Civilizations of the Americas and their conquest and destruction by the Spanish conquistadors


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Civilizations of the Americas and their conquest and destruction by the Spanish conquistadors
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Everhard, David L.
David L. Everhard
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T- CiIvLL.ZAlullS OF Tri e n.uAS 6 u Tla1.A.

History 675
Winter Quarter

iarch, 1977

David L. Everhard


Part One: Precolumbian Civilizations........ 1

The Rise of the Aztecs. ....... .......3...

hayan Civilization...................... 6

Incan Civilization*........*.............9

Other Civilizations....................12

Spain Before 1h92......................13

Part Two: Discovery and Conquest...........16


Cortes and the Aztecs..................22

Conquest of the Mayas................. 26

The Incan Conquest.....................27

Part Three: Conclusions.................. 30


Important Indian Cultures ....................2

New .iorld Exploration.......................1

Spread of the Spanish Conquest..............21

Bartolome de Las Casas......................32

Juan Gines de Sepulveda..................... 33

BIBLIOGRAmY ............... 36


Part One: Precolumbian Civilizations

It often seems that the history of the Western hemisphere

starts with the discovery of the Indies by Columbus; in a way, it

does because it is at this point that the western world comes into

the flow of history from which most of the population of the Amer-

icas has descended and thus identifies as its own. The real history

of the peoples of the American continents begins with the influx of

Indian settlers thousands of years ago who spread and formed many

types of tribes, both primitive and civilized. It is these most

civilized groups of people with which this report is concerned for

their destruction and dissemination at the hands of conquering

Europeans proved to be almost total and our history barely reflects

the fact that they existed at all.

The earliest of the civilized cultures of the Americas emerged in

Mexico at about 1000 B.C. Having descended from earlier horticultural

villages that had primitive religons and some specialization of tasks

in the community, the Olmec culture was the first to show any large scale

organization and technical cultural advances. The Olmecs built pyramids

of mud bricks in their ceremonial centers, had a form of heiroglyphic

writing and used a calendar system similar to the later Mayan calendar.

These developments indicate that an organized religion existed, that

large numbers of people had been united and that social classes had

evolved that made possible the leisure time that makes the invention of writing

and calendar systems possible. Some other early civilized groups of this

era were the Zapotecs, the Mixteca, the Huaxtecs and the Totonacs which

were all advanced cultures that had developedthe arts of carving,

^ ,- -.-
/ .. ; L "' a '"

A T L A N T I C c




Posaible Routes of Mongoligns
to the New World
( L catin on f Cullura are shaded
Scale of Mits
4 100 1"0 10 1002

sculpture and frescoe; utilized trade and had accurate calendars.

The Teotihuacanos were the highest and most extensive group and

had a widespread influence in Mexico and Central America. Although their

main center was at Teotihuacan, they had also built a religious center at

Gholula, a colonial city in Guatemala. The city Teotihuacan existed from

about 200 B.C. to 600 A.D. and was a well-organized, planned city state.

It was a huge religious center with many pyramidal temple mounds and was
divided into separate city-sectors for priests, artisans and other

classes of people that covered several square miles of land. The archi-

tecture was monumental in scale but primitive in nature for they had only

post and lintel arches and used little decoration except for the brill-

iant coloration which was applied to everything. This grand city was

destroyed suddenly in the seventh century by unknown causes that prac-

tically levelled it and destroyed the culture connected with it.

In about the 8th century A.D., the Toltec people became the dominant

culture of the Mexican area and at one time had an empire that was almost

as extensive as the Aztec empire at the time of their conquest. Their

chief city, Tollan (now known as Tula), was the center for this militar-

istic and somewhat savage civilization. The Toltecs had a God-king

called Quetzalcoatl who was the epitome to them of the brave and fierce

spirit that was necessary for survival. Despite their bravery (or maybe

because of it) a civil war broke out in 990 A.D. that caused the destruc-

tion of the culture; fighting and disease nearly annihilated the popu-


The Rise of the Aztecs
After the fall of the Toltecs, there was a long period of uncer-

tainty and instability that was the result of many small tribes

fighting to gain dominion over the others. There was no organized

culture in the area until the Tepaneca became dominant over the loosely

similar tribes in the 12th or 13th century. One of these tribes which

they conquered and enslaved was the Aztec tribe which for two or three

generations remained a slave tribe for the Tepaneca until they were

called upon to join them in battle against a neighboring tribe. The

nature of the Aztec fighting spirit was to be revealed in this foray.

"The Aztecs marched out and attacked the enemy; but instead of bringing

in the captives to be offered to the gods-the usual purpose of such raids-

they killed every one and cut off their ears. They then returned to the

city of Colhuacan without any orisoners. In front of the great Tepanec

chief they were called out as disgraceful cowards who had brought no enemy

warriors for sacrifice. Silently each Aztec leader stepped forward, each

with a pack on his back and then suddenly over the feet of the Tepanec

chiefs Coxcoxtli they poured a torrent of human ears, which they had

cut off the slain enemies."l This action by the Aztecs led the Tepaneca

to banish them from their dominion. The Aztecs were to settle on a

small islet in the center of what is now Nexico City. This islet, which

the Aztecs expanded constantly by filling in the swampy edges, was to

become an inconquerable stronghold. A small temple marked their first

ceremonial center but in two hundred years this small temple had grown

to a huge stone pyramid, and the Aztec people had grown to a strong,

military power. Aztecs soon rose to dominance in the area of their

island through conquest, subversion and intrigue and attempted to estab-

lish their line of descent from the Toltecs, whom they emulated, by

marrying into the remaining Toltec lineages. The Aztecs also emulated

the Toltecs to such a degree that they adopted Quetzalcoatl as their

chief deity; the God-king of the Toltecs became a true deity to the


In 1427 Itzcoatl, then Chief of the Aztecs, formed an alliance with

the Texcoco and the Tlacopan peoples to destroy the dominant tribe over

all three: the Atzcapotzalco. This alliance (which was successful)

1Cottie Burland, The People of Ancient Americas (London), p. 65.

then became the dominant culture and the Aztecs began a systematic and

constant expansion of their dominion. Tencchtitlan was the island city

at the center of this Aztec empire and had grown to an impregnable for-

tress which was connected to the mainland by three causeways. By the

end of the 15th century, Tenochtitlan was a solendid city, with monu-

mental architectural works, great courts, palaces, and ceremonial archi-

tecture. It was also a center for trade which was done by bartering in

a marketplace which attracted 60,000 people daily to a great piazza with

a polished stone pavement surrounded by porticos. The upper class of

people lived in large stone houses with many rooms that served the

different functions of the household and were usually arranged around

a central court. The majority of the people, who were artisans, priests,

civil servants and soldiers, lived in more modest one room houses of stone

or adobe blocks. These houses were generally windowless but were raised

on a foundation of stone to protect against flooding; they were also

plastered and decorated with bright painted colors. The farmer classes

tended to live away from city centers where they lived in wattle and daub

huts witn thatched roofs.

