Scoping study for Jamaica country environmental profile

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Title:
Scoping study for Jamaica country environmental profile
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Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Field, Ralph M.
McCaffrey, Dennis
Publisher:
International Institute for Environment and Development
Place of Publication:
Washington, D. C.
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University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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All rights reserved by the source institution.
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AA00001585:00001


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EPM 34


SCOPING STUDY FOR JAMAICA
COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE

Ralph M. Field
Dennis McCaffrey


August, 1984




























This document was produced for the Environmental
Planning and Management Project of the
International Institute for Environment and
Development under the
Purchase Order Contract No. PO-lA










The Environmental Planning and Management Project is a
cooperative agreement between the International Institute
for Environment and Development and tne U.S. Agency for
International Development to respond to requests for
assistance from developing countries in a variety of
environmental and natural resource management problems.





Single copies of this document are available free from:

International Institute for Environment and Development
1717 Massachusetts Ave. N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036
(202) 462-0900









OCKTENTS


Page


BACKGROUND 1

PROFILE OBJECTIVES AND PURPOSES 1

MeTHODODLGY 2

GENERAL TEPPT OF REFERENCE 3

WORK PHASES 4

ALLOCATION OF RESPONSIBILITY 6

SPECIFIC TERMS OF REFERENCE 7

Team Leader 7
Socio-economist 8
Legal/Institutional Analyst 9.
Hydrologist 10
Agriculture Specialist 10
Forester 11
Specialist in Pro ntion 12
Parks and Wildlife Specialist 13
Fisheries Specialist 15
Specialist in Environmental Education 16
Specialist in Natural Hazards 17
Specialist in Pesticides, Pollution and Public Health 18
Tourisn Specialist 19
Archeologist 19
Air Quality Specialist 20

PIOGRrA BUDGET 21

ESTIMATED CEP BUDGET OPTIONS 23

DRAFT TABLE OF CONTENTS 24






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SWOOPING SrTDY
FOR
JAMAICA COD1TRY ENVIROWENIAL PROFILE


BACKGROUND


This scoping study was prepared in Jamaica between August 23 and August 31,
1984 by Ralph M. Field, President, RMFA, Inc., and Dennis McCaffrey, Senior Research
Associate for IIED, (henceforth called the CEP design team in this report). The
design team held extensive interviews and meetings in Kingston with staff of
Jamaican ministries and other public agencies, and with the USAID/Jamaica Mission.
The design team spent a considerable amount of time in discussion with the
senior professional staff of the Natural Resources Conservation Department. The

group was exceptionally well informed about environmental issues, and enthusiastic
about performing a country environmental profile (CEP). In the course of discussions
with NRCD staff, and others as well, specific issues to be addressed in the CEP
were suggested. These suggestions were taken into condiseration in designing the
product outputs and the process to be followed in performing this CEP.


PROFILE OBJECTIVES AND PURPOSES


The environmental profile of Jamaica has the following objectives and purposes:

1. To prepare an authoritative reference work that documents Jamaica's
natural resource base and the condition of the natural environment
(in a way that can be periodically updated).
2, To describe and analyze the existing institutional framework as it
affects resource sectors and areas of environmental concern.





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3. To identify key governmental policies, programmes, and investment

priorities affecting resource and environmental management.

4. To establish an analytic framework for evaluating and resolving

conflicts in existing resource use and planned allocation.

5. To identify the areas of congruity and conflict between economic

development and environmental protection in key sectors and

activities.

6. To prepare a draft environmental policy statement for Jamaica.

7. To identify programmes and projects that further both environmental

and development objectives that could be financed by the Government

of Jamaica and/or the private sector with financial and technical

assistance from AID and other donors.



METHODOLOGY


The Jamaica Country Environmental Profile will be performed by a team of

Jamaican specialists covering the whole spectrum of environmental interest. The

Jamaican team will be headed by Mrs. Beverly Miller, Principal Director, of the

Natural Resources Conservation Department. An international environmental specialist

with experience in Jamaica will serve as overall team leader for the profile.

Additionally an international legal/institutional analysis will work with the team.

General terms of reference for all team members are described below, followed by

specific terms of reference for each specialist. Separate terms have been prepared

for each principal sector, although there may be cases where a specialist will be

responsible for more than one sector.







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The CEP will be prepared sequentially to ensure that the technical information

gathered and its subsequent analysis is reviewed in the broad context of the

Government of Jamaica's existing and potential capabilities to address environmental

issues. The CEP team leader will present a general. orientation on the CEP process

to the CEP Team. Members will then collect and analyze information on their

principal sector and prepare a draft sector report. These sector reports are to be

submitted to the team leader, who will lead the synthesis effort among the team

members. The final environmental profile document should be published as soon as

possible after completion of the draft synthesis. At least one thousand copies

of the final document should be printed.

The environmental profile document should be brief enough, (maximum of 125 150

printed pages), that busy people will read it, as well as the executive summary that

will be extracted from it and printed separately. The document should be promoted

within Jamaica and internationally. Good promotion will increase Jamaican awareness

of environmental issues and encourage public and private actions. It will also bring

national environmental issues to the attention of international lending agencies that

can be approached for financing environmental actions suggested in the profile.


GENERAL TERMS OF REFERENCE


In performing the environmental profile each sector specialist should actively

exchange information and ideas with other team members. The specialist should present

data graphically (where possible) and also submit captioned photographs that illustrate

issues or points of interest. Each sector specialist will be expected to analyze the






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key institutions involved in or responsible for his sector. The specialists should

also point out actual and potential conflicts with other sectors and state insights

on how to resolve such conflicts. Each specialist should identify possible environ-

mental improvement projects, within his sector, that could be financed by the

Government and/or private sector with and without financial assistance from the

donor conmmuity.

Each specialist must turn in a draft report, approved by the team leader,

covering his specific terms of reference. International consultants will be expected

to work a six day week.



