Hydrologic study of a small suburban watershed

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Title:
Hydrologic study of a small suburban watershed
Series Title:
Florida Water Resources Research Center Publication Number 31
Physical Description:
Book
Creator:
Anderson, M. W.
Ross, B. E.
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Notes

Abstract:
A 126 acre tract of land in a natural undisturbed state and the adjacent 239.3 acres that made up the watershed, were instrumented in November, 1971, in order to determine the effect of development on the hydrology of the 126 acre tract. Hydrologic quantity and quality data were collected until April, 1975. The tract, which is located in Tampa, Florida, did not experience the planned extensive development due to financial problems of the developer. Consequently, the anticipated major hydrologic changes did not occur. However, significant alterations to the natural drainage pattern of the property were made and these caused changes in the runoff quality which were documented.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:
AA00001503:00001


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A HYDROLOGIC STUDY OF
A SMALL SUBURBAN WATERSHED


by


M.W. Anderson
B.E. Ross


PUBLICATION NO. 31

of the

FLORIDA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH CENTER


RESEARCH PROJECT TECHNICAL COMPLETION REPORT


OWRT Project Number A-019-FLA


Annual Allotment Agreement Numbers

14-31-0001-3809
14-31-0001-4009
14-31-0001-5009

Report Submitted: October, 1975


The work upon which this report is based was supported in part
by funds provided by the United States Department of the
Interior, Office of Water Research and Technology as
Authorized under the Water Resources Research Act
of 1964 as amended.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS


ABSTRACT ii

ACKNOWLEDGMENT iii

1. INTRODUCTION 1.

2. DESCRIPTION OF AREA 3.

3. INSTRUMENTATION 10.

4. DATA COLLECTION 18.

5. PLANT LIFE SURVEY 20.

6. SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 23.

7. WATER QUANTITIES 26.

8. WATER QUALITY 40.

9. SUMMARY 88.

10. REFERENCES 89.


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ABSTRACT


A 126 acre tract of land in a natural
undisturbed state and the adjacent 239.3 acres that
made up the watershed, were instrumented in November,
1971, in order to determine the effect of development
on the hydrology of the 126 acre tract. Hydrologic
quantity and quality data were collected until April,
1975.


The tract, which is located in Tampa,
Florida, did not experience the planned extensive
development due to financial problems of the developer.
Consequently, the anticipated major hydrologic changes
did not occur. However, significant alterations to
the natural drainage pattern of the property were made
and these caused changes in the runoff quality which
were documented.


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ACKNOWLEDGMENT


The authors wish to express their sincere
appreciation to those who gave of their time and
talent to make this report possible: Miss Paula
Jerkins, Mrs. Sally Hammer, Mr. Robert Moresi, Mr.
Tom Roskay, Mr. Charles Palmer, Jr., and many others
too numerous to mention, who provided physical labor
to install and maintain the structures and instruments,
and those in other colleges who contributed their
special knowledge for the collection and analysis of
chemical and biological data.


Thanks are also extended to the developers
who co-operated fully with this study. They showed a
genuine interest in the results, whether good or bad,
from their point of view. Their property was avail-
able without question to the many students who took
part during the data collection phase of this study.





























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-1-


1. INTRODUCTION



The purpose of this project was to document the
changes in the quality and quantity of stormwater runoff
from a watershed which was to be developed from a natural
state into a high density apartment complex.


In order to accomplish this, rainfall gages, an
evaporation gage, and flow measuring devices were installed
within the watershed area, from which daily hydrologic data
were obtained. In addition, water quality measurements were
taken at the drainage exit of the study area. The para-
meters measured were dissolved oxygen, pH, carbon dioxide,
temperature, hydrogen sulfide, color, turbidity, metaphos-
phate, orthophosphate, nitrate, nitrite and coliform count.


Shallow aquifer test wells were installed and
monitored in order to establish ground water flow directions,
ground water storage changes and ground water quality changes.


Initially it was anticipated that the entire water-
shed being studied would be developed into a relatively high
density apartment/townhouse complex. Due to the present
slump in the housing industry less than 15% of the watershed
was actually developed. The majority of these 64 units are
still unoccupied. Therefore, the anticipated extensive
quality and quantity changes in storm runoff did not occur.
However, unexpected construction activities have caused
hydrologic changes which have been documented.


A major change occurred in the watershed during
the initial phase of the investigation. A fifty-four inch
diameter pipe was installed under the state highway which
originally provided the southern hydrologic boundary for
the study area. This necessitated an expansion in size
of the study area and a relocation of gages. A portion of
the region which is drained by use of this pipe consists of
a medium density apartment complex. Data pertaining to the
quality and quantity of storm runoff passing through this
pipe have been obtained. On two occasions water quality
measurements were taken at spaced time intervals through-
out the storm, and quantities of pollutants per unit area
were determined.


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-2-


During the final year of the study a small shallow
lake on the property was greatly enlarged and deepened. The
discharge from the study area was then routed by the developer
into this lake rather than through the existing natural drain-
age channel. Water quality changes in the lake during this
time have been recorded.


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-3-


2. DESCRIPTION OF AREA

The watershed chosen for this study is located
near latitude 28004' north and longitude 820 23' west on
the west central coast of Florida. This is approximately
1.5 miles east of the University of South Florida, as shown
on Figure 1.


The climate of the region is basically subtropical
characterized by long humid summers and mild winters. It
is strongly influenced by winds from the Gulf of Mexico.
Variations in day to day maximum temperatures during the
summer range from about 72F to 90F and during the winter
from about 55 to 75F with average daily temperature of
720F.


Precipitation is highly variable in frequency dis-
tribution, distribution, amount, and intensity, due to
frontal storms, local thunderstorms and tropical hurricanes.
The normal annual precipitation is approximately 55 inches
and is unevenly distributed with more than half falling
from June to September.


The Tampa Bay Region is currently experiencing
the worst drought in the history of the Tampa weather
station. The drought which began in 1961 is still continu-
ing. In Table I the annual rainfall departure from normal
and accumulative deficiency for the past fourteen year period
is shown.


This extended drought is particularly significant
to this study because of the high evapotranspiration in
the area. On the average for this region approximately 70%
(37-40 inches) of the annual rainfall becomes evapotranspira-
tion, while approximately 27% (15 inches) drains off by way
of surface drainage, and the remainder goes into groundwater
flow. During extended dry periods, the percentage of surface
runoff decreases because of markedly increased surface storage
and the evapotranspiration rate remains fairly constant.
This causes difficulty in obtaining representative runoff
hydrographs and documenting normal lag times.


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FIGURE 1


WATERSHED LOCATION


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TABLE I

Departure from Normal Rainfall for Tampa,Florida
(Based on U.S. Weather Bureau Records)



Year Departure (inches) Cumulative (inches)

1961 -16.53 -16.53
1962 9.95 -26.48
1963 8.15 -34.63
1964 + 6.35 -28.28
1965 8.79 -37.07
1966 -15.52 -52.59
1967 -12.21 -64.80
1968 -12.22 -77.02
1969 + 2.65 -74.37
1970 -13.30 -87.67
1971 5.24 -92.91
1972 9.39 -102.30
1973 1.86 -104.16
1974 -15.48 -119.64





The study area is underlain by the Floridan
aquifer which is made up of limestone and dolomite rocks.
The potentiometric pressure of approximately 30 feet above msl
is contained by the impervious sediment of the Hawthorne Forma-
tion. At an elevation of 20 to 25 feet throughout the area
there is a thick clay lense upon which a surface water table
is-perched.

A map of the watershed is presented in Figure 2.
Originally only the 126 acre portion north of Fowler Avenue
was to be examined since it was a well defined completely
natural state watershed. However, subsequent to the funding
of the study and prior to installation of all measuring
devices, a 54 inch concrete pipe, which drains 240 acres,
was installed under Fowler Avenue. This southern region
does contain some developed portions, as indicated in
Figure 2. The apartment complex immediately south of the
drainage pipe was under construction when the pipe was in-
stalled.


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- 0-


56TH ST.


SCALE 1" = 900'


Area North of Fowler Ave. 126.2 acres

Area South of Fowler Ave. 239.3

Total Area 365.5 acres



; Development Completed
Multifamily Residential
i fl Singlefamily Residential


FIGURE 2


STUDY WATERSHED


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-7-


The topography of the northern portion is
quite gentle with ground elevations varying from 25
to 35 feet. On the southern portion, the topographic
gradient is much steeper with ground elevations
decreasing from 85 feet to 33 feet within 2300 feet.


There was a small natural lake within the
126 acre portion which drained through a natural ditch
into the Hillsborough River at times of heavy runoff.
The surface area of the lake originally varied from
0.25 acres to 4 acres. The depth of this lake was
increased from an average depth of 3 feet to 14 feet
deep, while the surface area was increased to approxi-
mately 6 acres.


The original condition of the study area is
shown in Figures 3, 4, 5 and 6. The study area
represented a good cross-section of common undeveloped
land in this portion of Florida; grading from hardwoods
to pines and palmettos, to marshlands.


The type of construction that was built on
the study area watershed can be seen in Figure 7,
which shows a condominium under construction in the
area north of Fowler Avenue. Figure 8 shows one of
the abandoned foundations. The type apartments in
the area south of Fowler Avenue and the drainage channel
that drains the single family homes, are shown in Figures
9 and 10, respectively.





























Hardwood Uplands at Start
of Project


Figure 4.


Pinewoods at Start of
Project


Underbrush at Start of
Project


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Figure 6 Marsh at Start of Project
Figure 6. Marsh at Start of Project


Figure 3.


Figure 5.


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-9-


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Figure 8.


Figure 7. Construction of
Condominium


Abandoned Foundation


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Figure 9. Apartment complex, South
of Fowler looking north


Figure 10.


Drainage canal from
south edge of watershed


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-10-


3. INSTRUMENTATION


In order to evaluate the various phases of the
hydrologic cycle for the study area, the following equip-
ment was installed on or near the test watershed.

1. a recording rain gage,

2. five nonrecording rain gages,

3. an evaporation pan,

4. a recording evaporation gage,

5. a Parshall flume,

6. a plywood V notch weir,

7. two recording water level gages,

8. two lake stage gages, and

9. seven shallow wells.


The locations of all the rainfall gages and
equipment are shown on Figure 11. The recording rain gage,
and recording evaporation gage were located on private
property adjacent to but outside of the boundary of the
watershed for security reasons. They were housed in a
wooden box for additional protection. (See Figure 12)
A Parshall flume was installed in the drainage ditch into
which the 54 inch pipe discharges (See Figures 13, 14, 15).
Unfortunately, this process had to be repeated on four
additional occasions due to failures of the soft, alluvial
sand banks of the ditch. The ditch was not kept clear and
by the end of the project had a large crop of aquatic weeds.
In June 1972, the Stevens eight day water level recorder
was stolen off of the flume and four months of data was
therefore not obtained.


A plywood dam with a metal edged V notched weir
was built across the stream which drains the lake into the
Hillsborough River. This weir was calibrated in place
with the use of a large volume portable pump and a portable
weir box. A Stevens eight day water level recorder, placed
upstream of the weir, recorded the water depth. (See Fig-
ures 16 and 17) Three months later, October 1971, the weir
was destroyed by vandals. Consequently, it was necessary
to build, install and calibrate again.


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-11-


Hilley's
A


0 #3


DRAINAGE


- #2


1'' = 900'


OBSERVATION WELL
NON-RECORDING RAIN GAGE
EVAPORATION PAN
RECORDING RAIN GAGE AND
RECORDING EVAPORA-
TION GAGE
WEIR
FLUME


USGS Staff Gage


111th Ave.
A


56th Street
A&


52nd St.
A


z


FIGURE 11


INSTRUMENT LOCATIONS IN WATERSHED


SCALE:

KEY:






-12-


Figure 12.
4Figure 12.
Figure 12.


Recording rain and
evaporation gages


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Figure 13. Ditch at start of
project


Figure 14.


Installing Flume


Figure 15.


Flume and ditch condition
at completion of project







-13-


Figure 16.


View downstream of V-
notch weir


4.


Figure 18.


Reading lake staff
gage


Figure 17. V-notch weir


Figure 19. USGS staff gage in
Hillsborough River


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-14-


A standard Class A land pan was built and
installed in order to obtain evaporation data. Later,
a Weather Measure recording evaporimeter was also in-
stalled near the study area; however, it proved
quite unsatisfactory. It frequently would not respond
when-water evaporated from the reservoir, due to the
static friction of the linkage connecting the recording
pen to the reservoir float. In addition, when a signifi-
cant rainfall occurred the pen went off the chart and
failed to return. It was returned to the manufacturer
for servicing but no noticeable improvement occurred.


Originally two staff gages were installed in
the lake in order to obtain lake surface elevations.
One gage was used when the lake was exceptionally low
and the other for normal and high stages. When the lake
was deepened to a uniform depth by the developer only one
gage was required. (See Figure 18) It was necessary to
survey the lake, prepare a contour map, and prepare an
elevation-surface area curve three different times (See r
Figure 20). This was because the area and volume of the
original shallow lake were changed two different times.


Seven shallow wells were put down for the purpose
of monitoring the perched water table. The holes were
drilled with a hydraulic drill rig borrowed from the USF
Geology Department. A five inch rotary bit was used to
cut through the sand overburden which was washed to the
surface by water injected through the A-rod. When the
thick impermeable clay layer which underlies the area
was reached, the drilling process was stopped and the
drill was allowed to rotate and wash out a sump at the
bottom of the hole. Following the washing process, the
A-rod and bit were removed from the hole and a gravel
pack or sand pack was put in the bottom of the sump. Then
a three inch, 260 psi, PVC casing with well screen attached,
was put into the hole and more gravel added around the
screen and casing. Well logs for these are shown in Table
II.


The well screen consisted of a twelve inch
section of PVC pipe, plugged at one end, with random 1/8
inch wide slots cut into it. The upper end of the pipe
was covered with fine 80 x 80 mesh screen.


The elevation of each well was established from
a known bench mark.


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TABL, II


WELL DATA:


Well # Location Well Log Depth of Hole Pack
s To Bottan To Screen


west of ditch




east of ditch



lake


center of area


creek



road


river


dark brown organicc) for 3 1/2', light
brown for next 6 1/2',at 10' very dark
sand then at 13' light again, at 14'
white with a small clay fraction.

organic for 2' then lighter brown
for next 6', light fine sand till 12'
where clay was hit.

organic for 4' then lighter color with
clay particles for next 4', at 8' clay.

brown sand to 8' very fine, next foot
very dark with a small clay fraction.

3' of dark brown sand then 2' of lighter
sand, at 5' slightly clayey sand to 9'
where clay is prominent.

organic for first 4' then brown sand for
1', light sand to 9' where clay was hit.


organic for first 4'
sand next foot, at 5'
sand and organic to
all indications this
channel.


then light brown
organic and roots,
10', no clay; from
was an old river


14'




10'



9 1/2'


8 1/2'


7'



7 1/2'


8 1/2'


s fc


13'




8 1/2'



8 1/2'


7 1/2'


6'



6 1/2'


7 1/2'


gravel




gravel


sand


gravel


gravel



gravel


gravel









17-


The level of the river was measured by
observation of a USGS staff gage. Fortunately, such
a gage was located in the Hillsborough River very
near the point where water from the study area
entered the river. (See Figure 19)


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-18-


4. DATA COLLECTION


Once a week the recorder charts were changed at
the flume, weir, and evaporation gage and readings taken
at the lake gage and the evaporation pan. The water
levels in the wells were determined biweekly. Daily
readings of the nonrecording rain gages were taken each
morning.


Water samples were taken weekly from the stream
which drained the lake and from the ditch on the downstream
end of the 54 inch drainage pipe. The quality parameters
determined by use of a Hach Chemical Company DR-EL Test
Kit follow:

1. pH

2. Color

3. Hydrogen Sulfide (2 S)

4. Dissolved Oxygen (02)

5. Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

6. Nitrite (NO2)

7. Nitrate (NO3)

8. Metaphosphate (PO4)

9. Orthophosphate (PO4)

10. Temperature

11. Turbidity


In addition, Presumptive and Confirmed Coliform
Bacteria Tests were conducted on the samples according to
procedures described in "Standard Methods for the Examina-
tion of Water and Waste Water", 13th Edition.


The samples that were taken at regularly spaced
time intervals during two separate storms were rushed to a
commercial water quality laboratory to be analyzed. The
quality parameters determined according to "Standard Methods"
procedures were:


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-19-


1. Biochemical Oxygen Demand, B.O.D.

2. Chemical Oxygen Demand, C.O.D.

3. Total Oxygen Carbon, T.O.C.

4. Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen
5. Nitrite, NO2

6. Nitrate, NO3

7. Carbon Dioxide, CO2

8. Metaphosphate, Meta-PO4

9. Orthophosphate, Ortho-PO4

10. pH

11. Turbidity

12. Suspended Solids

13. Color

14. Aluminum

15. Mercury

16. Iron

17. Lead

18. Zinc

19. Copper

20. Oil and Grease

21. Hydrogen Sulfide, H2S

22. Coliform Aerogenes Group

23. E-Coli







-20-


5. PLANT LIFE SURVEY


In order to establish a record of existing natural
vegetation in the watershed prior to urbanization, a plant
life survey was conducted on the northern portion of the
study area. The transect method, in which a string is
stretched in a straight line through the community and
each individual plant in contact with it recorded, was
applied exclusively. A total of 115 transects were used.


The following parameters were determined:

(1) Species diversity the number of species
and the number of individuals of each species.

(2) Frequency of occurrence of each species,
calculated on the basis of the percentage of
occurrence in transects by a given species.

(3) Relative frequency number of occurrences
of one species as a percentage of the total
number of occurrrences of all species.

(4) Density the average number of individuals
of a species per transect obtained by divi-
ding the total number of individuals of that
specie, in all transects by the total number
of transects examined.

(5) Relative density the number of individuals
of one species as a percentage of the total
number of individuals of all species.

(6) Abundance the average number of individuals
of a species per transect ,of occurrence ob-
tained by dividing the total number of
individuals of that species by the number of
transects in which it occurred.


A very appropriate measure of dominance and relative
dominance was also obtained by using a mean basal area of 6
species of trees calculated from 147 measurements and of the
herbaceous species arbitrarily taken as 1 cm Dominance is
the average basal area of each species and relative dominance
is the total basal area of each species as a percentage of
the total basal area of all species.

The project area was divided into two subregions
based on topographic land features for describing the vege-


- V







-21-


station.


(1) The first of these encompasses the highland portion.
The soil encountered here is what Strahler (1969) refers to
as red-yellow podzolic, well drained and leached in the
soil zone. Vegetation reflects this condition since many
plants observed require such edaphic factors. Stratifica-
tion, considered very important by Richards (1952) was
highly variable within this highland area. The upper
stratum composed of trees was mainly discontinuous which
may have been as a result of "recent" disturbances. Small
sectors, however, did contain isolated congruent canopies
of either QueLcuS vi.giniana or Pinua elliottii depending
on the area being examined.


The middle stratum was better defined since
Setenoa repens formed a more or less thick and continuous
layer. Some of the other representatives of this stratum
belonged to Aquidoliaceae and Eaicaceae as well as seed-
lings from Ebenaceae, Fagaceae and Pinaceae.


Herbaceous plants contained within the lowest of
the three strata exhibited the most well defined and
continuous layer. This was to be expected, since a large
portion of the area had been disturbed in the recent past.
Some of the families represented in this stratum were
Compositae, Facaceae and GLamineae.


(2) The second portion of the project land examined
was the lowland-pond area. The soil here was as described
by Strahler (1969), Wisenboden (ground water podzol with
1-half bog soils). This soil supports vegetation that re-
quires moist soil or a body of water for existence. The
plants of this area did not exhibit well-pronounced strati-
fication except for the floating aquatics which, however,
could not be adequately studied for lack of facilities.


The tallest trees encountered belonged to Fagaceae,
Myriicaceae, Pinaceae and Salicaceae. The canopy was dis-
continuous allowing ample sunlight for herbaceous plants
to flourish. Two small sections, however, did exhibit
congruency in its canopy at the pond's east end. One
contained PinuZ members towering to 14 m while the other
site supported QuveLcus and Sacix on the small canal's
slopes.


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-22-


The plant community of this area in its entirety
can be best described as a "mixed oak, pine lowland flat-
woods". This is probably close to the flatwoods described
by Monk and McGinnis (1966), as evidence of recent fire
can.be detected. The following tree species, though numeri-
cally small, registered high on the.Importance Value:
QueAcu. viAginiana (27.60), Pinus elliottii (13.75), and
Se.tenoa tepens (13.926). Since members of the Gramineae
were abundant throughout, they registered highest in
importance value of all the species in this area (93.89).
This is to be expected since the exposed sandy soils of
the disturbed areas are first colonized by the sand
binding members of GAamineae.


The complete record of plant life data has been
tabulated and is available from the primary investigators,
upon request.




V-7


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Fig ure 21. trir *M
.r- 21.. Strig Trnect Me




Figure 21. String Transect Method


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-23-


6. SOIL CHARACTERISTICS


Infiltration and disturbed sample permeability
tests were performed on the various soil types in the
study area. A map showing the various soil types
according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil
Conservation Service, is shown in Figure 22 and Table III.
The texture of nearly all of the soil in the area is fine
sand. In some areas there is a relatively high amount of
undecomposed organic which has not been incorporated
into the soil zones. Therefore organic play a very
small role in the rate of infiltration for this region.


A concentric ring flooding-type infiltrometer
was used in the tests. The inner and outer rings were 9
inches and 14 inches in diameter respectively. Measure-
ments were made in accordance with standard procedures.


After the surface infiltration test was com-
pleted, a subsurface infiltration test was conducted a
few feet from the same site. This consisted of digging
a hole below the organic or root zone and performing a
test in the same manner as was conducted on the surface.


The infiltration rates thus determined, though
higher than normal for soils in this region of Florida,
due to the previously mentioned drought, were as expected;
25-50 inches/hour for most sands; 7-20 inches/hour for
clays and mucks.


Distributed sample constant head permeability
tests were conducted in the laboratory in order to
establish the relative differences between the various
soil types.


The infiltration data are on file and available
upon request, from the primary investigators.






Pages
Missing
or
Unavailable

























SAMPLE SYMBOL


SOIL CONSERVATIVE
SERVICE DESIGNATE


TABLE III

SOILS LEGEND AND CLASSIFICATIONS

)N UNIFIED
ION CLASSIFICATION CLA:


AASHO
SSIFICATION


LAYER DEPTH
(inches)


Blanton fine sand, level
phase
Blanton fine sand, gently
undulating phase
Fresh water swamp-cypress

Lakeland fine sand, gently
undulating phase

Leon fine sand

Mines, pits and dumps

Plummer fine sand

Rutledge fine sand

Rutledge mucky fine sands

Shallow ponds with grass


Bb

Fe3

Ld


SP,SP-SM

SP,SP-SM

Variable


SP

SP

Variable

SP,SP-SM

SP-SM,SM

SP,SP-SM

Variable


A-3


A-3

Variable


A-3

A-3

Variable

A-3

A-3

A-3

Variable


0-42+

0-42+


0-60

0-20

0-60

0-48+

0-20 '

20-42+

0-60


__ __






-26-


7. WATER QUANTITIES


One of the major purposes of this study was
to quantitize the hydrologic changes that occur when a
subtropical natural watershed is urbanized. Unfortunately,
the planned extensive development, which was initially
scheduled to begin in.January 1972, did not occur. The
changes that did occur were minor and gradual, consequently
significant changes in storm runoff quantities were not
detected.


The 126 acre watershed selected for this study
was a separate drainage area within the original 300
acres designated for townhouse/condominium type of
development. The original developers experienced finan-
cial difficulties and the property exchanged hands two
separate times. As of the present, July 1975, only 15%
(18.6 acres) of the 126 acre study area has been cleared
and had housing foundations poured. Of this portion,
only nine acres contain completed condominiums. Thus, only
approximately 7% of the 126 acre study area has undergone
complete development from a natural state to a curbed and
guttered, landscaped condominium complex. (See Figure 2)
However, much useful water quantity data was obtained
during the study period.


The study site has proven to be a valuable
training facility because of its proximity to the Univer-
sity of South Florida. It has been regularly used by
water resource engineering students and geology students
as a field laboratory to learn how to properly conduct a
hydrologic survey.


The drainage pattern of the study area can best
be explained by referring to the map in Figure 2. During
the early stages of the study a 54 inch concrete pipe
which drains a region south of Fowler Avenue was installed
under Fowler Avenue. This pipe discharges into the drain-
age ditch which is contained in the southwest corner of
the watershed. Thus, the storm runoff from a 240 acre
watershed was unexpectedly introduced into the 126 acre
study area.


The elevation of this southern region varies
from approximately 85 feet at its southern boundary to
30 feet where it discharges into the 54 inch pipe. This
55 foot change occurs over a distance of less than 3000
feet. Consequently the runoff response time of this region








-27-


is quite low and very high velocities are obtained
in the alluvial drainage ditch. A typical storm
hydrograph for the discharge from the culvert is
presented in Figure 23. A Parshall flume and a
Stevens water level recorder were used to measure
this flow in the ditch.


The water discharges from the northern end
of this ditch and flows approximately 1200 feet in
sheet flow overland through an intermittently wet region
which contains grasses, palmetto bushes and trees. This
flow along with the natural runoff from the 126 acre
study area drain into what was a small (0.25 acre),
shallow (<6 feet) lake. When the lake is full it dis-
charges into a natural drainage ditch which discharges
into the Hillsborough River. The lake has been enlarged
to the extent that it has not discharged since October
1974.


In order to document the hydrologic changes
caused by urbanization, data were collected to perform a
water balance for the portion of the study area north of
Fowler Avenue. Initial efforts were to independently
establish the values of all components of the cycle such
as rainfall, groundwater storage changes, groundwater
flow, evapotranspiration, etc. However, after the types
and quantity of vegetation were established, it was not
within the scope of the project to quantitize the trans-
piration rates of the various plants. Therefore, the
decision was made to consider evapotranspiration the
unknown in the following hydrologic continuity equation:

Rainfall onto + Rainfall runoff from + Sprinkler runoff
126 acre watershed southern area onto from southern arei
watershed onto watershed

Groundwater + Lake Storage Volume discharged out
Storage e Change Change of watershed

-Evaporation from + Groundwater =Evapotranspiration
Lake Flow


The obvious unfortunate difficulty of using this
equation is that all errors are accumulated into the term
that is the unknown and that the least is known about.