Education was an important aspect of Aztec life and was specific and

different for the classes that received it. The Noble classes, priests

and royalty for example, were trained to be priests, public officials

and military leaders. They received the higher types of educated

thought such as training in rhetoric, noble manners, chronology, astrology,

and history. The Aztec ideal was also taught. "Self-restraint, moder-

ation, devotion to duty, a stoic awareness that 'life is short and filled

with hardships, and all comes to an end,' an impeccable civility, modesty:

these are among the qualities and concepts that the Aztec sages sought to

instill in their charges."1l The lesser classes received training as

soldiers or craftsmen, professionally, but were also expected to know

IBenjamin Keen, The Aztec Image in Jestern Thought, (New Jersey, 1971)
p. 18.

about religion and morality. Women were taught about household affairs

and were generally considered subordinate to men.

The politics of the Aztec state was a mixture of royal despotism and

theocracy. They were headed by a ruler of hereditary power who was chosen

by a council of tribal chiefs. This ruler had absolute power but was

still held accountable to this group of chieftains. The Aztec state was

also a theocratic state where religious necessity for tribute and sacrifice

was almost indistinguishable from the tribute demanded for civil reasons.

They practiced human sacrifice on a constant basis and conquered tribes

were usually the source of these victims, although a great honor was

reserved for some Aztec warriors who had the privilege of being sacrificed

in special ceremonies. The chief of the Aztecs was aided by a council of

four noblemen who advised him on what were considered the four major

aspects of Aztec life: 1.)Adrinistration, 2.)Religon, 3.)Military Aflairs,

h.)Trade; they were called the Great Speaker, the High Priest, the Supreme

Justice and the Lord of the Marketplace respectively.

The Aztecs were then a highly organized state with systematic trade,

religion and military orders. Despite all this, some traits of higher

civilization were noticeably absent. They had no wheel and no iron

technology. Their writing was a kind of picture-language, almost heiro-

glyphic although it was used to record an extensive history. They also

had an extremely accurate calendar. The judgement of whether or not a people

is civilized is a difficult matter and despite -he nature of Aztec

Cultural attributes, they are aften judged primitive or barbaric because

of their practice of human sacrifice, although the murder and "sacrifice"

of people in the name of Holy causes has been common in Europe and else-

where since the beginnings of Christianity.

Mayan Civilization

The Iayan civilization was located in what is now known as Yucatan

Peninsula and Guatemala. It began to emerge about the time of the

beginning of the Christian Era and is supposed to have evolved from or

been influenced by the Teotihuacanos, but really began to expand in

about 200 A.D. At this time the Mayans began a sudden and as yet

unexplained burst of growth, building and enlarging of many new towns

which were typically planned around a ceremonial center of a large court-

yard surrounded by temples and large stone monuments or stelae. This

growth reached an apex in about 700 A.D. which represented the height

of Mayan civilization which later declined slowly until 1200 A.D.

when the Toltecs, the dominant culture of this period, conquered the Maya

and ruled them for 200 years. They became independent again in about

1400 A.D. but never attained any of the Dower, grandeur or organization

that the earlier cities had.

The Mayas were similar to the Aztecs in many ways and their prox-

imity explains this through the process of cultural diffusion, but they

had their own individual art and culture. The Maya had an established

system of writing that was based on a phonetic alphabet, not a picture

writing or heiroglyphic system. It had over 700 phonetic symbols though

and is not yet fully understood. Their calendar was also a complex and

highly accurate system that had developed out of the planting and harvest

seasons and many other astrological data. There were two different years,

one, a religious year based on a 260-day year of 20 day names and 13

sacred months; two, a regular 365-day year of 18, twenty-day months and

one, five-day month. The interrelation of these two years produced a

52 year cycle of great importance to Mayan religious ritual. Out of these

complex intercalendric calculations, the Mayas developed an advanced

mathematic system that was based on a vigesimal system and had a zero

concept. Through these calendar and astrological observations, they

were able to calculate, predict and understand the movement of the sun,

moon, and visible planets.

The architecture of the Mayas has been compared in many cases to the

architecture of the Greeks. They are similar in that they both raised

a temple structure on a platform or pyramid. This temple work was mainly

of stone, generally stuccoed. The temples had many, long, narrow chambers

that were ornamented with sculpture and painted or frescoed in bright

colors. The Aayas had a cantileverd arch (no true arch) that in many

cases appears to be catenary or parabolic in shape; they also used

architectural refinements or entasis as did the Greeks, in order to

correct for optical distortions inherent in the buildings. They also

built roads of limestone blocks with a topping of cement as routes of

communication and trade although, like other cultures, they did not

utilize wheeled carts or vehicles. The major Mayan cities were at

hayapan, its capital, Uxmal and Chichen-Itza. Fortunately many of the

earlier Mayan cities had been abandoned to the jungle before their

conquest by the Spanish and have survived until modern time.

The Mayas were similar to the Aztecs religously for they required

human sacrifice in order to maintain the favor of the gods which, in the

case of the Mayas, were principally agricultural. The Mayas often had

sacred cenotes or sacrificial wells where offerings of artifacts and young

maidens were thrown to appease the rain and maize gods. In this

theocratic state, priests were held in high position in state affairs and

were usually chosen from important families. Their jobs often alternated

between priestly duties and the duties of a civil administrator. The

government in general then was a loosely woven group of theocratic

city-states, headed by one Halach Uinic or chief. The city-state

attempted to provide some education to all segments of the populace

except slaves. Males received religious and military training, and females

received religious training and in some cases specific women were chosen

(usually from upper classes) to arrange and distribute flowers. Other

women someti-es achieved priestly stature or other high positions in

society and court. This regard for women is also reflected in the

fact that some of the Mayan gods were of the feminine gender.

Incan Civilization

The origin of the Incan Indians is not really certain although it is

fairly certain that they had evolved from the aboriginal cultures of the

area which they occupied, mainly the west coast of South America cen-

tering in Peru. They did appear in the Peruvian highlands sometime in

the llth century and are supposed to have come from one of three places

(according to their own confused traditions); 1)From the Tiahuanacos,

an earlier culture which developed near Lake Titicaca, 2)from the Amazon

region or 3)from the Southern region of South America. The legend of

their arrival in Peru is as follows: The Sun God sent out four of his

children with the first Inca, Inca i1anco, and his sister-wife, Mama Ocllo.

