Center for African Studies research report

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Center for African Studies research report
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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 1 o o o o o A Founded in 1965, the Center for African Studies at UF has been continuously designated a U.S. Department of Education Title VI National Resource Center for Africa for 30 years. It is cur rently one of only 12 such centers nationally, and the only Africa NRC located in a sub-tropical zone. Title VI funding to CAS supports research, teaching, outreach, and the development of international linkages in Africa. in the humanities and social sciences, as well as in agriculture, business, engineering, educa tourism, and natural sciences. Graduate study on African issues may be pursued in any of these stitutions in Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda. unique role in facilitating the publication of research on and from Africa, and offers invaluable professional training for UF graduate students who serve on its editorial board. G o A UF Graduate study with a focus on Africa can be carried out in virtually every graduate or pro fessional program across the university. Prospective students are encouraged to consult the websites of the individual programs for admissions procedures and criteria. Students in any We also encourage them to consult the Centers website and to contact us when they submit their applications. Complementing formal coursework, a regular and dynamic series of lectures, conferences and other activities open to all interested graduate students provide rich opportunities for interdis sponsored interdisciplinary working groups organize speakers and events that bring together faculty and graduate students with shared interests, providing students with unique opportuni ties for research and professional development.

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2 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 FR M THE DIRECT R ............................................... ................................................ .............................................4 FACU TY REP RTS a a Mental Health, Humanitarian Intervention, and Reconstruction in Liberia...........5 T a a Ba Non-State Actors, Public Goods, and Political Accountability in Africa...............................7 B a B a a Urban Planning and Governmental Proliferation in Ghanas Port City of Tema........9 D a a s ....... .10 E a D s Strengthening the Ghana National Ambulance Service............................................11 Ja s Ess Preparing Documentary Outpu ts for an Endangered Community...............................12 G a Parks as Agents of Social and Environmental Change in Eastern & Southern Africa.........13 B H s BDOUL YE NE M a Understanding Why and When Ruling Elites Support Productive Sectors................16 s L s R M Ba a a M Da G T Os Islam, Ethnicity, and the State in Ethiopia/Horn of Africa...................................................20 F a c s E a a R Global Climate Change in the Eastern Cape of South Africa........21 Da R ss Library Research Supporting African Studies Academic Programs............................22 R c a R a s Exploring Health Disparities in Africa...................... ...............................................23 V c a L R Clothing, Colonial Expos itions, and Images of Africa.................................................24 c ..........25 F a k R a a a Governing Cotton Sectors in West and Central Africa..........................................................27 Da Memoir and Migration in Mali.................................................................................................29 L s W ...................................................................................................30 STUDENT REP RTS E B Patterns of Disturbance via Landscape-level Vegetatio n Analysis in Southern Africa..........31 T F a Elephant Community Ecology in Southern Africa....................................................32 Jas Ha Health Perspectives among Senegalese Immigrants in Cincinnati, OH...............................33 E Is ..............34 Da Jak sk Egyptian Video Art and the Performance of Identity...................................................35 a a J s Ma T Os s M ck M a Elite Capture of CBNRM Programs in Botswana, Namibia, and Zimbabwe .......39 s N a Mining and Community Development in Ghana...... ...........................................40 Mac M R a E a a Democracy in the West African Novel....................... ...........................................................42 c a ..............43 a c a sk Resilience and Social Net works in South Africas Eastern Cape...............................44 N a s J ss ca Linki ng Livelihoods and Land Cover in Southern Africa...............................................46 E k T s Embodiment, Emplacement, and Lyrical Discourse in Nairobi...........................................47

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 3 D ca M Wa R W s Social Networks and Voting in Africa............................ ...............................................49 W sk Islamic Education Curriculum Reform Politics in Morocco..................................................50 s p W sk Changing Narratives and Musical Diversity in Moroccan Gnawa Music..................51 D a W c k Information Flows and Perceptions of Resources in the Okavango Delta. ............52 C AB RATI E PR ECT REP RTS .....53 ...............................................................54 Partnership to Strengthen Tourism Management in South Africa............................................................................55 MDP Summer Practicum in Botswana .........................................................................................................................57 Tourism Demand Assessmen t Kafue National Park, Zambia .....................................................................................................................60 AFRICAN STUDIES UARTER Y ............................. .................................................................. .........................62 F REIGN ANGUAGE AND AREA STUDIES FE SHIPS ................................................................63 SUPP RT RESEARCH N AFRICA ...................................................................................................................64

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4 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 W U F R R The following synopses provide an overview of the diversity and depth of work on Afri ca being carried out at the University of Florida. Our faculty and graduate students as well as visiting scholars are involved in research that spans the continent geographically and ranges in focus from music, dance, literature, and the arts to natural sci ences and wildlife conservation, and from political, social, and economic change to the human and environ mental impacts of disease, climate change, and globalization. \011 Cumulatively, this research is marked by three characteristics work that is directly engaged with the continent and its peoples, both in terms of research topic as well as in recognition of the importance of collaborative engagement with our colleagues in Africa. Secondly, while our faculty and students are rooted in disciplines and the perspectives and methods of these disciplines, most of their work is highly interdis ciplinary, as illustrated by the very and activities that cross and blend scholars from numerous back grounds and perspectives to identify and address important questions of With respect to this goal, we are par ticularly pleased with the dynamism of our interdisciplinary working groups, which focus on such diverse areas relevant to Africa as natural resource management; governance and development; Islam and Muslim societies; health and society; cultural heritage management; the arts; and the dynamics of language change. Finally, the work reported here tions between research and educa tion. The many linkages between the faculty and student reports university involves both producing new knowledge and understanding, and training and preparing a new generation of scholars equipped to address a wide range of issues. \011 In addition to work by individual and smaller groups of researchers and students, several ed in this report help illustrate the range of interdisciplinary work at UF Harn Museum and the School of Art exhibit of Central African Kongo art in collaboration with the Royal Museum for Central Africa in Tervu Sub-Saharan Business Environment Report (SABER) was completed in collaboration with the Center for International Business Research and Education (CIBER). Several ongoing tions among tourism, development, and livelihoods in southern Africa. A State Department grant supported ect, which links CAS to partners in six countries across the Sahel. In ad dition, the new Masters in Develop offered with the Center for Latin American Studies, took in its second class and hired a new Director. \011 We are pleased to acknowl edge support from various sources. Most notably, CAS was again granted funding as a Title VI Na tional Resource Center for African Studies in 2010, one of only 12 in the country. Funding from this grant helps us to continue our work and to support students through Foreign Language and Area Studies (FLAS) fellowships. These students span a wide range of departments and colleges, and the language as well as disciplinary training the FLAS fellowships facilitate helps prepare highly skilled and knowledgeable new scholars and researchers who have deep understanding of African societies and environments. about the varied and interesting research being carried out by our faculty and graduate students. For more information about CAS, please visit BE GOLDM N

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 5 H RON MBR MOWITZ T L In the eight years following the conclusion of the civil war, a vast humanitarian effort has been underway to rebuild Liberia including rebuilding the state and security sectors, promoting de mocratization, providing health and human services, and creating employment opportu nities. However, the status of mental health is questionable. Neither medicine nor social service, neither human right nor security newly reconstituted state entities and inter national humanitarian organizations arent quite sure how to deal with the unique chal lenges posed by the mental health sectors \011 In my research, which is currently being developed into a book entitled Healing the World: Trauma Healing, Humanitari anism, and Psychosocial Intervention in Liberia I examine how healing the trauma of the Liberian civil war became a proxy form of humanitarian intervention that came to sub stitute for much-needed psychiatric services throughout the country. In my research, I studied the varieties of forms of psychosocial assistance, locally experienced traumas, and national and international mental health forms of health governance were made available in sectors designated high prior ity, while issues like psychiatry and mental health languished on the back burner for years at a time. Throughout my research, I study how humanitarian organizations used psychosocial interventions, alongside other techniques like public media, Truth and Rec onciliation Commissions, and human rights trainings to sway the Liberian population how these interventions came to substitute for much-needed mental health care; and relat edly, how local understandings of mental health, illness, trauma, and insanity were integrated or neglected in contemporary humanitarian practice. \011 research follows gender-based examine local ethnohistories of gender-based violence, and uncover culturally encoded forms of gender-protection in spaces that are currently domi This research, which began in Liberia but quickly expanded to the Democratic Republic of the Congo, challenges global conventions regarding the role of culture and tradition in promoting gender violence; and advances an alternative theoreti cal framework for thinking about the patternings of gender-based violence, and the utility of the globalized forms of genderbased violence intervention that

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6 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 TID a W U F N J L V N The answer, which he had found on the Universitys website, had everything to do with my familys itinerary and nothing to do with research. Today, though, the polyvalent answer would be Sarraounia (a keyword of my research over the last ten years), Fulbright, and the Center for African Studies. \011 nerically, Sarraounia (Hausa for queen or female chief) may designate various functions of female leadership. Among the Azna of Lougou, Bagagi, and elsewhere predominantly animist until recentlythis title refers especially to a female lineage that held noncentralized political and religious authority. But religious authority has long become the only remaining, and contested, prerogative of the Sarraounia. History books, which are far too few, largely ignore the queens, priestesses, and female chiefs of the recent past, thus depriving Niger of powerful national female role models. The function of this peculiar religious, and formerly political, leadership is inscribed in the social, cultural, and political world of the Azna, whose world view, based on cults of nature and its spirits, recognizes the crucial complementarily of the male and female elements of the cosmos and of society. \011 In Niger today, the title Sarraounia, ages of Sarraounia Mangou, the most famous of the Sarraounias, thanks to her resistance to French domination, led by Captain Paul Voulet, at the head of the Mission Voulet Chanoine. My current research, funded by the Fulbright Senior Scholar Program and hosted by the Center for African Studies at the University of Florida, is a transcultural and multi-genre comparative approach to the reinvention/representation of postco history-inspired cultural constellation, seen from the perspectives of both the colonized and the colonizer. \011 This research is taking Queen Sarraounia and the Civilizing Mission. Perspectives on the Politics of Memory This work aims at contributing to the gen eral debate on narrative, history writing, myth-making and iden tity construction in the local and ly at how the historical narrative, imbued with epic intentions, originating in the colonizing as well in the colonized space, tive of amnesia of an empires unacknowledged and silenced violence. The book describes and analyzes what happens when of remembering, in the forms of tion and cultural practices and productions), catch and grow into a constellation of myth and counter-myth as African and and others take up positions on either side of the postcolonial fence in an oppositional creation of heroes/anti-heroes and an intertextual discourse on the meanings of power, knowledge and history. The work brings attention to a deliberately erased page of colonial history of the and its postcolonial local and global, narrative and ideologi cal, creative and discursive, rural and urban repercussions and ex tensions. It focuses on the littleknown region of the Nigrien Sa hel and foregrounds unexplored arenas of globalization, identity construction, gender, power, and religion.

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 7 TE B LDWIN M In many places in the developing world, traditional leaders, NGOs and other non-state actors provide important local public goods. I am interested in understanding the cir cumstances under which non-state actors are effective in providing local public goods, and the effects their activities have on political account ability, state building and distribu tive politics. Below, I describe two these topics. \011 In Liberia, clan chiefs play a key role in local governance. In terestingly, there is great variation across communities in the mode of selecting clan chiefs. Together with Eric Mvukiyehe at Columbia Uni that investigates whether communi ties where clan chiefs are selected through participatory processes have more accountable and effective local governance institutions. We identify the effects of participatory processes by taking advantage of a break in the process of selecting clan chiefs in Liberia at the end of the civil war. At the end of the war, local chiefs in some areas were appointed by higher level authorities, while chiefs in other areas were selected by their communities; however, all chiefs who became incapacitated after 2002 were replaced by chiefs select ed through participatory processes. \011 survey data and outcomes from behavioral games conducted with members of more than 70 clans in Liberia. The surveys and behavioral games were administered in De cember 2010 and January 2011. The results show that the participatory selection of chiefs results in more consultation at the community level and increased overall levels of par ticipation. However, it also reduces levels of contributions to local public goods, suggesting chiefs selected by community members may be less ef fective at enforcing cooperation. We are currently in the process of con ducting open-ended interviews with clan chiefs and elders in a smaller number of communities in order to understand why clan chiefs selected in participatory processes are less effective in enforcing cooperation. \011 Across Africa, NGOs play an important role in local public goods provision and service delivery, and NGOs are often viewed by donors as an important tool for delivering aid in contexts where governments are corrupt. But do the governmental activities of NGOs have (unintend ed) consequences on the political engagement of citizens, their evalua tions of their elected representatives, and their ability to hold politicians ties could increase participation and create new institutions that counterbalance the states power, they could also have less salutary effects on civic engagement if they make local gov ernance seem less relevant or if they are captured by the existing political elite. \011 ating the effects of NGOs activities is the selection bias in where these organizations choose to work. This advantage of a randomized evalua tion of a NGOs poverty alleviation activities in Ghana, which is being run by Dean Karlan and Christopher piggy-backs on this randomiza tion to do a secondary experimental analysis that looks at the impact of the intervention on a new outcome. of the NGOs intervention on the breadth of political participation and the ability of voters to turn incum most recent local elections (held in December 2010/January 2011). I have done this by combining data on the location of the experimental communities with records obtained from local governments. The results will shed light on whether NGOs increase or decrease political par ticipation, and whether they make it to hold their elected representatives accountable.

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8 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 TEVEN BR NDT D UF M B E Currently co-directed by Steven A. Brandt of the UF Department of Anthropol ogy and Ralf Vogelsang of the University of Colognes Institute of Prehistoric Archaeol ogy, the UC Collaborative Research Center/ UF Southwestern Ethiopian Archaeological ing the hypothesis that the SW Ethiopian cultural refugium for anatomically modern hunter-gatherers dealing with the cold, arid climates of the Last Glacial prior to hu man migrations across and out of Africa by ~50,000 years ago. \011 funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation, but since 2010 has been funded by the Sonderforschungsbereich or SFB (German Science Foundation) as part of a four year multidisciplinary collaborative research initiative centered at the University Culture-Environment Interaction and Hu expenses for UF and German faculty and graduate students, as well as most Ethiopian graduates. \011 As in years past, our Spring 2011 the western slopes of Mt. Damota 2200m Moche Borago shelter. Field research focused upon exposing more of the shel ters oldest deposits so that we could have a better understanding of the earliest archaeo logical cultures. We also put in a new test trench that exposed archaeological deposits potentially dating earlier than our previous excavations. Our new geolo gist/geomorphologist from the U. of Cologne conducted fur ther research into the shelters natural and cultural formation processes, and we continued our systematic site survey of sur rounding areas. We also mapped and took samples of natural of Moche Borago which we be lieve may have been the source of most of the raw material used to make the tens of thousands of stone artifacts recovered from our excavations at the shelter. \011 The 7 UF undergradu ates who participated in the ceived 14 credit hours in African through the UF International Centers Study Abroad program. They attended course lectures at Ethiopia during February and March. The students spent the ing how to excavate the rock shelters very complex natural and human-made deposits dat ing to ca. 60-40,000 years ago, and to record all stone artifacts and animal remains using Total Stations. They also learned how to conduct systematic archaeological and environmen tal surveys of the surrounding mountain terrain and neighbor ing Southern Rift Valley, and discovered Ethiopias tremen dous natural and cultural diver sity by visiting national parks and interacting with many of the Seven UF undergraduates will season.

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 9 a c a M I G T I J D Funded by a Fulbright-Hays Award and the UF Center for Humanities and the Public Sphere, my research in Tema addresses the impact of urban planning on public life and spatial ordering in the city. Countering prevail ing accounts of African urban cities which emphasize the organic logics of informal ity, migration and uncontained sprawl, the African urbanism by taking seriously the reach of governing authorities and their grip on the terms and pace of urban development and the practices and experiences of urban dwellers. \011 Tema presents a particularly fasci nating case of long-range urban planning in Africa. On par with other high modernist urban schemes of the post-war era, from Brasilia and British New towns, to Ameri can suburbs and Soviet industrial cities, Tema was established shortly after Ghana gained independence in 1957. The city was Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, and world-renowned urbanist Constantin Doxiadis, who sought to launch Ghana into a fully modern future unhampered by its pre-industrial past or cultural distinctions separating citizens from each other and an emerging global economic ecumene. \011 My research in Tema combines ethnography, institutional and architectural history and archival research to investigate the governing bodies involved in formulat ing and implementing strategies of urban management over the citys half century of existence. It is equally concerned with the experiences of Temas residents as they negotiate the citys tightly conceived and largely preformatted built environment. Given my underlying concern as a political anthropologist with the spectrum of political possibilities allying the governed and the ungoverned, of particu lar interest to me are the forms the interstices between Temas highly scripted master plan and residents own aspirations for success and upward mobil ity amidst the contingencies of contemporary urban existence. \011 At the center of my research is the state-owned Tema Development Corpora tion, an entity that holds nearly exclusive de jure control of the citys lands, building codes and development schemes. Result ing in a tenuous ruling coalition, cooperating and competing with TDC in the de facto governance of the city are the Tema Metro politan Assembly, Tema Tradi tional Council, and Tema Port Authority. In this overly-ruled yet fractured political landscape, new solutions for urban living arise among both the citys rich and poor, inspiring in turn new forms of urban regulation and contests among the designated agents of urban governance. This dialectic of urban planning, alter-planning, and replanning is evident across a range of loca tions and processes, from the conditions of urban sanitation and sewerage, and the layout and use of commercial space, to the practices of residential build ing and demolition. In short, my research suggests that in the city of Tema, and likely other African urban formations, the ordering and dis-ordering of the urban landscape is an outcome of regu latory profusion as much as lack thereof.

