Methods for quantifying water quality benefits

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Methods for quantifying water quality benefits
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Heaney, James P.
Waring, Elizabeth
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PUBLICATION NO. 47





METHODS FOR QUANTIFYING WATER QUALITY BENEFITS


By


James P. Heaney and Elizabeth Waring
Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences
University of Florida
Gainesville, FLorida 32611





















PUBLICATION NO. 47





METHODS FOR QUANTIFYING WATER QUALITY BENEFITS


By


James P. Heaney and Elizabeth Waring
Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences
University of Florida
Gainesville, FLorida 32611






















Methods for Quantifying
Water Quality Benefits




By

James P. Heaney and Elizabeth Waring
Dept. of Environmental Engg. Sci.
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611



To


Chicago District
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Chicago, Illinois


January 1980










TABLE OF CONTENTS


I. Introduction . . . . .

II. Benefits Defined . . . .

III. Literature Review . . . .

IV. Results . . . . .

General . . . . .

Benefit-Cost Analysis . . .

Public Health . . . .

Recreation. . . . .

Aesthetics . . . .

Property Values . . . .

Water Quality/Water Treatment . .

Social Benefits . . . .

Case Studies . . . .

V. Acknowledgements . . . .

VI. Appendix A Abstracts of Orlando Conference .










The Chicagoland Underflow Plan
Water Quality Evaluation-Literature Search and Screening



I. Introduction



This report authorized by the Department of the Army, Chicago

District, Corps of Engineers, was prepared in conjunction with their

Plan of Study for the Chicagoland Underflow Plan, Phase I GDM. The

Underflow Plan was undertaken to improve water quality in the area of

Cook County, Illinois. The project area incorporates the largest combined

sewer system in the nation, combining domestic sewage and stormwater

runoff from Chicago and 51 adjacent communities.



The assignment authorized under this contract was to conduct a

literature search identifying sources which attempt to estimate, quantify,

or otherwise account for benefits resulting from improved water quality

within the context of the Chicago Underflow Plan. The search was to

uncover all studies where methods have been developed to evaluate and/or

quantify beneficial economic impacts of improved water quality in lakes,

streams, and rivers of urban areas.



According to the Scope of Work, the literature sources were to

include material from the environmental, water quality, and economics

literature with the primary references extracted from computer assisted

literature searches. The final listing was to be catalogued in the form

of an alphabetized bibliography. A screening process was to be carried

out in order to select the 20 to 30 most germane references.










II. Benefits Defined


Freeman (1979) defines the benefit of an environmental improvement

as the sum of the monetary values assigned to pollution abatement

effects by all individuals directly or indirectly affected. These

values are often estimated in terms of individuals' "willingness to pay"

for improved water quality or their willingness to be compensated for

adverse conditions. All of these values are based on individual pre-

ferences.



Other benefit estimations deal more directly with pollution control

costs. Decreased health costs and water treatment costs, for example,

can be used as direct economic benefits due to improved water quality.

Also, increased market value of property and increased recreational

revenues can be directly used in benefit quantification. The literature

we have accumulated evaluates these methods of benefit estimation and

offers some feasible approaches to undertaking a benefit evaluation

project.



Ehrenfeld (1977) provides a broader list of benefit categories

based on an ecologic perspective. He lists the following nine categories

of "economic" benefits:

1. recreation and aesthetic values,

2. undiscovered or undeveloped,

3. ecosystem stabilization,

4. examples of survival,

5. environmental baseline and monitoring values,










6. scientific research values,

7. teaching values,

8. habitat reconstruction values, and

9. conservation values: avoidance of irreversible

change.



An anthropocentric view is taken in this review, i.e., it is based

on man's value system. Thus, categories such as ecosystem stabilization

are included in the calculus only if improvement in ecosystem stab-

ilization can be shown to have some value to man. There are ways,

admittedly crude ones, of valuing such categories. The cost of an

alternative justifiable expenditure to provide equivalent benefits may

be used to value a material resource. Procedures for valuing more

conventional categories of benefits have evolved over the past thirty

five years. There have been many arguments regarding how these benefits

should be measured. However, mutually acceptable ground rules have been

developed. Analogously, similar guidelines can evolve for these newer

ecologically oriented categories but a significant research effort is

needed. Unfortunately little information exists because this is a

relatively new area and agencies have not been required to measure water

quality benefits during the past several years. With the present state

of the art, water quality benefits can be classified into the following

major categories:



1) public health

2) recreation










3) aesthetics

4) property values

5) direct economic damages, e.g., crop damage due to

salinity, increased downstream water treatment costs

6) social impacts



Each of these categories is summarized in the next sections. Each

section includes a brief description of the category, abstracts of key

references and references to other sources. The next section describes

the literature review. Then a general discussion of benefits is pre-

sented as a prelude to the discussion of the specific categories.










III. Literature Review


A systematic search and review of literature sources was conducted.

Major sources included:

1) Computerized literature searches

a. Water Resources Scientific Information Center

(WRSIC) system of the U.S. Department of Interior, Office of

Water Research and Technology

b. National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

c. Lockheed's DIALOG

d. University of Florida State Technologies Application

Center (STAC) information system which is tied into the NASA

system of about 20 million publications.

e. Engineering Index (COMPENDEX)

2. Professional journals of statewide, national, and international

subscription including

a. Journal Water Pollution Control Federation Annual Literature

Review

b. Journal Environmental Engineering Division ASCE

c. Water Resources Research

d. Water Resources Bulletin

e. American Economic Review

f. Journal of Environmental Economics and

Management

The above journals were emphasized because they were most frequently

cited in the computer searches. They were also the most popular

sources of information in our personal references on this subject.










According to Knightly and Morehead (1979) above sources a, b, c, and d

are among the ten leading journals for water resources references.

3. Reports of the National Commission on Water Quality

The National Commission on Water Quality was established by Section

315 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. The

Commission's mandate was to:



make a full and complete investigation and study of all the

technological aspects of achieving, and all aspects of the total

economic, social, and environmental effects of achieving or not

achieving, the effluent limitations and goals set forth for 1983 in

section 301(b)(2) of the Act.



The Commission focused mainly on the goal and effluent limitations

for 1983, and the effects of applying these limitations. Most of the

studies performed were contracted out by the Commission. They provide

a wide range of benefit and cost information, and the Final Staff

Report presents on overall summary of findings.

4. Telephone conversations, University of Florida library

investigations, and discussions with members of the economics

department.

5. An EPA sponsored national specialty conference titled

Urban Stormwater and Combined Sewer Overflow-Impact on Receiving

Water Bodies was held in Orlando, Florida in November 1979.

Abstracts of the paper from this conference are included as Appendix

A. Discussions at this meeting indicated the importance of

quantifying the benefits of water pollution control.










Unfortunately, little definitive information on benefits appear to be

available. Technical studies of receiving water impact in Milwaukee by

Meinholz appear to be closely related to problems in Chicago.

The breakdown of the literature into ten categories was decided

upon after the search process began. Many of the benefit studies were

found to apply to specific areas of concern such as property values,

recreation benefits, etc. Consequently, it seemed appropriate to group

the sources in terms of their more specific topics. The result is

intended to add more organization to the final report as well as facili-

tate user accessibility to the references.

The screening process for selecting the best references for annota-

tion was based on three main considerations. First, relevance to the

subject topic was considered. References and case studies dealing

specifically with benefits from urban stormwater improvements were

carefully examined. Second, the extent and quality of information given

in the source was noted. Finally, the eminence of the authors) and/or

the mention of the reference in other source bibliographies was used as

an indication of the soundness and usefulness of the document for the

purposes of this study. The computer search abstracts or the reference

itself was reviewed for this screening process.

Some of the abstracts used in this report were taken from the WRSIC

and NTIS computer literature search information. They are identified at

the beginning of each abstract. Those not identified as such were

written by us.










IV. Results


General



This category includes material of a non-specific nature or material

encompassing a number of topic ranges. They are intended to given an

overall view of benefit assessment.










Ackerman, B.A., 1974. The Uncertain Search for Environ-
mental Quality. Collier MacMillian Publishers,
London.





Book Preface



This book is a result of an intensive effort during the summer of

1970 to scrutinize the diverse aspects of the decisionmaking process

which led to the adoption of a massive program to clean up the Delaware

River. Officials at all levels of government were interviewed, and

officials of more than 80 of the Delaware's polluters were also engaged

in face-to-face discussions for the purpose of obtaining official

scientific and economic analyses. Chapters 7, 8, and 9 deal specifically

with the assessment of economic benefits.









Bovet, E.D., 1974. Evaluation of Quality Parameters in
Water Resources Planning: A State-of-the-Art Survey
of the Economics of Water Quality. IWR Contract Re-
port 74-13, December.






WRSIC Abstract



In this study literature was reviewed and results compiled to

evaluate the economic aspects of water quality. Chapters I through V

contain information on water quality, classification, and costs associated

with treatment. Chapter VI discusses water quality benefit measurement

as based on two major methods: willingness-to-pay and substitution of

alternative cost. Chapter VII reviews the economic techniques for

optimal water supply purification and allocations and Chapter VIII

considers economic techniques for the optimal solution of the pollution

problem. Four problems are specifically discussed: waste disposal,

effluent charges and control, receiving water quality management, and

optimal waste treatment.









Freeman, A.M., 1979. The Benefits of Environmental Im-
provement. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press for Resources
for the Future, Baltimore.






This book attempts to bridge the gap between the elegant definition

of welfare change and benefit derived from theoretical welfare economics

and the ad hoc empirical techniques used by some researchers to estimate

the benefits of environmental improvements stemming from air and water

pollution control. A unified theoretical treatment of the concepts of

benefits and the empirical techniques appropriate for their measurement

is undertaken.

Techniques for estimating various forms of benefits are described

as they relate to underlying economic welfare theory, and some of the

pitfalls and problems in applying the techniques are discussed. Included

is a systematic analysis of how interactions between demands for public

goods and private goods can be used to derive conceptually sound estimates

of benefits from market behavior. Nonmarket approaches such as surveys

and bidding games are discussed with the objective of helping practitioners

select the appropriate technique for a particular purpose.










Jordening, D.L., 1974. Estimating Water Quality Benefits.
EPA Socioeconomic Environmental Studies Series, EPA
600/5-74/014, Wash., D.C., August.





NTIS Abstract



The objective of this report is to present a state-of-the-art

summary concerning estimating water quality associated benefits. The

summary is viewed as a useful administrative tool to those that have

been assigned the task of directing current and future research activity.

The summary is presented by specific pollutants by beneficial use,

devoting special attention to hypothesized and documented use-quality

relationships. A discussion of the economic quantification of these

relationships is also included. The beneficial uses considered include

recreation, aesthetics, property values, and ecology with only limited

attention devoted to water quality associated health and production

impacts. Specific references and methodologies are discussed with the

ultimate objective of providing a state of the art assessment by beneficial

use. The assessment was also useful in deriving conclusions concerning

research priorities and possible results of future water quality related

research.










Kneese, A.V., 1968. Water Resource Values. Johns Hopkins
Press for Resources for the Future, Baltimore.





WRSIC Abstract



A discussion of water resources values is presented stemming from

the basic premise that the net value of water quality in water courses

is a function of both the benefits resulting from improved water quality

versus costs of attaining the specified quality. While progress has

been made in pollution control, serious problems continue, notably the

problem of residuals in treated municipal waste and control of industrial

waste. The regional systems approach is suggested for the solution of

the water pollution problems. Conclusions are reached that both costs

and gains of quality improvement must be considered in determining the

maximum net value of rivers. Finally, it is contended that scientific

and engineering developments can be applied rationally and systematically

provided their economic and institutional impacts also are understood

and considered in the evaluation process.










Maler, K.G., and R.E. Wyzga, 1976. Economic Measurement
of Environmental Damage. Organisation for Economic
Cooperation and Development, Paris.






Book Preface



This handbook is designed to acquaint those who develop environmental

policy with the concept and utility of environmental damage functions.

Situations are cited where monetary damage functions can be applied

usefully in the development and execution of environmental policy.

Methods are reviewed which can be used to estimate environmental damage

functions, and guidelines are provided to ensure that the resulting

estimates are meaningful and in accord with economic principles. A

review of the state-of-art of the estimation and utilizations of monetary

damage estimates is intended to help stimulate further research in those

areas where it is needed.









Ott, Wayne R., ]978. Environmental Indices. Ann Arbor Science Publ.
Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich.



This book is a compilation of all existing environmental index

systems, covering their practical uses, development, and application for

current research needs. Included are statistical approaches for deter-

mining environmental trends, indices for decision-making purposes and

techniques for comparing different geographical areas. Chapter V is of

particular note as it goes beyond the quantitative techniques for analyz-

ing environmental phenomena and presents a conceptual approach to the

state-of-the environment. Models explaining the "Quality of Life"

concept as well as environmental damage functions are included. The

measurements of environmental variables incorporated in this text are

intended for use as precise and objective means for determining and

interpreting environmental quality.










Polhemus, V.D., 1974. Alternative Methods of Evaluating
the Economic and Social Aspects of Water Quality.
M.A. Thesis, Rutgers The State Univ., New Bruns-
wick, N.J., January.





WRSIC Abstract



Within the decision making process which justifies or rejects

programs to restore environmental quality, there is implicit a system of

measurement. Described are the problem of deteriorating water quality

and the need for a reliable, uniform evaluation system within the existing

framework of a free market where personal freedoms are continually being

eroded by increasing government activity. Presented are techniques of

dollar value, index and group measurement which have been accepted in

the past or are currently proposed in the literature. Of all the possible

evaluation techniques reviewed, not one was free of criticism; however,

monetary techniques reflecting market values were least objectionable.









Sinden, J. A., and A. C. Worrell, 1979. Unpriced Values: Decisions
without Market Prices. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New
York.



This text deals with the general problem of unpriced values in

policy decisions. The approach is taken that it is possible to deter-

mine comparative values for unpriced goods and that valid comparisons

can be made without always resorting to monetary values. Economic

theory can help provide means for analyzing decisions although its

application to practical problems is severely restricted by its under-

lying assumptions. These weaknesses can be overcome by: 1) relying on

basic notions of utility, disutility, and value rather than rational-

izing theory with complex assumptions; 2) searching for improved rather

than optimal decisions; and 3) concentrating on the nature of problems

rather than always searching for monetary values. By understanding the

real nature of problems, a wider and simpler use of economic principles

can be applied for environmental policy making.









General


Abel, Fred H., et al., 1975. National Benefits of Water Pollution
Control. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D. C.

Ackerman, B. A., 1974. The Uncertain Search for Environmental Quality.
Collier MacMillian Publishers, London.

Ackerman, B. A., et al., 1974. The Uncertain Search for Environmental
Policy. Glencoe Ill., Free Press.

Baumol, W. J., and W. E. Oates, 1975. The Theory of Environmental
Policy. Prentice-Hall, Inc., New Jersey.

Blair T. Bower, editor, 1977. Regional Residuals Environmental Quality
Management Modeling. Resources for the Future, Wash., D.C.

Bovet, E. D., 1974. Evaluation of Quality Parameters in Water
Resources Planning: A State-of-the-Art Survey of the Economics
of Water Quality. IWR Contract Report 74-13, December.

Brandt, G. H., et al., 1972. An Economic Analysis of Erosion and
Sediment Control Methods for Watersheds Undergoing Urbanization.
Dow Chemical Company.

Comptroller General of the U.S., 1979. Combined Sewer Flooding and
Pollution--A National Problem. The Search for Solutions in
Chicago: What Can Be Done to Minimize or Eliminate Urban Flooding.
Government Printing Office, Wash., D.C., May.

Conner, R. and E. Loehman, eds., 1974. Economics and Decision-Making
for Environmental Quality. University of Florida Press.

Emerson, M. J., and H. Akhavipour, 1978. An Examination of the
Economic Impact of Pollution Control Upon Non-Point Source of
Pollution. unpublished.

Environmental Protection Agency, 1973. The Economics of Clean Water.
Government Printing Office, Wash., D.C., December.

EPA, 1979. Benefit Analysis for Combined Sewer Overflow Control. Env.
Research Info. Center, Cincinnati, April.

Fisher, A. C., 1972. The Evaluation of Benefits from Pollution
Abatement. EPA Office of Planning and Evaluation.

Fisher, A. C. and Peterson, 1976. "The Environment in Economics: A
Survey." Journal of Economic Literature. Vol. 14, No. 1, March.

Fischer, D. W. and R. R. Kerton, 1973. Toward a Theory of Environmental
Economics. Dept. of Econ., Univ. of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont.,
Canada.









Freeman, A. Myrick III, 1979. The Benefits of Environmental
Improvement. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press for Resources for the
Future, Baltimore.

1976. "Possibility and Usefulness of National
Benefit Estimates." In A. Hershaft (ed.), Critical Review of
Estimating Benefits of Air and Water Pollution Control, EPA, April.

et al., 1973. The Economics of Environmental
Policy. Wiley, New York, New York.

Grigg, N. S. and 0. J. Helwig, 1975. "State-of-Art of Estimating Flood
Damage in Urban Areas." Water Resources Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 2,
April, pp. 379-390.

Hanke, S. H., et al., 1975. "Project Evaluation During Inflation."
Water Resources Research, Vol. 11.

Heaney, J. P., et. al., 1977. Nationwide Evaluation of Combined Sewer
Overflows and Urban Stormwater Discharges: Cost Assessment and
Impacts. EPA Environmental Protection Series, EPA-600/2-77-064,
Cincinnati, Ohio.

Heintz, J. H., et al., 1976. National Damages of Air and Water
Pollution. Enviro. Control, Inc., under contract to the U.S. EPA.

Johnson, E. L., 1967. "A Study in the Economics of Water Quality
Management." Water Resources Research, Vol. 3, pp. 291-305.

Jordening, D. L., 1974. Estimating Water Quality Benefits. Development
Planning and Research Associates, Inc., EPA Socioeconomic Environ-
mental Studies Series, EPA 600/5-74/014, Wash., D.C., August.

Kansas Department of Health and Environment, Water Quality Management
Section, 1978, Water Quality Analysis. Final Draft, November.

Kneese, A. V., 1968. "Economics and the Quality of the Environment:
Some Empirical Experiences." In Garnsey and Gibbs, eds., Social
Sciences and the Environment, Univ. of Colo. Press, Boulder.

1964. The Economics of Regional Water Quality
Management. The Johns Hopkins Press for Resources for the Future,
Baltimore.

1968. Water Resource Values. The Johns Hopkins Press for
Resources for the Future, Baltimore.

1967. "What Are We Learning from Economic Studies of
Water Quality" Engineering Progress, Vol. 21, No. 6, June, pp.
5-18.

et al., 1970. Economics and the Environment, A Materials
Balance Approach. The Johns Hopkins Press for Resources for the
Future, Baltimore.









Kneese, A. V. and B. T. Bower, 1972. Environmental Quality Analysis:
Theory and Method in the Social Sciences. Johns Hopkins Press,
Baltimore.

1968. Managing Water Quality: Economies, Technology,
Institutions. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore.

Krutilla, J. V., 1975. The Economics of Natural Environments: Studies
In the Valuation of Commodity and Amenity Resources. The Johns
Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore.

Lind, R. C., 1973. "Spatial Equilibrium: The Theory of Rent and the
Measurement of Benefits from Public Programs." Quarterly Jour.
of Econ., Vol. 87, No. 2, May.

Maler, K. G. and R. E. Wyzga, 1976. Economic Measurement of Environ-
mental Damage. Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development, Paris.

Mathews, W. H., 1975. "Objective and Subjective Judgements in
Environmental Impact Analysis." Environmental Conservation, Vol.
2, pp. 121-131.

McKusick, R., et al., 1977. "The Values of Goods and Services--
Implications for a Flexible National Water Policy." Water
Resources Bulletin, Vol. 13, No. 3, June.

Mills, E. S., 1978. The Economics of Environmental Quality. W. W.
Norton and Co., Inc., New York.

Mishan, E. J., 1976. "The Use of Compensating and Equivalent Variations
in Cost-Benefit Analysis." Economics, Vol. 43, May.

1976. "Possibility and Usefulness of National
Benefit Estimates." In A. Hershaft (ed.), Critical Review of
Estimating Benefits of Air and Water Pollution Control, EPA, April.

et al., 1973. The Economics of Environmental
Policy. Wiley, New York, New York.

North, R. M., et al., 1974. Survey of Economic-Ecologic Impacts of
Small Watershed Development. Office of Water Resources Research,
Wash., D.C., June.

Ogg, C., et al., 1979. Economics of Water Quality in Agriculture--
A Literature Review. USDA, Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives
Service, Wash., D.C., July.

Ott, W. R.,1978. Environmental Indices. Ann Arbor Science Publ. Inc.,
Ann Arbor, Mich.

Panagiotakotoulos, D., 1975. "A Multi-Objective Framework for Environ-
mental Management Using Goal Programming." Jour. Env. Sys., Vol.
5, No. 2, pp. 133-147.









Parker, D. S. and J. A. Crutchfield, 1968. "Water Quality Management
and the Time Profile of Benefits and Costs." Water Resources
Research, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 233-246.

Pendse, D. and J. P. Wyckoff, 1974. "Scope for Valuation of Environ-
mental Goods." Land Economics, Vol. 50, No. 1, February.

Polhemus, V. D., 1974. Alternative Methods of Evaluating the Economic
and Social Aspects of Water Quality. M.A. Thesis, Rutgers-The
State Univ., New Brunswick, N.J., January.

Randall, A., 1979. "The Concept of Economic Value and Its Application
in Project Evaluation." Paper presented at the Multiple Objective
Planning Workshop, Tucson, Arizona, February.

Richardson, P. and R. Johnson, 1975. "Environmental Values and Water
Quality Planning." Jour. Hydraulics Div., ASCE, Vol. 101, No. HY2,
February.

Roberts, H. A., and H. Sievering, 1977. A Guide to Environmental
Benefits Assessment in Economic Impact Studies. Illinois Institute
for Environmental Quality, Chicago.

Seneca, J. J. and M. K. Taussig, 1974. Environmental Economics.
Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J.

Sinden, J. A., and A. C. Worrell, 1979. Unpriced Values: Decisions
without Market Prices. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.

Smith, C. and T. Hogg, 1971. "Benefits and Beneficiaries: Contrasting
Economic and Cultural Distinctions." Water Resources Research,
Vol. 7, No. 2, April.

Smith, M. A., 1974. Field Test of an Environmental Impact Assessment
Methodology. Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, August.

Teclaff, L. A., 1975. "Environmental Implications of River Basin
Development Including Water Quality Management: General Report."
Paper No. 51, UN Interregional Seminar on River Basin and Inter-
basin Development, Budapest, Hungary, September.

Thrall, R. M., et al., eds., 1976. Economic Modeling for Water Policy
Evaluation. North-Holland Publishing Company.

Timmons, J. F., 1970. Economic Aspects. Journal of the Iowa Agricul-
tural and Home Economics Experiment Station, Iowa State Univ.,
Ames, Iowa.

Unger, S. G., 1975. National Benefits of Achieving the 1977, 1983,
1985 Water Quality Goals. EPA Socioeconomic Environmental Studies,
Wash., D.C.











USEPA, 1975. Non-point Source Pollution Seminar. Office of the Great
Lakes Coordinator, November.

1972. The Economic Impact of Pollution Control: A Summary of
Recent Studies, Dept. of Commerce, Wash., D.C., March.

1979. Costs and Water Quality Impacts of Reducing Agricultural
Non-point Source Pollution. Appendix E, EPA-600/5-79-009, Office
of Research and Development, August.

Wallis, I., 1978. "Comparison of Tangibles and Intangibles."
Jour. Env. Engr. Div. ASCE, Vol. 104, No. EE4, August, pp. 625-637.

Water Resources Council, 1969. "Section VI: Evaluation Practices and
Measurement Techniques." In Procedures of Evaluation of Water
and Related Land Resource Projects, Wash., D.C., June, pp. 74-119.

Westman, W. E., 1977. "How Much Are Nature's Services Worth?" Science.
Vol. 197, September.

Whipple, W., 1969. "Conceptual Problems in Water Quality Economics."
Jour. San. Engr. Div., ASCE, Vol. 95, October.

1974. Environmental Quality and Its Evaluation. Water Resources
Research Inst., Rutgers-The State University, January.










Benefit-Cost Analysis


Benefit-cost analysis is the technique for measuring the effects of

government programs on people's welfare. The benefit-cost studies

listed reveal the extensive techniques developed to estimate the economic

benefits of various projects. They also include appraisals of the

rationale used in benefit-cost analysis and criticisms of the methodology

typically employed.









Jordening, D.L., and J.K. Allwood, 1973. Research Needs
and Priorities: Water Pollution Control Benefits
and Costs, Vol. II. EPA Socio-economic Environmental
Studies Series, EPA 600/5-73-008b, October.





Report Abstract



This report includes foremost a specification of research needs and

priorities involving water pollution control costs and benefits. A

series of theoretical and methodological research needs are presented.

Water quality management is required in a dynamic setting and over a

broad range of hydrologic and economic conditions. The common property

resource aspects of the problem with the prevalence of externalities

complicates the issues involved. These and other factors embedded in the

research needs are discussed.

Included among a series of technical appendicies are two relevant

discussions: (1) water pollution control cost and benefit estimates,

and (2) water quality associated health impacts. They include useful

tables and results from several case studies.










Peskin, H.M., and E.P. Seskin, 1975. Cost-Benefit Analysis
and Water Pollution Policy. Urban Institute, Wash.,
D.C.





NTIS Abstract



The editors and 17 other authors probe the state-of-the-art of

cost-benefit analysis as related to water pollution. They survey the

existing literature on costs and benefits, discuss the difficulties of

measuring both costs and benefits, and suggest measures for overcoming

them, both from theoretical perspectives and in terms of actual applications

to practical situations involving pollution. Such questions as how to

assign monetary values to good health and the perpetuation of life are

confronted. The authors discuss the implications for public policy from

many angles--where the pollution should be measured, who should pay (and

how much) for water pollution abatement, whether pollution reaches a

"point of no return" after which bodies of water can no longer be cleaned

up, what control mechanisms are feasible, and whether institutional

changes are needed to take account of the "common property" feature of

natural resources. The chapters are based on a 1973 symposium sponsored

by EPA.










Unger, S.G., et al., 1973. State-of-Art Review: Water
Pollution Control Benefits and Costs, Vol. I. EPA
Socioeconomic Environmental Studies Series, EPA
600/5-73 008a, Wash., D.C., October.





Report Abstract



This report presents a survey and assessment of the state-of-art of

economic analyses dealing with water pollution control benefits and

costs. The investigation includes the extension of traditional benefit--

cost analysis into the area of pollution control. A conceptual basis

for benefit-cost analysis involving water quality management is suggested.

An economic concept of a social welfare function is presented as the

most widely accepted public criterion which embodies environmental

quality concerns. Problems of efficiency, equity, externalities and

social discount rates are summarized.

Benefit measurements of water quality factors are meager and

underdeveloped. A variety of partial-equilibrium approaches to benefit

measurement are outlined and some problems are described.









Benefit-Cost Studies


Dorfman, R., 1977. "Incidence of the Benefits and Costs of Environ-
mental Programs." Amer. Econ. Rev., Vol. 67, p. 333.

Hanke, S. H., and R. A. Walker, 1974. "Benefit-Cost Analysis Recon-
sidered: An Evaluation of the Midstate Project." Water Resources
Res., Vol. 10, No. 5, October, pp. 898-908.

Harza Engineering Company, 1972. Development of a Flood and Pollution
Control Plan for the Chicagoland Area. Benefit-Cost Finance
Scheduling. Technical Report Part 7, December.