A great deal of difficulty was encountered in
attempting to quantitize these various components of the
hydrologic cycle for an extended period of time, such as a
year. At various times equipment has been stolen or

















1








1







1


1


-I
-- *









7.5








5.0







2.5






0.0






7.5






5.0.







2,5"






0.-
12 Noon
12 Noon


5-






0*


6 PI'M


12 Midnight


FIGURE 23 I:YDROGRAPil


6 AM


12 Hoon


6PM


vwmow
Y' 3'pm
k L;.~-J~ L ~; d;Ir







-29-


destroyed, rain gages filled by pranksters, the Parshall
flume bypassed when the ditch banks caved in, or equip-
ment malfunctions have occurred. Unfortunately, these
difficulties occurred at different times and involved
various lengths of time to correct. It has been impos-
sible to collect a complete record for a year. Consequently,
some missing data techniques had to be used. For example,
hydrographs were generated by use of the SCS triangular
unit hydrograph technique for the period of time that the
recording gage was missing from the Parshall flume. The
coefficients used were obtained by generating values from
known hydrographs for the area which were obtained when
the recording gage was in place. Hydrographs were plotted
for each storm but are not included in this report. The
typical hydrograph as shown in Figure 23 is an example.
Missing rainfall data at a station were determined by
the normal-ratio method for the period of record.


A sprinkler system was installed in the apartment
complex just upstream of the 54 inch pipe. This resulted
in sporadic flows into the Parshall flume which were
easily recognized and accounted for.


The groundwater storage changes were established
by use of water elevation readings taken in the wells
located in the 126 acre area. Figure 11 illustrates the
location of the wells with respect to the river. In
order to obtain a volume of storage change, the average
water level change of wells 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 was assumed
to occur over the 126 acre area minus the area of the lake.
A plot of the changes in well water elevations is shown
in Figure 24. (The complete record of water elevation
changes is available from the primary investigators upon
request.) Then taking into account the soil porosity of
30%, and an assumed 70% saturation, the change in ground-
water storage was calculated.


Groundwater inflow into the watershed was obtained
by determining the hydraulic gradient for the water table
by use of the well data and the average permeability for
the soils. An average permeability of 152 gpd/ft2, which
was obtained from the soil permeability tests, was used.


ar
-~-~----








30



20
30
Well #
20




Wel20 -
30
Wel20#3



*^: 30
Well #4
o 20

S 30
Well #5
o 20

S 30
Well #6
20

34

Well #7


25

River
20


F II M A M I Q I A IS 0 IN ID IJ I IMIA IM I J1 1. IA IS10 N ID I J F IM IA IM IJ IJ IA IS 10 N ID 1 I1 F I IA I
72 73 74 75
FI U.IRi 2:4

*








-31-


Rainfall for the watershed was obtained by
reading the nonrecording rain gages between 8:00 a.m.
and 12:00 noon the day after a rainstorm. At the end
of each week, readings from the recording rain gage were
added to the data already collected and the average
weekly rainfall for the watershed was calculated by the
Theissen method. The monthly average rainfall for the
study period is shown in Table IV. The complete rainfall
record is available from the primary investigators upon
request.



A water balance composed of two week periods is
shown in Table V. The reader is cautioned that evapo-
transpiration losses contained in the last column should
not be regarded as the correct value for the indicated time
period. This is because of the time lag between the
occurrence of a significant rainfall and the measurable
increase in-groundwater storage. For example, a large
volume of rainfall occurred during the time period from
6/4/72 to 6/18/72. However, the proportional increase
in groundwater storage did not occur until the following
period of 6/18/72 to 7/2/72. This large rainfall caused
the first term of the hydrologic balance equation to be
quite large and resulted in an unrealistic evapotrans-
piration term of 7.7 inches for the two week period.
The large groundwater storage increase in the next
period caused a completely impossible evapotranspiration
term of -1.2 inches. However, the algebraic sum of
these two terms (+7.7 + [-1.2]) is a realistic 6.5
inches for a four week period in June.


Although this tabulating quirk occurred several
times, the total evapotranspiration losses for most any
52 week span during the period of record is approximately
50 inches. The increased magnitude of this value over
the regionally used value of 40 inches can be attributed
to the marsh area which was approximately 20 acres in
size during periods of high rainfall and to the phrea-
tophytes surrounding the lake.














WX %71 t






Pages
Missing
or
Unavailable




-33-


Continued.


In


Apr. 2.16

May .33

June 2.18

July 8.63


Oct.

Nov.


5.01

.29


2.25

.56

2.22

7.38




4.46

.15


2.26

.34

2.07

7.07




4.82

.21


2.22

.40

1.83

6.82




4.91

.22


1.91

.34

2.06

6.94




5.14

.23


Dec. 7.10 7.21 7.98 7.82 7.75 7.18 7.44 2.19


1974
Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.


1.53

1.11

1.06

.29

2.70

16.24

8.61

7.80

9.25

0.0

1.15

2.10


1.60

1.0

1.25

.31

3.09

16.71

7.02

8.89

9.46

.15

1.11

2.10


1.91

1.09

1.33

.32

2.93

15.35

7.35

8.11

9.02

.07

1.25

2.10


1.74

1.11

1.32

.32

3.06

15.41

7.13

8.36

6.48

0.0

1.21

2.08


1.57

1.15

1.43

.33

2.64

15.58

7.00

6.97

8.62

.10

1.10

2.00


1.40

1.13

1.08

.38

2.59

16.77

7.63

7.91

8.74

0.0

.98

2.00


1.60

1.09

1.25

.33

2.84

16.19

7.37

8.07

8.84

.07

1.11

2.06


2.27

2.84

3.89

2.10

2.41

6.49

8.43

8.00

6.35

2.54

1.79

2.1o


2.35 1.65


3.43

2.14

2.13

2.3

5.43

8.27

8.93

10.16

7.79

6.97

6.5

1.25


2.40

1.49

1.49

1.61

3.80

5.79

6.25

7.11

5.45

4.87

4.55

.87


*.. .-. ..........


.C:' CJ
C


-?
f

- z
^ 2


2.06

.37








5.09

.28


2.14

.41

2.12

7.38




4.86

.22


2.10

3.41

6.49

8.43




2.54

1.79


6.60

7.34

5.43

8.32




1.41

2.98


4.62

5.14

3.80

5.82




.99

2.09


____ ______________________(__


__I_




-34-


Continued.




*j
.3
CJl
Q Lr
23 ""


C,
~ t
-, C
-, C)


.78

1.52

1.11

1.03


4J
C)

- C !
4-' r-Ci
u -i '0-Ig

u3 ;33 >J f3 0~ f
*n P 2


.94

1.51

1.47

1.10


1.00

1.61

.95

1.02


.84

1.55

1.26

1.12


2.21

2.86

3.89

2.10


2.58 1.80


7.48


1975

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr.


1.00

1.50

1.31

1.05


.67

1.61

1.50

1.29


.73

1.44

.98

.98


5.23
5.23


~.~~~'~ -~L*~.~+h~U~d~"~Prrr~Cd~biB~f~U~CjlSi _~iTL~TXDm~-W~U~I~l~i~!f4~L~blJ*,tiiP a ~T. ~i~i~, ~4~7L~,.J~t:`i~;l'~-~-~YE~'~A4W'ir rrTp~+ q~-~R~Fi'" "F1~~-















TABLE V


WATER 0ALANC2 ?OR AREA


Period FRatnfall,NN
Dates (cu.ft/2 wk)


.5-7-72
5-21-72

6-4-72

6-18-72

7-2-72

7-15-72

7-30-72

8-13-72

8-27-72

9-10-72

9-24-72

10-8-72

10-22-72

11-5-72

11-19-72

12-3-72


705,434

187,807

3,002,712
164,506

675,191

511,057.

1,024,647

3,452,204

240,823

187,087

1,180,278

68,441

822,203

911,089

1,061,516

335,052


Infloa
R'unoff,Fljme
(cu.ft/2 wk)


317,241

13,093

624,163

93,085

62,101

52,742

476,516

469,028

33,444

14,083

190,616

0

313,807

163,088

66,955

30'464


Inf

spri
(cu


Low from Chrnge in
La wn- Ground
inklir Water
.ft/2 wk) Storage
(cu.ft/2 wk)

0 573,266

900 573,266

0 77,622

0 543,355

0 458,976

0 14,18

0 597,438

0 1,534,725

0 922,153

0 90,443

,944 347,735

,744 611,434

0 46,555

.168 570,262

0 610,547

0 99,132


1

3


3


* N indicates flow north of Fowler Avenue


M"
Losses
(ir3hes)


Change in
Lake
Storage
(cu.ft/2 wk)

6,136

-23,101

16,074

32,787

-20,886

-16,565

47,045

92,489

-95,394

-25,209

39,097

-28,897

25,727

15,569

6,402

4 ,95


Lake
Evaporation
(cu.ft/2 wk)


16,451

12,498

21,877

19,269

10,886

12,505

17,893

29,816

16,883

16,228

10,102

11,842

12,318

8,935

8,472

9,208


Weir outfl'7_
(cu.ft/2 wk)



0

0

25,740

210,600

0

0

140

560,520

232,380
0

0

97,956
0

61,704

203,256
0


Net Ground
Water flew
(cu.ft/2 wk)


2,089

2,328

668

183

890

1,900

3,740

6,637

5,360

3,362

4,935

3,897

2,515
4,084

5,933

6,568















WATER BALANCE FCR AREA


Sericd RainTall,N
Dates (cu.ft/2 wk)


Inflow
Runoff,Flurme
(cu.ft/2 wk)


Inflow from Change in Change in
Lawn- Ground Lake
sprinkling Water Storage
(cu.ft/2 wk) Storage (cu.ft/2 wk)
(cuft/2 %k)


Lake
Evaroration
(cu.ft/2 wk)


Weir outflow
(cu.ft/2 wk)


Net Ground FT
Water flow Losses
(cu.ft/2 wk) (inches


12-17-72

12-31-72

1-14-73

1-28-73

2-11-73

2-25-73

3-:1-73

3-25-73

4-8-73

4-22-73

5-6-73

5-20-73

6-3-73

6-17-73

7-1-73

7-15-73


0 207,755

0 207,755

,760 377,352

0 794,465

612 11,306

0 -399,602

,200 418,338

,688 1,615

,780 -836,676

,020 -1,039,862

,038 9,311

,343 -345,796
,889 -404,609

,180 461,333

,278 -750,247


1,226,277

786,844

1,381,165

788,099

437,342

280,038

1,696,191

617,715

0

369,319

162,438

280,085

143,411

498,094

61,960

2,766,140


5
, C


16

14

3

7

61

40

44

9

3,


447,884

81,494

281,011

113,451

53,280

43,138

153,865

68,173

5,438

97,200

15,480

0

15,069

33,901
8,865

264,393


C 1,091,220


81

15,854
825

91

S-21,986

20,370

72,557

-54,615

-28,992

-16,154

-14,254

-35,934

-17,019
758

-27,563


11,733
9,444

12,059

13,128

11,642

13,361

19,523

17,436

20,886

17,221

20,799

14,617

7,947

4,532

3,517

21,171


237,870

60,408

119,953
159,408

128,880

0

0

378,360

129,510

0

0

0
0

0

C

0


3.6

2.2

2.5

-.1

.8


1.5

3.0

.8

1.6

3.4

0.5

1.5

1.1
.2 *


4,671

1,499
1,104

1,975

1,566

38

- 252

- 135

- 172

- 110

- 161

-121

- 10

301

769

1,704


(Continued)



















WATER BAIANCE FOR AIFA


atriod
Dates


Rainfall ,N
(cu.ft/2 wk)


Inflow
Runoff,Flume
(cu.ft/2 wk)


Inflow frcm
Lawn-
sprirnkling
(cu.ft/2 wk)


Charge in
Grounr
Water
Storage
(cu.ft/2 wk)


Change in
La:e
Storage
(cu.ft/2 wk)


725,025

1,625,180


9,921

47,283


39,654

28,017


NO DATA UNTIL


0

1,068

5,760

6,203

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2,153

0

5,723


-724,628

90,451

429,644

218,078

790,320

823,680

64,134

-418,521

-244,021

342,568

-229,943

0

-204,062

-459,015


1,960,387

- 20,601

- 9,528

-38,112

393,575

-125,610

7,51.8

26,852

48,334

67,668

67,668

0

-47,643

0


8,156

16,425

20,186

18,876

9,415

30,284

10,676

26,282

21,044

20,098

5,606

20,088

12,777

6,594


180,360

378,144


0

1,852

0

0

1,962

176,284

4,042

0

0

325,473

0

0

46,411


2,890

3,743


5,782

1,345
0

0

50

1,392

3,723

3,589

2,923

4,4108

8,234

8,523

9,087

8,465


3.7

- .1

-.7

- .4

1.9

3.7

1.1

1.5

1.5

-1.0

.8

.3

1.1

1.4


2,128,237

1,566,719


2,230,829

67,930

100,571
0

1,496,953

2;-064,743

321,879

209,260

377,062

255,438

79,776

220,263

297,171

142,271
0


Lake
Evaporation
(cu.ft/2 wk)


Weir outflow
(cu.ft/2 wk)


Net Grourrn
Water flow
(cu.ft/2 wk)


Losse.:
(inches


7-29-73

8-12-73

8-26-73

10-7-73

10-21-73

11-4-73

11-18-73

12-2-73

12-16-73

12-30-73

1-13-74

1-27-74

2-10-74

2-24-74

3-10-74

3-24-74

4-7-74

4-21-74


-358,917 -821,345 Drained 821,345


252,633

125,719


695,400

0

6,120

0

519,180

469,592

121,698

24,974

20,160

48,597

0

137,816

2,156

19,193


(Continued)


0 13,780


6,654 0.9















WATER BALANCE FOR AREA


5-

5
6

6

6

7

7

8

8

9
9.

10

10.

11

11

12


iRried Rainfall,N
Dates (cu.ft/2 wk)



-5-74
840,633
-19-74
497,444
-2-74
1,327,895
-16-74
3,969,561
-30-74
1,061,796
-14-74
1,081,218
-28-74
1,840,765
-11-74
1,205,648
-25-74
1,699,654
-8-74
884,675
-22-74
-504,367
-6-74
0
-20-74
0
-3-74
0
-17-74
525,485
39,-1-7
349,061


Inflow Inflow from


Runoff,Flurme
(cu.ft/2 wk)



542,844

48,785

483,493

2,166,344

411,500

214,707

933,410

671,582

833,768

369,991

202,773
0

0

0

176,832

316,116


Lawn-
sprinkling
(cu.ft/2 wk)



0

2,310

0

0
0

0

0

0

0

0

0
0



5,834

4,780

0

0


'Change in
Ground
Water
Storage
(cu.ft/2 wk)


871,200

-155,584
49,821

3,406,617

-554,400

-396,000

1,425,599

105,600

-242,325

66,000

-734,800

-1,106,239

S662,400

S753,981

S635,184

S72,072


Change in
Lake
Storage
(cu.ft/2 wk)



551,250

53,759

483,500

325,250

125,000

233,466

21,633

43,263

86,534

-194,701

- 42,389

-160,280

-158,440

-103,668

- 85,293

-13,437


Lake
Evaporation
(cu.ft/2 wk)




302

2,055

43,719

77,162

57,096t,

52,614

52,614

58,244

61,371

37,929

40,392

15,462

9,563

22,226

19,431

2,670


Weir outflow Net Ground ET
(cu.ft/2 wk) Water flow Losses
(cu.ft/2 wk) (inches


0

0

0

325,000

125,000

180,423

58,200

21,556

197,800

175,250
0

0

0

0

0

0


6,424

3,257

3,477

-1,876

207

2,527

3,880

2,527

2,219

4,861

8,908

3,590

380

403

1,000

3,515


-0.1

1.4

2.8

4.5

3.9

2.8

2.7

3.7

5.5

2.9

3.3
2.8

1.8


1.9

3.2

1.7


(Continued)



















WATf:. BALANCE FOR APFA


Period Ralfall ,N
Dates (cu.ft/2 wk)


12-15-74

12-29-74

1-12-75
1-26-75

2-9-75

2-23-75

3-9-75

3-23-75

4-6-75

4-20-75


583,518

396,221
0

104,172

480,949

102,964

79,593

144,735

214,478


Inflow Inflaw frcm
Runoff,Flune Lawn-
(cu.ft/2 wk) sprinkling
(cu.ft/2 wk)


0

291,411

0

7,500

63,037

'17,120

23,178

176,833

200,094


Change in
Ground
Water
Storage
(cu.ft/2 wk)


986 33,660

S- 89,100


0

2,385

0

22,108

12,173

0

0


0

158,400

- 79,200

+ 79,200

-237,615

+298,542

+255,921


(Continued)


Weir outflow
(cu.ft/2 wk)


Net Ground
Water flow
(cu.ft/2 wk)


ET
Los; es
(inches)


Change in
Lake
Storage
(cu.ft/2 wk)


0

- 20,569

- 11,518
- 1,646

0

- 25,917

- 17,278

- 60,473

-103,668


Lake
Evaporation
(cu.ft/2 wk)


10,383

17,798

17,798

13,251

12,038

13,570

17,279

18,990

20,343


6,501

6,124

5,242

4,795

5,615

7,950

9,087

12,777

23,905





-40-


8. WATER QUALITY


During the course of this study, three different aspects
of water quality were studied. These were: 1) the change in runoff
pollutant concentrations during a storm; 2) the change in ground-
water quality in the shallow aquifer; and 3) the change in quality
of surface runoff as a result of its passage over the study area.


Quality samples were taken at regular intervals at the
entrance to the concrete pipe that passes under Fowler Avenue,
during two different storms. The drainage pattern of the watershed
is such that all runoff from the area south of Fowler Avenue drains
through this pipe. The resulting pollutographs from both storms
were quite similar, consequently only one set of data is presented
in this report. The hydrograph for the storm of May 19, 1975 is
presented in Figure 25 and the pollutographs for the various sub-
stances measured are presented in Figures 26. through 36.


The concentrations measured were converted to total pounds
of pollutant per time interval and are listed in Table VI. In
addition, this table contains the total pounds of each pollutant
which was washed off the watershed during the storm and the pounds
of substance generated per acre.


The concentrations of eighteen of the twenty-three measured
parameters generally decreased with time as anticipated. Carbon
dioxide (CO2) concentrations remained approximately constant while
oil and grease concentrations and orthophosphate (Ortho-PO4) con-
centrations increased with time. It is felt that the orthophosphate,
and the grease and oil concentrations would have reached a peak
value and leveled off if the storm had been of a longer duration
than fifteen minutes.


Both of the storms, for which data weregathered, were mild
and of short duration. More intense storms of longer duration could
and probably would produce different pollutographs.


Chemical quality tests were run on groundwater samples
which were removed from the surface aquifer wells during July,
August and September of 1972 and again in May 1974. (See Table
VII). The data show that peak values occurred in dissolved sub-
stances when the wells were first dug. Since then, there has been
no significant change in groundwater quality. This confirmed
expectations.


._ 11______1____1~_11__*~lll~--X-~*~i)i ~ ~9--- --- _..


















HYDROGRAPH FOR MAY 19, 1975


I























90 120 150

MINUTES
FIGURE 25.























250


CCNTRATION
BD
PIM
200








150


2:15 2:25 2:35
1,2 OF DAY
19 yav 1975


800





700
CCtCENTRATION
COD
PEM

600





500





400





300





200


Figure 26 Runoff Quality


2:05 2:15 2:25 2:35
T CE O' rAY
19 May 1375


2:45 2:55 3:03












100

75

50

25


IW-NT
PPM


TC~Yr- -I-- -- -" "P. -


2:05 2:15


TIME OF DAY
19 May 1975


Figure 27 Runoff Quality


2:25 2:35
TIM CF DAY
19 May 1975


2;45


2:55 3:05


j/























Uo
110



PPB
100




90




80




30




20


19 OMF I175
'9 1ay Yr75


!Z05 2:15 2:25 2:35 2:45 2:55 3:05
T19 OFa DAY
19 May 1975


1.00 -I


CONEKTRATION
N3
PPM


Figure 28 Runoff Quality


-ILf)


.5-








,25.--- -































C T!CENIOATICN
M-PO4
FPPM

.75










.50










.25


TrE OC DA9Y
19 May 1975


CTalca7PAMONO
0-PO4
PPM

3



41






2











1-


2:05 2:10 2L5 2:20 2:25 2:30 2:35
T3-E CF DAY
19 May 1975


Figure 29 Runoff Quality




















I.U 4


CC~ETRATIOtN
AI'MIN .
PPM 6 0


450




425
SLSPEBED
SOL:IS


400




375




100




75




50


2:05 2:15 2:25 2:35
MTE OF DAY
19 My 19-75


- -. _ _


225
19 : OF
19 may;


2:05 2:15


2:45 2:55 3:05


2:45 255


1.0


Figure 30 Runoff Quality




































ONI 3.0

MI 3.0


Vt- I


2:15 2:25 2 i3

TE OF DAY
19 May 1975


Figure 31 Runoff Quality


OCIXMRZICA'T


FPB


TI OF MAY
19 llay 1975


t-&r'


--


255





























* 2xnqmTIWN
znqz
PPM

.4


Figure 32 Runoff Quality


1.0





.9

LEWO
C~DP.?'IO


TD-- OF AY
10 Nza'. 1975


L- DA. M



























J.C.U.II


100


COPPER
PPM
.03









.02









.01


'4
I ~











1:

I-
^---------


2:0 2:15 2
2:05 2:1'5 2"5


2:35 2:45 2:55


Figure 33 Runoff Quality


2:05 2:15 2:25 2:35 2:45 2:55 3:05
TIME OF DMY
19 May 1975


~IJ


TI: OF DAY
19 May 1975


D


~


DU














18,000


16,000


2: 2:15. 2:25
T19 Fy 1C
19 **ay. 1V


14,000
OCNCECRATKION
COLIFOIR
PER 100 OC

12,000





10,000





8,000





6,000





4,000





2,000


2:35 2:45 2:55 3:05


1T- !OF DAY
19 "ay 1975


Figure 34 Runoff Quality


COLOR

COLU R
UNITS






















CCRCENIRATCN
CO2
PPM


STIME CF DAY
19 May 1975


2:05 2:10 2:15 2:20 2t25 2:30 2:35 2:45 2:50


TIME CF DAY
19 May 1975


Figure 35 Water Quality


3:00 3:05






















COflN&R=PTION
OIL & GFASP
PPM


2S05 2:10 2:15-2:20 2:25 2:30 2:35 2145 2:50 '3:00 3:05

TIM CF A19
19 May 1975


Figure 36 Water Quality
*


'A









TABLE VI
TOTAL POLLUTANTS ENTERING FROM SOUTH OF FOWLER AVENUE
19 May 1975


Rainfall .28 inch
Duration 15 minutes
Values(*)- All values


in pounds


(5min) (5min) (5min) (5min) (15min) (30min) TOTAL #Per Acre
2:05 2:10 2:15 2:20 2:35 3:05 (239.3)

BOD 10.42 5.55 3.37 4.55 11.68 10.06 45.63 .191
COD 35.90 21.11 6.53 42.88 19.99 62.63 189.04 .790
TOC 4.65 3.11 2.24 2.52 7.86 2.59 22.97 .096
TKN .17 .16 .214 .192 .34 .22 1.30 .0054
NO2 .0047 .002 .0016 .0028 .0034 .0012 .0057 6.56x 10-5

NO3 .037 .052 .056 .059 .065 .007 .276 1.15x 10-5

CO2 .12 1.46 1.53 2.4 2.47 1.19 9.17 .038

Meta-PO4 .038 .003 .097 .117 .213 .092 .56 .002

Ortho-PO .10 .017 .204 .275 .88 .339 1.82 .008

SS2 17.71 6.52 1.53 2.52 10.33 3.19 41.80 .175
Al .28 .136 .054 .024 .184 .139 .817 .003
Hg .0001 .00017 .00017 .000012 .00011 .000083 .00065 2.72x 10-6
Fe .16 .11 .043 .057 .135 .064 .569 .0023
Pb .041 .043 .015 .0048 .027 ,006 .137 .0006
Zn .019 ,0146 .0082 .0036 .016 .005 .066 .0003
Cu .0016 .0002 .0002 ,00024 .00045 .001 .00369 .00002
Oil-Grease .25 .39 1.63 1.32 2.92 1.99 8.5 .036

TOTAL RUNOFF 10,971 ft3











TABLE VI (Continued)
TOTAL POLLUTANTS ENTERING FROM SOUTH OF FOWLER AVENUE
19 May 1975
Rainfall .28 inch
Duration 15 minutes
Values(*)- All values in pounds

(5min) (5min) (5min) (5min) (15min) (30min) TOTAL #Per Acre
2:05 2:10 2:15 2:20 2:35 3:05 (239.31)

pH 7.6 6.8 7.0 6.4 6.8 7.1

Turb(JTV) 115 55 5.0 15 25 30

Color (APHA) 35 30 20 20 30 60

H2S None Found

Coli-Aero-
genes Confirmed -- 200 16300 4300 8100 30
per 100 cc

E.Coli.
S -- --- 6750 913 415
per 100 cc







TABLE VII


C-EMICAL TESTS ON L ATr ;N iELLS


DATE-UE LL


0-PO4 a A -

LpPM. (PPM)


N 3


CO2


PH CCLOR


(PPM) (FP (FPM)


7/12/72-1-
7/24/72-1
E/ 4/72-1
3/16/72-1
E/23/72-1
9/ 3/72-1
/117/72-1
7/ 6/72-2
7/22/72-2
8/1672-2
S/ 3/72-2
S.i / 1 J 7 2- 2
18/72-2
7i 7/72-3
7/14/72-3
E/10/7 2-3
8/16/72-3
8/24/72-3
9/ 3/72-3
5/18/72-3
7/18172-4


1,500

io980
1.200
0.220
11.000
0.400
4.500
31300
3. 300
3O200
0.0
50500
6. 75 C
2.800
0, 820
0o500
C.220
2,900
C 300
1.500


5.000 21,100 C.C5Q 52.000
4,000 17.600 0.030 88.000
0.0 5.200 C.C55 17.000
9.500 18,500 0,048 C.0
1.130 2.640 C0. 56.000
4,000 4,400 0.0 84.000
0.200 1.400 C.0 76.000
4,800 2.200 0.066 44.000
8.3CO 24.200 C.041 48,000
5.600 24.400 0.250 C.0
0,0 8,300 C.0 99.000
0.0 0.0 Oo0 72.000
0.0 24,200 C.058 6C.OQO0
8.200 19.800 0.020 52.000
1.420 16.700 C.012 44.000
2.190 0.0 0.030 0.0
0.65C 2,640 C.C22 44.000
12,100 2.640 0.0 80,000
005C0 O.0 CoO 64.000
1.000 19.800 0.033 17.20C


5.200
5.250
5.220
4.900
6.000
5.500
5.700
4o800
5.350
0.0
0.0
5.500
5.500
5.COO
5.850
5o100
5.700
6COO

6.000
5.050


0.0
420.00
5iOeO
500,00
485.00
360.00

3800.00
0.0
0.0
520o00
0.0
0.0

0.0
520.00
340.00
422.00
280.CO
285.00
260.CO
0.0






(Continued)
CHEMICAL TESTS ON WATER IN hELLS
(continued)


DATE-' ELL


0-P04 M-P04

(PPM) (PPM)


NO3


N02


C02


PH COLOR


(FPM) (PFFi) (PPM)


6/23/72-4
9/ 4/72-4
9/17/72-4
7/25/72-5
E/ 2/72-5
8/17/72-5
e/24/7 2-5
9/18/72-5
7/11/72-6
7/23/72-6
8/23/72-6
9/ 4/72-6
9/17/72-6
7/ 9/72-7
7/15/72-7
7/27/72-7
8/ 9/72-7
8/17/72-7
8/24/72-7
9/ 4/72-7


0 170
3.300
0, 30G
0G750
I 300
5,000
00190
5.500
4, 500
2.400
C.380
9,000
9.500
5.400
2. 5C0
1.300
0.650
3.000
0.100


0180
0.0
0.0
4.000
2.000
24.500
0,110
0.300
5.000
3.400
0.0
0,0
0.0
11.500
5.5C0
2.200
1o620
0.0
0.390


2.700
0,880
2.640
17,600
17.600
3.300
1.760
0.0
25.500
15.400
3.520
0.900
5.720
26.400
25.500
19-800
17.600
3.500
2.t600


0 .