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1 0 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 D a a s T N T M In re sponse to an initial request from the village of Nytula, the Africa School School complex and the Health Post (Kituo cha Afya), opened in 2011 and is now in session for 600 children. \011 All buildings were con structed with a local crew and sus tainable materials. The crew trained 12 school buildings and the Health Post. Bricks were formed and baked husks. As the complex progressed over several years, critical material details and construction techniques valuable building skills for future \011 Our proposed design for the Health Post attempted to introduce vaulted Guastavino technology for the roof. Thatch roofs had been com mon in the area until recently, but are now usually replaced with im ported corrugated metal. A vaulted roof would keep all materials local, vary the forms of the buildings, and advance the skills of the crew. ect, the decision was made to roof building in the more usual manner. We continue our design explorations and expect to apply them in the area, to both new and existing structures. Our proposal for Basket-Roofs of Misungwi new roofs designed for the renovation of secondary schools in Mwanza region is one example of the adaptation. \011 We also designed a proposal for a neighborhood in the city of Fez, Morocco, which had requested ideas from architects for a series of new buildings to serve both resident artisans and tourists. This proposal centered around the historic Place Lalla Yedouna and included the sen sitive renovation of several existing buildings, to answer the request for ment, with spaces for educational programs, residences, artisan pro duction, shops, restaurants, cafs, and other services. \011 The Fez proposal led us to further research into the possibility of earth building at a large scale. In August we presented a paper Rare Aalto Academy in Finland. The paper looks at the possibilities for expanding the use of this sustainable and beautiful building material, and presents the large scale building in Fez.

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 11 ELIZ BETH D VO D D E M M J G N Dr. Ahmed Zakariah, the Director of the Ghana National Ambulance Service, spent 2 months in residence during late 2010 and we presented his experience in the poster presentation EMS and Emergency Medicine Observation to Improve the Ghana Ambulance Service at both the December 2010 Duval County Medical Society Poster and Abstract Session and the University of Florida College of Medicine-Jacksonville Advances in Education Poster Session during the April 2011 Medical Education Week. \011 At the request of the Ministry of Health/Ghana National Ambulance Service, I had the pleasure of travelling to Accra to tour the dispatch center and several ambu lance stations as well as providing resuscita tion training for approximately 50 Emergency Medical Tech nicians in the Greater Accra Region. In the coming year, we plan to work to improve dispatch and treatment protocols. Emer gency Medicine is in its infancy in Ghana; however, the recently formed African Federation for Emergency Medicine has chosen Congress on Emergency Medi cine in Accra in October 2012. member of the Local Organizing Committee for the congress. \011 Further, I continue to work with the twinning program linking Addis Ababa University and the Black Lion Specialty Hospital with the University of Wisconsin, People to People, Inc., and the American Interna tional Health Alliance to develop residency and Pediatric Emer gency Medicine fellowship training programs in Ethiopia. In addition to ongoing physician training, Emergency Nursing and Emergency Medical Techni cian expertise is being developed through this collaboration. To gether, the working group plans to assist in the establishment of Medicine Society in the near future. The working group is also collecting data for qual ity improvement programs and other clinical research.

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1 2 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 J ME E EGBEY T I T G B I B by the UF Center for International Business Education & Research (CIBER) and the Center for African Studies. I also took advantage of the Ekla Tutrugbu a reader for speak Dorvlo (Legon) and Felix Ameka (Leiden). \011 One important consider ation for every language documenter is how to give back to the commu nity, and one exciting part of my guage and culture of the Nyagbo was to provide a reader for the speakers. Initially, this looked as easy as tran scribing their oral histories, and a number of cult ural practices and folk stories which I had recorded, and putting them in the reader. How for a language that is undergoing change can be tricky. Considering that spoken language is necessar ily different from written one, the question we faced was what exactly to represent. Nyagbo speakers drop a lot of agreement markers when they speak and, initially, we thought that we should include every mor pheme that is left out in order not to cient language system. In Nyagbo, most speakers could not make sense of the full form when they occurred in sentences because, as some said, that is not how we talk. \011 In the end, to ensure the intelligibility of what we had writ ten for the speakers, and main tain regularity of structure for the linguist, we produced a reader that had the full form on the left pages and their spoken versions on the right. Before the leaders of the community accepted the reader, we had to deal with issues concerning the oral traditions which we had included in a draft version. As soon as the traditions, which are usually narrated to anyone who visited the area, were seen in print in the draft version, disagreements concerning them heated up to the point where it looked like we were going to have an We were therefore compelled to take them out. By then I had started to despair that the reader would not see its day in print. Thankfully all appeared in print in September. We donated a number to the chiefs and schools and gave a quantity to be sold to the community to defray the cost of publishing. I was thrilled at the beginning of November to receive a call that the reader was going to be launched at a big festi val of the Nyagbo could we send the Netherlands Organization for publication.

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 13 a a T N F U T B N The parks and landscapes around them span an ecologic gradient from mid-altitude forests to semiarid savan nas and a demographic gradient from very densely populated agricultural landscapes to relatively sparsely populated pastoral or low intensity agricultural areas. \011 My own research has focused mainly on Kibale National Park (KNP) in western Uganda, and the now densely populated landscape around it (with densities averag ing about 300 or more per km2). Ive done professors Michael Binford and Jane South worth, graduate students Joel Hartter (now faculty at University of New Hampshire), Amy Panikowski, Karen Kirner, and Kather ine Mullan, and several Ugandan and other collaborators. \011 KNP was a forest reserve for much of the 20th century before becoming a national park, and the area around it has been trans formed over that time from a sparsely popu lated to a densely settled agricultural land scape. We hav e for several ye ars investigated the history of settlement and the factors that attracted migration to different portions of the area. In summer 2011, we looked in greater detail at the historic movements and interactions among several groups around the park. We found complex and shifting history of the region. Tensions among some groups opened opportunities for settlement by others at various periods. Mining enter prises to the south of the park also helped bring migrants into the region, as have large tea plantations, which have gone through several cycles of decline and rehabilitation. Many migrant workers subsequently settled near (or sometimes in) the forest reserve. Periods of political instability strongly af fected settlement around and within KNP (as well as in other protected areas in Uganda). We are in the process of document ing the ways in which the human and animal ecology of the sur rounding landscape has been massively transformed by the migrants, and the shifting politi cal ecology in which the park has been involved in the broader context of social, political, and demographic change in this region and at a national level. \011 Among our other recent parks fortress conservation characteristics, and the animal hazards that many farmers face, most people in our sample a small proportion (<1/3) cite the parks negative impacts. are forms of ecosystem services (improved climate, etc.) rather (employment, income). Crop raiding by park animals is a large problem in some locations, but resource restrictions and expul sion are not widely cited by our respondents. Contrary to expec tations, the patterns of responses wealth, gender or ethnicity, but they do vary strongly by distance from the park, with negative as sessments concentrated within one km from the boundary. We suggest that these responses are largely due to the fact that the dents migrated to the area after the park (or forest reserve) was established, and that the area around the park has been so thoroughly domesticated. These conditions and outcomes are likely also to be true for other mid-altitude tropical forests in East Africa and elsewhere (Hart ter & Goldman, 2010).

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1 4 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 s B Though spoken in Brava for a millenium, the horrors of the ongoing civil war in Somali have caused nearly all speakers of the language to become refugees now living in large inter national cities like Atlanta, London, and Mombasa. As a result, the unique language and culture of the Bravanese is quickly disappearing. three) funded by the NEH through the NSF/NEH program Document ing Endangered Languages program, I am working with Bravanese com munities, as well as other scholars, to further document the Chimiini language. This includes writing a reference grammar and dictionary of Chimiini, archiving digital record ings of the language, publishing tra ditional stories, personal narratives, and other ethnolinguistic material, and developing web-based materi als useful to the community and heritage speakers. It also includes exploring the language from a sci insights that might be interesting for theoretical linguistics. \011 Last summer I spent seven weeks in Mombasa, Kenya meeting many of the hundreds of Bravanese who live there and talking with them about their language. Together, we collected oral stories, specialized vo and traditional medicine, and doz ens of Chimiini proverbs. I was also able to introduce the orthography we have developed for Chimiini so that hopefully people will be encouraged to write the language more. Though it isnt home, Mombasa is much closer culturally and linguistically to Brava than London or Atlanta. I was glad to see this has enabled the Wantu wa Miini to maintain their language to a greater extent, even though many of the youths freely mix Chimiini with Swahili in their speech. \011 ing data so that it can be made avail able to the community. This year we will be depositing the data we have collected into a digital archive for endangered languages and working to complete drafts of a grammar, dictionary, and book of proverbs.

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 15 a a I M M J F M The France-based architects of these religious circuits are followers of the Medina Gounass the city of Fes has emerged as the focal point for this transnational religious circuit. There is certainly nothing particularly new about between Morocco and Senegal date back to the end of the 19th century and Senegalese pilgrims to Mecca would often stop in Fes for special Ziarra (paying visit to saints, dead family members also travelled to Senegal religious authorities, as well as predomi the expansion of these transnational circuits to their European host countries through the celebration of transnational events that require participants to travel across national borders. My research has focused on two such events. \011 for which the Baro Family, one of the leading spiritual lineages in Senegal, brought to Fes a delegation of 75 members lead by Cheikh Baro, the Khalif of the Baro family in Mbour, and 30 of the familys followers from France, Italy and Spain. During the past two decades, each year has witnessed an increase in the number of participants in this transnational event. The second transnational event is the Daha ers from around Europe held annually in marked by prayers, blessings, and fundrais event is a duplication of the annual Daha that is held in Medina Gounass, Senegal. There, the Medina conduct a two-week spiritual re treat outside the city, in a cleared forest where only men are pres ent. The event held in Mantesla-Jolie is designed to give to followers who are far away from home a chance to share in the celebration of the Daha. \011 The transnational circuit is completed annually by the return to Mbour of the Senega lese religious leaders, along with Cheikh Baro and his delegation. This year, Cheikh Baros return in mid-July coincided with the start of the Holy Month of Ramadan (early August). For the occasion, the Cheikh was welcomed at the airport in Dakar by his followers and others who travelled from Mbour to the capital. This annual return, after almost two months of transna tional travel, always carries with it an air of triumph. Participa tion in the transnational circuit increases the charisma and authority of religious leaders in the eyes of their followers, most of whom have never been out of the country, and who read the annual travels and crossings of national borders as an expansion non-Muslim places. \011 I have gathered what I believe is a very rich and inter esting body of qualitative data, based on which I expect to write two separate articles. My longcontributing to a better under standing of transnational reli gious practices and their impact on the formation and transmis sion of religious identities across national borders.

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1 6 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 M a D I U E E T D I D B D G M T U \011 The program focuses on the roles of elites in formulating and implementing productive sector initiatives that promote economic growth and reduce poverty. Case studies cover initiatives in agriculture, agrofeature prominently in the respective coun tries. \011 My colleagues (from Makerere Uni versity and Mukono Christian University) sector, the dairy sector and on agricultural extension reform in Uganda. In the spring and had a workshop preparing for writing up our results in Kampala. In the fall of 2011, I spent time writing and exchanging research results with colleagues here at the UF Center for African Studies. \011 One of our main premises in the EPP is that elites support productive sectors when it helps them to remain in power. In coun tries with competitive clientelism, there are often easier ways to remain in power than to support production. This is because ruling elites are primarily concerned with holding their coalitions together in the short term rather than through long term development. \011 Uganda is an exemplary case to explore when and why ruling elites support vision of transforming the economy from subsistence agriculture to an industrialized economy. And in subsequent years, Uganda three decades later, this growth has not re sulted in economic transforma tion. This is because the ruling elite are increasingly vulnerable and are focusing on holding the ruling coalition together and on winning elections. This means that productive sector poli cies generally aim at spreading resources thinly or at not hurting the status quo. But even under competitive clientelism, some productive sectors may receive sustained political support, and tors illustrate this. Our research explains differences between these sectors with reference to their relation to the ruling coali tion.

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 17 s L s I I F E O FEO Z relations and the impact of Chinese invest ments on the local economy. Trade between China and Africa has grown at a rapid rate. Last year China announced that trade with the continent had increased by 45 percent investments rose to 2 billion dollars in early 2011. Chinese business growth in Zambia has come with criticism of the lack of adher ence to international standards for environ mental protection and industrial safety for workers. Zambia has experienced the highest number of reported accidents and violations of workers rights in Chinese managed in vestments. Although presidential candidates including Frederick Chiluba and Michael Sata threatened to switch to Taiwan if elected president, the country has had a long-stand ing relationship with China since Zambias independence in 1964. \011 Chinese investments in Senegal have produced minimal criticism. Like in Zam viewed more positively but there are a lot of small Chinese businesses that are causing friction with the small Senegalese busi nesses. Much of the criticism is centered on Chinese investors buying up a large portion ing the market with cheap Chinese goods and displacing local products such as locally manufactured shoes, clothing and artifacts. \011 In Zambia, I toured small and medi um-sized Chinese investments to study their labor relations, adherence to the state condi tions of service and the impact of Chinese investment on the local economy. I toured small companies. In Senegal, I observed sev eral Chinese investors and their workers and Senegalese business people involved in shoe manufacturing. I conducted interviews and administered survey question naires. My initial observations are that due to the high unem cent (191 out of 199 countries) and a large informal sector, the people interviewed were less critical of the Chinese condi tions of service. Zambia has 14 percent unemployment (143/199 countries). Zambians are also more conditioned to working in the formal sector which made them compare conditions and be more critical. Also, there is a higher expectation of the role of the state in Zambia, especially with the new government of Michael Sata, as compared to Senegal. \011 Unlike Zambia, Senegal has not maintained a continuous relationship with China. Senegal became independent in 1960 but only established diplomatic rela tions with the Peoples Republic of China on December 7, 1971. Senegal established diplomatic relations with Taiwan on Janu ary 3, 1996, which prompted China to suspend relations with Senegal six days later. The two countries restored diplomatic re lations in 2005. Since then, trade has been rising each year. Last year, Senegal exported prod ucts worth 52 million dollars to China. Trade between the two countries has risen by about 30 percent each year and reached 549 million dollars in 2010.

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1 8 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 ROBERT M LEERY I N T U O \011 As Swazilands lowveld (dry savannah) becomes increasingly inhospitable to wildlife, the Siphiso valley, running through the heart of the Mlawula Nature Reserve, remains a refuge for the regions biological diversity. The dynamics of wildlife populations in the Siphiso valley, like other Africa savannah systems, are determined by a com plex array of interacting biotic and abiotic components. To ensure the long term health of the valley and its wildlife communities, it is impera tive that we document and under stand how the savannah changes and functions. By monitoring the wildlife communities and biologi cal processes in the Sipisho valley we are beginning to provide valu able information that can be used to make management decisions, not only in Mlawula Nature Reserve but throughout southern Africa. We have recently initiated a long term monitoring program that simultane ously provides data to managers and lends itself to answering complex ecological questions. \011 In savannah systems, wildlife communities predomi nately respond to the production of grass. The factors that drive grass pressure, and mega-fauna. Our ap proach to monitoring and research both consistent and rigorous data. We are taking a long term, multiscaled approach to our efforts in the Siphiso valley. By conducting annual monitoring throughout the valley we will be well positioned to detect and understand when and why wildlife communities change. The informa tion from our program will allow and rainfall on small mammals, birds, ungulates, and predators in the Siphiso valley. In the com ing years, along with my graduate University of Swaziland, we are planning on using our monitoring protocol outside of protected areas to understand how different landuses (grazing, subsistence farming, and development) alter wildlife com munities and the ecosystem services they provide. \011 In addition to our long term monitoring program, we are in vari ous stages of the research process on a number of Swazi-based wildlife studies. We are currently collect ing data on the use of trip cameras to identify individual genets, civets, and servals (all mid-sized carni vores). If our methods are successful this technique will allow us to better understand these cryptic mammals. We are also analyzing data collected over the last 10 years on two rarely study mammals, Egyptian bats and pygmy mice. Finally, we are in the process of publishing our work ex sugarcane cultivation on wildlife tations in Swaziland. \011 Our collaborative research efforts in Swaziland have also al lowed us to train both aspiring Swazi and American conservation researchers. Each summer I bring a group of University of Florida un dergrads on a study abroad program to conduct conservation research in Swaziland. Starting this year our stu the University of Swaziland who will thesis. In the future, as our research and educational activities continue to grow we are looking for ways to develop a permanent research center to accommodate regional and inter national researchers.