Jordening, D. and Allwood, 1973. Research Needs and Priorities:
Water Pollution Control Benefits and Costs. Vol. II, EPA Socio-
economic Env. Studies Series, EPA-600/5-73-008b, October.

Levadie, B. and R. T. Miki, 1976. "Buying a Clean Environment: Is
Cost/Benefit Analysis Really Necessary?" New Engineer, March, and
Letters to the Editor, July/August.

Nash, C., 1975. "An Evaluation of Cost-Benefit Analysis Criteria."
Scottish Jour. Pol. Econ., Vol. 22, p. 121.

Peskin, H. M. and E. P. Seskin, 1975. Cost-Benefit Analysis and
Water Pollution Policy. Urban Institute, Wash., D.C.

Peterson, J. M., 1975. "Benefit Cost Analysis--A Necessary Part of
Environmental Decision-making." Jour. Env. Sys., Vol. 5, No. 4,
pp. 291-297.

Pyatt, E. E., et al., 1964. "Benefit-Cost Analysis for Municipal Water
Supplies." Land Economics, November.

Ragode, R. K., et al., 1976. "Metarationality in Benefit Cost Analysis."
Water Resources Research, Vol. 12, No. 5, October, pp. 1069-1076.

Roberts, M. J., M. Haneman, and S. Oster, 1974. Study of the Measurement
and Distribution of Cost and Benefits of Water Pollution Control,
Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Sampedro, R. M., 1972. "Costs and Benefits of the Abatement of Pollution
of Biscayne Bay, Miami, Florida." Univ. of Miami Tech. Bull.,
No. 24, December.

Sassone, Peter G. and William A. Schaffer, 1978. Cost-Benefit Analysis:
A Handbook, Academic Press.

Unger, S. J. and Jordening, D. L. 1974. Bibliography of Water Pollution
Control Benefits and Costs. EPA 600/5-74-028, Environmental
Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., October.









Unger, S. G. and D. Jordening, 1973. State-of-the-Art Review: Water
Pollution Control Benefits and Costs Vol. I. EPA Socio-economic
Env. Studies Series, EPA 600/5-73-008a, Wash., D.C., October.









Public Health



Health effects on man from water pollutants such as organic and

inorganic chemicals, physical elements, radioactivity, and microbiological

pathogens can range from minor irritations to high levels of morbidity

and mortality. Economic consequences include medical service demands,

man hours lost, and human life lost. Epidemiological work on the

relationship between water pollution and disease has been recently

initiated, including studies linking chemical contaminants in drinking

water to cancer incidence. Research is being directed to develop dose-

response relationships which will link alterations in water quality to

resulting changes in mortality and morbidity. The most comprehensive

research to date has been concerned with public health effects from air

pollution rather than water pollution.









Kneese, A.V., and W.D. Schulze, 1977. "Environment,
Health, and Economics-The Case of Cancer," American
Economic Review, Vol. 67, No. 1, February.





It is becoming more and more recognized that chemical contaminants

in our environment have a significant effect on human health and life

expectancy. Most notably, the relationship between chemical compounds

and cancer is receiving a great deal of attention. Nitrogenous compounds

are of particular concern, and nitrosamines formed in the body from

nitrites and secondary amines have been proven to be carcinogens. An

important environmental source of nitrogenous compounds is drinking

water, which in some locations contains high levels of nitrates.

Understanding the health risks to society from environmental

sources is difficult due to the complexity and subtlety of the disease.

Many econometric techniques have been developed to analyze the cost of

controlling carcinogens and to provide damage estimates.









Eisenbud, Merril, 1978. Environment, Technology, and Health. New York
University Press, New York.



This book is an appraisal of the contemporary environmental move-

ment concerned with public health. The history of the human environment

is reviewed and some contemporary issues on environmental contamination

are discussed. The effects of water and air pollution on the health of

man and the subject of environmental cancer are detailed. The modern

environmental movement is criticized for lacking historical perspective,

improperly assigning priorities, and attempting to do too much too soon.

The requirement of environmental-impact analysis for new technological

developments and the enforcement of new federal legislation are seen as

important elements in the future protection of our human environment.










Public Health


Ben, M., 1974. "The Effects of Water Pollution from Non-Point Sources
as it Relates to the Health of Man." Economics of a Clean Environ-
ment, McLean, Va., pp. 415-425.

Center for Disease Control. Foodborne & Waterborne Disease Outbreaks,
Public Health Service, U. S. Department of Health, Education and
Welfare, annual summaries.

Craun, G. F., 1978. "Disease Outbreaks Caused by Drinking Water,"
Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, June.

Craun, G. F. and L. S. McCabe, 1973. "Review of the Causes of Water-
borne Disease Outbreaks," American Water Works Association Journal,
January.

Eisenbud, Merril, 1978. Environment, Technology, and Health. New York
University Press, New York.

Kneese, A. V. and W. D. Schulze, 1977. "Environment, Health, and
Economics: The Case of Cancer." American Economic Review, Vol.
67, p. 326.

Miller, et al., 1976. Schistosomiasis in Rural Egypt. U.S. EPA 600/1-
78-070, Wash., D.C., December.

Office of Toxic Substances, 1975. Preliminary Assessment of Suspected
Carcinogens in Drinking Water," Washington: Environmental Protection
Agency, December.

Stokinger, H. E., 1977. "Toxicology and Drinking Water Contaminants,"
American Water Works Association Journal, July.

Waldbutt, G. L., 1973. Health Effects of Environmental Pollutants,
St. Louis: C. V. Mosby.










Recreation


Ackerman (1974) determined that 95 percent of clean-up benefits

reside in recreational potential. In fact, the principal use of outdoor

environments is for recreation based activities. Thus it is not surprising

that most of the benefit estimation studies to date have dealt with

recreational uses. Attempts have been made to estimate the change in

recreational participation due to improved water quality and to determine

individuals' willingness to pay for increased recreational opportunities.

Walsh, et al. (1978) performed a study in Colorado utilizing the willingness

to pay measurement. Inherent in this technique are biases and the

possibility of inaccuracies in people's responses. However, these

problems can be minimized by proper design of questions and careful

analysis of the results.









Battelle Memorial Institute, 1975. Benefits from Water
Pollution Abatement. Beach Closings and Reopenings.
NCWQ, Wash., D.C., February.





NTIS Abstract



Based on a survey of 3,521 public health agencies in all coastal

and Great Lakes states and in a sample of ten inland states, 449 public

and private beaches have had water quality problems of varying degrees.

Projected water quality improvements as a result of the 1972 Water

Pollution Control Amendments will increase total useable capacity by an

estimated 1.2% to 2.7%. Results showed that a maximum of 86% of presently

affected beaches may be improved by the Act. Gains in recreational

swimming will be primarily concentrated in urban areas. Improved water

quality is expected to produce savings in time and travel cost for

individuals diverting to closer beaches. Improvement in useable capacity

will produce a net gain in total outdoor swimming activity as a result

of increased accessibility to useable swimming areas.









Binkley, C.S., and W.M. Haneman, 1976. The Recreation
Benefits of Water Quality Improvements: Analysis of
Day Trips in an Urban Setting. Urban Systems Research
and Engr., Inc. for Office of Research and Development,
EPA, Wash., D.C.






NTIS Abstract



Considerable past work has attempted to estimate the recreational

benefits which might accrue from water quality improvements. The

theoretical underpinnings of this work, however, are becoming increasingly

suspect. This report explores demand models, new to recreation analysis,

which are based on site characteristics and individual preferences to

estimate benefits measured by consumer's surplus. The empirical findings

of this study are based on a structured survey of 467 representative

households in the Boston SMSA. The focus was specifically day trips to

a system of Boston area beaches, but considerable additional data on

willingness-to-pay, substitution between sites and activities, water

quality perception and general recreation behavior were developed as

well.









Davidson, P., et al., 1966. The Social Value of Water
Recreational Facilities Resulting from an Improve-
ment in Water Quality: The Delaware Estuary. Johns
Hopkins Univ. Press for Resources for the Future,
Baltimore.






WRSIC Abstract



After analyzing the causes for the failure of markets to provide

for outdoor water recreational facilities, the authors performed a

benefit-cost analysis of the recreational value of Delaware River water

quality improvement. Data from a public health service study was used

to estimate a total cost of water quality improvement function. A

survey conducted by the Michigan Survey Research Center provided the

data for the estimation of empirical relationships between a sizable

number of socioeconomic characteristics and the recreational use of

water for boating, fishing, and swimming. Projecting the size and

characteristics of the population, the demand and marginal benefit

functions for water recreation were estimated through 1990. From these

estimates an approximation of the optimal level of water quality improvement

for recreation was estimated.









National Planning Association, 1975. Benefits from Water
Pollution Abatement-Recreation. NCWQ, Wash., D.C.,
November.



NTIS Abstract

Implementation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act will

bring about substantial improvement in water quality and equally substant-

ial increases in the public's participation. For boating, improved

water quality resulting from implementing the law is expected to increase

annual participation days by 8.6% in 1980 and 10.3% in 1985. For sport

fishing, increases are estimated at 5.9% by 1980 and 6.3% by 1985.

Increases will be more significant in some areas than others, depending

upon water quality improvements, age and sex characteristics of the

population and other factors. After an introductory section, Section II

presents a review of studies and models related to recreation and water

quality research. Section III sets forth some of the distinctive

structural features of outdoor recreational markets. Section IV is

devoted exclusively to the description of the research effort related to

the development of current and future water quality information.

Section V, the last one, contains the projection of water quality

trends (expressed as dissolved oxygen) in subareas of the United States

for 1971, 1978, and 1984, assuming continuation of present trends in

water quality, and the implementation of P.L. 92-500. This is followed

by a description of the model used to project boating and sport fishing

activities in the United States.









Nemerow, N., and R. Faro, 1970. "Total Dollar Benefit of
Water Pollution Control." Jour. San. Engr. Div., ASCE,
Vol. 96, No. SA3, pp. 665-674.





WRSIC Abstract



Tangible dollar benefits of a lake or stream at a given water

quality may be estimated by determining all uses which both affect and

are affected by water quality, by independently valuing each use, and by

summing up the resultant values. Measurable beneficial water uses

related to water quality include recreational uses, withdrawal water

uses, wastewater disposal uses, bordering land uses, and in-stream water

uses. The value of each beneficial use may be estimated by a "user

willingness to pay" criteria or by an evaluation of benefits derived

from avoiding payment. Application of this method to Onondaga Lake at

Syracuse, New York, produces an estimated net social benefit of $4.4

million per year. Recreation proves to be the most important beneficial

use for Onondaga Lake with improved water quality, and recreational

value comprises close to half the total net annual benefits of decreased

pollution. Estimation of tangible dollar benefits of water pollution

control may be useful in the decision of the value of installing advanced

forms of waste treatment by river basin firms composed of members repre-

senting all major groups in water-using society.









Reiling, S.D., et al., 1973. Economic Benefits from an
Improvement in Water Quality. EPA Socioeconomic
Studies Series, EPA-R5-73-008, January.






NTIS Abstract



A new methodology is introduced and empirically tested for estimat-

ing the economic benefits accruing to society from an improved recrea-

tional facility. The specific facility under consideration is Upper

Klamath Lake, Oregon, which presently has low water quality. The methodo-

logy draws upon previous work done in the evaluation of recreational

demand; however, it focuses upon the individual recreationist and

separates the traditional price variable into on-site costs and travel

costs. The model is used to estimate the number of days per visit the

recreationist will stay at the site as the water quality improves. Data

collected at three other lakes with varied characteristics are used to

derive a relationship between the number of visits to a site and the

characteristics of the site. The impact of expanded recreational use of

Klamath Lake upon the local economy is also estimated through the use of

an input-output model of the Klamath County economy.









Walsh, R.D., 1978. Option Values, Preservation Values, and
Recreational Benefits of Improved Water Quality: A
Case Study of the South Platte River Basin, Colorado.
EPA 600/5-78/001, January.






This is believed to the the first empirical test of the concept of

option value for any non-market good. Application of the bidding game

technique was successful in meeting the primary study objective of

measuring the option value of improved water quality. Also included in

the study are improved estimates of the benefits to recreational users

of enhanced water quality. The relationship between the value of improved

water quality and several socioeconomic variables was tested with re-

gression and other statistical procedures. The report is based on direct

interviews with 202 residents of Denver and Fort Collins located in the

South Platte River Basin, Colorado. Interviewees responded to the

survey within the context of improving the quality of water degraded by

heavy metals from post mining activities and preventing future degradation

from such sources.









Recreation



Battelle Memorial Inst., 1975. Benefits from Water Pollution
Abatement. Beach Closings and Reopenings. Wash.,
D.C., National Commission on Water Quality, February.

Binkley, C.S. and Hanemann, 1976. The Recreation Benefits
of Water Quality Improvements: Analysis of Day Trips
in an Urban Setting. Urban Systems Research and Engr.
for Office of Research and Development, EPA, Wash.,
D.C., June.

Bundgaard-Nielsen, M. and D.M. Himmelblau, 1974. "A Note
on the Evaluation of Activity Dependent Recreational
Damage Cost Functions." Water Resources Bulletin,
Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 580-585.

Burt, O.R. and D. Brewer, 1971. "Estimation of Net Social
Benefits from Outdoor Recreation." Econometrica,
Vol. 39, No. 5, September.

Burton, T.L. and M.N. Fulcher, 1968. "Measurement of
Recreation Benefits--A Survey." Jour. of Econ. Studies,
Vol. 3, pp. 35-48.

Cicchetti, C.J., et al., 1972. "Recreation Benefit Estima-
tion and Forecasting: Implications for the Identifica-
tion Problem." Water Resources Research, Vol. 8,
No. 4, August.

Clawson, M. and J. L. Knetsch, 1966. Economics of Outdoor
Recreation. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

David, E.L., et al., 1970. Institutional Design for Water Quality
Management: A Case Study of the Wisconsin River Basin.
Volume IV. Section E. Cost Functions for Influencing
Water Quality. Section F. Relation of Participation
in Outdoor Recreation and Public Attitudes Toward
Water Quality. Technical Report, Office of Water
Resources Research.

Davidson, P., et al., 1966. The Social Value of Water
Recreational Facilities Resulting from an Improvement
in Water Quality: The Delaware Estuary. Johns Hopkins
Univ. Press for Resources for the Future, Baltimore.

Dwyer, J.F., et al., 1977. Improved Procedures for Valuation
of the Contribution of Recreation to National Economic
Development. Water Resources Center, Univ. of Illinois,
Urbana-Champaign, September.

Kalnicky, R.A., 1976. Recreational Use of Small Streams in
Wisconsin. Wisc. Dept. of Nat. Res., Tech. Bull.
No. 95, Madison.







Knetsch, J.L., 1974. Outdoor Recreation and Water Resources
Planning. American Geophysical Union, Wash., D.C.

Knetsch, J.L. and R.K. Davis, 1966. "Comparisons of Methods
for Recreation Evaluation." In Allen V. Kneese and
Stephen Smith, eds., Water Research, Johns Hopkins Univ.
Press for Resources for the Future, Baltimore.

McConnell, K., 1975. "Some Problems in Estimating the
Demand for Outdoor Recreation." Amer. Jour. Agr.
Econ., Vol. 57, No. 2, May.

Megli, L.D., et al., 1971. An Analysis of the Relationship
Between Stream Water Quality and Regional Income
Generated by Water-Oriented Recreationists. Penn.
State Univ., Univ. Park.

Merewitz, L., 1964. "Recreational Benefits of Water Resources
Development," Harvard Water Program, June.

Myles, G.A., 1970. Effect of Quality Factors on Water
Based Recreation in Western Nevada. Nevada Univ.,
Desert Research Inst., Reno, February.

National Planning Assoc., 1975. Benefits From Water Pollution
Abatement-Recreation. National Commission on Water Quality, Wash.,
D.C., November.

Nemerow, N. and R. Faro, 1970. "Total Dollar Benefit of
Water Pollution Control." Jour. San. Engr. Div., ASCE,
Vol. 96, No. SA3, pp. 665-674.

Oregon State University, 1976. The Demand for Non-Unique
Outdoor Recreational Services: Methodological Issues. Technical
Bulletin 133, Agricultural Experiment Station, Corvallis, Oregon,
May.

Reiling, S.D., et al., 1973. Economic Benefits from an
Improvement in Water Quality. EPA Socioeconomic
Environmental Studies Series, EPA-RS-73-008, January.

Sindon, J.A., 1974. "A Utility Approach to the Evaluation
of Recreational and Aesthetic Experience." Amer. Jour.
Agr. Econ., Vol. 56, No. 1, February.

Stevens, J.B., 1966. "Recreation Benefits from Water
Pollution Control." Water Resources Research, Vol. 2,
No. 2, pp. 167-182.

Tomazinis, A.R. and I. Gabbour, 1966. Delaware Estuary Study.
Water Oriented Recreation Benefits. Phase I. Penn.
Univ., Philadelphia. Inst. for Environmental Studies,
Philadelphia.

Walsh, J.R., et al., 1978. Option Values. Preservation
Values and Recreational Benefits of Improved Water
Quality: A Case Study of the South Platte River Basin,
Colorado. EPA 600/5-78/001, January.









Walsh, R.G., et al.
Rocky Mountain
Colorado Water
12, May.


1978. Recreation Benefits of Water Quality:
National Park, South Platte River Basin, Colorado.
Resources Research Institute, Technical Report No.


Walsh, R.G., and R.K. Ericson. 1974. "Recreational User
Benefits from Water Quality Improvement." Contributed paper,
National Symposium on the Economics of Outdoor Recreation, New
Orleans, November.









Aesthetics


Aesthetic damages that accrue from water pollution include tangible

and intangible disutilities and value reduction resulting from undesirable

or unpleasant qualities in a surface or ground-water. Damaging pollutants

might include materials forming objectionable deposits, floating debris,

and substances producing color, odor, taste, or turbidity. Measurement

of aesthetic effects is particularly difficult because there are no

direct economic activities or tangible physical effects associated with

the value judgements involved. Consequently, it is difficult to relate

dollar benefits to aesthetic improvements. Randall (1974) has used

three empirical techniques in his valuation study: (1) direct costing

of damage caused by environmental degradation; (2) methods which attempt

to measure the revealed demand for environmental improvements by focusing

on the revealed demand for appropriate proxies; and (3) techniques which

attempt to fit individual bid curves by direct questioning of consumers

of the good. The last method involves the use of bidding game techniques

with respondents. Randall believes that if careful thought is applied

to bidding game design, the results can be reasonably accurate and

representative.



The aesthetics category is related to recreation, social benefits,

and property values. In some cases, aesthetics can be analyzed within

these other categories. For example, aesthetics can be included as part

of the value of passive recreation. Likewise the beauty of a receiving

water can be related to the value of adjacent property.









Randall, A., 1974. "Quantifying the Unquantifiable:
Benefits from Abatement of Aesthetic Environmental
Damage." Presented at the annual conference of the
American Agricultural Economics Association, College
Station, Texas, August.





The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical framework for

benefit-cost analysis of abating aesthetic environmental damage. The

study considers a number of alternative benefit valuation techniques

which have been proposed and used by environmental economists. Three

general methods of empirical estimation of the benefits of environmental

improvements are discussed and evaluated. Finally, a case study using

bidding game techniques is summarized. The results appear to be credible

and reasonable.









Aesthetics


Brookshire, David S., et al., 1976. "The Valuation of
Aesthetic Preferences." Jour. Env. Econ. and Manage-
ment, Vol. 3, No. 4, December.

Brown, P.J., editor, 1974. "Quantifying the Unquantifiable:
Benefits from Abatement of Aesthetic Environmental Damage."
Presented at the annual conference of the American Agricultural
Economics Association, College Station, Texas, August.

Dearinger, J.A. and G.M. Wollwine, 1971. Measuring the
Intangible Values of Natural Streams. Part I:
Application of the Uniqueness Concept. Kentucky Water
Resources Inst., Lexington, June.

Nighswonger, J., 1970. The Scenic Quality and Related
Recreational Value of Selected Kansas Streams. Unpublished Masters
Thesis, Kansas State University.

Randall, A., et al., 1974. "Bidding Games for Evaluation
of Aesthetic Environmental Improvement." Jour. Env.
Econ. and Management, Vol. 1, No. 2, August.

"Toward a Technique for Quantifying Aesthetic Quality of
Water Resources." 1974. Utah State Univ., IWR
Contract Report 748, Logan, Utah, October.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1974. Benefits of Abating
Aesthetic Environmental Damage from the Four Corners
Power Plant, Fruitland, New Mexico. Bulletin 618,
Agricultural Experiment Station, New Mexico State
University, Las Cruces, New Mexico. May.











Property Values



Property value is an important indicator of the value of water

quality improvements. Individuals are willing to pay more for land

bordering a high quality water body than for one next to a badly polluted

water. The amount people are willing to pay is reflected in the market

value of the property. In the Willamette River Study Case (Barrager,

1974), tax records and sales price data were used to determine changes

in property value due to improved water quality during the period 1960-

1970. Property value changes attributed to water quality improvement by

regression analysis were found to be substantial and statistically

significant. The multiple regression technique used in this study

offers great potential for measuring the desired responses.









Barrager, S.M., 1974. "The Impact of Water Resource
Quality on Surrounding Property Values." Water
Resources Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 759-765.





WRSIC Abstract



Multiple regression techniques are utilized to measure the impact

of pollution abatement efforts on property values of proximate single-

family residences along Oregon's Willamette River. The study areas, Oak

Grove and Jennings Creek, located in an unincorporated portion of

Clackamas County, are dominated by single family houses over 15 years

old and having an average value of $26,000. Water quality in the river

has improved dramatically over the 1960 to 1970 period. To determine

the change in property values over the same period in the study area,

tax assessment value data were collected as a partial proxy for the

years surrounding 1960 and 1970. Sales price data were also collected.

Property value changes for the period were calculated by adding the

capitalized value of property tax changes to the estimated change in

sales or market value. Results of the regression model indicate that

changes in property values attributable to water quality improvements

were substantial and statistically significant.









Coughlin, R.E., and T.R. Hammer, 1973. "Estimating the Bene-
fits of Stream Valley and Open Space Preservation
Projects." Government Spending and Land Values:
Public Money and Private Gain. Univ. of Wisconsin
Press, Madison, pp. 155-170.





WRSIC Abstract



Benefits are estimated for environmental projects that involve

maintaining the water quality of streams and keeping extensive areas of

land undeveloped. Environmental values are translated into land values.

Given that persons considering a residential site near some amenity are

able to imagine the use and enjoyment to be derived, and that people are

willing to attach some monetary value to this use and enjoyment, environmental

benefit differences create a location rent gradient. A number of studies

of people's response to environmental quality are summarized. The studies

imply that environmental benefits may be under-valued and that this is

reflected in location rents.









Dornbusch, D.M., and C.O. Falke, 1974. A Generic Method-
ology to Forecast Benefits from Urban Water Resources
Improvement Projects. Office of Water Resources and
Technology, Wash., D.C., November.





NTIS Abstract



A model expressing the relationship between benefits, measured by

changes in real property values, and water quality improvement was

estimated using econometric techniques and opinion surveys. Results

showed that lay people relate water quality in terms of the following

categories listed in order of perceived importance: (1) wildlife

support capacity, (2) recreation opportunity, and (3) aesthetics,

comprising industrial wastes, clearness, odor, debris, and algae. An

index measuring residents' perception of water quality changes was

constructed to reflect the relative valuation of each category and the

sensitivity of benefit gains to threshold and leveling-off effects.

Residents' opinions about water quality changes differ sharply and non-

systematically from those of water quality experts. The amount of

benefits in terms of increased property values derivable from water

pollution abatement varies with perceived water quality change, type and

size of water body, and, most significantly, extent and character of

non-water-front residents' visual and physical access to the water body.

A generic method to assess property value changes in terms of these

variables is presented in tabular form.









Property Values



Barrager, S.M., 1974. "The Impact of Water Resource Quality
Changes on Surrounding Property Values." Water
Resources Bulletin, Vol. 10, NO. 4, pp. 759-765.

Bohm, P., 1977. "Estimating Access Values." in Lowdon
Wingo and Alan Evans, eds. Public Economics and the
Quality of Life, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press for Re-
sources for the Future and the Centre for Environmental
Studies, Baltimore.

Coughlin, R. and T.R. Hammer, 1973. "Estimating the Benefits
of Stream Valley and Open Space Preservation Projects."
In C.L. Harriss, editor, Government Spending and Land
Values: Public Money and Private Gain, Pennypack Park,
Philadelphia.

Coughlin, R. and J. Fritz, 1971. Land Values and Environ-
mental Characteristics in the Rural Urban Fringe.
Regional Science Research Inst., Philadelphia.

David, E.L., 1968. "Lakeshore Property Values: A Guide
to Public Investment in Recreation." Water Resources Research.
Vol. 4, No. 4, August.

Damianos, D. and L.A. Shabman, 1976. Land Prices in Flood
Hazard Areas: Applying Methods of Land Value Analysis.
Bulletin 95, Virginia Water Resources Research Center,
VPI and SU, Blacksburg, Va., April.

Dornbusch, D.M. and S.M. Barrager, 1973. Benefit of Water
Pollution Control on Property Values. EPA Socioeconomic
Studies Series, EPA 600/573005, October.

Dornbusch, D.M. and C.O. Falcke, 1974. A Generic Methodology
to Forecast Benefits from Urban Water Resource Improve
ment Projects. Office of Water Research and Technology,
Wash., D.C., November.

Luten, D.R., 1967. "Resource Quality and Value of the Land-
scape." Natural Resources: Quality and Quantity, Univ.
of Calif. Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, pp. 1934.

Polinsky, A.M. and D.L. Rubinfeld, 1977. "Property Values
and the Benefits of Environmental Improvements: Theory
and Measurement." In Lowden Wingo and Alan Evans, eds.,
Public Economics and the Quality of Life, Johns Hopkins
Univ. Press for Resources for the Future and the Centre
for Envir. Studies, Baltimore.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1969. The Relationship
Between Land Values and Flood Risk in the Wabash River
Basin. Economic Research Service, USDA, Alexandria, Va.
December.









Water Quality/Water Treatment


The categories of water quality and water treatment are important

because benefits can be indirectly associated with them. The level of

water quality existing in a river body used for municipal water supply

can greatly influence the cost of water treatment. The more solids,

tastes and odors, chemical constituents, etc. that exist in the water

source, the higher the level of water treatment necessary. This could

amount to considerable costs depending on the additional treatment

required. Therefore, an improvement in the level of water quality can

create benefits to the water treatment field.



The downstream user, in the absence of water treatment, incurs

economic damages, e.g., as salinity and hardness increases, the farmer

suffers reduced crop yields, urban users have boiler scale, increased

consumption of soap, etc.









Sonnen, M., 1979. "Public Water Supply Protection Benefits."
Jour. Env. Engr. Div., ASCE, Vol. 105, No. EE3, June,
pp. 511-523.






ASCE Abstract



Public Law 92-500 required that EPA promulgate waste discharge

requirements in some cases more stringent than "best available techno-

logy." But, on the other hand, it also permitted these requirements to

be waived or relaxed if the discharger could show that there is no

"reasonable relationship between the social and economic costs and

benefits to be obtained." Methods for making such determinations are

presented. Relationships are shown graphically between water contaminant

concentrations and the percentage of the water-using public expected to

have an adverse health or other reaction. The downstream benefits by

installing the upstream waste treatment are compared to the waste

treatment costs.









