Center for African Studies research report

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Center for African Studies research report
Physical Description:
Serial
Creator:
Center for African Studies, University of Florida
Publisher:
Center for African Studies, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:
AA00001494:00003


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text





-- .....






.. .. ...










Cetr o


AF ICA TD
,f t.1


*2070,









UNVE.TYp

.....

UFLOI.












About the Center




ONE OF THE NATION'S PREMIER INSTITUTIONS
FOR TEACHING AND RESEARCH ABOUT AFRICA

Founded in 1965, the Center for African Studies at UF has been continuously designated a U.S.
Department of Education Title VI National Resource Center for Africa for 30 years. It is currently
one of only 12 such centers nationally, and the only Africa NRC located in a sub-tropical zone.
Title VI funding to CAS supports research, t ..-hi_-, outreach, and the development of interna-
tional linkages in Africa.

The Center has over 100 affiliated teaching and research faculty in all of the core disciplines in the
humanities and social sciences, as well as in agriculture, business, engineering, education, fine arts,
natural resources and environment, journalism and mass communications, law, tourism, and natural
sciences. Graduate study on African issues may be pursued in any of these fields. Center faculty
maintain ties with universities across the African continent, including institutions in Botswana,
Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa,
Tanzania, and Uganda.

The Center's innovative and influential on-line journal, the African Studies Quarterly, is the first
fully peer-reviewed electronic journal devoted to the field. ASQ plays an important and largely
unique role in facilitating the publication of research on and from Africa, and offers invaluable
professional training for UF graduate students who serve on its editorial board.



GRADUATE STUDY OF AFRICA AT UF

Graduate study with a focus on Africa can be carried out in virtually every graduate or professional
program across the university. Prospective students are encouraged to consult the websites of the
individual programs for admissions procedures and criteria. Students in any graduate program at
UF have the option of pursuing a Graduate Certificate in African Studies. We also encourage them
to consult the Center's website and to contact us when they submit their applications.

Complementing formal coursework, a regular and dynamic series of lectures, conferences and
other activities open to all interested graduate students provide rich opportunities for interdisciplin-
ary exchange and discussion about Africa. Most significantly, a number of dynamic CAS-sponsored
interdisciplinary working groups organize speakers and events that bring together faculty and
graduate students with shared interests, providing students with unique opportunities for research
and professional development.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 1












Table of Contents



FROM THE DIRECTOR.................. ............................................4
F R O M T H E D IR E C T O R ............................................................................................................................................. 4


FACULTY REPORTS
CHARLES BWENGE Climate Change and the Dynamics of Local Discourse in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania........................5...
DONNA CO HEN Architectural Designs for East Africa.......................................................................................... 6
SUSAN COOKSEY New Threads: Textile Diasporas at the Harn Museum of Art............................................................................7
ELIZA BETH D EVO S Em ergency M medicine D evelopm ent for Africa......................................................................................................8
JAMES ESSEGBEY Documenting Endangered Languages in Africa................................................................................................9...
JOAN FROSCH Graphing a Movement (R)Evolution: Faustin Linyekula, Germaine Acogny, and Beatrice Kombe .............. 10
ABE GOLDMAN Parks as Agents of Social and Environmental Change in Eastern and Southern Africa...................................11
SEA N HA N RETTA Love, D death, and History in W est Africa.......................................................... ................................................. 12
BRENT HENDERSON -When an Endangered Language Goes Global: Documenting Chimiini........................13
ABDOULAYE KANE A Cultural Festival in the Senegal River Valley: Reinventing Local Traditions for Returning Migrants..... 14
GREG KIKER Taming Wicked Problems: Ecosystem Modeling for Adaptive Management of Rivers and Elephants............... 15
AGNES LESLIE Zambia-China Engagement: The Role of Government in Regulating Foreign Investments ...................16
STAFFAN LINDBERG Voting Behavior, MP Campaign Strategies, and Political Clientelism in Ghana ........................................17
FIONA MCLAUGHLIN Dakar's Linguistic Landscape...............................................................................18
CONNIE MULLIGAN -Epigenetic Alterations and Stress Among New Mothers and Infants in the DRC.....................................19
ESTH ER OBONYO A Community-Based Approach to Sustainable Development.............................................................................20
BERNARD OKECH Research Activites in Kenya ................................................ .....................21
TERJE 0STEB0 Islam and Islamism in Ethiopia & the Horn of Africa................................................................... ..................... 22
RO BIN POY NO R -Yoruba Influences in Florida ..................................................................................................... 23
RICHARD RHEINGANS -Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Kenya: Where Health and Development Meet.................... 24
CLAUDIA ROMERO & FRANCIS E. PUTZ -Higher Education and Climate Change Research in Southern Africa............... 25
VICTORIA ROVINE -Viewing Africa through Clothing: Research and Collaboration.......................................................................... 26
ZEKERIA OULD AHMED SALEM Debating Islam: Ethnicity, Belonging and Muslim Politics in Mauritania.................. 27
PETER SCHMIDT -History, Trauma, and Revitalization in Haya Villages of Tanzania.........................................................................28
FRANK SEIDEL Documenting Nalu: An Atlantic Language on the Coast of Guinea, West Africa..................................................29
RENATA SERRA Cotton Sector Reform s in W est and Central Africa............................................................................. ....................30
J IL L S O N K E A IM for A frica: R w anda........................................................................................................................................................... 31
A LIO UN E SO W The N ew M alian Literary Landscape ............................................... ..................................... ..................... 32
ANITA SPRING Sub-Saharan Africa Business Environment Report (SABER) .....................................................................................33
A N D REW TATEM M alaria: M ovem ent, M odeling, and M apping................................................................................. .................... 34
CIRECIE WEST-OLATUNJI Critical Consciousness Theory and Counselor Effectiveness During Disaster Response .............35


STUDENT REPORTS
KHADIDJA ARFI Remembering Colonial Times: an Algerian Oral History.....................................................................................36
RENEE BULLOCK Marketing Opportunities and Constraints in the East Usambaras, Tanzania........................37
NICOLE D'ERRICO -Epigenetic Alterations and Stress Among New Mothers and Infants in the DRC.........................................38
JORDAN FENTON Masquerade and Local Knowledge in Urban Calabar, Nigeria..........................................................................39
JOHN FORT The Role of the Environment in the Forest Livelihood Decisions of Malawian Villagers ........................................40



2 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010











TIM OTHY FULLM A N -Elephant Community Ecology in Botswana............................................................................... ..................... 41
JO HN HA M ES Minority Language Promotion in Senegal and M auritania .................................................................. ...................... 42
RACH EL IANN ELLI Heritage Tourism: Implications for the Preservation of Haya Architecture in NW Tanzania................ 43
JILLIAN JENSEN Institutional Reforms to Strengthen Gender Outcomes through Improved Rural Services Delivery..............44
LUCAS JOHNSON Archeology and Stone Tool Technology during Early State Development in Northern Ethiopia..............45
CARA JONES Rebels, Rulers, and Refugees: Post-Conflict Governments in Action in Burundi..................................................46
A LISO N KETTER Fairtrade South Africa (FTSA)................................................................................................. 47
JOSEPH KRAUS -The "Business" of State-Building: Corporate Social Responsibility and the State in Equatorial Guinea..........48
STEPHEN L I CHTY Religious Influence on Political Belief and Behavior in Kenya........................................................................49
EU G E N I A M A RTINEZ Arabic Script as Active Agent in Senegalese Visual Culture............................................50
G ERMAI N MAVAH Governance and Sustainability of Wildlife in Logging Concessions in Republic of the Congo .................51
SARAH MCKUNE Risk, Perception, Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Change in Niger and Tanzania................................ 52
BOTHEPA MOSETLHI -The Impact of Chobe National Park on Rural Livelihoods and Conservation Behaviors....................53
NAOMI MOSWETE Protected Area Management and Community-Based Ecotourism in Botswana.........................................54
SHYLOCK MUYENGWA -Elite Capture of Community Conservation Programs in Nambia and Zimbabwe ...........................55
SAMUEL NYAMUAME Performing Adzomanyi: Religious-Cultural Expression among the Anlo-Ewe of Ghana ..................56
MARIT OSTEB0 Gender Equality in International Aid: The Case of Norweigan-funded Projects in Ethiopia..........................57
CHRISTO PHER RICHA RDS -Designing Identities in Accra, Ghana.......................................................................... ..................... 58
KATHLEEN RUDOLPH -Acacia-Ant Defenders in Kenya: What Are the Costs and Where Do They Matter?...........................59
M ACKENZIE RYA N Kanga: A Culturally Embedded Swahili Textile........................................................................... ..................... 60
SAM SCHRAMSKI Community Resilience in the Eastern Cape, South Africa ................................................................................61
AMY SCHWARTZOTT Weapons and Refuse as Media: The Politics of Recycling in Mozambican Urban Arts .......................62
N O A H S IM S The M medieval East A frican D iaspora ................................ ..............................................................................................63
CAROLINE STAUB Soil, Vegetation and Land Use in the Okavango Delta, northwestern Botswana.........................................64
VERONIQUE THERIAULT Market Reforms and Local Realities: The Case of the Malian Cotton Sector.................................65
KEITH W EG HO RST -Voters and the Political Opposition in Africa..................................................................... ..................... 66
ANN WITULSKI State Bureaucrats or Social Leaders? Conflicts in Morocco's Islamic Education Curriculum............................67
CH RISTOPH ER WITULSKI Moroccan Islam(s): Debating Religious Authority through Ritual Performance...........................68


COLLABORATIVE PROJECT REPORTS

PURC in Sub-Saharan Africa: Initiatives in Leadership Development, Telecommunications, Utility Policy and Regulation ...............69
Transforming CBNRM Education in Southern Africa.......................................................................................70
The Impact of Climate Variability and Climate Change on Land Use and Land Cover Change in Southern Africa............................71
2010 FIFA W world Cup: Resident and Visitor Perspectives............................. .......................................................... ..................... 72
Partnership to Strengthen Teaching, Research, and Faculty Development in Tourism Management in South Africa ..........................73
Zambia Tourism Demand Survey .................................................................74
A frica P ow er & P politics P rog ram m e ....................................................................................................................................................................... 75
Bridging Research and Practice: Building a New Study Abroad Model in Southern Africa.....................................................................76
M aster's Program in Sustainable D evelopm ent Practice (M D P).............................................................. ................................................... 77
T he Trans-Saharan Elections Project (T SE P) .......................................... .................................................................... .....................78

A FR IC A N ST U D IES Q U A R T ER LY .............................................................................. ................................ 80


FOREIGN LANGUAGE & AREA STUDIES FELLOWSHIPS ......................................................... 81

SU PPO RT R ESEA R C H O N A FR IC A ............................................................... ........................................... 82



Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 3


















From the Director


We are very pleased to present
the University of Florida's Center
for African Studies (CAS) Research
for 2010. The pages that follow detail the
extraordinary diversity and the depth of work on
Africa being carried out at UE Our faculty and
graduate students are actively engaged in carrying
out research on the ground and spanning the
continent, from Cape Town to Algiers and from
the Horn of Africa to its westernmost point in
Dakar.
Cumulatively, this work is marked by three
characteristics that reflect CAS's mission and
philosophy. It is, first of all, work that is directly
engaged with the continent and its peoples, both
in terms of the subjects of study but also and
most importantly in an understanding of the
central need for collaborative engagement with our
colleagues in Africa in identifying key questions,
and in the search for answers. Secondly, while
our faculty and students are most often rooted
in disciplines and well-armed with the particular
tools that these disciplines have developed, there
is a high degree of inter-disciplinarity in the work
presented here. A key function of CAS is to bring
together scholars from a variety of perspectives
to address important issues, and we are thus
particularly pleased with the dynamism of our
various interdisciplinary working groups, in such
diverse areas as natural resource management,
governance and development, Islam and Muslim
societies, health and society, cultures and the arts,
or the dynamics of language change. Finally,
we believe that the work reported here reflects
our understanding of the important connections
between research and training. The many linkages
you will find between the faculty and student
reports spring from the belief that, as a unit in
a major research university, our mission must be
to both produce new knowledge about the world
and its challenges, and to train and prepare a new
generation of scholars to address those issues.
We are pleased to acknowledge the support we
receive from various sources and the collaborations
this support makes possible. Most notably in 2010


CAS was once again designated
and received funding as a Title VI
National Resource Center for African
Studies, one of only 12 around the
country. The over $2.6 million this
grant brings over four years will
both help us to continue our work
and fund many of our students
through Foreign Language and Area
Studies (FLAS) fellowships. In
addition, various grants from HED
and other sources make possible
collaborative partnerships across
southern Africa; our participation
in the African Politics and Power
Programme presents opportunities
for collaboration with institutions
in Europe and Africa; and a State


Department Grant to support the
"Trans-Saharan Elections Project"
links CAS to partners in six countries
across the Sahel. In 2010 our exciting
new MDP degree, jointly offered
with the Center for Latin American
Studies, took in its first class.
We trust you will enjoy reading
about the varied and important
research being carried out by our
faculty and graduate students. For
more information about CAS,
and our various activities and
opportunities, please consult our
website at www.africa.ufl.edu.


4 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010











FACULTY REPORTS


Climate Change and the Dynamics of
Local Discourse in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

CHARLES BWENGE


This summer I embarked on a
new research project as part
of a large NSF-funded project
on Local Knowledge and
Climate Change Adaptation
Project (LKCCAP) led by
Dr. Thomas Smucker (Ohio
University) and Prof. Pak
Munishi (Sokoine University
of Agriculture). Concentrating on
Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania, the study
seeks to explore the dynamics of local
knowledge within the climate change
adaptation project particularly as it relates
to such aspects as interdependence,
inequality, and local institutional settings.
In this regard, my main responsibility is to
explore how such dynamics manifest in
the local discourse. I and the other team
members spent May and June in the field,
during which we were able to conduct
household survey in four districts: Same,
Mwanga, Rombo, and Moshi Rural from
which Mwanga was selected as a site for
detailed qualitative work scheduled for
2011 through 2012.
Although local knowledge is not
exclusively a verbalized phenomenon, a
significant portion of it manifests well in
the day-to-day discourse.
Of particular interest in the case of
Tanzania is the interaction between local
(ethnic) languages (in which a significant
portion of indigenous knowledge is
embedded), a national language, Kiswahili
(the major medium of formal national
discourse) and the global discourse, which
is partially dominated by English medium.
Since climate and its related changes are
considered as an environmental universal,
I am interested in observing the flow
of climate change discourse from the
global level through the national level to
the local setting and the linguistic forms
that are adopted (linguistic change) in


the process presumably reflecting the
dynamics of local knowledge.
Preliminary observations already
indicate some interesting phenomena
regarding the concept of 'climate change'
itself. In order to capture the globally
conceptualized climate change, climate
change experts use the term "mabadilikoya
tabianchi"in Swahili-medium discourse in
order to distinguish it from "mabadilikoya
hali ya hewa"which translates as "weather
change." But in the village-level discourse,
not being aware of "tabianchi, "the
wananchi (the masses) still cling to "haliya
hewa" lir.. i .ii the condition of the air) to
refer to both "climate" and "weather". To
the villagers, the distinction between the


two seems less important as is the topo-
cultural setting. While geographers would
privilege a three-zoning segmentation (i.e.,
high, middle, and low), locals privilege
a two-zoning system (i.e., 'mlimani' and
'tambarare' literally translated highland and
lowland respectively). I anticipate that the
results of this study will demonstrate the
importance of local discourse within a
broader agenda of local knowledge and
climate change adaptation.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 5


















Architectural Designs for East Africa

DONNA COHEN


In Tanzania I consulted
with the American NGO
"Africa Schoolhouse" which
is building schools in the
Sukuma village of Ntulya,
known in the region as a
healing village. The village has
requested a Health Post (Kituo cha Afya)
and community Resource Center (Kituo
cha Elimu). I met with the community
and with the construction crew to
discuss ideas for the two new buildings.
Local building materials include earth
brick, which is fired in rice-husk fueled
kilns, and thatch for roofs. Thatch has
become scarce and expensive, and the
Tanzanian government doesn't approve
of thatch roofs for larger public buildings,
so our building proposals considered
maximum use of brick without thatch.
With guidance from Peter Rich, a South
African architect who lectured at UF in
fall 2009, and structural engineer John


Ochsendorf from MIT, we developed
the building design using a low-tech
brick vault roof system which can be
constructed by both men and women on
site.
I also visited the small town of
Rugerero, Rwanda, to study the possibility
for a new Health Clinic building. I was
introduced to the town, a survivor's
village, by members of the UF AIM for
Africa program led by Jill Sonke. The
government of Rwanda is committed
to staffing and maintaining new health
clinics throughout the country. There
is much work to be done before a new
building could become a reality, but there
is great potential due to the availability
of local building materials and an
enthusiastic labor force.
Finally, I visited the University of
Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia,
and met with professors and students at
the Faculty of Architecture. Addis Ababa
is a booming urban environment, and


the school of architecture is growing in
order to increase the number of design
professionals needed for this rapid
expansion. I began collaboration with
architect Fasil Ghiorghis on a joint design
studio project which will involve students
from University of Addis Ababa and UFE
All of the research compiled during
these trips has been incorporated into the
seminar I am now teaching, "Topics in
African Architecture," which is open to
graduate students in all disciplines.
Our work in Ntulya and Moshi
Tanzania was exhibited at Florida
International University in the spring, in
an exhibit entitled "Resource: Design in
East Africa, recent work of Armstrong +
Cohen Architecture".


6 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010


















New Threads: Textile Diasporas at the Harn Museum of Art

SUSAN COOKSEY


In preparation for an
exhibition on African
textiles at the Harn Museum,
"Africa Interweave: Textile
Diasporas", which will explore
the interplay of aesthetics,
technologies, and socio-
cultural factors that have
affected the movement of
textiles, I have engaged UF
faculty and students who
travelled to Mall, Nigeria
and Ghana to collect and
study textiles. Their research will
be incorporated into the exhibition's
catalogue and other interpretive materials.
Art work they procured will be presented
in the exhibition and added to the Ham's
collection.
Robin Poynor (Art History) will
be writing about the prominence of
woven textiles used in performances
in the context of lavish second burial
ceremonies, or ako, based on his research
in Owo, Nigeria. Poynor has contributed
several textiles he collected in Nigeria to
the museum and three will be used in the
exhibition. Victoria Rovine (Art History)
travelled to Timbuctou and commissioned
a sacred woman's garment, or tilbi, from
master embroiderer Baba Djitteye. She
also travelled to Bamako in early 2010
on behalf of the Harn, to collect other
samples of textiles and garments. Rovine
has also conducted research recently in
Mali on a type of garment known as
"Ghana Boy" which have embroidered
images derived from mid-20th century
popular culture. A "Ghana Boy" tunic she
collected will be loaned to the exhibition.
Jordan Fenton (doctoral candidate,
Art History) recently returned from
Calabar, Nigeria, where he conducted
his fieldwork on Ekpe. He procured a
masquerade ensemble, including full
body costume, and accoutrements, from


prominent mask-maker. Ei.p..i n.. o
Bassey Nsa. To complement this
ensemble with its highly innovative
design and materials, he also collected an
ensemble of chiefly dress that reflects a
more canonical aesthetic, but also blends
globally inspired elements.
Courtnay Micots, who recently
completed her doctorate in art history,
researched Fante Asafo flags, which will
be featured in the exhibition, collected
cloth commemorating President
Obama's visit to Ghana, and also helped
negotiate a commission of two kente
cloths from master weaver Samuel
Cophie of Bonwire. Chris Richards (a
doctoral candidate, Art History) has
done preliminary research on textiles and
fashion in Ghana in 2009 and 2010. He
documented globalized fashion trends,
including the fusion of historically
important textile genres with new design
elements, and witnessed the impact of
the Obama visit on textile production. He
also interviewed Samuel Cophie about
the cloths he created for the museum,
including a kente designed to honor


President Clinton, and a new design with
applique adinkra patterns. MacKenzie
Moon Ryan, whose preliminary doctoral
fieldwork in Tanzania intensified her
interest in the kanga and kitenge cloth
histories, will contribute her essay on
the global sources of kanga design and
production. She is also assisting with
interpretation of examples from the
Ham's collection.
The collaborative efforts of these
faculty and students, with contributions
from scholars at outside institutions, will
culminate in the exhibition and catalogue
that will be used to enhance curricula
across many university disciplines. The
addition to the Ham's African collection
of historically and aesthetically significant
examples of textiles will be an enduring
legacy for the Museum and for the
university community The exhibition will
open February 8, 2011 and run until May
8, 2011.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 7


















Emergency Medicine Development for Africa

ELIZABETH DEVOS


This year I have had the privilege to
participate in the development of
Emergency Medicine as a medical
specialty in two distinct projects in
Ethiopia and Ghana. After several years of
positioning stakeholders in the Ministry of Health,
Addis Ababa Regional Health Bureau, Addis Ababa
University, and the Black Lion Hospital, the first
official specialty training program began in Ethiopia
in November 2010. Similarly in Ghana, Emergency
Medicine is gaining recognition as an important
component of the healthcare delivery system and
one important player is the Ghana Ambulance
Service.
Since 2007, I have been fortunate to participate
in various continuing education programs and
healthcare summits for emergency medicine in
Ethiopia. In 2009, I was invited to continue to
participate in the educational foundation for the
fledgling department of Emergency Medicine at
the Black Lion Teaching Hospital (BLH) in Addis
Ababa. Alongside the University of Wisconsin,
the American International Healthcare Alliance
and People to People (an Ethiopian Diaspora
healthcare organization) we developed curriculum
for faculty specialty training in the US and Ethiopia
for 4 attending physicians at BLH, as well as local
training for resident and attending physicians,
nurses and pre-hospital care workers in Addis. The
ongoing curriculum allows for joint research and
quality improvement measures within the newly
formed Emergency Department. In November
2010, I return to Addis to kick off the Emergency
Ultrasound training program along with faculty


from the University of Wisconsin
and the Black Lion Hospital.
For Ghana, my role has been
mostly that of a facilitator. The
University of Florida College of
Medicine-Jacksonville is hosting Dr.
Ahmed Zakariah, director of the
Ghana National Ambulance Service
in a 6-week observational position
in the Department of Emergency
Medicine. In addition to learning
about the administrative and patient
care roles of specialized emergency
physicians, Dr. Zakariah has had the
opportunity to conduct interviews
with Emergency Medical Services in
Jacksonville and surrounding areas in
order to learn about the training and
dispatch procedures for pre-hospital
personnel. Together, we will utilize
this data to develop a strategy to
improve the efficiency and efficacy
of the ambulance service.


In November 2009, the African
Federation for Emergency Medicine
was established and both Ethiopia
and Ghana and are important players
in the development of specialized
emergency physicians and other
emergency healthcare personnel.
As the continent faces the rise
of road traffic injuries and non-
communicable diseases alongside
the battles with infectious diseases,
emergency medicine offers a strategy
for efficient management and
stabilization of acute illness and
injury in Africa. I look forward to the
continued opportunity to participate
in the ongoing development, quality
assurance and improvement and
clinical research as the specialty of
Emergency Medicine develops in
Ethiopia, Ghana and throughout
Africa.


8 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010


















Documenting Endangered Languages in Africa

JAMES ESSEGBEY


The world's languages are
disappearing at an alarming rate
and it has been estimated that
between 60 to 90 percent of them
may be at risk of extinction within
the next hundred years. Since the 1990's
linguists and anthropologists, assisted by various
funding agencies, have been galvanized into
working towards documenting these languages
before they disappear. I continue to work on the
documentation of Nyagbo, a language spoken in
the South Eastern part of Ghana, which the people
themselves call Tutrugbu.
A crucial ingredient for successful
documentation on the continent is equipping
people with the necessary skills to carry out
documentation. In summer 2010, I was a resource
person for the Summer School on Documentary
Linguistics in West Africa, which was held at the
University of Education in Winneba, Ghana. The
school was organized by Dr. Felix Ameka from
Leiden University, the Netherlands, and funded
by the Endangered Languages Documentation
Program (ELDP) at the School of Oriental and
African Studies (SOAS) in London. It aimed
at providing further training and skills in the
theory and practice of language documentation
to 20 participants in universities in Ghana, Benin


Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, Nigeria
and Senegal, who were selected from
participants from an earlier school
held in the summer of 2008. They
received training in documentation
of specialized vocabulary and cultural
knowledge as well as audio and video
recording.
One issue that keeps coming
up among Africanists working on
language documentation is whether
the situation in Africa is so different
from other regions as to warrant
an Africa-specific strategies for
documenting languages on the
continent. For instance, do colonial
languages play as central a role in
language endangerment as they
do in places like Australia and the
Americas? Some researchers have
argued that in the African context,
endangerment is caused by regional
rather than colonial languages.
Another issue concerns what to
represent in the writing system.
For instance, should one represent
inflections on words even when
speakers no longer do so in speech?


In order to address these
and other issues, we organized a
workshop on Africa's Response
to Language Endangerment at the
University of Florida in December
2010. The workshop was sponsored
by the Center for African Studies
with additional support from the
Office of Research, France-Florida
Research Institute, Department of
Languages, Literatures and Cultures,
and the Linguistics Department.
Invited participants included 12
specialists from Africa, Europe,
Australia, Canada, and the United
States working on various aspects of
language documentation in Africa.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 9
















Graphing a Movement (R)Evolution: An Archival Study of

Faustin Linyekula, Germaine Acogny, and Beatrice Kombe

JOAN FROSCH


"Perhaps my body is my only true
country."
- Faustm Linyekula ("Movement (R)Evolution Africa
A Story of an Art Form in Four Acts")


Over the last decade a wave of experimental
choreographers in and of Africa have re-imaged
African pasts and present, and configured a new
landscape of contemporary performance. The
artists whose works and words have contoured
this landscape have not only contributed to the
dynamic interplay of the arts and globalization
but have cleared a space for performance in
advancing human aspirations in the 21st century.
Among these artists are experimentalists Faustin
Linyekula, Germaine Acogny, and Beatrice Kombe
(1974-2007), to whom the work is dedicated. This
research will position these choreographers not
only as artists, but as philosophers and historians,
who have-through the body-theorized love,
historicized absence and loss, interrogated
war, problematized memory, and challenged
the wearisome persistence of the ontological
specters of essentialism. Their practices have also
contributed to the splintering of prevalently held
views of experimental dance as a mostly "Western"
and mostly white domain of artistic production.
Indeed, the study of these artists' investigational
dialogues with contemporary life has the potential
to situate African experimentalism as a wellspring
of 21st century knowledge and innovation.
In contrast to their growing continental
and global presence, African experimental
choreographers rarely have been acknowledged
in the English language literature to date.
However, the movement they have engendered
has evoked enthusiastic aesthetic responses from
a growing number of global artists. I am one.
From 2004 to 2007, I directed and produced the
documentary feature "Movement (R)Evolution
Africa: A Story of an Art Form in Four Acts."
Featured artists of the film have used the film to
educate their audiences and students, and it has
been screened in over 200 international festival


screenings and television broadcasts
to date. Documentary Education
Resources published the film for
international distribution in 2009. Yet
the film's vast archives of primary
materials, housed in the University
of Florida Belknap Collection for
the Performing Arts, has yet to
be theorized. The one-of-a-kind
archival data include: interviews with
artists, artists' public presentations,
rehearsals, and public performances
of choreography, among other
categories, other artists' writings and
resources, including reviews and
dramaturgies.
The goal of the research is to
address the significant historical
gap in the literature on African
experimental dance practices. Using
the diverse lenses of Linyekula,
Acogny, and Kombe's pedagogy,
creative practices, and theoretical
discussions, I intend to mine the
archive's 123 hours of primary


materials to create an interdisciplinary
and integrated path of theory,
art, and culture in a forward
movement toward our shared future
- a path quickened and inspired
by the contributions of African
experimental choreographers. In
so doing, the research proposes the
first full-length English-language
study theorizing the burgeoning
contemporary African dance
movement.


10 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010
















Parks as Agents of Social and Environmental
Change in Eastern and Southern Africa

ABE GOLDMAN


Together with faculty and
graduate students from
several departments, I've
been involved for the
last several years in an
interdisciplinary multi-
institutional project,
supported by NSF funding,
that examines the impacts
of parks in Tanzania,
Uganda, Botswana, and
Na m i b ia. The parks and landscapes
around them span ecologic and
demographic gradients from mid-
altitude forests to semiarid savannas
and very densely to relatively sparsely
populated regions.
My own research has focused
mainly on Kibale National Park
(KNP) in western Uganda, and
the densely populated landscape
around it (300+ per sq km). I've
done fieldwork there since 2004,
together with UF professors Michael
Binford and Jane Southworth,
graduate students Joel Hartter,
Amy Panikowski, Karen Kimer,
and Katherine Mullan, and several


Ugandan and other collaborators.
Among our recent findings are
that, despite the park's "fortress"
characteristics, and the animal
hazards faced by many farmers, most
people in our sample within 5 km
of KNP feel that they benefit from
the park, and a surprisingly small
proportion cite negative impacts.
The benefits most noted are forms
of ecosystem services (improved
climate, etc.) rather than direct
economic benefits (employment,
income). Resource restrictions and
expulsion were not widely cited by
our respondents, but crop raiding
is important in some (but not all)
locations. Contrary to expectations,
the patterns of responses do not vary
significantly by wealth, gender or
ethnicity, but they do vary strongly by
distance from the park boundary. We
believe that important explanatory
factors for these responses include
that the large majority of current
residents migrated to the area after
the park (or forest reserve) had been
established, and that the area around


the park has been so thoroughly domesticated.
Similar conditions are likely also to be true for
other mid-altitude forests in East Africa.
Among our other recent findings are that
the unprotected small forests and wetlands
outside KNP are declining rapidly with extraction
and agricultural conversion. This is one of
several indications that in the absence of at
least moderately effective enforcement of park
boundaries, Kibale forest would likely disappear.
Agricultural land use continues to intensify in
our survey locations, but productivity is almost
universally declining. In addition to roads and other
infrastructure, the presence of the park has led to
the establishment of a number of new women's
craft groups throughout the area, which have
generated small but important enhancements to
women's incomes.
The broader project includes Tarangire
National Park in northern Tanzania; Chobe in
northern Botswana; and Bwabwata and Mudumu in
northeastern Namibia. Collaborators include Brian
Child (Geography, UF), numerous UF graduate
students, and colleagues at the Universities of
Colorado and North Carolina. Our comparative
findings are that: (a) the areas around savanna
and forest parks have had different dynamics
and trajectories of change; and (b) differences in
both the content and stability of national-level
conservation policies have led to quite different
outcomes, especially in attitudes to parks and the
impacts of parks on livelihoods and risks.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 11


















Love, Death, and History in West Africa

SEAN HANRETTA


My current research
focuses on two distinct
projects. The first explores the
convergence of Muslim reformers
and British colonial officials (and later
Ghanaian officials) in conceptualizing a
close link between modernization and the
proper performance of rituals. Covering
most of the twentieth century in both
northern and southern Gold Coast/
Ghana, the project traces the intersection
of efforts by Muslim scholars, ritual
and community leaders and younger,
insurgent preachers to define the correct
practice of weddings and funerals and to
elaborate a distinction between what was
properly Islamic and what was merely
customary. Struggles between chiefs
and religious leaders over the control of
patronage affected how these rituals were
inserted into administrative bureaucracies
(such as through marriage certificates
or the allocation of public cemeteries),
making death and marriage subject to
struggles for local power. Changing social
and economic conditions connected
mostly to urbanization, commoditization
of labor and the migration of workers
onto cocoa farms, all put strains on
existing forms of ritual practice and
created new opportunities for young
men in particular to challenge accepted
authorities. Popular support thus
developed for the new ways of thinking
about rituals being circulated and enabled
by reformists and administrators. After
independence the Ghanaian government
moved away from close involvement
in Muslim affairs, preferring instead to
mobilize clients through community
leaders. This further allowed reformist
preachers and new social actors to
reshape rituals even as the expanding
rhetoric of African underdevelopment
and need for modernization placed very
specific values on cultural norms.


The second project looks at the
social and political significance of
African history teaching and research
within West Africa itself from the 1960s
to the present. It explores the changing
role of West African university history
departments in shaping the major
concerns and empirical discoveries of the
field, while also examining the impact of
those departments on their surroundings.
Key historians who became political
figures (Adu Boahen, Gbagbo, Adame
Ba Konare) or major public intellectuals
(Ajayi, Diop) are explored alongside
the more diffuse influence of teaching
and participation in civil society. The
research is intended to test hypotheses
about the links between the changing
fates of West African universities and the
trajectories of the field as a whole, and
of the actual utility of a "usable past."
Using basic techniques of prosopography,
I have traced the trends in publishing
by historians based in West Africa (both


West African nationals and expatriates)
from 1960 to the present in major
English- and French-language journals,
in landmark edited volumes and in key
monographic series. This has provided
the framework for a group of collective
biographies of the less well-known
members of the research networks.
The next phase of the project involves
collecting local histories-oral and
published-from the history departments
at the targeted universities.


12 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010
















When an Endangered Language Goes Global:

Documenting Chimiini

BRENT HENDERSON


Chimiini was once spoken only
in the port city of Brava on
the coast of southern Somalia,
the northernmost and most
isolated of the Swahili 'dialects.'
Though spoken in Brava for a millennium,
the horrors of the ongoing civil war in
Somalia have caused nearly all speakers
of the language to become refugees now
living in large international cities like
Atlanta, London, and Mombasa. As a
result, the unique language and culture
of the Bravanese is quickly disappearing.
In a three-year project (now in year
two) funded by the NEH through the
NSF/NEH program Documenting
Endangered Languages program, I am
working with Bravanese communities,
as well as other scholars, to further
document the Chimiini language. This
includes writing a reference grammar and
dictionary of Chimiini, archiving digital
recordings of the language, publishing
traditional stories, personal narratives,
and other ethnolinguistic material, and
developing web-based materials useful
to the community and heritage speakers.
It also includes exploring the language
from a scientific perspective and bringing
out insights that might be interesting for
theoretical linguistics.
Last summer I spent six weeks in London
and Manchester in the United Kingdom
meeting many of the thousands of
Bravanese who live there and talking with
them about their language. Together, we
collected many oral stories and hundreds
of specialized vocabulary. Working with
native speakers and other scholars, I
have also been able to finalize a written
orthography for Chimiini that will be used
for reading and other literacy materials,
as well as the dictionary. Coming up with
a practical orthography was not an easy
task, particularly because many Bravanese
are literate in many languages, including


Arabic, Somali, English, and Swahili.
We had to balance many factors so that
the writing system could capture the
important contrasts in Chimiini, while at
the same time not create confusion with
these other familiar writing systems.
Next year I will spend my summer in
Mombasa, Kenya, where many Bravanese
remain closely connected to their culture.
There I hope to assess whether or not
the language is being passed on to the
next generation and to collect much more
culturally-relevant linguistic data.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 13















A Cultural Festival in the Senegal River Valley:
Reinventing Local Traditions for Returning Migrants

ABDOULAYE KANE


The organization of cultural
festivals in the villages of the
Senegal River Valley has become
a major priority of Haalpulaar
hometown associations based
in Europe and the United States.
This is an apparently surprising turn
for associations that have traditionally
occupied themselves with development
initiatives aimed at bringing concrete
improvements of living conditions
experienced in the Haalpulaar immigrants'
home villages. Yet conversations I had
with leaders of such associations in
France and the United States indicate their
conviction that cultural festivals can in fact
play an integral role in strategies aimed at
development of their home villages. In
2008, I participated in one such cultural
festival held in the village of Thilogne,
where I acquired an interesting perspective
on the nature of the stakes, players,
discourses, cultural performances, and
artisanal exhibitions that bring these events
to life as development initiatives.
It is striking to observe that the cultural
practices being performed during the festi-
vals tend to be of little relevance to contem-
porary village life. Rather, they constitute a
recreation of particular traditions, customs,
and performances that their creators perceive
will be admired by returning migrants, visit-
ing urbanites and tourists as an exotic reflec-
tion of a lost cultural past. One fascinating
example of such reinvention of tradition is
the cultural practice of Thiayde, a carefully
choreographed event whereby processions of
young women engage in ritual competition
for husbands. According to one informant,
Aminata, age 54, and a resident of Thilogne,
Thiayde competitions were held between
groups of women from neighborhoods be-
tween which there existed friendly rivalries.
Such friendly inter-neighborhood rivalries
were sustained by the frequency with which
men from each of the neighborhoods took


wives from the other.
The Thiayde featured peaceful yet
lively confrontations between young
women on both sides, each with the ob-
jective of getting their own men to marry
within their own neighborhoods, while
luring as many men as possible from other
neighborhoods to marry there as well.
The women of each neighborhood spend
countless hours preparing, crafting praise
songs they use to promote themselves and
lyrical diatribes used to target women of
the opposite camp. Thiayde were often or-
ganized around the Taske, a Muslim feast
celebrating Abraham's sacrifice. To begin
the Thiayde competition during Taske,
the groups of women would leave their
neighborhoods around 5:00 pm and walk
slowly toward the center of the village,
each with a lead vocal carefully selected
for her excellent voice. While walking,
they begin singing their praise songs,
following with the lyrical diatribes upon
their encounter with their rival groups.
The rival groups meet at around 7:00 pm
at the center of the village, surrounded by
spectators who listen carefully to the rau-
cous proceedings. The Thiayde conclude
with each side inevitably claiming victory,
as their members disperse and straggle


back to their respective neighborhoods.
"The Thiayde is not practiced
anymore by the younger generation:'
lamented Aminata, who is charged
with organizing the Thiayde during the
cultural festival. "For our generation and
those preceding it, participation in the
Thiayde was a rite of passage for young
women who had yet to be married. We
would spend all year creating songs, and
throughout the months leading up to
Taske, carefully consider the types of
clothes and jewelry we planned to wear
for the competition," she added. Now
women of the younger generation put
on their finest clothes and jewelry to
watch their men compete on the soccer
field. For these women Thiayde is a relic
reserved for the cultural festivals that
take place every two years. In their new
incarnation as part of a reinvented tradi-
tion, Thiayde songs have been adapted
to the new circumstances, often in the
form of praise songs honoring successful
migrants, the hometown associations, and
the village as a whole.


14 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010

















Taming Wicked Problems: Ecosystem Modeling

for Adaptive Management of Rivers and Elephants

GREG KIKER


All of my projects in southern Africa
deal with complex environmental
challenges that integrate people,
their decision processes and the tools
needed to help them to explore and
address these dilemmas.
The first project involves modeling the
ecological effects of water withdrawals from
the Crocodile River, which forms the southern
boundary of the Kruger National Park in South
Africa. Nathan Wangusi, my Ph.D student,
received a Rotary Fellowship to spend one year
in South Africa to develop his ecological models
in cooperation with the University of KwaZulu-
Natal, water management authorities and the
Kruger National Park. Nathan is working with
my Questions and Decisions (QnD) model system
to provide computer game-style tools to integrate
ecosystem processes, management, economics
and socio-political factors into a user-friendly
model framework. We are developing a QnD game
version to integrate hydrological simulations from
a South African model (Acru2000) with ecological
classifications to simulate the effects of water
abstractions from the Crocodile River.
The second project is the development of
an elephant and vegetation model for ecological
management of elephant population control
scenarios within savanna ecosystems. Elephant and
vegetation management in southern Africa has been
described as a "wicked" problem where solutions
defy simplistic notions and problem contexts
continually shift with evolving expectations and
adaptive learning. While the southern African
scientific community has assembled a strong,
multi-disciplinary information base for elephant
biology and management, full integration of these
diverse sectors for analysis and management has
not yet been realized. An integral part of adaptive
management is the use of computational models
to inform and adjust management responses to
thresholds of potential concern (TPCs). My
QnD:EleSim model utilizes elephant/vegetation
algorithms developed by ecologists to simulate
landscape-scale tree-grass competition and growth
with agent-based implementation of spatially-


Sr r 'A
- rt m7I


41-f


rrrt


h ....r-
".J.,LI P


--
I
runS
ii.!:. rr: I


S


explicit, elephant populations.
Additional research activities
in southern Africa have established
research links with the Harry
Oppenheimer Okavango Research
Centre (HOORC) at the University
of Botswana through the NSF-
IGERT program (Adaptive
Management: Wise Use of Water,
Wetlands & Watersheds). Anna
C ir.. a Ph.D student whose
committee I co-chair, is conducting
research into water resource
modeling and uncertainty analysis in
the Okavango River Basin and Delta.
We were able to leverage this initial
collaboration into a larger grant from
NASA to explore climate change and
its effects on land use in the greater
Okavango, Kwandu and Zambezi
River basins. This new research grant
headed by Jane Southworth in the
Dept. of Geography is providing
research support for two additional
Masters students (SanjivJagtap
and Gloria Perez-Falcon) to study


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 15


vegetation modeling and land use
change in the tri-basin area. This
research uses both simple (QnD)
and complex (SAVANNA) models
to explore ecosystem resilience and
uncertainty







J%
T -
a -
















Zambia-China Engagement: The Role of
Government in Regulating Foreign Investments

AGNES LESLIE


I spent part of summer 2010
guest lecturing at the University
of Zambia in the gender studies
department and conducting
research on the Zambia-China
relationship. My visit to Zambia
was two-fold. I organized and led a
workshop on Women's Empowerment:
Problems and Challenges and in
conjunction with the gender studies
department in the School of Humanities
and Social Sciences and various women's
organizations. The workshop was
attended by Member of Parliament, Regina
Musokotwane, the Dean of Humanities
and Social Sciences, Dr. Vincent
Chanda, the Director of the Institute of
Economic and Social Research, Professor
Mubiana Macwan'gi, faculty from various
departments, women's organizations and
graduate students. Presentations at the
workshop included experiences of a female
member of parliament in running for
parliamentary election, research reports
on the challenges female MPs undergo
when they run for election, and research
analyzing the experiences of women's
groups from Botswana and South Africa
and what lessons these could provide for
women's groups in Zambia.
I also continued researching the impact
of Chinese investments on the Zambian
economy, workers' conditions, and the
environment. Chinese investment in Zambia
has grown rapidly since the 1990s when the
Zambian government began to privatize its
state-controlled enterprises. I spent time
touring some of the Chinese-funded indus-
tries, studying their impact and conduct-
ing in-depth interviews with members of
parliament, University of Zambia professors
and students, businesses, the media, various
government ministries and workers. I also
conducted interviews with officials at the
Chinese embassy. The embassy officials
agreed that some of the problems encoun-


tered by the Chinese in their interactions
with Zambians were due to the inad-
equate preparation and education of the
Chinese investors. Some of the investors
lacked proper training in human relations
and were coming from working environ-
ments in China that condoned human
rights violations.
The complaints against Chinese
investors included failure to adhere to
environmental safety standards and work-
ers' protection provisions, casualization of
labor to avoid paying benefits, non-ad-
herence to minimum wage requirements,
rampant arbitrary dismissals, requiring
Zambian employees to work odd hours
to avoid paying transport allowances and
requiring employees to work without
protective gear in dangerous environ-
ments. There have been several reports of
accidents and deaths in Chinese operated
companies. In 2005, 51 people were killed
in a Chinese-operated mine. In 2009, five
miners including a Chinese national were
killed in a Chinese-owned coal mine, due
to illegal mining operations under unsafe
conditions. An examination of workers'
complaints recorded at the Ministry of
Labor and Social Services showed an
average of 10 complaints against Chinese
companies each month from July 2008


to July 2009. The government has closed
some manufacturing premises due to their
unsafe environments.
The findings point to weakness in
government regulation of investors and
suggests the need for stronger laws and
policies in order to protect Zambian
workers and improve their work envi-
ronments. There is also need for greater
involvement of parliament in order to
promote stronger laws and regulations
and find ways of holding investors ac-
countable. In addition, the Ministry of
Labor and Social Security needs to be
strengthened to have more staff to ensure
that the policies are being implemented.
The Zambian government has not been
effective in defining the roles of external
foreign companies in development and
implementing laws and policies which
would adequately benefit the country
and safeguard the health, security and
economic rights of the Zambian workers.
Of the people interviewed 31 percent felt
that the Chinese investment had a posi-
tive impact on the economy. More than
65 percent of the members of parliament
felt that the Chinese investments had
impacted the Zambian society negatively.


16 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010
















Voting Behavior, MP Campaign Strategies,
& Political Clientelism in Ghana

STAFFAN I. LINDBERG
ments, political clientelism and the role Members
of Parliament in Ghana. The project also draws
on recently collected survey and interview data
(also from Ghana). Together the data includes four
rounds of surveys with citizens in 10 strategically
selected constituencies (out of the Ghana's 230 at
present), three rounds of surveys with Members
of Parliament, two years of participant observation
in Parliament of Ghana, and some 200+ in-depth
interviews with MPs, clerks of Parliament, journal-
ists, ministers, scholars, and citizens in Ghana. The
time period covered by the data is from 1996 to
2009.
It is too early to tell what the main results will
be of the comprehensive analysis but earlier work
suggests that political clientelism expands during
the early phases of democratization until the costs
reach a tipping point for politicians, who then
turn to producing collective goods via political
policy making in order to economize with scarce
resources in their private disposal that can be used
for reelection (election campaigning).

ataffan / Lendaerg is associate professor in the uepartruent
of Potalcal Science and the Centenr IeAftcan Studies He
is currently the Rwesearch Director for Worid Vaiues Survey
Swedeni a research Fe/uow at tuayety ofu Government institute
and associate aroiessor in the Department of PoSitical










This past year, Dr. Lindberg has been writing up results from
fieldwork carried out in 2008 and 2009 on voting behavior,
MPs' campaign strategies, and political clientelism in Ghana.
Several working papers that have come out of this work have been posted as
working papers by the African Power and Politics-program (www.institutions-
africa.org), as well as by the Quality of Government Institute (www.qogpol.
gn.se). Two of these working papers are co-authored with Keith R. Weghorst,
a doctoral student in the Department of Political Science.
Dr. Lindberg is now working on a larger project on political clientelism
and democratization. The project pulls together findings from his earlier
publications on election campaign funding, voting behavior and voter align-



Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 17


















Dakar's Linguistic Landscape

FIONA McLAUGHLIN


As part of my ongoing research
on urban Wolof I spent some
time in Dakar, Senegal, this
summer documenting what
has come to be known as the
"linguistic landscape," namely
written language in the public
sphere, which includes official
signage, graffiti, advertising,
and the like. Linguistic landscape
is a relatively new yet thriving avenue
of research within sociolinguistics, and
its interest lies what it can reveal about
language hierarchies, language vitality
or endangerment, the economic value
of particular languages, and the political
power or lack thereof associated with any
given language. In my own research I am
particularly interested in the relationship
between the linguistic landscape and the
spoken environment in Dakar, and in what
kinds of literacies make it into the public


sphere and what kinds remain private.
I documented Dakar's linguistic
landscape at the end of my fieldwork by
setting out early in the morning so that
I could photograph the city before the
streets got too crowded. I worked my way
from one of the residential neighborhoods
not far from the Universite Cheikh Anta
Diop, though the Fass, Gueule Tapee
and Medina neighborhoods towards
downtown, then out towards the port of
Dakar.
Dakar's linguistic landscape is


characterized by digraphia, or writing in
two scripts, namely Roman and Arabic,
but as Calvet (1994) pointed out in Les
voix de la ville, there is no straightforward,
one-to-one relationship between
language and script. Arabic, for example,
can appear in the Arabic or Roman
script, as can Wolof, and even French
occasionally appears in the Arabic script.
With regard to Arabic, Wolof and
French, my documentation confirms
Calvet's early observations, but there
are also some new additions to Dakar's
linguistic landscape, namely English,
which appears to be written invariably in
the Roman script, appearing much more
frequently than when Calvet's study
was conducted, and Chinese, written
in Chinese characters and the Roman
script.
French is the domain of most
officialdom and much advertising and
political graffiti, thus it dominates in the
written environment whereas Wolof
dominates in the spoken environment.
Wolof has, however, moved more
centrally into the advertising sector
and many products and services are
advertised bilingually in billboards


and posters whereas in the past only
informal advertising was in Wolof.
Religious graffiti tend to be written in
Wolof or Arabic, and English appears
primarily in graffiti that takes hip-hop
as its sphere of reference. Chinese
businesses often have bilingual signs
advertising their businesses and goods
in both Chinese and French.
What is striking about the Dakar
linguistic landscape, and what I suspect
might be true for other African
capitals where the vernacular is not
the official language, is how different
it is from the spoken environment. So
far, I think that the most significant
aspects of the written environment are
the less formal ones, and that when
considered along with other contexts,
such as text messaging, in which new
literacies are emerging, we can begin
to piece together an understanding of
the relationship of written to spoken
language in Dakar.


