Center for African Studies research report

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Center for African Studies research report
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Center for African Studies, University of Florida
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427 Grinter Hall PO Box 115560 Gainesville, Florida 32611-5560 352-392-2183 352-392-2435 (FAX) www.africa.ufl.edu r

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Research Report 2012 1 rFounded in 1965, the Center for African Studies at UF has been continuously designated a U.S. Department of Education Title VI National Resource Center for Africa for 30 years. It is currently one of only 12 such centers nationally, and the only Africa NRC located in a sub-tropical zone. Title VI funding to CAS supports research, teaching, outreach, and the development of international linkages in Africa. and environment, journalism and mass communications, law, tourism, and natural sciences. Graduate study the African continent, including institutions in Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda. the publication of research on and from Africa, and offers invaluable professional training for UF graduate students who serve on its editorial board. f Graduate study with a focus on Africa can be carried out in virtually every graduate or professional program across the university. Prospective students are encouraged to consult the websites of the individual programs for admissions procedures and criteria. Students in any graduate program at UF have the option of pursucontact us when they submit their applications. Complementing formal coursework, a regular and dynamic series of lectures, conferences and other activities open to all interested graduate students provide rich opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange and discus organize speakers and events that bring together faculty and graduate students with shared interests, providing students with unique opportunities for research and professional development.

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2 Research Report 2012 .........................................................................................................................................................................4f Mental Health, Humanitarian Intervention, and Reconstruction in Liberia.....................................5rf nrtfffb Continuing to Develop A Roadmap for Emergency Services in Africa........................................................8t Developing an Online African Language Course..............................................................................................9 Voices of Strength........................................................................................................................................ ......... .10rr Modeling Elephant/Vegetation Dynamics for Adaptive Management in Southern African Ecosystems ........ ... .11t Protected Areas and Oil Development in Equatorial Guinea...................................................................12t Sustainable Building Systems for Low Income Communities........................................................................13 Islam, Ethnicity, and Reformism in the Horn of African and Africa.................................................................14 Gators in Gabon.....................................................................................................................................................15f Search Engine Optimization Supports Research Access Online..........................................................16rff Memory, Memoirs, and Narratives in Mali...............................................................................................................20ffff Political Reform, Social Change, and Stability in The African Sahel..................................................21tfffr Smallholder Farmers in Global Value Chains: Spice Market Participation in Tanzania..........................23 Migration and Development in the Upper Senegal River Valley...............................................................24f Capturing Impact: Monitoring and Evaluation a Sanitation Program in Ethiopia................. ........25tff Impacts of a Growing Elephant Population in Southern Africa..............................................................26ft Africas Place in Global Food Security............................................................................................................................28rr Land-based Imagery in Contemporary South African Photography....................................................29frf Trajectories of Democracy in Africa and the Legacies of Democratic Experiements............. .....30ft Religious Motivation for Political Engagement in Kenya....................................................................................31 Human Livelihoods Assessment in the Republic of Congo..............................................................32 Biodiversity, Climate, and Carbon: The Forests of the Congo Basin...........................................................33 The Scramble for Nigeria: The View from Kano........ .......................................................................................34trrrtr Social Capital, Climate, and Agrarian Change in South Africa..........................................................................38f Hydrological Processes, Climate, and Land Cover in Mauritius.....................................................................39f Governing Ghanas Maritime Domain: Monitoring, Mapping and Surveillance...........................40f Livelihood Hunting and Attitudes in Southeastern Nigeria...............................................................................41r..... 42fr Pious Performances: Musiqa Ruhiyya and Islamic Popular Music in Fez. ........... ....... ....... ........ 43rntAfrican Language Initiative......................................................................................... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... .... ........................................... .....44 ................................ .. ....... ....... ............... .................................45

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Research Report 2012 3 In and Out of Africa: African Memoirs after 1980.......................................................................................................................................46 ....... ....... ....... ....... .... .... ... ....... ....... Risk, Threat and Vulnerability in Ghanas Off-Shore Oil Sector ................................... ....... ....... ....... ....... ....... ..........................................48 Sub-Saharan Business Environment Report (SABER)............................................................. ...................................................................49 Trans-Saharan Elections Project (TSEP) ......................................................................................................................................................50 bf....................................................................................................................................................52 ......................................................................................53 ...............................................................................................................................................54

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4 Research Report 2012 bbbbb bbbb b bbb These research summaries represent a sample of some of the diversity of work on Africa being car ried out at the University of Florida. Our faculty and graduate students as well as visiting scholars are involved in research that spans the continent geographically and ranges in focus from multiple areas of the humanities (including history, music, dance, literature, and the arts) to natural sciences and wildlife conservation, and from diverse aspects of political, so cial, and economic change to the human and environmental impacts in Africa of disease, climate change, and globalization. In addition to work by individuals and smaller groups of researchers, several larger collaborative projects included in this report help illustrate the range of in terdisciplinary work at UF and CAS. Our the School of Art & Art History are in the second year of preparation for a ma jor exhibit of Central African Kongo art in collaboration with the Royal Museum for Central Africa in Tervuren, Belgium. In addition to numerous interactions with other museums and art institutions, they have investigated important cultural links between Kongo culture and African American groups and areas. Following its time at the Harn Museum at UF, the exhibit is scheduled to travel to Princeton and New Orleans in 2014-15. In a continuing collaboration between CAS and the Center for Interna tional Business Research and Education (CIBER) at UF, the second edition of the Sub-Saharan Business Environment Re port (SABER) was published in 2012. The report, which is available both in print and online, provides valuable information to economic and business researchers and practitioners in the US, Africa, and else where. CIBER also provided travel and research support to two UF social science faculty and their graduate and undergrad uate students who were able to undertake and economic implications in Africa. One involved a study of offshore oil development in Ghana and its impacts, and the other dealt with the economic and social impacts of cell phone diffusion maries that follow. The Trans-Saharan Elections Project (TSEP), funded by the U.S. Department of States Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, has involved a two-year series of exchanges and seminars among elections specialists from six Sahelian countries and a wide range of American academics and professionals. The project held a three-week seminar in the US in May 2012, in the midst of the US elec tion year, for 16 participants from the six countries. In addition, CAS continued its strong involvement in the new Masters in De velopment Practice (MDP) degree, jointly offered with the Center for Latin Ameri can Studies. MDP admitted its third class in 2012, and many of the MDP students have been or plan to be involved in devel opment projects and efforts in Africa. Finally, UFs Program in African Languages, which is closely linked to CAS as well as UFs Department of Languages, Literatures, and Cultures (LLC), organized and hosted a second summer of intensive African language instruction through the African Languages Initiative. Graduate and undergraduate students from UF and numerous other American universities received classroom and other innovative edge the support we receive from various sources. Most notably, CAS was again granted funding as a Title VI National Resource Center for African Studies in 2010, one of only 12 in the country. Despite substantial budget cuts to the Title VI programs nationwide in 2011 and 2012, this grant helps us continue our work and supports many of our students through Foreign Language and Area grateful for continuing support from sev eral sources at the University of Florida, especially the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. Numerous individual donors, listed later in the report continue to sup port our activities and students and help us to prepare skilled and knowledgeable scholars and researchers who have deep understanding of and commitment to Af rican peoples, societies, and environments. For more information about CAS, and our various activities and opportunities, please visit our website at f

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Research Report 2012 5 ft rfrntrbtbfrnrfrbfbnbf frnrfffnbfrnrr bbbbb rfn rtbn nbb bbbfb bb bbbbbb bbb Currently, with Catherine Panter-Brick of Yale University, I am co-editing a book on anthropology and medical humanitarianism Red Cross, Red Crescent, Blue Helmets: Medical Humanitari anism in States of Emergency that brings together tioner experience in humanitarian emergencies to intervention. The cases we are considering include: the post-Tsunami reconstruction of Banda Aceh, Indonesia; the 2004 famine in Niger; the postBank; and post-earthquake housing displacement in Haiti, among others. Our research seeks to engage humanitarian practitioners and anthro pologists in a global dialogue around effects and As an additional dimension of our research into culture and medical humanitarianism, I have also led an initiative with Dr. Panter-Brick and an advisory board of 15 leaders in anthropology, global health, global mental health, and medical humanitarian practice to survey nearly 200 practic goal is to bring together anthropology and human itarian practitioners in a global dialogue about how humanitarian intervention happens, in practice, and what its strengths, limitations, opportunities, and aporias are in the emerging global environ have recently concluded the online survey compo nent of our research, and look forward to publish Additionally, with the support of the Univer sity of Florida, I have also had the opportunity this past year to pursue research on a new book project that examines local ethno-histories of gender-based violence in Liberia, and reconsiders the international ap plication of human rights standards regarding gender-based violence in African contexts. My research in archives across the continental United States has indicated that gender-based violence involves a far more varied and complex array of practices and social relations than contemporary legal or global human rights framings allow. The consequences of holding a limited view of gender-based violence becomes fully are mapped onto local realities and experiences in a way that creates substantial legal, social, and historical disjunctures. This book, which I have tentatively entitled Crypto-Histories of Gender Violence: Sex, Culture and Power in Liberia also uses missionary colonial records from the last 150 years to uncover culturally encoded forms of gender-protection and gender-vulnerability in conditions that are currently dominated by hope to challenge global conventions interventions in order to advance a different way of thinking about how gender-based violence is patterned in culture, cultural history, and cultural memory. rfntb tr

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6 Research Report 2012nfnbfbrbrnbr frrfrf bbbb bbbb bbbb Can community leaders in a highly politicized environment be encouraged setting, can actions by local leaders alone investigator for a randomized evaluation funded by USAID that examines the ef fects of training programs for traditional professionalism and the amount of divi sion within their communities. Recent UF PhD (SNRE) Shylock Muyengwa has been collaborating with me on this project. have often been implicated in the elec toral violence and intimidation that has taken place before recent elections. They have been accused of denying food aid to opposition supporters and making parti san judicial decisions. As a result, a NGO program for traditional leaders to remind them of their responsibilities under the law, and the basic standards of profes sionalism. Approximately 600 villages are involved in the study, one half of which will receive a training program in 20122013, and the other half of which will not receive training until 2013-2014 and can therefore serve as the control group study will examine both whether bureau cratic training for local leaders can depo liticize their administrations, and whether bringing together diverse community leaders to participate in training sessions can help reduce political tensions. This research project involves track ing community governance and levels of political polarization across the 600 study villages before and after the training ses sions. The data collection involves survey ing households and community leaders in each of the 600 villages, and conducting ethnographic research and open-ended interviews in two dozen villages. It has been uniquely challenging to develop and implement a survey on these topics in this sensitive environment, but the project is employing a range of techniques to protect the identities of respondents and measure sensitive phenomena, includ ing survey codes, list experiments, and endorsement experiments.rftr fbfbrbrtfrbfn rrrbtr

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Research Report 2012 7 ft rrrbfbrfbnbb rrntbbtb b bbb bbbbb bb bb bbbbb bbb bbb bbb b seasons, the German Science Foundation provided the bulk of funding, with additional funds coming from the UF International Centers Study Abroad Program. This year the U.S. Embassy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia also provided funds as part of a seed grant to develop a partnership between UF lishment of an archaeology and cultural heritage cused upon obtaining data that could help test the a major environmental and cultural refugium for anatomically mod ern hunter-gatherers dealing with the cold, arid climates of the Late Pleistocene prior to and after human migrations across and out of Africa ~ 60-50,000 years ago. Under the direction of Dr. Vogelsang, graduate students from UC and UF concen trated on excavating the shelters oldest known deposits in order to obtain more charcoal samples dating to >50,000 years ago. Additional stone artifacts and animal bones were also recovered, allowing us to recon struct hunter-gatherer technological capabilities and subsistence patterns of this time period. supervisor Clement Menard of the University of Toulouse and Steve Brandt, seven UF undergradu ate students participating in UFs Study Abroad program as well as eight students and staff from other areas of the shelter in undated deposits suspected of dating to the even the early Holocene. UF alumnus Dr. Erich Fisher of Arizona State University and Dr. Oliver Bodeker of UC conducted geomorphological and geoarchaeological studies of the excavated deposits in order to eluci date information on the shelters past climates, environments and formation processes. Perhaps one of the most intrigu ing aspects of our project was our successful attempt to go completely paperless! Instead of using paper forms to record data and create catalogs, we used Android Tablets to Although initially challenging, we took to this new technology quickly, enter, retrieve and access. we had the honor of a visit from then Deputy Prime Minister and now Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemari am Deselegn, pictured wearing a dark sport coat surrounded by project and security personnel (photo by Hannah Parow-Souchon). This was surely a rrtbrr fntfrb fnrrrbtr

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8 Research Report 2012fffrrbbn rnrfrnrfnbfb bbbbbbb bbbbbb bbbbbThe continent faces the dual burden of increasing rates of both infectious and non-infectious diseases. Furthermore, Africans suffer a disproportionate morbidity and mortality due to traumatic injuries Federation for Emergency Medicine invited experts in international emergency medicine to a round table in November, 2011 in Cape Town, South Af rica. The group convened as a satellite to the EM Society of South Africas Emergency Medicine discussed a framework for continuing the develop ment of the specialty-to address acute medical illness and traumatic injuries, as well as the training of its practitioners. I was fortunate to participate in the roundtable focusing on pre-hospital emergency care and hope that our shared experience will provide foundations for relevant, timely systems creation and strengthening in addition to multi center research for quality improvement. motivated young emergency physician practicing in Khartoum, Sudan who was eager to share with me her clinical experiences. I had the privilege of sion and international poster presentation. She presented Mass Methanol Intoxication: The Suon Emergency Medicine in Dublin, Ireland in June, 2012. Dr. Rhaman and I are currently completing a manuscript detailing her unique ex periences with mass casualty intoxications in Khartoum. During the summer of 2012, I was honored to be invited as a guest lecturer and emergency consultant physician in the emergency depart medicine residency training program. For two weeks, I gave daily lectures, supervised bedside care and worked alongside the graduates and new trainees at the Tikkur Anbessa Spe cialty Hospital in Addis Ababa. Cur rently, the Ethiopians are celebrating Masters Emergency Nurses and spe cialist pediatric emergency medicine fellows. Meanwhile, the emergency medicine residents (physicians with specialty focused training) are enter training program. These achieve ments, as well as the approval of the Ethiopian Society of Emergency Medicine Specialists, will be honored cy medicine congress and continuing professional development event. Finally, I have had the privilege to work with colleagues in the African Federation for Emergency Medicine throughout the last year to shape the agenda of the African Congress on Emergency Medicine in Accra, Ghana in October, 2012. As a member of the local organizing I have had the opportunity to work alongside the pioneers in emergency medicine across the continent. I participated as faculty for the prehospital skills workshop as well as the trauma track in the main congress. As Africa continues to place more emphasis on the treatment of acute medical conditions and traumatic titioners, the UF COM-Jacksonville Department of Emergency Medi cine plans to continue to partner with African institutions to improve education and management while together measuring and reporting the outcomes of our work. en frrtrbr frrrbnrtbrrtb rrr rrrbnrtbr ffrrrtbrbffr tfrbfnrrr btrtrr brrrb rrbbtrr brfrfffbr