WORK PHASES


Phase 1:

In order to ensure that the research and analysis is carried out with maximum

effectiveness, work in Phase 1 should begin as soon as possible. -Materials in NRCD

files pertinent to each of the sectors or areas of environmental concern, shall be

summarized by NRCD's professional staff. The file search will be supplemented by

interviews with knowledgeable persons from other agencies, library research, and

referencing of earlier documents pertaining to the CEP. A principal objective of

the Phase 1 work is to correctly focus the direction of the research that will be

conducted by local consultants retained to prepare the sectoral reports.

The work in Phase 1 will be designed to reveal major gaps in our information

base. By systematically reviewing readily available information sources, NRD staff

will be able to provide the team leader with a much sounder basis for programming

future work, identifying where technical experts will be needed, and helping to focus





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their efforts to produce desired outputs. No contracting of technical experts will

be undertaken during Phase 1. (See page 22 for Phase 1 budget.)



Phase 2:

'The full study effort will be launched during Phase 2. Final work scopes for

each of the sectors shall be prepared; candidates will be screened for the various

consulting assignments; and, contracts will be entered into between those who are

selected and IIED. In addition to proceeding with the technical vork, various

administrative procedures shall be established between IIED and the Government of

Jamaica for the disbursement of funds for consultants, and for expenses incurred

by NRCD in the course of carrying out the CEP. As part of the CEP effort, NRCD

will attempt to set up both a technical advisory committee and a citizens advisory

committee to ensure wide participation by a cross section of Jamaican society. A

special attempt will be made to obtain private sector representation an the

citizens advisory ccnmittee.







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ALlOCATION OF RESPONSIBILITY


Responsibility for producing the Jamaica CEP shall be allocated among the

International Institute for Environment and Development, IIED, the Jamaican

Natural Resources Conservation Department, NRCD and the United States Agency for

International Development, USAID.

IIED shall have overall responsibility for production of the CEP and for

presenting a camera-ready copy of the profile document to USAID. IIED will meet its

responsibilities by contracting an international environmental management specialist

to serve as team leader for the profile process plus contracting any other personnel

not available in Jamaica. IIED shall also provide from its staff a legal/institutional

analyst to participate in the profile.

NRCD shall provide from its staff the Jamaican team leader for the CEP plus

several specialists to work on various sectors of the profile that lie with '. their

expertise. NRCD shall also provide office space in which to work on the profile.

NRCD's contribution of personnel and office space constitutes the Jamaican Government's

counterpart contribution to the CEP project.

In its contract with IIED, provision shall be made for NRCD to hire a secretary

to work on the profile. Provision shall also be made in the contract for the logistical

and administrative needs of the CEP team by providing funds for photocopying, local

travel, local and long distance telephone, and other support services.

NRCD shall locate qualified Jamaican personnel to perform those parts of the CEP

that will not be performed by int national specialists nor by NRCD staff. These

Jamaican specialists will be contracted individually by IIED to perform specific

portions of the CEP. Their contracts will provide for partial disbursement upon

initiation of work, partial disbursement upon submission of a draft report, and final

disbursement upon acceptance by the international team leader of a final report.





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USAID, through the AID/Jamaica Office of Agricultural Development and the

office of the Regional Environmental Management Specialist for the Caribbean,

shall provide guidance and review to the CEP to insure that it meets USAID'S

development objectives in Jamaica.






SPECIFIC TERES OF REFERENCE



Team Leader

Duties:

Direct the environmental profile process for the CEP, including

the preparatory meetings in Kingston. collaboration with the

Jamaican Natural Resources Conservation Department in selection

of Jamaican participants and defining their terms of reference,

organizing and coordinating CEP team efforts in Janaica, leading

the synthesis effort and following through to publication of the

CEP.

Approve and accept all draft sector reports prepared by CEP

participants.

Work closely with Jamaican counterpart to maximize integration

and collaboration of all members of the CEP team.



Qualifications:

Significant expertise and experience in directing multi-sectoral,

environmental teams.

Working experience in Jamaica, and familiarity with development

projects and environmental issues in Jamaica.









Demonstrated competence in technical writing and integrating

several sectoral reports into a coherent document.

Ability to work effectively with Jamaican professionals.




Socio-economist

Duties:

Review and briefly describe the cultural history and background

of Jamaica,. emphasizing patterns and attitudes concerning

natural resources and the environment.

.- Sumnarize demographic patterns and projections for Jamaica's

population with emphasis on pressures .on the environment and

natural resources.

Briefly describe Jamaica's general economy, covering such things

as GNP, imports and exports, economic activity by sector and by

population group, balance of payments, unemployment, etc. Relate

the general economy to natural resources and environment.

Analyze social and economic aspects of key sectors affecting

natural resources and the environment: agriculture, energy, mining,

forestry, fisheries, tourism, etc.


Qualifications:

Education in sociology and economics.

Experience in social and economic analysis in Jamaica.

Thorough familiarity with Jamaica's social and economic conditions.





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Legal/Institutional Analyst

Duties:

Review and briefly describe relevant legislation and policy

documents regarding natural resources and environment.

Description should concentrate on adequacy and effectiveness of

laws and policies.

Review and briefly describe government and non-government

institutions working with natural resources and environment.

Description should concentrate on objectives, policies, and

programs. It should also discuss levels of capability and

expertise, credibility, and effectiveness of the institutions.

Make recommendations on how to enhance the effectiveness of

legislation, policies, and institutions analyzed. Recommendations

should be tailored to carrying out environmental action programs

set out in the CEP.


Qualifications:

Familiarity with environmental and natural resources law and

policy in developed and developing countries.

Experience in programming and administering complex environmental

projects involving public and private sector institutions.





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Hydrologist

Duties:

Review and briefly describe the hydrologic resources of Jamaica.

Summarize the environmental aspects of existing and planned water

projects: irrigation, potable water, industrial water supply,

hydroelectric power generation.

Assess the causes and potential controls of floods along major

rivers in Jamaica.

Assess the groundwater resources of the country, with emphasis on

availability and quality suitable for carpeting uses.


Qualifications:

Thorough expertise in the evaluation of hydrologic resources.

Familiarity with water resources and projects in Jamaica.

Capability of assessing groundwaters resources.




Agriculture Specialist

Duties:

Review and briefly describe the agricultural situation in

Jamaica, including recent statistics on major crops for internal

and external markets, and the area planted and average yields of

each major crops, include discussion of important subsistence crops.