18 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010














Epigenetic Alterations and Stress Among New
Mothers and Infants in the Democratic Republic of Congo:
A Biocultural Look at the Intergenerational Effects of War

CONNIE MULLIGAN


Our ability to successfully
adapt to a constantly
changing environment
and increasingly complex
stressors is one of the ways
in which we are distinctively
human. There is growing evidence
there may be an intermediate mechanism
that mediates between the rapidly
changing environment and our slowly
evolving genome, i.e. epigenetic
alterations. A new project based in the
Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
and conducted by UF's Department of
Anthropology will investigate epigenetic
alterations (chemical modifications to
the genome that do not change the
underlying DNA sequence, but do
affect gene expression) as a possible
pathway to developmental plasticity and


adaptation. Professors Connie Mulligan,
Lance Gravlee, and Alyson Young and
doctoral student Nikki D'Errico will
examine epigenetics and socio-cultural
measures of stress in one of the most
stressful environments today: the eastern
DRC, where war has raged for 14 years.
This war and the related political-
economic instability have far-reaching
consequences as a result of widespread
material deprivation, increased exposure
to psychosocial stressors, and direct
physical violence, including systematic
rape warfare. Biological samples will be
collected and oral history interviews will
be conducted with a group of Congolese
mothers and newborns to test whether
epigenetic alterations mediate the effects
of maternal exposure to stressors on fetal
development and neonatal health.


The proposed study is the first
to investigate epigenetic alterations in
humans as a means of modifying gene
expression in offspring as a result of
trauma to the mother. The idea that
violence and stress exposure can create
abrupt changes in gene expression
in offspring has immediate relevance
to global public health issues. This
research has the potential to dramatically
transform the ways in which we think
of adaptation and evolution as well as
informing policies to address societal
problems. The proposed biocultural
approach integrates sophisticated genetic
and ethnographic data and emphasizes
the strengths of research conducted in a
four-field anthropology department.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 19


















A Community-Based Approach to Sustainable Development

ESTHER OBONYO


I visited South Africa in July 2010
to collect case study material from
a sustainable development project
being undertaken by the Universities
of Venda and Virginia. The project is mainly
directed at addressing problems at the village level
in the Venda region of the Limpopo Province.
I was particularly interested in understanding
the successes, failures, and ethical dilemmas
encountered throughout project execution as the
valuable lessons learnt can inform projects being
undertaken in other developing countries.
The project team used photovoice and
message boards to promote community
engagement. The photovoice technique combines
photography with social action. In the Limpopo
Province, it was used to gather information on
different levels of access to potable water. The
technique was successfully used in 2008 and
2009 selected parts of the Limpopo Province
(Tshapasha and Tshibvumo) to capture views
from different age groups (children, young
adults and older people). In follow-up activities,
additional needs and changes in requirements have
also been collected for use in the design of new


projects. Message boards were put
up in nearby schools as part of the
community engagement strategy.
The use of the board is linked to
an educational program directed at
teaching the children to respect water
and existing projects. The children
are then encouraged to create posters
summarizing the lessons they have
learnt for display on the message
boards which forms part of the
outreach to a broader audience.
The message boards can also be
used by community members for
brainstorming and sharing ideas.
Another initiative was directed
at providing clean water using a
slow sand filtering system. Slow
sand filters use biological processes
to clean the water without using
chemicals or electricity. The system
in Tshapasha triggered a community
problem. The quantity of water
being dispensed was not enough. An
assessment of the situation revealed
that a low water pressure was at the
root of the quantity issue. To address
this, the project team elevated the
tank. Another issue that emerged
was that the 1m of sand that was
supposed to be there was missing.
The filters had not formed the
biological layer that is required for
the filtration process.
Further work in the area of
water supply has started assessing
the feasibility of implementing point
of use filtration using ceramic water
filters. Ceramic filtration is based
on the use of porous ceramic (fired
clay) to filter microbes or other
contaminants from drinking water.
The work done so far has focused
on assessing the feasibility of setting
up a factory for producing ceramic
pot-style filters. If successful it would


result in cheaper filters. It will also
provide employment for the local
people.
The project team also wanted
to assess the feasibility of using
Moringa plants as a strategy for
addressing malnutrition. The Moringa
leaves are rich in minerals, all the
essential amino acids, proteins as well
as Vitamin A, B and C. The tree can
also be used for the generation of
biofuels. The project team was not
able to test the nutritional benefits of
the tree. As soon as the trees planted
at Tshapasha sprung up, livestock in
the community ate all the leaves.


20 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010


















Researching Vector-borne

BERNARD OKECH


Disease Control in Kenya


Mosquito transmitted diseases (VBD),
such as malaria are a major health
problem in Kenya. It is estimated that about
34,000 deaths occur each year in Kenya due to
malaria alone, the main casualties being children
under five, pregnant women and HIV infected per-
sons. The Kenyan government has made serious
efforts to fight malaria transmission through the
provision of subsidized medicines at local health
centers, distribution of free insecticide treated bed
nets, and lately, with support from the US govern-
ments' Presidents Malaria Initiative (PMI), indoor
residual spraying of insecticides. These three
malaria management methods are bearing fruit as
seen in the reducing cases of malaria in many areas
around the country. However, sustainability is and
will remain a major challenge because the Kenya
government relies on donor support to fund these
malaria interventions (medicines, bed nets and in-
secticides). My research in Kenya advocates malaria
management practices that do not have a huge
price tag, that are sustainable and usable widely and
routinely within households once they are adopted
by communities. Over the last 7 years, working
with Kenyan collaborators, we developed a model
demonstration field site within a rice agro-ecosys-
tem (Mwea Tebere) in central Kenya for parasite
control studies. In this area, we conducted a knowl-
edge, attitudes and practices (KAP) survey that col-
lected data from approximately 400 households; we
were able to show a significant correlation between
removal of stagnant water and clearing of bushes
(also called environmental management) in and
around households and the reduction of indoor
resting malaria mosquito densities. This finding is
very significant in terms of understanding malaria
reduction in Mwea because the fewer mosquitoes
rest inside houses the lower the risk of contracting
malaria. The power of environmental management
at a household level on malaria control needs to be
emphasized; My research is investigating innovative
'grass roots' methods to scale up environmental
management methods of mosquito control to the
county and district level in Kenya as a sustainable
addition to the progressive achievements seen in
malaria control in Kenya.


In Kenya, current estimates of
malaria deaths are at 34,000 ac-
cording to the Division of Malaria
Control reports. The primary strategy
to prevent the malaria transmission
is through treatment of cases, scaling
up use of insecticide treated bed nets
(ITN), and indoor residual sprays
(IRS). The latter strategy focuses
mainly on reducing the population
of malaria mosquitoes to lower the
risk of transmission. In Kenya, there
is a limited human resource capac-
ity at the sub-national and county
levels to assess the efficacy of such
intervention in diverse epidemiologi-
cal settings. This inadequacy impacts
negatively monitoring and evalua-
tion capacity which has downstream
effects on data flow between district,
provincial and national teams and is a
major stumbling block to the success
of malaria control activities. I col-
laborate with the Ministry of Health
in Kenya in developing a training
program to meet the need for malaria
control monitoring and evaluation at
the district level. This district-level
training of malaria control personnel
is critical for the overall success and
sustainability of operational malaria


control in the Kenya. Trained person-
nel will support scaling up IRS in
different epidemiological settings and
provide the missing links at the coun-
ty level for M&E of malaria control
in Kenya. Local government agen-
cies have committed to this training
program and plan to include it in
their national malaria control strategy
so as to increase sustainability in the
management, implementation, and
monitoring and evaluation capacity
for malaria control in Kenya.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 21


















Islam and Islamism in Ethiopia & the Horn of Africa

TERJE OSTEB0


The year 2010 was spent on my
ongoing research on Islamism
in Ethiopia/Horn of Africa. Being
appointed to the Center for African Stud-
ies & Department of Religion in August
2010, and therefore being in a transi-
tional phase, my work has had the form
of several smaller projects, all related
to contemporary Islam in the Horn of
Africa. The first was a study of Salafism
in Bale, Ethiopia, expanding my initial
research for my PhD dissertation. The
study discusses the trajectory of the early
Salafi movement in that region, paying
attention to the role of agents of change,
in the form of an emerging class of local
merchants and graduates returning from
Islamic universities in Saudi Arabia during
the 1960s. This is going to be published
as a journal article in Africa in 2011.
Secondly, I was commissioned
by the International Law and Policy
Institute (Norway) to write a report on
Islamism in the Horn of Africa. The


report entitled "Islamism in the Horn
of Africa: Assessing Ideologies, Actors,
and Objectives" (report no 5/2010) was
published in June 2010. Drawing on my
own fieldwork experiences/findings and
reviewing the available literature, the
report analyzes recent developments, with
regard to Islamist movements in Djibouti,
Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, and Sudan.
It surveys the main actors, discusses the
trajectories over the last decades, and
seeks to present a more nuanced picture
of this highly dynamic and heterogeneous
phenomenon.
Thirdly, I co-organized (together
with Patrick Desplat, University of
Cologne) a workshop on Islam in
contemporary Ethiopia at the University
of Bergen, Norway, which was co-
sponsored by the Center for African
Studies, University of Florida. The
workshop was called "Transforming
Identities and New Representations of
Islam in Contemporary Ethiopia," and


saw the participation of 12 scholars
from various parts of the world. The
focus was on changes with regard to
Muslim communities in post-1991
Ethiopia, and the papers dealt with intra-
religious dynamics within these Muslim
communities, Islam in Ethiopian public
and political spheres, and shed light on
Islam in Ethiopia in relation to the geo-
political discourses in the wider Horn of
Africa.
L ri. I have started preparing
a larger project called Religion and
Ethnicity in Ethiopia. The project takes
Islam and Oromo ethno-nationalism in
eastern Ethiopia as a point of departure
and seeks to forward suggestions on how
to conceptualize the relationship between
religious and ethnic identities in relation
to boundary-making and conflicts. The
project is funded by the Norwegian
Non-fiction Writers and Translation
Association and will begin in 2011.


22 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010


















Yoruba Influences in Florida

ROBIN POYNOR


My current research traces the
impact of African thought and
African example on populations in
Florida. My original research in Nigeria into
the arts of the Yoruba-speaking peoples focused
on arts used in leadership context and in religion.
Those studies are the basis for my explorations
into the arts and visual environments created in the
United States (and especially Florida) by those who
have converted to Yoruba orisha veneration.
Part of my research addresses the visual
environments created by Yoruba Americans living
in Alachua County, particularly Baba Onabamiero
Ogunleye of Archer. Ogunleye lived in Oyotunji
in South Carolina for nine years, where he was
initiated into the Yoruba religion. Later, after
settling in Archer, he traveled to Oshogbo, Nigeria,
to be initiated as a babalawo. His mentor in Nigeria
travels to Archer to preside over initiations. I
have investigated not only Ogunleye's sculpture
but also the visual environment the creates in
shrines and altars. Of particular interest to me
is the development over time of the altar to the
orisha Ogun, who was exceptionally important in


the region of Nigeria where I did
earlier research. I have examined
other shrines to Ogun both in North
Florida and in South Florida for
comparative purposes.
Further research explores the
Orisha Gardens in Central Florida
maintained by the Ifa Foundation
of North and Latin America. Philip
Neimark is of Jewish heritage, but
he converted to Yoruba religion by
way of Cuban Santeria in Miami. He
practiced as a babalawo in Chicago
for many years and then practiced
in Indiana before relocating to
Florida. His wife Vassa is of Greek
descent, and she too converted to
orisha veneration. The two formed
the foundation in order to reach out
to people around the world who are
seeking spiritual guidance through
the Yoruba religion. The Ola Olu
retreat in a rural area not far from the
Ocala National Forest, is filled with
sculptural forms from Nigeria and
elsewhere as well as objects created
by lyanifa Vassa. Initiates from
around the world come to Ola Olu
to be initiated.
I have signed a contract with
the University Press of Florida for a
book tentatively titled Africa in Florida
that will address 500 years of African
presence in Florida, beginning with
Juan Garrido, a conquistador of
African descent who accompanied
Ponce de Leon on his initial voyage
in 1513. The book, co-edited with
Amanda Carlson of the University
of Hartford, will include essays by
a range of scholars from the United
States, England and Mexico. One of
my chapters on the art of Ogunleye
is co-authored by Ade Ofunniyin,
a recent UF PhD in Anthropology.
Another chapter addresses the


visual environment of Ola Olu. The
publication of the book will be in
time for the 500th anniversary of
the arrival of explorers of African
descent in 1513. I am also working on
a comparative study of Ogun Altars
in Florida which may be published in
a journal that plans a special issue on
"Ritual Arts of the Black Atlantic."


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 23
















Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Kenya:
Where Health and Development Meet

RICHARD RHEINGANS


For the past 4 years my research
team has been working on a series of
projects related to water, sanitation
and hygiene in Kenya, Ethiopia,
Madagascar and Mall. Much of our working
Kenya focuses on understanding the impact of school-
based water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) on health
and educational outcomes. Poor WASH conditions
can result in exposure to diarrheal pathogens and
intestinal parasites, leading to illness, absenteeism and
poor educational performance. The driving question
is whether and how school-level improvements can
reverse these patterns without broader community
interventions.
The project is based in rural areas of Nyanza
Province in western Kenya and is done in collaboration
with Great Lakes University of Kisumu and CARE.
It is designed to generate knowledge on effective-
ness and sustainability and to use the information to
influence policy and practice at a national level. The
project includes a randomized trial to measure health
and educational impacts, along with qualitative and con-
textual assessments of a wide range of issues including
menstrual management for girls, anal cleansing, and
interactions between communities and schools.
Preliminary results demonstrate that, as expected,
girls are more affected by poor WASH conditions in
schools and at home. This effect is predominantly
among girls in poorer or marginalized households.
Similarly, improvements in school WASH primarily
benefit girls and not boys. Data from the trial also show
that school-based interventions can be effective in
changing water treatment behaviors among households
within the community. This diffusion effect is strongest
among poor households, suggesting that school-based
interventions can partially offset social and economic-
induced disparities in drinking water quality.
One of the greatest challenges for improving
school WASH relates to maintain clean latrines, ensur-
ing soap for handwashing, and treating water for drink-
ing. While government policies require these, schools
lack the necessary resources and there is seldom a
system of accountability to ensure conditions are sus-
tained. Our current work is exploring different models
for that, which combine community-based accountabil-
ity with improvements in school capacity for sustaining.


In addition to the schools project,
we also work with our partners in west-
ern Kenya to explore the mechanisms
for creating disparities in household
drinking water quality and sanitation.
This work explores specific sources
of contamination and behavioral risk
factors, but also explores the role of
social norms and neighbors in creating
disparities.


24 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010
















Higher Education and Climate Change
Research in Southern Africa


CLAUDIA ROMERO & FRANCIS E. PUTZ


Since our sojourn in
Grahamstown in 2009 as
visiting professors in the
Department of Environmental
Sciences, we have been busy
running workshops related
to our Higher Education for
Development (HED) proposal
on climate change adaptation
and mitigation research, on
which we collaborate with
Grenville Barnes (UF SFRC).
On this theme, the HED team from 3
southern African countries representing the
Polytechnic of Namibia, the University of
Namibia, the University of Botswana, and
Rhodes University presented a poster at UF's
conference "Bridging Conservation and
Development in Latin America and Africa:
Changing Contexts, Changing Strategies,"


held in January 2010.
Claudia presented a version of the
10-year strategic plan in the HED meet-
ingin Washington, D.C. She also presented
the plan's final version at the II APEDIA
(Academic Partnership for Environment and
Development Innovations in Africa) meet-
ing in Windhoek, Namibia, which centered
on building the case for the importance of
higher education for development, and thus
for climate change adaptation and mitigation.
This presentation emphasized the interdisci-
plinary, case-study centered, and collaborative
approach implemented by TCD.
We plan to return next summer to
Rhodes University in the Eastern Cape
Province of South Africa with support from
the Fulbright Senior Specialists Program. The
Fulbright program also supported the visit of
a doctoral candidate from Rhodes Univer-


ir [ irr [..Connachie, who demonstrated
advanced econometric modeling skills for his
research on evaluation of the Working for
Water program.
Overall, Claudia and Jack remain very
much involved in collaborative research and
training efforts in South Africa and Namibia
related to the broad themes of higher educa-
tion, ecosystem management, payments for
environmental services, and biodiversity
conservation.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 25
















Viewing Africa through Clothing:

Research and Collaboration

VICTORIA L. ROVINE


As I write this brief description
of my past year's research, I am
in Oxford (UK) to participate
in a conference called Fashion:
Exploring Critical Issues. The
conference attendees represent countries
throughout Europe, Asia, the Americas,
and elsewhere. This is an unusual
conference for me, because I am
accustomed to being the only person at
such gatherings who studies Africa; an
interesting if sometimes lonely position!
This time, a second paper on Africa
appeared among the seventy-five at the
conference, presented by a professor of
textile design from Nigeria. Our two
papers stand out because they are focused
on clothing histories and innovations
outside the orbit of Western fashion. My
presentation on the role of historical and
contemporary dress in the expression of
African identities opened a completely
new field for most of the participants;
most experts in fashion studies know
nothing of Africa's vibrant fashion scenes.
The response to my paper was both


gratifying and frustrating, as audience
members expressed appreciation for the
work of the designers, and amazement
at this vibrant artistic production that
takes place without recognition from
the mainstream international fashion
press and scholars of fashion. Such
conferences convince me that this work
makes an important contribution to
several fields, including African Studies,
art history, and fashion studies.
In the past year, I have continued to
conduct research and publish on several
aspects of Africa's presence in global
fashion markets. I traveled to Senegal and
Mali in summer 2010, where I interviewed
numerous designers and continued my
exploration of the markets for fashion
in West Africa. During the same trip,
I presented a paper at a symposium on
the changing images of Africa in India
and France, from the colonial era to
the present. That event was held at the
University de Cergy-Pontoise, outside
Paris. While in Paris, I also attended
two Africa-focused fashion shows, one
at the Embassy of the C6te d'Ivoire


(a celebration of the 50th anniversary
of independence) and the other at a
community center in one of the city's
chicest districts. Both were extremely well
attended-the enthusiasm for Africa's
leading designers extends well beyond
their countries of origin.
This research was largely funded by
the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto,
where I am guest-curating an exhibition
on Africa's roles in global fashion trends.
The exhibition will address clothing
creativity in Africa through the work
of contemporary African designers,
innovations in "traditional" dress styles,
and the influence of African forms on
the Western designers. Through these
three elements, the exhibition will use
dress to analyze the construction of ideas
about African identities both by and for
African audiences, and about Africa for
European audiences. In addition, two
articles from this research were published
in the past year, along with a chapter in an
edited volume on contemporary African
fashion.


26 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010
















Debating Islam:
Ethnicity, Belonging and Muslim Politics in Mauritania

ZEKERIA WOULD AHMED SALEM


In my book manuscript in
progress, "Islam, Politics and
Social Transformations in
Contemporary Mauritania,"
I am exploring some of the
various ways in which religion,
personhood and social
hierarchies play a role in political
mobilization among the Haratin,
a demographically important,
black, and Arabic-speaking
national group. Arab-Berber Moors
make up the majority of the population
in Mauritania, and refer to themselves as
bidhdin (Whites) even though more than
half of them are, in fact, Haratin, that is
black Moors of servile or slave origin.
More specifically, I look at the
ways in which individuals claiming a
servile origin strive to carve out a place
for themselves and their community in
the multiethnic nation of Mauritania
by various means, including-but not
limited to-Islamic revival and radical-
ism. Many individuals and activist groups
of the Haratin community tend to label
their individual or collective actions as a
"fight against slavery," a stigma as well as
a vestige of a historical institution that
is still entrenched in Mauritanian social
hierarchies. This is further complicated
by the fact that such hierarchies are at
times sanctioned by local interpretations
of Islamic law.
I am studying three aspects of this
complex topic: First, I am reconstructing
the endless debate on Islam and slavery
in the Mauritanian public sphere as it
appears in the discourse of political and
social movements, and especially when
this debate features an Islamic argumenta-
tion. Paradoxically, this debate is becom-
ing even more tense in recent times, as
the Haratin community has been progres-
sively emancipated.
Secondly, I am examining aspects of


Muslim family law, ethnicity and politics
in the light of some cases that have re-
cently come before the judicial system in
Mauritania, and involving cases in which
some "prestigious" families have brought
cases against young married couples from
different social and racial backgrounds. In
doing so, these families have tried to force
the couples to divorce by invoking sharia
law provisions regarding the ambiguous
and controversial notion of kefia (equal-
ity), that in their view should prevent in
particular the marriage between a "noble"
woman and a man whose origin is "tar-
nished" by a servile status. I explore how
the judicial system in Mauritania, which is
supposed to be based on sharia law, deals
with this type of claim. I reconstruct
the ways in which conflicting arguments
grounded in the same sharia provisions
are elaborated by the various persons
and institutions involved in these trials. I
examine also the final outcomes of these
officially judicial processes, but which are


simultaneous highly controversial political
and religious issues.
The final and third aspect of this
work is a case study of the large numbers
of Haratin who have recently become
imams of mosques in the country In par-
ticular, I present the life stories of two of
these imams, which I recently recorded,
and which serve to illustrate the entangle-
ment of debates about Islamic leadership
at a grassroots level and the question of
legitimacy as a religious leader, as well as
overlapping issues of citizenship, human
rights and belonging in modern-day Mus-
lim Africa.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 27
















History, Trauma, and Revitalization

in Haya Villages of Tanzania

PETER SCHMIDT


After an absence of several decades
from my original research site in NW
Tanzania, I returned in 2008 to visit
several of the Haya villages where I
once studied oral traditions and the
history of iron technology. The first place I
revisited was Katuruka, where local oral traditions
said King Rugomora Mahe (1650-75) had built
a large iron tower to the heavens. Marked by an
ancient shrine tree called Kaijia (the place of the
forge), this sacred place dates back to 500 BC-the
earliest date for iron working in East, Central,
or southern Africa. To my surprise, the ancient
memorial was a stump. I also came to learn that
whole families and lineages had perished in the
HIV/AIDS epidemic that first swept through this
part of eastern Africa.
What struck me was that fewer elders above
age 65 were living when compared to four decades
earlier. Several remaining elders asked that I return
to the village to assist them in documenting what
remained of their oral histories and oral traditions.
They also wanted help with restoring their ancient
shrines and other places documented by archae-
ology, hoping to make them a cultural heritage
destination for employment of youth who now
leave the village to seek opportunity elsewhere.
Collaborative research initiated by the community
provided an extraordinary opportunity to under-
stand what changes had gripped Haya villages over
the last 40 years.
I returned in October 2009 with support from
a Fulbright-Hays Faculty Research Abroad fellow-
ship to launch oral tradition research. Village elders
conducted the interviews, with digital recording
transcribed by villagers, and the transcriptions (and
video recordings) contributing to a permanent vil-
lage archive.
Censuses conducted in two villages shed more
light on the impact of HIV/AIDS, showing that
the proportion of males to females over age 65
has declined significantly over the last thirty years.
The 1978 Tanzania census shows .97 male to each
female, while at the height of the HIV/AIDS epi-
demic in 1988 this ratio had dropped to .54 to 1, an
enormous change; today a ratio of .54 to 1 prevails


in Katuruka village. Thus, a dispro-
portionate number of males in their
forties and fifties died during the
height of the epidemic. This demo-
graphic shift has severely interrupted
the transmission of oral traditions.
Where there was once encyclopedic
knowledge held by some skilled keep-
ers of history forty years ago, there
is now only skeletal knowledge held
by elders.
A second collaboration focused
on development of a village museum
and an interpretative tour conducted
by youth trained in the oral tradi-
tions. The community constructed
a buchwankwanzi house (photo), the
spirit house in King Rugomora's
burial estate built in the style of
an omushonge house. Buchwankwanzi
opened in June as a site museum, re-
plete with archaeological exhibits of
the excavations conducted on-site in
1970 as well as displays of iron work-
ing equipment and a photo exhibit of


iron smelting and forging.
Additional research shows a
precipitous decline in fertility of
village farms resulting from the sale
of cattle for quick money upon the
untimely deaths of parents and other
family. This has removed manure as a
key element in once prosperous Haya
farming. Perhaps the most poignant
index to change is the revitalization
of spirit mediumship-the traditional
Bacwezi cult-in the face of what
is viewed as the failure of Christian
churches to provide help during times
of stress and affliction. For the first
time since World War II, practitioners
are emerging in both villages and
suburban settings, with some
providing reinvented "traditional"
solutions to the stresses that infuse
daily life.


28 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010
















Documenting Nalu:

An Atlantic Language on the Coast of Guinea, West Africa

FRANK SEIDEL


In the coming two years I will
document the language and the
culture to retain a record of Nalu,
an extremely under-documented
Atlantic language of Guinea. Nalu
is spoken on the littorals of Guinea and
Guinea-Bissau. In Guinea, Nalu speakers
primarily live north of the river Nufiez
on the Tristao islands, which are part of
the prefecture of Boke. Across the border
in Guinea-Bissau speakers of Nalu are
located around the Cacine estuary in the
Tombali region. It is claimed that ancestors
to the contemporary language community
entered the current living area around
the 14th and 15th centuries. I plan to
produce a detailed dictionary, annotated
audio and audiovisual data of texts from
different genres, cultural activities etc., an
(.1 .. rli.. and a grammatical sketch.
In both countries Nalu speakers live
in a heterogeneous ethnic and linguistic
environment. Not much is known about
the exact situation in Guinea Bissau, except


maybe that one can reasonably assume that
Nalu is spoken in the vicinity of Balanta,
Biafada, and Landuma speakers. In Guinea
Conakry, Nalu is spoken as one of many
languages in the prefecture of Boke, and
Nalu speakers there live together with
speakers of Landuma, Balanta, Baga and
other languages. Even in the one area
that is dominated by Nalu speakers, i.e.
the sub-prefecture of Kanfarande, they
are in contact with Balanta, Landuma and
Fulfulde. Encompassing this situation is
Soso, the dominant lingua franca of the
region, with speakers both also in Guinea-
Bissau and Sierra Leone.
Nowadays, Nalu speakers are shifting
towards Soso. To be more precise the
shifting process to the target language
Soso is asserted for the Nalu speakers of
Guinea and can reasonably be assumed
for the speakers living in Guinea Bissau.
At least, most sources that mention the
topic claim that Nalu in Guinea Bissau is
fast disappearing. A point that severely


aggravates the language shift situation
mentioned above is the inexistent
administrative support. Neither
in Guinea Bissau nor in Guinea
Conakry is Nalu considered to be a
national language and thus it is, to
my knowledge, neither part of any
government or NGO initiative for
alphabetization, nor is it part of any
school curricula, nor is it used in the
media.
Because of the language shift
situation it is hard to gauge exactly
how many people actually speak the
language still. Numbers vary between
6000-25000. Be that as it may, any
numbers given are hard to interpret
speakerwise, because the criteria for
entering someone as Nalu into the
count are generally not given. Thus,
if one takes into account that, except
on the Tristao islands, most of the
younger generation of 'ethnic' Nalu
are first language speakers of Soso
and have, at best, passive competence
in Nalu, the actual number of
speakers is most likely a lot lower
than estimated. Nevertheless, on the
Tristao archipelago which still is an
infrastructurally and economically
somewhat marginalized area, the
language is still used as an intraethnic
means of communication and also
transmitted to some extent to the
younger generation. Thus, although the
number of speakers may be quite small
and dwindling, a meaningful study of
this language is at present still possible.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 29


















Cotton Sector Reforms


in West and Central Africa


RENATA SERRA


It has been a productive and
eventful year for all researchers
involved in the project on
Cotton Sector Reforms in West
and Central Africa, which is part
of the wider Africa Power and
Politics Programme (APP), of
which the Center for African
Studies is an institutional
partner. As coordinator of four country
teams as well as lead researcher of the
Mali team, I have certainly been very
busy. In March, we expanded our research
to Cameroon and welcome our new
collaborators from the national Institut
de Recherche Agricole pour le Developpement
(IRAD). They join our teams based at
research institutes in Benin, Burkina Faso
and Mali.
In May, I convened our annual
meeting in Niamey, Niger with the
invaluable help of our host institution,
also an APP partner, LASDEL
(Laboratoire d'Etudes et de Recherches sur
les Dynamiques Sociales et le Diveloppement
Local). Besides exchanging preliminary
findings and planning the work ahead,
we had the unique opportunity to
participate in four days of training in
a qualitative and collaborative research
methodology called ECRIS, which has
helped reinforce the teams' capacities. In
July, I went to Mali to start the second
phase of fieldwork, where I interviewed
main stakeholders in the capital, Bamako,
and visited two villages in the Kita
cotton region, meeting with farmer
cooperatives and discussing changes
since last year and the emergence of
new solutions. At the end of September,
I attended a meeting at the Overseas
Development Institute in London with
other researchers working on cotton
sector reforms; and then proceeded on to
Paris, to present our preliminary findings
to both the Consortium Advisory Group


and the Management Board of the APP
Program. Meanwhile, fieldwork in our
four countries is ongoing, with the goal
to capture the key phases of the current
agricultural year.
Our four countries, which are among
the largest African cotton exporters,
have been involved to a different degree
in reforming their cotton sectors,
historically characterized by a state
monopoly. Their distinct responses to
donors' pressures for reforms and to
internal governance challenges represent
a very interesting setting for conducting a
comparative analysis of how key elements
in a country's political economy affect
policy processes and outcomes in vital
economic sectors. Our findings show
that political and social realities, as well as
past experiences in dealing with specific
economic challenges, affect cotton sector
performance more than the formal
market structure in itself (monopoly or
liberalized market). Potential explanatory
factors include: nature of the democratic
state, patterns of rent distribution, the
political weight of farmer unions, the
relationship between union leaders and


their base, and the ability of farmer
cooperatives to solve collection action
problems.
Our objective is to analyze in a
systematic and rigorous way the role of
these factors in order to shed better light
on the actual forces behind different
degrees of market performance and
arrive at a finer explanation of what is
happening on the ground. Our ambition
is to engage ongoing policy debates, in
West Africa and beyond, with policy
recommendations that take better account
of local dynamics and their potential for
affecting outcomes in key productive
sectors.


30 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010


















AIM forAfrica: Rwanda


JILL SONKE


The UF Center for the Arts in
Healthcare's AIM for Africa initiatives
create cultural bridges between the
arts and healthcare in the U.S. and
African nations. In May and June of 2010, a
team of 19 CAHRE faculty and students, along
with several health and arts professionals from
Florida and beyond traveled to Rwanda and the
Democratic Republic of the Congo to continue
work begun in 2009. CAHRE is a part of a
consortium of NGO's working together in Rwanda
to improve quality of life in genocide survivor
villages. The consortium includes the Rwanda
Red Cross, the Barefoot Artists, Engineers without
Borders, Jefferson Health, and the Rwandan Village
Concept Project.
The primary goals of the 2011 initiative were:
1) to provide relevant education to healthcare
professionals and lay healthcare providers in the
Rugerero Survivor Village and surrounding region;
2) to use theatre and the visual arts to enhance
health literacy and community engagement in the
Rugerero region; 3) to use the arts to enhance
familiarity with and utilization of health services in
the Rugerero region; 4) to use the arts as a needs
assessment tool to explore relevant social issues;
and 5) to create sustainable economic opportunities
for individuals and communities through vocational
arts training.
The CAHRE team, under the leadership of
Jill Sonke and Cindy Nelly, continued work in
the Rugerero genocide survivor village and two


regional health clinics, expanded
work into a small village adjacent
to Rugerero that is home to a
community of 91 people of Twa
decent, created a bicycle taxi co-op
project with an emphasis on health
education in the town of Gisenyi,
presented regional Home-Based
Life Saving Skills training programs,
and conducted needs assessments in
the Twa village and in Goma, DRC.
CAHRE nurses conducted health
assessments, training, and provided
healthcare to address immediate
needs, while artists installed health
education murals at local clinics,
presented health education theatre
performances in area schools, and
provided vocational arts training in
local co-ops, villages, and clinics. The
health and health education projects
focused primarily on nutrition,
hygiene, HIV prevention, family
planning, and malaria prevention.
Upon return to Florida,
team members created Rwanda
Sustainable Families, an economic
assistance program, to aid villagers


in the Rubavu district in starting
small businesses and put their
children through school. Thus far,
15 families have been part of the
program, starting businesses selling
vegetables and goats. Additionally,
members of the CAHRE team
are creating a public art exhibit
including photography, handicrafts,
and artwork created by the children
of the Rugerero and Twa village
expressing their views on peace and
unity. The exhibit will be presented
in the fall of 2010.
The AIM for Africa Rwanda
& DRC project will continue
through 2011 as CAHRE hosts
the East-Central Africa Arts &
Health Forum in Kigali, undertakes
extended residencies in Rugerero
and the Twa village as well as in the
DRC, and launches a longitudinal
study assessing the impact of its
programs on healthcare utilization
in the Rugerero region. For more
information, see www.arts.ufl.edu/
CAHRE/aimrwanda.asp


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 31


















The New Malian Literary Landscape

ALIOUNE SOW


This year I made two visits to
Mali to pursue my research on
Malian letters since the onset
of political democratization in
1991. During my first trip, I worked in
Bamako, the capital city, and then traveled
to the Kayes region in the western part
of the country to conduct interviews
with activists from the Agence Malienne
des Expulses about migrant issues. In
particular, I was able to investigate a new
theatrical repertoire, which is created and
performed by former illegal migrants
willing to communicate, and indeed
problematize, their own experience.
This popular dramaturgy points to
new theatrical practices, and translates,
in unexpected forms and language,
the obsessions and fears but also the
success related to the Malian experience
of migration. They raise unexamined
questions of genre and performance,
place and settings, testifying to the
innovativeness and dynamics of local
cultural practices.


In Bamako, I also pursued my
research on life narratives and memoirs
and more precisely prison narratives
written by former political prisoners
of the Moussa Traore military regime.
These texts are part of a larger group
of narratives published at an impressive
rate since the onset of democratization,
and which include memoirs written by
former military officers as well as by
ordinary citizens willing to testify about
the military regime. During this first
trip I interviewed Amadou Traore, one
of the most important political figures
in postcolonial Mali, who is a former
political prisoner and now publisher.
I also worked with Ibrahima Toure, a
Malian director, who has just finished
an adaptation of Ibrahima Ly's prison
narrative Toiles d'araignie.
I continued with this research
during my second trip to Bamako, which
coincided with the country's celebration
of 50 years independence. While looking
at the role of life narratives and memoirs


during moments of commemoration and
how they relate to official practices of
memory, I pursued my interviews with
other political prisoners such as Bakary
Koniba and Seydou Badian Kouyate. I
also spent time in the national archives
looking at the relationship between
Malian politics and literary practices
and met with other actors involved with
the literary scene such as editors and
publishers.
This research is part of a larger
project which examines the developments
that have been brought to the Malian
literary domain since the fall of the
Moussa Traore military regime in 1991.
Some of these developments include: the
complex modes of local rehabilitation
of literary figures such as Fily Dabo
Sissoko, Yambo Ouologuem and Ahmed
Thiam; the rediscovery and sensitive
dissemination of the militant poetry
from the northern regions at a moment
of great political anxiety within this
particular zone; and the unexpected
orientations of the Malian novel. All of
these literary initiatives, discoveries and
changes are unmistakable signs of a desire
to reconstruct and solidify a national
literary history devastated by 23 years of
military regime.


32 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010


















Sub-Saharan Africa Business Environment Report (SABER)

ANITA SPRING


In the past decade, I
have been interested in
understanding and analyzing
the African business
environment, starting
with the 1995 African
Entrepreneurship Conference
and the subsequent book
African Entrepreneurship:
Theory and Reality (with
Barbara McDade) and
followed by a 2009 special
issue of the Journal of African
Business, as well as other
publications. I have continued to
do research on related topics including
a ten-country study that considered
African business people, both women
and men, at various levels of economic
and business activities. I interviewed
business owners, managers, and
workers of small to medium to large-
scale formal-sector companies, and
described and modeled the factors that
helped and hindered business success,
sustainability, and upward mobility.
I also researched informal-sector,
small-scale economic activities (e.g.,
agriculture, local manufacturing, retail
sales and vendoring) that are engaged
in by large numbers of people in every
African county. As a result, I delineated
the entrepreneurship landscape from
bottom to top based on interviews,
case materials, and surveys.
The Sub-Saharan Africa Business
Environment Report (SABER)
project grows out of this interest,
and commences in fall 2010 for a
four-year period. As project director,
along with Dr. Robert Rolfe, Professor
of Marketing at the University of
South Carolina, this research project
is different from my previous work,
and focuses on producing an annual
report that is comprehensive and


straightforward. It will analyze business
indicators and conditions in Sub-Saharan
Africa by region and specific countries. It
aims to produce a concise package about
African business conditions to assist
several client groups ranging from business
people and business consultants, to policy
and decision makers, to the academic
community of faculty and students who
are located in the United States, Africa, and
elsewhere. It focuses on major economic,
social and political events and indicators of
the sub-continent, initially considering the
twenty largest economies in Sub-Saharan
Africa. As an annual report, it will consider
factors in the past year that have shaped


the economic and political environment of
the region and particular countries.
SABER will include data on and
evaluation of indicators and their
implications for economic growth;
foreign direct investment and trade;
political stability; business regulation;
labor and employment; gender issues in
business; ease of doing business; trade
organizations and policies; Millennium
Development Goals; telecommunications
and infrastructure; and health initiatives
and epidemics as they impact economic
indicators.
An added feature will be the linkages
to African universities and business
schools. An advisory group of African
scholars from business colleges in Africa
will comprise a Council of African Scholars
to review the reports. And each year,
one of the scholars will be in short-term
residence at UF to provide guidance and
give seminars and lectures.


1r A
*' r i ,


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 33


















Malaria: Movement, Modeling, and Mapping

ANDREW TATEM


The recent increases in funding for
malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa
have resulted in the majority of
countries scaling up control efforts
substantially, and some countries even
considering eliminating the disease. To
monitor the effects that this increased investment
and control is having, and to help countries decide
on whether to target elimination in the short term,
a strong quantitative evidence base is required. This
year, my research has been focused on continuing
to help to build this evidence base and provide
quantitative, policy-relevant guidance on the
feasibility of malaria elimination and the effects of
control.
Through my continued work with the Malaria
Atlas Project (MAP, www.map.ox.ac.uk), we have
built up a global database of nearly 30,000 com-
munity prevalence surveys, the majority of which
were undertaken in Africa. Using Bayesian geosta-


tistics, we constructed the first global
evidence-based map of Plasmodium
falaparum malaria transmission
intensity in 50 years, and used it to
derive detailed estimates of popula-
tions at risk, clinical case numbers
and commodity needs that are now
widely used in the policy domain. An
unexpected obstacle in calculating
estimates of populations at risk from
our malaria maps, was the poor qual-
ity of existing population distribution
mapping for the majority of African
countries. This prompted me to
initiate and the launch the AfriPop
population mapping project (www.
afripop.org) this year, which is based
at UE The project aims to produce
detailed and freely-available popula-
tion distribution maps for the whole
of Africa, and the early versions
of East African datasets have been
downloaded hundreds of times, find-
ing usage by multiple organizations,
including the World Bank, United
Nations agencies, USAID, the CDC,
the Red Cross, Medecins sans Fron-
tieres and many other humanitarian
organizations.
Funding from the Bill and
Melinda Gates Foundation has also
enabled UF colleague David Smith
(Biology and EPI) and I to utilize the
MAP malaria maps, in combination
with mathematical models, to develop
quantitative methods for malaria
elimination planning. In collaboration
with the Government of Zanzibar
and the Clinton Foundation, this year
we helped to conduct the first malaria
elimination feasibility assessment of
its kind, focused on the islands of
Zanzibar. With 21 million records on
cell phone usage across Zanzibar and
mainland Tanzania, we were able to
use novel methods to quantify human


movement patterns and estimate
rates of malaria importation to the
islands. The report is now serving as
a model for other countries consider-
ing malaria elimination, and we are
now working with the World Health
Organization to update their guide-
lines.
Finally, through successful
Africa-related grant applications, I
have begun working on a multi-insti-


tution collaborative project focused
on intensive studies of malaria epi-
demiology in Uganda, the historical
epidemiology of cholera globally, and
the role of air travel in the spread of
insect-borne diseases to and from
Africa.


34 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010
















Use of Critical Consciousness Theory to Explore

Counselor Effectiveness During Disaster Response

CIRECIE WEST-OLATUNJI


Building upon the foundation
of global collaboration and
scholarship that was laid two
years ago, I was able to revisit
schools and agencies in South
Africa and Botswana. My research
project focused on culture-centered
disaster counseling and explored the
impact of an international immersion
experience on counselor competence.
The four week clinical outreach
began with an international conference
at the University of Botswana (UB)
in Gabarone, where mental health
stakeholders shared their perspectives
on "Providing Culturally Competent
Counseling Services in Trauma-affected
Communities." Approximately, 75
graduate counseling students, faculty,
and counseling practitioners were in
attendance. Throughout the conference,
the UB students shared their struggles in
counselor development, giving meaning
to the words "cultural discontinuity."
Most narratives focused on how difficult
it is for counselors to connect with their
clients who often didn't return. However,
in general, their training was very similar
to that in the U.S. Of significance,
one of our team members remarked,
"There should be a Botswana theory of
counseling instead of only importing
Western theories that don't fit the
culture."
A nationally representative team of
ten professional counselors and counselor
educators were invited to participate
the outreach experience. To more fully
understand the southern African cultural
contexts and the nature of HIV-AIDS
related trauma, the clinical outreach
team immersed themselves in the local
milieu through both planned excursions
to Robben Island, Soweto, and other
landmarks, and by invited outings, like
visiting the village of Molepolole with


teachers met at the conference. The
immersion began at the Lesedi Village
where the team experienced the history
of South Africa through music, dance,
and storytelling.
The bulk of the experience
focused on connecting to individuals
and community agencies though client-
centered, community-based counseling,
responding adaptively where and when
needs arose. One agency was ready with
a case presentation and manuscript they
had written and requested consultation
and supervision. Another agency
that was visited, Sithandi Zingane,
(translated as "We love the children")
provides care and support for orphaned
children. While the clinical team
brought considerable breadth and depth
of counseling experience to the sites
visited in South Africa and Botswana, an
equally important emphasis was placed
on their own growth, both personal and
professional.


Preliminary analysis of the data
suggests that the participants' articulate
increased cultural competence, critical
thinking around sociopolitical context,
and enhanced self-awareness related to
personal bias. Early outcomes of the
study have been disseminated at confer-
ences and invited lectures in Romania,
the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand,
and China. One paper is currently under
review with a international peer-reviewed
journal, other manuscripts are in progress.
A FEO application has been submitted to
the university to dedicate time to writ-
ing a textbook that articulates an emer-
gent model of culture-centered disaster
counseling that is built upon my outreach
efforts in southern Africa and elsewhere.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 35











STUDENT REPORTS






Remembering Colonial Times: an Algerian Oral History

KHADIDJA ARFI


Last year, I wrote a paper on
Algerian remembrance and thoughts
of the word harki, a loaded word
that has strong associations with
collaborators and the war of
independence. I decided to go beyond that
theme and for my dissertation investigate the
Algerian colonial past through the postcolonial
memory focusing on the people of Dellys. Such
an approach allows me to get beyond the specific
time of the war of resistance by using people's
testimonies, through storytelling, myths, songs,
prayers and many other venues by using oral
traditions and oral histories in analyzing social
phenomena during colonialism.
This summer I spent more than three months
engaged in my dissertation fieldwork in the port
town of Dellys, Algeria, and its surrounding
villages. Located 100 km northwest of Algiers,
Dellys is famous for its strategic position,
being inhabited for several millennia by various
civilizations -Berber, Roman, Vandal, Arab, and
French. Despite its historical legacy, cultural
diversity, economy and environment, in the
last fifteen years Dellys has been neglected and
classified as a hub of terrorism, which makes it an
excellent case study for postcolonial memory of
colonialism.
No matter how I prepared intellectually
by reading books on memory and colonialism,
postcolonial theory and oral history, when I sat
listening to many of the great people of Dellys, we
were able to construct unique narratives of a rich
and complex life in colonial Algeria.Thanks to an
exceptional net of connections, I had close to 100
formal and informal interviews. Eighty personal
interviews were conducted with elderly men and
women in the town of Dellys and surrounding
villages. Though such dialogues, the participants
told narratives by digging into their memories and
using their landscape to construct these historical
narratives.
Being of Dellysian parents, I knew that
during my fieldwork I would be obliged to fulfill
my social obligations, embracing both advantages
and disadvantages. Such events allowed me to


participate in local social life without
jeopardizing my data collection.
Every moment I spent is part of
my fieldwork. I am grateful to the
Dellysians for embracing me, trusting
me with stories that, for some, have
been in their chests for a long time,
and for thanking me for my interest
in their words and lives.
The data I collected is very
significant. It responds to the
limitations of many writings that
neglect the context and voices of
the indigenous population. In my
experience, space, remembrance, and
human connections are intertwined
with gender, religion, class, tradition,
and modernity in ways that are
inseparable but independently
significant. They represent memories
of a life embedded within the
casbah, gardens, or villages in relation
to kinship and community. They
construct emotional moments in
memory in recalling colon, harki or
mujahid as symbols of their colonial


interaction.
The narratives tell the personal
experiences of the interviewees,
weaving a complex picture of the
area in past and present. Thanks to
my exceptional narrators, soon the
stories from Dellys will flow in the
river of human history to settle on
its banks as an everlasting shaahid or
trace.


