


West Parlor


Keeping Room


/1

































DOORS
East parlor
Buttesy
East chamber, second floor














Front Entrance
Stair


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East Parlor
Wainscotting


East Parlor
Baseboard









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7t771
i-i


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Left: Front doorway
Below; Original door


















Outside Door
Kitchen Ell


''C.>
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Kitchen Ell Stairs
And Entrance
To Round Cellar

































Secretary
Joinery

























































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Joinery

















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Moulding Details


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Country Chippendale
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Joinery





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Primative ,Chippendale
Chair
Joinery


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Primitive Chippendale
Chair


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.r'~ .;'


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Kitchen Ell
Cellar foundation (new wood-
en members)
Quartered joist
Remains of stairs


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^?'-

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Details of construction
in kitchen ell








Kitchen Eli: Construction
Details


I


. .. / ,,










14


Att-C
Date written on rafter
Lath and mould5ing in finished
room *
Steps to roof hatch �












b~I I


Attic
Pegged mortise and tenot at
ridge
Chimney and collar beams
Sheathing and rafters


ppp-













Attic
Pegged mortise and, tenon
joint at collar beam
Reworked window
Board covering plate

























t-T_.


*
Vii


Moulding over front
door


Front Doorway


-+
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0 (
O ro

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0-
C
































Above: Original
Right: Recent replacement
Below: Original


t^~l ^.^:-- --- -:
^^^^ ^r^ ^_^ ---57^
MM ^ ^ -;;^ -==^-,- -..; - M

































WINDOWS
Top: Two original frames
Bottom: Reworked frames

















East side of house









141







* A
b. *~ * *


S Kitchen Ell
J Left: re .T winr'ows
qcB10elow- 010 windoww, probably
SMoved fero rear w all of r
S original house


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West side 6f house

















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1~~


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Cistern, Streetscape
And Reconstructed Outhouse









Mortises in rafter indicat-
ing original end wall of
kitchen ell


1*


A- - - -

I_ * . 1? *
-^ -^g^"


Above: Original shingles
LeftY Break in plate and
reworked rafter showing
s.gns of addition to
kitchen ell


w^






































Above: Break in- wainscottin<
indicating placement of
door
Left; Ghost-lines of closet
wall and shelves










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Ghost lines showing, place-
ment of original window,
wall which enclosed closet,
placement of shelves in
closet














HEF
111W
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PRESERVATION INSTITUTE NAMs AND LOCATION OP STRUCTUR suRtE No. HISTORIC AMERICAN I-.-
..v-. J-T M . THE 1600 HOUSE - 4 MILL STI t T * MANTUCIiET, MA55. FILINGSS SURVEY
UN ITT0 NATIrWONAL PARI MARIVC l .81a I L IL es s
UN,'TED STATeS DEPARTIIrTr oF THlE 0NTERORmM 'I2 S[T .0, [T


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PRP E5E.- VATi ONt INSTITUTE
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UNtTSn ITATES DEPASTENRT OP THE INTERIO I


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.E AN..Do L.c4orC.AI ucu. . * YnC- No. HISTORIC AMERICAN v- I

THE 1600 MOUSE - 4 MILL STnEET * MANTUCMET MASS. O UILDINGSSURVEY
I W 110od SHErr 3 Of 8 SHEETS


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SCALE l*e- 1Vo0


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WEST ELEVATION SCALE '/*,I'-O'



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NANTUCoE - E.T THE. 1600 MOUSE * 4 MILL 5ThPEET * NMA TUChiET, MA55. BUILDINGS SURVEY
UDoK DoNCTo OF T..II NATIONAL PAK 91vM�,. MA-102 sHun 5 or e SHCTM
U OICtIO M CITATK Il O IPARMN" Of THIT INTIERIO


















































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answn sy. 0000 R S


SCALE '/4 I'- o'.


PRiESE.VATIO.N INSTITUTE. n AND LCTO o SnVuCru.. IsIuRv no.I HISTORIC AMERICAN
NANTUCKET T-E 1800 iOU5E * 4 MILL 5TPFE.T * NANTUC ET, 'A55. BUILDINGS SURVEY
UNos DinrciloP OF THE NATIONAL PAK SRVICIL T E 0 1L L. . MAoa tn7 or "' I Im
UNITO SrTATU OKPARTMNMT OP 1i4 INTRCNIOR lAii M 7 of


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stCTroN A-A


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PREsERVATION IN STITUTE-. I
NA oTUCE.T
U"vaD IRr*AIN OP THt NATIONAL PARI EINVICIL
UNrTED r -ATIS DXPART[VT OF TMg -NTIIRIO


SCALE W-' I'-o"


MAD .... AMUM


MN .ND .caT . or NO.T.UCUa I-v HISTORIC AMERICAN -.V
THE 1800 MOUSE. * 4-MILL 5TrEET * NANTUChET, MA55. UILINGS SURVEY
MA-1102 lsum a of eU SHIM




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