Assess the current economic role and possibilities for increasing

production of major crops.





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Describe current practices of land preparation, use of fertilizers

and pesticides, and harvesting, and assess the environmental

implications of traditional and high technology agricultural

practices.

Evaluate Jamaican efforts and programs in soil conservation and

land use capability classification.

Discuss programs to promote non-traditional crops in Jamaica.



Qualifications:

Education in agriculture, agronomy or related field.

Thorough familiarity with traditional and modern agriculture

in Jamaica.




Forester

Duties:

Review and briefly describe the forest resources of Jamaica,

including summaries of ecological life zones, major forest types

and principal tree species.

Assess the state of knowledge about the Jamaican flora, high-

lighting endangered or threatened plant species.

Summnaize the economic and ecologic roles of forest industries,

including recent statistics on production, demand, local consumption,

exports, etc.

Assess the causes, rate, extent and effects of deforestation in

Jamaica.





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Describe the status, purpose, extent and administration of

plantation forest reserves and other production forests.

Evaluate forestry programs in silviculttre, reforestation, agro-

forestry, training, etc.



Qualifications:

Thorough familiarity with Jamaica forestry and forest resources.

Expertise in tropical forestry/silviculture.





Specialist in Promotion

Duties:

Set up and carry out promotional activities for the CEP during

the process of its preparation and upon its publication.

Promotional activities could include such things as seminar,

business lunches, press conferences, television appearances and

formal and informal meeting with influential persons in govern-

ment and the private sector.

Coordinate promotional activities with the advancement of the

preparation of the CEP and with the findings of other members

of the CEP team.


Qualifications:

Experience in setting up and carrying out promotional activities

in Jamaica.

General knowledge of environmental a&d natural resources issues

in Jamaica.




- 13 -


Parks and Wildlife Specialist

Duties:

Review and briefly describe the status of conservation of

Jamaica's parks and wildlife.

Assess the state of knowledge about Jamaica's terrestrial wild-

life (plants and animals) highlighting endangered or threatened

species.

Evaluate Jamaica's system of national parks and equivalent

reserves as to ecosystems represented or not included, administ-

ration, protection, legal status, problems, threats, etc.

Review the political, legal, economic and ecologic implications

of hunting (both for game meat and for skins or hides) and

recommend objective and politically feasible mechanisms of

control.



Qualifications:

Recognized expertise in the toxonomy and ecology of Jamaican

wildlife.

Familiarity with parks and wildlife conservation issues in

Jamaica.





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Specialist in Urban Development and Industry

Duties:

Briefly describe Jamaica's urban development and industrial

situation, paying particular attention to development trends and

the interaction that urban development and industry have with

natural resources and the environment.

Analyze predicted impacts on environment and natural resources

of Jamaica's urban development and industrial plans and programs.



Qualifications:

Thorough knowledge of Jamaican industry and urban development.

Experience in analyzing urban development and industrial trends

and programs.




Mining and Energy Specialist

Duties:

Review and briefly describe the energy situation in Jamaica

emphasizing actual and planned projects, actual energy sources

in urban and rural areas, sector demands and substitution of

local energy for petroleum products.

Assess the potential of alternative energy sources such as

alcohol, solar, wind, biomass, etc.

Describe Jamaica's mineral resources and mining industry with

special emphasis on present and predicted environmental impacts

of mining.





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Qualifications:

Thorough knowledge of the energy requirements and possibilities

of Jamaica.

Familiarity with a broad array of alternative energy sources.

Thorough knowledge of Jamaica's mineral resources and mining

industry.




Fisheries Specialist

Duties:

Briefly describe Jamaica's fisheries resources and their

significance in Jamaica life including statistics on catch,

imports and exports, fish consumption, and industries based on

fish.

Assess the quality and quantity of fish stocks and indicate

predicted trends in stocks and in fishing.

Analyze the relationship between fisheries and environmental

factors that affect them.



Qualifications:

Knowledge of Jamaican fisheries and environmental impacts on

fisheries.


- Experience in analyzing fisheries


in an environmental context.





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Specialist in Environmental Education*

Duties:

Review current status of environmental education (e.e.) in

formal and non-formal settings, identify and briefly describe

existing programs.

Review results of CEP sector assessments and identify where e.e.

can play a significant role in carrying out recommendation actions.

Based on review, make recommendations for the types of e.e.

programs appropriate for Jamaican needs.

In close coordination with the institutional analysis identify

private and public institutions that can carry out e.e. programs.

Make recommendations for possible funding mechanisms and sources

for potential e.e. projects.


Qualifications:

Experience in Jamaica in programming e.e. programs in formal

and non-formal settings for different types of audiences on

small and large scales






* Environmental education to be defined in the broad sense, i.e. any type of

education to be applied for diverse audiences in order to bring about

improved envirormental/natural resources management.





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Specialist in Natural Hazards

Duties:

Briefly describe the natural hazards to which Jamaica is vulnerable.

These should include hurricanes, coastal floods, riverine floods,

high winds, earthquakes, landslips, and storm surge.

Identify the areas of high risk in both rural and urban

settings. Trace the pattern of past damages resulting fran

natural hazards including property damage and loss of life or

personal injury.

Assess the extent to which environmental problems such as

deforestation, soil erosion, and wetlands destruction contribute

to hazard-related risks to life and property.

Assess the extent to which hazard mitigation actions have been

taken, their degree of success, and needed additional imple-

mentaion measures or programs.



Qualifications:

Professional involvement in hazard mitigation activities in

Jamaica and the Caribbean.

Training in the social or physical sciences related to one or

more aspects of natural hazards and hazard mitigation.





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Specialist in Pesticides, Pollution, and
Public Health


Duties:

Briefly describe the Jamaican situation in environmental

pollution with regard to water quality solid waste disposal,

sewage disposal, and pesticides.

Assess the use of pesticides in Jamaica including imports, controls

and education for appropriate usage, and disposal of residues.

Briefly describe the public health and nutritional status of

Jamaica's population with such stratification by age, sex, education,

urban/rural location and other criteria as are appropriate.

Evaluate Jamaican public health and environmental sanitation

programs.