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 19 B RB R M D DE GORDON F I Ghana, Kenya, Uganda, Botswa na, South Africa, and Senegal. The African entrepreneurial landscape spans the spectrum from informal sector traditional microenterprises to multi-mil by college-educated men and women. \011 My next phase of re search looks at entrepreneurship among Africans in the Diaspora that is, Africans who live and operate their businesses out side the African Continent. My initial foray into this topic took a historical perspective for a paper that I presented to the Southern Conference on African Ameri can Studies, African-American Entrepreneurs as Heroes and Heroines in American History. of Anthony Johnson who is African descent to become an entrepreneur in America. He arrived in Jamestown, Virginia in 1621 with a group of about 20 Africans who came to the New World as indentured servants. It is believed that he was originally from the Angola/Congo region of Africa and was brought to America by Portuguese sailors. This established a context for African entrepreneurship in the Diaspora which I had previously explored in a presentation for the traveling exhibit, Inside AfricaDiaspora section, at the University of Florida Museum of Natural History, which exam ined the disbursement of Africas ethnic populations. I bring this topic to the college classroom in my textbook chapter, Spatial Organization and Distribution of Economic Activity, in Geog raphy of Sub-Saharan Africa. I have also given lectures to high school students in the Upward Bound Academy at UF. \011 As part of this next research phase I have begun to collect data on the increase in immigration of Africans to America and their entrepreneur ial activities. I will start with gateway cities such as Fort Lau derdale, Houston, and Washing ton, DC. A workshop at UF on Doing Business in Africa which I co-organized with Dr. Agnes Leslie, was attended by business owners from several countries in Africa including a self-described African-American who recent ly relocated from South Africa and established connections between Chambers of Commerce in the Western Cape and their counterparts in South Florida. \011 Dr. Anita Spring and I have also been invited to up date our research on regional entrepreneurial networks for a book with the working title New Private Sector Actors in Africa \011 In late 2011, I was proud to work with Dr. Leslie and Kenyan graduate student Nathan Wangusi to create the Dr. Wangari Maathai Garden on campus in honor of the Peace Prize for her work in environmental sustainability, human rights, and economic development.

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2 0 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 TERJE TEB H I E During this time I got the opportunity to talk to numerous struggle against the Ethiopian regimes of focusing on the so-called Somali and Oromo liberation movements struggling for various forms of autonomy. The aim of the research is to provide much-needed empirical knowl edge and new perspectives on the nature and developments of the Somali and Oromo ethno-nationalist movements in the south eastern parts of Ethiopia. As they emerged played a more important role than generally assumed. This empirical research documents this importance, and demonstrates that giously biased policies were crucial factors in the production and continuation of these movements. It will analyze the reciprocal relations between ethnicity and religion in the formation of these movements, how this was played out in generating and legitimiz ing their struggles, and how religion and ethnicity produced highly complex interand intra-group relations. \011 nuanced understanding of inter-religious relations in Ethiopia/Horn of Africa. In particular, I challenge the assumption that Ethiopia is a model for peaceful inter-reli gious co-existence, and demonstrate how the historical dominance of Christianity as a political culture and state-ideology has pro duced a lasting asymmetric relationship and consequently antagonistic attitudes between Christians and Muslims. With a focus on both domestic and regional political devel opments, I will also explore how Ethiopias Christian heritage has played and continues to play a role in its policies in the Horn. The perspectives on how to concep tualize the relationship between religion and ethnicity, particu larly with regard to inter-group \011 Parallel to this, I have related to Islam and politics in contemporary Ethiopia, analyz regimes policy towards the Mus lim community in Ethiopia. The data for this was collected during the summer 2011, but draws also from previous research. The the Ethiopian government has changed its policy from monitor ing and controlling the Muslim community to increasingly meddling into internal religious affairs with the aim of promot ing a particular state-sanctioned version of Islam. Implicit in this are the attempts to marginalize and stigmatize Islamic groups which are perceived detrimen tal to political stability. The research moreover points to relevant factors for understand ing this, and analyzes how a state-driven dichotomization of the Muslim community is creat ing highly interesting discourses within Ethiopia. \011 I have also completed the publication process of my book which was published by Brill (Leiden) in October. In addition I have, together with Patrick Desplat (Cologne University) continued editing a volume on contempo rary Islam in Ethiopia. This book focuses on changes with regard to the Muslim communities in post-1991 Ethiopia, including intra-religious dynamics within the Muslim communities, Islam intersected to Ethiopian public and political spheres, and Islam in Ethiopia in relation to the geo-political discourses in the wider Horn of Africa. Our plan is to get this book under contract in 2012.

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 21 F a c s E a a R W F F E J R D B D E DE R U G In addition to Jacks intensive course on global change, he and Claudia were involved in other on-campus and extension education activities that included students at Graeme College where their 13-year old son Antonio played on the rugby team and learned to speak some Xhosa and more Afrikaans. \011 Jack and Claudia presented seminars on the weekly discussions the bottlenecks and challenges for sustainability, and Claudia on a framework on which to base proper design of evaluation of conservation interventions. One of the high points for them was a guerilla theatre pre sentation on carbon trading in which Jack portrayed (a bit too effectively) a Carbon Cowboy and Claudia the Informed Critic. The audience, a group of conservation profession als from the SADC-countries on a 2-week course, were thoroughly engaged in the performance. \011 Grahamstown as visiting professors at Rhodes, Claudia and Jack have maintained active partnerships with several graduate students, postdoctoral associates, and faculty at Rhodes. An exchange visit to Gaines ville by Rhodes Ph.D. candidate Matt McConacchie was intellectually invigorating for all concerned, and did wonders for the cricket prowess at UF.

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2 2 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 Da R ss I These studies support my experience that information literacy train ing improves the research skills of Millennial students, who many wrongly assume are natural experts in everything digital. While students generally come to the university with good general Internet search skills, scholarly work demands a strategic approach and new skills, which we develop together in class. A prepub lication draft of the essay in press for Africa Bibliography is available in the UF Institutional Repository \011 The IR@UF supports schol arly communication generally and the African Studies Quarterly in particular by providing digital preservation and format migration services over the long term. Last Fall Editor-in-Chief R. Hunt Davis, Jr. and Dr. Laurie Taylor of the Digital Library Center in responding to a mandate by the U.S. Copyright Of of Congress of online publications claiming copyright. We established a rial staff to submit issues to the IR@ UF, initiating legal deposit to the Library of Congress when each issue is submitted. The process is detailed in a poster presented to the Florida Association of College and Research \011 Library work supporting research and teaching on Africa includes selecting and coordinat ing the digitization of scarce, rare and unique African related materi als from Special and Area Studies Collections with support from Title VI. This summer we digitized the of about 1,000 manuscripts, colo nial documents and maps relating to Ruanda-Urundi (Rwanda and Burundi) and the Kivu and Oriental provinces of former Belgian Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo). The collection is complemented by a biography of the collector, which conservation biologist and noted avi culturist, Derscheid co-founded the Institut International pour la Protec tion de la Nature and continued Carl Akeleys work after the latters death in 1926 on the slopes of Mt. Mikeno. mountain gorillas there, surveyed the boundaries of what would become the Parc National Albert (Af as its Secretary-General. He was later Professor of Colonial Law at the Institut des Territoires dOutreMer in Antwerp, Belgium. Derscheid was executed by the Gestapo in 1944 after his arrest and nearly 3 year im prisonment for resistance activities, including the creation of secret radio codes based on Bantu languages. \011 Other research materials added this year in open access UF Digital Collections include Onitsha holdings of rare Nigerian popu lar pamphlets. Often compared to dime novels, frequently the authors (including Money Hard and Speedy Eric) served as printers and retailers of their own work. The genre disap tion of the Onitsha market building and book stalls during the Biafran War. Also digitized were a variety of language primers, books and manu scripts from the George Fortune Col tune). Fortune materials in the print collection are available in an author (Ndebele, Zulu, and Xhosa) and Sotho, the principal Southern Bantu linguistic groups. Published materi the Library Catalog. The collection Central and Eastern Bantu materi als as well as West African language materials.

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 23 R c a R a s T Donors recently committed billions of dollars to introduce new vaccines for diarrhea and respiratory infections. How ever the impact of these vaccines depends on the ability of national programs to reach the most vulner able children. While some countries have succeeded in doing this, others continue to struggle. This year we and Melinda Gates Foundation to examine the patterns and causes of disparities in childhood vaccinations and their effect on the potential cines. The work considers tradi tional factors such as geography and socio-economic status, as well as the social and physical mobility of young mothers. In addition to a series of publications, we are hoping that this will lead to a growing partnership of researchers and policy makers to use this information to develop more effective and equitable vaccination strategies. \011 This was our 5th year of a partnership with CARE, Great Lakes University of Kisumu, and Emory University to examine the effects of school environmental interventions on health and education outcomes in Kenya. This year we published a range of qualitative and quantitative work demonstrating the complexity of effective and sustainable interven our randomized trial showed that improving water and sanitation can for girls. At the same time a series of qualitative studies have demon strated that effective and sustainable change in school water and sanita tion is challenging adolescent girls face unique problems around menstrual hygiene management which are not adequately addressed by most programs; interventions of ten lack basic components like anal cleansing materials; and schools often fail to sustain intervention activities due to the lack of resources and accountability. During the com ing year we will continue to work with colleagues in the Ministry of Education to promote policies and practices which target these critical provided by a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation \011 Poor water and sanitation are almost synonymous with poverty and marginalization. At the same time, global policy efforts like the Millennium Development Goals do not prioritize improving sanitation for the poor. In fact, global efforts have generally failed to improve sanitation for the poor, especially in urban areas in sub-Saharan Africa. In collaboration with the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicines SHARE Research Con sortium and with funding from the UK Department for International Development, we are developing a model to estimate disparities in the health burden associated with poor of sanitation investment across the economic spectrum in rural and ur ban areas. We are also working with key policy actors such as UNICEF and WHO to use the results to target investments to the poorest and most vulnerable households.

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2 4 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 c a I W This tunities to explore the presence of indigenous fashion design in Africa, documenting how dress innovators have produced new styles outside the orbit of the Western-dominated global fashion system. I have also investigated the many strategies designers use to absorb distinctively local dress practices into their work, in some cases through direct adap tation of textiles or ornaments, in others through conceptual refer ences to local histories and cultures. All of this, as well as my analysis of the constructed images of Africa in Western dress history, brings fash ion fully into the study of African visual culture. \011 During the past year, I have presented papers on new aspects of ence on African Art at UCLA, on a panel that I organized, and as part of a speakers series at Michigan State University. I have published an article in African Arts and an essay in the Harn Museum of Arts won derful Africa Interweave catalogue. In addition, I published a paper on the colonial era exchanges between Africa and France via fashion in Images Changeantes de lInde et de lAfrique (LHarmattan, 2011). \011 While most of my fashion research has focused on modern and contemporary Africa, using inter views with designers and analysis of recent garments, I am increasingly intrigued by the historical aspects of the interaction between African and I hope to return to a longstanding fascination with the colonial exposi tions of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as part of my provide rich material for visual analysis; much has been written about European (largely British and French) representations of their African colonies through dioramas, photographs, collections of art and artifacts, and even the importation of African people to create actual cation (and entertainment). \011 What was the impact of African people involved in the expo sitions respond to the construction gathered information on the African side of this exchange wherever I have found it, in archives, museums, works of art and literature. Malis Archives Nationales contain letters artists who sought passage to France to take part in the potentially lucra tive public events. In coming years, as I pursue this interest, I hope to use the expositions engagement with the visual arts to reveal much more about the African involvement in, and resistance to, the Western construction of the colonies. I have proposed a panel for the 2013 Col lege Art Association conference on the artistic impacts of the exposi tions, which I hope will lead this research in as yet unimagined direc tions.

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 25 p sc I T R Built by the Germans in 1905, the Kanazi Palace is distinctive for its grand style, its rural setting, and its blend of German colonial archi tecture with local architectural style. \011 German designs were more than architectural, as the King or the most powerful yet the most distant ruler from the German seat of power in Bukoba on Lake Victo ria. Located on a high plateau some 70 km away, Kahigi II was enticed to relocate his capital at Kanazi, ap proximately 20 km south of Bukoba. In return, the Germans built him German army, and allocated him lands belonging to neighboring king doms. \011 When the Germans capitu lated in 1916, Kahigi reacted strongly when slapped in public, he retreated to his natal home, where he com mitted suicide while declaring that he could never serve the British. His kingdom then passed to three suc cessors whose authority was abbre viated by the British until his grand son, Petro Nyarubamba, took the his power and governmental support by the new independence govern ment. From that moment, the palace began a steady decline. \011 Lack of maintenance and funds to replace leaking roofs meant the collapse of most of the stately the main palace house was degrad ing rapidly as rain water poured onto massive mud brick walls. An appeal for assistance came from Kiroyera Tours, a local tour compa ny that focuses on heritage tourism. Collaborating with Mary Kalikawe of Kiroyera, I persuaded the Ameri can Embassy to provide emergency stabilization funds to re-roof the court and main house in the summer of 2009. A later grant then made a I returned on a leave of absence in parts of the restoration of three primary buildings within the palace grounds, reasoning that these were icons of foreign domination. Rather these buildings were constructed by, cal people with local sensibilities and needs. An important part of modern Tanzanian history unfolded within their walls, making them uniquely Tanzanian and capturing an era in which modernity was introduced and lives became forever different. \011 Using local craftsmen who kingdom, both the prison on the north side and the original home of Kahigi II on the south side of the upon original foundations. The suite of four rooms where Kahigi for a new museum by King Nya rubamba (who unexpectedly died in December of 2010). Replacement of elegant elephant grass ceilings in the court proper, where the king sat on a raised platform for audiences, was another priority. Most interesting was the discovery of ritual parapher nalia in the back room of Kahigis with his traditional religious duties. \011 undertook limited archaeological inquiry during the last month of restoration. This led to some very important insights into industrial activity within the palace grounds, the possible location of a modern but traditionally inspired alterna tive residence for Kahigi II, and the location of the ritual house where he conferred with his advisors and diviners. \011 Kanazi Palace will act as a central focus for heritage tourism that appeals to a wide range of peo pleschool children, local citizens, and international visitorshelping of memory about a past that should not be forgotten.

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2 6 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 a k s M N G W Different from clas sic language documentation aimed at language description, the goal in documentary linguistics is to create a record of natural language in the form of an extensively annotated in documentary linguistics still pro duces items known from traditional language documentation such as a dictionary, a grammatical sketch, and an orthography, the heart of transcribed, translated, annotated and contextualized audio and audio visual data. The documentation con tains recordings of various language events, e.g. descriptive monologues or free ranging conversations, as well as recordings of cultural activi ties. The different parts of the docu mentation are connected through an extensive web of cross-references between the transcribed recordings, the dictionary, the grammatical sketch, and the supporting com mentary. This apparatus is targeted at making the corpus accessible to and usable for a variety of users, e.g. cultural anthropologists, linguists, historians, community members, in terested laymen, and policy makers. The material will be archived with the Endangered Languages Archives (ELAR) at SOAS. \011 Nalu is spoken on the lit torals of Guinea and Guinea-Bissau. In Guinea, Nalu speakers primarily live north of the river Nuez on the Tristo islands, which are part of the prefecture of Bok. Across the border in Guinea-Bissau speakers of Nalu are located around the Cacine estuary in the Tombali region. It is claimed that ancestors to the con temporary language community en tered the current living area around the 14th and 15th centuries. \011 In both countries where Nalu is spoken, Nalu speakers live in a heterogeneous ethnic and linguistic environment. Not much is known about the exact situation in Guinea Bissau, except maybe that one can reasonably assume that Nalu is spoken in the vicinity of Balanta, Biafada, and Landuma speakers. In Guinea-Conakry, Nalu is spoken as one of many languages in the prefecture of Bok, and Nalu speakers there live together with speakers of Landuma, Balanta, Baga and other languages. Even in the one area that is dominated by Nalu speakers, i.e. the sub-prefecture of Kanfarand, they are in contact with Balanta, Landuma, and Fulfulde. All encompassing this situation is Soso, the dominant lingua franca of the region, with speakers also in GuineaBissau and Sierra Leone. \011 Nowadays, Nalu speakers are shifting towards Soso. To be more precise, the shifting process to the target language Soso is asserted for the Nalu speakers of Guinea and can reasonably be assumed for the speakers living in Guinea-Bissau. Neither in Guinea-Bissau nor in Guinea-Conakry is Nalu considered to be a national language and thus it is, to my knowledge, neither part of any government or NGO initiative for alphabetisation, nor is it part of any school curricula, nor is it used in the media. \011 Because of the language shift situation it is hard to gauge exactly how many people still speak the language. The numbers given vary between 6,000-25,000. Never theless, on the Tristo archipelago which is an infrastructurally and economically somewhat marginal ized area, the language is still used as an intra-ethnic means of com munication and also transmitted to some extent to the younger genera tion.

