Center for African Studies research report

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Center for African Studies research report
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About the Center




ONE OF THE NATION'S PREMIER INSTITUTIONS
FOR TEACHING AND RESEARCH ABOUT AFRICA

Founded in 1965, the Center for African Studies at UF has been continuously designated a U.S.
Department of Education Tite VI National Resource Center for Africa for over two decades. It
is currently one of only eleven such centers nationally, and the only Africa NRC located in a sub-
tropical zone. Title VI funding to CAS supports research, teaching, outreach, and the development of
international linkages in Africa.

The Center has over 100 affiliated teaching and research faculty in all of the core disciplines in the
humanities and social sciences, as well as in agriculture, business, engineering, education, fine arts, natural
resources and environment, journalism and mass communications, law, tourism, and natural sciences.
Graduate study on African issues may be pursued in any of these fields. Center faculty maintain active ties
with universities across the African continent, including institutions in Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali,
Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda.

The Center's innovative and influential on-line journal, the African Studies Quarterly, is the first fully
peer-reviewed electronic journal devoted to the field. ASQplays an important and largely unique role in
facilitating the publication of research on and from Africa, and offers invaluable professional training for
UF graduate students who serve on its editorial board.



GRADUATE STUDY OF AFRICA AT UF

Graduate study with a focus on Africa can be carried out in virtually every graduate or professional
program across the university. Prospective students are encouraged to consult the websites of the
individual programs for admissions procedures and criteria. Students in any graduate program at UF have
the option of pursuing a Graduate Certificate in African Studies. We also encourage them to consult the
Center's website and to contact us when they submit their applications.

Complementing formal coursework, a regular and dynamic series of lectures, conferences and other
activities open to all interested graduate students provide rich opportunities for interdisciplinary
exchange and discussion about Africa. Most significantly, a number of dynamic CAS-sponsored
interdisciplinary working groups organize speakers and events that bring together faculty and graduate
students with shared interests, providing students with unique opportunities for research and professional
development.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES RESEARCH REPORT 2009


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Table of Contents


From the Director .. ................................................4
F ro m th e D ire c to r ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

Faculty Reports
AKINTUNDE AKINYEMI-Contemporary African Dramatists & the Question of Orality............................................. .............................5
STEVEN BRANDT-Southwest Ethiopia-Homo sapiens Across & Out of Africa During the Late Pleistocene.................................................... 6
CHARLES BWENGE-Language Contact & Communicative Innovations: The African Experience............. ......................................... 7
BRENDA CHALFIN-Ghana's Modernist Metropolis: National Ideals & Urban Imperatives in Tema............................. ......................... 8
DONNA L. COH EN-Integrating the Study of African Architecture into the Curriculum................................................................................... 9
SUSAN COOKSEY--African Beadwork at the Harn Museum ..................................................................................................... ...........................10
JAM ES ESSEG BEY- The N yagbo D ocum entation Project.....................................................................................................................................11
JOAN FROSCH-Focusing a Choreographic Lens on Fresh Practices of the Imagination...................................................... ........................... 12
BRENT HENDERSON-Documentation of Chimiini, a Bantu Language of Somalia........................................................................................... 13
AGNES LESLIE-The Zambia-China Relationship: State Accommodation & Public Disaffectation ....................................................14
STAFFAN LINDBERG- InterrogatingAccountability in Ghana ............................................................................................................................15
FIONA McLAUGHLIN-Dakar Wolof: The Language of an African City ............................................................................. ...........................16
PETER MALANCHUK-African Wildlife & Range Management Collection ............................................................................................................17
REBECCA MARTIN NAGY-Restoration: On the Trail of the Artist Behind an Ethiopian Painting of the Holy Trinity................................... 18
ESTHER OBONYO-Optimizing Building Performance Parameters: The East African Context ............................................................................. 19
SUSAN O'BRIEN-Youth Culture, Islam and Democracy in West Africa .........................................................................................................................20
JACK PUTZ & CLAUDIA ROMERO-Collaborations with Rhodes University in South Africa ...............................................................................21
DANIEL REBOUSSIN-The Martin Rikli Photo Albums: A Snapshot of Ethiopia Circa 1935 ................................................................................22
VICTORIA ROVIN E-African Fashion: Innovation, Social Status, and Tradition in Mali ................................................. ...........................23
PETER SCHMIDT-Heritage Tourism: Sustainability & Capacity Building in Northwestern Tanzania .................... ............... 24
RENATA SERRA-Institutions, Power and Norms in African Cotton Reforms (Benin, Mali & Burkina Faso) ........................................ ...25
JULIE SILVA-Nature-Based Tourism as a Rural Development Strategy in Southern Africa ........................... ....................... ...........................27
JILL SO NKE- Arts in M medicine (A IM ) for Africa: Rwanda.................................................................................................................................28
ANITA SPRING- African Entrepreneurs: From M icro to Global ...........................................................................................................................29
ANDREW TATEM & MARCO SALEMI-HIV Spread in Central & East Africa............................................ .........................................................30
LEONARDO A. VILLALON-Formalizing School: Religion & the Education Sector in the Sahel................................ ............................31
LUISE WHITE-Unpopular Sovereignty: Rhodesian Independence and African Decolonization..................................32
ALYSON YOUNG-Waterborne Zoonotic Disease & Its Impact on Health Behavior in Tanzania ...........................................................33

Student Reports
CH RISTIAN AH IHOU--Ken Bugul: A Unique African Woman Novelist & Message........................................................ ...........................34
PHILLIP ALDERMAN-Improving Soil Fertility Management in Northern Ghana........................................................... ...........................35
RENEE BULLOCK-Land-Use Profitability in Northeast Tanzania ................................................................................................................................36
NICOLE D'ERRICO-Intergenerational Health Effects of Sexual Violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo ..............................................37
ANDREA GAUGHAN-Landscape Dynamics & Climate Variability in the Okavango-Kwando -Zambezi Catchment......................................38
ANN LEE GRIMSTAD-The 1964 Zanzibar Revolution & Its Revolutionaries ..............................................................................................................39
TRAVIS HERRET-Design for the Children: East African HIV/AIDS Clinic Design Competition.................................................... ........40
RACH EL IANNELLI-Heritage Tourism & Local Capacity in Northwestern Tanzania................................................................................................41


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES RESEARCH REPORT 2009
















JILLIAN JENSEN-Capturing Water Resources for Agriculture & Human Development in Swaziland..........................................................42
YANG JIAO-The Virtual Space of the Transnational Chinese Entrepreneurs in Ghana ........................... ............................................43
ALISON KETTER-Fairtrade South Africa: Global Models & National Realities.................................. .........................................................44
MICHELLE KIEL-Experts and the Subjects of Expertise: Education & Development in Madagascar........................... .................................45
KAREN KIRNER-Agricultural Change Between the Batoro & Bakiga Peoples: Kibale National Park, Uganda ...................................................46
ASHLEY LEINWEBER-Islamic Organizations & the Provision of Education in the Democratic Republic of Congo ........................................47
STEVE LICHTY-Uncovering Current Contentious Issues During Zanzibar's Electoral Process ........................... .......... ...........................48
MEREDITH MARTEN-The Sustainability of Public Health Interventions in Northern Tanzania ............................... ........................... 49
VINCENT MEDJIBE-Carbon Dynamics in Central African Forests Managed for Timber ........................... .............. ...........................50
COURTNAY MICOTS-Rock Residences in Anomabo, Ghana: Architectural Statements of Power & Identity ...................................................51
JESSICA M OREY- Student Unionism and Cultism in Nigeria............................................................... ....................................... ..................... 52
NAOMI MOSWETE-Community-Based Ecotourism Development in Kgalagadi District, Western Botswana ..................................................53
PATRICIA MU PETA-Democratizing Wildlife Management or Not? Three Village Trusts in Botswana.........................................................54
JESSICA MUSENGEZI-Wildlife-Based Land Use and Cattle Production on Private Land in South Africa ........................... ............. 55
SHYLOCK MUYENGWA-Institutions & Change in Community-Based Natural Resources Management (CBNRM) ....................................56
TIM OTHY NEVIN- Exploring Liberia's M musical H history ........................................................................................................................................ 57
JOSHUA NIEDERRITER-Foreign & Domestic-Owned Firms in the Namibian Tourism Sector ................................ ........................... 58
W INIFRED PANKANI--The Inform al Institutions: Do They M atter?..................................... ........................................................................................59
GREGORY PARENT-Livelihood Vulnerability and Village Economic Structure: Kruger National Park in South Africa ........................... 60
CH RISTOPH ER RIC HARDS-Re-Fashioning Africa: Ghana's 3rd Annual Fashion Weekend....................................................................61
AMY SCHWARTZOTT-The Potent Politics of Recycling in Contemporary Mozambican Urban Arts .............................................................62
MATTHEW H. SHIRLEY--Crocodile Conservation Across Africa................... ..................................................................................................63
OLEKAE THAKADU-Environmental Information & Communication Among Stakeholders: Okavango Delta, Botswana.............................64
VERONIQUE THERIAULT-Structural Changes in the Malian Cotton Sector: Implications for Export Performance.....................................65
CARRIE VATH-Primate Conservation & Environmental Education: Re-filling the Empty Forests ..................................................................66
CHRISTOPHER WITULSKI--Moroccan Islam(s): Debating Religious Authority Through Ritual & Musical Performance ..............................67


Collaborative Projects
Fulbright-Hays Summer 2009 Intensive Yoruba Group Project Abroad (GPA) .........................................................................................................68
Public Utility Research Center (PURC): African Infrastructure Research and Outreach ........................................................................................69
Higher Education for Development: Transforming CBNRM Education .............................................................................. ...................................70
NSF-Human and Social Dynamics Program: Parks As Agents of Social Change........................................ ....................................................72
NSF-Fostering International Collaboration with the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN) ........................... ............. ...........................73
American Political Science Association: Elections and Democracy Workshop in Ghana.................................................... ...................................74
Higher Education for Development: Tourism Management in South Africa......................................................................... ...................................75


New Master's Degree in Sustainable Development Practice ......................................................................................76


Foreign Language & A rea Studies Fellow ships ........................................................ ........................................................................77


S u p p o rt R e sea rch o n A frica .................. .......... ............................................................................................................................................................78


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES RESEARCH REPORT 2009















From the Director


We are delighted to present the 2009
Research Report of the University of
Florida's Center for African Studies (CAS).
We hope this report will give a sense
of the extraordinary diversity and the
academic caliber of the work on Africa
carried out by UF faculty members and
graduate students, as well as reflect
the depth of our engagement with
the continent. The research covered in
this report represents work in over 30
countries on the continent from the
perspective of nearly twenty disciplines
and incorporates a high degree of
interdisciplinarity.


UF work in Africa this year has been supported
from a variety of prestigious sources. In addition to the
many grants received by individual faculty members,
we are particularly proud of our collaborative projects.
Among some of the highlights you will read about
in this report are major initiatives funded by Higher
Education for Development (HED) to collaborate
with universities in southern Africa to develop
curriculum and training capacity in community-based
natural resource management (CBNRM) and CAS's
ongoing participation as a consortium member of the
Africa Power and Politics Program (APPP), which
is funded by the UK Department for International
Development (DFID) and Irish Aid. We are also
continuing to expand our outreach efforts with a
documentary film on Islam in West Africa, a project
funded by the Social Science Research Council
(SSRC).


