Relative leaching rates of common nitrogen carriers from sandy soils in relation to lake eutrophication

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Relative leaching rates of common nitrogen carriers from sandy soils in relation to lake eutrophication
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Florida Water Resources Research Center Publication Number 22
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Smith, D. E.
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University of Florida
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Gainesville, Fla.
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Abstract:
A study of three sands in sterilized columns revealed that, with the exception of nitrate, the mineral fraction of these soils is moderately resistant to leaching of several common nitrogen carriers. It is proposed that this resistance to leaching provides an effective buffer against increased nutrient loadings of ground water by heavy applications of manufactured fertilizer. A principal conclusion of the study is that accelerated lake eutrophication is taking place because surface waters are being nourished at levels above that normally provided by ground water seepage. It is believed that much of this hypernourishment is brought about by direct flushing of large amounts of material of biological origin into the lake basins by storm water.

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Publication No. 22 Relative Leaching Rates of Common Nitrogen Carriers from Sandy Soils in Relation to Lake Eutrophication By D.E. Smith Biology Department Rollins College Winter Park

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RELATIVE LEACHING RATES OF COMMON NITROGEN CARRIERS FROM SANDY SOILS IN RELATION TO LAKE EUTROPHICATION : By D.E.Smith PUBLICATION NO. 22 of the FLORIDA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH CENTER RESEARCH PROJ ECT TECHNICAL COMPLETION REPORT I OWRR Project Number A-018-FLA Annual Allotment Agreement Numbers 14-31-0001-3509 {1972} 14-31-0001-3809 {1973} Report Submitted: July 1, 1973 The work upon which this report is based was supported in part by funds provided by the United States Department of the I nterior, Office of Water Resources Research as Authorized under the Water Resources Research Act of 1964.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT 1. INTRODUCTION 2 EXPERIMENTAL MATER IALS AND PROCEDURES 5 Soil Leaching Studies 5 Ground Water Analysis 7 Leaf Fall and Street Litter Studies 7 Methods of Chemical Analysis 8 Lawn Fertilization Survey 9 Statistical Analyses of Data 9 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 10 CONCLUSIONS 48 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 49 APPENDIX A 50 APPENDIX B 68 LITERATURE CITED 71

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ABSTRACT RELATIVE LEACHING RATES OF COMMON NITROGEN CARRIERS FROM SANDY SOILS IN RELATION TO LAKE EUTROPHICATION A study of three sands in sterilized columns revealed that, with the exception of nitrate, the mineral fraction of these soils is moderately resistant to leaching of several common nitrogen carriers. It is proposed that this resistance to leaching provides an effective buffer against increased nutrient loadings of ground water by heavy applications of manufactured fertilizer. A principal conclusion of the study is that accelerated lake eutrophication is taking place because surface waters are being nourished at levels above that normally provided by ground water seepage. It is believed that much of this hypernourishment is brought about by direct flushing of large amounts of material of biological origin into the lake basins by storm water. Smith, D. E. RELATIVE LEACHING RATES OF COMMON NITROGEN CARRIERS FROM SANDY SOILS IN RELATION TO LAKE EUTROPHICATION Completion Report to the Office of Water Resources Research, Department of Interior, July, 1973, Washington, D.C. 20240 KEYWORDS: leaching rates/ nitrogen carriers/ sandy soils/ water analysis/ ground water/ lake eutrophication/ leaf litter/ soil columns. 1

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INTRODUCTION Water quality problems have been with us for a long time. Sawy'er (1947) points out in his now classic paper that nuisance blooms of algae in the lakes near Madison, Wisconsin had reached an intolerable state as early as 1918. Similar conditions occurred elsewhere, of course, but widespread public concern over deteriorating water quality was kept in check until about 1950 by updating sewage and drinking water treatment programs. Since that time it has become increasingly clear that cleaning our eutrophied lakes and streams can no longer be regarded exclusively as a task for the engineer, they now must be recognized for what they are --problems in biology (warren, 1971). By the mid 1960's the principal cause for the intensified growth of algae and other aquatic plants had generally been agreed upon. Although, a number of factors might be important in localized situations, (e.g., Shelske, 1960), excessive nitrogen and phosphorus enrichment appeared to be responsible in the great majority of cases (Task Group 26l0P Report, 1966) ./ Subsequent investigation growing out of this premise has expanded in a number of from an eXamination of biological methods of removing the critical nutrients from surface waters (Sheffield, Steward, 1970) to wide ranging studies aimed at defining their chief sources of supply (Forbes, Environmental Protection Agency Program 11024 FKM, 1971) and recently to the construction of models which may help in forming a picture of aquatic nutrient budgets (Brezonik and Shannon, 1971). One facet of this expanding body of research has been the attempt to learn to what extent man-made fertilizers have contributed to reduced water quality. Most projects of this kind have understandably been concerned with input from crop lands (e.g., Kohl, al., Hortenstine and Forbes, 1972) since the great bulk of manufactured fertilizer is used by the agriculture industry. But the increasing use of fertilizer by urban and suburban homeowners to maintain lawns and shrubbery would seem to indicate that this aspect may also be worthy of investigation. The object of the present study, then, is to make an initial evaluation of the degree to which non-agricultural fertilizer usage can be regarded as a significant factor in surface water eutrophication through contamination of ground water. From the standpoint of the present study the city of Winter Park in which this work was conducted is typical of many communities in central Florida. Several solution lakes lie within its boundaries (Figure the soil is mostly well drained and sandy in nearly all streets are paved and 2

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w "R"e -..... ".00 o F D A Figure 1. Sampling stations, ABonita1 B C-Virginia Court r D -Field House 7 E -Lake Sue Canalr F -VirginiaWinchester. Bold black lines show the approximate drainage boundaries.

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guttered 1 mature street trees, predominantly water oaks, are abundant and established residential neighborhoods with wellkept lawns and landscapes characterize much of the city. Some additional features, however, contributed to the selection of this area as a favorable test site. There are no septic tanks operating within the city limits, all domestic and commercial sewage being collected by a separate sanitary sewer network: the storm drain system is relatively new with main collection trunks emptying directly into the Winter Park chain of lakes, and finally the centralized location of the Archibald Granville Bush Science Center of Rollins College made the frequent trips into the field to collect water pIes a much more reasonable task. It is hoped that the material presented in this report will be of some value considerably' beyond the perimeter of the area in which it was gathered. Some of the conclusions set forth will of necessity be based on inference, but the high cost of setting up a water quality surveillance system and of introducing other more rigorous features of design to obviate this cannot be justified for a small, initial project of this kind. In any event, it would seem to the author that persons interested in conducting studies of a related nature in geographical areas either similar to or diverse from this one would find them a worthwhile undertaking. 4

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EXPERIMENJrAL MATERIALS AND PROCEDURES Soil Leaching Studies Soils from three representative sites were used in this part of the investigation. Since most of the soils within the study area have been altered from their natural state at one time or another by human activity, no attempt was made to assign them to known soil series. For purposes of reference the test soils were designated as "McKean", "Carolina" and II Greenwich ". Each is a well drained sand having a surface lying between 4 and 10 feet above the water table during the wettest periods Soils from the IIMcKean" and IICarolina" sites are light gray fine sands. The "Greenwich" soil has a slightly coarser texture than either "McKean" or IICarolina" and is graybrown in color. Samples were collected by boring to a depth of 18 inches. The top two inches of the core were discarded to eliminate most of the plant roots and decaying vegetable matter. After air drying in the laboratory, the remaining 16 inches of the core were thoroughly mixed and then passed through a No. 16 sieve (pore opening 1.19 mm) to further remove roots, buried twigs and coarser fractions of the mineral soil. 500 cc samples of soil from a given site were placed in each of three glass columns (46mm inside diameter, 1 meter in length) and arranged as shown in Figures 2 and 3. The columns were fumigated for three minutes with 12% ethylene oxide (Linde Oxyfume -12), sealed and allowed to stand for 16 hours. It was found that after such treatment culture plates innoculated with a leachate from the columns failed to show any signs of living bacteria or fungi. Removal of existing ammonia, organic nitrogen, nitrates and phosphates from the soil was accomplished by repeated leaching with ammonia-free distilled water. The columns, when cleared, were drawn down until air spaces just began to appear in the top 2 cm of the soil. One of the nitrogen (or phosphate) carriers to be tested was then applied in a small volume of standard solution at the top of the column and allowed to percolate into the soil. The retentive capacity of a soil for the carrier was determined by passing two liters of ammoniafree distilled water through the column, each liter being collected separately and analyzed by the appropriate chemical procedure as discussed later in this section. A fourth column containing 500 cc of 3 mm chemically resistant glass beads in place of the soil was used as a control. Because of time limitations only a few nitrogen carriers 5

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Figure E. Photograph of soil columns arranged in leaching rack. dust cover 46 rom glass column 500 cc soil sample glass wool pinch clamp rubber delivery tube Figure 3. Sketch of soil column showing principal components. 6