Through the guidance of a divine oracle they settled at Cuzco where they

were to establish a civilization that was destined to rule the four

corners of the world. (The word "Inca" refers to the chief or leader of

the tribes, so that the various tribes under the rule of the "Inca"

became known as the Incan Indians.) This original Incan tribe remained

at Cuzco for several generations and became more powerful as it grew.

The aggressive culture of this area, the Ghanca confederation, was threat-

ening to subjugate the Incas, however, and they became involved in a

brutal war. The Incan leader at that time failed to lead his troops

courageously and was killed for his cowardice. He was replaced by a

man who was to be one of the greatest Incas, Sapa Inca Viracocha. The

name Viracocha was the name of the Lord Creator of the Incas, a cult-hero

who was traditionally a white man who gave knowledge and civilization to

the Incas. His namesake, Sapa Inca Viracocha, was a great leader and

general and through some brilliant military actions he was able to cut

off and destroy the Chanca confederation army. In doing so, he also

claimed a great deal of new territory for the Inca tribes, about 200

or 300 square miles. This began an age of imperialism that created an

empire of 8 to 10 million persons at the time of the Spanish discovery.

The most interesting aspect of the Inca civilization is the extensive

and organized government which they had created. In general terms it was

a mixture of benevolent despotism and socialism. The Inca was the Supreme

Ruler of the land which was divided into four major empires. Each of

these four empires had a ruling viceroy or provincial governor who dealt

with the Inca and through whom the power broke down into its smallest

unit at the head of each tribe or village community. This was a socialist

society in which no land was owned by any single individual; instead,

land was divided into three categories of ownership: 1)the Tribe's

land, 2)the Priest's land, and 3)the Inca's land. The majority of

land was owned by the tribe and was used to provide subsistence for the

village community. The goods which were derived from the priests lands

were used to support the religious community. The Inca's portion was

utilized by the Inca for the benefit of the Empire. 'Nhen it was surplus,

it was stored for times of famine or war and was sometimes transported

to support the needy segment of the population. Tribal groups very often

came to the Inca to become part of this benevolent system, but even

tribes who were conquered and forced to join the empire had almost

all their properties restored or replaced from the Incan surplus.

Their were four main social classes in Incan society. There were

the descendents of the Inca royalty, the Nobles (or priestly class),

the populace (craftsmen and farmers) and the Yanocanas (a group of

hereditary servitors to the Incas. The work requirements and duties of

these classes were strictly defined and each person was expected to

participate in production in order to partake of it. All men between

the ages of 25 and $0 were required to work at farming or some craft

which they utilized in trade, part of which was paid in tribute. Of

this same class of workers, they had to devote some specified amount of

time in working on the roads or royal mines, but no group of people did

not work and none remained unsupported.

The Incan law which served this system was understandably severe

in order that it maintain strict control. Some of their punishments

for various crimes were as follows. "Imprisonment was not used as a

punishment but an offender was likely to suffer mutilation. People

had hands, ears, lips or feet cut off according to their crime.

Their wounds were then healed and they were given both food and clothing

from the public store; but they were forced to sit at the entrance to the

towns so that all visitors and strangers coming there would note the

severity of the Incas penal system and act accordingly."1n

Little remains of Incan architecture today. Guzco which was the main

city was of a grand scale which reflected the functional requirements

of a highly ordered society. The buildings tended to be of a plain

style with little or no decoration, but the masonry work was almost

unique in the world. They developed a system of extremely close fitting,

irregular shaped blocks which formed very permanent walls. They had

no true arch but instead used post and lintel openings. One of their

most impressive capabilities was in moving stone, for they sometimes moved

blocks of several hundred tons for many miles by some process which is

unknown today. The Incan road system was probably the most impressive

feature of their constructions. They created 10,000 miles of paved roads

which spanned gorges sometimes 150 feet in length) with suspension

bridges and also carved tunnels and roadbeds out of solid rock. These

roads, which provided a means of communication and trade for the Incan

society, had posts every three miles which were supplied by local tribes

lCottie Burland, op. cit., p. 150.

and had runners who carried conimunications to the next post and so on.

Adobe was also a common building material for the Incas and was

usually stuccoed and brightly painted. Thatched roofs of steep

gabled forms and terracing around completed these types of dwellings.

Religon to the Incas was, unlike other Precolumbian civilizations,

secondary to the affairs of state and tended to be of a less destructive

nature. Human sacrifice was not a part of the ritual ceremonies which

were mainly centered on the worship of the Sun-god, Inti. The upper

classes in later years apparently practiced a more subtle and sublime

form of religion centered on Viracocha, the Lord-Creator who had

given the Inca people knowledge and civilization as noted earlier.1

Other Civilizations

There were two other large groups of Indian tribes in the Americas

that were approaching the importance of the Aztecs, the Mayas and the

Incas. These others, the Pueblos and Chibchas, were no where near the

organized city-state empires which the other groups represented. There

were also many hundreds of tribes and groups of people in the Americas

at the time of Columbus but the story of the conquest of the Americas lies

mainly in the history of the rise and fall of the Aztecs, the Mayas and

the Incas. In order to examine this conquest, I have attempted to show

that the Americas were nct the uncivilized states that we tend to think

of them as. They were civilized peoples, comparable to the Greeks or

Romans at the height of their cultural periods that simply did not have

some of the technological advancements which we sometimes mistakenly

equate with civilization. A few simple mechanical devices and means of

waging war were to make the Spanish appear vastly superior, for they

were able to overcome vast numbers of people and soldiers in conquering

these civilizations. Their technological advantage was surely no sign

of civilization however; the barbarism of the Spanish in their conquests

1Cottie Burland, op. cit., p. 1-5.

was terrible and led to a great deal of questioning by the Spanish

courts of the role of Spain and Christianity in the New World,

which, unfortunately, came to late.

Spain Before 1492

It was the age of Renaissnace thought in Europe, a time when men were

turning from introversion and darkness to extroversion, light and a

quest for knowledge and new worlds. The relative age of the civiliza-

tions of the European world can account for a great deal of the technical

advances which they had seen that the New World had not. The area around

the Mediterranean had been an area where years of trade, cultural diffusion,

popular movements and war had acted as a catalyst for the development of

higher technology.1 Spain had been under the rule of Moorish peoples in

about the Eighth century and had received a great deal from the Moors

including irrigation methods, mathematics, medicine and new architectural

forms. Some of the northern parts of the Iberian Peninsula had remained

free from Moorish occupation and had begun to reclaim much of this

territory which by the llth century amounted to most of the Iberian

Peninsula. The kingdoms of Castile and Aragon were the rulers of all

of Spain by the 15th century except for Granada. With the royal marraige

of Ferdinand and Isabella, rulers of Aragon and Castile respectively, a

war was undertaken in 1l81 to acquire Granada which was accomplished in

1492. "Spain, or more correctly speaking, the kingdoms of Castile and

Aragon were then ready to expand outside of Europe. The crusading

spirit was at its height, unsatisfied by the conquest of little Granada.