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Research Report 2012 9 ft rrfbfffrnbf bfbrnrt bbbb bbb b International Business and Research (CIBER) and the Center for African Studies (CAS) I spent the past year developing an online Beginning Akan course which aims to develop cultural competence by immersing students in the various facets of rural and urban Akan life through multimedia and interactive online activities. For such an enterprise we faced the challenge of getting authentic video material. I therefore traveled through some major Akan areas such as Kumasi, the capital city of the Ashanti Region and seat of the Asante King, and towns like Nkawkaw, Kokofu, Bosomtwe, and Cape Coast. I went to these places with Obenewa Nkansah and Marian Abbey, both graduates of the School of Performing Arts at the University teaching assistant who is from Kumasi, and Chris Tagbor, a videographer. Obenewa played the role of Kelli, an American student studying Akan at the University of Florida who was visiting her friend Amo played the role of their Akan professor. This gave us the opportunity to cover a lot of topics from such simple issues as greetings and giving directions to more complex ones like the prepara tion of different kinds of foods and the discussion of conservation at the Kakum National Park in the Central Region. In all these scenarios, our three performers had instructions to speak carefully such that the mate rial would be useable for language learners. However, in order to make it authentic, they were not given any scripts to learn and recite. Moreover, the people with whom they interact ed at the various places were allowed to speak naturally. Our scenarios included Obenewa and Marian get ting a tourist guide at Bosomtwe to tell them the story of Lake Bosomtwe and why it is considered sacred among the Asante people, as well as having a health superintendant and a senior nurse treat Obenewa who fell ill with malaria fever. The videos were edited into short clips after which lessons were prepared to cover them. The lessons for Beginning Akan I were narrated by advanced Akan student Maia of Beginning Akan II are narrated by undergraduate student Marilyn Okine and Amo. Considering that Akan is a tonal language and students are expected to learn the pronunciation of the words by themselves, I worked with Bash Choudhry at the UF Center of Instructional Technol ogy and Training (CITT) to develop a tone game. Syllables in Akan have a high, low or a down-stepped tone. red, the low tone with green and the recorded the careful pronunciation of the words in the various lessons on the piano and drums by Elikem Nyamuame (UF ethnomusicology doctoral student). After listening to the pronunciation of the word and its rendition on the piano and drams, a student is required to color the tones. The game can be found at: http:// Currently the course is be ing taught as a hybrid course. The eventual aim is to make it a fully online course with minimal input from the instructor. The lessons have been compiled into an electronic textbook which is given to students free of charge. Also, with the help of Fred Meyler, another undergraduate student, we have put together an electronic dictionary which is based on Christallers dictionary of the Twi language.en rrrnbrr rrrr rrtfrt frbfnrrr btrtrb trtnrrr rfrtbt rrbt rrr tb

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10 Research Report 2012 bb bb bbb bbb Not unlike their contemporaries in commerce, African artists live and work in the possibilities and the paradoxes of the present. Notably, in the late 1990s, a number of African women artistsparticularly those in dance and the visual artsstepped forth to interrogate the disillusioning post-apartheid lives. Ivorian choreogra a harbinger of African women who would build art not only by women but also about womens lives. The intensity of the work inspired awe and blew open a choreographic space previously dominated by men. In the fall of 2012, audiences across the United States had the opportunity rary theater makers/choreographers and cultural leaders Nelisiwe Xaba (South Africa), Kettly Nol (Haiti/Mali), Gba hihonon Nadia Beugr (Cte dIvoire), Maria Helena Pinto (Mozambique), and Bouchra Ouizguen (Morocco). These art ists unpacked the interrogations of their artistic journeys in a six-city American tour, curated and produced by MAPP International Productions in partner ship with the Africa Contemporary Arts Consortium (TACAC), founded by the of Florida in concert with celebrated national arts entities such as the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts and the Bates Dance Festival, among others. Entitled Voices of Strength: Conwomen choreographers was prepared at the KVS Theatre in Brussels in June 2012. Supported by funding from the Na tional Endowment for the Arts and KVS, I conducted a series of meetings and one-on-one interviews with the choreog raphers in residence at KVS. The artists generously shared insights into artistic creative processes, personal and profes sional stories, and concerns about the dynamic situations in Africa that often sions, I formed a set of Voices of Strength visual and written contextual materials to introduce American audiences, critics, and presenters to their work. The visual materials were further used to fuel a fun draising campaign to support the success of the tour. The materials now comprise part of a larger book/technology project entitled Movement (R)Evolution Africa The performances and community events of Voices of Strength audiences in vivid, real-time, spaces of ographers and eight exquisite performers. The artists broadly shared their art and ideas, and primarily with those who would rarely reciprocate the visit. Thus the artists not only sharpened audiences ability to perceive, but to imagine Africa anew. Indeed, the decolonization of perceptions, practices, institutions, and The works of Nelisiwe Xaba, Kettly Nol, Gbahihonon Nadia Beugr, Maria Helena Pinto, and Bouchra Ouizguen collectively shift victim to agent, two-dimensional perceptions to three, and stasis to transformation. Thanks to each of the artists of Voices of Strength American audiences have experienced a profound conceptual shiftwhere African womens points of view dislodge themselves from front and center on the stages of our imaginations.en brrbf rrbrtrbr rrft rnrf

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Research Report 2012 11 ft bbb b bbbb bbb bbbbb bbb bb A fundamental question for managers of these complex and vegetation management in southern problem where solutions defy simplistic notions and problem contexts continually shift with evolving social expectations and adaptive learning. For the past year, I have been on a Fulbright Scholarship in South Africa working with the University of Kwa National Parks (SANParks) to apply coupled elephant-vegetation models to ecosystems within the Kruger National Park (KNP) and Addo Elephant National Park (AENP). The objectives of this re search include the following: (1) develop benchmark data sets for model experiments in the KNP and AENP; (2) apply to these ecosystems, two elephant/vegetation models of different complexity; (3) conduct model and decision analysis using each elephant/vegetation model to explore outputs with respect to different elephant management scenarios. A primary goal of this research is to test the robustness of model predictions when different assumptions are made about what is ecologically important. A key dynamic of the KNP ecosystem that is of great concern for park management is the exploration of elephant effects one state dominated by woodlands, to a state dominated by shrubs and grasses. entists are concerned about high biodi versity areas newly opened to elephant populations and potential fragmentation of the succulent thicket ecosystem. Both of these issues relate to ecosystem resilience where abrupt transitions can have cascading effects on biodiversity and modeling approaches to help determine the degree of agreement among the two models in where these transitions are expected to occur, and use subsequent statistical analysis techniques to tease out key differences in model assumptions that may account for any evident divergence in projections. Another fundamental aspect of my model analysis is in the simulation of human-elephant interactions via management-advised scenarios. These modeling scenarios have been designed with the direct input of SANParks managers to focus on different human-elephant inter actions such as non-consumptive tourism, consumptive uses and critical resource ent scenario simulations for the KNP and AENP which have quite different elephant management challenges in terms of elephant populations, ecosystems and the amount space available for expansion. Many of these management plans have a spatial focus towards critical and limiting resources (e.g. water availability in the dry season) as well as options for multiple proactive and reactive management re and elephant population/reproductive controls. The results of our elephant/vegetation simulations show that managing these systems is a complex and challenging job, with no easy answers. There is a great and continuing need for adaptive learning at the ecosystem and institutional scales. Our models can play a useful role in this process to strengthen and protect these critical ecosystems. rnrbrr rrrbff fbfrr rfrbfrrbffbnbr bfbrrffrnfnbfrrr

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12 Research Report 2012nrrnrbbfrrrff bnbfrbt bbbb bb b bbb bbbbb bb bbbbb bbbb b bbbbb bbbb bbbb bbb bbbbbb bbbThese areas, together with the other ten in the national system, were formally created in 2000, but lack management in 2002, but without an operating budget for many years. Lodged within the Ministry of Agriculture, the agency has been allocated a rising budget in the past two years, and is promoting alliances with international conservation organizations includ Resources Institute. ment coffers, with spending most visible in new infrastructure expansion: roads, bridges, airports, dams and power grids. All oil is offshore, extracted from platforms in the Gulf of Guinea, with no line. Infrastructure development is taking place within protected areas, while new roads greatly facilitate the extraction and transport of bushmeat and timber. Forestry concessions that border all protected areas are being renewed, in some cases for the third cycle of extraction of the plywood species Okume (Aucomea klaineana). Unregis tered chainsaw operators are active in all protected areas, while road construction companies also take timber. Mining also takes place within protected areas, though for now it is limited to earth, sand and rock extraction for roads, ports, and buildings. Rural to urban migration may reduce pressure on some natural resources, but also debilitates social structures capable of managing the same resources dangered ethnic groups reside within these protected areas: the Bagyeli and Balengue in Ro Campo, and the Basek in Punta Ilende. In addition to the rising budget and INDEFOR-AP staff based in Bata, the agency has prepared several management plans for ministerial re view and approval, has stepped up its resentatives in communities within protected areas. Park infrastructure essential to facilitate a permanent INDEFOR-AP presence on the ground. The greatest opportunities lie in establishing co-management agreements with government authori ties (military, police, municipal) and private companies (oil, logging, construction) whose activities overlap or border the protected areas. This case study addresses sev disciplines: conservation governance, corporate social responsibility, sustainable development, conservation and human livelihoods, and cultural survival. The project was directed by Michael Painter (Director-Conservathropology), and implemented also by Kantuta Lara (socio-economic sity of East Anglia).en trbrn rrrr rnrbtrt nrftfrrbrn tfrrn

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Research Report 2012 13 ft bfbrfrnfr frt bbb b bb bb bbb b bb bbb Outcomes of the work include 3 papers in a special issue on Engi neering Sustainable Building Materials: Advancing the Structural Performance of Journal of Sustainability Based on work in Kenya and Tanzania, I participated as an invited exhibitor during the twenty-third session of the UN-HABITAT Governing Coun cil Exhibition in Nairobi. I was also part of the US delegation that participated in Penn a NSF-ASCE workshop held in Abuja, Nigeria. The work that I have been doing in East Africa is being scaled up through working with researchers in globallydispersed, teams. I am also the UF PI on an NSF grant, Collaborative Research: Resilient and Sustainable Engineered Fiber-Reinforced Earthen Masonry for to transform conventional but brittle earthen masonry into an equally sustain able and locally appropriate but radically more damage-tolerant material system. Engineered Fiber-Reinforced Earthen Masonry (EFREM) consists of compressed and stabilized earth blocks and earth mortar, both reinforced with natural being pursued through collaborative and complementary research at the University of South Carolina, University of Nebras ka-Lincoln and University of Florida, aimed at: 1) engineering and prototyping stabilized earth blocks and soil mortar, both of which are enhanced through the addition of natural or recycled and non2) quantifying the enhancement in dam age resilience (strength, toughness) for EFREM materials as a result of cement 3) verifying the structural response of full-scale walls under in-plane, out-ofplane and projectile loads (simulating the debris, which typically cause most of human deaths and injuries). EFREM is en visioned as a novel, affordable and energy low-income dwellings in rural and remote areas subjected to extreme wind loads. Other notable efforts including scaling up research in low cost building technologies through a Northwestern University-led proposal NSF SRN: Sus tainability Research Network on Sustainable and Resilient (SURE) Infrastructure Materials Science, Engineering, Educathe NSF for reverse visit. In both NSF proposals, my scope of work focused on investigating hazard resilience of earthbased materials in Tanzania working in collaboration with the National Housing Building Research Association. Conference papers based on the work have been accepted for presenta tion in several conferences including the 4th International Network for Tropical Architecture Conference (Singapore), the Environment Research Focused on Social Outcomes (Brisbane, Australia), and the and Construction Conference (Honolulu, Hawaii). The funded research supports three graduate students: Peter Donkor (doctor al student in Design, Planning and Con struction); Felicity Amezugbe (pursuing an MSc degree in Building Construction) and Malar Baskaran (MSc student with an expertise in geotechnical engineering). rnbrr rrbfftb tfrbfnrrr btr

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14 Research Report 2012 bb bbbbb bbb Spring 2012 was largely spent on analyzing data and writing. The project is (so far) focusing on the so-called Somali and Oromo liberation movements struggling for various forms of autonomy for Ethiopian Somalis and Oromo. The aim of the research is to provide muchneeded empirical knowledge and new perspectives on the nature and developments of the Somali and Oromo ethnonationalist movements in the southeast ern parts of Ethiopia. As they emerged in Muslim-dominated areas, a major thesis of the project is that religion (i.e. Islam) has played a more important role than generally assumed. The project will also provide a more nuanced understanding of inter-religious relations in Ethiopia/ Horn of Africa. In particular, I challenge the assumption that Ethiopia is a model for peaceful inter-religious co-existence, and demonstrate how the historical domi nance of Christianity as a political culture and state-ideology has produced a lasting asymmetric relationship and consequently antagonistic attitudes between Christians and Muslims. The more general and theoretical objective is to apply the empirical how to conceptualize the relationship between religion and ethnicity, particularly Another project has been to map out some of the particular features of Salaf ism in Africa. Based on my own research and review of relevant literature, I have investigated the historical trajectories, some major ideological features, and how relates to politics and political power. The at the outset is a religious movement, devoted to securing religious purity, and how developments over the last decades have produced an increasingly heterogeneous movement. Much of the material has been presented at different inter national conferences, and the planned output will be 2-3 journal articles. In addition, I have, together with Marit steb, been working on a project on the role of religious (Muslim) leaders in combating female genital mutilation (FGM) in Ethiopia. The project problematizes NGOs somewhat uncritical use of religious leaders, and argues that their potential positive role is intrinsically related to historical trajectories, where local discourses have made their authority The output here will be a journal article, ready for publication in 2013. I have also, together with Patrick Desplat (Cologne University), completed the publication process of the edited volume Muslim Ethiopia: The Christian Legacy, Identity Politics and Islamic Reformism This book focuses on changes with regard to Muslim communities in post-1991 Ethiopia, including intra-religious dynamics within the Muslim communities, Islam intersecting with Ethiopian public and political spheres, and Islam in Ethiopia in relation to the geo-political discourses in the wider Horn of Africa. The book will be published in 2013.rrrr rrrbtrtr rrrfbtfbfrnfrnf nbbfnb