Qualifications:

Thorough knowledge of Jamaican public health and environmental

sanitation situation.

knowledge of appropriate pesticide handling techniques and

dangers of improper pesticide usage






- 19 -


Tourism Specialist

Duties:

Describe Jamaican tourist industry with particular reference to

interrelationships between tourism and environment.

Analyze effects that environmental degradation could have on

tourism and also adverse effects that tourism can lhave on the

environment.



Qualification:

Thorough knowledge of Jamaica's tourist industry.

Solid understanding of environmental problems and issues in

Jamaica.




Archeologist

Duties:

Describe the role of archeology in Jamaican culture.

Describe Jamaica's major archeological and historic sites and

discuss their protection and how they interrelate with the

environment and with environmental protection.



Qualifications:

Thorough knowledge of Jamaican archeology.


- Good understanding of environmental issues in Jamaica.





- 20'-


Air Quality Specialist

Duties:

Briefly describe Jamaica's situation with regard to air quality,

highlighting localities where air pollution are acute.

Analyze Jamaica programs for air pollution control.


Qualifications:

Thorough knowledge of Jamaica's air quality situation and

programs for air pollution control.


- Good understanding of environmental issues in Jamaica.





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PROGRN4 BUDGET

Budget Management:

The full budget presented on page 23, is divided into a Jamaica Component

and an International Camponent. While all disbursements would be made through

the prime contractor (IIED), the Principal Director of NRCD, who would be the

counterpart Team Leader, and the Team Leader would jointly concur on disburse-

ments for the Jamaica Ccmponent. As noted previously, an accounting procedure

would be incepted by NRCD, for purposes of recording payments to local consultants,

and paying for the purchase of services and supplies required by the project.



Options

At the request of AID, three budget alternatives were prepared.

Option A ($149,000) Full Staffing 15-MEnth Effort, is the preferred alternative.

It would permit a full 12 months for the conduct of the technical work, carrying

out of the public educational program, and the preparation of the draft report.

The remaining three months would be used for GOJ and AID review, revisions to

the draft report, and preparation of camera-ready copy.

Option B ($122,600), Full Staffing, 12-Month Effort, is less desirable

since it would allow only three-quarters of a year for conducting the technical

work, undertaking the public education, and establishing the technical advisory

committee and citizens advisory carnittee. The remaining quarter would be used

as indicated in Option A above.

Option C ($94,000), Minimum Staffing, 12-Month Effort, is least desirable.

It would allow nine months for completion of all the technical work with minimum

allowance for retaining local technical experts. The International Component

would be reduced to the point of providing overall guidance without any technical

input and minimum participation in writing the final report. While a product

would be assured, product quality would be wedkened.





- 22 -


Project Phasing:

Earlier in this Scoping Study (see pages 4-5), it was recamnended that a

Phase 1 effort be launched as soon as possible to maintain the momentum that has

been generated. To expedite the Phase 1 work it is suggested that a short-term

contract (or purchase order) be authorized by AID to allow the Team Leader to

assist NRCD's staff in getting the process underway. This move is regarded as

desirable frcm a management standpoint as well as from a technical point of

view. A small initial expenditure would have a major multiplier effect insofar as

it would mobilize NRCD's technical and professional staff, and lay the basis for

the full program in PAhase 2.



Phase 1 costs are as follows:

Jamaican Canponent 0 -

International Component

Team Leader $3,200

Travel 1,300

Per dien 1,071

SUB-TTAL $5,571

OVERHEAD 2,786

TOTAL $8,357 ($8,400 rounded)



This amount ($8,400) would be subtracted fran the total contract amount for

each of the three budget options shown on the following page.




- L2 -


ESTIMATED CEP BlXGET OPTIONS


Major Budget Item

Janaica Corponenta
Honoraria/Salaries*

Technical Experts @ $450 p/wk
Executive Secretary @ $58 p/wk
Draftsmn @ $50 p/wk

Public Education/Promotion

Travel/Subsistence

Supplies and Equipment

Photoreproduction, graphics

Misc. (including telephone)

JAMAICA SUB-TOTIAL


A.
Full Staffing
15 Month
Effort


24,750.00
3,750.00
750.00

3,125.00

3,750.00

2,500.00

750.00

750.00

$40,125.00


B.
Full Staffing
12 lonth
Effort


20,230.00

3,000.00
500.00

2,500,00

3,750.00

2,000.00

750.00

500.00

$33,250.00


C.
tin. Staffing
12 monthh
Effort


15,750.00
3,000.00


2,000.00

2,500.00

1,500.00

500.00

500.00

$25,750.00


International' Coponents


Honoraria/Salaries/Fees

(amounts shown are exclusive

of fringe benefits, general

and administrative, and overhead):

Technical Experts @ $175 p/d

Tean Leader @ $200 p/d

Technical Support @ $160 p/d

Travel and Transportation

Perdian @ $119 p/d

Travel @ $650 p/rt

TEBNATIONAL SUB-TOTAL


TOTAL JAMAICA & INTERNATIONAL

OVERHEAD @ 50%
BUDGET TIOAL


4,200.00

16,800.00

7,200.00


17,380.00

$13,650.00

$59,230.00


$99,355.00

$49,678.00
$149,000.00


3,150.00

14,400.00

5,600.00


14,285.00

$11,050.00

$48,485.00


$81,735.00
$40,868.00

$122,600.00


2,100.00

12,000.00

3,200.00


11,190.00

$ 8,450.00

$36,940.00


$62,690.00

$31,345.00
$94,000.00


* Covers Jamaican personnel who would be contracted from outside the NRC). These
experts, and the executive secretary, would supplement NRCD's technical, professional
and administrative staff who would be assigned to the CEP as part of the local
contribution.





- 24 -


JAMAICA ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE

DRAFT TABLE OF CONTENTS


1.0 Executive Summary

2.0 Introduction: Purpose of the Profile

3.0 Cultural history of human interactions with the environment

4.0 Country development goals

5.0 The national environment

5.1 External interactions
5.1 Country model
5.3 Thematic maps
5.4 Interaction matrix

6.0 Sector assessment

6.1 Agriculture 6.9 Recreation and Tourism
6.2 Forestry 6.10 Natural Hazards
6.3 Fisheries 6.11 Coastal Areas
6.4 Mining/minerals 6.12 Water and Hydrology
6.5 Training 6.13 Urban infrastructure
6.6 Industrial 6.14 People
6.7 Parks and wildlife 6.15 Education and research
6.16 Private Consultants, PVOs, etc.