When the explorations of Columbus opened up the new channels, the Span-

iards poured into the New World. The missionary spirit, the love of

adventure, the yearning for conquest, and a swiftly growing desire for

commerce and trade found their outlet in America."2

1Tom B. Jones, An Introduction to Hispanic-American History, (New York,
1939) p. 54. 13

2Ibid., p. $5.

So, the Spanish had just finished a successful war which was rel-

igous as well as political in its motivation. The Catholic spirit of

expansion was militant and almost zealous in its intensity. The

Spanish, who now controlled a great seaport country, were looking for

trade opportunities and new sources of wealth, especially in the Orient.

The royalty saw the new world as a place for increasing their dominion;

the conquistadors saw it as a source for personal wealth as well as ad-

venture and glory; and the priesthood saw it as a source of new souls

for conversion to Christianity.

A N T I ,C

'\0 C E A N

SColumbus, Ist oyags, 1492

C" I .\. -&",02



0 C E A


Strlats of




Scale of Miles
0_ __'~ i _i irMO

Part Two: Discovery and Conquest

Columbus discovered the Americas in 1492, but his story really

starts long before in his quest for ships, people and provisions

which was perhaps the hardest part of his journey. From 1484 until

11492, Columbus was negotiating with Spanish for backing but they were

too preoccupied with the war in Granada to help him. Finally in 1492

Isabella granted Columbus the monies and the ships with a royal capi-

talacion or contract which stated that all lands he discovered would

become part of the kingdom of Castile (not Spain or Aragon) and that

Columbus would be the chief authority over all of these territories.

Columbus landed in gatling Island on October 12, 1492 and went on to

discover Cuba and to explore Santo Domingo (which he called Espanola)

where he left a small colony and left for his triumphal return to Spain.

On his return trip Columbus first came back to his settlement at Santo

Domingo (which had failed) and established the first permanent settle-

ment in the New World at Santo Domingo. From there he sailed out to

discover Puerto Rico, Trinidad and the North Coast of South America.

The news of Columbus's discovery spread quickly and soon large scale

exploratory excursions were underway almost everywhere. In 1497 the

Englishman, John Cabot, discovered the North American continent. In

1499-1500 Alonso de Ojedo had sailed along the northern coast of South
America and, the coast of Brazil had been explored by Pinzon, Cahal and

De Lepe. Columbus himself was still intent on establishing the Oriental

trade route that he had set out to do and sailed at least twice

along the coast of Central America, Honduras, and Panama and later

shipwrecked on Jamaica. During this period of time, the exploitation

of the Indians of the New World began as the flow of gold, pearls and

Indian slaves began to attract opportunity-seekers. Yet by 1517, the

major Indians civilizations, the Aztecs, the Layas, and the Incas,

had not yet been discovered; however, the pattern of Spanish conquest

and settlement was being established in the Islands. Puerto Rico, for

example, was set upon by Ponce de Leon inorder to extract gold from the

natives there. De Leon was a conquistador who had established a typical

contract with the royalty that stipulated (among other things) that

any gold would be shared, the kingdom receiving the Royal Fifth and the

rest being divided among the conquistadors. He had been placed in charge

of the Eastern district of Santo Domingo under the encomienda system,

the basic means of territorial control in conquered lands. The encomienda

system was an offshoot of the feudal-estate system prevalent in Spain

at this time and basically works this way: An Administrator (encomendero)

was chosen for a territory who was entrusted with the defense and devel-

opment of this territory. The Indians on this territory were allotted

with it as simple property (called repartimiento) and were also under

the care of the Administrator who was to defend them and instruct them

in Catholicism. Despite the good intentions, these Indians were mere

slaves and were expected to do all kinds of labor in return for their

Christian education which, if refused, would mean torture or death to

the dissentor. The books of Bartolome de Las Casas, who was the princ-

ipal defender of the Indians, depict the atrocities which occurred under

the encomienda system and the unscrupulous encomenderos who were intent

on extracting wealth from the natives. To return to the Puerto Hican

example, Ponce de Leon set out to conquer Puerto Rico and was able to

find the tribal chief, the Cacique, and persuade him, by some means,

to relinquish control to the Spanish. The island was then doled out to

deserving conquistadors under the encomienda system who set the Indians

to work mining gold and farming. Unable to endure the cruelty of their

masters, the Indians revolted in about 1500 and killed about seventy of

the Spanish. The Spanish retribution, however, was terrible; the Indians

were attacked by soldiers, burned, hanged and set upon by dogs and were

subjected, man, woman and child to total enslavement. The total pop-

ulation of the Island of Puerto Hico was annihilated and subsequently,

Africn slaves had to be imported in order to replace the dwindling

natives. Admiral Diego Colon conquered the islands of Jamaica and Cuba

under similar circumstances and the encomienda system was established

to control the remaining Indian population that survived the initial

attack. The encomienda system on these islands failed because the

native populations dwindled and died as a result of subjugation and



Balboa was the first of the great conquistadors. he started out

as a stowaway aboard a ship from Espanola where he was trying to escape

his debts. The ship was being sent to relieve a group of colonists and

soldiers in Nicaragua that had fallen on misfortune (disease, Indian

attacks) under the leadership of Ojeda and had been left under the

command of Francisco Pizarro (who was to later conquer Peru). Balboa

was a strong character however, and he was able to assert his authority

over Encisco, the commander of the ship on which Balboa had stowed away.

Encisco was also to take over control of the colony from Pizarro when

they arrived, but Balboa got himself named Alcade of the colony by the

colonists which gave him a legal position of authority over Encisco and

was later named Commander-General of the area by the King. From this

settlement Balboa began to conduct coastal excursions collecting food,

gold, slaves and territory. He expanded his domain by either allying

or coercing the native people and then imported acclimatized natives and

colonists from Espanola to settle at the colony then called Darien.

Balboa exerted his authority as a mixture of force and diplomacy and,

compared to some more ruthless conquistadors, he was relatively just

in following a policy of adtion in his conquest. F.A. Kirkpatrick

describes his character. "The compassion of an adventurous stowaway,

perhaps never very susceptible, is apt to be blunted by constant suffering

and danger and by seeing his companions daily perishing of hunger.