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were examined. However, those used fairly well represent the major forms of nitrogen employed by fertilizer manufactuers. They are: a. Ammonium sulfate b. Ammonium chloride c. Ammonium phosphate d. Potassium nitrate e. Urea f. Beef extract (NH2 sources as typical of dried blood, animal tankage and other organic by-products)9 Calcium cyanamid was on the original list of carriers, but had to be dropped because of problems with solubility and the evolution of acetylene gas. Because of increasing interest in phosphorus, some work with the element was included in this and other parts of the study. Ground Water Analysis Water samples were taken each weekday on a fairly regular basis from the lowermost accessible points of five continuously' flowing storm drains and one canal. The sampling period began in July 1971 and ended July 1972. Figure 3 is a map of Winter Park showing the locations of sampling sites, boundaries of drainage areas and points of discharge into the lakes. It is important to point out here that the water samples did not represent storm water even though they were taken from storm drains. Major storm drain arteries in Winter Park intersect the water table aquifer during several months of the year. Leakage of this water into the system provides a substantial continuous flow of non-artesian ground water which is conveniently available for routine sampling. Routine analyses of water samples were made for ammoniacal nitrogen, organic nitrogen and ortho-phosphate. Ammonia was never present in detectable amounts and therefore has gone unrecorded. Periodic checks of total phosphate failed to yield values above those for ortha-phosphate. Tests for nitrate were conducted during two in the fall when the water table began to drop and in the spring and early' summer when the water table began to rise again as a result of increased thunderstorm activity. Leaf Fall and Street Litter Studies Twenty randomly selected, treed sites were sampled during the peak period of leaf fall in March of 1973. Plots one square meter in area were laid out in the street gutters at 7

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each site and the leaf litter within each plot collected. The air dried material was then weighed and bagged for chemical analysis. Ten samples of typical summer street litter consisting mostly of grass clippings, Spanish moss and twigs were collected in May of 1973 for similar analysis. Methods of Chemical Analysis Water samples and leachate from the soil columns were tested for ammoniacal nitrogen and organic nitrogen by the conventional Kjeldahl distillation and digestion techniques with distillation into boric acid indicator. Ortho-phosphate was determined by the ammonium molybdate -stannous chloride procedure. Detection of nitrates in water was determined in the early' part of the study by the ultraviolet spectrophotometric technique. Although this method proved reliable, it is quite tedious and was replaced by automated analysis on a Technicon Autoana1yzer later in the study. Solid organic materials were prepared for chemical analyses by grinding in a Straub Model 4-E mill to aid handling and insure more uniform samples. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen analyses were made on 1 gram replicated samples by suspending each in 200 ml. of ammonia-free distilled water followed by the usual procedure as outlined for water. Small amounts of paraffin usually were added to the flasks during the distillation steps to reduce foaming. Total phosphate content of solids was carried out by digesting 1 gram samples in sulfuric acid and potassium persulfate for 30 minutes and 15 psi in an autoclave. Determination was by the ammonium molybdate -stannous chloride method. Those samples which had a substantial tannic acid content or which were highly colored such as oak leaf litter, were subjected to benzene -iso-butanol extraction prior to the colorimetric step. Soil samples were handled identically to organic solids with the single exception that the grinding step was eliminated. Minimum detectible concentrations of ammonia and organic nitrogen were .007 mg/literr of phosphate .200 mg/literr and of nitrate .001 mg/1iter. A more detailed presentation of the procedures upon which the above techniques are based can be found in Standard Methods, 13th edition. 8

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Lawn Fertilization Survey An initial attempt to conduct this survey was through a local newspaper, but the response was too poor to be .useful. A second effort was then made by door to door delivery of a questionnaire to 850 residences. A facsimile of the questionnaire is given below. Dear Winter Park Resident: As part of a study supported by the Florida Water Resources Research Center and the Department of the Interior, I am conducting a survey to determine the types and amounts of fertilizer being used to maintain lawns and landscapes in the Winter Park area. You can help in this study by taking a few moments to fill out this form as best you can. Mail the completed form to the address printed on the reverse side. Your cooperation is appreciated. Approximate area of land to which fertilizer is applied. ------------------------------------------. How frequently' do you fertilize? ____________ __ --------------------------------------------------------. How much fertilizer do you apply at one time? --------------------------------------------------------. Type of fertilizer used: (Obtain from manufacturer's guaranteed analysis on bag. Include brand,naIne and address of manufacturer where possible) If you Use a lawn care service to do the fertilizing, give the name and address of this service. Statistical Analyses of Data Statistical analyses were done on the General Electric 235 Computer under the Time-Sharing System. Programs used were G. E. ONEWAY M 34-06-1 and others developed by' the mathematics department of Rollins College. Graphical analysis was performed on a Hewlett -Packard Plotter Model 6200. 9

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 1 gives the results of leaching studies on sterilized soil columns. Analysis of variance between and within the samples (see Appendix B) shows that the three test soils differ from one another with respect to their ability to retain all nitrogen carriers with the exception of KN03 and urea. KN03 had very little affinity for any of the soils tested, which is not surprising since it has long been known that nitrates are leached more easily from soils than any other type of nitrogen carrier used in fertilizer manufacture (Bear, 1942). Urea, on the other hand, was so variable in its response within a given soil that differences between soils were cancelled out;. hence the high F ratio probability (Appendix B). No explanation for this erratic behavior can be offered except to point out that beef extract, another NH2 type carrier was more effectively retained on the column after the first liter of leaching than were any of the inorganic carriers. Perhaps some unequally distributed factor in the soil interacts with the NH2 group and urea with its proportionally greater num-ber of unreacted amino groups in comparison to protein and polypeptides might be expected to show a stronger complexing tendency. The foregoing is entirely conjectural, however, and has no factual basis in so far as the writer is aware. It should be kept in mind when examining Table 1 that the two liters of water used to leach each column are equivalent to approximately 45 inches of rainfall over the same area (7.2 cm2 ) presented by the soil surface in the column. This represents about 90% of the normal annual rainfall of Orange County, Florida (Report of Investigation NO. 50, Florida Board of Conservation, Division of Geology, 1968). Set in this perspective, what might first appear to be an excessive tendency of these soils to lose nitrogen actually becomes quite the opposite, hence the relatively good native fertilities recorded in Table 2. Table 2 also seems to indicate that it may be the amount of organic matter incorporated into these soils that is primarily responsible for their nutrient retaining capacities. Since the mineral soil under. a well maintained lawn or undisturbed wooded area has most of its organic content in the top inch or two of the soil horizon we would expect to find ... the largest values for residual nitrogen here (lawn and forest soils). However, those in a more exposed condition and unmaintained, as were the test soils, are subjected to excessive leaching from the uppermost soil layers. In this case a higher nitrogen content would be anticipated in the deeper zones of organic accumulation as it was in "Greenwich" and "McKeanll soils. Of course, some adsorption will also take place on whatever clays are present/but mechanical analysis was not performed 10

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TABLE 1 Mean values of nitrogen and phosphorus appearing in first and second liters of leachate from steri lized soil columns. Amounts are in mg/1iter. 1.400 mg nitrogen and 3.00 mg phosphorus were supplied by' the carrier prior to leaching. "Carolina" "Greenwich" "McKean" Control Carrier First I Second Firstlsecond First I,second First_I Second liter liter liter liter liter liter liter liter (NH4) 2S04 0.757 0.060 0.728 0.149 0.280 0.037 1.274 0.112 NH4C1 1.092 0.102 0.662 0.130 0.491 0.224 1.232 0.042 NH4 H 2 P04 1.008 0.085 0.634 0.238 0.168 0.060 1.288 0.124 KN03 1.400 0.000 1.317 0.079 1.361 0.025 1.400 0.000 Urea 0.982 0.098 0.077 0.087 1.064 0.000 1.288 0.056 Beef 0.522 0.168 0.466 0.140 0.373 0.018 0.728 0.112 extract KH2P04 3.00 0.00 1.08 0.71 2.26 0.70 3.00 0.00 11

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TABLE 2 Mean content of ammonia, organic nitrogen and total phosphates in five sandy soils. A well fertilized lawn'soil and a natural forest soil are included in addition to the test soils for purposes. 1 inch depth 4 inch depth Location NH3 Org. Total NH3 Org. N. Phose N. "Carolina II 0.017 0.364 3.97 0.024 0.203 "Greenwich II 0.000 0.294 6.77 0.007 0.322 II McKean 0.000 0.000 2.80 0.000 0.226 Lawn soil 0.010 0.924 8.95 0.000 0.840 Fore:;;t soil 0.017 1.197 6.00 0.007 0.840 12 Total Phose 2.50 7.72 6.92 5.15 4.75