7.0 Problems and Opportunities

7.1 Policies, programs and projects
7.2 Ccastraints and conflicts
7.3 Conflict resolution and management opportunities

8.0 Draft environmental policy statement

9.0 Program and project recamnendations

10.0 Updating process

11.0 Relation of Profile to other donor activities

12.0 Annexes

12.1 Referenced cited
12.2 Annotated bibliography
12.3 Location of useful information
12.4 Director of environmental and social sciences
12.5 Director of government agencies, PVOs, and consulting firms




Full Text

PAGE 1

SeOPING fiTUDY FOR JAMAICA COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE Ralph M. Field Dennis McCaffrey August, 1984 (11{-M-I.I ;2-1 BPM 34

PAGE 2

This document was produced for the Environmental Planning and Management Project of the International Institute for Environment and Development under the Purchdse Or0er Contract No. PO-IA The Environmental Planning and i1anagement Project is a cooperative agreement between the International Institute for Environment and Development and tne U.S. Agency for to respond to requests assistance from developing countries in a variety of environmental anu natural resource management Single copies of this document are available feee from: International Institute for Environment and Development 1717 Massachusetts Ave. N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036 (202) 462-0900

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PPDFILE OBJECl'IVES AND PURPOSES GENERAL TEProS OF REEERENCE w)RK PHASFS SPECIFIC TERr-JS OF REFERENCE Team Leader Socio-ecc:nanist I.egal/lnsti tutiona1 Analyst Hydrologist Agriculture Specialist Forester Specialist in Parks and Fisheries Specialist Specialist :in Environrrental Education Specialist in Natural Hazards Specialist in Pesticides, Po11uticn and Public Health Tourism Specialist Archeologist Air Quality Specialist PImRAI BUDGET ESTINATED CEP BUI:lGE:l' OPl'IOOS DRAFr TABIE OF CDN'l'ENTS 1 1 2 3 4 6 7 7 8 9, 10 10 11 12 13 15 16 17 i8 19 19 20 21 23 24

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SOOPOO STlDY FUR J/IMAICA. OOlNl'RY ENVIRON-1ENrAL PROFIlE nus seeping study was prepared in Jamaica between August 23 and 31, 1984 by Ralph M. Field, President, RMFA, Inc., and Dennis McCaffrey, Senior Research Associate for IIED,
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-2 -3. To key governrrental policies, progrClI!'lleS, and investment priorities affecting resource and environrtental 4. To establish an analytic frC'lm:!WOrk for evaluating and resolving c::onflicts in existing resource use and planned allocation. 5. To identify the areas of congruity and conflict between econanic developnent and environmental protection in key sectors and activities 6. To prepare a draft environnental policy statarent for Jamaica. 7. To identify programres and projects that further both envirorrnental and developEnt objectives that c::ould be financed by the Gove.rnIrent of Jamaica and/or the private with financial and technical assistance fran AID and other donor.s. '!be Jamaica Country Environnental Profile will be perfoz:med by a team of jamaican specialist.-3 covering the whole spectrum of environrrental interest. The Jamaican team will be headed by Hrs. Beverly Hiller, Principal Director, of the Natural JEsources Colservation Department. An intemational enviro:nrrental specialist with experience in Jamaica will serve as overall team leader for the profile. Additionally an international legal/institutional analysis \In.ll with thE. team. General tenns of reference for all team manbers are desC'xibErl belcrll, followed by specific terms of for each specialist. Separate tenns have been prepared for each sector, although there may be cases where a specialist will be respc:nsible for roore than one sector.

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-3 -The CEP will be prepared sequentially to ensure that the teclmical infonnation gathered and its subsequent analysis is reviewed in the broad context of the Govenment of Jamaica's existing and potential capabiH.ties to address envirOI'lnelltal issues. The CEP team leader will present a general. orientation on the CEP process to the Cl':P Team. Members will then collect and analyze information on their principal sector and prepare a draft sector report. TrlSse sector reports are to be suhnitted to the team leader, wb:> will lead the synthesis effort am:mg the team members. The final enviommental profile docunent sb:>uld be published as soon as possible after canpletion of the draft synthesis. At. least one thousand copies of the final docuoont should be printed The enviOUllental profile docunent should be brief enough, (maxi.nUn of 125 150 printed pages), that busy people will read it, as well as the executive sunmary that will be extracted from it and printed separately. The docunent should be prom:>ted within Jamaica and internationally. Good praootion will increase Jamaican awareness of envirornnental issues and encourage public and private actions. It also bring national environmental issues to the attention of international lending agencies that can be approached for financing environmental actions suggested in the profile. CENERAL TERMS OF REFERENCE In perfonning the envirormental profile each sector should actively exchange information and ideas with other team nenbers. The specialist should present data graphically (where possible) and also su1mi.t captioned photographs that illustrate issues or points of interest. Each sector specialist will be expected to analyze the

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-4 -key institutions involved in or respcnsible for his sector. The specialists soould also point out actual and potential ccnflicts with other sectors and state insights on how to resolve surn conflicts. Each special:i,st should identify possible environ roontal improvement projects, within his sector, that coold be financed by tre lklvenment arrl/or private sector with and without assistance fran the donor c:x:mm..m.i ty Earn specialist must tum in a draft report, awroved by the team leader, oovering his specific te.nns of reference. Intemational ccnsultants will be expected to work a six day week. PHASES Phase 1: In order to ensure that the research and analysis is carried rut with maxi.Irum effectiveness, work in Phase 1 should begin as soon as possible. Materials in NRC) files pertinent to earn of the sectors or areas of enviromnental ccncem, shall be stmrnarized by NIrn's professional staff. The file search will be suwlemented by interviews \.n.th kna"ledgeable persons fran other agencies, library research, and referEncing of earlier documents pertaining to the CEP. A principal objective of the Phase 1 work is to correctly focus the direction of the research that \-lill be corrlucted by local ronsul tants retained to prepare the sectoral reports. The W)rk in Phase 1 will be designed to reveal Il'ajor gaps in our information base. By systanatically reviewing readily available infonnation sources, NRCD staff will be able to provide the 1:ec-un leader with a Imlch so\.D1der basis for programrl.ng future \'tUrk, identifying \.m.ere technical experts will be needed, and helping to foc:us