36 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010
















Marketing Opportunities and Constraints

in the East Usambaras, Tanzania

RENEE BULLOCK


Creating effective strategies
to alleviate poverty and
conserve biodiversity in
tropical countries has become
a critical issue in economic
development efforts. It is difficult
to establish protected areas to manage
resources at landscape level and greater
attention has focused on how to conserve
remaining biodiversity while supporting
rural development needs. The East
Usambaras, located in northeast Tanzania,
are similar to many tropical regions
that contain unique ecosystems. The
mountains are characterized by a mosaic
of land use patterns, including agriculture
and montane rainforests that support
some of the highest species biodiversity
in the world.
Within this setting, smallholder
subsistence farmers grow many common
food crops, including maize and cassava.
Additionally, in the uplands, significant
cash crops include spices that are grown
in agroforestry systems. Native trees
create shade for growing the "queen
of spices"-cardamom. Cardamom is
intensely aromatic and used in curries;
in European countries the spice is used
to flavor sweet pastries. For farmers in
the East Usambaras cardamom thus
holds potential as a high value export
crop. In fact, the government promoted
cardamom as a market strategy to
alleviate poverty by producing for high
value niche markets. My research has
investigated cardamom cultivation and
other land issues that are paramount
to understanding how to address
conservation priorities in the area:
farmer's land use practices and markets.
Cardamom production has
been criticized as a leading cause of
deforestation. Although it is grown under
native trees in agroforestry systems,
production is estimated to last only 13


years. At this point, yields decline and Identifying market inefficiencies is useful
so do farmers' incomes. Farmers then to develop strategies to improve market


convert their agroforestry systems to grow
crops that enjoy full sunlight, such a food
crops. But in so doing, the biodiversity
value of their farm is lost: native trees are
removed. In 2009 I developed profitability
models for farmers' land use practices.
In short, conversion is lucrative and
farmers incur high opportunity costs
if they do not convert. I returned this
summer to examine markets for the crops
in these systems. My research assistant
and I travelled by motorbike and camped
in villages to interview farmers and
intermediaries in rural and urban areas.
We used a value chain analysis approach,
which describes the full range of activities
from production to final consumers. Our
research revealed that there are significant
constraints to farmers getting their crops
into high value export markets, including
weak institutions and low capital.


based approaches that generate incentives
to conserve agroforestry systems. For
example, organic certification emphasizes
quality standards and encourages
sustainable agricultural practices.
Conducting research in this corner
of the world has taken me off the beaten
track to an area I may not have otherwise
visited. My field experiences have been
adventurous and taught me many lessons,
especially the value of communication.
My ability to communicate in Swahili
because of the FLAS fellowship has
helped tremendously in facilitating
professional relationships, and more
imp. r in. r getting to know the farmers
with whom I work.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 37















Epigenetic Alterations and Stress Among New Mothers
and Infants in the Democratic Republic of Congo
NICOLE C. D'ERRICO


The new field of Fetal
Origins suggests that the
quality of the intrauterine
environment in which a fetus
is programmed has great
implications for the health of
the child. Researchers are beginning
to document the health effects of the
passage of stress hormones from mother
to fetus. Still, many important questions
about the biological mechanisms for such
transmission remain largely unknown.
This summer, with support from
the Center for African Studies and in
collaboration with Dr. Connie Mulligan,
I began the first epigenetic study to take
place in the Democratic Republic of
Congo (DRC). This study is the first of
its kind to analyze how the stress of 14
years of war in the eastern provinces
of the DRC might produce epigenetic
alterations among mothers and babies.
This is particularly relevant in the context
of eastern DRC, where systematic rape
warfare is being used as a tool of war by
soldiers operating in the region.
For this biocultural study, I took


semi-structured interviews, perinatal
trauma surveys and biological samples
from 25 women giving birth at the
HEAL Africa hospital in Goma, eastern
DRC, duringJuly and August. Maternal
blood, umbilical cord blood (a proxy
for infant blood) and placental samples
were taken from all participants. From
these samples we will measure stress






R.j.


patterns of epigenetic changes, stress and
inflammation in mother-infant dyads.
During the course of the study,
our partner doctors on the ground in
Goma were capacitated to do basic DNA
extraction and placental biopsies. We
will continue to work with them during
the analysis and further data collection
for this study. The Mulligan lab donated
several pieces of genetic equipment for
the small molecular genetics laboratory
that we set up at HEAL Africa for this
study. We have plans to present the first
round of findings to the community
as soon as analysis is complete. Finally,
this study will be expanded upon for
my dissertation research, beginning in
2012. It is our hope that we produce
conclusions which will not only expand
our understanding of how adversity in
the intrauterine environment affects birth
outcomes and child health, but which will
be relevant for policy makers and public
health stakeholders in the DRC.


hormones, biological markers of
inflammation and epigenetic alterations.
The interview and survey data and will
provide the contextual details necessary
to begin to understand how mundane
stressors and other traumatic exposures
of war such as sexual violence, map onto


38 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010
















Masquerade and Local Knowledge in

Urban Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

JORDAN A. FENTON


From 2009-2010, I completed 12
months of fieldwork in Nigeria for
my dissertation. This experience built upon
two previous trips during the summer months
of 2008 and 2009. During my time in Calabar, I
studied six masquerade societies and a local writing
system known as nsibidi-a secret pictographic
and performed and gestured indigenous language
primarily used today by the Ekpe/Mgbe secret
society, popularly known as leopard societies.
My research explores notions of secrecy, power,
knowledge, and agency through the local use of
masquerade performance, rituals, and nsibidi to
begin to understand what role secret societies play
in postcolonial Calabar.
There are six major masquerade societies
comprised of numerous factions throughout
Calabar, each major type has its own distinctive
masquerades, musical rhythms, and age range.
Three have deep rooted histories for the indigenous
populations of Calabar, while the remaining
three are more recent. Part of my research was to
examine how the more recent masquerade societies
developed and were influenced by the more historic
examples. This was done by comparing ritual,


performance, and initiation structures as well as
conducting a systematic evaluation of symbolic
elements and iconography. The analysis reveals that
these recent masquerade societies were shaped by
local and regional forces and influence, while the
ritual structure and iconography were influenced by
the previous societies, however the meanings and


uses were re-contextualized.
Another part of my project
was to learn nsibidi and understand
its artistry, contemporary function,
and larger meaning in contemporary
Calabar. Having been initiated into
Ekpe during my first trip in 2008,
as I returned to Calabar during
subsequent trips, I continued my
initiation through the different
levels of the society, which included
the learning of esoteric lore and
nsibidi. As my research progressed,
I began to learn that meanings and
interpretations are not fixed, but
personal and different from elder
to elder or member to member. I
was careful to learn from known
masters of nsibidi since knowledge
depends on levels of initiation. Still
to my surprise, explanations were
individualized and in some cases
completely different from one master
to the next. However, once this
script becomes performed by way of
gesture during nsibidi challenges to


establish power in Ekpe rituals and
ceremonies, the language becomes
more unified, but still quite irregular
as member constantly invent different
gestures of existing signs in order
to confuse their challengers to
demonstrate their agency.
The broader aspects of my
research resonate with the concerns
related to the social workings of
'traditional' culture in urban settings,
the processes of change and
adaptability of visual culture, and
the multiplicity of meanings of local
knowledge.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 39
















The Role of the Environment in the Forest

Livelihood Decisions of Malawian Villagers

JOHN DUDLEY FORT


I am conducting research
to discover to what extent
the environment enters
into the livelihood decisions
of Malawians living along
the border of the Mulanje
Mountain Forest Reserve. My
research builds upon a 2008 dataset
entitled, "The coproduction of land
use and livelihoods in Malawi." That
project used quarterly surveys to measure
household incomes from a suite of
livelihood activities, including those
which involve the forest. My project adds
a qualitative dimension to the dataset
by seeking the reasons behind forest
livelihood decisions. Whereas the 2008
work quantified how much households
earned from particular forest livelihoods,
my work seeks to understand why those
households decide to pursue or not


pursue those same activities.
My project is focused on three
villages along the base of the Mulanje
Mountain. Mulanje is a 3,000 meter
massif which rises impressively from
the plains below. The mountain has a
600 km2 forest reserve which contains
ecologically important species such as the


Mulanje Cedar (Widdringtonia whytez) and
several miombo hardwoods i1.
sp). The mountain and its forest provide
valuable environmental services to
the surrounding communities; it is the
source of 15 rivers and it is one of the
few remaining sites at which to harvest
firewood. The forest also serves as an
important source for building materials
and is a renowned location for harvesting
traditional medicine.
As with many forests in Africa
and around the world, the Mulanje
Forest faces increased usage from rising
populations along its boundaries. My
research is designed to shed light on
this usage by investigating local people's
decisions to use the forest from the
perspectives of the users themselves.
Specifically, I am curious to know how
and to what extent concepts of "the
environment" enter into the forest usage
decisions of the people living around
the mountain. The method I am using
to understand these decisions is called
Ethnographic Decision Tree Modeling.
Based on the data collected from in-depth
interviews, my research assistants and I
will construct tree models for the decision
to pursue or not pursue four different
forest livelihood activities. These models
will then be tested and revised using
questionnaires administered to a larger
sample of respondents from the same
three villages. Once validated, these
models will be analyzed for decision


criteria related to the environment.
At the end of our data collection
period my research team will share our
results with our research communities
in order to allow them to see their forest
use in a larger context. These results
will also be shared with local NGOs
and environmental policymakers. It is
hoped that by generating insight into
the ways in which forest users think
about the environment this research will
inform policies and programs which
seek to conserve the forest and improve
the standard of living among those
people who rely on the forest for their
livelihoods.


40 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010


















Elephant Community Ecology in Botswana

TIMOTHY FULLMAN


My research looks at the impact
of African elephants (Loxodonta
africana) on other large herbivores
in Botswana. Southern Africa is home to the
world's largest population of African elephants.
While this natural treasure serves as the basis
for a booming tourism industry, generating
jobs and revenue for local communities, the
200,000+ population of elephants are also a
source of human-wildlife conflict and preliminary
research suggests elephants are affecting other
large mammals, threatening the area's ecological
integrity. There is a dire need to understand the
impact of increasing densities of elephants on
species diversity. My project investigates the
applicability of the Intermediate Disturbance
Hypothesis to elephants and other large mammals
by quantifying patterns of species diversity across
a range of elephant densities and analyzing species
interactions to investigate biotic mechanisms
underlying diversity trends. A better understanding
of the influence of elephants on other species will
enable more effective management decisions in an


area where biodiversity conservation is essential for
economic growth and local livelihoods.
I first visited Botswana in 2008 while
conducting my master's research on elephant
utilization of trees in Chobe National Park. This
summer, I returned to Botswana for two months
to begin my dissertation research. This built upon
work I started in 2008 to consider habitat use
by large herbivores. This field season I worked


in both Chobe National Park and
Moremi Game Reserve testing and
refining methods for analyzing
species interactions and habitat use
under varying densities of elephants.
Large herbivore groups were
spatially located during two types
of game drives. Long drives were
conducted over large spatial extents
to provide analysis of habitat use
at a large spatial scale but at a short
temporal scale at any single location.
Short drives were conducted over a
smaller spatial extent that was driven
repeatedly every hour to provide a
picture of how habitat occupancy
changes over time, allowing me to
consider a longer time scale but a
small spatial scale.
The information collected will
be combined with GIS and remote
sensing land cover data from other
graduate students in our research
group to create predictive habitat
maps for large mammals in the dry
season. Pairing this with our group's
climate modeling will show how


predicted changes in the environment
around Chobe National Park may
influence the wildlife species that
live there, informing management
decisions by the Department of
Wildlife and National Parks.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 41
















Minority Language Promotion in Senegal and Mauritania:
The Case of Pulaar

JOHN HAMES


A network of activists who
reside in or have migrated
from the Fuuta Tooro region
of Northern Senegal and
Southern Mauritania has
adopted literacy classes,
forms of entertainment and
journalism in order to address
perceived threats to the
Pulaar language emanating
from its minority status in
those countries. Some of these
activists become recognized in the Pulaar
community as ngenndiyankoobe, a Pulaar
word that translates as "patriots" or
"nationalists." Their activism is part of
a brand of transnational social activism
that might provide scholars with a new
understanding of attempts by ethnic
minorities in Africa to address the
grievances associated with cultural and
linguistic marginalization.
The Jeanne and Hunt Davis Pre-
Dissertation Grant enabled me to spend
the summer in Senegal and Mauritania
in order to learn more about this
phenomenon. Thanks to the hospitality
of great hosts and friends, I had the
opportunity to make contacts with over
a dozen associations involved in the
promotion of Pulaar and had over 30
interviews and informal discussions
with Pulaar activists. My activities
included frequent visits to the office of
Lewlewal Group, a Pulaar-language media
company that is working on beginning
radio broadcasts in Senegal and operates
an online news site. Other efforts
included everything from conversations
with mainstream journalists about the
pressures of Pulaar activists' demands on
their work, to meetings with Pelle Pinal e
Bamtaare (Associations for Culture and
Development) such as that established
by the residents of the village of Sori
Male, Mauritania, which conducts regular


Pulaar classes taught by members of the
community, and has trained a cadre of
skilled theater performers whose acts
often deal with important social issues.
I am now completing an in-depth
fieldwork report that addresses several
themes discerned from what I observed
and what I was told during my trip. One
of the most important of these themes
is understanding how current Pulaar
activists situate their roles within what
some of them view as a tradition of
Pulaar-related activism, which is often
portrayed as beginning with a group of
Pulaar-speaking intellectuals back in the
1950s and 1960s who saw promotion
of education in African languages as
essential to the project of liberation from
European domination. The report also
grapples with the considerable degree
of contestation I found within the
Pulaar activist community in Senegal and
Mauritania over who has rightfully earned
a place among the ngenndiyankoobe, and
the criteria by which that is determined.
While some with whom I spoke this
summer were very passionate about
the need for those promoting Pulaar to
assume such behaviors as speaking the


language in a way that does not betray
influences of other languages, and
wearing particular styles of clothes, others
scoffed at such attitudes and saw them as
ways of unfairly claiming a monopoly on
representation of the Pulaar cause.
In addition, I found that assumptions
about what makes a creditable Pulaar
activist or ngenndiyanke, can underlie the
grievances expressed in power struggles
where positions of influence that involve
use of the language are at stake, as seen
in the case of one former TV personality
whose removal from her position was
believed by some to be justified by a
supposed lack of depth in her Pulaar,
as well as her closeness to members
of other ethnic groups. I expect that
exploration of these and other themes in
my fieldwork report will, sometime in the
next few months, begin developing into a
bona fide master's thesis.


42 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010
















Heritage Tourism: Implications for the Preservation of

Traditional Haya Architecture in NW Tanzania

RACHEL IANNELLI


Located in Katuruka village are
a suite of sacred sites of great
antiquity that are currently being
restored and revitalized. These restorative
activities are crucial in order to present properly
to visitors the shrines and other landscape
features that are of great historical significance.
This summer I set out to investigate how the
construction and use of traditional omushonge
houses of large circular design constructed of
wood, elephant grass, woven bark fiber and thatch
can appeal to a growing heritage tourism sector
in Kagera Region, Tanzania, while simultaneously
avoiding negative questions of authenticity.
During my first visit to Katuruka village the
previous year, I assisted in the documentation of
the construction of an omushonge spirit house
honoring the Bacwezi ancestor Mugasha. This
attraction has been recently enhanced further by
the reconstruction of another omushonge style
spirit house in the old royal palace compound.
Both of these structures have been reconstructed
from the accounts of elder informants who had
personally witnessed the original structures in the
past. Thus, while they are reconstructions, the
authenticity of form is beyond reproach. Using the
Katuruka omushonge shrines as my investigatory
setting, I surveyed visiting tourists to gauge their
reaction to this traditional architectural style. I
found that omushonge architecture is an element
of local culture that has great appeal to visitors.
Thus tourist preferences articulated at the Katuruka
site could form a foundation for recommendations
pertaining to further development of traditional
architecture at heritage sites.
A second component of my research was to
document ethnographically the cultural meanings
associated with traditional omushonge domestic
structures. In order to do this I conducted
interviews with thirteen individuals who maintain
traditional omushonge houses and six residents
of ekibanda, rectangular, style homes for purposes
of comparison. The interviews covered issues
including the biographical history of each house
and an explanation of interior space use. I used
a compass and laser range finder to measure


internal and external dimensions
of all architectural elements and
documented each photographically.
Residents provided valuable
information regarding the symbolic
meanings of many structural
elements of omushonge, although
the significance of these elements
varies widely. When informants were
asked how omushonge style houses
differ from that of ekibanda style
houses opinions were unanimously in
favor of the traditional omushonge
style residence. The reasons include
the ability to maintain a comfortable
interior temperature, a floor plan
more suited to family cohesion, as
well as veneration for the ancestors


which are thought generally to be
more accessible in omushonge
structures.
Indeed tourism has a role to
play in historic preservation and
revitalization at a local level. In order
to promote economic decisions that
simultaneously enhance the cultural
well-being of local communities, it is
my aim to provide empirical evidence
that will encourage the authentic
representation of traditional Haya
architecture.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 43
















Institutional Reforms to Strengthen Gender Outcomes
through Improved Rural Services Delivery

JILLIAN JENSEN


For the past year, I have
had the opportunity to
carry out research with the
United States Agency for
International Development
(USAID) on the gender
outcomes of investments
in agricultural development
projects under the U.S.
government's assistance
framework, the President's
Initiative to End Hunger in
Africa (I EH A). Since its launch in
2002, IEHA has been USAID's primary
delivery mechanism for support to the
implementation of the Comprehensive
Africa Agriculture Development
Program (CAADP), which targets six
percent annual growth in the agricultural
sector of signatory countries. The
expected outcomes of this targeted
goal are improved rural incomes and
reductions in poverty and hunger. As
USAID prepared to launch its new
global food security initiative, Feed the
Future (FTF), it sought to gather lessons
on the gender outcomes achieved under
IEHA. These lessons would be used
to guide the design of FTF agricultural
programs and projects to improve
gender integration and strengthen
gender outcomes.
My involvement included participating
in building the conceptual framework
and methodology for a multi-country
program assessment. This leveraged my
disciplinary background from UF in
agricultural economics, farming systems,
and political science. Combining gender
analysis with the agricultural value chain
analytical framework proved to be the
most sensitive and effective tool for
identifying and weighing up the various
constraints limiting gender equity. This
was evident when comparing the results
from three country field studies Mali,


Mozambique, and Uganda where a mix
of institutional reform approaches was
required to address binding constraints up
and down the value chain.
My experience working with USAID has
had a tremendous influence on how I
approach and communicate my research
to increase its value and uptake by
international development organizations.
Bridging the distance between theory
and praxis is a challenge that I believe all
young scholars must face, in particular,
those who aspire to careers outside
academia. I find this to be especially true
when trying to operationalize what is
essentially a conceptual device like gender
in common development tools such as
logical frameworks and monitoring and
evaluation plans. The theoretical critique
represented by gender quickly drifts in
practice to targeting resource distribution
to women. Changing the 'rules of the
game' faced by women remains a much
more difficult task.
I have taken this experience into my on-
going dissertation work on the governance
of public sector irrigation services in


Swaziland. Here, I am problematizing
the integration of local institutions,
specifically a traditional authority
system, into the governance of a large
irrigation scheme designed to facilitate
the increased participation of smallhold
farmers in commercialized agriculture.
I am investigating the effects of this
integration on the overall performance
and sustainability of the service delivery
chain through the prism of accountability
relations. In so doing I am building upon
continuing work by the World Bank on
approaches to strengthening rural services
delivery to improve rural development
outcomes. From a theoretical perspective,
I am also contributing to the debate
over whether traditional authorities, as a
potential source of clientelistic behaviors,
strengthen or weak development
outcomes.


44 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010
















Archaeology and Stone Tool Technology during

Early State Development in Northern Ethiopia


LUCAS R. MARTINDALE JOHNSON
r I


Recent archaeological
investigation in Eastern Tigrai,
Ethiopia, addresses issues of
indigenous influence on early
state development during
the pre-Aksumite period (ca.
800 BC- 440 BC). This multi-
scalar and multi-method research team
headed by Cathy D'Andrea from Simon
Fraser University directs attention to
a local archaeological community at
the site of Mezber. A broad research
goal is to excavate and document the
range of ancient behaviors (e.g. food
production, animal management, stone
tool technology, etc.) of the local
inhabitants during a time of incipient
social complexity so as to assess what
social/environmental mechanisms) may
have contributed to state formation in
this area.
Since 2006 the Eastern Tigrai
Archaeological Project (ETAP) has
surveyed large portions of the Eastern
Tigrai area in Ethiopia, but has only
begun to systematically excavate one site.


Although excavations are just scratching
the surface of cultural deposits, the
project has recovered a wealth of data
that show a wide variety of social
behaviors were present during this ancient
time in Ethiopia and the pre-history of
the Horn of Africa.
My goal during the summer of 2010
was to continue the analysis of lithic or
stone tool technology recovered from
the architecture at Mezber. Past research
of lithic material focused on surface and
poorly contextualized cultural deposits, so
the opportunity to conduct a contextual
analysis of the lithic materials was very
exciting. Working with Dr. Steven Brandt
from the Department of Anthropology
at UF, my research addressed which
stone tool types were present in the
assemblage and which tool types were
underrepresented. After cataloguing
many of the artifacts, we have begun
to understand that assemblages from
Mezber show a wealth of raw material
variation as well as some tool type
standardization. Currently, over 5,000
stone artifacts have been recovered and


the analysis is only in its second year. It
is anticipated that artifact typologies for
this area will continue to be revised and
modified to fit what local variation existed
among the ancient inhabitants of Mezber.
During the month I was in northern
Ethiopia much of my time was spent
analyzing artifacts in a dimly lit hotel
room with calipers, scales, and data sheets.
This is the less sexy, although critical,
side of archaeological fieldwork. We did,
however, visit the site of Mezber, which is
plowed and cultivated during the growing
season. The site is protected during this
period from surface disturbances. In
going to this site and surrounding areas
via 4x4 and on foot, you establish a sense
for how the landscape isolates as well as
expands your vision. These valleys have
steep extreme slopes, which limit mobility,
but also have been populated for tens
of thousands of years, which expose the
wealth of local and foreign knowledge,
resource management, and power.
Fieldwork in this area of Africa has
shown me that rugged landscapes are not
inhospitable places to live and grow. The
people of Eastern Tigrai, Ethiopia, today
are truly a humble and welcoming people
as I am sure they were in the ancient past.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 45
















Rebels, Rulers, and Refugees:

Post-Conflict Governments in Action in Burundi

CARA E. JONES


I have worked in the Great
Lakes region for the past four
years and have spent the past
three summers in the Central
African nation of Burundi. The
country is frequently listed as the world's
poorest, and recently ended its decades-
old civil war (1993-2009). The time spent
here has allowed me to witness Burundi's
transition to democracy firsthand.
Burundi embarked on its second
set of democratic elections following
negotiations between numerous rebel
factions and the military in 2005. Contacts
I made on a trip in 2008, funded by the
Center for African Studies, allowed me to
participate in these elections personally.
I acted as an international observer for
COSOME (la coalition de la society civil
pour le observation et le monitoring
des elections) as a side project while
conducting research for my dissertation.
While this work was tremendously
illuminating regarding the election and
the political tension surrounding it--
there were serious questions as to how
many participants would ultimately play
a part in the five-election cycle-- my
project focuses on the party in power
on a grander scale. My thesis focuses on
the changes from rebel movement to
state government following civil wars,
and specifically, the ruling CNDD-FDD
(Council Nationale pour la defense de
la democratie-Force du defense de la
democratic).
Research in the social sciences has
just begun to delve deeper into the inner
workings, organizations, and structures
of rebel movements, or to put it simply,
what makes them "tick." I gathered
preliminary evidence on the formation
and development of the movement,
interviewing participants from those
who joined the rebellion early and as
foot-soldiers, to politicians who joined


during peace talks in the early 2000s. It
was fascinating to be able to gather data
on this murky topic and to trace the
political infancy and adolescence of the
movement. During this summer trip, I
conducted 47 interviews, with plans to
conduct approximately 300 more over
this academic year while in Burundi on a
Fulbright-Hays fellowship.
My ability to conduct interviews
is due in part to my study under the
University of Florida's Center for African
Studies Title VI language programs. I
studied four years of Kiswahili, the lingua
franca of East Africa and one of the
official languages of the East African
Community (of which Burundi has been
a member since 2007). Because of the
influence of Swahili traders along Lake
Tanganyika and porous borders with
Tanzania and East Congo, a fair number
of Burundians speak Kiswahili, especially
former rebels, who often spent large
periods of time as refugees in Tanzania,


Congo, or Kenya. This skill has been
especially useful in" breaking the ice"
with notoriously wary Burundians and has
contributed to a more fruitful research
experience. I look forward to enhancing
these skills on many return fieldwork
trips to Burundi and the Great Lakes and
hope that the skills I developed through
working with the Center for African
Studies can add to the larger body of
knowledge on the region.


46 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010


















Fairtrade South Africa

ALISON KETTER


(FTSA)


I am currently conducting
dissertation fieldwork in the
Western Cape, Northern
Cape, and Limpopo Provinces
of South Africa. My research
focuses on how policy transformations
within Fairtrade South Africa (FTSA)
affect farm owner and worker livelihoods,
impact land and agrarian policy in South
Africa, and reshape the global Fairtrade
consortium.
Fairtrade is an international
economic initiative that aims to empower
marginalized producers across the global
south through the promotion of equitable
production, distribution and consumption
practices. Based on a "trade-not-aid"
approach to sustainable development,
Fairtrade was officially launched on a
worldwide scale in 1997. It is now a
widespread template for agrarian reform,
encompassing over 50 producer states in
Africa, Asia and Latin America.


My study focuses on FTSA's
implementation of South-South
alternative trade, the process whereby
agricultural goods that are produced in
South Africa are also marketed and sold
there, rather than being exported to the
global north. FTSA hopes to expand
the label domestically in order to: 1)
unseat the accepted Fairtrade practice
of marketing certified goods only in
the global north, thus allowing the
global south greater autonomy over the
construction of their own socioeconomic
models; 2) increase the sales of Fairtrade
goods so that more smallholders and
farm laborers will reap the benefits;
and 3) lessen the carbon footprint of
Fairtrade certified goods. Still, this new
policy brings to the fore numerous
questions about market access for
emerging black farmers, Fairtrade's ability
to reconfigure the inherited terms of
economic privilege in rural communities,


and new opportunities for alliance and
interdependence between South Africa
and other leading southern states.
In order to conduct this research,
I am meeting with a range of actors
including farm workers, land beneficiary
farmers, established commercial farmers,
FTSA personnel, government agents,
global Fairtrade personnel, etc. I am
studying how these policy transformations
develop and their tangible and intangible
consequences primarily through the lens
of four vineyards, but also through that
of numerous other relevant stakeholders.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 47














The "Business" of State-Building:
The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility

on State Development in Equatorial Guinea

JOSEPH KRAUS


My research lies at the intersection
of several fields of study: political
science, African studies, political
economy, and international business.
Using the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
projects of multinational oil companies as a
jumping off point, I have explored the complex
nature of Equatoguinean politics and analyzed
the impacts that CSR projects can have in a highly
authoritarian oil-rich developing country.
Oil companies operating in Equatorial
Guinea have initiated two particularly interesting
public-private partnerships with the government
to improve the country's education and health
systems. These projects which focus on malaria
eradication and revamping the educational system
- are scalable to the national level, increasing
their potential to impact the lives of ordinary
Equatoguineans. Given the temporary nature of
the companies' involvement in the country, they
have made state capacity strengthening a key
objective of their efforts in order to increase the
chances of project sustainability.
Equatorial Guinea is a dynamic, fascinating,
and contradictory country. Ranked as one of
the richest countries in the world per capital, the
majority of the country's 650,000 citizens continue
to languish in poverty. Meanwhile, a relatively small
minority of politically connected elite monopolize
the spoils of the country's annual oil revenues,
which totaled $6 billion in 2008). Over the past two
decades, this small country (the size of Maryland)
enjoyed one of the fastest average annual economic
growth rates in the world (20%+). While the
government has slowly begun to invest in education
and health, it continues to focus disproportionately
on infrastructure, not people, and corruption and
political patronage remain persistent problems.
All of this makes Equatorial Guinea a
challenging and salient place for companies to
invest in social projects, and for PhD students
to conduct research. The CSR projects are beset
by challenges related to corruption, lack of
human capacity, weak state institutions, and a
rigid hierarchical political structure. Despite these
obstacles, the projects have made notable progress


in their efforts to improve social
services. The malaria project, for
instance, succeeded in reducing the
prevalence of malaria infections
in children age two to five from
42% in 2004 to 18% in 2008, and
contributed to a 64% reduction in
deaths in children under the age
of five. The education project has
outfitted 54 model schools with a
new curriculum, pedagogy, and newly
trained teachers. In April 2010, the
project graduated its first class of 982
teachers from its new teacher-training
institute.
Conducting research in
Equatorial Guinea comes with its
rewards and challenges. Despite
the difficult political and economic
realities they must endure,
Equatoguineans celebrate life. Yet
the very real pressures under which
Equatoguineans live are ever present.
I experienced first-hand a small piece
of the daily intimidation and fear
that confront Equatoguineans when


I was detained by security forces for
five hours while attempting to speak
with locals about my research. I was
released and hope to defend my
dissertation in the fall of 2010.


48 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010
















Religious Influence on Political Belief

and Behavior in Kenya


STEPHEN LICHTY
ORW am Ww I


a


As a doctoral candidate in political
science at the University of Florida,
I am a Fulbright-Hays Fellow
conducting dissertation research
that examines religious influence on
political belief and behavior in Kenya.
In the last two years, the Center for African
Studies provided funding for two trips to Kenya,
which facilitated pre-dissertation research and
testing of my research design. These experiences
provided crucial insight in developing an effective
methodological strategy to explore how the highly
religious Kenyan society engages with the political
process.
The scholarly literature addresses the more
public role of the church in Kenya's ongoing
democratization struggle, but an understanding is
lacking of the internal and more personal influence
that religious institutions play in the development
of church members' political attitudes and actions.
Using nine churches and several para-church
organizations as my primary case studies, my
dissertation centers on a qualitative investigation
of the inner characteristics of church life, pastoral
theological training, political messages embedded in
sermons, and the syncretism of traditional African
spiritualities.
One of the most important political events


in Kenya's history occurred in
August 2010. In a nation-wide
referendum, Kenya adopted a new
constitution 'I in 67% to 33%).
The referendum was a divisive issue
among the churches and provided
an excellent case for studying the
influence between pulpit and pew.
With the help of eight short-term
research assistants, I managed to
observe what 40 churches were saying
before and after the referendum.
We also conducted short interviews
with 200 members in these churches.
With 75% of Kenya being Christian
(according to recently released census
figures), a good portion voted against
the wishes of several prominent
religious leaders.
In diving into the political
behavior of Kenya, I also discovered
that there really isn't the concept
of "political belief" here. Kenyans
struggle to articulate a well-defined
political ideology or view, forcing my
research assistant and I to go back to
the drawing board to develop a better
approach at getting at their political
views. We have even had to hash out
the definition of "political" and in
the process I've learned much about
the inner psyche of Kenyans.
While most of my research
has been focused in the capital city
of Nairobi, I made two visits into
Nyanza and Central Provinces to get
a sense of the political atmosphere
in rural churches. On numerous
occasions I have also visited churches
in the low-income urban areas
surrounding Nairobi. Small churches
from various denominational
backgrounds dot these vast urban
landscapes, providing hope and
encouragement to a population
characterized by unemployment,


poverty, and unhygienic living
conditions. Church members in
these settings expressed frustration
and cynicism with the current
political situation, but unfortunately
they often lack the empowerment
necessary to challenge the status quo.
My dissertation committee chair
commented once that conducting
dissertation field research would
be one of the most rewarding
experiences in my scholarly career.
Four months into this adventure, I
can only concur and look forward to
the remaining six months I have in
the field.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 49


















Arabic Script as Active Agent in Senegalese

EUGENIA (GENIA) S. MARTINEZ


Visual Culture


As a Ph.D. candidate in art
history, my specific area
of interest is Islamic visual
expression in Senegal and the
centrality of Arabic script in
this expression of faith. During
summer 2010, I spent two months in
Dakar where I met with a number of
artist-calligraphers. These artists are
addressing the importance of developing
local traditions of Arabic calligraphy to
replace the often low-quality of products
that are widely available from China,
Dubai, and elsewhere in the eastern
Islamic world.
Throughout my coursework and
two visits to Dakar, I have found that
the role of Arabic writing in everyday
life is prominent, despite or perhaps
because of the fact that it is not the
spoken language of the region. Dakar
is a culturally and linguistically complex
metropolis in which the Arabic script
that diffused throughout the region via
trans-Saharan trade is taking on a life of
its own within the visual landscape, at
once modern and steeped in history and
time-honored demonstrations of faith.
Though Dakar was never a part of the
historic trans-Saharan trade networks,
today it serves as a modern cultural and
commercial hub, drawing populations
from throughout Muslim West Africa, the
Maghrib, and beyond.
In Senegal, the most ubiquitous


presence of Arabic writing is also
ironically the most invisible, and comes
in the form of gis-gtis, or protective
amulets that most people wear around
their waists, necks, and/or upper arms
underneath their clothes. Another way
that Arabic serves a talismanic function in
Senegalese culture is within the spectacle
of traditional rlin,. or lambji. Here,
rather than being invisible, wrestlers'
accumulations of many types of gris-gris,
including amulets, huge jugs of safara
(writing water), and white tunics inscribed
with Arabic writing and khawatim (magic
squares) are all central to the spectacle
within the arena and the intimidation
tactics among the athletes.
Finally, many of the same spiritually
protective functions of Arabic script,
particularly Qur'an and religious poetry
passages, are retained in the calligraphic
fine art work of many of the artists
I have begun to work with in Dakar,
including Yelimane Fall, Abdoul Aziz
Fall (called Dabakh), Hady Kane, Samba
Ly, Moustapha Seck, and Pape Ibrahima
Ndoye. This short visit, partially funded
by the Center for African Studies,
allowed me to conduct initial interviews
with artists and document some of
their works. To further prepare for field
research in Senegal, I have studied both
Arabic and Wolof, supported by FLAS
fellowships in summer 2008 and academic
years 2008-2009, 2009-2010, and 2010-
2011. Furthermore, I took additional
Arabic courses at the Arabic Language
Institute of Fez, in Fez, Morocco in
summer 2009. The next stage of my
project will be to conduct long-term
research in Senegal, focusing on Dakar, to
document the variety of artists working
with Arabic calligraphy in Senegal,
reception of their works in the public
sphere, and aspects of personal and
collective religious expression contained


and projected through their works beyond
the literal words depicted on surfaces.
In other words, the question is not only
"What do the words say?" but also, "What
does how the words look say?"


50 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010
















Governance and Sustainability of Wildlife in Logging

Concessions in northern Republic of the Congo (ROC)

GERMAIN A. MAVAH


I spent last summer 2010 in
Ngombe forest management
unit adjacent to Odzala-
Kokoua National Park (OKNP)
in northern ROC. In this area,
several peripheral influences contribute
to reduced wildlife populations and so
conservation efforts are still needed.
Ngombe forest management unit is
the largest forest concession in northern
Congo with a size of 1,159,643 hectares,
and it is currently allocated to the second
largest logging company in ROC. And
OKNP is the largest Park in ROC with
about 1,360.000 hectares, created in
1935. It is one of the few sites left in
Africa with a forest habitat and mammal
population so rich and relatively intact.
It contains very high populations of
mammals including forest elephants,
gorillas, chimpanzees, bongo, buffalo and
leopard.
To reduce threats to wildlife and
encourage sustainable management
practices in the OKNP buffer zone, a
collaborative effort was introduced by
the Ministry of Forest Economy, the
Wildlife Conservation Society, and the
logging company Industrielle Forestiere
de Ouesso (IFO) in 2005. This is a
new partnership in this area regarding
conservation strategies. Although local
communities have been involved in
the process of zoning of traditional
territories, I am concerned that their
participation in conservation innovations
remains passive, and this study is seeking
to find out why.
Thus, during summer 2010,
I collected data which concerned
governance and sustainability of wildlife
in logging concessions adjacent to the
national park in northern ROC. I have
investigated potential factors likely to
influence the participation of local people
in wildlife management strategies. This


participation is subject to several factors
such as the value wildlife for local people,
its contribution to their income, their
recognition of threats, potential solutions,
or obstacles to success of management
initiatives and formal wildlife regulations
as wel as their memberships and their
willingness to participate in collective
action and the level of social trust and
cohesion in the community. All these
factors influence local behavior in regards
to the use of a given resource such as
wildlife in northern of ROC.
Fieldwork in this area has been
demanding and satisfying. As a researcher,
my hope is that my work contributes
to better understandings of why local
people are passive in wildlife management
strategies. I do believe that this study is a
starting point to communicate between
local communities, conservation NGOs,
private companies and the Congolese
Government.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 51
















Risk, Perception, Resilience and Adaptation

to Climate Change in Niger and Tanzania

SARAH LINDLEY MCKUNE


This summer I returned to
Niger to investigate the
feasibility of my desired
research. I spent much of 2005-
2007 in the area around Tanout in
eastern Niger evaluating a British Red
Cross Cash Distribution Project. The
experience collecting livelihood data
from 359 households, plus focus groups
and key informant interviews in 19
communities sparked my interest in
understanding how climate change is
being perceived and my subsequent desire
to initiate doctoral studies. My research
plan had been to return to Niger in fall
of 2010 and to build upon the livelihood
research that I conducted after the 2004-
05 food crisis. Niger is coming out of
another food crisis now, thus I wanted
to capture and compare perspectives on
climate change surrounding these two
distinct environmental shocks. However,
the security situation in Niger has
deteriorated since 2005, and insecurity,
particularly in the pastoral zone, left me
wondering about the feasibility of the
research. Thus, I returned to Niger to
meet with researchers at LASDEL, a
research institute in Niamey, to look into
the possibility of collaborating.
The results were fantastic. I found
two doctoral students interested in


pastoralism who were keen to collaborate.
We spent a week hashing out theoretical
and logistical components of a potential
project, and I came home and started
writing proposals for funding.
Our research project is investigating
how populations of varying degrees of
pastoralism in Niger are interpreting and
responding to perceived risk of climate
change, and how those reactions are
affecting their vulnerability and resilience.
The project will replicate household
interviews conducted in 2005, following
the 2004-05 food crisis. The current food
crisis will serve as a second environmental
shock around which discussions of
climate change and perceived risks will
be assessed. Data points from 2005 and
2010 will facilitate analysis of adaptations
and coping mechanisms and the impact
of those actions on vulnerability and
resilience over time. The project includes
key informant interviews, focus groups,
household interviews, and child growth
and health measures. I have just returned
from Niger, having spent two weeks
pilot testing and revising the research
instruments in Tanout. And although
the logistics of working in rural Niger are
challenging, data collection has officially
begun!
Once data collection in Niger is


complete, a small-scale version of the
project is planned in Tanzania, to test
the appropriateness and usefulness of
indicators of pastoral resilience and
vulnerability across multiple contexts. A
workshop will be held in collaboration
with the International Livestock Research
Institute in Nairobi to discuss findings
from the project as well as methodologies
for risk assessment and vulnerability
analysis.


52 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010
















The Impact of Chobe National Park on Rural Livelihoods

and Conservation Behaviors Chobe District, Botswana


BOTHEPA MOSETLHI


Contemporary natural resource
management is marked by
discourses that attempt to build
positive relationships and synergies
between conservation and
development with such concepts as
co-management and stakeholder
participation, particularly the
involvement of local people in
resource governance and benefit
sharing attracting significant
attention. The present study is trying to
unravel the extent to which these goals are
realized by focusing on the influence of Chobe
National Park on people's livelihoods and the
effect this has on their conservation practices. My
interest in the study area and population has been
spurred by my familiarity with Chobe District as a
biodiversity endowed area yet one where poverty
and dependency are still the order of the day. The
area teems with diverse natural habitats and wildlife


species, among them the Chobe River
System which feeds in to Victoria
Falls and mega-fauna mammalian
species including elephant, hippo,
buffalo, lion, leopard and several
ungulate species. A remarkable
feature is the park's elephant
population which constitutes the
largest and least molested herd in the
world, and which has grown from
about 45,500 in the 1980s to 151,000
at present. Altogether these resources
designate the Chobe region the
second most important wildlife and
tourism area in Botswana after the
Okavango Delta. Given the position
of the tourism industry in Botswana
as the second engine of economic
growth after diamonds, it follows
therefore to ask: Do the highly
acclaimed tourism-related benefits of
the protected resources trickle down
to the household level?
It became apparent from
the exploratory research I carried
out in summer 2008 that there
is significant growth in tourism
based economies and employment
related benefits in Chobe while on
the other hand there numerous
adverse effects: mainly elephant
property damages, predation,
human life endangerment and the
overshadowing of conservation on
the agricultural potential and non-
tourism land-based economies of
the area. These insights helped to
shape my on-going PhD research
work which is grounded on the
theories of empowerment and social
exchange and set out to determine:
1) if the park is resulting in positive
and significant livelihood effects, 2)
if there is an equitable distribution
of the livelihood effects of the park
amongst people or if there is a


dichotomy of "winners and losers,"
3) factors underlying the nature
and distribution of the livelihood
effects of the park, and 4) if there
is correlation between livelihood
effects of the park and conservation
behaviors.
Detailed collection of data
to answer these questions was
completed in July 2010. Within the
hinterland of Chobe National Park,
three settlements (Kasane, Kachikau
and Parakarungu) were sampled with
household surveys and key informant
interviews conducted. The sampling
of the settlements was based on
differences in level of economic
development or urbanity, proximity
to the park, and length of community
conservation programs/projects.
Most of the settlements in the study
area have a rural setting except for
the emerging urban area of Kasane
and Kasungula which is the tourism
hub of the district.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 53
















Transboundary Protected Area Management and Community-

Based Ecotourism Development in southwestern Botswana

NAOMI MOSWETE


I spent three months in Botswana
pursuing my research on stakeholder
perspectives and support for
Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park (KTP),
a transboundary conservation area
with a dual ownership between
Botswana and South Africa. KTPis
renowned for being the first formally declared
transboundary protected area in Southern Africa.
My work also covered residents' perceptions about
park-based community tourism in the Kalahari
region. I worked in nine villages: Ncaang, Ukhwi,
Zutshwa and Tshane in Kgalagadi North, and
Khawa, Struizendam, Bokspits, Tsabong and Kang
in the south. Four of these villages are located
within Wildlife Management Areas or the KTP
buffer zone. Mixed research inquiries were used
to collect data for this research. I interviewed 18
national and local public sector representatives
who included local authorities (village chiefs, village
groups, extension workers). About 740 household
surveys were conducted within the nine villages
adjacent to KTP. Other information sources used
included the country's national archives, policy
documents and official government reports, and
tourism statistics.
I also participated in workshops as well as
collected extra information from the Botswana
Tourism Authority and Department of Tourism.
This research is one of the first inquiries
conducted in Botswana's remote Kgalagadi region,
where issues that pertain to common property
and multiple-use rangeland management and
community tourism development are important.
Lack of alternative livelihoods has put strains on
the limited resources of the area. Thus, alternative
livelihoods are highly needed among communities
flanking the KTP I found that community
ecotourism development in the Kgalagadi region is
generally low as many individuals are not engaged
in tourism-related projects. Self-employment in
tourism-related commerce is minimal across the
region, with people involved in the accommodation
sector. Craftmaking with ostrich eggshells and
hides and skin was also highlighted as a common
activity among the San/Bushmen communities. A


handful of villages were engaged in
joint venture safari hunting activities.
Park-based community ecotourism
was perceived as an activity with the
potential to generate socio-economic
benefits to rural people, and that was
highly recognized and appreciated
as an essential livelihood option.
However, local residents obtained
only minimal benefits from the KTP
Despite low or lack of park
benefits to adjacent communities, the
public sector officials demonstrated
strong attitudes toward KTP as
a transfrontier protected area
and support for park-based
ecotourism activities. Generally,
the study discovered a low level of
local participation in park-based
conservation activities and lack of
collaboration between the KTP
authority and residents. Even though
local residents were left out in all
park programs and activities, they still
held very strong general conservation


attitudes toward and support for the
KTP as a transboundary area.


54 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010
















A Comparative Perspective of Elite Capture of Community

Conservation Programs in Namibia and Zimbabwe

SHYLOCK MUYENGWA


My research seeks to
understand why community
wildlife management
programs fail to deliver
communal goods and services
to the poor. I am interested in
how and why such well intentioned
projects and interventions, targeting
the marginalized and disenfranchised
populations, end up benefiting local elites
such as chiefs, local headmen and other
traditional or religious leaders, committee
members, and their immediate relatives.
In summer of 2009, I was awarded
an African Power and Politics grant to
travel to Namibia and Zimbabwe to
undertake my preliminary dissertation
work. My initial interests were broader
governance issues. I initially intended to
understand how the macro, meso, and
micro level interface in CBNRM, the
distribution of ..rhL..sir and the effects
of process of the melding of modern and
traditional institutions on performance


of CBNRM programs in Namibia and
Zimbabwe.
I worked in five communities in
Namibia with the support of a local
NGO. I conducted interviews and surveys
on a bigger project, working closely
with five conservancy communities in
the Caprivi Region; Kwando, Mashi,
Balyerwa, Wuparo, and Sobbe. I
attended meetings to provide feedback
to management on the governance
issues based on the larger survey we had
conducted in these areas. Inequity was
a major issue and elite control was also
widespread in most of these communities.
In Zimbabwe, I spent two
weeks working with the CAMPFIRE
Association. I reviewed project
documents, workshop proceedings, and
consultancy reports. I also traveled to
Masoka, where I was able to conduct
interviews, participate in meetings
and community activities, and review
minutes and proceedings at their local


office. Masoka community was one of
the CAMPFIRE pioneers that accepted
the idea in late 1980's and promoted
its proliferation across the country,
region, and internationally. I managed to
interview former committee members
and the traditional leaders. Finally, I
conducted some informal discussions
with community members, teachers,
nurses, and village heads. The 1980-
1990's acclamations of deliberative
democracy, formalized rule, equity, and
enthusiasm and hope in CAMPFIRE
were no longer evident. The program had
become so centralized with the traditional
leadership exerting much influence and
appropriating most benefits.
My research experience was
worthwhile. It helped me to narrow
my research interest from broader
governance interests to understanding
micro governance processes. In summer
of 2011, I will conduct a comparative
case study in selected communities in
Namibia and Zimbabwe, to understand
mechanisms through which elites capture
community-based programs and non-elite
strategies for alternative representation.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 55















Performing Adzomanyi: Religious-Cultural Expression
among the Anlo-Ewe of Ghana
SAMUEL ELIKEM NYAMUAME


Traditional music and dance
are among the cultural
legacies that preserve the
history of the Anlo-Ewe,
who are located in the
southeastern corner of the
Volta region of Ghana. Musical
performance in Ghana generally, and
among the Anlo people in particular, is
organized and practiced as an integral part
of everyday life. The Anlo-Ewe people's
rich musical tradition has been the subject
of study from the time of their migration
from Dahomey, now the Republic of
Benin, until their present settlement
in Ghana. The research that has been
conducted focuses on recreational and
social music as well as the amateur and
national dance companies. Since there is
ample research on social and recreational
music, my research is geared towards an
examination of religious music and dance
traditions.
For the past three years, I have been
researching a highly complex religious
music and dance performance called Yeve
among the people in Ave-Dakpa who are
considered Anlo-Ewes. Yeve is a religious
cult associated with the god of thunder,
which also has a historical relation to the
Yoruba Shango. Considered as a suite, I
examined seven different movements
that made up the musical performance. I
studied the songs, dance, and the various
drumming associated with rituals and
performance in general. In the summer of
2010, I went to Ghana again to research
another religious aspect of music, dance
and song in the central part of the Anlo
State called Lashibi-Anloga. The music is
called AdZomanyi and performed mostly
by older folks. Historically, Adzomanyi
served as a powerful force of resistance
during the colonial period by helping to
maintain customs, values, and morality
within the Anlo State. The success of this


/
/
~'


resistance to the colonial administration
and the lasting existence of the
Adzomanyi group is due to the religious
significance of ritual music performances
through the language of the drum, the
dance movements and the theme of the
songs.
During my research over the
summer, I investigated three aspects of
Adzomanyi music that work together to
give a holistic interpretation of how the
performance of Adzomanyi serves as a
safe medium for religious and political
expression. The three aspects are: VuTgbe
(the drum language or texts and their
meaning, and the text that angers and sets
the deities to rebel), Atsiadodo (different


dance styles that interpret the songs and
the drum text that conforms with it and
its association with the divinities), and
Hamekoko/Hatsiatsia (song performances
that praise and reveal the power of
deities). Though it is challenging to
research complex rituals and religious
musical traditions, I hope my research
and findings contribute significantly
to the religious music discourse in
ethnomusicology as well as African-
related disciplines in the arts and religion.