Hamilton, H., 1968. Some Economic Aspects of Water Quality
Enhancement. Chem. Engr. Prog. Symp. Series, Vol. 64,
No. 90, pp. 32-38.






WRSIC Abstract



Some issues involving water quality benefits are discussed.

Primary and secondary benefits, both tangible and intangible, are

described and differentiated. A three-sector model is proposed to

determine water quality enhancement benefits. The problem of measuring

the value of pure aesthetics can be considerably resolved by applying

common sense plus economic analysis to estimate a useful range of their

value.









Water Quality



Hamilton, H., 1968. Some Economic Aspects of Water Quality
Enhancement. Chemical Engr. Progress Symposium Series,
Vol. 64, No. 90, pp. 22-38.

Public Law 92-500, Economic and Social Impacts: Technical
Volume. 1976. National Commission on Water Quality,

Wash. D.C., April.

Syracuse University, Department of Civl Engineering, 1970.
Benefits of Water Quality Enhancement. EPA, December.

Whipple, W., 1969. "Economic Considerations Relative to
Water Quality." Paper presented at fifth annual
American Water Resources Assoc. meeting, Oct. 27-30.

Yu, J.K. and M. Fogel, 1978. "Development of a Combined
Water Quality Index." Water Resources Bulletin,
Vol. 14, No. 5, October.


Water Treatment



Matson, J.V. and F.G. Bennett, 1969. Cost of Industrial
and Municipal Treatment in the Maumee River Basin.
Chemical Engr. Progress Symposium Series, Vol. 65,
No. 95, pp. 100-105.

McCabe, L.J., et al., 1971. "Nitrate in Drinking Water." JAWWA
February.

McCarty, P.L., et al., 1966. "Nutrient Associated Problems in
Water Quality and Treatment." Task Group Report 2610P, JAWWA,
Vol. 58.

Public Law 92-500, Economic and Social Impacts: Technical
Volume. 1976. National Commission on Water Quality,
Wash., D.C., April.

Singley, J.E., et al., 1975. A Benefit/Cost Evaluation of
Drinking Water Hygiene Programs, Environmental Protection Agency.

Sokoloski, A. 1973. Economic Benefits of an Adequate Supply of
Safe Water, Environmental Protection Agency.

Sonnen, M., 1979. "Public Water Supply Protection Benefits."
Jour. Env. Engr. Div., ASCE, Vol. 105, No. EE3, June,
pp. 511-523.










Social Benefits



Social activities are those in which the individual participates by

his own choosing and uses his own value system to evaluate his experiences.

These experiences, generating personal and aesthetic pleasures, are

mostly non-market economic values and can not be measured by market

data. Some non-market techniques such as surveys, questionnaires,

bidding games, and voting can be used to determine the individuals'

willingness to pay for some social amenity. Many social benefits,

however, are humanistic rather than economic and cannot be assigned a

monetary value (e.g., value of human life). These elusive qualities

make valuation very difficult. The sources listed, however, do address

the problem and offer some solutions to the appraisal dilemma.









Ehrenfeld, D., 1976. "The Conservation of Non-Resources."
American Scientist, Vol. 64.



Resources are typically defined as "reserves of commodities that

have an appreciable money value to man, either directly or indirectly."

Such natural features as endangered species, communities, and ecosystems

are not conventional resources under the usual definition. The values

of these non-resources are diverse, sometimes contrived, and altogether

difficult to enumerate. The author lists nine admittedly anthropocen-

tric values that can be assigned some monetary worth. However, the eco-

nomic importance is remote; people will not readily assign resource

values on the basis of long-term considerations or vague statistical

probabilities. Ehrenfeld concludes: "If non-resource arguments are

ever to carry their deserved weight, cultural attitudes will have to be

changed."









Haveman, R.H., 1972. The Economic Performance of Public
Investments. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press for Resources
for the Future, Baltimore.





Book Preface



This is an exploratory effort to develop the techniques of ex-

post evaluation for water resources development activities. The range

of project effects studied is limited to the direct benefits and

costs, and these were analyzed for a small number of installations.

Ultimately, the insights and quantitative information gained from ex-

post evaluation can be used by public authorities as planning guides

for their subsequent decisions.









Social Benefits



Althoff, P. and W.H. Greig, 1977. "Environmental Pollution
Control: Two Views from the General Public." Environ-
ment and Behavior, Vol. 9, No. 3, p. 441.

Brown, L., 1976. "Social Well Being and Water Resources
Planning." Water Resources Bulletin, Vol. 12, No. 6,
December.

Criss, R.R., 1971. "Socio-Economic Accounting Applied to
Water Resource Planning." Water Resources Bulletin, Vol. 7,
No. 4, August.

Ehrenfeld, D.W., 1976. "The Conservation of Non-Resources."
American Scientist, Vol. 64.

Environmental Quality And Society. 1975. R.A. Tybout,
editor, Ohio St. Univ. Press, Columbus.

Haveman, R.H., 1972. The Economic Performance of Public
Investments. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press for Resources
for the Future, Baltimore.

Iltis, H.H., et al., 1970. "Criteria for an Optimum Human
Environment." Bulletin of Atomic Science, Vol. 26,
pp. 2-6.

Methodology of Social Impact Assessment. 1977. Finsterbusch
and Wolf, eds., Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross, Strouds-
burg, Pa.

Public Law 92-500, Economic and Social Impacts: Technical
Volume. 1976. National Commission on Water Quality,
Wash., D.C., April.

Rosenblum, I., 1977. "Social Aspects of Environmental
Pollution." Social Impact Assessment, Vol. 19, No. 13.

Starr, C., 1969. "Social Benefit versus Technological Risk."
Science, September.

Whipple, W., 1978. Principles of Water Resources Planning,
Phase 2--Social, Economic, and Environmental Quality
Considerations. Water Resources Research Inst.,
Rutgers-The State Univ., New Brunswick, N.J.

Willeke, G.E., 1978. Assessing the Social Effects of Water
Quality Management Programs. Environ. Resources Center,
Georgia Tech., Office of Water Research and Tech.,
Wash., D.C., April.









Case Studies



Case studies are helpful in that they apply benefit estimation

techniques to existing environmental situations. Problems that arise in

the application process are discussed and evaluated to assist in subsequent

efforts. Whipple, et al., for example, found that some theoretical

techniques were inadequate when actually applied and suggested alternative

approaches. This study and the others listed should be helpful in

implementing the Chicagoland benefit assessment.









Whipple, W., 1974. The Delaware Estuary System. Environ-
mental Impacts and Socio-Economic Effects: Environ-
mental Quality and Its Evaluation. Water Resources
Research Inst., Rutgers The State Univ., New Bruns-
wick, N.J., January.





WRSIC Abstract



The state-of-the-art analysis of the many different approaches to

evaluating environmental quality with particular reference to water-

related environments is discussed. A wide spectrum of related method-

ology and concepts including biological, anthropological, religious,

aesthetic, philosophic, and literary writings are considered in addition

to the usual engineering considerations, economic factors and systems

analyses methodology. Some approaches are shown to be basically inadequate

or without logical merit, while the categorization of environmental

quality as "recreation" or "aesthetic" values is too narrow. The

economists' definitions of "welfare," "value," and "utility" theories as

related to optimization of environmental quality are reviewed and

criticized with the conclusion that the problem of evaluation is not

insuperable. It is possible to describe relevant parameters and to

evaluate them in monetary terms, and physical standards can be set for

achieving social objectives. The basic environmental objective is not a

categorical imperative but can have tradeoffs with other social goals,

with marginal economic advantages.










Case Studies


Abt Associates, Inc., 1975. Water Pollution Control Act of 1972.
Regional Impacts, Merimack-Nashua River Basin. NCWQ, Wash., D.C.,
November.

1975. Water Pollution Control Act of 1972. Social
Impacts. Eight Case Studies. Wash., D.C., June.

Bauer Engineering Company, 1973. Environmental Assessment, Metropolitan
Sanitary District of Greater Chicago, Chicago.

1973. Environmental Impact Statement. Metropolitan
Sanitary District of Greater Chicago, Chicago.

Black and Veatch, Consulting Engineers, 1975. Report on Determination
of Economic Values for Improved Water Quality in the Red River
Basin, February.

Dalton-Dalton-Little-Newport, Inc., 1975. Water Pollution Control
Act of 1972. Lake Erie Regional Assessment Study. NCWQ, Wash.,
D.C., December.

Dames and Moore, 1975. Water Pollution Control Law of 1972,
Regional Impacts, Kanawha River. NCWQ, Wash., D.C., November.

Daubert, et al., 1979. Economic Benefits from Instream Flow in a
Colorado Mountain Stream. Environmental Resource Center, Colo.
State Univ., Ft. Collins, Colo., June.

Emerson, M. J. and H. Akhavipour, 1979. Benefit Assessment of Kansas
Water Quality Management Plan. Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS,
May, 217 pp.

Gramlich, F. W. Estimating the Net Benefits of Improvements in Charles
River Water Quality. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard
University, March 1975.

Major, D. C., et al., 1970. Multiple Objective Redesign of the Big
Walnut Project. MIT Dept. Civil Engr., Cambridge, April.

Oster, S., 1977. "Survey Results on the Benefits of Water Pollution
Abatement in the Merrimack River Basin." Water Resources Research,
Vol. 13, No. 6, December, pp. 882-884.

Pendse, D. and J. B. Wyckoff, 1976. "The Measurement of Environmental
Trade-offs and Public Policy: A Case Study." Water Resources
Bulletin, Vol. 12, No. 5, October.

Public Health Service, 1962. An Evaluation of the Economic Benefits
Derived from the Improvemnt of Water Quality in Contra Costa Canal.
San Francisco, June.










U.S.E.P.A., 1971. The Mineral Quality Problem in the Colorado River
Basin, Appendix B, Physical and Economic Impacts. EPA Regions
VIII and IX, Denver.

Whipple, W., 1974. The Delaware Estuary System. Environmental Impacts
and Socio-Economic Effects: Environmental Quality and Its Evalua-
tion. Water Resources Res. Inst., Rutgers--The State Univ., New
Brunswick, N.J., January.









V. Acknowledgements


The following persons were consulted for information concerning
this report:

]) Dennis Giba
Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago

2) Dr. Kenneth Gibbs
Oregon State University

3) Blair O'Neal
Army Corps of Engineers, Pittsburgh

4) Dr. Richard G. Walsh
Colorado State University

5) Dr. Clyde Kiker
University of Florida

6) Dr. Roy Carriker
University of Florida

7) Vincent Hill
Army Corps of Engineers, Philadelphia









































VI. Appendix A

















Abstracts For


Urban


Stormwater
and


Combined Sewer Overflow
Impact on Receiving Water Bodies


November 26-28, 1979

Holiday Inn
6515 International Drive
Orlando, Florida 32809










SESSION ONE
Monday, November 26, 1979
9:00 10:00


URBAN RUNOFF RECEIVING WATER IMPACTS:
PROGRAM OVERVIEW AND RESEARCH NEEDS

by

Richard Field and Robert Turkeltaub
Environmental Protection Agency
Edison, New Jersey

ABSTRACT

Receiving water impacts are a major national concern. We are spending
huge sums of money on secondary treatment plants, meanwhile major culprits,
stormwater and combined sewer overflows, are still uncontrolled. To attain
the goals set forth in PL 92-500 and PL 95-217 of abating pollution and
achieving water quality standards in an economical and efficient manner those
analyzing, planning and designing controls must have a thorough understanding
of the impact of pollutants on receiving waters. Receiving water impacts are
the bottom line justification for funding countermeasure campaigns and the
passage of abatement legislation. This conference will provide a forum for
the attendees to acquire first hand knowledge of the state-of-the-art and to
consider ongoing and recently completed research.

Data on the environmental impacts of urban stormwater and combined sewer
overflow are being gathered by projects of the Storm and Combined Sewer Pro-
gram (SCSP) of the Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory (MERL) as a
first step in developing control needs and a methodology to quantify pollutant
stress and evaluate the impact in relation to receiving water standards and
desired uses. This paper will contain a brief history of our receiving water
impact projects, an overview of recently completed and ongoing projects. The
projects will be briefly described including project objectives and an out-
line of significant results to date. Also, future Program needs will be
discussed and areas in which we anticipate concentrating our efforts will be
outlined.










SESSION TWO
Monday, November 26, 1979
10:30 12 noon


AN ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF URBAN DRAINAGE ON
EUTHROPHICATION-RELATED WATER QUALITY IN URBAN LAKES

by

G. Fred Lee and R. Anne Jones
Department of Civil Engineering
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523

ABSTRACT

The conversion of rural lands to urban area is often accompanied by a
significant increase in the total amount of phosphorus and nitrogen derived
per unit area of a waterbody's watershed. For rural lands phosphorus without
livestock, export coefficients typically range from 0.005 to 0.5 g P/m2/yr,
while in urban areas the typical export coefficient is 0.1 g P/m2/yr. A
significant part of this difference is due to the much greater water yield per
unit area of watershed in urban areas compared to rural areas.

Urban runoff typically contains appreciable quantities of both soluble
ortho P and particulate forms of P. Studies have been conducted to evaluate
the amounts of available forms of phosphorus present in typical urban storm-
water drainage for several municipalities located across the U.S. It has
been found that on the order of 10 to 30 percent of the particulate phosphorus
present in urban stormwater drainage would likely become available to affect
algal growth in a lake or stream. As a result of these findings, the focal
point of the control of nitrogen and phosporus from urban stormwater sources
should be directed toward the soluble orthophosphate component. Most storm-
water drainage control programs are directed toward control of particulate
matter. Such programs are likely to have limited impact on eutrophication-
related water quality in urban lakes, since only a small part of the
particulate phosphorus will likely become available to stimulate aquatic
plant growth in the waterbody.

The OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) eutro-
phication modeling study which included about 40 water-bodies across the
U.S. and 200 waterbodies in Western Europe, North America, Japan, Australia,
etc., has shown that the phosphorus load normalized by waterbody mean depth
and hydraulic retention time is correlated to the planktonic algal chloro-
phyll concentration, planktonic algal-related water clarity and hypolimnetic
oxygen depletion rate. The results of the OECD study provide the tools
necessary to quantitatively assess what water quality improvement can be
achieved as the result of various nutrient control efforts.










THE EFFECT OF URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF
ON THE WATER QUALITY OF LAKE JACKSON, FLORIDA

by

Chris Byrne, C. R. Donahue and W. C. Burnett
Department of Oceanography
Florida State University
Tallahassee, Florida 32301

ABSTRACT

Lake Jackson, Leon County, Florida, a depression of approximately 4800
acres, is a north Florida lake of conflicting water quality. In contrast to
the northern portions of the lake, which have been found to possess excellent
water quality, the southern portions are consistently characterized by sig-
nificantly poorer water quality. Investigations into this problem have dis-
covered that the reduction in the water quality in the southern sections is
a direct result of increased "urbanization" in that area. Extensive field
research and data analysis of the water quality of the southern watersheds of
Lake Jackson, in particular the urban watershed of Meginnis3 Arm, have con-
cluded that the magnitude of the pollutional loading of that area was due to
stormwater runoff. Analyses of the runoff of Meginniss Arm have revealed
high concentrations of suspended solids, dissolved nutrients, heavy metal
particulates, and petro-chemicals. In response to the serious state of water
quality in this area of the lake, the Florida Department of Environmental
Regulations in association with the United States Environmental Protection
Agency have proposed to construct and maintain a bio-filtration system in
the urban watershed of Meginniss Arm to restrict the pollutional loading.

One of the pollutants mentioned in the analyses of the urban stormwater
runoff was petro-chemicals. Lake Jackson affords an area for a very in-
teresting study of the loading of hydrocarbons into the lake. There are two
watersheds in Lake Jackson, which are similar in size, topography, and
geology (Ox-Bottom Creek in the northern section and Meginniss Arm in the
southern section). These two watersheds are very dissimilar in land usage:
Ox-Bottom Creek is primarily forested-agricultural with little mechanical
activity; Meginniss Arm, in contrast, is highly urbanized with two shopping
malls. The analyses of the stormwater runoff from these two areas will enable
comparisons of the concentrations and possible sources of hydrocarbons, both
biogenic and anthropogenic, that enter Lake Jackson. Rainfall, dust, sed-
iment, and lake water samples will be examined to determine other possible
sources and sinks for hydrocarbons in the lake.










A COMPARISON OF STORM-RELATED MATERIALS LOADING TO TWO
GLACIAL LAKES FROM URBAN, WETLAND, AND AGRICULTURAL SOURCES

by

R. P. Glandon, F. C. Payne, C. D. McNabb, and T. R. Batterson
Department of Fisheries and Wildlife
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48824

ABSTRACT

Comprehensive watershed and in-lake studies have been conducted for two
glacial lakes located in the Lake Michigan drainage system. These studies
have shown that> 97% of the total-N and> 85% of the total-P received by these
lakes annually in runoff is discharged during 10-12 weeks in the spring.
During that interval, large differences in storm-related nutrient loading were
measured from urban, wetland, and agricultural watersheds. Separating runoff
due to melt of the snow pack from that due to rain events, it was found that
storm-related discharge from the urban area studied was 0.289 kg total-P and
1.239 kg total-N ha-1 of watershed. Rain induced runoff from marshes in the
same drainage basin transported 0.019 kg total-P and 0.545 kg total-N ha-1
of catchment. Rainfall in the same amount caused runoff from agricultural
land of 0.091 kg total-P and 4.579 kg total-N ha-1. Algae of both lakes
were phosphorus limited; nitrogen was present in excess. Using constants
from Nicholls-Dillon relationships in the literature regarding phosphorus,
phytoplankton biomass, and secchi disk transparencies, the urban input of
phosphorus ha-1 of drainage was sufficient to bring 0.44 ha-m of lake water
to undersirable algal bloom status. Similarly, marsh input ha-1 would bring
an estimated 0.03 ha-m into bloom. By the same calculation, storm-related
agricultural runoff would result in 0.14 ha-m of lake water becoming under-
sirably rich in algae. Knowing the number of hectares in these types of
catchment and the volume available in a particular lake for phytoplankton
production, decisions regarding cost-effective treatment of storm-related
discharge can be made.









SESSION THREE
Monday, November 26, 1979
1:30 3:00


IMPACT OF STORMWATER RUNOFF ON A FLORIDA LAKE ECOSYSTEM:
EFFECTS ON WATER QUALITY AND BIOTA

by

Eldon C. Blancher II
Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

ABSTRACT

A study of external nutrient loadings to the Lake Conway ecosystem, an
interconnected series of three lakes located in Orange County, Florida,
showed that both nitrogen (2.6g-N/m2-yr) and phosphorus (0.22 gP/m2-yr)
inputs were within the range of loadings that leads to mesotrophic conditions.
The major external sources of both elements were atmospheric inputs, storm-
water runoff and subsurface seepage. Experimental evidence indicated that
phosphorus became a limiting factor in the lakes briefly during the spring
and summer of 1977. A dynamic hydrologic-phosphorus model demonstrated the
relative magnitudes of nutrient loadings from external sources and those
from internal nutrient cycling by the macrophyte communities and sediments in
this subtropical lake ecosystem.

Multivariate analysis of water quality data by discriminant analysis
showed differences among the three lakes of the Conway system. Seasonal
trends in several water quality indicators varied concomitantly with changes
in external nutrient loadings, especially with those from residential storm-
water runoff. Those lakes that had a proportionately larger share of
phosphorus loadings from stormwater runoff showed a degradation in water
quality. Strong linear relationships were found between watershed area to
lake area ratio and stormwater phosphorus loadings (r2=0.98); stormwater
phosphorus loadings and Secchi disk transparency (r2=0.98) and chlorophyll a
and total zooplankton numbers (r2=0.96). These findings indicate a direct
impact of stormwater runoff on water quality and subsequently on changes in
the lakes biota.









THE DISTRIBUTION OF SEDIMENTS AND PARTICULATE
CONTAMINANTS FROM COMBINED SEWER AND STORM DRAIN
OVERFLOWS IN SEATTLE'S NEARSHORE WATERS

by

R. D. Tomlinson*, B. N. Bebee*, S. Lazoff**,
R. G. Swartz*, and D. E. Spyridakis**
Muncipality of Metropolitan Seattle, Seattle, WA 98104
** Department of Civil Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle

ABSTRACT

The distributions of particulates and the associated contaminants
emanating from combined sever outfalls and storm drains in Lake Washington
were examined. Ina preliminary study sediment samples were collected by
SCUBA divers from the area of greatest apparent contamination at each of
29 outfalls. The sample content of organic, heavy metals, oils and greases,
and pesticides was used to select stations for more intensive study. At
each of those sites quality and quantity analyses of the overflows provided
loading estimates for the wastewater particulates entering the nearshore
waters. Light transmissions measurements of storm-induced wastewater plumes
helped to define the nature of plume dispersion and its area of significant
influence. Organic carbon and heavy metals analyses of settling particulates
and surface sediments near the outfalls supplied further detail and con-
firmation of the fate of the wastewater particulates. Later in the program,
Dr. Thom will discuss the response of infaunal community es to seasonal vari-
ations in wastewater discharge.

THE ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF URBAN RUNOFF ON STREAM COMMUNITIES

by

Donald B. Parcella
Tetra Tech Incorporated
Lafayette, California

ABSTRACT

A literature review of the ecological effects of urban runoff on
streams indicates a dearth of principles for evaluating the impact of urban
runoff or any pollutant on streams and a serious lack of studies that de-
termine urban runoff impacts on communities of stream ecosystems. The
uniqueness of urban runoff impacts results from the nature of pollutant input
to streams--large magnitude variation/stochastic occurrence. Most stormwater
research has been directed towards determining runoff quantity and quality
including the fates of specific pollutants such as heavy metals, nutrients,
salts, toxic substances, and bacteria. Demonstration of the impacts of these
materials on stream communities is necessary to justify costs of managing
stormwater effects.








Several approaches for analyzing ecosystems are suggested, such as
stream community analysis and biogeochemical cycling of elements (carbon,
nitrogen, phosphorus). Three published case studies of stream ecological
impacts typify the effects of urban runoff inputs resulting in a hypothesis
that large scale variations and instabilities of stream pollutant input and
concentration would result in greater impact to stream communities than steady
inputs. This concept is discussed and applied to urban runoff analysis and
management.








SESSION FOUR
Monday, November 26, 1979
3:30 5:30




ANALYSIS OF RECEIVING STREAM IMPACTS
ON THE MILWAUKEE RIVER

by


Thomas L. Meinholz
EcolSciences, Inc.
Milwaukee, WI 53202


ABSTRACT


The Milwauke
combined sewers
to Lake Michigar
Milwaukee Metroi
Combined Sewer
formed to quant

Over 100 o0
using the EPA
these models w
culties in mod
Michigan in tl
temperature 1:
dependence of
variable fact
was found to.
record.


C


0




I4
tcH



fH -
H-
Hz


tan area contains approximately 15,000 acres of
arge to the three rivers of the area or directly
3 of the Facilities Planning efforts of the
Srage District and research for EPA's Storm and
Lensive monitoring and modeling efforts were per-
eiving water impacts of the combined sewers.

its within the combined system were modeled
and Corps of Engineers STORM model. The output of
load Harper's receiving water model. Major diffi-
iver systems were the variable influence of Lake
Lches. The relatively clean, high DO and lower
could not be easily quanitified because of the
s on wind speed, direction, lake level and other
model calibration using a linearly decreasing flux
.ontinuous DO data generated during two years of


The Milwaukee river exhibits tremendous DO sags in the lower reaches of
the river following runoff events. The modeling tasks of the CSO project
could not duplicate these sags using the instream concentrations found in
the monitoring program. Extensive field monitoring was then conducted to
quantify the source and mechanism of these sags. After numerous invest-
igations, the bottom sediments in the lower reaches were found to be the
source of the rapid DO declines. The mechanism was related to the scouring
action of submerged combined sewer outfalls.




In order to model the response of the river to discharge events, the
receiving water model was modified to include an expression which would pre-
dict the extent and duration of the scour action from the submerged outfalls.
Long term simulations of DO and other parameters were calibrated and verified
using the response of the river to a multitude of rainfall events.









The use of this model network in the evaluation of alternatives for
abating combined sewer overflows produced magnitudes of DO and fecal coliform
impacts for each alternative using 20 years of rainfall record.
The results for the following alternatives are presented.

existing conditions
partial separation
complete separation
out-of-basin (storage-conveyance-treatment)
end-of-pipe (EOP)
100% CSO removal

Discussions of how these results were quantified including the model
development will be discussed. The cost-benefits analyses that were used
to satisfy the EPA PG-61 requirements will also be detailed to provide the
reader with a methodology that has been successfully applied and approved
in the Milwaukee area.



URBAN STORMWATER IMPACTS ON RECEIVING
STREAMS IN NORTH CAROLINA

by

E. Ryland Brown and Ross S. Green
Technical Services Branch
Division of Environmental Management
North Carolina Department of Natural Resources
and Community Development
Raleigh, NC 27611

ABSTRACT

Studies were conducted in North Carolina by the Division of Environmen-
tal Management as part of the statewide 208 program to determine the extent
of water quality degradation in streams receiving urban stormwater runoff.
Selected streams were monitored in three of the larger urban areas within
the state; Asheville, Raleigh, and Winston-Salem. The monitoring program
involved physical/chemical sampling under both high (storm) and low stream-
flow conditions. Parameters sampled include pH, temperature D.O., BOD COD,
fecal coliforms, ammonia-nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrite pfus
nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, iron, mercury, lead, zinc, copper,
chromium, manganese, cadmium, nickel and suspended solids. Biological
sampling of aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates was conducted concurrently
to further document water quality conditions.

In Asheville, a stream draining a mixed land use urban area was studied.
In the Raleigh area, three streams were monitored, including one that drains
a highly impervious watershed comprised primarily of a shopping center.









The most intensive sampling was conducted in the Winston-Salem area. In
this locality, streams draining both residential and Central Business
District watersheds were monitored to investigate water quality characteris-
tics associated with these different land' use types. For comparison purposes,
control stations upstream of urban inputs were also monitored.

All of the urban streams were found to exhibit extensive water quality
problems. Physical/chemical sampling consistently revealed high pollutant
concentrations for several parameters under high flow conditions. Notable
problematic parameters included suspended solids, lead, and some nutrients.
Several parameters were found to frequently be present in high concentrations
under low flow conditions also. Variations in pollutant concentrations from
the different land use types were also observed.

The Division of Environmental Management's biological monitoring group
has developed an index of the macroinvertebrate organisms found in North
Carolina streams. As part of this index, each taxa is rated according to its
ability to withstand pollutional stressed conditions. All of the urban
streams monitored were found to be extensively biologically degraded.
Populations of Diptera and Oligochaeta, pollution-tolerant organisms,
averaged over 90% of the existing fauna. In contrast, control station
population percentages of these organisms were a maximum of 15% of the
fauna in the mountain stream, and 35% in Piedmont streams. Many intolerant
groups were not just reduced in numbers in the urban streams, they were
usually completely absent.

These studies have shown that, under present conditions, almost all
urban streams will be unable to meet the 1983 water quality goals. The
Division of Environmental Management is currently finalizing guidelines for
a study to be centered in the Winston-Salem area to evaluate management
techniques aimed at reducing these documented water quality problems. This
three year project is in conjunction with the Environmental Protection
Agency's National Urban Runoff Program.