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Research Report 2012 15 ft bbb bbbbb bbThe large areas set aside as protected areas are the cornerstone of efforts to maintain the countrys phenomenal biodiversity, from great apes to massive trees. Efforts are under way to see that these attractions will draw eco-tour ists to a region that formerly was off the beaten track. The even larger areas of forest allocated by the government for multiple-use forestry are also expected to contribute to Gabons conservation and development goals through producing highquality timber while providing habitat for wildlife, storing carbon, and delivering the many other goods and ecosystem services on which society depends. Building the human capacity to manage these forests is the goal of a new graduate program at the Ecole Nationale des Eaux et Forts (ENEF). The on-the-ground team of research faculty on the ENEF campus on Cap de Estrias outside of Libreville includes three recent UF Biology PhDs -Connie Clark, John Poulsen, and Vincent Medjibe. In June 2012, Jack Putz, joined the team students in the course, 9 from Gabon and 3 from the Republic of Congo, were all working towards their MSc in environmental management. This was but team-teaching with Vincent, who hails from the Central Afri can Republic and did his disserta tion research in Gabon, more than his understanding. In addition, the students were all mid-career profes sionals and all very willing to share their extensive experiences. The course began in and around the ENEF campus but then went further into the forests. The group travelled to Makokou near the Cameroonian border and then worked their way back to Libreville, stopping at logging concessions and sawmills along the way. The focus of the course was on logging methods and impacts, but plenty of brain-power was expended on issues related to the many tradeoffs that need to be con sidered when making management decisions. For example, while logging went on around them, the group considered ways to optimize timber production, biodiversity protection, carbon sequestration, and water provision. Although they arrived at no clear solution, these sorts of deci sions are exactly like those that each of the students will face when they return to their jobs as park directors, logging supervisors, and climate change mitigation treaty negotiators. One outcome of the course is that most of the students have decided to conduct their masters project on environmental impact assessment in logging concessions, industrial zones, petroleum concession, and buffer zones around national parks. observations of the impacts of conventional and reduced-impact log ging, course participants each carried Topics addressed ranged from logging road impacts on adjacent vegetation to post-logging regeneration on log landings. The results of these one-day projects and summaries of other activities were compiled in a course book that is available upon or Vincent (medjibe@gmail.com). Although most of the course participants do not intend to pursue careers the opportunity to carry out a project from hypothesis formulation and experimental design to manuscript preparation and oral presentation. Recognizing that they will all soon be back in jobs for which they will have to commission and evaluate research, doing science. en brf ntfrbfnrrr btr bnfbf

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16 Research Report 2012 bbb bb bbbbb In 2012, the University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries digitized J.M. Derscheids Rwandan history col lection. These 800-plus items on 2,021 for the research of Ren Lemarchand, Catharine Newbury, and the late Alison Des Forges, among others. It was the Most of the contents were in French, copies were scarce, and items had to typescript inventory passed from hand to a graduate student. Simply uploading scholarly works, research materials, or data to a website does not assure they can be retrieved by search engines if an information seeker is unaware of the resource, or doesnt know the title or other descriptive information. Search engines use crawling and indexing to gather metadata (much like the infor mation in catalog records and scholarly citations) and to decide what a webpage how Google determines value and ranks results: technical features are important, including compliant code, but .edu and .org domains are also factors supporting pedia.org is an excellent example, as it is Rich content, dense contextual information within a site, and links to the material from other highly ranked sites are key factors in how a site will appear in search results. Library best practices include providing public metadata for curated materials and, for manuscripts and ar convey a collectors background, describe the scope, physical extent, contents, arrangement and also point to related works). Could these practices be adapted to ensure that the Derscheid Collection is discoverable online by the researchers Laurie N. Taylor (Digital Humanities Librarian) and I combined our technical and curatorial efforts in 2011-2012 to collaborate on an award winning project (CRL Primary Source Award for Ac cess, see: http://www.crl.edu/focus/ article/8132) to enhance access to the Derscheid Collection using Search Engine employed as a public service, SEO pro motes the discoverability of resources so that the researchers who need them can within search results. Library and archival curatorial practices serve as the founda tion for applying SEO, helping research an item by item index online, uploading a translated biography of the collector, on Derscheid, and securing permission Rwanda and Burundi to include on the Derscheid edu/derscheid). Together, the information in these sources provides an exceptionally rich scholarly context to orient readers and excellent data for search engines to crawl. through social media, blogs, and a brief announcement at the African Studies As sociation roundtable on David Newburys 2011 edition of Des Forges dissertation. workshops, a conference presentation on the theme Dis/connects: African a forthcoming chapter to be published by its organizers, the Standing Conference on Library Materials on Africa (http:// scolma.org/). en rfrrtb trffrbrr rtfrbfnrrr btrb trffrbrtnr frbff rrrbnffrbfnrrbn rffrf

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Research Report 2012 17 ft frffrnfbfbnbfrf bbfbbbbb b bbbb fbf b I submitted the book manuscript in July, and I am now beginning the initial stages of a new research project. By the time I write my next research report, I hope to be able to describe that new project, and to have a My book will, I hope, make an important contemporary Africa, visual culture, and popular culture. Rather than a survey of the continents fashion designers, African Style in Global Fashion uses fashion as the point of entry into an exploration of broad themes, from the uses of forms associated with tradition to construct personal identity, to the production of local expressive forms out of global networks of images. The book is based on several years of research in Mali, South Africa, Senegal, Ghana, Niger, and France. The designers whose work and careers I address are from these countries, as well as from Tunisia, Comoros, and Nigeria. I also draw from my documentation of fashion shows and other fashion events, archival materials, and analysis of fashion media such as magazines. Early in my sabbatical year, I completed some elements of the research for my book. I spent a month in Mali during fall 2011, following up with several designers and artists in Bamako who I have interviewed and worked with over the years. I also had the opportunity to bring a new artist into this research, whose work offers a fascinating twist on my study of Malian embroidery (the subject of one chapter of my book). the northern city Niafunk, has been he creates embroidered garments in a range of popular styles, he also status and piety in Malis northern regions, including the famed city of Timbuktu. My research in Timbuktu focused on this work, which is very labor-intensive--a single garment may require several years to complete, made by hand using intricate techgarments using a sewing machine, transforming the process and the these garments only on commission, yet their lower price makes them ac the hand-embroidered gowns retain their high status, these machine-produced versions offer an opportunity to consider the interactions between technology, style, and innovation in a centuries-old garment style. This indigenous fashion design, which does not intersect with the global fashion system, along with that of designers of fashion design, drives my curiosity about the power of innovation in one of Africas most visible art forms: clothing. I must also note that I very much hope to continue my research in Mali during the coming year, as I move into a new project. The coun try is currently struggling to restore order and sovereignty in its northern regions, and several of the artists I have worked with in Timbuktu and Djenn have been forced to leave, uprooting their lives to settle in Bamako. Their circumstances represent just a small window onto the transformation of the country, an astounding turn of events that we all hope will be resolved in coming months.en brbrr rbftn trrrbtr trrbtrt nrbf brr

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18 Research Report 2012bfbrrfbfbffrbt rnbrf bbb bbbbb bbb bbbb The goal of this fellowship was to document Nalu, an endan and create a multipurpose digital archive of natural language events combined with cultural audiovisual material. During the fellowship I travelled to Guinea months respectively and approached the linguistic documentation of Nalu in documentary linguis tics fashion. This was combined with an immersive approach in which I lived as a guest with families in the principal research area during data collection. Different from language description, which aims at documenting the grammatical structure of a language, the goal in documentary linguistics (sometimes also called language documentation) is to create a record of natural language in the form of an extensively annotated audio-visual corpus of transcribed, translated, annotated and contextual ized audio and audio-visual data that contains re cordings of various language events from descrip tive monologues over free ranging conversations to cultural activities. Since Nalu is a little known and under-described language, the resulting digital language archive also contains items known from traditional language documentation, such as a dictionary, a grammatical sketch, and an orthography. The archive will be accompanied by an exten sive web of cross-references between transcribed recordings, supportive linguistic analysis, and commentary all of which is targeted at making the corpus accessible and usable for a variety of users, be it academics -such as cultural anthropolo gist, linguists, historians -or non-academics such as community members, interested laypeople, or policy makers. The material will be submitted to the Endangered Languages Archives (ELAR) at SOAS by the end of January 2014. I invite anybody who is interested to register as a user with ELAR and access the archive once it is uploaded. It contains a set of interesting data that I believe to be useful for a variety of disciplines. Amongst other things it features interviews in which the Jihad by Asekou Sayon in 1956 aimed at destroying animistic shrines and ritual objects is remembered and comment ed upon, clan histories recorded by the local research team, a dictionary with over 2000 entries, picture series on economic activities (e.g. palm oil topics (e.g. architecture) etc. In addition, it contains four short ethno graphic documentaries on different economic activities and cultural contact narrated by Nalu speakers death ritual of the Mnyaando secret society which were produced in col laboration with visual anthropologist Martin Gruber from the University of Bremen, Germany. I would like to take this oppor tunity to thank my mentors, James Essegbey and Fiona McLaughlin, for supporting this project at the University of Florida. Equally, I am thankful to the administrative team at the Center for African Studies for helping me navigate through all the them this project would not have run so successfully. en rtrftbf rrbrffrrr btrrbtrt nrtrrtr brr rbfrftb trt

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Research Report 2012 19 ft rbrfrfrnrn frbfrfnbnb bbb bbbb bb bbbb bbb bbThe remedies, however, are less self-evident, continuing to generate heated debate among policymakers, especially when it comes to major commercial crops such as cotton. the pitfalls of conventional approaches that advocate liberalization of agricultural markets and privatization of state-owned marketing boards, many have argued, both in academic and policy circles, for the need to pay more attention to the instances of market imperfections, and the role of institutional and non-price nuanced perspectives, major donors, such policy recommendations. One reason is the persistence of two main tenets: that state companies are always wasteful and pay farmers lower-than-market prices, and only by aligning actors incentives with price signals. In practice, this has meant that pressures for governments to priva tize agricultural parastatals and liberal ize markets have hardly relented. The outcomes have been varied, but always very different from those predicted, with countries resisting donor recommenda tions (Mali and Cameroon), transforming them (Burkina Faso), or adhering implementation (Benin). This is due not only because of self-serving opposition from domestic actors, as argued by much of the political economy literature, but prevailing combination of market, institu tional and policy failures. the Africa Power and Politics (APPP) Cotton Sector Research Project, which I have been coordinating since 2008, and work was completed in summer 2011, I used most of the past academic year, es pecially during a spring semester of leave, to write the research outputs. By examining cotton sector reform experiences in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cam eroon and Mali, our project participates in current debates about the state of eco for new policy paradigms, which not only make more valid use of insights from the local realities. Thus, in our examined contexts, we show that the main issue is not the parastatals monopoly power per se, but the type of institutional arrange ments that give bureaucrats the incentives to perform and to coordinate market operations. Similarly, we show that the excessive focus on price liberalization is misplaced, since price incentives are not very effective in transmitting incentives to farmers, given the social realities of cot ton production in the region. By adhering to entrenched practices and long-standing myths, prevailing policy approaches miss the opportunity to build on the many positives that agricultural systems already display, and to leverage on local resources to get around real constraints. The end life of a research project surely always encompasses a sense of accomplishment and relief, mixed with nostalgia and sadness. This is especially true when coordinating a project has entailed the privilege of directly collabo rating with, and regularly interacting with, valuable in-country researchers. On the bright side, research never ends despite do the network ties and personal relation ships that one has carefully cultivated. Parts of the data that my collaborators and I have been collected have not yet been exploited, and so I plan to continue working on this fascinating topic in the years ahead. The project website will remain active. You can read our existing and forthcoming publications at http:// www.institutions-africa.org/publications/ research_stream/cotton-sector-reforms. en rrfrbrrrr btrrrbrb rbrtfb rb trrr rfrrfrtr tntt

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20 Research Report 2012 bbb bbbb bb bIn addition to examining memory practices and discourses, which have developed since the democratiza tion of the country, I have looked at how major political changes have radically transformed Malian literary production. Paying attention to the particular role played by autobiographies and memoirs, I investigate the new literary patterns and unexpected generic tendencies which have emerged since the political transition of 1991. At issue are the new reading de mands and habits in contemporary Mali, which demonstrate a strong preference for memoirs and autobiographies. The aim of the study is also to describe and of the revival of memoirs and autobiographical writings which, in the Malian context, were repressed and regulated by the multiple restrictions imposed by the military regime after it took power narratives, the research describes newly developed local literary practices. It examines the distinct motivations of writing and analyses the ambivalent forms and modes of writing used by authors as diverse as former political prisoners, mili Ultimately, the narratives their recep tion and circulation signal imperatives, obligations and admissions about the past and demonstrate that the prolifera tion of memoirs not only responds to the national discourse on memory but very often challenges the consensual approach noticed in other local memory discourses and practices since democratization. This year, I have presented papers on memoirs in Mali at international confer ences (such as the African Literature Association), co-organized a workshop memoirs after 1980, and published a paper on the question of military power and cinematographic production in Mali. The paper appeared in the journal Critical Intervention. In addition to my research on memoirs, I have also pursued my work on Malian popular theatre, both within Mali as well as its reception in France. Focus ing on the work of the theatre company Blonba, I examine how migration is informing and shaping Malian theatri cal practices and analyze how theatre practitioners are responding to French dominant discourses on Malian migration. At the same time, I look at how theatre practitioners engage with the strategies adopted by social movements in France to address the question of Malian migra tion. I have presented a paper on this topic at the annual African Theatre Association meeting in Swansea (UK).en frbrr rbtbtrrntrnbfbnnbr fbf

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Research Report 2012 21 brntbbfrtbfbf rnbfbrffff bbbb bbbbbbb bbbb bb bbb bbbb The Minerva Initiative is a university-based social science research program intended to increase un derstanding of countries and topics of importance of the Secretary of Defense. In the 2012 competi tion some ten projects were selected for funding from the initial submission of 330 proposals. Over the three years, the grant to UF will sponsor talks, conferences, visiting scholars from the region, and UF faculty and graduate students in six Sahelian countries: Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger and Chad. The overarching goal of the research proj ect is to study the factors affecting the political stability of the countries that stretch across the arid Sahel region. Collectively they are among the least developed countriesand present some of world. At the same time, several have been in many world, and all have experimented in recent years with reforming institu tions in the name of democracy. Unfortunately, recent developments in the region, including the actions sequences of the collapse of the Indeed, in the time between the submission of our proposal and the funding of the grant, these pressures led directly to a coup and the effec tive collapse of Mali, with tragic and still unfolding consequences for the peoples of the region. The research will be guided by an analytic framework that examines the interactive and reciprocal effects of institutional reform on social change, in an iterative process of build to potentially more substantial transformations in state capacity, and hence shape the prospects for stability or instability. As with virtually all of Africa, the Sahelian states were directly affected by the intense pressures for political reform in the were quite varied, all were obliged to capacity to shape and control social forces. As a result, in all six countries were set in motion, and their political systems today are still being shaped by those forces. The project will involve a variety of activities, to be undertaken by the members of our newly formed Sahel Research Group. Throughout these activities we seek to work closely and collaboratively with scholars from the region. In Spring 2013 we will hold a conference/workshop on The Poli tics of Institutional Reform in the demic from each of the six countries will present analyses of their respec tive cases. The core of the project in each of the six countries, and which will be carried out primarily by three UF PhD student members of our Sahel Research Group. This project will thus contribute to research for several individual dissertations, and collectively we trust it will allow us to institutionalize an ongoing center for understanding the challenges and the potential of the countries of the Sahelian region.en rtfffbrr fbfbrbrtr trbrrrb trrrrbfr rrrr tbtrrf rrb