Burning, mutilation, quartering, flogging to death, all in public,

were familiar punishments in Europe: and Balboa could without a qualm

burn or torture an Indian,. or throw him to the savage dogs which

accompanied the Spaniards in all their enterprises.l"1

In Balboa's conquest he had met a certain chief's son who had told

him of a sea-land to the south that had more gold than the Spanish had

iron: the Incas. Balboa set out with 19 soldiers to find these people

and during this adventure he came upon a people who told him of a great

sea which extended just beyond the summit of the mountains. Balboa

realized the importance of this discovery and advanced alone up the

ridge of this mountain and, crossing its apex, became the fist Euro-

pean man to view the Pacific Ocean from the New World. This then solved

the mystery, until then unsolved, of the nature of the new continents

which had remained unexplained for 21 years since Golumbus's discovery.

It showed that this was a totally separate continent from the Orient

and also established the trade route to the Orient.

Balboa had established a great empire in his conquests and had

extracted a great deal of gold and pearls for the King but was none-

theless condemned for his actions against Encisco in establishing his

authority in Darien. King Ferdinand was swayed to depose Balboa and

replace him with Pedrarias but Balboa managed to ally himself with

Pedrarias and retain control for a time. redrarias, however was not the

honorable man that Balboa was and was soon sending out his own captains

to subjugate and destroy tribes which Balboa had previously allied.

1F.A. Kirkpatrick, The Spanish Conquistadors, (New York, 1967) p. 52.

Pedrarias later turned on Balboa, who was now intent on exploring the

Pacific Ocean, and had Balboa arrested by Pizarro. He was tried by

the court.of Pedrarias, who had nothing to lose and everything to gain,

and sentenced Balboa and four others to be beheaded thus ending Balboa's

role in the conquest of the New World.

Pedrarias proved to be one of the most ruthless and cruel of the

conquistadors in contrast to the justice of Balboa and despite the fact

that the Royalty and Clergy had issued a policy which dictated how the

conquest should be carried out. Alarmed by the news of the destruction

and cruel treatment of the natives, the loyalty issued a policy in 1513

known as the "Requirement" which was well-intended but totally unenforce-

able. Lewis Hanke describes it. "This manifesto makes curious reading

today. It begins with a short history of the world since its creation

and an account of the establishment of the papacy, which ....ds naturally

to a description of the donation by Alexander VI of 'these Isles and

Tierra Firme' to the Kings of Spain. The Indians are required to acknow-

ledge to their overlordship and to allow the faith to be preached to them.

If they comply, well and good. If the do not, the Requirement lists the

punitive steps the Spaniards will take forthwith. They will enter the

land with fire and sword, will subjugate the inhabitants by force, and to

quote this document, which was read to many a startled Indian in a lan-

quage he did not understand: We shall take you and your wives and your

children, and shall make slaves of them, and as such shall sell and dis-

nose of them, as their Highnesses may command; and shall take away your

goods, and shall do all the harm and damage that we can, as to vassals that

do not obey."1 Along with the reading of this requirement were some

written instructions: ;.Natives were not to be attacked unless aggressive

or unsubmissive; 2)Only cannibals and inveterate enemies were to be

iLewis hanke, Aristotle and the American Indians, (Chicago, 1959) p. 16.

Cents of diffuin "

0 04~i _' __ I 100

enslaved; 3)Encomenderos (allotted Indians) were not to be overtaxed

so as to disturb them from their domestic lands or labors; h)An all

out effort was to be made to convert them to Christianity.- Pedrarias,

his captains and many other conquistadors were totally ignorant of this

policy however and under Pedrarias some of the greatest atrocities of the

New World conquest were undertaken. Oviedo and Las Casas, who were

chroniclers of this period that disagreed on many things, both claimed

that upwards of 2 million natives died as a result of Pedrarias's six-

teen years of command which ended in 1530.

Cortes and the Aztecs

The discovery that there were major civilizations in the le. World

was first made in 1517. Cordova and a group of soldiers from Darien

who were experienced soldiers and had fought under Pedrarias's command

sailed up the coast of the Yucatan peninsula under contract to Velas-

quez who was then Governor of Ouba. Here they discovered a large Mayan

city on the eastern tip of the peninsula which they named Gran Cairo

and were invited ashore by the Indians who later attacked them. They

retreated and sailed on to Campeche and Champoton where they were met

by hostile Indians and were forced to return to Cuba. Juan de Grijalva

was sent on a return trip to explore the Yucatan in 1518 with a fleet of

four ships and 2h8 men. He landed at Champoton and captured it but all

the area natives escaped the region. Grijalva sailed on to Tabasco where

he met with natives who informed him of an empire to the jest called

"Mvejico" that had a great abundance of gold. Grijalva, after several

other skirmishes, sailed back to Cuba to inform Velasquez of his discov-

eries. Even before this though, Velasquez was already building an exped-

itionary force at the recommendation of his counselors who had been

persuaded (by the promise of gold) to name a young man named Hernando

Cortes as its Commander-General.

1Lewis iianke, op. cit., p. 17.

Cortes was a true man of his times, romantic, adventurous, self-

determined, audacious, and high spirited. "Cortes possessed all the

qualities of a commander, including discreet but uncompromising inde-

iendence. A typical Spanish cavalier, he was unswerving in loyalty

to the King: but also a typical Conquistador, he was determined to

obey none beneath the King.'1 As soon as Cortes sailed, though, Velas-

quez realized his mistake in issuing such a high position to Cortes and

tried to rescind his command. Cortes had sailed with a force of 500 men

including 32 crossbowmen, 13 riflemen, and 16 horsemen. At first he

followed Grijalva's path and drove through the Yucatan peninsula sub-

duing Indians and reading the Requirement through his interpreter, a

man named Aguilor. It was here that they met an Indian Princess that

they named Dona Marina who spoke the Maya and Aztec languages and

acted as an interpreter to Cortes and later became his companion and

mistress. It was apparent however that this Mayan region did not have

the wealth which they were seeking, so Cortes sailed to Mexico where,

at Vera Cruz, he was met by a representative of the Aztec monarch

who made gifts of gold and other things in the hope that the Spaniards,

whom they believed to be the God Quetzalcoatl returning to claim the

Aztec throne, would be satisfied and leave the Aztecs alone. liontezuma,

who was the Aztec Monarch at this time, was a man given to the portents

and prophecies of the Aztec religion and had received the prediction that

someday Quetzalcoatl, the militaristic God-king of the Toltecs would

return from an eastern land and reclaim his rightful throne. Montezuma

was convinced from the very first news that strange ships and people

had been sighted that this -orophecy was coming true and that there was

little he could do to stop it. By the time that the Aztecs realized that

the Spaniards were merely men, the fighting advantage had been lost and

they could not reconstruct the organization needed to defeat them.

