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1982-1986 research and development plan

Material Information

Title:
1982-1986 research and development plan
Series Title:
Florida Water Resources Research Center Publication Number 51
Physical Description:
Book
Creator:
Heaney, James P.
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
System ID:
AA00001527:00001

Full Text

Publication No. 51

1982-1986 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PLAN

For
Florida Water Resources Research Center

By

James P. Heaney, Director
Florida Water Resources Research Center
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

_J ;; ..J L

1982-1986 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PLAN

FOR

FLORIDA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH CENTER

Submitted to

DIRECTOR
OFFICE OF WATER RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
Washington, D.C. 20240

by

James P. Heaney, Director
Florida Water Resources Research Center
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

October 1980

CONTENTS

Page

List of Tables ............................................... iv

List of Figures ....... ............................................... v

Acknowledgments ................................................ vi

SECTION I: SUMMARY .......................... ................. 1

Florida's Water Resources and Current Activities ......... 1

Problem Categorization and Ranking ........................ 2

Five-Year Program ....................................... 3

SECTION II: FLORIDA'S WATER RESOURCES ......................... 8

Precipitation .......................................... ... 8

Surface Water ............................................ 9

Ground Water ............................................. 29

References .............................................. 33

SECTION III: THE USE OF FLORIDA'S WATER RESOURCES ............ 35

Public Supplies .......................................... 38

Rural Self-Supplied ............ .......................... 38

Industrial ................................................ 39

Irrigation ............................................... 39

Thermoelectric Power Generation ........................... 40

References ................................................ 42

SECTION IV: WATER AND RELATED LAND PLANNING AND
DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES ............................ 43

Water Management Districts ................................ 43

Special Studies .......................................... 54

ii

Federal ................................................... 57

State ...................................................... 66

Industry ................................................. 70

University Research ........ .............................. 71

References ............................................... 75

SECTION V: PROBLEM CATEGORIZATION .............................. 78

Problem Categorization .............. ..................... 79

References ............................................... 97

SECTION VI: CENTER PRIORITIES AND JUSTIFICATION FOR THE
SELECTION OF THOSE PRIORITIES ..................... 98

Organization of the Center ................................. 99

Research Priorities ......... .............................. 99

SECTION VII: FIVE-YEAR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PLAN .......... 101

APPENDIX: OWRT INSTRUCTIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF FIVE-YEAR
PLAN ................................................ 113

iii

LIST OF TABLES

Table Page

I-1 Estimated Budget Requirements by Research
Category: FY 1982-1986 ............................ 4

1-2 Proposed Distribution of Federal Funds: FY 1982-
1986 ................................................ 6

IV-1 Research and Technical Studies: FY 1979-80,
St. Johns Water Management District ............... 46

IV-2 Proposed Program Activities: South Florida
Water Management District .......................... 49

IV-3 Expenditures by the Corps of Engineers in
Florida .......................................... 58

IV-4 Topical Classification of USGS
Investigations ...... .............................. 62

VII-1 Proposed Distribution of Funds by Budget Activity
for Fiscal Year 1982 ....... ....................... 102

VII-2 Proposed Distribution of Funds by Budget Activity
for Fiscal Year 1983 ..................... .......... 104

VII-3 Proposed Distribution of Funds by Budget Activity
for Fiscal Year 1984 ................................ 106

VII-4 Proposed Distribution of Funds by Budget Activity
for Fiscal Year 1985 ..... ......................... 108

VII-5 Proposed Distribution of Funds by Budget Activity
for Fiscal Year 1986 .......... .................. .. 110

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Page

II-1 Discharge of the Principal Rivers in Florida ........ 10

11-2 Florida Index Map ... ............................... 11

11-3 Central and Southern Florida Area ................... 12

11-4 Lower St. Johns and North Coastal Area .............. 18

11-5 Northwest Florida Area ............................... 21

11-6 Southwest Florida Area ............................... 24

11-7 Florida Portion of the Suwannee River Basin ......... 27

11-8 Principal Sources of Ground Water ................... 29

11-9 Altitude of Top of the Floridan Aquifer ............. 31

II-10 Potentiometric Surface of Floridan Aquifer, May
1974 ............................................... 31

II-11 Decline of Potentiometric Surface of Floridan
Aquifer in Area of Heavy Withdrawal of Ground
Water, 1961-74 ...................................... 32

III-1 Trends in Population and Fresh Water Withdrawn
in Florida, 1950-75 ................................. 35

III-2 Source, Use and Disposition of 6.9 Billion
Gallons Per Day of Fresh Water in Florida in
1975 ................................................ 37

IV-1 Corps of Engineers Navigation Projects in
Florida ............................................ 59

IV-2 Corps of Engineers Flood Control and Shore Pro-
tection Projects in Florida ......................... 60

IV-3 Location of On-Going USGS Investigations ............ 63

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank numerous people who provided invaluable

assistance in preparing this five-year plan. First, a general accolade

to Dr. Marvin T. Bond, Executive Director of the Mississippi Water

Resources Research Institute, for circulating early drafts of his

five-year plan. These drafts and his final five-year plan provided

an excellent guideline in preparing this plan. Next, I'd like to thank

the seventy-five participants at the 1980 annual meeting for their

participation and suggestions. Next, special thanks to agency repre-

sentatives and faculty who returned questionnaires on research needs.

Over 1000 news clippings were assembled by Ms. Anelia Crawford and

Ms. Diana Phillips under the able direction of Ms. Dibbie Dunnam.

Lastly, a special thanks to Ms. Peggy Paschall for transforming bits

and pieces of text into final copy in a very short time.

Partial financial support to develop this five-year plan was

obtained from the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station (EIES),

University of Florida, as part of their water resources research

program. The cooperation of Dr. M. J. Ohanian, Director of EIES,

is appreciated.

SECTION I

SUMMARY

A five year (1982-1988) research and development program has been

developed by the Florida Water Resources Center to meet requirements

of the Water Research and Development Act of 1978 as implemented by

the Office of Water Research and Technology. Similar plans have been

prepared by the 53 other centers and institutions. These results

will provide the basis for similar plans being prepared at the regional

and national levels.

The effort comprised three major tasks: 1) an inventory of

Florida's water resources and current activities; 2) a summary of exist-

ing and projected water related problems; and 3) an estimate of how the

resources expected to be available to the Center will be used to exam-

ine some of these problems.

Florida's Water Resources and Current Activities

Florida is blessed with a relative abundance of high quality sur-

face and ground water. However, the water is not always when and

where man would like to have it. Hurricanes, floods, and droughts

are major problems. Likewise, water quality is deteriorating as areas

develop.

An annual average of 56 inches of rain falling on Florida

replenishes streamflow and ground water aquifers. The Floridan aquifer

is the major water supply source for the State of Florida. Much of

the water movement in southern Florida is regulated by water control

structures which have been installed during this century. The largest

such project in the state is the Central and Southern Florida Flood

Control Project.

A total of almost seven billion gallons of water are withdrawn

daily. Approximately one half of this withdrawal is from surface

sources. The other half is from ground water. This water is used for

public supply (16%), rural supply (4%), industrial purposes (14%),

irrigation (42%), and thermoelectric power generation (24%).

The State of Florida is divided into five water management dis-

tricts (Northwest, Saint Johns, South, Southwest, and Suwannee), each

of whose territory is established by hydrologic boundaries. The

Florida Department of Environmental Regulation is the primary state

agency for water management. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Geo-

logical Survey and Soil Conservation Service are the primary Federal

agencies. Two groups are actively pursuing research on industrial

related activities: the National Council for Air and Stream Improve-

ment, and the Florida Institute of Phosphate Research. Numerous

university research groups are active in water related programs.

Problem Categorization and Ranking

Florida's water problems and priorities were established by

soliciting input from several groups. Agency representatives were

asked to rank Florida's problems using formal questionnaires and

informal discussions. Another valuable perspective on "problems"

was gained by subscribing to a news clipping service for all of

Florida's newspapers for six months beginning in April, 1980. These

more than one thousand clippings were arranged by county. The Second

National Water Assessment by the U.S. Water Resources Council expended

much effort in prioritizing water problems in the southeastern United

States. This effort was valuable in providing the regional and national

perspectives. The major source of information regarding priorities

for research in water problems related to agricultural areas came from

a state-wide meeting sponsored by the Institute of Food and Agricul-

tural Sciences. Another perspective was obtained by meeting with con-

servation groups. Lastly, university faculty were asked to suggest what

they felt were the most important research topics that needed attention.

There are numerous ways in which water problems can be classi-

fied. The selected scheme was developed by the Virginia Water Resources

Center using an outline of the South Atlantic Gulf Region as a point

of departure. The five categories are shown in Table I-1.

Five-Year Program

Given the above information, estimates were prepared of how

available resources could be allocated with available monies. Two

levels of annual funding ($115,000 and$250,000) for the Annual Coopera-

tive Program were to be used. In addition, anticipated matching

grant and other funds were programmed into the plan. The resultant

display of how monies could be used is shown in Table I-1. The Federal

portion of the expenditures is shown in Table 1-2. Of course, these

are only planning projections. The actual amounts expended will vary.

Table I-1. Estimated Budget Requirements by Research Category: FY 1982-1986

Program Elements FY 1982 FY 1983 FY 1984 FY 1985 FY 1986 TOTALS

Institute Office Support

Federal 45 50 55 60 65 275
(60) (65) (70) (75) (80) (350)
Non-Federal 23 25 28 30 33 139
(30) (33) (35) (38) (40) (176)
Sub-Total 68 75 83 90 98 414
(90) (98) (105) (113) (120) (526)

I. Atmospheric, Hydrologic &
Hydraulic Processes

Federal 25 20 20 10 10 85
(70) (65) (60) (65) (65) (325)
Non-Federal 13 10 10 5 5 43
(36) (34) (31) (33) (33) (167)
Sub-Total 38 30 30 15 15 128
(106) (99) (91) (98) (98) (492)

II. Hydrologic-Ecologic
Relationships

Federal 10 10 10 30 25 85
(50) (50) (50) (70) (70) (290)
Non-Federal 5 5 5 15 13 43
(25) (25) (25) (35) (35) (145)
Sub-Total 15 15 15 45 38 128
(75) (75) (75) (105) (105) (435)

III. Water Quality Monitoring
& Protection

Federal

Non-Federal

Sub-Total

10
(20)
5
(10)
15
(30)

10
(20)
5
(10)
15
(30)

10
(20)
5
(10)
15
(36)

30
(60)
15
(30)
45
(90)

Table I-1. Estimated Budget Requirements by Research Category: FY 1982-1986

Program Elements

FY 1982

FY 1983

FY 1984

FY 1985

FY 1986

TOTALS

IV. Water Development, Use,
Conservation, and
Management

Federal 15 15 10 40
(15) (15) (15) (20) (15) (80)
Non-Federal 8 8 5 21
(8) (8) (8) (10) (8) (42)
Sub-Total 23 23 15 61
(23) (23) (23) (30) (23) (122)

V. Institutional and
Economic Analysis and
Water Resources Planning

Federal 10 10 10 15 15 60
(35) (35) (35) (20) (20) (145)
Non-Federal 5 5 5 8 8 31
(18) (18) (18) (10) (10) (74)
Sub-Total 15 15 15 23 23 91
(53) (53) (53) (30) (30) (219)

PROGRAM BUDGET ESTIMATES

Federal 115 115 115 115 115 575
(250) (250) (250) (250) (250) (1,250)
Non-Federal 59 58 58 58 -59 292
(127) (128) (127) (126) (126) (634)
Totals 174 173 173 173 174 867
(377) (378) (377) (376) (376) (1,884)

( ) are estimates based on an Annual Cooperative
Program appropriation of $250,000 Federal funds. Table 1-2. Proposed Distribution of Federal Funds: FY 1982-1986 FY 1982 FY 1983 FY 1984 FY 1985 FY 1986 ACP ACP Match. ACP ACP Match. ACP ACP Match. ACP ACP Match.ACP ACP Match. Level Level Fund Level Level Fund. Level LevelFund Level LevelFund Level Level Fund Budget Activity I II Prog. _I_ II Frog. I II Prog. I II Proq. I II Prog. Institute Office Support 45 60 -0- 50 65 -0- 55 70 -0- 60 75 -0- 65 80 -0- Category I: Atmospheric, Hydrologic & Hydraulic Processes Saline Intrusion 15 15 15 15 15 Pollutants to Groundwater 15 30 40 10 25 40 10 20 40 10 50 40 10 50 40 Instream Flows Low Flow Predictions Supply Water Uses Flood Plain Management 10 25 10 25 10 25 Erosion Control Category II: Hydrologic- Ecologic Relationships Wetlands 10 20 10 20 10 20 10 40 15 20 Estuarine Quality Degradation Lake & Reservoir Quality 20 20 20 20 20 Nonpoint Sources 40 40 40 50 50 Point Sources Water and Energy Acid Rain 10 10 10 10 40 30 40 Channelization 20 10 Dredging & Filling Heated Water-Discharges Water Quality Monitoring Aquatic Weed Control Category III: Water Quality Monitoring & Protection Reclamation and Reuse of Wastewater Water Treatment Processes 10 20 10 20 10 20 Table 1-2. Proposed Distribution of Federal Funds: FY 1982-1986 Category IV: Water Development, Use, Conser- vation, and Management Irrigation Large Reserves Water Conservation in Industry & Agriculture 15 15 15 15 10 15 Salvage & Conservation of Excess Water Reclamation & Reuse Cost-Effectiveness/ Energy 20 40 15 40 Requirements Drainage 30 60 60 60 Category V: Institutional and Economic Analysis and Water Resources Planning Floods 40 40 40 Dam Safety Considerations Hydroelectric Control of Water Use 15 15 15 Integrating Water and Land Use Management 10 20 10 20 10 20 Land Use Control in Water Resource Management Institutional Constraints 15 20 10 15 20 40 Legal Constraints 30 30 30 Wastewater Treatment for Small Communities TOTALS 115 250 150 115 250 180 115 250 210 115 250 240 115 250 270 SECTION II FLORIDA'S WATER RESOURCES Florida is blessed with a relative abundance of water. Its coastal areas, springs, lakes, and rivers support a major tourist industry as well as meeting the usual needs for water. On the debit side, Florida suffers major damages from hurricanes and heavy precipitation causing serious flooding. South Florida is served by a complex network of water control structures whereas much of northern Florida's water system is still in its undisturbed state. Unfortunately, a current comprehensive summary of Florida's water resources is not available. The last such summary was prepared in 1956 (Florida Water Resources Study Commission, 1956). An inventory of Southwest Florida was completed in 1966 (Florida Board of Conservation) followed by the St. Johns in 1970 (Florida Department of Natural Resources) and Southeastern Florida in 1974 (Florida Department of Natural Resources). Other primary sources of information are a 1975 Florida Atlas (Wood and Fernald, 1974), a consultant's report (Garcia-Bengochea, Pyne, and Black, 1975) and draft material from the State Water Use Plan (Florida Department of Environmental Regulation and the Water Management Districts, 1978). The information to follow is taken from these reports and other sources. Precipitation Average annual rainfall in Florida varies from a low of 52 inches along the east coast to more than 64 inches in northwest Florida. The statewide average is 56 inches per year (Hughes et al., 1971). About 60 to 98 percent of the annual rain fall is lost through evapotranspiration. Surface Water Part of the precipitation appears as surface runoff to river systems. Figure II-1 shows the average flow of the major surface streams. The largest rivers are in the northern part of the state. Lake Okeechobee is the largest lake in the state and the second largest lake in the United States with a surface area of some 700 square miles. Florida's springs are world famous. Silver Springs, the largest spring, has an average flow of 533 cubic feet per second. Wetlands comprise about 15 percent of Florida's acreage. These areas provide a large amount of water storage and help purify the surface and ground water. The Corps of Engineers divides Florida into the five areas shown in Figure 11-2. The boundaries of these areas correspond closely to those of the five water management districts. Summary descriptions of these five areas, extracted from the annual report of the Jacksonville District, are presented below (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979). Central and Southern Florida Area (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979) The area includes the central and southern part of the State south of Cape Canaveral and the city of Orlando, and lies generally east of the ridge which divides the waters which flow into the Atlantic from those which reach the Gulf of Mexico (see Figure 11-8). The individual drainage basins included in this area constitute, for all practical purposes, a single watershed because in most cases their waters inter- mingle during periods of heavy rainfall and their problems of water control and use, as well as their economic problems, are closely K 2' A" .1~'~ - L.. 25,000 50,000 o_ 1b,ooo Width of river indicates aver- age discharge in cubic feet per second o pO o Figure II-i. Discharge of the Principal Rivers in Florida (Kenner et al., 1969). 10 ALA B A MA ; G---E-- R GIA PENSACOLA 7--- LID1 &<__4?-..------- -_( < LEGEND TAMPA CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN FLORIDA AREA LOWER ST. JOHNS AND NORTH ) COASTAL AREA NORTHWEST FLORIDA AREA \ SSOUTHWEST FLORIDA AREA @) FLORIDA PORTION OF SUWANNEE RIVER BASIN AREA MIA INDEX MAP SCALE IN MILES 0 100 KEY WEST co Figure 11-2. Florida Index Map (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979) FORT MYERS FT. LAUDERDALE AMI SCALE IN MILES I I 0 40 Figure 11-3. Central and Southern Florida Area (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979). interrelated. Principal subareas include the upper St. Johns River and related areas, Lake Okeechobee and its outlets, the Everglades, the coastal areas, and the northern portion of the Florida Keys. Because of the nature of the climate, topography, and development, the area is subject to extremes of flood and drought. Lake Okeechobee, a large natural, shallow, freshwater lake, is the heart of the Central and Southern Florida area. The Okeechobee Waterway is a navigation channel which connects the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico via St. Lucie Canal, Lake Okeechobee, and Caloosahatchee River. The source of the Kissimmee is in several streams which rise west of Ft. Pierce in St. Lucie County. The area is separated from the saline Indian River by a low coastal ridge 3 to 10 miles wide and ranging up to elevation 30. Direction of drainage is largely indeter- minate and, depending on differences in rainfall and direction of winds, may be west toward the Kissimmee River, south toward the St. Lucie River, or to the north and east where waters collect to form the St. Johns. Open water and the beginning of the channel is in the latitude of Melbourne. In recent years, much of the original marsh has been converted to improved pasture, cropland, or citrus production. The Everglades is the name generally applied to the area extending southerly from Lake Okeechobee to points west of Miami, then southwesterly about 40 miles toward Florida Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. In its original state it was a vast solitude of sawgrass and water and was aptly termed by the indian inhabitants the "Pa-hay- okee" or "grassy water." Almost half of the Everglades proper is in the water conservation areas of the Central and Southern Florida project, less than 10 percent is in the Everglades National Park, which is in the Southwest Area. By 1970, over 21 million people had settled along the south Florida coast, primarily along the coastal ridges in Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach Counties. Rapid population influx, the resulting development, and related environmental damage have resulted in serious water-resource-related problems. Poor water quality is a severe problem stemming from inadequate or untreated waste discharges, agricultural and urban storm-water runoff, and salt water intrusion and septic tank water seepage into groundwater. Competition for land resources also has forced development into flood-prone lands. In recent years, Miami Harbor and adjacent Port Everglades have become the principal cruise ship ports in the southeastern United States. The cruise ship industry is one of south Florida's fastest growing industries. Beach erosion is a problem along the coastal areas. A number of navigation, flood control, and beach erosion control projects have been authorized. A summary of the Central and Southern Florida Project is presented next. The first phase of the Central and Southern Florida Project was authorized by the Flood Control Act of June 30, 1948. It con- sisted of most of the works necessary to afford flood protection to the productive agricultural development south of Lake Okeechobee and to the highly developed urban area along the lower east coast of the state. Phase 2, consisting of all remaining works of the original Comprehensive Plan, was authorized by the Flood Control Act of September 3, 1954. Improvements in Hendry County and in Nicodemus Slough (just west of Lake Okeechobee) were added to the project by the Flood Control Acts of July 3, 1958, and July 14, 1960, respectively. Improvements in Boggy Creek, Cutler Drain Area, Shingle Creek, South Dade County, and West Palm Beach Canal were added to the project by the Flood Control Act of October 23, 1962. Improvements in Southwest Dade County were added to the project by the Flood Control Act of October 27, 1965; the same act modifying the 1958 authorization for the Hendry County improvements. The Flood Control Act of 1968 expanded the project to provide for increased storage and conservation of water and for improved distribution of water throughout much of the project area. Flood control measures for Martin County were added. The 1968 modifica- tion would also facilitate increased delivery of water to the Everglades National Park. The project involves an area of about 16,000 square miles, which includes all or part of 18 counties in central and southern Florida. It embraces Lake Okeechobee, its regulatory outlets, a large portion of the Everglades, the upper St. Johns and Kissimmee River Basins, and the lower east coast of Florida. The project is one for flood relief and water conservation and provides principally for an east coast protective levee from the Homestead area north to the eastern shore of Lake Okeechobee near St. Lucie Canal; three conservation areas for water impoundment in the Everglades area west of the east coast protective levee, with control structures to effect transfer of water as necessary; local protective works along the lower east coast; encirclement of the Lake Okeechobee agricultural area by levees and canals; enlargement of portions of Miami, North New River, Hillsboro, and West Palm Beach Canals; enlargement of existing Lake Okeechobee levees and construc- tion of new levees on the northeast and northwest shores of the lake; increased outlet capacity for improved control of Lake Okeechobee; floodway channels in the Kissimmee River Basin, with suitable control structures to prevent overdrainage, and facilities for regulation of floods in the Upper St. Johns River Basin. The project provides water control and protection from the recurrence of devastating floodwaters from the Everglades and local sources for the highly developed urban area along the lower east coast of Florida and for the productive agri- cultural areas around Lake Okeechobee (including the towns around the lake), in the upper St. Johns and Kissimmee River Basin, and in south Dade County. Another important project function is the conservation of floodwaters for beneficial uses during dry seasons. The project also includes seven navigation locks, 20 feet wide and 90 feet long in the Kissimmee River Basin; six locks, 20 feet wide and 60 feet long in the St. Johns River Basin; and the necessary channel excava- tions and bridge alterations to provide needed facilities for additional recreational boating use. Authorized project facilities include 30 pumping stations, 192 control and diversion structures, 897 miles of levees, 954 miles of canals, 26 navigation locks, and 57 railroad relocations (bridges). St. Johns (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979) This area includes that part of the St. Johns River Basin from Lake Harney downstream and those areas east and north of the St. Johns River (see Figure 11-4). The St. Johns River begins in a broad, swampy area just west of Ft. Pierce in St. Lucie County, about 300 river miles from its mouth at Mayport. The St. Johns is one of the few northerly flowing rivers in the United States. It is one of the largest rivers in Florida, draining an area of 9,430 square miles. Some 1,900 square miles of this area are upstream of Lake Harney and referred to as the Upper St. Johns River Basin. The St. Johns River and its principal tributary, the Oklawaha River, received much of their flow from the large perennial springs which are among Florida's many tourist attractions. The fall of the St. Johns River from the source to the mouth is only 25 feet. The river is perennially tidal as far upstream as Lake George (106 miles) and, under combined conditions of drought and high tide, the tidal effects occur as far upstream as Lake Monroe (161 miles). Approximately S"*TALLAHASSEE SO / SPRINGS T AUGUSTINE FERNANDINA. -,_DAYTONA\ 0 40 VICINITY MAP Corps of EngineersSCALE IN MILES GREEN COVE SPRINGS iT AUGUSTINE *GAINESVILLE ,PALATKA Y-, MBUNNELL OCAL ^ VDAYTONA SCALE IN MILES NF 0 40 Figure 111-4. Lower St. Johns and North Coastal Area (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979). two-thirds of the drainage area in the St. Johns River Basin, including the Oklawaha River Basin, lies west of the main stem. Drainage in the coastal strip between the St. Johns River Basin and the Atlantic Ocean is into lagoons, formed by barrier islands, and to the ocean. The altitude of most of the area is less than 50 feet above mean sea level, although altitudes along the western drainage divides generally range from 75 to 200 feet and exceed 300 feet in the upper Oklawaha River basin. No major improvements have been made to the St. Johns River proper upstream (south) from Lake Harney. Below Lake Harney, the river is used for navigation throughout its length. The existing project provides for a channel from Lake Harney downstream to Jacksonville, with depths of 13 feet from Jacksonville to Palatka, 12 feet to Sanford, and 5 feet to Lake Harney. From Jacksonville to the ocean, a channel ranging from 34 to 38 feet accommodates large ocean-going vessels. Improvements to provide flood protection and drainage in the upper St. Johns River consist principally of locally constructed levees and canals. The principal urban concentrations occur in the Jacksonville Metro- politan area. Within this regional area, flooding poses a serious prob- lem due to inadequate drainage facilities and the encroachment of develop- ment into flood-prone areas. Dwindling ground water supplies provide essentially all domestic and industrial water used in the area. Urban stormwater runoff, inadequate waste treatment facilities, failing sewerage systems and septic tanks, and other sources of contamination contribute to both surface and ground water degradation within the region. Northwest Florida (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979) This area includes the portion of Florida west of the Suwannee and St. Johns River Basins, as shown in Figure 11-5. This section of Florida is generally characterized by rolling hills and sandy soils. Immediately south of the Alabama and Georgia lines are three small geographic areas known as the Western Highlands, the Marianna Lowlands, and the Tallahassee Hills. The Western High- lands, stretching eastward from the Perdido River, consist of a plateau sloping gently southward and crossed by several streams which flow in deep flat-bottomed valleys. In Walton County near the Ala- bama line is the highest point in the state, with an elevation of 345 feet above mean sea level. The Marianna Lowlands, lying between the Western Highlands and the Apalachicola River, comprise a flat or gently rolling area underlaid by limestone and dotted with "sinks" containing ponds or small lakes. The Tallahassee Hills, extending from the Apalachicola River eastward for about 100 miles, are rolling hills with the highest point about 300 feet above mean sea level. These are largely farming areas. Bordering the coast are the Coastal Lowlands, flat plains less than 100 feet above the mean sea level. Pine forests cover much of the region. With the exception of the Apalachee Bay area, the coast- line consists mostly of wide sandy beach backed by dunes ranging from 10 to 15 feet above sea level. The economy of the area is based mainly on tourism, farming, pulp- wood production, logging, commercial fishing, and manufacturing, with PANAMA J CITY PORT ST. JOE! A R/ VER SCALE IN MILES V 0 40 Figure 11-5. Northwest Florida Area (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979). primarily industrial centers at Port St. Joe, Panama City, and Pensacola. Crude oil production from an oil field near Jay, Florida, also contributes to the economy. Tallahssee, the capital of Florida, is the largest city in the area. Major river systems draining to the Gulf of Mexico, progressing from west to east, are the Escambia, Blackwater, and Yellow Rivers, which drain through the Pensacola Bay system; the Choctawhatchee, draining into Choctawhatchee Bay; the Apalachicola, which empties into Apalachicola Bay; and the Ochlockonee, which drains through Ochlockonee and Apalachee Bays. The beach zone along the Gulf is frequently backed by sounds or bays and is occasionally broken by tidal inlets. Tidal marsh occurs along much of the shoreline of the bays and sounds. Most of the beach material is fine white sand composed of about 98 percent quartz. Beach erosion is a problem in parts of the area. Navigation channels cut through the sandy beaches usually require extensive protective measures, such as rubble-mound jetties. Even with these, the natural instability of the beach material requires frequent maintenance dredging and special attention to problems of sand transport and beach nourishment. Tropical hurricanes occasionally cross the coastline in this area, and a few low-lying populated areas are subject to flooding from storm tides. The Apalachicola River, part of a multiple-purpose waterway development serving Alabama, Georgia, and Florida, has been improved for barge navigation. Navigation channels are also maintained on the lower reaches of Blackwater and Escambia Rivers. The Gulf Intracoastal Waterway parallels the coastline by way of numerous bays and sounds with connecting land cuts where necessary. Several local navigation projects provide small craft channels connect- ing towns or river systems with the waterway and with the Gulf of Mexico. Deep-draft channels and harbors are maintained at Port St. Joe, Panama City, and Pensacola. Southwest Florida (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979) The southwest area of Florida includes the Four River Basins project, which drains about 6,000 square miles, and a wide band along the southwestern part of the state that includes Everglades National Park, Key West and the lower part of the Florida Keys (see Figure 11-6). The four main streams which cover most of the Four River Basins area -- Hillsborough, Withlacoochee, Oklawaha, and Peace Rivers -- are interrelated in that all have common headwaters in the region known as the Green Swamp. All four streams have similar problems, such as flood control, major drainage, and water conservation, the solution to which depends partly on what plans might be developed for Green Swamp. Brief descriptions of each of these watersheds are given below. ... Green Swamp. This area, known locally as Green Swamp, is the highest land in the Four Rivers Basins area. The exact boundaries are indefinite, but it consists of about 850 square miles of swampy flat- lands and sandy ridges varying in elevation from about 200 feet in the eastern part to about 75 feet in the stream valleys of the western part. GCALA OKL AWA HA G" elI , 0 SCALE IN MILES 50 0 50 SCALE IN MILES APLES 0 40 SEVER LADES KEY WEST 0 Figure 11-6. Southwest Florida Area (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979). ... Hillsborough River, which drains about 690 square miles, originates at the edge of Green Swamp, north of Lakeland, Florida, and flows south- westerly about 54 miles to Hillsborough Bay at Tampa. ... Oklawaha River has its source in two chains of lakes and drains about 2,100 square miles. The Oklawaha River proper flows 75 miles northerly from Lake Griffin and joins the St. Johns River 77 miles up- stream from Jacksonville. ... Withlacoochee River rises in Polk County in the Green Swamp area and flows northwesterly about 160 miles to the Gulf of Mexico at Yankeetown. The river drains about 1,980 square miles. ... Peace River has its source in a number of small lakes east of Lakeland, Florida. It flows southward about 120 miles and empties into Charlotte Harbor, an arm of the Gulf of Mexico. Other major streams in this area include the Myakka River, which begins in Manatee County and flows generally southward to empty into Charlotte Harbor; the Alafia, which begins in Polk County and flows generally southwesterly about 24 miles to enter Tampa Bay; Little Manatee and Manatee Rivers, which begin in Manatee County and flow into Tampa Bay. Little Manatee River is about 39 miles long and Manatee River is about 35.5 miles long. The Tampa-St. Petersburg metropolitan area is the second largest urban population center in Florida with a 1970 population exceeding one million. The rapid growth in this area has placed a severe strain on available water supplies for both domestic and industrial uses. Associated with the increased uses of water are pollution problems stemming from wastewater disposal, urban storm-water runoff, and other sources of regional water supply contamination. Some of the larger municipalities in the area include Tampa, St. Petersburg, Lakeland, Clearwater, Sarasota, and Ft. Myers. Authorized improvements provide for control of floods and improvement of drainage, and for water conservation through construction of neces- sary canals, levees, reservoirs, and control structures. Projects authorized for this area provide also for preserving the beaches and for navigation improvements. Suwannee River (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979) Suwannee River is the stream made famous by Stephen Foster in his immortal song of southern lore "Old Folks at Home." The Suwannee River flows out of the Okefenokee Swamp near Fargo, Georgia, and flows generally southwesterly about 222 miles where it empties into the Gulf of Mexico through two channels about 12 miles north of Cedar Key (see Figure 11-7). It drains about 11,000 square miles of Georgia and Florida, about 4,300 of which are in Florida. North of the Georgia-Florida State line, in the western part of the basin, are the low, rolling hills of the Georgia portion of the Upper Coastal Plain. This area, which is drained by the Alapaha and Withlacoochee Rivers, rises gradually from an elevation of about 120 feet at the State line to about 460 feet along the northern divide. Slopes here are generally steeper than in the other parts of the basin. WI T RIV S LcPENSACULA TA ' kl| s "TALLAHASSEE v -L L.,S SE 4. JACKSONVILLE 1DO o o Oo o ORLANDO -%\ \ - TAMPA HLACOOCHEE 0 ER ALAPAHA - RIVER MIAMI VICINITY MAP P SCALE IN MILES o DISON 5 0 5o e LIVE OAK LAKE* T CITY MAYO e LAKE BUTLER AN FE STARK RENTON / CITY SCALE IN MILES 0 40 Figure 11-7. Florida Portion of the Suwannee River Basin (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979). MA Diversified agriculture is carried on throughout the area. Okefenokee Swamp lies on the easterly side of the basin. It is fed by several small streams and totals about 1,100 square miles. The Suwannee River drains about 800 square miles of the swamp, and the St. Marys River drains the remainder. The swamp varies in elevation from 100 to 200 feet above mean sea level, in the Lower Coastal Plain. A low dam, or sill, on the Suwannee River at the swamp outlet controls the water level in much of the swamp to about elevation 115. Extending from the Florida State line and Okefenokee Swamp flat- lands southward to the Gulf of Mexico is an area, largely in the Upper Coastal Plain, drained by the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers. It is characterized generally by less relief, lower elevations, and fewer tributary streams than the rolling lands of Georgia. The Okefenokee or "Land of the Trembling Earth" was so named by the Seminole Indians because of the unstable nature of its soil. The swamp is one of the largest fresh-water swamplands in the United States and by far the most significant inland body of water in the Suwannee basin. About two-thirds of the swamp, including 331,000 acres in Suwannee basin, have been set aside as a wildlife refuge administered by State and Federal agencies for wildlife preservation, recreation use, and to maintain its unique beauty and environment. Short stretches of tidal marsh along the Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the river mouth are the only direct exposures to salt water. The Suwannee basin encompasses some 7 million acres in a thinly populated area. More than two-thirds of the basin is forested. More than half of the forest is pine, and one-fourth is bottomland hardwoods. Pure upland hardwood stands and hardwoods mixed with occasional pines are scattered throughout the basin. About 119,000 acres of the basin forest land are in the Osceola National Forest, northeast of Lake City, Florida. The Suwannee basin has a generous supply of good quality water from both ground water and surface sources. Ground Water Porous limestone underneath nearly the entire state of Florida provides large supplies of ground water. The principal sources of ground water are shown in Figure 11-8. The major ground water problem has been salt water intrusion. However, there is increasing concern regarding contamination from land disposal of waters including toxic chemicals. Typical yield of 6-inch well, in gallons per minute (gpm) Biscayne aquifer (1200) Floridan aquifer (800) Other aquifers (300) Figure 11-8. Principal Sources of Ground Water (Hyde, 1965). The Floridan aquifer is the principal source of ground water in Florida (Hyde, 1965). It is an artesian aquifer, i.e., one that con- tains water under sufficient pressure to rise above the containing formation. While the Floridan aquifer underlies all of Florida, it is too saline to be of use in the coastal areas indicated in Figure 11-8. The Biscayne aquifer is a non-artesian aquifer which underlies about 3000 square miles of southern Florida (Hyde, 1965). It ranges in thickness from 100 to 400 feet in the coastal areas to only a few feet near its western boundaries. The Floridan aquifer ranges in depth from zero to 1000 feet below the land surface as shown in Figure 11-9. The potentiometric surface for the Floridan aquifer is shown in Figure II-10. Elevations range from 100 in the central highlands to -80 in the coastal area of the panhandle. Lastly, the areas where pumpage had most significantly affected the potentiometric surface are shown in Figure II-11. EXPLANATION ] Floridan aquifer at or near land surface. . 6 0 0 Line of equal depth to Floridan aquifer. Interval 200 feet. Datum is mean sea level. Figure 11-9. Altitude of Top of the Floridan Aquifer (Healy, 1975; Vernon, 1973). f- 40 4\,f- 0 EXPLANATION 100 - POTENTIOMETRIC CONTOUR. Shows altitude at which water level would have stood in tightly cased wells that penetrate the Floridan aquifer. Contour intervals 10, 30, and 40 feet.Datum is mean sea level. Figure II-10. Potentiometric Surface of Floridan Aquifer, May 1974 (Healy, 1975). 0 03 -400 - 600 A-8OO EXPLANATION. | 4 *L Net decline in feet. o ] 1- 5 - 6 -5 10 O 10-20 - 20- 40 2 Average annual rate of decline in feet. (< means "less than".) Figure II-11. Decline of Potentiometric Surface of Floridan Aquifer in Areas of Heavy Withdrawal of Ground Water, 1961-74 (Healy, 1975). REFERENCES Florida Board of Conservation and Division of Water Resources, "Florida Land and Water Resources, Southwest Florida," Tallahassee, FL, 1966. Florida Department of Natural Resources, "Florida Water and Related Water Resources, St. Johns River Basin," Tallahassee, FL, 1970. Florida Department of Natural Resources, "Water and Related Land Resources, Kissimmee-Everglades Area," Tallahasseee, FL, 1974. Florida Department of Environmental Regulation and the Water Management District, State Water Use Plan, Phase 1 (Draft), Tallahassee, FL, Dec. 1978. Florida Water Resources Study Commission, Florida Water Resources, Gainesville, FL, Dec. 1956. Garcia-Bengochea, J.I., R.D. Pyne, and E.W. Black, Florida's Water Resources: An Evaluation and Management Philosophy, Project No. 272-75-80, Black, Crow, and Eidsness, Inc., Gainesville, FL, Nov. 1975. Healy, H.B. Potentiometric Surface and Area of Artesian Flow of the Floridan Aquifer in Florida, Florida Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology Map Series 73, Tallahassee, FL, 1975. Hughes, G.H., Hampton, E.R., and Tucker, D.F.. Annual and Seasonal Rainfall in Florida, Florida Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology Map Series 40, Tallahasseee, FL, 1978. Hyde, L.W. Principal Aquifers in Florida, Florida Bureau of Geology Map Series 16, Tallahassee, FL, 1965. Kenner, W.E., et al. Average Flow of Major Streams in Florida, Florida Bureau of Geology Map Series 34, Tallahassee, FL, 1969. Southeast Basins Inter-Agency Committee, 1975 National Assessment of Water and Related Land Resources, South Atlantic Gulf Region, Volumes I, II, and III, Atlanta, GA, Dec. 1977. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Water Resources Development by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in Florida, Jacksonville, FL, 1979. Vernon, R.O. Top of the Floridan Artesian Aquifer, Florida Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology Map Series 56, Tallahassee, FL, 1973. Wood, R., and E.A. Fernald. The New Florida Atlas, Rose Printing Co., Tallahassee, FL, 1974. SECTION III THE USE OF FLORIDA'S WATER RESOURCES Projected water uses and a water budget for Florida, prepared by Leach (1956), are shown in Figures III, 1 and 2. The subsections to follow are extracted from his work. 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 Figure III-1. Trends in Population and Fresh Water Withdrawn in Florida, 1950-75 (Leach, 1978). The amount of freshwater in Florida remains relatively unchanged while the population growth, urban development, and agriculture continue to put increasing demands on the available supply. Water use data for 1975 collected as part of a nationwide inventory are published in reports by Healy (1977) and Leach (1978). Data on use of saline water for thermoelectric power generation were collected as part of the inventory but are not included because saline water is pumped from, and returned to, a saline source and is not considered part of the freshwater cycle. However, the quantity of saline water pumped for this purpose exceeds all freshwater used in the state. Nonwithdrawal use of freshwater, also not reported, includes 10,300 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) that flows through the hydroelectric power generation plant located on the Apalachicola River near Chattahoochee. Freshwater use in 1975 was 6,917 Mgal/d compared to 5,768 Mgal/d in 1970 (Figure III-2). Public water supply demand increased from 884 to 1,146 Mgal/d, both largely reflecting the increase in population from 6.8 to 8.5 million. Water used for irrigation showed the greatest in- crease, from 2,099 to 2,868 Mgal/d. Water used for industrial (self- supplied) and thermoelectric power generation remained relatively stable as industrial use increased from 926 to 940 Mgal/d and thermoelectric power generation decreased slightly from 1,700 to 1,698 Mgal/d. Fig- ure III-2 portrays the statewide freshwater use from source through use to disposition. For example, of the 1,146 Mgal/d used for public supply, 983 Mgal/d or 85.8 percent was ground water. Disposition of the public supply indicated that 48.9 percent was consumed, with the remaining 51.1 percent (586 Mgal/d) returned to the system for reuse. Figure III-2 also shows that the major freshwater source for irrigation and thermoelectric power generation is surface water whereas ground water is the major source of water for public, rural, and industrial supplies. WATER USE IN FLORIDA 1975 Figure III-2. Source, Use and Disposition of 6.9 Billion Gallons Per Day of Fresh Water in Florida in 1975 (Leach, 1978). Public Supplies (Leach, 1978) Information on total amounts of freshwater pumped for public supplies was obtained from 710 county, municipal, and private utility systems. The largest system in the state, operated by the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Authority, serves more than 1.12 million people; the smallest, private systems, serve fewer than 100 people. The seven most populous counties: Broward, Dade, Duval, Hillsborough, Orange, Palm Beach, and Pinellas, account for almost 700 Mgal/d or 61 percent of the total 1,146 Mgal/d of freshwater withdrawn for public supply in 1975. The per capital use of water in Florida for 1975 was 168 gallons per day for the 6.8 million people served by public supply. In 1975, 1.4 million more people were served by public supplies than in 1970. If this rate of increase continues, the public water supply systems will have to withdraw about 47 Mgal/d more freshwater each year to supply the projected increase in population. Rural Self-Supplied (Leach, 1978) Rural (self-supplied) water use of 266 Mgal/d includes 203 Mgal/d pumped for domestic use and 63 Mgal/d pumped for livestock. Rural water use in the state is less than 4 percent of the total freshwater withdrawn for all uses. The rural self-supplied population represents 21.6 percent of Florida's population. The per capital rural water use is 142 gallons per day, as compared with 168 gallons per day for those on public water supply systems. Rural water use for Monroe County is small because the rural population in the county where adequate fresh- water is available is small. The population of the county, concentrated along the Florida Keys, is supplied by freshwater either from a pipeline from Dade County or from desalination plants. Little to no freshwater underlies the Florida Keys that can be tapped for private self-supplied systems. Industrial (Leach, 1978) The total quantity of self-supplied freshwater withdrawn by indus- tries in 1975 was 940 Mgal/d, an increase of less than 2 percent since 1970. Of the 940 Mgal/d used by industry, 779 Mgal/d or almost 83 per- cent is withdrawn from ground water sources. Seven counties: Flagler, Glades, Lafayette, Levy, Monroe, Union, and Washington, reported no self-supplied industrial water use. In several counties large amounts of self-supplied water were used by industry: Hamilton and Polk Counties used 270 Mgal/d for phosphate mining; Duval, Escambia, Gulf, Nassau, Putnam, and Taylor Counties used 225 Mgal/d for pulp and paper processing; Lake, Pasco, and Polk Counties used 70 Mgal/d for food processing; and Escambia County used 100 Mgal/d for chemical products. The remaining 200 Mgal/d were pumped for lime rock mining, air conditioning, and many other smaller industries scattered around the state. Irrigation (Leach, 1978) Total freshwater pumped for irrigation in 1975 amounted to 2,868 Mgal/d. Figure III-2 shows that irrigation is the largest user of fresh- water in the state and accounts for more than 41 percent of the total freshwater pumped. Irrigation also has the largest consumptive use: 1,332 Mgal/d, or about 46 percent. The smallest amounts of freshwater for irrigation are withdrawn in 32 counties in the northern part of the state. Five counties in northern Florida -- Bay, Franklin, Liberty, Wakulla, and Washington -- reported no water used for irrigation; 16 counties used less than 1 Mgal/d; and 11 used between 1 and 10 Mgal/d. Although these counties contain about half of the land available for farming, they used only 34 Mgal/d -- slightly more than 1 percent of the total freshwater pumped for irrigation. By comparison, each of 20 other counties reported larger amounts of water used for irrigation than in the 32 northern counties combined. Most irrigation occurs in the cen- tral and southern parts of the state. In these areas more freshwater is required for irrigation because the winter and early spring growing seasons coincide with the dry season, when evapotranspiration rates are high. Further, the soils here are more porous and do not retain moisture as well as in other parts of the state. Thermoelectric Power Generation (Leach, 1978) Most thermoelectric power generating plants in Florida are near the coast where large quantities of saline or brackish water can be withdrawn from bays or estuaries for cooling. Power plants that are inland use freshwater from lakes or streams for cooling. During 1975, water withdrawn for thermoelectric power production totaled 13,138 Mgal/d which included 11,440 Mgal/d of saline water. This represents an 18 percent increase over the quantity of fresh and saline water withdrawn in 1970. During these same 5 years power production increased 42 percent. The disparity between increased water use and increased power produc- tion probably reflects the greater number of plants recycling water through cooling ponds or cooling towers. Only 28 of the 67 counties used any freshwater for power generation. Of these 28 counties, 13 used less than 1 Mgal/d of freshwater, either to supplement the saline water for cooling or for other purposes. Counties where large quantities of freshwater are used for power genera- tion include: Escambia, Polk, and Volusia, more than 200 Mgal/d; Jackson, Suwannee, and Wakulla, between 100 and 200 Mgal/d; Highlands, Orange, and Putnam, between 50 and 100 Mgal/d. Although thermoelectric power production is the second largest user of freshwater in the state, it consumes only 36 Mgal/d, or less than 1 percent of the total freshwater withdrawn, because most of the water is recycled. REFERENCES Healy, H.G. Public Water Supplies of Selected Municipalities in Florida, 1975: U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations 77-53, 1977. Leach, S.D. Freshwater Use in Florida, 1975, U.S. Geological Survey, Florida Map Series 87, Tallahassee, FL, 1978. SECTION IV WATER AND RELATED LAND PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES The material for this section is extracted from numerous reports and discussions of participants at the Annual Meeting of the Florida Water Resources Research Center A summary of the activities of the following groups is presented: 1) Water Management Districts 2) Special Studies 3) Federal Agencies 4) State Agencies 5) Industrial Research 6) University Research Water Management Districts Northwest Florida The Northwest Florida Water Management District was created by the Florida Legislature as part of the Water Resources Act of 1972 (Fisher, 1980). The District is responsible for ensuring the availability of adequate water supplies, long-term water resources integrity and pre- vention of damages from flooding. Interstate water management is an important part of its activities since it receives water from Alabama and Georgia. The largest water users are industry and thermoelectric power generation (Northwest Florida Water Management District, 1979). Research and development related needs of the District are as follows: A. Scientific Research 1. Development and maintenance of computer or other models for simulation of District hydrologic systems; 2. Identification of criteria and procedures for establishing minimum levels and flows; 3. Analysis and evaluation of the sensitivity of natural systems to changes in hydrologic conditions; 4. Identification and evaluation of the effectiveness of alter- native water use and reuse practices, as well as alternative water supplies or sources. B. Data and Analysis Needs 1. Water Availability for Use 2. Saltwater Encroachment 3. Rainfall and Evapotranspiration 4. Recharge Areas 5. Water Management Needs of Estuaries 6. Public Supply Water Use 7. Agricultural Irrigation Trends 8. Land Use 9. Public Priorities C. Methodologies and Comprehensive Water Management Capabilities 1. Comprehensive Planning and Water Management by Basin 2. Management of Interstate Waters 3. Identification of Beneficiaries and Equitable Cost Distribu- tion for Water Resources Services and Projects 4. Water Management Issues in Coastal Areas 5. Assumption of Appropriate Management Functions by Local Government St. Johns The St. Johns Water Management District was created by the 1972 Florida Legislature as part of the Water Resources Act, Chapter 373 Florida Statutes (Munch, 1980). On January 1, 1977, the District assumed control of water regulation structures in the Upper St. Johns River Basin. Included in its boundaries are the entire St. Johns and Nassau River Basins, several coastal drainage basins and the Florida portion of the St. Mary's River Basin. Its 12,400 square mile service area comprises about 21 percent of the state total. Over 2,000,000 people reside in this district with Jacksonville as the major population center. Organizationally, the District is divided into Departments of Water Resources, Resource Planning and Management, Environmental Sciences, and Administration. A list of on-going research and technical studies is shown in Table IV-1. South Florida The South Florida Water Management District is the oldest and largest district. Originally, the district was called the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District. This organization has sup- ported a wide variety of research studies over the years. They employ TABLE IV-1: Research and Technical Studies: FY 1979-80, St. Johns Water Management District 1. Socio-Economic and Land Use Analysis a. Overlay Mapping b. Data Management System c. Land Use Mapping Report d. Compilation of Local Government Comprehensive Plan Information 2. Agricultural Water Use Research a. Crown Flood Irrigation Study b. Irrigation Pumping Efficiencies Study c. Fern Water Use Study d. Agricultural Lands Inventory 3. Annual Water Use Research 4. Urban Water Use Research a. Water Use Demand Elasticity Model b. Categorical Use of Public Water Supplies c. Residential Water Use Study 5. Jane Green Study 6. Investigation of Ground Water and Surface Water Availability 7. Salt Water Intrusion Study 8. Southwest Volusia County-Osteen Study 9. Effects of Frost and Freeze Irrigation on Floridan Aquifer 10. District-Wide Determination of Flood and Low Flows 11. Flood Irrigation and Water Use Investigations 12. Water Quality Monitoring 13. Water Conservation Program 14. Data Evaluation of Annual Report 15. Roughness Coefficient Study for Marsh Area 16. Analysis and Update of Tri-County Area Well Data 17. Effects of Sand Mining Operations in Johns Lake 18. Geology of the Ocala National Forest 19. Materials Investigation-Borrow Areas 20. Interbasin Diversion Investigation in the Upper St. Johns River Basin 21. Evaluation of Applicability of Various Ground Water Models to District Hydrologic Regime Cooperative Agreements with USGS 22. Administration and Program Planning 23. Northwest Volusia County Hydrologic Investigation 24. Flagler County Hydrologic Investigation 25. Potentiometric Mapping 26. Monitoring Program 27. Hydrologic Atlas Series 28. Southeast Limestone Aquifer Study numerous nationally recognized technical experts in various areas of water resources. The proposed FY 1980/81 program lists 75 separate studies which are summarized in Table IV-2. New areas of interest for South Florida include: (Rhoads, 1980) 1) studies of the quantity and quality aspects of changing freshwater discharge patterns on estuaries. This effort would include studies of the impacts of dredge and fill operations; 2) intensified efforts in aquatic weed control; 3) studies of alternative energy sources to reduce costs; 4) studies of water conservation; and 5) studies of improved methods of drainage design. Southwest Florida The Southwest Florida Water Management District is the second largest district in the state (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 1979). It was created by the Florida Legislature in 1961 following widespread flooding in 1960 that caused a number of deaths, injury to hundreds of people and damages totalling nearly$200 million.