DISSOLVED OXYGEN IMPACT FROM URBAN STORM RUNOFF


by

Thomas N. Keefer, Robert K. Simons, and Raul S. McQuivey
The Sutron Corporation
Arlington, VA 22209

ABSTRACT

One hundred and four water quality monitoring sites in and downstream
of urban areas throughout the country were considered for inclusion in this
study. These were screened from over 1000 monitors maintained by federal
and state agencies such as the U.S. Geological Survey, Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA), Ohio River Valley Sanitation Commission and
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Daily data were obtained and
processed for 83 of the 104 candidate sites. Of the 83 monitors considered,
42 percent or roughly one monitor in three of the 104 candidates demon-
strated a 60 percent or greater probability of a higher than average DO
deficit occurring at times of higher-than-average streamflow or on days with
rainfall. This result was obtained by considering daily da-a for entire
water years. Not all years at any given station exhibited a 60 percent pro-
bability. One to three years out of five is typical., DO levels fell to less
than 75 percent saturation at most of the sites where 60 percent or greater
probability existed. Levels of 5 mg/l or less were not uncommon.

Detailed hourly data analysis was made at 22 of the sites with high
correlation between flow and DO deficit. Typically, at times of steady low
flow the DO fluctuates widely on a daily cycle. These cyclic changes range
from 1 to 7 mg/l. When a storm event occurs and the flow increases, the
diurnal cycle disappears. The minimum DO drops from 1 to 1.5 mg/l below
the minimum values observed during steady flows and remains constant there
for periods ranging from one to five days. As the flow event subsides, the
DO level resumes its cyclic behavior. Of the 22 monitors examined on an
hourly basis, 11 would not meet a 5.0-mg/l DO standard. Six of the 11
would not meet the EPA-suggested 2.0-mg/l-for-four-hour standard. Streeter-
Phelps analysis indicated that two additional monitor sites at which hourly
data were examined would not have met the EPA standard had they been properly
located. An additional two sites at which hourly data could not be ob-
tained would also not have met the EPA standard.









THE IMPACT OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS ON THE
DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONCENTRATION OF A SMALL STREAM

by

Thorkild Hvitved-Jacobsen
Institute of Civil Engineering
Aalborg, Denmark

ABSTRACT

The paper discusses the impact of combined sewer overflows on the dis-
solved oxygen concentration of a small stream. The different oxygen con-
sumption processes in the receiving stream have been studied at 4 con-
secutive stations during and after the passage of the discharged volume of
stormwater and untreated sewage. Two different effects on the DO-concen-
tration were observed in the stream:

1. An immediate effect caused by degradation of the soluble BOD-fraction
in the polluted watervolume.
2. A delayed effect caused by degradation of the adsorbed colloidal and
outsetting particulate matter.

ad 1. This effect is caused by the degradation in the water-body and by
direct absorption by the animals (invertebrates) in the bottom. The
deoxygenation constant K1 in the water volume is about 0.15 days 1,
but the total deoxygenation constant Kr for the whole stream is
about 0.55 days -1, which indicates the importance of the degradation
in the bottom.
ad 2. After passage of the discharged polluted volume there is an effect on
the DO-concentration in the stream, which is attributable to ad-
sorption of colloidal organic matter at the bottom. The delayed de-
gradation may increase the respiration of the bottom in certain
stations by 100%. This delayed effect may last 12-24 hours after
the stormwater passage.

The investigation shows that due to the delayed effect, the oxygen
consumption is spread over a long period compared to the passage time of the
polluted volume. The importance of this depends among other things on the
reaeration of the stream.








SESSION FIVE
Tuesday, November 27, 1979
8:30 10:00


IMPACTS OF INTERMITTENT URBAN DISCHARGES ON RECEIVING WATERS

by

John L. Mancini
Manhattan College
Bronx, NY 10471

ABSTRACT

The paper will present an illustration of the impacts of CSO discharges
on bathing beach areas of New York City. The illustration will also define
the treatment required and the costs for controlling water quality. A
unique statistical analysis used in the project will be discussed.

The proposed paper will be divided into two segments.

Segment #1 will discuss an analysis of coliform distribution in New
York Harbor. The paper will present calculated and observed time variable
coliform distributions over several storm events for the major water bodies
that make up NewYork Harbor. Data and calculations will be presented for
different size rainfalls and for different Hudson River flows. This seg-
ment of the paper will conclude with economic data on the cost of controlling
coliform levels at selected beach locations in New York Harbor. Therefore,
loads, fate and effects of storm water associated coliform distributions
will be discussed.

Segment #2 will address the fate and effect of intermittent discharges
of toxics. In particular, information from data in the Trinity River, will
be employed to calculate partition coefficients and equivalent removal rates
for Cd, Cu, and other metals. Comparable calculations for the equivalent
removal of Lindane, DDE, DDT and several other organic toxics will also be
provided. This will be a discussion of fate of toxics.

The effects part of this segment will employ dose response data for Cd
to illustrate calculations of mortality of an organism due to a storm load.
The effect part of the paper will present a procedure for calculations. In
situ data are not available to test the calculation procedure. The issues of
concern in rational evaluation of effects will be identified in a quantitative
manner.









THE RESPONSE OF GREAT LAKE ESTUARIES TO STORMWATER RUNOFF


by

John R. Adams and Stephen M. Yaksich
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Buffalo, NY

ABSTRACT

Glacial rebound of the northern shore of Lake Erie has resulted in
drowned rivermouths of southern shore tributaries. Transport of material
through these estuaries depends not only on river stage but also lake stage.
This paper describes studies carried out in two Lake Erie tributaries during
high and low flow conditions. It also examines the effect of localized urban
runoff on one of the estuaries.

Three separate studies of water chemistry in the lower Maumee River, an
estuarine river section, were conducted by the Toledo Metropolitan Council
of Governments, the Buffalo District Corps of Engineers, and others, during
1974 and 1975. Base flow river conditions and the resultant estuary
chemical variations were measured during the summer of 1974. Winter storm
runoff effects were measured during January and February, 1975. Additional
sampling and analysis was conducted during the summer of 1975, giving a
fairly complete record of water chemistry variability.

Winter storm runoff was also measured in the estuary of the Cuyahoga
River, with simultaneous river and estuary sampling over the hydrograph
for selected pollutants.

This paper outlines the problems and complexities of chemical measure-
ments of water quality in estuarine systems of the Great Lakes during
varying hydrologic conditions. The studies in the Maumee River point out
the importance of sampling program design, and the difficulty in evaluating
the transport of pollutants through such estuarine systems. The summer
studies were conducted by TMACOG as part of an evaluation of in situ
water quality, as effected by a number of waste discharges from the Toledo
area. The winter storm runoff measurements, made simultaneously at both an
upstream riverine station and a downstream estuary station were designed to
evaluate whether the mass transport being carried out into the basin was
passing through the estuary and out into the lake. The question of an in-
crease or decrease in mass transport was also considered, to evaluate
scouring and depositional mechanisms in the estuary.

The results of the Maumee estuary measurements were compared with the
Cuyahoga estuary in Cleveland, where similar sampling of river and estuary
transport was carried out for the same storm periods.









WATER QUALITY AND URBAN RUNOFF IN SELECTED CANAL COMMUNITIES
ALONG THE TEXAS COAST

by

Allen Messenger* and Tom D. Reynolds**
*Environmental Science and Engineering, Inc.
Austin, Texas
**Professor of Civil Engineering
Texas A & M University
College Station, Texas

ABSTRACT

Water and runoff samples from seven waterfront communities in the
Galveston Bay area were collected and analyzed in order to evaluate causes
of canal water quality problems. Until present, community design has been
based on optimum utilization of land area with little or no regard toward
the effect of development on water quality. The primary cause of water
quality problems in these communities appears to be urban runoff.

Samples of canal waters were collected over a five-month period and
analyzed for nutrients, oxygen demand, pesticides, and hydrological vari-
ables, including Rhodamine dye concentrations. In general, canal waters
exerted BOD5 values of 2-10 mg/l with no problems associated with toxic
substances. Evaluation of domestic wastewater data from centralized treat-
ment facilities indicates that these wastewater streams are not major sources
of pollution loading.

Runoff samples were collected from three rainfall-runoff events and
were found to contain significant amounts of carbonaceous material. Also,
the possibility of canal sediment resuspension by point discharge of runoff
was investigated using a canal model. The two-year frequency rainfall event
for the Galveston area was found to produce significant resuspension of
high BOD5 benthic sediments. These data were applied using the modified
Streeter-Phelps equations for estuarine dissolved oxygen analysis and were
found to fit actual conditions with reasonable accuracy.









SESSION SIX
Tuesday, November 27, 1979
10:30 12 noon


THE RESPONSE OF INFAUNAL COMMUNITIES TO SEASONAL
VARIATIONS IN WASTE WATER DISCHARGE

by
Ronald M. Thorn
College of Fisheries
University of Washington
Seattle, Washington

ABSTRACT

Certain aspects of the structure of macroinfaunal communities in the
subtidal sediments adjacent to an intertidal combined sewage overflow were
studied. The impact of this ephemeral source of raw waste water and street
runoff on the communities was evaluated using samples taken after periods of
high (April) and low (August) frequency of discharge. In April, the
community nearest the overflow was characterized by a high number of
individuals, low number of taxa, a low species diversity, a high abundance
of the polychaeta Capitella capitata and a high relative number of poly-
chaetes. Subsurface deposit feeding species dominated the community.
Infaunal abundance was markedly low in the region immediately beyond the
area of acute impact. Diversity and number of taxa were highest at the sites
furthest (i.e. > 1000m) from the overflow. Bivalve molluscs were in re-
latively high abundance, and carnivores, surface deposit feeding and sub-
surface deposit feeding species were approximately equally abundant at
these sites.

The samples in August showed similar trends relative to the overflow in
number of individuals, number of taxa, species diversity and community
composition by phyla and feeding type. However, differences among all sites
in these parameters were less pronounced during this period. Capitella
capitata was not in low abundance, and the loptostracan crustacea
Nebalia pugettensis was in highest abundance at the site nearest the overflow.

A cluster analysis of the communities indicated that the communities
closest to shore and northward from the overflow were most altered. The
communities at the sites nearest the overflow appear to be primarily
affected by intense scouring and deposition, whereas those communities
further away appear to respond largely to input of organic debris. The
decreased frequency of overflows in August may be responsible for the
relative decrease in differences among the communities at all distances
from the overflow.








PRODUCTIVITY RESPONSES OF LAKE EOLA
WATER TO URBAN RUNOFF

by

Harvey H. Harper, Yousef A. Yousef, and Martin P. Wanielista
Department of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences
University of Central Florida
Orlando, Florida

ABSTRACT

Lake Eola is a land-locked lake located in downtown Orlando, Florida. Its
surface area is approximately 27.0 acres (11.0 Ha) and water depth is
2 to 3 feet (0.6 to 0.9 meters) near the shore area and 22 feet (6.7 meters)
toward the center. The lake directly drains 85 acres (34.4 Ha) of im-
pervious land and 56 acres (22.7 Ha) of pervious land from commercial and
residential areas. Currently there are coarse screening devices (11 inch
opening) on inlet storm drains which are called grass catchers.

Lake Eola is a focal point for the City of Orlando and is visited by
many tourists for its aesthetic appeal. No swimming, motor boating, or
fishing is allowed. The lake was drained down exposing 40% of the bottom
and approximately 4 feet of mud was removed in 1972-1973. However, input
nutrients, organic and other compounds from street stormwater runoff have
not been effectively managed. Five years later, excess fish and algae have
to be removed periodically and the water quality of Lake Eola is again
questioned.

A research project sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
the Florida State Department of Environmental Regulation and the City of
Orlando is currently underway to determine the lake impacts of pollutants
in stormwater runoff and to develop a methodology for determining optimal
combinations of stormwater management methods.

Periodical water samples are being collected from the lake for various
stormwater events. Changes in water quality parameters with time through
each storm event are documented. Parameters analyzed include alkalinity,
hardness, solids, BOD TOC, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and heavy metals for
particulate and dissolved fractions. Analytical methods followed Standard
Methods for the examination of water and wastewater and EPA's Methods for
Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastewater. Heavy metals including, Zn, Cd,
As, Ni, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Cr are being analyzed using a plasma spectrometer,
SMI SpectrospanIII. Loading rates from nutrients and heavy metals released
to Lake Eola due to stormwater runoff are analyzed, and lake impacts are
evaluated.

Algal bioassay studies are performed to investigate stormwater impacts
on Algal productivity. Periodical water samples are being collected from
various locations in the lake, mixed and filtered for limiting nutrient
studies using various concentrations of N, P, and Fe.









Unialgal species of Selenastrum, Cholorella and indigenous species are
used and changes in chlorophyll "a" and biomass are measured. Initial
results indicate that phosphorus or nitrogen can be limiting at some-
times of the year. However, the ratio of P:N can be more important than
actual concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen separately. Maximum
standing crop seem to occur at N:P ration of 15-20:1.

Also, similar bioassays are performed on a mixture of stormwater,
coagulated stormwater and lake water at different ratios. Higher con-
centrations of stormwater would inhibit algal productivity and smaller ratios
would significantly increase productivity. Additionally, no increase in
productivity is observed when coagulated runoff water is used. These
experiments can be used as useful tools to facilitate stormwater management
decisions.



WATER QUALITY AND BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS
OF URBAN RUNOFF ON COYOTE CREEK

by

Robert Pitt and Martin Bozeman
Woodward Clyde Consultants
San Francisco, CA

ABSTRACT

This preliminary report presents the initial results and conclusions
from the EPA-sponsored demonstration study of the water quality and bio-
logical effects of urban runoff on Coyote Creek, near San Jose, California.
This first phase included investigating various field procedures that would
be most sensitive in evaluating water, sediment and biological changes in
the creek as it passed through the urban area. The procedures identified
as most promising are currently being used in additional Coyote Creek studies.

The report describes the characteristics of urban runoff affecting the
creek, sources of urban runoff pollutants, effects of urban runoff and
potential controls for urban runoff. Local urban runoff characterization
information is summarized, based on a previous EPA sponsored demonstration
project in the area (Demonstration of Non-Point Pollution Abatement
Through Improved Street Cleaning Practices-EPA grant No. S-804432, Pitt
1979) and from the local "208" study (Metcalf and Eddy 1978). Sources of
urban runoff pollutants in the study area are being investigated as an
important part of the field activities of the project and include sampling
runoff from many source areas (such as street surfaces, parking lots,
landscaped areas, rooftops and rain).

Various short- and long-term biological sampling techniques were used
to evaluate the fish, benthic macroinvertebrate and attached algae condi-
tions at many stations in the creek, above and within the urban area.







Creekwater and sediment samples were also obtained and analyzed for a
broad list of parameters. In most cases, very pronounced gradients of these
creek quality indicators were observed, with the urbanized portion of the
creek being significantly degraded. Current additional monitoring is
being conducted to identify the urban runoff control goals necessary to
improve creek quality to adequate levels.








SESSION SEVEN
Tuesday, November 27, 1979
1:20 3:00


NATIONWIDE ASSESSMENT OF URBAN STORMWATER
IMPACTS ON RECEIVING WATER BODIES

by

James P. Heaney, Wayne C. Huber and Melvin E. Lehman
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida

ABSTRACT

Urban stormwater runoff has been recognized in recent years as a po-
tential major contributor of pollution to receiving water bodies. Assess-
ment of urban stormwater runoff pollutant quantities and characteristics
have been made for several areas throughout the United States, the most
ambitious being the Environmental Protection Agency's 208 Areawide Waste-
water Management Planning Program. Price tags for abating urban stormwater
pollution (though elimination or reduction of discharges) range in the
billions of dollars. Projections of high costs have forced a look beyond
abatement of discharges to the receiving water bodies for insight as to what
are the impacts, where are they, and are they significant?

First-year results of a nationwide search for documented case studies of
impacts of urban runoff receiving waters indicate that well-documented cases
are scarce. Impacts previously attributed to urban stormwater runoff may
be point source impacts in disguise, or they may be masked by greater con-
tributions from other sources. In some cases they are offset by hydro-
logical, biological, or geological attributes of the receiving water body.

The lack of documentation and clear definition of urban stormwater impacts
makes the task of assessing importance of this pollution source even more
difficult. Efforts to address this aspect include relating sources of
pollutants and pollutant types to receiving water characteristics and effects
on desired water uses. Characteristics such as stream or lake bed hy-
draulics, present and potential water uses, established stream standards,
ecological data and water quality information are being summarized for the
documented cases to determine how the urban runoff pollutants might behave
or react in the receiving water and what potential use they might affect most
adversely. Results of these analyses are to be used as a basis for de-
vising simple criteria for analyzing an urban area to determine whether
a potential impact does or would occur.









STATISTICS OF ADVECTIVE DISPERSIVE SYSTEM
RESPONSE TO RUNOFF

by

Dominic M. Di Toro
Environmental Engineering and Science Program
Manhattan College, Bronx, NY

ABSTRACT

An analysis is presented for the mean and variance of a one dimensional
advective dispersive system that is subjected to random inputs of runoff.
Analytical solutions are available for which the mass input is represented as
a Poisson process of delta functions. The effects of event to event
variability of runoff mass discharges are included in the formulation as
are the random times between overflows. The method of solution evaluates
the overlapping effects in the receiving water due to the persistence of
discharged mass. Both conservative, first order reactants, and sequentially
reacting substances are considered.

The solutions have certain unexpected properties. In particular, the
normalized variance of BOD and DO are symmetric about the discharge point,
whereas the means of the concentration are not. This is explained in terms
of the effects of advection and dispersion of fluctuations. The analytical
solutions are compared to simulated results using an observed hourly rain-
fall sequence. The results indicate that the within event variability is not
significant, if the receiving water dispersion is large enough. It is also
pointed out that treatment devices such as retention basins which remove a
certain average fraction of the overflowing mass are less effective in re-
moving variance in the receiving water. This phenomena is of importance
in the evaluation of the probable benefit of runoff treatment.



CONTINUOUS RECEIVING WATER QUALITY MODELING FOR
URBAN STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

by

Miguel A. Medina, Jr.
Duke University
Durham, NC

ABSTRACT

A simplified continuous receiving water quality model has been developed
to permit preliminary planning and screening of areawide urban wastewater
treatment alternatives, in terms of frequency of water quality violations
and more traditional approaches such as dissolved oxygen profiles. The
model name is Level III-Receiving.









It simulates the hypothetical response of the stream or tidal river system
to the separate and combined effects of waste inputs from: 1) upstream
sources, 2) dry weather urban sources, and 3) wet weather urban sources.
The total hours of runoff-producing rainfall throughout a year are separated
into storm events by defining a minimum interevent time. For a given storm
event, the runoff and pollutant loads are summed and critical dissolved
oxygen concentrations are estimated as a function of several hydrodynamic
and biochemical parameters. Alternative control strategies are evaluated
in terms of relative impacts by determining the probability of occurrence of
water quality violations. Model output includes the downstreamdissolved
oxygen sag curves computed per each event, and the dissolved oxygen profile
computed at a user-specified location downstream for all simulated events.
An application to the Des Moines River at Des Moines, Iowa, has been made.





POTENTIAL OF STORMWATER IMPACTS BASED ON CAMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
OF WET AND DRY WEATHER POLLUTANT LOADING

by

Douglas C. Ammon and Richard Field
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Edison, New Jersey

ABSTRACT

Recent work indicates that urban runoff and combined sewer overflows
can be significant contributors to the trace contaminant input to urban
receiving waters. For example, a 1975 National Academy of Science Study
est inmates that on a global basis, 2 to 8 percent of the petroleum hydro-
carbons nntLering the ocean is From urban runoff. This paper summarizes
much lI h tl ormwal cr chariact rizat ion data for trace contaminants and
several convent ional parameters, such as BOD)5 and COD. Comparisons are
made among loadings and concentrations from urban runoff, combined sewer
overflows and secondary treatment plant effluents. Finally, the signi-
ficance of each contaminant is identified based on loading potentials or,
whenever possible, based on toxicity to aquatic organisms.









SESSION EIGHT
Tuesday, November 27, 1979
3:30 5:00


THE USE OF RECEIVING WATER QUALITY MODELS IN URBAN
RUNOFF POLLUTION ABATEMENT:
APPLICATION TO MARGINAL BENEFIT MARGINAL COST ANALYSIS

by

Cornelius B. Murphy, Jr.*, Gregory J. Welter*,
Dwight A. MacArthur* and Raymond P Canale**
*O'Brien & Gere Engineers, Inc.
Syracuse, New York
**University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan

ABSTRACT

Urban storm runoff has been determined by a number of investigations to
be a significant portion of the water pollution problem and abatement of this
source has been recognized as a necessary consideration in achieving the
national water quality goals of PL 92-500. However, due to the highly ir-
regular nature of the runoff phenomenon, abatement measures that address this
problem tend to be very expensive. Thus, in the EPA construction grants
program great importance has been placed on careful planning demonstrating the
cost-effectiveness of proposed projects (Program Guidance Memorandum 61).

The benefits of runoff pollution abatement measures must be evaluated in
terms of projected receiving water quality conditions relative to some defined
quality standards. There is considerable experience in the establishment of
water quality standards and resultant effluent limitations for non-transient
municipal and industrial discharges, generally through the use of mathematical
models. Generally, these models are applied against a "design" receiving
water hydrologic regime (for instance, 10-year, 7-day low flow) and effluent
limitations selected which will meet the desired water quality standards.
This steady-state analysis assumes a toleration of water quality contravention
from the discharge of a low frequency corresponding to the designated low flow.

This approach is not wholly adequate to analysis of the problem posed
by intermittent storm runoff discharges. These analyses require alternate
modeling approaches and a restatement of pertinent standards to reflect the
short-term high variability of the storm runoff event.

Using ongoing studies of combined sewer systems in Rochester, New York
and Washington, D.C., as case studies, a procedure is presented for the
application of receiving water analyses in urban runoff planning. The studies
in both areas have included the development of water quality models based on
familiar concepts of mass balance and calibrated against detailed field sur-
veys and laboratory experiments.









In the Rochester study, steady state models of dissolved oxygen in the
Genesee and fecal coliform concentrations in the Rochester Embayment of Lake
Ontario are used to project receiving water conditions under dry-weather loads
and an envelope of expected impacts of the combined sewer overflows under
various system configurations. A time-variable model of Rock Creek and the
Potomac and Anacostia Rivers has been used to project transient fecal coliform
nutrient and dissolved oxygen concentrations resulting from overflows from
the District of Columbia sewer system.


In an analysis of marginal costs and marginal benefits associated with
various combined sewer overflow abatement alternatives, a series of model
runs are made to project the impact of various waste discharges from the
alternate system configurations on the receiving waters under several
hydrologic regimes and ambient temperatures. The conjoint probabilities of
the receiving water conditions and storm loads are determined on the basis
of historical records and used to project the expected water quality under
the alternative system configurations. These projections can be quantified
as water quality improvements in terms of expected degree of contravention
of stream standards with regards to frequency, duration, areal extent and
peak concentration. On the basis of this analysis of project cost estimates
drawn from generalized cost curves, marginal costs and benefits can be dis-
played graphically for each alternative.

The analysis of the Syracuse, New York, Rochester, New York and the
District of Columbia combined sewer facilities planning activities are dis-
cussed relative to this marginal cost-marginal benefit approach as case
studies.



COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW IMPACTS ON URBAN LAKE
AND ASSOCIATED ABATEMENT METHODOLOGY

by


Peter E. Moffa, John C. Byron, Steven D. Freedom,
and John M. Karanik
Stearns & Wheler
Cazenovia, New York

ABSTRACT

A general methodology is presented for the evaluation of the impact and
abatement of combined sewer overflows on receiving waters. It was developed
from experience with Onondaga Lake, an urban lake in Central New York that
receives major combined sewer overflows from the City of Syracuse via two
tributary streams.

Field investigations of the combined sewer system and the receiving
water must first be undertaken.









The field work includes flow measurement and water-quality sampling of the
sewer overflows and the receiving waters during several different storms.
Use of a computerized data bank has been found virtually essential for the
storage and manipulation of the large quantity of data resulting from the
sampling and analysis.

Mathematical modeling of the receiving water is undertaken to evaluate
water quality as a function of pollutant load; the storm sewer system is
modeled to determine the quantities of pollutants discharged during storms
of various recurrence intervals. Prior to the modeling effort, analysis of
local rainfall records is necessary to develop the classical intensity-
duration-frequency relationships. After assessing the water-quality impact
of dry-weather pollutants from wastewater treatment plants and other sources,
the results of the two models can be combined to express the reduction in
stormwater pollutants needed to achieve a particular water-quality objective
as a function of storm frequency or storm recurrence interval.

Abatement alternatives, and their respective costs, for the reduction of
pollutants from wet-weather sources, particularly combined sewer overflows,
are next investigated. Using engineering judgment of the most effective and
economic abatement measures, a relationship is then developed between abate-
ment cost and storm frequency for each of several water-quality criteria or
standards. From the cost-benefit relationships thus developed, a graphical
determination can be made of the "general optimum solution" (COS) for re-
duction or treatment of combined sewer overflows.

It is recognized that the quality of the receiving water resulting from
the COS may not be acceptable to the general public or regulatory agencies.
In that case, a decision to provide greater (or lesser) pollution abatement
will be based upon social or political considerations, but the governmental
body making the decision will be cognizant of its economic implications.

In the study for Onondaga County, New York, from which the methodology
was developed, 35 overflows from the combined sewers of the City of Syracuse,
which serve an area of about eight square miles, were monitored for a period
of one year. Onondaga Lake, the principal receiving water, is approximately
four and one-half square miles in surface area; it was sampled at tne sur-
face locations, each at two distinct depths, for the period of influence of
each of six storms. The Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) was applied to
the City's sewer system. A 27-segment, three-dimensional, dynamic water-
quality model with capability of predicting enteric bacteria, dissolved
oxygen, nutrients, and toxic materials, was developed.

From the models, it was determined that the impact of CSO's on dissolved-
oxygen concentrations in Onondaga Lake will not be critical after tertiary
treatment facilities for dry-weather wastewaters are placed in operation; a
maximum DO deficit of 2.8 milligrams per liter was predicted for a 10-year,
two-hour storm. Combined sewer overflow contributions of phosphorus will be
negligible in comparison to those from other sources.

In an average rainfall year, 38 violations of the fecal coliform standard
will occur in the area of the lake intended for contact recreation.









If abatement of CSO pollution were to follow the "optimum general solution"
of this methodology, there would still be 13 annual violations, ten of which
persists for about three days, more extensive CSO abatement will be required
if the projected recreational usage of Onondaga Lake is to be realized.



A WATER QUALITY PLANNING METHODOLOGY FOR URBAN AREAS

by

Franklin W. (Skip) Ellis* and Ron Wycoff**
*CH2M HILL, Reston, Virginia
**CH2M HILL, Gainesville, Florida

ABSTRACT

The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) 1978 Needs Survey reported
that an estimated $36 billion is required to construct necessary municipal
wastewater treatment facilities. Additionally, $26 billion is required to
control pollution from combined sewer overflow, and $46 billion is required
to control urban stormwater runoff. In light of the current trend toward
reduced taxes, local funds for water quality projects will become more limi-
ted. Moreover, the public should demand that such projects demonstrate per-
ceptible improvements in water quality and are required for the protection
of the intended beneficial use of the receiving water. Further, the most
cost-effective pollution control alternatives should be used. Without this
assurance, required pollution abatement projects may well go unfunded.

Based upon information gained in the performance of the EPA's 1978
Needs Survey, a two-phase approach to water quality planning is presented
that determines the most cost-effective mix of control alternatives and their
impacts on the receiving water. This approach is general in nature but is
oriented toward combined sewer overflow (CSO) areas and the requirements of
EPA's Program Requirements Memorandum, PRM No. 75-34.