C.33
CoC33
0.012.
C C76
0.018
C.0C
0.026
0a026



C.oO
0.024


000
OoO
0.068
0.0 16
C .C14
0.072


0.033


11.0C0 4.000 0.560 C C


* 0.0
8C.000
84.000
6C.0CO
80.000
4,.000
64.000
42.000
44,000
32*000
56.000


28o000
52.000
68.000
2C.0CC
4C.000
44,000
80,000
841000
8 4 o0 0 C


6.500
6.100
6,000
5.200
5.350
5.250
5.600
6.400
4.800
6.050
5.350
5.050


510.CO
0.0
600.CO
155.00
165.C0
175.00
105.00
80.00
380.CO
280.00
490.CO
400.00
0.0
0.0
210.00
240,CO
135.00
2i2. C
295.3C
210.CO


5.200
5,005
5850
5.350


5.,250
5.4*00









"Continued)
ChEMCAL TESTS ON 'T E. IN hELLS
(continued)


0-p'i0 M-POq

{PP ) (PPM)


? 02


C02


(PPM) (PFSf) PPM)


H2S


PH CCLOR


(PPM) (PPM)


;/17/72-7
5/ 3/74-3
5/ 3/74-4
5/ 9/74-5


0.180
2.500
0.300
O.450


0.0 2o810

0,4CO 3O52C
0w300 4,840
0350 2.640


DTE-' ELL


0.0
C.C82


C.C20
Clegg
C -.C2 0


60 CGC
lc,000
22.0C0
4o800


0.0
4,000
7.0CO
10.000


C.O
0.020
C.020

0.020


5.500
6,650
7.COO
7.250


39C. CC
250.00
240. CC
90.00


D-02








-58-



The ditch, marsh, and lake system in the portion of the
watershed north of Fowler Avenue acted much like a water treatment
plant in providing settling operations, biological action, and
filtration to the runoff from the area south of Fowler Avenue.
Therefore, even though the extensive urbanization of the area
north of Fowler did not occur, valuable data were gathered which
pertain to the natural purification of urban storm runoff.


Major drainage changes were made in this area north of
Fowler Avenue during the study period which caused changes in the
quality of the effluent leaving the area. When the project started
the lake and marsh functioned as a collection basin for the area
north of Fowler Avenue and there was no clear separation between
the lake and the marsh. The land south of Fowler Avenue was con-
nected to the marsh when the pipe was placed under Fowler Avenue
and the drainage ditch was dug. Being a new ditch the walls and
bottom were free from vegetation and it drained rapidly into the
marsh, so that little or no water remained in the ditch after a
rainstorm, except directly downstream of the 54 inch pipe -which
washed out a large depression. The ditch received no maintenance
with the passage of time. It filled with debris and plant life
(See Figures 13, 14 and 15). The three times that the flume
washed out caused sand that was under the flume or between the
wing walls to be transported and deposited further downstream,
creating pockets where water would stand for long periods of time.
Aquatic weeds grew in these standing waters.


In the summer of 1973 and spring of 1974 the lake was
enlarged and the soil which was removed was used to partially
fill the marsh making it broader and more shallow. After these
enlargements the lake was clearly separate from the marsh, and
water backed up in the ditch where it stood 2 or 3 feet deep
at all times. At the start of the project biological action on
the water borne pollutants took place mainly in the marsh, where-
as by the end of the project it took place throughout the entire
system. Since water remained in the system longer, nutrients
were more fully consumed and suspended solids had more
opportunity to precipitate.


There were at least two mechanisms that countered
the water quality improvement, rapid development in the
area around the study watershed and exposure of fresh
soil during the enlargement of the lake. In the period
from 1971 to 1975 two apartment complexes and two blocks
of retail stores were completed on or adjacent to the study
watershed. In the same period the Florida Department of
Transportation reported that the average number of vehicles
per day on the highways around the projects doubled (for
Fowler Avenue east of 56th Street it went from 4075 vehicles
per day in 1971 to 10430 vehicles per day in 1974).







-59-


The digging and disturbance of the lake and marsh
exposed large areas of fresh soil to the leaching of
nutrients and increased the silt and suspended solids
leaving the lake.


Over the entire test period, there was an expected
improvement in the quality of water leaving the watershed
when compared with the water entering from south of Fowler
Avenue. (See Table VIII) There was a decrease in ortho-
phosphate, meta-phosphate, nitrate, dissolved oxygen and
pH. These nutrients were consumed during passage over the
vegetated area and the decrease in dissolved oxygen in-
dicated that the metabolic regime when averaged over the
entire study period was predominantly respiratory. Of
even more interest are the yearly water quality averages.
(See Table IX) In this table, the changes in the behavior
of the ditch, marsh and lake system are apparent. The
1974 figures are of particular interest, since this was
the year when major changes were made in the lake and
marsh. These changes explain the otherwise unexpected
results that occurred in 1974 and 1975. A negative %
change in tables VIII and IX indicates a removal or
decrease in the water quality parameter as the water
flowed through the system.


Ortho-phosphate was removed every year, but there
was an increase in the concentration of this nutrient
coming in from south of Fowler from 1971 to 1975. This
increase can best be seen by comparing the data for 1972
and 1974, both of which cover full years. While the per-
cent change was negative in 1974, there was nearly twice
as much ortho-phosphate leaving the lake as in the next
highest year. (See Table IX)


Table X shows that there was a large increase in
concentrations for most of the samples taken during early
1974, the period when the lake was being enlarged. In
June of 1974, the readings returned to normal.


Meta-phosphate decreased while passing through the
watershed in every year except 1974 when the lake was
drastically disturbed. The concentration entering the system
increased with time, so over the period of the study, meta-
phosphate discharging from the lake increased. The distur-
bance of the lake resulted in a sharp increase in meta-
phosphate concentration leaving the lake in early 1974.
(See Table X) The increase is large'enough that the per-
cent change goes positive. Note, that in 1975, the
behavior of the system returned to normal. (See Table IX)











TABLE VIII

WATER QUALITY AVERAGES
(Oct. 1971 -May 1975)


Ditch Site

Results
Number of
Samples


.62


99


O
0


z
0
N)i


n
0




rn


:3: E
It-' 0
o H'd

^ CD
H (
(D(~


t 0
'Id 0 0i


0
H~r


4 4.4 4


.511 1.87.


103


.03


104


5.7


103


8.7 94


100 101


7.5


100


8,979


95


3,835


95 1


Stream Site

Results .43 .43 1.65 .09 9.3 7.3 164 7.0 41 2,394 320

Number of
Samples 119 91 109 123 125 123 113 106 104 110 111


% Change

Stream-Ditch x 100% -31% -16% -12%+200% +63% -16% +75% -7% 0% -73% -92%
Ditch

I .... __ _______ ___ __


--


.


;4;1j_'1if _11












TABLE IX
YEARLY WATER QUALITY AVERAGE


1971
October December


1972
January December


Fowler Lake %Change Fowler Lake %Change


1973
February May


1974
January December


Fowler Lake %Change Fowler Lake %Change


1975
January April
Fowler Lake %Change


0-PO4 ppm .23

m-PO4 ppm .17

NO3 ppm 0.0

NO2 ppm 0.0

CO2 ppm 12.0

D-02 ppm 10.0

Color .131

pH 7.8

Turb.JTV 103,5

Pres.Coli
MPN 5,240

Conf.Coli
MPN


.02

,06





22.00

3,6

75

6.0

19.2


3,900


-91%

-64%





+83

-65%

-43%

-23%

-81%


-25%


.42

.59

2.11

.03

4,88

8,0

78

8.0

32,0


10,160


.29

.13

2.29

.17

12.5

4.5

102

6,3

41


2,330


-30%

-78%

+8%

+466%

+156%

-44%

+31%

-21%

+28%


-77%


.19 .05

--- .14

2.37 2,44

.09 .08

6.10 9.08

8.3 7.7

67 94

7.4 7.0

--- 80


3,460 1,066


-74% .97

--- .64

+3% 2,03

-11% .01

+49% 6.1

-7% 9,6

+40% 119

-5% 7.1

--- 60.0


-69% 5,240


-95% 900 170 -81% 2,600 1,160


.78

1.11

.94

.05

5.3

10,9

227

7.5

36.0


4,210


-20%

+73%

-54%

+400%

-13%

+14%

+91%

+6%

-40%

-20%


.73

1.14

.93

0.0

4.5

9.4

80

7.7

13.0


17,240


.42

.55

.71

0.0

5.0

10.9

200

8.0

68


81


-42%

-52%

-24%



+11%

+16%

+150%

+4%

+423%


-100%


0% 2,180 110


-55% 14,693 30 -100%




-62-


Nitrate concentrations increased in 1972 and 1973
and decreased in 1974 and 1975, while passing through the
study area. Again the change took place with the enlarge-
ment of the lake. It appears that disturbing the lake
bottom caused the lake to behave as a nitrate sink. (See
Tables IX and X)


The changes in nitrite and carbon dioxide concen-
trations indicated that microbial decay of organic matter
occurred in the marsh. The negative change in nitrite
concentration during 1973 can be explained by the lack of data
from June through December. For full years, 1972 and 1974,
the. change in nitrite was strongly positive. (See Table IX)


Dissolved oxygen and carbon-dioxide values showed
the effect of the changing metabolic regime of the system.
From 1971 to 1973, carbon-dioxide was released and oxygen
consumed, indicating that respiration was overpowering
photosynthesis and reaeration. Oxygen became less
negative with passing time showing that the green plants
were catching up. By 1974, the signs reversed indicating
that photosynthesis and reaeration were dominant over
respiration. By 1975, both carbon-dioxide and oxygen
were positive. (See Table IX)


Color increased while passing through the system
due to the leaching of tannic acid and other colored
organic materials. (See Table IX)


pH showed a decrease in 1971 to 1973 when respira-
tion was the dominant metabolic regime, indicating the
production of acid waste products. In 1974 and 1975 the
pH increased, showing that those waste products werebeing
consumed. Notice that oxygen changes changed sign in
accord with pH sign changes. (See Table IX)


Turbidity showed no definite pattern but the water
was more turbid at the end of the study than at the start.
Since there were ample areas for solids to settle out, the
turbidity is attributed to colloidal particles and floating
organic materials. (See Table IX)


The coliform count show the expected results; as
the detention time in the system was increased, due to
increased size of the lake, the coliform bacteria died.





-63-




By 1975, nearly 100% removal occurred even though the
coliform population that entered the system had increased
to a high value. This high value at the ditch is at-
tributed to the increase in pet population in the
apartment area south of Fowler during the study. (See
Table IX)


The complete data for all the water quality
tests are presented in Tables X, XI, XII, and XIII.


~S~b4gll9~4~ha~g~p~a~sa





1 LE X


CHEMICAL TESTS CN WATER LEAVING THE LAKE


DATE C-P04 M-P04 NC3 NC2 C02 0-02 H2S PH COLOR TURB.

(PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (FPM) (JTU)


11- 5-71 0.0 1.5 0.0 5.2 320. 15.
11-20-71 0.0 0.0 28.0 4.0 0.0 6.0 105, 22.
11-29-71 0.02 0.26 22.C 5.0 0.0 6.4 125. 32.
12- 8-71 0.0 0.0 26.0 2.0 0.0 6.0 105. 19.
12-20-71 0.11 0.02 18.0 4.0 0.0 6.4. 115. 15.
12-2e-71 0.0 0.0 16.0 5.0. 0.0 6.4 105. 12.


1-12-72 0.08 0.02 12.0 6.0 0.0 6.5 178. 40.
1-16-72 0.14 0.01 10.0 5.0 0.0 6.4 190. 51.
1-2C-72 0.05 0.03 16.0 3.01 0.0 6.3 110. 24.
1-25-72 0.08 0.0 20.0 2.0 0.0 5.8 203. 34.
2- 3-72 24.0 4.01 0.0 6.5 89. 35.
2- 9-72 0.15 0.02 24.0 4.0 0.0 6.3 55. 8.
2-17-72 0.1C 0.10 0.61 0.04 10.0 4.0 0.0 6.4 88. 10.
2-23-72 0.30 0.10 0,88 C.CO 12.0 2.0 0.0 6.5 90. 30.
3- 3-72 0.5C 0,0 2.80 0.03 20.0 2.0 0.0 6.5 75. 17.
3-10-72 0.05 0.50 3.90 C.03 20.0 2.0 0.0 6.5 75. 17.
3-17-72 0.70 0.09 3.40 0.0 18.0 5.2 0.0 5.8 75. 20.
3-22-72 0.60 0.06 4.00 0.0 16.0 6.0 0.0 6.2 80. 20.
3-28-72 0.6C 0.0 3.50 0.01 14.0 7.0 0.0 6.1 75. 30.









CHEMICAL TESTS ON WATER LEAVING THE LAKE


(continued)

CATE C-P04 M-P04 N03 N02 C02 0-02 H2S PH COLOR TUR8.

(PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (FPP) (PPM) (PPM) (FPM) (JTU)


4- 6-72 2.90 C.00 16.0 6.0 0.1 6.5 60. 12.
4-12-72 0.5 0.2 3.90 0.00 16.0 4.0 0.0 6.1 60. 10.
4-18-72 0.99 0.00 18.0 3.0 0.0 5.9 70. 20.
4-24-72 1.80 0.01 10.0 2.0 0.0 6.6 90. 14.
5- 2-72 2.59 C.01 12.0 4.0 0.0 6.3 100. 10.
5-10-72 2.19 0.01 13.0 3.0 0.0 6.0 110. 10.
5-16-72 0.0 0.14 2.90 0.02 11.0 3.0 0.0 6.1 70. 20.
5-23-72 0.10 0.08 1.99 0.01 14.C 2.0 0.1 6.4 100. 10.
5-3C-72 0.18 0.03 1.98 0.02 10.0' 2.0 0.0 6.4 100. 12.
6- 6-72 0.02 0.20 1.96 0.04 12.0 5.0 0.0 6.5 100. 20.
6-16-72 0.25 0.25 1.99 0.01 10.0 2.0 0.0 6.2 60. 25.
6-20-72 0.20 0.10 2.44 0.00 30.0 4.0 0.0 85. 20.
6-25-72 0.30 0.09 3.00 0.01 10.Q0 8.0 0.1 6.7 90. 75.
7- 4-72 0.45 0.0 3.70 0.01 6.0 4.0 0.0 6.7 80. 125.
7-12-72 0.40 0.10 3.88 0.C2 8.0 4.0 0.0 6.5 110. 60.
7-17-72 0.60 0.0 3.50 0.0 8.0 5.0 0.1 6.6 70. 55.
7-25-72 0.35 0.15 4.20 0.01 10.0 5.0 0.0 6.9 100. 40.
8- 1-72 0.32 0.60 1.79 0.OC 14.0 0.0 0.0 6.2 70. 60.
8- 8-72 0.27 0.11 0.48 0.00 18.0 7.0 0.0 6.1 75. 80.
8-16-72 0.53 0.16 0.05 0,00 8,0 5.0 0.0 5.6 140. 70.






WATER LEAVING THE LAKE


(continued)

DATE 0-P04 M-P04 N03 N02 C02 0-02 H2S PH COLOR TURB.

(PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (FPP) (PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (JTU)


8-23-72 0.58 0.08 0.99 0.00 12.0 3.0 0.0 6.9 100. 100.
8-30-72 0.60 0,0 3.00 0.00 8.0 5.0 0.0 6.6 120. 60.
9- 5-72 0.40 0.15 2.49 0.00 14.0 3.0 0.0 6.0 120. 30.
9-12-72 0.22 0.20 1.00 C.01 10.0 4.0 0.0 5.9 120. 30.
9-21-72 0.01 0.0 1.50 0.0 16.0 4.0 0.0 6.0 100. 20.
9-28-72 0.20 0.05 2.50 0.0 4.0 4.0 0.0 70.- 60.
10- 5-72 0.10 0.10 0.0 1.00 4.0 2.5 0.0 55.
10-12-72 0.10 0.12 1.00 0.0 4.0 7.0 0.0 70.
10-16-72 0.10 0.10 0.0 1.00 5.0 4.0 0.0 55.
10-23-72 0.16 0.07 8.0 5.0 0.0 260. 47.
10-30-72 0.18 0.08 7.0 4.0 0.0 40.
11- 7-72 0.16 0.04 2.00 1.00 7.0 5.0 0.0 80.
11-14-72 0.16 0.06 1.00 1.00 12.0 7.0 0.0 80.
11-21-72 0.14 0.09 1.00 1.00 14.0 10.0 0.0 75.
11-28-72 0.19 0.16 2.50 0.0 10.0 4.0 0.0 20.
12- 5-72 0.70 0.60 4.40 1.00 8.C 10.0 0.0 200. 80.
12-15-72 0.70' 0.50 5.00 0.05 17.0 8.0 0.0 70.
12-2C-72 0.60 0.20 4.00 1.00 14.0 8,0 0.0 70.
12-29-72 0.04 0.03 2.20 0.0 6.0 8.0 0.0 40.


ChEi-1CAL TESTS ON


1-1C-73 C.14 0.11


2.50 0.50 10.0


16.0,


100, 80.


0.0









CHEMICAL TESTS CN
(continued)


DATE


1-17-73
1-23-73
2-23-73
3-12-73
4- 1-73
4- 7-73
4-14-73
4-28-73
5- 6-73
5-15-73
5-25-73
5-31-73
J.-12-74
1-18-74
1-23-74
1-31-74
2- 6-74
2-16-74
2-28-74
3- 9-74


WATER LEAVING ThE LAKE


C-P04 M-P04

(PPM) (PPM)


0.14
0.12
0.00
0.00
0.04
0.20
0.02
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.00
0.01
1.62
1.30
1.50
2.00
1.50
1.65
0.90
1.45


0.14
0.18
















2.98
2.10
2.20
0.60
1.10
0.56
1.20
1.05..


N03


N02


C02


0-02


H2S


PH COLOR


(PPM) (FPP) (PPM) (PPM) (FPM)


2.00
2.00
2.40
2.90
1.60
2.90
2.60
3.12
2.40
2.40
2.40
2.50
3.52
1.10
0.44
1.14
1.32
0.20
1.10
0.44


0.C
0.c
0.0





0.04
C.05
0.49
C.CC


0.05
C.O


C.C






0.09
0.00

C.CC
0.16
0.09



C.C5
0.16


10.C
16.0
0.0
0.0
15.C
12.0
0.0
0.0
6.C
5.0
18.C
26.0
4.C
5.6
6.C
4.01
3.6
4.8'
4.8
4.0


18.0
14.0
6.0
7.0
3.0
4.0
3.0
9.0
6.0
3.0
6.0
5.0
22.0
16.0
12.0
17.0


30.0
6.0
6.0


0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
.00
0.0
0.0


80.


7.5
7.C
7.0
6.5
7.0'
7.5
7.0
7.2
6.8
7.0
7.9
7.7
7.8
8.2
8.6
8.4
8.3
8.4


82.
80.
155.
150.
80.
76.
82.
80.
83.
84.
155.
50.
60.
90.
45.
50.
30.
70.


TURB.

(JTU)


80.
80.


53.


14.
17.
6.
6.
5.
8.






CFtlICAL TESTS ON WATER LEAVING THE LAKE
(cOntinued)


C-P04 M-P04

(PPM) (PPM)


3-24-74
3-3C-74
4- 9-74
4-17-74
4-24-74
5- 9-74
6- 7-74
6-13-74
6- 21-74
6-25-74
7- 2-74
7- 9-74
7-16-74
7-16-74
7-23-74
7-30-74
8- 7-74
8-13-74
8-21-74
8-29-74


0.75
1.40
0.80
1.30
1.20
0.70


N03


N02


C02


0-02


H2S


PH COLOR


(PPM) (PFP ) (FFM) (PPM) (FPM)


0.95
1.00
0.70
0.90
1.50
2.20
0.85
0.10
0.60
0.47
0.70
0.80
0.0
0.65
0.90
0.70
1.15
0.25
0.0
0.33


3.52
1.20
1.76
2.00
0.88
1.76;
1.20
0.30
-0.0
0.35
0.50
1.40
0.0
0.451
0.95
1.40
1,0C
0.50
0.30
0.50


C.49
0.01
0.02
0.0
0.0
0o0
C.02
0.02
0,01
0.05
C.01
0.00
C.14
0 .00
C.CO


C.OO


0.C0
0.00


4.C
3.2
1.6
3.2
5.2
8.C
,2.0
6.C
.1C0
8.C
4.5
8.C
0.0
14,C
12.C
8.C
12.0
12.C
8.C
4.C


11.0
8.C
11.0
6.0
5.0
3.0
6.0
8.0
4.0
13.0
13.0
11.0
0.0
10.0
9.0
0.0
13.0
9.0
11.0
11.0


0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0


7.6
8.6
8.8
8.4
8.5
7.C
6.8
6.8
6.9
6.6
6.9
6.9


6.8
6.8
6.9
6,8
6.5
6.5
6.9


TURB.

(JTU)


50.
40.
30.
45.
15.
18.


CATE


140.
85.
70.
90.
70.
100.
500.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
500.
500.
500.
500.
450*
400.
500.


77 <- ----








CHEMICAL TESTS ON WATER LEAVING THE LAKE

(continued)

CATE 0-P04 M-P04 N03 NC2 C02 D-02 H2S PH COLOR TUR6.

(PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (FFP) (PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (JTU)


9- 9-74 0.50 0.50' 0.00 6.0 9.0 0.0 6.9 475.
9-16-74 0.20 0.40 C.CC 2.0 9.0 0.0 6.5 400.
9-23-74 0.13 0.60 0.0 2.0 12.0 0.0 6.8 420.
10-15-74 1.50 0.07 0.60 C.C 2.C 15.0 0.0 8.1 310. 95.
10-22-74 0.17 1.52 0.80 0.0 4.0 12.0 0.0 7.7 320. 70.
10-28-74 0.20 0.95 0.70 C.CC 2.C 14.0 0.0 7.9 300., 110.
11- 5-74 0.20 1.60 0.80 0.0 4.0 14.0 0.0 8.0 300. 60.
11-11-74 0.15 1.30 0.30 0.C 4.C 13.0 0.0 7.0 280. 70.
11-19-74 0.30 0.55 0.40 0.0 5.0 13.0 0.0 7.8 360. 0.
11-25-74 0.35 0.70 0.45 C.C 6.C 12.0 0.0 7.5 340. 0.
12- 4-74 0.25 0.65 0.60 0.0 4.0 15.0 0.0 7.7 340. 0.
12-10-74 0.40 0.25 0.40 C.C 4.C 13.0 0.0 7.4 300. 80.
1-13-75 0.45 0.15 0.70 0.0 2.0' 11.0 0.0 7.8 290. 75.
2-21-75 0.40 0.20 0.60 C.C 8.C 12.0 0.0 7.6 275. 80.
2-26-75 0.30 0.50 0.90 0.05 4.01 l1.0 0.0 7.8 300. 70.
3- 5-75 0.551 0.45 1.10 C.C 8.C 10.0 0.0 8.1 275. 80.
3-12-75 0.30 0.80 0.40 0.0 4.0C 13.0 0.0 7.9 260. 75.
3-19-75 0.20' 0.45 0.60 C.CO 6.C 12.0 0.0 7.8 300. 95.
3-26-75 0.40 0.55 0.80 0.0 6.0 11.0 0.0 7.9 120. 70.
4- 2-75 0.33 0.0 0.9C C.C 4.C 9.0 0.0 8.2 80. 50.










CHEMICAL TESTS ON WATER LEAVING THE LAKE
(continued)
DATE O-P04 M-P04 N03 N02 C02 D-02 H2S PH COLOR TURB.
(PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (JTU)
4- 9-75 0.60 0.45 0.85 0.0 0.O 11. 0.0 7.9 150. 90.
4-29-75 0.70 0.80 0.70 0.0 6.0 13. 0.0 8.2 170. 65.
5- 6-75 0.56 0.84 0.80 0.005 4.0 12. 0.0 8.0 180. 50.
5-13-75 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.0 2.0 10. 0.0 8.9. 140. 45.
5-21-75 0.30 0.85 0.45 0.0 4.0 10. 0.0 7.8' 120.. 50.
5-30-75 0.40 0.55 0.60 0.0 4.0 8. 0.0 8.1 150. 65.'