56 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010
















Gender Equality in International Aid: The Case of Norwegian-
Funded Development Projects in Ethiopia

MARIT TOLO OSTEB0


implementing organizations in Ethiopia
4) local community / target population
in Ethiopia. Interviews at the level of
Norwegian back-donors were conducted
during spring 2010 and currently I am
working on analysing the aid policies.
Fieldwork in Ethiopia will be conducted
during fall 2010 and spring/summer 2011.
The present study is a prolongation
of research conducted as part of my
MPh degree in International Health at
the Centre for International Health at the
University of Bergen, Norway. In addition
to research experience, I have also been
engaged in development and aid related
projects in Ethiopia from 2000-2007.


During the last decade
gender equality and women's
rights have become key foci
in international development
aid, and a main concern in
the 'Millennium effort' to
eradicate poverty. Being at
the international forefront regarding
legislation and practical policy related
to gender equality, this is also reflected
in Norwegian aid policies. In January
2008, Norway's first White Paper on
women's rights and gender equality in
international development was presented.
Together with the 2007 Action Plan for
Women's Rights and Gender Equality
in Development Cooperation, this
document accounts for one of the most
ambitious donor strategies on gender
politics to date.
The overall aim of my present
research project is to explore
conceptualisations of gender equality
among various actors involved in two


Norwegian-funded development projects
in the Oromia Regional State of Ethiopia.
In my study I explore the concept 'gender
equality' and how it is translated into
development practice. This includes
a focus on how local communities
perceive and experience project activities
addressing gender equality and women's
rights. My study also has a particular
focus on local gender norms, institutions
and practices with relevance to women's
rights. This implies a focus on the
dynamics between conceptualizations
situated within global development and
human rights discourses, on the one hand,
and local discourses, perceptions and
practices on the other.
With empirical focus on development
agents, organizations and development
aid 'recipients'-my study is a multi-sited
study. The following four levels have
been identified as "field-work sites": 1)
international and national ("-..c ._-i ,ni
aid policy 2) Norwegian back-donors 3)


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 57


















Designing Identities in Accra, Ghana

CHRISTOPHER RICHARDS
an article addressing the visual exchanges
between Western and African designers.
Building on connections from my
previous trip in the summer of 2009,
I returned to Accra, Ghana in August
2010 to conduct additional interviews
and to elucidate the cultural significance
of Ghanaian high fashion. During my
brief two-week trip, I was fortunate
to interview six additional designers.
Their garments ranged from elegant
cocktail dresses fashioned from strips
of batakad cloth, to business casual
tunics embroidered with adinkra symbols
,. .. ........ ..


During August 2010, I
returned to Ghana to
continue my research on
the contemporary Ghanaian
fashion industry. I spenttwo
weeks traversing the capital city of
Accra, interviewing designers, visiting
their boutiques and workshops, and
interviewing the designers' clientele.
This trip solidified what I discovered last
summer: Ghana has a vibrant, innovative,
and culturally significant fashion
industry, which reflects crucial aspects of
Ghanaian identities.
Last summer I attended Ghana's 3rd
Annual Ghana Fashion Weekend and was
dazzled by the breadth of imagination
and innovation exhibited by Ghanaian
designers. I interviewed one of Ghana's
leading designers, Kofi Ansah, as well
as the CEO of the Exopa Modeling
Agency and organizer of Ghana Fashion
Weekend, Sima Ibrahim. This first
trip demonstrated Accra was a viable
location for my research and allowed me
to acquaint myself with the established
Ghanaian designers and their fashion
labels. This summer, I utilized my
preliminary research and my knowledge
of European fashion to write and publish


cosmopolitan Ghanaian, an individual
expressing their global identity while
attempting to maintain a connection to
their cultural roots. This postulation
will be strengthened with evidence as I
expand my research through additional
interviews of the designers' clientele.
My research thus far has been a
fantastic adventure. I've learned the value
of being patient and well dressed in the
field! I plan to return to Ghana in the
summer of 2011 to finalize my research
and explore the Ghanaian fashion
industry's historical antecedents. I hope
my work will illustrate the importance
of fashion, specifically Ghanaian high
fashion, as a vehicle for understanding
crucial concepts of individual's identity,
and how these concepts have changed
over time. Additionally, my research will
attest to the importance of contemporary
non-Western high fashion, indirectly
asserting its creativity and viability.


and representations of Anansi the
spider's web. All of the garments I
photographed were a visual melange
of influences: fabrics from Europe,
America, and West Africa, mixed with
both local and international styles of
tailoring. As I conducted interviews with
both the designers and their clientele,
the clothing's significance began to take
shape. Ghanaian high fashion garments
visually affirm what it means to be a


58 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010
















Acacia-Ant Defenders in Kenya: What Are the Costs and

Where Do They Matter?

KATHLEEN P. RUDOLPH


Whistling-thorn acacia
(Acacia drepanonolobium)
is a common savanna tree
in Kenya. Its name stems from the
whistling sound produced when breezes
blow over holes in the bulbous thorns
that fill its branches. The creators of
these holes are tiny ant defenders that
set up residence inside thorns, feed on
tree sap and in exchange, provide very
effective defense against herbivory by
some of the worlds largest mammals -
giraffe, elephants, and other browsers.
On the surface the interaction seems
beneficial for both the trees and the ants
but how much do trees pay for this
protective service? Do trees without ant
defenders actually grow better than trees
without competitive grass? Does where
a tree lives change the dynamics of these
interactions? These questions motivated
the research I conducted this summer at
the Mpala Research Centre in Laikipia,
Kenya.
Ecological interactions between
species fall along a continuum from
negative one or both interactors is
negatively affected (e.g. predation and


competition) to positive one or both
interactors benefit (e.g. facilitation and
mutualism). These two interaction types
are most often studied in isolation with
negative interactions historically receiving
much more attention. Growing interest in
positive interactions has produced many
studies exploring the type and strength
of benefits but which largely ignore the
costs of these partnerships. In the rare
case that the costs of mutualism are
measured, they lack context with the costs
of negative interactions like competition.
Without this comparison of costs, it
remains unclear how the net effects of
multiple interactions influence individual
organisms and if the labels placed on
species relationships are accurate (e.g.
mutualist vs. competitor).
Using Acacia drepanolobium as a
focal species, I am able to explore how
the costs of resident ant defenders of the
tree mutualiststs') compare with the cost
of grass ('competitors'). Fully factorial
manipulations of ant and grass absence
were implemented last summer and this
summer I was able to begin measuring


across an environmental gradient. With
the help of three UF undergraduates, I
was able to quantify differences between
sites along the gradient. Data collected
in 2010 suggests that for some measures
of growth, the presence of ant partners
actually costs trees more in growth


than the presence of grass competitors.
It also appears that location and ant
partner species affect the comparative
difference between competitors and
mutualists. More time and measurement
will be required to fully parse treatment
differences but these initial findings will
help guide my further research on costs
and consequences of plant-ant defense.


treatment effects on tree growth and
reproduction. This experiment also allows
me to test how comparative costs change
with different ant defender species and


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 59


















Kanga: A Culturally Embedded Swahili Textile

MACKENZIE MOON RYAN


Kanga are colorful, machine-
produced, printed textiles worn
widely by women in many parts of
East Africa. These rectangular-shaped textiles
measure about 66" x 44" and are sold in pairs.
Most often worn as wrap garments, one kanga is
worn around the body and the second is used as a
head or shoulder covering. Generally kanga feature
bright colors of ink printed on white, factory-
produced cotton cloth. The design of each adheres
to a basic structure: central motif surrounded by
a wide, continuous graphic border. Kanga most
often display a proverb or phrase in Swahili, framed
just below the central motif These phrases can take
many forms, and while on research, I collected a
small sample of kanga from the shops on Uhuru
Street in Dar es Salaam. One textile displays the
well-known proverb, "The village rooster doesn't
crow in the city." Another exhibits the blessing,
"God's love is eternal." A further example is
most certainly a pointed communication: "Your
meddling is my gain."
Kanga central motifs and border designs
vary considerably, but generally speaking, they all
possess a striking graphic sensibility. Bold colors
and outlines are privileged, careful shading or
gradual tonal variances are almost never present.
Everyday items such as plants, animals, and other
domestic objects regularly feature on kanga. Some
kanga are also commemorative in theme, while
others display abstract geometric patterns, which
at times resemble flora or paisley-like prints.
Aspirational expressions also frequent kanga, such
ships, airplanes, and buildings.
But what makes these inexpensive and widely
available textiles so fascinating are their myriad
of uses. As a uniquely Swahili textile, kanga are
culturally embedded in everyday life and used to
mark transitional moments in Swahili women's
lives. For example, kanga are commonly used to
swaddle newborns and shroud the dead. While
on research, one new mother shared that local
hospitals insist expectant parents bring new kanga
to welcome their child into the world. Kanga are
commonly given as wedding gifts and also worn to
celebrate upcoming nuptials. Additionally, women


wear this textile as everyday clothing,
at times making use of particular
Swahili phrases. Through the wearing
of carefully selected kanga phrases,
women are able to communicate
beyond the bounds of polite society,
making this textile a significant player
in social and gender relations.
A relatively new function of
the kanga textile is its use in tailored
clothing. While in Dar es Salaam
I attended Swahili Fashion Week.
Now in its third year, this three-day
showcase gives new and established
East African designers a platform
to highlight their work. I had the
opportunity to speak with a few
designers during this research trip,
including Ailinda Sawe of Afrika
Sana and Kemi Kalikawe of Naledi
Designs. Both these designers create
high fashion looks for the runway as
well as accept clothing commissions
and sell readymade designs, all
tailored in part from kanga. This
most recent development in the


ongoing story of this dynamic textile
demonstrates that this dissertation
project is both called for and timely.
By examining both shifting and
enduring functions of kanga, my
research strives to show how women
have defined themselves within
Swahili society throughout the past
century.


60 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010


















Community Resilience in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

SAM SCHRAMSKI


Are communities in the
Eastern Cape resilient
to climate change and
deagrarianization? How does
access to water fit into the equation? I
spent the past summer investigating these
questions for my preliminary dissertation
research in the south-easternmost part of
the African continent. In the intervening
time I have learned how truly complex
and deceptive a focus on two trends
(decreased water access and increased
dependency on households without
strong agricultural skills) can be, and also
how helpful participatory research can be
when trying to tease apart problems at the
community level.
The Eastern Cape is the epitome of
many of the inequities evident in South
Africa: it is home to a unique subtropical
thicket biome, and yet much of its
rural lands are considered degraded; it
possesses active urban centers, and yet
suffers from some of the country's worst
levels of un- and underemployment;
it stands adjacent to hundreds of
kilometers of ocean and yet many of its
municipalities suffer from depleted fresh
water stocks. While the socio-ecological
conditions of the province do not
appear to be encouraging, how exactly
communities are responding to stressors
at the moment, and will continue to in the
future, is not well understood.
I initially hoped to see how water
access and governance could be
understood in rural and semirural Eastern
Cape communities using a coupled
human-natural or socio-ecological
framework in order to more fully
understand various kinds of stressors.
What I found after carrying out many
interviews and questionnaires was that
water access was only a minute concern
for most households, and that even in a
region of the world that is predicted to be


significantly affected by climate change,
other worries were more pressing. Also,
while the possibility of drought was on
the minds of many in even the most rural
communities I visited, people were far
more concerned about disease and limited
sources of household income.
Lack of water in the form of
drought may be an underlying symptom
of increased aridity in the region, and
the changing nature of what it means to
be engaging in "rural" work may also be
present but not be central to the concerns
of community members. In the end
agrarian systems are perceived of very
differently in this part of the world, so the
question of how adaptive communities
like the ones I looked at are appears
to be tricky to answer but nonetheless
important to explore. The next step in
my research is to develop a participatory
research index that can be used to gauge
capabilities of dealing with future events,
and in so doing bridge basic and applied


M4.

science in addressing what constitutes
vulnerability, resilience and adaptation in a
dynamic region in southern Africa.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 61
















Weapons and Refuse as Media: The Potent Politics of

Recycling in Contemporary Mozambican Urban Arts

AMY SCHWARTZOTT


My research investigates the local
and global impact of contemporary
Mozambican artists who use
recycled materials as artistic media.
The transformation of recycled materials into
art by artists reflects a nexus of environmental,
economic and culturally-related issues that reflect
Mozambique's distinct history and how artists
utilize recycled materials to create uniquely
Mozambican art. My investigation focuses on
determining how and why Mozambican artists use
recycled materials to create their art and how the
use of these materials relate to broader themes of
recycling, visual culture and post-conflict resolution
theory. I investigate artists who use natural and
urban refuse, as well as artists involved with
the Christian Council of Mozambique's (CCM)
program Transformagao de Armas em Enxadas/
Transforming Arms into Plowshares (TAE), who
transform decommissioned weapons from the
Mozambican civil war into assemblage art.
For the past two summers I have completed
pre-dissertation research in Maputo, Mozambique's
capital. Maputo is a compelling case study site
because of its large number of artists using various
recycled materials and its strong network of arts
organizations. My previous research focused
on broadening my network of contemporary
Mozambican artists and strengthening ties with
arts organizations and cultural groups to enrich
my investigation. This year I have begun intensive
fieldwork for my dissertation research and will
spend 2010-2011 in Maputo continuing my
research on contemporary Mozambican arts.
Shortly after my arrival in Maputo this year
food riots took place. Popularly referred to as
the "situagao," these events underscored for me
the importance of my research. The expressive
arts of contemporary Mozambican artists reveal
important social and political issues. Through
my research, I hope to continue a dialogue with
Mozambican artists regarding their important
messages through their use of innovative media.
Although I have been in Maputo only a short
time, I am grateful to have been able to take part
in a few important artistic events connected to my


research. I was asked to participate in
the selection process of an exhibition
of Mozambican artists for the
United States Embassy that included
several established and emerging
Mozambican artists. I also helped
in the organization of an exhibition
produced by CCM's TAE project
and artists' collective Nucleo de Arte.


I also participated in a workshop
at Nucleo de Arte organized by
artists to teach children about
making art from recycled materials.
I feel fortunate to have been
invited to take part in these varied
and innovative cultural events and
hope my investigation continues to
develop as I explore the visual arts of
Mozambique.


This exhibition invited a wide range
of artists from Nucleo de Arte to
create art from weapons, and was
organized in conjunction with the
commemoration of Mozambican
peace from the civil war on October


62 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010


















The Medieval East African Diaspora

NOAH ISAIAH SIMS

-Tym l S


I came to the University of
Florida with a strong interest
in studying various aspects
of the Medieval East African
Diaspora and the impact that
Islam has had on the east
African coast in terms of the
rise of the Swahili as a culture
and civilization. In summer 2010,
I made tangible progress on my research
through a Fulbright-Hays Group Projects
Abroad (GPA) language and cultural
immersion grant to study Kiswahili in
Tanzania. I was able to make connections
with scholars and community leaders, and
associate myself with the archives in the
coastal cities of Dar es Salaam, Kilwa,
and Bagamoyo along with the Island of
Zanzibar.
It is one thing to be on vacation in
Tanzania, but to actually be involved with
the people and their culture is entirely
different. I made it my mission to be


and having the chance to situate myself
culturally in East Africa was critical due to
the nature of my project.
In the near future, I plan to return
to Tanzania to conduct archaeological
fieldwork in the northwest part of the
country. In November 2010, I presented
a paper on Islamic colonization at the
American Anthropological Association
(AAA) meeting. I will be using the
information that I was able to gather this
summer along with research I have done
for my MA thesis to discuss an aspect of
Islam in Africa that is rarely addressed.
I see a bright and very interesting future
of research ahead of me in the dynamic
culturally heterogeneous area of the
world that is the East African Coast.


immersed in the latter. What I found to
be of high interest was that the people of
Tanzania, and I suppose all throughout
East Africa, were very welcoming.
However, there is a large difference
between being welcomed as a tourist/
guest and as a friend. There is a culture of
tourism that is provided to and promoted
by the majority of visitors and then
there is the culture of real life, which is
obvious but still unnoticed by many. I was
shocked to hear, witness, and be subjected
to this, but it gave me an even deeper
understanding and appreciation for the
vast complexities that exist within Swahili
culture. I was able to identify the multiple
socio-cultural layers constructed by the
people and I hope to be able to peel back
those layers in an attempt to look into the
past; one that is too often overlooked.
My research requires a multi-faceted,
interdisciplinary approach combining
inr! "' .!.. history, and archaeology


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 63
















Soil, Vegetation and Land Use Heterogeneity
in the Okavango Delta, northwestern Botswana

CAROLINE G. STAUB


The Okavango region, located
in northwestern Botswana
in the center of the vast
tropical African savanna, is
of great socio-economic and
environmental importance.
Located in the Kavango-Zambezi Trans-
Boundary Conservation Area (KAZA),
one of the largest transfrontier parks
in Africa, it also features the Okavango
Delta, a wetland of international
importance and a RAMSAR protected
area since 1997. Northern Botswana's
protected areas, Chobe National Park and
Moremi Game Reserve, currently host the
largest population of African elephants
on the continent. The area supports many
communities by providing a diversity of
livelihood activities including pastoral
grazing, controlled hunting and wildlife
conservation for both biodiversity and
tourism purposes. The commercialization
of the arable and livestock industries in
the early 1970's, whereby ranches were
demarcated and land was fenced, resulted
in environmental threats though the
intensification and restriction of both
livestock and wildlife in small areas.
This summer, I conducted a pilot
study for my doctoral research in
northwestern Botswana. I collected
soil samples and vegetation profiles
in protected areas and on pastoral
grazing lands. My research focuses on
understanding the mosaic of natural
resources that occurs as a result of
interactions between soil, vegetation and
land use types in dryland systems. I am
interested in examining the availability and
distribution of vital resources in my study
area. Nutrients and water are essential
to wildlife as well as livestock, which are
directly linked to economic returns and
local livelihoods worldwide, and especially
in southern Africa. The vegetation in
northern Botswana is being modified by


fire, extensive herding and anthropogenic
activity such as clearing woodland for
agriculture, fuel wood collection and
construction materials in pastoral areas.
Meanwhile, wildlife movement restrictions
in protected areas have resulted in home-
range reductions for migratory species
such as the African elephant, which is
also a source of concern with respect to
habitat modification. African savannas
have been experiencing rapid changes in
response to climate and/or land use over
the past century, and are vulnerable to
future change. These changes may have
profound effects on the ability of local
people to use natural resources including
growing crops, herding cattle, and
exploiting wildlife.
I will use recently developed
geophysical mapping techniques to
produce high quality, high resolution
geographic information on current soil,
vegetation and land-use interactions. I
want my research to provide landholders


with a better understanding of the local
patterns of natural resources, in the hope
that it will contribute to conservation
strategies that are better adapted to local
livelihoods in the region.


64 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010
















Market Reforms and Local Realities:

The Case of the Malian Cotton Sector

VERONIQUE THERIAULT


In March 2010, I had the
opportunity to go back to
Mali to further explore the
interaction between local
realities and cotton sector
performance. This second phase of
field research builds on the work done
during summer 2009, by investigating
the issues and concerns related with
the ongoing reforms. Given that Mali
is one of the latest African countries to
reform its cotton sector, many studies
have previously examined the relationship
between market structure (i.e., monopoly
versus competitive market) and cotton
performance (i.e., farm gate prices and
production). However, little research has
analyzed the interaction between local
realities and cotton reform success. My
research contributes to the literature by
providing deeper insights on how the
internal challenges facing the cotton
sector, such as farmer indebtedness,
delays in farmer payments, and increase
in input costs, influence cotton farmer
production decisions and market reform
success.
The Malian cotton sector has
traditionally been vertically integrated.
Indeed, a parastatal monopoly is
responsible for providing inputs on credit
to farmers; purchasing all cotton at the
harvest at a fixed pan territorial price; and
transporting, processing, and selling all
production on the international market.


Despites relative past success, the Malian
cotton sector has recently faced important
internal (i.e., large financial deficits) and
external (i.e., low world prices) challenges
that ultimately led to major reforms.
As a way to improve the efficiency and
competitiveness of the Malian cotton
sector, market-oriented reforms that aim
to privatize and liberalize some segments
of the sector have been undertaken. For
instance, the parastatal monopoly has
centralized its activities toward cotton
processing and marketing; has withdrawn
from the provision of public goods, such
as literacy and extension services; and will
be soon privatized into local monopolies.
Under the reforms, former village
associations have also been transformed
into cotton producer cooperatives
(CPCs), where membership can be, in
theory, selective. However, it appears that
exclusion is not such an easy option in
reality.


the difference. Although the exclusion
of insolvent cotton growers from a
cooperative seems apriori a solution, the
strength of the social relations prevailing
in villages might prevent it from
happening. One objective of my research
is, therefore, to analyze how local realities,
through social and economic status and
linkages, influence both the performance
of the farmer (individual's capability and
willingness to repay) and the cooperative
(withdrawal of the performing farmers
facing low profit margin due to other
members' insolvency). In conjunction
with the African Power and Politics (APP)
Malian team, I conducted individual
interviews with the main stakeholders
involved in the Malian cotton sector at
the village and national levels. Moreover,
focus groups with cotton producers were
also conducted in order to shed light on
how credit and inputs, such as fertilizers
and pesticides, are managed inside the
CPCs. From my fieldwork, I have learned
that the success of the cotton reforms
largely depends on the ability to work
closely with the local realities.


During this second phase of
fieldwork, I examined the issues related
with the joint liability program prevailing
in the CPCs, in order to better understand
how local realities affect repayment rates,
and therefore, indebtedness. Under the
joint liability framework, members of
a CPC are jointly liable for each others'
loans. If certain members are unable
to pay back their loans, contribution
from solvent members will make up


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 65


















Voters and the Political Opposition in Africa

KEITH R. WEGHORST


A common explanation of why
ruling parties in Africa rarely lose
election points to how clientelism
can circumvent democratic
accountability and keep unhappy
voters from supporting the
opposition. Opposition parties face
tremendous barriers to attaining modest gains in
power in government, and even more in ousting
the ruling party. Under what circumstances do
opposition parties effectively challenge incumbent
governments? This question motivates an ongoing
research project I am conducting in Tanzania that
explores how opposition parties win (or fail to win)
power from the dominant Chama Cha Mapinduzi
(CCM) and what drives such success failures of
the governing party, success of the opposition, or
both.
During the summer of 2010, I conducted a
survey in Dar es Salaam that studied how voters
make decisions over political parties. The survey
included over 900 respondents and explored
how the political performance of incumbent and
opposition parties impacts which party citizens said
they would support in the October 2010 elections.
Do voters support the opposition because of poor
economic policies of the incumbent party? Or
do critical voters simply choose the incumbent in
exchange for a gift? If opposition parties could
offer these private goods, would a voter change
their party?
The survey employed new techniques
that improve the quality of data about political
competition. In Tanzania's dominant party regime,
citizens might "self-censor" and be dishonest about
issues like taking cash for their votes or supporting
violence by the political opposition. I conducted a
survey experiment with students at the University
of Dar es Salaam in 2009 and found this to be
the case. When asked directly if political violence
was acceptable for the opposition, about two of
every five of individuals agreed. When using less
obtrusive question formats-particularly one called
a "list experiment"-support was closer to 90%
for respondents. The survey conducted in 2010
expanded the use of this technique across Dar es


Cd?


Salaam.
In October, I am conducted a
second round of the survey in Dar
es Salaam and (pending research
clearance) in Zanzibar. In Zanzibar,
the same political parties compete but
have been more successful than in
the mainland. In a July referendum,
Zanzibari voters chose to bring
opposition CUF into a power-
sharing government with the CCM
after the October elections. During
the summer of 2010, I conducted
extensive qualitative research with
political leaders and headed a
referendum observation mission on
Pemba, Zanzibar's second largest
island.
The October survey round
compared what strategies work for
courting support for the opposition.
It implements an important control
across the two cases, as the parties
themselves are constant between


Dar and Zanzibar. While it remains
to be seen what the outcome of the
2010 elections will be, this survey will
provide critical insight into political
competition that is so fundamental
to the development of democracy in
Africa.


66 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010
















State Bureaucrats or Social Leaders? Conflicts in the

Implementation of Morocco's Islamic Education Curriculum

ANN WITULSKI


Public education is perhaps
the most obvious and, at
the same time, the most
understudied mechanism
linking state and society. In
my dissertation, I examine a conflict
in Morocco over the content of an
Islamic education curriculum between
state bureaucrats, religious leaders,
Islamic education teachers and education
inspectors. This topic is interesting for
several reasons. First, it problematizes the
assumption that the state is a coherent,
integrated body by illustrating intra-
state dissent and conflict. Second, by
identifying the main actors and their
positions in this conflict, it illustrates
important cleavages in Moroccan
society. Third, it provides ethnographic
data on the content of an Islamic
education curriculum in one of the most
liberal Arab states. Finally, because the
curriculum reform was part of a larger
restructuring of religious agencies in
response to the Casablanca bombings


in 2003, it provides a case study on
the day-to-day impact and unintended
consequences of state responses to
violent attacks.
I will be doing the fieldwork for
this research from November 2010 to
October 2011 in Fez. Through interviews
and archival data, I will identify the main
actors, their positions and important
events that allowed the curriculum reform
to occur. Through discourse analysis of
the final curriculum, I will evaluate which
actors' preferences were incorporated and
whose were ignored.
Past fieldwork in Fez was extremely
important in guiding me to select this
dissertation topic. While studying Arabic
in Fez on a FLAS fellowship during
the summer of 2008, I lived with a
Moroccan woman and her family. The
woman was an Islamic education teacher
at a local elementary school, and she
spoke frequently of the reform to the
curriculum, all the training that she was
required to do, and ways that she felt


the curriculum could be improved. Our
informal conversations later guided me to
pursue my current dissertation topic.
During the summer of 2009, I spent
three months doing pre-dissertation
fieldwork with funding through
collaboration with Herbert Kitschelt
of Duke University and from the UF
Political Science Department. During
this time, I experimented with survey
research, gained experience interviewing
in French, and developed a number of
contacts with Islamic education teachers,
local political party leaders and journalists.
After completing the dissertation,
I hope to expand the project to a
comparative study of Islamic education
reforms in North Africa and the Middle
East.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 67
















Moroccan Islam(s): Debating Religious Authority
Through Ritual and Musical Performance

CHRISTOPHER WITULSKI


Since 2005 I have been
spending time in Morocco
researching the music of the
Gnawa, a previously enslaved
population from the south of
the country. With each passing trip
to North Africa, I am able to further
prod the complexities of the relationship
between these people, their religion,
Sufism, Islam, rituals, and popular
music. The ritual music of the Gnawa,
unlike that of most Sufi groups in the
region, has two parallel goals. It not only
attempts to create a bridge between the
individual and the divine it also engages
spirits (mluk, owner), asking them to
participate in the ceremony by capturing,
or possessing, adepts. The blessings from
these spirits rest upon the house and the
family of those who are possessed (or
maskun, lived within). Questions remain
unanswered, however, as orthodox groups
and everyday Moroccans ask about these
mluk: are they syncretic Muslim/African
spiritual figures, as the Gnawa say, or are
they jinns, troublesome demons aiming to
separate Muslims from Allah?
When this contentious set of beliefs
is conflated with the already tenuous
position of music within the Islamic
world, criticisms and religious struggles
between brotherhoods and other
organizations percolate to the surface.
Simultaneously, however, groups like the
'Aissawa, a Sufi path originating in 18th
century Meknes, adopt Gnawa songs, and
even spirits, placing them within their
own ritual practices.
This past summer I was able
to return to Fez and investigate the
theological, social, and economic
relationships between these different
religious organizations. By examining the
motivations that drove 'Aissawa and other
Sufi groups to include Gnawa material in
their rituals and theological worldviews,


I worked to unravel small corners of the
densely woven Moroccan cultural "web."
As a nation renown for hybridityy,"
social relations in Morocco fall upon
innumerable parallel and intersecting axis,
with race, belief, and language, three that
implicate the Gnawa directly, proving to
be a few of the most prominent.


Abdullah Yaqubi, 'Aissawa muqaddems
from two different groups, and two
members of a Hamadcha brotherhood,
Abderrahim al-Marrakechi and Fredrick
Calmus. These individuals welcomed me
into their lives and social circles, teaching
me to play and sing their music while
spending countless hours humoring my
questions about rituals, beliefs, society,
and Islam as they appear in Fez and
Morocco.


S-a

During this trip, I had the
opportunity to work closely with a
diverse range of musical and ritual leaders
including Abderrahim Abd ar-Rzaq and
Gaga, both Gnawa maalems, Adil and


68 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010











COLLABORATIVE PROJECT REPORTS




PURC in Sub-Saharan Africa: Recent Initiatives in Leadership


Development, Telecom

SANFORD BERG


munications, Utility Policy and Regulation


The Public Utility Research
Center (PURC) at the University
of Florida, an internationally
recognized academic center,
has spent many years working
with African utilities to help
enhance understanding of
issues confronting public
utilities and regulatory agencies.
PURC concentrates its studies on
energy, telecommunications and water
sectors and has had impacted at least
2,331 infrastructure professionals
from 143 nations through conferences,
seminars and other training programs.
Some of PURC's latest projects center
around leadership development,
telecommunications, utility policy and
regulation.
PURC's telecommunications seminar,
"Competitive Analysis in Telecoms:
Current and Future Markets," was given
by PURC Director Mark Jamison to the
Uganda Communications Commission
(UCC) on July 22, 2010 in Kampala,
Uganda. Participants analyzed the
financial condition of telecom operators,
assessed the intensity of market
competition, developed remedies for
weak competition and designed policies
to facilitate competition in emerging
broadband markets through examining
case studies and other examples. Thirty
regulatory professionals from the UCC,
the telecom industry in Uganda and


regulatory agencies from Kenya and
Tanzania attended the seminar.
Mark Jamison (PURC Director)
and Araceli Castanieda (PURC Assistant
Director) delivered a leadership
development workshop, I :.....ir_ ..
Leadership, Strategic Planning and
Organizational Development in
Utilities Regulation," on July 20-21 in
Kampala, Uganda. The workshop was
hosted by the Uganda Communications
Commission (UCC) and participants
learned how knowing strengths and
limitations, preparing the organization
for its work, and managing the external
environment is essential to effective
executive leadership. Through case
studies, personal and organizational
assessment, and action plans, the
participants learned about assessing
an organization's health, distinguishing
between technical and adaptive challenges,
adapting leadership approaches to current


situations, involving others in the work of
leadership, and challenging conventional
wisdom. Twenty-seven regulatory
professionals from seven different nations
attended the workshop.
PURC's two-week training programs,
held in December 2009 and March 2010,
was specifically designed for the Rwanda
Utilities Regulatory Agency. The program
focused on electricity market design,
financial analysis, designing economic
incentives, and establishing prices. The 69
participants, including commissioners and
staff from Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and


Uganda, examined cases to determine the
financial condition of an electric utility,
separating regulatory from non-regulatory
costs, restructuring an electricity market,
designing prices, and benchmarking
to encourage efficiency, along with
numerous exercises.
In addition to technical topics
such as demand forecasting, ratio
analysis and cost of service studies, the

a _1- W.W


participants examined how to better
understand stakeholder objectives, how
to manage relationships when working
on controversial issues, and how to
communicate with the press. The course
was delivered by PURC Director Mark
Jamison, PURC Director of Energy
Studies Ted Kury, and PURC Senior
Fellow Raj Barua in conjunction with
Professor Anton Eberhard of the
University of Cape Town, South Africa.
For more information about PURC
programs and events, visit www.purc.ufl.
edu.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 69


















Transforming CBNRM Education in Southern Africa

BRIAN CHILD, GRENVILLE BARNES, SANDRA RUSSO, BRIJESH THAPA


The objective of this project
is to bring together scholars
and practitioners into a
community of practice to
develop curricular materials
to support community based
natural resource management
(CBNRM). This will enable southern
African education institutions to provide
training at several levels: undergraduate,
graduate, and short courses for
practitioners and policy-makers.
Southern Africa is leading a new
conservation paradigm called the
"Sustainable Use Approach." Moving
away from fortress preservation, the
essence of this approach is that if wild
resources are valuable and if local people
own and can benefit from them, then
there is a high likelihood that these
resources will create jobs and economic
growth and will therefore be conserved
by the people living with them. There
has been a considerable investment in
this approach by national governments,
donor agencies and local people and,
interestingly, wildlife in southern Africa
has increased since the 1970s whereas it
has declined steeply or precipitously in
West and East Africa respectively.
However, the intellectual logic
and practical implementation tools
behind this approach remain largely in a
knowledge network of committed scholar
practitioners and in the form of oral
and grey literature. The project brings
this knowledge network together with
scholars, and particularly young scholars
from African institutions, to document
this knowledge and set it out in a format
that can be used for educating students at
many levels.
The first step was to hold two
workshops in Pretoria and Kruger to
strengthen and broaden this community
of practice, to ascertain educational needs


.. WV. S


in the region, and outline the materials
needed to match these needs. Our
priority is now to write four text books
that each form the basis of a separate
course, with the intention that each course
can be used for participants ranging from
field practitioners to university students
and high level officials. The first book
"Foundations of CBNRM" will be a
general text. The second book will bring
together principles and lessons relating
to the economic management of wild
resources, tourism, and livelihoods. The
third book introduces the complexities
of governance and management, ranging
from national distributional political
economy and policy to the micro-
governance of local communities. The
fourth book emphasizes pedagogical
approaches, including participatory
learning, action research and collaborative
adaptive management and technology
development.
In Spring 2011, we are planning to
bring young faculty from our key partners
- University of Botswana, Sokoine
Agricultural University in Tanzania, the


Polytechnic of Namibia, and at least
two other partners to UF to co-teach
"foundations of CBNRM." These
visiting faculty members will test the draft
textbook, adapt it to local circumstances
by developing teaching manuals, and will
provide a 2-week summer course for
practitioners in southern Africa as part
of their training. This project is a natural
outcome of the interdisciplinary research
that a number of our students, many of
whom are featured in this report, conduct
on CBNRM in Africa.


70 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010


















Zambia Tourism Demand Survey

BRIJESH THAPA, BRIAN CHILD, PATRICIA MUPETA, GREGORY PARENT


Zambia has distinctive
tourism resources unique
natural features, beautiful
landscapes, historical and
cultural attractions, places
of ethnographic interest,
and excellent recreational
opportunities that need to be
sustainable developed and
promoted. However, it also faces
immense competition for tourists from
other destinations in east and southern
African countries with better tourism
infrastructure and international brand
name recognition. For Zambia to
realize its potential, it must diversify
its current tourism product beyond
its traditional hubs. In addition to the
negative environmental impacts due to
high concentration of visitors in a few
destinations, it is paramount for visitor
dispersal to other regions to provide a
diverse mix of tourism opportunities,
thereby enhancing the countrywide
product and distributing economic
benefit to regional and local economies.
However, visitors are only likely to visit
new regions if the destinations have
quality setting attributes, attractions, and
suitable infrastructure.
One of the destinations that is
currently underdeveloped but has the
capacity to substantially increase its
international, regional and domestic
visitors is Kafue National Park (KNP).
KNP is the second largest national park
in the world with limiting factors such
as infrastructure, physical (e.g., roads)
and tourism. However, in order to
further develop, package and promote
the park and its surrounding regions,
it is important to assess the viability
of tourism growth from a supply and
demand perspectives. Currently, tourism
has not reached its potential but is a
major tool to promote and strengthen


sustained economic growth and poverty
reduction in the greater KNP area.
The purpose of this project is to
conduct a survey of current visitors
to Zambia with respect to demand
assessment for the greater KNP area.
Although there have been a few studies
that have assessed nature-based tourism
from a demand and supply perspectives,
they have all been based on a countrywide
standpoint. This study proposes to
examine demand based on current
visitors that have visited the KNP area
and/or those that have visited other
national parks. Visitors will encompass
international, regional and domestic
tourists. This study will provide baseline
information needed to position the
region relative to other regions in the
country. The study will also analyze
determinants of demand to aid policy
makers and the tourism industry to
improve the identification of potential
new markets, as well as provide and


improve the tourism opportunities that
play a key role in a tourists choice in their
trip selection. Additionally, it will assist
in the development of comprehensive
marketing strategies to showcase the
greater KNP region.
The project team has been
formulated based on their respective
background, knowledge and expertise.
This project is led by Brijesh Thapa,
Director of UF Center for Tourism
Research and Development. In addition,
the team constitutes of Brian Child
(Geography/CAS), Patricia Mupeta
(Natural Resources and Environment)
and Gregory Parent (Geography).


74 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010
















Partnership to Strengthen Teaching, Research, and Faculty

Development in Tourism Management in South Africa

BRIJESH THAPA, SANDRA RUSSO, LORI PENNINGTON-GRAY


South Africa is the dominant tourism
market on the African continent. Tourism
is a very important industry for the economy,
which has largely focused on the core products
such as parks, wildlife, nature and culture. In
the last two decades, the product mix has been
diversified to incorporate marine and coastal areas,
rural communities and townships, events, urban
centers, and meetings, incentives, conventions and
exhibitions. The market is largely comprised of
visitors from Africa and the Middle East. However,
international markets are increasing and there are
indications of continued growth in the future. Also,
the government expects to increase international
arrivals to 10 million by 2010. Given the projected
increases in visitors, the potential to expand this
sector to generate more income, employment
and other benefits are enormous, considering the
current level of tourism development.
However, tourism growth is dependent on a
number of factors, notably, developing a trained
and skilled labor force. Capacity building and
institutional development through training is a key
component for the vitality and sustainability of
the tourism industry in South Africa. In order to
address this major need, the University of Florida
(UF) and Tshwane University of Technology
(TUT) in Tshwane, South Africa have formulated
a partnership to strengthen its teaching, research,
service and faculty development initiatives in
tourism management.
In Year 1, the teaching and curriculum needs
will be accommodated at the Bachelor degree
level with respect to the following objectives: a)
review and update existing curriculum; b) develop
new curriculum in casino management, event
management, airport and aviation management
(currently these degree programs are not offered on
the African continent); and c) develop vocational
and executive training certificate programs in
tourism. Also, a more concerted effort will be
highlighted to target and enroll disadvantaged
populations to the Department of Tourism at TUT.
In Year 2, based on a strategic visioning meeting
with faculty and industry stakeholders, a Center for
Sustainable Tourism will be established with active


industry engagement (advisory board)
and partnership. The mission of the
Center will be largely to serve tourism
destinations and industries through
research, training and outreach within
the community, province and other
regions in southern Africa.
In Year 3, faculty development
will be emphasized with regards
to enhancing capacity as well as
collaborative initiatives in tourism


of the objectives for Years 1 and 2
have been met. In addition, various
spin-off research projects have been
conducted.
The project team has been
formulated based on their respective
background, knowledge and expertise
from within and outside UF, which
will be instrumental in accomplishing
the objectives and strengthening the
partnership between UF and TUT.
This project is led by Brijesh Thapa,
Director of UF Center for Tourism
Research and Development along
with Sandra Russo (International
Center), and Lori Pennington-Gray
(Tourism, Recreation and Sport
Management).


research with the project team and
select UF faculty. The facilitation of
collaborative initiatives in research
partnerships will be sustained
during and post-completion of
the project. Also, professional
development opportunities will
be offered to current TUT faculty
through a short exchange program
with UE Currently, the majority


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 73


















2010 FIFA World Cup: Resident and Visitor Perspectives

BRIJESH THAPA, MATTHEW WALKER, KYRIAKI KAPLANIDOU,
HEATHER GIBSON


Since the 2000 Sydney
Olympics, there has been a
shift in conventional thinking
about the various impacts
that the Games have on host
countries with the primary
focus now on the legacies of
mega sporting events. While
some attention is still given to economic
and infrastructural legacies, a growing
body of research shows that the long-
term outcomes may be primarily
social, with contributions to the
social infrastructure at both the
local and national levels. For the
2010 FIFA World Cup', the
South African government has
a developmental agenda, part of
which is predicated on "nation
building." Sport has long been
associated with building national
spirit and generating patriotism.
Understanding the social
legacies of a mega-event
necessitates a focus on the
residents of a nation. In particular, there
is a need in such a study for a longitudinal
approach, particularly to assess the change
in the resident's perceptions associated
with a mega-sports event. This research
has multiple phases with the primary
goal of identifying the social legacies


(e.g., identity, social capital, and tourism)
associated with the 2010 FIFA World
CupTM. This focus will help to inform
local and national level policy to facilitate
the Nation Building goals of South
Africa. Data were collected three months
prior to the event in mid June 2010,
while a follow up will be conducted in
January 2011. The sample constituted of
residents from five host cities (Pretoria,
Nelspruit, Polokwane, Johannesburg, and
Rustenburg).
Within this context, the nine host
cities attracted an abundance of visitors
and created impressions in tourists' minds
about the South African tourism product.
Given the importance of the event for
the South African Tourism Brand, an
additional objective was to evaluate
destination and event image perceptions
and tourism behaviors of spectators in
order to assess the impact of such an
event in a country's tourism development.
Data were collected among visitors at all


experiences. Such information would be
a useful tool with respect to marketing
initiatives to attract additional visitors
following the event.
This project is conducted in
partnership between the University of
Florida (UF) and Tshwane University


of Technology (TUT) in Pretoria, South
Africa. The team from the Department
of Tourism, Recreation and Sport
Management at UF is led by Brijesh
Thapa, Director of UF Center for
Tourism Research and Development
along with Matthew Walker,
Kyriaki Kaplanidou, and Heather
Gibson. The TUT team is led by
Sue Geldenhuys along with Willie
Coetzee.


the nine host cities (Pretoria, Nelspruit,
Polokwane, Johannesburg, Rustenburg,
Durban, Cape Town, Port Elizabeth,
and Bloemfontein) during the World
Cup M which will provide a major source
of information about visitor profiles,
market segmentation, perceptions and


72 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010














Understanding and Predicting the Impact of Climate
Variability and Climate Change on Land Use and Land
Cover Change in Southern Africa

JANE SOUTHWORTH, BRIAN CHILD, ERIC KEYS, MICHAEL BINFORD,
PETER WAYLEN, YOULIANG GUI, GREG KIKER, RAFA MUNDOZ-CARPENA


This project asks: "how does climate
variability and climate change influence
land use and land cover change as
it works through socio-economic
institutions?" To answer this question, the
project develops a temporally and spatially
multiscale understanding of the relationships
between land-cover and land-use change (LCLUC)
and climatic shifts in three watersheds that lie in
four southern African nations. We hypothesize
that socio-economic institutions are the main
instruments of human adaptation to climate
variability and change, and that the observable
outcomes of institutional adaptations are seen in
the spatial and material expression of LCLUC. This
study will test the resilience of the socio-ecological
systems of southern Africa, enhance the use of
remote sensing, and provide models for climate
scenario planning.
As an ongoing portion of this project, in
summer 2010 two UF faculty (Brian Child and
Erik Keys) and six UF students (Jessica Steele,
Erin Bunting, Jing Sun, Shylock Muyengwa,
Patricia Mupeta, Keilani Jacquot) worked in four
communities in Botswana and Namibia. Working
in teams their objective was to assess livelihoods
and how these might respond to impending climate
change. They surveyed individual households to
determine their production and consumption, what
shocks they were concerned about, and how they
were responding to them.
While numerical analysis is still underway,


6 ma


early results from a wildlife-reliant
community are fascinating. Although
everyone appears to be agricultural,
only 8% of the household economy
derives from agriculture, and people
purchase well over half their food
from stores in the nearby town. Jobs


Et. X


in tourism, and specifically hunting,
are enabling more than half of the 62
families in this village to reach a stage
where they do not report hunger in
the household. However, if hunting
is banned, many families will regress
into a position of hunger. Hunting
earns the village over $200,000
annually from some 110 animals,
employs many people, and funds
the transport people use to get into
town. The second serious threat to
the community is HIV/AIDS. The


primary mechanism for moving
out of poverty, defined as families
who report hunger, is employment.
The loss of family members is
traumatizing this village on a personal
level, and because many deaths are
wage earners the loss of wage income
drops families back into hunger.
At a more conceptual level,
what is interesting is how little
reliance is placed on agriculture in
this community, and how therefore
climate change is largely nullified.
This traditional-looking village is
moving rapidly into the wage and
retail economy, and the real threats
are the vagaries of government
policy on the economy (e.g. a much
discussed hunting ban) and disease in
the form of HIV/AIDS. Additional
field seasons and research visits are
planned for fall 2010, spring and
summer 2011.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 71


















African Power & Politics Programme


Since 2007 the Center for
African Studies has participated
as an institutional partner (the
only one in North America) in
the African Power and Politics
Programme (APPP). This 5
year program of research and policy
engagement is led by the Overseas
Development Institute (London), and
other partners in France, Ghana, Niger,
Uganda and the UK, including:
Centre for Democratic
Development, Accra, Ghana
Laboratoire d'Etudes et de
Recherches sur les Dynamiques Sociales
et le Developpment Local (LASDEL),
Niamey, Niger and Parakou, Benin
Development Research and
Training, Kampala, Uganda
Centre Norbert Elias, Ecole des
Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales,
Marseille, France
Institute for Development Studies,
Brighton, UK


The APP consortium is dedicated
to "discovering institutions that work
for poor people". That means exploring
the kinds of political, economic and
social arrangements that, if adopted,
would enable countries of sub-Saharan
Africa to make faster progress towards
development and the elimination of
extreme poverty. APPP thus aims to
identify ways of ordering politics and
regulating power and authority that might
work better than those now in place, on
the basis of a careful and critical look at
what has worked well in Africa itself in
the recent and not-so-recent past.
The program's objectives combine
research with research-training,
organizational capacity strengthening
and policy development, and aims to do
the research in ways that recognize the
substantial, if often underrated, resources
for collective problem-solving that are to
be found in African societies.
The APP Programme is organized


around six current "research streams,"
focusing on varied empirial issues. Two
research projects are currently led by UF
faculty. Renata Serra directs one of two
substreams of the "Business and Politics"
stream, on the theme of "Institutions,
Power, and Norms in African Cotton
Sector Reforms." Leonardo Villalon
is co-director, with Mahaman Tidjani
Alou of LASDEL, of the stream on
"Formalizing Schooling: Religion and
Education Reform in the Sahel." In
addition, several other UF faculty and
eight PhD students have had research
funded through the APPP. The photo
on this page shows the participants at a
June 2010 meeting of the religion and
education research stream at LASDEL in
Niger.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 75
















Bridging Research and Practice:

Building a New Study Abroad Model in Southern Africa

TODD LEEDY, GRENVILLE BARNES, BRIAN CHILD, & SANDRA RUSSO


In late May early June, PI Leedy
and co-PIs Barnes and Child spent
two weeks in Botswana, meeting
with a wide variety of university,
government, NGO, and private sector
representatives to build upon existing
relationships and forge new linkages
that will support the creation of a new
field practicum for graduate students
from University of Florida, University of
Botswana (UB), and potentially world-
wide. UF and UB have become part of a global
network of Masters in Development Practice
(MDP) degree-granting institutions, a network built
with seed funding from the MacArthur Foundation.
The students in these programs form one natural
constituency for the field practicum as it develops
with full institutional partnership between UF and
UB.
The UF team met with senior administrators
and representatives of potential collaborating
units on the main UB campus in Gaborone. These
discussions made it clear to the UF team that UB
has made substantial institutional commitments
to ensuring that the partnership is symbiotic and
sustainable. For example, UB has committed to
significantly expanding the Okavango Research
Center (ORC) accommodation facilities at its
Maun campus. The UF team met multiple times
with the UB Dean of Graduate Studies to work on
detailed budgeting, instructional commitments, and
in-country orientation. Upon arrival in 2011, UF
participants will spend their first week in Gaborone
at the Botswana College of Agriculture (BCA),
joining the UB participants for an intensive week
of orientation including guest lectures and visits to
various relevant government agencies and NGO
offices. For weeks two through seven, participants
will be based at ORC in Maun and complete six
one week field training and research modules.
This will be followed by 2-4 week individual or
small student team attachments to a variety of
possible university, local government, private-sector
or community entities. Discussions with senior
administrators and research staff at the UB Maun
campus helped to identify possible instructional


staff for the UF-UB practicum,
as well as the need for expanded
administrative capacity at ORC
in order to undertake sustainable
training programs for UF-UB and
other potential institutions/clients.
The UF team also met with
potential coordinating government
agencies and non-governmental
organizations in Gaborone to assess
potential collaborative activities (e.g.
attachment of UF-UB program
students, staff training through
participation in UF-UB program, use
of monitoring data, etc.). Meetings
with these organizations made it
clear to the team that the imminent
establishment of the field practicumn
would be broadly well-received for
a number of reasons. First, because
we plan to work in a defined set
of communities annually, student
training projects will generate a set
of longitudinal data that can be used
to monitor rural livelihoods and
plan effective interventions. Second,
there is a clear demand within in


various organizations for the type of
training experience that the UF-UB
program will offer. This provides
a potential secondary constituency
for the program, allowing for the
possibility of students working
in teams with active practitioners
or the establishment of separate
field practicum for local agency
and organization staff. Meetings
with similar bodies in Maun to
assess potential collaborative
activities (e.g. attachment of UF-
UB program students, staff training
through participation in UF-UB
program, use of monitoring data,
etc.) highlighted how a sustained
student training program could also
impact rural livelihoods by providing
actionable data to community-based
organizations and their private sector
partners.