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-5 -their' efforts to prcx1uce desired rutp,lts. No c:mtracting of technical experts will be undertaken during Phase 1. (See page 22 for Phase 1 budget.) Phase 2: 'lbe full study effort will be launched during Phase 2. Final scopes for each of the sectors shall be prepared; candi.dates will be screened for the various c:xnsulting assignm:mts; and, contracts will be entered into between those who are selected and lIED. In addition to proceeding with the technical \',urk, vari.ous administrative procedures shall be es+-.ablishErl between lIED and the Government of Jamaica for the disbursement of funds for consultants, and for expenses incuxred by NRCD in the oourse of carrying out the CEP. As part of the CEP effort, NRCD will atterrpt to set up lx>th a technical advisory cx:mnittee and a citizens advisory o::mni to ensure wide participation by a cross section of Jamaican society. A special atterrpt will be made to obtain private sector representation en the citizens advisory catmittee.

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-6 AI1.DCl\TION OF RE&1'ONSIBlUTY' Responsibility for producing the Jamaica CEP shall be allocated CIIrJT\g the International Institute for Envirorment and Development, lIED, the Jamaican Natural Resources Conservation Department, NRCD and the United States Agency for International DevelOIJ1Slt, USAID. lIED shall have overall responsibility for production of the CEP and for presenting a camara-ready copy of the profile docunent to tEAID. lIED will meet its responsibilities by contracting an international management specialist to serve as team leader for the profile process plus contracting any other persorm.el lIDt avai.lable in Jamaica. lIED shall also provide fran its staff. a legal/institutional analyst to in the profile. NRCD shall provide fran its staff the Jamaican team leader for the CEP plus several specialists to 'INOrk on various sectors of the profile that lie with' d their expertise. NRCD shall also provide office space in mich to work on the profile. NRCD's contribution of personnel' and office space constitutes the Jamaican Goverrm:mt' s counterpart contribution to the CEP project. In its contract with lIED, provision shall be made for NRC) to hire a secrecary to 'NOrk on the profile. Provision shall also be made in the contract for the logistical and adninistrative needs of the CEP tean by providing fmlds for pootocopying, local travel, local and long distance telephone, and other support services. mm shall locate qualified Jamaican persmmel to perfonn toose parts of the CEP that will not be perfoIlMd by int ernational specialists nor by NRCD staff. These Jamaican specialists will be contracted individually by lIED to perform specific portions of the CEP. Their contracts will provide for partial disbursement upon initiation of work, partial disbUrsemmt upon sulmi.ssion of a draft report, and final disbursem:mt upon acceptance by the international team leader of a final report.

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-7 -USAID, through the AID/Jamaica Office of Agricultural Development and the office of the Regional Envirormvantal Managemmt Specialist for the Caribbean, shall provide guidance and review to the CEP to insure that it meets USAID' S developnelt objectives :in Jamaica. Team Leader Duties: SPECIFIC TERl$ OF -Direct the envirormental profile process for the CEP, including the preparatory in Kingston. collaboration with the Jamaican Natural Resources Conservation Department in selection of Jamaican participants and defining their tenus of reference, organizing and coordinat:ing CEP team efforts in Jamaica, leading the synthesis effort and following through to public&tion of the CEP. Approve and accept all draft sector reports prepared by CEP participants. -Work closely with Jamaican cowterpart to maximize integration "arid collaboration of all nanbers of the CE? team. Qualifications: Significant and experience in directing multi-sectoral, environmental teams. lobrldng experience in Jamaica, and faniliarity with develotm=nt projects and environmental issues in Jama-tca.

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S3 :.. Demonstrated competence in technical writing and integrating several. sectoral reports into a coherent document. -Ability to work effectivel.y with J3In';lican professionals. Sod.o-economist Duties: Review and briefly describe the cultural history and background of Jamaica,. enphasizing patterns and attitudes concerning natural resources and the environment Stmnarize deaDgrapbic patterns and projections for Jamaica I s population with emphasis on pressures. on the enviromnent and natural resources. Brie:fly describe Jamaica I s general economy, covering such things as (Nl, and exports, econimic activity by sector and by population group, balance of payments, unemployment, etc. Relate the general economy to natural resources and enviromnent. Analyze social and economic aspects of key sectors affecting natural resources and the environrtelt: agriculture, energy, mining, forestry. fisheries, tourism, etc. Qualifications: Education in sociology and economics. Experience in social and economic analysis in Jamaica. 'nK>rough familiarity with Jamaica's social and economic conditions.

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Legal/Institutional Analyst -9 -Review and briefly describe relevant legislation and policy docunmts regarding natural resources and environment. Description should concentrate on adequacy and effectiveness of laws and policies. Review and briefly describe government and non-government institutions working with natural resources and envirornnent. Description srould concentrate on objectives, policies, and programs. It s1.lOuld also discuss levels of capability and expertise, credibility, and effectiveness of the institutions. -Make recc:mrendations on how to enhance the effectiveness of legislations, policies, and instituions analyzed. Recarmendations should be tailored to carrying out enviromnental action programS set out in the CEP. Qualifications : -Familiarity with envirorm-ental and natural resources law and poli.cy in developed and developing countries. Experience in prograrrming and administering canplex envirot'aIE1tal projects involving public and private sector institutions.