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22 Research Report 2012brrbfbnrrbfbn rftf bbbb bbbbbb b bbbbbb bbbbb Developing nations experience incen tives to democratize from both domestic and international sources. The interna tional community, however, has a history of placing great emphasis on whether democratizing nations hold elections that standards, as compared to other democratic aspects of governance. As such, my research investigates the processes by which countries produce free and fair elections, and to what extent these standards are tailored to domestic and/ or international audiences. I utilize a casestudy methodology by investigating how these questions pertain to Ghana. Ghana is a newly democratized state that has received much attention for its democratic progress. Having transitioned to democracy in 1992, Ghana has since elections at the national level, three of which have seen alternations of power. In the context of an election in December 2012, the focus of this on-going research endeavor is the analysis of the ways in which Ghana continuously guarantees that their elections are free and fair. Ghanas Electoral Commission has introduced a number of measures to guaran tee elections are free and fair, including provisions that members of each party (Ghana largely operates as a two-party tally sheets, and has secured mechanisms to the center of command in Accra. However, having previously experienced criticism for a severely bloated voter registration list, this year the Electoral Com mission assumed the great undertaking of re-registering the entire population and for every registrant. Additionally, the Commission has invested a great amount of time and money in to the adoption of new election technologies which will be used in the upcoming election. Registered election day. During my summer research trip, I conducted interviews, and made numerous contacts at the Electoral Com mission, the two major political party headquarters, and local NGO and think tank groups. I also analyzed newspapers and generally kept abreast of electionrelated developments. The purpose of this research trip was two-fold. First, I want to analyze the political and logistical Electoral Commission in the production of a free and fair election. I am espe cially interested in the new technologies adopted by the Commission as well as the general publics reaction to the overall election standards. As such, it was neces sary for me to generate critical contacts at the national level of politics, and to gain process. In addition to gaining access to decisions about the upcoming election, I areas of interest which would be targeted during future research trips. As a fourthyear political science PhD candidate, the results of this summer research endeavor are greatly helping in the planning and preparation of my overall dissertation research. I will be traveling to Ghana for the national elections in December, and I will also be back in the country as a Boren Fellow in 2013.en rrnfbttr fbfbrbrrrb rtnrrrrf trrrbtr rbrrrbrrr fbfbrbrtrrr rfrtbt rrb

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Research Report 2012 23 both of which are grown in the east Usambaras. However, market challenges and high costs limit the export potential of spices and most East Africa. A complex network of brokers and traders dominate the informal spice trade. Buyers wander through villages from household to household in search of products and type of spot market behavior lowers costs to producers, since they dont have to travel to distant markets and search for buyers, the informal trade is beset by high transaction costs, a common feature in African agricultural markets. High costs of doing business depress prices paid to farmers, which leads to lower annual incomes and overall lower quality produce that does not meet export organic spices is a recent local effort that seeks to integrate smallholder farmers in global value chains in an effort to improve prices, farming and harvesting practices. Higher quality standards are necessary to meet demands of overseas niche markets. But debate exists over whether this market initiative is an inclusive or exclusive growth strategy. Some argue that smallholders, particularly relatively poorer households, are unable to meet costs associated with the more remunerative global value chains. Others posit that contracting equitable development. I chose to investigate this debate from different social, economic and geographical perspectives. In summer 2012, I explored topics such as the roles of gender, wealth, and distance in shaping household marketing strategies. My largely control selling and income from spices. Secondly, farmers with larger plots do appear to participate in contracting more often. Lastly, based on previous observations, I investigated how distance affects trust between buyers and sellers. Since the contracting company is based in the lowlands, their close proximity to producers appears to generate higher levels of trust, and consequently ing analysis, the implications of how these factors affect livelihoods and development will become clearer. I am fascinated by these complex interactions that characterize local trade dynamics. My ongoing research into understanding the causes and consequences of market participation has taken me to a remarkable part of the world.rrrffbbttr rrrrnt rrfff trrb trtnrtrfnb trrrbtr trbrrrbbrnbnrnfbbrbf rbnrbnbffbfbfbffr bbbbb bbbbb bbb bbb Market liber alization policies were widely promoted throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Following withdrawal of state control, informal market institutions and private contracting arrangements emerged. Market access is critical for 80% of Tanzanias population, for whom agriculture is the primary source of income. Price differences between informal and formal markets can affect important household economic decisions, such as how to meet food security needs, or whether to send a child on to secondary school, for example. The purpose of my research is to identify how social, economic, and geographical factors impact decisions to participate in informal spot markets and formal smallholder organic contracting. More broadly, what are the development outcomes of participating in these different types mountainous, tropical and biodiverse region in northeast Tanzania. I completed my masters research about governance of community owned forest reserves in the uplands in 2010. I chose to continue to work in this region for my PhD studies and expanded my research to include the lowlands to compare agricultural markets in both areas. The uplands and lowlands differ agro-ecologically, nonetheless horticulture is the primary source of income for the majority of smallholders. People around the world use black pepper and carda

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24 Research Report 2012nbfbfrrrffrrn rfrbrnbr bbb bb bbbbbb bb In these communities I performed ethnographic interviews with a variety of local people and visited community development projects to understand how life is changing and how a variety of actors are involved in improving these towns. I looked at infrastructural developments and also asked about peoples attitudes concerning economic change, development, and their hopes for the future. These rural communities share many aspects of life despite being located in different nation-states. Their traditional economic activities center on the annual agricultural cycle. Farming is a central aspect of life and its practice remains largely unchanged over recent years. However, families have come to rely more and more upon circular labor migration to large cities domestically and international destinations (primarily France) for the economic maintenance of their households. Economic migrants from these towns play key roles in raising money and promoting a wide variety of local development projects. Hometown migrant associations can be seen as engines of development which respond directly to community needs. Often these associations are more responsive in delivering projects to their towns. Migrant associations in the towns I visited were behind a wide variety of projects ranging from building community health care facilities to the maintenance of small dams for agricultural use. In each case, community members were proud of the work undertaken by their migrant associations and touted their successes. In contrast, people often lamented that state participation in local development was comparatively slow and that NGO involvement could be uneven. In looking at similar communities in Mauritania and Senegal it becomes possible to compare the dynamics of the state responses to the development goals of small towns between these developments from improved roads to both nation-states one difference was that access to public education is much more advanced in Senegal. More generally, Senegalese towns were more connected to the broader nation-state through the full spectrum of state institutions and were involved with a wider range of NGOs. I am just beginning to map how these differences affect the perspectives and expectations for local development and economic opportunities among community members. I look forward to continuing to map the changing realities in Soninke communities between both Mauritania and Senegal to improve our understanding of how migrant-driven development and state involvement Soninke people over time. rrtbftr rrrfnt rfff trtnrrr ttrbrrrb

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Research Report 2012 25 bnfbfnfbfbbfb bfbfnnbfbf bbb bbbb bb b bbb b tional, a nongovernmental organization water sources, and also provides sanitation education and training to community cial elements of development initiatives globally, and are key areas that can bring transformation to the lives of people worldwide. My project this summer was to Lifes program in Ethiopia, and to begin the process of institutionalizing monitor ing and evaluation within the organizations sustainable livelihood groups (SLGs) as a mechanism to transfer sanitation knowledge and training to women living in the commu nities in which they work. SLGs are based on the model of self help groups, and are generally composed of 15 to 20 women who meet weekly to save money together, discuss their lives, and present new ideas to each other. SLGs have been found to increase individual womens levels of selfuse SLGs as an avenue to affect positive sanitation behavior change in the lives of individual women. It is important to understand the local context in order to appreciate the need for further sanitation interven of handwashing with soap, is not a new concept in this area. From focus group discussions and conversations with com munity members that I had, it is obvious that the knowledge is present, and that community members have received the message of the importance of good sanitation behaviors. Local health workers have visited the communities, and public service announcements are often shown on the television stressing the importance of these behaviors. And yet, there is an obvious lack of action and adoption of sanitation behaviors. The hope is that by introducing sanitation education through the social structure of SLGs, the change spill over into the area of sanitation, motivating them to actually change their behaviors. For my evaluation I conducted four focus groups with members of SLGs, and also administered over one hundred surveys to both SLG members and non-members. The purpose of the focus group discussions was to understand the impact of SLGs on the lives of the members, to assess the amount of sanitation knowledge that individuals had, and also to identify the barriers to sanitation behavior change. The surveys drew a comparison between members and non-members, identifying key behaviors and barriers and linking the relationship between them. Preliminary analysis from the focus groups and surveys shows that members receiving increased levels of social support, greater mobility outside of their homes, and also increased levels of self sanitation behaviors. As I continue my analysis of the data that I gathered this summer I have the unparalleled opportu experience, while also generating new tion situation in southern Ethiopia. These the effectiveness of SLGs, and also to advance the discourse on sanitation be havior change. It is thrilling as a devel opment practitioner to be involved with rrrrftrbtnr rfrrrf rbbrtrt trtnbt rbb

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26 Research Report 2012bbnfrbfbff rnfnbff bbbbb bb fb bbbb bElephants are one of the main drivers of landscape change in southern Africa and there is increasing concern about the possibility of negative effects on biodiversity caused by increasing elephant populations. I am investigating this topic by considering spatial patterns of el ephant habitat use and impacts. In previous collecting animal location data to create spe cies distribution models for elephants and other large herbivores in protected areas of Botswana and Namibia. By evaluating how habitat use changes for different species across a gradient of elephant densities I hope to improve understanding of how other wildlife. portunity to initiate two new projects, one in Chobe National Park, Botswana, where much of my previous work has focused, and the other in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. The Botswana project uses satellite imagery to detect vegetation elephant impacts on trees is an important step in promoting effective management strategies. The Moving Standard Deviation Index (MSDI) uses the standard deviation of satellite image values to assess degrada tion of vegetation. Used predominantly for assessing impacts of livestock on range lands, it has been suggested as an effective assistant, I evaluated the status of vegeta a heavily elephant-impacted landscape. By linking these data with MSDI values, we will be able to use other satellite images to inves tion compares between Chobe and other can also look back in time using older imag has changed as the elephant population has increased in Chobe. Furthermore, we will assess how other large herbivore species utilize or avoid elephant-impacted areas, informing the distribution modeling con in the nearby Chobe Enclave, a collection use these to assess whether the MSDI may also be useful for highlighting areas heavily opportunity to compare patterns of vegeta tion degradation between areas dominated by human versus wildlife drivers. In Addo, I am working with Greg Kiker (UF Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering), and Jessica Steele (PhD student in the UF Geography Department) to investigate how elephant movement patterns relate to vegetation change. Using GPS collar data from seven elephants, we will examine how elephant enced by seasonal and long-term shifts in vegetation. This information will help managers better understand elephant habi tat preferences to predict future impacts on vegetation as well as the effects of manage provision and park expansion. This is extremely important as the Addo ecosystem is home to a number of rare and endemic park managers, a local university research team, and members of the South African National Parks research division to discuss our plans and seek out avenues of collabo ration. I look forward to continuing to work with these groups to promote management efforts that balance the needs of a grow ing elephant population with those of the succulent thicket.ffbttrr rrrntr rffft trtnrfrrftr tfbfbrnr t

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Research Report 2012 27 bb bb bbbb bbf bbb bbb bbbb bbbb As Nigerias largest city and economic capital, Lagos attracted intense male labor migration tion was 126,000, and by 1963, it was over come world middleweight champion, was part of this movement, as he migrated, like many Igbos, from Aba to Lagos in his but he later took up boxing in search of upward social mobility and fame in a city rampant with unemployment and poverty. Boxing also provided an avenue for many boxers of considerable skill to branch onto the Atlantic circuit. These boxers travelled, lived, and fought in matches from Liverpool to Paris to New York from the late 1940s through the early years of independence. My doctoral thesis explores how boxing shaped and gave rise to new ideas of masculinity and of ethnic and national consciousness. During interviews with me last summer in Lagos, several former boxers claimed that it was through boxing, and the lessons learned both during training and compet ing inside the ring that prepared them for boxer from Edo state, saw boxing as an extension of the Edo wrestling tradi tion and initiation where boys challenged one another, on the beach known as no manliness: a setting where great men colonial sporting regimes transformed masculine ideals and gender relations in a dynamic urban context in which many Igbos, Hausas and Yorubas mixed in expanding cities like Lagos. Thus, my research will use boxing as a critical entry point into understanding key histori cal developments in colonial and early post-colonial Nigeria: the development of new forms of ethnic and nationalist consciousness; the effects of urban and Atlantic migration; and constructions of masculinity. Many boxers who travelled abroad prestige also were able to learn trades or earn enough money to start businesses once they returned to Nigeria. One thing that surprised me when interviewing many of the current Nigerian National Boxing coaches was that, although several had learned a trade, they were forced to be coaches by various governments. For example, one informant lamented that al though he learned how to be an engineer was forced to coach boxing on his return from England and to be one ever since. The government would not allow him to use his engineering skills and forced him into a meager salary as a national coach, which he feels has kept him in abject pov coaching is something I plan to look into further on my next visit to Nigeria. In all, I was able to conduct ten interviews in Lagos and Ibadan this past summer and made vital connections and contacts with current and former boxers. In Ibadan, I was able to begin preliminary archival research at the National Ar chives. This solid study base will allow for fruitful further research on my return to Nigeria next summer and beyond. brfrtrr rrnrrb rtnrrrb trrbrrrbt ntrbrnrr rffffbbffb rnbtf