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to determine the quantity of this material in any of the soils examined. The behavior of KH2P04 in the soil columns was similar to that of KN03 Yaun, al., (1960) found that over 80% of the phosphorus added to acid sandy soils combined to form insoluble aluminum and iron phosphate, another 10% was immobilized perhaps as calcium phosphate with only 10% remaining in soluble form. Although these workers also maintain that phosphate insolubilization takes place quite ra pidly in the soil, the time spent on the column by the phosphorus carrier in the present study (about 45 minutes) ap parently was insufficient to produce a recognizable effect. Results of the lawn fertilization survey appears in Table 3. This was the most disappointing aspect of the investigation. As can be seen only 8.6% of the 850 home owners contacted showed enough interest to respond and even poorer results were gained from an earlier effort to acquire this data through the newspaper. However, if the data is to any extent indicative of the actual fertilization practices throughout the test area and personal familiarity with the area leads the writer to believe that they are, then to what extent do these practices affect the quality of ground water? An answer to this question shall be attempted by looking first at nitrogen. Buckman and Brady (1969) estimated that an average of 5 pounds of nitrogen per acre (0.56 g/m2/yr.) are added by precipitation in humid, temperate climates each year. we use the conservative figure of 25 lbs/acre/yr. (2.80 g/m /yr.) suggested by these same authors for the amount of nitrogen fixed in the soil by non-symbiotic organisms, the sum of 3.36 g/m2/yr. of nitrogen or a quantity of nitrogen approxi mately equal to 12% of that added by lawn fertilization in the Winter Park area would be of atmospheric origin. Thus a total of 31.77 grams of nitrogen would be added to each .square meter of land use area per year. By examining the above data along with that gathered from tvD strictly residential sites studied in this project: *Pive other drainage sites were originally examined in the study. One was dropped because of frequent direct contamination by a nearby sprinkler system. Data sheets and graphs for the remaining four sites are included in this report to acquaint the reader with the groundwater characteristics of other nearby areas. These latter sites are influenced by complexing features such as business Ois tricts and municipal parks and proper evaluations of these elements could not be made within the time restrictions of this project (Figures 8-15, 18-27). 13

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TABLE 3 Results of lawn fertilization survey Number of survey sheets distributed 850 Number of survey sheets returned 73 Percentage 8.6% Number of survey sheets usable 48 Percentag:e 5.6% Percentage of homeowners using no fertilizer 4.2% Percentage of homeowners using 40-50% organic nitrogen fertilizer 8.4% Percentage of homeowners using 100% organic nitrogen fertilizer 27.0% Percentage of homeowners using inorganic nitrogen fertilizer 60.4% Average available nitrogen applied Average available phosphorus applied 28.41 g/m2/ yr. 17.22 g/m2/ yr. 14

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Virginia -Winchester and Bonita Drive (Figures 1, 4-7, 16-17 : also see data lists in Appendix A.) it is possible to make a reasonable assessment of the degree to which fertilization practices affect ground water quality. The following assumptions are made with regard to these two areas: a. Landscape cover equals 40% of the total area of each site. b. Average annual rainfall is 50 inches of which 30% percolates through the soil to the water table aquifer. c. Fixation of atmospheric nitrogen in thunderstorms and by non-symbiotic soil organisms equals 12% of the quantity added by fertilization. Then for the Virginia -Winchester site we can calculate that: a. Total rainfall over the area of 148,640 m2 = 56,483,000 liters/year b. Total nitrogen in ground water = 0.00071 g/liter or 40.102 kg/year. c. Total nitrogen added by fixation = 506.743 kg/year: by fertilization = 4,222.862 kg/year. d. Difference between fixed nitrogen and that appearing in ground water = 466.641 kg/year. e. Excess of added nitrogen not in ground water = 4,689.503 g/year or 31.55 g/m lyre over the area. And for the Bonita Drive site: 2 a. Total rainfall over the area of 46,450 m = 17,561,000 liters/year. b. Total nitrogen in ground water = 0.00055 g/liter or 9.743 kg/yr. c. Total nitrogen added by fixation = 158.357 kg/yr.: by fertilization = 1,319.645 kg/yr. d. Difference between fixed nitrogen and that appearing in ground water = 148.614 kg/yr. e. Excess of added nitrogen not appearing in ground water = 1,468.259 kg/yr. or 31.61 g/m2/yr. over the area. 15

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Q) +l oM r-i "-If) (Y) 0 s:: 0 ..-I +l I-' ro (J) +l s:: Q) U s:: 0 U Q) +l ro +l ..-I Z 1 \ I I I I I ., l 1 t I I .. 1 .. I 1 (Days) Figure 4. Virginia-Winchester Drain curing 104 cay perioo in the late summer and fall 1971. First day is 8/11/71, 104th. day is 11/22/71.

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J..I (J) .jJ ..-I ...-I 0 ...-I 0 ....... ,;::: 0 .jJ I-' rO -...J J..I .jJ ,;::: (J) U ,;::: 0 U (J) .jJ rO J..I .jJ Z :-' Figure 5. / i I I i I (Days) Virginia-Winchester Drain during 48 day period in the spring and early summer 1972. First day is 5/24/72, 48th. day is 7/10/72.

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'""' H Q) .jJ -.-I r-I 'tn s L() (Y') 0 s:: 0 -.-I .jJ f(j I-' H OJ .jJ s:: Q) () s:: 0 () Q) .jJ f(j H .jJ -.-I Z I I t l 1 I 1 1 1 I t Figure 6. (Days) Bonita Drive Drain during 104 day period in the late summer and fall 1971. First day is 8/11/71, 104th. day is 11/22/71.

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. s: (J) .\ +l I : \ tJ'I I :-\' r-I I -\ o \ Figure 7. \ / (Days) Bonita Drive Drain during 48 day period in the spring and early summer 1972. First day is 5/24/72, 48th. day is 7/10/72.

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Q) +l -r-! r-f 'b1 E Ii") (Y') 0 0 -r-! +l rU 0 +l Q) () 0 () Q) +l rU +l -r-! Z .. I ... I I I 1 1 .. 1 .. J I f Figure 8. (Days) Alexander Place Drain during 104 day period in the late summer and fall 1971. First day is 8/11/71, 104th. day is 11/22/71.

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1-1 Q) .j.J ..-f r-I til 0 r-I 0 '-" 'M .j.J n1 I\.) 1-1 l-' .j.J Q) () () Q) .j.J n1 1-1 .j.J 'M Z Figure (Days) Alexander Place Drain during 48 day period in the spring and early summer 1972. First day is 5/24/72, 48th. day is 7/10/72.

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'""' H Q) +l .r-l r-I E If) (>') 0 0 .r-l +l l'J CO l'J H +l Q) U 0 U Q) +l CO H +l .r-l Z 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I Figure 10. (Days) Virginia Court Drain during 104 day period in the late summer and fall 1971. First day is 8/11/71, 104th. day is 11/22/71.

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Q) .jJ "" r-I 'bi E: 0 r-I 0 ....... s:: 0 .r-i .jJ IV ro w .jJ s:: Q) u u Q) .jJ ro .jJ .r-i Z ..-I J (Days) Figure 11. Virginia Court Drain during 48 day period in the spring and early summer 1972. First day is 5/24/72, 48th. day is 7/10/72.

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!\..l ,f.>, ..-.. H Q) .w -.-I r-l ci1 8 L() (Y) o c: o -,..j .w f() N .w Ql V ;::: o o (l) .w rO H .w -,..j z vlv 1 1 1 .... 1 1 1 1 .... .... (Days) Figure 12. Enyart B'ie1c1 House Drain during 104 day period in the late summer and fall 1971. First day is 8/11/71, 104th. day is 11/22/71.

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......... l-! (J) +J .r-! r-I S 0 r-I 0 ........ c 0 .r-! +J ro I'V l-! 111 +J (J) u c 0 u (J) +J ro l-! +J .r-! Z \ I \ \ (Days) Figure 13. Enyart Field House Drain during 48 day period in the spring and early summer 1972. First day is 5/24/72, 48th. day is 7/10/72.

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ill .w 'M rl "-tTl E U) (Y) 0 -oM .w r(j !\J H cn W s:: (J.J tl U (J) r(j H W .,..., z A Vv--1l--... 1 I I .. 1 .... .... I ... I ... I t t (Days) Figure 14. Lake Sue Canal during 104 day period in the la-te summer and fall 1971 .. First day is 8/11/71, l04th. day is 11/22/71.

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......." (J) +J -04 o-! ci; 8 0 .-I 0 G 0 -04 +J (Ij l\.J -.J +J (J) U G 0 U r'-ill +J (Ij H +J -H Z :\ : \ '\ .-\ / (Days) lj'igure 15.. Lake Sue Canal during 48 day period in the spring and early summer 1972 .. First day is 5/24/72, 48th" day is 7/10/72.

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.-... 1-1 Q) .jJ .r-! r-I ti; E (Y) N 0 I=: 0 .r-! .jJ It! 1-1 .jJ I=: IV Q) u ro I=: 0 U I=: (J) tJ1 0 1-1 .jJ 'r-! I=: U 'r-! I=: rtl tJ1 1-1 0 II ,! t I Ii l! ,1 I Ii I j :1 I I' J 11 I i I 1 : i II II I I l I I 1 I' I I I' I i I I I u IG (Days) Figure 16. Virginia -Winchester Drain during 364 day period from 7/12/71 to 7/10/72.