And a crowning highlight for the
year: In a joint initiative between CAS
and the UF Center for Latin American
Studies, UF is one of only two US
universities selected by the MacArthur
foundation to receive nearly $1 million
dollars to initiate a new Master's in
Sustainable Development Practice
(MDP) degree. We are proud to join
the emerging worldwide network


of MDP programs, dedicated to the
idea of training a new generation of
development practitioners.
We hope you will enjoy reading
about the exciting work reported on
here. For more information on African
Studies at UF, please consult our
website at www.africa.ufl.edu or contact
us at 352.392.2183.
LeonardoA. Villain
Director, Center forAfrican Studies


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Faculty Reports





Contemporary African Dramatists and the Question of Orality

AKINTUNDE AKINYEMI


This summer I began field research in
Nigeria and Ghana on a new project in
which I am examining the role of oral
traditions in African dramaturgy, film, and
cinema.
The thrust of this project is to argue that there
has been an increasing tendency on the part of many
African writers to identify with the literary tradition
of their people. Writers, especially playwrights,
demonstrate this commitment by incorporating
materials from oral traditions into their works to
sustain the functions performed by such materials
in oral society in modern literary production.
However, the project is not just about preservation
and survival ofAfrican oral traditions, but more
about the ways oral traditions have been adjusted by
African playwrights and film script writers to address
contemporary interests and concerns. On several
occasions, these folkloric materials also become
instruments that African writers manipulate easily
to raise social consciousness in the minds of their
readers and audiences. Therefore, African playwrights
and film scriptwriters convert various genres of their
oral traditions to a complex set of symbols that are
only partly indigenous, thereby freeing them from
impediments of a fixed cultural perspective.
It is essential after the initial conception of
a project like this to interact with colleagues in
Africa working on the same problems and period.
Therefore, during my trip to Africa this past summer,
I interviewed several African writers, literary scholars,
scriptwriters, and film producers based in Nigeria and
Ghana. I also attended two international conferences
where I made presentations and shared my thoughts
on the project with colleagues.
The preliminary results of my investigation
reveal that integration of oral literary materials
into the works of contemporary African dramatists
manifests at two levels: that of documentation and
manipulation. By documentation, I mean a writer's
adoption of specific samples of literary materials from
oral genres, which he or she lifts verbatim, transcribes,


and inserts in appropriate places in his
or her writing with little or no addition
or subtraction. As for manipulation,
however, African playwrights carefully
make only selective use of elements of
oral traditions, which they exploit to
advance their political opinion. What
appeals to this category of playwrights
in their recourse to oral traditions is
not just the preservation of the material
itself but the ideas contained in it,
which are seen as having an enduring
relevance. At this level, playwrights
turn oral traditions into metaphorical
or symbolic use to articulate political
vision.
As I progress on this project,
I hope to discuss further how
contemporary African playwrights


borrow specific traditional literary
materials for the construction of
characters and situations in their works.
I also think this research will benefit
my undergraduate African literature
and culture course, which is structured
to expand the humanities offerings of
the Center for African Studies and the
Department of Languages, Literatures,
and Cultures.

Akintunde Akinyemi is an associate professor in
the Department of Languages, Literatures, and
Cultures and affiliate faculty with the Center
forAfrican Studies. His summer research trip
was funded by a 2009 award from the CLAS
Humanities Scholarship Enhancement Fund.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES RESEARCH REPORT 2009


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Out of SW Ethiopia?
The Spread of Homo sapiens Across
and Out of Africa During the Late Pleistocene

STEVEN BRANDT

Sometime between 60,000 to 50,000 years ago, one of the most
significant events in human evolution occurred, according to
recent fossil, archaeological, and genetic data. This happened
when anatomically and behaviorally modern hunter-gatherers
migrated out of Africa into Arabia to successfully colonize
western Asia.Thus began a process that would lead over the
next 20,000 years to the extinction of all non-modern humans,
including the Neanderthals, and the spread of Homo sapiens and
"modern"cultural behavior across Asia, Australia, and Europe into
the Americas.


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One of the major gaps in our
understanding of this Great Diaspora,
as it is sometimes referred to, is an
understanding of its African roots:
Where in Africa did these colonizing
hunter-gatherer populations come
from? Why and where did they leave
Africa and what were their routes? How
were they able to adapt so successfully
to the new worlds they encountered ?
In 2006, Dr. Elisabeth A.
Hildebrand of Stony Brook University
and I received a grant from the
National Science Foundation to begin
archaeological research in Ethiopia
aimed at answering these questions.
We wanted to test the hypothesis that
the tropical highlands of southwestern
Ethiopia (where annual rainfall today
can be more than 110 inches), served
as an environmental refugium for
hunter-gatherer populations from
what are now Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan,
and Somalia, as they learned to cope
with the extremely arid climatic
conditions that characterized much


ofAfrica between approximately
70,000 to 60,000 years ago. We further
hypothesized that those hunter-
gatherer groups that learned the
technological, economic and social
skills necessary to survive this period
of major environmental stress, would
also have been the founder populations
that adapted rapidly to the new
environments they encountered as they
migrated out of the refugium and out
ofAfrica during the period of climatic
amelioration that followed soon after
approximately 60,000 years ago.
In order to test this hypothesis, my
colleagues and students from Ethiopia,
France, Belgium, and the United States
conducted excavations over the last
three years at Moche Borago, a large
cave situated on the slopes of a dormant
volcano in SW Ethiopia. Our goal was
to find evidence for human occupation
and abandonment correlating with
periods of major environmental change
during the critical period of 70,000
to 50,000 years ago, and to recover


archaeological evidence for how populations adapted
culturally to these changes.
While we were successful in recovering some
of the information we were searching for, we also
quickly realized that considerably more data from
many more sites, and from many different SW
Ethiopian environments over many more years
of research, would be needed to truly test our
hypothesis! Therefore, we decided to join forces
with archaeologists from the University of Cologne
and other German universities on a proposal to the
German Science Foundation to establish a Center
for Research Cooperation (CRC), based in Cologne,
that would allow for long term research on how, why,
where and when Homo sapiens, originating of course
in Africa, got to Europe by about 40,000 years ago.
The proposal was successful and along with
support from UF's Department of Anthropology,
Center for African Studies, and the International
Center, the grant will provide partial to full funding
for 3 graduate and 3 undergraduate students from
UF to collaborate with fellow Ethiopian and German
students in field research in Ethiopia.

Steven A. Brandt is an associate professor in the Department of
11 CenterforAfricanStudies.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES RESEARCH REPORT 2009


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Language Contact and Communicative Innovations: The African Experience

CHARLES BWENGE


My research focuses on the contact and interaction between
Swahili and English languages and the resultant linguistic culture
in Swahili-speaking east Africa, notably in Kenya and Tanzania.
The coexistence between the two languages in the public space
is not only a fascinating phenomenon, but also an insightful one
in terms of sociolinguistic explorations.


Particularly, my interest has
been in parliamentary discourse
(debates and campaigns) and
billboard advertisement discourse
in which language use patterns are
not just viewed as motivated and
constrained by the linguistic culture
of the speech community, but also
they may constitute distinct varieties
in their own right. In this regard,
this exploration does not only entail
language use pattern between Swahili
and English, but also between varieties
of the same language, especially Swahili,
which has been a source of enormous
communicative innovations.


While working on my book
manuscript on the rise of'elite Swahili'
(Swahili as spoken by the educated/
globalized elites as opposed to standard
Swahili and popular Swahili) and its
related dynamics in the Tanzanian
parliamentary debating chamber, I
am exploring patterns of language use
in business signs and billboard ads
in Dar es Salaam. One of my current
projects explores how global business
operators make use of local linguistic
culture for successful business. Barclays
Bank billboards in Dar es Salaam are
a case in point clearly illustrating
the intersection between global




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business and local linguistic culture, a testimony to
the generally acknowledged claim that culture can
be as important to multinational success as capital.
Reflected in this representative sample of billboards
is one of the common officially practiced use patterns
that keep the two languages apart, that is, "Swahili or
English." In other domains such as the media one finds
English or Swahili medium newspapers. Similarly in
education, the medium is either Swahili or English.
But in other formal communicative interactions
such as the parliamentary debates, the 'Swahili or
English' policy does strictly separate them in actual
communicative practice.

Charles Bwenge is an assistant professor in the Department of
Languages, Literatures, & Cultures and the Center forAfrican Studies,
where he coordinates the Program in African Languages (PAL).


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES RESEARCH REPORT 2009


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Ghana's Modernist Metropolis:
National Ideals and Urban
Imperatives in the Port City ofTema

BRENDA CHALFIN

I spent June 2009 engaged in a new research project on the
port city ofTema. A sprawling industrial, commercial, and
residential complex, Tema was built and conceived in tandem
with the staking out of Ghanaian independence in the 1950s
and early 1960s. Designed with an eye to both productive
enterprise and domestic life, nation-building and international
engagement,Tema at its founding provided an urban example
of high-modernist infrastructural development, among the first
of its kind in sub-Saharan Africa. Though subject to new forms
of global interdependence, the expansion of population and
premises, and a sometimes unsteady state, some 50 years hence
Tema continues to thrive with its original plan largely in-tact.
While other cities across Africa straddle the knife's edge of chaos
and creativity brought about by inadequate infrastructure,
migration and mismanagement, Tema is the sight of remarkable
order and prosperity.


Tema's realization was driven by
the socialist-inspired nationalist vision
ofKwame Nkrumah and the input of
a Greek urban planner, Constantinos
Dioxiadis, whose firm authored the
designs for a host of new cities in South
Asia and the Middle East. Reflecting
a totalizing conception of public and
private life, Tema remains organized
around separate residential zones for
workers, a middle managerial class, and
high-level bureaucrats and industrialists.
Marked by a sleek form-equals-function
aesthetic, each neighborhood is
equipped with schools, sports facilities,
and places of worship.
At the city's coastal edge, Tema
Harbor, once the largest and most
technically sophisticated ports in West
Africa, was built by African laborers
and expatriate technicians to facilitate
the country's engagement in the world
market. Hosting a mix of state-owned
and foreign industries, an extensive
industrial zone was sited next to the
port. After two decades of decline, the
harbor is once again among the most
active on the continent, but defying


the original nationalizing impulse,
it's functioning now depends on
partnerships with global shipping and
logistics firms.
As a preliminary foray, this
summer I sought to explore the
on-going impact of the nationalist
imperatives and modernist ideals
shaping Tema's founding on the life
of the metropolis. I spoke with the
management of the Tema Development
Corporation (TDC), the city's first
governing body, and conducted
preliminary interviews with members
of the original planning division. I
also met with representatives of the
Tema Municipal Assembly (TMA),
the current governing authority, along
with the leaders from the Ga House
of Chiefs. The terms of power sharing
between TDC and TMA, it soon
became clear, are still unsettled, and
the traditional authorities, largely
eclipsed. Beneath the aura of urban
provisioning I learned of the 'planned'
exile of the city's indigenes and
underclass into under-serviced locals
at the port periphery. In the midst


of these inequities however, across the city there is a
strong local identity, tinged with national pride and
cosmopolitan consciousness. For "Temanians" of this
ilk, the reproduction of urban order is less about the
efforts of governing authorities than the force of self-
monitoring driven by suburban ideals of homesteading
and the lingering promise of upward mobility.

Brenda Chalfin is an associate professor in the Department of
11 I CenterforAfrican
Studies. Dr. Chalfins research on Tema was supported in part by
a College of LiberalArts and Sciences Humanities Scholarship
Enhancement Award.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES RESEARCH REPORT 2009


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Designing for the African Context:
Integrating the Study of Architecture in Africa into the Curriculum


DONNA L. COHEN

American schools of architecture have
historically relied on Western tradition
and assumptions that the constructed
infrastructure of the developed world
was sustainable. As universities across the
United States expand their global reach,
interest in study of African architectural
history, cultural interactions, and the
design of contemporary buildings in the
African context of limited resources has
become essential to the education of this
generation of architects.
As a teacher and practitioner, support from the
Center for African Studies has allowed me to offer an
annual graduate seminar which focuses on historic and
contemporary architecture in East Africa, to travel
to Moshi, Tanzania for my work on the tunaHAKI
Center, and to begin the collaborative effort of the
Architecture Africa Initiative at the University of
Florida.
Over the past year, several celebrated architects
practicing across Africa visited and presented to
architecture students and the campus community.
Students were inspired and informed, and both
faculty and students have formed partnerships that
are resulting in new collaborative efforts. Architect
Francis Kere, winner of the Aga Khan Award for the
design of a primary school in Gando, Burkina Faso,
presented his work and reviewed our student's designs
for a clinic in East Africa. Architect Fasil Ghiorghis,
from Ethiopia, lectured about his contemporary
projects and his efforts to preserve the cultural
heritage site ofAxum, and architect Joe Addo of
Accra, Ghana, lectured and led a design workshop on
housing in developing countries.
I have a particular interest in the design of
contemporary architecture in cultural heritage sites,
and am currently collaborating with architects from
Finland, Tanzania, and Ethiopia who share this
interest.