Phase I is an initial assessment designed to answer the following
questions:
1. What is the intended beneficial use of the receiving water?
2. What water quality goals or criteria are required to ensure this
use?
3. Based on the goals, is there a water quality problem?
4. Can CSO, urban runoff, or domestic wastewater abatement techniques
solve the problem, and what degree of controls is required?
5. If the problem can be solved, what controls, in general, are the
most cost effective, and what is the nature of the tradeoffs be-
tween cost, degree of control, and receiving water quality?
6. Considering these tradeoffs, are changes in the water quality
goals, or in the desired beneficial use for the receiving water
indicated?










This two-phase approach is designed to achieve water quality goals
established to protect a given beneficial use of the receiving water.
Rather than a fixed limit, such as a minimum dissolved oxygen standard,
statistical water quality responses are used as the goals. Examples from
the EPA's 1978 Needs Survey illustrate this point.

Phase I involves the use of a simple, continuous receiving water
quality model and the Heaney-Nix economic optimization procedure. The model,
the Continuous Stormwater Pollution Simulation System (CSPSS), incorporates
the pertinent features of an urban area and its receiving water. A very
brief description of CSPSS is given. The economic optimization is per-
formed using estimated areawide production functions for a first-cut analysis
of the costs required for various levels of pollution abatement. The water
quality model uses these relationships to produce cost-water quality relation-
ships that can be used to guide planners as to the desirability of various
pollution abatement projects. Studies from areas with CSO's are presented.

If the results of the Phase I analysis indicate that there are water
quality problems that can be corrected with affordable solutions, the de-
tailed analysis of Phase II is required. This phase considers, in much
greater detail, the area's hydrology, combined sewer system hydraulics,
nonpoint and point source pollutants, and the receiving water quality re-
sponse, thus requiring more sophisticated data and models.

The product of the Phase II analysis is a description of the optimal
mix of control alternatives, the total plan costs, and the receiving water
quality response due to the plan. The description of the alternatives in-
cludes the level of effort required, the area to which the alternative
applies, the expected pollutant reduction due to the alternative, and the
cost of the alternative.

In summary, this two-phase approach can result in substantial
monetary savings by obtaining economically optimal solutions. Use of this
methodology also explicitly evaluates the benefits or improvements in
water quality as a result of the project. These features satisfy EPA
planning requirements and should assure the public that their tax dollars
are wisely spent.




Full Text

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---------------WATER IiRESOURCES researc center PUBLICATION NO. 47 METHODS FOR QUANTIFYING WATER QUALITY BENEFITS By James P. Heaney and Elizabeth Waring Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences University of Florida Gainesville, FLorida 32611 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

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PUBLICATION NO. 47 METHODS FOR QUANTIFYING WATER QUALITY BENEFITS By James P. Heaney and Elizabeth Waring Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences University of Florida Gainesville, FLorida 32611

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Methods for Quantifying Water Quality Benefits By James P. Heaney and Elizabeth Waring Dept. of Environmental Engg. Sci. University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611 To Chicago District U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Chicago, Illinois January 1980

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TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction II. Benefits Defined. III. Literature Review IV. Results General .. Benefit-Cost Analysis Public Health Recreation. Aesthetics Property Values Water Quality/Water Treatment Social Benefits Case Studies V. Acknowledgements. VI. Appendix A -Abstracts of Orlando Conference 1 2 5 8 8 23 29 33 44 47 52 56 60 64 65

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The Chicago land Underflow Plan Water Quality Evaluation-Literature Search and Screening I. Introduction This report authorized by the Department of the Army, Chicago District, Corps of Engineers, was prepared in conjunction with their Plan of Study for the Chicagoland Underflow Plan, Phase I GDM. The Underflow Plan was undertaken to improve water quality in the area of Cook County, Illinois. The project area incorporates the largest combined sewer system in the nation, combining domestic sewage and stormwater runoff from Chicago and 51 adjacent communities. The assignment authorized under this contract was to conduct a literature search identifying sources which attempt to estimate, quantify, or otherwise account for benefits resulting from improved water quality within the context of the Chicago Underflow Plan. The search was to uncover all studies where methods have been developed to evaluate and/or quantify beneficial economic impacts of improved water quality in lakes, streams, and rivers of urban areas. According to the Scope of Work, the literature sources were to include material from the environmental, water quality, and economics literature with the primary references extracted from computer assisted literature searches. The final listing was to be catalogued in the form of an alphabetized bibliography. A screening process was to be carried out in order to select the 20 to 30 most germane references. I

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II. Benefits Defined Freeman (1979) defines the benefit of an environmental improvement as the sum of the monetary values assigned to pollution abatement effects by all individuals directly or indirectly affected. These values are often estimated in terms of individuals' "willingness to pay" for improved water quality or their willingness to be compensated for adverse conditions. All of these values are based on individual preferences. Other benefit estimations deal more directly with pollution control costs. Decreased health costs and water treatment costs, for example, can be used as direct economic benefits due to improved water quality. Also, increased market value of property and increased recreational revenues can be directly used in benefit quantification. The literature we have accumulated evaluates these methods of benefit estimation and offers some feasible approaches to undertaking a benefit evaluation project. Ehrenfeld (1977) provides a broader list of benefit categories based on an ecologic perspective. He lists the following nine categories of "economic" benefits: 1. recreation and aesthetic values, 2. undiscovered or undeveloped, 3. ecosystem stabilization, 4. examples of survival, 5. environmental baseline and monitoring values, 2

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6. scientific research values, 7. teaching values, 8. habitat reconstruction values, and 9. conservation values: avoidance of irreversible change. An anthropocentric view is taken in this review, i.e., it is based on man's value system. Thus, categories such as ecosystem stabilization are included in the calculus only if improvement in ecosystem stabilization can be shown to have some value to man. There are ways, admittedly crude ones, of valuing such categories. The cost of an alternative justifiable expenditure to provide equivalent benefits may be used to value a material resource. Procedures for valuing more conventional categories of benefits have evolved over the past thirty five years. There have been many arguments regarding how these benefits should be measured. However, mutually acceptable ground rules have been developed. Analogously, similar guidelines can evolve for these newer ecologically oriented categories but a significant research effort is needed. Unfortunately little information exists because this is a relatively new area and agencies have not been required to measure water quality benefits during the past several years. With the present state of the art, water quality benefits can be classified into the following major categories: 1) public health 2) recreation 3

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3) aesthetics 4) property values 5) direct economic damages, e.g., crop damage due to salinity, increased downstream water treatment costs 6) social impacts Each of these categories is summarized in the next sections. Each section includes a brief description of the category, abstracts of key references and references to other sources. The next section describes the literature review. Then a general discussion of benefits is presented as a prelude to the discussion of the specific categories. 4

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III. Literature Review A systematic search and review of literature sources was conducted. Major sources included: 1) Computerized literature searches a. Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC) system of the U.S. Department of Interior, Office of Water Research and Technology b. National Technical Information Service (NTIS) c. Lockheed's DIALOG d. University of Florida State Technologies Application Center (STAC) information system which is tied into the NASA system of about 20 million publications. e. Engineering Index (COMPENDEX) 2. Professional journals of statewide, national, and international subscription including a. Journal Water Pollution Control Federation Annual Literature Review b. Journal Environmental Engineering Division ASCE c. Water Resources Research d. Water Resources Bulletin e. American Economic Review f. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management The above journals were emphasized because they were most frequently cited in the computer searches. They were also the most popular sources of information in our personal references on this subject. 5

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According to Knightly and Morehead (1979) above sources a, b, c, and d are among the ten leading journals for water resources references. 3. Reports of the National Commission on Water Quality The National Commission on Water Quality was established by Section 315 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. The Commission's mandate was to: make a full and complete investigation and study of all the technological aspects of achieving, and all aspects of the total economic, social, and environmental effects of achieving or not achieving, the effluent limitations and goals set forth for 1983 in section 301(b) (2) of the Act. The Commission focused mainly on the goal and effluent limitations for 1983, and the effects of applying these limitations. Most of the studies performed were contracted out by the Commission. They provide a wide range of benefit and cost information, and the Final Staff Report presents on overall summary of findings. 4. Telephone conversations, University of Florida library investigations, and discussions with members of the economics department. 5. An EPA sponsored national specialty conference titled Urban Stormwater and Combined Sewer Overflow-Impact on Receiving Water Bodies was held in Orlando, Florida in November 1979. Abstracts of the paper from this conference are included as Appendix A. Discussions at this meeting indicated the importance of quantifying the benefits of water pollution control. 6

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Unfortunately, little definitive information on benefits appear to be available. Technical studies of receiving water impact in Milwaukee by Meinholz appear to be closely related to problems in Chicago. The breakdown of the literature into ten categories was decided upon after the search process began. Many of the benefit studies were found to apply to specific areas of concern such as property values, recreation benefits, etc. Consequently, it seemed appropriate to group the sources in terms of their more specific topics. The result is intended to add more organization to the final report as well as facilitate user accessibility to the references. The screening process for selecting the best references for annotation was based on three main considerations. First, relevance to the subject topic was considered. References and case studies dealing specifically with benefits from urban stormwater improvements were carefully examined., Second, the extent and quality of information given in the source was noted. Finally, the eminence of the author(s) and/or the mention of the reference in other source bibliographies was used as an indication of the soundness and usefulness of the document for the purposes of this study. The computer search abstracts or the reference itself was reviewed for this screening process. Some of the abstracts used in this report were taken from the WRSIC and NTIS computer literature search information. They are identified at the beginning of each abstract. Those not identified as such were written by us. 7

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IV. Results General This category includes material of a non-specific nature or material encompassing a number of topic ranges. They are intended to given an overall view of benefit assessment. 8

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Ackerman, B.A., 1974. mental Quality. London. Book Preface The Uncertain Search for EnvironCollier MacMillian Publishers, This book is a result of an intensive effort during the summer of 1970 to scrutinize the diverse aspects of the decisionmaking process which led to the adoption of a massive program to clean up the Delaware River. Officials at all levels of government were interviewed, and officials of more than 80 of the Delaware's polluters were also engaged in face-to-face discussions for the purpose of obtaining official scientific and economic analyses. Chapters 7, 8, and 9 deal specifically with the assessment of economic benefits. 9

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Bovet, E. D., 1974. _E __ v_al ____ u_a_t_i_o_n_o_f_Q..,.u_al __ i_t"-y ____ P..:.;a_r_a_m_e_t_e_r __ s'__J...;;,." n_ Water Resources Planning: A State-of-the-Art Survey ..:.o..;:f ____ t:..::h.::.:e:-:-:E=-:c;-.:o:-n..;;.o_m_J.;::." c.:,..s,,--o:,-=-f_W.;..;...:.;a..:.t..:.e.;,;:r---:Q...:u:..::a'-.l.c.;;i:;..t-,,-y. IWR Contract Report 74-13, December. WRSIC Abstract In this study literature was reviewed and results compiled to evaluate the economic aspects of water quality. Chapters I through V contain information on water quality, classification, and costs associated with treatment. Chapter VI discusses water quality benefit measurement as based on two major methods: willingness-to-pay and substitution of alternative cost. Chapter VII reviews the economic techniques for optimal water supply purification and allocations and Chapter VIII considers economic techniques for the optimal solution of the pollution problem. Four problems are specifically discussed: waste disposal, effluent charges and control, receiving water quality management, and optimal waste treatment. 10

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Freeman, A.M., 1979. The Benefits of Environmental Improvement. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press for Resources for the Future, Baltimore. This book attempts to bridge the gap between the elegant definition of welfare change and benefit derived from theoretical welfare economics and the ad hoc empirical techniques used by some researchers to estimate the benefits of environmental improvements stemming from air and water pollution control. A unified theoretical treatment of the concepts of benefits and the empirical techniques appropriate for their measurement is undertaken. Techniques for estimating various forms of benefits are described as they relate to underlying economic welfare theory, and some of the pitfalls and problems in applying the techniques are discussed. Included is a systematic analysis of how interactions between demands for public goods and private goods can be used to derive conceptually sound estimates of benefits from market behavior. Nonmarket approaches such as surveys and bidding games are discussed with the objective of helping practitioners select the appropriate technique for a particular purpose. 11

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Jordening, D.L., 1974. Estimating Water Quality Benefits. EPA Socioeconomic Environmental Studies Series, EPA 600/5-74/014, Wash., D.C., August. NTIS Abstract The objective of this report is to present a state-of-the-art summary concerning estimating water quality associated benefits. The summary is viewed as a useful administrative tool to those that have been assigned the task of directing current and future research activity. The summary is presented by specific pollutants by beneficial use, devoting special attention to hypothesized and documented use-quality relationships. A discussion of the economic quantification of these relationships is also included. The beneficial uses considered include recreation, aesthetics, property values, and ecology with only limited attention devoted to water quality associated health and production impacts. Specific references and methodologies are discussed with the ultimate objective of providing a state of the art assessment by beneficial use.. The assessment was also useful in deriving conclusions concerning research priorities and possible results of future water quality related research. 12

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Kneese, A.V., 1968. Water Resource Values. Johns Hopkins Press for Resources for the Future, Baltimore. WRSIC Abstract A discussion of water resources values is presented stemming from the basic premise that the net value of water quality in water courses is a function of both the benefits resulting from improved water quality versus costs of attaining the specified quality. While progress has been made in pollution control, serious problems continue, notably the problem of residuals in treated municipal waste and control of industrial waste. The regional systems approach is suggested for the solution of the water pollution problems. Conclusions are reached that both costs and gains of quality improvement must be considered in determining the maximum net value of rivers. Finally, it is contended that scientific and engineering developments can be applied rationally and systematically provided their economic and institutional impacts also are understood and considered in the evaluation process. 13

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Maler, K.G., and R.E. Wyzga, 1976. Economic Measurement of Environmental Damage. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris. Book Preface This handbook is designed to acquaint those who develop environmental policy with the concept and utility of environmental damage functions. Situations are cited where monetary damage functions can be applied usefully in the development and execution of environmental policy. Methods are reviewed which can be used to estimate environmental damage functions, and guidelines are provided to ensure that the resulting estimates are meaningful and in accord with economic principles. A review of the state-of-art of the estimation and utilizations of monetary damage estimates is intended to help stimulate further research in those areas where it is needed. 14

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Ott, Wayne R., ]978. Environmental Indices. Ann Arbor Science Publ. Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich. This book is a compilation of all existing environmental index systems, covering their practical uses, development, and application for current research needs. Included are statistical approaches for deter-mining environmental trends, indices for decision-making purposes and techniques for comparing different geographical areas. Chapter V is of particular note as it goes beyond the quantitative techniques for analyz-ing environmental phenomena and presents a conceptual approach to the state-of-the environment. Models explaining the "Quality of Life" concept as well as environmental damage functions are included. The measurements of environmental variables incorporated in this text are intended for use as precise and objective means for determining and interpreting environmental quality. 15

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Polhemus, V.D., 1974. Alternative Methods of Evaluating the Economic and Social Aspects of Water Quality. M.A. Thesis, Rutgers The State Univ., New Brunswick, N.J., January. WRSIC Abstract Within the decision making process which justifies or rejects programs to restore environmental quality, there is implicit a system of measurement. Described are the problem of deteriorating water quality and the need for a reliable, uniform evaluation system within the existing framework of a free market where personal freedoms are continually being eroded by increasing government activity. Presented are techniques of dollar value, index and group measurement which have been accepted in the past or are currently proposed in the literature. Of all the possible evaluation techniques reviewed,not one was free of criticism; however, monetary techniques reflecting market values were least objectionable. 16

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Sinden, J. A., and A. C. Worrell, 1979. Unpriced Values: Decisions without Market Prices. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. This text deals with the general problem of unpriced values in policy decisions. The approach is taken that it is possible to deter-mine comparative values for unpriced goods and that valid comparisons can be made without always resorting to monetary values. Economic theory can help provide means for analyzing decisions although its application to practical problems is severely restricted by its under-lying assumptions. These weaknesses can be overcome by: 1) relying on basic notions of utility, disuti1ity, and value rather than rationa1-izing theory with complex assumptions; 2) searching for improved rather than optimal decisions; and 3) concentrating on the nature of problems rather than always searching for monetary values. By understanding the real nature of problems, a wider and simpler use of economic principles can be applied for environmental policy making. 17

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General Abel, Fred H., et al., 1975. National Benefits of Water Pollution Control. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D. C. Ackerman, B. A., 1974. The Uncertain Search for Environmental Quality. Collier MacMillian Publishers, London. Ackerman, B. A., et al., 1974. The Uncertain Search for Environmental Policy. Glencoe Ill., Free Press. Baumol, W. J., and W. E. Oates, 1975. The Theory of Environmental Policy. Prentice-Hall, Inc., New Jersey. Blair T. Bower, editor, 1977. Regional Residuals Environmental Quality Management Modeling. Resources for the Future, Wash., D.C. Bovet, E. D., 1974. Evaluation of Quality Parameters in Water Resources Planning: A State-of-the-Art Survey of the Economics of Water Quality. IWR Contract Report 74-13, December. Brandt, G. H., et al., 1972. An Economic Analysis of Erosion and Sediment Control Methods for Watersheds Undergoing Urbanization. Dow Chemical Company. Comptroller General of the U.S., 1979. Combined Sewer Flooding and Pollution--A National Problem. The Search for Solutions in Chicago: What Can Be Done to Minimize or Eliminate Urban Flooding. Government Printing Office, Wash., D.C., May. Conner, R. and E. Loehman, eds., 1974. Economics and Decision-Making for Environmental Quality. University of Florida Press. Emerson, M. J., and H. Akhavipour, 1978. An Examination of the Economic Impact of Pollution Control Upon Non-Point Source of Pollution. unpublished. Environmental Protection Agency, 1973. The Economics of Clean Water. Government Printing Office, Wash., D.C., December. EPA, 1979. Benefit Analysis for Combined Sewer Overflow Control. Env. Research Info. Center, Cincinnati, April. Fisher, A. C., 1972. The Evaluation of Benefits from Pollution Abatement. EPA Office of Planning and Evaluation. Fisher, A. C. and Peterson, 1976. "The Environment in Economics: A Survey." Journal of Economic Literature. Vol. 14, No.1, March. Fischer, D. W. and R. R. Kerton, 1973. Toward a Theory of Environmental Economics. Dept. of Econ., Univ. of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont., Canada. 18

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Freeman, A. Myrick III, 1979. The Benefits of Environmental Improvement. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press for Resources for the Future, Baltimore. ------------------------,1976. "Possibility and Usefulness of National Benefit Estimates." In A. Hershaft (ed.), Critical Review of Estimating Benefits of Air and Water Pollution Control, EPA, April. ------------------------, et al., 1973. The Economics of Environmental Policy. Wiley, New York, New York. Grigg, N. S. and o. J. Helwig, 1975. "State-of-Art of Estimating Flood Damage in Urban Areas." Water Resources Bulletin, Vol. 11, No.2, April, pp. 379-390. Hanke, S. H., et al., 1975. "Project Evaluation During Inflation." Water Resources Research, Vol. 11. Heaney, J. P., et. al., 1977. Nationwide Evaluation of Combined Sewer Overflows and Urban Stormwater Discharges: Cost Assessment and Impacts. EPA Environmental Protection Series, EPA-600/2-77-064, Cincinnati, Ohio. Heintz, J. H., et al., 1976. National Damages of Air and Water Pollution. Enviro. Control, Inc., under contract to the U.S. EPA. Johnson, E. L., 1967. "A Study in the Economics of Water Quality Management." Water Resources Research, Vol. 3, pp. 291-305. Jordening, D. L., 1974. Estimating Water Quality Benefits. Development Planning and Research Associates, Inc., EPA Socioeconomic Environmental Studies Series, EPA 600/5-74/014, Wash., D.C., August. Kansas Department of Health and Environment, Water Quality Management Section, 1978, Water Quality Analysis. Final Draft, November. Kneese, A. V., 1968. "Economics and the Quality of the Environment: Some Empirical Experiences." In Garnsey and Gibbs, eds., Social Sciences and the Environment, Univ. of Colo. Press, Boulder. _____________ 1964. The Economics of Regional Water Quality Management. The Johns Hopkins Press for Resources for the Future, Baltimore. -----------,1968. Water Resource Values. The Johns Hopkins Press for Resources for the Future, Baltimore. ______ 1967. Water Quality" 5-18. "What Are We Learning from Economic Studies of Engineering Progress, Vol. 21, No.6, June, pp. ________ et al., 1970. Economics and the Environment, A Materials Balance Approach. The Johns Hopkins Press for Resources for the Future, Baltimore. 19

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Kneese, A. V. and B. T. Bower, 1972. Environmental Quality Analysis: Theory and Method in the Social Sciences. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore. 1968. -------Institutions. Managing Water Quality: Economies, Technology, Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore. Kruti11a, J. V., 1975. The Economics of Natural Environments: Studies In the Valuation of Commodity and Amenity Resources. The Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore. Lind, R. C., 1973. "Spatial Equilibrium: The Theory of Rent and the Measurement of Benefits from Public Programs." Quarterly Jour. of Econ., Vol. 87, No.2, May. Miler, K. G. and R. E. Wyzga, 1976. Economic Measurement of Environmental Damage. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris. Mathews, W. H., 1975. "Objective and Subjective Judgements in Environmental Impact Analysis." Environmental Conservation, Vol. 2, pp. 121-131. McKusick, R., et a1., 1977. "The Values of Goods and Services-Implications for a Flexible National Water Policy." Water Resources Bulletin, Vol. 13, No.3, June. Mills, E. S., 1978. The Economics of Environmental Quality. W. W. Norton and Co., Inc., New York. Mishan, E. J., 1976. "The Use of Compensating and Equivalent Variations in Cost-Benefit Analysis." Economics, Vol. 43, May. ____ --:::-:--'--:----:___ 1976. "Possibility and Usefulness of National Benefit Estimates." In A. Hershaft (ed.), Critical Review of Estimating Benefits of Air and Water Pollution Control, EPA, April. et a1., 1973. The Economics of Environmental ---------,---Policy. Wiley, New York, New York. North, R. M., et al., 1974. Survey of Economic-Ecologic Impacts of Small Watershed Development. Office of Water Resources Research, Wash., D.C., June. Ogg, C., et a1., 1979. Economics of Water Quality in Agriculture--A Literature Review. USDA, Economics, Statistics, and Cooperatives Service, Wash., D.C., July. Ott, W. R.,1978. Environmental Indices. Ann Arbor Science Pub1. Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich. Panagiotakotou1os, D., 1975. "A Multi-Objective Framework for Environmental Management Using Goal Programming." Jour. Env. Sys., Vol. 5, No.2, pp. 133-147. 20

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Parker, D. S. and J. A. Crutchfield, 1968. "Water Quality Management and the Time Profile of Benefits and Costs." Water Resources Research, Vol. 4, No.2, pp. 233-246. Pendse, D. and J. P. Wyckoff, 1974. "Scope for Valuation of Environmental Goods." Land Economics, Vol. 50, No.1, February. Polhemus, V. D., 1974. Alternative Methods of Evaluating the Economic and Social Aspects of Water Quality. M.A. Thesis, Rutgers-The State Univ., New Brunswick, N.J., January. Randall, A., 1979. "The Concept of Economic Value and Its Application in Project Evaluation." Paper presented at the Multiple Objective Planning Workshop, Tucson, Arizona, February. Richardson, P. and R. Johnson, 1975. "Environmental Values and Water Quality Jour. Hydraulics Div., ASCE, Vol. 101, No. HY2, February. Roberts, H. A., and H. Sievering, 1977. A Guide to Environmental Benefits Assessment in Economic Impact Studies. Illinois Institute for Environmental Quality, Chicago. Seneca, J. J. and M. K. Taussig, 1974. Environmental Economics. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Sinden, J. A., and A. C. Worrell, 1979. Unpriced Values: Decisions without Market Prices. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. Smith, C. and T. Hogg, 1971. "Benefits and Beneficiaries: Contrasting Economic and Cultural Distinctions." Water Resources Research, Vol. 7, No.2, April. Smith, M. A., 1974. Field Test of an Environmental Impact Assessment Methodology. Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, August. Teclaff, L. A., 1975. "Environmental Implications of River Basin Development Including Water Quality Management: General Report." Paper No. 51, UN Interregional Seminar on River Basin and Interbasin Development, Budapest, Hungary, September. Thrall, R. M., et al., eds., 1976. Economic Modeling for Water Policy Evaluation. North-Holland Publishing Company. Timmons, J. F., 1970. Economic Aspects. Journal of the Iowa Agricultural and Home Economics Experiment Station, Iowa State Univ., Ames, Iowa. Unger, S. G., 1975. National Benefits of Achieving the 1977, 1983, 1985 Water Quality Goals. EPA Socioeconomic Environmental Studies, Wash., D.C. 21

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USEPA, 1975. Non-point Source Pollution Seminar. Office of the Great Lakes Coordinator, November. ---,1972. The Economic Impact of Pollution Control: A Summary of Recent Studies, Dept. of Commerce, Wash., D.C., March. ,1979. Costs and Water Quality Impacts of Reducing Agricultural ---Non-point Source Pollution. Appendix E, EPA-600/5-79-009, Office of Research and Development, August. Wallis,!., 1978. "Comparison of Tangibles and Intangibles." Jour. Env. Engr. Div. ASCE, Vol. 104, No. EE4, August, pp. 625-637. Water Resources Council, 1969. "Section VI: Evaluation Practices and Measurement Techniques. II In Procedures of Evaluation of Water Wash., D.C., June, pp. 74-119. Westman, W. E., 1977. "How Much Are Nature's Services Worth?" Science. Vol. 197, September. Whipple, W., 1969. "Conceptual Problems in Water Quality Economics." Jour. San. Engr. Div., ASCE, Vol. 95, October. ,1974. Environmental Quality and Its Evaluation. Water Resources ----Research Inst., Rutgers-The State University, January. 22

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Benefit-Cost Analysis Benefit-cost analysis is the technique for measuring the effects of government programs on people's welfare. The benefit-cost studies listed reveal the extensive techniques developed to estimate the economic benefits of various projects. They also include appraisals of the rationale used in benefit-cost analysis and criticisms of the methodology typically employed. 23

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Jordening, D.L., and J.K. A11wood, 1973. Research Needs and Priorities! Water Pollution Control Benefits and Costs, Vol. II. EPA Socio-economic Environmental Studies Series, EPA 600/5-73-008b, October. Report Abstract This report includes foremost a specification of research needs and priorities involving water pollution control costs and benefits. A series of theoretical and methodological research needs are presented. Water quality management is required in a dynamic setting and over a broad range of hydrologic and economic conditions. The common property resource aspects of the problem with the prevalence of externalities complicates the issues involved. These and other factors embedded in the research needs are discussed. Included among a series of technical appendicies are two relevant discussions: (1) water pollution control cost and benefit estimates, and (2) water quality associated health impacts. They include useful tables and results from several case studies. 24

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Peskin, H.M., and E.P. Seskin, 1975. Cost-Benefit Analysis and Water Pollution Policy. Urban Institute, Wash., D.C. NTIS Abstract The editors and 17 other authors probe the state-of-the-art of cost-benefit analysis as related to water pollution. They survey the existing literature on costs and benefits, discuss the difficulties of measuring both costs and benefits, and suggest measures for overcoming them, both from theoretical perspectives and in terms of actual applications to practical situations involving pollution. Such questions as how to assign monetary values to good health and the perpetuation of life are confronted. The authors discuss the implications for public policy from many angles--where the pollution should be measured, who should pay (and how much) for water pollution abatement, whether pollution reaches a "point of no return" after which bodies of water can no longer be cleaned up, what control mechanisms are feasible, and whether institutional changes are needed to take account of the "common property" feature of natural resources. The chapters are based on a 1973 symposium sponsored by EPA. 25