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 27 a a s a T R I U DFID I The coun try-based research teams collected the last round of quantitative and qualitative data from a sample of cotton farmers in 35 villages across the four countries in which we have Burkina Faso, Cameroon and Mali, also among the most important cot ton producers in sub-Saharan Africa. premier research institutes in their respective countries, such as LARES Consultancy Bureau in Benin, the University of Ouagadougou in Burki na Faso, the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD) in Cameroon and the Institute of Rural Economics (IER) in Mali. Dr Jonathan Kaminski helped me to coordinate and supervise the teams. \011 The last data collected at village level completes our data base containing crucial information on the management of the cotton sector, as seen from below, from the farmers who grow and sell seed cotton, their local representa tives in cooperatives unions, and other stakeholders in the village. Such perspectives complement the information previously obtained during interviews with represen tatives from the government, the cotton companies, the donors, and other actor key stakeholders in the cotton value chain. Fieldwork at this broader, national level helped us to derive a picture of the debate sur rounding policy interventions in the cotton sector, the arguments for and against the proposed measures of liberalization and privatization, and the initiatives put in place to sup port or resist such interventions. We now possess a rich evidence basis for assessing cotton sector performance in terms that are meaningful to the analyzing how different countries deal with mounting challenges af fecting their cotton sectors and with the multiple pressures to reform. Ultimately, we aim to derive lessons that can inform policy interventions in key productive sectors, which are the poor (in line with the broader \011 a paper titled Governing Cotton Processes in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon and Mali, presents some analysis. We identify the different and peculiar reform course followed in each country, and locate the main local political and social realities in each country, which have shaped it. We show that these realities were often underestimated when for mulating policy prescriptions, thus leading to poor implementation and/or actors negative reactions, formance. When the logic of reform processes incorporates local reali ties, as in Burkina Faso until 2006, Cameroon until 2009 and possibly lately in Mali, there is instead better chance for more sustainable and poverty-reducing outcomes. \011 I presented the paper at the fourth European Conference on African Studies (ECAS4) in Uppsala tion for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), in Paris on well attended and attracted consid erable interest. I presented further results at the African Studies Asso ciation Meeting, in Washington DC (Nov. 17-20), as part of a panel that I organized on The Political Economy of African Agriculture. \011 An analysis of the reforms process in Burkina Faso is now published as APPP Working Paper No. 17, with the title Endogenous Cotton policy-making in Burkina Faso (co-authored with Jonathan Kaminski); while my paper on Cot ing the Puzzle is forthcoming as APPP WP No. 20. These and other able from the research publication www.institutions-africa.org/publi cations/research_stream/cottonsector-reforms.

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2 8 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 Da T L V B I In addition to quite literally wearing it in Niger (thats me eating yellow cake at the US Ambassa dors house on the 4th of July with Florida Circuit Judge, Nikki Clark), the Sahel with Leo, and during the fall in Ghana with Brenda and our two kids. Whether spending time in Africa makes one an Africanist, Ill leave to others to decide. But my interactions with activists in six Francophone countries as part of a U.S. State Department grant, and doing research at the Center for Democratic Development in Ghana, allowed me to once again plant my scholarly feet in Africa. \011 As part of our two-year funded by the Department of State, Leo and I hosted 15 African visitors and exposed them to the politically charged world of American voting and elections. For three weeks they met with dozens of voting rights activists, elections administrators, Gainesville, Tallahassee, and Wash they were ready to comment publicly on the retrenchment of voting rights in Florida. Exposed to the inner workings of the American electoral process, the participants returned achieving our standards of voting and elections might be setting the orchestrated the organization and logistics of the program, and fel low political science grad students Mamadou Bodian and Dan Eizenga helped along the way. \011 After our reconnaissance trip in January, Leo and I headed back to Africa during the summer, accompanied by three Americansa consultant. Our month-long trek across the Sahel provided us with an opportunity to meet with our par ticipants, partner organizations, and representatives from the US embas sies. We also had fruitful discussions nalists, political party operatives, and members of national election commissions. In addition, our small public event in each country, dis cussing the trials and tribulations of voting and election administration in the US. We even found time for some cultural exchanges, visiting the in Niger, watching the catch of the day being hauled in on Mauritanias the vibrant democratic deliberations of a rural council meeting in Fissel, Senegal, and braving a torrential dust (and then, rain) storm follow ing a hike around Blaise Compaors wildlife park in Burkina Faso. \011 During the fall semester in Ghana, I had the fortune to serve as a Research Associate at the CDD, the countrys preeminent think-tank. Af ter a week on the ground, I realized that the research I had conducted as a Senior Fulbright Scholar a decade earlier on the malapportion ment of parliamentary seats and the incidence of invalid ballots was still relevant. The Director of CDD, Professor Gyimah-Boadi, encour aged me to pursue the topics and provided insightful comments as chair of a public lecture I delivered at the University of Ghana. Need less to say, my argumentthat in its conscious effort not to be per ceived as partisan, the independent Electoral Commission has become obsequious, catering to the demands of political parties, and acceding its constitutional responsibility to guarantee equal representation in Parliament to all Ghanaians and ensure that all ballots are counted equitablycontributed to the ongo ing palaver Ghanaians were having during the build-up to the 2012 Ghanas electoral maturity as it enters its third decade as a constitu tional republic serves as a beacon for the rest of the continent to follow. \011 Thanks to Brenda and Leo, my interest in African politics has been rekindled. Thanks to the Chair of Political Science, Michael Marti nez, I was able to take leave of my teaching and mentoring duties to follow my episodic African passion. And thanks to the enriching experi ences in the Sahel and in Ghana, I know I will have new insights into how political institutions shape elec toral behavior in my own country.

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 29 LIOUNE s I I UF F E O M The grant allowed me to pursue my research in Bamako this summer, where I col lected narratives, spent time in the National Archives and the National library, and conducted several inter views with Malian authors and poli ticians. While working on memoirs, I continue my work on the transfor mations of the Malian literary land scape since democratization but also on the impact of the military power on Malian cultural productions since completed a paper on Malian cinema and the question of military power Critical Interventions \011 In February 2011, I coconvened with Brigitte Weltman Aron, the annual Gwendolen Carter Conference examining the cultures of memory, the commemorations versary of African political indepen dences. The conference was multi disciplinary and speakers included the writer Alain Mabanckou, the cinema director Jean-Marie Tno, scholars Gregory Mann, Rda Bens maia, Mildred Mortimer, Ccile Ca nut, Didier Gondola, James Straker, Ken Walibora Waliaula, Antoinette ence Bernault, Joana Grabsky and Nnamdi Elleh. \011 I also pursue my work with the ANR Miprimo, an interdisciplin directed by Ccile Canut from the Universit Paris-Descartes and the Ceped. Focusing in particular on literature, my work examines the transformations of Malian theatre practices to respond to local dis courses on migration. My research focuses on new initiatives but also on the transformations of conven tional practices and genres such as the koteba to engage with issues of migration. In June 2011, I presented a conference paper on this topic at the African Theatre Association in the UK. \011 Finally, my book Vestiges et vertiges: rcits denfance dans les littratures africaines dedicated to childhood narratives in African literatures, was published by Artois Presses Universit in May 2011.

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3 0 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 L s W I R Rhodesia (Southern Rhodesia before been a semi-colonial hybrid since the early 1920s, and was part of the Central African Federation before its demise in 1964. Whereas the other member states became the Africanruled nations of Malawi and Zambia, Rhodesias white minority declared a Unilateral Declaration of Indepen dence from Britain in 1965. Rhode sanctions were imposed on Rhode sia long before they were required for South Africa (sanctions against Rhodesia were to become the model for the United Nations sanctions of the 1990s against Iraq and former Yugoslav states). \011 Rhodesian independence soon plunged the country into a prolonged guerrilla war, fought from exile with two guerrilla armies that far outnumbered Rhodesian forces. The armies represented two political parties that had been founded in the early 1960s, Joshua Nkomos Zimba bwe African Peoples Union (ZAPU) and Robert Mugabes Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU). No army had a decisive military victory, but the attrition on Rhodesia and the neighboring states that housed the guerrillas was enormous. The Brit ish organized several conferences to end the war and create a settlement to the country. These were con give but one example, the warring parties met on a train stopped on the bridge over Victoria Falls, between the national borders of Rhodesia and Zambia and no results. A com bination of factors in 1979 -a new government in Britain and wear and tear on Mozambique and Zambia, which housed ZANU and ZAPU re spectively, and the long term effects of sanctions made some kind of settlement necessary, and a new ma out in the annual Commonwealth heads of state meeting in August. A month later there was a constitu tional conference in London the real task of which was to arrange for, and detail the enforcement of, an one-man, one-vote elections that \011 With a small grant from UFs Faculty Enhancement Oppor tunity program, I spent two weeks in London in 2011 reading newly opened archives and conducting interviews with former election The conventional account of the election is contradictory, that there were free and fair elections and that despite widespread intimida tion by Mugabes party, ZANU won by a large margin. My research in London revealed something dif ferent, however, that there was a cessation of hostilities but nothing election could discern which politi cal party was intimidating the most people. This suggested to me that two ideas dear to Africanists the that of electoral violence -might a civil war, when ex-combatants are known to the civilian population, does it to counter the intimidation of other political parties. What we all, but an extension of the earlier term electoral violence locates and limits violence to electoral practices, rather than the situation the election was imagined to resolve.

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 31 E F I O Z Environmental cues of phenology are well understood for temperate systems, however less so for dryland ecosystems. The savanna ecosystems of southern Africa are water limited and responsive to rainfall at varying temporal and spatial scales. While precipitation and associated soil moisture are most commonly as sociated with the variable vegetation pattern, many other biotic and abi otic factors also affect the ecosystem. soils, and anthropogenic activity. My research examines the impact of such factors on the vegetation of southern Africa, focusing mainly on the impact of climate variability. \011 My study region, located in tropical and subtropical southern Africa (the Okavango, Kwando, and upper Zambezi catchments) covers 2 across Angola, Botswa na, Namibia, and Zambia. Average annual precipitation ranges from 400-2200 mm/yr. There is a steep north-south precipitation gradient characterized by low precipitation and high variability in the southern semi-arid regions and higher rainfall in the northern portions of the ba sin. The precipitation regime of the tion, which has been documented in the rainfall data and within envi ronmental histories obtained. Other while not as dominant as precipi tation, still play a large role in the landscape dynamics. Soils are highly variable across the basins, with differing levels of the key nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus. Addition ally, many of the countries have dif fering policies in regard to burning, but savanna ecosystems are adapted depending on the environmental conditions. \011 It is my goal to utilize a time series of remotely sensed satellite imagery, precipitation data, live vegetation sampling to classify the lyze the determinants of vegetation cover via spatial statistics, classify the vegetation using a rule-based approach that integrates spectral in dices, and model the vegetation and climate at the landscape level. Such a and satellite-based data. The satel lite data utilized will consist of high and low resolution imagery, so that I can scale up the vegetation clas of the three basins. Field-based data is essential for the calibration and validation process, both the vegeta models require ground truthing. \011 were partially funded by the Center for African Studies, have enabled me Both training samples and transects were complete across the region, measuring percentage canopy clo discriminating between vegetation type. Research such as mine can not be completed without ground truthing the satellite images. During summer 2011 in particular, vegeta tion sampling was concentrated in and around the Caprivi Strip of Na mibia, Moremi National Park, and Chobe National Park. \011 The results of my research look to develop a detailed environ mental history for the region. Utiliz ing a time series of satellite imagery the recent stability of the system, the impact of disturbance, and the over all shift in the vegetated state will be documented. Such information can assist in environmental manage ment, and assess to some degree the impact that humans have had on tive to my research is to contribute to a broader understanding of the dynamics of human environmental interactions in a semi-arid ecosys tem.

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3 2 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 a M L As human populations grow, the worlds largest population of Afri can elephants is increasingly being densities of elephants within these parks raises concerns of widespread habitat change, affecting other large mammals and threatening the areas ecological integrity. There is a dire need to understand the impact of increasing densities of elephants on species diversity in order to inform effective management strategies. \011 My dissertation addresses this issue by quantifying patterns of species diversity across a range of elephant densities and analyzing species interactions to investigate biotic mechanisms underlying diver sity trends. A better understanding other species will enable manag ers to protect wildlife and habitats while also allowing conservation to contribute to economic growth and local livelihoods through initiatives like ecotourism. \011 On previous trips to Bo gated elephant utilization of trees in Chobe National Park and collected preliminary data on habitat use and interactions of elephants and other large herbivores. Funded in part by the Center for African Studies, I was able to expand my work in 2011, collecting additional data in Chobe National Park, as well as conducting pilot studies in Bwabwata and Mu dumu National Parks in the Caprivi Strip of Namibia. These parks offer areas of medium and low elephant densities to complement the mod erate and high densities found in Moremi and Chobe. Working across multiple parks allows me to test for the effects of elephants across a range of densities, helping improve understanding of what concentra tions of elephants might promote species diversity, and what consti tutes too many elephants. \011 Using a series of game drives, wildlife groups were spatially located using a GPS unit, compass, now being analyzed using spatial statistics to evaluate whether ani mals are more clumped or dispersed across the landscape than expected by random chance, indicating un derlying behavioral interactions. The information collected is also being combined with remotely sensed land cover data to create predictive habitat maps for large mammals in the dry season. Pairing this with our groups climate modeling will show how elephant impacts and predicted changes in the environment around the wildlife species that live there, informing management decisions by the wildlife departments of Botswa na and Namibia. \011 Southern Africa is home to an impressive display of wild crea be able to work in this area. There is nothing quite like watching a family of elephants drinking at the rivers edge, silhouetted by the setting sun, or seeing a leopard sliding through the bushes on its way to hunt. Expe riences like these reinforce my pas sion to protect the wild places and animals of southern Africa so that future generations can continue to that the Center for Africa Studies and many other organizations have shown, enabling me to continue my work of learning about and protect ing the wildlife of Africa.

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 33 J ON H RTZ O W For those migrating from Senegal to the United States, New York City was the primary destination. From there communities have developed in other cities around the U.S., such as Cincinnati. The greater Cincinnati area, including the area of Kentucky the development of a small, but vibrant community of West Africans. migrants in the region, businesses catering to their needs have also developed. For the past decade in Cincinnati, a small Africa-centric food landscape has become visible. \011 For the months of June and July, 2011, I conducted research in Cincinnati at a small African market and the neighboring Senegalese res taurant, both owned and operated by the same individual. For the two months that I was there, I located myself, for the most part, in the din ing room, interviewing customers and watching the day-to-day activi ties which took place. My research focused primarily on the develop ment of the West African food landscape and the shifting dietary requirements of the Senegalese pop ulation living there. By tapping into a global network of food producers, shippers, and manufacturers, the owner of a small African market and who formerly worked for a global food distributer, has succeeded in developing a business which caters to the desires of not only the West African community, but also Asian and Caribbean immigrant commu nities. This small restaurant has managed to create a cuisine which is largely West African, focusing primarily on Senegalese cuisine, but has also hybridized its menu to cater to multi-ethnic tastes. Additionally, they alter the amount and content of each dish depending on the assumed tastes of the customer. For instance, an American customer will receive more meat and less rice, while an African customer will receive more rice and less meat. \011 Dietary choice is largely dictated by access, which in turn may have very real or possibly harmful effects on the health of the individual. Diabetes, heart disease, hypertension (high blood pressure), and obesity are very real concerns among immigrants traversing the American food landscape. How knowledge about food and dietary choice is obtained and how immi grant populations use this knowl edge is important in learning how to assist individuals in coping with and possibly preventing such chronic diseases. Knowledge acquisition by way of the media, word of mouth, or lived experience has the ability to alter personal decisions in relation to health in diverse ways. For some immigrants the answer may be exer cise, for others it may be through the adoption of food avoidance strate gies. For many of those Senegalese in Cincinnati which I interviewed, it is apparent that an adherence to a more traditional or authentic Senegalese diet is the answer, no matter how global that diet may in fact be.