1F.A. Kirkpatrick, op. cit., p. 6$.

Cortes began his conquest in Mexico by enlisting the allegiance

of some of the local tribes which had been subjugated by the Aztecs

and were hostile toward them. He also established a municipality

at Vera Cruz and had himself elected Captain-General which relin-

quished his allegiance to Velasquez. He left a small troop at Vera Cruz

to hold the fort, burred the ships to prevent their escape and started

his march inland toward Tenochtitlan, the capital city and center of the

Aztec empire. The Tlascalans, a tribe used by the Aztecs to supply

sacrificial victims for the altars, became allied to Cortes and accom-

panied him on his march to Tenochtitlan where he had been invited by

Montezuma to be his guests. On the way Cortes was invited to stop at

Cholula as royal guests for two days, but Montezuma had actually planned

a trap for the Spanish. As the soldiers were being entertained, barri-

cades were being erected, pit traps were being dug and Aztec warriors

were gathering outside the city, but Cortes had been informed of all

this and summoned the Cholulan priests who instead sent several thousand

warriors. The Spanish attacked them in the narrow streets and were

able to rout the enemy and drive them off. Cortes had learned that

Montezuna engineered this plot but he pretended to remain ignorant of

it. He was able to continue on in this guise to Tenochtitlan where he

was eventually met by Iontezuma who treated them royally and gave them

gifts of gold and jewels. Cortes later arranged for an audience with

Montezuma whom he met with six men and two interpreters. He took this

opportunity to accuse Montezuma of his treachery, then seized him and

threatened to kill him. Montezuma was taken to the quarters of the

Spanish where he became a puppet under the control of Cortes, but

Cortes had to face two serious problems immediately. First, the Aztecs

would soon realize that Montezuma had become impotent and would elect

a new leader that could lead the military against the Spanish. Second,

Velasquez, who had realized that Cortes was out of his control, had sent

a troop under the command of Panfilo de Narvaez to arrest Cortes at

Vera Cruz. Narvaez had also begun secret negotiations with Montezuma

to affect his release if Cortes could be turned over to him. In a daring

maneuver, Cortes left Tenochtitlan with 70 men and marched to Cempoala

where in a night raid he was able to capture Narvaez without fighting

and was also able to enlist his soldiers to his own command with the

promise of great wealth. During this time, Alvarado, who had been left

in command in the absence of Cortes, had grown nervous in the face of the

enemy odds and had decided to attack the Aztecs and hopefully overwhelm

them. He attacked the Aztecs during a religious ceremony when they did

not expect it, but he had not been able to gain control of the situation.

Cortes arrived back at Tenochtitlan to find the whole city in revolt

against the Spanish and had to fight his way back into the city to

relieve his beleaguered comrades who were trapped in their quarters.

Cortes reached them and ordered Pontezuma, who was still being held

hostage to address his people and order them to stop, but by this

time Montezuma had been deposed by his brother and was considered a

traitor. When Montezuma appeared, he was stoned and attacked and died

as a result of his injuries. The Spanish now had only one choice:

escape the city to the safety of tneir allies. In a terrible night

battle, now remembered as "La Noche Triste," the Spanish escaped Tenoch-

titlan, losing more than half or about 900 soldiers of the troop, and

retreated to their allies, the Tlascalans, where they healed their

wounds and prepared for a return to Tenochtitlan a year later. During

this time the Aztecs had time to prepare for the attack but they could

not defend themselves against the insidious murderer the Spanish left

behind: smallpox, the city was ravaged by it.

Cortes returned and began his attack on Tezcuco, a city on the

lake surrounding Tenochtitlan which he used as a base to build 13 boats

to reach the city, for by now the causeways had been blocked off. In

a 93 day siege which ended in August of 1521, the Soanish captured

Tenochtitlan, but the great treasure of gold which they had seen on their

previous visit was gone, possibly cast into the lake by the Aztecs them-

selves. In the process of war the population of Tenochtitlan had been

almost annihilated and many of the buildings were torn down; the Aztec

capital was gone and a Spanish city arose in its place. With the capital

city gone, the Aztecs had no organization and were soon conquered by

Cortes and his lieutenants. Cortes himself captured Panuco and the

Northeast; Cristobal de Olid attacked and conquered the Tarascans to the

west; Alvarado occupied Guatemala; and Montejo lead the conquest of the the Yucatan. The conquering Spanish were to eventually meet the

agents of Pedrarias who were working their way northward from their

Panama cities.

Conquest of the Mayas

The conquest of the Mayas had begun before the Aztec war as described

earlier with the explorations of Cordova (1517), Grijalva (1518), and

Cortes (1519) in the Yucatan and Guatemala areas, but it was not until

1526 that an organized attack was aimed against the biayans. Francisco

Montejo, with a contract drawn up with King Charles V, set sail with

h ships and 380 soldiers towards Yucatan. Montejo was a strong and deter-

mined man but not really a clever or skilled soldier. His son, El Mozo,

accompanied him. The Mayan country was poor and so the King had agreed

to take only one-tenth rather than the usual fifth of the conquered

treasure. The conquest started at Xelha on the east coast of Yucatan and

moved inward. Indian resistance was light, but disease, famine, and

and exhaustion hampered the invaders. There were no inspired battles

to be fought here since the Mayas were not the unified nation that the

Aztecs were. In 1532, Montejo attempted to establish a colony at

Chicken Itza where there still remained a population dense enough to

support the encomiendas and the ruins of the great ceremonial center

there provided a fort for the soldiers. The colony was established but

the kayans managed to group their forces, surround and cut off the

Spanish. On the verge of starvation, the Spanish managed to escape.

None of the Yucatan colonies faired well during this time and by the early

part of 1535, they had been evacuated. Later, a famine caused by drought

and disease created a civil strife between the Xiu and the Gocom tribes

which left a Xiu chief sympathetic to the Spanish and he became a Chris-

tian convert. He became a loyal ally to the Spanish and helped to

establish a city near Uxmal. The final stage of Maya conquest came with

the establishment of a new city in the ruins of Tihoo which became known

as :erida. An alliance with the Xiu tribes of that area led to the

destruction of the Cocom tribes. Subsequent conquests in the area by

El Mozo and his lieutenants, Gaspar Pacheo and Pedro Alvarez, were ignor-

ant of the Requirement and led to the merciless slaughter of men, women

and children which contintd almost unabated until the most populous

areas of the Yucatan had been decimated and the Mayan people were no more.