The District covers more than 10,200 square miles. The District is

managed not only by a General Board but also by ten watershed basin

boards.

Major areas of activity include solving urban problems in the

Table IV-2. Proposed Program Activities:

South Florida Water
1980).

RESOURCE PLANNING DEPARTMENT PROGRAMS PROPOSED FY 1980/81
PROGRAM NUMBER DESCRIPTION PROGRAM
AND TITLE OF PROGRAM DURATION
0076 To provide for the chemical analysis of pia**, Continu';ng
Laboratory water and soil samples, and conduct physical & (As long as water
-Charges-WPB nutrient analyses supporting internal/ext. prog analysis requiredd )
0082 Same as above, in support of KRCC programs. Same as above
Laboratory
Charges-Okeech.
8004 Measure costs, benefits and economic impacts of Continuing, each
Non-Ag Water alternate water management policies in urban planning area must b
Demand Studies areas (incl. flood/drought damage assessment) updated periodically
8007 Same as above for Agricultural areas. Same as above.
Ag. Water Demanc
& Cost Studies
8008 Analyzes water demand relationships, utility Continues through
Water Use Plan costs and pricing in support of water use and completion of WUP,
Demand Studies drought management planning. then needs updating.
8010 Develops land use daea, land use acreages and Continving, updates
Geographic projections of future land use changes. Support needed 'o track land
Info System for numerous District and local Govt. programs. use changes/trends.
8012 Develops and refined computer models for assess After refinement is
Application of ment of current and future water management completed (3 years),
System Studies systems and techniques. reductien-otfeffpt.
8013 Evaluates alternatives for increasing water Initial evaluations
System Optimiz- supplies in specific basins (through improved completed in 2 years
ation Studies operational/structural methods).
8014 Supports the regulatory function with modeling Continuing, as a
Resource Control and analysis for water use and other permits. function of new
SupDort permit applications.
8016 Assists in the projection and analysis of water Iirst year of a new
Ag. Irrigation demands using best ag management practices. program. Projected
Water Use/Pract. Studies Irrigation and drainage methods. for cor,-letion-3 yrs
S022 Provides guidance for types of operational Two yrr completed,
Drought water supplies that should be planned based on two yrs remain to
Anavsis probable occurrence of normal and dry periods. cover other areas.
8026 Develop a model for simulating land use change Fwo years completed.
Surface Water and effects on surface and ground waters, and to fwo years remain for
Model Develop. serve as a transport mechanism for qual. studies.,alidated model.
"5030 To acquire water use data,primarily urban,rates Continuing, updates
Water Use Data of consumption & utility .costs in support of needed to establish
Acquisition current & future management decision & alternatives .:, trends.
8032 To respond to internal/external requests for continuing, has been
Water Chemistry water quality data transfers, reviews/analyses. :onductec for past
General Eval Documents data sets on rainwater quality etc. :wo yrs.
8034 Develops water use data collection methods with conducted for the
Agricultural emphasis on ag production. This is currently an )ast Iwo yrs, with
Water Le DataCly 'area where there is great 'uncertainty. threee remaining.
803 Reviews, evaluates and recommends state-of-art This as been eval.
Application of systems for planning areas in WUP. Includes for past five yrs.
Supply Altern. deep aquifer storage, desal and water reuse. Continuing.
8038 To develop a capability of computing more This is a new prog.
Water Budget reliable water budgets for surface water storage Will require three
Analysis areas (using ET, seepage and runoff). yrs to complete.
8040 Assess availability, reliability and cost of This is a new prog.
Alternate Energy alternate energy sources, with emphasis on pump Should De continuing
Studies stations. to u-date technology

Table IV-2. Proposed Program Activities: South Florida Water

RESOURCE PLANNING DEPARTMENT PROGRAMS PROPOSED FY 1980/81 Z
PROGRAM NUMBER DESCRIPTION PROGRAM
AND TITLE OF PROGRAM DURATION
8044 Develop better methods of info flow and improve This is a new prog.
Objective Desigi efficiency of data collection, processing and Completion will
Infc Flow Syst applications (Optimize water resource operation require 2 to 3 yrs.
8046' Covers projects that evolve within the current This is a new prog.
Special Giand- fiscal year and include well drilling, logging Should be of a
Water Projects and analyses within all planning areas, continuing basis.
848" Provides for the monitoring of USGS studies This is a new prog.
USGS Groundwater being made for District, where early data Continuing.
Study Coord. availability is needed for WUP/other uses.
8104 Develop computer based statistical system to This is a new prog.
Envron. Science improve effectiveness of environmental projects Continuing.
Statistical Sys. (Incl. species presence, relative abundance etc
8106 To provide for evaluations of that evolve with- This is a new prog.
General Environ, in current fiscal year, such as fish kills, Continuing.
Evaluations outside agency reviews etc.
8108 To study the feasibility of restoring natural This is a new prog.
Restoration hydroperiods etc. to certain areas in District. Continuing.
Reconnaissance
8216 Provides logging services.for info gathering on Conducted for one yr
Bo'ehole Geo- aquifer stratigarphy, water quality etc. Incl. Continuing.
Physics/Logginq logging wells, assistance in data interpretation
8402 To provide the ability to compute flows through Conducted for three
Structure control structures with minimum flow measure- yrs. Requires two
Ratings- ments needed for validation of actual flows, more years to comply.
8304 Provides for supporting internal/external This is a new prog.
Special Project. requests for land use mapping and data on Continuing.
Land RAsources specific projects and areas within District.
8426 An operational program which plugs abandoned This is the second
Well wells in Lee County, which degrade quality of year of a continuing
Abandon tent fresh surface water supplies. program.
8428 Provides for inspection of all new public water This is the first
Well .onstruc- supply wells permitted by DER for proper year of a continuing
tion/inspection construction and permit compliance. program.
8502 Analyzes issues of current interest, including This is a continuing
Special Hydro- dry season operations, flood control studies, program.
logic Reports drainage boundary updating etc.
8503 Provides for the collection of d ta from an This is a continuing
Hydrologic Data extensive network throughout the District. program.
Collection Includes development of new methods/equipment.
8504 Provides for the management of hydrologic data This is a continuing
Data through a data base (computerized). Furnishes program.
Management data to support surface water, water quality etc
8506 Documents the quality of water at major control This is a continuing
Water Quality points and supports the WUP. Analysis of data program.
MonitorIng and provision of inputs to LOK TOP programs.
8508 Documents the seasonal DO present in various his is a new prog.
Dissolved Oxyger S. Florida ecosystems. Used to support District t will continue
Study aquatic weed program. throughout District.
8509 Operates in coordination with Program 8503 by This is the fifth yr
Instrumentation development of new instrumentation and process- )f a continuing prog
Eval./Develop. ing techniques.
8510 Provides for technical support of District This is a continuing
Electronic electronic equipment such as loggers, modeling program.
Support/Maint. -computers etc.

Table IV-2. Proposed Program Activities: South Florida Water

RESOURCE PLANNING DEPARTMENT PROGRAMS PROPOSED FY 1980/81 3
PROGRAM NUMBER DESCRIPTION PROGRAM
AND TITLE OF PROGRAM DURATION
8511 To improve the effectiveness of various topo- This is the second
Remote Sensing graphic data gathering activities through the year of a continuing
Evaluation use of remote sensing techniques/equipment, program.
8512 To determine the feasibility of locating flowing his program will
Remote Sensing- wells with available remotely sensed data to continue for two yrs
Flowing Wells reduce time and cost of this process.
8620 To coordinate and document the analyses on the Ihis 1s the fifth yr
Water Use Plan- LEC and LOK for the WUP. Includes development of a program that is
LEC/LOK of an updated Executive Summary for area. updated biennially.
8626 Develops the land use data for this planning This is the fifth yr
Geographic Info area. Updates land use acreage and future of a program, update(
System-LEC/LOK projections based on latest aerials. as above.
8630 Provide an ecological baseline of species This is the fourth
Periphyton/Water composition and distribution of algae in supporlyr of a program, wit
Quality of WCA's of various water level studies in the WCAs. three yrs to complete
8631 Same as above for study of macroinvertibrates his is the third yr
Aquatic Macro- in WCAs, with two yrs to
invertebrates __complete ogram.
8632 Determine how natural communities respond to This is the third yr
Impact of S-339 changes in water level in support of decision- vith three yrs to
and S-340 on WCA making on management of WCA's. complete.
8634 This program provides for the close coordinatiorThis is a new prog.
Regional SE Fla. with the USGS in a study of the Biscayne It will take about
Aquifer Study aquifer. five years to comply.
8640 To determine the ability of WCA vegetation to his is the sixth yr
Nutrient-Cycling assimilate nutrients such as phosphorus and )f prog., which will
in WCA2 overall effects on water quality. require two vrs more.
8641 This program will document the effects of the -his is a new prog.
Environ.Resp.to drawdown scheduled for WCA2 on the ability to :t should continue
Alter.in Re4.Sch restore Everglade plant communities. For at least five yrs
8644 To provide data for assessing the impact of Fwo yrs completed.
WCA Material possible additional inflows to WCA's and the Two years remain
Budget Study effect of drawdown, develop basic budget, after drawdown.
8646 Same as above for inflow/outflow stations such wo yrs completed.
Water Qual. and as S55A, S6, S7 and S8, with respect to quality Two years remain
Sediment Eval. parameters and sediments. after drawdown.
8652 Provides support for Dade County Planning Dept. Two yrs complete.
East Everglades with variety of inputs ranging from hydrological Two years remain at
RP Project analyses to cross-reviews of project outputs. low level of effort.
8656 To determine the existing groundwater and geo- Three yrs complete.
Hydrologic Study chemical regime around the C-103 near Homestead. One yr remains.
C-103 Basin
8668 Update data and results of previous surveys to Conducted periodic-
Bird Survey- determine the impact of raised lake levels on ally for past five
LOK bird populations. years. Continuing.
8670 To expand the knowledge of submerged vegetation This is i new prog.
Submergent Veg- in LOK and any impact of raised lake levels or Two more yrs to
etation-LOK other management actions complete.
8671 To update already documented vegetation profiles This is a contin-
Littoral Zone and determine effects of raised lake levels. uing program.
Vegetation-LOK
8672 To update data base for limnetic zone to aid in This is a ccntin-
Water Qual.Monit-evaluation of management alternatives for LOK. uing program.
or-Limnetic Zone

3

Table IV-2. Proposed Program Activities: South Florida Water

RESOURCE PLANNING DEPARTMENT PROGRAMS PROPOSED FY 1980/81 44
PROGRAM NUMBER DESCRIPTION PROGRAM
A1D TITLE OF PROGRAM DURATION
8676 Same as for 8672, with respect to analysis of Two yrs complete.
Ana Limnetic data collected. One yr remains.
Wat.r Chem.Data
'!678 To assess long term trends and Water quality This is a new prog.
Special Water impacts on northern Lake. Okeechobee, particular It will be contin-
Qua.ity Studies ly discharges from Nubbin Slough (S-191). uing.
870n To evaluate water supply alternatives for UEC This is the first
Water Use Plan- and provide an Executive Summary document on yr of a program to
UEC area for Water Use Plan. be updated biennial
8706 To maintain the existing data collection net, This is the fourth
Floridan Aquifer and provide additional data as required for yr of a continuing
Monitoring-UEC long term trend analysis, of water levels. maintenance pro7.
87-1 To determine the impact of upstream flows in This is the third
Estuarine the St. Lucie estuarine areas in support of WUP yr. Two years remain
Stuiies-UEC to be completed.
871- Support for WUP for understanding of proposed This is the second
i;ater Chem. Eval impacts of water management alternatives in yr of program. One
UEC this planning area. year remains.
8716 Develops land use data, acreages and projection This is the second
Geographic Info for future land use changes. Supports WUP and yr of a program to
System-UEC. local requests. be updated bienniall,
8740 To evaluate water supply alternatives for LWC Ihis is the third
Water Use Plan and update existing Eexcitive Summary document yr of a program to
LWC for WUP. be updated biennially
8746 To inventory and analyze water resource capab- This is the second.
Water Resources ilities of surface supplies in LWC in support yr of program. Two
Invintory-LWC of WUP. rs to complete.
87!4 Updates land use acreage and future projections This is the third yr
Geographic Info for this planning area. Provides for analysis of program. Low leve
jystem-LWC of trends. for periodic updates.
87E8 To support WUP in the recommendation of future ihis is the third yr
Biological Inv- water management alternatives for Caloosahatche ef program. Two yrs
estiations-LWC River and analyze such events as algae blooms. remain to complete.
8759 To determine the impact of upstream flows in his is the second
Caloosahatchee estuarine areas, in support of WUP. ,r of program. Two
River Estuary rs to complete.
8760 To determine the availability of groundwater his is third yr of
Groundwater resources in multi-layered aquifer system of LWC program, with three
Recon.-LWC. in support of WUP. yrs to complete.
87 ,2 To provide water quality analyses of proposed ihis is the third
Ca';oosahatchee alternatives in support of WUP. yr of program. One
River Study-WQ yr to complete.
87t0 Not worked this fiscal year.
Water Use Plan
Kissimmee Area _________
8786 To obtain additional information on water levels This is new prog.
Floridan Aquifer in this aquifer system in support of WUP and Three yrs to comp.
Recon.-Kissimmee future use decisions.
8792 To determine ability of Kissimmee marshes to This is the fifth
Nutrient Cycling remove nutrients, an important consideration in yr of program. One
Boiey Marsh evaluating proposed TOP and other actions. yr to complete.
8796 To estimate the major loads for each of the This is a new prog.
Water Qual.Mon- tributaries flowing into system and to examine Fhree yrs to complete
itor-Kiss.Lakes lateral water transfer from lake to lake.
I___________________|_____

Table IV-2. Proposed Program Activities: South Florida Water

RESOURCE PLANNING DEPARTMENT PROGRAMS PROPOSED FY 1980/81 g_

PROGRAM NUMBER DESCRIPTION PROGRAlI
AND TITLE OF PROGRAM DURA ION
9901 Acquire and analyze water quality data on This is the third
Uplands Demonst- nutrient loading into Kissimmee River and other yr of pro. ram. One
ation Project basins in area. Supports KRCC. yr to complete.
9902 Same as above for this basin. Supports KRCC Same as above.
Taylor Creek
8798 Monitoring and analytical support program for This is third yr. of
Taylor Creek the USDA research in this basin. program. Continuing.
Nubbins Slough _

rapidly growing cities of the Tampa Bay area, Sarasota-Bradenton, and

Port Charlotte (Allee, 1980). Also, the phosphate industry in central

Florida is a major concern from a quantity and quality point of view.