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Hydrologist Duties: 10 -Review and briefly describe the hydrolo3ic resources of Jamaica. Summarize the environmental aspects of existing and planned projects: irrigation, potable water, industrial water supply, hydroelectric power generation. Assess the causes and potential controls of floods along maj or rivers in Jamaica. Assess the groundwater resources of the country, with emphasis on availability and quality suitable for canpeting uses. Qualifications: Thorough expertise in the evaluation of hydrologic resources. -Familiarity with water rF.!sources and projects in Jamaica. -Capability of assesstng groUl1dwaters resources. Agriculture Specialist Duties: Review and briefly describe the agricultural situation in Jamaica, including recent statistics on major crops for internal and external markets, and the area planted and average yields of each major crops, include discussion of important subsistence crops. Assess the current economic role and possibilities for increasing production of maj or crops.

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11 -Describe current practices of land preparation, use of fertilizers and pesticides, and harvesting, and assess the envirOI'lIIEltal implications of traditional and high technology agricultural practices. Evaluate Jamaican efforts and programs in soil conservation and land use capability classification. Discuss programs to promote non-traditional crops in Jamaica. Qualifications: Forester Duties: Education in agriculture, or related field. Thorough familiarity with traditional and trodem agriculture in Jamaica. Review and briefly describe the forest resources of Jamaica, including suanaries of ecological life zones, major forest types and principal tree species. Assess the state of knowledge about the Jamaican flora, high lighting endangered or threatened plant species. Summ'ize the econanic and ecologic roles of forest industries, including recent statistics on production, demand, local consumption, exports, etc. Assess the causes, rate, and effects of deforestation in Jamaica.

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., II! -Describe the status, purpose, extent and administration of plantation forest reserves and other production forests. Evaluate forestry programs :in silvicultlU"e, reforestation, agroforestry, training. etc. : Thorough familiarity with Jamaica forestry and forest resources. -Expertise in tropical forestry/silviculture. Specialist in PrCXIDtion .Duties: Set up and carry out pramtional cactivities for the CEP during the process of its preparation and upon its publication. PrCXIDtional activities could include such things as seninar, bus:iness lunches, press conferences, television appearances and fonnal. and infonnal meeting with influential persons in govern ment and the private sector. Coordinate pramtional activities with the advancement of the preparation of the CEP and with the findings of other memebers of the CEP team. Qualifications: Experience :in setting up and carrying out pramtional activities in Jamaica. General knowledge of environmental Bud natural resources issues in Jamaica.

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Parks and Wildlife Specialist Duties: 11 -Review and briefly describe the status of conservation of Jamaica's parks and wildlife. Assess the state of knowledge about Jamaica's terrestrial wildlife (plants and animals) highlighting endangered or threatened species. Evaluate Jamaica's systan of national parks and equivalent reserves as to ecosystems represented or not included, administration, protection, legal status, problems, threats, etc. Review the political, legal, econanic and ecologic implications of hunting (both for game and for skins or hides) and recaIlIEld objective and politically feasible mechanisms of control. Qualifications : Recognized expertise in the toxoncmy and ecology of Jamaican wildlife. -Familiarity with parks and wildlife conservation issues in Jamaica.

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14 -Specialist in Urban DeveloJ!IBlt and Industry Duties: -Briefly describe Jamaica I s urban developnent and industrial situation, payirtg particular attention to developaElt trends and the interaction that urban deve1o[:MeIlt and il:K1ust.,-:y have w;i th n.ttuI".11 resources and the enviraunent. Analyze impacts on environment and natural resources of Jamaica I s urban developnent and industrial plans and programs. Qualifications: Thorough knowledge of Jamaican industry and urban develOIEe!Ilt. Experience in analyzing urban develoJXlElt and industrial trends and programs. Mining and Energy Specialist Duties: Review and briefly describe the energy situation in Jamaica emphasizing actual and plarmed projects, actual energy sources in urban and rural areas, sector danands and substitution of local energy for petroleun products. Assess the potential of alternativE' energy sources such as alcohol, solar, wind, bianass, etc. Describe Jamaica's mineral resources and mining industry with special emphasis on present and predicted environmental impacts of mining.

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-15 -Qualifications: Thorough knowledge of the energy requirements and possibilities of Jamaica. -Familiarity with a broad array of alternative energy sources. Thorough knowledge of Jamaica's mineral resources and mining :industry. Fisheries Specialist Duties: -Briefly describe Jamaica's fisheries resources and their significance :in Jamaica life :including statistics on catch, imports and exports, fish conSUDption, and :industries based on fish. Assess the quality and quantity of fish stocks and indicate predicted trends in stocks and :in fishing. Analyze the relationship between fisheries and environmental factors that affect them. qualifications: Knowledge of Jamaican fisheries and envirorunental impacts on fisheries. Experience :in analyzing fisheries in an envirornnental context.

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-16 Spl.:.cialist in Environmental Education* Duties: Review curt'mt status of envirOIlIIlmtal education (e.e.) in fonnal and non-fonnal settings, identify and briefly describe existing programs. Review results of CEP sector assessments and identify where e.e. can play a significant role in carrying out reccmIEldation actions. Based on review, make recoomendations for the types of e. e. programs appropriate for Jamaican needs. -In close coordhJgtion with the institutional analysis identify private and public institutions that can carry out e.e. programs. -Make recoom:mdations for possible funding mechanisms 'and sOurces for potential e.e. projects. Qualifications: Experience in Jamaica in progranming e.e. programs in fonna1. and non-formal settings for differenct types of audiencies on small and large scales ------------------------------------* Envirornnental education to be defined in the broad sense, i. e. any type of education to be applied for eli verse audiences in order to bring about improved environmental/natural resources managemmt.

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Specialist in Natural Hazards I:llties: -17 --Briefly describe the natural hazards to which Jamaica is vulnerable. 'I1lese should include hurricanes, ooastal floods riverine floods, high winds, earthquakes, lands lips and stonn surge. -Identify the areas of high risk in both rural and urban settings. Trace th3 pattern of past damages resulting fran natural hazards including property damage and loss of life or personal injury. -Assess the extent to which enviro:rJreIltal problans such as deforestation, soil erosion, and wetlands destruction contribute to hazard-related risks to life and property. -Assess the extent to which hazard mitigation actions have been taken, their degree of success, and needed additional imple rrentaion rreasures or programs. Qualifications: -Professional involvarent in hazard mitigation activities in ,Jamaica and the Caribbean. -Training in the social or physical sciences related to one or rrore aspects of natural hazards am haz:m:l rnitigatioo.