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28 Research Report 2012nbbrfbrnbbb bbbbb bbbbb bbbb bbbbb bMy dissertation research looks at how these systems of Mwanza, Tanzania. of the problem manifests in the form of food insecurities. Food security is in itself a topic of immense complexity. As preparation for addressing this multifaceted topic and in advance of my upto be able to attend the 2012 Borlaug Summer Institute on Global Food Security on the campus The Summer Institute included numerous speakers from multiple universities and agencies. As part of this workshop, I was able to meet and discuss my ideas about my research with several Food Prize Laureate Gebisa Ejeta, Agricultural Research and Policy Rob Bertram, and Director General of the International Food Policy Research also took a day trip to Chicago to visit the Chicago Council on Global Affairs. The opportunity to meet scholars of food security afforded me the chance to discuss my project in terms of policy, social action, political economy, climate change, trade, conservation, environmental degradation, and land tenure. Coming out of this workshop, I now have a better understanding of body of food security work, and This work promises to shed light on the evolution of Tanzanias political economy as that country has opened its borders to international invest ment, especially in terms of foreign dominant, urban poverty and malaise have increased. As a result of the growing inequalities there, Mwanza is experiencing a surge in urban social movements to demand response from local and national governments. These types of social movements are not unique to Tanzania; indeed they are ubiquitous as the majority of people in the Global South now live in cities. Recent events in North Africa and Southwest Asia highlight the importance of understanding how economic and environmental inequalities threaten internal stabil ity and the health and well-being of urban dwellers. This work is particu larly relevant as states in the Global South race toward majority urban populations. nttr rntrrff frrrb trtnr frffrtr rnrrfft rbntrrr rnt

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Research Report 2012 29 photographers in South Africa. observed among a new generation of South African photographers who work with land-based imagery. These photographers work primar ily in color, avoid explicit narratives in their photographs, and make use of pictorial strategies more closely Nonetheless, their intended audience, and methods of documenting urban and rural spaces links their practice to that of their documentary predeces sors, as does the selection of landbased content, which draws attention to the visual legacies of apartheid, economic inequality, and the social effects of environmental degradation. In summer 2012, I spent six weeks in South Africa conducting preliminary research for my disserta tion project. During this time I vis ited a number of photographers, ar chives, galleries, and arts institutions in six different cities. I spent most of this period in Johannesburg and Cape Town, where I interviewed a number of prominent South African pho tographers, such as Jo Ractliffe, Lien as others who are at the beginning stages of their careers, such as Daniel Naud, Thabiso Sekgala, and Vincent from meetings with art historians and curators such as with Michael Godby and Rory Bester. I also spent time working with archival materials at the Centre for Curating the Archive at the University of Cape Town, which contains over 50,000 print and digital images from prominent South African photographers from the past century. I hope to return to South Africa next year to continue my research, and learn more about how and why contemporary photographers are working with land-based imagery. I plan to spend more time at the ar chives I visited to establish a broader context for the link between docu mentary photography and the new landscape tradition in South Africa. I also plan to spend time at art institu tions and workshops, such as the that I may become familiar with work by photographers whose work may not be circulating in a gallery context.rttr ntrff rrt rrbtrtnrrr ttrrr btrtrbr rrbbfbrbrnffrnbn nbfnbrr bbbb bbb bbb bbbbb bbb bb Young photographers are now using landbased subject matter to address a range of social, economic, and environmental issues played out on the landscape, and that represent a new front in the struggle for social equity in democratic South Africa. Prior to the end of apartheid in 1994, docu mentary photographs dominated photographic practice in South Africa. During this time so called struggle photographers emphasized the social role of the photographer, and promoted photography as a tool of public awareness. This history has made photography a powerful medium in South Africa today, even as documentary images remain closely associated with a particular era. Indeed, few contemporary photographers work in a documen tary style, but the distinctive social ethic struggle photographers brought to their practice has contin-

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30 Research Report 2012 bbbbb bb bbbb b the decline of great-power rivalry on the continent, rising economic problems, and increased conditionality to foreign assistance, many African governments found themselves in positions where their non-democratic status-quo would no longer twenty-eight African states undertook efforts at democratization, including the holding of inaugural elections. By 1994, the formal one-party state had all but ceased to exist on the continent. And such democratic optimism would be dashed by occurrences of government coups, collapses, and democratic breakdown. By 2009, only half of the twenty-eight states that previously held democratic elections between 1990 and 1994 could still be nominally considered democratic, while only about countries succeeded in consolidating democratic institutions and principles of governance, while Seeking to better understand the regime reform in the period following the end of the Cold that each of the twenty-eight abovementioned countries have taken in the past two decades since their initial democratic opening. By identifying the salient factors and events occurring in these states during their initial efforts at democratization, and furthermore assessing for similarities and differ ences associated between the cases under scrutiny, this project builds upon the contributions of previous research in this area by constructing a typology of regime trajectories that serves to assist with understanding how this group of countriesthat Africa in the early 1990scame to acquire their contemporary democratic and non-democratic regimes. Through preliminary research on this issue, the case of Ghana stands out as a country following a steadfast trajectory of democracy, despite experiencing what could be reason ably considered inauspicious initial conditions. As Ghanas political history points to a legacy of military rule, a dominant executive, and other incumbent advantages within the media and elsewhere, it is striking that nearly two decades after holding what were considered by many to have been a problematic inaugural election, Ghana has since become a role model for democratization on the African continent. By obtainin g a pre-dissertation research grant from the Center for African Studies, I was fortunate enough to travel to Ghana during summer 2012 to inquire into how Ghanas regime status evolved between 1990 and 2012. Through meeting with a variety of in-country experts, as well as accessing academic resources available only in-person, I was able to obtain information and data that not only aided my research concern ing factors associated with Ghanas particular trajectory of democracy, but additionally supplied avenues for comparing Ghanas experience with that of other countries within the scope of this study. In other words, although the research obtained this past summer constitutes only one step in what will be considered a much larger project, the information, resources, and experiences obtained serve to advance the project by not only identifying the factors appli cable to one states experience with democracy, but also highlighting how such factors may be compared with respect to the experiences of other African states.bfftbf trfbfbrbrt rfnrft trtrt nrrrbtrr rrfbfbrbrt rbrrrbnbrnrrnbfnbbfr rbrrnbrnrffrf

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Research Report 2012 31 rbfnbfbrrf frfbft fbbb b bb bbb b bbb bbb bbbbb bbb b bbbbb This churchs mottoturning ordinary people gests a different strategy for engaging with the political, economic and social forces in Kenya. My dissertation project examines Mavuno and other churches and builds a foundation for better understanding the dynamics and interplay of religion and politics in Kenya. By ence churches and pastors have on the formation of political beliefs and behavior within Kenya, my study contributes insight into how churches continue to play an important role in Kenyas political development. However, literature on good governance and democratization in Africa marginalize these institutions despite a wealth of studies on religion and politics in the United States dem onstrating the importance of clergy and behavior. Religious institutions and eccle siastical elite remain powerful sources of understood politically. In surveying this relationship, my study makes a distinction between the public and external communications of churches with the more private and nu anced aspects of inner church life. This internal perspective reveals the nature and impact of church governing structures and ensuing effect on political engagement. In using four Nairobi churches as case studies, the project is structured these domains provide a systematic ac count of Christian churches and leaders as: 1) pastor to pulpit, 2) pulpit to pew, 3) pew to pew, 4) pew to politics, and 5) politics to power. Preliminary conclusions are oriented around four arguments. First, Africas political elite, but it may also apply to ecclesiastical leadership, whose churches are not necessarily model schools of the perpetual elevation of corrupt politi cal leadership and is particularly relevant where toxic leaders produce toxic followers. Third, new breeds of churches, including Mavuno, are distancing them selves from previous trends of religious reticence and apolitical approaches and are instead engaging the political realm in constructive dialogue and private initia tives that bring together local people to provide local solutions to local problems. These types of churches also demonstrate greater accountability and transparency and effectively model and develop the types of leaders needed to bring good governance to African political systems. Finally, I use the Kenyan 2010 constitu tion referendum as a macro case study to a major political event and posit that local understandings of power will pose several challenges to the new constitutions devolu tion process. rrbnbttr fbfbrbrtr rffftb rrbrntrtn fnbfr rrbtt

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32 Research Report 2012bfrrrffr rf bbb bbbbbb bb rr bb bMy research seeks to un derstand the current status of livelihoods of people who have traditional access to natural resources in the future pro tected area (NPNP) and those who live nearby existing protected area (OKNP). I want also to determine whether rural livelihoods differ between these two communities. This will allow monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of the relationship between local livelihoods and the park practices by adding research evidence to the continuing debate on the impacts of protected areas on local livelihoods. This study is part of a larger collaborative program regarding forest resources management plans which seeks to promote community-based organizations as a way to increase local control on forest resources -especially wildlife -in ROC. It is also a part of my dissertations topic: Can Rural People Participate tions, Local Capacity, and Human LiveliTo collect data, I conducted a crosssectional study to measure current conditions of livelihoods and to compare their variation between the two categories of villages in the periphery of OKNP and in the border of the future NPNP. These two types of villages are respectively forest concession of Ngomb (1,159,643 ha). As activities, I started to carry out dialogues with many actors interested in conservation of natural resources such Congo national program) and project of the management of ecosystems adjacent currently provides technical assistance to the creation of Ntokou-Pikounda na tional park. These dialogues aim to inves tigate and take into account local needs in my research. I conducted a survey of 90 household heads in 15 rural villages of both categories by using questionnaires. Results of this study show that livelihoods between forest dwellers living around NPNP and OKNP are different. such as their proximity to markets and allows me to improve my dissertations research question and hypotheses ap propriate to my study context. During my dissertation research I need to better un derstand these factors to bridge conservation and development objectives neces sary for human livelihoods and ecosystem health in the ROC by incorporating social responsibility. This research would not have been possible without the active support of the Center for African studies and the Tropical Conservation and Development program of University of Florida, enthusiastically appreciate the value of these institutions not only in funding my research, but in being a unique learning space for me.rtrr bffrbrt rrrbtrt rtr rrbtr

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Research Report 2012 33 rntbrtbfbnfrnr rfbfbbbb bbbb bb bbbbb b bbbbb Given their value and the unnecessary damage that they often suffer at the hands of unscrupulous and untrained loggers, it is crucial to investigate the ex tent to which improvements in forest management practices can serve to reduce carbon emissions, maintain biodiversity, and increase future timber yields in the region. To contribute to this objective, ging on forest biomass carbon in Gabon as part of my doctoral program in the Department of Biology and the School of Natural Resources and Environ Gabon is the most forested country in central Africa and about 35% of its land area is allocated as logging concessions for the production of timber. To capture some of the variability in the ways the forests are treated, I assessed the impacts of logging in a forest logged with reduced-impact logging methods managed by Tropical Forest Foundation, a Forest Stewardship Councilconventionally logged forest conces sion. The results are all published or in press, and reprints are avail able upon request. Throughout this project, I supervised several students from the Ecole Nationale des Eaux et Forts as part of an effort to build human capacity in conservation and management in the region. The results of my doctoral study fed directly into the deliberations of the Gabonese Climate Council regarding carbon emissions from logged forests and were included in the countrys Climate Plan presented at the UNFCCC in Durban, South Africa. After completion of my PhD, I commenced working for the Gabon Forest Carbon Assessment (GFCA) project based in Libreville. As the scientist responsible for this project, I supervise the establishment of 100 one-ha plots country-wide, which forest sampling methods. The project also involves high-density LiDAR data and digital imagery coverage for the entire country. The President has end of the year so that its results can be included in the countrys updated Climate Plan and in the creation of plan. Although the National Climate Council oversees all climate-related National Parks Agency (ANPN) car ries the technical responsibility. Our forest carbon assessment work is a critical element in the countrys low emissions develop ment strategy, and the results of the program will help Gabon meet its assessment with country-wide Climate Council expects us to publish the results from the assessment in be presented at the UNFCCC confer ence so that other countries, agencies, and research groups can learn from the Gabon experience. Our project also contributes to capacitybuilding in the region by making its central African countries that are en deavoring to develop their own forest carbon monitoring systems.brrtrrrt rtbfnrbfnr bffrbrt rn

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34 Research Report 2012 their community, they still long for policies that encourage local entre trade with Chinese companies. The Chinese are not to blame for all of Kano and Nigerias economic woes as many of my interviewees made clear, the Nigerian government needs to implement structural changes: providing basic infrastructure (such as a reliable source of electricity) and nancial policies. Yet the Chinese pres ence has contributed, some believe, to the economic woes of the nation. This trip provided me an opportunity to expand my international viewpoint. The incredible hospitality of the citizens of Kano, in particular the staff at the University Guest House of Bayero University, proved that the future of this great land remains bright, as long as the right leaders can implement effective policies. This research also opened the door for potential partnerships between Bayero University, Kano and the UF Center for African Studies. Fortuitously, on the day we walked professor Dr. Murtala S. Sagagi, he was actively looking for an appropri ate American university to partner with in promoting social entrepre him the CIBER-generated Sub-Saha ran Africa Business Environment Report (co-written by Dr. Anita Spring), he felt that fate had arranged our meeting! Subsequently we enjoyed an exciting two hours of dialogue about the Chinese presence in Nigeria, the differences between the Chinese and the much older community of Lebanese traders and manufacturers in Kano, and the future of economic development in northern Nigeria. Funded by the US Embassy in Abuja, Dr. Sagagi visited UF for a week in April, 2012, presenting a public lecture at CAS, visiting several African history classes as a guest speaker, and meeting with faculty across a wide spectrum of disciplines to imagine and begin to design possible collaborations between the two institutions. rrrtfr bfrrrn rrbrrnbf ttftbbf rrrrtrrb rrr bftrn rrbrtrbbf rrbrrbrfrnbrnrnbrrnbf bbbb bb bb bbbbbbb bThe history of Nigeria, in particular northern Nigeria, includes the extensive reach of local markets in regional and international trade. For that reason, the industrial manufacturing and trade economy of Kano has products, workers, and investment. During the 2011-12 winter break I spent two weeks in Kano with my history honors thesis advisor and CAS joint faculty Dr. Susan OBrien, using funds from my University Scholar Award to conduct oral history and ethnographic research about the impact of the Chinese presence on the local economy. For over six decades, China has established and developed a strong economic and diplomatic a mutual relationship framed under the pretense of shared history and values, bolstered with develop mental aid by the Chinese, has developed into trade scholars argue that the Chinese are providing prod ucts and aid necessary for economic growth on the continent, others see the increasing Chinese pres ence as a New Scramble for African resources. Northern Nigeria provided an ideal location to explore the impact of the increasing Chinese presence. Due to Dr. OBriens extensive connec tions in Kano, I had the opportunity to inter view individuals from academia, business, the marketplace, and government, and to gain their perspectives on the impact of Chinese trade and manufacturing. Their viewpoints, although diverse, echoed a common theme: the people of Kano desire economic development and welcome foreign trade. However, the illegal reproduction of local and the lack of enforceable government policies against Chinese economic improprieties (such as smuggling and the sale of counterfeit goods) have contributed to rampant unemployment and the decline of a once vibrant manufacturing industry.