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Unger, S.G., et al., 1973. State-of-Art Review: Water Pollution Control Benefits and Costs, Vol. 1. EPA Socioeconomic Environmental Studies Series, EPA 600/5-73 OOSa, Wash., D.C., October. Report Abstract This report presents a survey and assessment of the state-of-art of economic analyses dealing with water pollution control benefits and costs. The investigation includes the extension of traditional benefit-cost analysis into the area of pollution control. A conceptual basis for benefit-cost analysis involving water quality management is suggested. An economic concept of a social welfare function is presented as the most widely accepted public criterion which embodies environmental quality concerns. Problems of efficiency, equity, externalities and social discount rates are summarized. Benefit measurements of water quality factors are meager and underdeveloped. A variety of partial-equilibrium approaches to benefit measurement are outlined and some problems are described. 26

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Benefit-Cost Studies Dorfman, R., 1977. "Incidence of the Benefits and Costs of Environmental Programs." Amer. Econ. Rev., Vol. 67, p. 333. Hanke, S. H., and R. A. Walker, 1974. "Benefit-Cost Analysis Reconsidered: An Evaluation of the Midstate Project." Water Resources Res., Vol. 10, No.5, October, pp. 898-908. Harza Engineering Company, 1972. Development of a Flood and Pollution Control Plan for the Chicagoland Area. Benefit-Cost Finance Scheduling. Technical Report Part 7, December. Jordening, D. and Allwood, 1973. Research Needs and Priorities: Water Pollution Control Benefits and Costs. Vol. II, EPA Socioeconomic Env. Studies Series, EPA-600/5-73-008b, October. Levadie, B. and R. T. Miki, 1976. "Buying a Clean Environment: Is Cost/Benefit Analysis Really Necessary?" New Engineer, March, and Letters to the Editor, July/August. Nash, C., 1975. "An Evaluation of Cost-Benefit Analysis Criteria." Scottish Jour. Pol. Econ., Vol. 22, p. 121. Peskin, H. M. and E. P. Seskin, 1975. Cost-Benefit Analysis and Water Pollution Policy. Urban Institute, Wash., D.C. Peterson, J. M., 1975. "Benefit Cost Analysis--A Necessary Part of Environmental Decision-making." Jour. Env. Sys., Vol. 5, No.4, pp. 291-297. Pyatt, E. E., et aI., 1964. "Benefit-Cost Analysis for Municipal Water Supplies." Land Economics, November. Ragode, R. K., et aI., 1976. "Metarationality in Benefit Cost Analysis." Water Resources Research, Vol. 12, No.5, October, pp. 1069-1076. Roberts, M. J., M. Haneman, and S. Oster, 1974. Study of the Measurement and Distribution of Cost and Benefits of Water Pollution Control, Cambridge, Mass : Harvard University Press. Sampedro, R. M., 1972. "Costs and Benefits of the Abatement of Pollution of Biscayne Bay, Miami, Florida." Univ. of Miami Tech. Bull., No. 24, December. Sassone, Peter G. and William A. Schaffer, 1978. Cost-Benefit Analysis: A Handbook, Academic Press. Unger, S. J. and Jordening, D. L. 1974. Bibliography of Water Pollution Control Benefits and Costs. EPA 600/5-74-028, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., October. 27

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Unger, S. G. and D. Jordening, 1973. State-of-the-Art Review: Water Pollution Control Benefits and Costs -Vol. I. EPA Socio-economic Env. Studies Series, EPA 600/5-73-008a, Wash., D.C., October. 28

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Public Health Health effects on man from water pollutants such as organic and inorganic chemicals, physical elements, radioactivity, and microbiological pathogens can range from minor irritations to high levels of morbidity and mortality. Economic consequences include medical service demands, man hours lost, and human life lost. Epidemiological work on the relationship between water pollution and disease has been recently initiated, including studies linking chemical contaminants in drinking water to cancer incidence. Research is being directed to develop doseresponse relationships which will link alterations in water quality to resulting changes in mortality and morbidity. The most comprehensive research to date has been concerned with public health effects from air pollution rather than water pollution. 29

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Kneese, A.V., and W.D. Schulze, 1977. "Environment, Health, and Economics-The Case of Cancer," American Economic Review, Vol. 67, No.1, February. It is becoming more and more recognized that chemical contaminants in our environment have a significant effect on human health and life expectancy. Most notably, the relationship between chemical compounds and cancer is receiving a great deal of attention. Nitrogenous compounds are of particular concern, and nitrosamines formed in the body from nitrites and secondary amines have been proven to be carcinogens. An important environmental source of nitrogenous compounds is drinking water, which in some locations contains high levels of nitrates. Understanding the health risks to society from environmental sources is difficult due to the complexity and subtlety of the disease. Many econometric techniques have been developed to analyze the cost of controlling carcinogens and to provide damage estimates. 30

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Eisenbud, Merril, 1978. Environment, Technology, and Health. New York University Press, New York. This book is an appraisal of the contemporary environmental move-ment concerned with public health. The history of the human environment is reviewed and some contemporary issues on environmental contamination are discussed. The effects of water and air pollution on the health of man and the subject of environmental cancer are detailed. The modern environmental movement is criticized for lacking historical perspective, improperly assigning priorities, and attempting to do too much too soon. The requirement of environmental-impact analysis for new technological developments and the enforcement of new federal legislat,ion are seen as important elements in the future protection of our human environment. 31

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Public Health Ben, M., 1974. "The Effects of Water Pollution from Non-Point Sources as it Relates to the Health of Man." Economics of a Clean Environment, McLean, Va., pp. 415-425. Center for Disease Control. Foodborne & Waterborne Disease Outbreaks, Public Health Service, U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, annual summaries. Craun, G. F., 1978. "Disease Outbreaks Caused by Drinking Water," Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, June. Craun, G. F. and L. S. McCabe, 1973. "Review of the Causes of Waterborne Disease Outbreaks," American Water Works Association Journal, January. Eisenbud, Merril, 1978. Environment, Technology, and Health. New York University Press, New York. Kneese, A. V. and W. D. Schulze, 1977. Economics: The Case of Cancer." 67, p. 326. "Environment, Health, and American Economic Review, Vol. Miller, et al., 1976. Schistosomiasis in Rural Egypt. U.S. EPA 600/1-78-070, Wash., D.C., December. Office of Toxic Substances, 1975. Preliminary Assessment of Suspected Carcinogens in Drinking Water," Washington: Environmental Protection Agency, December. Stokinger, H. E., 1977. "Toxicology and Drinking Water Contaminants," American Water Works Association Journal, July. Waldbutt, G. L., 1973. Health Effects of Environmental Pollutants, St. Louis: C. V. Mosby. 32

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Recreation Ackerman (1974) determined that 95 percent of clean-up benefits reside in recreational potential. In fact, the principal use of outdoor environments is for recreation based activities. Thus it is not surprising that most of the benefit estimation studies to date have dealt with recreational uses. Attempts have been made to estimate the change in recreational participation due to improved water quality and to determine individuals' willingness to pay for increased recreational opportunities. Walsh, et al. (1978) performed a study in Colorado utilizing the willingness to pay measurement. Inherent in this technique are biases and the possibility of inaccuracies in people's responses. However, these problems can be minimized by proper design of questions and careful analysis of the results. 33

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Battelle Memorial Institute, 1975. Benefits from Water Pollution Abatement. Beach Closings and Reopenings. NCWQ, Wash., D.C., February. NTIS Abstract Based on a survey of 3,521 public health agencies in all coastal and Great Lakes states and in a sample of ten inland states, 449 public and private beaches have had water quality problems of varying degrees. Projected water quality improvements as a result of the 1972 Water Pollution Control Amendments will increase total useable capacity by an estimated 1.2% to 2.7%. Results showed that a maximum of 86% of presently affected beaches may be improved by the Act. Gains in recreational swimming will be primarily concentrated in urban areas. Improved water quality is expected to produce savings in time and travel cost for individuals diverting to closer beaches. Improvement in useable capacity will produce a net gain in total outdoor swimming activity as a result of increased accessibility to useable swimming areas. 34

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Binkley, C.S., and W.M. Haneman, 1976. The Recreation Benefits of Water Quality Improvements: Analysis of Day Trips in an Urban Setting. Urban Systems Research and Engr., Inc. for Office of Research and Development, EPA, Wash., D. C. NTIS Abstract Considerable past work has attempted to estimate the recreational benefits which might accrue from water quality improvements. The theoretical underpinnings of this work, however, are becoming increasingly suspect. This report explores demand models, new to recreation analysis, which are based on site characteristics and individual preferences to estimate benefits measured by consumer's surplus. The empirical findings of this study are based on a structured survey of 467 representative households in the Boston SMSA. The focus was specifically day trips to a system of Boston area beaches, but considerable additional data on wi11ingness-to-pay, substitution between sites and activities, water quality perception and general recreation behavior were developed as well. 35

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Davidson, P., et a1., 1966. Recreational Facilities ment in Water Quality: Hopkins Univ. Press for Baltimore. WRSIC Abstract The Social Value of Water Resulting from an Improve-The Delaware Estuary. Johns Resources for the Future, After analyzing the causes for the failure of markets to provide for outdoor water recreational facilities, the authors performed a benefit-cost analysis of the recreational value of Delaware River water quality improvement. Data from a public health service study was used to estimate a total cost of water quality improvement function. A survey conducted by the Michigan Survey Research Center provided the data for the estimation of empirical relationships between a sizable number of socioeconomic characteristics and the recreational use of water for boating, fishing, and swimming. Projecting the size and characteristics of the population, the demand and marginal benefit functions for water recreation were estimated through 1990. From these estimates an approximation of the optimal level of water quality improvement for recreation was estimated. 36

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National Planning Association, 1975. Pollution Abatement-Recreation. November. NTIS Abstract Benefits from Water NCWQ, Wash., D.C., Implementation of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act will bring about substantial improvement in water quality and equally substant-ia1 increases in the public's participation. For boating, improved water quality resulting from implementing the law is expected to increase annual participation days by 8.6% in 1980 and 10.3% in 1985. For sport fishing, increases are estimated at 5.9% by 1980 and 6.3% by 1985. Increases will be more significant in some areas than others, depending upon water quality improvements, age and sex characteristics of the population and other factors. After an introductory section, Section II presents a review of studies and models related to recreation and water quality research. Section III sets forth some of the distinctive structural features of outdoor recreational markets. Section IV is devoted exclusively to the description of the research effort related to the development of current and future water quality information. Section V, the last one, contains the projection of water quality trends (expressed as dissolved oxygen) in subareas of the United States for 1971, 1978, and 1984, assuming continuation of present trends in water quality, and the implementation of P.L. 92-500. This is followed by a description of the model used to project boating and sport fishing activities in the United States. 37

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Nemerow, N., and R. Faro, 1970. "Total Dollar Benefit of Water Pollution Control." Jour. San. Engr. Div., ASCE, Vol. 96, No. SA3, pp. 665-674. WRSIC Abstract Tangible dollar benefits of a lake or stream at a given water quality may be estimated by determining all uses which both affect and are affected by water quality, by independently valuing each use, and by summing up the resultant values. Measurable beneficial water uses related to water quality include recreational uses, withdrawal water uses, wastewater disposal uses, bordering land uses, and in-stream water uses. The value of each beneficial use may be estimated by a "user willingness to pay" criteria or by an evaluation of benefits derived from avoiding payment. Application of this method to Onondaga Lake at Syracuse, New York, produces an estimated net social benefit of $4.4 million per year. Recreation proves to be the most important beneficial use for Onondaga Lake with improved water quality, and recreational value comprises close to half the total net annual benefits of decreased pollution. Estimation of tangible dollar benefits of water pollution control may be useful in the decision of the value of installing advanced forms of waste treatment by river basin firms composed of members repre-senting all major groups in water-using society. 38

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Reiling, S.D., et al., 1973. Economic Benefits from an Improvement in Water Quality. EPA Socioeconomic Studies Series, EPA-RS-73-00B, January. NTIS Abstract A new methodology is introduced and empirically tested for estimat-ing the economic benefits accruing to society from an improved recrea-tional facility. The specific facility under consideration is Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, which presently has low water quality. The methodo-logy draws upon previous work done in the evaluation of recreational demand; however, it focuses upon the individual recreationist and separates the traditional price variable into on-site costs and travel costs. The model is used to estimate the number of days per visit the recreationist will stay at the site as the water quality improves. Data collected at three other lakes with varied characteristics are used to derive a relationship between the number of visits to a site and the characteristics of the site. The impact of expanded recreational use of Klamath Lake upon the local economy is also estimated through the use of an input-output model of the Klamath County economy. 39

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Walsh, R.D., 1978. Option Values, Preservation Values, and Recreational Benefits of Improved Water Quality: A Case Study of the South Platte River Basin, Colorado. EPA 600/5-78/001, January. This is believed to the the first empirical test of the concept of option value for any non-market good. Application of the bidding game technique was successful in meeting the primary study objective of measuring the option value of improved water quality. Also included in the study are improved estimates of the benefits to recreational users of enhanced water quality. The relationship between the value of improved water quality and several socioeconomic variables was tested with re-gression and other statistical procedures. The report is based on direct interviews with 202 residents of Denver and Fort Collins located in the South Platte River Basin, Colorado. Interviewees responded to the survey within the context of improving the quality of water degraded by heavy metals from post mining activities and preventing future degradation from such sources. 40

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Recreation Battelle Memorial Inst., 1975. Benefits from Water Pollution Abatement. Beach Closings and Reopenings. Wash., D.C., National Commission on Water Quality, February. Binkley, C.S. and Hanemann, 1976. The Recreation Benefits of Water. Quality Improvements: Analysis of Day Trips in an Urban Setting. Urban Systems Research and Engr. for Office of Research and Development, EPA, Wash., D. C., June. Bundgaard-Nielsen, M. and D.M. Himmelblau, 1974. "A Note on the Evaluation of Activity Dependent Recreational Damage Cost Functions." Water Resources Bulletin, Vol. 10, No.3, pp. 580-585. Burt, O.R. and D. Brewer, 1971. "Estimation of Net Social Benefits from Outdoor Recreation." Econometrica, Vol. 39, No.5, September. Burton, T.L. and M.N. Fulcher, 1968. Recreation Benefits--A Survey." Vol. 3, pp. 35-48. "Measurement of Jour. of Econ. Studies, Cicchetti, C.J., et al., 1972. "Recreation Benefit Estimation and Forecasting: Implications for the Identification Problem." Water Resources Research, Vol. 8, No.4, August. Clawson, M. and J. L. Knetsch, 1966. Economics of Outdoor Recreation. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. David, E.L., et al., 1970. Institutional Design for Water Quality Management: A Case Study of the Wisconsin River Basin. Volume IV. Section E. Cost Functions for Influencing Water Quality. Section F. Relation of Participation in Outdoor Recreation and Public Attitudes Toward Water Quality. Technical Report, Office of Water Resources Research. Davidson, P., et al., 1966. The Social Value of Water Recreational Facilities Resulting from an Improvement in Water Quality: The Delaware Estuary. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press for Resources for the Future, Baltimore. Dwyer, J.F., et al., 1977. Improved Procedures for Valuation of the Contribution of Recreation to National Economic Development. Water Resources Center, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, September. Kalnicky, R.A., 1976. Wisconsin. Wisc. No. 95, Madison. Recreational Use of Small Streams in Dept. of Nat. Res., Tech. Bull. 41

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Knetsch, J.L., 1974. Outdoor Recreation and Water Resources Planning. American Geophysical Union, Wash., D.C. Knetsch, J.L. and R.K. Davis, 1966. "Comparisons of Methods for Recreation Evaluation." In Allen V. Kneese and Stephen Smith, eds., Water Research, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press for Resources for the Future, Baltimore. McConnell, K., 1975. "Some Problems Demand for Outdoor Recreation." Econ., Vol. 57, No.2, May. in Estimating the Amer. Jour. Agr. Meg1i, L.D., et a1., 1971. An Analysis of the Relationship Between Stream Water Quality and Regional Income Generated by Water-Oriented Recreationists. Penn. State Univ., Univ. Park. Merewitz, L., 1964. Development," "Recreational Benefits of Water Resources Harvard Water Program, June. Myles, G.A., 1970. Effect of Quality Factors on Water Based Recreation in Western Nevada. Nevada Univ., Desert Research Inst., Reno, February. National Planning Assoc., 1975. Benefits From Water Pollution Abatement-Recreation. National Commission on Water Quality, Wash., D. C., November. Nemerow, N. and R. Faro, 1970. "Total Dollar Benefit of Water Pollution Contro1." Jour. San. Engr. Div., ASCE, Vol. 96, No. SA3, pp. 665-674. Oregon State University, 1976. The Demand for Non-Unique Outdoor Recreational Services: Methodological Issues. Technical Bulletin 133, Agricultural Experiment Station, Corvallis, Oregon, May. Reiling, S.D., et a1., 1973. Economic Benefits from an Improvement in Water Quality. EPA Socioeconomic Environmental Studies Series, EPA-RS-73-008, January. Sindon, J.A., 1974. "A Utility Approach to the Evaluation of Recreational and Aesthetic Experience." Amer. Jour. Agr. Econ., Vol. 56, No.1, February. Stevens, J.B., 1966. "Recreation Benefits from Water Pollution Control." Water Resources Research, Vo1. 2, No.2, pp. 167-182. Tomazinis, A.R. and I. Gabbour, 1966. Delaware Estuary Study. Water Oriented Recreation Benefits. Phase I. Penn. Univ., Philadelphia. Inst. for Environmental Studies, Philadelphia. Walsh, J.R., et a1., 1978. Option Values. Preservation Values and Recreational Benefits of Improved Water Quality: A Case Study of the South Platte River Basin, Colorado. EPA 600/5-78/001, January. 42

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Walsh, R.C., et al. Rocky Mountain Colorado Water 12, May. 1978. Recreation Benefits of Water Quality: National Park, South Platte River Basin, Colorado. Resources Research Institute, Technical Report No. Walsh, R.C., and R.K. Ericson. 1974. "Recreational User Benefits from Water Quality Improvement." Contributed paper, National Symposium on the Economics of Outdoor Recreation, New Orleans, November. 43

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Aesthetics Aesthetic damages that accrue from water pollution include tangible and intangible disutilities and value reduction resulting from undesirable or unpleasant qualities in a surface or ground-water. Damaging pollutants might include materials forming objectionable deposits, floating debris, and substances producing color, odor, taste, or turbidity. Measurement of aesthetic effects is particularly difficult because there are no direct economic activities or tangible physical effects associated with the value judgements involved. Consequently, it is difficult to relate dollar benefits to aesthetic improvements. Randall (1974) has used three empirical techniques in his valuation study: (1) direct costing of damage caused by environmental degradation; (2) methods which attempt to measure the revealed demand for environmental improvements by focusing on the revealed demand for appropriate proxies; and (3) techniques which attempt to fit individual bid curves by direct questioning of consumers of the good. The last method involves the use of bidding game techniques with respondents. Randall believes that if careful thought is applied to bidding game design, the results can be reasonably accurate and representative. The aesthetics category is related to recreation, social benefits, and property values. In some cases, aesthetics can be analyzed within these other categories. For example, aesthetics can be included as part of the value of passive recreation. Likewise the beauty of a receiving water can be related to the value of adjacent property. 44

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Randall, A., 1974. "Quantifying the Unquantifiable: Benefits from Abatement of Aesthetic Environmental Damage." Presented at the annual conference of the American Agricultural Economics Association, College Station, Texas, August. The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical framework for benefit-cost analysis of abating aesthetic environmental damage. The study considers a number of alternative benefit valuation techniques which have been proposed and used by environmental economists. Three general methods of empirical estimation of the benefits of environmental improvements are discussed and evaluated. Finally, a case study using bidding game techniques is summarized. The results appear to be credible and reasonable. 45

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Aesthetics Brookshire, David S., et a1., 1976. "The Valuation of Aesthetic Preferences." Jour. Env. Econ. and Management, Vol. 3, No.4, December. Brown, P.J., editor, 1974. "Quantifying the Unquantifiable: Benefits from Abatement of Aesthetic Environmental Damage." Presented at the annual conference of the American Agricultural Economics Association, College Station, Texas, August. Dearinger, J .A. and G. M. Wollwine, 1971. Measuring the Intangible Values of Natural Streams. Part I: Application of the Uniqueness Concept. Kentucky Water Resources Inst., Lexington, June. Nighswonger, J., 1970. The Scenic Quality and Related Recreational Value of Selected Kansas Streams. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Kansas State University. Randall, A., et a1., 1974. "Bidding Games for Evaluation of Aesthetic Environmental Improvement. 11 Jour. Env. Econ. and Management, Vol. 1, No.2, August. "Toward a Technique for Quantifying Aesthetic Quality of Water Resources." 1974. Utah State Univ., IWR Contract Report 748, Logan, Utah, October. U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1974. Benefits of Abating Aesthetic Environmental Damage from the Four Corners Power Plant, Fruitland, New Mexico. Bulletin 618, Agricultural Experiment Station, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico. May. 46

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Property Values Property value is an important indicator of the value of water quality improvements. Individuals are willing to pay more for land bordering a high quality water body than for one next to a badly polluted water. The amount people are willing to pay is reflected in the market value of the property. In the Wi11amette River Study Case (Barrager, 1974), tax records and sales price data were used to determine changes in property value due to improved water quality during the period 1960-1970. Property value changes attributed to water quality improvement by regression analysis were found to be substantial and statistically significant. The multiple regression technique used in this study offers great potential for measuring the desired responses. 47

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Barrager, S.M., 1974. "The Impact of Water Resource Quality on Surrounding Property Values." Water Resources Bulletin, Vol. 10, No.4, pp. 759-765. WRSIC Abstract Multiple regression techniques are utilized to measure the impact of pollution abatement efforts on property values of proximate single-family residences along Oregon's Willamette River. The study areas, Oak Grove and Jennings Creek, located in an unincorporated portion of Clackamas County, are dominated by single family houses over 15 years old and having an average value of $26,000. Water quality in the river has improved dramatically over the 1960 to 1970 period. To determine the change in property values over the same period in the study area, tax assessment value data were collected as a partial proxy for the years surrounding 1960 and 1970. Sales price data were also collected. Property value changes for the period were calculated by adding the capitalized value of property tax changes to the estimated change in sales or market value. Results of the regression model indicate that changes in property values attributable to water quality improvements were substantial and statistically significant. 48

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Coughlin, R.E., and T.R. Hammer, 1973. "Estimating the Benefits of Stream Valley and Open Space Preservation Projects." Government Spending and Land Values: Public Money and Private Gain. Univ. of Wisconsin Press, Madison, pp. 155-170. WRSIC Abstract Benefits are estimated for environmental projects that involve maintaining the water quality of streams and keeping extensive areas of land undeveloped. Environmental values are translated into land values. Given that persons considering a residential site near some amenity are able to imagine the use and enjoyment to be derived, and that people are willing to attach some monetary value to this use and enjoyment, environmental benefit differences create a location rent gradient. A number of studies of people's response to environmental quality are summarized. The studies imply that environmental benefits may be under-valued and that this is reflected in location rents. 49

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Dornbusch, D.M., and c.o. Falke, 1974. A Generic Methodology to Forecast Benefits from Urban Water Resources Improvement Projects. Office of Water Resources and Technology, Wash., D.C., November. NTIS Abstract A model expressing the relationship between benefits, measured by changes in real property values, and water quality improvement was estimated using econometric techniques and opinion surveys. Results showed that lay people relate water quality in terms of the following categories listed in order of perceived importance: (1) wildlife support capacity, (2) recreation opportunity, and (3) aesthetics, comprising industrial wastes, clearness, odor, debris, and algae. An index measuring residents' perception of water quality changes was constructed to reflect the relative valuation of each category and the sensitivity of benefit gains to threshold and leveling-off effects. Residents' opinions about water quality changes differ sharply and non-systematically from those of water quality experts. The amount of benefits in terms of increased property values derivable from water pollution abatement varies with perceived water quality change, type and size of water body, and, most significantly, extent and character of non-water-front residents' visual and physical access to the water body. A generic method to assess property value changes in terms of these variables is presented in tabular form. 50

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Property Values Barrager, S.M., 1974. "The Impact of Water Resource Quality Changes on Surrounding Property Values." Water Resources Bulletin, Vol. 10, NO.4, pp. 759-765. Bohm, P., 1977. "Estimating Access Values." in Lowdon Wingo and Alan Evans, eds. Public Economics and the Quality of Life, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press for Resources for the Future and the Centre for Environmental Studies, Baltimore. Coughlin, R. and T.R. Hammer, 1973. "Estimating the Benefits of Stream Valley and Open Space Preservation Projects." In C.L. Harriss, editor, Government Spending and Land Values: Public Money and Private Gain, Pennypack Park, Philadelphia. Coughlin, R. and J. Fritz, 1971. Land Values and Environmental Characteristics in the Rural Urban Fringe. Regional Science Research Inst., Philadelphia. David, E.L., 1968. "Lakeshore Property Values: A Guide to Public Investment in Recreation." Water Resources Research. Vol. 4, No.4, August. Damianos, D. and L.A. Shabman, 1976. Land Prices in Flood Hazard Areas: Applying Methods of Land Value Analysis. Bulletin 95, Virginia Water Resources Research Center, VPI and SU, Blacksburg, Va., April. Dornbusch, D.M. and S.M. Barrager, 1973. Benefit of Water Pollution Control on Property Values. EPA Socioeconomic Studies Series, EPA 600/573005, October. Dornbusch, D.M. and C.O. Falcke, 1974. A Generic Methodology to Forecast Benefits from Urban Water Resource Improve ment Projects. Office of Water Research and Technology, Wash., D.C., November. Luten, D.R., 1967. "Resource Quality and Value of the Landscape." Natural Resources: Quality and Quantity, Univ. of Calif. Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, pp. 1934. Polinsky, A.M. and D.L. Rubinfeld, 1977. "Property Values and the Benefits of Environmental Improvements: Theory and Measurement." In Lowden Wingo and Alan Evans, eds., Public Economics and the Quality of Life, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press for Resources for the Future and the Centre for Envir. Studies, Baltimore. U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1969. The Relationship Between Land Values and Flood Risk in the Wabash River Basin. Economic Research Service, USDA, Alexandria, Va. December. 51

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Water Quality/Water Treatment The categories of water quality and water treatment are important because benefits can be indirectly associated with them. The level of water qualty existing in a river body used for municipal water supply can greatly influence the cost of water treatment. The more solids, tastes and odors, chemical constituents, etc. that exist in the water source, the higher the level of water treatment necessary. This could amount to considerable costs depending on the additional treatment required. Therefore, an improvement in the level of water quality can create benefits to the water treatment field. The downstream user, in the absence of water treatment, incurs economic damages, e.g., as salinity and hardness increases, the farmer suffers reduced crop yields, urban users have boiler scale, increased consumption of soap, etc. 52

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Sonnen, M., 1979. "Public Water Supply Protection Benefits." Jour. Env. Engr. Div., ASeE, Vol. 105, No. EE3, June, pp. 511-523. AseE Abstract Public Law 92-500 required that EPA promulgate waste discharge requirements in some cases more stringent than "best available techno-logy." But, on the other hand, it also permitted these requirements to be waived or relaxed if the discharger could show that there is no "reasonable relationship between the social and economic costs and benefits to be obtained." Methods for making such determinations are presented. Relationships are shown graphically between water contaminant concentrations and the percentage of the water-using public expected to have an adverse health or other reaction. The downstream benefits by installing the upstream waste treatment are compared to the waste treatment costs. 53