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3 4 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 lucky enough to be able to hire two of their trained modera tors. This was an experience in capacity building, with a day spent training the moderators in Shamba Maisha and the discus sion guide. We headed to rural Migori District, to outlying clin ics and held gender-separated discussions at two different clinics. The initial outcomes of the discussions show nutrition in the family would increase as well the opportunity to send children to school. Farmers saw this intervention as positive and them. \011 Finally, I spent about 10 days between Migori and Rongo district hospitals conducting interviews to determine their similarity as control and inter vention sites. Community health workers, Ministry of Agriculture, agriculture input suppliers, vegetable wholesalers and retail ers, as well as patients who were farmers were all interviewed. The principal investigator and I analyzed the data and deter mined that the two sites were similar enough to be used in the by piloting the entire survey instrument of the trial (including health, transmission behavior, stigma, empowerment, agricul ture, income, etc.) to ensure that it is culturally appropriate, had a reasonable amount of time. \011 This combination of health and agriculture in an intervention is what makes Shamba Maisha an innovative approach to HIV treatment and care. The MDP summer practicum has given me a better understanding of development research and HIV/AIDS in East Africa. I hope other MDP stu dents can have similar opportu nities to work on these impor tant issues in western Kenya. E Is T W HIV Spend ing the summer working on the Shamba Maisha (Kiswahili for Farming Life) ran domized control trial in Western Kenya and gaining an understanding of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been a valuable experience and built on the interdisciplinary course work of ment Practice (MDP) student. \011 The MDP summer practicum at UF uses the focus of what is the problem people face in their lives, and what can we (the com munity and the practitioner) do together to mind I was fortunate to work with Family Aids Care and Education Services (an HIV/ AIDS care organization) in Nyanza Province, Kenya on the Shamba Maisha trial. The central question of the Shamba Maisha trial is what are the effects of microcredit to pur chase treadle pumps for people living with HIV/AIDS who are food insecure and taking be measured by the intermediate outcomes of the farmers irrigated agriculture produc cal outcomes of their general health (BMI, CD4 count, etc.), transmission behavior risk, and female empowerment. \011 My summer practicum involved background research, interviews, focus group discussions, and writing measures for agriculture and economic instruments to measure the changes using validated instru ments as my starting point. With these tools in mind, I interviewed farmers who were part of the initial Shamba Maisha pilot study, to understand their economic and produc tion pathways. \011 I also prepared and commissioned four focus group discussions to predict the outcome of the intervention. These discus sions were accomplished with the help of Great Lakes University Kisumu and I was

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 35 Da Jak sk M E E I believe video as an artistic medium is uniquely suited to chart ing the social constellations that make up modern Egypts fraught relationship with nationalist politics, revolution, and modernity as it has unfolded in the country throughout the past century. Since Egypt sought independence from British colonial control in the early 20th century, different conceptions of national ist, religious, and politically radical identities have been innovated as powerful tools of ontological selfformulation and political expression. These notions of identity have been put to use toward both progressive and reactionary political ends, and their legacies are still felt today as the various movements that com pose the popular rebellion of the Arab Spring shift from dismantling the Mubarak regime toward articu lating their own program of institu tional organization and action. \011\011 \011 During the past decade, video artists working in Egypt and abroad used digital technology and new media to represent and critique the momentous transformations in identity that have shaped the nations present political moment, a moment that has emerged during a period of draconian neo-liberal economic reforms, variegated reac tions to an uneven globalization of both culture and capital, and new communications technologies that have radically altered personal political organization within Egypt and across the world. \011 While I was unable to travel to Egypt during the past summer due to travel restrictions arising from political unrest, the oppor tunity to study Arabic in Morocco provided me with direct access to another regional manifestation of the Arab Spring. Protests in both Casablanca and Ribat occurred during my time abroad, demanding greater popular representation in government activities and a loosen ing of power held by the monarchy and its most visible representative, King Mohammed VI. As is to be expected, the conceptions of po litical, ethnic, gender, and sexual identity that composed Moroccos popular movement differed in both magnitude and internal make-up from those of contemporary Egypt. But both nationally bound move ments held a shared investment in the concept of liberal democracy and its necessity at this moment in the history of Arab peoples. Exposure to Moroccos protests provided a dimensionality to my perspective of these political transformations that I would otherwise lack. \011 In the coming years, I hope to develop these research inter places Egyptian video art within the broader, global history of the medi um while also investigating different formulations of contemporary Egyp tian identity and how each plays of democracy in Egypt and the Arab world as a whole. Artists such as Doa Aly, Lara Baladi, Hala Elkoussy, Wael Shawky, and Ahmed Basiony have each used video to access and represent the politics of Egyptian identity. And in a critical turn, these artists have also problematized the notion of identity itself, focusing upon its limitations as an apparatus for political change and suggest ing ways forward toward a renewed universal politics. But rather than discard identity altogether as myo pic, exclusive, and incommunicable as a resonant basis for action, these artists emphasize the concepts identity is an essentially performa tive process that constantly renews and transforms itself when con fronted with new historical realities. I believe that it is within this shared performative mutability that new forms of totality are imagined within the differences of identity politics. Video has been a versatile and easily accessible artistic medium uniquely suited to exploring the temporality of performative identity in contem porary Egypt.

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3 6 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 a a J s F H DDR I B G G R T G L While there I conducted over 400 interviews with former and civilians who all played a part in Burundis civil war, which lasted (of culminating in the displacement of 2 million Burundians, both inter nal and external refugees, and the deaths of more than 300,000. My research focuses on understanding ity political power, the CNDD-FDD (in French, Conseil National Pour la Dfense de la DmocratieForces pour la Dfense de la Dmocratie ) have transformed themselves from rag-tag soldiers waging an insur gency in the forests to the keepers of national economic, political and social power. \011 During my time there, I saw the regime under former rebel com mander and now President Pierre Nkurunziza win its second election since the war, a move that consoli dated their political power, but also spawned interesting new research issues for my work. Although people largely accepted the victory of the CNDD-FDD in the 2010 elections, victory was put out, and replaced lence. People were no longer will ing to accept politicians who were unwilling to engage in dialogue with those not of their party. Average citizens expressed their discontent to me in a number of ways, and I learned of their views by employing ed interviews, larger focus groups, and was a participant observer in community, church and associa tional meetings. I also interviewed former rebel foot-soldiers men and women who had participated as children as to how and why the movement progressed the way it did. I also questioned them about why participate, and what they did after they left the movement. \011 learned about rebels and rebellion by employing an interdisciplin ary lens to my work, that not only included the application of political and economic theories of grievance from my training in the department of political science, but also in an thropological and historical ways of seeing that I was trained in through various courses, interactions and seminars in the Center for African utilized my language skills, espe cially in Swahili, which I learned as a FLAS fe llow in the Center for African graduate school. While my Kiswahili Walimu (teachers) at Florida might now have trouble with my dialect (the Burundian version is slightly different than the Standard, tinged ences), I know that the depth of my work would not have been possible without it. Often times, the fact that I spoke regional languages made the difference in the level of trust, and therefore, level of information, I received from interviewees. It was also a great way to understand when people were discussing you in a nightclub or restaurant. I was also lucky enough to have had the full support of the Center as I prepared for the dissertation research in my graduate school years I received numerous grants to conduct pre-dis sertation research trips and present studies conferences.

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 37 Ma T s \370 W O E It also involves a focus on how Norwegianfunded development initiatives that address gender issues are carried out and perceived locally. This year I spent four months in Ethiopia, mainly in rural villages in the Oro mia region where I did participant observation and interviewed women, religious leaders, NGO workers, and government bureaucrats. \011 my research are twofold. Whereas the discourse on gender equality at international level and among development bureaucrats at central broad conceptualization of gender equality, characterized by a focus on equal opportunities for men and women in relation to political participation, education, economic participation etc. the discourse on gender equality at the local level a) gender equality understood as womens rights with particular focus on gender violence and so-called harmful traditional practices (HTP) and; b) gender equality understood with particular reference to work. extent a focus on change in gender roles, among others voiced in argu ments such as women should start to plough, and men should start dominant understanding of gen der equality was however framed order to increase production and get out of poverty. \011 Public meetings arranged by the government were reported as the main source of information regarding this issue, and compar ing the rhetoric on the grass roots level with Ethiopias newly launched Growth and Transformation plan, one might conclude that the concep tualization at the local level, rather tions, is mirroring what is on the political agenda. Informants kept claiming that we have accepted gender equality, to stop practicing female genital cutting (FGC), to use family planning etc. However, when probing deeper into these issues, it became clear that this acceptance was not necessarily genuine nor put into practice, but something people would say because of fear of possible consequences if they raised any kind of opposition. \011 Secondly, all the Norwegianfunded organizations that I came in had a focus on HTP and particu larly FGC, indicating that FGC/HTP among these organizations might have become a proxy for work on gender equality. In addition, secular as well as faith-based NGOs and also government institutions propagate and use religious leaders as a key strategy. Hence my research also ended up focusing on experiences and approaches with regard to reli gious leaders. Preliminary analysis indicate that even though one may argue for the importance of religious leaders as agents of change, it might be a less fruitful strategy if politicalreligious dynamics are not taken into consideration.

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3 8 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 s M I O This multi-sited research is based in three regions in South Af Town and two rural wine producing communities, one in the Breede Riv er Valley and one in the Oliphants River Valley. This research focuses tions within the Fairtrade movement since 1997 and in South Africa since 2004, Fairtrade is a trade-not-aid approach to sustainable develop ment that aims to empower pro ducers and workers who have been marginalized by global capitalism. \011 do the various stakeholders within policy transformation within both Fairtrade and Western Cape agrar ian reform efforts; and 2) What do these negotiations and power plays mean for the ways in which policy is implemented and for on-the-ground realities such as business sustain \011 I worked with a variety of stakeholders in order to address these questions. These stakehold erswhom I have termed agentic actors to represent each individuals relative power within the system include farm owners, managers, and workers; winemakers; Fairtrade International, Fairtrade Africa, and Fairtrade South Africa personnel; \011 There are seven primary policy transformations that have occurred over the course of the past tion bodies are being introduced in South Africa, thus challenging Fairtrade Internationals power; 2) Fairtrade Network (formerly Fairtrade South Africa) has be come increasingly inclusive and fairly-traded family in South Af rica; 3) Fairtrade International and Fairtrade Label South Africa have shifted towards a focus on corporate clients that bring in larger license fees, thus generating more income to grow the Fairtrade brand; 4) the state-led Black Economic Empower ment compliance for South African producers is being reconsidered; 5) a ban on the export of Fairtradeered; 6) environmental standards on pesticide usage on vines are being challenged and reviewed; and 7) Fairtrade is reevaluating who the should be, with serious implications for the future of the movement and power relations within the value chain. \011 shown that workers on Fairtrade living and working conditions than their non-fairtrade counterparts and feel more a part of decision-making processes both on-farm and within wider trade and agrarian reform discussions. However, alternative trade paradigms like Fairtrade often fall prey to the same marginalization global capitalism, likely because Fairtrade is not revolutionary, but rather uses the free market to provide alternatives to conventional capitalism. I have also found that Fairtrade has not changed paternal istic power relationships at the sites of production, with workers remain ing excluded from many business and policy decisions, despite their ownership share. Fairtrade involve not necessarily served to promote transparency or prevent corruption. Lastly, Fairtrades increasing focus on corporate clients has left exist ing producers with little guidance or support, which has resulted in the continued marginalization and disil lusionment of workers, Fairtrades

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 39 ck M a D In southern Africa, this led to the proliferation of community wildlife management programs such as the Communal Areas Manage ment Program for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) in Zimba bwe, Conservancies in Namibia, and Wildlife Trusts in Botswana. Elite capture however, is a new threat to this success, with the potential to reverse the conservation ethic gained by local communities in the past two decades. Consequently, community based natural resources management (CBNRM) is faced with a crisis and constant criticism that it development and conservation. \011 Based on three purpose fully selected communities, Sankoyo (Botswana), Wuparo (Namibia) and Masoka (Zimbabwe), the current study investigated the problem of elite capture i.e. increased privatiza few individuals (committees, local politicians, religious leaders, and traditional leaders). The research methodology combines primary and secondary data collection using archival documents, interviews, and focus group discussions. I started ing broadly on governance issues surrounding CBNRM initiatives at local level. This summer (2011), I visited my research sites to conduct detailed interviews. \011 in Namibia and Zimbabwe, commu have been spent on meetings (sitting allowances), and rents (demanded by chiefs and other local authori ties), while the democratic nature of chieftaincy in Sankoyo helps CBNRM perform better. Based on preliminary analysis, the problem of elite capture is attributable to sever that accommodates and provides special privileges to traditional authority structures; (b) elite discre community boundednessi.e. local izing investments and recruitment within the community. In some cases communities are likely to be in urban areas to generate more rev enue and also hire skilled externals. \011 The study recommends training traditional leaders together with committees to enhance eq uity and fairness in the allocation re-engaging traditional leaders in development administration is likely to make them more accountable compared to the current approach where they free-ride and are not ure. In addition, I also recommend second-generation CBNRM that is well-crafted to overcome 21st chal lenges such as population increase and increased competition over land-use. As one of one my respon good idea, but its needs to catch up with what has been happening in the past 20 years.

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4 0 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 s N a T W B Despite the huge expansion, there continues to be a nagging question about the role of the industry in poverty allevia tion around the world. The last few years have recorded an enthusiastic response especially at the interna tional level towards dealing with the problems of poverty around mining operations, led by the UN through its Global Compact and through the International Council on Mining and Minerals (ICMM) symbolized most unequivocally in its Commu nity Development Toolkit and 10 Principles. These developments have attracted large scholarly interest over the last decade. Unfortunately, there has been a tendency of con centrating these scholarly efforts on debates about whether or not min ing can or does contribute to poverty reduction. Consequently, very little has been done to understand what mining companies are doing to ad dress the development challenges in their operational areas, the nature of these interventions, and/or their impacts on community well-being. This is the task of my research. \011 I spent the summer of 2011 doing preliminary work at my study sites in Ghana. The trip lasted roughly 3 months and afforded me the opportunity to visit and forge close collaboration with my prospec tive cases. I had the chance to speak with and interview mining company representatives of 4 companies, interact with members of multiple communities (about 17 in all), and spent time studying the peculiar cultural ethos of the communities that might be of consequence to my study. The trip proved extremely useful in getting my foot in the door to my actual study. I had always ing agreements with the mining companies for the study, but nothing of the level I met on the trip. For one particular company, it took approxi mately 3 months, after traversing the entire corporate structure both at international and country levels, to have an agreement for interviews. So I count the trip a great blessing in sorting this particular hurdle out. \011 In terms of community de velopment practice, there is strong evidence that all 4 mining compa nies visited (except one) are heavily involved in calculated activities to address the development concerns of their communities, anchored on explicit policies towards same. The institutional arrangement for managing these activities are largely identical although some appear more elaborate in terms of human resource commitment and organiza tionthan others. For example, all the companies now have dedicated departments for managing commu nity development activities, some others with as little as 6. For the older companies, this strategy rep resents a shift away from the era of outsourcing of community develop ment activities, a transition that is still playing out. It does appear that the newer companies are doing better in terms of the number of interventions put in place and there that communities around the new mining companies are generally older ones. The differences in the activities between the old and new companies raise interesting ques tions that would be explored in my substantive work by using institu tional theory.

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 41 Mac M R a T E Most recently, this mass-produced, industrially printed textile has made a splash on high fashion runways. My research is documenting these textiles histori cal emergence, their transforma tions in use, and their contemporary Tanzania. \011 Born of global networks of trade, kanga textiles feature bold, machine-printed designs on factorysurrounded by a wide, continuous graphic border. They also display a proverb or phrase in Swahili, framed nally a coastal style, kanga are now worn widely throughout East Africa and are considered bearers of East African culture. \011 Sold in pairs, kanga are relatively inexpensive and serve as a staple item for many East Afri can households. They are worn as everyday clothing for market women and are used by most women inside their homes. Kanga are also used in transitional moments of womens lives. These textiles feature in wed send-offs, gifted at kitchen parties, and are shown off at wedding cer emonies. Kanga also swaddle new borns and shroud the dead, thereby enveloping women in Swahili culture from birth to death. \011 While residing in Dar es Sa laam, Tanzania, I have been pursu the fashion world. Although kanga have long been the staple dress for everyday East African women, kanga are now taking the East African fash ion world by storm. I am document ing how kanga textiles are featuring in the emerging Swahili fashion scene. Last year I attended the third annual Swahili Fashion week and saw many designers using kanga in their runway looks. This year, on the occasion of Tanzanias 50th anni versary of independence, the fourth annual Swahili Fashion Week will include 50 designers, an unprec edented amount for this event. \011 Additionally, I am tracing how kanga are becoming interna tionally recognized as markers of East African culture through their use in fashion designs. British chain stores like Top Shop and JOY carry trendy dresses made of kanga, and American designer label SUNO has made its fame from its use of kanga textiles. Even Michelle Obama has been seen wearing one of their kanga tops! \011 From their development in the late nineteenth century and continuing today, kanga have been popular items of dress and culture. While they maintain their everyday role in womens lives in East Africa, kanga are also making headway into trendy closets around the globe, bringing East African culture along, too.