76 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010
















Master's Program in Sustainable

Development Practice (MDP)


In June, 2009, the University of Florida
received an award of approximately $1
million from the John D. and Catherine
T. MacArthur Foundation to start up a
new Masters degree in Development
Practice (MDP). This is part of a global
initiative designed to educate a new generation of
development practitioners and MDP programs
are now in place or under development at 22
universities worldwide, most of these with funding
from the MacArthur Foundation. Other MDP
programs in Africa are located at the University
of Botswana, the Universite Cheikh Anta Diop
de Dakar (Senegal) and the University of Ibadan
(Nigeria). The MDP at UF is administered jointly
through the Center for African Studies and Center
for Latin American Studies.
The UF-MDP was designed by an
interdisciplinary group of faculty from seven
different colleges across campus. The 51-credit,
five semester (including summer) MDP curriculum
spans the social, natural, and health sciences and
includes interdisciplinary management skills that
will enable students coming out of the program
to be much better prepared to deal with the
complex array of contemporary development
challenges. Coursework includes a Global
Classroom in which MDP students from around
the world participate and discuss development
topics ranging from sustainable energy to food
security to climate change to project management
and foreign aid. This course is coordinated by
the Earth Institute at Columbia University which


also serves as the Secretariat for the
global MDP network. In addition,
MDP students at UF also take
courses in Health and Development,
Economics, Ecological Principles
for Development Professionals,
Natural Resource Management and
Innovation Systems, Communication
and Leadership Skills, Conservation
and Development Entrepreneurship,
and Development Administration.
The MDP degree bridges
scholarship and practice and includes
a three month summer practicum
which can be carried out in Africa
or Latin America. One option is the
field school in Botswana which is
comprised of seven weeks in the field
followed by an attachment where
students work with communities
or local partners on a specific
development project. This field
school is a collaboration with the
MDP program at the University
of Botswana and the Okavango
Research Center (ORC)
The first cohort of 11 MDP
students began this Fall (2010) and
is comprised of two Africans, a
Colombian/American and eight
Americans. Four of these students
completed their undergraduate degree
at UF and the cohort as a whole
has diverse academic backgrounds,
including agriculture, history,
international relations, environmental
education, sociology and psychology,
and community sciences. The first
two MDP scholarships were awarded
to Greyson Nyamoga from Tanzania
and Tshubangu ("Tshi Tshi") Kalala
from the Democratic Republic of
the Congo (DRC). Greyson is a
lecturer at the Sokoine University
of Agriculture in Tanzania and
has also worked for the Tanzanian


government and as a loan officer for
FINCA in Tanzania. Tshi Tshi has
worked as a consultant, researcher
and volunteer for several different
organizations in war-torn areas of
the DRC, including the World Food
Program, Heal Africa, Doctors
without Borders, and International
Crisis Group.
Currently the Program is co-
directed by Brian Child (Geography/
African Studies) and Grenville Barnes
(SFRC) with Marianne Schmink
(Latin American Studies) as graduate
coordinator. Program coordinator,
Sheila Onzere, was hired in October
2009 and the first of two new
faculty positions was filled by Rick
Rheingans in July, 2010. Sheila is
completing a PhD at Iowa State in
sustainable food systems and Rick is
a specialist in health and development
and was previously an Associate
Professor at Emory University. We
are in the process of searching for
the second MDP faculty position
in development administration
and expect to hire the successful
candidate by July, 2011.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 77


















The Trans-Saharan Elections Project

LEONARDO A. VILLALON & DANIEL A. SMITH


The need for "regular free and
fair elections to institutionalize
legitimate authority of
representative government as
well as democratic change of
governments" is enshrined as
a basic principle of the African
Union in its African Charter
on Democracy, Elections
and Governance. The frequency
of elections has indeed increased
dramatically in Africa since the arrival of
the "Third Wave" of democratic change
in the early 1990s. While the results of
the past two decades have been highly
mixed, in virtually every country elections
have been accepted as the "normal"
mode of acceding to public office, and
are now held with some regularity. The
reiterated processes of elections has, in
turn, produced intense debates about
their conduct, and over the years there
has been an increased awareness that
the need is not just to avoid cheating
on election day but to consider much
broader issues such as the impact of
varying choices of electoral systems, the
importance of the larger institutional
infrastructure and the rules of game, the
role of social and political organizations
in elections, and the management of the
mechanics of electoral processes.
Over a two-year period (2010-12),
the UF "Trans-Saharan Elections Project"
will sponsor a series of exchanges and
seminars that will bring together elections
specialists from six target countries-
Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania,
Niger and Senegal-with a wide range
of American professionals involved
in elections, to comparatively examine
the challenges and issues involved in
ensuring electoral freedom, fairness, and
transparency. The project, co-directed
by Leonardo A. Villal6n and Daniel A
Smith, is funded by a grant through the


U.S. Department of State's Bureau of
Educational and Cultural Affairs.
A key goal will be to share
experiences, so as to shape understanding
and knowledge, and thus to contribute
to discussions which will have real and
substantive impact in the Trans-Saharan
countries. On the US side, the exposure
to electoral issues in a set of African
countries that are otherwise strikingly
different is intended to provide a more
nuanced understanding among American
professionals about the challenges and
promises of electoral democracy in
Africa. The six target countries present
a highly interesting set of cases. All are
relatively poor countries, and primarily
Muslim, but with a broad range of
experiences in elections and democracy:
Senegal and Mali are frequently described
as democracies today; Niger has
experimented rather tumultuously with
establishing democracy; Burkina Faso
has experienced a very cautious political
opening, without democratic transition;
and Mauritania and Chad each have had


challenging histories and more limited
experiences with elections.
In conjunction with partner
institutions in each of the six countries,
project activities over two years will bring
six Elections Fellows from each of these
countries to the US, to participate in two
comprehensive learning programs on
elections. Moving from the University
of Florida in Gainesville, to the state
capital of Tallahassee, and then on
to Washington, the programs will
comparatively examine electoral processes
at local, state and national levels. They
will draw on visits to organizations
and presentations by a broad range
of professionals involved in elections:
academics, government officials, civic
groups, consultants, and media. In
return, two delegations of Americans,
representing these various constituencies,
will visit the six African countries to learn
more about their experiences and to share
insights more broadly. The project will,
in addition, produce a website and other
materials to serve as important research


78 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010






















resources for both faculty and graduate
students working on these understudied
countries.
The West African partner
organizations with which we will
collaborate in setting up the project
include:

The West African Research Center
(Senegal)
www warc croa org
WARC is the overseas center for the
West African Research Association,
managed in conjunction with the Senegal-
based Association de Recherche Ouest
Africain, and a member of the Council
of American Overseas Research Centers
(CAORC). The Center thus has a strong
network of ties across West Africa, as
well as extensive experience organizing
programs in Dakar. WARC will serve as
the first point of contact and will host
the orientation sessions for the American
delegations.

Centre Pour la Gouvernance
Democratique (Burkina Faso)
cgd igd org
The CGD, led by a well-known Burkinabe
Political Scientist, is one of the most
respected research and democratic
advocacy organizations in the region.
It undertakes a wide range of activities
in partnership with local as well as
international organizations, including
projects on electoral administration and
monitoring. Final sessions of the US
delegation visits will be held at CGD.

EISA-Chad Country Office (Chad)
www eisa org za/EISA/chad him
EISA (formerly Electoral Institute of
Southern Africa) is an international
network with country offices in six
African countries, including Chad. EISA's
mission is to "promote credible elections
and democratic governance in Africa,"


and the Chad office has been extensively
in projects involving the training of
elections observers.


Reseau Appui au Processus
Electoral au Mali (Mali)
APEM is an organized network of 49
NGOs working directly to support
the transparency and legitimacy of the
electoral process in Mali. Created in
1996, on the eve of the contested 1997
elections (the second in the country's
democratic history), APEM has
continued to play a central role in national
discussions about the electoral process in
Mali. Its activities have included extensive
programs of citizen education, training
of election observers, and working with
political parties on fraud prevention.

University de Nouakchott, Faculte
des Sciences Juridlques et
Economiques (Mauritania)
The Faculty of Law and Economics of
the University of Nouakchott, which is in
the process of planning the establishment


of a working group on the organization,
administration and analysis of elections.

LASDEL, Laboratoire E'Etudes et
Recherches sur les Dynamiques
Sociales et le Developpement
Local (Niger)
www /asde/ net
LASDEL is an independent organization
working in various domains of applied
social science research. It has emerged
as one of the most important social
science research organizations in the
Francophone West African region.
LASDEL has recently begun to work
in the field of elections, and hosted an
international conference on the "Electoral
Processes in Africa" in September 2010.


Mouvement Citoyen (Senegal)
wwwmo 9Oi sn
Mouvement Citoyen is a dynamic civil
society organization, founded in 2002
by a noted Senegalese democratic
activist, and quickly attracting significant
national and international attention for
its activities in the field of citizenship
training, democracy promotion, and
working with the media. The Mouvement
has a particular mission to work with
youth and women, and in promoting
the participation of women in electoral
processes.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 79
















African Studies Quarterly



The Center for African Studies founded the African Studies Quarterly (ASQ) as a way to
promote research on Africa beyond that undertaken by University of Florida faculty and
graduate students. It is an interdisciplinary, fully refereed, online open access journal dedicated
to publishing the finest scholarship relating to the African continent. ASQ invites the
submission of original manuscripts on a full range of topics related to Africa in all disciplines.
As an electronic journal, we welcome submissions that are of a time-sensitive nature. To qualify
for consideration, submissions must meet the scholarship standards within the appropriate
discipline and be of interest to an interdisciplinary readership.

The ASQ undertakes two kinds of publications. Many previous issues contain articles from
a wide range of authors and focusing on diverse topics. The ASQ also publishes Special
Issues that focus on a specific theme. The most recent Special Issue is entitled: Between
Exit and Voice: Informality and the Spaces of Popular Agency, guest edited by Ilda Lindell
of Stockholm University. It includes six articles on the following topics: urban youth vendors
and top-down policy changes in Zambia; trash collection in Addis Ababa; changing relations
between organized women market traders and rulers in Ghana; informalization processes driven
by layoffs, casualization, and outsourcing in the South Africa's industrial heartland; strategies
for the collective organization of informal workers, "informalization from above," and
"informalization from below," in South Africa; and the complexity for collective (-i i of
informal labor in the construction sector in Dar es Salaam, Nairobi, Cape Town, and Nepal.

An editorial committee composed of graduate students in African Studies who hail from Africa
and the U.S. as well as other countries and represent a wide range of disciplines conducts the
initial review of submitted manuscripts. Those submissions accepted for consideration are
then sent to at least two external reviewers. ASQ expects the content of all manuscripts to
be original and that the article has not been submitted or accepted for publication elsewhere.
Therefore, authors should include a statement in their submission declaring that the manuscript
has not been published and is not under consideration for publication by another journal. The
final publication depends on the quality of the manuscript, the associated peer review process,
and the number of manuscripts which have already been accepted. The journal will attempt to
publish manuscripts no later than six months after submission.

For submission guidelines, matters related to the ASQ style, how to contact the ASQ,
and other issues, potential authors should consult the ASQ website: www.africa.ufl.edu/
asq or email africanstudiesquarterly@gmail.com.


80 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010










Academic Year & Summer

Foreign Language and Area Studies

(FLAS) Fellowships



The University of Florida's Center for African Studies anticipates awarding Foreign Language
and Area Studies (FLAS) Fellowships for the academic year. These fellowships are funded by
the U.S. Department of Education (USED) under Tide VI of the U.S. Higher Education Act
and are awarded to students combining graduate work in any academic discipline with African
area and language studies.

Fellowships are offered for any one of the regularly taught languages (Akan, Amharic,
Arabic, Swahili, Wolof, Xhosa, and Yoruba) as well as for other African languages for which
instruction can be arranged.

Academic year fellowships provide a stipend of $15,000 and cover the cost of tuition and fees
(12 credits per semester). Applicants must be a citizen or permanent resident of the United
States and be admitted to a graduate program at the University of Florida.

Summer fellowships provide students with an opportunity to undertake intensive African
language study in any USED approved program including the Summer Cooperative African
Language Institute (SCALI). Summer fellowships cover tuition at the host institution and
provide a stipend of 2.'"'

For more information, including application deadlines, please visit www.africa.ufl.edu/
graduatestudies/flas.


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 81












Contribute to Graduate Student

Research on Africa at UF
eeee eee eee eee eee eeee e ee eeee e ee eeee ee e eeee ee e eee eee eee eee


Funds for graduate students to travel and
carry out research in Africa are in very
short supply, especially in these trying
economic times!
Beyond their training at UF, field
research in Africa is absolutely essential
for students to write the kinds of disserta-
tions on which they will be able to base
successful careers, whether in academia,
government, NGOs, or the private sector.
The major dissertation research awards
for Africa are limited in number and in-
creasingly competitive. In order for Ph.D.
candidates to be competitive for these
awards they must demonstrate a strong


familiarity with the proposed field site and
the capability to carry out the proposed
work.
As a result, preliminary summer
research trips to lay the groundwork for
dissertation fieldwork are invaluable for
making students competitive for national
awards for dissertation funding. Helping
our students launch their professional
careers in this way is one of our top pri-
orities at the Center for African Studies.
The Center for African Studies has
recently established a fund with the goal
of creating an endowment of at least
$30,000, so as to generate the revenue for


an annual award to help a student carry
out pre-dissertation research in Africa. If
you would like to make a contribution to
this fund, we (and future generations of
UF Africanist students!) would be very
grateful. The form below can be used for
this purpose.
If you are a UF employee and would
like to contribute via payroll deduction,
please contact CAS for assistance.

If you have any questions or would
like more information-please contact
Leonardo Villal6n (CAS director) at
villalon@africa.ufl.edu or 352-392-2183


JF 1 UNIVERSITY of
w FLORIDA
Please Return To:
UF Foundation, Inc. CLAS Development
PO Box 14425 Gainesville FL 32604-2425


My Gift is For:
Alumni and Faculty Pre-Dissertation Travel Award -
013799
Amount Enclosed: $
Amount Pledged: $
(A pledge reminder will be mailed to the address provided.)


Name:
Address:


City/State/Zip:_
Email:
Phone:


Remember to enclose your company's MATCHING GIFT FORM!
It can double or triple your gift!


Method of payment:
0 Check Enclosed
(Make check payable to: UF Foundation, Inc.)

Credit Card
ODiscover OVisa OMasterCard 0 AmericanExpress
Card Number:
Expiration Date (MM/YY):
Name as it appears on card:

Billing Information (if different from on at left):
Address:
City/State/Zip:
Email:
Phone:


Signature:


Thank you for your support!
The University of Florida Foundation, Inc. is a 501 (c)3 organization.
Contributions are tax deductible to the extent provided by the law.


82 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010















Thanks to Our Donors


MADELYN M. LOCKHART
Graduate Research Award
In 2004, Dr. Madelyn Lockhart,
professor emeritus of economics
and a former Dean of the Graduate
School, established an endowment
to support an annual award for
graduate students doing pre-
dissertation research in Africa.


JEANNE & HUNT DAVIS
Graduate Research Award


In 2004, Dr. R. Hunt Davis,
professor emeritus in History and
a former director of the Center
for African Studies, and his wife,
Jeanne, established an endowment
to support graduate students
doing pre-dissertation research in
Africa.


African Studies Faculty & Alumni Pre-Dissertation Award


The generous contributions from Jeanne
& Hunt Davis and Dr. Lockhart has made
it possible for the Center to provide sup-
port for graduate students each summer
doing fieldwork in Africa. In an effort
to expand our capability for supporting
graduate students, Dr. Davis has taken the
lead in helping CAS work toward estab-
lishing an additional endowment.


The African Studies Faculty & Alumni
Pre-Dissertation Award now has over
$20,000 in commitments and is mov-
ing toward the goal of $30,000, which
will provide more support for graduate
students. Please see the following page
for more information about this fund and
how you can contribute.


The Center would like to thank the
following individuals who have
contributed to our various funds in the
past year (with an extra special thanks to
those who are working to build the Fac-
ulty & Alumni Pre-Dissertation Fund).


Dr. Charles Bwenge
Dr. Paul A. Chadik & Dr. Charlotte A. Chadik
Dr. William L. Conwill & Faye V Harrison, Ph.D.
Dr. R. Hunt Davis, Jr. & Mrs. Jeanne G. Davis
Dr. Stephen A. Emerson & Mrs. Angela B. Emerson
Professor Joan D. Frosch
Dr. Abraham C. Goldman & Dr. Judith E Breiner
Dr. Jacob U. Gordon & Dr. Barbara McDade Gordon
Dr. Robert D. Holt & Mrs. Lynne Weissmann Holt
Dr. Abdoulaye Kane
Mr. Michael R. Kohlhaas & Dr. Jane Southworth
Dr. Michael R. Leslie & Dr. Agnes N. Leslie
Dr. Staffan Lindberg & Mrs. Wynie Lindberg
Mr. Peter Malanchuk & Mrs. Iona R. Malanchuk
Dr. Mansangu D. Matondo


Dr. James E. Meier & Dr. Asha M. Brunings
Mr. John J. Mulligan & Dr. Connie J. Mulligan
Dr. Susan O'Brien & Dr. Katrina Z. Schwartz
Dr. Daniel Reboussin & Dr. Ann Glaowasky
Dr. Sandra L. Russo
Dr. Richard Saunders
Dr. Marianne Schmink
Dr. Renata Serra
Dr. Scot. E. Smith & Ms. Susan E Cooksey
Hon. Emerson Thompson, Jr. & Hon. Geraldine Thompson
Dr. Leonardo Villalon & Dr. Fiona McLaughin
Mr. Marlon A. Watson
Mr. Chris White
Dr. Luise S. White


Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 83












The Center Would Like to Thank


Patricia Mupeta for coordinating this project, the students and
faculty who contributed reports and photographs, and Alex
Coyle for the design and layout of this report. Cover photos by
Terje Ostebo and Todd Leedy.


84 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010








































































Cetr-o Afia Stuie

42mrntrHl
POBoe156
GaiesileFlria 261-56
352-32-218




Full Text

PAGE 1

427 Grinter Hall PO Box 115560 Gainesville, Florida 32611-5560 352-392-2183 352-392-2435 (FAX) www.africa.ufl.edu

PAGE 2

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 1 Founded in 1965, the Center for African Studies at UF has been continuously designated a U.S. Department of Education Title VI National Resource Center for Africa for 30 years. It is currently one of only 12 such centers nationally, and the only Africa NRC located in a sub-tropical zone. Title VI funding to CAS supports research, teaching, outreach, and the development of international linkages in Africa. natural resources and environment, journalism and mass communications, law, tourism, and natural maintain ties with universities across the African continent, including institutions in Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda. unique role in facilitating the publication of research on and from Africa, and offers invaluable professional training for UF graduate students who serve on its editorial board.Graduate study with a focus on Africa can be carried out in virtually every graduate or professional program across the university. Prospective students are encouraged to consult the websites of the individual programs for admissions procedures and criteria. Students in any graduate program at to consult the Centers website and to contact us when they submit their applications. Complementing formal coursework, a regular and dynamic series of lectures, conferences and other activities open to all interested graduate students provide rich opportunities for interdisciplin interdisciplinary working groups organize speakers and events that bring together faculty and graduate students with shared interests, providing students with unique opportunities for research and professional development.

PAGE 3

2 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 .............................................................................................................................................4 Climate Change and the Dynamics of Local Discourse in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania ........................... 5 Architectural Designs for East Africa ............................................................................................................................. 6 New Threads: Textile Diasporas at the Harn Museum of Art ............................................................................... 7 Emergency Medicine Development for Africa ...................................................................................................... 8 Documenting Endangered Languages in Africa ...................................................................................................... 9 Graphing a Movement (R)Evolution: Faustin Linyekula, Germaine Acogny, and Beatrice Kombe .................... 10 Parks as Agents of Social and Environmental Change in Eastern and Southern Africa ...................................... 11 .................................................................................................................. 12 ...................................................... 13 A Cultural Festival in the Senegal River Valley: Reinventing Local Traditions for Returning Migrants ..... 14 .................... 15 Zambia-China Engagement: The Role of Government in Regulating Foreign Investments ................................. 16 Voting Behavior, MP Campaign Strategies, and Political Clientelism in Ghana ......................................... 17 Dakars Linguistic Landscape .............................................................................................................................. 18 Epigenetic Alterations and Stress Among New Mothers and Infants in the DRC ........................................ 19 A Community-Based Approach to Sustainable Development ............................................................................. 20 Research Activites in Kenya ...................................................................................................................................... 21 Islam and Islamism in Ethiopia & the Horn of Africa ............................................................................................... 22 ......................................................................................................................................... 23 .................................. 24 Higher Education and Climate Change Research in Southern Africa ............... 25 Viewing Africa through Clothing: Research and Collaboration .......................................................................... 26 Debating Islam: Ethnicity, Belonging and Muslim Politics in Mauritania ........................... 27 History, Trauma, and Revitalization in Haya Villages of Tanzania ......................................................................... 28 .................................................. 29 .................................................................................................... 30 AIM for Africa: Rwanda ........................................................................................................................................................... 31 The New Malian Literary Landscape .............................................................................................................................. 32 Sub-Saharan Africa Business Environment Report (SABER) ..................................................................................... 33 Malaria: Movement, Modeling, and Mapping ............................................................................................................ 34 Critical Consciousness Theory and Counselor Effectiveness During Disaster Response ............. 35 Remembering Colonial Times: an Algerian Oral History .......................................................................................... 36 Marketing Opportunities and Constraints in the East Usambaras, Tanzania ...................................................... 37 Epigenetic Alterations and Stress Among New Mothers and Infants in the DRC .......................................... 38 Masquerade and Local Knowledge in Urban Calabar, Nigeria ............................................................................. 39 The Role of the Environment in the Forest Livelihood Decisions of Malawian Villagers .......................................... 40

PAGE 4

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 3 Elephant Community Ecology in Botswana ....................................................................................................... 41 Minority Language Promotion in Senegal and Mauritania ............................................................................................. 42 ...................... 43 Institutional Reforms to Strengthen Gender Outcomes through Improved Rural Services Delivery .............. 44 Archeology and Stone Tool Technology during Early State Development in Northern Ethiopia ................. 45 ....................................................... 46 Fairtrade South Africa (FTSA) ...................................................................................................................................... 47 The Business of State-Building: Corporate Social Responsibility and the State in Equatorial Guinea .......... 48 ............................................................................. 49 Arabic Script as Active Agent in Senegalese Visual Culture ........................................................................... 50 .................... 51 Risk, Perception, Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Change in Niger and Tanzania ................................... 52 The Impact of Chobe National Park on Rural Livelihoods and Conservation Behaviors ....................... 53 Protected Area Management and Community-Based Ecotourism in Botswana .............................................. 54 Elite Capture of Community Conservation Programs in Nambia and Zimbabwe .............................. 55 Performing Adzomanyi: Religious-Cultural Expression among the Anlo-Ewe of Ghana ..................... 56 Gender Equality in International Aid: The Case of Norweigan-funded Projects in Ethiopia ............................. 57 Designing Identities in Accra, Ghana .................................................................................................... 58 .............................. 59 Kanga: A Culturally Embedded Swahili Textile ..................................................................................................... 60 Community Resilience in the Eastern Cape, South Africa ..................................................................................... 61 ......................... 62 The Medieval East African Diaspora ..................................................................................................................................... 63 Soil, Vegetation and Land Use in the Okavango Delta, northwestern Botswana ............................................. 64 Market Reforms and Local Realities: The Case of the Malian Cotton Sector .................................... 65 Voters and the Political Opposition in Africa ....................................................................................................... 66 ............................... 67 Moroccan Islam(s): Debating Religious Authority through Ritual Performance .............................. 68 PURC in Sub-Saharan Africa: Initiatives in Leadership Development, Telecommunications, Utility Policy and Regulation .................. 69 Transforming CBNRM Education in Southern Africa ........................................................................................................................................ 70 The Impact of Climate Variability and Climate Change on Land Use and Land Cover Change in Southern Africa ............................... 71 .................................................................................................................................. 72 Partnership to Strengthen Teaching, Research, and Faculty Development in Tourism Management in South Africa ............................. 73 Zambia Tourism Demand Survey ........................................................................................................................................................................... 74 Africa Power & Politics Programme ....................................................................................................................................................................... 75 Bridging Research and Practice: Building a New Study Abroad Model in Southern Africa .......................................................................... 76 Masters Program in Sustainable Development Practice (MDP) ........................................................................................................................ 77 The Trans-Saharan Elections Project (TSEP) ....................................................................................................................................................... 78 ....................................................................................................................80 ...............................................................81 ................................................................................................................82

PAGE 5

4 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 The pages that follow detail the extraordinary diversity and the depth of work on Africa being carried out at UF. Our faculty and graduate students are actively engaged in carrying out research on the ground and spanning the continent, from Cape Town to Algiers and from the Horn of Africa to its westernmost point in Dakar. Cumulatively, this work is marked by three characteristics that reflect CASs mission and philosophy. It is, first of all, work that is directly engaged with the continent and its peoples, both in terms of the subjects of study but also and most importantly in an understanding of the central need for collaborative engagement with our colleagues in Africa in identifying key questions, and in the search for answers. Secondly, while our faculty and students are most often rooted in disciplines and well-armed with the particular tools that these disciplines have developed, there is a high degree of inter-disciplinarity in the work presented here. A key function of CAS is to bring together scholars from a variety of perspectives to address important issues, and we are thus particularly pleased with the dynamism of our various interdisciplinary working groups, in such diverse areas as natural resource management, governance and development, Islam and Muslim societies, health and society, cultures and the arts, or the dynamics of language change. Finally, we believe that the work reported here reflects our understanding of the important connections between research and training. The many linkages you will find between the faculty and student reports spring from the belief that, as a unit in a major research university, our mission must be to both produce new knowledge about the world and its challenges, and to train and prepare a new generation of scholars to address those issues. receive from various sources and the collaborations this support makes possible. Most notably in 2010 CAS was once again designated and received funding as a Title VI National Resource Center for African Studies, one of only 12 around the country. The over $2.6 million this grant brings over four years will both help us to continue our work and fund many of our students through Foreign Language and Area Studies (FLAS) fellowships. In addition, various grants from HED and other sources make possible collaborative partnerships across southern Africa; our participation in the African Politics and Power Programme presents opportunities for collaboration with institutions in Europe and Africa; and a State Department Grant to support the Trans-Saharan Elections Project links CAS to partners in six countries across the Sahel. In 2010 our exciting new MDP degree, jointly offered with the Center for Latin American Studies, took in its first class. about the varied and important research being carried out by our faculty and graduate students. For more information about CAS, and our various activities and opportunities, please consult our website at www.africa.ufl.edu.

PAGE 6

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 5 ac lt eports Concentrating on Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania, the study seeks to explore the dynamics of local knowledge within the climate change adaptation project particularly as it relates to such aspects as interdependence, inequality, and local institutional settings. In this regard, my main responsibility is to explore how such dynamics manifest in the local discourse. I and the other team members spent May and June in the field, during which we were able to conduct household survey in four districts: Same, Mwanga, Rombo, and Moshi Rural from which Mwanga was selected as a site for detailed qualitative work scheduled for 2011 through 2012. Although local knowledge is not exclusively a verbalized phenomenon, a significant portion of it manifests well in the day-to-day discourse. Of particular interest in the case of Tanzania is the interaction between local (ethnic) languages (in which a significant portion of indigenous knowledge is embedded), a national language, Kiswahili (the major medium of formal national discourse) and the global discourse, which is partially dominated by English medium. Since climate and its related changes are considered as an environmental universal, I am interested in observing the flow of climate change discourse from the global level through the national level to the local setting and the linguistic forms that are adopted (linguistic change) in the process presumably reflecting the dynamics of local knowledge. Preliminary observations already indicate some interesting phenomena regarding the concept of climate change itself. In order to capture the globally conceptualized climate change, climate change experts use the term mabadiliko ya tabianchi in Swahili-medium discourse in order to distinguish it from mabadiliko ya hali ya hewa which translates as weather change. But in the village-level discourse, not being aware of tabianchi, the wananchi (the masses) still cling to hali ya hewa (literally, the condition of the air) to refer to both climate and weather. To the villagers, the distinction between the two seems less important as is the topoprivilege a three-zoning segmentation (i.e., high, middle, and low), locals privilege a two-zoning system (i.e., mlimani and tambarare literally translated highland and lowland respectively). I anticipate that the results of this study will demonstrate the importance of local discourse within a broader agenda of local knowledge and climate change adaptation. CHAR ES B ENGE

PAGE 7

6 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 The village has requested a Health Post (Kituo cha Afya) and community Resource Center (Kituo cha Elimu). I met with the community and with the construction crew to discuss ideas for the two new buildings. Local building materials include earth brick, which is fired in rice-husk fueled kilns, and thatch for roofs. Thatch has become scarce and expensive, and the Tanzanian government doesnt approve of thatch roofs for larger public buildings, so our building proposals considered maximum use of brick without thatch. African architect who lectured at UF in fall 2009, and structural engineer John Ochsendorf from MIT, we developed the building design using a low-tech brick vault roof system which can be constructed by both men and women on site. I also visited the small town of Rugerero, Rwanda, to study the possibility for a new Health Clinic building. I was introduced to the town, a survivors village, by members of the UF AIM for Africa program led by Jill Sonke. The government of Rwanda is committed to staffing and maintaining new health clinics throughout the country. There is much work to be done before a new building could become a reality, but there is great potential due to the availability of local building materials and an enthusiastic labor force. Finally, I visited the University of Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia, and met with professors and students at the Faculty of Architecture. Addis Ababa is a booming urban environment, and the school of architecture is growing in order to increase the number of design professionals needed for this rapid expansion. I began collaboration with architect Fasil Ghiorghis on a joint design studio project which will involve students from University of Addis Ababa and UF. All of the research compiled during these trips has been incorporated into the seminar I am now teaching, Topics in African Architecture, which is open to graduate students in all disciplines. Our work in Ntulya and Moshi Tanzania was exhibited at Florida International University in the spring, in an exhibit entitled Resource: Design in East Africa, recent work of Armstrong + Cohen Architecture D NNA C HEN

PAGE 8

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 7 ac lt eports Their research will be incorporated into the exhibitions catalogue and other interpretive materials. Art work they procured will be presented in the exhibition and added to the Harns collection. Robin Poynor (Art History) will be writing about the prominence of woven textiles used in performances in the context of lavish second burial ceremonies, or ako based on his research in Owo, Nigeria. Poynor has contributed several textiles he collected in Nigeria to the museum and three will be used in the exhibition. Victoria Rovine (Art History) travelled to Timbuctou and commissioned a sacred womans garment, or tilbi from master embroiderer Baba Djitteye. She also travelled to Bamako in early 2010 on behalf of the Harn, to collect other samples of textiles and garments. Rovine has also conducted research recently in Mali on a type of garment known as Ghana Boy which have embroidered images derived from mid-20th century popular culture. A Ghana Boy tunic she collected will be loaned to the exhibition. Jordan Fenton (doctoral candidate, Art History) recently returned from Calabar, Nigeria, where he conducted masquerade ensemble, including full body costume, and accoutrements, from prominent mask-maker. Ekpenyong Bassey Nsa. To complement this ensemble with its highly innovative design and materials, he also collected an more canonical aesthetic, but also blends globally inspired elements. Courtnay Micots, who recently completed her doctorate in art history, be featured in the exhibition, collected cloth commemorating President Obamas visit to Ghana, and also helped negotiate a commission of two kente cloths from master weaver Samuel Cophie of Bonwire. Chris Richards (a doctoral candidate, Art History) has done preliminary research on textiles and fashion in Ghana in 2009 and 2010. He documented globalized fashion trends, including the fusion of historically important textile genres with new design elements, and witnessed the impact of the Obama visit on textile production. He also interviewed Samuel Cophie about the cloths he created for the museum, including a kente designed to honor President Clinton, and a new design with appliqu adinkra patterns. MacKenzie Moon Ryan, whose preliminary doctoral interest in the kanga and kitenge cloth histories, will contribute her essay on the global sources of kanga design and production. She is also assisting with interpretation of examples from the Harns collection. The collaborative efforts of these faculty and students, with contributions from scholars at outside institutions, will culminate in the exhibition and catalogue that will be used to enhance curricula across many university disciplines. The addition to the Harns African collection examples of textiles will be an enduring legacy for the Museum and for the university community. The exhibition will open February 8, 2011 and run until May 8, 2011. SUSAN C SEY

PAGE 9

8 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 After several years of positioning stakeholders in the Ministry of Health, Addis Ababa Regional Health Bureau, Addis Ababa University, and the Black Lion Hospital, the first official specialty training program began in Ethiopia in November 2010. Similarly in Ghana, Emergency Medicine is gaining recognition as an important component of the healthcare delivery system and one important player is the Ghana Ambulance Service. Since 2007, I have been fortunate to participate in various continuing education programs and healthcare summits for emergency medicine in Ethiopia. In 2009, I was invited to continue to participate in the educational foundation for the fledgling department of Emergency Medicine at the Black Lion Teaching Hospital (BLH) in Addis the American International Healthcare Alliance and People to People (an Ethiopian Diaspora healthcare organization) we developed curriculum for faculty specialty training in the US and Ethiopia for 4 attending physicians at BLH, as well as local training for resident and attending physicians, nurses and pre-hospital care workers in Addis. The ongoing curriculum allows for joint research and quality improvement measures within the newly formed Emergency Department. In November 2010, I return to Addis to kick off the Emergency Ultrasound training program along with faculty and the Black Lion Hospital. For Ghana, my role has been mostly that of a facilitator. The University of Florida College of Medicine-Jacksonville is hosting Dr. Ahmed Zakariah, director of the Ghana National Ambulance Service in a 6-week observational position in the Department of Emergency Medicine. In addition to learning about the administrative and patient care roles of specialized emergency physicians, Dr. Zakariah has had the opportunity to conduct interviews with Emergency Medical Services in Jacksonville and surrounding areas in order to learn about the training and dispatch procedures for pre-hospital personnel. Together, we will utilize this data to develop a strategy to improve the efficiency and efficacy of the ambulance service. In November 2009, the African Federation for Emergency Medicine was established and both Ethiopia and Ghana and are important players in the development of specialized emergency physicians and other emergency healthcare personnel. As the continent faces the rise of road traffic injuries and noncommunicable diseases alongside the battles with infectious diseases, emergency medicine offers a strategy for efficient management and stabilization of acute illness and injury in Africa. I look forward to the continued opportunity to participate in the ongoing development, quality assurance and improvement and clinical research as the specialty of Emergency Medicine develops in Ethiopia, Ghana and throughout Africa. E I ABETH DE S

PAGE 10

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 9 ac lt eports Since the 1990s linguists and anthropologists, assisted by various funding agencies, have been galvanized into working towards documenting these languages before they disappear. I continue to work on the documentation of Nyagbo, a language spoken in the South Eastern part of Ghana, which the people themselves call Tutrugbu. A crucial ingredient for successful documentation on the continent is equipping people with the necessary skills to carry out documentation. In summer 2010, I was a resource person for the Summer School on Documentary school was organized by Dr. Felix Ameka from Leiden University, the Netherlands, and funded by the Endangered Languages Documentation Program (ELDP) at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) in London. It aimed at providing further training and skills in the theory and practice of language documentation to 20 participants in universities in Ghana, Benin Cameroon, Cote dIvoire, Nigeria and Senegal, who were selected from participants from an earlier school held in the summer of 2008. They received training in documentation of specialized vocabulary and cultural knowledge as well as audio and video recording. One issue that keeps coming up among Africanists working on language documentation is whether the situation in Africa is so different from other regions as to warrant documenting languages on the continent. For instance, do colonial languages play as central a role in language endangerment as they do in places like Australia and the argued that in the African context, endangerment is caused by regional rather than colonial languages. Another issue concerns what to represent in the writing system. For instance, should one represent In order to address these and other issues, we organized a workshop on Africas Response to Language Endangerment at the University of Florida in December 2010. The workshop was sponsored by the Center for African Studies with additional support from the Research Institute, Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures, and the Linguistics Department. Invited participants included 12 specialists from Africa, Europe, Australia, Canada, and the United States working on various aspects of language documentation in Africa. AMES ESSEGBEY

PAGE 11

10 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 Over the last decade a wave of experimental choreographers in and of Africa have re-imaged landscape of contemporary performance. The artists whose works and words have contoured this landscape have not only contributed to the dynamic interplay of the arts and globalization but have cleared a space for performance in advancing human aspirations in the 21st century. Among these artists are experimentalists Faustin Linyekula, Germaine Acogny, and Batrice Komb (1974-2007), to whom the work is dedicated. This research will position these choreographers not only as artists, but as philosophers and historians, who havethrough the bodytheorized love, historicized absence and loss, interrogated war, problematized memory, and challenged the wearisome persistence of the ontological specters of essentialism. Their practices have also contributed to the splintering of prevalently held and mostly white domain of artistic production. Indeed, the study of these artists investigational dialogues with contemporary life has the potential to situate African experimentalism as a wellspring of 21st century knowledge and innovation. In contrast to their growing continental and global presence, African experimental choreographers rarely have been acknowledged in the English language literature to date. However, the movement they have engendered has evoked enthusiastic aesthetic responses from a growing number of global artists. I am one. From 2004 to 2007, I directed and produced the documentary feature Movement (R)Evolution Africa: A Story of an Art Form in Four Acts. educate their audiences and students, and it has been screened in over 200 international festival screenings and television broadcasts to date. Documentary Education international distribution in 2009. Yet materials, housed in the University of Florida Belknap Collection for the Performing Arts, has yet to be theorized. The one-of-a-kind archival data include: interviews with artists, artists public presentations, rehearsals, and public performances of choreography, among other categories, other artists writings and resources, including reviews and dramaturgies. The goal of the research is to gap in the literature on African experimental dance practices. Using the diverse lenses of Linyekula, Acogny, and Kombs pedagogy, creative practices, and theoretical discussions, I intend to mine the archives 123 hours of primary materials to create an interdisciplinary and integrated path of theory, art, and culture in a forward movement toward our shared future a path quickened and inspired by the contributions of African experimental choreographers. In so doing, the research proposes the study theorizing the burgeoning contemporary African dance movement. AN FR SCH

PAGE 12

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 11 ac lt eports The parks and landscapes around them span ecologic and demographic gradients from midaltitude forests to semiarid savannas and very densely to relatively sparsely populated regions. My own research has focused mainly on Kibale National Park (KNP) in western Uganda, and the densely populated landscape around it (300+ per sq km). Ive together with UF professors Michael Binford and Jane Southworth, graduate students Joel Hartter, Amy Panikowski, Karen Kirner, and Katherine Mullan, and several Ugandan and other collaborators. that, despite the parks fortress characteristics, and the animal hazards faced by many farmers, most people in our sample within 5 km the park, and a surprisingly small proportion cite negative impacts. of ecosystem services (improved climate, etc.) rather than direct income). Resource restrictions and expulsion were not widely cited by our respondents, but crop raiding is important in some (but not all) locations. Contrary to expectations, the patterns of responses do not vary ethnicity, but they do vary strongly by believe that important explanatory factors for these responses include that the large majority of current residents migrated to the area after the park (or forest reserve) had been established, and that the area around the park has been so thoroughly domesticated. Similar conditions are likely also to be true for other mid-altitude forests in East Africa. the unprotected small forests and wetlands outside KNP are declining rapidly with extraction and agricultural conversion. This is one of several indications that in the absence of at least moderately effective enforcement of park boundaries, Kibale forest would likely disappear. Agricultural land use continues to intensify in our survey locations, but productivity is almost universally declining. In addition to roads and other infrastructure, the presence of the park has led to the establishment of a number of new womens craft groups throughout the area, which have generated small but important enhancements to womens incomes. The broader project includes Tarangire National Park in northern Tanzania; Chobe in northern Botswana; and Bwabwata and Mudumu in northeastern Namibia. Collaborators include Brian Child (Geography, UF), numerous UF graduate students, and colleagues at the Universities of Colorado and North Carolina. Our comparative and forest parks have had different dynamics and trajectories of change; and (b) differences in both the content and stability of national-level conservation policies have led to quite different outcomes, especially in attitudes to parks and the impacts of parks on livelihoods and risks. ABE G DMAN

PAGE 13

12 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 convergence of Muslim reformers close link between modernization and the proper performance of rituals. Covering most of the twentieth century in both northern and southern Gold Coast/ Ghana, the project traces the intersection of efforts by Muslim scholars, ritual and community leaders and younger, practice of weddings and funerals and to elaborate a distinction between what was properly Islamic and what was merely customary. Struggles between chiefs and religious leaders over the control of patronage affected how these rituals were inserted into administrative bureaucracies or the allocation of public cemeteries), making death and marriage subject to struggles for local power. Changing social and economic conditions connected mostly to urbanization, commoditization of labor and the migration of workers onto cocoa farms, all put strains on existing forms of ritual practice and created new opportunities for young men in particular to challenge accepted authorities. Popular support thus developed for the new ways of thinking about rituals being circulated and enabled by reformists and administrators. After independence the Ghanaian government moved away from close involvement in Muslim affairs, preferring instead to mobilize clients through community leaders. This further allowed reformist preachers and new social actors to reshape rituals even as the expanding rhetoric of African underdevelopment and need for modernization placed very The second project looks at the African history teaching and research to the present. It explores the changing departments in shaping the major concerns and empirical discoveries of the those departments on their surroundings. Key historians who became political Ba Konar) or major public intellectuals (Ajayi, Diop) are explored alongside and participation in civil society. The research is intended to test hypotheses about the links between the changing of the actual utility of a usable past. Using basic techniques of prosopography, I have traced the trends in publishing from 1960 to the present in major Englishand French-language journals, in landmark edited volumes and in key monographic series. This has provided the framework for a group of collective biographies of the less well-known members of the research networks. The next phase of the project involves collecting local historiesoral and publishedfrom the history departments at the targeted universities. SEAN HANRETTA

PAGE 14

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 13 ac lt eports BRENT HENDERS N Though spoken in Brava for a millenium, the horrors of the ongoing civil war in Somalia have caused nearly all speakers of the language to become refugees now living in large international cities like Atlanta, London, and Mombasa. As a result, the unique language and culture of the Bravanese is quickly disappearing. In a three-year project (now in year two) funded by the NEH through the NSF/NEH program Documenting Endangered Languages program, I am working with Bravanese communities, as well as other scholars, to further document the Chimiini language. This includes writing a reference grammar and dictionary of Chimiini, archiving digital recordings of the language, publishing traditional stories, personal narratives, and other ethnolinguistic material, and developing web-based materials useful to the community and heritage speakers. It also includes exploring the language from a scientific perspective and bringing out insights that might be interesting for theoretical linguistics. Last summer I spent six weeks in London and Manchester in the United Kingdom meeting many of the thousands of Bravanese who live there and talking with them about their language. Together, we collected many oral stories and hundreds native speakers and other scholars, I have also been able to finalize a written orthography for Chimiini that will be used for reading and other literacy materials, as well as the dictionary. Coming up with a practical orthography was not an easy task, particularly because many Bravanese are literate in many languages, including Arabic, Somali, English, and Swahili. the writing system could capture the important contrasts in Chimiini, while at the same time not create confusion with these other familiar writing systems. Next year I will spend my summer in Mombasa, Kenya, where many Bravanese remain closely connected to their culture. There I hope to assess whether or not the language is being passed on to the next generation and to collect much more culturally-relevant linguistic data.