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Hamilton, H., 1968. Some Economic Aspects of Water Quality Enhancement. Chem. Engr. Prog. Symp. Series, Vol. 64, No. 90, pp. 32-38. WRSIC Abstract Some issues involving water quality benefits are discussed. Primary and secondary benefits, both tangible and intangible, are described and differentiated. A three-sector model is proposed to determine water quality enhancement benefits. The problem of measuring the value of pure aesthetics can be considerably resolved by applying common sense plus economic analysis to estimate a useful range of their value. 54

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Water Quality Hamilton, H., 1968. Some Economic Aspects of Water Quality Enhancement. Chemical Engr. Progress Symposium Series, Vol. 64, No. 90, pp. 22-38. Public Law 92-500, Economic and Social Impacts: Technical Volume. 1976. National Commission on Water Quality, Wash. D.C., April. Syracuse University, Department of Civl Engineering, 1970. Benefits of Water Quality Enhancement. EPA, December. Whipple, W., 1969. "Economic Considerations Relative to Water Quality." Paper presented at fifth annual American Water Resources Assoc. meeting, Oct. 27-30. Yu, J.K. and M. Fogel, 1978. "Development of a Combined Water Quality Index." Water Resources Bulletin, Vol. 14, No.5, October. Water Treatment Matson, J.V. and F.G. Bennett, 1969. Cost of Industrial and Municipal Treatment in the Maumee River Basin. Chemical Engr. Progress Symposium Series, Vol. 65, No. 95, pp. 100-105. McCabe, L. J., et al., 1971. "Nitrate in Drinking Water." JAWWA February. McCarty, P.L., et al., 1966. "Nutrient Associated Problems in Water Quality and Treatment." Task Group Report 26l0P, JAWWA, Vol. 58. Public Law Economic and Social Impacts: Technical Volume. 1976. National Commission on Water Quality, Wash., D.C., April. Singley, J.E., et al., 1975. A Benefit/Cost Evaluation of Drinking Water Hygiene Programs, Environmental Protection Agency. Sokoloski, A. 1973. Economic Benefits of an Adequate Supply of Safe Water, Environmental Protection Agency. Sonnen, M., 1979. "Public Water Supply Protection Benefits." Jour. Env. Engr. Div., ASCE, Vol. 105, No. EE3, June, pp. 511-523. 55

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Social Benefits Social activities are those in which the individual participates by his own choosing and uses his own value system to evaluate his experiences. These experiences, generating personal and aesthetic pleasures, are mostly non-market economic values and can not be measured by market data. Some non-market techniques such as surveys, questionnaires, bidding games, and voting can be used to determine the individuals' willingness to pay for some social amenity. Many social benefits, however, are humanistic rather than economic and cannot be assigned a monetary value (e.g., value of human life). These elusive qualities make valuation very difficult. The sources listed, however, do address the problem and offer some solutions to the appraisal dilemma. 56

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Ehrenfeld, D., 1976. "The Conservation of Non-Resources." American Scientist, Vol. 64. Resources are typically defined as "reserves of commodities that have an appreciable money value to man, either directly or indirectly." Such natural features as endangered species, communities, and ecosystems are not conventional resources under the usual definition. The values of these non-resources are diverse, sometimes contrived, and altogether difficult to enumerate. The author lists nine admittedly anthropocen-tric values that can he assigned some montary worth. However, the eco-nomic importance is remote; people will not readily assign resource values on the basis of long-term considerations or vague statistical probabilities. Ehrenfeld concludes: "If non-resource arguments are ever to carry their deserved weight, cultural attitudes will have to be changed." 57

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Haveman, R.H., 1972. The Economic Performance of Public Investments. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press for Resources for the Future, Baltimore. Book Preface This is an exploratory effort to develop the techniques of ex-post evaluation for water resources development activities. The range of project effects studied is limited to the direct benefits and costs, and these were analyzed for a small number of installations. Ultimately, the insights and quantitative information gained from ex-post evaluation can be used by public authorities as planning guides for their subsequent decisions. 58

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Social Benefits Althoff, P. and W.H. Greig, 1977. "Environmental Pollution Control: Two Views from the General Public." Environment and Behavior, Vol. 9, No.3, p. 441. Brown, L., 1976. Planning." December. "Social Well Being and Water Resources Water Resources Bulletin, Vol. 12, No.6, Criss, R.R., 1971. "Socio-Economic Accounting Applied to Water Resource Planning." Water Resources Bulletin, Vol. 7, No.4, August. Ehrenfeld, D.W., 1976. "The Conservation of Non-Resources." American Scientist, Vol. 64. Environmental Quality And SOCiety. 1975. R.A. Tybout, editor, Ohio St. Univ. Press, Columbus. Haveman, R.H., 1972. The Economic Performance of Public Investments. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press for Resources for the Future, Baltimore. I1tis, H.H., et aI., 1970. "Criteria for an Optimum Human Environment." Bulletin of Atomic Science, Vol. 26, pp. 2-6. Methodology of Social Impact Assessment. 1977. Finsterbusch and Wolf, eds., Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross, Stroudsburg, Pa. Public Law 92-500, Economic and Social Impacts: Technical Volume. 1976. National Commission on Water Quality, Wash., D.C., April. Rosenblum, 1., 1977. "Social Aspects of Environmental Pollution." Social Impact Assessment, Vol. 19, No. 13. Starr, C., 1969. "Social Benefit versus Technological Risk." Science, September. Whipple, W., 1978. Principles of Water Resources Planning, Phase 2--Socia1, Economic, and Environmental Quality Considerations. Water Resources Research Inst., Rutgers-The State Univ., New Brunswick, N.J. Will eke G.E., 1978. Assessing the Social Effects of Water Quality Management Programs. Environ. Resources Center, Georgia Tech., Office of Water Research and Tech., Wash., D. C., April. 59

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Case Studies Case studies are helpful in that they apply benefit estimation techniques to existing environmental situations. Problems that arise in the application process are discussed and evaluated to assist in subsequent efforts. Whipple, et al., for example, found that some theoretical techniques were inadequate when actually applied and suggested alternative approaches. This study and the others listed should be helpful in implementing the Chicago land benefit assessment. 60

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Whipple, W., 1974. The Delaware Estuary System. Environmental Impacts and Socio-Economic Effects: Environmental Quality and Its Evaluation. Water Resources Research Inst., Rutgers The State Univ., New Brunswick, N.J., January. WRSIC Abstract The state-of-the-art analysis of the many different approaches to evaluating environmental quality with particular reference to water-related environments is discussed. A wide spectrum of related method-ology and concepts including biological, anthropological, religious, aesthetic, philosophic, and literary writings are considered in addition to the usual engineering considerations, economic factors and systems analyses methodology. Some approaches are shown to be basically inadequate or without logical merit, while the categorization of environmental quality as "recreation" or "aesthetic" values is too narrow. The economists' definitions of "welfare," "value," and "utility" theories as related to optimization of environmental quality are reviewed and criticized with the conclusion that the problem of evaluation is not insuperable. It is possible to describe relevant parameters and to evaluate them in monetary terms, and physical standards can be set for achieving social objectives. The basic environmental objective is not a categorical imperative but can have tradeoffs with other social goals, with marginal economic advantages. 61

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Case Studies Abt Associates, Inc., 1975. Water Pollution Control Act of 1972. Regional Impacts, Merimack-Nashua River Basin. NCWQ, Wash., D.C., November. ,1975. Water Pollution Control Act of 1972. Social -------Impacts. Eight Case Studies. Wash., D.C., June. Bauer Engineering Company, 1973. Environmental Assessment, Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago, Chicago. _______ 1973. Environmental Impact Statement. Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago, Chicago. Black and Veatch, Consulting Engineers, 1975. Report on Determination of Economic Values for Improved Water Quality in the Red River Basin, February. Dalton-Dalton-Little-Newport, Inc., 1975. Water Pollution Control Act of 1972. Lake Erie Regional Assessment Study. NCWQ, Wash., D.C., December. Dames and Moore, 1975. Water Pollution Control Law of 1972 Regional Impacts, Kanawha River. NCWQ, Wash., D.C., November. Daubert, et al., 1979. Economic Benefits from Instream Flow in a Colorado Mountain Stream. Environmental Resource Center, Colo. State Univ., Ft. Collins, Colo., June. Emerson, M. J. and H. Akhavipour, 1979. Benefit Assessment of Kansas Water Quality Management Plan. Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS, May, 217 pp. Gramlich, F. W. Estimating the Net Benefits of Improvements in Charles River Water Quality. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, March 1975. Major, D. C., et aI., 1970. Multiple Objective Redesign of the Big Walnut Project. MIT Dept. Civil Engr., Cambridge, April. Oster, S., 1977. "Survey Results on the Benefits of Water Pollution Abatement in the Merrimack River Basin." Water Resources Research, Vol. 13, No.6, December, pp. 882-884. Pendse, D. and J. B. Wyckoff, 1976. "The Measurement of Environmental Trade-offs and Public Policy: A Case Study." Water Resources Bulletin, Vol. 12, No.5, October. Public Health Service, 1962. An Evaluation of the Economic Benefits Derived from the Improvemnt of Water Quality in Contra Costa Canal. San Francisco, June. 62

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U.S.E.P.A., 1971. The Mineral Quality Problem in the Colorado River Basin, Appendix B, Physical and Economic Impacts. EPA Regions VIII and IX, Denver. Whipple, W., 1974. The Delaware Estuary System. Environmental Impacts and Socio-Economic Effects: Environmental Quality and Its Evaluation. Water Resources Res. Inst., Rutgers--The State Univ., New Brunswick, N.J., January. 63

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V. Acknowledgements The following persons were consulted for information concerning this report: ]) Dennis Giba Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago 2) Dr. Kenneth Gibbs Oregon State University 3) Blair O'Neal Army Corps of Engineers, Pittsburgh 4) Dr. Richard G. Walsh Colorado State University 5) Dr. Clyde Kiker University of Florida 6) Dr. Roy Carriker University of Florida 7) Vincent Hill Army Corps of Engineers, Philadelphia 64

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VI. Appendix A

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Abstracts For Urban Stormwater and Combined Sewer Overflow Impact on Receiving Water Bodies November 26-28, 1979 Holiday Inn 6515 International Drive Orlando, Florida 32809

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SESSION ONE Monday, November 26, 1979 9:00 10:00 URBAN RUNOFF RECEIVING WATER ItWACTS: PROGRAM OVERVIEvJ AND RESEARCH llEEDS by Richard Field and Robert Turkeltaub Environmental Protection Agency Edison, New Jersey ABSTRACT. Receiving water impacts are a major national concern. We are spending huge sums of money on secondary treatment plants, meanwhile major culprits, stormwater and combined sewer overflows, are still uncontrolled. To attain the goals set forth in PL 92-500 and PL 95-217 of abating pollution and achieving water quality standards in an economical and effie ient manner those analyzing, planning and designing controls must have a thorough understanding of the impact of pollutants on receiving waters. Receiving water impacts are the bottom line justification for funding countermeasure campaigns and the passage of abatement legislation. This conference will provide a forum for the attendees to acquire first hand knowledge of the state-of-the-art and to consider ongoing and recently completed research. Data on the environmental impacts of urban stormwater and combined sewer overflow are being gathered by projects of the Storm and Combined Sewer Pro gram (SCSP) of the Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory (MERL) as a first step in developing control needs and a methodology to quantify pollutant stress and evaluate the impact in relation to receiving water standards and desired uses. This paper will contain a brief history of our receiving water impact projects, an overview of recently completed and ongoing projects. The projects will be briefly described including project objectives and an outline of significant results to date. Also, future Program needs will be discussed and areas in which we anticipate concentrating our efforts will be outlined. 1

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SESSION TWO Monday, November 26, 1979 10:30 -12 noon AN ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF URBAN DRAINAGE ON EUTHROPHICATION-RELATED WATER QUALITY IN URBAN LAKES by G. Fred Lee and R. Anne Jones Department of Civil Engineering Colorado State University Fort Collins. COs23 ABSTRACT The conversion of rural lands to urban area is often accompanied by a significant increase in the total amount of phosphorus and nitrogen derived per unit area of a waterbody's watershed. For rural lands phosphorus without livestock, export coefficients typically range from 0.005 to 0.5 g P/m 2/yr, while in urban areas the typical export coefficient is 0.1 g P/m2/yr. A significant part of this difference is due to the much greater water yield per unit area of watershed in urban areas compared to rural areas. Urban runoff typically contains appreciable quantities of both soluble ortho P and particulate forms of P. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the amounts of available forms of phosphorus present in typical urban stormwater drainage for several municipalities located across the U.S. It has been found that on the order of 10 to 30 percent of the particulate phosphorus present in urban stormwater drainage would likely become available to affect algal growth in a lake or stream. As a result of these findings, the focal point of the control of nitrogen and phosporus from urban stormwater sources should be directed toward the soluble orthophosphate component. Most stormwater drainagp control programs are directed toward control of particulate matter. Such programs are likely to have limited impact on eutrophicationrelated water quality in urban lakes, since only a small part of the particulate phosphorus will likely become available to stimulate aquatic plant growth in the waterbody. The OEeD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) eutrophication modeling study which included about 40 water-bodies across the U.S. and 200 waterbodies in Western Europe, North America, Japan, Australia, etc., has shown that the phosphorus load normalized by waterbody mean depth and hydraulic retention time is correlated to the planktonic algal chlorophyll concentration, planktonic algal-related water clarity and hypolimnetic oxygen depletion rate. The results of the OECD study provide the tools necessary to quantitatively assess what water quality improvement can be achieved as the result of various nutrient control efforts. 2

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THE EFFECT OF URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF ON THE WATER QUALITY OF LAKE JACKSON, FLORIDA by Chris Byrne, C. R. Donahue and W. C. Burnett Department of Oceanography Florida State University Tall ahassee, Florida 32301 ABSTRACT Lake Jackson, Leon County, Florida, a depression of approximately 4800 acres, is a north Florida lake of conflicting water quality. In contrast to the northern portions of the lake, which have been found to possess excellent water quality, the southern portions are consistently characterized by significantly poorer water quality. Investigations into this problem have discovered that the reduction in the water quality in the southern sections is a direct result of increased "urbanization" in that area. Extensive field research and data analysis of the water quality of the southern watersheds of Lake Jackson, in particular the urban watershed of Heginnis3 Arm, have concluded that the magnitude of the pollutional loading of that area was due to stormwater runoff. Analyses of the runoff of Heginniss Arm have revealed high concentrations of suspended solids, dissolved nutrients, heavy metal particulates, and petro-chemicals. In response to the serious state of water quaLity in this area of the lake, the Florida Department of Environmental Regulations in association with the United States Environmental Protection Agency have proposed to construct and maintain a bio-filtration system in the urban watershed of Meginniss Arm to restrict the pollutional loading. One of the pollutants mentioned in the analyses of the urban stormwater runoff was petro-chemicals. Lake Jackson affords an area for a very interesting study of the loading of hydrocarbons into the lake. There are two watersheds in Lake Jackson, which are similar in size, topography, and geology (Ox-Bottom Creek in the northern section and Meginniss Arm in the southern section). These two watersheds are very dissimilar in land usage: Ox-Bottom Creek is primarily forested-agricultural with little mechanical activity; Meginniss Arm, in contrast, is highly urbanized with two shopping malls. The analyses of the stormwater runoff from these two areas will enable comparisons of the concentrations and possible sources of hydrocarbons, both biogenic and anthropogenic, that enter Lake Jackson. Rainfall, dust, sediment, and lake water samples will be examined to determine other possible sources and sinks for hydrocarbons in the lake. 3

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A COMPARISON OF STORM-RELATED MATERIALS LOADING TO GLACIAL LAKES FRON URBAN, WETLAND, AND AGRICULTURAL SOURCES by R. P. Glandon, F. C. Payne, C. D. McNabb, and T. R. Batterson Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Michigan State University East Lansing, Michigan 48824 ABSTRACT Comprehensive watershed and in-lake studies have been conducted for two glacial lakes located in the Lake Michigan drainage system. These studies have shown that> 97% of the total-N and> 85% of the total-P received by these lakes annually in runoff is discharged during 10-12 weeks in the spring. During that interval, large differences in storm-related nutrient loading were measured from urban, wetland, and agricultural watersheds. Separating runoff due to melt of the snow pack from that due to rain events, it was found that storm-related discharge from the urban area studied was 0.289 kg total-P and 1.239 kg total-N ha-l of watershed. Rain induced runoff from marshes in the same drainage basin transported 0.019 kg total-P and 0.545 kg total-N ha-l of catchment. Rainfall in the same amount caused runoff from agricultural land of 0.091 kg tota1-P and 4.579 kg total-N ha-1 Algae of both lakes were phosphorus limited; nitrogen was present in excess. Using constants frum Nicho1ls-Di1lun relationships in the literature regarding phosphorus, phytoplankton biomass, and secchi disk transparencies, the urban input of phosphorus ha-l of drainage was sufficient to bring 0.44 ha-m of lake water to undersirable algal bloom status. Similarly, marsh input ha-l would bring an estimated 0.03 ha-m into bloom. By the same calculation, storm-related agricultural runoff would result in 0.14 ha-m of lake water becoming undersirably rich in algae. Knowing the number of hectares in these types of catchment and the volume available in a particular lake for phytoplankton production, decisions regarding cost-effective treatment of storm-related discharge can be made. 4

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SESSION THREE Monday, Novlcomber 26, 1979 1:30 3:00 IHPACT OF STORMWATER RUNOFF ON A FLORIDA LAKE ECOSYSTEM: EFFECTS ON WATER QUALITY AND BIOTA by Eldon C. Blancher II Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611 ABSTRACT A study of external nutrient loadings to the Lake Conway ecosystem, an interconnected of three lakes located in Orange County, Florida, showed that both nitrogen (2.6g-N/m2-yr) and phosphorus (0.22 gP/m2-yr) inputs were within the range of loadings that leads to conditions. The major external sources of both elements ,,1ere atmospheric inputs, stormwater runoff and subsurface seepage. Experimental evidence indicated that phosphorus became a limiting factor in the lakes briefly during the spring and summer of 1977. A dynamic hydrologic-phosphorus model demonst La ted the relative magnitudes of nutrient loadings from external sources and those from internal nutrient cycling by the macrophyte communities and sediments in this subtropical lake ecosystem. Hultivariate analysis of water quality data by discriminant analysis showed differences among the three lakes of the Conway system. Seasonal trends in several water quality indicators varied concomitantly with changes in external nutrient loadings, especially with those from residental stormwater runoff. Those lakes that had a proportionately larger share of phosphorus loadings from stormwater runoff showed a degradation in water quality. Strong linear relationships were found between vJatershed area to lake area ratio and stormwater phosphorus loadings (r2=0.98); stormwater phosphorus loadings and Secchi disk transparency (r2=0.98) and chlorophyll a and total zooplankton numbers (r2=0.96). These findings indicate a direct impact of stormwater runoff on water quality and subsequently on changes in the lakes biota. 5

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THE DISTRIBUTION OF SEDIMENTS AND PARTICULATE CONTAMINANTS FROM COMBINED SEWER AND STORM DRAIN OVERFLOWS IN SEATTLE'S NEARSHORE WATERS by R. D. Tomlinson1<, B. N. Bebee*, S. Lazoff**, R. G. Swartz*, and D. E. Spyridakis** Muncipality of Metropolitan Seattle, Seattle, WA 98104 ** Department of Civil Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle ABSTRACT The distributions of particulates and the associated contaminants emanating from combined outfalls and storm drains in Lake Washington were examined. Ina preliminary study sediment samples were collected by SCUBA divers from the area of greatest apparent contamination at each of 29 outfa1ls. The sample content of organics, heavy metals, oils and greases, and pesticides was used to select stations for more intensive study. At each of those sites quality and quantity analyses of the overflows provided loading estimates for the wastewater particulates entering the nearshore waters. Light transmissions measurements of storm-induced wastewater plumes helped to define the nature of plume dispersion and its area of significant influence. Organic carbon and heavy metals analyses of settling particulates and surface sediments near the out falls supplied further detail and confirmation of the fate of the wastewater particulates. Later in the program, Dr. Thorn wi I] d isl.;USS the response of infaunal conmlUni ties to s,easonal variations in wastewater discharge. THE ECOLOGICAL EFl"ECTS OF URBAN RUNOFF ON STREAM COMMUNITIES by Donald B. Parcel1a Tetra Tech Incorporated Lafayette, California ABSTRACT A literature review of the ecological effects of urban runoff on streams indicates a dearth of principles for evaluating the impact of urban runoff or any pollutant on streams and a serious lack of studies that determine urban runoff impacts on communities of stream ecosystems. The uniqueness of urban runoff impacts results from the nature of pollutant input to streams --large magnitude' variation/stochastic occurrence. Most stormvater research has been directed towards determining runoff quantity and quality including the fates of specific pollutants such as heavy metals, nutrients, salts, toxic substances, and bacteria. Demonstration of the impacts of these materials on stream communities is necessary to justify costs of managing stormwater effects. 6

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Several approaches for analyzing ecosystems are suggested, such as stream community analysis and biogeochemical cycling of elements (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus). Three published case studes of stream ecological impacts typify the effects of urban runoff inputs resulting in a hypothesis that large scale variations and instabilities of stream pollutant input and concentration would result in greater impact to stream communities than steady inputs. This concept is discussed and applied to urban runoff analysis and management. 7

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The Milwauke combined sewers to Lake Michigar Milwaukee Metr01 Combined Sewer formed to Quant Over 100 0' using the EPA these models w cuI ties in moc' Michigan in tl temperature 1 dependence of: variable fact" was found to record. SESSION FOUR Monday, November 26, 1979 3:30 5:30 ANALYSIS OF RECEIVING STREAM IMPACTS ON THE MILWAUKEE RIVER z o by Thomas L. Meinholz EcolSciences, Inc. Milwaukee, WI 53202 ABSTRACT tan area contains approximately 15,000 acres of arge to the three rivers of the area or directly of the Facilities Planning efforts of the District and research for EPA's Storm and tensive monitoring and modeling efforts were pereiving water impacts of the combined sewers. Its within the combined system were modeled md Corps of Engineers STORN model. The output of load Harper's receiving water model. Najor diffiiver systems were the variable influence of Lake lches. The relatively clean, high DO and lower could not be easily quanitified because of the s on wind speed, direction, lake level and other model calibration using a linearly decreasing flux :ontinuous DO data generated during two years of The Milwaukee river exhibits tremendous DO sags in the lower reaches of the river following runoff events. The modeling tasks of the CSO project could not duplicate these sags using the instream concentrations found in the monitoring program. Extensive field monitoring was then conducted to quantify the source and mechanism of these sags. After numerous investigations, the bottom sediments in the lower reaches were found to be the source of the rapid DO declines. The mechanism was related to the scouring action of submerged combined sewer outfalls. In order to model the response of the river to discharge events, the receiving water model was modified to include an expression which would predict the extent and duration of the scour action from the submerged outfalls. Long term simulations of DO and other parameters were calibrated and verified using the response of the river to a multitude of rainfall events. 8

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The use of this model network in the evaluation of alternatives for abating combined sewer overflows produced magnitudes of DO and fecal coliform impacts for each alternative using 20 years of rainfall record. The results for the following alternatives are presented. existing conditions partial separation complete separation out-of-basin (storage-conveyance-treatment) end-of-pipe (EOP) 100% CSO removal Discussions of how these results were quantified including the model development will be discussed. The cost-benefits analyses that were used to satisfy the EPA PG-6l requirements will also be detailed to provide the reader with a methodology that has been successfully applied and approved in the Milwaukee area. URBAN STORMWATER IMPACTS ON RECEIVING STREAMS IN NORTH CAROLINA by E. Ryland Brown and Ross S. Green Technical Services Branch Division of Environmental Management North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development Raleigh, NC 27611 ABSTRACT Studies were conducted in North Carolina by the Division of Environmental Management as part of the statewide 208 program to determine the extent of water quality degradation in streams receiving urban stormwater runoff. Selected streams were monitored in three of the larger urban areas within the state; Asheville, Raleigh, and Winston-Salem. The monitoring program involved physical/chemical sampling under both high (storm) and low streamflow conditions. Parameters sampled include temperature D.O., BODS COD, fecal coliforms, ammonia-nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, iron, mercury, lead, zinc, copper. chromium, manganese, cadmium, nickel and suspended solids. Biological sampling of aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates was conducted concurrently to further document water quality conditions. In Asheville, a stream draining a mixed land use urban area was studied. In the Raleigh area, three streams were monitored, including one that drains a highly impervious watershed comprised primarily of a shopping center. 9

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The most intensive sampling was conducted in the Winston-Salem area. In this locality, streams draining both residential and Central Business District watersheds were monitored to investigate water quality characteristics associated with these different land' use types. For comparison purposes, control stations upstream of urban inputs were also monitored. All of the urban streams were found to exhibit extensive water quality problems. Physical/chemical sampling consistently revealed high pollutant concentrations for several parameters under flow conditions. Notable problematic parameters included sllspendl'd solids, lead, and some nutrients. Several parameters were found to frequently be present in high concentrations under low flow conditions also. Variations in pollutant concentrations from the different land use types were also observed. The Division of Environmental Management's biological monitoring group has developed an index of the macro invertebrate organisms found in North Carolina streams. As part of this index, each taxa is rated according to its ability to withstand pollutional stressed conditions. All of the urban streams monitored were found to be extensively biologically degraded. Populations of Siptera and Oligochaeta, pollution-tolerant organisms, averaged over 90% of the existing fauna. In contrast, control station population percentages of these organisms were a maximum of 15% of the fauna in the mountain stream, and 35% in Piedmont streams. Many intolerant groups were not just reduced in numbers in the urban streams, they were usually completely absent. These studies have shown that, under present conditions, almost all urban streams will be unable to meet the 1983 water quality goals. The Division of Environmental Management is currently finalizing guidelines for a study to be centered in the Winston-Salem area to evaluate management techniques aimed at reducing these documented water quality problems. This three year project is in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency's National Urban Runoff Program. 10

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DISSOLVED OXYGEN IMPACT FROM URBAN STORM RUNOFF by Thomas N. Keefer, Robert K. Simons, and Raul S. McQuivey The Sutron Corporation Arlington, VA 22209 ABSTRACT One hundred and four water quality monitoring sites in and downstream of urban areas throughout the country were considered for inclusion in this study. These were screened from over 1000 monitors maintained by federal and state agencies such as the u.s. Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Ohio River Valley Sanitation Commission and Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Daily data were obtained and processed for 83 of the 104 candidate sites. Of the 83 monitors considered, 42 percent or roughly one monitor in three of the 104 candidates demonstrated a 60 percent or greater probability of a higher than average DO deficit occurring at times of higher-than-average streamflow or on days with rainfall. This result was obtained by considering daily for entire water years. Not all years at any given station exhibited a 60 percent probability. One to three years out of five is typical. DO levels fell to less than 75 percent saturation at most of the sites wlrere 6D percent ur greater probability existed. Levels of '5 mg/l or less were not uncommon. Detailed hourly data analysis was made at 22 of the sites with high correlation between flow and DO deficit. Typically, at times of steady low flow the DO fluctuates widely on a daily cycle. These cyclic changes range from 1 to 7 mg/I. a storm event occurs and the flow increases, the diurnal cycle disappears: The minimum DO drops from 1 to 1.5 mg/l below the minimum values observed during steady flows and remains constant there for periods ranging from one to five days. As the flow event subsides, the DO level resumes its cyclic behavior. Of the 22 monitors examined on an hourly basis, 11 would not meet a s.D-mg/l DO standard. Six of the 11 would not meet the EPA-suggested 2.D-mg/l-for-four-hour standard. Streeter Phelps analysis indicated that two additional monitor sites at which hourly data were examined would not have met the EPA standard had they been properly located. An additional two sites at which hourly data could not be obtained would also not have met the EPA standard. 11