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-$-I (J) .j..l oM r-I 'tJ; (Y) N 0 0 oM .j..l rt:! $-I .j..l (J) l\J () '-0 0 () (J) b1 0 $-I .j..l oM () .,-f rt:! b1 $-I 0 (Days) Figure 17. Bonita Drive Drain during 364 day period from 7/12/71 to 7/10/72.

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H ru .j..l "M rl "' (V') N 0 '-' 0 "M .j..l m I-l .j..l s:: w (j) 0 U s:: 0 1 u ru tn -I 0 -I .J-J I ..-l I c: U "M c: tV tn 'I H 0 (Days) Figure 18" ,,<>.lexander Place Drain curing 364 day period from 7/12/71 to 7/10/72"

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........ H ill +J 0.-1 r-l ""-tn 8 (1) N 0 :c: 0 OM .w nj H .w :c:
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........ J...t Q) +J .r-! r-/ E M N 0 0 .r-! +J ro J...t +J W Q) U [\J 0 U Q) t:Jl 0 J...t +J -rf U .r-! ro t:Jl J...t 0 ,LJt .JJJf', I J. (Days) Figure 20. Enyart Field House Drain during 364 day period from 7/12/71 to 7/10/72.

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I.A) W H (J) -..-I .-i M N o o -.-I .w ro H .w (I) ('J o () (]) lJ! o 1-1 .w .,-1 U -r-! C !tI tJl H o I: Ii II II II II
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w ....... 1-1 Q) oW -n r-l 't;;. 8 (Y) 0 .....-I I I I 11 II Q) oW ttl -a \ II ..c: j 11.11 ill IIi I I 11 I i III 0 (Days) 22. Virginia -Winchester Drain during 364 day period from 7/12/71 to 7/10/72.

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---. H ID oM H S cry 0 ..., 0 oM ro H -----. ID U W 0 u /1 ID ro II m 0 I I I I 0 1\ I H 0 I I (Days) Figure 23. Bonita Drive Drain during 364 day period from 7/12/71 to 7/10/72.

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I-l (l) +J or-f r-/ 'b1 El (Y') 0 ...... I:! 0 ..-/ +J rt1 I-l +J I:! (l) U w I:! (j) 0 u (l) +J rt1 ..c P.t rt.l 0 ..c P.t I 0 j ..c +J I-l 0 (Days) Figure 24. Alexander Place Drain during 364 day period from 7/12/71 to 7/10/72.

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H Q) .iJ orf .-/ 'tJ; !:i (Y) 0 ....... 0 orf .iJ It:l H .iJ Q) U W -..J 0 U Q) .iJ It:l \ ...c:: II O-t til 0 I ...c:: I O-t 6 ...c:: .iJ H I 0 (Days) Figure 25. Virginia Court Drain during 364 day period from 7/12/71 to 7/10/72.

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'"""' H Q) +l or-! H ti; S (Y') 0 s:: 0 or-! +l rO H +l s:: Q) u w s:: OJ 0 U Q) +l rO .c O! Ul 0 .c O! I 0 .c +l H 0 (Days) Figure 26. Enyart Field House Drain during 364 day period from 7/12/71 to 7/10/72.

PAGE 42

1-1 (l) +J -.-I .-l "'-tTl M 0 '-" a 0 -.-I +J cO 1-1 +J a (l) u tv a 1.0 0 U (l) +J cO .J:: O-t m 0 .J:: O-t I 0 .J:: +J 1-1 0 (Days) Figure 2:7. Lake Sue Canal during 364 day period from 7/12/71 to 7/10/72.

PAGE 43

Thus it is quite evident that ground water is removing a quantity of nitrogen from the watershed which is even much less than that '-"hich accrues naturally by fixation. What is more, the same conclusion would have to be reached even if there were sizable errors in the estimates and assumptions made earlier. Nevertheless, tb further substantiate the thesis that ground water is not undergoing significant and direct contamination from fertilizers, the identical mode of reasoning will be applied to the status of phosphorus within these same areas. Unlike nitrogen, the only important sources which can supply phosphorus to ground water are native soil phosphates and manufactured fertilizers. Thus for the Virginia vlinchester site: a. Phosphorus added by fertilizer = 2,559.580 kg/yr. b. Phosphorus in ground water = 11.296 kg/yr. c. Excess of added phosphorus not appearing in ground water = 2,548.284 kg/yr. or 17.14 g/m2/yr. over the area. And for the Bonita Drive site: a. Phosphorus added by fertilization = 799.869 kg/yr. b. Phosphorus in ground water = 2.353 kg/yr. c. Excess of added phosphorus not appearing in ground water = 797.396 kg/yr. or 17.16 g/m2/yr. over the area. The most plausable conclusions which can be reached from the above argument is that nitrogen and phosphorus added in fertilization has little or no effect on ground water at the present rates of application and that sandy soils, even under conditions of high precipitation, serve as effective buffers to protect the ground water from nutrient loading. The greatest sink for excess nitrogen and phosphorus, however, must lie within the enormous biomass which is maintained in the form of lawns, street trees and other forms of landscape vegetation. This being the case, it seems reasonable to assume, that manufactured fertilizers are having their greatest eutrophic impact upon surface waters indirectly through fluvial transport of large amounts of unattached biomass into lakes and waterways. Both visual and quantitative documentation for this is provided in Tables 4-6 and Figures 28-33. From Table 4 the average dry weight of leaf litter on one square meter of unswept street gutter in treed residential 40

PAGE 44

areas was found to be 833.384 grams during the peak period of leaf fall in March 1973. This does not represent direct leaf fall over a square meter area, of course, since vehicle generated and natural wind gusts tend to capture leaf material from a broad zone on either sid.e of the roadway and accumulate it against the curb. In any event, by using the average per gram values for nitrogen and phosphorus as given in Table 5, 1.27 kg of nitrogen and 11.79 kg of phosphorus would be released from each ton of this material were it transported into a lake. Grass clippings on the other hand, because they are cut in a growing condition have not undergone translocation of nutrients prior to their removal from the parent plant as have abscised leaves. For this reason much larger values for nitrogen and phosphorus are to be expected in this kind of vegetable debris. Calculations based on the values in Table 6 predict a yield of 23.587 kg of nitrogen and 109.771 kg of phosphorus per ton of street borne grass clippings. 41

PAGE 45

'rABLE 4 Amo'lLrJ.t of leaf litter accl,1ffiulated in square meter plots of street gutter during the peak period of 1 fall in March 1973", Site and Description of IVlaterial grams/meter2 Huntington oak 517 Washington Ave,., oak 346 Melrose Ave 6, vJillow Bonnie Burn Cir$p oak 81 Fawsett Rd., oak 2039 Glencoe Rd.,17CO block, oak & pine 110 Forrest blOCk, oak 57 Hillcrest oak 932 Forrest 1600 blOCk, oak 383 Laurel Rd,. I oak 192 Grinnell Ter., oak 1131 Carrollee AVBe oak 1621 Mizell Ave I oak 672 Hollywood Ave., oak 1570 Greenwich Ave$, oak 680 Roundelay AVB9 oak 853 Goodrich Ave. oak 1475 Edwin Blvd" oal< 2483 Bryan Ave,. I 1700 blOCk, oak 1729 Bryan Ave. 1600 blOCk, oak 332 Arjay Avee oak 853 Lake Sue Ave@I oak 957 Virginia Dr., grass & oak 363 Dana Rd .. oak 468 Forrest Rd", 2000 blocJ<:'g oak & pine 1075 1059 42

PAGE 46

TABLE 5 Analysis of leaf litter for ammonia, organic nitrogen and total phosphate. Samples were collected during the peak period of leaf fall in March 1973. Amounts are mean values expressed in mg/gram of air dried sample. Site and Description of Material oxford St., oak Lakeview St. 1100 block, cypress Lakeview St. 1000 block, oak Holt Ave., oak Pennsylvania Ave., oak Chapman Ave., oak Victoria Ave., oak Glencoe Rd., oak and pine Ar jay Ave., oak Melrose Ave., willow Dana Rd., oak Hillcrest Ave., oak Bonnie Burn Cir., oak Washington Ave., oak Huntington Ct., oak Lake Sue Ave., oak Forrest Rd., oak Grinnell Ter., oak Bryan Ave., oak Roundelay Ave., oak Ammonia Nitro en 0.037 0.012 0.00 0.0044 0.0035 0.046 0.082 0.077 0.081 0.196 0.210 0.119 0.063 0.082 0.089 0.072 0.056 0.080 0.088 0.087 43 Component organic Nitro en 0.357 0.301 0.259 0.233 0.266 1.020 1.522 1.575 2.306 2.686 1.795 1.407 1.297 1.592 1.654 1.512 1.288 1.543 1.637 1.971 Total Phos hate 38.9 42.1 39.0 51.4 38.3 37.6 34.4 44.8 40.0 35.7 38.6 44.0 32.3 29.9 34.1 42.1 54.6