PAGE 15

14 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 ABD U AYE ANE This is an apparently surprising turn for associations that have traditionally occupied themselves with development initiatives aimed at bringting concrete improvements of living conditions experienced in the Haalpulaar immigrants home villages. Yet conversations I had with leaders of such associations in France and the United States indicate their conviction that cultural festivals can in fact play an integral role in strategies aimed at development of their home villages. In 2008, I participated in one such cultural festival held in the village of Thilogne, where I acquired an interesting perspective on the nature of the stakes, players, discourses, cultural performances, and artisanal exhibitions that bring these events to life as development initiatives. It is striking to observe that the cultural practices being performed during the festivals tend to be of little relevance to contem porary village life. Rather, they constitute a recreation of particular traditions, customs, and performances that their creators perceive will be admired by returning migrants, visit ing urbanites and tourists as an exotic reection of a lost cultural past. One fascinating example of such reinvention of tradition is the cultural practice of iayde, a carefully choreographed event whereby processions of young women engage in ritual competition for husbands. According to one informant, Aminata, age 54, and a resident of ilogne, iayde competitions were held between groups of women from neighborhoods be tween which there existed friendly rivalries. Such friendly inter-neighborhood rivalries were sustained by the frequency with which men from each of the neighborhoods took wives from the other. e iayde featured peaceful yet lively confrontations between young women on both sides, each with the ob jective of getting their own men to marry within their own neighborhoods, while luring as many men as possible from other neighborhoods to marry there as well. e women of each neighborhood spend countless hours preparing, craing praise songs they use to promote themselves and lyrical diatribes used to target women of the opposite camp. iayde were oen or ganized around the Taske a Muslim feast celebrating Abrahams sacrice. To begin the iayde competition during Taske, the groups of women would leave their neighborhoods around 5:00 pm and walk slowly toward the center of the village, each with a lead vocal carefully selected for her excellent voice. While walking, they begin singing their praise songs, following with the lyrical diatribes upon their encounter with their rival groups. e rival groups meet at around 7:00 pm at the center of the village, surrounded by spectators who listen carefully to the rau cous proceedings. e iayde conclude with each side inevitably claiming victory, as their members disperse and straggle back to their respective neighborhoods. e iayde is not practiced anymore by the younger generation, lamented Aminata, who is charged with organizing the iayde during the cultural festival. For our generation and those preceding it, participation in the iayde was a rite of passage for young women who had yet to be married. We would spend all year creating songs, and throughout the months leading up to Taske, carefully consider the types of clothes and jewelry we planned to wear for the competition, she added. Now women of the younger generation put on their nest clothes and jewelry to watch their men compete on the soccer eld. For these women iayde is a relic reserved for the cultural festivals that take place every two years. In their new incarnation as part of a reinvented tradition, iayde songs have been adapted to the new circumstances, oen in the form of praise songs honoring successful migrants, the hometown associations, and the village as a whole.

PAGE 16

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 15 ac lt eports GREG I ER ecological effects of water withdrawals from the Crocodile River, which forms the southern boundary of the Kruger National Park in South received a Rotary Fellowship to spend one year in South Africa to develop his ecological models in cooperation with the University of KwaZuluNatal, water management authorities and the Kruger National Park. Nathan is working with to provide computer game-style tools to integrate ecosystem processes, management, economics and socio-political factors into a user-friendly version to integrate hydrological simulations from a South African model (Acru2000) with ecological abstractions from the Crocodile River. The second project is the development of an elephant and vegetation model for ecological management of elephant population control scenarios within savanna ecosystems. Elephant and vegetation management in southern Africa has been described as a wicked problem where solutions defy simplistic notions and problem contexts continually shift with evolving expectations and multi-disciplinary information base for elephant biology and management, full integration of these diverse sectors for analysis and management has not yet been realized. An integral part of adaptive management is the use of computational models to inform and adjust management responses to thresholds of potential concern (TPCs). My algorithms developed by ecologists to simulate landscape-scale tree-grass competition and growth with agent-based implementation of spatiallyexplicit, elephant populations. Additional research activities in southern Africa have established research links with the Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre (HOORC) at the University of Botswana through the NSFIGERT program (Adaptive Cathey, a Ph.D student whose committee I co-chair, is conducting research into water resource modeling and uncertainty analysis in the Okavango River Basin and Delta. collaboration into a larger grant from NASA to explore climate change and its effects on land use in the greater Okavango, Kwandu and Zambezi River basins. This new research grant headed by Jane Southworth in the Dept. of Geography is providing research support for two additional Masters students (Sanjiv Jagtap and Gloria Perez-Falcon) to study vegetation modeling and land use change in the tri-basin area. This and complex (SAVANNA) models to explore ecosystem resilience and uncertainty.

PAGE 17

16 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 AGNES ES IE I organized and led a Problems and Challenges and in conjunction with the gender studies department in the School of Humanities and Social Sciences and various womens organizations. The workshop was attended by Member of Parliament, Regina Musokotwane, the Dean of Humanities and Social Sciences, Dr. Vincent Chanda, the Director of the Institute of Economic and Social Research, Professor Mubiana Macwangi, faculty from various departments, womens organizations and graduate students. Presentations at the workshop included experiences of a female member of parliament in running for parliamentary election, research reports on the challenges female MPs undergo when they run for election, and research analyzing the experiences of womens groups from Botswana and South Africa and what lessons these could provide for womens groups in Zambia. I also continued researching the impact of Chinese investments on the Zambian economy, workers conditions, and the environment. Chinese investment in Zambia has grown rapidly since the 1990s when the Zambian government began to privatize its state-controlled enterprises. I spent time touring some of the Chinese-funded industries, studying their impact and conduct ing in-depth interviews with members of parliament, University of Zambia professors and students, businesses, the media, various government ministries and workers. I also conducted interviews with ocials at the Chinese embassy. e embassy ocials agreed that some of the problems encoun tered by the Chinese in their interactions with Zambians were due to the inad equate preparation and education of the Chinese investors. Some of the investors lacked proper training in human relations and were coming from working environ ments in China that condoned human rights violations. e complaints against Chinese investors included failure to adhere to environmental safety standards and work ers protection provisions, casualization of labor to avoid paying benets, non-ad herence to minimum wage requirements, rampant arbitrary dismissals, requiring Zambian employees to work odd hours to avoid paying transport allowances and requiring employees to work without protective gear in dangerous environ ments. ere have been several reports of accidents and deaths in Chinese operated companies. In 2005, 51 people were killed in a Chinese-operated mine. In 2009, ve miners including a Chinese national were killed in a Chinese-owned coal mine, due to illegal mining operations under unsafe conditions. An examination of workers complaints recorded at the Ministry of Labor and Social Services showed an average of 10 complaints against Chinese companies each month from July 2008 to July 2009. e government has closed some manufacturing premises due to their unsafe environments. e ndings point to weakness in government regulation of investors and suggests the need for stronger laws and policies in order to protect Zambian workers and improve their work environments. ere is also need for greater involvement of parliament in order to promote stronger laws and regulations and nd ways of holding investors accountable. In addition, the Ministry of Labor and Social Security needs to be strengthened to have more sta to ensure that the policies are being implemented. e Zambian government has not been eective in dening the roles of external foreign companies in development and implementing laws and policies which would adequately benet the country and safeguard the health, security and economic rights of the Zambian workers. Of the people interviewed 31 percent felt that the Chinese investment had a positive impact on the economy. More than 65 percent of the members of parliament felt that the Chinese investments had impacted the Zambian society negatively.

PAGE 18

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 17 ac lt eports STAFFAN I INDBERG Several working papers that have come out of this work have been posted as working papers by the African Power and Politics-program (www.institutionsa doctoral student in the Department of Political Science. Dr. Lindberg is now working on a larger project on political clientelism publications on election campaign funding, voting behavior and voter alignments, political clientelism and the role Members of Parliament in Ghana. The project also draws on recently collected survey and interview data (also from Ghana). Together the data includes four rounds of surveys with citizens in 10 strategically selected constituencies (out of the Ghanas 230 at present), three rounds of surveys with Members of Parliament, two years of participant observation in Parliament of Ghana, and some 200+ in-depth interviews with MPs, clerks of Parliament, journalists, ministers, scholars, and citizens in Ghana. The time period covered by the data is from 1996 to 2009. It is too early to tell what the main results will be of the comprehensive analysis but earlier work suggests that political clientelism expands during the early phases of democratization until the costs reach a tipping point for politicians, who then turn to producing collective goods via political policy making in order to economize with scarce resources in their private disposal that can be used for reelection (election campaigning).

PAGE 19

18 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 FI NA M AUGH IN Linguistic landscape is a relatively new yet thriving avenue of research within sociolinguistics, and its interest lies what it can reveal about language hierarchies, language vitality or endangerment, the economic value of particular languages, and the political power or lack thereof associated with any given language. In my own research I am particularly interested in the relationship between the linguistic landscape and the spoken environment in Dakar, and in what kinds of literacies make it into the public sphere and what kinds remain private. I documented Dakars linguistic setting out early in the morning so that I could photograph the city before the streets got too crowded. I worked my way from one of the residential neighborhoods not far from the Universit Cheikh Anta Diop, though the Fass, Gueule Tape and Medina neighborhoods towards downtown, then out towards the port of Dakar. Dakars linguistic landscape is characterized by digraphia, or writing in two scripts, namely Roman and Arabic, but as Calvet (1994) pointed out in Les voix de la ville, there is no straightforward, one-to-one relationship between language and script. Arabic, for example, can appear in the Arabic or Roman occasionally appears in the Arabic script. Calvets early observations, but there are also some new additions to Dakars linguistic landscape, namely English, which appears to be written invariably in the Roman script, appearing much more frequently than when Calvets study was conducted, and Chinese, written in Chinese characters and the Roman script. French is the domain of most dominates in the spoken environment. centrally into the advertising sector and many products and services are advertised bilingually in billboards and posters whereas in the past only as its sphere of reference. Chinese businesses often have bilingual signs advertising their businesses and goods in both Chinese and French. linguistic landscape, and what I suspect might be true for other African capitals where the vernacular is not it is from the spoken environment. So aspects of the written environment are the less formal ones, and that when considered along with other contexts, such as text messaging, in which new literacies are emerging, we can begin to piece together an understanding of the relationship of written to spoken language in Dakar.

PAGE 20

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 19 ac lt eports C NNIE MU IGAN There is growing evidence there may be an intermediate mechanism that mediates between the rapidly changing environment and our slowly evolving genome, i.e. epigenetic alterations. A new project based in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and conducted by UFs Department of Anthropology will investigate epigenetic the genome that do not change the underlying DNA sequence, but do affect gene expression) as a possible pathway to developmental plasticity and adaptation. Professors Connie Mulligan, Lance Gravlee, and Alyson Young and doctoral student Nikki DErrico will examine epigenetics and socio-cultural measures of stress in one of the most stressful environments today: the eastern DRC, where war has raged for 14 years. This war and the related politicaleconomic instability have far-reaching consequences as a result of widespread material deprivation, increased exposure to psychosocial stressors, and direct physical violence, including systematic rape warfare. Biological samples will be collected and oral history interviews will be conducted with a group of Congolese mothers and newborns to test whether epigenetic alterations mediate the effects of maternal exposure to stressors on fetal development and neonatal health. to investigate epigenetic alterations in humans as a means of modifying gene expression in offspring as a result of trauma to the mother. The idea that violence and stress exposure can create abrupt changes in gene expression in offspring has immediate relevance to global public health issues. This research has the potential to dramatically transform the ways in which we think of adaptation and evolution as well as informing policies to address societal problems. The proposed biocultural approach integrates sophisticated genetic and ethnographic data and emphasizes the strengths of research conducted in a

PAGE 21

20 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 ESTHER B NY The project is mainly directed at addressing problems at the village level in the Venda region of the Limpopo Province. I was particularly interested in understanding the successes, failures, and ethical dilemmas encountered throughout project execution as the valuable lessons learnt can inform projects being undertaken in other developing countries. The project team used photovoice and message boards to promote community engagement. The photovoice technique combines photography with social action. In the Limpopo Province, it was used to gather information on different levels of access to potable water. The technique was successfully used in 2008 and 2009 selected parts of the Limpopo Province (Tshapasha and Tshibvumo) to capture views from different age groups (children, young adults and older people). In follow-up activities, additional needs and changes in requirements have also been collected for use in the design of new projects. Message boards were put up in nearby schools as part of the community engagement strategy. The use of the board is linked to an educational program directed at teaching the children to respect water and existing projects. The children are then encouraged to create posters summarizing the lessons they have learnt for display on the message boards which forms part of the outreach to a broader audience. The message boards can also be used by community members for brainstorming and sharing ideas. Another initiative was directed at providing clean water using a to clean the water without using chemicals or electricity. The system in Tshapasha triggered a community problem. The quantity of water being dispensed was not enough. An assessment of the situation revealed that a low water pressure was at the root of the quantity issue. To address this, the project team elevated the tank. Another issue that emerged was that the 1m of sand that was supposed to be there was missing. biological layer that is required for Further work in the area of water supply has started assessing the feasibility of implementing point contaminants from drinking water. The work done so far has focused on assessing the feasibility of setting up a factory for producing ceramic provide employment for the local people. The project team also wanted to assess the feasibility of using Moringa plants as a strategy for addressing malnutrition. The Moringa leaves are rich in minerals, all the essential amino acids, proteins as well as Vitamin A, B and C. The tree can also be used for the generation of biofuels. The project team was not the tree. As soon as the trees planted at Tshapasha sprung up, livestock in the community ate all the leaves.

PAGE 22

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 21 ac lt eports BERNARD ECH It is estimated that about 34,000 deaths occur each year in Kenya due to malaria alone, the main casualties being children under five, pregnant women and HIV infected per sons. The Kenyan government has made serious efforts to fight malaria transmission through the provision of subsidized medicines at local health centers, distribution of free insecticide treated bed nets, and lately, with support from the US governments Presidents Malaria Initiative (PMI), indoor residual spraying of insecticides. These three malaria management methods are bearing fruit as seen in the reducing cases of malaria in many areas around the country. However, sustainability is and will remain a major challenge because the Kenya government relies on donor support to fund these malaria interventions (medicines, bed nets and insecticides). My research in Kenya advocates malaria management practices that do not have a huge price tag, that are sustainable and usable widely and routinely within households once they are adopted by communities. Over the last 7 years, working with Kenyan collaborators, we developed a model demonstration field site within a rice agro-ecosystem (Mwea Tebere) in central Kenya for parasite control studies. In this area, we conducted a knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) survey that collected data from approximately 400 households; we were able to show a significant correlation between removal of stagnant water and clearing of bushes (also called environmental management) in and around households and the reduction of indoor resting malaria mosquito densities. This finding is very significant in terms of understanding malaria reduction in Mwea because the fewer mosquitoes rest inside houses the lower the risk of contracting malaria. The power of environmental management at a household level on malaria control needs to be emphasized; My research is investigating innovative grass roots methods to scale up environmental management methods of mosquito control to the county and district level in Kenya as a sustainable addition to the progressive achievements seen in malaria control in Kenya. In Kenya, current estimates of malaria deaths are at 34,000 according to the Division of Malaria Control reports. The primary strategy to prevent the malaria transmission is through treatment of cases, scaling up use of insecticide treated bed nets (ITN), and indoor residual sprays (IRS). The latter strategy focuses mainly on reducing the population of malaria mosquitoes to lower the risk of transmission. In Kenya, there is a limited human resource capac ity at the sub-national and county levels to assess the efficacy of such intervention in diverse epidemiological settings. This inadequacy impacts negatively monitoring and evaluation capacity which has downstream effects on data flow between district, provincial and national teams and is a major stumbling block to the success of malaria control activities. I collaborate with the Ministry of Health in Kenya in developing a training program to meet the need for malaria control monitoring and evaluation at the district level. This district-level training of malaria control personnel is critical for the overall success and sustainability of operational malaria control in the Kenya. Trained personnel will support scaling up IRS in different epidemiological settings and provide the missing links at the county level for M&E of malaria control in Kenya. Local government agencies have committed to this training program and plan to include it in their national malaria control strategy so as to increase sustainability in the management, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation capacity for malaria control in Kenya.

PAGE 23

22 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 TER E STEB Being appointed to the Center for African Studies & Department of Religion in August 2010, and therefore being in a transitional phase, my work has had the form of several smaller projects, all related to contemporary Islam in the Horn of Africa. The first was a study of Salafism in Bale, Ethiopia, expanding my initial research for my PhD dissertation. The study discusses the trajectory of the early Salafi movement in that region, paying attention to the role of agents of change, in the form of an emerging class of local merchants and graduates returning from Islamic universities in Saudi Arabia during the 1960s. This is going to be published as a journal article in Africa in 2011. Secondly, I was commissioned by the International Law and Policy Institute (Norway) to write a report on Islamism in the Horn of Africa. The report entitled Islamism in the Horn of Africa: Assessing Ideologies, Actors, and Objectives (report no 5/2010) was published in June 2010. Drawing on my reviewing the available literature, the report analyzes recent developments, with regard to Islamist movements in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, and Sudan. It surveys the main actors, discusses the trajectories over the last decades, and seeks to present a more nuanced picture of this highly dynamic and heterogeneous phenomenon. Thirdly, I co-organized (together with Patrick Desplat, University of Cologne) a workshop on Islam in contemporary Ethiopia at the University of Bergen, Norway, which was cosponsored by the Center for African Studies, University of Florida. The workshop was called Transforming Identities and New Representations of Islam in Contemporary Ethiopia, and saw the participation of 12 scholars from various parts of the world. The focus was on changes with regard to Muslim communities in post-1991 Ethiopia, and the papers dealt with intrareligious dynamics within these Muslim communities, Islam in Ethiopian public and political spheres, and shed light on Islam in Ethiopia in relation to the geopolitical discourses in the wider Horn of Africa. Lastly, I have started preparing a larger project called Religion and Ethnicity in Ethiopia. The project takes Islam and Oromo ethno-nationalism in eastern Ethiopia as a point of departure and seeks to forward suggestions on how to conceptualize the relationship between religious and ethnic identities in relation project is funded by the Norwegian Association and will begin in 2011.

PAGE 24

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 23 ac lt eports R BIN P YN R My original research in Nigeria into the arts of the Yoruba-speaking peoples focused on arts used in leadership context and in religion. Those studies are the basis for my explorations into the arts and visual environments created in the United States (and especially Florida) by those who have converted to Yoruba orisha veneration. Part of my research addresses the visual environments created by Yoruba Americans living in Alachua County, particularly Baba Onabamiero Ogunleye of Archer. Ogunleye lived in Oyotunji in South Carolina for nine years, where he was initiated into the Yoruba religion. Later, after settling in Archer, he traveled to Oshogbo, Nigeria, to be initiated as a babalawo. His mentor in Nigeria travels to Archer to preside over initiations. I have investigated not only Ogunleyes sculpture but also the visual environment the creates in shrines and altars. Of particular interest to me is the development over time of the altar to the orisha Ogun, who was exceptionally important in the region of Nigeria where I did earlier research. I have examined other shrines to Ogun both in North Florida and in South Florida for comparative purposes. Further research explores the Orisha Gardens in Central Florida maintained by the Ifa Foundation of North and Latin America. Philip Neimark is of Jewish heritage, but he converted to Yoruba religion by way of Cuban Santeria in Miami. He practiced as a babalawo in Chicago for many years and then practiced in Indiana before relocating to Florida. His wife Vassa is of Greek descent, and she too converted to orisha veneration. The two formed the foundation in order to reach out to people around the world who are seeking spiritual guidance through the Yoruba religion. The Ola Olu retreat in a rural area not far from the sculptural forms from Nigeria and elsewhere as well as objects created by Iyanifa Vassa. Initiates from around the world come to Ola Olu to be initiated. I have signed a contract with the University Press of Florida for a book tentatively titled Africa in Florida that will address 500 years of African presence in Florida, beginning with Juan Garrido, a conquistador of African descent who accompanied Ponce de Leon on his initial voyage in 1513. The book, co-edited with Amanda Carlson of the University of Hartford, will include essays by a range of scholars from the United States, England and Mexico. One of my chapters on the art of Ogunleye is co-authored by Ade Ofunniyin, a recent UF PhD in Anthropology. Another chapter addresses the visual environment of Ola Olu. The publication of the book will be in time for the 500th anniversary of the arrival of explorers of African descent in 1513. I am also working on a comparative study of Ogun Altars in Florida which may be published in a journal that plans a special issue on Ritual Arts of the Black Atlantic.

PAGE 25

24 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 RICHARD RHEINGANS Much of our work in Kenya focuses on understanding the impact of schoolcan result in exposure to diarrheal pathogens and intestinal parasites, leading to illness, absenteeism and poor educational performance. The driving question is whether and how school-level improvements can reverse these patterns without broader community interventions. The project is based in rural areas of Nyanza Province in western Kenya and is done in collaboration with Great Lakes University of Kisumu and CARE. It is designed to generate knowledge on effective ness and sustainability and to use the information to influence policy and practice at a national level. The project includes a randomized trial to measure health and educational impacts, along with qualitative and contextual assessments of a wide range of issues including menstrual management for girls, anal cleansing, and interactions between communities and schools. Preliminary results demonstrate that, as expected, schools and at home. This effect is predominantly among girls in poorer or marginalized households. benefit girls and not boys. Data from the trial also show that school-based interventions can be effective in changing water treatment behaviors among households within the community. This diffusion effect is strongest among poor households, suggesting that school-based interventions can partially offset social and economicinduced disparities in drinking water quality. One of the greatest challenges for improving ing soap for handwashing, and treating water for drinklack the necessary resources and there is seldom a system of accountability to ensure conditions are sustained. Our current work is exploring different models for that, which combine community-based accountability with improvements in school capacity for sustaining. In addition to the schools project, we also work with our partners in west ern Kenya to explore the mechanisms for creating disparities in household drinking water quality and sanitation. This work explores specific sources of contamination and behavioral risk factors, but also explores the role of social norms and neighbors in creating disparities.

PAGE 26

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 25 ac lt eports C AUDIA R MER FRANCIS E PUT On this theme, the HED team from 3 southern African countries representing the Polytechnic of Namibia, the University of Namibia, the University of Botswana, and Rhodes University presented a poster at UFs conference Bridging Conservation and Development in Latin America and Africa: Changing Contexts, Changing Strategies, held in January 2010. Claudia presented a version of the 10-year strategic plan in the HED meet the plans final version at the II APEDIA (Academic Partnership for Environment and Development Innovations in Africa) meet on building the case for the importance of higher education for development, and thus for climate change adaptation and mitigation. This presentation emphasized the interdisciplinary, case-study centered, and collaborative approach implemented by TCD. Rhodes University in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa with support from the Fulbright Senior Specialists Program. The Fulbright program also supported the visit of a doctoral candidate from Rhodes Univer sity, Matt McConnachie, who demonstrated advanced econometric modeling skills for his Overall, Claudia and Jack remain very much involved in collaborative research and training efforts in South Africa and Namibia related to the broad themes of higher education, ecosystem management, payments for environmental services, and biodiversity conservation.

PAGE 27

26 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 ICT RIA R INE The conference attendees represent countries throughout Europe, Asia, the Americas, and elsewhere. This is an unusual conference for me, because I am accustomed to being the only person at such gatherings who studies Africa; an interesting if sometimes lonely position! This time, a second paper on Africa appeared among the seventy-five at the conference, presented by a professor of textile design from Nigeria. Our two papers stand out because they are focused on clothing histories and innovations presentation on the role of historical and contemporary dress in the expression of African identities opened a completely new field for most of the participants; most experts in fashion studies know nothing of Africas vibrant fashion scenes. The response to my paper was both gratifying and frustrating, as audience members expressed appreciation for the work of the designers, and amazement at this vibrant artistic production that takes place without recognition from the mainstream international fashion press and scholars of fashion. Such conferences convince me that this work makes an important contribution to several fields, including African Studies, art history, and fashion studies. In the past year, I have continued to conduct research and publish on several aspects of Africas presence in global fashion markets. I traveled to Senegal and Mali in summer 2010, where I interviewed numerous designers and continued my exploration of the markets for fashion I presented a paper at a symposium on the changing images of Africa in India and France, from the colonial era to the present. That event was held at the Universit de Cergy-Pontoise, outside two Africa-focused fashion shows, one at the Embassy of the Cte dIvoire (a celebration of the 50th anniversary of independence) and the other at a community center in one of the citys chicest districts. Both were extremely well attendedthe enthusiasm for Africas leading designers extends well beyond their countries of origin. This research was largely funded by the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto, where I am guest-curating an exhibition on Africas roles in global fashion trends. The exhibition will address clothing creativity in Africa through the work of contemporary African designers, innovations in traditional dress styles, and the influence of African forms on three elements, the exhibition will use dress to analyze the construction of ideas about African identities both by and for African audiences, and about Africa for European audiences. In addition, two articles from this research were published in the past year, along with a chapter in an edited volume on contemporary African fashion.

PAGE 28

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 27 ac lt eports E ERIA U D AHMED SA EM Arab-Berber Moors make up the majority of the population in Mauritania, and refer to themselves as bidhn half of them are, in fact, Haratin that is black Moors of servile or slave origin. More specifically, I look at the ways in which individuals claiming a servile origin strive to carve out a place for themselves and their community in the multiethnic nation of Mauritania by various means, includingbut not limited toIslamic revival and radicalism. Many individuals and activist groups of the Haratin community tend to label their individual or collective actions as a fight against slavery, a stigma as well as a vestige of a historical institution that is still entrenched in Mauritanian social hierarchies. This is further complicated by the fact that such hierarchies are at times sanctioned by local interpretations of Islamic law. I am studying three aspects of this complex topic: First, I am reconstructing the endless debate on Islam and slavery in the Mauritanian public sphere as it appears in the discourse of political and social movements, and especially when this debate features an Islamic argumentation. Paradoxically, this debate is becoming even more tense in recent times, as the Haratin community has been progressively emancipated. Secondly, I am examining aspects of Muslim family law, ethnicity and politics in the light of some cases that have re cently come before the judicial system in Mauritania, and involving cases in which some prestigious families have brought cases against young married couples from different social and racial backgrounds. In doing so, these families have tried to force the couples to divorce by invoking sharia law provisions regarding the ambiguous and controversial notion of kefa (equality), that in their view should prevent in particular the marriage between a noble woman and a man whose origin is tar nished by a servile status. I explore how the judicial system in Mauritania, which is supposed to be based on sharia law, deals with this type of claim. I reconstruct the ways in which conflicting arguments grounded in the same sharia provisions are elaborated by the various persons and institutions involved in these trials. I examine also the final outcomes of these officially judicial processes, but which are simultaneous highly controversial political and religious issues. The final and third aspect of this work is a case study of the large numbers of Haratin who have recently become imams of mosques in the country. In par ticular, I present the life stories of two of these imams, which I recently recorded, and which serve to illustrate the entangle ment of debates about Islamic leadership at a grassroots level and the question of legitimacy as a religious leader, as well as overlapping issues of citizenship, human rights and belonging in modern-day Muslim Africa.

PAGE 29

28 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 PETER SCHMIDT The first place I revisited was Katuruka, where local oral traditions said King Rugomora Mahe (1650-75) had built a large iron tower to the heavens. Marked by an ancient shrine tree called Kaiija (the place of the forge), this sacred place dates back to 500 BCthe earliest date for iron working in East, Central, or southern Africa. To my surprise, the ancient memorial was a stump. I also came to learn that whole families and lineages had perished in the HIV/AIDS epidemic that first swept through this part of eastern Africa. age 65 were living when compared to four decades earlier. Several remaining elders asked that I return to the village to assist them in documenting what remained of their oral histories and oral traditions. They also wanted help with restoring their ancient shrines and other places documented by archae ology, hoping to make them a cultural heritage destination for employment of youth who now leave the village to seek opportunity elsewhere. Collaborative research initiated by the community provided an extraordinary opportunity to under stand what changes had gripped Haya villages over the last 40 years. I returned in October 2009 with support from a Fulbright-Hays Faculty Research Abroad fellow ship to launch oral tradition research. Village elders conducted the interviews, with digital recording transcribed by villagers, and the transcriptions (and video recordings) contributing to a permanent village archive. Censuses conducted in two villages shed more light on the impact of HIV/AIDS, showing that the proportion of males to females over age 65 has declined significantly over the last thirty years. The 1978 Tanzania census shows .97 male to each female, while at the height of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in 1988 this ratio had dropped to .54 to 1, an enormous change; today a ratio of .54 to 1 prevails in Katuruka village. Thus, a disproportionate number of males in their forties and fifties died during the height of the epidemic. This demographic shift has severely interrupted the transmission of oral traditions. knowledge held by some skilled keepers of history forty years ago, there is now only skeletal knowledge held by elders. A second collaboration focused on development of a village museum and an interpretative tour conducted by youth trained in the oral traditions. The community constructed a buchwankwanzi house (photo), the spirit house in King Rugomoras burial estate built in the style of an omushonge house. Buchwankwanzi opened in June as a site museum, re plete with archaeological exhibits of the excavations conducted on-site in 1970 as well as displays of iron working equipment and a photo exhibit of iron smelting and forging. Additional research shows a precipitous decline in fertility of village farms resulting from the sale of cattle for quick money upon the untimely deaths of parents and other family. This has removed manure as a key element in once prosperous Haya farming. Perhaps the most poignant index to change is the revitalization of spirit mediumshipthe traditional Bacwezi cultin the face of what is viewed as the failure of Christian churches to provide help during times of stress and affliction. For the first are emerging in both villages and suburban settings, with some providing reinvented traditional solutions to the stresses that infuse daily life.

PAGE 30

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 29 ac lt eports FRAN SEIDE Nalu is spoken on the littorals of Guinea and Guinea-Bissau. In Guinea, Nalu speakers primarily live north of the river Nuez on the Tristo islands, which are part of the prefecture of Bok. Across the border in Guinea-Bissau speakers of Nalu are located around the Cacine estuary in the Tombali region. It is claimed that ancestors to the contemporary language community entered the current living area around the 14th and 15th centuries. I plan to produce a detailed dictionary, annotated audio and audiovisual data of texts from different genres, cultural activities etc., an orthography, and a grammatical sketch. In both countries Nalu speakers live in a heterogeneous ethnic and linguistic environment. Not much is known about the exact situation in Guinea Bissau, except maybe that one can reasonably assume that Nalu is spoken in the vicinity of Balanta, Biafada, and Landuma speakers. In Guinea Conakry, Nalu is spoken as one of many languages in the prefecture of Bok, and Nalu speakers there live together with speakers of Landuma, Balanta, Baga and other languages. Even in the one area that is dominated by Nalu speakers, i.e. the sub-prefecture of Kanfarand, they are in contact with Balanta, Landuma and Fulfulde. Encompassing this situation is Soso, the dominant lingua franca of the region, with speakers both also in GuineaBissau and Sierra Leone. Nowadays, Nalu speakers are shifting towards Soso. To be more precise the shifting process to the target language Soso is asserted for the Nalu speakers of Guinea and can reasonably be assumed for the speakers living in Guinea Bissau. At least, most sources that mention the topic claim that Nalu in Guinea Bissau is fast disappearing. A point that severely aggravates the language shift situation mentioned above is the inexistent administrative support. Neither in Guinea Bissau nor in Guinea Conakry is Nalu considered to be a national language and thus it is, to my knowledge, neither part of any government or NGO initiative for alphabetization, nor is it part of any school curricula, nor is it used in the media. Because of the language shift situation it is hard to gauge exactly how many people actually speak the language still. Numbers vary between 6000-25000. Be that as it may, any numbers given are hard to interpret speakerwise, because the criteria for entering someone as Nalu into the count are generally not given. Thus, if one takes into account that, except on the Tristo islands, most of the younger generation of ethnic Nalu are first language speakers of Soso and have, at best, passive competence in Nalu, the actual number of speakers is most likely a lot lower than estimated. Nevertheless, on the Tristo archipelago which still is an infrastructurally and economically somewhat marginalized area, the language is still used as an intraethnic means of communication and also transmitted to some extent to the younger generation. Thus, although the number of speakers may be quite small and dwindling, a meaningful study of this language is at present still possible.

PAGE 31

30 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 RENATA SERRA As coordinator of four country teams as well as lead researcher of the Mali team, I have certainly been very busy. In March, we expanded our research to Cameroon and welcome our new collaborators from the national Institut de Recherche Agricole pour le Dveloppement (IRAD). They join our teams based at research institutes in Benin, Burkina Faso and Mali. In May, I convened our annual meeting in Niamey, Niger with the invaluable help of our host institution, also an APP partner, LASDEL ( Laboratoire dEtudes et de Recherches sur les Dynamiques Sociales et le Dveloppement Local ). Besides exchanging preliminary findings and planning the work ahead, we had the unique opportunity to participate in four days of training in a qualitative and collaborative research methodology called ECRIS, which has helped reinforce the teams capacities. In July, I went to Mali to start the second phase of fieldwork, where I interviewed main stakeholders in the capital, Bamako, and visited two villages in the Kita cotton region, meeting with farmer cooperatives and discussing changes since last year and the emergence of new solutions. At the end of September, I attended a meeting at the Overseas Development Institute in London with other researchers working on cotton sector reforms; and then proceeded on to Paris, to present our preliminary findings to both the Consortium Advisory Group and the Management Board of the APP Program. Meanwhile, fieldwork in our four countries is ongoing, with the goal to capture the key phases of the current agricultural year. Our four countries, which are among the largest African cotton exporters, have been involved to a different degree in reforming their cotton sectors, historically characterized by a state monopoly. Their distinct responses to donors pressures for reforms and to internal governance challenges represent a very interesting setting for conducting a comparative analysis of how key elements in a countrys political economy affect policy processes and outcomes in vital economic sectors. Our findings show that political and social realities, as well as past experiences in dealing with specific economic challenges, affect cotton sector performance more than the formal market structure in itself (monopoly or liberalized market). Potential explanatory factors include: nature of the democratic state, patterns of rent distribution, the political weight of farmer unions, the relationship between union leaders and their base, and the ability of farmer cooperatives to solve collection action problems. Our objective is to analyze in a systematic and rigorous way the role of these factors in order to shed better light on the actual forces behind different degrees of market performance and arrive at a finer explanation of what is happening on the ground. Our ambition is to engage ongoing policy debates, in recommendations that take better account of local dynamics and their potential for affecting outcomes in key productive sectors.

PAGE 32

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 31 ac lt eports I S N E In May and June of 2010, a team of 19 CAHRE faculty and students, along with several health and arts professionals from Florida and beyond traveled to Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to continue work begun in 2009. CAHRE is a part of a consortium of NGOs working together in Rwanda to improve quality of life in genocide survivor villages. The consortium includes the Rwanda Red Cross, the Barefoot Artists, Engineers without Borders, Jefferson Health, and the Rwandan Village Concept Project. The primary goals of the 2011 initiative were: 1) to provide relevant education to healthcare professionals and lay healthcare providers in the Rugerero Survivor Village and surrounding region; 2) to use theatre and the visual arts to enhance health literacy and community engagement in the Rugerero region; 3) to use the arts to enhance familiarity with and utilization of health services in the Rugerero region; 4) to use the arts as a needs assessment tool to explore relevant social issues; and 5) to create sustainable economic opportunities for individuals and communities through vocational arts training. The CAHRE team, under the leadership of Jill Sonke and Cindy Nelly, continued work in the Rugerero genocide survivor village and two regional health clinics, expanded work into a small village adjacent to Rugerero that is home to a community of 91 people of Twa decent, created a bicycle taxi co-op project with an emphasis on health education in the town of Gisenyi, presented regional Home-Based Life Saving Skills training programs, and conducted needs assessments in the Twa village and in Goma, DRC. CAHRE nurses conducted health assessments, trainings, and provided healthcare to address immediate needs, while artists installed health education murals at local clinics, presented health education theatre performances in area schools, and provided vocational arts training in local co-ops, villages, and clinics. The health and health education projects focused primarily on nutrition, hygiene, HIV prevention, family planning, and malaria prevention. Upon return to Florida, team members created Rwanda Sustainable Families, an economic assistance program, to aid villagers in the Rubavu district in starting small businesses and put their children through school. Thus far, 15 families have been part of the program, starting businesses selling vegetables and goats. Additionally, members of the CAHRE team are creating a public art exhibit including photography, handicrafts, and artwork created by the children of the Rugerero and Twa village expressing their views on peace and unity. The exhibit will be presented in the fall of 2010. The AIM for Africa Rwanda & DRC project will continue through 2011 as CAHRE hosts the East-Central Africa Arts & Health Forum in Kigali, undertakes extended residencies in Rugerero and the Twa village as well as in the DRC, and launches a longitudinal study assessing the impact of its programs on healthcare utilization in the Rugerero region. For more information, see www.arts.ufl.edu/ CAHRE/aimrwanda.asp

PAGE 33

32 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 A I UNE S During my first trip, I worked in Bamako, the capital city, and then traveled to the Kayes region in the western part of the country to conduct interviews with activists from the Agence Malienne des Expulss about migrant issues. In particular, I was able to investigate a new theatrical repertoire, which is created and performed by former illegal migrants willing to communicate, and indeed problematize, their own experience. This popular dramaturgy points to new theatrical practices, and translates, in unexpected forms and language, the obsessions and fears but also the success related to the Malian experience of migration. They raise unexamined questions of genre and performance, place and settings, testifying to the innovativeness and dynamics of local cultural practices. In Bamako, I also pursued my research on life narratives and memoirs and more precisely prison narratives written by former political prisoners of the Moussa Traor military regime. These texts are part of a larger group of narratives published at an impressive rate since the onset of democratization, and which include memoirs written by former military officers as well as by ordinary citizens willing to testify about the military regime. During this first trip I interviewed Amadou Traor, one of the most important political figures in postcolonial Mali, who is a former political prisoner and now publisher. I also worked with Ibrahima Tour, a Malian director, who has just finished an adaptation of Ibrahima Lys prison narrative Toiles daraigne I continued with this research during my second trip to Bamako, which coincided with the countrys celebration at the role of life narratives and memoirs during moments of commemoration and how they relate to official practices of memory, I pursued my interviews with other political prisoners such as Bakary Koniba and Seydou Badian Kouyat. I also spent time in the national archives looking at the relationship between Malian politics and literary practices and met with other actors involved with the literary scene such as editors and publishers. This research is part of a larger project which examines the developments that have been brought to the Malian literary domain since the fall of the Moussa Traor military regime in 1991. Some of these developments include: the complex modes of local rehabilitation of literary figures such as Fily Dabo Sissoko, Yambo Ouologuem and Ahmed Thiam; the rediscovery and sensitive dissemination of the militant poetry from the northern regions at a moment of great political anxiety within this particular zone; and the unexpected orientations of the Malian novel. All of these literary initiatives, discoveries and changes are unmistakable signs of a desire to reconstruct and solidify a national literary history devastated by 23 years of military regime.

PAGE 34

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 33 ac lt eports ANITA SPRING I have continued to do research on related topics including a ten-country study that considered African business people, both women and men, at various levels of economic and business activities. I interviewed business owners, managers, and workers of small to medium to largescale formal-sector companies, and described and modeled the factors that helped and hindered business success, sustainability, and upward mobility. I also researched informal-sector, small-scale economic activities (e.g., agriculture, local manufacturing, retail sales and vendoring) that are engaged in by large numbers of people in every African county. As a result, I delineated the entrepreneurship landscape from bottom to top based on interviews, case materials, and surveys. The Sub-Saharan Africa Business Environment Report (SABER) project grows out of this interest, and commences in fall 2010 for a four-year period. As project director, along with Dr. Robert Rolfe, Professor of Marketing at the University of South Carolina, this research project is different from my previous work, and focuses on producing an annual report that is comprehensive and straightforward. It will analyze business indicators and conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa by region and specific countries. It aims to produce a concise package about African business conditions to assist several client groups ranging from business people and business consultants, to policy and decision makers, to the academic community of faculty and students who are located in the United States, Africa, and elsewhere. It focuses on major economic, social and political events and indicators of the sub-continent, initially considering the twenty largest economies in Sub-Saharan Africa. As an annual report, it will consider factors in the past year that have shaped the economic and political environment of the region and particular countries. SABER will include data on and evaluation of indicators and their implications for economic growth; foreign direct investment and trade; political stability; business regulation; labor and employment; gender issues in business; ease of doing business; trade organizations and policies; Millennium Development Goals; telecommunications and infrastructure; and health initiatives and epidemics as they impact economic indicators. An added feature will be the linkages to African universities and business schools. An advisory group of African scholars from business colleges in Africa will comprise a Council of African Scholars to review the reports. And each year, one of the scholars will be in short-term residence at UF to provide guidance and give seminars and lectures.

PAGE 35

34 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 ANDRE TATEM To monitor the effects that this increased investment and control is having, and to help countries decide on whether to target elimination in the short term, a strong quantitative evidence base is required. This year, my research has been focused on continuing to help to build this evidence base and provide quantitative, policy-relevant guidance on the feasibility of malaria elimination and the effects of control. Through my continued work with the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP, www.map.ox.ac.uk), we have built up a global database of nearly 30,000 community prevalence surveys, the majority of which were undertaken in Africa. Using Bayesian geostatistics, we constructed the first global evidence-based map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission intensity in 50 years, and used it to derive detailed estimates of populations at risk, clinical case numbers and commodity needs that are now widely used in the policy domain. An unexpected obstacle in calculating estimates of populations at risk from our malaria maps, was the poor quality of existing population distribution mapping for the majority of African countries. This prompted me to initiate and the launch the AfriPop population mapping project (www. afripop.org) this year, which is based at UF. The project aims to produce detailed and freely-available population distribution maps for the whole of Africa, and the early versions of East African datasets have been downloaded hundreds of times, finding usage by multiple organizations, Nations agencies, USAID, the CDC, the Red Cross, Medecins sans Frontieres and many other humanitarian organizations. Funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has also enabled UF colleague David Smith (Biology and EPI) and I to utilize the MAP malaria maps, in combination with mathematical models, to develop quantitative methods for malaria elimination planning. In collaboration with the Government of Zanzibar and the Clinton Foundation, this year we helped to conduct the first malaria elimination feasibility assessment of its kind, focused on the islands of cell phone usage across Zanzibar and mainland Tanzania, we were able to use novel methods to quantify human movement patterns and estimate rates of malaria importation to the islands. The report is now serving as a model for other countries consider ing malaria elimination, and we are Organization to update their guide lines. Finally, through successful Africa-related grant applications, I have begun working on a multi-institution collaborative project focused on intensive studies of malaria epidemiology in Uganda, the historical epidemiology of cholera globally, and the role of air travel in the spread of insect-borne diseases to and from Africa.

PAGE 36

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 35 ac lt eports CIRECIE EST ATUN I My research project focused on culture-centered disaster counseling and explored the impact of an international immersion experience on counselor competence. The four week clinical outreach began with an international conference at the University of Botswana (UB) in Gabarone, where mental health stakeholders shared their perspectives on Providing Culturally Competent Counseling Services in Trauma-affected Communities. Approximately, 75 graduate counseling students, faculty, and counseling practitioners were in attendance. Throughout the conference, the UB students shared their struggles in counselor development, giving meaning to the words cultural discontinuity. Most narratives focused on how difficult it is for counselors to connect with their clients who often didnt return. However, in general, their training was very similar to that in the U.S. Of significance, one of our team members remarked, There should be a Botswana theory of counseling instead of only importing culture. A nationally representative team of ten professional counselors and counselor educators were invited to participate the outreach experience. To more fully understand the southern African cultural contexts and the nature of HIV-AIDS related trauma, the clinical outreach team immersed themselves in the local milieu through both planned excursions to Robben Island, Soweto, and other landmarks, and by invited outings, like visiting the village of Molepolole with teachers met at the conference. The immersion began at the Lesedi Village where the team experienced the history of South Africa through music, dance, and storytelling. The bulk of the experience focused on connecting to individuals and community agencies though clientcentered, community-based counseling, responding adaptively where and when needs arose. One agency was ready with a case presentation and manuscript they had written and requested consultation and supervision. Another agency that was visited, Sithandi Zingane, provides care and support for orphaned brought considerable breadth and depth of counseling experience to the sites visited in South Africa and Botswana, an equally important emphasis was placed on their own growth, both personal and professional. Preliminary analysis of the data suggests that the participants articulate increased cultural competence, critical thinking around sociopolitical context, and enhanced self-awareness related to personal bias. Early outcomes of the study have been disseminated at confer ences and invited lectures in Romania, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and China. One paper is currently under review with a international peer-reviewed journal, other manuscripts are in progress. A FEO application has been submitted to the university to dedicate time to writ ing a textbook that articulates an emer gent model of culture-centered disaster counseling that is built upon my outreach efforts in southern Africa and elsewhere.

PAGE 37

U eports 36 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 HADID A ARFI I decided to go beyond that theme and for my dissertation investigate the Algerian colonial past through the postcolonial memory focusing on the people of Dellys. Such an approach allows me to get beyond the specific time of the war of resistance by using peoples testimonies, through storytelling, myths, songs, prayers and many other venues by using oral traditions and oral histories in analyzing social phenomena during colonialism. This summer I spent more than three months engaged in my dissertation fieldwork in the port town of Dellys, Algeria, and its surrounding villages. Located 100 km northwest of Algiers, Dellys is famous for its strategic position, being inhabited for several millennia by various civilizations Berber, Roman, Vandal, Arab, and French. Despite its historical legacy, cultural diversity, economy and environment, in the last fifteen years Dellys has been neglected and classified as a hub of terrorism, which makes it an excellent case study for postcolonial memory of colonialism. No matter how I prepared intellectually by reading books on memory and colonialism, postcolonial theory and oral history, when I sat listening to many of the great people of Dellys, we were able to construct unique narratives of a rich and complex life in colonial Algeria.Thanks to an exceptional net of connections, I had close to 100 formal and informal interviews. Eighty personal interviews were conducted with elderly men and women in the town of Dellys and surrounding villages. Though such dialogues, the participants told narratives by digging into their memories and using their landscape to construct these historical narratives. Being of Dellysian parents, I knew that during my fieldwork I would be obliged to fulfill my social obligations, embracing both advantages and disadvantages. Such events allowed me to participate in local social life without jeopardizing my data collection. Every moment I spent is part of my fieldwork. I am grateful to the Dellysians for embracing me, trusting me with stories that, for some, have been in their chests for a long time, and for thanking me for my interest in their words and lives. The data I collected is very significant. It responds to the limitations of many writings that neglect the context and voices of the indigenous population. In my experience, space, remembrance, and human connections are intertwined with gender, religion, class, tradition, and modernity in ways that are inseparable but independently significant. They represent memories of a life embedded within the casbah, gardens, or villages in relation to kinship and community. They construct emotional moments in memory in recalling colon harki or mujahid as symbols of their colonial interaction. The narratives tell the personal experiences of the interviewees, weaving a complex picture of the area in past and present. Thanks to my exceptional narrators, soon the stories from Dellys will flow in the river of human history to settle on its banks as an everlasting shaahid or trace.