The Four River Basins Project covering 60 percent of the District

is a major joint effort with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The four

rivers are the Oklawaha, the Withlacoochee, the Peace, and the Hills-

borough. The District is also involved in a wide variety of other water

management activities.

Suwannee River

The Suwannee River Water Management District was created by the

1972 Florida Legislature as part of the Water Resources Act, Chapter 373

Florida Statutes (Morgan, 1980). This district comprises 6900 square

miles of North Florida. Approximately 146,000 people reside in the

District. Lake City (pop. = 11,000), Perry (pop. = 7900), and Live Oak

(pop. = 7100) comprise the urban centers. Over 75 percent of the land

is in agriculture and timber production. Phosphate mining is a major

industry.

Special Studies

South Florida Research Center (Rosendahl, 1980)

The National Park Service Research Center is located at the Ever-

National Preserve are located at the southern terminus of the larger

halfway up the Florida peninsula. Current management problems being

1) provide recommendations for protection and restoration of

the ecosystem of Shark Slough and its estuary;

2) provide recommendations for protection and restoration of

the ecosystem of Taylor Slough and its estuary;

3) provide recommendations to meet short-term resource manage-

ment needs of the Big Cypress and its estuary and establish

a base of natural resources data;

4) maintain the long-term natural resources records necessary

for managing south Florida parks; and

5) provide management recommendations for assuring ample fresh

water quality and quantity within Everglades National Park

and Big Cypress National Preserve to meet wildlife and

vegetation needs.

Kissimmee Coordinating Council

The 1976 Florida Legislature created the Coordinating Council as

part of the Kissimmee River Restoration Act (McCaffrey et al., 1980).

The Coordinating Council was directed to develop measures to restore

water quality in the Kissimmee River Valley and Taylor Creek-Nubbin

Slough Basin. Restoration of natural changes in water levels, recrea-

tion of conditions favorable to wetlands and wildlife, removal of

threats to agriculture, and protection of presently developed areas

from floods were all addressed in the Act.

In April 1978, the U.S. Congress authorized the U.S. Army Corps of

Engineers to undertake a restudy of the Kissimmee River Valley and

the Taylor Creek-Nubbin Slough Basin. This effort is under way.

National Audubon Society

The National Audubon Society operates an Ecosystem Research Unit

at the Corkscrew Swamp sanctuary in southwest Florida (National Audu-

bon Society, 1979). This Ecosystem Research Unit (NAS/ERU) is a branch

of the society's Research Department devoted to research relevant to

natural area management. ERU's work is intended to bridge the gap

between applied research programs directed towards human use of resources

and basic research aimed solely at understanding nature.

ERU evolved out of a need that became apparent during an ecosystem

study at National Audubon's Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary in southwest

Florida. The University of Florida Center for Wetlands was studying the

sewage treatment potential of cypress swamps and needed data from a

cypress strand to compare with that from their cypress dome sites. The

virgin cypress at Corkscrew seemed ideal, so in 1973 NAS was given

a Rockefeller Foundation grant subcontract to do an ecosystem analysis

of the sanctuary. The Corkscrew project was a comprehensive analysis

of the swamp ecosystem. As data came in, it became obvious how impor-

tant such research was to proper management of the sanctuary. Corkscrew's

problems had seemed fairly clear: everyone thought that drainage from

nearby development canals had lowered the sanctuary's water levels and

led to shrub invasion in the marshes and pinelands. But, in-depth study

revealed that Corkscrew was experiencing normal water fluctuations except

where extensive dikes and pumps installed to correct the perceived water

problems had extended hydroperiods abnormally. At the conclusion of the

Corkscrew project, the Ecosystem Research Unit was made a permanent

part of the NAS Research Department. Long-term monitoring of tree

growth, litterfall, cypress regeneration, and water levels continues

at Corkscrew.

The Corkscrew project gave ERU such a good background in Florida

ecology that the group has been asked to do several other Florida

studies. In cooperation with the University of Florida Center for

Wetlands, ERU prepared the Resource Inventory and Analysis for the Big

Cypress National Preserve. ERU is currently conducting an experimental

study of off-road vehicle impacts on the preserve. The U.S. Heritage

Recreation and Conservation Service, through Florida State University,

has contracted ERU to classify peninsular Florida habitats and identify

the best remaining examples for the Natural Landmarks Program.

Federal

Army Corps of Engineers

The Jacksonville District of the Corps of Engineers is responsible

for the state of Florida. A summary of their present activities is

presented in a recent annual report (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,

1979). The information to follow is extracted from this report.

Nearly one billion dollars have been spent by the Corps of Engineers

in Florida. The distribution of these expenditures is shown in Table

IV-3. In addition to these activities, the Corps of Engineers has

TABLE IV-3: Expenditures by the Corps of Engineers in Florida

Activity Amount Spent Percent of Total
million dollars

Flood Control 327.3 35.7

Multiple-Purpose Lakes 66.3 7.3

Shore Protection 29.8 3.3

Aquatic Plant Control 16.8 1.8

Recreation 2.6 0.3

Urban Studies 2.8 0.3

Totals 915.6 100.0

studies under way for various aspects of flood plain management, e.g.,

flood hazard information, flood insurance (Salem, 1980).

Several major navigation projects have been completed or are

under way in Florida, e.g., the Intracoastal Waterway, a cross Florida

navigation system via Lake Okeechobee. A summary of these projects

is shown in Figure IV-1.

The largest flood control project is the Central and Southern

Florida Flood Control Project authorized June 30, 1948. This project

involves an area of about 16,000 square miles in southeastern Florida.

This project was designed to provide an overall water control plan to

replace the piecemeal drainage activities which took place in south-

eastern Florida during its early development. The South Florida Water

Management District operates this project. A summary of flood control

projects is shown in Figure IV-2.

[ C A ERIE R A R E R L R V. .. >
IA MB 11 1 LA CAECEE ii Y A t L- mIAICBA
I, ;tiW 1; 1111 MEi ,I A
S\ ..(I U OR; ,. "iR/, / .. .. /* ..........
IF iACXWATER RAYOU 10 C ', n A. m

nRIE n COU Y C AL _. S LUlTO COAT PAL WAT ER WAY

PORI ST I0 RO L CPENSACOLAA lt STEINIBARE[[ K 1 B CK SORNIt 10 MIAMI
RAtIVERSO R3VENl!
EL[iAST PASS '1ANECIEc I R -i RAS RS AY EASNEL

1. ilSt O TO I iPA RA Y-,_. CAKYE"AL \HI
PL ITRACLACI;S ASCOT TERAYER .CHAN Nu A IE H OBOR

ACETICNAI -LEi wi StTt E. ASI I HHARSARB BR

A R TE itll l o ll A ARE E L I RRC SAL ATERWI
CARA l iSOE E [Ali JACKSONVIL LE E1 SO MAANMIN
PORI si. BAR 11 118 F 0 k R tACIII C CIA2 S(L
F DE RRORA EA LE I HlT [ INLET
CED R i uEtE 1R111ASm F nA Lnt DAYON AEACH SLEE' CRANK[

AECIA lRWAY L S AL
.OOSAC ENEE. 0 ,ROIV E AR LA-. 1\1V o E i .
E DARKS D R PA SSO R TRIKLND LOMA EiD LFLX I R SARL
HOERIASI!E CDAEE RIVEE RER W ikL ElREIEK A R CHANN EL R

TI.E l l UMS Po llAD AL I R RIf. C l

nmn ~ n, l[ n M E iI. M YMA RS K S 1 4 1g p1DA Y CA X5IA L 5 IN L E T
If RIVR SMALL BA H N T [A RB OR
MEaR "RARE DAM SE. C R

? -C PANSSL NERVOE PASS BE ARPSESD ECHANOEL
SEE--- A i, CANNEL NAPLES 10 L 0 ARO PASS \A_ A s R OO
iA-AO OE MOORE HAVEN CAR
*1111sO, -TRA SE0. AT ERA NA"A II EDREE ARIES ....

O AESE SIAN NAiTS NIT AIR EUE wER .LE
PAS ,,,LIKII o 1 el s K R
RAIE OA 15A WA

2i Pl A AIus 1AsT EV EG S AD

E VnEESiA lHAfRtB MIAM E S I HAA RR AT
ENu A twINEINAAI RRIASl G AR I RSOR EIH RWAYS

CORPS of EKSIMiniS
IIJIATIOR PROJECTS
IN FLORIOA
SCLA IL ULES
20 10o 0 o D o

Corps of Engineers Navigation Projects in Florida (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979).

Figure IV-1.

DUaAL COUKnTY

P1111113 099ENY A.
AUUITY KEY
MAUITEE C4911YT
BYLBROG AY
LIDA

sm UTUImYPLEPLPYUE
UCwF11 F~ISJIECl
UW ltw MIECIUN

111121

IWAMXI fil IOVItI II!It ITLITII

Figure IV-2.

[l. PHEAcE

IL ACK COUNTY
HOWARD CECHTY

q9A IDE COUNTY
VIRGYINIA KEY AND

CAPE FLOTIDI

CSIS If ENCIXE[IS

R181 CINTIOL L $NOR[ PROI[CTSN I'ITECS Is RLUIIA Corps of Engineers Flood Control and Shore Protection Projects in Florida (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979). Geological Survey The Florida District of the Water Resources Division, U.S. Geo- logical Survey, has the principal responsibility at the Federal level for appraising water resources and providing basic hydrologic data (Kantrowitz, 1980). A summary of current activities is contained in an annual report (U.S. Geological Survey, 1979). Table IV-4 shows a topical classification of current U.S.G.S. studies in Florida. The location of these studies is shown in Figure IV-3. The Florida District has the largest cooperative program of any state in the United States. In fiscal year 1979, over$11 million of Federal, state, and local money

was spent on this program in Florida.

The Apalachicola River is being studied as part of the U.S.G.S.

national program. The primary purpose of this study is to test a

variety of general wetland assessment procedures (U.S. Geological Survey,

1979).

U.S. Department of Agriculture

Soil Conservation Service (Livingston, 1980)

The Soil Conservation Service (SCS) gives technical assistance to

individuals, groups, organizations, cities and towns, county and state

governments in conservation, protection, development, and utilization of

land and water resources. The authorities for participating in planning

and implementing water resource developments are contained in the following

laws:

Table IV-4. Topical Classification of USGS Investigations (USGS, 1979)

Aquifer Studies. FL-210, FL-230, FL-257, FL-258, FL-284, FL-286, FL-294,
FL-297, FL-299, FL-301, FL-302, FL-303, FL-310, FL-311, FL-312, FL-317

Areal Water Resources. FL-048, FL-057, FL-090, FL-106, FL-109, FL-126,
FL-150, FL-268, FL-270

Bridge Site Studies. FL-012

Environmental Impact. FL-264, FL-271, FL-286, FL-288, FL-292, FL-308

Estuarine Hydrology. FL-159, FL-314

Flood Control. FL-105

Flood Mapping. FL-006

Hydrologic Monitoring. FL-001, FL-002, FL-003, FL-041, FL-043, FL-044,
FL-072, FL-179, FL-191, FL-280

Lake Hydrology. FL-091, FL-143, FL-233, FL-296

Modelling. FL-267, FL-282, FL-294

Remote Sensing. FL-263

Rivers (Canals), Water Quality. FL-099, FL-124, FL-290, FL-314

River, Water Supply. FL-265, FL-276

Saltwater Encroachment. FL-041, FL-043, FL-044, FL-285, FL-295, FL-298, FL-306

Sanitary Landfill. FL-106, FL-107, FL-316

Spray Irrigation, Waste Effluent. FL-195, FL-316

Subsurface Storage of Freshwater. FL-289, FL-291, FL-293

Subsurface Water Disposal. FL-113, FL-152, FL-154, FL-198, FL-245

Surface and Ground Water Relationship.

Technical Support. FL-208, FL-231, FL-232, FL-281

Urban Hydrology. FL-119, FL-136, FL-139, FL-158, FL-219, FL-309, FL-318

Water Management. FL-272

Water Use. FL-007

Water Resource Mapping. FL-256

Wetlands. FL-307

I I I I I I I I
A L A 8 A M A
310* f^ 1L\M5
1 2 2OS JACKSON G E 0 R G I A
\ IANTA ORA! I P'.1-, I- -
245 IWALO ATASHIL_ ---0,--- SU
---4 ALOUNA 't ( N / MADIS 0 03 71 ST. JOHNS RIVER
,4 / /109 WATER MANAGEMENT
S! KENR U V AL 4 DISTRICT
jGULF IBERTY TA YL LOR SUA NNEEI L U
3- _L oLAFAY ET TK CL A0
NORTHWEST FLORIDA 37

WATER MANAGEMENT oixi E [ iALA PT
DISTRICT uC I
o SUWANNEE RIVER I LAGLER
WATER MANAGEMENT L E Y
DISTRICT M R 1 2 N
29 \ VOLUS
CITRUS L A K E
31.1 -32SEMINOLE

072 291
^ 2572 143 119
HILLSL OROUG 31 \O S C E LAI
28- 210 L 26 08 1C 7 27
52 25- 2P 0
285 j 29 _
5 159 'INDIAN VE
a 316 _4 26
MANATEE HARDEE OKEEC E
SOUTHWEST FLORIDA 264 \_ ST LUCIE
WATER MANAGEMENT 3021 --- HIGHLANDS \ 268
DISTRICT 158L -- DE SOTO L
SARASOTA MARTIN
27- LOCATION OF AREAL INVESTIGATIONS H LO E S
284
301 Investigation Number t 292891 314
1306 LEE [HENDRY 0PALM EAC
.0903--- 32 230
NOTE: Statewide 3
investigations not shown. _" 057
1 06 B OWAR D
C L L I E ,-124 044 126
26 15_0 ..-- -

WATER MANAGEMENT 1288
DISTRICT 048

25* -, 0 020 30 40 50 MILES
272 f

870 86 85* 84 83 82 81 80o

Figure IV-3. Location of Ongoing USGS Investigations (USGS, 1979).

1. Public Law 46 -- The Soil Conservation Act of 1935 authorizes the

SCS to provide technical assistance in development and

protection of natural resources to individuals, groups, and

units of government through soil and water conservation

districts.

2. Public Law 566 -- The Small Watershed Act authorizes providing

financial and technical assistance in carrying out watershed

protection and flood prevention projects in cooperation with local

governmental units or state agencies.

3. Public Law 566 -- Section 6 authorizes SCS to carry out river

basin investigations and flood hazard studies in cooperation with

state and local agencies.

4. Public Law 81-516, The Emergency Flood Control Act -- Section

216 authorizes installation of emergency measures to safeguard

lives and property whenever a natural element or force has caused

a sudden impairment of that watershed.

5. Public Law 703 -- The Food and Agriculture Act of 1962 authorizes

resource and development projects which cover multi-county areas.

Projects for development, protection, or utilization of an area's

natural resources may be eligible for financial and technical

assistance.

The purposes for which financial and/or technical assistance may

be made available and are basically common to all authorities are flood

prevention, agricultural water management (drainage and irrigation),

agricultural pollution abatement, land stabilization, land treatment,

public fish and wildlife development, and public recreation develop-

ments.

The Soil Conservation Service has local offices in most of the

counties in Florida, staffed with a district conservationist. Questions

concerning any of the programs may be directed either to the local

district conservationist or to Mr. William E. Austin, State Conser-

vationist, Soil Conservation Service, P.O. Box 1208, Gainesville,

Florida 32602.

Agricultural Research

Research stations are located in Gainesville and Fort Pierce,

Florida (U.S.D.A., 1979). On-going studies include the following

topics:

1. The frequency and duration of periods between rains are more

important than the amounts of rain in determining irrigation water

requirements for shallow-rooted turf.

2. Blight and healthy citrus tree leaves have similar photosynthesis

and transpiration rates.

3. High lime rates may compensate for lower water table control on

potatoes.

4. High density cattle raises ammonia concentration of streamflow.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

A new National Fisheries Research Laboratory has been opened

in Gainesville, Florida. This lab will develop a national research

program associated with investigations of exotic and non-native fish

species which have been or are likely to be introduced and become

established in the nation's waters. This unit is a cooperative

venture between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Florida

Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, and the University of Florida.

Current research includes a study of the chemical and tropical

characteristics of Florida lakes and a study of the growing bobcat

population in eastern Florida (Shockley, 1980). The unit is currently

operating on a $150,000 per year budget. State Department of Environmental Regulation Bureau of Water Management (Bishop, 1980) During the 1976 Florida Legislative Session, the Department of Environmental Regulation was designated to restore specific degraded water bodies within the state. A general revenue appropriation of$1.5 million and a total of $276,000 from pollution violations in the state were provided to the Department to effect this action. In July 1977, the Governor signed into law the Water Resource Restoration and Preservation (WRR&P) Program. This legislation officially author- ized and required the Department to undertake both freshwater and marine water resource restoration projects throughout Florida. Projects administered by the Water resources Restoration and Preservation Program have been located throughout the state and have been diverse in their aims and approaches. A brief summary of WRR&P projects illustrating typical university involvement follows: Lake Apopka Since 1976, the Department of Environmental Engineer- ing Sciences of the University of Florida has been conducting studies on Lake Apopka. These studies involved basic water quality monitoring for physical, chemical, and biological factors as well as basic research on sediment chemistry and sediment water nutrient exchange. Additional studies determine the nutrient sources and loading rates for Lake Apopka and other downstream lakes in the Oklawaha Chain. Non-point sources like rainfall, citrus grove runoff and seepage, and muck farm irrigation were evaluated. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) of the University of Florida also performed a frost/freeze study of the lake vicinity. This basic research effort was directed at determining the effect of lowered water level on the lake's ability to provide freeze protection for surrounding citrus crops. Lake Eola This research and demonstration project will develop cost effective methods to restore lake water quality by management of stormwater runoff. The Department of Civil Engineering and Environ- mental Science of the University of Central Florida is conducting this three-phase project in cooperation with the City of Orlando. Phase I is now complete. This phase involved lake and storm- water monitoring for nutrients, organic, solids, metals, and pathogens. Algae bioassays, trophic state analyses, and sediment studies were also performed. Data from these studies were used by the University to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of an array of management alter- natives including watershed best land management practices, settling, filtration, and diversion. During Phase II, now in progress, the university will provide a detailed engineering design of the selected alternatives as well as a critical evaluation of two experimental pilot systems being constructed. University responsibilities will include bid specifications, construc- tion supervision and inspection, and systems evaluation of the completed project. Lake Jackson Florida State University is conducting lake and stormwater monitoring for this multi-phase research and demonstration project. The project will evaluate the effectiveness of several tech- niques (including marsh filtration) in nutrient and sediment removal from stormwater runoff. The university is also investigating hydrocarbon transport through the watershed during storm and baseflow conditions. Lake Washington A comprehensive water quality and quantity study of Lake Washington, the drinking water supply for south Brevard County, was undertaken by the Florida Institute of Technology. The study focused on: (1) the existing water quality and trophic state of the lake, (2) historical water quality, trends, and comparisons with present water quality, (3) water quantity hydrologicc budgets were developed in which source and sinks of water to the lake were quantified), (4) the effect of drainage canals on water quantity and quality, and (5) recommenda- tions to improve lake conditions. Bayou Texar The University of West Florida conducted a diag- nostic study of Bayou Texar. This assessment included an analysis of sediment samples for salt content and heavy metals and a deter- mination of bacterial levels in the water column and sediment. Bayou Chico Florida State University conducted an assessment of bottom sediments in Bayou Chico. The assessment involved analysis of sediments for toxic organic, heavy metals, oils, and greases. "208" Program This is the area in which the university system can best con- tribute to the needs of the Department. It is through basic research into environmental problems, and testing of BMP's, that we determine a reasonable approach to take in seeking to control pollutant sources. In the past, we have worked closely with several departments in the Univer- sity of Florida, among them Agricultural Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Forest Resources and Conservation, the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, and the Cooperative Extension Service. Depending upon the area under investigation, separate contracts have been let to individuals in these sections of the university, and the results have been mutually beneficial. As far as the teaching functions of the university system, we are presently moving into the phase of implementation of the state water quality management plan which will require extensive training and education of the public in the ways of proper water and resource management. Of particular interest to us is the broad reaching Cooperative Extension System, which is a respected institution in most communities. Techniques developed at the university research level can best reach the public through a system like Extension. Another vital role of the university educational branch is that of teaching and training students in technical fields as well as general resource conservation and management. It is only through the process of education at all levels that a greater environmental aware- ness will be developed. State Energy Office The State Energy Office was assigned to the Governor's office by the 1979 Florida Legislature. It can support water resources studies as they relate to energy programs. The State's STAR program is used as the funding mechanism. This group is interested in talking to faculty interested in water/energy reserach. Industry National Council for Air and Stream Improvement (Berger, 1980) Since 1943, the National Council for Air and Stream Improvement (NCASI) has supported research to solve environmental problems associa- ted with the forest products industry. One of their four regional centers is located in Gainesville, Florida. Their regional centers interact with university professors and students through jointly sponsored research projects, and/or support of graduate students. In the southeastern United States, the NCASI feels that additional research should include studies of: 1. development of conjunctive surface-groundwater quality models; 2. impact of pollutants on fish; and 3. additional ways in which the paper and pulp industry can reduce water use. Florida Institute of Phosphate Research (Borris, 1980) The Florida Institute of Phosphate Research was created by the State of Florida recently to support applied research. Support is drawn from a Phosphate Research Trust Fund. Problems can be addressed related to mining and processing of phosphate rock and reclamation of mined and disturbed lands. Approximately 1.5 million dollars is available during the 1980-81 fiscal year. Topics to be funded include: 1. Environmental studies related to radiation and water con- sumption and other environmental effects of phosphate mining and reclamation. 2. Wetlands reclamation. 3. Reclamation methods that can be applied to phosphate mining and processing. 4. Methods for more efficient recovery of phosphate and trace minerals from the matrix in the mining and processing industry. 5. Methods for phosphate clay disposal and utilization. 6. Mitigation of the environmental impact of accumulation of by-product gypsum. University Research Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) The largest single organizational unit studying water problems is within IFAS. A recent compendium listed 81 faculty working on a wide variety of water-related problems (Institute of Food and Agricul- tural Sciences, 1980). Areas of future concern include (Davidson, 1980): 1. finding the optimal amount of water to apply to crops; 2. developing a state-wide computer based information network; and 3. ground-water contamination. Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, U. of Miami The internationally recognized program has been in operation for forty years (University of Miami, 1980). Some of the on-going acti- vities related to water resources include (van de Kreeke, 1980): 1. the effect of chlorinated effluent on the ocean; 2. sedimentation in shallow bay areas from urbanization; 3. Bangladesh/Indian water rights; 4. Lake Worth and Naples Bay estuarine impacts; 5. rainfall measures using radar; 6. groundwater pollutant transport models; and 7. reuse of industrial waste waters. Florida Sea Grant College The Florida Sea Grant program began in 1971 (Florida Sea Grant, 1980). In 1976, the program received the designation of a Sea Grant College. Its 1980 budget totals nearly$3,000,000. This college is

the major source of information on water problems of coastal areas.

It is the seventh largest program of its kind in the United States.

72

Center for Wetlands (Odum, 1980)

The Center for Wetlands is an intercollege research division of the

University of Florida dedicated to wetlands, their ecology, problems,

management, and effective land use. The Center advances knowledge

through special research approaches as systems ecological modelling and

simulation, energy cost benefit analysis and planning, and field experi-

ments on vegetation responses to water control.

Representative research projects are "Cypress Wetlands for Water

Management, Recycling, and Conservation," funded by The Rockefeller

Foundation and the RANN Division of National Science Foundation. Work

of the Center includes a section on energy analysis, evaluating environ-

mental alternatives with data on energy flows.

The Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Laboratory, a unit of the

Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station, University of Florida,

conducts research on problems of the shoreline and of coastal and inland

waters and renders advisory service to public agencies and industry.

Interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research and graduate instruc-

tion are closely coordinated and related to applications of the coastal

zone. Research programs of the COE Laboratory include (1) air-sea

interaction and the generation of surface waves; (2) scale models of

inlets and shore structures; (3) transportation of sediment by waves and

currents; (4) wave and current effects at offshore nuclear power plants;

(5) water temperature variations near power-generating plants; (6) tidal

variations in inland waters; (7) littoral transport under wave action

and (8) coastal defense measures (Sheppard, 1980).

Other University Faculty

In addition to the above organizations, water related research groups

are located throughout the State of Florida. A recently completed compen-

dium of faculty interested in water research is available (Florida Water

Resources Research Center, 1980).

REFERENCES

Allee, W. Summary of Activities of the Southwest Florida Water Management
District, Presented at the Second Annual Meeting of the Florida Water
Resources Research Center, Gainesville, FL, Oct. 3, 1980.

Berger, H. Summary of Current Activities of the Paper and Pulp Industry
at the Southern Regional Center, Presented at the Second Annual
Meeting of the Florida Water Resources Research Center, Gainesville,
FL, Oct. 3, 1980.

Bishop, A. Summary of University Related Activities, Bureau of Water
Management, Presented at Second Annual Meeting of the Water Resources
Research Center, Gainesville, FL, Oct. 3, 1980.

Borris, D.P. Summary of Current Activities of the Florida Institute of
Phosphate Research, Presented at the Second Annual Meeting of the
Water Resources Research Center, Gainesville, FL, Oct. 3, 1980.

Davidson, J. Summary of Current Activities of the Institute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences' Programs in Water, Presented at the
Second Annual Meeting of the Florida Water Resources Research
Center, Gainesville, FL, Oct. 3, 1980.

Fisher, G. Summary of Activities of Northwest Florida Water Management
District, Presented at the Second Annual Meeting of the Florida
Water Resources Research Center, Gainesville, FL, Oct. 3, 1980.

Florida Sea Grant, Florida Sea Grant College, Annual Report, January 1/
December 31, 1979, Gainesville, FL, 1980.

Florida Water Resources Research Center, Directory of Florida's Univer-
sity Faculty in Water Resources Research, Florida Water Resources
Research Center, Gainesville, FL, Aug. 1980.

Howells, D.H. A Summary Report on Southeast Conference on Groundwater
Management, Water Resources Research Institute, the University
of North Carolina, Raleigh, N.C., 1980.

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Programs in Water, Current
and Planned Research and Extension, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL, July, 1980.

Kantrowitz, I. Summary of Activities of the Florida District, U.S.
Geological Survey, Presented at the Second Annual Meeting of
the Water Resources Research Center, Gainesville, FL, Oct. 3,
1980.

Livingston, J. Personal Communication from Asst. State Conservationist,
SCS, USDA, Gainesville, FL, 1980.

McCaffrey, P.M., et al. Kissimmee River Survey Review: Information Packet,
Kissimmee Coordinating Council, Tallahassee, FL, 1980.

Morgan, D. Summary of Activities of the Suwannee River Water Manage-
ment District, Presented at the Second Annual Meeting of the
Florida Water Resources Center, Gainesville, FL, Oct. 3, 1980.

Munch, D. Summary of Activities of the St. Johns Water Management
District, Presented at the Second Annual Meeting of the Florida
Water Resources Research Center, Gainesville, FL, Oct. 3, 1980.

National Audubon Society, The Ecosystem Research Unit, Information
Sheet No. 5, Naples, FL, Sept. 1979.

Northwest Florida Water Management District, Water Resources Manage-
ment Plan, Executive Summary, Havanna, FL, 1979.

Odum, H.T. Summary of Current Activities of the Center for Wetlands,
Presented at the Second Annual Meeting of the Florida Water
Resources Research Center, Gainesville, FL, Oct. 3, 1980.

Rhoads, P. Summary of Current Activities of the South Florida Water
Management District, Presented at the Second Annual Meeting of
the Florida Water Resources Research Center, Gainesville, FL,
Oct. 3, 1980.

Rosendahl, P. National Park Service/South Florida Research Center,
Fiscal Year 1980, Programs/Projects, Paper presented at Florida
Water Resources Research Center Annual Meeting, Gainesville, FL,
Oct. 3, 1980.

Salem, E. Summary of Activities of the Jacksonville District, U.S.
Army Corps of Engineers, Presented at the Second Annual Meeting
of the Florida Water Resources Research Center, Gainesville, FL,
Oct. 3, 1980.

Sheppard, D.M. Summary of Current Activities of the Coastal and
Oceanographic Engineering Laboratory, Presented at the Second
Annual Meeting of the Florida Water Resources Research Center,
Gainesville, FL, Oct. 3, 1980.

Shockley, B. Research Group Unites Fish and Wildlife Study, Gainesville
Sun, Feb. 17, 1980.

Southeast Basins Inter-Agency Committee, South Atlantic-Gulf Water
Resources Region, Specific Problem Analysis, Main Report, 1975
National Assessment of Water and Related Land Resources,
Volume I, Dec. 1977.

Southwest Florida Water Management District, A Look at the Southwest
Florida Water Management District, Information Series 921B,
Brooksville, FL, Aug. 1979.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Water Resources Development by the
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in Florida, Jacksonville, FL,
1979, 189 pp.

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil, Water, and Air Sciences Research,
1979 Annual Report, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington,
D.C., 1979.

U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Investigations in Florida,
1978-79, Tallahassee, FL, June 1979.

U.S. Geological Survey, USGS Yearbook, Fiscal Year 1979, U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1980.

U.S. Water Resources Council, The Nation's Water Resources, 1975-
2000, Volume 1: Summary 4 December 1978.