Donna L Cohen is an associate professor in the School of
Architecture and affiliate faculty with the Center forAfrican Studies.
She is a principal in Armstrong & Cohen Architecture, with her
partnerClaude EArmstrong, AIA. They are co-directors of the
Architecture I Africa Initiative, which is supported by the Center for
African Studies and the Ivan Smith Endowment of the School of
Architecture.


TunaHAKI Theater










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CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES RESEARCH REPORT 2009


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African Beadwork at the Harn Museum: Developing
Interpretative MaterialsThrough Cross -Disciplinary Collaboration

SUSAN COOKSEY


In October of 2008, an exhibition I curated,
"Between the Beads: Reading African
Beadwork,"opened at the Har Museum
of Art. The exhibition was a collaborative
effort between the museum, faculty
and students from the Center for African
Studies, School of Art and Art History, UF
Special Collections, and the Digital Library
Center, in addition to collectors and
scholars outside the university.
The Har invited Professor Frank Jolles, of
Natal University to the Museum as a consultant
on South African objects in the collection in 2007.
Later that year, the Harn acquired a portion ofJolles'
collection of Zulu beadwork panels and photographs
of individuals wearing beadwork that shows a
progression from symbolic imagery in the 1940s to
use of text in the 1960s, and the decline of beaded
personal adornment in the late 20th century. Jolles'
fascination with transformations ofZulu beadwork
is reflected in his collection of prints and negatives
from the commercial portrait photographer Richard
Ndimande, whose studio in Greytown was active until
the late 1990s. Ndimande's portraits are primarily
of women dressed in beadwork that he supplied
as props in his studio, as many women no longer
owned beadwork but still recognized its value in
communicating social and marital status. The Zulu
beaded panels and photographs of Zulu women from
Jolles' collection formed a key thematic section of
the exhibition. The exhibition included 107 beaded
objects-garments, masks, jewelry and other items for
personal adornment -from the Harn collection and
private collections in the US.
Dr. Victoria Rovine, assistant professor of
African Art History & African Studies, incorporated
research for the exhibition into the curriculum for
her course on African Textiles and Clothing in Fall
2007. Students produced interpretive labels for
the exhibition which were incorporated into the
didactics in the gallery and also were featured on a
website linked to the exhibition. The Dr. Madelyn M.
Lockhart Faculty Exhibition Endowment supported
this collaborative component of the exhibition. Dr.
Jonathan Walz, a recent Ph.D. from UF's Department


of Anthropology, provided further
historical contextualization by lending
excavated and surface samples of beads
from his fieldwork in northeastern
Tanzania.
Developing a website in
conjunction with the exhibition was the
brainchild of Dwight Bailey, Director
of Museum Technology at the Harn,
and Eric Kesse, the former Director
of the Digital Library Center (DLC).
DLC staff took digital images of 86
objects in the Ham's collection, many of
which were included in the exhibition.
Three-dimensional beaded objects were
photographed from 108 angles as they
were rotated, and the images were then
processed into a video file to replicate
the experience of viewing them in the
round. The images were loaded onto
the University of Florida's Digital
Collections website, and then onto the
Between the Beads: Reading African
Beadwork website which was designed
by Katherine McGonigle (M.A. 2008),
a student of Digital Media Professor


Katerie Gladdys. The exhibition
website is an interactive and dynamic
resource instigated by the exhibition
that has exposed the Harn collections
to wider audiences while linking it to
other scholarly materials housed in the
University's Special Collections Library.
It is the first time an interactive website
has accompanied an exhibition at the
Har, and participants at the Florida
Association of Museums conference
in 2008 hailed it as a highly innovative
project for a state art museum.
Although the exhibition will
close in October 2009, the website
will continue as a resource and will
encourage scholarship on African
beadwork well into the future. The
exhibition website address is http://
www.harn.ufl.edu/beadwork/index.
php.

Susan Cooksey is Curator ofAfrican Art at the
Samuel P. Harn Museum ofArt and affiliate
faculty with the Center forAfrican Studies.


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The Nyagbo Documentation Project

JAMES ESSEGBEY


For the past three years I have been
working on a multimedia ethnographic
documentation of Nyagbo, one of
fourteen languages classified asTogo
Remnant, Central Togo, or Ghana-Togo
Mountain (GTM) languages. Nyagbo
has been without a detailed description,
which is unfortunate because its lexicon
and structure are being eroded by Ewe,
the dominant regional language. My
documentation project, which is funded
by the NSF, involves collecting audio-visual
recordings of different communicative
events, most importantly the ones that
depict the culture of the Nyagbo.
The recordings include funeral practices,
durbar of chiefs, child-naming ceremonies and
story telling. As evidence of cultural erosion, child-
naming ceremonies among the Nyagbo has become
a completely Christian affair where, instead of family
and friends gathering at dawn to perform traditional
rites on the seventh day after the birth of a child, they
are rather led in prayers and worship by a catechist in
Ewe.
I also recorded Nyagbo economic activities such
as rice and maize cultivation, palm wine tapping,
preparation of palm oil and gari (a type of flour).
The recordings have been transcribed and annotated
and sent for archiving to the DOBES program for
the documentation of endangered languages at the
Max-Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, where
they can be accessed from all over the world. Part of
the texts was used to create a primer for the speakers
to learn to read and write the language. This primer
was presented to the chiefs and people at a durbar
organized at Odumasi, one of the townships. Copies
of the cultural events have been put on VCDs for
presentation to the community.
Another aspect of the documentation project
involves writing a reference grammar of the language
as well as producing a tri-lingual dictionary. Nyagbo
has an intricate tonal system and resolving that in
the field hasn't been easy. Fortunately for me I was
able this summer, with the help of a Humanities
Scholars Enhancement grant, to invite Madam Judith
Glover, my principal language assistant to Gainesville.


With the help of Dr. Ratree Wayland
(Linguistics), we have worked to resolve
this problem using PRATT, a program
for phonetic analysis. Also assisting
in the work was Dr. Felix Ameka,
an expert on GTM languages from
Leiden University, the Netherlands,
who also joined me over the summer,
with the support of the NSF grant,
to work on the typological profile
of the GTM languages. Lee Ballard,
a graduate student from Linguistics
who is interested in the investigation
of tones took part in some of the
sessions. The synergism produced by us
meeting together at this place has been
tremendous.


James Essegbey is an assistant professor in the
Department of Languages, Literatures and
Cultures and affiliate faculty with the Center for
African Studies. His research was made possible
through an NSFgrant and a UF Humanities
Scholarship Enhancement Grant.


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Focusing a Choreographic Lens on Fresh Practices of the Imagination

JOAN FROSCH


The films"Movement (R)Evolution Africa"
and "Nora" have shared their myth-
busting stories of African experimental
dance artists with approximately 200,000
audience members worldwide to date.
The films have been awarded 30 top
prizes in over 100 official selections
throughout the world, including
Toronto Film Festival, New York African
Film Festival, Cannes African Film
Festival, Ann Arbor, Oberhausen, and
Clermont Ferrand, to name just a few,
highlighted by a rousing reception at
the official selection screening of both
films at FESPACO in February 2009 in
Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
The riveting work of the late B6atrice Kombe
(1971-2007), Ivorian artistic director of the women's
dance company TcheTch6, planted the seed of
African contemporary dance in my imagination.
The more I learned about this extraordinary
movement, the more it grew. Ms Kombe was later
featured in the Center for African Studies' inaugural
arts-based Gwendolen M. Carter Conference
"Movement (R)evolution Dialogues: Contemporary
Performance in and of Africa," on which my film
"Movement (R)Evolution Africa" was based. In the
film, experimental choreographers personalize an
emergent art form by sharing their diverse viewpoints
and stunning choreography: their works challenge
stale stereotypes of "traditional Africa" and reveal
soul-shaking choreographic responses to incidents of
beauty and tales of tragedy.
Along with Ms. Kombd, the film features
the choreographic signatures and philosophies of
Germaine Acogny and Pape Ibraham N'Diaye (Jant
Bi, Senegal), Faustin Linyekula (Studios Kabako,
DRC), Souleymane Badolo and Lacina Coulibaly
(Kongo Ba Teria, Burkina Faso), Sello Pesa (South
Africa), Ariry Andriamoatsiresy (Ariry, Madagascar),
Nora Chipaumire (Zimbabwe), and Rosy Timas and
Rosy Fernandes (Raiz de Polon, Cape Verde), among
others.
"Nora" was shot in Mozambique in fall of
2007 and features Nora Chipaumire, directed by


Alla Kovgan and David Hinton, in
a choreographic recollection of her
youth in Zimbabwe with original music
by Zimbabwean legend, Va Thomas
Mapfumo. "Nora" was commissioned
by EMPAC Dance MOViES,
Rensselear Polytechnic Institute, in
association with the University for
Florida Center for World Arts, with
additional funding by the University
of Florida Center for African
Studies, Office of Research, Fine Arts
Scholarship Enhancement Fund, and
France Florida Research Institute, and
funding from Capture, and Movement
Revolution Productions.
The films were also selected by
AFRI-Doc, an organization dedicated
to disseminating fresh stories about
Africa to distributors and broadcasters
across the Continent and the Diaspora,
helping to create new paradigms
of thought, expression and social
action for the twenty-first century.
"Movement (R) Evolution Africa"


and "Nora" will soon join forces in a
broadcast initiative by the National
Black Programming Consortium, the
principal provider of African American
programming to PBS, who is taking
the lead in a rapidly changing digital
media environment with initiatives
designed to maximize the potential
ofmultiplatform delivery systems, in
order to foster black public engagement
and enrich mainstream public interest
media.
Both "Movement (R)Evolution
Africa" and "Nora" will be screened at
the Reitz Union at the University of
Florida in February 2010.

Joan Frosch is a professor of dance in the
Department of Theatre and Dance and Co
Director of the Center for WorldArts in the College
of Fine Arts. She is also an affiliate faculty member
with the Center forAfrican Studies.


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Documentation of Chimiini, a Bantu Language of Somalia

BRENT HENDERSON


Chimiini is the language of the port city
of Brava on the coast of southern Somalia.
It is the northernmost and perhaps the
most isolated and divergent of the Swahili
'dialects' Though spoken in Brava for
a millennium, the majority of Chimiini
speakers fled their home during the early
years of the Somali civil war. Most of them
now live in refugee communities in the US,
UK, and Kenya with little hope of returning
to Somalia. As a result, the unique
language and culture of the Bravanese is
in quick decline. In a three-year project
funded by the National Endowment
for the Humanities (NEH) through the
NSF/NEH Documenting Endangered
Languages program, I am working with
the Bravanese communities in Columbus,
Atlanta, London, and Mombasa to further
document their language.
This includes writing a reference grammar of
Chimiini, archiving digital recordings of the language,
publishing traditional stories, personal narratives, and
other ethno-linguistic material, and developing web-
based materials useful to the community and heritage
speakers. It also includes exploring the language from
a scientific perspective and bringing out insights that
might be interesting for theoretical linguistics.
I spent five weeks in the Clarkston suburb of


Atlanta, GA this summer meeting many suggests that Chimiini's decline may be


of the 2,000 or so Bravanese who live
there and working closely with a few of
them to gather enough linguistic data
to begin writing a draft of the grammar.
In addition, I interviewed several elders
who shared their memories of life in
Brava, their stories about the origins
of the city and its people, and their
experiences during the war and their
flight from it. I also collected several
stenzi, very long (some nearly an hour)
rhythmic religious or historical poems
that are recited from memory. Sadly, I
also confirmed fears that the language
is not being adequately passed on to
young adults and children, despite the
best efforts of the community. Together
with the continuing war that plagues
those few who remain in Brava, this


rapid and permanent.
Next summer I will conduct
fieldwork in London where the largest
Bravanese community (more than
5,000 people, about a third of the
original population of Brava) now
resides. While there I hope to collect
more linguistic data, but also to support
local efforts of the community to
encourage their language's continued
use through literacy development and
online content.