PAGE 38

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 37 t dent eports RENEE BU C It is difficult to establish protected areas to manage resources at landscape level and greater attention has focused on how to conserve remaining biodiversity while supporting rural development needs. The East Usambaras, located in northeast Tanzania, are similar to many tropical regions that contain unique ecosystems. The mountains are characterized by a mosaic of land use patterns, including agriculture and montane rainforests that support some of the highest species biodiversity in the world. subsistence farmers grow many common food crops, including maize and cassava. Additionally, in the uplands, significant cash crops include spices that are grown in agroforestry systems. Native trees create shade for growing the queen of spices-cardamom. Cardamom is intensely aromatic and used in curries; in European countries the spice is used to flavor sweet pastries. For farmers in the East Usambaras cardamom thus holds potential as a high value export crop. In fact, the government promoted cardamom as a market strategy to alleviate poverty by producing for high value niche markets. My research has investigated cardamom cultivation and other land issues that are paramount to understanding how to address conservation priorities in the area: farmers land use practices and markets. Cardamom production has been criticized as a leading cause of deforestation. Although it is grown under native trees in agroforestry systems, production is estimated to last only 13 years. At this point, yields decline and so do farmers incomes. Farmers then convert their agroforestry systems to grow crops that enjoy full sunlight, such a food crops. But in so doing, the biodiversity value of their farm is lost: native trees are removed. In 2009 I developed profitability models for farmers land use practices. In short, conversion is lucrative and farmers incur high opportunity costs if they do not convert. I returned this summer to examine markets for the crops in these systems. My research assistant and I travelled by motorbike and camped in villages to interview farmers and intermediaries in rural and urban areas. which describes the full range of activities from production to final consumers. Our research revealed that there are significant constraints to farmers getting their crops into high value export markets, including weak institutions and low capital. Identifying market inefficiencies is useful to develop strategies to improve market based approaches that generate incentives to conserve agroforestry systems. For example, organic certification emphasizes quality standards and encourages sustainable agricultural practices. Conducting research in this corner of the world has taken me off the beaten track to an area I may not have otherwise visited. My field experiences have been adventurous and taught me many lessons, especially the value of communication. My ability to communicate in Swahili because of the FLAS fellowship has helped tremendously in facilitating professional relationships, and more importantly, getting to know the farmers with whom I work.

PAGE 39

38 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 NIC E C D ERRIC Researchers are beginning to document the health effects of the passage of stress hormones from mother to fetus. Still, many important questions about the biological mechanisms for such transmission remain largely unknown. This summer, with support from the Center for African Studies and in collaboration with Dr. Connie Mulligan, I began the first epigenetic study to take place in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This study is the first of its kind to analyze how the stress of 14 years of war in the eastern provinces of the DRC might produce epigenetic alterations among mothers and babies. This is particularly relevant in the context of eastern DRC, where systematic rape warfare is being used as a tool of war by soldiers operating in the region. For this biocultural study, I took semi-structured interviews, perinatal trauma surveys and biological samples from 25 women giving birth at the HEAL Africa hospital in Goma, eastern DRC, during July and August. Maternal blood, umbilical cord blood (a proxy for infant blood) and placental samples were taken from all participants. From these samples we will measure stress hormones, biological markers of inflammation and epigenetic alterations. The interview and survey data and will provide the contextual details necessary to begin to understand how mundane stressors and other traumatic exposures of war such as sexual violence, map onto patterns of epigenetic changes, stress and inflammation in mother-infant dyads. During the course of the study, our partner doctors on the ground in Goma were capacitated to do basic DNA will continue to work with them during the analysis and further data collection for this study. The Mulligan lab donated several pieces of genetic equipment for the small molecular genetics laboratory that we set up at HEAL Africa for this round of findings to the community as soon as analysis is complete. Finally, this study will be expanded upon for my dissertation research, beginning in 2012. It is our hope that we produce conclusions which will not only expand our understanding of how adversity in the intrauterine environment affects birth outcomes and child health, but which will be relevant for policy makers and public health stakeholders in the DRC.

PAGE 40

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 39 t dent eports RDAN A FENT N This experience built upon two previous trips during the summer months of 2008 and 2009. During my time in Calabar, I studied six masquerade societies and a local writing system known as nsibidia secret pictographic and performed and gestured indigenous language primarily used today by the Ekpe/Mgbe secret society, popularly known as leopard societies. My research explores notions of secrecy, power, knowledge, and agency through the local use of masquerade performance, rituals, and nsibidi to begin to understand what role secret societies play in postcolonial Calabar. There are six major masquerade societies comprised of numerous factions throughout Calabar, each major type has its own distinctive masquerades, musical rhythms, and age range. Three have deep rooted histories for the indigenous populations of Calabar, while the remaining three are more recent. Part of my research was to examine how the more recent masquerade societies developed and were influenced by the more historic examples. This was done by comparing ritual, performance, and initiation structures as well as conducting a systematic evaluation of symbolic elements and iconography. The analysis reveals that these recent masquerade societies were shaped by local and regional forces and influence, while the ritual structure and iconography were influenced by the previous societies, however the meanings and uses were re-contextualized. Another part of my project was to learn nsibidi and understand its artistry, contemporary function, and larger meaning in contemporary Calabar. Having been initiated into Ekpe during my first trip in 2008, as I returned to Calabar during subsequent trips, I continued my initiation through the different levels of the society, which included the learning of esoteric lore and nsibidi. As my research progressed, I began to learn that meanings and interpretations are not fixed, but personal and different from elder to elder or member to member. I was careful to learn from known masters of nsibidi since knowledge depends on levels of initiation. Still to my surprise, explanations were individualized and in some cases completely different from one master to the next. However, once this script becomes performed by way of gesture during nsibidi challenges to establish power in Ekpe rituals and ceremonies, the language becomes more unified, but still quite irregular as member constantly invent different gestures of existing signs in order to confuse their challengers to demonstrate their agency. The broader aspects of my research resonate with the concerns related to the social workings of traditional culture in urban settings, the processes of change and adaptability of visual culture, and the multiplicity of meanings of local knowledge.

PAGE 41

40 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 HN DUD EY F RT My research builds upon a 2008 dataset entitled, The coproduction of land use and livelihoods in Malawi. That project used quarterly surveys to measure household incomes from a suite of livelihood activities, including those which involve the forest. My project adds a qualitative dimension to the dataset by seeking the reasons behind forest work quantified how much households earned from particular forest livelihoods, my work seeks to understand why those households decide to pursue or not pursue those same activities. My project is focused on three villages along the base of the Mulanje Mountain. Mulanje is a 3,000 meter massif which rises impressively from the plains below. The mountain has a 600 km 2 forest reserve which contains ecologically important species such as the Mulanje Cedar ( Widdringtonia whytei) and several miombo hardwoods ( Brachystegia sp.). The mountain and its forest provide valuable environmental services to the surrounding communities; it is the source of 15 rivers and it is one of the few remaining sites at which to harvest firewood. The forest also serves as an important source for building materials and is a renowned location for harvesting traditional medicine. As with many forests in Africa and around the world, the Mulanje Forest faces increased usage from rising populations along its boundaries. My research is designed to shed light on this usage by investigating local peoples decisions to use the forest from the perspectives of the users themselves. Specifically, I am curious to know how and to what extent concepts of the environment enter into the forest usage decisions of the people living around the mountain. The method I am using to understand these decisions is called Ethnographic Decision Tree Modeling. Based on the data collected from in-depth interviews, my research assistants and I will construct tree models for the decision to pursue or not pursue four different forest livelihood activities. These models will then be tested and revised using questionnaires administered to a larger sample of respondents from the same three villages. Once validated, these models will be analyzed for decision criteria related to the environment. At the end of our data collection period my research team will share our results with our research communities in order to allow them to see their forest use in a larger context. These results will also be shared with local NGOs and environmental policymakers. It is hoped that by generating insight into the ways in which forest users think about the environment this research will inform policies and programs which seek to conserve the forest and improve the standard of living among those people who rely on the forest for their livelihoods.

PAGE 42

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 41 t dent eports TIM THY FU MAN Southern Africa is home to the worlds largest population of African elephants. for a booming tourism industry, generating jobs and revenue for local communities, the 200,000+ population of elephants are also a source of human-wildlife conflict and preliminary research suggests elephants are affecting other large mammals, threatening the areas ecological integrity. There is a dire need to understand the impact of increasing densities of elephants on species diversity. My project investigates the applicability of the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis to elephants and other large mammals by quantifying patterns of species diversity across a range of elephant densities and analyzing species interactions to investigate biotic mechanisms underlying diversity trends. A better understanding of the influence of elephants on other species will enable more effective management decisions in an area where biodiversity conservation is essential for economic growth and local livelihoods. I first visited Botswana in 2008 while conducting my masters research on elephant utilization of trees in Chobe National Park. This summer, I returned to Botswana for two months to begin my dissertation research. This built upon work I started in 2008 to consider habitat use by large herbivores. This field season I worked in both Chobe National Park and Moremi Game Reserve testing and refining methods for analyzing species interactions and habitat use under varying densities of elephants. Large herbivore groups were spatially located during two types of game drives. Long drives were conducted over large spatial extents to provide analysis of habitat use at a large spatial scale but at a short temporal scale at any single location. Short drives were conducted over a smaller spatial extent that was driven repeatedly every hour to provide a picture of how habitat occupancy changes over time, allowing me to consider a longer time scale but a small spatial scale. The information collected will be combined with GIS and remote sensing land cover data from other graduate students in our research group to create predictive habitat maps for large mammals in the dry season. Pairing this with our groups climate modeling will show how predicted changes in the environment around Chobe National Park may influence the wildlife species that live there, informing management decisions by the Department of

PAGE 43

42 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 HN HAMES Some of these activists become recognized in the Pulaar community as ngenndiyankoobe a Pulaar word that translates as patriots or nationalists. Their activism is part of a brand of transnational social activism that might provide scholars with a new understanding of attempts by ethnic minorities in Africa to address the grievances associated with cultural and linguistic marginalization. The Jeanne and Hunt Davis PreDissertation Grant enabled me to spend the summer in Senegal and Mauritania in order to learn more about this phenomenon. Thanks to the hospitality of great hosts and friends, I had the opportunity to make contacts with over a dozen associations involved in the promotion of Pulaar and had over 30 interviews and informal discussions with Pulaar activists. My activities included frequent visits to the office of Lewlewal Group, a Pulaar-language media company that is working on beginning radio broadcasts in Senegal and operates an online news site. Other efforts included everything from conversations with mainstream journalists about the pressures of Pulaar activists demands on their work, to meetings with Pelle Pinal e Bamtaare (Associations for Culture and Development) such as that established by the residents of the village of Sori Male, Mauritania, which conducts regular Pulaar classes taught by members of the community, and has trained a cadre of skilled theater performers whose acts often deal with important social issues. I am now completing an in-depth fieldwork report that addresses several themes discerned from what I observed and what I was told during my trip. One of the most important of these themes is understanding how current Pulaar activists situate their roles within what some of them view as a tradition of Pulaar-related activism, which is often portrayed as beginning with a group of Pulaar-speaking intellectuals back in the 1950s and 1960s who saw promotion of education in African languages as essential to the project of liberation from European domination. The report also grapples with the considerable degree of contestation I found within the Pulaar activist community in Senegal and Mauritania over who has rightfully earned a place among the ngenndiyankoobe, and the criteria by which that is determined. summer were very passionate about the need for those promoting Pulaar to assume such behaviors as speaking the language in a way that does not betray influences of other languages, and wearing particular styles of clothes, others scoffed at such attitudes and saw them as ways of unfairly claiming a monopoly on representation of the Pulaar cause. In addition, I found that assumptions about what makes a creditable Pulaar activist or ngenndiyanke can underlie the grievances expressed in power struggles where positions of influence that involve use of the language are at stake, as seen in the case of one former TV personality whose removal from her position was believed by some to be justified by a supposed lack of depth in her Pulaar, as well as her closeness to members of other ethnic groups. I expect that exploration of these and other themes in my fieldwork report will, sometime in the next few months, begin developing into a bona fide masters thesis.

PAGE 44

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 43 t dent eports RACHE IANNE I These restorative activities are crucial in order to present properly to visitors the shrines and other landscape features that are of great historical significance. This summer I set out to investigate how the construction and use of traditional omushonge houses of large circular design constructed of wood, elephant grass, woven bark fiber and thatch can appeal to a growing heritage tourism sector in Kagera Region, Tanzania, while simultaneously avoiding negative questions of authenticity. During my first visit to Katuruka village the previous year, I assisted in the documentation of the construction of an omushonge spirit house honoring the Bacwezi ancestor Mugasha. This attraction has been recently enhanced further by the reconstruction of another omushonge style spirit house in the old royal palace compound. Both of these structures have been reconstructed from the accounts of elder informants who had personally witnessed the original structures in the past. Thus, while they are reconstructions, the authenticity of form is beyond reproach. Using the Katuruka omushonge shrines as my investigatory setting, I surveyed visiting tourists to gauge their reaction to this traditional architectural style. I found that omushonge architecture is an element of local culture that has great appeal to visitors. Thus tourist preferences articulated at the Katuruka site could form a foundation for recommendations pertaining to further development of traditional architecture at heritage sites. A second component of my research was to document ethnographically the cultural meanings associated with traditional omushonge domestic structures. In order to do this I conducted interviews with thirteen individuals who maintain traditional omushonge houses and six residents of ekibanda, rectangular, style homes for purposes of comparison. The interviews covered issues including the biographical history of each house and an explanation of interior space use. I used a compass and laser range finder to measure internal and external dimensions of all architectural elements and documented each photographically. Residents provided valuable information regarding the symbolic meanings of many structural elements of omushonge, although the significance of these elements asked how omushonge style houses differ from that of ekibanda style houses opinions were unanimously in favor of the traditional omushonge style residence. The reasons include the ability to maintain a comfortable interior temperature, a floor plan more suited to family cohesion, as well as veneration for the ancestors which are thought generally to be more accessible in omushonge structures. Indeed tourism has a role to play in historic preservation and revitalization at a local level. In order to promote economic decisions that simultaneously enhance the cultural well-being of local communities, it is my aim to provide empirical evidence that will encourage the authentic representation of traditional Haya architecture.

PAGE 45

44 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 I IAN ENSEN Since its launch in 2002, IEHA has been USAIDs primary delivery mechanism for support to the implementation of the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP), which targets six percent annual growth in the agricultural sector of signatory countries. The expected outcomes of this targeted goal are improved rural incomes and reductions in poverty and hunger. As USAID prepared to launch its new global food security initiative, Feed the Future (FTF), it sought to gather lessons on the gender outcomes achieved under IEHA. These lessons would be used to guide the design of FTF agricultural programs and projects to improve gender integration and strengthen gender outcomes. My involvement included participating in building the conceptual framework and methodology for a multi-country program assessment. This leveraged my disciplinary background from UF in agricultural economics, farming systems, and political science. Combining gender analysis with the agricultural value chain analytical framework proved to be the most sensitive and effective tool for identifying and weighing up the various constraints limiting gender equity. This was evident when comparing the results from three country field studies Mali, Mozambique, and Uganda where a mix of institutional reform approaches was required to address binding constraints up and down the value chain. My experience working with USAID has had a tremendous influence on how I approach and communicate my research to increase its value and uptake by international development organizations. Bridging the distance between theory and praxis is a challenge that I believe all young scholars must face, in particular, those who aspire to careers outside academia. I find this to be especially true when trying to operationalize what is essentially a conceptual device like gender in common development tools such as logical frameworks and monitoring and evaluation plans. The theoretical critique represented by gender quickly drifts in practice to targeting resource distribution to women. Changing the rules of the game faced by women remains a much more difficult task. I have taken this experience into my ongoing dissertation work on the governance of public sector irrigation services in Swaziland. Here, I am problematizing the integration of local institutions, specifically a traditional authority system, into the governance of a large irrigation scheme designed to facilitate the increased participation of smallhold farmers in commercialized agriculture. I am investigating the effects of this integration on the overall performance and sustainability of the service delivery chain through the prism of accountability relations. In so doing I am building upon approaches to strengthening rural services delivery to improve rural development outcomes. From a theoretical perspective, I am also contributing to the debate over whether traditional authorities, as a potential source of clientelistic behaviors, strengthen or weak development outcomes.

PAGE 46

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 45 t dent eports UCAS R MARTINDA E HNS N This multiscalar and multi-method research team headed by Cathy DAndrea from Simon Fraser University directs attention to a local archaeological community at the site of Mezber. A broad research goal is to excavate and document the range of ancient behaviors (e.g. food production, animal management, stone tool technology, etc.) of the local inhabitants during a time of incipient social complexity so as to assess what social/environmental mechanism(s) may have contributed to state formation in this area. Since 2006 the Eastern Tigrai Archaeological Project (ETAP) has surveyed large portions of the Eastern Tigrai area in Ethiopia, but has only begun to systematically excavate one site. Although excavations are just scratching the surface of cultural deposits, the project has recovered a wealth of data that show a wide variety of social behaviors were present during this ancient time in Ethiopia and the pre-history of the Horn of Africa. My goal during the summer of 2010 was to continue the analysis of lithic or stone tool technology recovered from the architecture at Mezber. Past research of lithic material focused on surface and poorly contextualized cultural deposits, so the opportunity to conduct a contextual analysis of the lithic materials was very from the Department of Anthropology at UF, my research addressed which stone tool types were present in the assemblage and which tool types were underrepresented. After cataloguing many of the artifacts, we have begun to understand that assemblages from Mezber show a wealth of raw material variation as well as some tool type standardization. Currently, over 5,000 stone artifacts have been recovered and the analysis is only in its second year. It is anticipated that artifact typologies for this area will continue to be revised and modified to fit what local variation existed among the ancient inhabitants of Mezber. During the month I was in northern Ethiopia much of my time was spent analyzing artifacts in a dimly lit hotel room with calipers, scales, and data sheets. This is the less sexy, although critical, however, visit the site of Mezber, which is plowed and cultivated during the growing season. The site is protected during this period from surface disturbances. In going to this site and surrounding areas via 4x4 and on foot, you establish a sense for how the landscape isolates as well as expands your vision. These valleys have steep extreme slopes, which limit mobility, but also have been populated for tens of thousands of years, which expose the wealth of local and foreign knowledge, resource management, and power. Fieldwork in this area of Africa has shown me that rugged landscapes are not inhospitable places to live and grow. The people of Eastern Tigrai, Ethiopia, today are truly a humble and welcoming people as I am sure they were in the ancient past.

PAGE 47

46 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 CARA E NES The country is frequently listed as the worlds poorest, and recently ended its decadesold civil war (1993-2009). The time spent here has allowed me to witness Burundis transition to democracy firsthand. Burundi embarked on its second set of democratic elections following negotiations between numerous rebel factions and the military in 2005. Contacts I made on a trip in 2008, funded by the Center for African Studies, allowed me to participate in these elections personally. I acted as an international observer for COSOME (la coalition de la socit civile pour le observation et le monitoring des elections) as a side project while conducting research for my dissertation. illuminating regarding the election and the political tension surrounding it-there were serious questions as to how many participants would ultimately play a part in the five-election cycle-my project focuses on the party in power on a grander scale. My thesis focuses on the changes from rebel movement to state government following civil wars, and specifically, the ruling CNDD-FDD (Council Nationale pour la defense de la democratie-Force du defense de la democratie). Research in the social sciences has just begun to delve deeper into the inner workings, organizations, and structures of rebel movements, or to put it simply, what makes them tick. I gathered preliminary evidence on the formation and development of the movement, interviewing participants from those who joined the rebellion early and as foot-soldiers, to politicians who joined during peace talks in the early 2000s. It was fascinating to be able to gather data on this murky topic and to trace the political infancy and adolescence of the movement. During this summer trip, I conducted 47 interviews, with plans to conduct approximately 300 more over this academic year while in Burundi on a Fulbright-Hays fellowship. My ability to conduct interviews is due in part to my study under the University of Floridas Center for African Studies Title VI language programs. I studied four years of Kiswahili, the lingua franca of East Africa and one of the official languages of the East African Community (of which Burundi has been a member since 2007). Because of the influence of Swahili traders along Lake Tanganyika and porous borders with Tanzania and East Congo, a fair number of Burundians speak Kiswahili, especially former rebels, who often spent large periods of time as refugees in Tanzania, Congo, or Kenya. This skill has been especially useful in breaking the ice with notoriously wary Burundians and has contributed to a more fruitful research experience. I look forward to enhancing these skills on many return fieldwork trips to Burundi and the Great Lakes and hope that the skills I developed through working with the Center for African Studies can add to the larger body of knowledge on the region.

PAGE 48

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 47 t dent eports A IS N ETTER My research focuses on how policy transformations within Fairtrade South Africa (FTSA) affect farm owner and worker livelihoods, impact land and agrarian policy in South Africa, and reshape the global Fairtrade consortium. Fairtrade is an international economic initiative that aims to empower marginalized producers across the global south through the promotion of equitable production, distribution and consumption practices. Based on a trade-not-aid approach to sustainable development, Fairtrade was officially launched on a worldwide scale in 1997. It is now a widespread template for agrarian reform, encompassing over 50 producer states in Africa, Asia and Latin America. My study focuses on FTSAs implementation of South-South alternative trade, the process whereby agricultural goods that are produced in South Africa are also marketed and sold there, rather than being exported to the global north. FTSA hopes to expand the label domestically in order to: 1) unseat the accepted Fairtrade practice of marketing certified goods only in the global north, thus allowing the global south greater autonomy over the construction of their own socioeconomic models; 2) increase the sales of Fairtrade goods so that more smallholders and farm laborers will reap the benefits; and 3) lessen the carbon footprint of Fairtrade certified goods. Still, this new policy brings to the fore numerous questions about market access for emerging black farmers, Fairtrades ability to reconfigure the inherited terms of economic privilege in rural communities, and new opportunities for alliance and interdependence between South Africa and other leading southern states. In order to conduct this research, I am meeting with a range of actors including farm workers, land beneficiary farmers, established commercial farmers, FTSA personnel, government agents, global Fairtrade personnel, etc. I am studying how these policy transformations develop and their tangible and intangible consequences primarily through the lens of four vineyards, but also through that of numerous other relevant stakeholders.

PAGE 49

48 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 SEPH RAUS Using the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) projects of multinational oil companies as a jumping off point, I have explored the complex nature of Equatoguinean politics and analyzed the impacts that CSR projects can have in a highly authoritarian oil-rich developing country. Oil companies operating in Equatorial Guinea have initiated two particularly interesting public-private partnerships with the government to improve the countrys education and health systems. These projects which focus on malaria eradication and revamping the educational system are scalable to the national level, increasing their potential to impact the lives of ordinary Equatoguineans. Given the temporary nature of the companies involvement in the country, they have made state capacity strengthening a key objective of their efforts in order to increase the chances of project sustainability. Equatorial Guinea is a dynamic, fascinating, and contradictory country. Ranked as one of the richest countries in the world per capita, the majority of the countrys 650,000 citizens continue to languish in poverty. Meanwhile, a relatively small minority of politically connected elite monopolize the spoils of the countrys annual oil revenues, which totaled $6 billion in 2008). Over the past two decades, this small country (the size of Maryland) enjoyed one of the fastest average annual economic government has slowly begun to invest in education and health, it continues to focus disproportionately on infrastructure, not people, and corruption and political patronage remain persistent problems. All of this makes Equatorial Guinea a challenging and salient place for companies to invest in social projects, and for PhD students to conduct research. The CSR projects are beset by challenges related to corruption, lack of human capacity, weak state institutions, and a rigid hierarchical political structure. Despite these obstacles, the projects have made notable progress in their efforts to improve social services. The malaria project, for instance, succeeded in reducing the prevalence of malaria infections in children age two to five from 42% in 2004 to 18% in 2008, and contributed to a 64% reduction in deaths in children under the age of five. The education project has outfitted 54 model schools with a new curriculum, pedagogy, and newly trained teachers. In April 2010, the project graduated its first class of 982 teachers from its new teacher-training institute. Conducting research in Equatorial Guinea comes with its rewards and challenges. Despite the difficult political and economic realities they must endure, Equatoguineans celebrate life. Yet the very real pressures under which Equatoguineans live are ever present. I experienced first-hand a small piece of the daily intimidation and fear that confront Equatoguineans when I was detained by security forces for five hours while attempting to speak with locals about my research. I was released and hope to defend my dissertation in the fall of 2010.

PAGE 50

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 49 t dent eports STEPHEN ICHTY In the last two years, the Center for African Studies provided funding for two trips to Kenya, which facilitated pre-dissertation research and testing of my research design. These experiences provided crucial insight in developing an effective methodological strategy to explore how the highly religious Kenyan society engages with the political process. The scholarly literature addresses the more public role of the church in Kenyas ongoing democratization struggle, but an understanding is lacking of the internal and more personal influence that religious institutions play in the development of church members political attitudes and actions. Using nine churches and several para-church organizations as my primary case studies, my dissertation centers on a qualitative investigation of the inner characteristics of church life, pastoral theological training, political messages embedded in sermons, and the syncretism of traditional African spiritualities. One of the most important political events in Kenyas history occurred in August 2010. In a nation-wide referendum, Kenya adopted a new constitution (passing 67% to 33%). The referendum was a divisive issue among the churches and provided an excellent case for studying the influence between pulpit and pew. research assistants, I managed to observe what 40 churches were saying before and after the referendum. with 200 members in these churches. (according to recently released census figures), a good portion voted against the wishes of several prominent religious leaders. In diving into the political behavior of Kenya, I also discovered that there really isnt the concept of political belief here. Kenyans struggle to articulate a well-defined political ideology or view, forcing my research assistant and I to go back to the drawing board to develop a better approach at getting at their political the definition of political and in the process Ive learned much about the inner psyche of Kenyans. has been focused in the capital city of Nairobi, I made two visits into Nyanza and Central Provinces to get a sense of the political atmosphere in rural churches. On numerous occasions I have also visited churches in the low-income urban areas surrounding Nairobi. Small churches from various denominational backgrounds dot these vast urban landscapes, providing hope and encouragement to a population characterized by unemployment, poverty, and unhygienic living conditions. Church members in these settings expressed frustration and cynicism with the current political situation, but unfortunately they often lack the empowerment necessary to challenge the status quo. My dissertation committee chair commented once that conducting dissertation field research would be one of the most rewarding experiences in my scholarly career. Four months into this adventure, I can only concur and look forward to the remaining six months I have in the field.

PAGE 51

50 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 EUGENIA GENIA S MARTINE During summer 2010, I spent two months in Dakar where I met with a number of artist-calligraphers. These artists are addressing the importance of developing local traditions of Arabic calligraphy to replace the often low-quality of products that are widely available from China, Dubai, and elsewhere in the eastern Islamic world. Throughout my coursework and two visits to Dakar, I have found that the role of Arabic writing in everyday life is prominent, despite or perhaps because of the fact that it is not the spoken language of the region. Dakar is a culturally and linguistically complex metropolis in which the Arabic script that diffused throughout the region via trans-Saharan trade is taking on a life of its own within the visual landscape, at once modern and steeped in history and time-honored demonstrations of faith. Though Dakar was never a part of the historic trans-Saharan trade networks, today it serves as a modern cultural and commercial hub, drawing populations Maghrib, and beyond. In Senegal, the most ubiquitous presence of Arabic writing is also ironically the most invisible, and comes in the form of gris-gris or protective amulets that most people wear around their waists, necks, and/or upper arms underneath their clothes. Another way that Arabic serves a talismanic function in Senegalese culture is within the spectacle of traditional wrestling, or lamb ji Here, rather than being invisible, wrestlers accumulations of many types of gris-gris, including amulets, huge jugs of safara (writing water), and white tunics inscribed with Arabic writing and khawatim (magic squares) are all central to the spectacle within the arena and the intimidation tactics among the athletes. Finally, many of the same spiritually protective functions of Arabic script, passages, are retained in the calligraphic fine art work of many of the artists I have begun to work with in Dakar, including Yelimane Fall, Abdoul Aziz Fall (called Dabakh), Hady Kane, Samba Ly, Moustapha Seck, and Pape Ibrahima Ndoye. This short visit, partially funded by the Center for African Studies, allowed me to conduct initial interviews with artists and document some of their works. To further prepare for field research in Senegal, I have studied both fellowships in summer 2008 and academic years 2008-2009, 2009-2010, and 20102011. Furthermore, I took additional Arabic courses at the Arabic Language Institute of Fez, in Fez, Morocco in summer 2009. The next stage of my project will be to conduct long-term research in Senegal, focusing on Dakar, to document the variety of artists working with Arabic calligraphy in Senegal, reception of their works in the public sphere, and aspects of personal and collective religious expression contained and projected through their works beyond the literal words depicted on surfaces. In other words, the question is not only

PAGE 52

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 51 t dent eports GERMAIN A MA AH In this area, several peripheral influences contribute to reduced wildlife populations and so conservation efforts are still needed. Ngomb forest management unit is the largest forest concession in northern Congo with a size of 1,159,643 hectares, and it is currently allocated to the second largest logging company in ROC. And OKNP is the largest Park in ROC with about 1,360.000 hectares, created in 1935. It is one of the few sites left in Africa with a forest habitat and mammal population so rich and relatively intact. It contains very high populations of mammals including forest elephants, gorillas, chimpanzees, bongo, buffalo and leopard. To reduce threats to wildlife and encourage sustainable management practices in the OKNP buffer zone, a collaborative effort was introduced by the Ministry of Forest Economy, the logging company Industrielle Forestiere de Ouesso (IFO) in 2005. This is a new partnership in this area regarding conservation strategies. Although local communities have been involved in the process of zoning of traditional territories, I am concerned that their participation in conservation innovations remains passive, and this study is seeking to find out why. Thus, during summer 2010, I collected data which concerned governance and sustainability of wildlife in logging concessions adjacent to the national park in northern ROC. I have investigated potential factors likely to influence the participation of local people in wildlife management strategies. This participation is subject to several factors such as the value wildlife for local people, its contribution to their income, their recognition of threats, potential solutions, or obstacles to success of management initiatives and formal wildlife regulations as wel as their memberships and their willingness to participate in collective action and the level of social trust and cohesion in the community. All these factors influence local behavior in regards to the use of a given resource such as wildlife in northern of ROC. \011 Fieldwork in this area has been demanding and satisfying. As a researcher, my hope is that my work contributes to better understandings of why local people are passive in wildlife management strategies. I do believe that this study is a starting point to communicate between local communities, conservation NGOs, private companies and the Congolese Government.

PAGE 53

52 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 SARAH IND EY MC UNE I spent much of 20052007 in the area around Tanout in eastern Niger evaluating a British Red Cross Cash Distribution Project. The experience collecting livelihood data from 359 households, plus focus groups and key informant interviews in 19 communities sparked my interest in understanding how climate change is being perceived and my subsequent desire to initiate doctoral studies. My research plan had been to return to Niger in fall of 2010 and to build upon the livelihood research that I conducted after the 200405 food crisis. Niger is coming out of another food crisis now, thus I wanted to capture and compare perspectives on climate change surrounding these two distinct environmental shocks. However, the security situation in Niger has deteriorated since 2005, and insecurity, particularly in the pastoral zone, left me wondering about the feasibility of the research. Thus, I returned to Niger to meet with researchers at LASDEL, a research institute in Niamey, to look into the possibility of collaborating. The results were fantastic. I found two doctoral students interested in pastoralism who were keen to collaborate. and logistical components of a potential project, and I came home and started writing proposals for funding. Our research project is investigating how populations of varying degrees of pastoralism in Niger are interpreting and responding to perceived risk of climate change, and how those reactions are affecting their vulnerability and resilience. The project will replicate household interviews conducted in 2005, following the 2004-05 food crisis. The current food crisis will serve as a second environmental shock around which discussions of climate change and perceived risks will be assessed. Data points from 2005 and 2010 will facilitate analysis of adaptations and coping mechanisms and the impact of those actions on vulnerability and resilience over time. The project includes key informant interviews, focus groups, household interviews, and child growth and health measures. I have just returned from Niger, having spent two weeks pilot testing and revising the research instruments in Tanout. And although the logistics of working in rural Niger are challenging, data collection has officially begun! Once data collection in Niger is complete, a small-scale version of the project is planned in Tanzania, to test the appropriateness and usefulness of indicators of pastoral resilience and vulnerability across multiple contexts. A workshop will be held in collaboration with the International Livestock Research Institute in Nairobi to discuss findings from the project as well as methodologies for risk assessment and vulnerability analysis.

PAGE 54

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 53 t dent eports B THEPA M SET HI The present study is trying to unravel the extent to which these goals are National Park on peoples livelihoods and the effect this has on their conservation practices. My interest in the study area and population has been spurred by my familiarity with Chobe District as a biodiversity endowed area yet one where poverty and dependency are still the order of the day. The area teems with diverse natural habitats and wildlife species, among them the Chobe River System which feeds in to Victoria Falls and mega-fauna mammalian species including elephant, hippo, buffalo, lion, leopard and several ungulate species. A remarkable feature is the parks elephant population which constitutes the largest and least molested herd in the world, and which has grown from about 45,500 in the 1980s to 151,000 at present. Altogether these resources designate the Chobe region the second most important wildlife and tourism area in Botswana after the Okavango Delta. Given the position of the tourism industry in Botswana as the second engine of economic growth after diamonds, it follows therefore to ask: Do the highly the protected resources trickle down It became apparent from the exploratory research I carried out in summer 2008 that there based economies and employment the other hand there numerous adverse effects: mainly elephant property damages, predation, human life endangerment and the overshadowing of conservation on the agricultural potential and nontourism land-based economies of the area. These insights helped to shape my on-going PhD research work which is grounded on the theories of empowerment and social exchange and set out to determine: 1) if the park is resulting in positive if there is an equitable distribution of the livelihood effects of the park amongst people or if there is a dichotomy of winners and losers, 3) factors underlying the nature and distribution of the livelihood effects of the park, and 4) if there is correlation between livelihood effects of the park and conservation behaviors. Detailed collection of data to answer these questions was hinterland of Chobe National Park, three settlements (Kasane, Kachikau and Parakarungu) were sampled with household surveys and key informant interviews conducted. The sampling of the settlements was based on differences in level of economic development or urbanity, proximity to the park, and length of community conservation programs/projects. Most of the settlements in the study area have a rural setting except for the emerging urban area of Kasane and Kasungula which is the tourism hub of the district.

PAGE 55

54 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 NA MI M S ETE KTP is renowned for being the first formally declared transboundary protected area in Southern Africa. My work also covered residents perceptions about park-based community tourism in the Kalahari region. I worked in nine villages: Ncaang, Ukhwi, Zutshwa and Tshane in Kgalagadi North, and Khawa, Struizendam, Bokspits, Tsabong and Kang in the south. Four of these villages are located buffer zone. Mixed research inquiries were used to collect data for this research. I interviewed 18 national and local public sector representatives who included local authorities (village chiefs, village groups, extension workers). About 740 household surveys were conducted within the nine villages adjacent to KTP. Other information sources used included the countrys national archives, policy documents and official government reports, and tourism statistics. I also participated in workshops as well as collected extra information from the Botswana Tourism Authority and Department of Tourism. This research is one of the first inquiries conducted in Botswanas remote Kgalagadi region, where issues that pertain to common property and multiple-use rangeland management and community tourism development are important. Lack of alternative livelihoods has put strains on the limited resources of the area. Thus, alternative livelihoods are highly needed among communities flanking the KTP. I found that community ecotourism development in the Kgalagadi region is generally low as many individuals are not engaged in tourism-related projects. Self-employment in tourism-related commerce is minimal across the region, with people involved in the accommodation sector. Craftmaking with ostrich eggshells and hides and skin was also highlighted as a common activity among the San/Bushmen communities. A handful of villages were engaged in joint venture safari hunting activities. Park-based community ecotourism was perceived as an activity with the potential to generate socio-economic benefits to rural people, and that was highly recognized and appreciated as an essential livelihood option. However, local residents obtained only minimal benefits from the KTP. Despite low or lack of park benefits to adjacent communities, the public sector officials demonstrated strong attitudes toward KTP as a transfrontier protected area and support for park-based ecotourism activities. Generally, the study discovered a low level of local participation in park-based conservation activities and lack of collaboration between the KTP authority and residents. Even though local residents were left out in all park programs and activities, they still held very strong general conservation attitudes toward and support for the KTP as a transboundary area.

PAGE 56

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 55 t dent eports SHY C MUYENG A I am interested in how and why such well intentioned projects and interventions, targeting the marginalized and disenfranchised populations, end up benefiting local elites such as chiefs, local headmen and other traditional or religious leaders, committee members, and their immediate relatives. In summer of 2009, I was awarded an African Power and Politics grant to travel to Namibia and Zimbabwe to undertake my preliminary dissertation work. My initial interests were broader governance issues. I initially intended to understand how the macro, meso, and micro level interface in CBNRM, the distribution of authority, and the effects of process of the melding of modern and traditional institutions on performance of CBNRM programs in Namibia and Zimbabwe. I worked in five communities in Namibia with the support of a local NGO. I conducted interviews and surveys on a bigger project, working closely with five conservancy communities in the Caprivi Region; Kwando, Mashi, attended meetings to provide feedback to management on the governance issues based on the larger survey we had conducted in these areas. Inequity was a major issue and elite control was also widespread in most of these communities. In Zimbabwe, I spent two weeks working with the CAMPFIRE Association. I reviewed project documents, workshop proceedings, and consultancy reports. I also traveled to Masoka, where I was able to conduct interviews, participate in meetings and community activities, and review minutes and proceedings at their local office. Masoka community was one of the CAMPFIRE pioneers that accepted the idea in late 1980s and promoted its proliferation across the country, region, and internationally. I managed to interview former committee members and the traditional leaders. Finally, I conducted some informal discussions with community members, teachers, nurses, and village heads. The 19801990s acclamations of deliberative democracy, formalized rule, equity, and enthusiasm and hope in CAMPFIRE were no longer evident. The program had become so centralized with the traditional leadership exerting much influence and appropriating most benefits. My research experience was worthwhile. It helped me to narrow my research interest from broader governance interests to understanding micro governance processes. In summer of 2011, I will conduct a comparative case study in selected communities in Namibia and Zimbabwe, to understand mechanisms through which elites capture community-based programs and non-elite strategies for alternative representation.

PAGE 57

56 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 SAMUE E I EM NYAMUAME Musical performance in Ghana generally, and among the Anlo people in particular, is organized and practiced as an integral part of everyday life. The Anlo-Ewe peoples rich musical tradition has been the subject of study from the time of their migration from Dahomey, now the Republic of Benin, until their present settlement in Ghana. The research that has been conducted focuses on recreational and social music as well as the amateur and national dance companies. Since there is ample research on social and recreational music, my research is geared towards an examination of religious music and dance traditions. For the past three years, I have been researching a highly complex religious music and dance performance called Yeve among the people in Ave-Dakpa who are considered Anlo-Ewes. Yeve is a religious cult associated with the god of thunder, which also has a historical relation to the Yoruba Shango. Considered as a suite, I examined seven different movements that made up the musical performance. I studied the songs, dance, and the various drumming associated with rituals and performance in general. In the summer of 2010, I went to Ghana again to research another religious aspect of music, dance and song in the central part of the Anlo State called Lashibi-Anloga. The music is called Adzomanyi and performed mostly by older folks. Historically, Adzomanyi served as a powerful force of resistance during the colonial period by helping to maintain customs, values, and morality within the Anlo State. The success of this resistance to the colonial administration and the lasting existence of the Adzomanyi group is due to the religious significance of ritual music performances through the language of the drum, the dance movements and the theme of the songs. During my research over the summer, I investigated three aspects of Adzomanyi music that work together to give a holistic interpretation of how the performance of Adzomanyi serves as a safe medium for religious and political expression. The three aspects are: Vugbe (the drum language or texts and their meaning, and the text that angers and sets the deities to rebel), Atsiadodo (different dance styles that interpret the songs and the drum text that conforms with it and its association with the divinities), and Hamekoko/ Hatsiatsia (song performances that praise and reveal the power of deities). Though it is challenging to research complex rituals and religious musical traditions, I hope my research and findings contribute significantly to the religious music discourse in ethnomusicology as well as Africanrelated disciplines in the arts and religion.

PAGE 58

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 57 t dent eports MARIT T STEB Being at the international forefront regarding legislation and practical policy related to gender equality, this is also reflected in Norwegian aid policies. In January womens rights and gender equality in international development was presented. Together with the 2007 Action Plan for in Development Cooperation, this document accounts for one of the most ambitious donor strategies on gender politics to date. The overall aim of my present research project is to explore conceptualisations of gender equality among various actors involved in two Norwegian-funded development projects in the Oromia Regional State of Ethiopia. In my study I explore the concept gender equality and how it is translated into development practice. This includes a focus on how local communities perceive and experience project activities addressing gender equality and womens rights. My study also has a particular focus on local gender norms, institutions and practices with relevance to womens rights. This implies a focus on the dynamics between conceptualizations situated within global development and human rights discourses, on the one hand, and local discourses, perceptions and practices on the other. agents, organisations and development aid recipients-my study is a multi-sited study. The following four levels have been identified as field-work sites: 1) international and national (Norwegian) aid policy 2) Norwegian back-donors 3) implementing organizations in Ethiopia 4) local community / target population in Ethiopia. Interviews at the level of Norwegian back-donors were conducted during spring 2010 and currently I am working on analysing the aid policies. Fieldwork in Ethiopia will be conducted during fall 2010 and spring/summer 2011. The present study is a prolongation of research conducted as part of my MPh degree in International Health at the Centre for International Health at the University of Bergen, Norway. In addition to research experience, I have also been engaged in development and aid related projects in Ethiopia from 2000-2007.

PAGE 59

58 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 CHRIST PHER RICHARDS I spent two weeks traversing the capital city of Accra, interviewing designers, visiting their boutiques and workshops, and interviewing the designers clientele. This trip solidified what I discovered last summer: Ghana has a vibrant, innovative, and culturally significant fashion industry, which reflects crucial aspects of Ghanaian identities. Last summer I attended Ghanas 3rd dazzled by the breadth of imagination and innovation exhibited by Ghanaian designers. I interviewed one of Ghanas leading designers, Kofi Ansah, as well as the CEO of the Exopa Modeling Agency and organizer of Ghana Fashion trip demonstrated Accra was a viable location for my research and allowed me to acquaint myself with the established Ghanaian designers and their fashion labels. This summer, I utilized my preliminary research and my knowledge of European fashion to write and publish an article addressing the visual exchanges Building on connections from my previous trip in the summer of 2009, I returned to Accra, Ghana in August 2010 to conduct additional interviews and to elucidate the cultural significance of Ghanaian high fashion. During my brief two-week trip, I was fortunate to interview six additional designers. Their garments ranged from elegant cocktail dresses fashioned from strips of batakari cloth, to business casual tunics embroidered with adinkra symbols and representations of Anansi the spiders web. All of the garments I photographed were a visual mlange of influences: fabrics from Europe, both local and international styles of tailoring. As I conducted interviews with both the designers and their clientele, the clothings significance began to take shape. Ghanaian high fashion garments visually affirm what it means to be a cosmopolitan Ghanaian, an individual expressing their global identity while attempting to maintain a connection to their cultural roots. This postulation will be strengthened with evidence as I expand my research through additional interviews of the designers clientele. My research thus far has been a fantastic adventure. Ive learned the value of being patient and well dressed in the field! I plan to return to Ghana in the summer of 2011 to finalize my research and explore the Ghanaian fashion industrys historical antecedents. I hope my work will illustrate the importance of fashion, specifically Ghanaian high fashion, as a vehicle for understanding crucial concepts of individuals identity, and how these concepts have changed over time. Additionally, my research will attest to the importance of contemporary asserting its creativity and viability.

PAGE 60

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 59 t dent eports ATH EEN P RUD PH Its name stems from the whistling sound produced when breezes blow over holes in the bulbous thorns that fill its branches. The creators of these holes are tiny ant defenders that set up residence inside thorns, feed on tree sap and in exchange, provide very effective defense against herbivory by some of the worlds largest mammals giraffe, elephants, and other browsers. On the surface the interaction seems beneficial for both the trees and the ants but how much do trees pay for this defenders actually grow better than trees a tree lives change the dynamics of these the research I conducted this summer at the Mpala Research Centre in Laikipia, Kenya. Ecological interactions between species fall along a continuum from negative one or both interactors is negatively affected (e.g. predation and competition) to positive one or both interactors benefit (e.g. facilitation and mutualism). These two interaction types are most often studied in isolation with negative interactions historically receiving much more attention. Growing interest in positive interactions has produced many studies exploring the type and strength of benefits but which largely ignore the costs of these partnerships. In the rare case that the costs of mutualism are measured, they lack context with the costs of negative interactions like competition. remains unclear how the net effects of multiple interactions influence individual organisms and if the labels placed on species relationships are accurate (e.g. mutualist vs. competitor). Using Acacia drepanolobium as a focal species, I am able to explore how the costs of resident ant defenders of the tree (mutualists) compare with the cost of grass (competitors). Fully factorial manipulations of ant and grass absence were implemented last summer and this summer I was able to begin measuring treatment effects on tree growth and reproduction. This experiment also allows me to test how comparative costs change with different ant defender species and the help of three UF undergraduates, I was able to quantify differences between sites along the gradient. Data collected in 2010 suggests that for some measures of growth, the presence of ant partners actually costs trees more in growth than the presence of grass competitors. It also appears that location and ant partner species affect the comparative difference between competitors and mutualists. More time and measurement will be required to fully parse treatment differences but these initial findings will help guide my further research on costs and consequences of plant-ant defense.