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4 2 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 E a M a U D E D I I my research is to examine the problematic of democracy and nation-building in the West African novel, in English and French, published in the period 1960 to 2010. This 50-year time frame covers the period that anthologies typically present as going from the euphoria of independence to the dis illusionment of the post-independence reality and the current era of democratiza tion. 2010 was a landmark for the 50 years of political independence that most African countries recently celebrated with great panache and, some would add, indecency. The time of literary production highlights the homology between West African novels and the political arena. As a cultural and literary however, the large number of countries and novelists who emerged in the post-colonial such as the military and power, governance, one-party state, and civil society disen gagement. Among key writers studied are Amadou Kourouma (Cote dIvoire), Cheikh Aliou Ndao (Senegal), Ibrahima Ly (Mali), Ayi Kwei Armah (Ghana), Aminata Sow Fall (Senegal), and Chinua Achebe (Nigeria). \011 Through intertextuality, novels such as Kouroumas Waiting for the Vote of Wild Beasts a real fresco of African dictatorships, democratization in relation to other parts of the Continent during this period from the one-party state era of the 60s to the emer gence of a stronger civil society and multiparty systems in the early 1990s. \011 That the novel has reacted to and re trends is a fact underscored in most thematic contributions of the present research are its traversing of cul tural and linguistic boundaries and its focus on the overarching issue of nation-building, iden tity, and democracy as they have impacted cultural production, textualization, and contestation. \011 Borrowing the concept champ litterai re ) from Pierre Bourdieu, I will examine West African societ of forces in the aspiration for democratic change occur.

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 43 c a D Perhaps both if you are looking at art made from recycled materials in Mozambique. These materials rep resent detritus from an African post war urban society which becomes transformed into art by Mozambican artists. \011 My dissertation research investigates Mozambican artists who use recycled materials as media to illuminate important environmental, economic, and cultural issues to de termine how and why artists utilize recyclia to create distinctly Mozam bican art. I focus on individual art ists using various recycled materials and the Christian Council of Mozam de Armas em Enxadas/Transform ing Arms into Plowshares (TAE). TAE collects and destroys decom missioned weapons from Mozambi can wars, subsequently transforming them into art. \011\011 \011 Creating a context for art guides my research methodology in which I investigate the impact of the past lives of recycled materials and the ways in which these lives in scribe meaning as the materials are transformed into art. My research demonstrates that Mozambican art tively, creating evocative art while deconstructing Mozambican history. \011 \011 While artists connected with TAE work as a collective, many in dividual Mozambican artists use di verse recycled materials in their art. By incorporating these artists in my research, I explore the materiality of the artworks on both viewer and cre ator. These artists include Pekiwa, who creates artwork by recycling broken doors and window frames to make commentary on social situ ations; Sonia, who uses recycled styrofoam to create artworks steeped in Islamic imagery; Zeferino, in spired by African masks, uses cast off pots and pans to update histori cal African forms by creating them out of recycled materials; Makolwa, whose artworks vibrate with the ten sion of their materiality, as he links sharp metal nails with the smooth surfaces of discarded chairs and pounded scraps of metal; and Fiel, whose brother was kidnapped into service as a child soldier during the war, creates artworks which focus on ing the viewer to intimately connect to the meaning of the various arms and the intrinsic power of violence within each. \011\011\011\011 \011 Each of these artists come from vastly different economic, social, and educational backgrounds, yet all create art using recycled ma terials. Working with these individu als and many others, I explore how and why Mozambican artists use recycled materials in the creation of their art to investigate larger themes related to recycling and its meaning in Mozambique and globally. \011 \011 My desire to create a contex tual framework for recycled materi als that become art has expanded my research this year to focus directly has led to interviews with municipal and national directors, administra tors, and consultants of solid waste management, public and private gar bage collectors, as well as the own ers, operators, and workers at recy cling facilities. I have visited solid waste containers and dump sites where I have interviewed directors, workers, and independent entre preneurs of the informal sector who buy and sell recycled materials. This allows me to analyze multiple waste streams to determine the course of media material for a Mozambican artist. Pre-dissertation research in 2009 began my engagement with the artists of Mozambique and has consequently expanded, strength ened, and enriched my research.

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4 4 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 a c a sk I O The annual climate change conference, held in fall of 2011 in Durban, has been frustratingly leadfooted, yet many calls for action at local and regional levels are being made in Africa, even if national and international bodies cannot agree upon a binding solution. \011 My own research focuses on this regional level in asking how resilient homesteads in South Africas rural Eastern Cape province are to the effects of climate change decreasing reliance upon natural resources appe ars to be the interven ing variable in both cases, a fact that has dramatic policy implications, as well as consequences for the social composition of families and commu nities. \011 The Eastern Cape has seen Even after tremendous historical shifts nationally and regionally, the province continues to be the epitome of South African inequal homelands, or Bantustans, of the apartheid era. Degraded land, high rates of HIV/AIDS, and vertiginous unemployment are all key features here. Most homesteads in even the most rural parts of the Eastern Cape, where one might imagine subsis tence agriculture to be the norm, survive off of government welfare grants or old-age pensions and very occasional remittance transfers. \011 social-ecological conditions of the province do not appear to be encour aging, how communities respond to stressors at the moment, and will continue to in the future, is no \011 Im seeking to shed a little light on this complexity in part of the Eastern Cape known as the Wild Coast, largely through an investiga tion of the number and diversity of rural livelihood assets and whether those predict aspects of resilience to ongoing ecological and social change. I argue that resilient home steads will demonstrate a high number and diversity of livelihood assets in response to recurrent and nonlinear changes (like climaterelated events or disease occur rence) and that said homesteads will exhibit very tight, or cohesive, social networksbonds that are impor tant whether individuals are trading information, goods or services, or in \011 My methods have included oral history interviews, participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and action re search, and most prominently social network analysis (SNA). These three approaches are meant to unpack the my oral histories focus on livelihood changes in the past, SNA on current developments in homestead ex changes, and PRA on possible future indicators for resilience (or lack thereof). I dont claim to have the oracular vision to unravel the past, accurately assess the present, and then predict the future completely. As an isiXhosa phrase goes, Akukho qili linokuzikhoth emhlana (theres nobody so smart he can lick his own back!). But I hypothesize that condi tions here are shifting. \011 Some alterations Im observing speak to all three tem poral dimensions, and possibly to the future of rural South Africa at large. Notably, no matter how poor a homestead may appear, it is almost universally dependent upon a gov ernment subsidy and fewer natural resources (including livestock and crops) than one might imagine for rural African peasants on other parts of the continent. New kinds of inter dependencies, especially in the form of debt and money-lending, are also apparent. \011 While conceived as research in basic science, I believe that my dissertation will uncover issues strongly relevant to natural resource and regional economic managers and policymakers, who might have had the tendency of thinking of rural peoples too simplistically.

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 45 N a Isa a s D I B T in providing me with the tools to conduct competent archaeology, but it also presented me with experi ences that I could not have begun to imagine prior to it. \011 One aspect of public ar chaeology is that it engages with the located. However, what surprised me was that I did not have to take the archaeology to the community; the people brought it to me. We had and a handy historical archaeology text which provided us with a back ground to the history of the area and those texts paled in comparison to what I gleaned from the carpenters, who were reconstructing a palace site, and local elders who knew the land along with the meaning of the \011 These people acted as Many times I would be stopped and taught proper trowel, compass, or line level technique by a carpenter. On other occasions an elder would explain the meaning of a potshard and its use in the past. These were not trained archaeologists, but locals who were invested in the history and culture of their community. \011 week affair and at no point were we working in isolation. We were consistently aided by local Tanzani ans who had a stake in the histories we were pulling out of the ground. Even though we were the semiprofessionals, and the members of the community were not formally trained, we were steadily learning from the people who aided us. We were granted with an experience in collaboration that many are not privileged with. \011 I came to Bukoba to gain more insight into the intersections coastal Tanzania into the hinterland. I was searching for connections that coastal Swahili culture may have shared with the culture(s) of the hin terland. Instead I encountered what I believe happens to most anthro seeking found me. I was able to gain insight into how people remember their own histories, who has stake in remembering, and what it means to remember. \011 Few hold the knowledge of the history of Bukoba. It is not taught in schools and the average young person would not be able mnemonic devices that make up the names of their cities, streams, and rivers. That is a problem. It relates to the issues surrounding the politics of Swahili identity that play out in coastal Tanzania, where my primary research interests lie. \011 importantly, how can we prevent them from sliding to the margins in koba taught me that collaboration is a critical component of the solution to these answers. If we do not in clude the informal sets of knowledge with the formal then we will never have a complete whole.

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4 6 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 J ss ca M O D I am working toward linking village-scale socioeconomic data with regional land cover in northern Botswana and the Caprivi Strip in Namibia. Multiple factors contrib ute to land cover change in this area including humans, large herbivores, a few. This is of particular concern as people are intricately tied to the landscape through subsistence farm ing, wild food gathering, natural re source extraction, grazing, and tour ism as a primary economic activity. This interconnection necessitates careful discernment in the manage ment of protected areas, hunting, and regional economic growth. \011 During a previous trip to Botswana and Namibia in 2010, I worked with a team of graduate students and professors to col lect socioeconomic data including livelihood composition and land use practices in seven villages across the region. Our goal was to learn about as many households as possible in each village through semi-structured interviews. Other members of the team conducted focus groups with community members and personal interviews with village chiefs. We are in the process of analyzing these data, and currently gaining insight into the complex relationships between individual households, institutions, wildlife, and the land. \011 The next step in my research was to return to this area in May and June of 2011 to collect ecological data, including plot-level vegeta tion measurements and spectral signatures of key savanna species. I am analyzing satellite imagery, sity when using remote sensing to characterize a landscape. Scientists and managers in this region are con cerned about shrub encroachment as a potential threat to species diversity and ecological stability. Thus far using remote sensing to classify the landscape into shrubs, trees, and grasses has not been successful. discrimination would be extremely useful in understanding the function of the savanna. \011 That being the case, in addi tion to running vegetation transects and completing a training sample sheet at each site, I used a spectro radiometer to measure the spectral signature of key savanna species. The spectroradiometer takes the same measurement as the satellite and I intend to use these signatures to identify species on the imagery. In several cases the images I am using overlap with the villages we sampled, providing an opportunity to make direct links between people and the environment. It is my hope that these datasets will foster the connection of local-scale livelihood strategies and regional environmen tal change, providing insight into the ways future environmental changes could affect people and social stabil ity in this region. I am sincerely from the Center of African Studies, without which this work would not have been possible.

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 47 E k T s W Why are certain sound effects (the click-click-boom! of gun shots) and vocal effects (echoing) common place in studio productions of hip language is spoken, what words are If hip hop is a global culture that tics, how do we measure variation how do artists and producers in the studio make decisions on when to follow generic conventions of global productions with an aesthetic which resonates with (imagined) local or do the decisions made at the site of production mediate social processes \011 I spent summer 2011 explor ing these questions in relation to a group of musicians from eastern Nairobi. Since the 1990s, this rela young men has been producing a particular style of revolutionary hip hop songs. Lyrical tropes common to this music include paying hom and leaders of black consciousness in the Americas such as Malcolm X, Marcus Garvey and Bob Marley. The artists continually reference strug gle, unity and revolution in their lyrics. They revile the powerful and corrupt politicians that let them starve or die of AIDS. They castigate the thugs who steal and rape in their neighborhood. And they constantly situate their voice within the mar ginalized place from which they come. Above all, these urban poets are avid observers of social inequali ties and their music offers a highly stylized voice for moral and political reform. \011 I visited a number of places which are important sites of social the neighborhood maskani (public gathering place), the Kenyan Na tional Theatre, live concerts/hip hop events and two recording studios. I made several visits to a communitybased organization (CBO) in Dando ra which was initiated by a couple of hip hop musicians/activists from the community. Additionally, I began the work of collecting recordings of songs by these musicians then tran scribing and translating them. \011 Towards the end of my stay in Nairobi I was invited to a lo cal studio by a friend and hip hop musician named Judge. Together we wrote and recorded a song with two additional rappers, Kaktus and Ekori. The process of participating in the writing a producing of a song was informative. I intend to return for my dissertation. I will continue to explore the sociality of the studio and try to understand what goes into making decisions about poetics and the aesthetics of sound in the mak ing of revolutionary hip hop.

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4 8 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 D ca Wa O Art music in this case refers to musical works that are writ ten by African composers (Kenyans in particular) who have been trained in Western classical music styles, and therefore combine Western classical music elements with traditional African music idioms in their compositions. Their music is usually African sounding based from traditional folk melodies and/ or rhythms. As a genre, this type of music in Kenya has tremendously grown in performances, as evi denced at music festivals, church gatherings and National Celebra tions. For example, at the National Music Festivals, three classes have been designated for art music for all levels of performers from nurs ery school children to university students. These classes range from own composition to adaptation and arrangements of African folk tunes and melodies. \011 My initial curiosity in Kenyan art music was the perfor mance practices of choral art songs and whether there was a commonly agreed way in which Kenyan choral art songs are performed. This was due to a seemingly similar nature in which most of the choirs performed this genre. However, the growth in compositional output and perfor mances of Kenyan choral art songs within secondary schools raised my curiosity further. Since many of the secondary schools were perform ing this particular genre of music, there was some educational value that the students were gaining from performing these works. I began asking myself whether the perform ers actually knew the composers of the music they were performing, and what about the composers did they actually know. I therefore sought choir directors what they knew of Kenyan composers and their music in the hopes that this knowledge was transferred to the students in order to further understand and interpret the music they are performing. \011 This past summer, I set out to investigate whether Kenyan art music is taught in secondary school classrooms and rehearsal rooms. I carried out this research during the National Music Festival, held every August, in Kenya. This event, which hosts approximately 90, 000 participants through 10 days, was a perfec t opportunity to meet and in terview music teachers from around the country. I also interviewed selected composers of Kenyan choral art music with a view to gain some insights into the composers minds and intentions when composing these songs. \011 As part of my investiga tions with the help from former students of Kenyatta University, I distributed a questionnaire (n=100) to the music teachers and choir directors of secondary schools. In ing out the content teachers taught regarding Kenyan art music, musical examples used, and how important they regarded Kenyan art music in their classrooms. I also extensively interviewed certain composers of art music. From these interviews, I hope to establish content enough for teachers to use when teaching about Kenyan art music from the compos ers perspective. \011 After carefully analyzing the questionnaires and the com posers interviews, I will be able to make a strong case for the inclusion genre in the Kenyan National Music Curriculum. Further research may be carried out on other mediums music, including instrumental art music, solo voice art music and many others. This research will add academic/theoretical knowledge to a rapidly developing practical genre with a view to further understanding Kenyan choral art music.

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 49 W s T I O I T This presented an answer to a puzzling question do voters support opposition parties in elections where they have little opportunity to oust the incumbent of political preferences within social ences opposition voting. But it left unexplained how and why this was the case. \011 In Zanzibars 2010 elections, the opposition Civic United Front the incumbent Chama Cha Mapin duzi (CCM), the best they had done since 1995. This presented a great opportunity to understand why the number of voters that support the opposition rises and falls over time and to assess whether or not chang es in peoples closest friends and details about those friendsmost importantly how they votecould have attributed to the increase in their electoral support. During the summer of 2011, I conducted further study of the role of networks on vot the International Law and Policy Institute (more below!). \011 One innovation of the study is that it improves our ability to look at a causal relationship between networks and political behavior, by looking how changes in social net works impact vote choice. I also col lect data on the density of opposition support across geographical space, allowing me to disentangle the effect of friends and family having various political attitudes from the effect of like-minded people living in ones community. For my dissertation, I am developing a theory of why vot ers support challengers of a party in power when they have very little chance to win. The key, I argue, lies in how networks change beliefs about the state of the political world. Because voters in Africa often lack credible information about perfor mance indicators and the popularity of a regime, I claim that changes in support for people that they know best signals to them that the opposi tion has a high level of support and that supporting them will be more than a wasted vote. \011 ducted for ILPI and the Good Gover nance Ministry of Zanzibar, looking at the quality of government and what could be done to improve. For zen survey discussed above and also a survey with members of the House of Representatives. The results from are currently being presented to the Zanzibar government, are aiding in the development of a new anti-cor ruption and good governance law. \011 As I work on applications for dissertation research grants, I plan to return to Tanzania in order to complete a survey with members of the Parliament of Tanzania and also with opposition candidates who competed in 2010 and lost. This part of the dissertation reaches to questions similar to those that viable political candidates choose incumbent party and, when they research plan calls for me to later to head to Namibia, where I will implement both surveys during the 2012-2013 academic year.