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TABLE 6 Analysis of typical summertime street for ammonia, organic nitrogen and total phosphate. Amounts are mean values expressed as mg/gram of air dried sample. Component Site and Description Ammonia Organic Total of Material Nitrogen Nitrogen Phosphate New York Ave. grass clippings 0.042 1.974 108 Lincoln Cir. grass clippings 0.058 2.471 114.4 Dale Ave. grass clippings 0.024 4.088 129 Trismen Ave. grass clippings 0.119 1.988 114.4 Wood land Ave. grass cld:ppings 0.038 1.064 112.8 Palmer Ave. grass clippings 0.028 0.588 137 Holt Ave. twigs and grass 0.073 0.910 120 Morse Blvd. grass clippings 0.070 1.392 113 Bryan Ave. leaves and debris 0.196 2.567 140 44

PAGE 48

Figures 28 & 29. Accumulations of leaves in street gutters during the spring period of heavy leaf fall. 45

PAGE 49

Figures 3!2 & 33. Compacted vegetable material and sedimen,t in the mouths of storm drains. 47

PAGE 50

1 -'-.. De soil is nitrogen carriers. Y;veakest resis"tance CONCLUSIONS leaching, mineral fraction of retain qUi te modes"t arnoun"cs of Nitrate and show the to 2" Chemi s of ground "vater from selected drain-age areas over a one year period conf inn the resistance to leaching of nitrogen from these s as demonstrab'3d in the laboratory.. It is belleved that this resistance provides an effective buffer as:fainst increased nutrien-t loading of ""Vater from heavy applications of manufactured fertilizers .. 3.. It is concluded :Ln the \I'Tinter Parle area localities in if the clrcumstances of ch prevail in sirnilar lake eutro-cation Ivaternation fer-cilizers.l:o our surface water resources s to be that the natural controls placed upon lEd
PAGE 51

'1'1'1e Orange effort,s of this grant for AC,F1JmvLEDGE.!"lEl'rT'S County COIn.'rn:tssion 5t with a modest p and ies" the be but much appreciated A special note of thanks Archibald Granville Bush is due to Dr" E e Roth, ssor of Mathematics at Rollins Colle'3'8 to L,eonard Ea'ton p ics s't udent p Rollins College for their uable the statist a of this 49

PAGE 52

In (..) Date July, 1971 12 13 14 5 16 20 21 22 23 24 29 Aug .. 1971 4 5 6 APPENDIX A Values for organic nitrogen, nitrate and ortho-phosphate appearing in ground water from five continuously running drains and one canal. Amounts are in mg/liter sample. Organic Nitrogen 0 .. 896 0 .. 224 0.560 0 .. 336 0.000 00000 0",224 0@224 0 .. 112 Nitra.te Alexander Place Drain Ortho Date Phosphate AugG, 1971 0 .. 33 11 1 .. 33 12 1.,80 13 1,,66 16 1<11180 17 1 .. 80 18 1.,90 1.80 0.25 23 24 0 .. 25 0",. 26 1.,90 27 o. 30 0 .. 27 Septa 1971 1 2 3 1 0 .. 20 8 Organic Nitrogen Nitrate 0@.53 0 .. 54 0 .. 40 0 .. 65 0 .. 82 0 .9.5 04>28 0 .. 39 0..,35 0",39 0061 0 .. 69 0.55 0.,62 0 .. h3 Ortho Phosphate 0.66 0 .. 45 0 .. .30 0 .. 90 0.61 l.ho 0,,99 0 .. 73 0091 0.,53 1.50 0023 0023 0020 0024 0 .. 67 0 .. 21 0025 Oe20

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Alexander Place Draincont. Date Org. N N03 O-Phos. Date Org. N N03 O-Phos. Sept. 1971 June 1972 9 0.51 0.35 21 0.028 1.20 1.23 10 0.87 0042 22 1 0028 1.39 1.23 13 0.71 0 025 23 0.042 1.20 1.26 14 0 0 80 0.25 26 0.042 1.10 0.91 15 0.75 0.30 27 0.042 1.05 1.18 16 0 0 65 1.90 28 0.028 0.97 1.01 17 0 0 66 1.50 29 0.042 1.17 1.33 20 0.67 0 025 30 0.042 1.99 1.11 21 0.67 0.24 22 0080;, 0028 July 1972 2) 0047 1.70 6 0.084 0.56 1.34 lT1 24 0080 0.24 7 00028 1.86 1030 I-' 27a 10 0 0014 2.80 1023 May. 19172 23 0.056 8.50 a This drain dr.y from September 27, 1971 to May 24 0.000 5040 0.32 23, 1972 due to lowered water table. 25 00042 3.20 0.31 26 0.042 0070 1.18 30 0.000 0.63 0.90 June 1972 1 0.042 0.35 1.23 2 0.000 0.37 6 0.028 1.60 1.19 7 0.028 1.78 1.06 8 0.042 1.80 1.06 9 0 0 042 1.70 -1.23 12 0.056 2.00 1.30 14 0 0 000 1.82 1.13 20 0.098 0.00 1.50

PAGE 54

Virginia Court Drain Date Organic Nitrate Ortho Date Organic Nitrate Ortho Nitrogen Phosphate Nitrogen Phosphate July 1971 Aug. 1971 12 0.448 0.33 24 0 032 0 090 13 0.112 1.33 25 0.25 0.2J 14 0.224 0.33 26 0.30 0.26 15 0.112 0.37 27 0.49 0.24 16 0 0000 0.29 30 0 048 0.2J 19 0.000 0.36 31 0.48 0.23 20 0.1l2 0.29 21 0 0112 1.66 Sept. 1971 2a 0.168 0.30 1 0.52 1.90 23 0.056 0.25 2 0 023 0.30 U1 26 00560 0.33 3 0.51 Trace l\.) 27 0.056 0.33 7 0.65 0.25 28 0.224 1.66 8 0.41 0.25 29 0.000 0 028 9 0.49 0.)6 30 00280 0033 10 0.79 0.36 13 0.80 0.42 Aug. 1971 14 0.78 0.36 4 0.112 0.50 15 0.70 0.40 5 0.168 0059 16 0 0 10 0 0 40 6 0.1l2 0.30 17 1.14 0.35 10 0.53 20 0.18 0.36 II 0044 0.63 21 0.21 0.60 12 0 067 0.53 22 0.80 0.44 13 0056 0.35 23 0.39 0.31 16 0 013 0077 24 0.51 0024 17 0.20 0.50 27 0.71 0.32 18 0065 0.77 28 0.86 0.60 19 0.55 0 0 40 29 0074 0.25 20 0.19 0.39 30 0.61 0.45 23 0.49 0.59

PAGE 55

Virgini.a Court Drain cont" Date Org .. N NO) O";Phosc> Date Org .. N NO) O-Phos., Oct.. 1971 Dec@ 1971 1 0 .. 36 2 0",056 1.00 4 0,,39 3 0 .. 056 Trace 5 0 .. 34 6 0.,532 0.,25 6 0 .. 32 7 0 .. 014 0,,22 7 0 .. 34 8 0.,018 Trace 8 1.,80 9 0 .. 280 Trace 12 Ow21 13 0 .. 20 Jan .. 1972 25 0.112 0 .. 25 10 0 .. 000 Trace 26 0 ... 042 0 .. 28 11 0 .. 000 Trace 27 0 .. 126 0 .. 36 12 0 .. 000 Trace 28 0 .. 000 o .. L.o 13 Trace 0",00 Ul 29 00000 0 .. 36 14 Trace Trace (,,) 20 0,,000 Trace Nov .. 1971 21 0 .. 000 0.,26 1 00000 1<1>80 24 0,,000 011>25 2 0 .. 612 0.,41 25 00000 0",241 3 0,,000 0024 26 00000 0 .. 27! 4 0<0000 0 .. 25 27 Ooll2 0015 .5 00000 0 .. 20 2.8 0 .. 056 0,,50 6 0,,000 0 .. 99 Trace 31 0.,042 0050 9 Trace 0.L4 0 .. 25 10 0 .. 000 0 .. 60 Trace Feb.. 1912 11 00000 0,,59 Trace 1 00000 Trace 12 0 .. coo 0 .. 59 1,,09 14 0 .. 560 0098 15 0.,000 0 .. 68 1..13 15 0 .. 028 Trace 16 0.000 o .. U4 2 .. 25 lSb 11 0.,042 0 .. 85 2 .. 30 18 00000 0 .. 10 1 .. 90 May 1912 19 00000 0030 1,SO 19 00056 0",65 22 00000 0 .. 86 Trace 22 0,,014 0 .. 20 0,,42