University of Miami, 1978-1979 Annual Report, University of Miami
Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, FL,
1980.

van de Kreeke, Co. Summary of Current Activities of the Rosenstiel
School of Atmospheric and Marine Science, Presented at the Second
Annual Meeting of the Florida Water Resources Research Center,
Gainesville, FL, Oct. 3, 1980.

SECTION V

PROBLEM CATEGORIZATION

Florida's water problems and priorities were established by

soliciting input from several groups. Agency representatives were

asked to rank Florida's problems using formal questionnaires and

informal discussions. Results from this 1979 effort are summarized

in RUNOFF (Florida WRRC, 1979). Another valuable perspective on

"problems" was gained by subscribing to a news clipping service for

all of Florida's newspapers for six months beginning in April, 1980.

More than one thousand clippings were arranged by county. Then,

summaries of "problems" were prepared.

The Second National Water Assessment by the U.S. Water Resources

Council expended much effort in prioritizing water problems in the

southeastern United States (U.S. Water Resources Council, 1978).

This effort is quite valuable in providing the regional and national

perspectives. The major source of information regarding priorities

for research in water problems related to agricultural areas came

from a state-wide meeting sponsored by the Institute of Food and

Agricultural Sciences (1979).

Another perspective on problems was obtained by attending

the 1980 Annual Meeting of the Florida Defenders of the Environment.

A summary of that meeting provided additional input. Lastly, and most

importantly, university faculty were asked to suggest what they felt

were the most important research topics that needed attention. A

formal request and informal discussions were used to obtain this

information. The remaining parts of this section summarize these

findings.

There are numerous ways in which water problems can be classi-

fied. The selected scheme was developed by the Virginia Water Resources

Center using an outline of the South Atlantic Gulf Region as a point

of departure. Much of the text in the material to follow is an

adaptation of this regional material to better describe the situa-

tion in Florida.

Problem Categorization

Category I: Atmospheric, Hydrologic, and Hydraulic Processes

1. Saline Intrusion into Freshwater Aquifers

Intrusion of saline water into freshwater aquifers is an

increasingly critical problem in Florida. Heavy pumping for industrial,

municipal, and agricultural uses alters natural groundwater flow

patterns causing landward movement of the freshwater-saltwater inter-

face, eventually resulting in high levels of salinity in pumped water.

Continued development of coastal areas, with increasing demands for

water, will result in a rapid worsening of this problem.

Needed are descriptions of the magnitude and intensity of the

intrusion problem, determination of aquifer characteristics and

pumping patterns contributing to it, development of techniques for

monitoring salinity levels, and development of techniques for rever-

sing flow or buffering against saline intrusion. Models of aquifer

systems must be developed which can be used to estimate safe yields

and establish appropriate pumping schedules and well locations. Possi-

ble institutional arrangements for management of pumpage in coastal areas

and for developing alternative water supplies need to be explored.

2. Pollutants to Groundwater

Waste treatment lagoons (both municipal and livestock),

landfills, septic tank disposal fields, storm and wastewater injec-

tion wells, and land application of wastewaters and sludges are all

important means for disposal of waste materials to avoid direct pollu-

tion of streams, lakes, and estuaries. However, all of these hold

possibilities for leaching of pollutants to groundwater.

Attention should be given to the types of pollutants which may

be present, the manner of movement of these materials, and application

techniques to minimize the potential for groundwater pollution. Florida

is particularly sensitive to this problem due to high ground-water

tables and sandy soils (Howells, 1980). Also, Florida has the largest

number of hazardous waste disposal sites of any state in the United

States.

3. Instream Flow

With increasing pressures to divert flows for off-stream

uses such as irrigation, industrial development and municipal uses,

it is important that an information base and methods be developed for

resolving in- and offstream uses conflicts. The information need is

critical for those agencies with responsibility for permitting the

construction and operation of flow control structures.

4. Low-Flow Predictions for Receiving Waters

The design of wastewater treatment systems to prevent stream

pollution from reaching unacceptable concentrations requires informa-

tion on low-flows by duration and frequency. Many relatively small

streams are ungaged and for larger streams low-flow estimates are

often uncertain. Hydrologic models for simulating stream flows

in the watersheds in several areas of Florida need to be developed,

and these must be thoroughly evaluated for their specific applica-

bility to low-flow periods.

5. Water Supply

Population and industrial growth, and electric generating

facilities cause greater competition for existing water supplies.

This competing demand is resulting in the formation of capacity use

areas and restrictions on amounts of water for new users. Better

data coupled with new approaches to finding alternative ways of meeting

these problems is critical.

6. Water Uses

The extent of withdrawals from surface and groundwater

sources needs to be documented if effective water budgets and manage-

ment plans are to be developed. In most areas of Florida the quantity

of water withdrawals is only a crude approximation. Virtually none

of the agricultural water use, our largest user, is measured. Basic

data are urgently required to facilitate the development of management

plans for wise and efficient utilization of our water resources. Im-

provement in geophysical techniques for exploration for groundwater

would be of great assistance.

7. Flood Plain Management

In coastal areas, flooding occurs due to the physical features

of the land through which the rivers flow and is particularly serious

during hurricanes. Reliable information is required on flood stages by

frequency and the capacity of the river swamps to contain flood water.

In the rapidly urbanizing regions, water runoff volume is increased by

reduced locations available for evapotranspiration and infiltration and

higher peaks are caused by more efficient drainage ways. Remedial

measures require (1) more reliable information on flood flows and

stages by frequency, (2) better techniques for estimating the effect

of land use and channel changes on flood peaks, and (3) overcoming

social, political, and institutional obstacles to wider use of

nonstructural measures.

8. Erosion Control from Excess Water

The transportation of sediment and other debris by the flood

water is very significant in injury and environmental and property

damages, especially in northern Florida. Erosion results from channel

scour along stream and headwater tributaries, and man's land-disturbing

activities. Damages also occur when the stream load and non-channelized

water load are deposited. Research should be undertaken on (1) methods

to stabilize erodible areas to prevent these kinds of damages, and

(2) the combined problems of erosion, sedimentation, drainage and

ecological impacts in agricultural areas.

Category II: Hydrological-Ecological Relationships

1. Wetlands

Wetlands and estuaries have certain functional attributes

that make them valuable and productive resources of local, regional,

or national significance. Wetlands comprised ten to fifteen percent of

the state of Florida originally. They serve as key areas for biotic

productivity and cycling of nutrients associated with the formation

and maintenance of food chains. They provide feeding, cover, nesting

reproduction, and nursery habitat for associated biota. They have a

major influence on drainage, current and sedimentation patterns,

salinities and flushing characteristics. Certain wetlands have a

major influence on surface water and groundwater recharge. Many

wetlands provide physical protection against erosion and storm dam-

age and serve as storage areas for storm and flood waters. Wetlands

affect key water quality variables such as dissolved oxygen, tempera-

ture, turbidity, and nutrient load. Also, wetlands provide oppor-

tunities for recreation, education and research.

Research and development efforts are needed to gain the techni-

cal knowledge required to properly implement wetland management pro-

grams. Currently, sufficient knowledge and guidance are lacking to

properly and consistently implement these laws, particularly when

conflicting needs demand tradeoffs. For example, some wetlands were

formed because inefficient systems and practices were used when irri-

gated lands were first developed. Continuation of all wetlands that

were man-made in areas where water shortages and groundwater over-

drafts exist must be reassessed if we are to make maximum beneficial

use of our water resources.

The wetlands of the coastal regions in Florida are being affected

by human utilization of nearby land and by changes in drainage, stream

channels, and the prior use of inflowing water. They have considerable

potential for land use and waste disposal, but a fragile and delicately

balanced ecology is involved if they are to be used. Adequate models

are not available for evaluating the impact of such changes on wetlands

activity in storing water, utilizing nutrients, and interacting with

pollutants. Developing this information will enable impact evaluations

to guide beneficial uses and limit adverse ones.

The importance of estuaries in the biological cycles of the

oceans, their rather fragile and delicately balanced ecology, and the

increasing pressures for development in coastal areas, all require that

natural phenomena taking place within these areas be better understood

and that the impact of man's encroachment and pollution be assessed.

Research should center on the hydrological and biological processes

in estuaries and the effect that dredging, filling, contamination with

a variety of pollutants and encroachment of man may have on living

processes within them.

3. Lake and Reservoir Quality Degradation

Rivers, lakes, and reservoirs in Florida are increasingly

threatened by upstream waste residues, particularly by nutrients and

toxic substances. Nutrient enrichment leads to eutrophication. Studies

of cause and effect relationships on water quality must be continued

in support of regulatory decisions, reservoir design and management.

Working models of the physical, chemical, and biological processes pro-

ducing eutrophication in Florida's 7000 lakes must be developed in

order to predict the effect of nutrient loads and to formulate a cost-

effective control approach.

4. Nonpoint Sources

Regional wastewater management efforts under the 1972 Water

Pollution Control Act require documentation of nonpoint sources of pollu-

tion, and evaluation of land use impacts on water quality. The monitoring

strategy, the economics of data collection, and the subsequent use of

collected data is crucial to the program in wastewater management.

Pollutants include sediment, nutrients, pesticides, herbicides,

acids, and a variety of other materials originating from agricultural

croplands, pastures, dry lots, construction, urban runoff, septic tank

fields, boat discharges, mining operations, and other sources. Phos-

phate mining in Florida presents special challenges.

It is necessary to identify types, quantities and sources of

pollutants, assess their economic and environmental impacts, explore

appropriate control measures, and develop best management practices

to mitigate their undesirable consequences.

5. Point Sources

Industries, municipalities, and agricultural livestock pro-

duction units represent sources of concentrated pollution. The pulp

and paper industries present particular problems in Florida.

Better characterization of wastes from these various sources is

required. Alternative methods of wastewater disposal and flow augmenta-

tion need to be evaluated. The cost-effectiveness of current water

quality standards needs to be assessed.

6. Water and Energy

There will be more concern for interactions between sources

of energy and water resources as the country strives for energy self-

sufficiency. As energy development schemes are planned, it is prudent

that anticipated water-related problems are analyzed in detail so that

mitigation measures may become part of the initial plan. These problems

involve areas that include electricity generation, oil refining, acid

rain and geothermal groundwater pumping.

Currently, Florida is considered to have sufficient water resources

to support existing and new electrical generating facilities. As

competition for water increases, however, it will be more difficult

to justify the use of huge quantities of water for single purposes.

Some experts estimate that within five years, more wells will be

drilled for energy development than for water supply. An intense

examination of potential problems is advisable in order to facilitate

any increase in electrical generating capacity. Further, nuclear

plants discharge hot water and fossil fuel plants contribute to acid

rain conditions. All of these difficulties indicate that there is a

need for research that will assist in decision-making concerning the

optimum form of future energy development projects. Research can con-

tribute to a combined energy-water plan, which will be necessary for

future public satisfaction.

7. Acid Rain

Acid rain is a significant environmental problem which chal-

lenges the use of fossil fuels as an energy source. Research objectives

should focus on information that will help maintain environmental

integrity as the country achieves energy self-sufficiency. The current

acid rain sampling network needs to be expanded.

8. Channelization

Stream channels are modified to increase drainage for flood

control, reclamation and improvement of low-lying areas, and mosquito

control. While channelization activities by federal agencies have been

slowed by recent court actions, they will and--in appropriate circum-

stances--should continue to be used. Alternative channelization designs

must be developed for minimum adverse impact, and the effects of

these and existing channelization approaches must be defined more ade-

quately than is currently done. Some of the field studies on the lower

Kissimmee River Basin should be continued. Quantitative guidelines

for project evaluation should result from such research.

9. Dredging and Filling

This largely private work is evaluated on a project-by-

project basis. Some activities have had a devastating impact on

estuarine areas in Florida. Methodology for assessing the cumulative

impact of several projects should be developed to guide the issuance

of permits. Techniques are needed to determine the sensitivity of

the aquatic damage to the system. A more subtle problem than the recog-

nizable gross changes in habitat is the release of substances from dis-

turbed sediment and the effect of these materials on aquatic life.

More detailed design guidelines for finger canals are needed.

10. Heated Water Discharge

The demand for numerous additional electric generating plants

will place considerable pressure on regulatory agencies to reevaluate

the present limits of temperature increases in surface water due to

cooling water discharges. Continuing studies should optimize heat

dissipation from cooling water, identify reasonable upper temperature

limits for protecting the aquatic biota in specific locations, assure

that all adverse impacts of warmer water have been assessed, and place

social, economic, and ecological impacts on comparable bases. Research

activities should also be directed toward recovery of this waste heat

for beneficial uses.

11. Water Quality Monitoring

Present water quality monitoring cannot be considered adequate

for either planning or regulatory purposes. Objectives underlying

system design have never been explicitly defined and monitoring activi-

ties have grown without benefit of rigorous analysis. Continued

research leading to cost-effective monitoring strategies is vital.

Category III: Water Quality Management and Protection

1. Reclamation and Reuse of Wastewater

Reclamation of wastewater for public supplies will have to

increase, but state officials are concerned about public opposition to

treatment practices or decreased distance between discharge and intake.

Evaluation of those aspects of water reuse must identify acceptable

and objectionable practices and implement approaches that can result

in public support where safety has been established. More efficient

water use must be developed as an alternative to new source develop-

ment, together with research on the effects of pricing, new technology,

and public education on efficient use, wastewater reclamation, and

reuse.

2. Water Treatment Processes

The potential for movement of pollutants from raw water sources

into treated water supplies is a matter of increasing concern. Rou-

tine safety of water supplies is determined by bacteriological exami-

nation of water supplies taken from distribution systems. These

give no indication of the presence of hazardous chemicals which water

treatment plants are not normally designed to remove. Such materials

are usually present in low concentrations and may never give rise to

acute symptoms associated with a classical water borne disease outbreak.

Studies on the implications of prolonged exposure to trace level

contaminants should be accelerated by the Federal agencies. Con-

current studies at the state level of the presence of these materials

and the effectiveness of supplemental water treatment processes for

their removal should continue.

Category IV: Water Development, Use, Conservation and Management

1. Irrigation

Large supplies of groundwater are available for supplemental

irrigation which would help optimize crop production and minimize crop

failures both important in meeting world demand for agricultural

products and combating increasing costs for production. Research

should define the potential for supplemental irrigation including con-

sideration of techniques and economics.

Also, increasing use of supplemental irrigation will require informa-

tion on how much evapotranspiration is increased and on development of

ways to increase water use efficiency based on water balance, energy

budget techniques, and yield data.

2. Large Reserves

Efficient development of large reserves of groundwater and

surface water that are untapped in some areas will be dependent on

reliable information about location, quality and availability of the

resources and relative economics of the potential sources. Research

should be done on political and legal constraints on the use of the

resource. Continuing growth and urban concentration will impose demands

on this resource. This stiffening competition for available water supplies

already is raising serious political, legal, technical and economic

questions.

3. Water Conservation in Industry and Agriculture

As increasing demands are made on the available water supplies

of the region, and as more stringent regulations are imposed on waste-

water disposal, research must concentrate on techniques for the reduc-

tion of water requirements in various production processes and the

treatment necessary to make the water reusable in the same process or

usable in a less critical process.

4. Salvage and Conservation of Excess Water

Much of the runoff water which subsequently creates damage

before reaching the ocean can be diverted and conserved to meet future

water supply needs. For example: diversion of flood waters should be

made from direct runoff to detention areas from which water can be drawn

off for (a) aquifer recharge and (b) municipal and agricultural needs.

Research on the social, economic, political, and health aspects are

warranted before such alternatives can be realistically considered.

5. Reclamation and Reuse

Public Law 92-500 requires that the reuse of wastewater be

considered as an alternate means of helping to meet future demands.

Some of the ways of doing this are by aquifer recharge of used industrial

and municipal sewerage effluents, land spreading and spray irrigation

of biodegradable liquid wastes on land. Public Law 93-523 requires the

protection of underground sources of drinking water. As a result of

this type of disposal solution, other problems will arise; such as,

groundwater contamination, air pollution, buildup of salts and heavy

minerals in the soils, and problems and potential relating to recycling

of nutrients through vegetation. As a result of the importance of

these systems and the approaching need for resource reuse of water

in many areas, continued studies are necessary to determine all adverse

effects of the method.

6. Cost-Effectiveness/Energy Requirements

Many communities, both large and small, are experiencing diffi-

culties meeting escalating operation and maintenance costs for mechani-

cal wastewater treatment plants. Research is urgently needed to reduce

both the operating costs and the complexity of new wastewater treatment

plants.

Category V: Institutional and Economic Analysis and Water Resources
Planning

1. Floods

Problems associated with the control of excess water are of

major concern. Flooding continues to take a great toll of human lives,

and to leave behind property damages far in excess of any other natural

hazard.

Although people in Florida are well acquainted with the devasta-

tion and tragedies caused by too much water, much research to date has

not been conducted, and more must be done in order to: restate the

goals and objectives of research application in terms meaningful to the

public at large; determine the interaction between federal, state, and

local government in research initiation and implementation; determine

the role of alternative,strategies for state government participation

in research development and implementation; integrate flood plain manage-

ment into comprehensive land use planning; evaluate the standards of

performance and methods for program evaluation; understand the effects

of floodway fringe filling and occupancy; and project the effects of

urbanization, on-site detention, and channelization on flood velocities

and evaluations. There is an urgent need to develop engineering design

and operation criteria for stormwater retention ponds. All of these

are critical areas in which research should be undertaken.

2. Dam Safety Considerations

There is an increasing incidence of failures of small dams and

levees throughout the region. This usually causes downstream areas to

become inundated and on occasion has caused major damage and a number

of fatalities. Numerical models are needed for predicting the magnitude

of potential dam-break floods and delineating the potential flood plain

for land use planning.

3. Hydroelectric

There is a keen national interest in the use of low head hydro-

power. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers estimates that the southeast

region has the potential to produce more electricity by expanding existing

hydropower facilities or developing new ones. A gentle impact on the

environment and low operating costs are benefits associated with hydro-

electric plants that should be investigated further.

4. Control of Water Use

Proposals for re-regulating water use at existing reservoirs,

diverting water between basins, and regulating water use among states

require assessment of impacts to multiple publics in several categories.

Methodologies are needed for evaluating these impacts on comparable

bases and presenting them for public evaluation.

5. Integrating Water and Land Use Management

Land use planners regularly make decisions that affect water

service requirements without due consideration of the impact of alter-

nate land use arrangements. One research need with respect to regional

land use management is to establish criteria for selecting the best

overall land use policy. Important considerations in establishing

usable criteria include identification of social effects and fair

allocation of beneficial and adverse consequences of various land use

policies. Public response to various land use management practices

needs to be better integrated into the decision making through effec-

tive feedback loops.

6. Land Use Control in Water Resource Management

Florida is feeling intensifying resource-management pressures

due to population increases. There is a priority need for more systematic

and coordinated management of water and land resources. This can be

accomplished only through consistent data-gathering, evaluation,

planning, and implementation. It also requires resource-management

strategies based on multi-disciplinary, inter-governmental approaches.

Growth in the coastal plains has resulted in the drilling of

thousands of private wells with the consequences clearly evident in

overpumping of aquifers. In a number of locations inadequate controls

on timber harvesting have caused water quality degradation and increased

erosion and sedimentation. More effective management of land resources

would help to control the substantial percentage of water pollution due

to non-point sources.

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Publication No. 51 1982-1986 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PLAN For Florida Water Resources Research Center By James P. Heaney, Director Florida Water Resources Research Center University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611

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1982-1986 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR FLORIDA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH CENTER Submitted to DIRECTOR OFFICE OF WATER RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Washington, D.C. 20240 by James P. Heaney, Director Florida Water Resources Research Center University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611 October 1980

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CONTENTS List of Tables .............................................. iv List of Figures v Acknowledgments vi SECTION I: SUMMARY. . . . . . . . . 1 Florida's Water Resources and Current Activities ......... 1 Problem Categorization and Ranking ...................... 2 Five-Year Program ..................................... 3 SECTION II: FLORIDA'S WATER RESOURCES ........................ 8 Precipitation 8 Surface Water 9 Ground Water ........................................... 29 References ............................................... 33 SECTION III: THE USE OF FLORIDA'S WATER RESOURCES ............ 35 Public Supplies ........................................ 38 Rural Self-Supplied ..................................... 38 Industrial 39 Irrigation 39 Thermoelectric Power Generation .......................... 40 References ................................................ 42 SECTION IV: WATER AND RELATED LAND PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES .......................... 43 Water Management Districts .............................. 43 Special Studies .......................................... 54 ii

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Federal ................................................... 57 State ................................................... 66 Industry ............................................... 70 University Research ....................................... 71 References ................................................ 75 SECTION V: PROBLEM CATEGORIZATION ........................... 78 Problem Categorization ................................... 79 References ............................................. 97 SECTION VI: CENTER PRIORITIES AND JUSTIFICATION FOR THE SELECTION OF THOSE PRIORITIES ...... ............ 98 Organization of the Center ............................... 99 Research Priorities 99 SECTION VII: FIVE-YEAR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PLAN .......... 101 APPENDIX: OWRT INSTRUCTIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF FIVE-YEAR PLAN 113 iii

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LIST OF TABLES Table I-I Estimated Budget Requirements by Research Category: FY 1982-1986 .......................... 4 1-2 Proposed Distribution of Federal Funds: FY 1982-1986 ............................................. 6 IV-1 Research and Technical Studies: FY 1979-80, St. Johns Water Management District 46 IV-2 Proposed Program Activities: South Florida Water Management District ........................ 49 IV-3 Expenditures by the Corps of Engineers in Florida .......................................... 58 IV-4 Topical Classification of USGS Inve s t iga t ions ................................... 62 VII-1 Proposed Distribution of Funds by Budget Activity for Fiscal Year 1982 ............................. 102 VII-2 Proposed Distribution of Funds by Budget Activity for Fiscal Year 1983 ............................. 104 VII-3 Proposed Distribution of Funds by Budget Activity for Fiscal Year 1984 ............................. 106 VII-4 Proposed Distribution of Funds by Budget Activity for Fiscal Year 1985 ............................. 108 VII-5 Proposed Distribution of Funds by Budget Activity for Fiscal Year 1986 ............................ llO iv

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.. Figure 11-1 II-2 II-3 II-4 II-5 II-6 II-7 II-8 II-9 II-I0 II-l1 III-l III-2 LIST OF FIGURES Discharge of the Principal Rivers in Florida ..... 10 Florida Index Map ..... 11 Central and Southern Florida Area ........ 12 Lower St. Johns and North Coastal Area 18 Northwest Florida Area 21 Southwest Florida Area 24 Florida Portion of the Suwannee River Basin ....... 27 Principal Sources of Ground Water ........ 29 Altitude of Top of the Floridan Aquifer ......... 31 Potentiometric Surface of Floridan Aquifer, May 1974 ................................................. 31 Decline of Potentiometric Surface of Floridan Aquifer in Area of Heavy Withdrawal of Ground Water, 1961-74 ...................... e' Trends in Population and Fresh Water Withdrawn in Florida, 1950-75 ............ Source, Use and Disposition of 6.9 Billion Gallons Per Day of Fresh Water in Florida in 32 35 1'9 ........................................... II! 37 IV-l Corps of Engineers Navigation Projects in : IV-2 IV-3 Florida ..................................... 59 Corps of Engineers Flood Control and Shore Pro tection Projects in Florida ...................... Location of On-Going USGS Investigations .......... v 60 63

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank numerous people who provided invaluable assistance in preparing this five-year plan. First, a general accolade to Dr. Marvin T. Bond, Executive Director of the Mississippi Water Resources Research Institute, for circulating early drafts of his five-year plan. These drafts and his final five-year plan provided an excellent guideline in preparing this plan. Next, I'd like to thank the seventy-five participants at the 1980 annual meeting for their participation and suggestions. Next, special thanks to agency representatives and faculty who returned questionnaires on research needs. Over 1000 news clippings were assembled by Ms. Anelia Crawford and Ms. Diana Phillips under the able direction of Ms. Dibbie Dunnam. Lastly, a special thanks to }1s. Peggy Paschall for transforming bits and pieces of text into final copy in a very short time. Partial financial support to develop this five-year plan was obtained from the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station CEIES), University of Florida, as part of their water resources research program. The cooperation of Dr. M. J. Ohanian, Director of EIES, is appreciated. vi

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" I SECTION I SUMMARY A five year (1982-1988) research and development program has been developed by the Florida Water Resources Center to meet requirements of the Water Research and Development Act of 1978 as implemented by the Office of Water Research and Technology. Similar plans have been prepared by the 53 other centers and institutions. These results will provide the basis for similar plans being prepared at the regional and national levels. The effort comprised three major tasks: 1) an inventory of Florida's water resources and current activities; 2) a summary of exist-ing and projected water related problems; and 3) an estimate of how the resources expected to be available to the Center will be used to exam-ine some of these problems. Florida's Water Resources and Current Activities Florida is blessed with a relative abundance of high quality sur-face and ground water. However, the water is not always when and where man would like to have it. Hurricanes, floods, and droughts are major problems. Likewise, water quality is deteriorating as areas develop. An annual average of 56 inches of rain falling on Florida replenishes streamflow and ground water aquifers. The Floridan aquifer is the major water supply source for the State of Florida. Much of 1

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the water movement in southern Florida is regulated by water control structures which have been installed during this century. The largest such project in the state is the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Project. A total of almost seven billion gallons of water are withdrawn daily. Approximately one half of this withdrawal is from surface sources. The other half is from ground water. This water is used for public supply (16%), rural supply (4%), industrial purposes (14%), irrigation (42%), and thermoelectric power generation (24%). The State of Florida is divided into five water management districts (Northwest, Saint Johns, South, Southwest, and Suwannee), each of whose territory is established by hydrologic boundaries. The Florida Department of Environmental Regulation is the primary state agency for water management. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Geological Survey and Soil Conservation Service are the primary Federal agencies. Two groups are actively pursuing research on industrial related activities: the National Council for Air and Stream Improvement, and the Florida Institute of Phosphate Research. Numerous university research groups are active in water related programs. Problem Categorization and Ranking Florida's water problems and priorities were established by soliciting input from several groups. Agency representatives were asked to rank Florida's problems using formal questionnaires and informal discussions. Another valuable perspective on "problems" was gained by subscribing to a news clipping service for all of 2

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Florida's newspapers for six months beginning in April, 1980. These more than one thousand clippings were arranged by county. The Second National Water Assessment by the U.S. Water Resources Council expended much effort in prioritizing water problems in the southeastern United States. This effort was valuable in providing the regional and national perspectives. The major source of information regarding priorities for research in water problems related to agricultural areas came from a state-wide meeting sponsored by the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Another perspective was obtained by meeting with conservation groups. Lastly, university faculty were asked to suggest what they felt were the most important research topics that needed attention. There are numerous ways in which water problems can be classified. The selected scheme was developed by the Virginia Water Resources Center using an outline of the South Atlantic Gulf Region as a point of departure. The five categories are shown in Table 1-1. Five-Year Program Given the above information, estimates were prepared of how available resources could be allocated with available monies. Two levels of annual funding ($115,000 and$250,000) for the Annual Cooperative Program were to be used. In addition, anticipated matching grant and other funds were programmed into the plan. The resultant display of how monies could be used is shown in Table 1-1. The Federal portion of the expenditures is shown in Table 1-2. Of course, these are only planning projections. The actual amounts expended will vary. 3

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Table I-I. Estimated Budget Requirements by Research Category: FY 1982-1986 Program Elements FY 1982 FY 1983 FY 1984 FY 1985 FY 1986 TOTALS Institute Office Support Federal 45 50 55 60 65 275 (60) (65) (70) (75) (80) (350) Non-Federal 23 25 28 30 33 139 (30) (33) (35) (38) (40) (176) Sub-Total 68 75 83 90 98 414 (90) (98) (105) (113 ) (120) (526) I. AtmosEheric, Hydrologic & Hydraulic Processes Federal 25 20 20 10 10 85 (70) (65) (60) (65) (65) (325 ) Non-Federal 13 10 10 5 5 43 (36 ) (34) (31) (33) (33 ) (167) Sub-Total 38 30 30 15 15 128 (106) (99) (91) (98) (98) (492) -r-II. Hydrologic-Ecologic Re1ationshiEs Federal 10 10 10 30 25 85 (50) (50) (50) (70) (70) (290) Non-Federal 5 5 5 15 13 43 (25) (25) (25) (35) (35) (145 ) Sub-Total 15 15 15 45 38 128 (75) (7 S) (7 S) (10S) (10S) (435) III. Water Quality Monitoring & Protection Federal 10 10 10 30 (20) (20) (20) (60) Non-Federal 5 5 5 15 (10) (10 ) (10) (30) Sub-Total 15 15 15 45 (30) (30) (30) (90)