-j
I







TABLE XI


BACTERIOLOGICAL TESTS ON WATFR LEAVING THE LAKE


DATE


TEMPERATURE PRESUMPTIVE MPN

( C (ORG./100 ML)


10-23-71
11-13-71
11-20-71
11-24-71
11-29-71
12- 8-71
12- 9-71
12-20-71
12-28-71
1-12-72
1-16-72
1-20-72
1-25-72
2- 3-72
2- 9-72
2-23-72
3- 3-72
3-10-72
3-17-72
3-22-72


22.0


19.5
21.5
0.0
21.0
20.0
22.0
18.0
20.5
19.0
19.0
15.4


CONFIRMED MPN

(ORG./100 ML)


3500.0
5400.0
0.0
2400.0
0.0
0.0
9200.0
9200.0
5400.0
5400.0
2800.0
0.0
5400.0
0.0
0.0
700.0
170.0
80.0
170.0
790.0


0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
70.0
20.0
230.0
0.0
80.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
20.0


40.3
i10.0
110.0









BACTERIOLOGICAL TESTS ON WATER LEAVING THE LAKE


(continued)

DATE TEMPERATURE PRESUMPTIVE MPN CONFIRMED MPN

( C ) (ORG./100 ML) (ORG./100 ML)


3-28-72 110.0 20.0
4- 6-72 1500.0 490.0
4-12-72 170.0 40.0
4-18-72 260.0 20.0
4-24-72 0.0 0.0
5- 2-72 4600.0 80.0
5-10-72 0.0 0.0
5-16-72 3300.0 140.0
5-23-72 3300.0 170.0
5-30-72 390.0 170.0
6- 6-72 1100.0 140.0
6-16-72 4900.0 210.0
6-20-72 35000.0 0.0
6-25-72 7900.0 1100.0
7- 4-72 9200.0 17J.0
7-12-72 700.0 170.0
7-17-72 790.0 140.0
8- 1-72 700.0 70.0
8- 8-72 790.0 490.0
8-16-72 220.0 4J).











BACTERIOLOGICAL TESTS ON WATER LEAVING THE LAKE
(continued)


DATE


TEMPERATURE PRESUMPTIVE MPN


( C )


(ORG./100 ML)


8-23-72
9- 5-72
9-12-72
9-21-72
9-28-72
10- 5-72
10-12-72
10-16-72
10-23-72
10-30-72
11- 7-72
11-14-72
11-21-72
11-28-72
12- 5-72
12-15-72
12-20-72
12-29-72
1-10-73
1-17-73


CONFIRMED MPN

(ORG./100 ML)


220.0
790.0
490.0
16000.0
920.0
350.0
540.0
540.0
110.0
130.0
170.0
350.0
280.0
240.0
240.0
920.0
540.0
920.0
2400.0
1600.0


80.0
490.0
110.0
110.0
110.0
30.0
80.0
70.0
0.0
30.0
30.0
60.0
30.0
20.0
20.0
70.0
70.0
50.0
140.0
60.0









BACTERIOLOGICAL TESTS ON
(continued)


WATER LEAVING THE LAKE


TEMPERATURE


( C )


1-23-73
2-16-73
2-23-73
3- 2-73
3-12-73
4- 1-73
4- 7-73
4-14-73
4-28-73
5- 6-73
5-15-73
5-25-73
5-31-73
1-14-74
1-20-74
1-25-74
2- 2-74
2- 8-74
2-18-74
3- 2-74


PRESUMPTIVE MPN

(ORG./100 ML)


0.0
11.0
20.0
25.0
20.0
21.0
22.0
25.0
24.0
25.0
26.0
24.0
26.0





23.5
23.0
21.0
16.5


CONFIRMED MPN

(ORG./100 ML)


540.0
60.0
490.0
20.0
170.0
3500.0
790.0
490.0
1700.0
80.0
790.0
560.0
2800.0
24000.0
920.0
270.0
1100.0
9200.0
260.0
140.0


* 9


DATE


30.0
40.0
170.0
20.0
130.0
490.0
790.0
110.0
140.0
20.0
140.0
120.0
220.0
24000.0
20.0
20.0
140.0
14)0.3
20.0
'40.0


& -W












BACTERIOLOGICAL TESTS ON WATER LEAVING THE LAKE
(continued)


DATE


TEMPERATURE PRESUMPTIVE MPN

( C ) (ORG./100 ML)


3-11-74
3-26-74
3-30-74
4- 9-74
4-19-74
4-26-74
5-10-74
10-15-74
10-22-74
10-28-74
11- 5-74
11-11-74
11-19-74
11-25-74
12- 4-74
12-10-74


22.5
22.0
20.0
23.0
25.0



29.5
28.5,
23.0


22.0
15.0
14.0
15.0
18.0


CONFIRMED MPN

(ORG./100 ML)


140.0
1400.0
9200.0
700.0
24000.0
9200.0
16000.0
0.0
20.0
50.0
50.0
0.0
80.0
100.0
40.0
50.0


10.0
110.0
0.0
0.0
330.0
70.0
330.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
50.0
0.0
50.0
70.0
0.0
50.0









BACTERIOLOGICAL TESTS ON WATER LEAVING THE LAKE
(continued)

DATE TEMPERATURE PRESUMPTIVE NPN CONFIRMED MPN

( C ) (ORG./100 ML) (ORG./100 ML)

1-13-75 16.0 70.0 50.0
2-14-75 0.0 20.0
2-21-75 500.0 50.0
2-26-75 0.0 40.0
3- 5-75 80.0 50.0
3-12-75 60.0 40.0
3-19-75 100.0 80.0
3-26-75 120.0 90.0
4- 2-75 40.0 0.0

4- 9-75 90.0 20.0
4-29-75 0.0 0.0
5- 6-75 40.0 0.0
5-13-75 0.0 0.0
5-21-75 60.0 40.0
5-30-75 60.0 40.3












'Cs






TABLE XII


CHEMICAL TESTS ON WATER ENTERING FRCM SOUTH OF FOWLER AVENUE


DATE G-P04 P-P04 N03 N02 C02 0-02 H2S PH COLOR TUR8.

(FPM) (PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (JTU)


11- 5-71 0.0 C.0 8.0 0.0 6.0 300. 25.
11-2C-71 0.04 0.C9 0.0 0.0 16.0 12.0 0.0 8.3 55. 26.
11-29-71 1.13 0.47 0.0 0-0 8.0 9.0 0.0 8.1 200. 500.
12- 8-71 0.10 0.09 0.0 0.0 4.0 12.0 0.0 47.
12-20-71 0.08 0.11 0.0 0.0 24.0 10.0 0.0 8.3 55. 12.
12-28-71 0.05 0.07 0.0 0.0 8.0 10.0 0.0 8.4 46. 11.
1-12-72 9.0
1-16-72 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.0 10.0 0.0 7.4 300. 108.
1-2C-72 0.18 0.06 0.0 0.0 12.0 6.0 0.0 7.5 90. 29.
1-25-72 0.18 0.93 0.0 0.0 8.0 9.0 0.0 9.4 71. 12.
2- 3-72 0.0 C.O 4.0 11.0 0.0 8.2 211. 149.
2- 9-72 0.13 0.02 0.0 0.0 4.01 9.0 0.0 8.3' 45. 5.
2-17-72 0.90 0.25 0.82 C.05 4.0 4.0 0.0 8.0 60. 10.
2-23-72 0.4C 0.10 0.90 0.00 2.0 9.0 0.0 8.5 50. 10.
3- 3-72 0.50 6.00 2.50 0.01 2.0 7.0 00.0 8.6 100. 30.
3-1C-72 0.15 C.50 3.60 0.00 2.0. 7.01 0.0 8.6' 100. 30.
3-17-72 0.69 0.06 5.60 0.00 12.0 8.0 0.0 7.9 50. 20.
3-22-72 0.29 0.07 6.60 0.00 10.0 8.0 0.0 7.4 60. 22.
3-28-72 0.79 0.02 3.10 C.04 8.0 8.0 0.0 8.2 80. 15.


2.60 0.85 16.0 7.0' 0.0


4- 6-72


8.2 10. 2.







CHEMICAL TESTS ON WATER ENTERING FROM SOUTH OF FOWLER AVENUE
(continued)

DATE C-P04 M-P04 N03 N02 C02 0-02 H2S PH COLOR TURB.

(PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (FPP) (FPM) (PPM) (PPM) (JTU)


4-12-72 0.30 0.20 1.90 0.0C 6.0 5.00 0.0 8.3 20. 5.
4-18-72 0.89 0.00 4.0 8.00 0.1 8.0 10. 5.
4-24-72 1.91 0.01 2.0 8.00 0.0 8.0 60. 15.
5- 2-72 2.30 0.01 1.0 9.00 0.0 8.1 80. 15.
5-10-72 2.09 C.02 0.0 8.00 0.0 8.5 75. 18.
5-16-72 0.28 0.18 2.68 0.01 0.0 9.00 0.0 8.5 20. 10.
5-23-72 0.50 0.07 1.99 C.OC 0.0 8.0 0.1 8.9 80. 15.
5-3C-72 0.50 0.02 2.00 0.00 2.0 7.0 0.1 8.2 80. 12.
6- 6-72 0.03 0.18 2.66 0.00 1.0 5.0 0.0 7.4 50. 10.
6-16-72 0.32 0.23 4.09 0.00 2.0 7.0 0.1 8.1 15. 36.
6-2C-72 0.90 0.05 1.98 0.02 20.0 6.0 0.1 110. 50.
6-25-72 0.24 0.01 3.17 0.03 2.0 10.0 0.1 7.8 55. 40.
7- 4-72 0.35 0.25 3.90 0.0 0.0 6,0 0.0 7.7 60. 40,
7-12-72 0.50 0.25 4.32 0.02 2.0 8.0 0.1 8.0 60. 35.
7-17-72 0.57 0.23 4.50 0.02 0.0 7.0 0.0 7.6 75. 50.
7-25-72 1.10 7,60 3.99 0.01 0.0 10.0 0.1 7.7 60. 20.
8- 1-72 0.40 0.20 1.99 C.00 12.0 0.0 8.3 45. 75.
8- 8-72 0.28 0.16 1.62' 0.00 12.0 16.0 0.0 7.1 65. 100.
8- 1-72 0.95 0.65 0.09 O.CO 6.0 12.0 0.2 8.2 140. 80.
8-23-72 1.00 0.13 0.0 0.0 4.0 8.0 0.0 7.2 100. 95.









CHEMICAL TESTS ON WATER ENTERING FROM SCUTH OF FOWLER AVENUE
(continued)

CATE 0-P04 M-P04 N03 N02 C02 D-02 H2S PH COLOR TURB.

(PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (FFP ) (FPM) (PPM) (PPM) (JTU)


8-3C-72 0.25 0.60 4.00 0.00 2,0 7.0 0.0 7.4 110. 40.
9- 5-72 0,20 0.50 2.98 C.00 6.C 6.0 0.0 7.9 100. 30.
9-12-72 0.24 0.26 1.09 0.01 8.0 10.0. 0.0 7.7 120. 20.
9-21-72 1.10 0.10 2.49 C.01 4.C 7.0 0.0 7.5 80. 10.
9-28-72 0.0 0.15 0.0 0.0 4.0 7.01 0.0 30.
10-12-72 0.0 0.10 0.0 0.0 2.C 5.01 0.0 49.
11- 7-72 0.08 0.05 0.50 0.0 5.0 7.01 0.0 50.
2-23-73 0.04 2.10 C.0 7.C 9.0 0.0 7.5 25.
3-12-73 0.04 2.80 0.65 9.0 9.0 0.1 7.5 30.
4- 1-73 1.40 i 1.50 0.13 1.C 5,0 0.0 8.5 255,
4- 7-73 0.35 3.10 0,03 1.0 7.0 0.0 7.5 80.
4-14-73 0.00 2,50 C.00 7.C 9.0 0.0 7.5 26.
4-28-73 0.00 2.50 0.00 5.0 10.0 0.0 7.5 100.
5- 6-73 0.00 1.80 0.0 6.C 7.0 0.0 6.5 70.
5-15-73 0.0 2.50 0.00 7.0' 7.0 0.0 7.5 30.
5-25-73 0.04 2.80 C.08 9.C 10.0 0.0 7.1 26.
5-31-73 0.00 2.11 0.00 9.0' 10.0 0.0 7.C 25.
1-12-74 0.60 0.40 6.16 C.CC 4.4 0.0 7.7 295. 83.
1-18-74 0.20 0.36 4.84 0.00 4.8 10.0 0.0 7.0 260. 73.
1-23-74 0.30 0.40 1.52 C.C 5.2 9.0 0.0 7.0 260. 70.







CHEMICAL TESTS CN hATER ENTERING FRCM SCUTH


(continued)

DATE 0-P04 N-P04 N03 N02 C02 0-02 H2S PH COLOR TURB.

(PPP) (PPM) (PPM) (PP) (PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (JTU)


1-31-74 0.25 0.64 4.84 0.0 5.2 0.0 7.1 277. 78.
2- 6-74 0.30 0.02 4.82 O.CC 4.4 0.0 7.2 285. 77,
2-16-74 0.23 0.14 3.52 0.00 4.C 0.0 6.9 245. 65.
2-28-74 0.20 0.39 4.CC C.01 3.6 13.0 0.0 7.4 270. 70.
3- 9-74 0.40 0.10 4.40 0.0 3.2 12.0 0.0 7.4 215. -55.
3-24-74 0.25 0.75 5.5C C.0 3.6 12.0 0.0 6.8 295. 93.
3-31-74 0.30 0.05 4.80 0.0 3.2 9.0 0.0 7.4 260. 135.
4- 9-74 0.30 0.15 5.8C 0.0 4.C 12.0 0.0 7.5 290. 125,
6-13-74 0.80 0.40 0,04 L2.C 8.C 0.0 6.6 60. i
6-19-74 0.85 2.20 C.C0 8.C 11.0 0.0 7.0. 50.
6-26-74 1.20 2.50 0.00 2.C 11.0 0.0 7.1 80.
7- 2-74 0.45 0.60 0.C2 4.0' 9.0 0.0 6.4 80.
7- 9-74 0.60 1.10 0.04 5.2 7.0 0.0 6.9 25.
7-16-74 0.75 0.80 C.CC L2.C 11.0 0.0 6.8 18.
7-23-74 1.20 0.70 0.02 8.C 11.0 0.0 6.8 14.
7-3C-74 0.70 1.40 C.Cl L2.C 9.0 0.0 6.6 18.
8- 6-74 1.20 1.40 0.18 5.2 14.0 0.0 6.9 10.
8-13-74 0.55 0.65 C.OC 12.C 9.0 0.0 6.5 75.
8-21-74 0.30 0.40 0.00 6.C 6.0 0.C 6.9 50.
8-29-74 0.55 0.45 C.C1 8.C 8.0 0.0 6.5 80.


OF FOWLER AVENUE








CHEMICAL TESTS CN WATER ENTERING FROM SOUTH OF FOWLER AVENUE
(continued)


CATE


C-PC4 M-P04

(PPM) (PPM)


9- 9-74 3.20
9-16-74 0.35
9-23-74 0.28
10-15-74 3.10
10-22-74 2.90
10-28-74 1.50'
11- 5-74 0.28
11-11-74 7.20'
11-19-74 0.40
11-25-74 0.40,
12- 4-74 0.55
12-10-74 0.60.
1-13-75 0.70
2-14-75 1.50
2-21-75 0.80
2-26-75 0.80
3- 5-75 0.4C
3-12-75 0.30
3-19-75 0.40
3-26-75 0.90


0.70
0.40
2.60
2.20
0.24
0.60
0.50
0.95
1.20
2.50
0.40
0040
0.40
0.95
1.10
0.90
1.15
1.15


N03


N02


C02


0-02


H2S


PH COLOR


(PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (FPM)


1.20
0.35
0.30
0.75
0.60
0.90
1.20
0.80
0.40
0.55
0.40
0.80
0.90
0.90
0.75
0.90
I.OC
0.80
0.80
1.00


0.00
C.CO
0.0
Coc
0.0


0.01
O.CC
0.0
0.0
0.00
0C.00
c.00
0.00
c.CC
0.00
coc
0.0
0.00
C.CC
0.0


4.C
6.0
8.C
6.0
6. C


4.C
8 .0'
6.Ct





4.C
2.0'
6.C
2.0
6.C
4.0
4.C
6.0


5.0
6.0
6.0
11.0
10.0
12.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
11.0
7.0
10.0
16.0
8.0
8.0
10.0
8.0
10.0
11.01
7.0


0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0


6.9
6.5
6.9
6.9
8.0
7.8
7.6
7.2
7.7
7.6
7.8
7.8
7.3
7.3
7.4'
7.8
7.6
7.4
7.8
7.6


50.
50.
110.
20.
60.
20.
60.
30.
60.
80.
80.
45.
30.
60.
60.
80.
120.
85.
80.
70.


TURB.

(JTU)


5.
10.
5.
10.
10.


15.
10.
10.
6.
8.
5.
8.
12.
80.







CHEMICAL TESTS ON WATER ENTERING FRCN SOUTH OF FOWLER AVENUE
(continued)

DATE 0-P04 M-P04 N03 N02 C02 0-02 H2S PH COLOR TURB.

(PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (FPP ) (FPM) (PPM) (FPM) (JTU)


4- 9-75 1.20 1.50 1.00' 0.0 4.0 8.0 0.0 7.9 70. 8.
4-29-75 0.80! 1.25 0.9C C0. 0.4 10.0 0.0 7.8 80. 12.
5- 6-75 0.70 1.20 0.75 0.0 6.0 11.0 0.0 7.8 85. 10.
5-13-75 0.85 1.40 0.95 C.C 6.0 12.0 0.0 7.9 120. 7.
5-21-75 '0.46 1.30 1.25 0.0 4.0 9.0 0.0 8.1 75. 5.
5-30-75 0.45 0.80 1.10' 0.0 8.C 4.0 0.0 7.6 100. 5.

CO
I







TABLE XIII


BACTERIOLOGICAL TESTS ON WATER ENTERING FROM SOUTH OF FOWLER AVENUE


TEMPERATURE


( C )


PRESUMPTIVE MPN

(ORG./100 ML)


CONFIRMED MPN

(ORG./100 ML)


10-23-71
11-13-71
11-20-71
11-24-71
11-29-71
12- 8-71
12- 9-71
12-20-71
12-28-71
1- 4-72
1-12-72
1-16-72
1-20-72
1-25-72
2- 3-72
2- 9-72
2-23-72
3- 3-72
3-10-72
3-17-72


22.0


23.0
25.0


22.0
21.0


23.5
18.0
21.5
21.0
19.5
22.0


24000.0
9200.0
0.0
4300.0
0.0
0.0
9200.0
3500.0
490.0
24000.0
16000.0
24000.0
0.0
24000.0
0.0
0.0.
220.0
35000.0
790.0
28000.0


DATE


0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
20.0
5400.0
170.0
24000.0
0.0
24000.0
0.0
0.0
90.0
220.0
20.0
2200.0









BACTERIOLOGICAL TESTS ON WATER ENTERING FROM SOUTH OF FOWLER AVENUE
(continued)


DAT E


TEMPERATURE PRESUMPTIVE MP CONFIRMED MPN


(ORG./100 ML)


3-22-72
3-28-72
4- 6-72
4-12-72
4-18-72
4-24-72
5- 2-72
5-16-72'
5-23-72
5-30-72
6- 6-72
6-16-72
6-20-72
7- 4-72
7-12-72
7-17-72
8- 1-72
8- 8-72
8-16-72
8-23-72


(ORG./100 ML)


7900.0
700.0
3500.0
1800.0
1400.0
2200.0
17000.0
7900.0
35000.0
4300.0
1100.0
13000.0
35000.0
14000.0
11000.0
35000.0
1300.0
330.0
790.0
2200.0


(C)


460.0
40.0
1100.0
110.0
110.0
0.0
3500.0
260.0
1100.0
1400.0
700.0
1700.0
0.0
330.0
950.0
1430.0
110.0
20.0
270.0
110.0











BACTERIOLOGICAL TESTS ON WATER ENTERING FROM SOUTH OF FOWLER AVENUE
(continued)


DATE


TEMPERATURE PRESUMPTIVE MPN

( C ) (ORG./100 ML)


8-30-72
9- 5r72
9-12-72
9-21-72
9-28-72
10-12-72
11- 7-72
2-16-73
2-23-73
3- 2-73
3-12-73
4- 1-73
4- 7-73
4-14-73
4-28-73
5- 6-73
5-15-73
5-25-73
5-31-73
1-14-74


8.0
20.0
22.0
21.0
24.0
23.0
23.0
23.0
22.0
27.5
26.0


CONFIRMED MPN

(ORG./100 ML)


11000.0
330.0
7900.0
24000.0
920.0
540.0
140.0
1100.0
230.0
0.0
270.0
24000.0
9200.0
330.0
1400.0
1400.0
1700.0
1100.0
790.0
20.0


1700.0
20.0
170.0
9200.0
110.0
110.0
30.0
220.0
40.0
0.0
170.0
9200.0
330.0
140.0
110.0
170.0
170.0
90.0
230.0
10.0









BACTERIOLOGICAL TESTS ON
(continued)


WATER ENTERING FROM SOUTH OF FOWLER AVENUE


TEMPERATURE


( C )


PRESUMPTIVE MPN

(ORG./100 MLI


CONFIRMED MPN

(ORG./100 ML)


1-20-74
1-25-74
2- 2-74
2- 6-74
2-18-74
3- 2-74
3- 9-74
2-36-74
3-31-74
4-11-74
4-19-74

10-15-74
10-22-74
10-28-74
11- 5-74
11-11-74
11-19-74
11-25-74
12- 4-74
12-10-74


23.5
23.0
21.0
16.5
22.5
22.0
20.0
23.0
25.0

26.0
26.5
23.0


20.5
16.0
14.0
14.0
16.5


30.0
20.0
490.0
10.0
20.0
'50.0
10.0
220,0
260.0
20.0
5400.0
24000.0
3500.0
0.0
3000.0
24000.0
5400.0
24000.0
3500.0
16000..0


DATE


20.0
0.0
330.0
0.0
20.0
20.0
0.0
20.0
0.0
0.0
170.0
3500.0
3500.0
110.0
790.0
24000.0
5400.0
9200.0
1400.0
3500.0











BACTERIOLOGICAL TESTS ON
(continued)


WATER ENTERING FROM SOUTH OF FOWLER AVENUE


TEMPERATURE


( C )


PRESUMPTIVE MPN

(ORG./100 ML)


15.0


CONFIRMED MPN

(ORG./100 ML)


24000.0
0.0
24000.0
9200.0
5400.0
9200.0
24000.0
16000.0
24000.0
24000.0
24000.0
2800.0
24000.0
24000.0
24000.0


24000.0
10000.0
24000.0
9200.0
1700.0
1100.0
24000.0
9200.0
16000.0
24000.0
24000.0
2800.0
2400.0
24000.0
24000.0


DATE


1-13-75
2-14-75
2-21-75
2-26-75
3- 5-75
3-12-75
3-19-75
3-26-75
4- 2-75
4- 9-75
4-29-75
5- 6-75
5-13-75
5-21-75
5-30-75




-88-


r


9. SUMMARY


The original purpose of this project was to
determine the changes in the quantity and quality of
stormwater runoff from a small urbanizing watershed. Un-
fortunately, the planned development has not yet taken
place, thus the anticipated hydrologic changes did not
occur. However, valuable data was obtained pertaining
to; 1) the changes in runoff quality during a storm,
2) the yearly variation of runoff quality from a partially
developed watershed, 3) the lack of change in quality of
ground water in the surface aquifer, and 4) the purifica-
tion of urban runoff by routing it over a natural vegetative
system.


In addition, the study confirmed that disturbing
marshes or lakes causes a significant increase in suspended
solids and nutrient content in runoff, especially phosphates.


The data pertaining to the variation of pollutant
concentrations during a storm, indicated a high initial
peak during the first minutes of a storm, as expected.
Some pollutants did not wash off immediately and caused
second peaks or in some cases plateaus.

























/


-- ~


j_.;.j flaiBaZ TWSIW eia-iiravi1iit-iSa s






-89-


REFERENCES


1. Buell, M. and J. Cantlon A Study of Two Communities
of the New Jersey Pine Barrens and a Comparison of
Methods. Ecology 31: 567-586, 1950.

2. Canfield, R. H. Application of the Line Intersection
Method of Sampling Range Vegetation. Jour. For.
39: 388-394, 1941.

3. Lakla, 0. and R. W. Long Plants of The Tampa Bay Area,
University of South Florida, USF Bookstore, 1970.

4. Lindsey, A. A. Testing the Line-strip Method Against
Full Tallies In Diverse Forest Types. Ecology 36: 485-
494, 1955.

5. Long, R. W. and 0. Lakela A Flora of Tropical Florida,
University of Miami Press, Coral Gables, Florida, 1971.

6. Monk, C. D. and J. T. McGinnis True Species Diversity
in Six Forest Types in North Central Florida Jour.
Ecol. 54: 341-344, 1966.

7. Richards, P. W. The Tropical Rain Forest, Cambridge
Univ. Press., New York, 1952.

8. Strahler, A. N. Physical Geography 3rd Ed. John Wiley,
New York, 1969.

9. Wilde, S. A.- Floristic Analysis of Ground Cover
Vegetation By a Rapid Chain Method. Jour. For. 52: 499-
502, 1954.

10. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste-
Water, 13th Edition, American Public Health Association,
1971.




Full Text

PAGE 1

"',',.',',,', '"" ", A HYDROLOGIC STUDY OF A SMALL SUBURBAN WATERSHED by M.W. Anderson B.E. Ross PUBLICATION NO. 31 of the FLORIDA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH CENTER RESEARCH PROJECT TECHNICAL COMPLETION REPORT ,OWRT Project Number A-019-FLA Annual Allotment Agreement Numbers 14-31-0001-3809 1 4-31 -0001-4009 14-31-0001-5009 Report Submitted: October, 1975 The work upon which this report is based was supported in part by funds provided by the United States Department of the Interior, Office of Water Research and Technology as Authorized under the Water Resources Research Act of 1964 as amended.

PAGE 2

TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ii ACKNOWLEDGMENT iii 1. INTRODUCTION l. 2. DESCRIPTION OF AREA 3. 3. INSTRUMENTATION 10. 4. DATA COLLECTION 18. 5. PLANT LIFE SURVEY 20. 6. SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 23 .. 7. WATER QUANTITIES 26. 8. WATER QUALI'l'Y 40. 9 SUMMARY 88. 10. REFERENCES 89.