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Research Report 2012 35 with a female park ranger, Mbyui, who assisted in meeting harvesters this annual harvest was organized. A outside the reserve for women who come from all parts of the province. The women pay a fee of R10 per day to enter the reserve and harvest as much Juncus as they can carry. Some women will stay for weeks before returning home. The fee to collect in this reserve is less than at iSiman galiso but the size of the Juncus is smaller so the women can only make small and medium-size mats. Next, I traveled to St. Lucia, the tourist town and entry point into the Here, the organization of the harvest is much more rigid. The tent city for the women was farther away and out of sight of the main road leading day to enter and harvest as much as they can carry. The harvesting areas are much bigger here and the size of the reeds enables women to make the large mats for wedding ceremonies. a crafting group in Eshowe that is mentored by Duncan Hay (former visiting scholar at UF). From them I learned about the different products the group creates including the tradi creations for international exports. For many of these women, crafting is a major source of income. After spending time in these areas, I have a better grasp of the interactions between the protected areas and community members. My dissertation will uncover issues relevant to protected areas managers, policymakers and practitioners who intend to work with crafter groups to improve their capacity. The experience of meeting these crafters reinforced my desire to work with people living around and/or utilizing resources in protected areas. I appreciate the support from the Center for African Studies and my commit tee as I had an incredible experience and am even more excited about my dissertation.nbttr rnrrb rtnrtr rrftrr rbtrtrbr rrbrfrrfnbrnbfnrr nrbfbbbtrr bb bbb bbb bbb bb and Umlalazi Nature Reserve allow women to harvest Juncus kraussii, a high quality reed mainly used for crafting bridal sleeping mats and traditional beer strainers. These items are valued in as their cultural heritage. I focused on individual crafters and crafting groups, most of which were women, and their harvesting and use of J. kraussii Gaining insight into this economic opportunity for a vulnerable population contributes to the limited social research in and around these protected areas. In South Africa, women head almost half of all households because of historical patterns of patriarchy, apartheid, macro-economic condi tions, and HIV/AIDS. Economic opportunities for women are often limited and there is constant turnover in small business enterprises because of HIV/AIDS and a reduced number of younger women with adequate skill sets. Further, older women tend to be the primary caregivers for the sick and for their orphaned grandchildren or take on other orphans in the community. Femaleheaded households are more likely to take on the sustaining those in the household unit. As a result, is greater in this population and can compromise their ability to support conservation of protected areas. First, I traveled to Umlalazi Nature Reserve at Mtunzini where I had the opportunity to work

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36 Research Report 2012 fbb bb bbbb In addition to lessons with a Twi instruc tor, my temporary residence in Accra allowed me to speak Twi on a daily basis. I engaged countless Ghanaians in conversation, quickly recognizing ian fashion designers viewed my linguistic abilities as a novelty, which inadvertently made me more approachable and aided my integration into the fashion community. By the end of my six month stay, I was able to negotiate a cheaper cab fare than moment, I knew my FLAS experience abroad was a success! My experience abroad also permitted the con tinuation of my dissertation research on Ghanaian fashion, which I began investigating in the sum mers of 2009 and 2010. I re-established connec tions with several designers from previous trips, Ansah. I expanded the scope of my research to include emerging fashion designers, including Brigitte Merki, Ajepomaa Mensah (Ajepomaa Design Gallery), Aisha Obuobi (Christie Brown), Aya Morrison, Nelly Aboagye (Duaba Serwa), and the design team known as PISTIS. I spent considerable time with these individuals, accompanying them on trips to buy fabric and other materials, as well as spending time in their boutiques, observing and inter viewing their clientele. Through these experiences and my active participa tion in Accras broader fashion scene, I was able to understand the current how Ghanas younger generation of fashion designers are striving to reinterpret factory printed cloth into cultural, globalized identities. contemporary fashion designers, I cance of fashion in Accra. I inter viewed the family of Parisian-trained fashion designer following independence. I spent a considerable amount of time at the Daily Graphic archives, one of Accras oldest newspapers, re searching how fashion was presented and discussed from 1953 to the early 21st century. Both the newspaper ar chives and Chez Julies family attested to the continued importance of fashion to Accras citizens, suggest ing Ghanaians have actively engaged in both global and local fashion for decades. I established an informal partnership with the fashion design program at Accra Polytechnic to gain perspective on how fashion is taught in technical schools. The lecturers allowed me to participate in stu fashion show at the National Theater. Through these interactions, I obby local designers and how a career in fashion design is viewed as a means of obtaining success in Ghana, with many youth dreaming of obtaining celebrity status via their fashionable creations. One of the highlights of my experiences in Ghana was having the honor of interviewing former First the types of garments she wore during her husbands presidency and why she favored wearing local styles suggesting the power of her dress in relation to her and her husbands political identities. Prior to my study abroad in Ghana, I published a chapter in the Samuel P. Harns exhibition catalog Africa Interweave: Textile Diasporas Last summer, I was selected to partici pate in the Smithsonian Museum of Natural Historys Summer Institute in Museum Anthropology (SIMA), where I researched Ghanaian textiles from the Venice and Alastair Lamb collection. rbt bttrrbf ntrrff rbrfntrt nbfn frffrbrbrrfbfbrr fbfrbffnbf

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Research Report 2012 37 Springs most recent publication, African Textiles Today released in October, 2012. I continued my dissertation research in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands in spring 2012. I accessed manufacturers business records and extant design pattern books in the Manchester area and throughout London. I consulted the unmatched collection and company archives of Vlisco, a Dutch textile printer, which possesses over 5,000 historical kanga, dating between 1895 pattern books from the turn of the twentieth century. In addition to dissertation research, I co-authored a paper with Dr. Sarah Fee (associate curator at the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto) in Rabat, Morocco. I presented new research at the international confer ence on textile trades and consump tion in the Indian Ocean world in Montreal, Canada. I have spent the remainder of my year writing my dissertation!brrn bttrntr rfff rbrtnr rbbrn rrftrrbt rfrnrbf tnrb btrbrtrt rfnbtrrff tbbbbb b bb bPrima facie considered East African, kanga textiles developed through nineteenth-century global networks and have been imported since at beginning only in the late 1960s. Variously imported by Dutch, British, Indian, Japanese, and Chinese manufacturers, kanga textiles have maintained local East African womens attire. Kanga textiles travel full circle in their more recent use as raw material for tailored garments, made for sale to fashionconscious consumers the world over. My research seeks to document the history of these textiles by focusing on the international nature of their design and manufacture, their presence in historical and contemporary Dar es Salaam, and their subsequent journey to a global audience. This past year, I completed dissertation research in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, where I interviewed fashion designers, local women, textile designers, manufacturers, and sellers of kanga. I visited factories that manufacture cotton cloth and print kanga textiles, interviewed their designers, and explored samples of their textile production. I analyzed archival sources, including governmental, manufacturing, and import records, to ascertain the network of players involved in the textile trade over the past century and a half. I collected mid-twentieth century kanga textile designs from one especial interviewee: Mr. months shy of 100 when I spoke with him. Mr. Peera communicated much about the mid-century responsible for a crucial shift in my research. Sadly, he passed away shortly after I interviewed him, but his son gifted me some of Mr. Peeras most prized possessions: his kanga designs, a suitcase full of which was the only thing he brought to Dar to the British Museum and contributed Mr. Peeras life story, with photographs of both Mr. Peera and his designs, for inclusion in curator Christopher rbrbbbfbr bfbrrfbnrbbb rt

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38 Research Report 2012bbbtbrtbfnbnbfbfrf nbr bbbbb bbbb b bbAs I previously reported, the annual UN duced nothing of real consequence in the realm of climate change adaptation, the buzz phrase that incorporates everything from the future of food security, safe housing, and infectious diseases in (most prominently) the developing world. And yet I still persist in studying the phenom ena, because the research and NGO com munities are fully onboard with the idea that the stage must be set even if the big international players refuse to perform. My own research focuses on a regional scale in asking how resilient are households in South Africas rural Eastern Cape to the effects of climate change as demonstrated by their level of social capital and assets. I particularly focus on natural resources. The agrarian change decreased reliance upon natural resources appears to intervene, a fact that has dramatic policy implications, as well as consequences for the social composition of families and communities. The Eastern Cape of South Africa starkly epitomizes the countrys inequality: it is home to many of the former apartheid era. Degraded land, high rates of HIV/AIDS, and vertiginous unem ployment are all key features here. Most households in even the most rural parts of the Eastern Cape, where one might imagine subsistence agriculture to be the norm, survive off of government welfare grants or old-age pensions and very oc casional remittance transfers. Clearly, how communities respond to stressors is no simple research subject. I have been working in two parts of the Eastern Cape, in an area known as the the Baviaanskloof. My study has focused on measuring the number and diver sity of rural livelihood assets, as well as social network capital, and whether those predict aspects of resilience to ongoing ecological and social change. I argue that resilient households will demonstrate a high number and diversity of livelihood assets in response to recurrent and non linear changes (like climate-related events or disease occurrence) and that they will exhibit very tight, or cohesive, social networksbonds that are important whether individuals are trading information, goods or services. My methods have included oral history interviews, participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and action research, and most prominently social network analysis (SNA). These three approaches are meant to unpack the temporal dimen sions of resilience: my oral histories focus on livelihood changes in the past, SNA on current developments in household exchanges, and PRA on possible future indicators for resilience (or lack thereof). I have found that conditions in the study areas are shifting. No matter how poor a household may appear, it is almost universally dependent upon a govern ment subsidy and fewer natural resources (including livestock and crops) than one might imagine for rural poupulations on other parts of the continent. New kinds of interdependencies, especially in the form of debt and money-lending, are also apparent. To be sure, this is basic and not applied research science, but I believe that my dissertation will continue to uncover issues strongly relevant to natural resource and regional economic managers and policymakers, who have had the tendency of stereotyping the rural poor. Lastly, I am spending the 2012-13 academic year as a visiting scholar at Indiana Universitys Anthropological Center for Training and Research on Global Environmental Change (ACT). I look forward to cross-fertilizing knowledge with IUs scholars and will report back with lessons learnt upon my return to Gainesville.bbttr rbfrtf rbr

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Research Report 2012 39 nbnrrtbrtbfbf rnfbnf bbbb bbb bbbb bbb bbbbb b bbbbb bbbbbb bbbb b Being more sensitive than mainlands, islands can also serve as early warning systems for understanding the effects of environmental changes on mainlands. My dissertation research aims to quantify the relative effects of human activity and climate variability on freshwater recharge on the small island country project seeks to 1) characterize rainfall patterns across the island at inter annual and inter decadal time-scales over the past 80 years, 2) identify the major linkages between large-scale climate processes and rainfall variability, and 3) investigate the role of geography in modulating the response of rainfall to climate variability on the island. Characterizing long term rainfall patterns across space and time and further understanding the effect of climate on rainfall variability in Mauri tius are important prerequisites for the second part of my research, in which I will explore how the mechanisms and extent of land cover and land-use have shaped surface water recharge in selected catchments. Land cover is known to alter hydrologic processes through altered and evapotranspiration. In watersheds where forested landscapes have been cleared and or paved with impervi ous material, the amount and speed of consequences on a number of processes including stream capacity to carry storm recharge. Although linkages between land cover, hydrologic processes and water quality are well established in the scientif ic literature, the relative effects of climate and land cover on hydrologic processes are poorly understood, especially on is lands, and represent an important avenue for future research. complexity in their effort to predict changes in water resources, demand and cost. Ultimately, I hope to facilitate the decision making process by providing managers with regional scale information over time, and their linkages to changes in climate and land cover. This study represents the foundation of a long term research project on climate, water resources, and human activity on Mauritius and surrounding small islands in the Indian Ocean.frtbftr rrrrnr rftbrtntrt nrbfrt rrfrtrtr rrftr rrbtrtrbr rrb

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40 Research Report 2012rnffbfbbnrbffnft bftbfnrbfrf bb bbbbb bf bbb bTwo other PhD students and I accompanied Center for International Business Educa tion and Research (CIBER) Research Tutorial Abroad program. The RTA project focused on issues of risk, threat and vulnerability in Ghanas emerging offshore oil and gas sector. As a research assistant, I was given the opportunity to interview and interact with a number of stakeholders involved in the offshore oil sector. The RTA project was an incredible methods, collaborative research and knowledge production. Not only did I come away from the project with a better understanding of offshore oil production in Ghana, but I also learned a great deal about the challenges and rewards of studying contemporary anthropological problems. In addition to the RTA project, I was able to spend six weeks studying Fante staying in Cape Coast, I was able to meet government and NGOs working on issues related to marine resources. These discussions, combined with experiences from the RTA project, have inspired me to look further into issues of marine re source management and the deployment of various techniques and technologies of governance such as sensitivity map ping and the development of Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS) systems for the littoral zone. Ghana has a large swath of maritime territory that plays an important role in the countrys economy and the day-today lives of many Ghanaians. Ghanas grounds, valuable minerals, attractive beaches, habitat for endangered species, oil and gas reserves and busy shipping routes. Given these manifold activities offshore resources to the national econo my and international supply chains, there is increasing domestic and international pressure to monitor, map and establish systems of surveillance in Ghanas littoral zone. My proposed dissertation research builds off of my earlier research on in Ghana and is focused on particular technologies and techniques designed to know and to govern Ghanas maritime domain. In particular, I am interested in how the countrys new offshore oil and gas sector has spurred national and international interests in governing this being employed or developed, and what are the goals and anticipated outcomes were these technologies developed and Now in my second year at UF, I am working to develop a dissertation proposal that will allow me to build off of the CIBER RTA project and continue exploring my interests in technologies of governance in maritime jurisdictions, es pecially as they relate to marine resources These technologies include the develop mapping sensitive and vulnerable socioenvironmental systems and developing vessel-monitoring systems. Through an analysis of these efforts to map and govern Ghanas maritime space, I hope to explore the relationship between modern state systems, international organizations dards of practice. I am very grateful for the support that the Center for African Studies has given me since I came to UF and for the opportunity to participate in the CIBER RTA project. These experiences will serve as a strong foundation as I continue my research.fttrttr fntrff tr

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Research Report 2012 41 bbbbb bbbbb bbbbI am particularly interested in how different stakeholders (hunters, women, and children) perceive natural resource conservation and how their behavior aligns with their conservation ethic. I spent 9 months in 2011 conducting interviews (in the local languages of Iko and Agoi) and collecting ecological census data on species off-take in three communities in Cross River State, Nigeria. Nigeria was an ideal location for my dissertation because it has endangered monkeys (including the drill ( Mandrillus leucophaeus considered by International Union for Conservation of Nature as the high est conservation priority of all African primates), high human density (as many as 863 individuals per km2 in the southern half of the nation alone), and limited natural resources (the clearing of forest for farmland and plantations combined with logging activities in this area threaten the remaining 10% of tropical moist forests). The aim of my study was to document general patterns of hunter harvest in relation to spatial, temporal, and economic variation, assess if sustainable livelihood projects and employment with the local NGO -the Center for Education, Research and Conservation of Primates and Nature (CER COPAN) -is alleviating poverty in this area. Does cations of unsustainable resource use is a critical is sue for wildlife conservation and human well-being. Determining local peoples conservation attitudes and values is important because if the needs of a community are not met, then conservation goals are unlikely to succeed over the long term. My research on the bushmeat trade is unique because although many studies document quantity of bushmeat being sold in city markets or consumed by families these studies do not report the catchment area from which these animals are taken. Thus, we can infer the scale of bushmeat consumption from these studies, but we are unable to address the issues of sustainability because we do not know if the bushmeat sold in an urban or rural market came from 1,000 ha or 1,000km2 of forest. My work in 2009 found a dis connect between hunters vocabulary and the local NGOs dont shoot continued hunting of the endangered drill. In their language, drills were This situation highlights how lack of communication between stakeholders can result in ineffective conservation efforts. Preliminary results indicate killed during the nine month study, including 19 drill, that people are mainly concerned about the ability to convert forests to agricultural lands, and that community members want local employment opportunities. My research would not have been possible without the support I received from the chiefs councils, volunteer hunters who would meet with me every week, my dedicated Nigerian research assistants, school work on writing my dissertation I look forward to traveling back to Nigeria to share my results with the communities.rbttr rbffrbr rtr rbtrtnrtn trtrffbfrf rbrnfrnbf