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l.J1 Table I-I. Estimated Budget Requirements by Research Category: FY 1982-1986 Program Elements FY 1982 FY 1983 IV. Water DeveloEment, Use, Conservation, and Management Federal 15 15 (15) (15 ) Non-Federal 8 8 (8) (8) Sub-Total 23 23 (23) (23) 1--V. Institutional and Economic Analysis and Water Resources Planning Federal 10 10 (35 ) (35) Non-Federal 5 5 (18) (18) Sub-Total 15 15 (53) (53) PROGRAM BUDGET ESTIMATES F'edera1 115 115 (250) (250) Non-Federal 59 58 (127) (128) Totals 174 173 (377) (378) ( ) are estimates based on an Annual Cooperative Program appropriation of $250,000 Federal funds. FY 1984 FY 1985 FY 1986 TOTALS 10 40 (15) (20) (15) (80) 5 21 (8) (10) (8) (if 2) 15 61 (23) (30) (23) (122) 10 15 15 60 (35) (20) (20) (145) 5 8 8 31 (18) (10) (10) (74) 15 23 23 91 (53) (30) (30) (219) 115 115 115 575 (250) (250) (250) (1,250) 58 58 59 292 (127) (126) (126) (634) 173 173 174 867 (377) (376 ) (376) (1,884) ---i I I PAGE 13 Table 1-2. Proposed Distribution of Federal Funds: FY 1982-1986 FY 1982 FY 1983 FY 1984 FY 1985 FY 1986 ACP ACP Match. ACP ACP "Ma tch. ACP ACP ACP ACP Match. IICP ACP Match. Level Level Fund Level Level Fund. Level Level Fund Level Level Fund Level Level Fund Budget Activity I II Prog. I II Prog. I II Prog. I II Prog. I II ProQ:. Institute Office Support 45 60 -0-50 65 -055 70 -0-60 75 -065 80 -0-Category I: AfmosEheric, Hydrologic & Hydraulic Processes Saline Intrusion 15 15 15 15 15 Pollutants to Groundwater 15 30 40 10 25 40 10 20 40 10 50 40 10 50 40 Instream "Flows Low Flow Predictions Supply Water Uses Flood Plain Management 10 25 10 25 10 25 Erosion Control Category II: HydrologicCI'\ Ecologic RelationshiEs Wetlands 10 20 10 20 10 20 10 40 15 20 Estuarine Quality Degradation Lake & Reservoir Quality 20 20 20 20 20 Nonpoint Sources 40 40 40 50 50 Point Sources Water and Energy Acid Rain 10 10 10 I 10 40 30 40 Channelization 20 10 Dredging & Filling Heated WaterDischarges Water Quality Monitoring I Aquatic Weed Control : Cat egory III: Water Quality Monitoring & Protection Reclamation and Reuse of Wastewater Water Treatment Processes 10 20 10 20 10 20 --------------- PAGE 14 Table 1-2. Proposed Distribution of Federal Funds: FY 1982-1986 Category IV: Hater DeveloEment, Use, Conser-vation, and Hanagement Irrigation I \ Large, Reserves Water Conservation in Industry & Agriculture I 15 I 15 I 15 I 15 10 15 Salvage & Conservation of Excess Water Reclamation & Reuse Cost-Effectiveness/ Energy 20 I 40 15 40 Requirements Drainage 30 60 60 60 Categorr V: Institutional and Economic Analysis and -....J I Hater Resources Planning Floods 40 [fO I 40 Dam Safety Considerations Hydroelectric Control of Water Use I 115 110 115 15 Integrating Water and Land Use Management 10 20 20 10 20 Land Use Control in Hater Resource Management Institutional Constraints 130 1 30. I 30 15 20 I 10 15 20 I 40 Legal Constraints Hastewater Treatment for Small Communities TOTALS 1115 1250 l50 1115 1250 1180 1 115 1250 1210 115 I 250 1240 115 J2501270 PAGE 15 SECTION II FLORIDA'S WATER RESOURCES Florida is blessed ,with a relative abundance of water. Its coastal areas, springs, lakes, and rivers support a major tourist industry as well as meeting the usual needs for water. On the debit side, Florida suffers major damages from hurricanes and heavy precipitation causing serious flooding. South Florida is served by a complex network of water control structures whereas much of northern Florida's water system is still in its undisturbed state. Unfortunately, a current comprehensive summary of Florida's water resources is not available. The last such summary was prepared in 1956 (Florida Water Resources Study Commission, 1956). An inventory of Southwest Florida was completed in 1966 (Florida Board of Conservation) followed by the St. Johns in 1970 (Florida Department of Natural Resources) and Southeastern Florida in 1974 (Florida Department of Natural Resources). Other primary sources of information are a 1975 Florida Atlas (Wood and 1974), a consultant's report (Garcia-Bengochea, Pyne, and 1975) and draft material from the State Water Use Plan (Florida Department of Environmental Regulation and the Water Management Districts, 1978). The information to follow is taken from these reports and other sources. Precipitation Average annual rainfall in Florida varies from a low of 52 inches along the east coast to more than 64 inches in northwest Florida. The statewide average is 56 inches per year (Hughes et 1971). About 8 PAGE 16 60 to 98 percent of the annual rain fall is lost through evapotranspiration. Surface Wate.r Part of the precipitation appears as surface runoff to river systems. Figure 11-1 shows the average flow of the major surface streams. The largest rivers are in the northern part of the state. Lake Okeechobee is the largest lake in the state and the second largest lake in the United States with a surface area of some 700 square miles. Florida's springs are world famous. Silver Springs, the largest spring, has an average flow of 533 cubic feet per second. Wetlands comprise about 15 percent of Florida's acreage. These areas provide a large amount of water storage and help purify the surface and ground water. The Corps of Engineers divides Florida into the five areas shown in Figure 11-2. The boundaries of these areas correspond closely to those of the five water management districts. Summary descriptions of these five areas, extracted from the annual report of the Jacksonville District, are presented below (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979). Central and Southern Florida Area (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979) The area includes the central and southern part of the State south of Cape Canaveral and the city of Orlando, and lies generally east of the ridge which divides the waters which flow into the Atlantic from those which reach the Gulf of Mexico (see Figure 11-8). The individual drainage basins included in this area constitute, for all practical purposes, a single watershed because in most cases their waters inter-mingle during periods of heavy rainfall and their problems of water control and use, as well as their economic problems, are closely 9 PAGE 17 25,000 50,000 100,000 Width of Indicates average discharge in cubic feet per second Figure II-I. Discharge of the Principal Rivers in Florida (Kenner et a1., 1969). 10 PAGE 18 ALABAMA \ I I G U L. o LEGEND CD CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN FLOR I DA AREA LOWER ST. JOHNS AND NORTH COASTA L AREA NORTHWEST FLORIDA AREA @ SOUTHWEST FLORIDA AREA FLORIDA PORTION OF SUWANNEE RIVER BASIN AREA INDEX MAP SCALE IN MILES I I o 100 KSONVILLE -o Figure 11-2. Florida Index Map (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979) 11 N PAGE 19 N ST. JOHNS RIVER r-______ iPENSACOLA "-;--TALLAHASSEE \J {, VICINITY MAP SCALE IN MILES 5.2.. J PIERCE FT..LAUDERDALE SCALE IN MILES I I o 40 Figure 11-3. Central and Southern Florida Area (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979). 12 'Z -\ PAGE 20 interrelated. Principal subareas include the upper St. Johns River and related areas, Lake Okeechobee and its outlets, the Everglades, the coastal areas, and the northern portion of the Florida Keys. Because of the nature of the climate, topography, and development, the area is subject to extremes of flood and drought. Lake Okeechobee, a large natural, shallow, freshwater lake, is the heart of the Central and Southern Florida area. The Okeechobee Waterway is a navigation channel which connects the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico via St. Lucie Canal, Lake Okeechobee, and Caloosahatchee River. The source of the Kissimmee is in several streams which rise west of Ft. Pierce in St. Lucie County. The area is separated from the saline Indian River by a low coastal ridge 3 to 10 miles wide and ranging up to elevation 30. Direction of drainage is largely indeterminate and, depending on differences in rainfall and direction of winds, may be west toward the Kissimmee River, south toward the St. Lucie River, or to the north and east where waters collect to form the St. Johns. Open water and the beginning of the channel is in the latitude of Melbourne. In recent years, much of the original marsh has been converted to improved pasture, cropland, or citrus production. The Everglades is the name generally applied to the area extending southerly from Lake Okeechobee to points west of Miami, then southwesterly about 40 miles toward Florida Bay and the Gulf 13 PAGE 21 of Mexico. In its original state it was a vast solitude of sawgrass and water and was aptly termed by the indian inhabitants the "Pa-hayokee" or "grassy water." Almost half of the Everglades proper is in the water conservation areas of the Central and Southern Florida project, less than 10 percent is in the Everglades National Park, which is in the Southwest Area. By 1970, over million people had settled along the south Florida coast, primarily along the coastal ridges in Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach Counties. Rapid population influx, the resulting development, and related environmental damage have resulted in serious water-resource-related problems. Poor water quality is a severe problem stemming from inadequate or untreated waste discharges, agricultural and urban storm-water runoff, and salt water intrusion and septic tank water seepage into groundwater. Competition for land resources also has forced development into flood-prone lands. In recent years, Miami Harbor and adjacent Port Everglades have become the principal cruise ship ports in the southeastern United States. The cruise ship industry is one of south Florida's fastest growing industries. Beach erosion is a problem along the coastal areas. A number of navigation, flood control, and beach erosion control projects have been authorized. A summary of the Central and Southern Florida Project is presented next. 14 PAGE 22 The first phase of the Central and Southern Florida Project was authorized by the Flood Control Act of June 30, 1948. It consisted of most of the works necessary to afford flood protection to the productive agricultural development south of Lake Okeechobee and to the highly developed urban area along the lower east coast of the state. Phase 2, consisting of all remaining works of the original Comprehensive Plan, was authorized by the Flood Control Act of September 3, 1954. Improvements in Hendry County and in Nicodemus Slough (just west of Lake Okeechobee) were added to the project by the Flood Control Acts of July 3, 1958, and July 14, 1960, respectively. Improvements in Boggy Creek, Cutler Drain Area, Shingle Creek, South Dade County, and West Palm Beach Canal were added to the project by the Flood Control Act of October 23, 1962. Improvements in Southwest Dade County were added to the project by the Flood Control Act of October 27, 1965; the same act modifying the 1958 authorization for the Hendry County improvements. The Flood Control Act of 1968 expanded the project to provide for increased storage and conservation of water and for improved distribution of water throughout much of the project area. Flood control measures for Martin County were added. The 1968 modification would also facilitate increased delivery of water to the Everglades National Park. The project involves an area of about 16,000 square miles, which includes all or part of 18 counties in central and southern Florida. It embraces Lake Okeechobee, its regulatory outlets, a large portion 15 PAGE 23 of the Everglades, the upper St. Johns and Kissimmee River Basins, and the lower east coast of Florida. The project is one for flood relief and water conservation and provides principally for an east coast protective levee from the Homestead area north to the eastern shore of Lake Okeechobee near St. Lucie Canal; three conservation areas for water impoundment in the Everglades area west of the east coast protective levee, with control structures to effect transfer of water as necessary; local protective works along the lower east coast; encirclement of the Lake Okeechobee agricultural area by levees and canals; enlargement of portions of Miami, North New River, Hillsboro, and West Palm Beach Canals; enlargement of existing Lake Okeechobee levees and construction of new levees on the northeast and northwest shores of the lake; increased outlet capacity for improved control of Lake Okeechobee; floodway channels in the Kissimmee River Basin, with suitable control structures to prevent overdrainage, and facilities for regulation of floods in the Upper St. Johns River Basin. The project provides water control and protection from the recurrence of devastating floodwaters from the Everglades and local sources for the highly developed urban area along the lower east coast of Florida and for the productive agricultural areas around Lake Okeechobee (including the towns around the lake), in the upper St. Johns and Kissimmee River Basin, and in south Dade County. Another important project function is the conservation of floodwaters for beneficial uses during dry seasons. The project 16 PAGE 24 also includes seven navigation locks, 20 feet wide and 90 feet long in the Kissimmee River Basin; six locks, 20 feet wide and 60 feet long in the St. Johns River Basin; and the necessary channel excavations and bridge alterations to provide needed facilities for additional recreational boating use. Authorized project facilities include 30 pumping stations, 192 control and diversion structures, 897 miles of levees, 954 miles of canals, 26 navigation locks, and 57 railroad relocations (bridges). St. Johns (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979) This area includes that part of the St. Johns River Basin from Lake Harney downstream and those areas east and north of the St. Johns River (see Figure 11-4). The St. Johns River begins in a broad, swampy area just west of Ft. Pierce in St. Lucie County, about 300 river miles from its mouth at Mayport. The St. Johns is one of the few northerly flowing rivers in the United States. It is one of the largest rivers in Florida, draining an area of 9,430 square miles. Some 1,900 square miles of this area are upstream of Lake Harney and referred to as the Upper St. Johns River Basin. The St. Johns River and its principal tributary, the Oklawaha River, received much of their flow from the large perennial springs which are among Florida's many tourist attractions. The fall of the St. Johns River from the source to the mouth is only 25 feet. The river is perennially tidal as far upstream as Lake George (106 miles) and, under combined conditions of drought and high tide, the tidal effects occur as far upstream as Lake Monroe (161 miles). Approximately 17 PAGE 25 N SCALE IN MILES I o 40 r--------.. _PENSACOLA ". .... -r .,. TALLAHASSEE I,..' l.. VICINITY MAP SCALE IN MILES 0 MM. C::J eDELAND Figure 111-4. Lower St. Johns and North Coastal Area (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979). 18 PAGE 26 two-thirds of the drainage area in the St. Johns River Basin, including the Ok1awaha River Basin, lies west of the main stem. Drainage in the coastal strip between the St. Johns River Basin and the Atlantic Ocean is into lagoons, formed by barrier islands, and to the ocean. The altitude of most of the area is less than 50 feet above mean sea level, although altitudes along the western drainage divides generally range from 75 to 200 feet and exceed 300 feet in the upper Oklawaha River basin. No major improvements have been made to the St. Johns River proper upstream (south) from Lake Harney. Below Lake Harney, the river is used for navigation throughout its length. The existing project provides for a channel from Lake Harney downstream to Jacksonville, with depths of 13 feet from Jacksonville to Palatka, 12 feet to Sanford, and 5 feet to Lake Harney. From Jacksonville to the ocean, a channel ranging from 34 to 38 feet accommodates large ocean-going vessels. Improvements to provide flood protection and drainage in the upper St. Johns River consist principally of locally constructed levees and canals. The principal urban concentrations occur in the Jacksonville Metropolitan area. Within this regional area, flooding poses a serious problem due to inadequate drainage facilities and the encroachment of development into flood-prone areas. Dwindling ground water supplies provide essentially all domestic and industrial water used in the area. Urban stormwater runoff, inadequate waste treatment facilities, failing sewerage systems and septic tanks, and other sources of contamination contribute to both surface and ground water degradation within the region. 19 PAGE 27 Northwest Florida (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979) This area includes the portion of Florida west of the Suwannee and St. Johns River Basins, as shown in Figure 11-5. This section of Florida is generally characterized by rolling hills and sandy soils. Immediately south of the Alabama and Georgia lines are three small geographic areas known as the Western Highlands, the Mariarilla Lowlands, and the Tallahassee Hills. The Western Highlands, stretching eastward from the Perdido River, consist of a plateau sloping gently southward and crossed by several streams which flow in deep flat-bottomed valleys. In Walton County near the Alabama line is the highest point in the state, with an elevation of 345 feet above mean sea level. The Marianna Lowlands, lying between the Western Highlands and the Apalachicola River, comprise a flat or gently rolling area underlaid by limestone and dotted with "sinks" containing ponds or small lakes. The Tallahassee Hills, extending from the Apalachicola River eastward for about 100 miles, are rolling hills with the highest point about 300 feet above mean sea level. These are largely farming areas. Bordering the coast are the Coastal Lowlands, flat plains less than 100 feet above the mean sea level. Pine forests cover much of the region. With the exception of the Apa1achee Bay area, the coastline consists mostly of wide sandy beach backed by dunes ranging from 10 to 15 feet above sea level. The economy of the area is based mainly on tourism, farming, pulpwood production, logging, commercial fishing, and manufacturing, with 20 PAGE 28 N PORT ST. JOE SCALE I o IN MILES I 40 VICINITY MAP SCALE IN MILES :10 0 50 .........--= o o TRENrqf Figure 11-5. Northwest Florida Area (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979). 21 N PAGE 29 primarily industrial centers at Port St. Joe, Panama City, and Pensacola. Crude oil production from an oil field near Jay, Florida, also contributes to the economy. Tallahssee, the capital of Florida, is the largest city in the area. Major river systems draining to the Gulf of Mexico, progressing from west to east, are the Escambia, Blackwater, and Yellow Rivers, which drain through the Pensacola Bay system; the Choctawhatchee, draining into Choctawhatchee Bay; the Apalachicola, which empties into Apalachicola Bay; and the Ochlockonee, which drains through Ochlockonee and Apalachee Bays. The beach zone along the Gulf is frequently backed by sounds or bays and is occasionally broken by tidal inlets. Tidal marsh occurs along much of the shoreline of the bays and sounds. Most of the beach material is fine white sand composed of about 98 percent quartz. Beach erosion is a problem in parts of the area. Navigation channels cut through the sandy beaches usually require extensive protective measures, such as rubble-mound jetties. Even with these, the natural instability of the beach material requires frequent maintenance dredging and special attention to problems of sand transport and beach nourishment. Tropical hurricanes occasionally cross the coastline in this area, and a few low-lying populated areas are subject to flooding from storm tides. The Apalachicola River, part of a multiple-purpose waterway development serving Alabama, Georgia, and Florida, has been improved for barge navigation. Navigation channels are also maintained on the lower reaches of Blackwater and Escambia Rivers. 22 PAGE 30 The Gulf Intracoastal Waterway parallels the coastline by way of numerous bays and sounds with connecting land cuts where necessary. Several local navigation projects provide small craft channels connecting towns or river systems with the waterway and with the Gulf of Mexico. Deep-draft channels and harbors are maintained at Port St. Joe, Panama City, and Pensacola. Southwest Florida (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979) The southwest area of Florida includes the Four River Basins project, which drains about 6,000 square miles, and a wide band along the southwestern part of the state that includes Everglades National Park, Key West and the lower part of the Florida Keys (see Figure 11-6). The four main streams which cover most of the Four River Basins area --Hillsborough, Withlacoochee, Oklawaha, and Peace Rivers --are interrelated in that all have common headwaters in the region known as the Green Swamp. All four streams have similar problems, such as flood control, major drainage, and water conservation, the solution to which depends partly on what plans might be developed for Green Swamp. Brief descriptions of each of these watersheds are given below. Green Swamp. This area, known locally as Green Swamp, is the highest land in. the Four Rivers Basins area. The exact boundaries are indefinite, but it consists of about 850 square miles of swampy flatlands and sandy ridges varying in elevation from about 200 feet in the eastern part to about 75 feet in the stream valleys of the western part. 23 PAGE 31 OCALA 7-\ t\ I'., WITHLACOOCH" RIVER ) 1 .BROOKSVILLE DADE CITY. T AV1pON S RINGS UGH R. v,___ -LAKE LAND CLEARWATE'R. \ (r.; J lU BARTOW .. RG), \ I v WAIJCHULA ,BRADENTON :i r-\ ( \ SARAsoTA W \ Q,tJLARCADIA VENICE / \J II? KEY t>" .. .::;} 'lIIJ N SCALE IN MILES 50 0 50 SCALE I o ,JACKSONVILLE 1:> -'\ \ 1:> IN MILES I 40 -z. -'\ N Figure 11-6. Southwest Florida Area (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979). 24 PAGE 32 . Hillsborough River, which drains about 690 square miles, originates at the edge of Green Swamp, north of Lakeland, Florida, and flows south-westerly about 54 miles to Hillsborough Bay at Tampa Oklawaha River has its source in two chains of lakes and drains about 2,100 square miles. The Oklawaha River proper flows 75 miles northerly from Lake Griffin and joins the St. Johns River 77 miles up-stream from Jacksonville .. Withlacoochee River rises in Polk County in the Green Swamp area and flows northwesterly about 160 miles to the Gulf of Mexico at Yankeetown. The river drains about 1,980 square miles Peace River has its source in a number of small lakes east of Lakeland, Florida. It flows southward about 120 miles and empties into Charlotte Harbor, an arm of the Gulf of Mexico. Other major streams in this area include the Myakka River, which begins in Manatee County and flows generally to empty into I Charlotte Harbor; the Alafia, which begins in PolkiCounty and flows generally southwesterly about 24 miles to enter Tampa Bay; Little Manatee and Manatee Rivers, which begin in Manatee County and flow into Tampa Bay. Little Manatee River is about 39 miles long and Manatee River is about 35.5 miles long. The Tampa-St. Petersburg metropolitan area is the second largest urban population center in Florida with a 1970 population exceeding one million. The rapid growth in this area has placed a severe strain on available water supplies for both domestic and industrial uses. 25 PAGE 33 Associated with the increased uses of water are pollution problems stemming from wastewater disposal, urban storm-water runoff, and other sources of regional water supply contamination. Some of the larger municipalities in the area include Tampa, St. Petersburg, Lakeland, Clearwater, Sarasota, and Ft. Myers. Authorized improvements provide for control of floods and improvement of drainage, and for water conservation through construction of necessary canals, levees, reservoirs, and control structures. Projects authorized for this area provide also for preserving the beaches and for navigation improvements. Suwannee River (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979) Suwannee River is the stream made famous by Stephen Foster in his immortal song of southern lore "Old Folks at Home." The Suwannee River flows out of the Okefenokee Swamp near Fargo, Georgia, and flows generally southwesterly about 222 miles where it empties into the Gulf of Mexico through two channels about 12 miles north of Cedar Key (see Figure 11-7). It drains about 11,000 square miles of Georgia and Florida, about 4,300 of which are in Florida. North of the Georgia-Florida State line, in the western part of the basin, are the low, rolling hills of the Georgia portion of the Upper Coastal Plain. This area, which is drained by the Alapaha and Withlacoochee Rivers, rises gradually from an elevation of about 120 feet at the State line to about 460 feet along the northern divide. Slopes here are generally steeper than in the other parts of the basin. 26 PAGE 34 WITHLACOOL'HEE RIVER MADISON N o -<\ VICINITY MAP SCALE IN MILES 50 0 50 MMF SCALE IN MILES I I o 40 Figure 11-7. Florida Portion of the Suwannee River Basin (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979). 27 N PAGE 35 Diversified agriculture is carried on throughout the area. Okefenokee Swamp lies on the easterly side of the basin. It is fed by several small streams and totals about 1,100 square miles. The Suwannee River drains about 800 square miles of the swamp, and the St. Marys River drains the remainder. The swamp varies in elevation from 100 to 200 feet above mean sea level, in the Lower Coastal Plain. A low dam, or sill, on the Suwannee River at the swamp outlet controls the water level in much of the swamp to about elevation 115. Extending from the Florida State line and Okefenokee Swamp flatlands southward to the Gulf of Mexico is an area, largely in the Upper Coastal Plain, drained by the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers. It is characterized generally by less relief, lower elevations,and fewer tributary streams than.the rolling lands of Georgia. The Okefenokee or "Land of the Trembling Earth" was so named by the Seminole Indians because of the unstable nature of its soil. The swamp is one of the largest fresh-water swamplands in the United States and by far the most significant inland body of water in the Suwannee basin. About two-thirds of the swamp, including 331,000 acres in Suwannee basin, have been set aside as a wildlife refuge administered by State and Federal agencies for wildlife preservation, recreation use, and to maintain its unique beauty and environment. Short stretches of tidal marsh along the Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the river mouth are the only direct exposures to salt water. The Suwannee basin encompasses some 7 million acres in a thinly populated area. More than two-thirds of the basin is forested. More than half of the forest is pine, and one-fourth is bottomland hardwoods. 28 PAGE 36 Pure upland hardwood stands and hardwoods mixed with occasional pines are scattered througout the basin. About 119,000 acres of the basin forest land are in the Osceola National Forest, northeast of Lake City, Florida. The Suwannee basin has a generous supply of good quality water from both ground water and surface sources. Ground Water Porous limestone underneath nearly the entire state of Florida provides large supplies of ground water. The principal sources of ground water are shown in Figure 11-8. The major ground water problem has been salt water intrusion. However, there is increasing concern regarding contamination from land disposal of waters including toxic chemicals. Typical yield 01 6-lnch well, In gallons per minute (gpll) Biscayne aquifer (1200) Floridan aquiler (800) Immmmm Other aquifers (300) Figure 11-8. Principal Sources of Ground Water (Hyde, 1965). 29 PAGE 37 The Floridan aquifer is the principal source of ground water in Florida (Hyde, 1965). It is an artesian aquifer, i.e., one that contains water under sufficient pressure to rise above the containing formation. While the Floridan aquifer underlies all of Florida, it is too saline to be of use in the coastal areas indicated in Figure II-S. The Biscayne aquifer is a non-artesian aquifer which underlies about 3000 square miles of southern Florida (Hyde, 1965). It ranges in thickness from 100 to 400 feet in the coastal areas to only a few feet near its western boundaries. The Floridan aquifer ranges in depth from zero to 1000 feet below the land surface as shown in Figure 11-9. The potentiometric surface for the Floridan aquifer is shown in Figure 11-10. Elevations range from 100 in the central highlands to -SO in the coastal area of the panhandle. Lastly, the areas where pumpage had most significantly affected the potentiometric surface are shown in Figure II-II. 30 PAGE 38 EXPLANATION o Floridan aquifer at or near land surface. -400 ......-1=""\-600 __ -6 0 0 Line of equal depth to Floridan aquifer. Interval 200 feet. Datum is mean Bea level. ---'<'_1_ -800 Figure 11-9. Altitude of Top of the Floridan Aquifer (Healy, 1975; Vernon, 1973). EXPLANATION --100-POTENTIOMETRIC CONTOUR. Shows altitude at which water level would have stood In tightly cased wells that penetrate the Floridan aquifer. Contour Intervals 10,30, and 40 feet.Datum is mean sea level. .. Figure 11-10. Potentiometric Surface of Floridan Aquifer, May 1974 (Healy, 1975). 31 PAGE 39 EXPLANATION. < I Net decline in feet 1 5 r! 6 10 0 10 20 II 20-40 2 Average annual rate of decline in feet. means "le88 than".) Figure II-II. Decline of Potentiometric Surface of Floridan Aquifer in Areas of Heavy Withdrawal of Ground Water, 1961-74 (Healy, 1975). 32 PAGE 40 REFERENCES Florida Board of Conservation and Division of Water Resources, "Florida Land and Water Resources, Southwest Florida," Tallahassee, FL, 1966. Florida Department of Natural Resources, "Florida Water and Related Water Resources, St. Johns River Basin," Tallahassee, FL, 1970. Florida Department of Natural Resources, "Water and Related Land Resources, Kissimmee-Everglades Area," Tallahasseee, FL, 1974. Florida Department of Environmental Regulation and the Water Management District, State Water Use Plan, Phase 1 (Draft), Tallahassee, FL, Dec. 1978. Florida Water Resources Study Commission, Florida Water Resources, Gainesville, FL, Dec. 1956. Garcia-Bengochea, J.I., R.D. Pyne, and E.W. Black, Florida's Water Resources: An Evaluation and }1anagement Philosophy, Project No. 272-75-80, Black, Crow, and Eidsness, Inc., Gainesville, FL, Nov. 1975. Healy, H.B. Potentiometric Surface and Area of Artesian Flow of the Floridan Aquifer in Florida, Florida Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology Map Series 73, Tallahassee, FL, 1975. Hughes, G.H., Hampton, E.R., and Tucker, D.F .. Annual and Seasonal Rainfall in Florida, Florida Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology Map Series 40, Tallahasseee, FL, 1978. Hyde, L.W. Principal Aquifers in Florida, Florida Bureau of Geology Map Series 16, Tallahassee, FL, 1965. Kenner, W.E., et al. Average Flow of Major Streams in Florida, Florida Bureau of Geology Map Series 34, Tallahassee, FL, 1969. Southeast Basins Inter-Agency Committee, 1975 National Assessment of Water and Related Land Resources, South Atlantic Gulf Region, Volumes I, II, and III, Atlanta, GA, Dec. 1977. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Water Resources Development by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in Florida, Jacksonville, FL, 1979. Vernon, R.O. Top of the Floridan Artesian Aquifer, Florida Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology Map Series 56, Tallahassee, FL, 1973. 33 PAGE 41 Wood, R., and E.A. Fernald. The New Florida Atlas, Rose Printing Co., Tallahassee, FL, 1974. 34 PAGE 42 SECTION III THE USE OF FLORIDA'S WATER RESOURCES Projected wate;r_uses and a water budget for Florida, prepared by Leach (1956), are shown in Figures III, 1 and 2. The subsections to follow are extracted from his work. 9 2 0 :::i 8 (J) ::::! 2 CD 0 2 7 :::i ..J 6 20 2 0:0: 5 2 0 f-2 4 ..J 0:..J ::l wet 3 Q. 0 Il.. 2 ::r: (J) w 0: u... 0 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 Figure III-I. Trends in Population and Fresh Water Withdrawn in Florida, 1950-75 (Leach, 1978). The amount of freshwater in Florida remains relatively unchanged while the population growth, urban development, and agriculture continue to put increasing demands on the available supply. Water use data for 1975 collected as part of a nationwide inventory are published in reports by Healy (1977) and Leach (1978). Data on use 35 PAGE 43 of saline water for thermoelectric power generation were collected as part of the inventory but are not included because saline water is pumped from, and returned to, a saline source and is not considered part of the freshwater cycle. However, the quantity of saline water pumped for this purpose exceeds all freshwater used in the state. Nonwithdrawal use of freshwater, also not reported, includes 10,300 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) that flows through the hydroelectric power generation plant located on the Apalachicola River near Chattahoochee. Freshwater use in 1975 was 6,917 Mgal/d compared to 5,768 Mgal/d in 1970 (Figure 111-2). Public water supply demand increased from 884 to 1,146 Mgal/d, both largely reflecting the increase in population from 6.8 to 8.5 million. Water used for irrigation showed the greatest increase, from 2,099 to 2,868 Mgal/d. Water used for industrial (selfsupplied) and thermoelectric power generation remained relatively stable as industrial use increased from 926 to 940 Mgal/d and thermoelectric power generation decreased slightly from 1,700 to 1,698 Mgal/d. Figure 111-2 portrays the statewide freshwater use from source through use to disposition. For example, of the 1,146 Mgal/d used for public supply, 983 Mgal/d or 85.8 percent was ground water. Disposition of the public supply indicated that 48.9 percent was consumed, with the remaining 51.1 percent (586 Mgal/d) returned to the system for reuse. Figure 111-2 also shows that the major freshwater source for irrigation and thermoelectric power generation is surface water whereas ground water is the major source of water for public, rural, and industrial supplies. 36 PAGE 44 W -....J Figure III-2. SOURCE SURFACE WATER 52% 3600mgd GROUND WATER 48% 3318 ml,;ld "I ., U.II%,. 37.GOJ.:, 1.9"4 WATER USE IN FLORIDA 1975 USE IRRIGATION 42. 'Yo 28GB r,1gd THERMOELECTRIC 96.2%( 24% 169s-;;jd" 2"_3"'0 1.3.3% 3.5% DISPOSITION CONSUMPTIVE USE 33% 2302 mgd CONVEYANCE LOSS 3% 218 m9d WATER RETURNED TO THE SYSTEM 3Q.1 tI/a I 640/0 4398 mgd :n.7% Source, Use and Disposit.ion of 6.9 Billion Gallons Per Day of Fresh Water in Florida in 1975 (Leach, 1978). PAGE 45 Public Supplies (Leachj 1978) Information on total amounts of freshwater pumped for public supplies was obtained from 710 county, municipal, and private utility systems. The largest system in the state, operated by the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Authority, serves more than 1.12 million people; the smallest, private systems, serve fewer than 100 people. The seven most populous counties: Broward, Dade, Duval, Hillsborough, Orange, Palm Beach, and Pinellas, account for almost 700 Mgal/d or 61 percent of the total 1,146 Mgal/d of freshwater withdrawn for public supply in 1975. The per capita use of water in Florida for 1975 was 168 gallons per day for the 6.8 million people served by public supply. In 1975, 1.4 million more people were served by public supplies than in 1970. If this rate of increase continues, the public water supply systems will have to withdraw about 47 Mgal/d more freshwater each year to supply the projected increase in population. Rural Self-Supplied (Leach, 1978) Rural (self-supplied) water use of 266 Mgal/d includes 203 Mgal/d pumped for domestic use and 63 Mgal/d pumped for livestock. Rural water use in the state is less than 4 percent of the total freshwater withdrawn for all uses. The rural self-supplied population represents 21.6 percent of Florida's population. The per capita rural water use is 142 gallons per day, as compared with 168 gallons per day for those on public water supply systems. Rural water use for Monroe County is small because the rural population in the county where adequate freshwater is available is small. The population of the county, concentrated 38 PAGE 46 along the Florida Keys, is supplied by freshwater either from a pipeline from Dade County or from desalination plants. Little to no freshwater underlies the Florida Keys that can be tapped for private self-supplied systems. Industrial (Leach, 1978) The total quantity of self-supplied freshwater withdrawn by industries in 1975 was 940 Mga1/d, an increase of less than 2 percent since 1970. Of the 940 Mga1/d used by industry, 779 Mga1/d or almost 83 percent is withdrawn from ground water sources. Seven counties: Flagler, Glades, Lafayette, Levy, Monroe, Union, and Washington, reported no self-supplied industrial water use. In several counties large amounts of self-supplied water were used by industry: Hamilton and Polk Counties used 270 Mga1/d for phosphate mining; Duval, Escambia, Gulf, Nassau, Putnam, and Taylor Counties used 225 Mga1/d for pulp and paper processing; Lake, Pasco, and Polk Counties used 70 Mga1/d for food processing; and Escambia County used 100 Mga1/d for chemical products. The remaining 200 Mga1/d were pumped for lime rock mining, air conditioning, and many other smaller industries scattered around the state. Irrigation (Leach, 1978) Total freshwater pumped for irrigation in 1975 amounted to 2,868 Mga1/d. Figure 111-2 shows that irrigation is the largest user of freshwater in the state and accounts for more than 41 percent of the total freshwater pumped. Irrigation also has the largest consumptive use: 1,332 Mga1/d, or about 46 percent. The smallest amounts of freshwater 39 PAGE 47 for irrigation are withdrawn in 32 counties in the northern part of the state. Five counties in northern Florida --Bay, Franklin, Liberty, Wakulla, and Washington --reported no water used for irrigation; 16 counties used less than 1 Mgal/d; and 11 used between 1 and 10 Mgal/d. Although these counties contain about half of the land available for farming, they used only 34 Mgal/d --slightly more than 1 percent of the total freshwater pumped for irrigation. By comparison, each of 20 other counties reported larger amounts of water used for irrigation than in the 32 northern counties combined. Most irrigation occurs in the central and southern parts of the state. In these areas more freshwater is required for irrigation because the winter and early spring growing seasons coincide with the dry season, when evapotranspiration rates are high. Further, the soils here are more porous and do not retain moisture as well as in other parts of the state. Thermoelectric Power Generation (Leach, 1978) Most thermoelectric power generating plants in are near the coast where large quantities of saline or brackish water can be withdrawn from bays or estuaries for cooling. Power plants that are inland use freshwater from lakes or streams for cooling. During 1975, water withdrawn for thermoelectric power production totaled 13,138 Mgal/d which included 11,440 Mgal/d of saline water. This represents an 18 percent increase over the quantity of fresh and saline water withdrawn in 1970. During these same 5 years power production increased 42 percent. The disparity between increased water use and increased power production probably reflects the greater number of plants recycling water through cooling ponds or cooling towers. 40 PAGE 48 Only 28 of the 67 counties used any freshwater for power generation. Of these 28 counties, 13 used less than 1 Mgal/d of freshwater, either to supplement the saline water for cooling or for other purposes. Counties where large quantities of freshwater are used for power generation include: Escambia, Polk, and Volusia, more than 200 Mgal/d; Jackson, Suwannee, and Wakulla, between 100 and 200 Mgal/d; Highlands, Orange, and Putnam, between 50 and 100 Mgal/d. Although thermoelectric power production is the second largest user of freshwater in the state, it consumes only 36 Mgal/d, or less than 1 percent of the total freshwater withdrawn, because most of the water is recycled. 41 PAGE 49 REFERENCES Healy, H.G. Public Water Supplies of Selected Municipalities in Florida, 1975: U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations 77-53, 1977. Leach, S.D. Freshwater Use in Florida, 1975, U.S. Geological Survey, Florida Map Series 87, Tallahassee, FL, 1978. 42 PAGE 50 SECTION IV WATER AND RELATED LAND PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES The material for this section is extracted from numerous reports and discussions of participants at the Annual Meeting of the Florida Water Resources Research Center A summary of the activities of the following groups is presented: 1) Water Management Districts 2) Special Studies 3) Federal Agencies 4) State Agencies 5) Industrial Research 6) University Research Water Management Districts Northwest Florida The Northwest Florida Water Management District was created by the Florida Legislature as part of the Water Resources Act of 1972 (Fisher, 1980). The District is responsible for ensuring the availability of adequate water supplies, long-term water resources integrity and prevention of damages from flooding. Interstate water management is an important part of its activities since it receives water from Alabama and Georgia. The largest water users are industry and thermoelectric power generation' (Northwest Florida Water Management District, 1979). 43 PAGE 51 Research and development related needs of the District are as follows: A. Scientific Research 1. Development and maintenance of computer or other models for simulation of District hydrologic systems; 2. Identification of criteria and procedures for establishing minimum levels and flows; 3. Analysis and evaluation of the sensitivity of natural systems to changes in hydrologic conditions; 4. Identification and evaluation of the effectiveness of alternative water use and reuse practices, as well as alternative water supplies or sources. B. Data and Analysis Needs 1. Water Availability for Use 2. Saltwater Encroachment 3. Rainfall and Evapotranspiration 4. Recharge Areas 5. Water Management Needs of Estuaries 6. Public Supply Water Use 7. Agricultural Irrigation Trends 8. Land Use 9. Public Priorities C. Methodologies and Comprehensive Water Management Capabilities 1. Comprehensive Planning and Water Management by Basin 2. Management of Interstate Waters 3. Identification of Beneficiaries and Equitable Cost Distribution for Water Resources Services and Projects 44 PAGE 52 4. Water Management Issues in Coastal Areas 5. Assumption of Appropriate Management Functions by Local Government St. Johns The St. Johns Water Management District was created by the 1972 Florida Legislature as part of the Water Resources Act, Chapter 373 Florida Statutes (Munch, 1980). On January 1, 1977, the District assumed control of water regulation structures in the Upper St. Johns River Basin. Included in its boundaries are the entire St. Johns and Nassau River Basins, several coastal drainage basins and the Florida portion of the St. Mary's River Basin. Its 12,400 square mile service area comprises about 21 percent of the state total. Over 2,000,000 people reside in this district with Jacksonville as the major population center. Organizationally, the District is divided into Departments of Water Resources, Resource Planning and Management, Environmental Sciences, and Administration. A list of on-going research and technical studies is shown in Table IV-1. South Florida The South Florida Water Management District is the oldest and largest district. Originally, the district was called the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District. This organization has supported a wide variety of research studies over the years. They employ 45 PAGE 53 TABLE IV-I: Research and Technical Studies: FY 1979-80, St. Johns Water Management District 1. Socio-Economic and Land Use Analysis a. Overlay Mapping b. Data Management System c. Land Use Mapping Report d. Compilation of Local Government Comprehensive Plan Information 2. Agricultural Water Use Research a. Crown Flood Irrigation Study b. Irrigation Pumping Efficiencies Study c. Fern Water Use Study d. Agricultural Lands Inventory 3. Annual Water Use Research 4. Urban Water Use Research a. Water Use Demand Elasticity Model b. Categorical Use of Public Water Supplies c. Residential Water Use Study 5. Jane Green Study 6. Investigation of Ground Water and Surface Water Availability 7. Salt Water Intrusion Study 8. Southwest Volusia County-Osteen Study 9. Effects of Frost and Freeze Irrigation on Floridan Aquifer 10. District-Wide Determination of Flood and Low Flows 11. Flood Irrigation and Water Use Investigations 12. Water Quality Monitoring 13. Water Conservation Program 14. Data Evaluation of Annual Report 15. Roughness Coefficient Study for Marsh Area 16. Analysis and Update of Tri-County Area Well Data 17. Effects of Sand Mining Operations in Johns Lake 46 PAGE 54 18. Geology of the Ocala National Forest 19. Materials Investigation-Borrow Areas 20. Interbasin Diversion Investigation in the Upper St. Johns River Basin 21. Evaluation of Applicability of Various Ground Water Models to District Hydrologic Regime Cooperative Agreements with USGS 22. Administration and Program Planning 23. Northwest Volusia County Hydrologic Investigation 24. Flagler County Hydrologic Investigation 25. Potentiometric Mapping 26. Monitoring Program 27. Hydrologic Atlas Series 28. Southeast Limestone Aquifer Study 47 PAGE 55 numerous nationally recognized technical experts in various areas of water resources. The proposed FY 1980/81 program lists 75 separate studies which are summarized in Table IV-2. New areas of interest for South Florida include: (Rhoads, 1980) 1) studies of the quantity and quality aspects of changing freshwater discharge patterns on estuaries. This effort would include studies of the impacts of dredge and fill operations; 2) intensified efforts in aquatic weed control; 3) studies of alternative energy sources to reduce costs; 4) studies of water conservation; and 5) studies of improved methods of drainage design. Southwest Florida The Southwest Florida Water Management District is the second largest district in the state (Southwest Florida Water Management District, It was created by the Florida Legislature in 1961 following widespread flooding in 1960 that caused a number of deaths, injury to hundreds of people and damages totalling nearly$200 million. The District covers more than 10,200 square miles. The District is managed not only by a General Board but also by ten watershed basin boards. Major areas of activity include solving urban problems in the 48