PAGE 3

:1-:', '..:..1 .. '.;' .il r r ABSTRACT A 126 acre tract of land in a natural undisturbed state and the adjacent 239.3 acres that made up the watershed, were instrumented in November, 1971, in order to determine the effect of development on the hydrology of the 126 acre tract. Hydrologic quantity and quality data were collected until April, 1975. The tract, which is located in Tampa, Florida, did not experience the planned extensive development due to financial problems of the developer. Consequently, the anticipated major hydrologic changes did not occur. However, significant alterations to the natural drainage pattern of the property were made and these caused changes in the runoff quality which were documented. j 1

PAGE 4

ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors wish to express their sincere appreciation to those who gave of their time and talent to make this report possible: Miss Paula Jerkins, Mrs. Sally Hammer,. Mr. Robert Moresi,Mr. ---Tom-Ros-kay, Mr. Charles Palmer, Jr., and many others too numerous to mention, who provided physical labor to install and maintain the structures and instruments, and those in other colleges who contributed their special knowledge for the collection and analysis of 'chemical and biological data. Thanks are also extended to the developers who co-operated fully with this study. They showed a genuine interest: in the results, whether good or bad, from their point of view. Their property was available without question to the many students who took part during the data collection phase of this study.'

PAGE 5

.J ...... .. ..... .. :,f ... J .. ........................ -1-1. INTRODUCTION The purpose of this project was to document the changes in the quality and quantity of stormwater runoff from a watershed which was to be developed from a natural state into a high density apartment complex. In order to accomplish this, rainfall gages, an evaporation gage, and flow measuring devices were installed within the watershed area,from which daily hydrologic data were obtained. In addition, water quality measurements were taken at the drainage exit of the study area. The parameters measured were dissolved oxygen, pH, carbon dioxide, temperature, hydrogen sulfide, color, turbidity, metaphosphate, orthophosphate, nitrate, nitrite and coliform count. Shallow aquifer test wells were installed and monitored in order to establish ground water flow directions, ijround water storage changes and ground water quality changes. Initially it was anticipated that the entire wqter shed being studied would be developed into a relatively high density apartment/townhouse complex. Due to the present slump in the housing industry less than 15% of the watershed was actually developed. The majority of these 64 units are still unoccupied. Therefore, the anticipated extensive quality and quantity changes in storm runoff did not occur. unexpected construction activities have caused hydrologic changes which have been documented. A major change occurred in the watershed during the initial phase of the investigation. A fifty-four inch diameter pipe was installed under the state highway ...,..,hich originally provided the southern hydrologic boundary for the study area. This necessitated an expansion in size of the study area and a relocation of gages. A portion of the region which is drained by use of this pipe consists of a medium density apartment complex. Data pertaining to the quality and quantity of storm runoff passing through this pipe have been obtained. On two occasions water quality measurements were taken at spaced time intervals throughout the storm, and quantities of pollutants per unit area were determined. ",;C''':!m. ___________________

PAGE 6

-2-During the final year of the study a small shallow lake on the property was greatly enlarged and deepened. The discharge from the study area was then routed by the developer into this lake rather than through the existing natural drainage channel. Water quality changes in the lake during this time have been recorded.

PAGE 7

.... .. J :.. -'1.-' /:' .-f -32. DESCRIPTION OF AREA The watershed chosen for this study is located near latitude 28 04' north and longitude 82 23' west on the west oentral coast of Florida. This is approximately 1.5 miles east of the University of South Florida, as shown on Figure 1. The olimate of the region is basically subtropical characterized by long humid summers and mild winters. It is strongly influenced by winds from the Gulf of Mexico. Variations in day to day maximum temperatures during the summer range from about 72F to 90F and during the winter from about 55 to 75F with average daily temperature of 72F. Precipitation is highly variable in frequency distribution, distribution, amount, and intensity, due to frontal storms, local thunderstorms and tropical hurricanes. The normal annual precipitation is approximately 55 inches and is unevenly distributed with more than half falling from June to September. The Tampa Bay Region is currently experiencing the worst drought in the history of the Tampa weather station. The drought which began in 1961 is still continuing. In Table I the annual rainfall departure from normal and accumu la ti ve deficiency for the pas'::;' fourteen year period is shown. This extended drought is particularly significant to this study because of the high evapotranspiration in area. On the average for this region 70% (37-40 inches) of the annual rainfall becomes evapotranspiration, while approximately 27% (15 inches) drains off by way of surface drainage, and the remainder goes into groundwater flow. During extended dry periods, the percentage of surface runoff decreases because of markedly increased surface storage and the evapotranspiration rate remains fairly constant. This causes difficulty in obtaining representative runoff hydrographs and documenting normal lag times.

PAGE 8

-4, ,. -, i r" ... i FIGURE 1 WATERSHED LOCATION

PAGE 9

c. ';" -5-TABLE I Departure from Normal Rainfall for Tampa,Florida -(Based on U.S. Weather Bureau Records) Year 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 .1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 Departure (inches) -16.53 9.95 -8.15 + 6.35 -8.79 -15.52 -12.21 -12.22 + 2.65 -13.30 -5.24 -9.39 .;,. 1.86 -15.48 Cumulative (inches) -16.53 -26.48 -34.63 -28.28 -37.07 -52.59 -64.80 -77.02 -87.67 -92.91 -102.30 -104.16 -119.64 The study area is underlain by the Floridan aquifer which is made up of limestone and dolomite rocks. The potentiometric pressure of approximately 30 feet above msl is contained by the impervious of the Hawthorne Formation. At an elevation of 20 to 25 feet throughout the area there is a thick clay lense upon which a surface water table is-perched. A map of the watershed is presented in Figure 2. Originally only the 126 acre portion north of Fowler Avenue was to be examined since it was a well defined completely natural state watershed. However, subsequent to the funding of the study and prior to installation of all measuring devices, a 54 inch concrete pipe" which drains 240 acres, was installed under Fowler Avenue. This southern region does contain some developed portions, as indicated in Figure 2. The apartment complex immediately south of the drainage pipe was under construction when the pipe was installed.

PAGE 10

:t. -056'IH ST. SCALE 1" = 900f Area Nor+..h of Fowler Ave. 126.2 acres Area South of Fowler l..ve. 239.3 Total Area 365.5 acres Developuent canpleted Multifamily Residential .. Singlefamily Residential FIGURE 2 STUDY l'7ATERSHED

PAGE 11

(, I -7-The topography of the northern portion is quite gentle with ground elevations varying from 25 to 35 feet. On the southern portion, the topographic gradient is much steeper with ground elevations decreasing from 85 feet to 33 feet within 2300 feet. There was'a small natural lake within the 126 acre portion which drained through a natural ditch into the Hillsborough River at times of heavy runoff. The surface area of the lake originally varied from 0.25 acres to 4 acres. The depth of this lake was increased from an average depth of 3 feet to 14 feet deep, while the surface area was increased to approximately 6 acres. The original condition of the study area is shown in Figures 3, 4, 5 and 6. The study area represented a good cross-section of common undeveloped land in this portion of Florida; grading from hardwoods to pines and palmettos, to marshlands. The type of construction that was built on the study area watershed can be seen in Figure 7, which shows a condominium under construction in the area north of Fowler Avenue. Figure 8 shows one of the abandoned foundations. The type apartments in the area south of Fowler Avenue and the drainage channel that drains the single family homes, are shown in Figures 9 and 10, respectively.

PAGE 12

Figure 3. Ha..rd.wocxl Uplands at Start of Project Figure 5. Underbrush at Start of Project -8-Figure 4. at Start of Project Figure 6. Marsh at Start of Project J

PAGE 13

Figure 7. Construction of Condaniniurn .... 9-Figure 9. Apartment carp1ex, South of Fowler looking north Figure B. Abandoned Foundation "':"':.t' .' Figure 10. Drainage canal from south edge of watershed

PAGE 14

-103. INSTRUMENTATION In order to evaluate the phases of the hydrologic cycle for the study area, the following equip.ment was installed on or near the test watershed. 1. a recording rain gage, 2. five rain gages, 3. an evaporation pan, 4. a recording evaporation gage, 5. a Parshall flume, .. 6. a plywood V notch weir, 7. two recording water level gages, B. two lake stage gages, and 9. seven shallow wells. The locations of all the rainfall gages and equipment are shown on Figure 11. The recording rain gage, and recording evaporation gage were located on private property adjacent to but outside of the boundary of the watershed for security reasons. They were housed in a wooden box for additional protection. (See Figure 12) A Parshall was installed in the drainage ditch into which the 54 inch pipe discharges (See Figures 13, 14, 15). Unfortunately, this. process had to be repeated on four additional occasions due to failures of the soft, alluvial sand banks of the ditch. The ditch was not kept clear and by the end of the project had a large crop of aquatic. weeds. In June 1972, the Stevens eight day water level recorder was stolen off of the flume and four months of data was therefore not obtained. A plywood darn with a metal edged V notched weir was built across the stream which drains the lake into the Hillsborough This weir was calibrated in place with the use of a large volume portable pump and a portable weir box. A Stevens eight day water level recorder, placed upstream of the weir, recorded the water depth. (See Figures 16 and 17) Three months later, October 1971, the weir was destroyed by vandals. Consequently, it was necessary to build, install and calibrate again. i' i r

PAGE 15

" 0#7 LAKE -11-Hilley's A '" SCALE: 1'1 = 900' KEY: o OBSERVATION WELL .A NON-RECORDING RAIN GAGE )(EVAPORATION PAN A RECORDING RAIN GAGE AND RECORDING EVAPORA TION GAGE II WEIR I FLUME USGS Staff Gage FIGURE 11 56th Street A St. INSTRUMENT LOCATIONS IN WATERSHED Illth Ave. A

PAGE 16

Figure 12. Recording rain and evaporation gages Figure 14. Installing F1Ullle -12-Figure 13. Ditch at start of project Figure 15. Flmne and ditch conm.tion at canpletion of project r .. ........

PAGE 17

... -13-Figure 16. View downstream of Vnotch weir Figure 18. Reading lake staff gage Figure 17. V-notch weir Figure 19. USGS staff gage in Hillsborough River

PAGE 18

-14-A standard Class A land pan was built and installed in order to obtain evaporation data. Later,' a Weather Measure recording evaporimeter was also installed near the area; however, it proved quite unsatisfactory. It frequentlywould not respond when-water evaporated from the reservoir, due to the static friction of the linkage connecting the recording pen to the reservoir float. In addition, when a significant rainfall occurred the pen went off the chart and failed to return. It was returned to the manufacturer for servicing but no noticeable improvement occurred. Originally two staff gages were installed in the lake in order to obtain lake surface elevations. One gage was used when the lake was exceptionally low and the other for normal and high stages. When the lake was deepened to a uniform depth by the developer only one gage was required. (See Figure 18) It was necessary to survey the lake, prepare a contour map, and prepare an elevation-surface area curve three different times (See Figure 20). This was because the area and volume of the original shallow lake were changed two different times Seven shallow wells were put down for the purpose of monitoring the perched water table. The holes were' drilled with a hydraulic drill rig borrowed from the USF Geology Department. A five inch rotary bit was used to cut through the sand overburden which was washed to the surface by water injected through the A-rod. When the thick impermeable clay layer which underlies the area was reached, the drilling process was stopped and the drill was allowed to rotate and wash out a sump at the bottom of the hole. Following the washing process, the A-rod and bit were removed from the hole and a gravel pack or sand pack was put in the bottom of the sump. .. Then a three inch, 260 psi, PVC casing with well screen attached, was put into the hole and more gravel added around the screen and casing. Well logs for these are shown in Table II. The well screen consisted of a twelve inch section of PVC pipe, plugged at one end, with random 1/8 inch wide slots cut into it. The upper end of the pipe was covered with fine 80 x 80 mesh screen. The elevation of each well was established from a known bench mark. \'<;;, r

PAGE 19

"bs 0001) ( "1-J -15G-d L6r YJ.;rdit_ cL6Y-49N l(') r-i """' & 0 .IJ N 4-1 (l) (!)

PAGE 20

. :".: i ,,:; I';; TA&u.:. II WELL DATA: Well # IDeation Well IDg Depth of Pack To Botton To Screen 1 west of ditch dark brown {organics} for 3 1/2' I light 14' 13' gravel brown for next 6 1/2' ,at 10' very dark sand then at 13' light again, at 14' white with a small clay fraction. 2 east of ditch organics for 2' then lighter brown 10' ,8 1/2' gravel for next 6', light fine sand till 12' where clay was hit. J 4 lake organics for 4' theI+ lighter color with 9 1/2' 81/2' sand I-' clay particles for next 4', at 8' clay. !f' 3 center of area brown sand to 8' very fine, next foot 8 1/2' 7 1/2' gravel very dark with a small clay fraction. 6 creek 3 'of dark brown sand then 2 of lighter 7' 6' gravel sarrl, at 5' slightly clayey sand to 9' where clay is praninent. 7 road organics for first 4 'then brown sand for 7'1/2' .. 6 1/2' gravel 1', light sand to 9' where clay was hit. 5 river organics for first 4' then light brown 8 1/2' 7 1/2' gravel sand next foot, at 5' organics and roots, sand and organics to 10', no clay; fran all indications this was all old river channel .... .. .. t

PAGE 21

1'. -17-The level of the river was measured by observation of a USGS staff, gage. Fortunately, such a gage was located in the Hillsborough'River very near the point where water from the study area entered the river. (See Figure 19)

PAGE 22

-18-4. DATA COLLECTION Once a week the recorder charts were changed at the flume, weir, and evaporation gage and readings taken at the lake gage and the evaporation pan. The water Lavels in the wells were determined biweekly Daily readings of the nonrecording rain gages were taken each morning. Water samples were taken weeklyfrom the stream which drained the lake and from the ditch on the downstream end of the 54 inch drainage pipe. The quality parameters determined by use of a Hach Chemical Company DR-EL Test Kit follow: 1. pH 2. Color 3. Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) 4. Dissolved Oxygen () 5. Carbon Dioxide. (CO2 ) 6. Nitri te (N02 ) 7. Nitrate (N03 ) 8. Metaphosphate ( P04) 9. Orthophosphate (P0 4 ) 10. Temperature 11. Turbidity In addition, Presumptive and Confirmed Coliform Bacteria Tests were conducted on the samples according to procedures described in "Standard Methods for the Examinationof Water and Waste Water", 13th Edition. The samples that were taken at regularly spaced time intervals during two separate storms were rushed to a commercial water quality laboratory to be analyzed. The quality parameters determined according tp "Standard Methods" procedures were: ,. ...

PAGE 23

-19-1. Biochemical Oxygen Demand, B.O.D. 2. Chemical Oxygen Demand, C.O.D. 3. Total Oxygen Carbon, T.O.C. f 4. Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 5. Nitrite, N02 6. Nitrate, N03 7. Carbon Dioxide, CO2 8. Metaphosphate, Meta-P04 9. Orthophosphate, Ortho-P04 10. pH 11. Turbidi ty 12. Suspended Solids 13. Color 14. Aluminum 15. Mercury 16. Iron 17. Lead Zinc 19. Copper 20. Oil and Grease 21. Hydrogen Sulfide, H 2 S 22. Coliform Aerogenes Group 23. E-Coli

PAGE 24

-205. PLANT LIFE SURVEY In order to establish a record of existing natural vegetation in the watershed prior to urbanization, a plant .life __ s-\lr-vey was-cconduc..tedon the nor_thern portion of the study area. The transect method, in which a string is stretched in a straight line through the community and each individual plant in contact with it recorded, was applied exclusively.. A total of 115 transect.s were used .. The following parameters were determined: (1) Species diversity -the number of species and the number of individuals of each species. (2) Frequency -of occurrence of each species, calculated on the basis of the percentage of occurrence in transects by a given species. (3) Relative frequency -number of occurrences of one species as a percentage of the total number of occurrences of all species. (4) Density -the average number of individuals of a species per transect obtained by dividing the total number of individuals of that in all transects by the total number of transects examined. (5) Relative density -the number of individuals of one species as a percentage of the total number of individuals of all species. (6) Abundance -the average number of individuals of a per occurrence obtained by dividing the total number of individuals of that species by the number of transects in which it occurred. A very appropriate measure of dominance and relative dominance was also obtained by using a mean basal area of 6 species of trees calculated from 147 of herbaceous species arbitrarily taken as 1 cm.. the average basal area of "each species and relative dominance is the total basal area of each species as a percentage of the total basal area of all species. The project area was divided into two subregions based on topographic land features for describing the vege-

PAGE 25

1 -21-t.ation. (1) The first of these encompasses the highland portion. The soil encountered here is what Strahler (1969) refers to as red-yellow podzolic, well drained and leached in the soil zone. Vegetation reflects this condition since many plants observed require such edaphic factors. Stratification, considered very important by Richards (1952) was highly variable within this highland area. The upper stratum composed of trees vIaS mainly discontinuous which may have been as a result of "recent" disturbances. Small sectors, however, did contain isolated congruent canopies of either vinginiana or elliottii depending on the area being examined. The middle stratum was better defined since Senenoa formed a more or less thick and continuous layer. Some of the other representatives of this stratum belonged to Aqui60liaeeae and Enieaeeae as well as seedlings from Ebenaeeae, Fagaeeae and Pinaeeae. Herbaceous plants contained within the lowest of the three strata exhibited the most well defined and continuous layer. This was to be expected, since a large portion of the area had been disturbed in the recent past. Some of the families represented in this stratum were CompoJltae, Faeaeeae and Gnamineae. (2) The second portion of the project land examined was the lowland-pond area. The soil here was as described by (1969), Wisenboden (ground water podzol with l-half bog soils). This soil supports vegetation that requires moist soil or a body of water for existence. The plants of this area .did not exhibit well-pronounced stratification except for the floating aquatics which, however, could not be adequately studied for lack of facilities. The tallest trees encountered belonged to Fagaceae, Pinaeeae and Salieaceae. The canopy was discontinuous allowing ample sunlight for herbaceous plants to flourish. Two small sections, however, did exhibit congruency in its canopy at the pond's east end. One contained members towering to 14 m while the other site supported and Salix on the small canal's slopes.

PAGE 26

-22-The plant community of this area in its entirety can be best described as a "mied oak, pine lowland flatwoods". This is probably close to the flatwoods described by Monk and McGinnis (1966), as evidence of recent fire can.be detected. The following tree species,though.numerically small, registered high on the.Importance Value: Qu.eJtc.u..6 v.LJtg.Ln.La.na. (27.60), P.Lnu..6 eLtiot:.t:.Lf.. (13.75), and SeJtenoa. Jtepen.6 (13.926). Since members of the GJt.a.minea.e were abundant throughout, they registered highest in importance value of all the species in this area (93.89). This is to be expected since the exposed sandy soils of the disturbed areas are first colonized by the sand binding members of GJta.minea.e. The complete record of plant life data has been tabulated and is available from the primary investigators, upon request. Figure 21. String Transect Methcx1 \ I E2iA

PAGE 27

-23-6. SOIL CHARACTERISTICS Infiltration and disturbed sample permeability tests were performed on the various soil types in tbe study area. A map showing-the various soil types according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, is shown in Figure 22 and Table III. The texture of nearly all of the soil in the area is fine sand. In some areas there is a relatively high amount of undecomposed organics which has not been incorporated into the soil zones. Therefore organics playa very small role in the rate of infiltration for this region. A concentric ring flooding-type infiltrometer was used in the tests. The inner and outer rings were 9 inches and 14 inches in diameter respectively. Measure ments were made in accordance with standard procedures. After the surface infiltration test was completed, a subsurface infiltration test was conducted a few feet from the same site. This consisted of digging a hole below the organic or root zone and performing a test in the same manner as was conducted on the surface. The infiltration rates thus determined, though higher than normal for soils in this region of Florida, due to the previously mentioned drought, were as expected; 25-50 inches/hour for most sands; 7-20 inches/hour for cl(3.Ys and mucks. Distributed sample constant head permeability tests were conducted in the laboratory in order to establish the relative differences between the various soil types. The infiltration data are on file and available upon request, from the primary investigators. D i\f\

PAGE 28

r TABLE III SOILS LEGEND AND CLASSIFICATIONS SAMPLE SYMBOL SOIL CONSERVATION UNIFIED AASHO LAYER DEPTH SERVICE DESIGNATION CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION (inches) 1 Ba Blanton fine sand, level SP,SP-SM A-3 0-42+ phase I 2 Bb Blanton fine sand, gently SP,SP-SM A-3 0-42+ N V1 undulating phase I 3 Fe 3 Fresh water swamp-cypress Variable Variable 4 Ld Lakeland fine. sand, gently. undulating phase SP A-3 0-60 5 Lh Leon fine sand SP A-3 0-20 6 Me Mines, pits and dumps Variable Variable 0-60 7 Pd Plummer fine sand SP,SP-SM A-3 0-48+ 8 Rc Rutledge fine sand A-3 0-20 9 Re Rutledge mucky fine sands SP,SP-SM A-3 20-42+ 10 Sc Shallow ponds with grass i Variable Variable 0-60

PAGE 29

-26-7. WATER QUANTITIES One of the major purposes of this study was to quantitize the hydrologic changes that occur when a subtropical natural watershed is urbanized. Unfortunately, the planned exte:t;si,,;e development, which was initially scheduled to 1972, did not occur. The changes that did occur were minor and gradual, consequently significant changes in storm runoff quantities were not .' detected. The 126 acre watershed selected for this study was a separate drainage area within the original 300 acres designated for townhouse/condominium type of development. The original developers experienced financial difficulties and the property exchanged hands two separate times. As of the present, July 1975, only 15% (18.6 acres) of the 126 acre study area has been cleared and had housing foundations poured. Of this portion, only nine acres contain completed condominiums. Thus, only approximately 7% of the 126 acre study' area has undergone complet? development from a natural state to a curbed and guttered, landscaped condominium complex. (See Figure 2) However, much useful water quantity data was obtained during the study period. The study site has proven to'be a valuable training facility because of its proximity to the Univer sity of South Florida. It has been used by wat.er resource engineering students and geolo3Y students as a field laboratory to learn how to properly conduct a hydrologic survey. The drainage pattern of the study area can best be explained by referring to the map in Figure 2. During the early stages of the study a' 54 inch concrete pipe which drains a region south of Fowler Avenue was installed under Fowler Avenue. This pipe discharges into the drainage ditch which is contained in the southwest corner of the watershed. Thus, the storm runoff from a 240 acre watershed was unexpectedly introduced into the 126 acre study area. The elevation of this southern region varies from 85 feet at its southern boundary to 30 feet where it discharges into the 54 inch pipe. This 55 foot change occurs over a distance of less than 3000 feet. Consequently the runoff response time of this region 1

PAGE 30

/'" -27-is quite low and very high velocities are obtained in the alluvial drainage ditch. A typical storm hydrograph for the discharge from the culvert is presented in Figure 23. A Parshall flume and a Stevens water level recorder were used to measure this flow in the ditch. The water discharges from the northern end of this ditch and flows approximately 1200 feet in sheet flow overland through an intermittently wet region. which contains grasses, palmetto bushes and trees. This flow along with the natural runoff from the 126 acre study area drain into what was a small (0.25 acre), shallow feet) lake. When the lake is full it discharges into a natural drainage ditch which discharges into the Hillsborough River. The lake has been enlarged to the extent that it has not discharged since October 1974. In order to document the hydrologic changes caused by urbanization, data were collected to perform a water balance for the portion of the study area north of Fowler Avenue. Initial efforts were to independently establish the values of all components of the cycle such as rainfall, groundwater storage changes, groundwater flow, evapotranspiration, etc. However, after the types and quantity of vegetation were established, it was not within the scope of the project to quantitize the transpiration of the various plants. Therefore, the decision was made to consider evapotranspiration the unknown in the following hydrologic continuity equation: Rainfall onto + 126 acre watershed (2:. Groundwater ) -Storage Change Evaporation from Lake Rainfall runoff from + southern area onto watershed Sprinkler runoff from southern are, onto watershed ( + Lake storage) Change Volume discharged out of watershed + Groundwater Flow = Evapotranspiration The obvious unfortunate difficulty of using this equation is that all errors are accumulated into the term that is the unknown and that the least is known about. A great deal of difficulty was encountered in attempting to quantitize these various components of the hydrologic cycle for an extended period of time, such as a year. At various times equipment has been stolen or

PAGE 31

.5 -::t, ....l r-... ....l I-l u..c: z ......... ". H p:; .,-t ......, 0 17.5 15.0 12.5 r, Vl !.H .. U ......, I.1l t.:) c=: 10.0 :r:: u tI) H CI 7.5 5.0 2.5 O..lr--'-------II --..... ---.. -"C'i--------12 Noon 12 ilidnight 6 "hI 12 Noon FIGURE 23 ]!YDROGRAPH

PAGE 32

-29. destroyed, rain gages filled by pranksters, the Parshall flume bypassed when the ditch banks caved in, or equipment malfunctions have occurred. Unfortunately, these difficulties occurred at different times and involved various lengths of time to correct. It has been impossible to collect a complete record for a year. Consequently, some missing data techniques had to be used. For example, hydrographs were generated by use of the SCS triangular unit hydrograph technique for the period of time that the recording gage was missing from the Parshall flume. The coefficients used were obtained by generating values from known hydrographs for the area which were obtained when the recording gage was in place. Hydrographs were plotted for each storm but are not included in this report. The typical hydrograph as shown in Figure 23 is an example. Missing rainfall data at a station were determined by the normal-ratio method for the period of record. A sprinkler system was installed in the apartment complex just upstream of the 54 inch pipe. This resulted in sporadic flows into the Parshall flume which were easily recognized and accounted for. The groundwater storage changes were established by use of water elevation readings taken in the wells located in the 126 acre area. Figure 11 illustrates the location of the wells with respect to the river. In order to obtain a volume of storage change, the average water level change of wells 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 was assumed to occur over the 126 area minus the area of the lake. A plot of the changes in well water elevations is shown in Figure 24. (The complete record of water elevation changes is available from the primary investigators upon request.) Then taking into account the soil porosity of 30%, and an assumed 70% saturation, the change in groundwater storage was calculated. Groundwater inflow into the watershed was obtained by determining the hydraulic gradient for the water table by use of the well data and the average permeability for the soils. An average permeability of 152 gpd/ft2, which was obtained from the soil permeability tests, was used.