PAGE 61

60 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 MAC EN IE M N RYAN These rectangular-shaped textiles measure about 66 x 44 and are sold in pairs. Most often worn as wrap garments, one kanga is worn around the body and the second is used as a head or shoulder covering. Generally kanga feature bright colors of ink printed on white, factoryproduced cotton cloth. The design of each adheres to a basic structure: central motif surrounded by a wide, continuous graphic border. Kanga most often display a proverb or phrase in Swahili, framed just below the central motif. These phrases can take many forms, and while on research, I collected a small sample of kanga from the shops on Uhuru Street in Dar es Salaam. One textile displays the well-known proverb, The village rooster doesnt crow in the city. Another exhibits the blessing, Gods love is eternal. A further example is most certainly a pointed communication: Your meddling is my gain. Kanga central motifs and border designs vary considerably, but generally speaking, they all possess a striking graphic sensibility. Bold colors and outlines are privileged, careful shading or gradual tonal variances are almost never present. Everyday items such as plants, animals, and other domestic objects regularly feature on kanga. Some kanga are also commemorative in theme, while others display abstract geometric patterns, which at times resemble flora or paisley-like prints. Aspirational expressions also frequent kanga, such ships, airplanes, and buildings. But what makes these inexpensive and widely available textiles so fascinating are their myriad of uses. As a uniquely Swahili textile, kanga are culturally embedded in everyday life and used to mark transitional moments in Swahili womens lives. For example, kanga are commonly used to on research, one new mother shared that local hospitals insist expectant parents bring new kanga to welcome their child into the world. Kanga are commonly given as wedding gifts and also worn to celebrate upcoming nuptials. Additionally, women wear this textile as everyday clothing, at times making use of particular Swahili phrases. Through the wearing of carefully selected kanga phrases, women are able to communicate beyond the bounds of polite society, making this textile a significant player in social and gender relations. A relatively new function of the kanga textile is its use in tailored Now in its third year, this three-day showcase gives new and established East African designers a platform to highlight their work. I had the opportunity to speak with a few designers during this research trip, including Ailinda Sawe of Afrika Sana and Kemi Kalikawe of Naledi Designs. Both these designers create high fashion looks for the runway as well as accept clothing commissions and sell readymade designs, all tailored in part from kanga. This most recent development in the ongoing story of this dynamic textile demonstrates that this dissertation project is both called for and timely. By examining both shifting and enduring functions of kanga, my research strives to show how women have defined themselves within Swahili society throughout the past century.

PAGE 62

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 61 t dent eports SAM SCHRAMS I How does spent the past summer investigating these questions for my preliminary dissertation research in the south-easternmost part of the African continent. In the intervening time I have learned how truly complex and deceptive a focus on two trends (decreased water access and increased dependency on households without strong agricultural skills) can be, and also how helpful participatory research can be when trying to tease apart problems at the community level. The Eastern Cape is the epitome of many of the inequities evident in South Africa: it is home to a unique subtropical thicket biome, and yet much of its rural lands are considered degraded; it possesses active urban centers, and yet suffers from some of the countrys worst levels of unand underemployment; it stands adjacent to hundreds of kilometers of ocean and yet many of its municipalities suffer from depleted fresh conditions of the province do not appear to be encouraging, how exactly communities are responding to stressors at the moment, and will continue to in the future, is not well understood. I initially hoped to see how water access and governance could be understood in rural and semirural Eastern Cape communities using a coupled human-natural or socio-ecological framework in order to more fully understand various kinds of stressors. interviews and questionnaires was that water access was only a minute concern for most households, and that even in a region of the world that is predicted to be significantly affected by climate change, other worries were more pressing. Also, while the possibility of drought was on the minds of many in even the most rural communities I visited, people were far more concerned about disease and limited sources of household income. Lack of water in the form of drought may be an underlying symptom of increased aridity in the region, and the changing nature of what it means to be engaging in rural work may also be present but not be central to the concerns of community members. In the end agrarian systems are perceived of very differently in this part of the world, so the question of how adaptive communities like the ones I looked at are appears to be tricky to answer but nonetheless important to explore. The next step in my research is to develop a participatory research index that can be used to gauge capabilities of dealing with future events, and in so doing bridge basic and applied science in addressing what constitutes vulnerability, resilience and adaptation in a dynamic region in southern Africa.

PAGE 63

62 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 AMY SCH ART TT The transformation of recycled materials into art by artists reflects a nexus of environmental, economic and culturally-related issues that reflect Mozambiques distinct history and how artists utilize recycled materials to create uniquely Mozambican art. My investigation focuses on determining how and why Mozambican artists use recycled materials to create their art and how the use of these materials relate to broader themes of recycling, visual culture and post-conflict resolution theory. I investigate artists who use natural and urban refuse, as well as artists involved with the Christian Council of Mozambiques (CCM) program Transformao de Armas em Enxadas/ Transforming Arms into Plowshares (TAE), who transform decommissioned weapons from the Mozambican civil war into assemblage art. For the past two summers I have completed pre-dissertation research in Maputo, Mozambiques capital. Maputo is a compelling case study site because of its large number of artists using various recycled materials and its strong network of arts organizations. My previous research focused on broadening my network of contemporary Mozambican artists and strengthening ties with arts organizations and cultural groups to enrich my investigation. This year I have begun intensive fieldwork for my dissertation research and will spend 2010-2011 in Maputo continuing my research on contemporary Mozambican arts. Shortly after my arrival in Maputo this year food riots took place. Popularly referred to as the situao, these events underscored for me the importance of my research. The expressive arts of contemporary Mozambican artists reveal important social and political issues. Through my research, I hope to continue a dialogue with Mozambican artists regarding their important messages through their use of innovative media. Although I have been in Maputo only a short time, I am grateful to have been able to take part in a few important artistic events connected to my research. I was asked to participate in the selection process of an exhibition of Mozambican artists for the United States Embassy that included several established and emerging Mozambican artists. I also helped in the organization of an exhibition produced by CCMs TAE project and artists collective Nucleo de Arte. This exhibition invited a wide range of artists from Nucleo de Arte to create art from weapons, and was organized in conjunction with the commemoration of Mozambican peace from the civil war on October 4th. I also participated in a workshop at Nucleo de Arte organized by artists to teach children about making art from recycled materials. I feel fortunate to have been invited to take part in these varied and innovative cultural events and hope my investigation continues to develop as I explore the visual arts of Mozambique.

PAGE 64

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 63 t dent eports N AH ISAIAH SIMS In summer 2010, I made tangible progress on my research through a Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad (GPA) language and cultural immersion grant to study Kiswahili in Tanzania. I was able to make connections with scholars and community leaders, and associate myself with the archives in the coastal cities of Dar es Salaam, Kilwa, and Bagamoyo along with the Island of Zanzibar. It is one thing to be on vacation in Tanzania, but to actually be involved with the people and their culture is entirely different. I made it my mission to be be of high interest was that the people of Tanzania, and I suppose all throughout East Africa, were very welcoming. However, there is a large difference between being welcomed as a tourist/ guest and as a friend. There is a culture of tourism that is provided to and promoted by the majority of visitors and then there is the culture of real life, which is obvious but still unnoticed by many. I was shocked to hear, witness, and be subjected to this, but it gave me an even deeper understanding and appreciation for the vast complexities that exist within Swahili culture. I was able to identify the multiple socio-cultural layers constructed by the people and I hope to be able to peel back those layers in an attempt to look into the past; one that is too often overlooked. My research requires a multi-faceted, interdisciplinary approach combining anthropology, history, and archaeology and having the chance to situate myself culturally in East Africa was critical due to the nature of my project. In the near future, I plan to return to Tanzania to conduct archaeological fieldwork in the northwest part of the country. In November 2010, I presented a paper on Islamic colonization at the American Anthropological Association (AAA) meeting. I will be using the information that I was able to gather this summer along with research I have done for my MA thesis to discuss an aspect of Islam in Africa that is rarely addressed. I see a bright and very interesting future of research ahead of me in the dynamic culturally heterogeneous area of the world that is the East African Coast.

PAGE 65

64 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 CAR INE G STAUB Located in the Kavango-Zambezi TransBoundary Conservation Area (KAZA), one of the largest transfrontier parks in Africa, it also features the Okavango Delta, a wetland of international importance and a RAMSAR protected area since 1997. Northern Botswanas protected areas, Chobe National Park and Moremi Game Reserve, currently host the largest population of African elephants on the continent. The area supports many communities by providing a diversity of livelihood activities including pastoral grazing, controlled hunting and wildlife conservation for both biodiversity and tourism purposes. The commercialization of the arable and livestock industries in the early 1970s, whereby ranches were demarcated and land was fenced, resulted in environmental threats though the intensification and restriction of both livestock and wildlife in small areas. This summer, I conducted a pilot study for my doctoral research in northwestern Botswana. I collected soil samples and vegetation profiles in protected areas and on pastoral grazing lands. My research focuses on understanding the mosaic of natural resources that occurs as a result of interactions between soil, vegetation and land use types in dryland systems. I am interested in examining the availability and distribution of vital resources in my study area. Nutrients and water are essential to wildlife as well as livestock, which are directly linked to economic returns and local livelihoods worldwide, and especially in southern Africa. The vegetation in northern Botswana is being modified by fire, extensive herding and anthropogenic activity such as clearing woodland for agriculture, fuel wood collection and construction materials in pastoral areas. Meanwhile, wildlife movement restrictions in protected areas have resulted in homerange reductions for migratory species such as the African elephant, which is also a source of concern with respect to habitat modification. African savannas have been experiencing rapid changes in response to climate and/or land use over the past century, and are vulnerable to future change. These changes may have profound effects on the ability of local people to use natural resources including growing crops, herding cattle, and exploiting wildlife. I will use recently developed geophysical mapping techniques to produce high quality, high resolution geographic information on current soil, vegetation and land-use interactions. I want my research to provide landholders with a better understanding of the local patterns of natural resources, in the hope that it will contribute to conservation strategies that are better adapted to local livelihoods in the region.

PAGE 66

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 65 t dent eports ER NI UE THERIAU T This second phase of field research builds on the work done during summer 2009, by investigating the issues and concerns related with the ongoing reforms. Given that Mali is one of the latest African countries to reform its cotton sector, many studies have previously examined the relationship between market structure (i.e., monopoly versus competitive market) and cotton performance (i.e., farm gate prices and production). However, little research has analyzed the interaction between local realities and cotton reform success. My research contributes to the literature by providing deeper insights on how the internal challenges facing the cotton sector, such as farmer indebtedness, delays in farmer payments, and increase in input costs, influence cotton farmer production decisions and market reform success. The Malian cotton sector has traditionally been vertically integrated. Indeed, a parastatal monopoly is responsible for providing inputs on credit to farmers; purchasing all cotton at the harvest at a fixed pan territorial price; and transporting, processing, and selling all production on the international market. Despites relative past success, the Malian cotton sector has recently faced important internal (i.e., large financial deficits) and external (i.e., low world prices) challenges that ultimately led to major reforms. As a way to improve the efficiency and competitiveness of the Malian cotton sector, market-oriented reforms that aim to privatize and liberalize some segments of the sector have been undertaken. For instance, the parastatal monopoly has centralized its activities toward cotton processing and marketing; has withdrawn from the provision of public goods, such as literacy and extension services; and will be soon privatized into local monopolies. Under the reforms, former village associations have also been transformed into cotton producer cooperatives (CPCs), where membership can be, in theory, selective. However, it appears that exclusion is not such an easy option in reality. During this second phase of fieldwork, I examined the issues related with the joint liability program prevailing in the CPCs, in order to better understand how local realities affect repayment rates, and therefore, indebtedness. Under the joint liability framework, members of a CPC are jointly liable for each others loans. If certain members are unable to pay back their loans, contribution from solvent members will make up the difference. Although the exclusion of insolvent cotton growers from a cooperative seems a priori a solution, the strength of the social relations prevailing in villages might prevent it from happening. One objective of my research is, therefore, to analyze how local realities, through social and economic status and linkages, influence both the performance of the farmer (individuals capability and willingness to repay) and the cooperative (withdrawal of the performing farmers facing low profit margin due to other members insolvency). In conjunction with the African Power and Politics (APP) Malian team, I conducted individual interviews with the main stakeholders involved in the Malian cotton sector at the village and national levels. Moreover, focus groups with cotton producers were also conducted in order to shed light on how credit and inputs, such as fertilizers and pesticides, are managed inside the CPCs. From my fieldwork, I have learned that the success of the cotton reforms largely depends on the ability to work closely with the local realities.

PAGE 67

66 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 EITH R EGH RST Opposition parties face tremendous barriers to attaining modest gains in power in government, and even more in ousting the ruling party. Under what circumstances do opposition parties effectively challenge incumbent research project I am conducting in Tanzania that explores how opposition parties win (or fail to win) power from the dominant Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) and what drives such success failures of the governing party, success of the opposition, or both. During the summer of 2010, I conducted a survey in Dar es Salaam that studied how voters make decisions over political parties. The survey included over 900 respondents and explored how the political performance of incumbent and opposition parties impacts which party citizens said they would support in the October 2010 elections. Do voters support the opposition because of poor do critical voters simply choose the incumbent in offer these private goods, would a voter change The survey employed new techniques that improve the quality of data about political competition. In Tanzanias dominant party regime, citizens might self-censor and be dishonest about issues like taking cash for their votes or supporting violence by the political opposition. I conducted a survey experiment with students at the University of Dar es Salaam in 2009 and found this to be was acceptable for the opposition, about two of obtrusive question formatsparticularly one called a list experimentsupport was closer to 90% for respondents. The survey conducted in 2010 expanded the use of this technique across Dar es Salaam. In October, I am conducted a second round of the survey in Dar es Salaam and (pending research clearance) in Zanzibar. In Zanzibar, the same political parties compete but have been more successful than in the mainland. In a July referendum, Zanzibari voters chose to bring opposition CUF into a powersharing government with the CCM after the October elections. During the summer of 2010, I conducted extensive qualitative research with political leaders and headed a referendum observation mission on Pemba, Zanzibars second largest island. The October survey round compared what strategies work for courting support for the opposition. It implements an important control across the two cases, as the parties themselves are constant between to be seen what the outcome of the 2010 elections will be, this survey will provide critical insight into political competition that is so fundamental to the development of democracy in Africa.

PAGE 68

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 67 t dent eports ANN ITU S I In my dissertation, I examine a conflict in Morocco over the content of an Islamic education curriculum between state bureaucrats, religious leaders, Islamic education teachers and education inspectors. This topic is interesting for several reasons. First, it problematizes the assumption that the state is a coherent, integrated body by illustrating intrastate dissent and conflict. Second, by identifying the main actors and their positions in this conflict, it illustrates important cleavages in Moroccan society. Third, it provides ethnographic data on the content of an Islamic education curriculum in one of the most liberal Arab states. Finally, because the curriculum reform was part of a larger restructuring of religious agencies in response to the Casablanca bombings in 2003, it provides a case study on the day-to-day impact and unintended consequences of state responses to violent attacks. I will be doing the fieldwork for this research from November 2010 to October 2011 in Fez. Through interviews and archival data, I will identify the main actors, their positions and important events that allowed the curriculum reform to occur. Through discourse analysis of the final curriculum, I will evaluate which actors preferences were incorporated and whose were ignored. Past fieldwork in Fez was extremely important in guiding me to select this in Fez on a FLAS fellowship during the summer of 2008, I lived with a Moroccan woman and her family. The woman was an Islamic education teacher at a local elementary school, and she spoke frequently of the reform to the curriculum, all the training that she was required to do, and ways that she felt the curriculum could be improved. Our informal conversations later guided me to pursue my current dissertation topic. During the summer of 2009, I spent three months doing pre-dissertation fieldwork with funding through collaboration with Herbert Kitschelt of Duke University and from the UF Political Science Department. During this time, I experimented with survey research, gained experience interviewing in French, and developed a number of contacts with Islamic education teachers, local political party leaders and journalists. After completing the dissertation, I hope to expand the project to a comparative study of Islamic education reforms in North Africa and the Middle East.

PAGE 69

68 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 CHRIST PHER ITU S I to North Africa, I am able to further prod the complexities of the relationship between these people, their religion, Sufism, Islam, rituals, and popular music. The ritual music of the Gnawa, unlike that of most Sufi groups in the region, has two parallel goals. It not only attempts to create a bridge between the individual and the divine it also engages spirits ( mluk owner), asking them to participate in the ceremony by capturing, or possessing, adepts. The blessings from these spirits rest upon the house and the family of those who are possessed (or maskun unanswered, however, as orthodox groups and everyday Moroccans ask about these mluk: are they syncretic Muslim/African spiritual figures, as the Gnawa say, or are they jinns troublesome demons aiming to is conflated with the already tenuous position of music within the Islamic world, criticisms and religious struggles between brotherhoods and other organizations percolate to the surface. Simultaneously, however, groups like the Aissawa, a Sufi path originating in 18th century Meknes, adopt Gnawa songs, and even spirits, placing them within their own ritual practices. This past summer I was able to return to Fez and investigate the theological, social, and economic relationships between these different religious organizations. By examining the motivations that drove Aissawa and other Sufi groups to include Gnawa material in their rituals and theological worldviews, I worked to unravel small corners of the densely woven Moroccan cultural web. As a nation renown for hybridity, social relations in Morocco fall upon innumerable parallel and intersecting axis, with race, belief, and language, three that implicate the Gnawa directly, proving to be a few of the most prominent. During this trip, I had the opportunity to work closely with a diverse range of musical and ritual leaders including Abderrahim Abd ar-Rzaq and Gaga, both Gnawa maalems Adil and Abdullah Yaqubi, Aissawa muqaddems from two different groups, and two members of a Hamadcha brotherhood, Abderrahim al-Marrakechi and Fredrick Calmus. These individuals welcomed me into their lives and social circles, teaching me to play and sing their music while spending countless hours humoring my questions about rituals, beliefs, society, and Islam as they appear in Fez and Morocco.

PAGE 70

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 69 V eports SANF RD BERG PURC concentrates its studies on energy, telecommunications and water sectors and has had impacted at least 2,331 infrastructure professionals from 143 nations through conferences, seminars and other training programs. Some of PURCs latest projects center around leadership development, telecommunications, utility policy and regulation. PURCs telecommunications seminar, Competitive Analysis in Telecoms: Current and Future Markets, was given by PURC Director Mark Jamison to the Uganda Communications Commission (UCC) on July 22, 2010 in Kampala, Uganda. Participants analyzed the financial condition of telecom operators, assessed the intensity of market competition, developed remedies for weak competition and designed policies to facilitate competition in emerging broadband markets through examining case studies and other examples. Thirty regulatory professionals from the UCC, the telecom industry in Uganda and regulatory agencies from Kenya and Tanzania attended the seminar.\011 Mark Jamison (PURC Director) and Araceli Castaeda (PURC Assistant Director) delivered a leadership development workshop, Executive Leadership, Strategic Planning and Organizational Development in Utilities Regulation, on July 20-21 in Kampala, Uganda. The workshop was hosted by the Uganda Communications Commission (UCC) and participants learned how knowing strengths and limitations, preparing the organization for its work, and managing the external environment is essential to effective executive leadership. Through case studies, personal and organizational assessment, and action plans, the participants learned about assessing an organizations health, distinguishing between technical and adaptive challenges, adapting leadership approaches to current situations, involving others in the work of leadership, and challenging conventional wisdom. Twenty-seven regulatory professionals from seven different nations attended the workshop. PURCs two-week training programs, held in December 2009 and March 2010, was specifically designed for the Rwanda Utilities Regulatory Agency. The program focused on electricity market design, financial analysis, designing economic incentives, and establishing prices. The 69 participants, including commissioners and staff from Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda, examined cases to determine the financial condition of an electric utility, separating regulatory from non-regulatory costs, restructuring an electricity market, designing prices, and benchmarking to encourage efficiency, along with numerous exercises. In addition to technical topics such as demand forecasting, ratio analysis and cost of service studies, the participants examined how to better understand stakeholder objectives, how to manage relationships when working on controversial issues, and how to communicate with the press. The course was delivered by PURC Director Mark Jamison, PURC Director of Energy Studies Ted Kury, and PURC Senior Fellow Raj Barua in conjunction with Professor Anton Eberhard of the University of Cape Town, South Africa. For more information about PURC programs and events, visit www.purc.ufl. edu.

PAGE 71

70 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 BRIAN CHI D GREN I E BARNES SANDRA RUSSBRI ESH THAPA This will enable southern African education institutions to provide training at several levels: undergraduate, graduate, and short courses for practitioners and policy-makers. Southern Africa is leading a new conservation paradigm called the Sustainable Use Approach. Moving away from fortress preservation, the essence of this approach is that if wild resources are valuable and if local people own and can benefit from them, then there is a high likelihood that these resources will create jobs and economic growth and will therefore be conserved by the people living with them. There has been a considerable investment in this approach by national governments, donor agencies and local people and, interestingly, wildlife in southern Africa has increased since the 1970s whereas it has declined steeply or precipitously in However, the intellectual logic and practical implementation tools behind this approach remain largely in a knowledge network of committed scholar practitioners and in the form of oral and grey literature. The project brings this knowledge network together with scholars, and particularly young scholars from African institutions, to document this knowledge and set it out in a format that can be used for educating students at many levels. The first step was to hold two workshops in Pretoria and Kruger to strengthen and broaden this community of practice, to ascertain educational needs in the region, and outline the materials needed to match these needs. Our priority is now to write four text books that each form the basis of a separate course, with the intention that each course can be used for participants ranging from field practitioners to university students and high level officials. The first book Foundations of CBNRM will be a general text. The second book will bring together principles and lessons relating to the economic management of wild resources, tourism, and livelihoods. The third book introduces the complexities of governance and management, ranging from national distributional political economy and policy to the microgovernance of local communities. The fourth book emphasizes pedagogical approaches, including participatory learning, action research and collaborative adaptive management and technology development. In Spring 2011, we are planning to bring young faculty from our key partners University of Botswana, Sokoine Agricultural University in Tanzania, the Polytechnic of Namibia, and at least two other partners to UF to co-teach foundations of CBNRM. These visiting faculty members will test the draft textbook, adapt it to local circumstances by developing teaching manuals, and will provide a 2-week summer course for practitioners in southern Africa as part of their training. This project is a natural outcome of the interdisciplinary research that a number of our students, many of whom are featured in this report, conduct on CBNRM in Africa.

PAGE 72

74 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 BRI ESH THAPA BRIAN CHI D PATRICIA MUPETA GREG RY PARENT However, it also faces immense competition for tourists from other destinations in east and southern African countries with better tourism infrastructure and international brand name recognition. For Zambia to realize its potential, it must diversify its current tourism product beyond its traditional hubs. In addition to the negative environmental impacts due to high concentration of visitors in a few destinations, it is paramount for visitor dispersal to other regions to provide a diverse mix of tourism opportunities, thereby enhancing the countrywide product and distributing economic benefit to regional and local economies. However, visitors are only likely to visit new regions if the destinations have quality setting attributes, attractions, and suitable infrastructure. One of the destinations that is currently underdeveloped but has the capacity to substantially increase its international, regional and domestic visitors is Kafue National Park (KNP). KNP is the second largest national park in the world with limiting factors such as infrastructure, physical (e.g., roads) and tourism. However, in order to further develop, package and promote the park and its surrounding regions, it is important to assess the viability of tourism growth from a supply and demand perspectives. Currently, tourism has not reached its potential but is a major tool to promote and strengthen sustained economic growth and poverty reduction in the greater KNP area. The purpose of this project is to conduct a survey of current visitors to Zambia with respect to demand assessment for the greater KNP area. Although there have been a few studies that have assessed nature-based tourism from a demand and supply perspectives, they have all been based on a countrywide standpoint. This study proposes to examine demand based on current visitors that have visited the KNP area and/or those that have visited other national parks. Visitors will encompass international, regional and domestic tourists. This study will provide baseline information needed to position the region relative to other regions in the country. The study will also analyze determinants of demand to aid policy makers and the tourism industry to improve the identification of potential new markets, as well as provide and improve the tourism opportunities that play a key role in a tourists choice in their trip selection. Additionally, it will assist in the development of comprehensive marketing strategies to showcase the greater KNP region. The project team has been formulated based on their respective background, knowledge and expertise. This project is led by Brijesh Thapa, Director of UF Center for Tourism Research and Development. In addition, the team constitutes of Brian Child (Geography/CAS), Patricia Mupeta (Natural Resources and Environment) and Gregory Parent (Geography).

PAGE 73

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 73 V reports BRI ESH THAPA SANDRA RUSSRI PENNINGT N GRAY Tourism is a very important industry for the economy, which has largely focused on the core products such as parks, wildlife, nature and culture. In the last two decades, the product mix has been diversified to incorporate marine and coastal areas, rural communities and townships, events, urban centers, and meetings, incentives, conventions and exhibitions. The market is largely comprised of visitors from Africa and the Middle East. However, international markets are increasing and there are indications of continued growth in the future. Also, the government expects to increase international arrivals to 10 million by 2010. Given the projected increases in visitors, the potential to expand this sector to generate more income, employment and other benefits are enormous, considering the current level of tourism development. However, tourism growth is dependent on a number of factors, notably, developing a trained and skilled labor force. Capacity building and institutional development through training is a key component for the vitality and sustainability of the tourism industry in South Africa. In order to address this major need, the University of Florida (UF) and Tshwane University of Technology (TUT) in Tshwane, South Africa have formulated a partnership to strengthen its teaching, research, service and faculty development initiatives in tourism management. In Year 1, the teaching and curriculum needs will be accommodated at the Bachelor degree level with respect to the following objectives: a) review and update existing curriculum; b) develop new curriculum in casino management, event management, airport and aviation management (currently these degree programs are not offered on the African continent); and c) develop vocational and executive training certificate programs in tourism. Also, a more concerted effort will be highlighted to target and enroll disadvantaged populations to the Department of Tourism at TUT. In Year 2, based on a strategic visioning meeting with faculty and industry stakeholders, a Center for Sustainable Tourism will be established with active industry engagement (advisory board) and partnership. The mission of the Center will be largely to serve tourism destinations and industries through research, training and outreach within the community, province and other regions in southern Africa. In Year 3, faculty development will be emphasized with regards to enhancing capacity as well as collaborative initiatives in tourism research with the project team and select UF faculty. The facilitation of collaborative initiatives in research partnerships will be sustained during and post-completion of the project. Also, professional development opportunities will be offered to current TUT faculty through a short exchange program with UF. Currently, the majority of the objectives for Years 1 and 2 have been met. In addition, various spin-off research projects have been conducted. The project team has been formulated based on their respective background, knowledge and expertise from within and outside UF, which will be instrumental in accomplishing the objectives and strengthening the partnership between UF and TUT. This project is led by Brijesh Thapa, Director of UF Center for Tourism Research and Development along with Sandra Russo (International Center), and Lori Pennington-Gray (Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management).

PAGE 74

72 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 BRI ESH THAPA MATTHE A ER YRIA I AP ANID U HEATHER GIBS N some attention is still given to economic and infrastructural legacies, a growing body of research shows that the longterm outcomes may be primarily social, with contributions to the social infrastructure at both the local and national levels. For the TM the South African government has a developmental agenda, part of which is predicated on nation building. Sport has long been associated with building national spirit and generating patriotism. Understanding the social legacies of a mega-event necessitates a focus on the residents of a nation. In particular, there is a need in such a study for a longitudinal approach, particularly to assess the change in the residents perceptions associated with a mega-sports event. This research has multiple phases with the primary goal of identifying the social legacies (e.g., identity, social capital, and tourism) CupTM. This focus will help to inform local and national level policy to facilitate the Nation Building goals of South Africa. Data were collected three months prior to the event in mid June 2010, while a follow up will be conducted in January 2011. The sample constituted of residents from five host cities (Pretoria, Nelspruit, Polokwane, Johannesburg, and Rustenburg). cities attracted an abundance of visitors and created impressions in tourists minds about the South African tourism product. Given the importance of the event for the South African Tourism Brand, an additional objective was to evaluate destination and event image perceptions and tourism behaviors of spectators in order to assess the impact of such an event in a countrys tourism development. Data were collected among visitors at all the nine host cities (Pretoria, Nelspruit, Polokwane, Johannesburg, Rustenburg, Durban, Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Cup TM which will provide a major source of information about visitor profiles, market segmentation, perceptions and experiences. Such information would be a useful tool with respect to marketing initiatives to attract additional visitors following the event. This project is conducted in partnership between the University of Florida (UF) and Tshwane University of Technology (TUT) in Pretoria, South Africa. The team from the Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management at UF is led by Brijesh Thapa, Director of UF Center for Tourism Research and Development Kyriaki Kaplanidou, and Heather Gibson. The TUT team is led by Coetzee.

PAGE 75

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 71 V reports early results from a wildlife-reliant community are fascinating. Although everyone appears to be agricultural, only 8% of the household economy derives from agriculture, and people purchase well over half their food from stores in the nearby town. Jobs in tourism, and specifically hunting, are enabling more than half of the 62 families in this village to reach a stage where they do not report hunger in the household. However, if hunting is banned, many families will regress into a position of hunger. Hunting earns the village over $200,000 annually from some 110 animals, employs many people, and funds the transport people use to get into town. The second serious threat to the community is HIV/AIDS. The primary mechanism for moving out of poverty, defined as families who report hunger, is employment. The loss of family members is traumatizing this village on a personal level, and because many deaths are wage earners the loss of wage income drops families back into hunger. At a more conceptual level, what is interesting is how little reliance is placed on agriculture in this community, and how therefore climate change is largely nullified. This traditional-looking village is moving rapidly into the wage and retail economy, and the real threats are the vagaries of government policy on the economy (e.g. a much discussed hunting ban) and disease in the form of HIV/AIDS. Additional field seasons and research visits are planned for fall 2010, spring and summer 2011. ANE So wo B C l E M l B o P l Yo l G k R M oz C To answer this question, the project develops a temporally and spatially multiscale understanding of the relationships between land-cover and land-use change (LCLUC) and climatic shifts in three watersheds that lie in that socio-economic institutions are the main instruments of human adaptation to climate variability and change, and that the observable outcomes of institutional adaptations are seen in the spatial and material expression of LCLUC. This study will test the resilience of the socio-ecological systems of southern Africa, enhance the use of remote sensing, and provide models for climate scenario planning. As an ongoing portion of this project, in summer 2010 two UF faculty (Brian Child and Erik Keys) and six UF students (Jessica Steele, Erin Bunting, Jing Sun, Shylock Muyengwa, Patricia Mupeta, Keilani Jacquot) worked in four in teams their objective was to assess livelihoods and how these might respond to impending climate change. They surveyed individual households to determine their production and consumption, what shocks they were concerned about, and how they were responding to them.

PAGE 76

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 75 V reports This 5 year program of research and policy engagement is led by the Overseas Development Institute (London), and other partners in France, Ghana, Niger, Uganda and the UK, including: \011 Development, Accra, Ghana Recherches sur les Dynamiques Sociales et le Dveloppment Local (LASDEL), Niamey, Niger and Parakou, Benin Training, Kampala, Uganda Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Marseille, France Brighton, UK The APP consortium is dedicated to discovering institutions that work for poor people. That means exploring the kinds of political, economic and social arrangements that, if adopted, would enable countries of sub-Saharan Africa to make faster progress towards development and the elimination of extreme poverty. APPP thus aims to identify ways of ordering politics and regulating power and authority that might work better than those now in place, on the basis of a careful and critical look at what has worked well in Africa itself in the recent and not-so-recent past. The programs objectives combine research with research-training, organizational capacity strengthening and policy development, and aims to do the research in ways that recognize the substantial, if often underrated, resources for collective problem-solving that are to be found in African societies. The APP Programme is organized around six current research streams, focusing on varied empirial issues. Two research projects are currently led by UF faculty. Renata Serra directs one of two substreams of the Business and Politics stream, on the theme of Institutions, Power, and Norms in African Cotton Sector Reforms. Leonardo Villaln is co-director, with Mahaman Tidjani Alou of LASDEL, of the stream on Formalizing Schooling: Religion and Education Reform in the Sahel. In addition, several other UF faculty and eight PhD students have had research funded through the APPP. The photo on this page shows the participants at a June 2010 meeting of the religion and education research stream at LASDEL in Niger.

PAGE 77

76 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 T DD EEDY GREN I E BARNES BRIAN CHI D SANDRA RUSS UF and UB have become part of a global network of Masters in Development Practice (MDP) degree-granting institutions, a network built with seed funding from the MacArthur Foundation. The students in these programs form one natural constituency for the field practicum as it develops with full institutional partnership between UF and UB. The UF team met with senior administrators and representatives of potential collaborating units on the main UB campus in Gaborone. These discussions made it clear to the UF team that UB has made substantial institutional commitments to ensuring that the partnership is symbiotic and sustainable. For example, UB has committed to significantly expanding the Okavango Research Center (ORC) accommodation facilities at its Maun campus. The UF team met multiple times with the UB Dean of Graduate Studies to work on detailed budgeting, instructional commitments, and in-country orientation. Upon arrival in 2011, UF participants will spend their first week in Gaborone at the Botswana College of Agriculture (BCA), joining the UB participants for an intensive week of orientation including guest lectures and visits to various relevant government agencies and NGO offices. For weeks two through seven, participants will be based at ORC in Maun and complete six one week field training and research modules. This will be followed by 2-4 week individual or small student team attachments to a variety of possible university, local government, private-sector or community entities. Discussions with senior administrators and research staff at the UB Maun campus helped to identify possible instructional staff for the UF-UB practicum, as well as the need for expanded administrative capacity at ORC in order to undertake sustainable training programs for UF-UB and other potential institutions/clients. The UF team also met with potential coordinating government agencies and non-governmental organizations in Gaborone to assess potential collaborative activities (e.g. attachment of UF-UB program students, staff training through participation in UF-UB program, use of monitoring data, etc.). Meetings with these organizations made it clear to the team that the imminent establishment of the field practicum would be broadly well-received for a number of reasons. First, because we plan to work in a defined set of communities annually, student training projects will generate a set of longitudinal data that can be used to monitor rural livelihoods and plan effective interventions. Second, there is a clear demand within in various organizations for the type of training experience that the UF-UB program will offer. This provides a potential secondary constituency for the program, allowing for the possibility of students working in teams with active practitioners or the establishment of separate field practicum for local agency and organization staff. Meetings with similar bodies in Maun to assess potential collaborative activities (e.g. attachment of UFUB program students, staff training through participation in UF-UB program, use of monitoring data, etc.) highlighted how a sustained student training program could also impact rural livelihoods by providing actionable data to community-based organizations and their private sector partners.

PAGE 78

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 77 V reports This is part of a global initiative designed to educate a new generation of development practitioners and MDP programs are now in place or under development at 22 universities worldwide, most of these with funding from the MacArthur Foundation. Other MDP programs in Africa are located at the University of Botswana, the Universite Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar (Senegal) and the University of Ibadan (Nigeria). The MDP at UF is administered jointly through the Center for African Studies and Center for Latin American Studies. The UF-MDP was designed by an interdisciplinary group of faculty from seven different colleges across campus. The 51-credit, five semester (including summer) MDP curriculum spans the social, natural, and health sciences and includes interdisciplinary management skills that will enable students coming out of the program to be much better prepared to deal with the complex array of contemporary development challenges. Coursework includes a Global Classroom in which MDP students from around the world participate and discuss development topics ranging from sustainable energy to food security to climate change to project management and foreign aid. This course is coordinated by the Earth Institute at Columbia University which also serves as the Secretariat for the global MDP network. In addition, MDP students at UF also take courses in Health and Development, Economics, Ecological Principles for Development Professionals, Natural Resource Management and Innovation Systems, Communication and Leadership Skills, Conservation and Development Entrepreneurship, and Development Administration. The MDP degree bridges scholarship and practice and includes a three month summer practicum which can be carried out in Africa or Latin America. One option is the field school in Botswana which is comprised of seven weeks in the field followed by an attachment where students work with communities or local partners on a specific development project. This field school is a collaboration with the MDP program at the University of Botswana and the Okavango Research Center (ORC) The first cohort of 11 MDP students began this Fall (2010) and is comprised of two Africans, a Colombian/American and eight Americans. Four of these students completed their undergraduate degree at UF and the cohort as a whole has diverse academic backgrounds, including agriculture, history, international relations, environmental education, sociology and psychology, and community sciences. The first two MDP scholarships were awarded to Greyson Nyamoga from Tanzania and Tshubangu (Tshi Tshi) Kalala from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Greyson is a lecturer at the Sokoine University of Agriculture in Tanzania and has also worked for the Tanzanian government and as a loan officer for FINCA in Tanzania. Tshi Tshi has worked as a consultant, researcher and volunteer for several different organizations in war-torn areas of Program, Heal Africa, Doctors without Borders, and International Crisis Group. Currently the Program is codirected by Brian Child (Geography/ African Studies) and Grenville Barnes (SFRC) with Marianne Schmink (Latin American Studies) as graduate coordinator. Program coordinator, Sheila Onzere, was hired in October 2009 and the first of two new faculty positions was filled by Rick Rheingans in July, 2010. Sheila is completing a PhD at Iowa State in sustainable food systems and Rick is a specialist in health and development and was previously an Associate are in the process of searching for the second MDP faculty position in development administration and expect to hire the successful candidate by July, 2011.

PAGE 79

78 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 E NARD A I A N DANIE A SMITH The frequency of elections has indeed increased dramatically in Africa since the arrival of the past two decades have been highly mixed, in virtually every country elections have been accepted as the normal mode of acceding to public office, and are now held with some regularity. The reiterated processes of elections has, in turn, produced intense debates about their conduct, and over the years there has been an increased awareness that the need is not just to avoid cheating on election day but to consider much broader issues such as the impact of varying choices of electoral systems, the importance of the larger institutional infrastructure and the rules of game, the role of social and political organizations in elections, and the management of the mechanics of electoral processes. Over a two-year period (2010-12), the UF Trans-Saharan Elections Project will sponsor a series of exchanges and seminars that will bring together elections specialists from six target countries Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Senegalwith a wide range of American professionals involved in elections, to comparatively examine the challenges and issues involved in ensuring electoral freedom, fairness, and transparency. The project, co-directed by Leonardo A. Villaln and Daniel A Smith, is funded by a grant through the U.S. Department of States Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. A key goal will be to share experiences, so as to shape understanding and knowledge, and thus to contribute to discussions which will have real and substantive impact in the Trans-Saharan countries. On the US side, the exposure to electoral issues in a set of African countries that are otherwise strikingly different is intended to provide a more nuanced understanding among American professionals about the challenges and promises of electoral democracy in Africa. The six target countries present a highly interesting set of cases. All are relatively poor countries, and primarily Muslim, but with a broad range of experiences in elections and democracy: Senegal and Mali are frequently described as democracies today; Niger has experimented rather tumultuously with establishing democracy; Burkina Faso has experienced a very cautious political opening, without democratic transition; and Mauritania and Chad each have had challenging histories and more limited experiences with elections. In conjunction with partner institutions in each of the six countries, project activities over two years will bring six Elections Fellows from each of these countries to the US, to participate in two comprehensive learning programs on elections. Moving from the University of Florida in Gainesville, to the state capital of Tallahassee, and then on comparatively examine electoral processes at local, state and national levels. They will draw on visits to organizations and presentations by a broad range of professionals involved in elections: academics, government officials, civic groups, consultants, and media. In return, two delegations of Americans, representing these various constituencies, will visit the six African countries to learn more about their experiences and to share insights more broadly. The project will, in addition, produce a website and other materials to serve as important research

PAGE 80

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 79 V reports resources for both faculty and graduate students working on these understudied countries. organizations with which we will collaborate in setting up the project include: managed in conjunction with the Senegalbased Association de Recherche Ouest Africain, and a member of the Council of American Overseas Research Centers (CAORC). The Center thus has a strong well as extensive experience organizing the first point of contact and will host the orientation sessions for the American delegations. The CGD, led by a well-known Burkinab Political Scientist, is one of the most respected research and democratic advocacy organizations in the region. It undertakes a wide range of activities in partnership with local as well as international organizations, including projects on electoral administration and monitoring. Final sessions of the US delegation visits will be held at CGD. EISA (formerly Electoral Institute of Southern Africa) is an international network with country offices in six African countries, including Chad. EISAs mission is to promote credible elections and democratic governance in Africa, and the Chad office has been extensively in projects involving the training of elections observers. APEM is an organized network of 49 NGOs working directly to support the transparency and legitimacy of the electoral process in Mali. Created in 1996, on the eve of the contested 1997 elections (the second in the countrys democratic history), APEM has continued to play a central role in national discussions about the electoral process in Mali. Its activities have included extensive programs of citizen education, training of election observers, and working with political parties on fraud prevention. The Faculty of Law and Economics of the University of Nouakchott, which is in the process of planning the establishment of a working group on the organization, administration and analysis of elections. LASDEL is an independent organization working in various domains of applied social science research. It has emerged as one of the most important social science research organizations in the LASDEL has recently begun to work in the field of elections, and hosted an international conference on the Electoral Processes in Africa in September 2010. Mouvement Citoyen is a dynamic civil society organization, founded in 2002 by a noted Senegalese democratic activist, and quickly attracting significant national and international attention for its activities in the field of citizenship training, democracy promotion, and working with the media. The Mouvement has a particular mission to work with youth and women, and in promoting the participation of women in electoral processes.

PAGE 81

80 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 promote research on Africa beyond that undertaken by University of Florida faculty and graduate students. It is an interdisciplinary, fully refereed, online open access journal dedicated submission of original manuscripts on a full range of topics related to Africa in all disciplines. As an electronic journal, we welcome submissions that are of a time-sensitive nature. To qualify for consideration, submissions must meet the scholarship standards within the appropriate discipline and be of interest to an interdisciplinary readership. Issues that focus on a specific theme. The most recent Special Issue is entitled: Between Exit and Voice: Informality and the Spaces of Popular Agency, guest edited by Ilda Lindell of Stockholm University. It includes six articles on the following topics: urban youth vendors and top-down policy changes in Zambia; trash collection in Addis Ababa; changing relations between organized women market traders and rulers in Ghana; informalization processes driven by layoffs, casualization, and outsourcing in the South Africas industrial heartland; strategies for the collective organization of informal workers, informalization from above, and informalization from below, in South Africa; and the complexity for collective organizing, of informal labor in the construction sector in Dar es Salaam, Nairobi, Cape Town, and Nepal. An editorial committee composed of graduate students in African Studies who hail from Africa and the U.S. as well as other countries and represent a wide range of disciplines conducts the initial review of submitted manuscripts. Those submissions accepted for consideration are be original and that the article has not been submitted or accepted for publication elsewhere. Therefore, authors should include a statement in their submission declaring that the manuscript has not been published and is not under consideration for publication by another journal. The final publication depends on the quality of the manuscript, the associated peer review process, and the number of manuscripts which have already been accepted. The journal will attempt to publish manuscripts no later than six months after submission. For submission guidelines, matters related to the ASQ style, how to contact the ASQ, and other issues, potential authors should consult the ASQ website: www.africa.ufl.edu/ asq or email africanstudiesquarterly@gmail.com.

PAGE 82

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 81 The University of Floridas Center for African Studies anticipates awarding Foreign Language and Area Studies (FLAS) Fellowships for the academic year. These fellowships are funded by the U.S. Department of Education (USED) under Title VI of the U.S. Higher Education Act and are awarded to students combining graduate work in any academic discipline with African area and language studies. Fellowships are offered for any one of the regularly taught languages ( Akan, Amharic, Arabic, Swahili, Wolof, Xhosa, and Yoruba) as well as for other African languages for which instruction can be arranged. Academic year fellowships provide a stipend of $15,000 and cover the cost of tuition and fees (12 credits per semester). Applicants must be a citizen or permanent resident of the United States and be admitted to a graduate program at the University of Florida. Summer fellowships provide students with an opportunity to undertake intensive African language study in any USED approved program including the Summer Cooperative African Language Institute (SCALI). Summer fellowships cover tuition at the host institution and provide a stipend of $2,500. For more information, including application deadlines, please visit www.africa.ufl.edu/ graduatestudies/flas.

PAGE 83

82 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010 Funds for graduate students to travel and carry out research in Africa are in very short supply, especially in these trying economic times! research in Africa is absolutely essential for students to write the kinds of dissertations on which they will be able to base successful careers, whether in academia, government, NGOs, or the private sector. The major dissertation research awards for Africa are limited in number and increasingly competitive. In order for Ph.D. candidates to be competitive for these awards they must demonstrate a strong the capability to carry out the proposed work. As a result, preliminary summer research trips to lay the groundwork for making students competitive for national awards for dissertation funding. Helping our students launch their professional careers in this way is one of our top priorities at the Center for African Studies. The Center for African Studies has recently established a fund with the goal of creating an endowment of at least $30,000, so as to generate the revenue for an annual award to help a student carry out pre-dissertation research in Africa. If you would like to make a contribution to this fund, we (and future generations of UF Africanist students!) would be very grateful. The form below can be used for this purpose. If you are a UF employee and would like to contribute via payroll deduction, please contact CAS for assistance. If you have any questions or would like more informationplease contact Leonardo Villaln (CAS director) at Please Return To: My Gift is For: Amount Enclosed: $ _____________________________ Amount Pledged: $ ______________________________ (A pledge reminder will be mailed to the address provided.) _________________________________________ _______________________________________ ___________________________________ __________________________________________ ________________________________________ Remember to enclose your companys MATCHING GIFT FORM! It can double or triple your gift!Method of payment: (Make check payable to: UF Foundation, Inc.) __________________________________ _________________________ ________________________ Billing Information (if dierent from on at left): _______________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________________ __________________________________________ Signature:_ ______________________________________ Thank you for your support!

PAGE 84

Center for African Studies Research Report 2010\011 83 MADE YN M C HART In 2004, Dr. Madelyn Lockhart, professor emeritus of economics and a former Dean of the Graduate School, established an endowment to support an annual award for graduate students doing predissertation research in Africa. Dr. Charles Bwenge Dr. Paul A. Chadik & Dr. Charlotte A. Chadik Dr. R. Hunt Davis, Jr. & Mrs. Jeanne G. Davis Dr. Stephen A. Emerson & Mrs. Angela B. Emerson Professor Joan D. Frosch Dr. Abraham C. Goldman & Dr. Judith F. Breiner Dr. Jacob U. Gordon & Dr. Barbara McDade Gordon Dr. Abdoulaye Kane Mr. Michael R. Kohlhaas & Dr. Jane Southworth Dr. Michael R. Leslie & Dr. Agnes N. Leslie Mr. Peter Malanchuk & Mrs. Iona R. Malanchuk Dr. Mansangu D. Matondo Dr. James E. Meier & Dr. Asha M. Brunings Mr. John J. Mulligan & Dr. Connie J. Mulligan Dr. Susan OBrien & Dr. Katrina Z. Schwartz Dr. Daniel Reboussin & Dr. Ann Glaowasky Dr. Sandra L. Russo Dr. Richard Saunders Dr. Marianne Schmink Dr. Renata Serra Dr. Scot. E. Smith & Ms. Susan E Cooksey Hon. Emerson Thompson, Jr. & Hon. Geraldine Thompson Dr. Leonardo Villalon & Dr. Fiona McLaughin The generous contributions from Jeanne & Hunt Davis and Dr. Lockhart has made it possible for the Center to provide support for graduate students each summer to expand our capability for supporting graduate students, Dr. Davis has taken the lead in helping CAS work toward establishing an additional endowment. The African Studies Faculty & Alumni Pre-Dissertation Award now has over $20,000 in commitments and is moving toward the goal of $30,000, which will provide more support for graduate students. Please see the following page for more information about this fund and how you can contribute. The Center would like to thank the following individuals who have contributed to our various funds in the past year (with an extra special thanks to those who are working to build the Fac ulty & Alumni Pre-Dissertation Fund). In 2004, Dr. R. Hunt Davis, professor emeritus in History and a former director of the Center for African Studies, and his wife, Jeanne, established an endowment to support graduate students doing pre-dissertation research in Africa. EANNE HUNT DA IS

PAGE 85

84 \011 Center for African Studies Research Report 2010Patricia Mupeta for coordinating this project, the students and faculty who contributed reports and photographs, and Alex Coyle for the design and layout of this report. Cover photos by Terje steb and Todd Leedy.