The Incan Conquest

The Inca civilization was discovered in 1522 by Pascual de Andagoya,

a subordinate of Pedrarias who was exploring the Pacific coast of South

America after the death of Balboa. He returnedto bring tales of a vast

amount of wealth and grandeur on the Peruvian coast. Two hardened

conquistadors, Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro, petitioned the

vicar of Panama to finance expeditions which left separately in 1524.

Pizarro had very little success in claiming any gold, but Almagro reached

Ecuador and seized a large amount of gold and returned to Panama to find.

financial backing for another larger expedition. A second expedition in

1526 was unsuccessful but it had ventured far enough to cross the equator

and contact the Inca subjects at Tumbez. Pizarro and Almagro returned

to Panama in 1528 and this time Pizarro went directly to Spain to

attain the approval and backing of the King. Pizarro was successful and

was to be governor and Captain-General of any new lands conquered but

Almagro was only to be a nobleman and was very jealous of this act.

Pizarro added insult to injury by returning with his three brothers and

one half-brother to carry on the conquest and Almagro took a secondary

position. In January, 153h, Pizarro set out with three ships and 180

men, sailing to Ecuador where th-y began their conquest on land. It

was very successful from the start, and Almagro, who had been left

behind to await more financial backing, was able to join Pizarro after a

ship loaded with gold and emeralds had been sent back from the front.

With this evidence of enormous wealth, Hernando deSoto was able to enlist

a troop of volunteers who were bent on getting their portion of this

wealth. In 1532, the force captured Tumbez on the Peruvian mainland to

begin the attack on the Incas.

The Incas were unfortunately involved in a civil war which had

divided the nation for the first time in many generations. The civil

war had started when Huayna Capac, the Incan emperor, had died, dividing

the empire between his son, huascar, and an illegitimate son, Atuahalpa.

A dispute arose between these two over the possession of an area of land

(now southern Ecuador) during which the northern forces of Atuahalpa

attacked the royal empire of Huascar and drove to the capital city of

the Incan state: Cuzco. The loyalist factions of Huascar still opposed

Atuahalpa's role as leader though, and when Pizarro arrived in Incan

territory the Incas were an internally divided nation. The Incan state

was still a highly organized state however and the Incas were aware of

the Spanish intentions form the start. Atuahalpa and his army approached

the Spanish army, much assured of their ability to defeat them and

outnumbering them thousands to one. Pizarro used Cortes's tactic of

capturing the emperor and invited Atuahalpa to Gaxamarca where Pizarro

had hidden his soldiers around a central plaza. The Inca entered the

plaza at the behest of Pizarro and was greeted by Vicente de Valverde,

a Dominican Friar, who called on Atahualpa to accept Christianity and

surrender to the Spanish King which he naturally refused. The Spaniards

attacked, ravaging the Incans and capturing Atuahalpa. Pizarro became

ruler of the Incan empire with Atuahalpa as his prisoner. The Inca,

however, made an offer to Pizarro to buy his ransom and at the same

time, had Huascar put to death where he was held so that he could not

make the Spanish a better offer. Atuahalpa offered to fill the room where

he was held with gold and silver, and, from all over the empire, the

treasure began to be collected. When it had been collected, Pizarro

had Atuahalpa tried in a mock trial and put to death. Pizarro and his

troops marched on to Cuzco with little resistance from the remaining army

of the Incas who no longer were a unified force. He also established a

new puppet emperor, Huascar's brother anco Capac, who served as

emperor while the great capital city was transformed into a Spanish

municipality. Not until 1569 did Peru see a real government that was

at peace with all the factions striving for rule there, but the rule of

the Incas, the last high civilization of the Americas was over forever.

Part Three: Conclusions

There is a question which has confronted the scholars of Hispanic-

American history ever since this history began being written by persons

like Columbus (in his correspondence) and by chroniclers like Bernal

Diaz who accompanied Cortes in the conquest of 1exico. The question

lies in the justification the Spanish used to conquer, dominate and

destroy new lands (in the name of the King and the Papacy) and what

historic events led to such absolute and unquestionable religious

authority. A very different version of this history is told by the

priest, Bartolome de Las Casas, who came with the conquistadors to the

New World in 1502 and who, in 15l)1, became the defender of the Indians

whom he thought were being treated in an inhumanly cruel manner. The

accounts of the conquistacors and other persons close to the flow of gold

from these new-conquered territories tend to be romantic and adventure-

some with the stress being on the bravery and daring of the soldiers, but

Las Casas's writing is an indictment of the actions of these same soldiers

and describes the baser deeds (including torture, slaughter and genocide).

These books include The Tears of the Indians, Very Briefe Account of the

Destruction of the Indiej and The Eistory of the Indians of New Spain.

It is not necessary to outline all the destructive activities of the

conquering soldiers, but some of the facts are justifiably noted here.

Under the encomienda system, the Caribbean Islands which once supported

large, native populations were soon completely depopulated of natives

and had to be replaced by Negro slaves.1 The destruction of the New

.Vorld's grandest cities (at the time of the discovery) was almost total.

So bitter was the battle of Tenochtitlan that virtually no buildings

remained after it2 and any basic building materials were used to build

cathedrals and mansions for the new Spanish rulers. Cuzco met a similar

1F.A. Kirkpatrick, op. cit., p. 46.
2Tom B. Jones, op. cit., p. 90.

fate under the hands of Spanish authority. Gold was of course not

judged to be of much artistic value and was for the most part melted

down as were objects of baser metals.1 Perhaps one of the most regret-

table acts of destruction which quickly became apparent even to the man

who ordered the deed done was the burning and destruction of kayan

art and literature by Bishop Diego de Landa. Landa was unusually force-

ful in his application of Catechism and often prescribed tortures for those

who resisted its rituals. He was later reprimanded for his zealous

actions, and also tried to atone for this by passing on some very impor-

tant information on the vMaya languages and writing which has been help-

ful to some degree in the reconstruction of the culture which ethno-

logists have attempted today. Nevertheless, only four Mayan books or

codices have survived to present and although it is not known what the

other texts may have contained, their destruction is considered a grievous
misdeed by an otherwise well-intending fellow. However ironic it is,

Mayan architecture of the highest period, around 1000 A.D., has survived

more than most other cultures because it had been abandoned and hidden

during the most destructive phase of the Spanish rule. These few

examples of the cultural destruction which the Spanish wielded over their

new colonies are typical and common and,despite the exaggerations and

disagreements historians have over their overall importance orlongterm

effect, the fact remains that high peoples and cultures that once existed

in this hemisphere prior to the 16th century do not exist today.