PAGE 33

30 Well #l-g 20 j 30 ] Well #2 20 30 wel.l #3=1/ r: 20-=1 -30 Nell #4] > I I o 20 LI 0 I 30 Well #5:1 5 20-=t ""'" 30] Well #6 20 34 WeI] 24 -=1 .. :J River 20 r.TTj.'-NI A I tvl LJ 1.1 I A fSfOlXnn JTFnnA,M,JTrn IS 10 I In .11 F IH t A 1M IJ I J IA Is 0 IN ID IJ IF P1 IA 72 73 74 7S FlGURI: 2,1

PAGE 34

I I -31-Rainfall for the watershed was obtained by reading the nonrecording rain gages between 8:00 a.m. and 12:00 noon the day after a rainstorm. At the end of each week, readings from the recording rain gage were added to the data already collected and the average weekly rainfall for the watershed was calculated by the Theissen method. The monthly average rainfall for the study period is shown in Table IV. The complete rainfall record is available from the primary investigators upon request. A water balance composed of two week periods is shown in Table V. The reader is cautioned that evapotranspiration losses contained in the last column should not be regarded as the correct value for the indicated time period. This is because of the time lag between the occurrence of a significant rainfall and the measurabl.e increase in-groundwater storage. For example, a large volume of rainfall occurred during the time period from 6/_4/72 to 6/18/72. However I the proportional increase in groundwater storage did not occur until the following period of 6/18/72 to 7/2/72. This large rainfall caused the first term of the hydrologic balance equation to be quite large and in an unrealistic evapotranspiration term of 7.7 inches for the two week period. The groundwater storage increase in the next period caused a completely impossible evapotranspiration term of -1.2 inches. However, the algebraic sum of these two terms (+7.7 + [-1.2]) is a realistic 6.5 inches for a four week period in June. Although this tabulating quirk occurred several times, the total evapotranspiration losses for most any 52 week span during the period of record is approximately 50 inches. The increased magnitude of this the regionally used value of 40 inches can be attributed to the marsh area which was approximately 20 acres in size during periods of high rainfall and to the phreatophytes surrounding the lake.

PAGE 35

-33-Continued. ---.-..... .l-l .j.J tl" r-1 \., C \.. G c.. .j.J ,.4 .j.J ..c: C> U) >--'0 U) (/) ti' ..... r ..c: (lJ CJ l-l 0 -:w J.J ri 0 .j.J .c Co; r-C ri ..... 1I C .j.J CJ fa dP .Q l"J ri .4 & C) 1..0 > 0 "'-, 'In ri ..,.. U If' 3:< 0.. r-----------Apr. 2.16 2.25 2.26 2.22 1.91 2.06 2.14 2.10 6.60 4.62 May .33 .56 .34 .40 .34 .37 .41 3.41 7.34 5.14 June 2.18 2.22 2.07 1.83 2.06 2.12 6.49 5.43 3.80 July 8.63 7.38 7.07 6.82 6.94 7.38 8.43 8 .. 32 5.82 Oct. 5.01 4.46 4.82 4.91 5.14 5.09 4.86 2.54 1.41 '.99 Nov. .29 .15 .21 .22 .23 .28 .22 1.79 2.98 2.09 Dec. 7.10 '7.21 7.98 7.82 7.75 7.18 7.44 2.19 2.35 1.65 1974 Jan. 1.53 1.60 1.91 1. 74 1.57 1.40 1.60 2.27 3.43 2.40 Feb. 1.11 1.0 1.09 1.11 1.15 1.13 1.09 2.84 2.14 1.49 Mar. 1.06 1..25 1.33 1.32 1.43 1.08 1.25 3.89 2.13 1.49 Apr. .29 .31 .32 .32 .33 .38 .33 2.10 2.3 1.61 May 2.70 3.09 2.93 3.06 2.64 2.59 2.84 2.41 5.43 3.80 June 16.24 16.71 15.35 15.41 15.58 16.77 16.19 6.49 8.27 5.79 july 8.61 7.02 7.35 7.13 7.00 7.63 7.37 8.43 8.93 6.25 Aug. 7.80 8.89 8.11 8.36 6.97 7.91 8.07 8.00 10.16 7.11 Sept. 9.25 9.46 9.02 6.48 8.62 8.74 8.84 6.35 7.79 5.45 Oct. 0.0 .15 .07 0.0 .10 0.0 .07 2.54 6.97 4.87 Nov. 1.15 1.11 1.25 1.21 1.10 .98 1.11 1. 79 6.5 4.55 Dec. 2.10 2.10 2.10 2.08 2.00 2.00 2.06 2.10 1.25 .87 .' .................................. 1I1I1I1I1I1I1I1I

PAGE 36

-34-Continued. o. --. .. ----.------... --.---.. -.. --._------_._----,---------------------.... +J (j) 2 '"", CJ '2 ',"" .. ... H C-. ...., ..... +.J .r;: (!) u: ,..' "d H U) u: 0' .-i ..... ,.... -:::: (, 0 \..J ro ,.... 'TI ..-< C +J ,.c; c; H ,;: u c: +.J +J C,.! N _,-J &. ('.J \D r:s 8:2 a If'. U In' :::< p.. r-Jan. 1.00 .67 .73 .78 .94 1.00 .84 2.21 2.58 L80 Feb. 1.50 1.61 1.44 1.52 1.51 1.61 1.55 2.86 Mar. 1.31 1.50 .98 1.11 1.47 .95 1.26 3.89 7.48' Apr. 1.05 1.29 .98 1.03 1.10 1.02 1.12 2.10 -, '75 +

PAGE 37

,.., .1 .'" TABLE V WN7'.'.i'\ PAIJ>lZCZ FeR A,'O;EA Ferica :'la1nfcll,N X InflCf...f in :L'1 lake Heil'" Qutflc';: Grou.'1d E:' J:)ates .ftl2 wk) Rmoff ,Flume Lc..wn-Groc:..'id. Lake EYaDCration {cu.f't/Z '11k) fIe:! losses (cu. ft/2 "v'lk) sprin.'
PAGE 38

(Continued) WATER BA!.J\..\'CE FeR Al'F..A P.ainf'all ,N Inflow Inncm fran Change in Ch:.'U1.ge in !.ake Weir outflow Net Grouro El' perlcd (cu.ft/2 wk) Runoff ,Flume LawnGrovnd Lake Bfaooration (cu.ft/2 wk) Water flow rates (cu.ft/2 (cu.ft/2 v:k) (inchec (c1.1.ft/2 :-Ik) spr1nkl:ii)g Storage (cu.ft/2 wk) Storage (c'.l.ft/2 ( eu, ft/2 .... k) :'2-17-72 1,226,277 447,884 0 207,7')5 81 11,733 237,870 4,671 3.6 12-31-72 786,844 81,494 0 207,755 15,854 9,444 60,408 1,499 2.2 1-14-73 5-,'{60 1,361,165 281,01;1. 377 .352 825 12,059 11:9,953 1,104 2.5 1-2<1-73 788,099 113,451 ,0 791<,465 91 13,428 159,408 1,975 .1 2-11-73 437,,342 53,280 612 11,306 -21,986 11,6 112 128,880 1,566 .8 I 2-25-73 w 280,038 43,138 0 -399,602 20,3'70 13,361 0 38 1.5 0') 3-11-73 I 1,696,191 153,865 16,200 418,338 72 ,557 19,523 0 -252 3.0 3-25-73 q-8-73 617,715 68,173 14,688 1,615 -54,6ll5 17,436 378,360 -135 .8 0 5,438 3,780 -836,676 -28,992 20,886 129,510 -172 1,.6 1<-22-73 5-6-73 369,319 97,200 7,020 -1,038,862 -16,154 17,221 0 1110 3,4 162,438 15,480 61,038 9,311 -14,254 '5-20-73 20,799 0 -161 Q.5 280,085 0 40,343 -::34 S,796 6-3-73 -35,934 14,617 0 -. 121 1.5 6-17-73 1 4 3,411 15,069 44,889 ,609 -17,019 7,9 4 7 10 1.1 : 498,094 33,901 7-1-73 9,180 464,333 758 1<,532 0 301 -',2 61,960 8,865 7-:1.5-73 3,278 -750,247 -27,563 3,5 4 7 C 759 1.9 2,766,140 264,393 c 1,091,Z20 102,66-3 21,:.71 0 2,704 4.1 f!l ...

PAGE 39

.. f .. (Continued) \';,'i'ffi\ rA!N\CE FaR ,W.A F!I'icd Ra:ir'.fal1 ,N Inc"1ow Inc"1ow fran Char,.;'.': in Change in lal21 -26,852 26,282 0 3,589 1.5 377,062 20,160 0 _2114,021 48,334 21,044 0 2,923 1.5 255,438 48,597 0 3 42,568 67,668 20,098 325,473 4,/J0e. -1.0 2-24-74 79,776 a -229,9 4 3 -67,668 5,606 0 8,23 4 .8 3-10-74 3-24-74 220,263 137,816 2,153 0 0 20,088 0 8,523 .3 297,171 2,156 0 -204,062 -47,643 12,777 46,411 9,087 1.1 4-7-74 142,271 19,193 5,723 -459,015 Q 6,59 4 8,465 1.4 4-21-74 a 13,780 -358,917 -821,3 4 5 Drained 821,3 4 5 6,65 4 0.9

PAGE 40

'I' \.._, .,',,": (Continued) \OiATER tANCE FOR MFA R!ricd Ra:1nf'all ;N Innow Innow fran "Change in Cllnl1g'e in IAke Weir outf'low Net Clrpund El' rates (cu.ft/2 wk) Runoff,F1ume LawnGround rake Evaporation (cu.rt/2 wk) Water flow' Lossef (cu .ft/2 wk) sprinkl1ng \vater storage (cu.ft/2 wk) (cu.ft/2 (inchef (cu. ft/2 wk) Storage (cu.ft/2 wk) (cu.rt/2 wk) 5-5-74 5-19-74 840,633 542,844 0 871,200 551,250 302 0 6,424 -0.1 6-2-74 497,444 48,785 2,310 -155.584 53,759 2,055 0 3,257 1.4 1,327,895 483,493 0 49,821 483,500 43,719 0 3,477 2.8 6-16-74 i. 3.969,561 2,166,344 '0 3,406,617 325,250 77,162 325,000. -1,876 4.5 6-30-74 1,061,796 411,500 0 -554,400 125,000 125,000 207 3.9 I 7-14-74 w 1,081.218 214,707 0 -396,000 233,466 52,614 180,423 2,527 2.8 ex> 7-28-74 I 1,840,765 933,410 0 1,425,599 21,633 52,614 58,200 3,880 2.7 8-11-74 1,205,6lJ8 671,582 0 105,600 43,263 21,556 2,527 3.7 8-25-74 1,699,654 833,768 0 -242,325 86,534 61,371 197,800 2,219 5.5 9-8-74 9-22-74 884,675 369,991 0 66,000 -194,701 37,929 175,250 4,861 2.9 504,367 202.773 0 -734,800 42,389 40,392 0 8,908 3.3 10-6-74 0 0 -1,106,239 -160,280-15,46'2 0 3,590 2.8 10-20-74 0 0 5,834 662,400 -158,440 9,563 0 380 .1.8 11-3-74 0 0 4,780 -753,984 -103,668 22,226 403 1.9 11-17-74 525,485 176,832 0 -635,184 85.?93 19,431 0 1,000 3.2 12-1-74 349,061 316,116 72,072 -13,437 2,670 3,515 1.7 '" -" ':' j J "'"" .... _---

PAGE 41

-(Continued) FOR IJ'}J\ PeI'icxi Ralnfall,N Inflow InnC1!l fran ChaI".ge in CtJat'Ji,"e in I..c'lke We:1r outnow Net Grourx1 Er Dates (cu.ft/2 wl{) R-.mo!'f' .Flume Lawn-Ground Lake Evaporation (cu.ft/2 wk) Water f10N (cu.ft/2 wk) spr:!.l".klinb Water Storage (cu.rt/2 wk) (cu.ft/2 wk) (inches) (cu.rt/2 wk) storage (cu.ft/2 wk) (cu.ft/2 wk) 12-15-74 583,518 0 986 33i66O 0 10,383 0 6,501 1.4 12-29-74 6,124 1.8 396,221 ,411 0 89,100 20,569 17,798 0 1-12-75 0 0 0 0 11,518 17,798 0 5,242 0.0 1-26-75 104,172 7,500 2,385 158,400 1,646 13,251 0 4,795 -0.1 2-9-75 480,949 63,037 0 79,200 0 12,038 0 5,615 1.4 I 2-23-75 w 102,964 '17,120 22,108 + 79,200 -25,917 13,570 0 7,95 0 .2 1.0 3-9-75 I 79,593 23,178 12,173 -237,615 -17,278 17,279 0 9,087 .8 3-23-75 144,735 176,833 0 +298,54 2 -60,473 18.990 0 12,777 .2 4-6-75 214,478 200,09lj 0 +255,921 -103,668 20,3 4 3 0 23,905 .6 4-20-75

PAGE 42

-408 QUALITY During the course of this study, three different ClSpects of water quality were studied. These were: 1) the change in runoff pollutant concentrations during a storm; 2) the change in groundwater quality in .the shallow aquifer; and 3) the change in quality of surface runoff as a result of its passageover.the study area. Quality samples were taken at regular intervals at the entrance t.O the concrete pipe that passes under Failler Avenue, during two different storms. The drainage pattern of the watershed is such that all runoff fran the area south of Fo.vler Avenue drains through this pipe. The resulting pollutographs from both storms were quite similar, consequently only one set of data is presented in this report. 'l'he hydrograph for the storm of May 19, 1975 is presented in Figure 25 and the pollutographs for the various subst.ances measured are presented in Figures 26 through 36. The concentrations roeasured were converted to total PJUnds of pollutant per time inte:rval and are listed in Table VI. In addi tio!)., this table contains the total pounds of each PJllutant which was washed off the watershed during the storm and the pounds of substance generated per acre. The concentrations of eighteen of the twenty-three measured parameters generally decreased with time as anticipated. Carbon dioxide (00 2 ) concentrations remained approximately constant while oil and grease concentrations and orthophosphate (Ortha-PO 4) concentrations increased with time. It is felt that the orthophosphate, and the grease and oil concentrations would have reached a peak value and leveled off if the storm had been of a longer duraLion than fifteen minutes. Both of the storms, for which data were gathered, were ni ld and of short duration. More intense storms of longer duration could and probably would produce different pollutographs. Chemical quality tests were run on groun&vater samples which were rerroved from the surface aquifer wells during July I. August and September of 1972 and again in May 1974. (See Table VII). The data shaw that peak values occurred in dissolved substances when the wells were first dug. Since then; there has been no significant change in groundwater quality. This confinued expectations.

PAGE 43

01, If) r-CTI r-l CTI .-I 0 ::r: (!) 0 0 ::r: -410 If) .-I o M trl roN r:.q :;<:p HI:!)

PAGE 44

30e 250 B::O <'FM 200 150 100 50 2:0:-" 'i""l! ,J:,' ,tf?'<'<-I(" ,.', 2:15 2:25 2:35 or 19 1975 .' 2:55 3:05 ( 900 __ ---------------------------800 700 -I II cna:N'l'RATICN aJD PPM 600 500 400 (t;! ffJ 1""-l'>.: I m B!! 300 -!B _____ L 51 200 -hD-D III k;J I 11"-I .J '-:..". t.4 '.t:t) ... iii J 1CO 2:05 2:15 2:25 2:35 2:55 3:05 Figure 26 Runoff Quality CF ffiY 19 fo".ay 1315 ...

PAGE 45

us fl 'TO: 100 PFH 75 ,'iL---------I 50 .\ :,1 25 IE; ,of, '1'" 2:05 f.i f.... 'J f I 'n ,. 2:102:15 2:25 TIIIE Of' 19 May 1975 2:45 2:55 3::>5 2:35 a::u::Em'AATICN KJ-N PPM Figure 27 Runoff Quality 4 3 -I 2 III :1. -l-t.:\I-8-I-2:C!3 2:15 2:25 TIME CF 19 May 1975 :0 2;45 I I-2:55 3:05

PAGE 46

120 -lll----------------------110 c:arEm'?1I:TICN MOl m 1CO 90 ",',1", !J p "11---a :\ 1, -1 Fl f" :I t I il tl 1]
PAGE 47

,. 1.00 I J ''';, M-?J4 PFM .75 II } I I .50 1 :1',;, I n A m-(i ",1 lP .25 -H;4-D-m-u t! &I t.! f-d-tl--r o Vii" ,,--.q !\jJ. If'-2:05 2:15 2:25 2:35 3:05 ... CQICSNI'AATION 0-1'04 PI .. i 4 3 I M I 1-1, .f::>, --U1 ; 2 -Hi'Iit r-I1 +lIB--B-!-I-Rt-M-ft;!--H! ftI _________ fJ!_ I 21m 2:10 2i!.,5 2:20 2:252:30 2:35 TIllE CE C;W 19 !o'.ay 1975 .. 3:00 3:25 Tn\!: or Illl.'i 19 Nay 1975 Figure 29 Runoff Quality

PAGE 48

450 425 SQL!DS -, ... "4'0-:: 3 I;; __ ';00 375 +}I=----.-dr 100 75 50 __ __ n 2:0:-' ::15 T 2:25 2:35 T 2:45 2:55 f-3:05 ,.j 7.011---------------M1MINtM PPM" 6.0 J.1 2.0.. 1.0 f-:iJ lIllI, ,I 2;05 2:15. 2:25 2:35 2:45 255 T 3:05 I .t>. 0'1 I 'l'!!!:: Cf' D.'\Y 19 }:ay 19"'5 Figure 30 Runoff me OF o..,y 19 1975 .., ..

PAGE 49

. ::-\y FPB r i;' ""f 'H" n -----t 1 f' 'n','! f;, f !; f1 1 -f '-t 2:05 2:15 2:25 2:35 TIME OF n.;y 19 llay 1975 2:45 2:55 3;05 _...".1 4.0
PAGE 50

1.0 If] .. ".;'I: '. :;.' ;9 a:ll::E:m"?".'!'Ic:l LF.J0 .. f P?-! .::. .4 1 f ---:------.,llul Ji ." r.] : r"! .2 iJ .. j ': !F1r ,1 +tt-f'l U ,1 ,I 2:15 2:35 2:55 3:05 5 -tl-------...;.--------- cm:::ENriwrIc:N Zm::: PIM J-V1 .2 J-.1 '-'m ,-, I ..... ,,--IIII .. i i 2:0:' 2:15 2:25 .2;35 2:45 :::55 I .r:oo I OF DAY 10 1975 Figure 32 Runoff Quality Cf' 'm':' -, .. ........ ..

PAGE 51

,. .04 I ''!III! Jl .f--__ f.' CClPPER r rn< .03 tl-I ________ ,Of ----i, f 0021:\i----------------f) r rr-jll M-Il I,J 11m .. mfI_ 2:05 2:pj t!IlilI 2:35 2:45 2:55 r.-3:05 '--125 'roRBIDIT'i J.C.U. 100 75 50 25 TN; OF DAY 19 Hay 1975 Figure' 33 Runoff Quality -II 2:05 2:15 2:25 2:35 TIME: OF Dl.Y: 19 P.ay 1975 I 2:45 2:55 3:05 ,,,' I \0 I

PAGE 52

.. COWR ALPHA COLOR tJ!','TIS 70 60 I .,. 50 rl-----------------------------I-40 I--30 20 10 m II I-r.fIf' ",J 11" H 'l _-U,L., lti '),'1 : I iF i g i --2:25 2:33 2:45 2:55 3:05 ':D'E CF !\W 19 :-:aj' 1975 t,':lr 18,000 -411-----------------------16,000 -ilf----i -14,000 CXH:Er1'l'.lWl"IW COLIFOIM PER 100 ex:: i2,000 I 10,000 8,000 ... 1_--6,000 4,000 2,000 1-!Q .-. -. 2:05 2:10 2:1:' 2:202:25 2;30 2:35 m:: OF DA'( 19 197.5 o I 2;50 J-;-ho 3/:'; Figure 34 Runoff Quality .., .. -. '1it

PAGE 53

.' y -" 8 I' t) '1 I I '. r '" ll!-l-tt] iI t 15 D ,'j ,.. J 5 +fl. II II U" II I ,; ... I I' n* 4 -IJBi __ II. _I 1 'I'.: r :. ;. :; 'I g II. 1&1" \' i 3 -HH-m--{l-tJ II-Ii E: j '. J 1 2 m, ____ '45 ,i: r r ,lUll I I. 'oj' I. I...J. I I J I t .2:05 2:10 2:15 2:20 2:25 2:30 2:35 2:45 2:50 TlME a DAY 19 May 1975 3:00 3:05 Figure 35 Water Quality ." 2:05 2:10 2:15 2;20 2:25 2:30.2:35 TlME a DAY 19 Hay 1975 f, 2:45 2:50 3:00 3:05

PAGE 54

..., c:na:NrRATICN on. & GREASE PPM 2 I IIlW 15 I fU.-N-10 -11---f5 JJ tj :"'1 A,.;l If, ;;j {,I t '. I r--T-I 2105 2:102115.2120 2;25 2:30 2;35 2,45 2:50'3:00 3:05. TD CF tl1\Y 19. Hay 1975 Figure 36 Water Quality '"" .' .. .. :> -;,;.. "F'"": c .... 1 lTI N I

PAGE 55

$?i,!;jl'''-''-!''tfH -f'jt-: .".... ,,,,_, ,l -;../ ..! TABLE VI TOTAL POLLllTNHS ENTER I NG SOUTH OF FOWLER AVENUE 19 May 1975 Rainfall .28 inch Duration -15 minutes Va1ues(*)-All values in pounds (5min) (5min) (5min) (5inin) -CfSminf (30min) TOTAL #Per Acre 2:05 2:10 2:15 2:20 2:35 3:05 (239.3) BOD 10.42 5.55 3.37 4.55 11.68 10.06 45 .191 COD 35.90 21.11 6.53 42.88 19.99 62.63 189.04 .790 TOC 4.65 3.11 2.24 2.52 7.86 2.59 22.97 .096 TKN .17 .16 .214 .192 .34 .22 1.30 .0054 N02 .0047 .002 .0016 .0028 .0034 .0012 .0057 : 6.56x 10 -5 N03 .037 .052 .056 .065 .276 -5 I .059 .007 1. 15x 10 U1 w CO2 .12 .1.46 1. 53 2.4 2.47 1.19 9.17 .038 I MetaP04 .038 .003 097 .117 .213 .092 .56 .002 Ortho-P0 4 .10 ,017 .204 .275 .88 .339 1. 82 .008 SS2 17.71 6.52 1. 53 2.52 10.33 3.19 41.80 .175 Al .28 .136 .054 .024 .184 .139 .817 .003 Hg .0001 .. 00017 .00017 .000012 .00011 .000083 .00065 2.72x 10 -6 Fe .16 .11 .057 .135 .064 .569 .0023 Pb .041 .043 .015 .0048 .027 .006 .137 .0006 Zn .019 .0146 .0082 .0036 .016 .005 .066 .0003 Cu .0016 .0002 .0002 .00024 .00045 .001 .00369 00002 Oil-Grease .25 .. 39 1.63 1.32 2.92 1.99 8.S .036 TOTAL RUNOFF 10,971 ft3

PAGE 56

".-.. '. ";'-' iFo';':'."':" '''/ _',_'. ,'" TABLE VI TOTAL POLLUTANTS ENTERING PROM SOUTII OF FOHLER AVENUE 19 1975 Rainfall inch Duration -15 minutes Values(*)-All.values in pounds (5min) 2:05 pH 7.6 Turb(JTV) 115 Color (APHA) 35 H 2 S None Found Coli-Aero-genes Confi rmed per 100 cc E. Coli. per 100 cc -, (Smin) (Smin) 2:10 2:15 6.S 7.0 S5 5.0 30 20 200 16300 6750 (Smin) (lSmin) 2:20 2:35 6.4 6.S 15 25 20 30 4300 S100 913 4]5 ;. -"'. [. ';.," "'0.",''-'.-::': (30mjn) TOTAL #Per Acre 3:05 (239.31) 7.1 30 I 60 U1 I 30 .,.

PAGE 57

'[') ?!;:'" .. --II .....I ,..' TABLE VIr C:--Efwi!C;:L TESTS ON hELLS O.diE-t'!ElL NC3 N02 CO2 FI-I .. {PP ton (PPM) ( PPM) (F FH) (PPM) 5 .. 000 21 .. 100 C.C50. 52 .. 000 0.0 7/24/72-1 1 .. 500 40000. 17.600 0.030 8.OOC 50250 420oCO C / 4/12-1 logeO OGO 5.200 C.C55 1.7.000 5.220 8/16112-1 1.,200 90500 18.500 C.048 C .0 4.90 500. CO t /23112-1 0 .. 220 1.130 2.6ltC c.o 56.000 6.000 485.00 C;/ 3/72-1 119000' 4.000 4.:.400 000 84.000 5.500 360.00 c; 111112-1 0.400 0.200 10'-00 e.o 766/000 5.100 380000 I 71 6112-2 4 .. 500 48800 2.200 0.066 44.000 4.800 0.0 U'1 U'1 I 1/22/72-2 3.300 8 .. 3CO 240200 48 .. 000 5.350 0.0 3/16112-2 3.200 5.600 24,,400 0.250 c.o 0.0 52 o. 00 S I "3 i7 2-2 000 080 8.300 c.e 99.000 0.0 000 t;; J 18112-2 50500 0.0 0.0 0.0 120000 5.500 0.0 1.1 -; 17 2-3 0 .. 0 24.200 C.058 6C.OOO, 50500 .-0.0 l' /14/12-3 2 .. 800 8.200 19.800 0.020 52 .. 000 s.coo 5l0.CO t / 10 112-3 820 1.420 16.700 Cc.C12 44.000 5.850 340.CO 8/16/72-3 00500 2 .. 190 0.0 0.030 0.0 50100 422. 00 e /24/723 C.220 0.650 CoC2Z 44.000 5.700 280.CO C: / 20 900 1(:;.100 000 Bcoooe 6c.COO 285.00 c; 118 172-3 C.300 0.5eo 0.0 c.o 64.000 6.000 260.CO 1/18112-4 l.500 1.000 19.800 0.033 17.200 5.050 0.0

PAGE 58

"i:';:.' (Continue:;d) TESTS ON WATER IN (continued) DATE-;tELL O-P04 M-P04 N03 Nu2 CO2 PH COLOR ( PPM) ( (fFfoI) (-F PM J 8J23/72-4 0.170 2.700 0 .. 0 0.,0 6.500 510 eCO 91 4/72-4 3.300 '0.0 CeBOO C.C 8C.000 6.100 0.0 <; 11117 2-4 0<1>300 0.0 2.640 8 /i .000 6.000 600.CO 1/2.5/72-5 OG 750 4.000 11.6QO CoC33 6C .oeo 5.200 155.00 Sf 2/72-5 1 .. 300 2.000 17.600 0.012 ao.ooo 5.350 165.CC 8/17112-5 'S.OOO 24,,500 3.300 0.C16 4E.OOO 5.250 175.00 e 124/72-5 OQ190 0.110 1.760 0.018 64.000 Se600 105.CO I q/18/72-5 50500 0.300 0.0 C.O 6.400 80.00 U1 0'\ 1/11/72-6 4 .. 500 5.000 25.500 0.026 44.000 40800 3S0.CO I 7/28/72-6 2.400 3.400 15.400 C.C24 32'0000 6.050 280.00 e 123112-6 C.380 0.0 3.520 0.026 56.000 5.350 490.CO 91 4/72-6 9 .. 000 OwO 0.900 C.O 0000 50050 400.00 C;/1"1/72-6 go 500 0.0 5.120 0,,0 28.000 0.0 il 9/72-7 11.500 26,,400 CoCoS 52 .. 00.0" 5'0200 0.0 7/15112-1 2. sea 5.5CO 25.500 0.016 68,,000 5.0'00 210.CC 7/27/72-7 1.300 2.2CO C.C14 2C.OCC 5,,85:0 2ltO.CO 81 g/72-7 0 .. 650 10620 11.600 0.072 4C.OOO 5 .. 350 13:> ooC 8/17112-7 3 .. 000 0 .. 0 30500 C oC66 ,44eOOO 5.050 212" CO E/24/72-7 040100 Cv390 2.,,600 0 .. 033 80,,000 5'J 250 295 .. 00 9/ 4/72-7 11.,COD .!r; .000 0 .. 56D C .. c 84e 5.1..>,)0 2l_0.CO "'" '"'\ ...