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-18 -Specialist in Pesticides! Pollution! and Public Health Duties: -Briefly describe the Jamaican situation in enviromnental pollution with regard to water quality solid waste disposal, sewage disposal, and pesticides. Assess the use of pesticides in Jamaica indluding ilTports, controls and education for appropriate usage, and disposal of residues. -Briefly describe the publi,.. health and nutritional status of Janaica's population with such stratification by age, sex, education, urban/rural locaticn and other criteria as are appropriate. Evaluate Jamaican public health and environmental sanitation programs. Qualifications: Thorough knowledge of Jamaican public health and envirommntal sanitation situation. knONledge of appropriate pesticide handling teclmiques and dangers of improper pesticide usage

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Tourism Specialist 'Duties: -19 Describe J3maican tourist i."dustry with particular to interrelationships between tourism and environment. '. Analyze effects that environmental degradation could have on tourism and also adverse effects that tourism can l'.we on the env:i.rornnent. Qualification: Thorough knowlege of Jamaica'.s tourist industry -Solid understanding of enviromnental problems and issues in Jamaica. Archeologist Duties: Describe the role of archeology in Jamaican culture. Describe Jamaica's major archeological and historic sites and discuss their protection and heM they interrelate with the envlrOl'lIJlElllt and with envirOtlIlEltal protection. Qualifications: Thorough knowledge of Jamaican archeology. -Good understanding of envirOI'mEltal issues in Jamaica.

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Speialist Duties: 20'-Briefly describe Jamaica's situation with regard to air quality, highlighting localitieD where air pollution are Analyze Jamaica programs for air pollution control. Q".Jalifications: Thorough knowledge of Jamaica's air quality situation and programs for air pollution control. -Good understanding of envirOJ.1[IEntal issues in Jamaica.

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21 Budget t-1anagement: The full buoget, presented on page 23, is divided into a Jamaica Cc:n'ponent and an International Carq;x::ment. t.vhile all disbursements \\'OUld be made through prime crntractor (IIED), the Principal Director of NRCD, who wruld be the counterpart 'ream leader, and the Team Leader would jointly ccncur on disburselnents for the Jamaica Canpanent. As noted previously, an acoounting procedure \oJould be incepted by NRCD, for purposes of reoording payments to local consultants, and paying for the purchase of services and supplies required by the project. Options: At the request of AID, three budget alternatives were prepared. Option A ($149,000) Full Staffing 15-M:nth Effort, is t.he preferred altemati'Je. It \t.Ould a full 12 rronths for the cooduct of the tecr..nical \
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22 -Project Phasing: Earlier in this Seeping Study (see pages 4-5), it was reccmnended that a Phase 1 effort be launched as SOCI1 as possible to maintain the rranentmn that has beb'1. generated. To ext:edi te the Phase 1 work it is suggested that a short-tem ccntract (or p,lrcha.se order) be authorized by AID to allow the Team leader to assist NRCD's staff in getting the process underway. This nove is regard.OO as desirable fran a managerent standpoint as as fran a teclmical point of view. A small initial expenditure have a rrajor nrultiplier effect insofar as it \\Ould rrobilize NRCD I s technical and professional staff, and lay the basis for the full program 11. I'hase 2. Phase 1 costs are as follows: Ccnp?nen t Intematiooal Ccnp?nent Team reader Travel Per dien SUB-'IDl'AL OVERHEAD '!OrAL 0 $3,200 1,300 1,071 $5,571 2,786 $8,357 ($8,400 rounded) '!his arrount ($8,400) \\Ould be subtracted fran the total ccntract arrount for each of the three budget cpticns stKJwn on the follCMing page.

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.lJ -A. B. c. Major Budget Item FUll Staffing FUll Staffing !-tin. Staffing 15 Month 12 li:Jnth 12 Umth Janaica O::IIllonentB Effort Effort Effort Ibnoraria/Salaries* Technical Experts @ $450 p/Wk 24,750.00 20,2jO.00 15,750.00 Executive Secretary @ $58 p/Wa<. 3,750.00 3,000.00 3,000.00 Draftsman @ $50 p/Wa<. 750.00 500.00 Public Education/Pramtfon 3,125.00 2,500.00 2,000.00 Travel/Subsistence 3,750.00 3,750.00 2,500.00 S\.Wlies and, Eq1.liprelt 2,500.00 2,000.00 1,SOO.00 POOtoreproduction, graphics 750.00 7SO.00 SOO.OIl Misc. (inclu:fing telepbma) 7SO.00 SOO.OO SOO.OO JAMAICA StJB.-'lUl'AL $40,125.00 $33,250.00 $25,750.00 International' Corrp
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24 JAMAICA ENVIOCNMENTAL ProFILE DRAFI' TABLE OF aNI'EN'lS 1.0 Executive Surrmary 2.0 Introduction: Purpose of the Profile 3.0 CUltural histOry of human interactions with the exw.irorment 4.0 Country developnent goals 5.0 The national envirament 5.1 EKternal interactions 5.1 Country nodel 5.3 Thematic maps 5.4 Interaction matrix 6.0 Sector assessment 6 .1 Agriculture 6.2 Forestry 6.3 Fisheries 6.4 6.5 Training 6.6 Industrial 6.7 Parks and wildlife 7.0 Problems and Opportunities 7.1 Policies, programs and projects 7.2 CCllstraints and conflicts 6.9 Recreation arrl Tourism 6.10 Natural Hazards 6.11 Coastal Areas 6.12 Water and Hydrology 6.13 Urban infrastructure 6.14 People 6.15 Education and research 6.16 Private -Consultants, PVOs, etc. 7.3 Conflict resolution and managanent opportunities 8.0 Draft envirol1rrental policy staterent 9.0 Program and project recx:::rrr.endatic::ns 10.0 Updating process 11.0 \ Pslation of Profile to other c1cnor activities 12.0 Annexes 12.1 Psferenc:ed cited 12 .2 Annotated bibliography 12.3 Iocaticn of useful infonnation 12.4 Director of enviroorrentl and social sciences 12 .5 Director of govemrrent agencies, PVOs, and ccnsulting finns