Brent Henderson is assistant professor in
Linguistics and affiliate faculty in the Center for
African Studies. His research was supported by a
three year grant from the National Endowment
for the Humanities (NEH) through the NSF/NEH
joint program for Documenting Endangered
Languages.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES RESEARCH REPORT 2009














The Zambia-China Relationship: State Accommodation and Public Disaffection

AGNES NGOMA LESLIE


My research focuses on the Zambian
leadership and its relationship to the
Chinese government and private
companies during the first government
of Kenneth Kaunda (the 1970s through
the 1980s), from the 1990s with Frederick
Chiluba, during the third government
of Levy Mwanawasa (2002-2008), and
during the current period under Rupiah
Banda.The objective of the research is to
assess the strength of the Zambian state
by examining how a weak economy, a
fragile political climate and the leadership
collaborate with international economic
partnerships and the resulting impact on
society and human rights.
There has been much controversy regarding the
role of China in Africa. At present, China is Zambia's
third largest investor, after South Africa and the
United Kingdom. The number and scope of economic
partnerships between the two countries continues to
expand. Chinese private investments have also grown.
I went to Lusaka, Zambia to investigate the impact
of these developments on the society and Zambian
views regarding the impacts of this expansion. I used
various methods to collect the data including archival
documents research, interviews, surveys and field
visits to various Zambia-China business enterprises.
I surveyed members of parliament (MPs) to examine
their views regarding Chinese investments in the
country and MPs' roles in enacting laws, which
promote economic conditions that benefit the
country and workers. I also surveyed and interviewed
faculty from the University of Zambia, personnel
from major newspapers, business professionals and
government authorities in various ministries, including
the Ministry of Labor and Social Services.
Part of my study investigated the nature of
Chinese business operations and the conditions and
benefits of the workers in these enterprises. I toured
Chinese businesses including a steelmaking company
to study working conditions and worker safety
concerns, health and compensation. My findings
indicate government weakness in defining the roles of
foreign investors in development and implementing
laws and policies that adequately benefit the country
and safeguard the health, security and economic rights


of Zambian workers. The majority of the people interviewed believe there is a role
for Chinese investment in Zambia in large-scale developments such as schools,
roads, and stadia where most Zambian companies cannot compete. However,
Chinese competition in small-scale enterprises has provoked the ire of local
business people. While there is a strong relationship between the two countries
at the top leadership, there is unease in the general population regarding the
uncontrolled growth of Chinese private investment in Zambia.

Aqnes Nqoma Leslie is Senior Lecturer and Outreach Director for the Center forAfrican Studies.


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Interrogating Accountability

STAFFAN LINDBERG


As the principal investigator (PI) for
the research project "MPs, Citizens,
Accountability, and Collective Goods'"
I spent a good portion of the summer
working with Distinguished Professor
Emeritus, Goran Hyden, and a team
of junior professionals under the
leadership Professor Emmanuel Gyimah-
Boadi at the Center for Democratic
Development, (CDD) Ghana.The project is
concerned with investigating the various
accountability pressures Members of
Parliament (MPs) face, and how these
pressures shape politicians'behavior.
Much of the literature on African politics,
as well as 'common wisdom' hold that politicians
engage in clientelistic relationships mainly with
various constituencies to attain and hold onto power.
This current project builds off my earlier research
interrogating, and putting question marks to some
of these claims. The present project is designed to
provide more definitive answers based on rigorous
data collection and analysis.
This summer Dr. Hyden and I jointly conducted
over 35 elite interviews with MPs and Ministers of
State in Ghana (one of whom Ms. Samia Nkrumah,
the daughter of Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, Ghana's first
post-independence leader). Ghana held general
elections in December 2008 that resulted in both
an alternation in the presidency as well as a large
turnover in the legislature. The interviews were
used both to measure the types of accountability
pressures during and after the elections, as well as to
understand how MPs handled and/or coped with such
pressures. While my previous series of interviews in
Ghana have uncovered a high prevalence of informal
pressures compelling legislators to expend lots of
energy and resources on providing private goods
through clientelistic relationships, this recent round
of interviews seems to indicate that a new crop of MPs
is emerging who view the provision of collective and
public goods for the larger good as more important.
I followed these interviews up with a self-


* .- 4 er.
"iti
.~ia
a r


administered elite survey with all
the MPs on pre- and post-election
finance, strategies, and accountability
pressures. In order to enable analysis
of congruence between citizens
and their representatives, I also
carried out a survey with citizens in
collaboration with CDD. Thirteen
strategically selected constituencies
were sampled (N= 1,720) through a
two-staged randomization procedure
based on standard household survey
methodology. Thirty-five research
assistants were recruited, trained
and deployed in June through July.
The results from the surveys and


the integrated, nested analysis are
forthcoming.

Staffan Lindberg is assistant professor in the
Department of Political Science and the Center
forAfrican Studies. The research described is part
of theAfrican Powerand Politics Program (APPP),
funded by a grant from the United Kingdom's
Department for International Development
(DFID) and Irish Aid to a consortium of which
CAS is a member. For more information, go to the
APPP website, www.institutions-africa.or.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES RESEARCH REPORT 2009


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DakarWolof:The Language of an African City

FIONA MCLAUGHLIN


I have long been interested in the urban
variety of Wolof spoken in Senegal's
capital city, Dakar, which is distinguishable
from its rural counterparts by its liberal
incorporation of French borrowings -
even in the speech of those who do
not otherwise speak French. Spent the
2008-2009 academic year on research
leave, thanks to a sabbatical from the
University of Florida and a fellowship
from the American Council of Learned
Societies, and I am currently finishing up a
book, tentatively entitled Dakar Wolof: The
Language of an African City. My research for
this book is based on extensive fieldwork
that I have carried out over the course of
several years in Dakar, and most centrally
on a database of natural speech that I
recorded in the summer of 2005.
My research revolves around three interrelated
questions, the first of which is how the grammars of
two unrelated and typologically different languages,
Wolof and French, come together in the minds
of speakers of Dakar Wolof. Here I have focused
primarily on the ways that Wolofhas borrowed verbs
from various lexical and syntactic categories such as
adjectives, nouns, and prepositional phrases in French
and how this is having a very subtle effect on the use


of verbal extensions in Wolof. Wolof
is a language that does not have an
infinitival marker, yet French verbs are
borrowed in their infinitival form. I
argue that the French infinitival marker,
/-er/, has been reanalyzed by Wolof
speakers as a verbal extension that
encodes the applicative, locative, and
detransitive, as well as a host of other
functions.
The second question
addresses the history of urban
Wolof and why it is the way it
is as opposed to, say, a creole,
given the possible outcomes of
language contact. Based primarily
on historical linguistic data from
the mid 19th century I have been
able to trace a social history of
urban Wolof from its origins in
the island city of Saint-Louis du
Sdnegal. I argue that the nature
of early contact between African
and European populations in the
18th century and the later role
played by the m6tis or mixed-
race population of the island
as linguistic brokers were not


conducive to the formation of a creole,
but led instead to the maintenance
of Wolof, albeit a Wolof with French
borrowings which subsequently became
a prestigious urban way of speaking.
The third question considers the
ways in which Dakar Wolof shapes and
is shaped by the social environment in
which it spoken. Here I trace the way
in which Dakar Wolof, as an urban
vernacular and national lingua franca,
has contributed to the emergence
of a post-ethnic urban identity that
fundamentally reconfigures the ways in
which people identify themselves.

Fiona Mc Laughlin is an associate professor
ofAfrican Linguistics in the Department of
Languages, Literatures, & Cultures and the
Linguistics program and affiliate faculty in the
Center forAfrican Studies. The research for this
project was funded by a Humanities Scholarship
Enhancement Award from the College of Liberal
Arts & Sciences (2007) and an SSRC/NEH/ACLS
International andArea Studies Fellowship from
the American Council of Learned Societies (2008
2009).


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES RESEARCH REPORT 2009


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African Wildlife and Range Management
Collection from Drs. Graham & Brian Child

PETER MALANCHUK


I curated this impressive wildlife/ecology
gift resource collection for southern Africa.
The Child family has made a valuable
donation of their personal papers and
library to the University of Florida Libraries
Africana Collection.The organizational
preparation and research work has been
ongoing for the last two years and the
collection will become accessible during
the fall of 2009. Doctoral student Theron
Morgan Brown assisted me throughout.
Dr. Brian Child is an associate professor in
Geography & African Studies. He trained at Oxford
University and has worked in various official
Zimbabwean governmental and non-governmental
wildlife capacities prior to his arrival at the University
of Florida. Graham Child, his father, received his
doctorate from the University of Cape Town and
served as Zimbabwe's initial governmental wildlife
ecologist and subsequently as FAO forestry officer for
the Botswana government advising on wildlife and
land use. He then became Director of National Parks
and Wild Life Management in Zimbabwe from 1971-
1986.
Their collection includes more than three
hundred rare books, periodicals, government and
NGO reports, many of which are sole source items
within the U.S. There are another two thousand
monographs, government and NGO research reports
and grey literatures concerned with wildlife and game
management for Zimbabwe, Zambia, Botswana, and
South Africa. Maps, field notes, and interviews with
other prominent African wildlife and biodiversity
scholars are significant components as well. Of special
note is that the collection includes nearly 25 masters
and doctoral theses from African institutions. The
combined collection includes resources from the mid-
1960s through 2005.
There are seventy cubic feet of manuscript
archives related to game ranching, CAMPFIRE,
Luangwa Valley (Zambia), protection areas and
conservation strategies. Community-based natural
resource management (CBNRM), sustainable wildlife
use, tourism, and the Zimbabwe Department of
National Parks and Wildlife (1971-1986) are also


......... _. .- II
-I


principal components. The books
and journals will be available for use
by December 2009. The papers will
become available in Spring 2010 and
selected items may be scanned with
permission from the Child family.


Peter Malanchuk M.A, M.L.S, is the University
Librarian for the Africana Collection and affiliate
faculty with the Center forAfrican Studies.
Funding for the curation of this collection was
provided by the Center forAfrican Studies through
its Department of Education Title VI grant & the
University of Florida Libraries.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES RESEARCH REPORT 2009


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Restoration: On the Trail of the Artist Behind
An Ethiopian Painting of the HolyTrinity


REBECCA MARTIN NAGY
The Samuel P Harn Museum of Art at
the University of Florida has significant
holdings of religious art from the tradition
of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church (EOC),
including processional and hand crosses,
illustrated manuscripts and healing scrolls,
icons and mural paintings. In recent months
I have worked to resolve some questions
surrounding one of the Ethiopian mural
paintings in the museum's collection,
which is so heavily damaged that it cannot
presently be exhibited at the museum. Like
most EOC mural paintings, it was painted
on cotton cloth that was then pasted to the
walls of a church.The painting measures 7
ft. 6 in. by 9 ft. 11 in. and portrays the Holy
Trinity as three identical haloed, robed men
with white hair and beards.These figures are
surrounded by the four beasts that support
the throne of God and 24 crowned and
winged bust-length figures representing the
elders of the Apocalypse (Ezekiel 1:10 and
Revelations 4:4-7).