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Virginia Court Drain cont. Date. Orgo N N03 O-Phos. May 1972 23 0.070 0.76 b This drain dry from February 18, 1972 to May 24 00028 0.35 0.28 25 0.014 0.20 0.20 18, 1972 due to lowered water table. 26 0.028 0.25 1.13 30 0.028 0.33 1.30 June 1972 a 0.000 1028 6 0.028 0040 1.15 7 0.056 0.50 1.15 8 0.014 0.54 1.15 U1 9 0.056 0.45 1.24 12 0.028 0.52 1.33 14 0.000 0.69 1.18 15 Trace 0039 1.25 19 00042 0.95 1.10 20 0.098 0.33 1.50 21 0.028 0.35 1.23 22 0.056 0.44 1.24 23 0.028 0.30 26 0.056 0.18 0.95 27 0.042 0014 1.10 28 0.028 0039 Trace 30 0.014 0.57 1.U July 1972 6 00014 0.31 lo2Z 7 0.014 0.98 1.18 10 0.028 6.10 1.17

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Enyart Field House Drain Date Organic Nitrate Ortho Date Organic Nitrate Ortho Nitrogen Phosphate Nitrogen Phosphate July 1971 Aug. 1&71 15 0.000 1.00 27 0.61 1.20 16 0.000 0.75 30 0.69 0.92 19 0.000 0.95 31 0.65 1.49 20 00.336 0.56 21 0.224 1.00 Sept. 1971 22 0.000 1.15 1 0.49 0.83 23 0.000 0.43. 2 0.77 1.30 24 0.000 0.45 3 0.97 1.19 27 0.448 1.26 7 0.89 1.01 28 0.224 0.50 8 0.59 1.15 Ul 29 0.336 1.25 9 0.66 1.37 Ul 30 0.224 1.47 10 0.80 0.64 13 1.15 l.30 Aug. 1971 14 0.42 1.224 0.112 1.19 15 1.06 1.22 5 0.000 0.53 16 10.09 1.00 6 0.336 1.25 17 0.84 1.17 10 2.00 20 0.46 1.15 11 0.67 1.83 21 0.49 1.0a: 12 0.71 1.69 22 0.80 0.99 13 0.75 1.30 23 00.32 1.04 16 0.00 2.20 24 0.87 0.92 17 0.49 2.60 27 0031 1.25 18 0.11 1.41 28 0.53 1.26 19 0.20 1.29 29 0.23 0.64 20 0.43 0.93 30 0.21 0.85 23 0.99 1.46 24 0.95 0.99 Oct. 1971 25 0.65 0.90 1 0.00 26 0.60 1.62 4 0.00

PAGE 58

Enyart Field House Drain cont. Date Org. N N03 O-Phos. Date Org. N N03 O-Phos. Octo 1971 Dec. 1971 5 0000 2 0.196 0.96 Trace 6 0.00 3 00056 0.40 0.98 7 0.00 6 0.028 Trace 8 0.00 7 0.042 0074 12 0.00 8 0.064 0.80 13 1005 a5 0.098 O.Bl Jan. 1912 2:6 0.112 1.20 10 0.056 Trace 27 00000 1.24 11 0.000 Trace 28 0.000 1.15 12 0.018 Trace 29 0.000 0081 13 00000 Trace 1TI 14 Trace Trace en Novo 1971 17 0.000 Trace 1 0.000 0.80 20 0.000 Trace 2 0.000 0080 21 Trace 0.25 3 0.000 0.80 24 0.112 0.43 4 0.000 0.73 25 0.056 0.44 5 0.000 0.80 27 0.028 0028 8 0.000 0.33 1.00 28 Trace 0.44 9 0.028 0052 1.15 31 0.112 0.65 10 0.048 0.29 0.90 11 0.000 0.23 0.90 Febo 1972 12 0.000 0.26 0.60 1 Trace 1.25 15 Trace 0.53 0.90 7 0.000 16 0.000 0.33 1.00 8 0.000 17 Trace 0.64 0.83 9 00000 1B 0.000 0.44 0.79 10 0.000 19 0.000 0.33 0.98 14 Trace Trace 22: 0.000 0.57 1.50 15 0.000 Trace 23 0.056 0059 0.50 11 0.056 Trace

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Enyart Field House Drain cont. Date Org. N N03 O-Phos. Date Org. N N03 Febo 1972 June, 1912 18 0.132 Trace 27 0.68 1.30 22: 0.056 0000 28 0.056 0.91 1.15 26 0.168 0.59 29 0.084 0.90 1034 29 0.1l2 0.42:: 30 0.100 2.45 1.28 Maro 1972 July, 1912 1. 0.028 Trace 6 0.056 0 0 50 1.43 2 c 1 0.042 2.98 1039 10 0.028 3.15 1.43 May, 1972 19 0.028 0013 Ul 22 0.042 0010 0.55 c This drain dry between March 2, 1972 and May 19, 24 0.014 2.30 0.71 1972 due to lowered water table. 25 0.056 1 0 20 0.38 26 Trace 0.80 0.92 30 0.028 0.60 1.30 June, 1972 6 0.010 2.30 1022 7 0.042 2.90 1.50 8 0.010 1.15 1.50 9 1.654 1.68 1.50 12 0.056 1.26 1.53 14 0.084 5.20 1.30 15 0.014 1.95 1.36 19 0.056 0.47 0.63 20 0.028 0.40 1.24 21 0.028 0.87 1033 22: 0.028 1039 1.23 23 0.084 1.32 1.36 26 0.112 0.30 0.98

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Bonita Drive Drain Date Organic Nitrate Or tho Date Organic Nitrate Or tho Nitrogen Phosphate Nitrogen Phosphate July 1971 Aug. 1971 12 0.000 0.40 24 0.48 0.91 13 00360 0.23 25 0.60 0.33 14 0.448 0.27 26 0.50 0.29 15 0.560 9.2 ) 27 0.86 0.30 16 09224 9.20 30 0.68 0.49 19 0.000 0.29 31 0.61 0.26 20 0.560 21 0.672 0.29 Sept. 1971 22 0.224 0064 1 0.58 0.23 23 0.000 0.43 2 0.61 0.34 U1 24 0 0676 0.40 3 0.53 0.40 00 27 0.448 0.26 7 0.83 0.90 28 0.224 0.50 8 0.68 0.30 29 0;'112 q.33 9 0.66 0.39 30 0.224 P.35 10 1.25 0.60 11 0.81 0055 Aug. 1971 14 0.87 0.45 4 00224 0.43 15 0.88 0.30 5 0.000 0.53 16 0.91 0.24 6 0.000 9S1 17 0.93 0.32 10 0.000 20 0.81 1002 11 0.53 21 0.46 0000 12 1.18 22 0.68 0.25 13 0.68 0.53 23 0.40 1.40 16 2.20 1.66 24 0.98 1.50 17 0.73 0.73 27 0 067 1.00 18 0.76 1.32 28 1.08 0.25 19 0.95 0.78 29 0.62 0.00 20 0.79 0.37 30 0.65 0000 23 0.83

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Bonita Drive Drain Date Orgo N NO) O-Phos Date Org" N NO) O-Phos", Oct .. 1911 Dec", 1971 1 1@90 2 0 .. 056 0 .. 28 Trace h 0 .. 34 3 0.,056 0",30 Trace 5 6 0.,056 0 .. 6 0.30 7 0 .. 028 Trace 1 0 .. 30 8 0 .. 152 Trace B 0 .. .34 9 0 .. 000 Trace 12 0,,34 13 1005 Jan., 1912 25 0 .. 182 0 .. 25 10 Trace 0,,00 26 0 .. 112 0 .. 39 11 0 .. 000 Trace 27 0,,000 1.,50 12 00;128 Trace U1 28 0 .. 000 111>00 13 0.000 Trace \.D 29 00000 0",42 14 Trace Trace 11 Trace Trace Nov .. 1971 18 0 .. 056 Trace 1 0 .. vuu 0 .. 21 19 Trace 2 0,,000 0 .. 35 20 0.,000 Trace J 0,,000 0 .. 32 21 0 .. 028 Trace 0 .. 000 0")42 24 Trace Trace 5 5 .. 320 0056 25 Trace Trace 8 8 .. 400 0 .. 24 0 .. 00 26 0 .. 000 Trace 9 'rrace 0,.39 0,,00 21 0 .. 000 Trace 10 0 .. 000 L.80 28 0.,028 1.,00 11 Trace 0,,)3 0.00 0 .. 000 Trace 12 'I'race 0 .. 31 Trace 15 2 .. 100 0 .. 22 Trace Feb .. 1972 16 0,..000 0.,34 0<1>00 1 0.,028 0 .. 25 17 Trace 0<1>45 0,,00 2 0,,000 Trace Trace 0 .. 45 0,,00 3 0.000 0.00 19 O
PAGE 62