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42 Research Report 2012rffnbfbnrtrnb frntbfrfrnrrfbfr bbbbb bbbb bb My dissertation research investigates how opposition parties manage to win elections in semidemocratic regimes, where the ruling party impedes competi cally, with what motives are opposition citizens recruited to join and run as candicandidates use to effectively court voters during election time, given that ruling Building on research I conducted in 2010 and 2011 with voters in mainland of dissertation research. In this stage, I of winning and losing candidates of the three major parties in Tanzania and to conduct elite interviews with opposition party founders and leaders. During the 2011-2012 academic year, I presented this research plan at the Midwest Political Science Association and CAPERS, an African political economy working group formed between New York University and Columbia University. I have received a Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad grant to support this out the survey during 2012-13. During the past year, I also have progressed on a number of co-authored projects central to topics of democratization and representation in Africa. One of these (with Eric J. Kramon, UCLA/ Stanford) looks towards factors that damage electoral integrityviolence, fraud, better ask individuals about these topics, given reasons they have to be dishonest about them in public opinion surveys. Utilizing a survey technique called the list experiment, we have found in Kenya and Tanzania that using visual aids (cartoons) encourages respondents to be more honest about these topics. Our paper has been presented in multiple venues throughout the year. In a second project, Michael H. Bernhard (UF) and I provide insight on the current state of party system insti empirical model of what explains the level of party system volatility in Africa explanations of party system patterns and more conventional drivers found in other regions of the world. Our paper offers the most comprehensive dataset on African party system volatility to date and party system institutionalization hold true per at the International Studies Associa tion in Spring 2012. chelitch (Notre Dame), we tackle the driv ers of low demand for female political leaders in sub-Saharan Africa, relative to other regions in the world. In one phase of this project, we conducted a survey ex periment in Tanzania and found positive information about womens performance in parliament increases willingness to vote for female MP candidates. Positive mes sages about womens performance also had a strong impact on views towards expanding womens public and household rights. ted tremendously from support from the Center for African Studies. The strong relationships between the Center and the University of Dar es Salaam, invaluable faculty support throughout my projects, and the environment of intellectual exchange fostered amongst Africanist graduate students at UF have been critical to my research. Many of the working ing by the Center of African Studies allowed me to present the research widely at conferences. rrbttr fbfbrbrtrrb fnbf rrrbt rrrbtrt rbrrrb

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Research Report 2012 43 ft performed ideologies through the re cording industry and festival circuits, they use their artistry, creativity, spiri tuality, leadership, and practicality to create and support an idea of what a publicly manifested Islam looks like. My previous research centered on the Gnawa, once a population of enslaved sub-Saharan Africans forcibly brought to Morocco through the trans-Saharan slave trade. The ritual activity that comprises the focal point of Gnawa practice involves a spirit possession ceremony, an event led by a group of ritual musicians. After years of marginalization as social, economic, and religious outcasts, their music gained the attention of the parade of American and Euro pean artists who came to Morocco II and during the civil rights movement in search of oriental or African inspiration (the Rolling Stones, Their music, often described in terms of its bluesy grooves, is now featured across the country in major music festivals and on innumerable world music releases. Additionally, while in Fez I accepted various invitations to perform on the violin and banjo with malhun, issawa, and hamad sha ensembles, genres that straddle this divide between the pious and entertainment, in concerts ranging from private parties to the stages of the Fez Festival of Sacred Music. I contribute coverage and photography on the Moroccos musical traditions and contemporary activities for the View From Fez, a prominent English language news blog, and Afropop my dissertation and teaching courses in American Popular Music. rfbt trbfnrbfn rrrffb rtrbr ftrrffrnnbfrbbbfb bnfrfr b bbb bb here, I am progressing in my study of the Moroc can dialect of Arabic before engaging intensive ethnographic research with musicians from across the spectrum of musiqa ruhiyya loosely translated as spiritual music. I focus on professional musi cians and ritual leaders of various popular music In each case, I question how these professional musicians constantly negotiate the space between competing economic and spiritual demands of their public positions. These strategies highlight the how the concepts of sacred and secular, popular, even entertainment or ritual, escape simple catego rization. Furthermore, each of these members of how Islam is, and should be, practiced in everyday practices on stage and the dissemination of these

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44 Research Report 2012nbfbfbrfbrrrtfnt bf bbb bb bbb bbbfb fbbb bbbb fbb fbbb bb b t bbbb bb The program is designed by the University of Florida to assist American in critical languages of Africa in order to strengthen the United States intel lectual and economic competitiveness and enhance international cooperation for economic, humanitarian, and national security. The 8-week intensive language program offers select students, funded by the Boren Scholarship or Boren Fellowship programs as well as the Title VI Foreign Language and Area Study (FLAS) fellowship program, an opportunity to deepen their knowledge and experience with African languages and cultures. AFLI is a pilot program designed to increase the number of Boren Scholars, Fellows, and alumni engaged in the study of critical languages of Africa. Its purpose is to help meet the critical need for specialists in a range of academic and ate effectively in major African languages. An initiative of the National Security Education Program (NSEP), AFLI builds off the resources of the NSEP-spon sored Boren Scholarships and Fellow ships, and The Language Flagship. The University of Florida has now successfully hosted the AFLI domestic programs for two consecutive years. The 2011 program offered only two languages, Swahili and Yoruba, and was hosted alongside the Summer Cooperative African Language Institute (SCALI) on be half of the 12 Title VI National Resource Centers for Africa and the Association of African Studies Programs. The 2012 proand was open to both Boren-funded participants and FLAS fellows. Hausa will be added to our offerings in 2013, making a total of 6 languages. leges/universities across the United States participated in the 2012 program 34 at the beginning level and 9 at the intermediate level. 29 of the participants were Boren-funded students while the remain ing 14 were FLAS-funded. At the begin ning level: 19 in Swahili, 5 in Yoruba, 4 Swahili 2 in Yoruba, 1 in Akan and 1 in trnrtrrrn rbrrrr rrrrt frfrrrr frbrtrrrb trtbtrr brt t rrtnrrfr tb

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Research Report 2012 45 ff rfrbrbfbfbbf fbfrffrnrfttr bb bb bbb bb The research was prompted by the dramatic rise in cell phone usage in the last ten years, with almost every household now having a cell phone or access to one. The use of cell phones has risen exponentially among all sectors of the population, including the lowest in income. In 2000, 100 inhabitants: by 2011 there were 60 subscribers per 100 inhabitants. Two University of Florida students I gathered primary data on cell phone conducted in-depth interviews with of nications policy makers. In addition we conducted surveys of cell phone users, conducted interviews at the three main newspapers ( Times of Zambia, Daily Mail and The Post ), interviewed University of surveyed small, medium and large scale business owners and administrators. Our study found that while cell phone usage has grown land phone usage has decreased, although most businesses still rely on land lines for their businesses. students surveyed had access to the Inter net on their cell phones compared to 50% of business people. This is partly because business people use land phones as well of the general population and students owned a computer, while 80% had access tion of the population uses the Internet for social networking: cell phones have helped bring about a sense of community and people use cell phones to communicate more frequently with others who may live in distant areas. The study also found that the most the transfer of money among individuals and from companies to individuals. As a result of a partnership between cell phone companies and commercial banks, cell phone subscribers can use their cell phones to pay their loans, bills and sala ries. Farmers can also sell their produce at competitive prices using their cell phones. information such as employment, training health or farming information can have it sent daily to their cell phones for as little as 20 cents a day. Cell phones have also made it easier for reporters to follow up on stories and provide background details, our study found. According to the media personnel surveyed, the use of cell phones has less ened corruption. In reporting the elec tions, for example, results were published as soon as they become available, making manipulate them. One negative impact of the growth the proliferation of transmitters across the country. Many people are concerned that cellular radiation emitted from phone towers and antennas represents a health and environmental risk to the human and animal population as well as the environ ment. Initially each cell phone company placed its own towers everywhere. They now build joint transmitters in order to lessen the impact. On the individual level, people spend more money on cell phones than they can amount students spend on cell phone usage was K10,000 ($2) which was quite high considering the average student income. Adults surveyed spent about K20,000 a day, which was about 20 per cent of their daily income. Since young people use texting to cut cell phone communication costs, their writing and spelling has been negatively impacted, since they have to abbreviate or use nonstandard language. Overall, the study Internet have great potential to facilitate rrfrrfrbr trbtrbrrr btrbrtfn nbrtbtr rrbtrtnrr rfrtb trrbrrbf t

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46 Research Report 2012fbfnbnbfrnbrnfnf bbbbb bbbbb bb b bb bbb bb Fifteen years ago, it would have been hard to imagine that the selfabsorbed recollections of white children growing up in settler societies would be marketable. Starting in the mid-1990s the writings of Kwame Anthony Appiah, Kann, Douglas Rogers, Gillian Slovo, and Lauren St. John have been published by commercial publishing houses in Lon don and New York. At the same time, a new body of highly successful memoirs written by authors such as Ishmael Beah, Aminatta Forna, and Helene Cooper, sig naled a new phase in the history both of writing about the self in Africa and writings about Africa that became popular. Alexandra Fullers books were reviewed in the New York Times, for example, while Ishmael Beahs account of being a child soldier in Sierra Leone, A Long Way Gone, became a talk show phenomenon, nominated several times for the best book of the year, with an Australian newspaper sending reporters to Sierra Leone to challenge the veracity of his narrative. This recent itineration of African memoirs, both as writing and publishing, as well as their circulation and reception had not yet been fully been interrogated. Viewed from North America, these many publications and their commercial success looked like something brand new, a new way of explaining Africa to audiences and ultimately a new way to relate to the continent. But the writing of memoirs and autobiographies by Africans for readers outside of Africa is not new, and the motives and the intentions of the writing are complex and sometimes ambivalent. For instance, in the 1950s, memoirs and autobiographies were as much about the experience of growing up in Africa explained to Europeans and Africans as they were about the triumph of national ist ideals. The best examples of which are Camara Layes LEnfant Noir (1953), Peter Abrahams Tell Freedom, (1954) and The Autobiography of Kwame Nkrumah The workshop In and Out of inter-disciplinary in scope, inter-regional in content, and examined the memoirs that have been published locally, in Africa, and those which are now sold at Star bucks or reviewed on NPR. The aim was to explore the relationship between the two, and the ways in which the success of commercial publishing in North America stimulates local publishing in Africa, and the extent to which the reverse is true. contexts, and while they are local in their production they are distinctly transna tional in their circulation. The workshop examined memoirs as crucial contributions to African ideas about memory but of understanding Africa, ways that often elide the complexities of contemporary Africa with the authority of personal as a literary and commercial movement that reveals its own historical construc tion; looking at how memory and writing about oneself reveal new and local modes of explaining Africa, of mediating the complexities of being in Africa through a circulation of textual practices in and out of Africa. To look at the transformations, reception and circulation of memoirs and autobiographies, the workshop included participants who have approached mem oirs from different perspectives. Papers were presented by scholars who have written about memoirs or edited mem oirs, scholars, journalists and novelists who had written their own memoirs. The workshop was held September 13-14 Mda, papers by Douglas Rogers, Stephen Davis (UF 2010), Gary Burgess, Leonard Smith, and the organizers Alioune Sow frbrrr rrrrr tfrtrrrb trrrr ntfrbfnrrr btrt trtnrrr rtrfbrrrrr btrrftbr rrbrtrrr n

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Research Report 2012 47 ff fnrbrnbfbf frrbnrtnt bbbb bbr bb bbbbb bb b bbbbbb b bbbb bb They consulted with some thirty scholars who specialize in Kongo and the Central Africa Diaspora who have also contributed chapters for the publication. In February 2012, Poynor and view collections and meet with scholars at of Maryland, and museum staff at the Smithsonian Museums of African Art, The American Indian, American Art, American History, African American History and Culture, and the Anacostia. In early March 2012, all three curators traveled to New Orleans where they met with artists, scholars, museum profession als, and bearers of culture to discuss the Kongo roots of music, dance, voodoo and other aspects of visual culture. Later that month, Poynor and Cooksey explored archives, museums, artists studios, historical sites and African American cemeteries in north Florida, Georgia and South Carolina. These investigations yielded fascinating links between Lowcountry African American culture and Kongo culture, including the production of coiled baskets, carved walking sticks, ceramic vessels, music and dance, and conjuration. In April, Poynor and Cook sey visited Fort Valley State University to seek more information about Phyllis Biggs, who was brought from the Congo to the US in the 1800s. They also viewed objects in the collection of the Tubman Museum in Macon, Georgia. From May to June, Vanhee visited Gainesville to work with co-curators and Harn staff to assist with planning the ex hibition and book. In July, Carlee Forbes, an art history graduate research assistant, traveled to Belgium to conduct research on the RMCAs holdings of Kongo textiles, and view the current selection of objects for the exhibition. In August, the curators, assisted by Harn Director Re becca Nagy, submitted an NEH proposal that would allow for enhanced program ming and interpretation for the exhibi tion. The Harn also secured two travel venues for the exhibition at the Princeton University Museum of Art (2014) and the New Orleans Museum of Art (2015). In September 2012, Poynor and Cooksey traveled to Miami to see the exhibition of at the Miami Museum of Art. They met with the artist and discussed his practice of Palo Mayombe and his experience in his art. They also visited The Little Haiti Cultural Center, founded by Haitian artist Edouard Duval Carri, and viewed works in his studio. Both Duval Carri and Bedias art will be featured in the exhibi tion. Nearby in Little Haiti, the curators explored botanicas and acquired pacquets Congo and other materials for the exhibi tion. research, conducting artist interviews in the U.S., and completing the manuscript in early 2013. rnbb rrfr nrn rfrbfnrrr btrtr rrbtrftrtnr rtbfnbr rn