All elements of the design are
rendered in bright, saturated colors
and heavily outlined in black. In 2005,
Karen French, a painting conservator
at Baltimore's Walters Art Museum,
conducted an initial analysis of the
painting and made a preliminary proposal
for treatment. In 2008, conservator
Rustin Levenson, who like French has
expertise in restoring mural paintings,
prepared a proposal for treatment based
on her examination of the painting at
the Harn in the context of a workshop
for graduate students in the university's
Museum Studies program.
Prior to this year I had concluded
that the painting dates to the mid-
twentieth century and had tentatively
narrowed the region of its production
to the northern highlands of Ethiopia.
Among those I consulted about the
painting were older Ethiopian artists
trained in the EOC, but until recently no
helpful leads developed. A turning point
came when Curator ofAfrican Art Susan
Cooksey and I were working with a young
Washington DC-based artist, Daniel


Berhanemeskel, on the acquisition of one
of his icon paintings for the museum's
collection.
Daniel comes from a distinguished
lineage of church painters in Aksum
in northern Ethiopia, which includes
his great grandfather Aleqa Yohannes
Teklu (c. 1883-1978) and his father
Berhanemeskel Fisseha (b. 1947). Daniel
kindly agreed to send photographs of our
Trinity mural to his father in hopes that
he might help us to identify the artist.
When Daniel saw the photographs he
remarked with surprise that the style of
the mural resembles early works by his
father. Indeed, when Berhanemeskel
Fisseha received the photographs he
confirmed that the Ham's Trinity mural
is his own work from around 40 years
ago. Although he does not recall the
specific church for which he painted the
mural, he says it was probably in or near
the city ofAdigrat, east ofAksum in the
old Agame region, now part ofTigray.
My work on the Trinity mural will now
focus on interviewing the artist to learn
more about its origins, technique, style
and iconography, and on
securing the resources for
its restoration.

Rebecca Martin Nagy is director
of the Samuel P Harn Museum
ofArt at the University of Florida
S and affiliate with the Center for
African Studies. Since 2001 she
has been conducting research in
Ethiopia, primarily on the work
ofcontemporaryartists based
V inAddisAbaba. Herresearch
culminated in the exhibition
"Continuity and Change: Three
Generations ofEthiopianArtists,"
which she co-curated with
ProfessorAchamyeleh Debela of
North Carolina Central University
The exhibition, accompanied by
a publication of the same name
opened at the Harn and traveled
to the Diggs Gallery at Winston
Salem State University in North
Carolina in 2007.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES RESEARCH REPORT 2009


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Optimizing Building Performance Parameters:The East African Context

ESTHER OBONYO

My current research portfolio includes
projects focusing on optimizing building
performance parameters using selected
examples from the East African context.
The major initiatives supported by various
National Science Foundation (NSF) grants
include a workshop held in on May 20-
21, 2009, in Dares Salaam,Tanzania, on I
advancing the structural use of earth-
based brick, ongoing investigations of
adaptations that can be made to existing
earth bricks to improve their hygrothermal
performance in hot and humid climates,
and a continuing program for graduate
and undergraduate students to carry out
research in construction engineering
technologies.
The workshop in Dar es Salaam provided both
a national and international forum for researchers
in earth-based technologies and experts from closely
aligned disciplines to discuss the fundamental
structural and durability performance parameters
of earth-based bricks. The workshop was held in
collaboration with Tanzania's National Housing
Building Research Association, AQE Associates, the
National Environmental Management Council and
Ardhi University in Dar es Salaam.
The NSF Small Grants for Exploratory
Research (SGER) program provided funding for a
two-week field trip to Tanzania in February 2009,
for development of a project on optimizing the
hygrothermal performance of earth bricks in hot and
humid climates.
Finally, the NSF: IRES project on global .......
perspectives on engineering sustainable building
systems once again provided opportunities for student
research in construction engineering technologies in
partnership with professors from the University of
Nairobi at selected sites in Kenya and Tanzania. There
were six student participants in 2008 and four in 2009.
The themes that have been investigated so far include
ecological building materials and water purification
strategies.
Esther Obonyo is an assistant professor in UFs M.E Rinker School of
Building Construction and affiliate faculty in the Center forAfrican
Studies. She is the principal investigator (PI) for the three NSF grants
supporting the projects described in this article Her co Pis on the
NSF workshop grant are Derreck Tate and Lakshmi Reddi. Her co PI


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES RESEARCH REPORT 2009















Youth Culture, Islam and Democracy in West Africa

SUSAN O'BRIEN

In July, I spent an exciting three weeks in northern Nigeria
with Saman Piracha and Alexander Johnson, who are master's
students in UF's Documentary Film Institute. It was my first
taste of life as a film producer as I was helping to create a
documentary on youth culture, Islam and democracy in West
Africa that will be submitted as an MA thesis by Piracha and
Johnson in May 2010.


The film profiles two very
different Muslim West African
contexts, northern Nigeria and Senegal,
to give viewers a sense of the diversity
of Islam and democracy within the
region. The project draws on the
scholarly strengths of its three CAS
faculty 'producers' (O'Brien on the
politics ofshari'a implementation in
Nigeria; Villal6n on democratization in
Francophone West Africa; and African
linguistics professor Fiona McLaughlin
on popular culture and Islam), but was


also shaped by the research, interests,
and story ideas of the young filmmakers
Piracha and Johnson.
In Nigeria, the filmmakers'
focused on the recent emergence of
hip hop music and the continued
growth of the Hausa film industry
in the northern city of Kano. Young
musicians and film actors face
government censorship and popular
ambivalence about Western and Hindi
cultural influences in a society where
conservative interpretations of Islam


are dominant. As part of its broader effort to 'sanitize'
society in line with shari'a implementation, the Kano
state government has censored song lyrics, arrested
musicians and film stars, and insisted on Muslim
Hausa authenticity in the arts. In the courts and in
their artistic production, musicians and filmmakers
have resisted these measures and in so doing they are
shaping public debate about what it means to retain
Islamic identity and values in a modern democracy.
Johnson and Piracha followed their time in
Nigeria with a week in Senegal with UF professor
Fiona McLaughlin where they interviewed and filmed
several musicians and artists.
It is our hope that the final product will be a
resource and tool for educators, students, and the
general public in understanding the many facets of
Islam in West Africa.

Susan O'Brien is an assistant professor in the Department of History
and the Center for African Studies. Support for this project was
provided by an Social Science Research Council (SSRC) "Academia
in the Pubic Sphere"grant to CAS and the Documentary Institute at
the University of Florida.


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Collaborations with Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa

JACK PUTZ & CLAUDIA ROMERO


Claudia and Jack spent most of July to
August 2009 as visiting professors in the
Department of Environmental Science
at Rhodes University in Grahamstown,
South Africa. While they were teaching
and interacting with researchers, their
11 -year-old son, Antonio, attended
Graeme College where, instead of playing
soccer and goofing around, he ended up
studying Xhosa and playing wing for the
school's rugby team.
Encouragement to apply for the visiting
professorship regularly offered by Rhodes University
came from research collaborations with Sheona
Shackleton and James Gambiza that she established
10 years ago when the couple spent a sabbatical
year in Zimbabwe. During their recent stay in
Grahamstown, their network of research partners was
expanded by their frequent interactions with other
faculty and students in Environmental Science and
other departments including Botany, Environmental
Education, Geography, and Economics. Claudia
coordinated a Journal Club discussion with Honors
and graduate students on the topic of evaluation of
conservation projects. Jack's interactions with honor
students in Botany and his public lectures focused on
the ecological/social/economic tradeoffs inherent
in conservation interventions. They found both the
university (6000 students) and Grahamstown as a
whole (population 125,000) to be extremely accessible
and friendly.
Most of Claudia and Jack's activities centered
on the topic of global climate change as it relates to
South Africa, especially the spectacular Eastern Cape
Province. One module they ran with Environmental
Science students was a prototype of the "Carbon
Clinic" on which they have been working for the
past year. Although neither Claudia nor Jack have
much experience in semi-arid ecosystems and were
entirely new to South Africa, their hosts appreciated


their insights and curiosity. Of
particular interest in the Eastern
Cape region is the fate of "thicket",
a nearly impenetrable endemic
ecosystem dominated by succulent
trees and spinescent lianas except
where decimated by wild elephants or
domestic goats. Their visit culminated
with two keynote presentations at the
Thicket Forum, a regional meeting of
researchers, property managers, and
governmental officials concerned about
thicket conservation and restoration.
Although the visit of the Romero-
Putz family was relatively short, they
were in residence long enough to
build some strong ties and fully expect


to continue working in the region.
Claudia and Jack already serve on
several M.S. and Ph.D. committees
and are writing a policy brief on
climate change mitigation options for
a series published by the Department
of Environmental Science. Reciprocal
visits to UF by Rhodes faculty and
students are already planned and a
formal exchange agreement is in the
works.

Claudia Romero and Francis E "Jack" Putz are
courtesy professor of biology and professor of
1 fthe
Center forAfrican Studies at the University of
Florida.


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The Martin Rikli Photo Albums: A Snapshot of Ethiopia Circa 1935

DANIEL REBOUSSIN


I worked with the George A. Smathers
Libraries Digital Library Center staff this
summer to digitize and provide contextual
metadata for about 900 photographic
prints relating to Ethiopia (coinciding
with the Second Italo-Abyssinian War of
1935-36) in the Martin Rikli Photographs
collection. Our partner in the cooperative
effort to acquire this unique collection
has been the Samuel P. Har Museum
of Art. Har Director Dr. Rebecca Nagy
originally viewed these albums in Munich
in 2004, and after consulting colleagues
at the Museum furVolkerkunde there,
contributed Har funds to jointly purchase
them along with the Libraries'Africana
Collection.
These albums may have been a gift to members
of an official German delegation whose voyage
it documents. Germany was one of only a few
countries to assist and arm Ethiopia against the
impending attack by Mussolini's forces in 1935,
despite their membership in the League of Nations.
The photographs depict a passenger ship voyage
from Marseilles through the Suez Canal to Aden and
Djibouti, followed by a railway trip to Addis Ababa.
The cultural and physical settings of rural and urban
areas of Ethiopia are documented, including images
of Emperor Haile Selassie I, his family and court, state
ceremonies, dinners at the Gibbi palace, a number
of government and religious assemblies, diplomats
and their families. Schools, shops, market and street
activities, rural villages and landscapes (including aerial
images of a variety of locales) and Ethiopians in a wide
variety of situations are included.
The official opening of a military training school
(the Ecole de Guerre Haile Selassie I at Gannat) in
April 1935 is documented, along with the general
mobilization of soldiers and other preparations for
war. Later prints depict the consequences of war:
refugees, looters, burning buildings, corpses in the
streets of Addis Ababa, a withdrawal of European
expatriates to temporary camps outside of the city,
followed by images of the Italian occupation including
officers and troops both working and in repose after a
long campaign as well as in formal parades and official
ceremonies. A few posted signs, announcements,
general orders and otherwise distributed official


communications from the Italian
military are also reproduced.
The quality, subject matter and
historical moment of the creation of
these images combine to make their
potential use extremely broad and
their value in any number of academic
projects high. Dr. Martin Rikli was
among the best known instructional
and documentary filmmakers in
Germany during the 1920s through
the 1940s. He worked for Zeiss Ikon
as well as Ufa and "Gorch Fock"
(Kriegsmarine) from 1934 is probably
his best-known film. A detailed
finding aid with additional contextual
information is available online at:
http://web.uflib.ufl.edu/spec/
manuscript/guides/rikli.htm
The original still photographic
albums are located in the Libraries'


Manuscripts collection (Special and
Area Studies Collections). Digital
surrogates of the entire contents of four
albums and accompanying manuscripts
and ephemera are now available online
to the public in UF Digital Collections
(Photographs of Africa).