PAGE 59

"i :,1 ,l (Co:ntinuec?) 1'ESTS ON \;:Hcf; IN (continued) DATE-WE Ll C-9nt. M-?04 "-I'" -:: '" \.J -' ( ppr-n (PPHl (PPM) C;/17/72-7 0,,0 2,,810 SI 3/74-3 2.500 094CO 3a52C 51 311ft-4 0 .. 300 0 .. 300 51 9/74-5 o 011'350 2.a 640 .. (PH') ( P ) 0 .. 0 6G .. OGC C.C82 It-ilOOO' O.OQ9 2.000 C.C20 40800 '-' Q-02 (PPM) 0.0 40000 7.0Ca H25 PH (PPH) C.O 5.500 0.020 6.650 c .. 020 1 .. COO 0.020 7.250 COLOR, 390. CC 250.00 240. CC 90.00 '. .,;t I U1 --..J I

PAGE 60

-58'!be ditch, marsh, and lake system in the portion of the watershed north of Fowler Avenue acted Imlch like a water treai:Irent plant in providing settling operations, biological action, and filtration to the runoff. fran the area south of Fowler Avenue. Therefore I even though the extensive urbanization of the area north of Fowler did not occur, valuable data were gathered which pertain to the natural purification of urban stann runoff. Major drainage changes were made in this area north of Fowler Avenue during the study period which caused changes in the quality of the effluent leaving the area. When the project started the lake and marsh functioned as a collection basin for. the area north of Fowler Avenue and there was no clear separation between the lake and the marsh. The land south of Fowler Avenue was connectedto the marsh when the 'pipe was placed under Fowler Avenue and the drainage ditch was dug. Being a new ditch the walls and bottan were free from vegetation and it drained rapidly into the maish, so that little or no water remained in the ditch after a rainstonn, except directly downstream of the 54 inch pipe .. mich washed, out a large depression. The ditch received no maintenance with -the passage of time. It filled with debris and plant life (See Figures 13, 14 and 15). '!he three tines that the flume washed out caused' sand that was under the flume or between the wing walls to be transported and deposited further downstream, creating pockets where water would stand for long periods of tiroe. Aquatic weeds grew in these standing waters. Iil the surrrrer of 1973 and spring of 1974 the lake was enlarged and the soil which was rerroved was used to partially fill the marsh making it broader and nore shallow. After these enlargements the lake was clearly separate fran the marsh, and water baCked up in the ditch where it stood 2 or 3 feet deep at all times. At the start of the project biological action on the water borne pollutants took place mainly in the marsh, whereas by the end of the project it took place t.hroughoutthe entire system. Since water remainE..>Ci in the system longer, nutrients were nore fully consillnei C!-nd suspended solids had more opportunity to precipitate. There were at least two mechanisms that countered the water quality improvement, rapid development in the area around the s'tudy watershed and exposure of fresh soil during the enlargement of the lake. In the period from 1971 to 1975 two complexes and two blocks of retail stores were completed on or adjacent to the study watershed. In the same period the Florida Department of Transportation reported that the average number of vehicles per day on the highways around the projects doubled (for Fowler Avenue east of 56th Street it we.nt from 4075 vehicles per day in 1971 to 10430 vehicles per day in 1974). .. ( (

PAGE 61

-59-The digging and disturbance of the lake and marsh exposed large areas of fresh soil to the leaching of nutrients and increased the silt and suspended solids leaving the lake. Over the entire test period, there was an expected improvement in the quality of water leaving the watershed when compared with the water entering from south of Fowler Avenue. (See Table VIII) There was a decrease in orthophosphate, meta-phosphate, nitrate, dissolved oxygen and pH. These nutrients were consumed during passage over the vegetated area and the decrease in dissolved oxygen indicated that the metabolic regime when averaged over the entire study period was predominantly respiratory. Of even more interest are the yearly water quality averages. (See Table IX) In this table, the changes in the behavior of the ditch, marsh and lake system are apparent. The 1974 figures are of particular interest, since this was the year when major changes were made in the lake and marsh. These changes explain the otherwise unexpected results that occurred in 1974 and 1975. A negative % change in tables VIII and IX indicates a removal or decrease in the water quality parameter as the water flowed through the system. Or tho-phosphate was removed every year, but there was an increase in the concentration of this nutrient coming in from south of Fowler from 1971 to 1975. This increase can best be seen b7 comparing the data for 1972 and 1974, both of which cover full years While the percent change was negative in 1974, there was nearly twice as much ortho-phosphate leaving the lake as in the next highest year. (See Table IX) Table X shows that there was a large increase in concentrations for most of the samples taken during early 1974, the period when the lake was being enlarged. In June of.1974, the readings returned to normal. Meta-phosphate decreased while passing through the watershed in every year except 1974 when the lake was drastically disturbed. The concentration entering the system increased with time, so over the period of the study, metaphosphate discharging from the lake increased. The disturbance of the lake resulted in a sharp increase in metaphosphate concentration leaving the lake in early 1974. (See Table X) The increase is large 'enough that the per-cent change goes positive. Note, that in 1975, the behavior of the system returned to normal. (See Table IX)

PAGE 62

6 Ii rt ::T 0 I tU 0 -'"0 '"0 S -Ditch Site Results .62 Number of Samples 99 Stream Site Results .43 Nurnber of Samples 119 % 'Change Stream-Di tch x 100% -31% Ditch "'II < TABLE VIII WATER QUALITY AVERAGES (Oct. 1971 -May 1975) :s: z z () (l) 0 0 0 rt w to.> to.> PI '" I tU _. -0 '"0 '"0 to ] '"0 ] a ---to 1i .51 1.87. .03 5. 92 103 104 103 .43 1. 65 .09 9.3 91 109 123 125 -16% -12% +200% +63% """ t1 0 to 8.7 100 7.3 123 -16% .... () to 1-3 :S:()"tl :s:nn o. :.:x: tUOIi tUoo I-' Ii ZI-'(l) Z I-' !:I 0 tr I-'m 1-'. Hl Ii 1-'. Hl s:: t-ta 1-'. 0-......... os ......... 0 Ii c:: ..... ::s. o rt o CD 1-'. 0 1-'. 0 0. rt <: m El (l) S I-' I-' r 1-3 -c:: 94 7.5 41 8,979 3,835 101 100 77 95 95 164 7.0 41 2,394 320 113 106 104 110 III +75% -7% 0% -73% -92% i I ,..

PAGE 63

" .. / .,.} TABLE IX YEARLY WATER QUALITY AVERAGE 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 October December January December February January December January April Fowler Lake FO\v1er Lake %Change Fowler Lake %Change Fowler Lake %Change Fowler Lake %Change 0-P0 4 ppm .23 .02 -91% .42 .29 -30% .19 .05 -74% .97 .78 -20% .73 .42 m-P04 ppm .17 .06 -649 .59 .13 -78% .14 .64 1.11 +73% 1.14 .55 -52% ppm 0.0 2.11 .) 2.29 +SQ6 2.37 2.44 +3% 2.03 .94 -54% .93 .71 -24% N02 ppm 0.0 .03 .17 +466% .09 .08 -11% .01 .05 +400% 0.0 0.0 CO2 ppm 12.0 22.00 +83 4.88 12.5 +156% 6.10 9.08 +49% 6.1 5.3 -13% 4.5 5.0 +11% 0-02 ppm 10.0 3,6 -65% 8.0 4.5 -44% 8.3 7.7 -7% 9,6 10.9 +14% 9.4 10.9 +16% Color 131 75 -43% 78 102 +31% 67 94 +40% 119 227 +91% 80 200 +150% pH 7.8 6.0 -23% 8.0 6,3 -21% 7.4 7.0 -5% 7.1 7.5 +6% 7.7 8.0 +4% Tum.JTV 103.5 19.2 -81% 32.0 41 +28% SO 60.0 36.0 -40% 13.0 68 +423% Pres.Co1LS 240 3,900 -25% 10, 160 2,330 -77% 3,460 1,066 -69% 5,240 4,210 -20% 17,240 81 -100?6 Conf .Coli. 0 0 0% 2,180 110 -95% 900 170 -81% 2,600 1,160 -55% 14,693 30 -100% MPN

PAGE 64

-62-Nitrate concentrations increased in 1972 and 1973 and decreased in 1974 and 1975, while passing through the study area. Again the change took place w;i.th the enlargement of the lake. It appears that disturbing the lake bottom caused the lake to behave as a nitrate sink. {See Tables IX and X} The changes in nitrite and carbon. dioxide concentrations indicated that microbial decay of organic matter occurred in the marsh. The negative change in nitrite concentration during 1973 can be explained by the lack of data from June through December. For full years, 1972 and 1974, the. change in nitrite was strongly positive. (See Table IX) Dissolved oxygen and carbon-dioxide values showed the effect of the changing metabolic regime of the system. From 1971 to 1973, carbon-dioxide Was released and oxygen consumed, indicating that respiration was overpowering photosynthesis and reaeration. Oxygen became less negative with passing time showing that the green plants were catching up By 1974,'the signs reversed indicating that photosynthesis and. reaeration were dominant over respiration. BY.1975, both carbon-dioxide and oxygen were positive. (See Table IX) Color increased while passing through the system due to the leaching of tannic acid and other colored organic materials. (See Table IX) pH showed a decrease in 1971 to 1973 when respiration was the dominant metabolic regime, indicating the production of acid waste products. In 1974 and 1975 the pH increased, showing that those waste products were being consumed. Notice that oxygen changes -cnanged sign in accord:"withPH 'sign changes. (See Table IX) Turbidity showed no definite pattern but the water was more turbid at the end of the study than at the start. Since there were ample areas for solids to settle out, the is attributed to colloidal particles and floating organic materials. (See Table IX) The coliform count show the expected results; as the detention time in the system was increased, due to increased size of the lake, the coliform bacteria died. f f

PAGE 65

-63-By 1975, nearly 100% removal occurred even though the coliform population that entered the system had increased to a high value. This high value at the ditch is attributed to the increase in pet population in the area south of Fowler during the study. (See Table IX) The complete data for all the water quality tests are presented in Tables X, XI, XII, and XIII.

PAGE 66

F' f' ,', .' .-t!. ;-". -'i.,.: '1 .LE X TESTS eN LEAVING DATE C-P04 H-P04 N03 Ne2 CQ2 0-02 H2S PH COlOP TURS. (PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (PPp.1) (PPM) (PPM) (FPM) (JTU) ;' 11-5-11 0.0 1.5 0.0 5.2 320. 15. 11-20-71 0.0 0.0 28.0 4.0 0.0 6.0 105. 22. 11-29-71 0.02 0.26 22.( 5.C 0.0 6.4 125. 32. 128-11 0.0 0.0 26.0 2.0 0.0 6.0' 105. 19. 12-20-71 0.11 0.02 18.0 4.0 0.0 6.4, 115. 15. 12-2e-11 0.0 0.0 16.0 5.0' 0.0 ,6.4 105. 12. 1-12-72 0.08 0.02 12.0 6.0, 0.0 6.5 178. 40. I en 1-16-12 0.14 0.0'1 10.0 5.0 0.0 6.4 190. 51. 0I:>-I 1-2C-12 0.05 0.03 16.0 3.01 0.0 6.3 110. 24. 1-25-72 0.08 0.0 20.0 '2.0 o.{) 5.8 203. 34. z-3-72 24.0 4.01 0.0 6.5 89. 35. 29-72 0.15 0.02 24.0 4.0 0.0 6.3 55. 8. 2 ... 11-72 O.lC 0.10 0.61 0.04 10.0 4.0 0.0 6.4 88. 10. 2-23-72 0.30 0.10 0.88 c.oo 12.0 2.0 0.0 6.5 90. 30. 3-3-72 C.5C 0.0 2.80 0.03 zo.o 'z.o 0.0 6.5 75. 17. 3-10-72 0.05 0.50 3.90 C.03 20.0 2.0 0.0 6.5 75. 17. 3-11-12 0.70 0.09 3.40 0.0 18.0 5.2 0.0 5.8 75. ZO. 3-22,-72 0.60 0.06 4.00 0.0 16.0 6. a 0.0 6.2 80. 20. 3-2e-72 O.be 0.0 3.50 0.01 14.0 7.0 0.0 6.1 75. 30. """ "lit

PAGE 67

J TESTS ON WATER LEAVING THE LAKE (continued) CATE C-P04 CO2 0-02 H2S PH 1 M-P04 N03 NO.2 TURS. (PP M) (PPM) ( PPM) .(FPfI' (PPM) C PPM) (PPM) (JTU) 4-6-12 2.90 C.OO 16.0 6.0 .1 6.5 60. 12. .. 4-12-12 0.5 0.2 3.90 0.00 16.0 4.0 0.0 6.1 60. 10. 4-18-72 0.99 0.00 18.0 3.0 0.0 5.9 70. 20. 4-24-12 1.80 0.01 ;10.0 2.0 0.0 6.6 90. 14. 5-2-72 2.59 C.Ol 12.0 4.0 0.0 6.3 100. 10. 5-10-12 2.19 0.01 13.0 3.0 0.0 6.0 110. 10. 5-16-72 0.0 0.14 2.90 0.02 11.0 3.0 0.0 6.l 70. 20. 5.-23-12 0.10' 0.08 1.99 0.01 14.C 2.0 0.1 6.4 lOO. 10.' I 0'\ 5-3C-72 0.18 0.03 1.9a 0.02. 10.01 2.0' 0.0 6.4 100. 12. U1 I 6--72 0.02 0.20 1.96 0.04 12.0 5.0 0.0 6.5 100. 20. ., 1.<39 6-.16-72 0.25 0.25 0.01 10.0 2.0 0.0 6.2 60. 25. 6-20-12 0.20 .10 2.44 0.00 30.0' 4.0 0.0 85. 20. 6-25-72 0.30 0.09 3.00 0.01 10.QI 8.0 0.1 6.1, 90. 1!;i. 1-4-72 0.45 0.0 3.70 0.01 6.0 4.0 0.0 6.7 ao. 125. 7-12 ... 12 0.40 0.10 3.a8 0.C2 B .0' 4.0 0.0 6.5 110. 60. 7-11-1i 0.60 0.0 3.50 0.0 8.0 5.0 0.1 6.6 70. 55. 7-25-72 0.35 0.15, 4.2C 0.01 10.0 5.0 0.0 6.9 100. 40. 8-1-72 0.32 0.60 1.19 o.oc 14.0 0.0 0.0 6.2 10. 60. 8-e-12 0.21 0.11 0.48 .00 18.0 1.0 0.0 6.1 15. 80. 8-16 ... 12 0.53 0.16 0.05 0.00 8.Q 5.0 0.0 5.6 140. 70. -"!

PAGE 68

TESTS ON wATER LEAVING THE LAKE (continued) DATE O-P04 M-P04 N03 N02 CO2 0-02 H2S PH COL OR TURB. (PPt-l, (PPM) (PPM) (F Pp.I. ) (PPM) (PPM' (PPM' ( JTU) 8-23-72 0.58 0.08 0.99 0.00 12.0 3.0 0.0 6.9 100. 100. B30-12 0.60 0.0 3.00 0.00 8.0 5.0 0.0 6.6 120. 60. 9-5-12 0.40 0.15 2.49 0.00 14.0 3.0 0.0 6.0 120. 30. 9-12-72 0.22 0.20 1.00 C.OI 10.0 4.0 0.0 5.9 1,20. 30. 9-21-12 0.01 0.0' 1.50 0.0 16.0 4.0 0.0 6.0 ioo. 20. 9-28-12 0.20 0.05 2.50 0.0 4.0 4.0 0.0 10. __ 60. 105-12 0.10 0.10 0.0 1.00 4.0 2.5 0.0 55. 10-12-12 0.10 0.12 1.CO C.O 4.0 7.0 0.0 70. I 0'1 10-16-12 0.10 0.10 0.0 1.CO 5.0 4.0 0.0 55. 0'1 I 1023-72 0.16 0.01 8.0 5.0 0.0 260. 41. 10-30-12 0.18 0.08 1.0 4.0 0.0 40. 11-1-12 0.16 0.04 2.00 1.00 1.0 5.0 0.0 80. 11-14-12 0.16' 0.06 1.00 1.00 12.0 1.0 0.0 80 11-21-12 0.14 0.09 1.00 1.00 14.0 10.0 0.0 75. 11-28-72 0.19' 0.16 2.50 0.0 10.0 4.0 0.0 20. 12-5-12 0.70 0.60 4.40 1.00 8.C 10.0 0.0 200. 80. 12-15-12 G.70' 0.50 5.00 0.05 11.0 8.0 0.0 70. lZ-2C-12 0.60 0.20 4.00 1.00 14.0 8.0 0.0 70. 12-29-72 0.04 0.03' 2.20' 0.0 6.0 8.0 .0 40. l-1e-13 C.14 C.l1 2.50 0.50 10.0 16.0' 0.0 100. 80. .. ....

PAGE 69

.; TESTS eN WATER LEAVING (continued) DATE C-P04 M-P04 N03 N02 CO2 0-02 H2S PH COLOR TURB. CFPM) (P PM) (PPM' (FP,",' ( PPM) (PPM) ( JTU) 1-17-73 0.14 0.14 2.00 !j.D 10.e 18.0 0.0 80. 80. 1-23-13 0.12 0.18 2.00 0.0 16.0 14.0 0.0 80. 2-23-73 0.00 2.40 O.C 0.0 6.0 0.0 7.5' 82. 3-12-73 0.00 2.90 0.0 0.0 7.0 0.1 1.C 80. It1-73 0.04 1.60 C.05 15.C 3.0 0.0 7.0 155. 47-73 0.20 2.90 0.49 12.0 4.0 0.0 6.5 150. 4-14-73 0.02 2.60 C.OC 0.0 3.0 0.0 1.01 80. 4-28-13 0.00 3.12 0.05 0.0 9.0 0.0 1.5 16. I 0'1 5-6-13 0.00 2.40 C.O 6.0 6.0 0.0 1.0' 82. -.J I 5-15-73 0.01 2.40 0.0 5.0 3.0 0.0 1.2 80. 5-25-73 0.00 ,2.40 C.C 18.e 6.0 0.0 6.8 83. 5-31-73 0.01 2.50 0.00 26.0 5.0 0.0 7.C 84. J.-12-74 1.62 2.98 3.52 C.O 4.e 22.0 0.0 7.9 155. 53. I-lB-74 1.30 2.10 1.10 0.0 5.6' 16.0 0.0 7.1 50. 1-23-74 1.50 2.20 0.44 C.CC 6.e 12.0 0.0 7.8 60. 14. 1-31-74 2.00 0.60 1.14 0.09 4.01 17.0 0.0 8.2 90. 17. l6-74 1.50 1.10 1.32 0.0c; 3.6 0.0 8.6 45. 6. 2-16-74 1.65 0.56 0.20 0.00 4.81 30.0 0.0 8.4 50. 6. 2-28-14 0.90 1.20 1.10 C.e5 4.8 6.0 0.0 8.3 30. 5. 3-C;-74 1.45 1. 05_. 0.44 0.16 4.0 6.0 0.0 8.4 70. 8.

PAGE 70

, '!i .', TESTS ON WATER THE LAKE (cbntinued) CATE C-P04 H-P04 N03 N02 CO2 0-02 H2S PH caLOP TURS. l PPM) (PPM) (PPM' (PPfI, (FFM) ( pp,,q (F PM) (JTU' 3-24-14 0.95 0.15 3.52 4.0 11.0 0.0 7.6 140. 50. 3-3C-74 1.00 1.40 1.20 0.01 3.2 8.0 0.0' 8.6: 85. 40. 49-14 0.70 0.80 1.16 0.02 1.6 11.0 0.0 8.8 70. 30. 4-11-74 0.90 1.30 2.QO 0.6 3.2 6.0 0.0 8.4 90. 45. 4-24-74 1.50 1.20 0.88, 0.0 5 2 5.0 0.0 8.5 70 15. 59-14 2.20 ,0.70 1.76 ;, 0.0 8.C 3.e 0.0 7.e 100. 18. 6-7-74 0.85 1.20 0.02 .2.0 6.0 0.0 6.8 500. 0.10 0.30 0.02 6.0 8.0 0.0 6.8 o. C'I 6-21-"14 ,0.'60 ,,:0.70 0.,0,1 4.0 .0.0 6.9 O. co I 6-25-74 0.47 0.35 0.05 8.C 13.0 0.0 6.6 o. 7-2-74 0.70 0.50 C.Ol 4.5 13.0 0.0 6.9 O. 7-9-74 0.80 1.40 0.00 8.C 11. a 0.0 6.9 o. 1-16-14 0.0 0.0 C.14 0.0 0.0 o. 7-16-74 0.65 0.00 14.C 0.0 6.8 500 7-23-14 0.90 0.95 c.cc 12.C 9.0 0.0 6.8 500. 7-30-74 0.70 1.40 0.95 8.C 0.0 '0.0 6.9 500. 8-7-14 1.15 1.0C C.CO 12.0 13.0 0.0 6.8 500. 0.50 12.C q.o o.e 6.5 450. 8-13-14 0.25 0.00 8-21-14 0.0 0.30 o.CO 1.1. a 0.0 6.5 400. 8-29-14 0.33 0.50 0.00 4.e 11.0 0.0 6.9 500. .... ..... 4 '""

PAGE 71

. .,.,. -,' .-I TESTS ON kATER THE LAKE (continued) CAT E O-P04 M-P04 NO] CO2 0-02 H2S PH COLOR TURS. ( PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (FF'" i (F PM' (PPM) (PPM) ( JTU) 99-74 0.50 0.50-0.00 6.0 9.0 0.0 6.9 415. 9-16-74 0.20 0.40 C.CC 2.0 9.0 0.0 6.5 400. 9-23-74 0.13 0.60 0.0 2.0 12.0 6.8 420. 10-15-74 1.50' 0.07 0.60 O.C 2.0 15.0 0.0 8.1 310. 95. 10-22-74 0.17 '1.52 0.80 0.0 4.0 12.0 0.0 7.7 320. 10. 10-2a-74 0.20' .0.95' 0.10 o.oc 2.e 14.0 0.0 7.9 300.1 110. 115-74 0.20 1.60 0.80 0.0 4.0 i4.0 0.0 8.0 300. 60. 11-11-74 0.15 1.30 0.30 o.c 4.e 13.0 0.0 1.0 280.' 10. I 0'1 11-19-74 0.30 0.55 0.40 0.0 5.0 13.0 0.0 7.8 360. o. 1,.0 I 11-25-74 0.35 0.70 0.45 c.e 6.e 12.0 0.0 1.5 340. o. 12-4-74 0.25 0.65 0.60 0.0 4.0 15.0 0.0 7.7 340. o. 12-10-74 0.40 0.25 0.40 o.c 4.C 13.0 0.0 7.4 300. 80. 1-13-15 0.45 0.15 0.10 0.0 2.01 11.0 0.0 7.8 290. 15. 2-21-15 0.40 0.20 0.60 c.c 8.C 12.0 0.0 1.6 215. 80. 2-26-75 0.30 0.50 0.90 0.05 4 11.0 0.0 1.8 300. 70. 3-5-15 0.551 0.45 1.10 c.o 8. C 10.0 0.0 8.1 215. 80. 3-12-15 0.30 0.80 0.40 0.0 4.01 13.0 0.0 1.9 260. 75. 3-.19-15 0.20' 0.45 0.60 c.co 6.C 12.0 0.0 1.8 300. 95. 3-26-15 0.40 0.55 0.80 0.0 6.0 11.0 0.0 1.9 120. 70. 4-2-15 0 33 0.0 0.9C 4.e 9.0 0.0 8.2 80. 50.