Bonita Drive Drain cont. Date Org. N NO) Date Org. N NO) Feb. 1972 Mar. 1972 9 0.000 24 0.056 Trace 10 0.000 28 0.186 Trace 14 G.OOO Trace 29 0.182 Trace 15 )0 0.112 Trace 17 0.738 Trace 18 Trace Apr. 1972 21 0.664 Trace 3 0.182 Trace 22 0.104 Trace 4 0.112 Trace 23 00560 0.00 5 0.000 Trace 24 0.182 0.00 10 00.560 0.00 25 0.000 Trace 13 00000 0.00 0'1 26 0.000 0.36 14 Trace 0000 0 29 0.140 1.75 24 0.056 0000 25 0.000 0000 Mar. 1972 26 0.056 0000 1 0.000 Trace 2 0.112 Trace May 1972 3 0.154 Trace 1 0.056 6 0.198 0.00 2 1.120 7 0.154 Trace 3 0.056 8 0.112 Trace 4 0.028 9 0.140 Trace 5 0.056 10 0.070 Trace 8 0.028 12 00576 Trace 10 00056 13 0.084 Trace 12 0.056 15 0.140 Trace 15 0.070 16 0.616 0.00 16 0.154 17 0.546 0.00 17 00078 20 0.140 Trace 18 0.078 21 0.168 Trace 19 0.056 23 0.070 Trace 22' 0.042 1.07 0.44

PAGE 63

Bonita Drive Drain cont. Date Org. N N03 O-Phos. May 1972 23 0.154 8.50 24 0.042 3.10 1.00 25 0.042 3.20 1.85 26 0.014 0.55 1.28 30 Trace 0040 1.28 June 1972 1 1.222 0.52 Trace 2 Trace 0.50 0.89 6 0.082 4.60 0.68 7 0.672 5.60 0.76 0'\ 8 0.056 4.06 0.76 I-' 9 0.224 4.44 0.76 12 0.128 5.25 1.08 14 0.056 6005 0.76 15 0.056 2.46 0.71 19 0.070 1.09 0028 20 0.126 0050 0.50 21 0.042 0041 0.65 2Z 0.070 1.95 0.85 23 0.140 7.54 0.25 26 0.112 4.65 0.40 27 0.056 3.23 0085 28 0.070 4.84 0.68 29 0.084 4.05 0.89 30 0.112 4.19 0.68 July 1972 6 0.042 0.68 0.74 7 0.070 3.76 0.63 10 0.098 4.41 0.48

PAGE 64

Virginia Winchester Drain Date Organic Nitrate Ortho Date Organic Nitrate Ortho Nitrogen Phosphate Nitrogen Phosphate July, 1911 Aug. 1971 14 0.168 1.33 21 0.40 0.43 15 0.000 1.20 30 0.40 0.21 16 0.000 1.20 31 0.60 0.43 19 0.000 2.00 20 0.000 Sept. 1971 21 1.680 0.90 1 2.50 0.30 22 0.000 0.13 2 1.00 0.30 23 0.000 0.30 3 0.10 0.78 26 0023 1 3.00 0.32 21 0.112 1.66 8 1.90 1.30 en 28 0.000 9 1.19 0 022 I\) 29 0.324 0.30 10 1.00 0.55 30 13 1.00 0.30 14 2.50 0014 Aug. 1911 15 3.00 1.19 4 0.168 0053 16 2.00 0.58 5 0.056 0.51 11 3.00 1.20 6 0.1l2 0.26 20 2.30 0.,0 11 0.18 0.19 21 1.50 0.45 12 1.41 0.60 22 2.50 0.20 13 1.31 0.45 23 3.50 16 0.15 24 1020 0.20 11 0.30 0.93 21 2.50 0.34 18 1010 1.16 28 1.80 0.44 19 2.30 0.53 29 2.00 0.26 20 1020 0.3:3 30 1009 0.57 23 1.25 0.13 24 1.28 0.11 Octo 1911 25 0.45 2.00 1 0.39 26 0.42 1.00 4 0.50

PAGE 65

Virginia Winchester Drain cont. Date Org. N N03 O-Phos. Date Org. N N03 Oct. 1971 Dec. 1971 5 0.77 2 0.056 0.51 Trace 6 0.41 3 0.016 0.34 Trace 7 0.30 6 0.056 0.45 8 0.21 11 0.28 Jan. 1972 12 0.32 10 0.000 Trace 13 9.25 11 0 0 000 Trace 25 0.34 12 0.000 Trace 26 0.084 1.50 13 Trace 0.00 27 0.000 1015 14 Trace Trace 28 0.000 0.32 17 0 0 000 Trace O'l 29 0.000 0.36 20 0.000 Trace w 24 0.000 Trace Nov. 1971 25 0.000 0.75 1 0.000 0.00 26 0 0 000 Trace 2 0.000 1.50 27 Trace 1.00 3 0.000 0.25 28 0.064 1.80 4 0.000 0 034 31 0.126 1.00 5 90120 0.29 8 0.000 0.00 Traee Feb. 1972 9 0.000 0.39 Trace 1 0.000 0.25 10 0.000 0 0 00 Trace 14 2.240 Trace 11 0.000 0.00 Trace 15 0.084 12 0.000 0 0 45 Trace 17d 0.280 1.75 15 0.000 0.48 1.50 18 16 00000 0.50 Trace 17 0.000 0.65 Trace May 1972 18 2.210 0.75 Trace 23 0.084 8.50 19 0.112 0.86 0.50 24 00056 4.15 0.85 22 0.000 0.00 Trace 25 0.056 2.00 0.50 23 0.042 1009 Trace 26 00000 0.40 1.05 30 0.000 0 0 30 0.97

PAGE 66

Virginia Winchester Drain cont. Date N N03 O-Phos. June 1972 6 0 0 000 2.35 1.00 7 00.0.56 2.49 0.98 8 00098 1.2.5 0.98 9 0.168 3.43 1.25 12 0.616 3 .59 0.99 14 Trace 2.40 1000 1.5 0.0.56 1.94 1.00 19 0.0.56 0.68 20 0.042 10.00 0.88 21 0.028 10.00 0.93 22 0.9.52 10.00 0.89 (j) 23 0.140 0.80 26 0.0.56 5.13 0.80 27 0.070 9.02 0 077 28 0.028 .5.73 1.01 29 0.140 10.00 0.98 30 0.028 6.90 0.80 July 1972 6 0.042 6.40 1 008 7 0.0.56 7.26 007.5 10 0.0.56 6.1.5 101.5 d This drain was mostly dry by February 2, 1972 and was completely so from February 18, 1972 through May 23, 1972 due to lowered water tab1eo

PAGE 67

Lake Sue Canal Date Organic Nitrate Ortho Date Organic Nitrate Or tho Nitrogen Phosphate Nitrogen Phosphate Oct. 1971 Dec. 1971 1 0.21 2 00056 Trace 4 0.29 3 0.056 Trace 13 0.00 6 0.084 0000 25 0.042 0.00 7 0.056 Trace 26 Trace 0.50 8 0.056 Trace 27 0.000 0.00 9 0.056 Trace 28 0.000 0.00 29 0.000 0.00 Jano 1972 10 0.000 0.00 Nov. 1971 11 0.000 0.00 0'\ 1 0.000 0000 12 Trace 0.00 U1 2 0.000 0000 13 0.000 Trace 3 00000 0.00 14 0.000 0.00 4 0.000 0.33 17 0.000 0.00 5 0.000 1.00 18 00000 Trace 8 0.000 0.56 0.00 19 0.000 Trace 9 Trace 00 47 0.00 20 00000 0.00 10 0.000 0.59 0.00 21 0.000 0 0 00 11 Trace 0.52 0.00 24 0 0 000 Trace 12 0.000 0054 0.89 25 Trace Trace 15 0.000 0.53 0.00 26 00000 Trace 16 0 .. 000 0.88 0 0 00 27 00014 Trace 17 0.056 0.58 0 0 00 28 0.000 Trace 18 Trace 0056 0.00 31 0.000 Trace 19 00000 00 59 Trace 22 0 0 000 0056 1.50 23 0.112 0.57 Trace

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Lake Sue Canal cant. Date Org .. N NO) O-Phos", Date N NO ) O-Phos. Feb .. 1972 1-1ar .. 1912 1 0,,00 15 0.158 Trace 2 0",00 16 0 .. 126 0000 3 00000 Trace 00056 0 .. 00 4 0 .. 000 T'race 20 0 .. 056 0 .. 00 1 0.000 Trace 21 0,,010 Trace 8 00000 23 0 .. 056 Trace 9 0,,000 24 0 .. 056 Trace 10 0,,000 21 Trace 0 .. 140 0.,00 28 0 .. 056 Trace 15 0 .. 014 29 0 .. 028 Trace 11 0 .. 028 Trace 30 0",010 Trace 0'. 18 0 .. 056 Trace '01 21 0 .. 056 Trace Apr .. 1912 22 0<0056 0 .. 00 3 0 .. 028 Trace 23 0 .. 056 0",,00 4 0 .. 140 Trace 24 0.180 Trace 5 0 .. 000 Trace 0. Trace 10 0 .. 070 0,,00 26 0",000 Trace 13 00000 0.,00 29 0.,000 Trace 14 Trace 0",,00 0 .. 112 0 .. 00 Mar .. 1912 25 0 .. 056 0,,00 1 0",028 0 .. 00 26 0 .. 056 2 0",042 Trace J 0 .. 168 Trace May, 1972 6 0",112 0<1>00 1 0 .. 042 1 0 .. 082 Trace 2 0 .. 112 8 0 .. 112 Trace 3 0 .. 056 9 0 .. 140 Trace 4 0.014 10 0 .. 112 Trace 5 Oc;056 12 01'014 Trace 8 13 0 .. 126 Trace 0 .. 014