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Table IV-2. Proposed Program Activities: ,Management District (Rhoads, South Florida Water 1980). RESOURCE PLANNING DEPARTMENT PROGRAMS -PROPOSED FY 1980/81 PROGRAM NUMBER DESCRIPTION .. PR06RJ'.M AND TITLE OF PROGRAM -bUI{APON 0076 To provide for the chemical analysis of Conti nu'; ng Laboratory water and soil samples, and conduct physical & (As long a, water -Charges-WPB nutrient analyses supporting internal/ext. prog analysis :'equired) 0082 Same as above, ln support of KRCC programs. Same as above Laboratory Charges-Okeech. 8004. Measure costs. beneT1 ts and econOml C 1 mpacts of :Cont1nu;ng. each Non-Ag Water alterntte water management policies in planning area must b Demand Studies areas incl. f1eod/drought damaqe assessment updated peri od; ca lly 8007 Same as above for Agn cu I tura I areas. Same as above. Ag. Water Demanc & Cost Studies 8008 Ana lyzes water demand rel atl0nshl ps, utlilty Contlnues through Water Use Plan costs and pricing 1n support of water use and comp1et'ion of WUP, Demand Stud; es drought manal,lement planning. then updating. 8010 Deve lops 1 and use daja, I anO use acreages and Conti n9. updates Geographic projections of future land use changes. Support needed track land Info System for numerous District and local Govt. programs. use 8012 Develops and refine!! computer models for assess After is Application of ment of current and future water management completad (3 years), Svste01 Studies systems and techniques. reduct.i en_ ot'.e'ffQrl.. 0013 EValuates alternatives for increasing water Initial evaluations Syatem Optimizsupplies in specific basins (through improved completed in 2 years ation Stfidies i operational/structural methods). 8v14 Supports tne regulatory functlon wHO modeling ontlnuin:. as a Resource Controi and analysis for water use and other permits. of new 'permit apolications. 8016 ASS1StS 10 the proJectl0n ana analysis OT \'later nrst year of a new Ag. Irrigation demands using best ag management practices. Projected L.i:iater Use/Pract.! Studies lrrigatiot; and drainage methods. 'for cor.".lietion-3 yrs 8022 Provides gU1(iance Tor or operatlonal 111'10 yr, comp I eted, Drought water supplies that shou d be planned based on wo yrs remain to fJ,na'vsiS probableoccurrence of normal and dry oeriods. over other areas. 8UZ5 Develop a mode, for slmulatlng land use change IWO years completed. Surface Water I and effects on surface and ground waters, and to wo years remain for Develop. serve as a transport mechani sm for qual. S tudi es. validated model. 8u30 10 acqul re water use. data ,pr.iman.ly" urban ,rates ontlnulng, updates Water Use Data of cnnsumpti on & uti1 i ty CDS ts i rr of heeded to establish Acquisition current & future manaqement & VeS:;;;. trends. 8032 To to lnternaJ/external requests for I-ontl mil ng, has been 'Water Chemistry water quality data transfers, reviews/analyses. onductec for past General Eva1 : D6tumentsdata sets on rainwater quality etc. wo yr>. 8034 Uevelops water use data methods wlth anduc'ted for the A-gri(;u }tural emphasis on ag production. This is currently an ast lwo yrs, with Hater lte DataCOlT area where there is great uncertainty. hree yrs remaininq. 8036 Revlews, evaluates and recommends state-af-art ThlS has been eval. Application of systems for planning areas in WOP. Includes for past five yrs. Supply Alterri; deep aquiferstoraqe, desal and water reuse. Conti:1uing. 8038 To develop a capability of computing more This is c new prog. Water Budget reliab1e water budgets for surface 1ater storage Will require three Analysis areas usinq ET, seepage and runoff. Iyrs to complete. 8040 Assess availability, reliability and cost of This is a new prog. Alternate Energ\ alternate energy sources. with emphasis on pump Should .1e conti nui n9 Studies stations. to u;'date technology 49

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Table IV-2. Proposed Program Activities: South Florida Water Management District (Rhoads, 1980). PLANNING DEPARTMENT PROGRAMS -PROPOSED FY 1980/81 z PROGRAM NUMBER AND TITLE DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAM PROGRAM DURATION 8044 Develop better methods of info flow and improvE This is a new prog. Objective Desig efficiency of data collection, processing and Completion will Infc ,;applications' (Optililizewater resource operation require 2 to 3 yrs. 8046, Ii Covers projects that evolve wlthln the current This is a new prog. Special fiscal year and include well drilling, logging Should be of a and analySes within allpJannil1!L areas. continuing basis. 0,)48 Provides for the monitoring of USGS studles ThlS lS a new prog. USGS Groundwate being made for District, where early data Continuing. Stud:! Coord. availability is needed for WUP/other uses. 8104 Develop computer based statistical system to Ihis is a new prog. Envron. Science improve effectiveness of environmental projects Continuing. StatiSti cal Svs (IrieL speci es presence rel ati ve abundance etc 8106 To provide for evaluat,ons of that evolve withThis is a new prog. Gen'eral Envtron in current fi sca 1 year, such as fi sh ki 11 s, Conti nui ng. Eva 1 :lati'OIiS olltsi de agency revi ews etc. iii'ilti, To study the feaslbl11ty of restonng natural Th15 1S a new prog. Restorati'on hydroperiods etc. to certain areas in District. Continuing. RecOl'ria;Ssance' 8216, Provides logging services.for info gathering on Conducted for one yr Bo'ehole Geo-aquifer stratigarphy, water quality etc. Incl. Continuing. Physi ;;S/lOQQi riC! 1 OQQi nQ we 11 s. ass i stance in data i nterpretati 0 8302 To provide the ab1l1ty to compute flows through Conducted for three control structures with minimum flow measure-yrs. Requires two RatingS. ments rieeded for' va 1 i dati on of actual flows. more years to comp 1 8304 Prov1des for supportlng internal/external This is a new prog. Special. Project. requests for land use mapping and data on Continuing. larid RfiSollrces specifi c projects and areas within Di stri ct. W 8e'42161 An operational program which plugs abandoned Th1S 1S the second wells in Lee County, which degrade quality of year of a continuing Abandon"lent fresh surface water supplies. iprogram. 8428 Provldes for lnspection of all new pUblic water This is the first Well Sonstrucsupply wells permitted by DER for proper year of a continuing tion/lnsrectionconstruction and permit compliance. program .. 8502 Analyzes issues of current interest, including his is a continuing Special Hydrodry season operations, flood control studies, program. logic Reports drainage bOllndary updating etc. 8503 Provi des for the co 11 ecti on of d eta from an I n1 S 1 S a contl nUl ng Hydrologic Data extensive network throughout the District. program. Collection IncludeS development 8504 Provides for the management of data rrhis is a continuing Data through a data base (computerized). Furnishes program. Management .... data to support surface water, water qual i ty etc 8506 Documents the quallty of water at major control fhis is a continuing Water Qua"litypoints and supports the WUP. Analysis of data program. Monitori'lig arid provi s i oli of inPllts to LOK TOP prOQrams. 8008 Documents the seasonal DO present in various Dissolved uxyger S. Florida ecosystems. Used to support District Study aquati c weed program. 8509 Operates in coordinat10n with Program 8003 by Instrumentatior. development of new instrumentation and process-Eva 1. /Deve lop. ing techni ques. fhl S 1 S a new prog. t will continue hroughout District. his is the fifth yr pf a continuing prog 8510 Provides for technical support of District his is a continuing Electronic : electronic equipment such as loggers, modeling program. Support/Maint. i,computers etc. 2. 50

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Table IV-2. Proposed Program Activities: South Florida Water Management District (Rhoads, 1980). RESOURCE PLANNING DEPARTMENT PROGRAMS PROPOSED FY 1980/81 PROGRAM NUMBER DESCRIPTION PROGRAM AND TITLE OF PROGRAM DURATION 8511 To improve the effectiveness of various topo-This is the second Remote Sensing graphic data gathering through the year of a continuing Evaluation use of remote sensing techniques/equipment. 18512 To aetermlne tne feas1b111tr of 10cat1ng flowln 1 rnl 5 program wl11 Remote Sensingwells with available remotely sensed data to continue for two yrs Flowinq Wells reduce time and cost of thi s process. 18620 To coordinate ana aocument tne ana lyses on tne I,ms 15 tne flfth Water Use PlanLEC and LDK for the WUP. Includes development of a program that 15 LEC/LOK of an updated Executive Summary for area. updated 8626 1 Deve lops tne I ana use aata for tn, 5 pi anm ng I'nls 15 tne t1tth yr Geographic Info area. Updates land use acreage and future of a program, updatec System-LEC/LOK Iprojections based on latest aerials. as above. IProvide an ecologlcal baseline of specles fhlS is the fcurth composition and distribution of algae in suppor yr of a program, witt IQuality of WCA's of various water level studies .in the WCAs. three yrs to comp 1 etE 8631 Same as above for study of macroinvertibrates rnlS 15 tt;e th1 rd yr Aquatic Macro-in WCAs. th two yrs to invertebrates ete r;'"ogram. 8632 1 Determine how natural communlt1es respond to In1S is tl'= third yr Impact of S-339 and S-340 on WCA changes in water level in support of decision-makina on manaqement of WCA's. th threE.> yr's to 8634 Th1S program provides for the close coordinatior his is a new prog. Regional SE Fla. with the USGS in a study of the Biscayne It will take about AQui fer Study aquifer. Ifi ve ---years to COI!)Q. 1 8640 To determ1ne the ab1lity of WCA vegetat10n to In1S 1S tne slxtn yr Nutrient-Cycling assimilate nutrients such as phosphorus and pf prog., which will in WCA2 ... overall effects on water qual tty. .. two vrs more. 8641 Th1 s program W1 II aocument tne effects OT the In1S 15 a new prog. Envi ron. to drawdown scheduled. for WCA2 on the ability to t should continue 1 "Altpr. in Rpo. Sr.n restore Ever...!!l adeQl ant COlilmuni ti es. at least five yrs 8644 To provide data for assess1ng the impact of wo yrs completed. WCA Material possible additional inflows to WCA's and the Two remain Budqet Studv" effect of drawdown develop_ basic after drcwdown. 8646 Same as above for inflow/outflow stations such wo yrs cc.npleted. Water Qual. and as S5A, S6, S7 and S8, with respect to quality Two years remain Sediment Eval. Iparameters and sediments. after drawdown. 8652 Provides support for Daae county fllanmnguept. IWO yrs complete. East Everglades with variety of inputs ranging from hydrological Two years remain at RP Project of project outputs. low level of effort. 8656 To determi'ne the eX1st1ng groundwater and geo-Three yr$cvmplete. Hydrologic Study chemical regime around the C-ID3 near Homestead. One yr Basin 8668 Update data and results of prev10us surveys to per10d1cBird Surveydetermine the impact of raised lake levels on ally for ,Jast five LOK bird populations. :y_ears. Conti ilUi nJ!. 8670 To expand the knowleage of SUbmerged vegetat10n Th1S 1S c: new prog. Submergent Veg-in LOK and any impact of raised lake levels or Two more yrs to etation-LOK' other managementactions. complete. 8b/l 10 upaate a I reaay aocumentea vegetat10n prof1 I es This is a continLittoral Zone and determine effects of raised lake levels. uing program. Vegetation-lOK 8672 To upaate aata oase tor I 1mnet1 c zone to ai a in IhiS is a centin-Water Qual.Monit evaluation of management alternatives for LOK. uing or-Limnetic Zone 3 51 PAGE 59 Table IV-2. Proposed Program Activities: South Florida Water Management District (Rhoads, 1980). RESOURCE PLANNING DEPARTMENT PROGRAMS -PROPOSED FY 1980/81 PROGRAM NUMBER DESCRIPTION PROGRAM Aim TITLE OF PROGRAM OURATION 1367(. Same as for 8672, with respect to analysis of Two yrs complete. Aha. Limnetic data collected. One yr remai ns. Wat. ,r Chern. Data L!f;78 To assess long term trenos and \.fater quality '. lhis is a new prog. Sper:i a 1 Water. iJllPacts.on 'I\QrtMrn Lake Okeechobee, f1ar.ticu1ar It will be continqua. i ty Studi es 1y discharges from Nubbin Slough _(S-191). uinQ. 070n To evaluate water supply alternatlVes for UEe Th 1 s 1 s the fi rs t Water Use Planand provide an Executive Summary document on yr of a program to UEe area for water use Plan. be updated biennia11 8706 To maintaln the eXlst1ng data collectlon net, 1 nl S 1 S tne tourtn Floridan Aquifer and provide additional data as required for yr of a continuing lon!l term trend analvs is Of water 1 eve 1 s maintenance prog. SiP To determine the lmpact of upstream flows ln This is the third [st1larine the St. Lucie estuarine areas in support of WUP yr. Two years remain Stuiies.;.UEC to be completed. 1371 .. Support for WUP for understanding of proposed This is the second \:ater Chern. Eval impacts of water management alternatives in yr of program. One 'UEC thiS planning area Iyear rema i ns i!7T6 Deve lops 1 and use .data, acreages and proJectlon II h 1 S 1 S the seCOnd Geographic Info for future land use changes. Supports WUP and yr of a program to 1 oca 1 requests;" .. be updated biennia11 8140 ...... 10 evaluate water supply a1ternatwes for LWC IThlS lS the thlrd Water Use Plan and update existing Eexcitive Summary document of a program to LWC .. forWUP;' .. be updated biennia11 8746 To lnventory and analyze water resource capab-hi sis the second. Resources ilities of surface supplies in LWC in support yr of program. Two .. 'ofWUP; .. yrs to complete. Updates I and use acreage ana future proJect10ns rhis is the third yr Geographic Info for this planning area. Provides for analysis pf program. Low 1eve of trends. !for periodic updates To support WUP in the recommendation of future fhlS lS the thlrd yr Biological Invwater management alternatives for CaloosahatcheE af program. Two yrs estigationS-LWC' RiVer and anal.vze such events as algae blooms. remain to complete. 8759 To determlne the impact of upstream flows in fhi sis the second Caloosahatchee estuarine areas, in support of WUP. vr of program. Two RiVer EStuary vrs to complete. 8760 To determl ne the ava 11 abl1l ty of groundwater fhlS lS thlrd yr of Gr!:undwater resources in multi-layered aquifer system of LWC program, with three in Suppprt of WUP .. yrs to complete. To provide water quality analyses of proposed IhlS lS the thlrCl Ca'; oosahatchee alternatives in support of WUP. yr of program. One Study-WQ yr to comolete. 87f:0 Not worked this fiscal year. Water Use Plan Ki!:sil1llT1ee Area Aquifer To obtaln addltional information on water levels ThlS lS new prog. in this aquifer system in support of WUP and Three yrs to compo Recon.-Kissimmee future use decisions. 8/!:1t! To determlne abll1ty of KiSSimmee marShes to Inls lS the flfth Nutrient Cycling remove nutrients, an important consideration in yr of program. One Marsh other actions. Iyr to complete. 8796 10 estimate the major loads for each of the This is a new prog. Qual.Mon-tributaries flowing into system and to examine hree yrs to complete I i tor-Ki ss. Lakes lateral water transfer from lake to lake. 52 PAGE 60 Table IV-2. Proposed Program Activities: South Florida Water Management District (Rhoads, 1980). RESOURCE PLANNING DEPARTMENT PROGRAMS -PROPOSED FY 1980/81 PROGRAM NUMBER DESCRIPTION PROGRA!1 AND TITLE OF PROGRAM DURA ION 9901 .. Acquire and analyze water quality data on This is tfJe third Uplands Demonst-nutrient loading into Kissimmee River and other yr of prolram. One ation ProJect basins in area. Supports KRCC. Iyr to complete. 9902 Taylor Creek Same as above for th1S baS1n. Supports K.Kl,;l,; I::,ame as aDove. Headwater Monit. B/9B MOO1tonng and analyt1cal support program for Th1S 1S th1rd yr. of Taylor Creek the USDA research in this basin. program. Continuing. Nubbins Slough 5' 53 PAGE 61 rapidly growing cities of the Tampa Bay area, Sarasota-Bradenton, and Port Charlotte (Allee, 1980). Also, the phosphate industry in central Florida is a major concern from a quantity and quality point of view. The Four River Basins Project covering 60 percent of the District is a major joint effort with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The four rivers are the Oklawaha, the Withlacoochee, the Peace, and the Hillsborough. The District is also involved in a wide variety of other water management activities. Suwannee River The Suwannee River Water Management District was created by the 1972 Florida Legislature as part of the Water Resources Act, Chapter 373 Florida Statutes (Morgan, 1980). This district comprises 6900 square miles of North Florida. Approximately 146,000 people reside in the District. Lake City (pop. = 11,000), Perry (pop. = 7900), and Live Oak (pop. = 7100) comprise the urban centers. Over 75 percent of the land is in agriculture and timber production. Phosphate mining is a major industry. Special Studies South Florida Research Center (Rosendahl, 1980) The National Park Service Research Center is located at the Everglades National Park. The Everglades National Park and Big Cypress National Preserve are located at the southern terminus of the larger Everglades/Lake Okeechobee/Kissimmee Valley drainageway extending 54 PAGE 62 halfway up the Florida peninsula. Current management problems being addressed are: 1) provide recommendations for protection and restoration of the ecosystem of Shark Slough and its estuary; 2) provide recommendations for protection and restoration of the ecosystem of Taylor Slough and its estuary; 3) provide recommendations to meet short-term resource management needs of the Big Cypress and its estuary and establish a base of natural resources data; 4) maintain the long-term natural resources records necessary for managing south Florida parks; and 5) provide management recommendations for assuring ample fresh water quality and quantity within Everglades National Park and Big Cypress Na.tiona1 Preserve to meet wildlife and vegetation needs. Kissimmee Coordinating Council The 1976 Florida Legislature created the Coordinating Council as part of the Kissimmee River Restoration Act (McCaffrey et a1., 1980). The Coordinating Council was directed to develop measures to restore water quality in the Kissimmee River Valley and Taylor Creek-Nubbin Slough Basin. Restoration of natural changes in water levels, recreation of conditions favorable to wetlands and wildlife, removal of threats to agriculture, and protection of presently developed areas from floods were all addressed in the Act. 55 PAGE 63 In April 1978, the u.s. Congress authorized the u.s. Army Corps of Engineers to undertake a restudy of the Kissimmee River Valley and the Taylor Creek-Nubbin Slough Basin. This effort is under way. National Audubon Society The National Audubon Society operates an Ecosystem Research Unit at the Corkscrew Swamp sanctuary in southwest Florida (National Audu-bon Society, 1979). This Ecosystem Research Unit (NASjERU) is a branch of the society's Research Department devoted to research relevant to natural area management. ERU's work is intended to bridge the gap between applied research programs directed towards human use of resources and basic research aimed solely at understanding nature. ERU evolved out of a need that became apparent during an ecosystem study at National Audubon's Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary in southwest Florida. The University of Florida Center for Wetlands was studying the sewage treatment potential of cypress swamps and needed data from a cypress strand to compare with that from their cypress dome sites. The cypress at Corkscrew seemed ideal, so in 1973 NAS was given a Rockefeller Foundation grant subcontract to do an ecosystem analysis of the sanctuary. The Corkscrew project was a comprehensive analysis of the swamp ecosystem. As data came in, it became obvious how important such research was to proper management of the sanctuary. Corkscrew's problems had seemed fairly clear: everyone thought that drainage from nearby development canals had lowered the sanctuary's water levels and led to shrub invasion in the marshes and pinelands. But, in-depth study 56 PAGE 64 revealed that Corkscrew was experiencing normal water fluctuations except where extensive dikes and pumps installed to correct the perceived water problems had extended hydroperiods abnormally. At the conclusion of the Corkscrew project, the Ecosystem Research Unit was made a permanent part of the NAS Research Department. Long-term monitoring of tree growth, litterfall, cypress regeneration, and water levels continues at Corkscrew. The Corkscrew project gave ERU such a good background in Florida ecology that the group has been asked to do several other Florida studies. In cooperation with the University of Florida Center for Wetlands, ERU prepared the Resource Inventory and Analysis for the Big Cypress National Preserve. ERU is currently conducting an experimental study of off-road vehicle impacts on the preserve. The U.S. Heritage Recreation and Conservation Service, through Florida State University, has contracted ERU to classify peninsular Florida habitats and identify the best remaining examples for the Natural Landmarks Program. Federal Army Corps of Engineers The Jacksonville District of the Corps of Engineers is responsible for the state of Florida. A summary of their present activities is presented in a recent annual report (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979). The information to follow is extracted from this report. Nearly one billion dollars have been spent by the Corps of Engineers in Florida. The distribution of these expenditures is shown in Table IV-3. In addition to these activities, the Corps of Engineers has 57 PAGE 65 TABLE IV-3: Expenditures by the Corps of Engineers in Florida Activity Navigation Flood Control Multiple-Purpose Lakes Shore Protection Aquatic Plant Control Recreation Urban Studies Totals Amount Spent million dollars 470 327.3 66.3 29.8 16.8 2.6 2.8 915.6 Percent of Total 51.3 35.7 7.3 3.3 1.8 0.3 0.3 100.0 studies under way for various aspects of flood plain management, e.g., flood hazard information, flood insurance (Salem, 1980). Several major navigation projects have been completed or are under way in Florida, e.g., the Intracoastal Waterway, a cross Florida navigation system via Lake Okeechobee. A summary of these projects is shown in Figure IV-l. The largest flood control project is the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Project authorized June 30, 1948. This project involves an area of about 16,000 square miles in southeastern Florida. This project was designed to provide an overall water control plan to replace the piecemeal drainage activities which took place in south-eastern Florida during its early development. The South Florida Water Management District operates this project. A summary of flood control projects is shown in Figure IV-2. 58 PAGE 66 U1 \.0 l[\[KI IVTmllEl fmU[ mm!! e @ o .lilll.!llllL nmnY SIun UrTI nn.m nn fU n, lIU uu I n. IlIPmllltx! YET um Hmn tulltLlf umlu ISlumlCUI Hla U1 HI fTUHJj umfSSlUU IISIllCi Figure IV-I. ,,1 Gi'm[ BAYOU ) .f RlilR I POll SI. j I 'i L_ cmmOlOOM PIlS 10 NIPlESCHlMHHWllS 10 BIC MARCO PISS lUCUSIIN[ HIRBOl z...-INIRICOISlll WIHRWIY IICKSoNVlll[ 10 MIIMI BEm HARm HUISIOiO IKlH OX! ImGllOES HlRBOl mm HAUlom INlH ems Dr mIK[[IS NHIGAlIOK PROJECTS I" flORIDA SCALE IN 1r,I1L[Ji \00 2040 -== Corps of Engineers Navigation Projects in Florida (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979). PAGE 67 '" o J.WJL AlIUI!l!I fOWl .WECII IItl1IIIill 4 _lUllCIllll !WI iuu HllRlllll _lUlUl .. J!lllL IIii3l UIPlITU IIIIIJ 11111 tllSlllClIli -.:J UlUlllU "rlnult.' m yu 11"1 '"I(Cl rUIlUlY ClII,U1U "m lit fU STnTul i:{;J UllIIIIJII!IIlIIllltl Figure IV-2. 1 \'-'1 II __ (: 1l&KSG1 &.OURII I c,( L_"'\, 4'..: / lEY'[$! 0'" mwm CDUNIT 4 VIRGIHIA KEY !HD }, m BISCAYHI ell1l If WllUlS .'1 "''''''''' nu. Ulrlll SKaIE ramcn.. PlDUCTS II FlIillA SCAL'''' MILU to 10 0 to Corps of Engineers Flood Control and Shore Protection Projects in Florida (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1979).