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5 0 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 W sk I M My re search examines the process through which competing actors reform the Islamic education curriculum for the public schools. After three months of further language study in Fez, I did a number of interviews across the country with members of the educational bureaucracy including Islamic education teachers, Ministry of Education employees, and school administrators. I also interviewed members of civil society with an interest in the reforms including pol leadership of parent organizations. Finally, I worked in the archives of an Islamist newspaper that provided in-depth coverage of recent reforms. I collected factual-based articles, editorials, and open letters from par ent associations and organizations representing teachers and Islamic education inspectors. \011 work was to understand the process of how curriculum is reformed in order to identify the ways in which content is politicized. My research involved in the writing of new cur How are important groups included how this process becomes politi cized, I also focus on several other to the national spotlight during such the platform for such issues to be response from the bureaucracy to \011 In the dissertation, I discuss the sausage making of curriculum reform and identify the openings in the process that have allowed politi design. Then I highlight one aspect that has been particularly important in shaping the curriculum, the con A number of interviewees suggested that the Islamic education cur riculum was used by the monarchy to strengthen Islamists in order to curriculum was one of several means of maintaining factions within the ing so that the opposition did not unite and oppose the monarchy heretofore-unrecognized branch of a well-known strategy employed by the monarchy. Interestingly, though, my research also suggests that these factions, as they gained access to political power through democrati zation, began employing the same strategies, including the manipula tion of Islamic education curricu lum, in guiding their relationships with one another. \011 The Center for African Stud ies has provided essential support in this research endeavor. As a number of the interviews I conducted were done in Modern Standard Arabic, possible without the two years and one summer of language instruction provided through a FLAS award. In addition, the Center has contributed development by supporting my at tendance at the African Studies As sociation annual meeting on several occasions, creating a lively intel lectual community through weekly Baraza lectures and SASA student through student opportunities with African Studies Quarterly

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 51 s p W sk F N I F M This was my fourth visit to the While there, I completed language study in the Moroccan dialect of Arabic and intensive ethnographic research with musicians from across the spectrum of musiqa ruhiyya loosely translated as spiritual music. I focused on a population of professional musicians and ritual leaders called the Gnawa, though I also spent considerable time work other performers. In each case, I questioned how these professional musicians could constantly negoti ate the space between popular and religious, always adapting to the competing economic and spiritual demands of their public positions. These strategies highlight the how the concepts of sacred and secular, popular, even entertainment or ritual, escape simple categorization. Furthermore, each of these members of Fezs musiqa ruhiyya community Islam is, and should be, practiced in everyday life. Through the presenta on stage and the dissemination of these performed ideologies through the recording industry and festival circuits, they use their artistry, cre ativity, spirituality, leadership, and practicality to create and support an idea of what a publicly manifested Islam looks like. \011 Gnawa, once a population of en slaved sub-Saharan Africans forc ibly brought to Morocco through the trans-Saharan slave trade. The ritual activity that comprises the fo cal point of Gnawa practice involves a spirit possession ceremony, an event led by a group of ritual musi cians. After years of marginalization as social, economic, and religious outcasts, their music gained the attention of the parade of American and European artists who came to Morocco (especially Tangier) after World War II and during the civil rights movement in search of oriental or African inspiration (the Rolling Stones, Led Zeppelin, Bryon Gysin, Randy Weston, Ornette Coleman, etc.). Their music, often described in terms of its bluesy grooves, is now featured across the and on innumerable world music releases. \011 The research that I prepared while in Fez questions the ways in which the Gnawa perform construct ed narratives of their own history while asking where ritual leaders Representations of these different bedded into the music, depend on performative decisions, on musical style. The questions that perform ers must ask and answer each time they proceed through a ceremony or public performance reify one or an other of these imagined ontologies, foregrounding, for example, Afri can instead of Arab elements of the tradition for international audiences or favoring songs that emphasize a timeless African communal history over those that result from more recent individual creativity. \011 Additionally, while in Fez I accepted an invitation to perform on the violin with a malhun ensemble, a genre of music that straddles this divide between the pious and entertainment, in the Fez Festival of Sacred Music. I contributed cover age and photography on the entire festival for the View From Fez, a prominent English language news blog, as well as Afropop Worldwide. Currently, I am writing my disserta tion, teaching courses in American Popular Music, and preparing a study abroad course to Spain and Morocco that will highlight the role of the arts in healing traditions in Europe and the Islamic world, both historically and today.

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5 2 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 D W c k I O D B The people of the Okavango Delta rely on water re sources for consumption, household use, food production, and to sustain wildlife populations essential to local tourism-based livelihoods. While lo cal people have developed strategies to adapt with seasonal precipitation ronmental change has the potential to challenge existing strategies and exacerbate livelihood vulnerabilities. This situation is complex and highly uncertain. Data indicates that vari ability in the overall amount of rainfall has increased, and climate models predict that water resources will decrease in the region over the next several decades. Though impacts are uncertain, these changes to water resources are likely to af fect wildlife populations, increasing fecting livelihoods connected with community-based natural resource from CBNRM are important to resi dents of much of the Okavang o Delta reduction and natural resource con servation, changes in water resourc es and in turn wildlife populations could greatly impact livelihoods in these communities. \011 My dissertation research is based on the premise that in formation is a critical currency for adaptation in rural communities facing this type of uncertainty and change. It is therefore important to understand how information about villages, and how this information is integrated into peoples thinking about the resources. To investigate Sankoyo, Gudigwa, and Seronga. \011 In combination with ethno graphic and observational research, I worked closely with local research assistants to conduct social network interviews. Each personal network revealed the connections among members of a respondents com municative network. To understand how these personal networks over lapped with one another, I combined this personal network data for each village to create whole networks, which revealed village-level com munication patterns and allowed for comparison among villages. \011 Evidence from this study suggests that there are several fac in rural villages. Among the most important is the size of the com munity. While smaller villages tend to be dense and tightly connected, individuals in larger villages tend to separate themselves into com municative sub-groups. Gender and ethnicity are two important factors determining the composition of these sub-groups and are important variables when considering how to most effectively communicate im portant environmental messages to all village residents. \011 While understanding the so too is understanding how people in different positions within the communicative network integrate available information into their perceptions about natural resources. I conducted free listing exercises and in-depth interviews in two of the villages to better understand how people view water and wildlife resources. These interviews indicate that peoples perceptions are related to their position within their village communicative network, with those in more central positions possessing more comprehensive views of the resources. \011 ings suggest that in order for mes sages important to adaptation to reach all members of a village, it may tion strategies. Approaches should attempt to address the impacts that community size, gender, and ethnic ity may have on how information ing directly to sub-groups in larger villages, for example, may be critical to reaching a broader audience for widespread adaptation over time. I am forever grateful for the oppor tunity to conduct this research, and especially thankful to the residents, research assistants, and local au thorities of Khwai, Sankoyo, Gudig wa, and Seronga for their invaluable

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 53 s sa c ks p R U The exhibition will be a Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art at the University of Florida and the Royal Museum for Central Africa in Tervuren, Belgium. Cooksey and Poynor will work together with interpretive materials to be in cluded, and produce the exhibition catalogue. In the last year, Poynor, Cooksey and Harn Museum Direc tor Rebecca Nagy met with Dr. Guido Gryseels, and worked with the RMCA staff in Tervuren, view ing collections and making plans for the exhibition. Poynor, Cooksey and Nagy made a trip to the RMCA in July 2011 and Poynor and Cooksey returned in September 2011 to view RMCA staff. \011 The proposed exhibition will look at Kongo art in Africa (in the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Congo Republic, Cabinda, Gabon and Angola) and extend it to ad dress the impact of Central African peoples and ideasparticularly from the Kongo region in North Ameri ca, both on culture more broadly and The title Kongo Across the Waters has multiple meanings, both geo graphical and spiritual. Crossing the waters occurs as a constant theme in Kongo mythology, in stories of migration and in the conceptual cestors. It also evokes the trans-At is reiterated in African American beliefs. To arrive at the relationships between the Kongo coast and North American visual culture the cura tors will rely on a multi-disciplinary approach involving current research linguistics, musicology, anthropol ogy and art history. \011 The exhibition will mark a milestone in the history of African Africans to arrive in what is now the United States, Juan Garrido and Juan Gonzalez Ponce de Leon, came to the Florida shore in April 1513 as free conquistadors who accompa nied Juan Ponce de Leon. In 2013 Florida will commemorate 500 years of European presence, marking the arrival of Juan Ponce de Leon and his companions. The proposed exhibition will bring attention to this important historical event and will celebrate the subsequent impact of African cultural traditions in Florida and the United States, especially those of the Kongo peoples. Happily, the exhibition will also coincide with the publication of Poynors book Africa in Florida by the University Press of Florida. \011 The curators from the Harn Museum and the Royal Museum of Central Africa will collaborate on materials from the RMCA, insti tutions in the United States, and private collections in Europe and America. Plans for the accompany themes written by scholars whose research focuses on Kongo culture. The proposed opening of the exhibi tion is fall 2013 in the Harn Muse ums Gladys Gracy Harn Exhibition Hall. The exhibition will be offered in the United States.

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5 4 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 a p R R E GREGORY RENT TENENEH TEREFE H NN H MORRI EMILY W T IN T B E R BER It is part Center for African Studies and the Center for International Business Research and Education (CIBER) at the University of Florida, and the CIBER at the University of South Carolina. SABERs diverse audi ences range from academics (faculty and students) to policy makers and business persons (owners, manag ers, and consultants). We hope the report will also be used in business schools in Africa and elsewhere. SABER aims to provide the most current annual business information from a wide diversity of sources, and quantitative tables prepared by SA BERs authors. Print copies are dis trubted and an electronic version is edu/ciber/publications/saber.asp. \011 SABER considers the 20 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) with the largest GDPs (Gross Domestic Product, one of the main comparative world indicators) and organizes them into four regions. First, regional summaries highlight illustrative Country Reports review the years events and data under six nomic Growth and Trade; Foreign Direct Investment (FDI); Business Climate, Financial Markets and Telecommunications; and Health and Social Aspects. Points given aim to be descriptive and illustrative of 2010-2011 events, rather than all inclusive. The Country Reports sum marize the political, economic, and social situation, as well as the many business deals using information from a multitude of books, articles, news stories, and online sites for the current year. \011 SABERs comprehensive ta bles provide data on the main world tal markets, trade, and FDI; import/ export and business ease; political freedom & governance; infrastruc ture and telecommunications; and social aspects and health. We have focused on constructing a set of the most useful country and regional indicators that can be viewed easily the information is gleaned from raw data in many publications, databas es, and websites. \011 We aim to distinguish at tractive from problematic in terms of business and socio-economicpolitical conditions. African entre preneurship ranges from local, to regional, and to global, and from micro/small-scale to large and mul tinational. FDI and business deals span the globe, as do African exports and imports. We emphasize African links, deals, and exports & imports in this era of globalization within Af rica, and with North America, Asia, and Europe.

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 55 B s T apa a a R ss L G a T The tourism product mix has experienced di core products based on wildlife and natural protected areas to incor porate marine and coastal areas, rural communities and townships, events, urban centers, and meetings, incentives, conventions and exhibi tions. More recently, the country has increased its visibility on an interna tional stage as the successful host of the 2010 FIFA Football World Cup. Leveraged on such sporting events as well as international meetings and conventions, the government expects to increase visitor arrivals to over 10 million in the future to generate income, employment, tax revenues, and entrepreneurial activ ity. \011 While growth has been evident, it is vital to maintain and enhance tourism with a sustained strategy for further growth and com petitiveness given the potential to strengthen other economic sectors in rural and urban regions. In addition as facilities, utilities, transportation networks, etc., it is paramount to simultaneously focus on human re sources development in the tourism sector to achieve sustained growth. The overall advancement of quali is crucial, given the rate of growth and future trends. Capacity build ing and institutional development through training is a key component for the vitality and sustainability of the tourism industry in South Af need, the University of Florida (UF) and Tshwane University of Tech nology (TUT) in Tshwane, South Africa have formulated a three-year partnership to strengthen its teach ing, research, service and faculty development initiatives in tourism management. \011 First, teaching and cur riculum needs were accommodated at the Bachelor degree level with a) review and update existing cur riculum; b) develop new curriculum in casino management, and avia tion management (currently these degree programs are not offered on the African continent, and pending and c) plan vocational and executive on the new degree programs to be developed at a later phase. Sec ond, based on a strategic visioning meeting with faculty and industry stakeholders, a Center for Tourism and Sustainability was established with active industry engagement and partnership. The mission of the Cen ter will be largely to serve tourism destinations and industries through research, training and outreach within the community, province and other regions in southern Africa. is in process to operationalize the Center. \011 Third, faculty development has been emphasized with regards to enhancing capacity as well as collaborative initiatives in tourism select UF faculty. Recently, a na tionwide study among residents and visitors during the 2010 FIFA World Cup were completed. Currently, a study to examine community con servation, development, and tourism at Vredefort Dome World Heritage Site is being conducted the site is considered to be the oldest, largest, and most deeply eroded complex meteorite impact structure in the world. The facilitation of collabora tive initiatives in research partner ships will be sustained during and Fourth, professional development opportunities will be offered to cur rent TUT faculty through a short visit to UF. A TUT faculty visit is expected to occur in early spring and stakeholder engagement have been conducted.

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5 6 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 B s T apa H a G s ak ap a Ma Wa k T The primary focus of hosting such events is now on the post-event lega cies. A number of potential legacies upgraded transportation infra structure, new sporting facilities, pride, and the potential to enhance the tourism product of a country. The South African government had an explicit development agenda as sociated with the 2010 FIFA World Cup, part of which is predicated on nation building. Sport has long been associated with building na tional spirit and generating patrio tism among the citizens of the host country. However, for the World Cup, understanding the contribution of the event to the tourism legacy is particularly important; part of this understanding is gaining insights into the experiences of the World Cup visitors and South Africas residents. \011 Within this context, the nine host cities featuring ten different stadia staging the World Cup Games attracted many visitors and cre ated impressions in these tourists minds about South Africas tourism products. Given the importance of the World Cup for the South African Tourism brand, the purpose of the study was to evaluate destination and event image perceptions as well as tourism behaviors of interna tional tourist spectators at all the host cities/sites in order to assess the impacts of such an event on the countrys tourism development. Data were collected among visitors (Pretoria, Nelspruit, Polokwane, Johannesburg, Rustenburg, Durban, Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, and Bloemfontein) during the World Cup market segmentation, perceptions and experiences. Such information has utility with respect to marketing initiatives to attract additional visi tors following the event. \011 In addition to visitors, understanding the social legacies of a mega-event also necessitates a focus on the residents. In particular, there was a need for a longitudinal approach, particularly to assess the change in the residents percep tions associated with the World Cup event. The research had multiple phases with the primary goal of identifying the social legacies (e.g., identity, social capital, and tourism) associated with the World Cup. The study was to examine the events impacts on attitudes, perceptions and experiences of residents from different socio-demographic groups. of Life; (3) Government Support; (4) National and Ethnic Identity; (5) Social Capital; and (6) Nation Building related to hosting the 2010 World Cup. Data were collected three months prior to the event in mid-June 2010 (N=1,759), while a follow up was conducted in April 2011 (N=2030). The sample consti ies (Pretoria, Nelspruit, Polokwane, Johannesburg, and Rustenburg). Findings are currently being ana lyzed with respect to pre-post World Cup Event. Results will help to in form local and national level policy to facilitate the nation building goals of South Africa. \011 in partnership between the Univer sity of Florida (UF) and Tshwane University of Technology (TUT) in Tshwane/Pretoria, South Africa. The team from the Department of Tour ism, Recreation and Sport Manage along with Heather Gibson, Kyriaki Kaplanidou, and Matthew Walker. The team from the Department of Tourism Management at TUT was led by Sue Geldenhuys along with Willie Coetzee. Nation-wide data (Residents and Visitors) was coordi nated and collected by students and staff members at Tshwane Univer sity of Technology.