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Lake Sue Canal cont. Date Org. N N03 O";Phos. Date Org. N N03 O-Fhos May, 1972 June, 1912 12 0.056 29 0.156 1.11 0.65 15 0.028 30 0.140 0.54 0.56 16 0.196 11 0.042 July, 1972 18 0.028 0.11 6 0.098 0.80 0.28 19 0.028 0.80 1 0.168 3.52 Trace 22 0.014 1.60 0.45 10 0.126 3.40 0.80 23 0.056 0.85 24 0.056 2.90 0.45 25 0.028 1.20 0.40 26 0.056 0.65 1.03 0'1 30 00028 0.49 1.23 ...J June, 1912 1 1.126 0.50 0.98 2 Trace 0.40 1.03 6 0.098 2.19 0050 1 0.476 2:.09 0.53 8 0.098 1.92 0.5J 9 0.112 2.13 0059 12 0.010 2.52 1.08 14 0.056 2.29 0.59 15 0.070 2.03 0.68 19 00224 0.80 0.42 20 0.168 0.32 Trace 21 00098 0.39 Trace 22 0.140 0.28 Trace 23 00224 0045 0.25 26 00280 0.37 Trace 21 0.154 0.69 Trace 28 0.182 0.75 0.00

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APPENDIX B A N A L Y SIS 0 I' V A k 1 A N C 3 SAMPLI<:S 01' SIlE 3 SAMPLF: T0TAL 1 2 3 3.276 1 .474 1.988 SQUARF: CBJ::T',lJEN = MF.:AN SQUARE CltJITHIN SAMPLES) = CALCULATED 0F F-RATI0 = rnHRJ::SPONDING N0RMAL DEVIATE = \.092 .491333 .66':>667 .287241 9. 2075 5 03 31.\963 3.09845 THE PR0BABILITY 01' AN THIS LAfWE OCCURRING BY CHANCE AL0NE IS .001 SAMPLE SAMPLE T0TAL SAMPLE MEAN 1 2 3 r-EAN (BETWEEN SAMPLES) = r-EAN SQIJARE OJITHIN SAMPLES) = CALCULATED VALUE 0F F-RATH:l = rnRRF.SP0NDING N0RMAL DEVIATE = 1 .4 1.36133 1.31733 1.631891<:-03 3.1451 1.19558 THE PR08ABILITY 01' AN I'-RATI0 THIS LARGE 0CCURRING RY CHANCE AL0NE IS .116 SA.MPLE SAMPLE T0TAL SAMPLE MEAN I 2 3 3.024 .504 1.918 IIAN SQUARE (BETWEEN SAMPLES) = tAN SQUARE (WITHIN SAMPLES) = rALCULATED VALUE "0F F-RATI0 = C0RRESP0NDING N0RMAL Ol<:VIATE = 1.008 .168 .639333 .531835 2.43258E-02 21.863 2.84952 THE PR0BABILITY 01' AN I'-RATI0 THIS 0CCURRING BY CHANCE AL0NE IS .002 68

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SI1.i'1PLE T3TAL i 2 3 .R82 2.li8Li .728 SQUARF: (BET\Jf.:EN SAMPLES)::: Mf:AN SGIUARE HJlTHIN SAMPLES) CALCULATED VALUE elF' r-RATI0 '" 23.9299 C0RRESPI]NDING N0RMAL DEVXATE ::: 2.9148B THE 0F' AN '-RATI0 THIS LARGE 0CCURRING BY CHANCE AL0NE IS .002 SP,IVJ PL F: SAI"ifLE T0TAL SA 1>1 P u:: MEAN ? 3 2.9-48 3.192 2.632 .982(1)7 .064 d311383 SQU,I'\RE (BEnJI=.:EN SAMPL ES):: 2. IS??? 3E =02 SQUAHE (WITHHJ SAMPLF:S) "" .140244 rnLCULATED VALUE 0F f-RATI0 = .187369 mRRESP0NDING N0RMAL DEVIATE = -.962413 PR08ABILITY 0r AN F-RATI0 THIS 0CCURRING 8Y CHANCE AL0NE IS .832 SAMr'LE 1 2 3 SAMPLE 1@568 i .12: 1 (BETWEEN M=:AN SO UA RE (\oJI TH I N SAMPL F. S) "" CALCULATED VALUE 0F F-RATI0 = mRRESP0NDING N0RMAL DEVIATE = 0522661 .373333 e466661 1 @ 7073!3E-02 1 e04533F-03 16.3333 2.6?909 THE PR08ABILITY 0F AN F-RATI0 THIS LARGF:: 0CCURRING BY CHANCE AL0NE IS .004 ( (Urea) {

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\..AMBDA VALUES F'0R F'ACTt3RS: NH4ICL NH4IH2P04 (NH4)2S' KN03 >EEF' EXTRACT '1 f2 12 *' 112 "1 112 Nl lI'? \ -t 1 -1 t -\ t I 1 -1 t -\ F'-RATI0 = 365.292 OF' = 1 \ f) 4 \..AM BOA VALUES F'0R BL0CK F'ACT0RSI CAR0LINA MCKEAN GRF:I1:NWICH A B C A B C A r: C -t -1 -1 2 2 2 -1 I -t F'-RATI0 = 108.061 OF' = 1 to.4 -1 -1 -1 0 0 F'-RATI0 = 2.91211 I)F' = 1 1041 LAMBOA VALUES F'eR BL0CK F'ACT0RSI CAR8LINA MCKEAN GREF:NWICH A B C A B C A 8 C 2 2 a -I -l -1 -1 I -I '-RATt0 412.919 OF' = t 1041 0 0 0 t 1 -1 -1 -1 '-RAT10 16.1891 OF' = 1. 1041 \..AMADA VALUES F'0H BL0CK F'ACT0RSt MCl ? ,) F'-RATI3 = 301.5:12 DF' = 1 1'14 1 -1 -1 -1 0 () 0 F'-RATI0 = 32.83A4 OF' = I I \.14 70

PAGE 73

LITERA'I'URE CI'I'ED Bear, F", Eo Soils and Fertiliz.ers, 'rhird Edition .. John and Sons, Inc", New York 1942. p@ 259 .. Brezonik, P. L. and E@ E@ Shannon" Trophic State of Lakes in North Central Florida.. Florida vJater Resources Research Center Publication No .. 13, 1971 .. Buckman, H. and N", C., Brady. The Nature Seventh Edition.. 'rhe Macmillan Company, Nev] York Environmental Protection Prog-ram No" 11024 FKM Urban Storm Runoff and Combined Sewer Overflmtl lutiol1" 1971. Porbes, R. B" 1968" \iJater Studies, Zellwood Drainage Wa'ter Control District@ Soil and Crop Society of Florida, Proceedings, Vol. 28, p. 42. Hortenstine, C. C., and R$ B. Forbes" 1972" Concentrations of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium and Total uble Salts in Soil Solution Samples from E'ertilized cmd Unfertili Histosolse of Environmental Qual Vol: 1, po 446", f(ohl p Do Ho 0 G@ B& Ba.rry' Comrncrner 1971 lizer Contribution to NiOcrate in Surface I'Jatar in a Corn Belt trlatershed.. Scienceg p@ 1331. Program No. 110 34 Fx Journal of Nev, \fJa.ter \rJorks Association, Vol: 61, p. 109. Sche1ske, C. L, 1960. Prel Report of uence of Iron, Organic Matter and other Pac'cors upon the Primary Product of a Marl Lakeo 1586" Institute for Fi s Research, Michigan of vif.. 1967" Hate:r for Nutrient Removal. Control Journal, 6,

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Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. American Public Health Association, Inc., New York, 13th. Edition, 1971. Steward, K. K. 1970. Aquatic Plants. Nutrient Removal Potentials of Various Hyacinth Control Journal, Vol: 8, p. 34. Task Group 2610 P Report, 1966. Nutrient Associated Problems in Water Quality and Treatment. Journal American Water Works Association. Vol: 58, p. 1317. Warren, C. E. Biology and Water Pollution Control. W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 1971, p. 27. Yuan, T. L., W. K. Robertson and J. R. Neller. 1960. Forms of Newly Fixed Phosphorus in Three Acid Sandy Soils. Soil Science Society Proceedings, p. 447. 72