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Geological Survey The Florida District of the Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, has the principal responsibility at the Federal level for appraising water resources and providing basic hydrologic data (Kantrowitz, 1980). A summary of current activities is contained in an annual report (U.S. Geological Survey, 1979). Table IV-4 shows a topical classification of current U.S.G.S. studies in Florida. The location of these studies is shown in Figure IV-3. The Florida District has the largest cooperative program of any state in the United States. In fiscal year 1979, over $11 million of Federal, state, and local money was spent on this program in Florida. The Apalachicola River is being studied as part of the U.S.G.S. national program. The primary purpose of this study is to test a variety of general wetland assessment procedures (U.S. Geological Survey, 1979). U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service (Livingston, 1980) The Soil Conservation Service (SCS) gives technical assistance to individuals, groups, organizations, cities and towns, county and state governments in conservation, protection, development, and utilization of land and water resources. The authorities for participating in planning and implementing water resource developments are contained in the following laws: 61 PAGE 69 Table IV-4. Topical Classification of USGS Investigations (USGS, 1979) Aquifer Studies. FL-2l0, FL-230, FL-257, FL-258, FL-284 FL-286; FL-294, FL-297, FL-299, FL-30l, FL-302, FL-303, FL-3l0, FL-3l1, FL-3l2, FL-317' Areal Water Resources. FL-048, FL-057, FL-090, FL-106, FL-109, FL-126 FL-150, FL-268, FL-270 Bridge Site Studies. FL-012 Environmental Impact. FL-264, FL-27l, FL-286, FL-288, FL-292, FL-308 Estuarine Hydrology. FL-159, FL-3l4' Flood Control. FL-105 Flood Mapping. FL-006 Hydrologic Monitoring. FL-OOl, FL-002, FL-003, FL-04l, FL-043, FL-044 FL-072, FL-179, FL-19l, FL-280 Lake Hydrology. FL-09l, FL-143, FL-233, FL-296 Modelling. FL-267, FL-282, FL-294 Remote Sensing. FL-263 Rivers (Canals), Water Quality. FL-099, FL-124, FL-3l4 River, Water Supply. FL-265, FL-276 Saltwater Encroachment. FL-04l, FL-043 FL-044, FL-285, FL-295, FL-298, FL-306 Sanitary Landfill. FL-106, FL-107, FL-3l6 Spray Irrigation, Waste Effluent. FL-195, FL-3l6 Subsurface Storage of Freshwater. FL-29l, 'FL-293 Subsurface Water Disposal. FL-113, FL-152, FL-154, FL-198, FL-245 Surface and Ground Water Relationship. Technical Support. FL-208, FL-23l, FL-232, FL-28l Urban Hydrology. FL-119, FL-136 FL-139 FL-158, FL-2l9, FL-309, FL-318 Water Management. FL-272 Water Use. FL-007 Water Resource Mapping. FL-256 Wetlands. FL-307 62 PAGE 70 31 G U 30' .e 29' 28' NORTHWEST FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT o o SUWANNEE RIVER$> WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT 27' LOCATION OF AREAL INVESTIGATIONS 301 Investigation Number NOTE: Statewide investigations not shown. 26' 25 87 86 85 84 R G 106 SOUTH FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT o 10 20 30 40 50 MILES I I I I I I 83 82 81 Figure IV-3. Location of Ongoing USGS Investigations (USGS, 1979). 63 80

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1. Public Law 46 --The Soil Conservation Act of 1935 authorizes the SCS to provide technical assistance in development and protection of natural resources to individuals, groups, and units of government through soil and water conservation districts. 2. Public Law 566 --The Small Watershed Act authorizes providing financial and technical assistance in carrying out watershed protection and flood prevention projects in cooperation with local governmental units or state agencies. 3. Public Law 566 --Section 6 authorizes SCS to carry out river basin investigations and flood hazard studies in cooperation with state and local agencies. 4. Public Law 81-516, The Emergency Flood Control Act --Section 216 authorizes installation of emergency measures to safeguard lives and property whenever a natural element or.force has caused a sudden impairment of that watershed. 5. Public Law 703 --The Food and Agriculture Act of 1962 authorizes resource and development projects which cover multi-county areas. Projects for development, protection, or utilization of an area's natural resources may be eligible for financial and technical assistance. The purposes for which financial and/or technical assistance may be made available and are basically common to all authorities are flood 64

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prevention, agricultural water management (drainage and irrigation), agricultural pollution abatement, land stabilization, land treatment, public fish and wildlife development, and public recreation deve10p-ments. The Soil Conservation Service has local offices in most of the counties in Florida, staffed wite a district conservationist. Questions concerning any of the programs may be directed either to the local district conservationist or to Mr. William E. Austin, State Conservationist, Soil Conservatlon Service, P.O. Box 1208, Gainesville, Florida 32602. Agricultural Research Research stations are located in Gainesville and Fort Pierce, Florida (U.S.D.A., 1979). On-going studies include the following topics: 1. The frequency and dur.ation of periods between rains are more important than the amounts of rain in determining irrigation water requirements for shallow-rooted turf. 2. Blight and healthy citrus tree leaves have similar photosynthesis and transpiration rates. 3. High lime rates may compensate for lower water table control on potatoes. 4. High density cattle raises annnonia concentrati.on of streamflow. u.S. Fish and Wildlife Service A new National Fisheries Research Laboratory has been opened 65

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in Gainesville, Florida. This lab will develop a national research program associated with investigations of exotic and non-native fish species which have been or are likely to be introduced and become established in the nation's waters. This unit is a cooperative venture between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, and the University of Florida. Current research includes a study of the chemical and tropical characteristics o,f Florida lakes and a study of the growing bobcat population in eastern Florida (Shockley, 1980). The unit is currently operating on a $150,000 per year bu.dget. State Department of Environmental Regulation Bureau of Water Management (Bishop, 1980) During the 1976 Florida Legislative Session, the Department of Environmental Regulation was designated to restore specific degraded water bodies within the state. A general revenue appropriation of$1.5 million and a total of $276,000 from pollution violations in the state were provided to the Department to effect this action. In July 1977, the Governor signed into law the Water Resource Restoration and Preservation (WRR&P) Program. This legislation officially authcrized and required the Department to undertake both freshwater and marine water resource restoration projects throughout Florida. Projects administered by the Water resources Restoration and Preservation Program have been located throughout the state and have 66 PAGE 74 been diverse in their aims and approaches. A brief summary of WRR&P projects illustrating typical university involvement follows: Lake Apopka Since 1976, the Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences of the University of Florida has been conducting studies on Lake Apopka. These studies involved basic water quality monitoring for physical, chemical, and biological factors as well as basic research on sediment chemistry and sediment water nutrient exchange. Additional studies determine the nutrient sources and loading rates for Lake Apopka and other downstream lakes in the Oklawaha Chain. Non-point sources like rainfall, citrus grove runoff and seepage, and muck farm irrigation were evaluated. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) of the University of Florida also performed a frost/freeze study of the lake vicinity. This basic research effort was directed at determining the effect of lowered water level on the lake's ability to provide freeze protection for surrounding citrus crops. Lake Eola -This research and demonstration project will develop cost effective methods to restore lake water quality by management of stormwater runoff. The Department of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science of the University of Central Florida is conducting this three-phase project in cooperation with the City of Orlando. Phase I is now complete. This phase involved lake and stormwater monitoring for nutrients, organics, solids, metals, and pathogens. Algae bioassays, trophic state analyses, and sediment studies were also performed. Data from these studies were used by the University to 67 PAGE 75 evaluate the cost and effectiveness of an array of management alternatives including watershed best land management practices, settling, filtration, and diversion. During Phase II, now in progress, the university will provide a detailed engineering design of the selected alternatives as well as a critical evaluation of two experimental pilot systems being constructed. University responsibilities will include bid specifications, construction supervision and inspection, and systems evaluation of the completed project. Lake Jackson -Florida State University is conducting lake and stormwater monitoring for this multi-phase research and demonstration project. The project will evaluate the effectiveness of several techniques (including marsh filtration) in nutrient and sediment removal from stormwater runoff. The university is also investigating hydrocarbon transport through the watershed during storm and baseflow conditions. Lake Washington -A comprehensive water quality and quantity study of Lake Washington, the drinking water supply for south Brevard County, was undertaken by the Florida Institute of Technology. The study focused on: (1) the existing water quality and trophic state of the lake, (2) historical water quality, trends, and comparisons with present water quality, (3) water quantity (hydrologic budgets were developed in which source and sinks of water to the lake were quantified), (4) the effect of drainage canals on water quantity and quality, and (5) recommendations to improve lake conditions. 68 PAGE 76 Bayou Texar The University of West Florida conducted a diagnostic study of Bayou Texar. This assessment included an analysis of sediment samples for salt content and heavy metals and a determination of bacterial levels in the water column and sediment. Bayou Chico -Florida State University conducted an assessment of bottom sediments in Bayou Chico. The assessment involved analysis of sediments for toxic organics, heavy metals, oils, and greases. "208" Program This is the area in which the university system can best contribute to the needs of the Department. It is through basic research into environmental problems, and testing of BMP's, that we determine a reasonable approach to take in seeking to control pollutant sources. In the past, we have worked closely with several departments in the Univer sity of Florida, among them Agricultural Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Forest Resources and Conservation, the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, and the Cooperative Extension Service. Depending upon the area under investigation, separate contracts have been let to individuals in these sections of the university, and the results have been mutually beneficial. As far as the teaching functions of the university system, we are presently moving into the phase of implementation of the state water quality management plan which will require extensive training and education of the public in the ways of proper water and resource management. Of particular interest to us is the broad reaching Cooperative Extension System, which is a respected institution in most 69 PAGE 77 communities. Techniques developed at the university research level can best reach the public through a system like Extension. Another vital role of the university educational branch is that of teaching and training students in technical fields as well as general resource conservation and management. It is only through the process of education at all levels that a greater environmental awareness will be developed. State Energy Office The State Energy Office was assigned to the Governor's office by the 1979 Florida Legislature. It can support water resources studies as they relate to energy programs. The State's STAR program is used as the funding mechanism. This group is interested in talking to faculty interested in water/energy reserach. Industry National Council for Air and Stream Improvement (Berger, 1980) Since 1943, the National Council for Air and Stream Improvement (NCASI) has supported research to solve environmental problems associated with the forest products industry. One of their four regional centers is located in Gainesville, Florida. Their regional centers interact with university professors and students through jointly sponsored research projects, and/or support of graduate students. In the southeastern United States, the NCASI feels that additional research should include studies of: 1. development of conjunctive surface-groundwater quality models; 70 PAGE 78 2. impact of pollutants on fish; and 3. additional ways in which the paper and pulp industry can reduce water use. Florida Institute of Phosphate Research (Borris, 1980) The Florida Institute of Phosphate Research was created by the State of Florida recently to support applied research. Support is drawn from a Phosphate Research Trust Fund. Problems can be addressed related to mining and processing of phosphate rock and reclamation of mined and disturbed lands. Approximately 1.5 million dollars is available during the 1980-81 fiscal year. Topics to be funded include: 1. Environmental studies related to radiation and water consumption and other environmental effects of phosphate mining and reclamation. 2. Wetlands reclamation. 3. Reclamation methods that can be applied to phosphate mining and processing. 4. Methods for more efficient recovery of phosphate and trace minerals from the matrix in the mining and processing industry. 5. Methods for phosphate clay disposal and utilization. 6. Mitigation of the environmental impact of accumulation of by-product gypsum. University Research Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) The lar"gest single organizational unit studying water problems is within IFAS. A recent compendium listed 81 faculty working on a wide 71 PAGE 79 variety of water-related problems (Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, 1980). Areas of future concern include (Davidson, 1980): 1. finding the optimal amount of water to apply to crops; 2. developing a state-wide computer based information network; and 3. ground-water contamination. Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, U. of Miami The internationally recognized program has been in operation for forty years (University of Miami, 1980). Some of the on-going activities related to water resources include (van de Kreeke, 1980): 1. the effect of chlorinated effluent on the ocean; 2. sedimentation in shallow bay areas from urbanization; 3. Bangladesh/Indian water rights; 4. Lake Worth and Naples Bay estuarine impacts; 5. rainfall measures using radar; 6. groundwater pollutant transport models; and 7. reuse of industrial waste waters. Florida Sea Grant College The Florida Sea Grant program began in 1971 (Florida Sea Grant, 1980). In 1976, the program received the designation of a Sea Grant College. Its 1980 budget totals nearly$3,000,000. This college is the major source of information on water problems of coastal areas. It is the seventh largest program of its kind in the United States. 72

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Center for Wetlands (Odum, 1980) The Center for Wetlands is an intercollege research division of the University of Florida dedicated to wetlands, their ecology, problems, management,and effective land use. The Center advances knowledge through special research approaches as systems ecological modelling and simulation, energy cost benefit analysis and planning, and field experiments on vegetation responses to water control. Representative research projects are "Cypress Wetlands for Water Management, Recycling, and Conservation," funded by The Rockefeller Foundation and the RANN Division of National Science Foundation. Work of the Center includes a section on energy analysis, evaluating environmental alternatives with data on energy flows. The Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Laboratory, a unit of the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station, University of Florida, conducts research on problems of the shoreline and of coastal and inland waters and renders advisory service to public agencies and industry. Interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research and graduate instruction are closely coordinated and related to applications of the coastal zone. Research programs of the COE Laboratory include (1) air-sea interaction and the generation of surface waves; (2) scale models of inlets and shore structures; (3) transportation of sediment by waves and currents; (4) wave and current effects at offshore nuclear power plants; (5) water temperature variations near power-generating plants; (6) tidal variations in inland waters; (7) littoral transport under wave action and (8) coastal defense measures (Sheppard, 1980). 73

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Other University Faculty In addition to the above organizations, water related research groups are located throughout the S:tate of Florida. A recently completed compendium of faculty interested in water research is available (Florida Water Resources Research Center, 1980). 74

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REFERENCES Allee, W. Summary of Activities of the Southwest Florida Water Management District, Presented at the Second Annual Meeting of the Florida Water Resources Research Center, Gainesville, FL, Oct. 3, 1980. Berger, H. Summary of Current Activities of the Paper and Pulp Industry at the Southern Regional Center, Presented at the Second Annual Meeting of the Florida Water Resources Research Center, Gainesville, FL, Oct. 3, 1980. Bishop, A. Summary of University Related Activities, Bureau of Water Management, Presented at Second Annual Meeting of the Water Resources Research Center, Gainesville, FL, Oct. 3, 1980. Borris, D.P. Summary of Current Activities of the Florida Institute of Phosphate Research, Presented at the Second Annual Meeting of the Water Resources Research Center, Gainesville, FL, Oct. 3, 1980. Davidson, J. Summary of Current Activities of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences' Programs in Water, Presented at the Second Annual Meeting of the Florida Water Resources Research Center, Gainesville, FL, Oct. 3, 1980. Fisher, G. Summary of Activities of Northwest Florida Water Management District, Presented at the Second Annual Meeting of the Florida Water Resources Research Center, Gainesville, FL, Oct. 3, 1980. Florida Sea Grant, Florida Sea Grant College, Annual Report, January 1/ December 31, 1979, Gainesville, FL, 1980. Florida Water Resources Research Center, Directory of Florida's Univer sity Faculty in Water Resources Research, Florida Water Resources Research Center, Gainesville, FL, Aug. 1980. Howells, D.H. A Summary Report on Southeast Conference on Groundwater Management, Water Resources Research Institute, the University of North Carolina, Raleigh, N.C., 1980. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Programs in Water, Current and Planned Research and Extension, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, July, 1980. Kantrowitz, I. Summary of Activities of the Florida District, U.S. Geological Survey, Presented at the Second Annual Meeting of the Water Resources Research Center, Gainesville, FL, Oct. 3, 1980. Livingston, J. Personal Communication from Asst. State Conservationist, SCS, USDA, Gainesville, FL, 1980. 75

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McCaffrey, P.M., et al. Kissimmee River Survey Review: Information Packet, Kissimmee Coordinating Council, Tallahassee, FL, 1980. Morgan, D. Summary of Activities of the Suwannee River Water Manage ment District, Presented at the Second Annual Meeting of the Florida Water Resources Center; Gainesville, FL, Oct. 3, 1980. Munch, D. Summary of Activities of the St. Johns Water Management District, Presented at the Second Annual Meeting of the Florida Water Resources Research Ge.nter, Gainesville, FL, Oct. 3, 1980. National Audubon Society, The Ecosystem Research Unit, Information Sheet No.5, Na.ples, FL, Sept. 1979. Northwest Florida Water Management District, Water Resources Manage ment Plan, Executive Havanna, FL, 1979. Odum, H.T. Summary of Current Activities of the Center for Wetlands, Presented at the Second Annual Meeting of the Florida Water Resources Research Center, Gainesville, FL, Oct. 3, 1980. Rhoads, P. Summary of Current Activities of the South Florida Water Management District, Presented at the Second Annual Meeting of the Florida Water Resources Research Center, Gainesville, FL, Oct. 3, 1980. Rosendahl, P. National Park Service/South Florida Research Center, Fiscal Year 1980, Programs/Projects, Paper presented at Florida Water Resources Research Center Annual Meeting, Gainesville, FL, Oct. 3, 1980. Salem, E. Summary of Activities of the Jacksonville District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Presented at the Second Annual Meeting of the Florida Water Resources Research Center, Gainesville, FL, Oct. 3, 1980. Sheppard, D.M. Summary of Cu.rrent Activities of the Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Laboratory, Presented at the Second Annual Meeting of the Florida Water Resources Research Center, Gainesville, FL, Oct. 3, 1980. Shockley, B. Research Group Unites Fish and Wildlife Study, Gainesville Sun, Feb. 17, 1980.Southeast Basins Inter-Agency Committee, South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resources Region, Specific Problem Analysis, Main Report, 1975 National Assessment of Water and Related Land Resources, Volume I, Dec. 1977. Southwest Florida Water Management District, A Look at the Southwest Florida Water Management District, Information Series 92lB, Brooksville, FL, Aug. 1979. 76

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U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Water Resources Development by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in Florida, Jacksonville, FL, 1979, 189 pp. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil, Water, and Air Sciences Research, 1979 Annual Report, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1979. U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Investigations in Florida, 1978-79, Tallahassee, FL, June 1979. U.S. Geological Survey, USGS Yearbook, Fiscal Year 1979, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1980. U.S. Water Resources Council, The Nation's Water Resources, 19752000, Volume 1: Summary December 1978. University of Miami, 1978-1979 Annual Report, University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, FL, 1980. van de Kreeke, Co. Summary of Current Activities of the Rosenstiel School of Atmospheric and Marine Science, Presented at the Second Annual Meeting of the Florida Water Resources Research Center, Gainesville, FL, Oct. 3, 1980. 77

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SECTION V PROBLEM CATEGORIZATION Florida's water problems and priorities were established by soliciting input from several groups. Agency representatives were asked to rank Florida's problems using formal questionnaires and informal discussions. Results from this 1979 effort are summarized in RUNOFF (Florida WRRC, 1979). Another valuable perspective on "problems" was gained by subscribing to a news clipping service for all of Florida's newspapers for six months beginning in April, 1980. More than one thousand clippings were arranged by county. Then, summaries of "problems" were prepared. The Second National Water Assessment by the U.S. Water Resources Council expended much effort in prioritizing water problems in the southeastern United States (U.S. Water Resources Council, 1978). This effort is quite valuable in providing the regional and national perspectives. The major source of information regarding priorities for research in water problems related to agricultural areas came from a state-wide meeting sponsored by the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (;l.'979). Another perspective on problems was obtained by attending the 1980 Annual Meeting of the Florida Defenders of the Environment. A summary of that meeting provided additional input. Lastly, and most importantly, university faculty were asked to suggest what they felt were the most. important research topics that needed attention. A formal request and informal discussions were used to obtain this 78

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information. The remaining parts of this section summarize these findings. There are numerous ways in which water problems can be classified. The selected scheme was developed by the Virginia Water Resources Center using an outline of the South Atlantic Gulf Region as a point of departure. Much of the text in the material to follow is an adaptation of this regional material to better describe the situa-tion in Florida. Problem Categorization Category I: Atmospheric, Hydrologic, and Hydraulic Processes 1. Saline Intrusion into Freshwater Aquifers Intrusion of saline water into freshwater aquifers is an increasingly critical problem in Florida. Heavy pumping for industrial, municipal, and agricultural uses alters natural groundwater flow patterns causing landward movement of the freshwater-saltwater interface, eventually resulting in high levels of salinity in pumped water. Continued development of coastal areas, with increasing demands for water, will result in a rapid worsening of this problem. Needed are descriptions of the magnitude and intensity of the intrusion problem, determination of aquifer characteristics and pumping patterns contributing to it, development of techniques for monitoring salinity levels, and development of techniques for reversing flow or buffering against saline intrusion. Models of aquifer systems must be developed which can be used to estimate safe yields and establish appropriate pumping schedules and well locations. Possible institutional arrangements for management of pumpage in coastal areas and for developing alternative water supplies need to be explored. 79

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2. Pollutants to Groundwater Waste treatment lagoons (both municipal and livestock), landfills, septic tank disposal fields, storm and wastewater injection wells, and land application of wastewaters and sludges are all important means for disposal of waste materials to avoid direct pollution of streams, lakes, and estuaries. However, all of these hold possibilities for leaching of pollutants to groundwater. Attention should be given to the types of pollutants which may be present, the manner of movement of these materials, and application techniques to minimize the potential for groundwater pollution. Florida is particularly sensitive to this problem due to high ground-water tables and sandy soils (Howells, 1980). Also, Florida has the largest number of hazardous waste disposal sites of any state in the United States. 3. Instream Flow With increasing pressures to divert flows for off-stream uses such as irrigation, industrial development and municipal uses, it is important that an information base and methods be developed for resolving in-and offstream uses conflicts. The information need is critical for those agencies with responsibility for permitting the construction and operation of flow control structures. 4. Low-Flow Predictions for Receiving Waters The design of wastewater treatment systems to prevent stream pollution from reaching unacceptable concentrations requires information on low-flows by duration and frequency. Many relatively small streams are ungaged and for larger streams estimates are 80

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often uncertain. Hydrologic models for simulating stream flows in the watersheds in several areas of Florida need to be developed, and these must be thoroughly evaluated for their specific applicability to low-flow periods. 5. Water Supply Population and industrial growth, and electric generating facilities cause greater competition for existing water supplies. This competing demand is resulting in the formation of capacity use areas and restrictions on amounts of water for new users. Better data coupled with new approaches to finding alternative ways of meeting these problems is critical. 6. Water Uses The extent of withdrawals from surface and groundwater sources needs to be documented if effective water budgets and management plans are to be developed. In most areas of Florida the quantity of water withdrawals is only a crude approximation. Virtually none of the agricultural water use, our largest user, is measured. Basic data are urgently required to facilitate the development of management plans for wise and efficient utilization of our water resources. Improvement in geophysical techniques for exploration for groundwater would be of great assistance. 7. Flood Plain Management In coastal areas, flooding occurs due to the physical features of the land through which the rivers flow and is particularly serious during hurricanes. Reliable information is required on flood stages by frequency and the capacity of the river swamps to contain flood water. In the rapidly urbanizing regions, water runoff volume is increased by reduced locations available for evapotranspiration and infiltration and 81

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higher peaks are caused by more efficient drainage ways. Remedial measures require (1) more reliable information on flood flows and stages by frequency, (2) better techniques for estimating the effect of land use and channel changes on flood peaks, and (3) overcoming social, political, and institutional obstacles to wider use of nonstructural measures. 8. Erosion Control from Excess Water The transportation of sediment and other debris by the flood water is very significant in injury and environmental and property damages, especially in northern Florida. Erosion results from channel scour along stream and headwater tributaries, and man's land-disturbing activities. Damages also occur when the stream load and non-channelized water load are deposited. Research should be undertaken on (1) methods to stabilize erodible areas to prevent these kinds of damages, and (2) the combined problems of erosion, sedimentation, drainage and ecological impacts in agricultural areas. Category II: Hydrological-Ecological Relationships 1. Wetlands Wetlands and estuaries have certain functional attributes that make them valuable and productive resources of local, regional, or national significance. Wetlands comprised ten to fifteen percent of the state of Florida originally. They serve as key areas for biotic productivity and cycling of nutrients associated with the formation and maintenance of food chains. They provide feeding, cover, nesting reproduction, and nursery habitat for associated biota. They have a 82

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major influence on drainage, current and sedimentation patterns, salinities and flushing characteristics. Certain wetlands have a major influence on surface water and groundwater recharge. Many wetlands provide physical protection against erosion and storm damage and serve as storage areas for storm and flood waters. Wetlands affect key water quality variables such as dissolved oxygen, temperature, turbidity, and nutrient load. Also, wetlands provide opportunities for recreation, education and research. Research and development efforts are needed to gain the technical knowledge required to properly implement wetland management programs. Currently, sufficient knowledge and guidance are lacking to properly and consistently implement these laws, particularly when conflicting needs demand tradeoffs. For example, some wetlands were formed because inefficient systems and practices were used when irrigated lands were first developed. Continuation of all wetlands that were man-made in areas where water shortages and groundwater overdrafts exist must be reassessed if we are to make maximum beneficial use of our water resources. The wetlands of the coastal regions in Florida are being affected by human utilization of nearby land and by changes in drainage, stream channels, and the prior use of inflowing water. They have considerable potential for land use and waste disposal, but a fragile and delicately balanced ecology is involved if they are to be used. Adequate models are not available for evaluating the impact of such changes on wetlands activity in storing water, utilizing nutrients, and interacting with pollutants. Developing this information will enable impact evaluations to guide beneficial uses and limit adverse ones. 83

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2. Estuarine Quality Degradation The importance of estuaries in the biological cycles of the oceans, their rather fragile and delicately balanced ecology, and the increasing pressures for development in coastal areas, all require that natural phenomena taking place within these areas be better understood and that the impact of man's encroachment and pollution be assessed. Research should center on the hydrological and biological processes in estuaries and the effect that dredging, filling, contamination with a variety of pollutants and encroachment of man may have on living processes within them. 3. Lake and Reservoir Quality Degradation Rivers, lakes, and reservoirs in Florida are increasingly threatened by upstream waste residues, particularly by nutrients and toxic substances. Nutrient enrichment leads to eutrophication. Studies of cause and effect relationships on water quality must be continued in support of regulatory decisions, reservoir design and management. Working models of the physical, chemical, and biological processes producing eutrophication in Florida's 7000 lakes must be developed in order to predict the effect of nutrient loads and to formulate a costeffective control approach. 4. Nonpoint Sources Regional wastewater management efforts under the 1972 Water Pollution Control Act require documentation of nonpoint sources of pollution, and evaluation of land use, impacts on water quality. The monitoring strategy, the economics of data collection, and the subsequent use of collected data is crucial to the program in wastewater management. 84

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Pollutants include sediment, nutrients, pesticides, herbicides, acids, and a variety of other materials originating from agricultural croplands, pastures, dry lots, construction, urban runoff, septic tank fields, boat discharges, mining operations, and other sources. Phos phate mining in Florida presents special challenges. It is necessary to identify types, quantities and sources of pollutants, assess their economic and environmental impacts, explore appropriate control measures, and develop best management practices to mitigate their undesirable consequences. 5. Point Sources Industries, municipalities, and agricultural livestock production units represent sources of concentrated pollution. The pulp and paper industries present particular problems in Florida. Better characterization of wastes from these various sources is required. Alternative methods of wastewater disposal and flow augmentation need to be evaluated. The cost-effectiveness of current water quality standards needs to be assessed. 6. Water and Energy There will be more concern for interactions between sources of energy and water resources as the country strives for energy selfsufficiency. As energy development schemes are planned, it is prudent that anticipated water-related problems are analyzed in detail so that mitigation measures may become part of the initial plan. These problems involve areas that include electricity generation, oil refining, acid rain and geothermal groundwater pumping. Currently, Florida is considered to have sufficient water resources to support existing and new electrical generating facilities. As 85

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competition for water increases, however, it will be more difficult to justify the use of huge quantities of water for single purposes. Some experts estimate that within five years, more wells will be drilled for energy development than for water supply. An intense examination of potential problems is advisable in order to facilitate any increase in electrical generating capacity. Further, nuclear plants discharge hot water and fossil fuel plants contribute to acid rain conditions. All of these difficulties indicate that there is a need for research that will assist in decision-making concerning the optimum form of future energy development projects. Research can contribute to a combined energy-water plan, which will be necessary for future public satisfaction. 7. Acid Rain Acid rain is a significant environmental problem which challenges the use of fossil fuels as an energy source. Research objectives should focusi on information that will help maintain environmental integrity as the country achieves energy self-sufficiency. The current acid rain sampling network needs to be expanded. Channelization Stream channels are modified to increase drainage for flood control, reclamation and improvement of low-lying areas, and mosquito control. While channelization activities by federal agencies have been slowed by recent court actions, they will and--in appropriate circumstances--should continue to be used. Alternative channelization designs must be developed for minimum adverse impact, and the effects of these and existing channelization approaches must be defined more adequately than is currently done. Some of the field studies on the lower 86

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Kissimmee River Basin should be continued. Quantitative guidelines for project evaluation should result from such research. 9. Dredging and Filling This largely private work is evaluated on a project-byproject basis. Some activities have had a devastating impact on estuarine areas in Florida. Methodology for assessing the cumulative impact of several projects should be developed to guide the issuance of permits. Techniques are needed to determine the sensitivity of the aquatic damage to the system. A more subtle problem than the recognizable gross changes in habitat is the release of substances from disturbed sediment and the effect of these materials on aquatic life. More detailed design guidelines for finger canals are needed. 10. Heated Water Discharge The demand for numerous additional electric generating plants will place considerable pressure on regulatory agencies to reevaluate the present limits of temperature increases in surface water due to cooling water discharges. Continuing studies should optimize heat dissipation from cooling water, identify reasonable upper temperature limits for protecting the aquatic biota in specific locations, assure that all adverse impacts of warmer water have been assessed, and place social, economic, and ecological impacts on comparable bases. Research activities should also be directed toward recovery of this waste heat for beneficial uses. 11. Water Quality Monitoring Present water quality monitoring cannot be considered adequate for either planning or regulatory purposes. Objectives underlying 87

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system design have never been explicitly defined and monitoring activities have grown without benefit of rigorous analysis. Continued research leading to cost-effective monitoring strategies is vital. Category III: Water Quality Management and Protection 1. Reclamation and Reuse of Wastewater Reclamation of wastewater for public supplies will have to increase, but state officials are concerned about public opposition to treatment practices or decreased distance between discharge and intake. Evaluation of those aspects of water reuse must identify acceptable and objectionable practices and implement approaches that can result in public support where safety has been established. More efficient water use must be developed as an alternative to new source development, together with research on the effects of pricing, new technology, and public education on efficient use, wastewater reclamation, and reuse. 2. Water Treatment Processes The potential for movement of pollutants from raw water sources into treated water supplies is a matter of increasing concern. Routine safety of water supplies is determined by bacteriological examination of water supplies taken from distribution systems. These give no indication of the presence of hazardous chemicals which water treatment plants are not normally designed to remove. Such materials are usually present in low concentrations and may never give rise to acute symptoms associated with a classical water borne disease outbreak. 88