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48 Research Report 2012 an early entry point into an under standing of risk in the offshore sector. of Takoradi, the team gained up close exposure to daily operations of on-shore oil contractors and security they came on shore before heading home, either in Ghana or abroad. Rig workers were asked about policies and protocols in place to address and mitigate risk, threat and vulnerability. policies in place regarding personal safety while offshore, and there are clear protocols for reporting any safety risks. Responses were mixed, however, when rig workers were asked about the effectiveness of such ployment agencies to better understand the training experience required and how agencies went about certifying the Takoradi harbor and spoke with individuals involved with maintaining the security of the oil rigs as well as coast west of Takoradi to observe the impacts of off-shore natural gas Our analysis of Ghanas oil industry demonstrates the convergence of infrastructural and institutional mechanisms to operationalize the industry. Complexity abounds as oil companies, training institutes, and regulatory agencies attempt to ensure security for this new industry. Our exploratory research on risk, threat and vulnerability in the sector yielded a number of avenues for future research. The preeminence of safety and of fostering a culture of safety on offshore rigs became apparent and is one potential avenue available for additional research. Equally inter esting is the joint role of corporate and state actors in securing the rig operating environment and the chalrtfbrr fntfrbfn rrrbtr tfttrt rtrfn rrnftr fbfbrbrrrb trtnrrbf trrr rfrttb trrrb trbb bbbbbbb bb bbbbbb bbbbbb bbbbOil exports began about 85,000 barrels a day by the end of 2011. As part of the Center for International Business Education and Research (CIBER) Research Tutorial Abroad (RTA) program, our research team sought to better understand Ghanas response to this bud ding industry. In particular, the RTA pilot project served as an opportunity to explore issues related to risk, threat and vulnerability in the offshore sector. In three short weeks the team was able to ous stakeholders engaged in the offshore sector. By utilizing a multi-sited methodology and the support of contacts at the University of Ghana, Regional Maritime University, and the Center for Demo cratic Development, the team was able to interview regulatory agencies, petroleum companies, notinstitutions, and off-shore service providers. ing individuals in high power positions, such as oil company executives, safety training operators, and to look at the oil industry from the regulatory perspective, as well as from individuals charged with overseeing broader oil operations. Ghanas regulatory branches played a very intensive catchup game after the initial discovery of oil. By 2012, solidifying and authority domains have largely been settled. A training institute has been created, allowing international and Ghanaian oil workers to take the industry-standard requirements on home turf. Visits to educational and training institutions for those working offshore. Safety and emergency preparedness training is one important way the industry seeks to minimize risk, threat and vulner ability. Observation of these training programs and reviews of safety procedures and protocols offered tnrbbffrnbfbfb nrrnffntf

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Research Report 2012 49 ff SABER 2012 then presents current data for each country and sub-region on: (1) political stabil ity; (2) economic growth and trade; (3) foreign direct investment (FDI); (4) infrastructure, transportation, utilities, and telecommunication; (5) business climate, stock exchanges, tries and sub-regions from domestic and international entities, companies, investors, and governments are evaluated. Appendix A provides quantita tive and qualitative tables on FDI and trade, political and legal aspects, agricultural and commodity produc tion and sales, ease of doing busisocial, gender, health, and education variables. These data help to discern and evaluate the implications of business deals, FDI, imports and exports, business enablers and constraints, and political machinations, as well as the presence of Chinese, North America, European, and African development assistance and business people and their investments. The information and analyses are useful to academics (faculty and students), business people, policy makers, as well as to those researching the business environment of a country or sub-region. The electronic versions have allowed African, Amer ican, Chinese, and European business leaders, academics, and policy makers to utilize the report. SABER 2011 is already being used in U.S. and African business schools and African Studies programs. The report is printed annually with updates being posted on the websites. publications/saber.asp and http:// rr rrfn trrbtr rnftrfr rrfr rbfrrn frntr bttrfbfbrbr rrnftt rbfr rrrb trtrrr rfrtbt rrbf frrrtrr bfrbbbb bbbb bbb bbb This is accom plished by giving country, regional, and sub-continent summaries and evaluations based on print research on current business climate and trends, domestic/foreign investments and trade deals, and socio-political conditions and events. An extensive statistical appendix constructed by SABER pro vides additional data for SABERs assessments. countries to determine the twenty largest econo mies. Those that made the current cut were grouped into four sub-regions based on regional (Cte dIvoire, Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal); Central Africa (Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Republic of Congo); East Africa and the Horn (Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan/South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda); and Southern Africa (Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, bbnbfnbfrfnfrfrn nrfnft

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50 Research Report 2012 tries. Our partners have been key in helping us select and invite partici pants, sharing information on their own work on elections, and hosting and organizing seminars and meetings in our visits to each country. Our partners include: Dmocratique (Burkina Faso) Electoral au Mali (Mali) ult des Sciences Juridiques et Economiques (Mauritania) et Recherches sur les Dynamiques Sociales et le Dveloppement Local (Niger) Center, Dakar, Senegal. Since the early 1990s the ma jority of countries in Africa have instituted systems of regular elec two decades have been highly mixed, in virtually every country elections The reiterated processes of elec tions has, however, also produced intense debates about their conduct, and over the years there has been an increased awareness that the need is not just to avoid cheating on election day but to consider much broader issues such as the impact of varying electoral systems, the importance of the larger institutional infrastructure and the rules of game, the role of social and political organizations, and the management of the mechanics of electoral processes. Importantly, these very issues also preoccupy many intense American political debates about electoral reform. A key goal of the TSEP project is thus to share experiences, and to stimulate discussions that will have real and substantive impact on our under standing of elections. Our May 2012 seminar in the US for our African visitors, involving 16 participants representing all six countries. The three week seminar thus took place in an American presidential election year, and in a context in which there was much intense debate in the United States about key as pects of electionsredistricting, vot and provisions for early and absentee votingthat some argued would have an impact on voter turnout. In the Sahel, the seminar followed some Senegal, extremely successful and well-executed presidential elections had been held in April, happily proving wrong expectations of problems rnbfbbnbfrfnr ffffnf bb bbb bbbb bbbbb bbbb bbbTSEP is funded by a grant through the U.S. Department of States Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, and has involved a two-year series of exchanges and seminars bring ing together elections specialists from the six coun tries with a wide range of American academics and professionals also involved in elections. The goals of the project, co-directed by Leonardo A. Villaln and Daniel A Smith, are to comparatively exam ine the challenges and issues involved in ensuring electoral freedom, fairness, and transparency; to develop a network of scholars and practitioners across the six countries and with the University of Florida; and to develop a research resource on elec tions in the Sahel. Key to accomplishing these goals has been our collaborative partnerships in each of those coun -

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Research Report 2012 51 ff in a context of high political tensions. In Mali, by contrast, elections planned for May had been swept aside by the coup of 22nd March, which ended twenty years of democracy in the country and ushered in a politically catastrophic crisis. In this context there was much to discuss, and throughout the seminar our exchanges were rich and intense. Again in 2012 the May program began in Gainesville, at the University of Florida, where the group took part in a series of talks and seminars on the UF campus, met numerous municipal elected in managing local elections, including the of Elections Pam Carpenter. A highlight of the visit was the opportunity for par and vote scanning machines, as well as procedures. Moving on to the state level, the group traveled to Floridas capital in Tal lahassee, where they were received by nu opportunity to engage with key actors involved in the debate about a controver procedures provided a particularly inter esting perspective on elections for the African participants. A highlight of the visit to Tallahassee was the day-long series of events organized by Judge Nikki Clark, of the First District Court of Appeals and a participant in the TSEP sponsored trip across the Sahel of June-July 2011. This included a discussion panel of the lessons learned from the problematic 2000 elections in Floridain which Judge Clark had played a role during the period of legal challenges to the vote countas well as an opportunity to witness oral arguments and discuss with a panel of judges from the Court of Appeal. Judge Clark also graciously hosted the entire dinner at her home that evening! From Florida the group traveled to portunity to again meet with key institu tions involved in US election management at the Federal level. The three weeks culminated with a day-long seminar at the US Department of State, during which participants were able to meet a number ideas and experiences with two other delegations visiting the US. The uncertain situation in the Sahel given the crisis in Mali and the effects on its neighbors required us to change the initial plans to lead a second delegation of American visitors to each country in summer 2012. Nevertheless, Leonardo Villaln undertook a return visit to Chad, Niger, Burkina Faso and Mauritania, and was joined by Daniel Smith in Senegal US embassy and local partners. This trip provided an opportunity for further meetings with electoral specialists, and for some lectures and seminars with academic groups. Most importantly, it allowed us to plan for 2012-13 we are thus working on the development of a website which will serve as a comprehensive resource for scholars as well as for policy makers, journalists, and others interested in the question of elections across the Sahel. This will involve a workshop with one TSEP alumnus for each country, planned for Dakar in March 2013, in which we will discuss allow us to meet our goals of creating a permanent resource for understanding of the Sahel, and of institutionalizing a pro fessional network across the region with links to our UF colleagues and graduate students with interests in the countries of the Sahel.rtfffbrr fbfbrbrtrtrb rrrbtrrf rfbfbrbrt frrrrb tr

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52 Research Report 2012 beyond that undertaken by University of Florida faculty and graduate students. It is an interdisciplinary, fully areas. To qualify for consideration, submissions must meet the scholarship standards within the appropriate discipline and be of interest to an interdisciplinary readership. As an electronic journal, we welcome submis sions that are of a time-sensitive nature. on diverse topics, as in Volume 13, Issue 3: Becoming Local Citizens: Senegalese Female Migrants and Agrarian Clientelism in The Gambia Hip Hop as Social Commentary in Accra and Dar es Salaam nAn editorial committee composed of graduate students in African Studies who hail from Africa and the U.S. as well as other countries and from a wide range of disciplines conducts the internal review of submit all manuscripts to be original and not to have been submitted or accepted for publication elsewhere. Final publication depends on the quality of the manuscript and the associated peer review process. The journal will attempt to publish manuscripts no later than six months after submission. For submission guidelines, mat

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Research Report 2012 53f The University of Floridas Center for African Studies anticipates awarding Foreign Language and Area Studies (FLAS) Fellowships for the academic year. These fellowships are funded by the U.S. Department of Education (USED) under Title VI of the U.S. Higher Education Act and are awarded to students combining graduate work in any academic discipline with African area and language studies. Fellowships are offered for any one of the regularly taught languages ( Akan, Amharic Arabic Portuguese, Swahili Wolof, Xhosa and Yoruba ) as well as for other African languages for which instruction can be arranged. Academic year fellowships provide a stipend of $15,000 and cover the cost of tuition and fees (12 credits per semester). Applicants must be a citizen or permanent resident of the United States and be admitted to a graduate program at the University of Florida. Summer fellowships provide students with an opportunity to undertake intensive African language study in any USED approved program. Summer fellowships cover tuition at the host institution and provide a stipend of $2,500. For more information, including application deadlines, please visit www.

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54 Research Report 2012fnbbrrrbnbn Anonymous Dr. Joe K. Amoako Dr. Flordeliz T. Bugarin Dr. Charles Bwenge Dr. Paul A. Chadik Dr. Susan Cooksey Dr. Mark Davidheiser Dr. R. Hunt Davis, Jr. & Mrs. Jeanne G. Davis Dr. Stephen A. Emerson Dr. Abraham C. Goldman Dr. Barbara McDade-Gordon Dr. Robert D. Holt Dr. Abdoulaye Kane Dr. Agnes Leslie Dr. Michael Leslie Dr. Staffan I. Lindberg Dr. Peter Malanchuk Dr. Fiona McLaughlin Dr. Masangu Matondo Dr. Connie J. Mulligan Dr. Susan OBrien Dr. Terje Ostebo Dr. Daniel Reboussin Dr. Victoria Rovine Dr. Sandra L. Russo Dr. Renata Serra Dr. Jane Southworth Hon. Emerson Thompson, Jr. Dr. Leonardo A. Villalon The generous contributions from Jeanne & Hunt Davis and Dr. Lockhart has made it possible for the Center to provide support for graduate students each summer doing our capability for supporting graduate students, Dr. Davis has taken the lead in helping CAS work toward establishing an additional endowment. The African Studies Faculty & Alumni PreDissertation Award now has over $20,000 in commitments and is moving toward the goal of $30,000, which will provide more support for graduate students. Please see the following page for more information about this fund and how you can contribute. The Center would like to thank the follow ing individuals who have contributed to our various funds in the past year (with an extra special thanks to those who are working to build the Faculty & Alumni Pre-Dissertation Fund). In 2004, Dr. R. Hunt Davis, professor emeritus in History and a former director of the Center for African Studies, and his wife, Jeanne, established an endowment to support graduate students doing pre-dissertation research in Africa. nbfrbfnrrnbfbn tnnbbrrrbnbn In 2004, Dr. Madelyn Lockhart, professor emeritus of economics and a former Dean of the Graduate School, established an endowment to support an annual award for graduate students doing predissertation research in Africa.

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Research Report 2012 55 bb bbb bb bbbbb b research in Africa is absolutely essential for students to write the kinds of disser tations on which they will be able to base successful careers, whether in academia, government, NGOs, or the private sec tor. The major dissertation research awards for Africa are limited in number and increasingly competitive. In order for Ph.D. candidates to be competitive for these awards they must demonstrate a strong fa capability to carry out the proposed work. As a result, preliminary summer research trips to lay the groundwork for making students competitive for national awards for dissertation funding. Helping our students launch their professional careers in this way is one of our top pri orities at the Center for African Studies. The Center for African Studies has recently established a fund with the goal of creating an endowment of at least $30,000, so as to generate the revenue for an annual award to help a student carry out pre-dissertation research in Africa. If you would like to make a contribu tion to this fund, we (and future genera tions of UF Africanist students!) would be very grateful. The form below can be used for this purpose. If you are a UF employee and would like to contribute via payroll deduction, please contact CAS for assistance. If you have any questions or would like more information please contact Abraham Goldman (CAS director) at agold Please Return To: My Gift is For: Amount Enclosed: $ _________________________ Amount Pledged: $ __________________________ (A pledge reminder will be mailed to the address provided.) ______________________________________ ____________________________________ _______________________________ ______________________________________ _____________________________________ Remember to enclose your companys MATCHING GIFT FORM! It can double or triple your gift!Method of payment: (Make check payable to: UF Foundation, Inc.) _______________________________ ______________________ ____________________ Billing Information (if dierent from on at left): ____________________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________________ __________________________________________ Signature: ___________________________________ Thank you for your support!

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56 Research Report 2012 Anna Musaba for coordinating this project, the students and faculty who contributed reports and photographs, and Dana Householder for the design and layout of this report. Cover photos by Vincent Medjibe and Caroline Staub.

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427 Grinter Hall PO Box 115560 Gainesville, Florida 32611-5560 352-392-2183 352-392-2435 (FAX) www.africa.ufl.edu r