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THE IMPACT OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS ON THE DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONCENTRATION OF A SMALL STREAM by Thorkild Hvitved-Jacobsen Institute of Civil Engineering Aalborg, Denmark ABSTRACT The paper discusses the impact of combined sewer overflows on the dissolved oxygen concentration of a sIT.all stream. The different oxygen consumption processes in the receiving stream have been studied at 4 consecutive stations during and after the passage of the discharged volume of stormwater and untreated sewage. Two different effects on the DO-concentration were observed in the stream: 1. An immediate effect caused by degradation of the soluble BOD-fraction in the polluted watervolume. 2. A delayed effect caused by degradation of the adsorbed colloidal and outsetting particulate matter. ad 1. This effect is caused by the degradation in the water-body and by direct absorption by the animals (invertebrates) in the bottom. The deoxygenation constant Kl in the water volume is about 0.15 days-l but the total deoxygenation constant Kr for the whole stream is about 0,55 days -1, which indicates the importance of the degradation in the bottom. ad 2. After passage of the discharged polluted volume there is an effect on the DO-concentration in the stream, which is attributable to adsorption of colloidal organic matter at the bottom. The delayed degradation may increase the respiration of the bottom in certain stations by 100%. This delayed effect may last 12-24 hours after the stormwater passage. The investigation shows that due to the delayed effect, the oxygen consumption is spread over a long period compared to the passage time of the polluted volume. The importance of this depends among other things on the reaeration of the stream. 12

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SESSION FIVE Tuesday, November 27,1979 8:30 10:00 IMPACTS OF INTERMITTENT URBAN DISCHARGES ON RECEIVING WATERS by John L. Mancini College Bronx, NY 10471 ABSTRACT The paper will present an illustration of the impacts of CSO discharges on bathing beach areas of New York City. The illustration will also define the treatment required and the costs for controlling water quality, A unique statistical analysis used in the project will be discussed. The proposed paper will be divided into two segments. Segment #1 will discuss an analysis of coliform distribution in New York Harbor. The paper will present calculated and observed time variable coliform distributions over several storm events for the major water bodies that make up New York Harbor. Data and calculations will be presented fbr different size rainfalls and for different Hudson River flows. This segment of the paper will conclude with economic data on the cost of controlling coliform levels at selected beach locations in New York Harbor. Therefore, loads, fate and effects of storm water associated coliform distributions will be discussed. Segment #2 will address the fate and effect of intermittent discharges of toxics. In particular, information from data in the Trinity River, will be emplbyed to calculate partition coefficients and equivalent removal rates for Cd, Cu, and other metals. Comparable calculations for the equivalent removal of Lindane, DDE, DDT and several other orga:nic taxics will also be provided. This will be a discussion of fate of toxics. The effects part of this segment will employ dose response data for Cd to illustrate calculations of mortality of an organism due to a storm load. The effect part of the paper will present a procedure for calculations. In situ data are not available to test the calculation procedure. The issues of concern in rational evaluation of effects will be identified in a quantitative manner. 13

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THE RESPONSE OF GREAT LAKE ESTUARIES TO STORMWATER RUNOFF by John R. Adams and Stephen M. Yaksich U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo, NY ABSTRACT Glacial rebound of the northern shore of Lake Erie has resulted in drowned rivermouths of southern shore tributaries. Transport of material through these estuaries depends not only on river stage but also lake stage. This paper describes studies carried out in two Lake Erie tributaries during high and low flow conditions. It also examines the effect of localized urban runoff on one of the estuaries. Three separate studies of water chemistry in the lower Maumee River, an estuarine river section, were conducted by the Toledo Metropolitan Council of Governments, the Buffalo District Corps of Engineers, and others, during '1974 and 1975. Base flow river conditions and the resultant estuary chemical variations were measured during the summer of 1974. Winter storm runoff effects were measured during January and February, 1975. Additional sampling and analysis was conducted during the summer of 1975, giving a fairly complete record of water chemistry variability. Winter storm runoff was also measured in the estuary of the Cuyahoga River, \-lith simultaneous river and estuary sampling over the hydrograph for selected pollutants. This paper outlines the problems and complexities of chemical measurements of water quality in estuarine systems of the Great Lakes during varying hydrologic conditions. The studies in the }fuumee River point out the importance of sampling program design, and the difficulty in evaluating the transport of pollutants through such estuarine systems. The summer studies were conducted by TMACOG as part of an evaluation of in situ water quality, as effected by a number of waste discharges from the Toledo area. The winter storm runoff measurements, made simultaneously at both an upstream riverine station and a downstream estuary station were designed to evaluate whether the mass transport being carried out into the basin was passing through the estuary and out into the lake. The question of an increase or decrease in mass transport was also considered, to evaluate scouring and depositional mechanisms in the estuary. Th.e results of the }illumee estuary measurements were compared with the Cuyahoga estuary in Cleveland, where similar sampling of river and estuary transport was carried out for the same storm periods. 14

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WATER QUALITY AND URBAN RUNOFF IN SELECTED CANAL COMMUNITIES ALONG THE TEXAS COAST by Allen Messenger* and Tom D. Reyno1ds** *Environmenta1 Science and Engineering, Inc. Austin, Texa's **Professor of Civil Engineering Texas A & M University College Station, Texas ABSTRACT Water and runoff samples from seven waterfront communities in the Galveston Bay area were collected and analyzed in order to evaluate causes of canal water quality problems. Until present, community design has been based on optimum utilization of land area with little or no regard toward the effect of development on water quality. The primary cause of water quality problems in these communities appears to be urban runoff. Samples of canal waters were collected over a five-month period and analyzed for nutrients, oxygen demand, pesticides, and hydrological variables, including Rhodamine dye concentrations. In general, canal waters exerted BODS values of 2-10 mg/1 with no problems associated with toxic substances. Evaluation of domestic wastewater data from centralized treatment facilities indicates that these wastewater streams are not major sources of pollution loading. Runoff samples were collected from three rainfall-runoff events and were found to contain signficant amounts of carbonaceous material. Also, the possibility of canal sediment resuspension by point discharge of runoff was investigated using a canal model. The two-year frequency rainfall event for the Galveston area was found to produce significant resuspension of high BODS benthic sediments. These data were applied using the modified Streeter-Phelps equations for estuarine dissolved oxygen analysis and were found to fit actual conditions with reasonable accuracy. 15

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SESSION SIX Tuesday, November 27, 1979 10:30 -12 noon THE RESPONSE OF INFAUNAL COMMUNITIES TO SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN WASTE WATER DISCHARGE by Ronald H. Thorn College of Fisheries University of Washington Seattle, Washington ABSTRACT Certain aspects of the structure of macroinfaunal communities in the subtidal sediments adjacent to an intertidal combined sewage overflow were studied. The impact of this ephemeral source of Taw waste water and street runoff on the communities was evaluated using samples taken after periods of high (April) and 1m. (August) frequency of discharge. In April, the community nearest the overflow was characterized by a high number of individuals, low number of taxa, a low species diversity, a high abundance of the polychaeta Capitella capitata and a high relative number of polychaetes. Subsurface deposit feeding species dominated the community. Infaunal abundance was markedly low in the region -immediately beyond the aTea of acute impact. Diversity and number of taxa were highest at the sites furthest (Le. > lOOOm) from the overflow. Bivalve molluscs \.ere in relatively high abundance, and carnivores, surface deposit feeding and subsurface deposit feeding species were approximately equally abundant at these sites. The samples in August showed similar trends relative to the overflow in number of individuals, number of taxa, species diversity and community composition by phyla and feeding type. However, differences among all sites in these parameters were less pronounced during this period. Capitella capitata was not in low abundance, and the loptostracan crustacea Nebnlin pugettensis was in highest abundance at the site nearest the overflow. A cluster analysis of the communities indicated that the communities closest to shore and nor'thward from the overflow were most al'tered. The communities at the sites nearest the overflow appear to be primarily affected by intense scouring and deposition, whereas those communities further away appear to respond largely to input of organic debris. The decreased frequency of overflows in August may be responsible for the relative decrease in differences among the communities at all distances from the overflow. 16

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PRODUCTIVITY RESPONSES OF LAKE EOLA WATER TO URBAN RUNOFF by Harvey H. Harper, Yousef A. Yousef, and Martin P. Wanie1ista Department of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences University of Central Florida Orlando, Florida ABSTRACT Lake Eo1a is a land-locked lake located in downtown Orlando, Florida. Its surface area is approximately 27.0 acres (11.0 Ha) and water depth is 2 to 3 feet (0.6 to 0.9 meters) near the shore area and 22 feet (6.7 meters) toward the center. The lake directly drains 85 acres (34.4 Ha) of impervious land and 56 acres (22.7 Ha) of pervious land from commercial and residential areas. Currently there are coarse screening devices inch opening) on inlet storm drains which are called grass catchers. Lake Eola is a focal point for the City of Orlando and is visited by many tourists for its aesthetic appeal. No swimming, motor boating, or fishing is allowed. The lake was drained down exposing 40% of the bottom and approximately 4 feet of mud was removed in 1972-1973. However, input nutrients, organics and other compounds from street stormwater runoff have not been effectively managed. Five years "later, excess fish and algae have to be removed periodically and the water quality of Lake Eola is again questioned. A research project sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Florida State Department of Environmental Regulation and the City of Orlando is currently underway to determine the lake impacts of pollutants in stormwater runoff and to develop a methodology for determining optimal combinations of stormwater management methods. Periodical water samples are being collected from the lake for various stormwater events. Changes in water quality parameters with time through each storm event are documented. Parameters analyzed include alkalinity, hardness, solids, BOD, TOC, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and heavy metals for and dissotved fractions. Analytical methods followed Standard Methods for the examination of water and wastewater and EPA's Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastewater. Heavy metals including, Zn, Cd, As, Ni, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Cr are being analyzed using a plasma spectrometer, 8MI SpectrospanIII. Loadini rates from nutrients and heavy metals released to Lake Eola due to stormwater runoff are analyzed, and lake impacts are evaluated. Algal bioassay studies are performed to investigate stormwater impacts on Algal productivity. Periodical water samples are being collected. from various locations in the lake, mixed and filtered for limiting nutrient studies using various concentrations of N, P, and Fe. 17

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Unialgal species of Selenastrum, Cholorella and indigenous species are used and changes in chlorophyll "a" biomass are measured. Initial results indicate that phosphorus or nitrogen can be limiting at sometimes of the year. However, the ratio of P:N can be more important than actual concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen separately. Maximum standing crop seem to occur at N:P ration of 15-20:1. Also, similar bioassays are performed on a mixture of stormwater, coagulated stormwater and lake water at different ratios. Higher concentrations of stormwater would inhibit algal productivity and smaller ratios would significantly increase productivity. Additionally, no increase in productivity is observed when coagulated runoff water is used. These experiments can be used as useful tools to facilitate stormwater management decisions. WATER QUALITY AND BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF URBAN RUNOFF ON COYOTE CREEK by Robert Pitt and Martin Bozeman Woodward Clyde Consultants San Francisco, CA ABSTRACT This preliminary report presents the initial results and conclusions from the EPA-sponsored demonstration study of the water quality and biological effects of urban runoff on Coyote Creek, near San Jose, California. This first phase included investigating various field procedures that would be most sensitive in evaluating water, sediment and biological changes in the creek as it passed through the urban area. The procedures identified as most promising are currently being used in additional Coyote Creek studies. The report describes the characteristics of urban runoff affecting the creek, sources of urban runoff pollutants, effects of urban runoff and potential controls for urban runoff. Local urban runoff characterization information is summarized, based on a previous EPA sponsored demonstration project in the area (Demonstration of Nop-Point Pollution Abatement Through Improved Street Cleaning Practices-EPA grant No. S-804432, Pitt 1979) and from the local "208" study (Metcalf and Eddy 1978). Sources of urban runoff pollutants in the study area are being investigated as an important part of the field activities of the project and include sampling runoff from many source areas (such as street surfaces, parking lots, landscaped areas, rooftops and rain). Various short-and long-term biological sampling techniques were used to evaluate the fish, benthic macroinvertebrate and attached algae conditions at many stations in the creek, above _and within the urban area. 18

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Creekwater and sediment samples were also obtained and analyzed for a broad list of parameters. In most cases, very pronounced gradients of these creek quality indicators were observed, with the urbanized portion of the creek being significantly degraded. Current additional monitoring is being conducted to identify the urban runoff control goals necessary to improve creek quality to adequate levels. 19

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SESSION SEVEN Tuesday, November 27, 1979 1:20 3:00 NATIONWIDE ASSESSMENT OF URBAN STORMWATER IMPACTS ON RECEIVING WATER BODIES by James P. Heaney, Wayne C. Huber and Melvin E. Lehman University of Florida Gainesville, Florida ABSTRACT Urban stormwater runoff has been recognized in recent years as a potential major contributor of pollution to receiving water bodies. Assessment of urban stormwater runoff pollutant quantities and characteristics have been made for several areas throughout the United States, the most ambitious being the Environmental Protection Agency's 208 Areawide Wastewater Management Planning Program. Price tags for abating urban stormwater pollution (though elimination or reduction of discharges) range in the billions of dollars. Projections of high costs have forced a look beyond abatement of discharges to the receiving water bodies for insight as to what are the impacts, where are they, and are they significant? First-year results of a nationwide search for documented case studies of impacts of urban runoff receiving waters indicate that well-documented cases are scarce. Impacts previously to urban stormwater runoff may be point source impacts in disguise, or they may be masked by greater contributions from other sources. In some cases they are offset by hydrological, biological, or geological attributes of the receiving water body. The lack of documentation and clear definition of urban stormwater impacts makes the task of assessing importance of this pollution source even more difficult. Efforts to address this aspect include relating sources of pollutants and pollutant types to receiving water characteristics and effects on desired water uses. Characteristics such as stream or lake bed hydraulics, present and potential water uses, established stream standards, ecological data and water quality information are being summarized for the documented cases to determine how the urban runoff pollutants might behave or react in the receiving water and what potential use they might affect most adversely. Results of these analyses are to be used as a basis for devising simple criteria for analyzing an urban area to determine a potential impact does or would occur. 20

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STATISTICS OF ADVECTIVE DISPERSIVE SYSTEH RESPONSE TO RUNOFF by Dominic M. Di Toro Environmental Engineering and Science Program Manhattan College, Bronx, NY ABSTRACT An analysis is presented for the mean and variance of a one dimensional advective dispersive system that is subjected to random inputs of runoff. Analytical solutions are available for which the mass input is represented as a Poisson process of delta functions. The effects of event to event variability of runoff mass discharges are included in the formulation as are the random times between overflows. The method of solution evaluates the overlapping effects in the receiving water due to the persistence of discharged mass. Both conservative, first order reactants, and sequentially reacting substances are considered. The solutions have certain unexpected properties. In particular, the normalized variance of BOD and DO are symmetric about the discharge point, whereas the means of the concentration are not. This is explained in terms of the effects of advection and dispersion of flucuations. The analytical solutions are compared to simulated results using an observed hourly rainfall sequence. The results indicate that the within event variability is not significant, if the receiving water dispersion is large enough. It is also pointed out that treatment devices such as retention basins which remove a certain average fraction of the overflowing mass are less effective in removing variance in the receiving water. This phenomena is of importance in the evaluation of the probable benefit of runoff treatment. CONTINUOUS RECEIVING WATER QUALITY MODELING FOR URBAN STORMWATER MANAGEMENT by Miguel A. Medina, Jr. Duke University Durham, NC ABSTRACT A simplified continous receiving water quality model has been developed to permit preliminary planning and screening of areawide urban wastewater treatment alternatives, in terms of frequency of water quality violations and more traditional approaches such as dissolved oxygen profiles. The model name is Level III-Receiving. 21

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It simulates the hypothetical reponse of the stream or tidal river system to the separate and combined effects nf waste inputs from: 1) upstream sources, 2) dry weather urban sources, and 3) wet weather urban sources. The total hours of runoff-producing rainfall throughout a year are separated into storm events by defining a minimum interevent time. For a given storm event, the runoff and pollutant loads are summed and critical dissolved oxygen concentrations are estimated as a function of several hydrodynamic and biochemical parameters. Alternative control strategies are evaluated in terms of relative impacts by determining the probability of occurrence of water quality violations. Hodel output includes the dmvnstream dissolved oxygen sag curves computed per each event, and the dissolved oxygen profile computed at a user-specified location downstream for all simulated events. An application to the Des Hoines River at Des Moines, Iowa, has been made. POTENTIAL OF IMPACTS BASED ON CAMPARATTVE ANALYSIS OF WET AND DRY I'JEATHER POLLUTANT LOADING by Douglas C. Ammon and Richard Field U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Edison, New Jersey ABSTRACT Recent work indicates that urban runoff and combined sewer overflows can be signi ficant contributors to the trace contaminant input to urban receiving waters. For example, a 1975 National Academy of Science Study esl-imntes that on a basis, 2 to 8 percent of the petroleum hydro ('lltC'ring the OCCiln is from \1rb3n runoff. This paper summarizes III! I(' it ,,\ IiI!' d:1Ll lor trace contaminants and scvt'l-al (-0I1Vt'l1tioJ1<11 pilram('tprs, such as BODS and COil. Comparisons are 11l:1dl' alllong ltl:lclings ,mel conCl'nt:rati"ons from (lrban runoff, combined sewer and second3ry treatment plant effluents. Finally, the significance of eacll contaminant is identified based on loading potentials or, whenever possible, based on toxicity to aquatic organisms. 22

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SESSION EIGHT Tuesday, November 27, 1979 3:30 5:00 THE USE OF RECEIVING WATER QUALITY MODELS IN URBAN RUNOFF POLLUTION ABATEMENT: APPLICATION TO MARGINAL BENEFIT -MARGINAL COST ANALYSIS ,by Cornelius B. Murphy, Jr.*, Gregory J. Welter*. Dwight A. MacArthur* and Raymond P Canale** *O'Brien & Gere Engineers, Inc. Syracuse, New York of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan ABSTRACT Urban storm runoff has been determined by a number of investigations to be a significant portion of the water pollution problem and abatement of this source has been recognized as a necessary consideration in achieving the national water quality goals of PL 92-500. However, due to the highly irregular nature of the runoff phenomenon, abatement measures ,that address this problem tend to be very expensive. Thus, in the EPA construction grants program great importance has been placed on careful planning demonstrating the cost-effectiveness of proposed projects (Program Guidance Memorandum 61). The benefits of runoff pollution abatement measures must be evaluated in terms of projected receiving water quality conditions relative to some defined quality standards. There is considerable experience in the establishment of water quality standards and resultant effluent limitations for non-transient municipal and industrial discharges, generally through the use of mathematical models. Generally, these models are applied against a "design" receiving water hydrologic regime (for instance, 10-year, 7-day low flow) and effluent selected which will meet the desired water quality standards. This steady-state analysis assumes a toleration of water quality contravention from the discharge of a low frequency corresponding to the deSignated low flow. This approach is not wholly adequate to analysis of the problem posed by intermittent storm runoff discharges. These analyses require alternate modeling approaches and a restatement of pertinent standards to reflect the short-term high varia.bility of the storm runoff event. Using ongoing studies of combined sewer systems in Rochester, New York and Washington, D.C., as case studies, a procedure is presented for the application of receiving water analyses in urban runoff planning. The studies in both areas have included the development of water quality models based on familiar concepts of mass balance and calibrated against detailed field surveys and laboratory experiments. 23

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In the Rochester study, steady state models of dissolved oxygen in the Genesee and fecal coliform concentrations in'the Rochester Embayment of Lake Ontario are used to project receiving water conditions under dry-weather loads and an envelope of expected impacts of the combined sewer overflows under various system configurations. A time-variable model of Rock Creek and the Potomac and Anacostia Rivers has been used to project transient fecal coliform nutrient and dissolved oxygen concentrations resulting from overflows from the District of Columbia sewer system. In an analysis of marginal costs and marginal benefits associated with various combined sewer overflow abatement alternatives, a series of model runs are made to. proj ect the impact of various waste discharges from the alternate system configurations on the receiving waters under several hydrologic regimes and ambient temperatures. The conjoint probabilities of the receiving water conditions and storm loads are determined on the basis of historical records and used to project the expected water quality under the alternative system configurations. These projections can be quantified as water quality improvements in terms of expected degree of contravention of stream standards with regards to frequency, duration, areal extent and peak concentration. On the basis of this analysis of proj ect cost estimates drawn from generalized cost curves, marginal costs and benefits can be displayed grapl.ically for each al terna tive. The analysis of the Syracuse, New York, Rochester, New York and the District of Columbia combined sewer facilities planning activities are discussed relative to this marginal cost-marginal benefit approach as case studies. COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW IMPACTS ON URBAN LAKE AND ASSOCIATED ABATEMENT METHODOLOGY by Peter E. Moffa, John C. Byron, Steven D. Freedom, and John M. Karanik Stearns & Wheler Cazenovia, New York ABSTRACT A general methodology is presented for the evaluation of the impact and abatement of combined sewer overflows on receiving waters. It was developed from experience with Onondaga Lake, an urban lake in Central New York that receives major combined sewer overflows from the City of Syracuse via two tributary streams. Field investigations of the combined sewer system and the receiving water must first be undertaken. 24

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The field work includes flow measurement and water-quality sampling of the sewer overflows and the receiving waters during several different storms. Use of a computerized data bank has been found virtually essential for the storage and manipulation of the large quantity of data resulting from the sampling and analysis. Mathematical modeling of the receiving water is undertaken to evaluate water quality as a function of poll utant load; the stonn sewer system is modeled to determine the quantities of pollutants discharged during storms of various recurrence intervals. Prior to the modeling effort, analysis of local rainfall records is necessary to develop the classical intensityduration-frequency relationships. After assessing the water-quality impact of dry-weather pollutants from wastewater treatment plants and other sources, the results of the two models can be combined to express the reduction in stormwater pollutants needed to achieve a particular water-quality objective as a function of storm frequency or storm recurrence interval. Abatement alternatives, and their respective costs, for the reduction of pollutants from wet-weather sources, particularly combined sewer overflows, are next investigated. Using engineering judgment of the most effective and economic abatement measures, a relationship is then developed between abatement cost and storm frequency for each of several water-quality criteria or standards. From the cost-benefit relationships thus developed, a graphical determination can be made of the "general optimum solution" (GOS) for reduction or treatment of combined sewer overflows. It is recognized that the quality of the receiving water resulting from the GOS may not be acceptable to the general public or regulatory agencies. In that case, a decision to provide greater (or lesser) pollution abatement will be based upon social or political considerations, but the governmental body making the decision will be cognizant of its economic implications. In the study for Onondaga County, New York, from which the methodology was developed, 35 overflows from the combined sewers of the City of Syracuse, which serve an area of about eight square miles, were monitored for a period of one year. Onondaga Lake, the principal receiving water, is approximately four and one-half square miles in surface area; it was sampled at tne surface locations, each at two distinct depths, for the period of influence of each of six storms. The Storm Hater Management Model (SVl}1M) was applied to the City's sewer system. A 27-segment, three-dimensional, dynamic waterquality model with capability of predicting enteric bacteria, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, and toxic materials, was developed. From the models, it was determined that the impact of CSO's on dissolvedoxygen concentrations in Onondaga Lake will not be critical after tertiary treatment facilities for dry-weather wastewaters are placed in operation; a maximum DO deficit of 2.8 milligrams per liter was predicted for a IO-year, two-hour storm. Combined sewer overflow contributions of phosphorus will be negligible in comparison to those from other sources. In an avera.ge rainfall year, 38 violations of the fecal coliform standard will occur in the area of the lake intended for contact recreation. 25

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If abatement of CSO pollution were to follow the "optimum general sol,ution" of this methodology, there would still be 13 annual violations, ten of which persists for about three days, more extensive CSO abatement will be required if the projected recreational usage of Onondaga Lake is to be realized. A WATER QUALITY PLANNING METHODOLOGY FOR URBAN AREAS by Franklin W. (Skip) Ellis* and Ron Wycoff** *CH2M HILL, Reston, Virginia **CH2M HILL, Gainesville, Florida ABSTRACT The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) 1978 Needs Survey reported that an estimated $36 billion is required to construct necessary municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Additionally, $26 billion is required to control pollution from combined sewer overflow, and $46 billion is required to control urban stormwater runoff. In light of the current trend toward reduced taxes, local funds for water quality projects will become more limited. Moreover, the public should demand that such projects demonstrate perceptible improvements in water quality and are required for the protection of the intended beneficial use of the receiving water. Further, the most cost-effective pollution control alternatives should be used. Without this assurance, required pollution abatement projects may well go unfunded. Based upon information gained in the performance of the EPA's 1978 Needs Survey, a two-phase approach to water quality planning is presented that determines the most cost-effective mix of control alternatives and their impacts on the receiving water. This approach is general in nature but is oriented toward combined sewer overflow (CSO) areas and the requirements of EPA's Program Requirements Memorandum, PRM No. 75-34. Phase I is an initial assessment designed to answer the following questions: 1. What is the intended beneficial use of the receiving water? 2. \.Jhat water quality goals or criteria are required to ensure this use? 3. Based on the goals, is there a water quality problem? 4. Can CSO, urban runoff, or domestic wastewater abatement techniques solve the problem, and what degree of controls is required? 5. If the problem can be solved, what controls, in general, are the most cost effective, and what is the nature of the tradeoffs between cost, degree of control, and receiving water quality? 6. Considering these tradeoffs, are changes in the water quality goals, or in the desired beneficial use for the receiving water indicated? 26

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This two-phase approach is designed to achieve water quality goals established to protect a given beneficial use of the receiving water. Rather than a fixed limit, such as a minimum dissolved oxygen standard, statistical water quality responses are used as the goals. Examples from the EPA's 1978 Needs Survey illustrate this point. Phase I involves the use of a simple, continuotis receiving water quality model and the Heaney-Nix economic optimization procedure. TIle model, the Continuous Stormwdter Pollution Simulation System (CSPSS), incorporates the pertinent features of an urban area and its receiving water. A very brief description of CSPSS is given. The economic optimization is per-formed using estimated areawide production functions for a first-cut analysis of the costs required for various levels of pollution abatement. The water quality model uses these relationships to produce cost-water quality relationships that can be used to guide planners as to the desirability of various pollution abatement projects. Studies from areas with CSO's are presented. If the results of the Phase I analysis indicate that there are water quality problems that can be corrected with affordable solutions, the detailed analysis of Phase II is required. This phase considers, in much greater detail, the area's hydrology, combined sewer system hydraulics, nonpoint and point source pollutants, and the receiving water quality response, thus requiring more sophisticated data and models. The product of the Phase II analysis is a description of the optimal mix of control alternatives, the total plan costs, and the recelvlng water quality response due to the plan. The description of the alternatives includes the level of effort required, the area to which the alternative applies, the expected pollutant reduction due to the alternative, and the cost of the alternative. In summary, this two-phase approach can result in substantial monetary savings by obtaining economically optimal solutions. Use of this methodology also explicitly evaluates the benefits or improvements in water quality as a result of the project. These features satisfy EPA planning requirements and should assure the public that their tax dollars are wisely spent. 27