DanielA. Reboussin, Ph.D., is assistant librarian
forAfrican Studies andAnthropology at the
University of Florida. Funding for this project
was provided by the Center forAfrican Studies
through its US. Department of Education NRC
Title vi grant


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African Fashion: Innovation, Social Status, and Tradition in Mali

VICTORIA ROVINE

This summer I spent a month in Mali, where I pursued my
research on African fashion. I worked in three cities: Bamako,
the capital, and Timbuktu and Djenne, cities famous for their
rich histories as centers of trade and Islamic scholarship. I
investigated two embroidery traditions as part of my research
on the country's art and fashion markets. Each of these styles of
embroidery is associated with a specific garment and a specific ,
form of male status. One style, used to make large robes called
tilbi, is closely linked to the status of piousness and elderhood
in the Sahel.Tilbi have been adorned with the same symbolic
abstract motifs for over a century, yet skilled embroiderers still
innovate within the restrictions of longstanding custom.
The other type of embroidery, called Ghana Boy or Bambara embroidery,
is completely different in its appearance and intention. Tunics embroidered in
this style date to the 1960s and '70s, when they were created by young men who
traveled to Ghana as labor migrants. They are adorned with fanciful figures,
airplanes, motorcycles, and bold colorful patterns, and they are associated with the
special status of young male adventurers who return home with exotic goods and
stories. These two styles of dress provide insights into creativity, conceptions of
status, and the ways in which artists and consumers negotiate the balance between


precedent and innovation.
In Timbuktu, I interviewed embroiderers and, on behalf of UF's Samuel P.
Har Museum of Art, I negotiated the commission of a tilbi that exemplifies the
city's classic embroidery style from the important embroiderer Baba Djitteye. The
robe will be featured in a 2010 exhibition, along with documentation from my
work with Djitteye. In Djenne, I interviewed and documented the work of two
embroiderers who still make garments in the Ghana Boy style, which has largely
fallen out of use. In both cities, I also
spoke with authorities on local culture
and history.
In Bamako, the country's
capital and home to a small network
of professional fashion designers, I
L pursued my research on a fashion
market that intersects with Western
S fashion (unlike the tilbi and Ghana
Boy embroidery, which don't share the
S same market as Bamako's professional
"4 L designers). I met with and interviewed
4 designers, artists, consumers, and
experts on Mali's clothing traditions. I
also made use of the country's national
archives, viewed collections, and
presented a lecture on my embroidery
research to an audience ofMalians and
expatriates under the auspices of the
U.S. Embassy's Public Affairs Office.


This research is one element of a larger project
focused on clothing as an art form that moves-
garments, dress styles, and images readily cross
cultural boundaries and conceptual categories. As
they move, clothing styles are often transformed as
artists and consumers adapt them to new functions
in new markets. I have conducted research on fashion
produced by Africans, and on Africa's influence on
Western fashion in both historical and contemporary
contexts. I have found that clothing, whether in
Timbuktu or in Paris, provides significant insights into
shifting identities and conceptions of distant cultures.

Victoria L. Rovine is an associate professor in the School ofArt
andArt History and the Center forAfrican Studies. Her research
was made possible by funding from a UF Faculty Enhancement
Opportunity Award and the Pasold Research Fund.


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Heritage Tourism: Sustainability and Capacity Building in Northwestern Tanzania

PETER SCHMIDT


During August of 2009, I traveled to
northwestern Tanzania with two students,
Rachel lannelli and Malia Billman, to
conduct preliminary research into the
capacity of institutions in Kagera Region to
sustain heritage tourism.This research had
four primary components: 1) investigation
into local capacity to undertake and
sustain heritage tourism in partnership
with American tour companies; 2) inquiry
into the attitudes and receptivity of
American tour companies to expand their
vision and itineraries to include a well
designed and organized heritage tourism
in northwestern Tanzania; 3) perspective
on the attitudes of foreign tourists, mostly
Americans and Europeans, about heritage
themes and destinations of interest,
including those visited in Kagera Region;
and 4) development of local capacity to
sustain heritage destinations of significant
global interest, regardless of local
infrastructural development in the local
tour industry.
These multiple objectives were funded by
a CIBER grant from the Business School at the
University of Florida. Rachel lannelli and Malia
Billman constructed a survey instrument to plumb
the interests of American companies in heritage
destinations that differ from the trite Masai village
experience or the Spice Tour in Zanzibar. Their chief
finding was that American company representatives
are very suspicious of any inquiries, rebuffing most
discussions, and preferring to operate within the
limitations that have constrained the development of
a more robust heritage tourism in East Africa. While
in Bukoba, Malia Billman worked inside the only
significant local tour company in the region, to better
understand the connections that this company had
with American counterparts and other international
connections. In addition, Rachel and Malia
participated in a number of cultural and heritage tours
conducted by this local company to assess tourists'


reactions to the effectiveness of the
tours as well as assess the historical
accuracy of information discussed by
guides during the tours.
The results of these investigations
were both informative and provide clear
guideposts for future development of
heritage tours by foreign companies
into the region. Our preliminary
findings suggest that the local tour
company pays relatively little attention
to the evaluations that its clients
complete after each tour, contributing
to repeated mistakes and numerous,
easily rectified complaints. This
finding suggests that mechanisms for
self-assessment and improvement do
not meet international standards for
handling high-end boutique tourism
with well-educated clients holding
high expectations for good value in
destinations. Another important
finding is that the managerial capacity
for interaction with and delivery of
services to international clients, e.g.,
American and European owned tour


companies, is not adequate to meet
international standards in terms of
local transport, timely organization,
and sufficient background information.
This suggests that opportunities exist
for other tour companies-local and
foreign-to enter into partnerships to
fill a special need in this sector.

PeterSchmidt is a professor in the Department
of/
Center forAfrican Studies. His research was
made possible by funding from UFs Center for
International Business Education & Research
(CIBER).


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Institutions, Power and Norms in African Cotton Reforms

RENATA SERRA


The objective of this research is to identify"governance
that works"within African productive sectors, by examining
the potential role of hybrid institutional arrangements
and unconventional reform paradigms as a valuable and
recognizable resource for development. It does so by
undertaking a comparative study of recent and/or ongoing
reforms taking place in the cotton sectors of Benin, Burkina Faso,
and Mali and examining the complex relationship between
reform policies, the dynamics of social norms and institutions,
and developmental outcomes.
This project represents one of the research streams undertaken by the African
Power and Politics Program (APPP), a research consortium funded between
several research institutions and individuals spread across three continents, and of
which the Center for African Studies is the only US-based institutional partner.
The main objective of the APPP is to produce research that contributes to a better
understanding of how formal and informal institutions work and interact in
African societies; examines how local norms, practices, and beliefs may positively
shape development policies and outcomes; and, ultimately, change perceptions
about modalities of good governance in Africa.
I chose to focus on this particular productive sector for several reasons. First,
having done research in Mali for several years, I am aware not only that cotton is a
main economic export for this and neighboring countries, sustaining millions of
small-holders and their families' livelihoods, but also that it shapes much of rural
life, defining collective identity, pride and beliefs. The distinctive know-how and
the established practices around cotton production and allied activities, which
are found both within rural villages and in the relationship with extension agents
and decentralized government authorities, represent a set of collective resources
that merit to be closely examined. Second, cotton reforms are still current or very
recent events in the three chosen countries, thus providing an excellent opportunity
to witness in real time how various powers and interests play into these countries'
|r ,


main economic sector.
Finally, cotton sector reforms raise some
very fundamental questions about the balance of
responsibilities between the state, the private sector
and cotton farmers' associations; about the trade-off
between market competition and coordination; and
about the type of rural development envisaged for
the vast areas concerned. Given the high and multiple
stakes in these delicate decisions, the study of cotton
sectors in these three African countries is expected
to yield invaluable insights into the role of collective
values, informal institutions and local political realities
in supporting (or alternatively contrasting) different
solutions and arrangements for the sector.
As a research coordinator for this project, I spent
a considerable amount of time in the last months
to identify research teams in the three countries,
think about the most appropriate methodology for
pursuing our research questions, and start fieldwork.
I am very pleased I can rely now on a solid network of
cotton experts, almost all of whom are West African
nationals. Other key collaborators for the project
are: Bour6ma Kone in Mali (Institut d'Economie
Rural, Bamako, Mali), for the Burkina Faso team:
Dr. Jonathan Kaminski (Department of Agricultural
Economics and Management, The Hebrew
University ofJerusalem, Israel) and Dr. Yiriyibin
Bambio (Department of Economics, University of
Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso); and for the Benin
team: Dr. Borgui Yerima (Laboratoire d4nalyse
Regional et d'Expertise Sociale, LARES, Cotonou)
and Fabien Affo (Laboratoire d'Etudes et de Recherches
sur les Dynamiques Sociales et le Developpement Local,
LASDEL, Parakou, and Department of Sociology and
Anthropology at Universit6 d'Abomey-Calavi).
In order to foster collaboration within and across
teams and give more visibility to the project locally,
I organized a workshop in Bamako, Mali, on May
18-19, to I which I invited my collaborators from the
three countries, as well as a number of key stakeholders
in the Malian cotton sector. This was an excellent
opportunity not only for us researchers to exchange
information on research progress and decide on the
next steps, but also to participate in, and witness,
some hot debates on policies, reform principles and
underlying ideologies.
Besides organizing and attending the workshop, I
spent the rest of my time in Mali this year conducting

rnntin; ml bn n-l ?As


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some fieldwork, which was then continued by my Malian
team, locally coordinated by a researcher based at the Institut
d'Economie Rural. At the village level, we conducted both focus
group discussions with cotton farmer cooperatives, and individual
interviews with farmers, extension agents, and other key local actors.
We found there is a surprising variety across villages in the types of
issues farmer cooperatives face, such as high debt, a collapse of trust
and cooperation, and inadequate access to extension and training.
The set of resources available to each village to surmount these
difficulties seem also to vary, yielding a more complex picture of
the actual situation in cotton areas than that often portrayed in the
capital.
We also conducted fieldwork in Bamako, where we interviewed
key stakeholders in the government, producer organizations and
civil society, heard their positions in the reform debate and their
views about cotton sector directions and prospects, and discussed
political realities and influences, social norms and values. There
are definitely positive forces for change in the Malian landscape


that are not properly harnessed by those who seem to make most
of the decisions. The next objective for the project will be not only
to continue to observe how things evolve in Mali in the immediate
future, when a number of important steps will be taken, but also to
compare the situation in Mali with that in Burkina Faso and Benin,
in order to learn about other countries' experiences of dealing with
similar issues, and ways in which solutions may, or may not, emerge
from within existing collective resources and values.
Veronique Theriault, a doctoral student in UF's Food and
Resource Economics Department, is assisting with this project and
came with me to Mali last May. If you want to know what she thinks
about this experience, check out her description in the student
section of this report!

Renata Serra is a Lecturer in the Center forAfrican Studies. The research described
is part ofa larger project on African Power and Politics (APP), which is funded by a
grant from the United Kingdom's Department for International Development (DFID)
and Irish Aid to a consortium of which CAS is an institutional member. For more
information, go to theAPPP website, www.institutions-africa.org.