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 57 E ca O a G s N a a Ts a a a a a a a s G Ba s B a T L a a R ss D W c k T M D An overseas practical experience is required to gather ex perience working across disciplines and with diverse stakeholders in de velopment. In summer 2011, a group of 4 MDP students conducted a team attending classes with MDP students from the University of Botswana, establishing a positive relationship within the global MDP network. We participated in their agriculture module and traveled to farms to learn about dryland farming and the challenges and opportunities of agriculture in southern Africa. \011 Our team then partnered with Sankuyo Tshwaragano Man agement Trust (STMT), the USAID Southern African Regional Environ mental Program (SAREP), and the community of Sankuyo to design a sustainable development manage ment plan for the community. This management plan is a prerequisite for the community to renew their 15-year head lease from the Gov ernment of Botswana. UF faculty agreed to supervise completion of the management plan as a means of providing a learning opportunity for MDP students. \011 ing this management plan was to explore commercial sustainable use of natural resources to increase economic value and reduce pov erty at the local level. Past manage ment plans for this area focused on natural resource availability and use, with little attention given to the well-being and livelihood of the local people. As MDP students, we know that development is multi-dimen sional and sustainable initiatives re quire the active participation of the people who will be impacted by the management plan. Analysis of previ ous livelihood data, online research, meetings with stakeholders in the district capital of Maun, and com munity meetings provided us with valuable information on the human dimensions of the new management plan. \011 As part of the process of de veloping the management plan, we made extensive use of participatory methods. Through this approach we aimed to build capacity for future decision-making regarding Trust activities and natural resource man agement. We held weekly meetings in the community updating them on our progress and asking for their opinions about preferred commer cial strategies and their long-term goals for their community. In one meeting, we conducted a visioning exercise by asking community mem bers to draw/describe what they would like their community to look like in 15 years. This participation process was important for fostering a sense of ownership and under standing of this management plan amongst the community members. the Chief and community expressed their appreciation and commented favorably on the participatory fash \011 After the management plan was presented and turned into the governments Technical Advi sory Committee (TAC), we worked with the neighboring community, Shorobe. Our particular interest was how livelihoods differ between Sankuyo and Shorobe which lie on opposite sides of the Veterinary Cordon Fence. Sankuyo is located inside the fence which restricts their livelihood options to wildlife tour ism, while Shorobe which lies out side the fence and is allowed to have livestock. We conducted livelihood surveys and explored the impact of environmental shocks on livelihoods in this community by asking the community to share their perceived biggest threats to livelihoods dur ing a community meeting. Shorobe community was very welcoming and enthusiastic about potential future partnerships with UF MDP. \011 Our experience in Botswana taught us about the challenges of working in marginalized rural com munities, but also made us aware of the many rewards of development practice. The Management Plan was approved in October 2011 and we hope that our efforts will contrib ute substantially to the long-term economic development and natural resource management in Sankuyo and also serve as a model for other management plans in the area.

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5 8 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 B s T apa B a G a a c a M p a T Z In Zambia, the tourism industry has largely focused on its core prod ucts such as parks, wildlife, nature and culture, which are essentially in direct competition with destina tions in the eastern and southern Africa region. However, Zambia is an emerging destination with some aspect of novelty and has distinctive tourism resources unique natural features and landscapes, historical and cultural attractions, and outdoor recreation opportunities. The single most important attraction is Victoria Falls located on the Zambezi River between Zambia and Zimbabwe. \011 Victoria Falls is the leading attraction for domestic, regional and international visitors, and typically packaged/promoted along with wildlife-based attractions within and/or outside of Zambia. Since resource and revenue generator, it is critical to disperse visitors to the national parks within Zambia based on product leveraging and bundling with Victoria Falls. Cur rently, there are 19 national parks, 35 game management areas, and 3 wildlife sanctuaries. The reliance of tourism in parks and protected areas is strategic given the unique ness and availability of resources, increased demand from visitors, and in employment, income and qual ity of life. This priority is evident in Kafue National Park (KNP) which is currently being developed for tour ism, conservation and development activities. Visitor dispersal to KNP will provide a diverse mix of tourism opportunities, thereby enhancing the country-wide product, and dis and local economies. \011 KNP is the oldest and the square km) which stretches over four provinces. KNP is the second largest in the world. This park is fed by Lunga, Lufupa and Kafue rivers, and is home to 400 species of birds and 55 different species of animals including rare species of wildlife such as red lechwes, a rare marsh antelope, sable and roan. This diversity of antelope attracts numer ous predators like leopards, chee tahs and lions. Although the wildlife attractions, the current volume of visitors is low compared to its size and slightly skewed toward domes tic visitors. Factors such as lack of quality infrastructure including physical (e.g., roads) and tourism (e.g., visitor services) likely limits growth has been demonstrated with respect to arrivals, the park has the capacity to sustain additional visi tors. However, in order to further develop, package and promote KNP and its surrounding region, it is of tourism growth from supply and demand perspectives. Currently, tourism has not reached its poten and strengthen sustained economic growth and poverty reduction in the

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 59 greater KNP area. \011 This study examined de mand based on current visitors that have visited the KNP area and/or those that have visited other na tional parks. This study is part of a and strengthen Zambias tourism product and to alleviate poverty the greater KNP area. The overall of assessment of demand (visitors), supply (accommodations, tour operators, etc.), and the surrounding communities in the game manage focused on visitor demand, and an assessment was conducted for the greater KNP area based on current visitors (international, regional and domestic tourists 2,395 tourists interviewed) that have visited the KNP area and/or those that have visited other national parks in Zam bia and neighboring Botswana (e.g. Chobe National Park). There were research based on visitor demo graphics, travel behaviors, quality of experience, level of satisfaction, and perceptions of national parks. In ad dition, information about frequency of use level, quality of experience, and satisfaction with KNP was also solicited. The second component focused on trip expenditures, and the estimation of demand change for KNP (willingness to pay/willingness road networks, visitor facilities and services, and natural resources and amenities) in and around KNP. \011 Overall, this study provided baseline information needed to position KNP relative to other areas within the country and the south ern Africa region. The study also analyzed determinants of demand to aid policy makers as well as the tourism industry to identify poten tial new markets and products, and provide opportunities that play a key role in a tourists choice in their trip selection. Additionally, it assisted in the development of comprehensive marketing strategies for the greater KNP region and Zambia.

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6 0 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 L a V a Da T UF T E U D B E B F M M N co-directed by Leonardo A. Villaln and Daniel A Smith, is to compara tively examine the challenges and issues involved in ensuring electoral freedom, fairness, and transparency. \011 The frequency of elec tions has increased dramatically in Africa since the early 1990s. While the results of the past two decades have been highly mixed, in virtu ally every country elections have been accepted as the normal mode reiterated processes of elections has, however, also produced intense debates about their conduct, and over the years there has been an increased awareness that the need is day but to consider much broader issues such as the impact of varying electoral systems, the importance of the larger institutional infrastruc ture and the rules of game, the role of social and political organizations, and the management of the mechan ics of electoral processes. Important ly, these very issues preoccupy many intense American political debates about electoral reform. A key goal experiences, and to stimulate discus sions that will have real and sub stantive impact on our understand ing of elections. \011 has been highly successful in ac complishing these goals. In January 2011, Villaln and Smith traveled to all six participating countries so as to select participants for the This selection was done collabora tively with representatives of the in each country and, crucially, our local country partners in the TSEP Dmocratique (Burkina Faso) Electoral au Mali (Mali) ult des Sciences Juridiques et Economiques (Mauritania) et Recherches sur les Dynamiques Sociales et le Dveloppement Local (Niger) \011 program for African visitors took place in May 2011, with 15 elec tions specialists representing all six countries taking part. Beginning in Gainesville, Florida, the group took part in a series of talks and seminars on the UF campus, met numer and visited institutions involved in managing local elections, includ Commissioner of Elections Pam Carpenter. A highlight of this visit was the opportunity for participants to vote, using sample ballots and vote scanning machines, as well as tion procedures. \011 Moving on to the state level, the group traveled to Floridas capi tal in Tallahassee, where they were including Floridas Secretary of State Mr. Kurt Browning. The opportuni ty to engage with key actors involved in the debate about a controversial proposed law (since passed) modify ing Floridas electoral procedures provided a particularly interesting perspective on elections for the Afri can participants. An additional panel discussion on Floridas experience in the highly contested 2000 presiden tial elections was also of great inter est. From Florida the group trav eled to Washington DC, where they had the opportunity to again meet with key institutions involved in US election management at the Federal level. The three weeks culminated with a day-long seminar at the US Department of State, during which participants were able to meet a as exchange ideas and experiences with two other delegations visiting the US. \011 2011, an American delegation under took the planned return visit to the Trans-Saharan region, visiting all six participating countries in what proved to be an intensive and chal lenging, but also highly successful, trip. In addition to the TSEP codirectors, the delegation was com posed of the three other American ida First District Court of Appeals in Tallahassee, where she has served since January 2009. In 2000, Judge presided over the litigation involving the Bush v. Gore election dispute. covering courts, government and

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 61 American politics. Skene served for seven years as president of Congres ville based political consultant specializing in all areas of state and local electoral campaigns. From cal Director and Legal Counsel for the Republican Party of Florida. \011 With the active participa tion of our partner organizations, help from the alumni of our recent US-based program, a diverse set of activities was programmed in each country. In each country there was a roundtable on elections involving the US delegation as well as the Af rican alumni from the May program. These discussions were universally marked by a high degree of local interest, evoking much discussion of a very high caliber with frank and and important issues. \011 In addition to these public events, the program in each country included a series of meetings and ex changes with important actors, insti tutions and organizations involved in the electoral process. These with the director of the National Bu reau of Elections in Chad; meetings with the new Minister of Justice and with the president of the Indepen dent National Electoral Commis sion in Niger; meetings with the coalition of opposition parties and ruling party at their headquarters in Burkina Faso; meetings with the President of the Constitutional Court and with the Minister of Justice in Mali; meetings with the president of the University of Nouakchott and meetings with both the coalition of opposition parties and with a deputy to the National Assembly and key supporter of the ruling party and ac tor in the upcoming highly contested electoral struggle in Senegal. \011 Various other activities or ganized by the local hosts immensely enriched the trip and the experience for the American delegation. High lights included a visit to the town of Kiota in Niger, seat of a very im Muslim order, where the group was received as guests by the most senior members of the religious family. Another highlight was the day-long visit to a rural meeting of elected the rural council of Fissel in Senegal, a unique opportunity to see local democracy in action in West Africa. \011 Taken as a whole, the activi effective in helping us achieve key desired outcomes. In events on both sides of the Atlantic, the program has increased understanding of the American electoral systemwarts and allamong the African special ists, making the important points that democracy and elections are never perfect, require constant vigi lance, and can always be improved. Secondly, the American participants came away with a rich and nuanced understanding of the key issues sur rounding elections and democratic development in West Africa, includ ties presented by those contexts as well as the remarkable efforts of individuals and civil society groups in struggling for positive outcomes in each country. We look forward to a successful second round of ex changes in 2012.

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6 2 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 F UNDATI N search on Africa beyond that undertaken by University of Florida faculty and graduate students. manuscripts on a full range of topics related to Africa in all areas. To qualify for consideration, submissions must meet the scholarship standards within the appropriate discipline and be of that are of a time-sensitive nature. \011 \011 Oil Extraction and the Potential for Domestic Instability in Uganda \011 monwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) in Uganda \011 Superb Organization and Leadership, 1957-1961 \011 Nigerias Fourth Republic and the Challenge of a Faltering Democratization. the Spaces of Popular Agency. R IE PR CESS An editorial committee composed of graduate students in African Studies who hail from Africa and the U.S. as well as other countries and from a wide range of disciplines conducts the inter nal review of submitted manuscripts. Those accepted for consideration are then sent to two ex accepted for publication elsewhere. Final pub lication depends on the quality of the manuscript

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 63 ACADEMIC YEAR SUMMER F REIGN ANGUAGE AND AREA STUDIES FE SHIPS The University of Floridas Center for African Studies anticipates awarding Foreign Lan guage and Area Studies (FLAS) Fellowships for the academic year. These fellowships are funded by the U.S. Department of Education (USED) under Title VI of the U.S. Higher Education Act and are awarded to students combining graduate work in any academic discipline with African area and language studies. Fellowships are offered for any one of the regularly taught languages ( Akan Amharic Arabic Swahili Wolof Xhosa and Yoruba ) as well as for other African languages for which instruction can be arranged. Academic year fellowships provide a stipend of $15,000 and cover the cost of tuition and fees (12 credits per semester). Applicants must be a citizen or permanent resident of the United States and be admitted to a graduate program at the University of Florida. Summer fellowships provide students with an opportunity to undertake intensive Afri can language study in any USED approved program. Summer fellowships cover tuition at the host institution and provide a stipend of $2,500. For more information, including application deadlines, please visit www.

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6 4 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 MADE YN M C HART Anonymous Dr. Flordeliz T. Bugarin Dr. Charles Bwenge Dr. Paul A. Chadik Dr. William Conwill Dr. Susan Cooksey Dr. R. Hunt Davis, Jr. & Mrs. Jeanne G. Davis Dr. Stephen A. Emerson Professor Joan D. Frosch Dr. Abraham C. Goldman Dr. Barbara McDade-Gordon Dr. Robert D. Holt Dr. Abdoulaye Kane Dr. Agnes Leslie Dr. Michael Leslie Dr. Masangu Matondo Dr. Fiona McLaughlin Dr. James E. Meier Dr. Connie J. Mulligan Dr. Susan OBrien Dr. Daniel Reboussin Dr. Victoria Rovine Dr. Sandra L. Russo Dr. Richard Saunders Dr. Renata Serra Dr. Jane Southworth Hon. Emerson Thompson, Jr. Dr. Leonardo A. Villalon Dr. Luise S. White The generous contributions from Jeanne & Hunt Davis and Dr. Lock hart has made it possible for the Cen ter to provide support for graduate work in Africa. In an effort to expand our capability for supporting gradu ate stud ents, Dr. Davis has taken the lead in helping CAS work tow ard es tablishing an additional endowment. The African Studies Faculty & Alum ni Pre-Dissertation Award now has over $2 0,000 in commitments and is moving toward the goal of $30,000, which will provide more sup port for graduate students. Please see the fol lowing page for more information about this fund and how you can con tribute. The Center would like to thank the following individuals who have con tributed to our various funds in the past year (with an extra special thanks to those who are working to build the Faculty & Alumni Pre-Dis sertation Fund). In 2004, Dr. R. Hunt Davis, professor emeritus in History and a former director of the Center for African Studies, and his wife, Jeanne, estab lished an endowment to sup port graduate students doing pre-dissertation research in Africa. EANNE HUNT DA IS In 2004, Dr. Madelyn Lock hart, professor emeritus of economics and a former Dean of the Graduate School, established an endowment to support an annual award for graduate students doing predissertation research in Africa.

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ca s Research Report 2011 \011 65 F \011 Beyond their training at UF, essential for students to write the kinds of dissertations on which they will be able to base success ful careers, whether in academia, government, NGOs, or the private search awards for Africa are limited in number and increasingly competi tive. In order for Ph.D. candidates to be competitive for these awards they must demonstrate a strong famil and the capability to carry out the proposed work. \011 As a result, preliminary summer research trips to lay the work are invaluable for making students competitive for national awards for dissertation funding. Helping our students launch their professional careers in this way is one of our top priorities at the Cen ter for African Studies. \011 The Center for African Stud ies has recently established a fund with the goal of creating an endow ment of at least $30,000, so as to generate the revenue for an annual award to help a student carry out pre-dissertation research in Africa. If you would like to make a contribu tion to this fund, we (and future gen erations of UF Africanist students!) would be very grateful. The form below can be used for this purpose. \011 If you are a UF employee and would like to contribute via pay roll deduction, please contact CAS for assistance. If you have any questions or would like more information please contact Abraham Gold man (CAS director) at agold Please Return T o: My G if t is F or : A moun t Enclosed: $ _____________________________ A moun t Pledged: $ ______________________________ ( A pledge r eminder will b e mailed t o the addr ess pr o vided .) _________________________________________ _______________________________________ ___________________________________ __________________________________________ ________________________________________ Rememb er t o enclose y our c ompan y s MA T CHING GIFT F ORM! I t c an double or triple y our gif t! M etho d of pa ymen t: (Mak e check pay able t o: UF F oundation, Inc .) __________________________________ _________________________ ________________________ Billing I nf orma tion (if di er en t fr om on a t lef t): _______________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________________ __________________________________________ Signa tur e: ______________________________________ T hank y ou f or y our supp or t!

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6 6 \011 ca s Research Report 2011 faculty who contributed reports and photographs, and Alex Coyle for the design and layout of this report. Cover photos by Richard Rheingans and Steven Brandt.

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6 8 \011 ca s Research Report 2011