PAGE 72

CHEMICAL TESTS ON WATER LEAVING THE LAKE (continued) DATE O-P04 M-P04 N03 N02 (PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (PPM) 4-9-75 0.60 0.45 0.85 0.0 4-29-75 0.70 0.80 0.70 0.0 5-6-75 0.56 0.84 0.80 0.005 5-13-75 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.0 5-21-75 0.30 0.85 0.45 0.0 5-30-75 0.40 0.55 60 0.0 .. ..... (02 0-02 H2S PH (PPM} (PPM) (PPM) 11. 0.0 7.9 6.0 13. 0.08.2 4.0 12. 0.0 8.0 2.0 10. 0.0 8.9 4.0 10. 0.0 7.8' 4.0 8. 0.0 8e1 -"" COLOR 150. 170. 180. 140. 120 150. TURB. (JTU) 90. 65. 50. 45. 50. 65. I I -...J o I

PAGE 73

---"'" TABLE XI BACTERIOLCGICAL TESTS ON WATFR LE4VING THE LAKE I DATE TEMPERATURE PRESUMPTIVE MPN CONFIRMED MPN ( C J (ORG./lOO Hl) (ORG./lOO ML) 10-23-71 3500.0 0.0 11-13-71 5400.0 0.0 11-20-71 22.0 0.0 0.0 11-24-71 2400 .. 0 0.0 11-29-71 19.5 0.0 0.0 12-8-71 21.5 0.0 0.0 12-9-71 0.0 9200.0 0.0 I --.J 12-20-71 21.0 9200.0 0.0 i-' I 12-28-11 20.0 5400.0 70.0 1-12-12 22.0 5400.0 20.0 1-16-12 18.0 2800.0 230.0 1-20-12 20.5 0.0 0.0 1-25-72 19.0 5400.0 80.0 2-3-72 19.0 0.0 0.0 2-9-72 15.4 0.0 0.0 2-23-12 100.0 0.0 3-3-12 110.0 20.0 3-10-12 80.0 U.O 3-17-72 170.0 40.:> 3-22-12 190.0 110.0

PAGE 74

BACTERIOLOGICAL TESTS ON WATEP LEAVING THE LAKE (continued) DATE TEMPERATURE PRESUMPTIVE MPN \ CONFIRMED MPN ( C ) (ORG./100 MU (ORG./I00 Ml) 3-28-72 110 .0 20.0 4-6-12 0 490.0 4-12-72 110.0 40.0 4-18-12 260.0 20.0 4-24-12 .0.0 0.0 5-2-12 4600.0 80.0 5-.10-12 0.0 0.0 I .....r N 5-16-12 3300.0 140.0 I 5-23-72 3300.0 170.0 5-30-12 .0 170.0 6-6-72 1100.0 140.0 6-16-72 4900.0 210.0 6-20-72 35000.0 0.0 6-25-72 7900.0 11 ,)0. I) 7-4-72 9200.0 17J.O 7-12-72 '700.0 170.0 7-17-72' 790.0 140.0 8-1-72 700.0 70.0 8-8-72 790.0 4Yi).O 8-16-72 220.0 4).0 ... --- ....

PAGE 75

BACTERIOLOGICAL TESTS ON LEAVING THE LAKE (continued) DATE TEMPERATURE PRE SUMPT I VE :MPN CONFIRMED MPN ( C ) (ORG./lOO MU (ORG./lOO MU 8-23-72 220.0 80.0 9-5-72 190.0 490.0 9-12-72 490.0 110.0 9-21-12 16000.0 110.0 9-28-72 920.0 110.0 105-72 350.0 30.0 10-12-72 540.0 80.0 10-16-72 540.0 10.0 10-23-12 110.0 0.0 10-30-72 130.0 30.0 11-1-72 170.0 30.0 11-1<4-72 350.0 60.0 11-21-72 .0 30.0 11-28-72 240.0 20.0 12-5-72 240.0 20.0 12-15-72 920.0 10.0 12-20-12 540.0 10.0 12-29-72 920.0 50.0 1-10-73 2400.0 140.0 1-17-73 1600.0 bO.O .. "" I ...,] w I

PAGE 76

"i BACTERIOLOGICAL TESTS ON WATER LEAVING THE LAKE (continued) DATE TEMPERATURE PRESUMPTIVE HPN CONFIRMED HPN ( C (ORG./lOO ML) (ORG./IOO Hl' 1-23-13 0.0 540.0 30.0 2-16-13 11.0 60.0 40.0 2-23-13 20.0 490.0 110.0 3-2-13 25.0 20.0 20.0 3-12-13 20.0 170.0 130.0 4-1-13 21.0 3500.0 490.0 4-1-13 22.0 190.0 190.0 I -.....J oJ:>, 4-14-13 25.0 490.0 110.0 J 4-28-73 24.0 1100.0 140.0 5-6-13 25.0 80.0 20.0 5-15-13 26.0 190.0 140.0 5-25-13 .0 560.0 120.0 5-31-73 26.0 2800.0 220.0 1-14-74 24000.0 24000.0 1-20-14 920.0 20.0 1-25-1lt 210.0 20.0 22-74 23.5 1100.0 148.0 2-8-14 23.0 9200.0 14)0.J 2-18-74 21.0 260.0 2J.O 3-2-74 16.5 140.0 it J ... "" ....

PAGE 77

BACTFRIOLOGICAL TESTS ON WATER LEAVING THE LAKE (continued) DATE TE MPERATURE PRESUMPTIVE MPN CONFIRMED MPN ( C (ORG./100 Ml) (ORG./100 ML) 3-11-74 22.5 140.0 10.0 3-26-74 22.0 1400.0 110.0 3-30-74 20.0 9200.0 0.0' 4-9-74 23.0 700.0 0.0 4-19-74 25.0 24000.0 330.0 4-26-74 9200.0 70.0 5-10-74 16000.0 330.0 10-15-74 29.5 0.0 10-22-74 28.s' 20.0 0.0 10-28-74 23.0 50.0 0.0 11-5-14 50.0 50.0 11-11-14 22.0 0.0 0.0 11-19-74 15.0 80.0 50.0 11-25-14 14.0 100.0 70.0 12-4-14 15.0 40.0 0.0 12-10-74 I 18.0 50.0 50.0 -,-I -...J U1 I

PAGE 78

" BACTERIOLCGICAl TESTS ON WATER LEAVING LAKE (continued) DATE TEMPERATURE PRE SUMPT I VE HPN CONFIRMED MPN CO.",-, "-",' ( C ) (ORG./100 MU (ORG./IOO MLJ 1-13-75 16.0 70.0 50.0 2-14-75 0.0 20.0 2-21-75 500.0 50.0 2-26-75 0.0 40.0 3-5-75 80.0 :'0.0 3-12-75 60.0 40.0 3-19-75 100.0 80.0 3-26-15 120.0 90.0 4-2-75 40.0 0.0 4-9-75 90.0 20.0 4-29-75 0.0 0.0 5-6-75 40.0 0.0 5-13-75 .0 0.0 5-21-75 60.0 40.0 5-30-15 60.0 40.J -. ,,:.' : 1 '.1 ...... --.J 0'1

PAGE 79

....".' TABLE XII CHEMICAL TESTS ON ENTERING FRCM SOUTH OF FOWLER DATE G-P04 tJ-P04 N03 N02 CO2 0-02 H2S PH COLOR TURS. (FPfJ.) (PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (P PM) (PPM) (PPM) ( JTU) 11-5-11 0.0 C.O 8.0 0.0 6.0 300. 25. 11-2C-71 0.04 0.C9 0.0 0.0 16.0 12.0 0.0 8.3 55. 26. 11-29-71 1.13 0047 0.0 0.0 8.0 9.e 0.0 ,8.1 200. SOD. ll8-71 0.10 0.09 0.0 0.0 4.0 12.0 0.0 47. 12-20-71 0.08 0.11 0.0 0.0 24.0 10.0 0.0 8.3 55. 12. 12-28-11 0.05 0.07 0.0 0.0 8.0 10.0 0.0 8.4 46. 11. 1-12-72 9.0 1-16-12 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.0 10.0 0.0 1.4 300. 108. I --.l -.J 1-20-72 0.18 0.06 0.0 C.O 12.0 6.0 0.0 1.5 qO. 29. I 1-25-72 0.18 0.93 0.0 0.0 8.0 9.0 0.0 9.4' 71. 12. 20.0 C.O 4.0 11.0 0.0 8.2 211. 149. 29-12 0.13 0.02 0.0 0.0 4.01 9.0 0.0 8.31 45. 5. 2-17-72 0.90 0.25 0.82 C.05 4.0 4.0 0.0 e.o 60. 10. 2-23-72 O.4C 0.10 0.90 C.OO 2.0 9.0' 0.0 8.5, 50. 10. 3-3-72 0.50 6.00 2.50 0.01 2.0 1.0 0.0, 8.6 100. 30. 3-lC-72 0.15 C.50 3.60 0.00 2.0, 7.01 0.0 8.6' 100. 30. 3-11-12 0.69 0.06 5.60 0.00 12.0 8.0 0.0 1.9 50. 20. 3-2 2-72 0.29 0.07 6.60 0.00 10.0 8.0 0.0 1.4 60. 22. 3-28-72 0.19 0.02 3.10 C .04 8.0 8.0 0.0 8.2 80. 15. 4t;-72 2.60 0.85 16.0 7.01 0.0 ,8.2 10. Z.

PAGE 80

,'Cv_ ", >. -.:_., .]1' ,T ... ; .. >.; J.: > CHEMICAL TESTS ON ENTERING FROM SOUTH OF (continued) CATE C-P04 M-P04 N03 NOZ CO2 0-02 H2S PH COLOR TURB. (PPM' (PPM) (PPM' (FPP') (FPM) (PPM) (PPM) (JTU) 4-12-72 0.30 0.20 1.90 O.OC 6.0' 5.00 0.0 8.3 20. 5. 4-18-12 0.89 0.00 4.0 8.00 0.1 8.0 10. 5. 4-24-72 1.91 0.01 2.0 8.00 0.0 8.0 60 15. 5-2-12 2.30 0.01 '1.0 9.00 0'.0 8.1 80. 15. 5-10-72 2.09 C .-02 0.0 8.00 0.0 .. 8.5 75. 18. 5-16-72 0.28 0.18 2.68 0.01 0.0 9.00 0.0 8.5' 20. 10. 5-23-72 0.50 0.07 1.99 e.oc 0.0 8.0 0.1 8.9 80. 15. 5-3C-72 .0..5.0 0, .. 02 2 0,0 .0 00 2.0 7..0 0.1 8.2 80. 12. I 6-6-72 0.18 5.0 7.4 50. 10. CX) 0.03 2.66 0.00 1.0 0.0 I 6-16-12 0.32 .. 0.23 4.09 0.00 2.0 7.0 0.1 8.1 15. 36. 6-2C-72 0.90 0.05 1. qa 0.02 20.0 6.0 0.1 110. 50. 6-25-72 0.24 0.01 3.17 0.03 2.0 10.0 0.1 7 8' 55. 40. 7 ... 472 0.35 0.25 3.90 .0 0.0 6.0 0.0 7.7, 60. 40. 7-12-72 0.50 0.25 4.32 0.02 2.-0 a.o 0.1 8.0 60. 35. 7-17r2 0.57 0.23 4.50 0.02 0.0 7.0 0.0 7.6 75. 50. 7-25-72 1.10 7.60 3.99 0.01 0.0 10.0 0.1 1.7 60. 20. 8-1-72 0.40 0.20 1.<;9 C.OC 12.0 0.0 th3 45. 75. 8-8-72 0.28 0.16 1.62' 0.00 12.0 16.0 0.0 7. 1 65. 100. 81672 0,95 0.65 0.09 O.CO 6.0 12.0 0. 8.2 140, 80. 8-23 .. 72 1.00 0.13 0.0 0.0 4.0 8.0 0.0 1.2 100. 95 ....... ......., '''''''l

PAGE 81

, --CHEMICAL TESTS ON WATER ENTERING FROM S(UTH OF AVENUE (continued) CATE O-P04 M-P04 N03 N02 CO2 0-02 ( PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (F Ptl ) (FPM) (PPM) 83C-12 0.25 0.60 4.00 0.00 2.0 7.0 9-5-72 0.20 0.50 2.98 C.OC 6.0 6.0 9-12-12 0.24 0.26 1.09 0.01 8.0 10.0' 9-21-72 1.10 0.10 C.Ol 4.0 7.0 9-28-12 0.0 0.15 0.0 0.0 4.0 7.01 10-12-12 0.0 0.10 0.0 C.Q 2.0 5.CI 11-1-12 0.08 0.05 0.50 0.0 5.0, 7.01 2-23-13 0.04' 2.10 1.t 9.0' '. 3-12-73 0.04 2.80 0.65 9.0 9.0' 41-13 1.40' I 1.50 0.13 I.e 5.0 41-13 0.35 3.10 0.03 1.0 1.0 4-14-73 0.00 2.50 C.OO 1.t 9.0 4-:2 e-73 0.00 2.50 0.00 5.0 10.0 5-6-73 0.00 1.80 0.0 6.0 7.0 5-15-73 0.0 2.50 0.00 1.0' 7.0 5-25-13 0.04 2.80 C.oa 9.t 10.0 5-31-13 0.00 2.11 0.00 q .0' 10.0 1-12-74 0.60 0.40 6.16 C.CC 4.4 1-1 e-14 0.20 0.36 4.84 0.00 4.8, 10.0 1-23-74 0.30 0.40 1.52 C.C 5.2 9.0 i H2S PH CClOft TURS. i (FPM' ( JTU) 0.0 7.4 110. 40. 0.0 7.9 100. 30. 0.0 7.7 120. 20. 0.0 7.5 80. 10. 0.0 30. 0.0 49. 0.0 50. 0.0 1.5 25. I -...J \0 0.1 1.5 30. I 0.0 8.5 255. 0.0 7.5 80. 0.0 1.5 26. 0.0 7.5 100. 0.0 6.5 10. 0.0 1.5 30. 0.0 1.1' 26. 0.0 1.e 25. 0.0 7.1 295. 83. 0.0 7.0 260. 13. 0.0 7.0 260. 70.

PAGE 82

CHEMICAL TESTS eN ENTERING FRCM OF FOWLER AVENUE (continued) DATE a-P04 M-P04 N03 N02 CO2 0-02 H2S PH COLOR TURS. (PPM) (PPM) (PPM' IFPPI' (PP,.,' (PPM) (PPM' ( JTU) 1-31-14 0.25 0.64 4.84 0.0 5.2 0.0 7.1 277. 78. 26-74 0.30 0.02 4.82 O.CC 4.4, 0.0 7.2 285. 77. 2-16-74 0.23 0.143.52 c.oo 4.C 0.0 6.9 245. 65 2-2S-14 0.20 0.39 4.CO C.Ol 3.6 13.0 0.0 7.4 270. '10. 39-14 0.40 0.10 4.40 0.0 3.2 12.0 0.0 7.4 215. 3-24-74 0.25 0.75 5.5C c.o 3.6 12.0 0.0 6.8 295. 93. 3-31-74 0.30 0.05 4.80 0.0 3.2 9.0 0.0 7.4 260. 135. 4-C;-14 0.30 o. 15 5.80 0.0 4.0 12.0 0.0 7.5 290. 125. I 00 6-13-74 0.80 0.40 0.04 l2.C 8.'C 0.0 6.6 60. 0 I 6-1<;-74 0.85 2.20 C.CC 8.C 11.0 0.0 7.0, 50. 6-26-14 1.20 2.50 0.00 2.0 11. a 0.0 7.1 80. 1Z-14 0.45 0.60 0.02 4.0' 9.0 0.0 6.4 80. 1-9-14 0.60 1.10 0.04 5.2 7.0 0.0 6.9 25. 7H:-74 0.75 0.80 c.oo LZ .c 11.0 0.0 6.8 18. 7-23-74 1.20 0.10 0.02 8.C 11. a 0.0 6.8 14. 730-74 0.70 1.4e C.Cl L2.C 9.0-0.0 6.6 18. B6-74 1.20 1.40 0.18 5.2 14.0 0.0 6.9 10. 8-13-74 0.55 0.65 c.oo l2.0 9.0, 0.0 6.5 75. 8-21-74 0.30 0.40 0.00 6.C 6.0 o.c 6.9 50. 8-2C1-74 0.55 0.45 C.Cl 8.C B.O 0.0 6.5 80. '-, '''""' ........

PAGE 83

,-' CHEMICAL TESTS ON WATER ENTERING FROM SOUTH OF fOkLER AVENUE (continued) CATE C-P04 M-P04 N03 N02 CO2 0-02 H2S PH COLOR TURS. I (PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (PPM) (PPM' (FPM) (JTU) 99-14 3.2C 1.2,0 C.OO 4.C 5.0 0.0 6.9 SO. 9-16-14 0.35 0.35 '0.00, 6.0 6.0 0.0 6.5 50. 9-23-74 0.28 0.30 C .CO: 8.0 6.0 0.0 6.9-,110. 10-15-14 3.10' 0.10-0.15 0.0 6.0 11.0 0.0 6.9 zb. 5. 10-22-74 2.90 0.40 0.60 C.O 6.0 10.0 0.0 8.0 60. 10. 10-28-14 1.501 2.60 0.90 0.0 6.0 12.0 0.0 7.8 20. 5. 11-5-14 0.28 2.20 1.20 O .. OJ 4.( 10.0 0.0 1.6 60. 10. 11-11-14 7.201 0.24 0.80 0.01 8.01 10.0 0.0 1.2 30. 10. r 11-19-14 0.4C 0.60 0.40 O.OC 6.0' 10.0 0.0 1.1 60. co I-' I 11-25-74 0.40" 0.50 '0.55 0.0 6.01 11.0 0.0 7.6 80. 12-4-14 0.55 0.95 0.40 0'.0 6.( 7.0 0.0 1.8 80. ,12-10-74 0.60-1.20 o.ao 0.00 6.01 10.0, 0.0 7.8 45. 15. 1-13-15 0.70 2.50 0.90 C.CO 4.C 16.0 0.0 1.3 30. 10. 2-14-15 1.50' '0.40 0.90 0.00 2.0' 8.0 0.0 7.3 60. 10. 2-21-15 0.80 0.40 0.15 e.oc 6.e e.o 0.0 7.4-60. 6. 2-26-75 0.80 0.95 0.90 0.00 2.0 10.0 0.0 7.8 80. 8. 3-5-15 0.4C 1.10 1.00 C.C 6.e 8.0 0.0 7.6 120. 5. 3-12-75 0.30 0.90 0.80 0.0 4.0 10.0 0.0 7.4 85. 8. 3-19-75 0.40 1.15 0.80 e.ec 4.C 11.0, 0.0 7.8 80. 12. 3-26-15 0.90 1.15 1.00 0.0 6.0 1.0 0.0 7.6 10. 80.

PAGE 84

;'-;"'''',''''' ,-'\",-),.'-.-"-' CHEMICAL TESTS ON kATER FRCM soufH OF ( continued) DATE O-P04 M-P04 N03 N02 CO2 0-02 H2S PH COLOR TURB. (PPM) (PPM) (PP"" (F (FPM) (PPM' (FPM) {JTU) 4-9-15 1.20 1.50 1.00' 0.0 4.0 8.0 0.0 7.9 10. 8. 4-29-15 0.80! 1.25 0.9C 0.0 0.4 10.0 0.0 1.8 80. 12 56-15 0.10 1.20 0.15 0.0 6.0 11.0-0.0 1.8 85. 10. 5-13-15 0.85' 1.1t0 0.Ci5 c.e 6.0 12.0 0.0 7.9 120. "(i.4d! ,.. .. .... .. 5-21-75 1.30 1.25 0.0 4.0 9.0 0.0 8.1 15. 1. 5. 5-30-75 0.45 0.80 1.10' 0.0 8.C 4.0 0.0 1.6 100. 5. I co '" I -.., """"I .. ...."

PAGE 85

" -/ .:1/11' TABLE XIII BACTERIOLOGICAL TESTS ON WATER ENTERING FROM SOUTH OF FOWLER AVENUE OATE TEMPERATURE P RESUMPT I VE MPN CONFIRMED MPN ,( C ) (ORG./100 ML) (ORG./l00 Ml) 10-23-71 24000.0 0.0 11-13-71 9200.0 0.0 11-20-71 22'.0 0.0 0.0 11-24-11 4300.0 0.0 11-29-71 23.0 0.0 0.0 12-8-71 25,.0 0.0 0.0 12-9-71 9200.0 0.0 12-20-71 22.0 3500.0 0.0 1Z-2 8;'; 71 21.0 490.0 20.0 1-4-72 24000. a 5400.0 1-12-72 23.5 16000.0 170.0 1-16-72 18.0 24000.0 24000.0 1-20-72 21.5 0.0 0.0 1-Z5-72 21.0 24000.0 24000.0 2-3-72 1').5 0.0 0.0 Z-9-72' 0.0' 0.0 2-23-72 220.0 90.0 3-3-72 35000.0 220.0 3-10-72 790.0 20.0 3-17-72 28 000. a 2200.0 --' I co w I

PAGE 86

--.., BACTERIOLOGICAL TESTS ON WATER ENTERlNG FROM SOUTH OF FOWLER AVENUE (continued) DATE TEMPERATURE PRESUMPTIVe MPN CONFIRMED MPN ( C )-(ORG./lOO ML) (ORG./IOO MLJ 3-22-12 1900.0 460.0 3-28-72 40.0 4-6-72 3500.0 1100.0 4-12-12 1,800.0 110.0 4-18-72 1400.0 110.0 4-24-12 2200.0 0.0 5-2-12 11000.0 3500.0 5-16-72' 1900.0.' 5-23-72 35000.0 1100.0 5-30-72 4300.0 1400.0 6-6-12 1100.0 7uO.O 6-16-12 13000.0 1100.0 6-20-12 35000.0 0.0 7-4-12 14000.0 330.0 7-12-12 11000.0 950.0 7-17-72 35000.0 14:)0.0 8-1-72 1300.0 110.0 88-72 330.0 20.0 8-16-72 790.0 270.0 8-23-72, 2200.0 110.0 ..... I OJ If:> J -.....

PAGE 87

, -' I BACTERIOLOGICAL TESTS ON WATER ENTERING FROM SOUTH OF FOWLER (continued) DATE 8-30-12 95r-12 9-12-12 9-21-12 9-28-12 10-12-12 11-7-12 2-16-13 2-23-73 32-73 3-12-73 4-1-73 41-13 4-14-73 4-28-73 5-6-73 5-15-73 5-25-73 5-31-13 1-14-74 PRESUMPTIVE MPN CONFIRMED HPN ( C 8.0 20.0. 22.0 21.0 24.0 23.0 23.0 23.0 22.0 21.5 26.0 (ORG./IOO MU 11000.0 330.0 1900.0 24000.0 920.0 540.0 140.0 1100.0 230.0 0.0 210.0 24000.0 9200.0 330.0 1400 .0 1400.0 1100.0 1100.0 190.0 20.0 (ORG./IOO MU, 1700.0 20.0 110.0 9200.0 110.0 110.0 30.0 220.0 40.0 0.0 110.0 9200.0 330.0 140.0 110.0 110.0 170.0 90.0 2.30.0 '10.0 '--I co U1 J

PAGE 88

-.... '. !\,-i} '" ,,_, :ii4,;;' ." t c, SAC TER I OlOGIC Al rES TS ON WATER ENTER If'JG FROM SOUTH OF FOWLER AVENuE (continued) DATE TEMPERATURE PRESUMPTIVE MPN CONfIRMED MPN (' c ) (ORG.l100MLI (ORG./100 Ml) 1-20-74 30.0 20.0 1-25-14 20.0 0.0 2-2-14 23.5 -490.0 330.0 2-6-14 23.0 -10.0 -.0.0 2-18-74 21.0 .0-20.0 3-2-74 16.5 .0 20.0 39-74 22.5 10.0 0.0 2-'36-74 :22.0 ::2;20 '0 ,20.0 3-31-74 20.0 260.0 0.0 4-11-74 23.0 20.0 0.0 4-19-14 5400._0 110.0 10-15-74 26.0 24000.0 3500.0 3500.0 3500.0 10-28-74 23.0 0.0 110.0 il-'5;"14 3000.0 190.0 11-11-14 20.5 24000.0 24000.0 1'1-19-74 16.0 5400.0 5400.0 11-25-14 14.0 24000.0 9200.0 12-4-14 14.0 3500.0 1400.0 12-10-14 Ib.5 .16000.,0 3500.0 -,. .--" I co 0'1 I

PAGE 89

I BACTERIOLOGICAL TESTS ON ENTERING FROM SOUTH OF FOWLER AVENUE (continued) DATE 1-13-75 2-14-15 2-21-75 2-26-15 35-75 3-12-15 3-1'1-75 3-26-75 4-2-75 4-75 4-lC1-75 5-6-75 5-13-75 5-21-75 5-30-75. TEMPERATURE ( C ) 15.0 PRESUHPTIVE MPN (ORG./lOO I4L) 24000.0 0.0 24000.0 9200.0 5400.0 9200.0 24000.0 16000.0 24000.0 24000.0 24000.0 2800.0 24000.0 24000.0 24000.0 CONFIRMED MPN (ORG./lOO ML) 24000.0 10000.0 .24000.0 9200.0 1700.0 1100.0 24000.0 9200.0 16 000. 0 24000.0 24000.0 2800.0 2400.0 24000.0 240i,lO.0 I co -...J I

PAGE 90

-88-9. SUMMARY The original purpose of this project was to determine the changes in the quantity and quality of stormwater runoff from a small urbanizing watershed. Un fortunately, the planned development has not yet taken place, thus the anticipated hydrologic changes did not occur.. However, valuable-data was obtained pertaining 1) the changes in runoff quality during a storm, 2) the yearly variation quality from a partially developed watershed, 3) the lack of change in quality of ground water in the surface aquifer, and 4) the purification of urban runoff by routing it over a natural vegetative system. In addition, the study confirmed that disturbing marshes or lakes causes a significant increase in suspended .solids and nutrient content in runoff, especially phosphates The data pertaining to the variation of pollutant concentrations during a storm, indicated a high initial peak during the first minutes of a storm, as expected. Some pollutants did not wash off immediately and caused second peaks or in some cases plateaus. r .. r f

PAGE 91

-89REFERENCES 1. Buell, M. and J. Cantlon -A Study of Two Communities of the New Pine Barrens and a Comparison of Methods. Ecolo'gy_ 31: 567-586, 1950. 2. Canfield, R. H. Application of the Line Intersection Method of Sampling Range Vegetation. Jour. For. 39: 388-394, 1941. 3. Lakla, 0.. and R. W. Long Plants of The Tampa Bay Area, University of South Florida, USF Bookstore, 1970. 4. Lindsey, A. A. Testing the Line-strip Method Against Full Tallies In Diverse Forest Types. Ecology 36: 485-494, 1955. 5. Long, R. W. and O. Lakela :A Flora of Tropical Florida, University of Miami Press, Coral Gables, Florida, 1971. 6. Monk, C. D. and J. T. McGinnis -True Species Diversity -In Six Forest Types in North Central Florida -Jour. Ecol. 54: 341-344, 1966. 7. Richards, P. W. -The Tropical Rain Forest, Cambridge Univ. Press., New York, 1952. 8. Strahler, A. N. -Physical Geography 3rd Ed. John Wiley, New York, 1969. 9. Wilde, S. A.-Floristic Analysis of GroundCcver Vegetation' By a Rapid Chain Method. Jour.' For. 52: 499502, 1954. lOa Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and WasteWater, 13th Edition, American Public Health Association, 1971.