It would be improper to say that the conquistadors, the soldiers

themselves, being of such a violent nature and being men of an era of

violent conflict, were the chief cause of such widespread destruction,

for although they were the principal initiators of such destruction,

1Cottie Burland, op. cit., p. 15h.
2David Grant Adamson, The Ruins of Time, (New York, 1975), p. 72-79.

*\- I, .PR.I..T R'Il, 1.ME 1>A l I..\1. .1.\ 1S I


- 11Mi
4 i fr ik f i frTiM"a "" t r""n 'w m u .

JUAN (;INI'.S )DE SITUVIA, 1400- 1 7

they were still responsible to the King and the Pope-through the con-

tracts by which they legally explored the lands. The nature of the ear-

liest policy was really formed as early as 1i93: Pope Alexander VI's

decrees (bulls of donation) were used to "justify the exertion of Spanish

power in the new lands, specifically entrusted to the crown of Castile

the Christianization of these lands."1 The Requirement (described

earlier) was adopted in 1513 as a response to the lack of consistent

treatment of the Indians, and was well-intended but almost useless to

a world so far removed from the Spanish notion of civilization. It also

did n resolve the two factions of thought that had grown out of the

explorations. These two factions had taken opposite stands on the nature

of the Indians according to a philosophy expounded by Aristotle. The

doctrine of natural slavery formed by Aristotle stated that some people

were by nature inferior and subsequently were suited to slavery, or

subjugation. The question of the Spanish conquest came to a head with

a famous debate at Valladolid in 1550-1551.between the two greatest scholars

of this subject, Juan Gines de Sepulveda and Friar Bartolome de Las Casas.

Sepulveda contended that the wars against these Indians were justifiable

and, "declared it lawful and necessary to wage war against the natives

there for four reasons:

1. For the gravity of the sins which the Indians had committed,
especially their idolatries and their sins against nature.

2. On account of the rudeness of their natures, which obliged
them to serve persons having a more refined nature, such as the

3. In order to spread the faith, which would be more easily
accomplished by the prior subjugation of the natives.

h. To protect the weak among the natives themselves."2

Las Casas' doctrine which opposed these four points simply stated

that the Indians were men and should be won over by a system of Chris-

tian missions, not by warfare. Despite the nature of either argument,

ILewis lhanke, op. cit., p. 8. 34
2!bid., p. 0O-4l.

which are still disputed by some contemporary scholars, the actions

taken after 1551 especially the laws created in 1573 to regulate the

"pacification" of new lands and the Ohristianization of the natives

of these lands were much too late.1 The New worldd was no longer a land

of the Inca, the Maya or the Aztecs; it was a world in which these ways of

life and the cultures connected with them had already almost totally


1Lewis Hanke, op. cit., p. 87-88.

Adamson, David Grant. The iRains of Time. Praeger Publications,
Inc., New York, I.Y., 1975.

Bartolomeo de Las Casas. The Tears of the Indians. Academic

Burland, Cottie. The People of the Ancient Americas. Paul Hamlyn,
London, Hamlyn House, The Center, Feltham, itddlesex.

Driver, Harold E. The Americas on the Eve of Discovery. Prentice
Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J.

Hanke, Lewis. Aristotle and the American Indians. henry Regnery
Comp., Chicago, Ill., 1959.

Hanke, Lewis. Bartolomeo de Las Casas-Historian. Univ. of Florida
Press, Gainesville, Fla., 1952.

hardy, Jorge E. Pre-Columbian Cities. Walker and Company,
New York, 1973.

Helps, Sir Arthur. The Spanish Conquest in America. AMS Press,
Inc., N.Y., 1967.

Horgan, Paul. Conquistadors in North American History. Fawcett
Publications, Inc., Greenwich, Conn., 1965.

Jones, Tom b. An introduction to hispanic-American History.
Harper and-Brothers, New YoFk and London, 1939.

Keen, Benjamin. The Aztec Image in Western Thought. Rutgers
Univ. Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1971.

Kirkpatrick, F.A. The Spanish Conquistadors. Barnes and noble,
Inc., New York, 1967.

Prescott, William-H. The World of Incas. Editions binerva Geneva,

Purchas, B.D., Samuel. PurchasHis Pilgrimes, v. XVIII. James
MacLehose and Sons, Glasgow, 1905.

Steck, Francis Borgia. hIotolinia's History of the Indians of New
Spain. William Bird Press, Inc., Richmo-nd, Virginia, 5975.

Stirling, Matthew W. Indians of the Americas. rNational Geogranhic
Society, Wash. D.C., 1955.

Winsor, Justin. Aboriginal America. Riverside Press, Cambridge,



Slide 1: Inportant Indian Cultures, Introduction to Hispanic-American
History, p. 16.
2: Olmec head, Peoples of Ancient America, p. 49.

3: Teotihuacan, Ibid., p. 59.

4: Tenochtitlan, Astec Image in western Thought, p. 88.

5: Tenochtitlan (Great Teocali), Precolumbian Cities, p. 188-189.

6: Aztec Diplomat, Indians of the Americas, p. 24h-245.

7: Aztec Stone Calendar, Ibid., p. 255.

8: Aztec Sacrifice, Ibid., p. 247.

9: Mayan, Great Eastern court at Tikal, The iBuins of Time, p. 193.

10: Mayan, Palenque: Temple and overview, Ibid., p, 65.

11: Mlayan: Top-Labna and Corbelled arch, Bottom-Tulum, Ibid, p. 80.

12: Mayan: Temple of the Dwarf-Uxnal, Ibid., p. 176-177.

13: Mayan: Chichen Itza, Ibid., p. 176-177.
14: Mayan: Religous and Craft Instruction, Indians of the Americas,
p. 184.
15: Incan: Machu-Pichu, People of Ancient America, p. 133.

16: Incan: Ruins of Cuzco, Ibid., p. 132.

17: Incan Stonework, Ibid., p. 153.

18: Incan Arch, World of Incas, p. 112.

19: Chimu, Chan-Chan, Indians of the Americas, p. 296.

20: Chimu, Chan-Chan, People of Ancient America, p. 1l6.

21: Spanish conception of Indians, Aztec Image in Western
Thought, p. 204.

22: Indians testing mortality of Spanish, Aristotle and the
American Indians, p. 25.

23: Spanish conception of Indian cruelties, Ibid., p. 32.

24: Spanish cruelties to Indians, Aztec image in Western
Thought, p. 163.

25: Montezuma meets Cortes, Ibid.

26: Title pages of Tears of the Indians, p. 3.

27: Bartclomeo de Las Gasas, Aristotle and the American Indians,
inside title page.

28: Juan Gines de Sepulveda, Ibid., p. 7.

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