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Nature-Based Tourism as a Rural Development Strategy in Southern Africa

JULIE SILVA


As an economic geographer, I look at
the effects of trade on poverty and
inequality and my main current project
examines nature-based tourism as a rural
development strategy in southern Africa.
Many African countries have tried to boost
their economies by emphasizing agricultural exports.
Because this has had limited success, governments are
looking increasingly to tourism as a source of growth.
My study looks at Namibia and Mozambique, which
have tried to emphasize nature tourism: tourists
coming to see wildlife and the natural environment,
and some others coming to hunt large animals such
as lions and elephants. Namibia is a pioneer of using
community-based nature tourism as a development
strategy, while Mozambique has more recently
embarked on this.
This study asks how nature tourism affects
poverty and inequality in Namibia and Mozambique
at the regional, community, and household levels,
while also accounting for environmental, economic,
and cultural diversity between and within countries.
The study involves collaboration between the
University of Florida, the University of Namibia
(UNAM), and the Pedagogical University of
Mozambique (UP). From February to August 2009,
working with professors and students from UNAM
and UP, I conducted four case studies: two in Namibia
and two in Mozambique.
In each case study area, my research teams


and I interviewed the heads of local
households, asking about their
economic wellbeing and how it was
affected by the emphasis on tourism.
Positive effects include employment by
hotels and other businesses that serve
tourists. But there are also negative
effects, often involving interactions
with protected wildlife. Elephants
can destroy crops, while other animals
attack livestock, and even sometimes
humans. The research teams collected


data on such conflicts between humans
and wildlife, as well as conducted about
1,300 detailed household surveys.
The study makes four key
contributions to our understanding of
rural economies in southern Africa.
It investigates how well trade theory
explains the effects of tourism on
poverty and inequality in rural regions,
assesses the effects of nature tourism
on poverty and inequality, investigates
how experiences of rural development
strategies are influenced by community
organization and empowerment, and
uses an iterative, mixed methodology
to explore the impacts of export-led
rural development strategies at multiple
scales. The project will thus enhance
our understanding of the dynamics
driving rural development in countries
such as Namibia and Mozambique.
Research results will also be integrated
into teaching at all three universities.
For more information, see the project
website (www.clas.ufl.edu/users/jasilva/
project/index.html).

JulieA. Silva is an assistant professor in the
Department ofGeography and the Center for
African Studies. Her research was funded by an
NSFCAREER grant, a program that supports
faculty in early career development.


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AIM for Africa: Rwanda

JILL SONKE


The UF Center for the Arts in Healthcare's
AIM for Africa initiatives create cultural
bridges between the arts and healthcare
in the U.S. and African nations. In March of
2009, UF students and faculty spent two
weeks in Rwanda implementing programs
in a government-built genocide survivor
village and in two regional health clinics.
The primary goals of the initiative were: 1) to
provide relevant education to healthcare professionals
and lay healthcare providers in the Rugerero Survivor
Village and surrounding region; 2) to use theatre
and the visual arts to enhance health literacy and
community engagement in the Rugerero region; 3) to
use the arts to enhance familiarity with and utilization
of health services in the Rugerero region; and 4)
to create and present to Florida audiences a theatre
production utilizing international exchange and
dialogue, and exploring relevant social issues.
Two CAHRE faculty members, along with
four student members of the College of Fine
Arts' International Fine Arts for Healing (IFAH)
organization, four UF School of Theatre & Dance
theatre majors, and two UF College of Nursing
graduate students, traveled to Rwanda to implement
the projects in partnership with the Red Cross of the
Western Region of Rwanda, the Barefoot Artists,
Engineers without Borders, Jefferson Health, and the
Rwandan Village Concept Project. While the actors
used playback and improvisational theatre techniques
to help residents tell their stories of survival, loss and
healing, the art and nursing students collaborated
with local partners to undertake significant health
education projects, such as murals, in two primary
clinics and several health outposts, several area schools,


and in the village. The health and
health education projects focused on
nutrition, hygiene, HIV prevention,
and women's empowerment.
Upon their return, the actors were
joined by other theatre students and,
working under the direction of Dr.
Mikell Pinkney, created a full-evening
work reflecting the cross-cultural
collaboration and learning that took
place in Rwanda. The performance
piece reflected the students' experiences
in Rwanda and related them to cultural
issues of violence and healing in
Rwanda as well as in the United States.
The piece was presented in a variety of
venues in the Gainesville community,
including the Alachua Juvenile
Detention Center, Shands Hospital,
and a 6-day run at the McGuire
Blackbox Theatre, to spur awareness
of the potential for violence and for


healing in any society.
The AIM for Africa Rwanda
project will continue through
2010 with extended residencies in
Rugerero by healthcare providers,
artists, and faculty and students from
the UF School of Architecture who
will lead the building of a health
clinic in Rugerero Village. For more
information, see www.arts.ufl.edu/
CAHRE/aimrwanda.asp.

Jill Sonke is Director of the Center for the Arts in
Healthcare Research and Education (CAHRE)
as well as Assistant Director ofShands Arts in
Medicine program. The AIM forAfrica Rwanda
project was supported through funding from
the Florida Division of CulturalAffairs and the
UF Center for World Arts, and undertaken in
partnership with Barefoot Artists, the UFSchool
of Theatre and Dance, ShandsArts in Medicine,
Jefferson Health, Engineers without Borders, and
the Rwandan Village Concept Project.


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African Entrepreneurs: From Micro to Global

ANITA SPRING


Dr. Anita Spring has been researching African entrepreneurs from
micro to global and now has carried out research in ten countries
on the subject, adding countries annually but analyzing
data already collected. For the study, she went once each to
Botswana, Kenya, Mozambique, Senegal, and Tanzania; twice to
Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, and Uganda; and three times to South
Africa. She also interviewed global entrepreneurs from Swaziland,
Zambia, and Zimbabwe outside their countries. She mapped out
the entrepreneurial landscape in the formal and informal sectors
in a variety of publications. The landscape consists of micro to
large informal-sector vendors and traders; formal-sector small
to medium to large companies; and global businesspersons
who refer to themselves as the "new generation of African
entrepreneurs (NGAEs)"


Some of her findings are: (1)
informal sector and more traditional
formal-sector entrepreneurs have
more enterprise diversification than
NGAEs to protect against risk; (2)
women in both the informal and
formal sectors have more kin than men
in their business networks, but also
utilize business associations effectively;
(3) there is upward mobility between
sector categories for men and women


entrepreneurs due to the requirements
of education, capital, and networks to
move upward; (4) there are few gender
differences for the globalists who have
similar education, formal-sector work
experience, types of enterprises, and
association memberships; and (5)
entrepreneurial women and men differ
from salaried personnel because they
have taken risks and created businesses
while others "only dream of doing so.


In one case study, Spring detailed two-fold data
from South Africa to show an end-point of success
for the inclusion of female and black entrepreneurs
and businesspersons in the formal sector in decision-
making capacities. The Business Women's Association
became multi-racial and gained support from the
Johannesburg Stock Exchange, major corporations,
Business Partners, Inc., banks, and state-owned
enterprises (SOEs). Its annual census of women in
the work force (especially managers and company
board members and directors) has become a powerful
indicator in the country ("what gets measured gets
done"). The South African government's Black
Economic Empowerment program requires and
measures advances for blacks and women in formal-
sector private companies and SOEs, and results show
widespread compliance and inclusion.
Starting in 2007, Spring also began researching
Chinese entrepreneurs in Africa focusing on Ghana,
Mozambique, and Tanzania, while considering
trends in other countries in terms of Chinese central-
government funded development assistance projects,
Chinese provincial contracts and for-profit endeavors,
and individual/family Chinese private-sector
entrepreneurs (many of whom believe "the continent
presents opportunities"). China's non-interference
in African politics, construction of large and small
infrastructures (railways, roads, dams, government
buildings, stadium, hospitals), and exports of
inexpensive manufactured products have found favor
with governments and local people. However, Chinese
entrepreneurial activities generate direct competition
with African businesses and entrepreneurs, and
Spring's current research focuses on the reality of
Chinese-African business interactions, competition
strategies, and outcomes.

Dr. Spring is Professor Emerita in the Department ofAnthropology
and affiliate faculty in the Center forAfrican Studies. Funding for
these activities came from an Opportunity Research Grant, UFs
Center for International Business & Education Research, the Center
forAfrican Studies, and USAID.


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HIV Spread in Central and East Africa

ANDREW TATEM & MARCO SALEMI
(ADAPTED FROM ORIGINAL ARTICLE WRITTEN BY JOHN D. PASTOR)


Scientists studying biology and geography
may seem worlds apart, but together they
have answered a question that has defied
explanation about the spread of the HIV-1
epidemic in Africa.
Writing in the September issue ofAIDS, a
research team led by scientists at the University
of Florida explained why two subtypes of HIV-
1-the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency
syndrome, or AIDS-held steady at relatively low
levels for more than 50 years in west central Africa
before erupting as an epidemic in east Africa in the
1970s.
Essentially, the explanation for the HIV
explosion-obscured until now-involves the relative
ease with which people can travel from city to city
in east Africa as opposed to the difficulties faced
by people living in the population centers of the
Democratic Republic of Congo, the point where HIV
emerged from west central Africa in its spread to the
east.
"We live in a world that is more interconnected
every day, and we have all seen how pathogens such as
HIV or the swine flu virus can arise in a remote area
of the planet and quickly become a global threat," said
Marco Salemi, an assistant professor ofpathology,
immunology, and laboratory medicine at the UF
College of Medicine and senior author of the study.
"Understanding the factors that can lead to a full-
scale pandemic is essential to protect our species from
emerging dangers."
Investigators used databases, including GenBank
from the National Center for Biotechnology
Information, as well as actual DNA samples, including
samples recently collected in Uganda-the vicinity
where HIV entered east Africa-to follow the virus'
molecular footprints since its emergence in the 1920s.
Researchers wanted to know why, the virus smoldered
during the 1950s and 1960s, before spreading like
wildfire through east Africa in the 1970s.
A fateful piece of the puzzle came in the form
of geographic information system data, which uses
satellite imagery and painstakingly takes into account
the availability and navigability of roads between
population centers, transportation modes, elevation,
climate, terrain and other factors that influence travel.
"We were able to use geographic data to interpret
the genetic data:' said AndrewJ. Tatem, an assistant


professor of geography in the College
of Liberal Arts and Sciences and a
member of UF's Emerging Pathogens
Institute. "Genetic data showed once
HIV moved out of the Democratic
Republic of Congo, it expanded fast
and moved rapidly across Uganda,
Kenya and Tanzania, all while staying
at low levels in the DRC. What was
happening was the virus was circulating
at stable levels in the urban centers
of the DRC, but these centers were
isolated. Once it hit east Africa,
connectivity between population
centers combined with better quality
transportation networks, and higher
rates of human movement caused HIV
to spread exponentially":
"If we can predict the specific
routes of an epidemic, we can find
the geographic regions more at risk
and target these areas with medical
intervention and strategies for
prevention:' Salemi said. "In terms


of health-care applications, coupling
genetic analysis with geographic
information systems can give us a
powerful tool to understand the spread
ofpathogens and contain emerging
epidemics.'
Working with Maureen M.
Goodenow, the Stephany W. Holloway
university chair for AIDS research
at the UF College of Medicine, UF
researchers collaborated with an array
of scientists hailing from the National
Institute of Allergy and Infectious
Diseases, the Rakai Health Sciences
Program and Makerere University
of Uganda, and the Johns Hopkins
University.