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Studies on the implications of prolonged exposure to trace level contaminants should be accelerated by the Federal agencies. Con current studies at the state level of the presence of these materials and the effectiveness of supplemental water treatment processes for their removal should continue. Category IV: Water Development, Use, Conservation and Management 1. Irrigation Large supplies of groundwater are available for supplemental irrigation which would help optimize crop production and minimize crop failures -both important in meeting world demand for agricultural products and combating increasing costs for production. Research should define the potential for supplemental irrigation including consideration of techniques and economics. Also, increasing use of supplemental irrigation will require information on how much evapotranspiration is increased and on development of ways to increase water use efficiency based on water balance, energy budget techniques, and yield data. 2. Large Reserves Efficient development of large reserves of groundwater and surface water that are untapped in some areas will be dependent on reliable information about location, quality and availability of the resources and relative economics of the potential sources. Research should be done on political and legal constraints on the use of the resource. Continuing growth and urban concentration will impose demands on this resource. This stiffening competition for available water supplies 89

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already is raising serious political, legal, technical and economic questions. 3. Water Conservation in Industry and Agriculture As increasing demands are made on the available water supplies of the region, and as more stringent regulations are imposed on wastewater disposal, research must concentrate on techniques for the reduction of water requirements in various production processes and the treatment necessary to make the water reusable in the same process or usable in a less critical process. 4. Salvage and Conservation of Excess Water Much of the runoff water which subsequently creates damage before reaching the ocean can be diverted and conserved to meet future water supply needs. For example: diversion of flood waters should be made from direct runoff to detention areas from which water can be drawn off for (a) aquifer recharge and (b) municipal and agricultural needs. Research on the social, economic, political, and health aspects are warranted before such alternatives can be realistically considered. 5. Reclamation and Reuse Public Law 92-500 requires that the reuse of wastewater be considered as an alternate means of helping to meet future demands. Some of the ways of doing this are by aquifer recharge of used industrial and municipal sewerage effluents, land spreading and spray irrigation of biodegradable liquid wastes on land. Public Law 93-523 requires the protection of underground sources of drinking water. As a result of this type of disposal solution, other problems will arise; such as, groundwater contamination, air pollution, buildup of salts and heavy minerals in the soils, and problems and potential relating to recycling 90

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of nutrients through vegetation. As a result of the importance of these systems and the approaching need for resource reuse of water in many areas, continued studies are necessary to determine all adverse effects of the method. 6. Cost-Effectiveness/Energy Requirements Many communities, both large and small, are experiencing diffi-culties meeting escalating operation and maintenance costs for mechani-cal wastewater treatment plants. Research is urgently needed to reduce both the operating costs and the complexity of new wastewater treatment plants. Category V: Institutional and Economic Analysis and Water Resources Planning 1. Floods Problems associated with the control of excess water are of major concern. Flooding continues to take a great toll of human lives, and to leave behind property damages far in excess of any other natural hazard. Although people in Florida are well acquainted with the devasta-tion and tragedies caused by too much water, much research to date has not been conducted, and more must be done in order to: restate the goals and objectives of research application in terms meaningful to the public at large; determine the interaction between federal, state, and local government in research initiation and implementation; determine the role of alternative, strategies for state government participation in research development and implementation; integrate flood plain manage-ment into comprehensive land use planning; evaluate the standards of 91

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performance and methods for program evaluation; understand the effects of floodway fringe filling and occupancy; and project the effects of urbanization, on-site detention, and channelization on flood velocities and evaluations. There is an urgent need to develop engineering design and operation criteria for stormwater retention ponds. All of these are critical areas in which research should be undertaken. 2. Dam Safety Considerations There_ is an increasing incidence of failures of small dams and levees throughout the region. This usually causes downstream areas to become inundated and on occasion has caused major damage and a number of fatalities. Numerical models are needed for predicting the magnitude of potential dam-break floods and delineating the potential flood plain for land use planning. 3. Hydroelectric There is a keen national interest in the use of low head hydropower. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers estimates that the southeast region has the potential to produce more electricity by expanding existing hydropower facilities or developing new ones. A gentle impact on the environment and low operating costs are benefits associated with hydroelectric plants that should be investigated further. 4. Control of Water Use Proposals for re-regulating water use at existing reservoirs, diverting water between basins, and regulating water use among states require assessment of impacts to multiple publics in several categories. Methodologies are needed for evaluating these impacts on comparable bases and presenting them for public evaluation. 92

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5. Integrating Water and Land Use Management Land use planners regularly make decisions that affect water service requirements without due consideration of the impact of alternate land use arrangements. One research need with respect to regional land use management is to establish criteria for selecting the best overall land use policy. Important considerations in establishing usable criteria include identification of social effects and fair allocation of beneficial and adverse consequences of various land use policies. Public response to various land use management practices needs to be better integrated into the decision making through effective feedback loops. 6. Land Use Control in Water Resource Management Florida is feeling intensifying resource-management pressures due to population increases. There is a priority need for more systematic and coordinated management of water and land resources. This can be accomplished only through consistent data-gathering, evaluation, planning, and implementation. It also requires resource-management strategies based on multi-disciplinary, inter-governmental approaches. Growth in the coastal plains has resulted in the drilling of thousands of private wells with the consequences clearly evident in overpumping of aquifers. In a number of locations inadequate controls on timber harvesting have caused water quality degradation and increased erosion and sedimentation. More effective management of land resources would help to control the substantial percentage of water pollution due to non-point sources. 93

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For the above reasons, increased effort is urgently required in the following areas: (a) determining ways in which land use controls might ensure that groundwater supply sources are recharged, thus making groundwater a renewable resource; (b) developing more effective training programs for resource-management personnel; (c) suggesting best ways in which water quality and water supply considerations should be incorporated into the process, and Cd) assessing, by water management district, the future demands that will be placed on the land and water resources of the various states according to projected population and industrial growth rates. 7. Institutional Constraints on Effective Management of Water The political boundaries of muniCipalities, counties, authorities, and special districts often impede comprehensive planning and programming required to deal most effectively with water problems in Florida. This can be overcome by developing effective implementation programs which address specific water resource problems. Throughout the state, water planning still is generally conducted independently of land use planning, water quality is considered separate from water quantity, and groundwater is dealt with as though it had no direct relationship to surface water. As the demand for withdrawal uses of water multiply and the need for advanced treatment of wastewater increases, it becomes imperative to look to new institutional arrangements through which costs can be minimized even as program effectiveness is increased. Regional management arrangements within a state offer the best potential of providing a statewide perspective for decision making and of ensuring greater efficiency in both water supply and wastewater disposal considerations. 94

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The State of Florida is divided into five water management districts. Areawide planning agencies exist for all metropolitan areas. How well are these organizations functioning? Are they able to successfully overcome the problems of not being associated directly with the traditional city, county, and state organizational structure? Identified needs include (1) development of systematic data about political and administrative procedures as well as financial, political and legal constraints on public water authorities; (2) determination of what political configurations for research management are both socially acceptable and operationally manageable; and (3) solutions to problems concerning departmentalized planning and lack of interdepartmental cooperation and coordination. S. Legal Constraints on Efficient Use of Water Florida follows the riparian law doctrine. Because this state is relatively water-rich, the 200-year-old doctrine has served the public adequately in the past. Recently, however, specific legal questions have been raised about interbasin transfers of water for supply purposes and about discharging effluents from one basin into the streams of another basin. Many conflicts arise from multiple demands on a given water resource. For these and other reasons, riparian doctrine needs to be examined in detail to see whether it is an unnecessary constraint on the efficient use of water, whether it prevents equitable allocation, and whether in fact it is an impediment to effective management because it does not permit such activities as interbasin transfers. 95

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9. Wastewater Treatment for Small Communities Many small communities are faced with the prospect of providing advanced wastewater treatment to meet EPA water quality standards for receiving streams. These communities will have great difficulty in providing the capital and operating funds to construct and maintain complex wastewater treatment facilities. An economic analysis of alternative waste treatment measures is needed to describe, for each kind and magnitude of waste, the most appropriate waste treatment process for each locale. The possibilities of integrating several available waste treatment techniques should be investigated. The product of this research would be a set of design criteria for these techniques. 96

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REFERENCES Florida WRRC, Annual Meeting Held, Runoff, Vol. 1, No.1, Nov. 1979. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Proc. Water Planning Workshop, U. of Florida, Gainesville, FL, Jan. 29 and 30, 1979. U.S. Water Resources Council, The Nation's Water Resources, 19752000, Volume 4: South Atlantic-Gulf Region, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1978. 97

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SECTION VI CENTER PRIORITIES AND JUSTIFICATION FOR THE SELECTION OF THOSE PRIORITIES The Florida Water Resources Center, a federal/state partnership agency, is helping to solve Florida's water resource problems. The Center is one of 54 such research institutes located in each of the 50 states and four U.S. territories. Through a coordinated research and development program, the Center seeks to fulfill these goals: To provide a center of expertise in water and associated land-use problems and serve as a repository of knowledge for use in education, research, planning, and community service. To serve public and private interests in the conservation, development, and use of water resources. To provide training opportunities in higher education whereby skilled professionals become available to serve government and private sector alike. To assist in planning and regulatory bodies at the local, state, regional, and federal levels. To communicate research findings to potential users in a form that encourages quick comprehension and direct application to a water-related problem. 98

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Organization of the Center The Director of the Center reports directly to the Vice President for Academic Affairs, University of Florida. The Vice President appoints a faculty committee to oversee the operation of the Center. The responsibilities of the Water Resources Research Council include the following: A. To establish policies and operating procedures of the Florida Water Resources Research Center. B. To review the recommendations of the Director of the Center for the funding of research projects. The current membership is as follows: Patrick L. Brezonik, Chairman Elizabeth Abbott B. A. Christensen James M. Davidson Jack D. Elzinga James A. Henry Jerome Milliman Daniel P. Spangler Sherlie H. West Francis G. Stehli, ex officio James P. Heaney, ex officio Research Priorities Environmental Engineering Sciences Geography Civil Engineering Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Industrial and Systems Engineering Geography Economics Geology Agronomy Dean of Graduate Studies and Research Director Section V described the water problem categories and how research needs were identified by considering input from local, state, 99

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and federal agencies, university faculty, conservation groups, and the general public through articles appearing in newspapers throughout the state. The priority setting also reflects the views of related lists of research needs prepared by other groups, e.g., the Second National Water Assessment. The next section presents the results of this effort as the Center's five year research and development plan. 100

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SECTION VII FIVE-YEAR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PLAN The Florida Water Resources Research Center encourages and supports research which is relevant to critical water problems at the state, regional, and national levels. The problems identified in Sections II through V and summarized in Section VI illustrate a wide variety of research needs within the State. Further, those research needs identified in regional and national documents will be addressed by the Center if expertise is available to meet those needs. The Center's program includes problem-oriented research, fundamental research, technology transfer, and information dissemination activities. Estimated budget requirements are included in this section for specified levels of program activity. The Office of Water Research and Technology (OWRT) has requested budgets be prepared for (a) an annual cooperative program (ACP) budget level of $115,000, (b) a second ACP budget of$250,000, and (c) a national matching grant program appropriation by Congress which will increase from $6.0 million to$10.0 million over the five-year period. Programs developed using these guidelines are displayed in Tables VII-l through VII-5. OWRT has also requested that other sources of state and federal funds that can be identified with the Center be budgeted. Although the Center has had (and should continue to have) projects funded by other state and federal agencies, there are no long-term funding agreements 101

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I-' o N Table VII-I. Proposed Distribution of Funds by Budget Activity for Fiscal Year 1982 Ann'ual C a t i v .. .. Matching $115. .. &00$250,000 Budget Budget Activity Federal Non-Federal Federal Non-Federal Federal NQn-Federal Institute Office Support 45,000 23 000 60,000 30,000 -0--0Category I: Atmospheric, Hydrologic & Hydraulic Processes Saline Intrusion 15,000 8,000 Pollutants to Groundwater 15,000 Instream Flows 8,000 30,000 15,000 40,000 40,000 Low Flow Predictions Supply Water Uses Flood Plain Management 10,000 5,000 25,000 13,000 Erosion Control Category II: HydrologicEcologic Relationships Wetlands 10,000 5,000 20,000 10,000 Estuarine Quali ty Degradation Lake & Reservoir Quality 20,000 10,000 Nonpoint Sources 40,000 40,000 Point Sources Water and Energy Acid Rain 10,000 5,000 Channelization Dredging & Filling Heated Water Discharges Hater Quality Monitoring Aquatic Weed Control Category III: Water Quality Monitorin[ & Protection Reclamation and Reuse of Wastewater Water Treatment Processes 10,000 5,000 20,000 10,000 Program Totals -0-

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t-' o w Table VII-I. Proposed Distribution of Funds by Budget Activity for Fiscal Year 1982 .---Annual Cooperatjve Program Matching_Grant Program Program $115,000 Budget$250,000 Budget Totals Budget Activity Federal Non-Fede.al Federal Non-Federal Federal Non-Federa Category IV: Wf!ter DeveloEment, Use, Conser-vation, and Management Irrigation Large Reserves Water Conservation in Industry & Agriculture 15,000 8,000 15,000 8,000 Salvage & Conservation of Excess Water Reclamation & Reuse Cost-Effectiveness! Energy Requirements Drainage V: Institutional and Economic and Water Resources Planning Floods 40,000 40,000 Dam Safety Considerations Hydroelectric Control of I'ater Use 15,000 8,000 Integrating Water and Land Use Management 10,000 5,000 20,000 10,000 Land Use Control in Water Resource Management Institutional Constraints Legal Constraints 30,000 30,000 Wastewater Treatment for Small Communities Totals For ACP of $115,000 115,000 59,000 150,000 150,000 1174,.000 "$250 000 000 In,09_0 __ __ ,--6E,OOO __ I I I I

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I-' o Table VII-2. Proposed Distribution of Funds by Budget Activity far Fiscal Year 1983 Annual Cooperative P"r.ogram Matching Grant Program r Program $115 000 Budget$250,000 Budget Totals Budget Activity Federal Non-Federal Federal Federal Non-Federal Institute Office Support 50,000 25,000 65,000 33,000 -0--0-oCategory I: AtmosEheric, Hydrologic & Hydraulic Processes Saline Intrusion 15,000 8,000 pollutants to Groundwater 10,000 5,000 25,000 13,000 40,000 40,000 Instream Flows Low Predictions Supply Water Uses Flood Plain Management 10,000 5,000 25,000 13,000 Erosion Control Category II: HydrologicEcologic RelationshiEs Wetlands 10,000 5,000 20,000 10,000 Estuarine Quality Degradation Lake & Reservoir Quality 20,000 10,000 Nonpoint Sources 40,000 40,000 Point Sources Water and Energy Acid Rain 10,000 5,000 Channelization Dredging & Filling Heated Water Discharges \va t er Quality Monitoring Aquatic Weed Control Category III: Water Quality Monitoring & Protection Reclamation and Reuse of Wastewater Water Treatment Processes 10,000 5,000 20,000 10,000 I r I I r I I I I

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I-' o lJ1 Table Proposed Distribution of Funds by Budget Activity for Fiscal Year 1983 Annual Cooperative Program -----Matchlng Grant Prograrr Program $115,000 Budget$250,000 Budget Totals _._---------Budget Actlvity Federal Non-Federal Federal Non-Federal Federal Non-Federal Category IV: Hater Develorment, Use, Cons.er-vation, and Management Irrigatlon Large Reserves Hater Conservatlon in Industry & Agriculture 15,000 8,000 15,000 8,000 Salvage & Conservation of Excess Hater Reclamation & Reuse Cost-Effectiveness/ Energy Requlrements Drainage 30,000 30,000 Category V: Institutional and Economic AnalIsis and Water Resources Planning Floods 40,000 40,000 Dam Safety Considerations Hydroelectric Control of Hater Use 15,000 8,000 Integrating Hater and Land Use Hanagement 10,000 5,000 20,000 10,000 Land Use Control in Hater Resource Hanagement Institutional Constraints Legal Constraints 30,000 30,000 Wastewater Treatment for Small Communities Totals For ACP of $115,000 115,000 58,000 180,000 180,000 533,000 If If$250,000 250,000 128,000 180,000 180,000 738,000

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I-' o 0\ Table VII-3. Euc'get Activity Institute Office Support Category I: AtmosEheric, Hydrologic & Hydraulic Processes Saline Intrusion Pollutants to Groundwater Instream Flows Low Flow Predictions Supp ly Hater Uses Flood Plain Management Erosion Control Category II: Hzdrologic-Ecologic RelationshiEs Iletlands Estuarine Quality Degradation Lake & Reservoir Quality Nonpoint Sources Point Sources ter and Energy Acid Rain Channelization Dredging & Filling Heated Water Discharges Quality Monit6ring Aquatic Weed Control Category III: Water Qualitz Monitoring & Protection Reclamation and Reuse of Wastewater Water Treatment Processes Proposed Distribution of Funds by Budget Activity for Fiscal Year 1984 Annual Matching Grant Program $ll5 000 Btldget -:-c--$250,000 __ Totals Federal Non-Federal Federal Non-Federal Federal Non-Federal 55,000 28,000 70,000 35,000 -0--0-0-15,000 8,000 lO,OOO 5,000 20,000 10,000 40,000 40,000 10,000 5,000 25,000 13,000 10,000 5,000 20,000 10,000 20,000 10,000 1,0,000 40,000 10,000 5,000 10,000 5,0(')0 20,000 10,000

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...... o ...... Table VII-3. Proposed Distribution of Funds by Budget Activity for Fiscal Year 1984 Annua.l COQPerative Program Matching Grant Program Program $115,000 Budget$250,000 Budget Totals Budget Activity Federal Non-Feder!!l Fe.deral Non-Federal Federal Non-Federal Category IV': Water Deve1oEment, Uee, Conservation! and M!!nagement Irrigation Large Reserves Water Conservation in Industry & Agriculture 10,000 5,000 15,000 8,000 Salvage & Conservation of Excess Water Reclamation & Reuse Cost-Effectiveness/ Energy Requirements Drainage 60,000 60,000 V: Institutional and Economic Analxsis and Water Resources Floods 40,000 40,000 Dam Safety Considerations Hydroelectric Control of Water Use 15,000 8,000 Integrating Water and Land Use Management 10,000 5,000 20,000 10,000 Land Use Control in Water Resource Management Institutional Constraints Legal Constraints 30,000 30,000 Wastewater Treatment for Small Communities Totals For ACP of $115,000 115,000 58,000 210,000 210,000 593,000 "$250,000 250,000 127,000 210,000 210 000 797,000

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I-' o ex> Table VII-4. Proposed Distribution of Funds by Budget Activity for Fiscal Year 1985 Annual Program Matching Grant Program Program $115,000 Budget$250 000 Budget 'totals Budget Activity Federal Non-Federal Federal Hon-Federal Non-Federal Institute Office Support 60 000 30 000 75 000 38 000 -0--0--0I: AtmosEheric, Hydrologic & Hydraulic Processes Saline Intrusion 15,000 8,000 Pollutants to Groundwater 10,000 5,000 50,000 25,000 40,000 40,000 Instream Flows Low Flow Predictions Supply Water Uses Flood PlE\in Management Erosion Control Category II: Hydrologic-Ecologic Re1ationshiEs Wetlands 10,000 5,000 40,000 20,000 Estuarine Quality Degradation Lake & Re.servoir Quality 20,000 10,000 Nonpoint Sources 50,000 50,000 Point Sources Water and Energy Acid Rain 10,000 5,000 40,000 40,000 Channelization 20,000 10,000 Dredging & Filling Heated Water Discharges Water Quality Monitoring Aquatic Weed Control Category III: Quality Monitoring & Protection Reclamation and Reuse of Wastewater Water Treatment Processes I --_ .. .. I

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o 1.0 Table VII-4. Budget Activity Category IV: Water DeveloEment, Use, Conser-vation! and Management Irrigation Large Reserves Water Conservation in Industry & Agriculture Salvage & Conservation of Excess Water Reclamation & Reuse Cost-Effectiveness! Energy Requirements Drainage Categorz V: Institutional and Economic Analzsis and Water Resources Planning Floods Dam Safety Considerations Hydroelectric Control of Water Use Integrating Water and Land Use Hanagement Land Use Control in Water Resource Management Institutional Constraints Legal Constraints Wastewater Treatment for Small Communities Totals For ACP of $115,000 "$250,000 -------------------Proposed Distribution of Funds by Budget Activity for Fiscal Year 1985 Annual COBperative Program Matching Grant Program $115,000 Budg-et$250,000 Budget Program Totals Federal Non-Federal Federal Non-Federal Federal Non-Federal I 20,000 10,000 40,000 40,000 60,000 60,000 15,000 8,000 20,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 115,000 58,000 240,000 240,000 653,000 250,000 126,000. 240,000 240,000 856,000

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I-' I-' o Table VII-5. Proposed Distribution of Funds by Budget Activity for Fiscal Year 1986 Annual Coo.?erative Matching Grant Program $ll5,OOO Budget$250,OOO_Budgc_t ___ Budget Activity Federal Non--Federal Federal Non-Federal Federal .J!Q.!l::Fed era 1 Institute Office Support 65,000 33,000 80,000 40,000 -0--0-Category I: Atmoseheric, Hydrologic & Hydraulic Processes Saline Intrusion 15,000 8,000 Pollutants to Groundwater 10,000 5,000 50,000 25,000 40,000 40,000 Instream Flows Low Flow Predictions Supply \-later Uses Flood Plain Management Erosion Control Category II: Hydrologic-Ecologic RelationshiEs Wetlands 15,000 8,000 20,000 10,000 Estuarine Quality Degradation Lake & Reservoir Quality 20,000 10,000 Nonpoint Sources 50,000 50,000 Point Sources Water and Energy Acid Rain 30,000 15,000 40,000 40,000 Channelization 10,000 5,000 Dredging & Filling Heated Water Discharges \-later Quality Monitoring Aquatic Weed Control Category III: Water Quality Monitoring & Protection Reclamation and Reuse of Hastewater Water Treatment Processes .. _-----_._-----Program Totals -0-, I I

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I-' I-' I-' Table VII-5. Proposed Distribution of Funds by Budget for Fiscal Year 1986 --.-. Annual c.ooperative Program Matching Grant Program ------. $115, 000 Budget$250,000 Budget Budget Activity Federal Non-Federal Federal Non-Federal Federal Non-Federal ._----_. Category IV: Water DeveloEment, Use, Conservation, and Hanagement Irrigation Large Reserves Water Conservation in Industry & Agriculture Salvage & Conservation of Excess Water Reclamation & Reuse Cost-Effectiveness/ Energy 15,000 8,000 40,000 40,000 Requirements Drainage 60,000 60,000 Categorz V: Institutional and Economic Analysis and Water Resources Planning Floods Dam Safety Considerations Hydroelectric Control of Water Use Integrating Water and Land Use Hanagement Land Use Control in Water Resource Management Institutional Constraints 15,000 8,000 20,000 10,000 40,000 40,000 Legal Constraints Wastewater Treatment for Small Communities Totals For ACP of $115, 000 115, 000 59,000 270,000 270,000 "$250,000 250,000 126,000 270,000 270,000 Program Totals I -I 714,000 I I 916,000

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that could be budgeted. All work to date of this nature has been on a project-by-project basis. Unlike a number of other centers, the Florida Center does not have a direct appropriation from the Legislature or from other agencies for its operation. 112

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APPENDIX OWRT INSTRUCTIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF FIVE-YEAR PLAN 113

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PFT m United States Department of the Interior OFfICE OF WATER RESE.-\RC:H D.C. 202-1-0 February 22, 1980 IN REPLY REFER TO: To: Directors, Water Resources Research Institutes and Centers Subject: Five-year water resources l'esearch and development goals and obj ectives Title 1, Eec. ] 0] (b) (4), P.L. 95-467 liThe designated State institutes shall \\'itb the Secretary in the development of five-year water resources research and development goals and objectives. 11 Tht:! CWF.T n1ernOranaUl11 c1ated October 19. 1979 suggested a procedure to effect con:pliance with the requirement that the Secretary of the Interior develop a five-year water resources research program. In a number of recc-nt meetings with the FA 'WID program committee and the 5-year pro grar/I regional coordinators it has been gra.tifying to learn that progress in developing the 5-year program is evident, that the attitude of the Institute Directors is cooperative and positive, e.nd that the value of the 5-year program to the future welfare of the institutes is appreciated. HO\vever, the)"e is ',pp':.ren tly still some uncertainty which needs to be addressed concerning the quality and quantity required for some of the material suggested for inclusion in the report. Also, it has become evident th2.t Sllr..-e of the Directors c.re reading into the exercise a much more complex approach than is really necessary or expected. It is intended that each state report show a proposed 5-year program for its own institute. The report should be written to make a case for the institute, to show the importance of the institute to the state, region, and Nation. The report should be a self-contained document and serve as a ready source of information on state water resource activities, issues, and the state institute's S-year water research program. It is hoped that the enclosed Appendix A of the October 15, 1979 memorandum 'will be of assistance in e reparation of your 5-year water research program. -.--Director Enclosure 114

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1. Summary Appendix A (Revised) State Water Resources Research Institute Five-Year Vlater Resources Research Program "The designated State institutes shall cooperate with the Secretary in the development of five-year water resources research and development goals and obj ectives. The summary should include a brief description of the purpose of the report, a summary of the water problems of the State, and a synopsis of the institute 5-year research program proposed to address some of the problems. 2. State Water Resources "It is the hope of the author of the bill, I know, that the state centers will be used by state and local government and other local water oriented agencies ... It is the intent of this section of the report to provide background information on the meteorological, hydrological, and geological characteristics of the state to a reader unfamiliar with the state. It is only intended to point out to what extent the state is arid or humid, drought or flood prone, surface or ground water dependent, has high or low quality water, aware or unaware of its problems, and has t'l. complete or incomplete inventory of its resource. :Most of the information needed for this section m::ty be found in the publication -The Role of Ground Water in the National Water Situation, Geological Survey V,Tater Supply Paper 1800 by C ,L. McGuinness (1963) The material in that report should be updated with any new material generated by more recent GS inventories, River Basin studies. State Reports, etc. Probably, no more than ten pages of your report need be devoted to this section. 3. The Use of the Resource and Introduction to Water Resource Problems "There is one very basic law in political science, that the importance and urgency of any problem increases astronomically in direct proportion to its proximity to the district of any legislator, which ought to be known and understood by physical scientists working on such an epidemic problem as water resources. 115

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\Qi;:::;;;@;::k ;;;;;: This section of the report should present information on how the states water supply -both its surface and grqundwater -is utilized. This section should also describe the circumstances under which shortages or deficits are expected to occur and display the data which lead to such conclusions. We look for a summary view of existing and future water requirements, the nature of problems I conflicts associated with efforts to meet the requirements, and implications for the future. The National Assessment and state documents could be the prime sources for the information needed in this section of the report. Ten to twenty pages should be adequate to document existing or potential problems. 4. Water and Related Land Planning and Development Activities "Due consideration shall be given to priority problems identified by water and related land resource planning, data acquisition, and like studies conducted by other agencies and organizations. This section of the report is essentially a continuation of section 3 except that it deals with the identification of much more specific problems. What we seek to present in this section are summaries of those studies, plans, commissions, etc., that have examined water resource problems, evaluated them and have come to some conclusions. V}e need to be able to show that those studies conducted by "other agencies and organizations" are given consideration in the drafting of the institute 5-year research program. Ten to twenty pages of narrative should be sufficient to identify the agencies, the studies, and priority problems in sufficient detail to provide adequate justification for inclusion of those problems in the institutes 5-year research programs. 5. Problem Categorization and Ranking ltV-later resources research and development programs carried out in accordance this title may include, without being limited to water use conservation and efficiences; water and related planning; saline water conversion; water reuse; management and operations; legal systems; protection and enhancement of the water based environment; institutional arrangements; salinity management; and economic, social, and environmental impact assessment. In sections 2, 3, and 4, probably a considerable number and range of problems have been identified. This section of the report should be used to summarize and display the water problem identification data from sections 2,3, and 4. The problems should be categorized in a format appropriate for the water problems associated with the state. Ranking of problems according to the importance of the problems to the state may be appropriate but at this time should only 116

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be in general terms such as those used in the National Assessment. A brief presentation of the reasons why the highest ranked problems are of'importance to the state should be included in this section. A strong case for the importance of a problem can be made if economic benefits or penalties can be assigned to the problem. If direct benefits or penalties cannot be computed, the potential economic implications could be estimated. What we need to avoid in this section is the presentation of a list of problems developed and ranked by researchers. Two or three p'ages of tables and four or five pages of narrative should be adequate for this section of the report. 6. Institute Priorities and Justification for the Selection of those Priorities "I spoke also of the need for setting disciplined research priorities based on real public needs, then sticking with them to make the best use of scarce research dollars. Priorities, I indicated, must be more than scientific; they must recognize and build on social, political and economic realities. II This section of the report should surr..marize the overall program envisioned for the institute for the period 1982-1987. It should present the institute's research priorities and indicate how those priorities were chosen. This section of the report is also the place to highlight and describe interinstitute cooperation and collaboration on problems of a regional nature. It is also appropriate in this section to note that certain important problems will not be addressed because they may be adequately covered by other programs, that other problems may be passed over because funding is inadequate for a research effort commensurate with the magnitude of the problem, that e)..l'ertise required to address particular kinds of problems may not be available, and so forth. This section of the report is the vehicle to explain why and how the water research institute is important to the state, the region, and the Nation. An effort should be made to show that the research priorities are related to real public needs and that the research program addressing those priorities is based on a reasoned, logical plan with specific objectives and goals. Perhaps no more than ten pages will prove adequate to describe the philosophy behind the institutes 5-year program where that program will lead, and why that program direction was selected. 7. Institute 5-year Research and Development Plan "The Secretary shall develop a five-year water resources research program in cooperation with the institutes and appropriate water entities, indicating goals, obj ectives, priorities, and funding requirements. 117

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:31' T "I urge you to encourage research which is relevant to the critical water problems at the regional and national levels and refuse to sponsor that which is not. This section of the report should be used to present the institute's 5-year program in terms of the problems that are to be researched, the specific aspects of the problem to be studied, the five-year schedule, and the proposed distribution of funds among the problems. The elements of the problem to be researched should be spelled out in sufficient detail to avoid the appearance that institute programs are duplicative of each other. For example, it is not enough to show that a specified number of dollars will be budgeted for water quality research. Most of the institutes will probably support research dealing with water quality. Sufficient detail is needed to show that even though many institutes are engaging in water quality research the efforts arecomplementary Cl.nd not duplicative. The institute program display should show those program elements to be funded with allotment funds, those to be funded with anticipated matching grant funds, and those to be funded with other anticipated state and Federal funds that can be identified with the institute. Two levels of funding should be shown for the allotment program. One program that could be conducted at a $1l5, 000 allotment budget level should be presented and a second program should show what could be accomplished at a$250,000 allotment budget level. It should be assumed that the OWRT matching grant appropriation will increase from $6.0 million to$10 million during the 5-year period. The institute 5-year programs may include problelTl oriented research, fundamental research, demonstration and technology transfer, and efforts intended to initiate or stimulate research on important water problems. This section of the report should require no more than six to eight to display the proposed 5-year programs and the budgets associated with those programs. There are few constraints imposed on institute programs. All that is required is that the programs be relevant to important water problems and that the expenditure of funds be justified to the Congress.. Congress is aware that the Nation faces significant water problems but heeds to be convinced that the OWRT program can make significant contributions toward the solution of those problems. 118