Andrew Tatem is an assistant professor in the
Department of Geography and a member of the
UFEmerging Pathogens Institute. Marco Salemi is
an assistant professor of pathology, immunology,
and laboratory medicine in the College of
Medicine at UF


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES RESEARCH REPORT 2009


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Formalizing School: Religion and the Education Sector in the Sahel

LEONARDO A.VILLALON


In much of Africa (and perhaps especially
in Francophone Africa), the educational
systems that were inherited from
colonialism and largely maintained since
then have been a very poor fit with
societal demands and cultural realities,
and this is at least part of the reason for
the widespread failure of educational
policies, as measured by such things as
literacy and school enrollment rates. For
many parents, sending children to the
official state schools carries significant risks
of uprooting them culturally and morally
from their society, while presenting rather
minimal advantages (the chances of
having a child make it all the way through
to a diploma and a job are very small).
Across the Muslim majority countries of the
Sahel, one response to this bad fit between the
provision of public education and social and parental
expectations was the development of a vast parallel
system of informal religiously-based education, outside
the official state system, and created largely in explicit
response to the limitations of the state educational
system. These unofficial schools are widely varied,
ranging from very basic Qur'anic schools to quite
sophisticated "Franco-Arabic schools."
Strikingly, a number of factors in recent years
have prompted several countries in the region to
embark on experiments in reforming education,
both by attempting to bring the informal religious
schools more squarely into the state system and
at times by reforming the formal state system to
borrow characteristics from the informal, such as the
introduction of religious education.
In collaboration with Mahaman Tidjani Alou of
the Universit6 Abdou Moumouni and the Laboratoire
d'Etudes et de Recherche sur les Dynamiques Sociales
et le Ddveloppement Local (LASDEL) in Niger,
and with the additional participation of recent UF
Ph.D. Abdourahmane Idrissa, we are engaged in a
comparative examination of the reform processes in
three countries-Niger, Mali and Senegal-all of
which are fairly well advanced in the implementation
of reforms. These reform processes are largely driven
by the argument that bringing educational institutions
more into line with local social realities and


expectations will help to make things
work better by creating systems that will
work with social and cultural realities
rather than against them.
The research project is organized
around three basic questions: 1) Why
have these reform processes been
undertaken at this historical juncture?
2) How has reform proceeded? And,
3) What are the emerging or likely
outcomes of these reforms? The
fieldwork, carried out with the help
of research assistants in each country,
involves documenting official state
actions, as well as interviews with a
wide range of actors: state officials
involved in the process; social groups
both in favor and against these reforms,
including religious and secular NGOs;
officials in the ministries of education
and in the state education bureaucracy,
and school principles and teachers
involved in the process. We are also
interviewing a sample of parents of
students in schools in each country, and
carrying out ethnographic observation


in the new reformed schools.
This collaborative project grows
out of my broader research project
on how aspects of democracy are
being negotiated in the Muslim social
contexts of the three countries. The
educational reform projects represent
one aspect of the more significant and
profound long term transformations
that have been sparked by the ongoing
experimentation with democracy in
these African Muslim countries.

Leonardo A. Villaln is director of the Center
forAfrican Studies and associate professor
of Political Science. In 2007, he was named a
Carnegie Fellow by the Carnegie Corporation
of New York for research on a project entitled
"Negotiating Democracy in Muslim Contexts:
Political Liberalization and Religious Mobilization
in the WestAfrican Sahel." The collaboration with
Mahaman TidjaniAlou on educational reform is
part of theAfrican Power and Politics program,
which is funded by the United Kingdom's
Department for International Development
(DFID) and Irish Aid as part of a consortium
project of which both CAS and LASDEL are
members.


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Unpopular Sovereignty: Rhodesian Independence and African Decolonization

LUISE WHITE


In the course of working on a book on the history of the
Rhodesian state during its renegade independence (1965-80),
I became very interested in the history of universal suffrage
and how one man, one vote became the natural logic of
decolonization. With funds from the Center for Humanities and
the Public Sphere at UF and the Center for African Studies, I was
able to organize a small workshop here in April 2009, to bring
South Asian historians together with those of Anglophone
and Francophone Africa. The discussion was terrific, but made
me realize that suffrage was only part of the question; the very
mechanics of voting was also critical.


With the help of a CLAS
Humanities Enhancement summer
award, I was able to go to Zimbabwe
for three weeks of research. I had
hoped to find material on a quickly
organized African-run referendum
on Southern Rhodesia's controversial
1961 constitution. I didn't find very
much as most files from the early
1960s in Southern Rhodesia have not
yet been accessioned in Zimbabwe.
I did however find some excellent
newspaper accounts, especially from
the African press, that described the
actual practices of the referendum in
several cities. But archives are places
of great riches and to my surprise I
found material I had long despaired
ever finding, especially some of the
submissions to the 1969 constitutional
commission. This was the constitution
by which Rhodesia became a republic
and attempted to re-invent Africans
as tribal people, unconcerned with
politics and policies and eager to follow
their chiefs.
Indeed, as the 1969 constitution
was debated and drafted, tribes
became races and Rhodesia was to be
eventually divided into three provinces,
one for Europeans, one for Ndebele,
and one for Shona. The submissions
that led to such a constitution were


quite weird and wonderful, about why
Rhodesia should not only continue
to be a monarchy but should be ruled
directly by the Queen, about voting
rights for American Indians in the
US, and projections of the extent to
which republican status would impact
tobacco sales.

Luise White is a professor in the Department of
History and affiliate faculty with the Center for
African Studies at the University of Florida.


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CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES RESEARCH REPORT 2009


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Understanding Local Perceptions of Waterborne
Zoonotic Disease and Its Impact on Health Behavior (Tanzania)

ALYSON YOUNG


My research in northern Tanzania focuses
on understanding the political ecology
of resource security among agro-pastoral
populations, and the impact of perceived
household vulnerability on the health
and wellbeing of men and women. In
particular, I study local perceptions of
risk for zoonotic infection and the ways
that perceptions of illness and food/
water scarcity impact emotional health,
decisions about the use of resources,
and risk for waterborne infection. As
part of this research, I spent May to
July 2009, in Manyara District, Tanzania
conducting ethnographic fieldwork
on ethnohydrology and local ideas
about animal and waterborne disease
transmission.
Food and water insecurity are growing problems
with major health implications. Approximately
1.1 billion people worldwide lack adequate water
provision and unsafe water has been linked to 80% of
illnesses and 30% of deaths in developing countries
(WHO, UNICEF 2000). Sub-Saharan Africa faces a
particularly serious water supply crisis. It is estimated
that half the population of Southern Africa does
not have access to either clean water or sanitation
services, and that by 2025, Mozambique, Namibia,
Tanzania and Zimbabwe will all face critical water
shortages. Unfortunately, while we grasp the physical
consequences of resource scarcity, our knowledge of
the emotional consequences of resource insecurity
remains underdeveloped.
This summer I visited several villages in rural
Tanzania and talked to informants about their
perceptions of resource security, beliefs about
water and animal transmitted infections, and the
strategies that they use to reduce their risk for illness.
Perceptions of resource security varied between men
and women, however most agreed that resource
insecurity was becoming more common. In particular,
the predictability and cost of resources was a source
of distress. Many informants cited poor rains or


fluctuations in the timing of rains
as a challenge to securing food and
water for households and animals.
Disagreements over the maintenance
and distribution of water supplies were
also a source of concern. When pumps
failed in one village, it took three weeks
for local hospital and government
administrators to agree about replacing
the broken part. In the meantime, the
village relied on a local stream for their
daily water and a number of people
became very ill.
Perceptions of animal and
waterborne diseases varied as well.
While many informants cited the
risks associated with unclean water
and food, very few had adequate
resources to consistently boil water
or milk for household use. Every
person interviewed had experienced
at least one illness in the past month
that related to unhygienic water
supplies. A primary source of anxiety


among informants was the combined
inability to access adequate water/
food resources and the constraints on
utilizing the resources they did have.
Often, informants stated that they were
making risky decisions by using what
they considered "unhealthy resources:'
but felt they had few options under the
circumstances.
The information collected this
summer is being incorporated into a
grant application that will be submitted
to the National Science Foundation in
July 2010.

Alyson Young is an assistant professor in the
Department I i
with the Center forAfrican Studies. This research
was funded by a Humanities Scholarship
Enhancement Fund grant from the University of
Florida.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES RESEARCH REPORT 2009


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Student Reports




Ken Bugul: A Unique African Woman Novelist and Message

CHRISTIAN AHIHOU


During summer 2009, 1 traveled to
Benin to conduct an interview with the
African writer Ken Bugul at her home in
Porto-Novo. Ken Bugul is the pseudonym
used by the Senegalese writer Marietou
Mbaye Bileoma. Her novel Riwan ou le
chemin de sable (Riwan or the Sandy Track)
was awarded the 1999 prestigious literary
prize Grand Prix litteraire de I'Afrique noire.
In collaboration with my dissertation director,
Dr. Carol Murphy, I prepared a questionnaire, which
highlighted the two principal axes that characterize
the Bugulian novels: first, her conception of the word
tongue, and second, what she expresses with it in her
fiction. Some of my questions follow.
For example, what does emotion effectively have
to do with the notion of "mother tongue:' a theme
that she developed in her presentation at the 2009
Gwendolen M. Carter Conference hosted by the UF
Center for African Studies. How did the loss of her
mother, who abandoned her at a very young age, affect
her choice of language or tongue as well as her writing
skills? Has the loss of her mother produced in her
writing a unique tongue different from that of other
African women who express themselves in French?
Does she worry about not being understood by her
readers, since her tongue is not the admissible one in
an African society in which women are not allowed
to talk about everything and anyway? And finally, for
whom is she writing?
Ken Bugul graciously welcomed all my questions,
answered them fully and even went beyond my
expectations. Her tongue for example is exclusively
hers since she did not have any chance to learn it from
anyone. On contrary, life had forced her to make it up
by herself. So, she is not embarrassed at all by being
understood or not. The orality in her writings is the
manifestation of her will and need to hear herself
while she is writing.


In many ways this interview will help structure my dissertation. For the
moment, I aim to write an article for publication that will convey the content of
our conversation. Finally, I would like to thank the French Graduate Committee
for having awarded me the Else Duelund scholarship to travel to Benin.

ChristianAhihou is a doctoral student in Languages, Literatures, and Cultures studying French. Funding
for his research was provided by the Else Duelund scholarship.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES RESEARCH REPORT 2009


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Improving Soil Fertility Management in Northern Ghana

PHILLIP ALDERMAN


In Ghana, as in many countries in Sub-
Saharan Africa, poor soil fertility is a
major cause of hunger and malnutrition.
Therefore, improving soil fertility is key to
improving human health and well-being.
Through my dissertation research, I am
collaborating with smallholder farmers
and scientists in the Upper West Region
of Ghana. We are working together to
develop locally-appropriate soil fertility
management strategies.
As scientists, we are aware of fundamental
physical and biological processes that influence food
production. Similarly, farmers possess vital experiential
knowledge of their livelihood systems that we, as
outsiders, lack. Both perspectives are essential to
identifying and implementing environmentally and
socio-economically viable farming practices. With that
in mind, this summer we established two researcher-
managed experiments and one on-farm experiment
managed by local farmers.
The researcher-managed experiments are
being conducted in partnership with the Savanna
Agricultural Research Institute (SARI), an agency of
the Ghanaian government. Both experiments focus on
characterizing pigeon pea growth and development
under local climatic conditions. The results will
provide important information for advising farmers
on how best to grow pigeon pea in the Upper West


Region. Unlike typical "on-station"
experiments, which utilize large
amounts of irrigation and fertilizer,
we tried to approximate farmer
conditions as much as possible. Initially
it seemed sporadic rainfall early in the
season would ruin the experiments.
The experience gave me an increased
appreciation for the farmers' concern
about the shortage of rain.


In the on-farm experiment,
farmers, SARI scientists, and I are
collaborating to determine the effects
of integrated nutrient management
(a combination of crop rotation and
fertilizer use) on soil fertility. This year
we planted three crop species: maize,
peanut, and pigeon pea. Next year,
all plots will be planted with maize to
determine the effects of the previous
crop. Small amounts of phosphorus
and nitrogen fertilizers will also be
applied to evaluate the combined
effect of crop rotation and fertilization.
Though previous on-farm trials in the
area have generally involved between
six and eight farmers, a record 15
farmers are participating this year.
Farmers expressed genuine interest in
the research; especially with respect
to how pigeon pea might fit into their
farming system. I look forward to our
continuing work together.

Phillip D. Alderman is a doctoral student in
Agronomy. His research was funded in part
through the USAID Peanut Collaborative
Research Support Program (CRSP). He was a CAS
FLAS Fellow in 200607 and 2007 08 forAkan.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES RESEARCH REPORT 2009


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Land Use Profitability in Northeast Tanzania

RENEE BULLOCK


For the past two summers now, I have
had the opportunity to work in the
East Usambaras, part of the Eastern Arc
mountain range and located in northeast
Tanzania.This part of the world hosts
unique biodiversity and poses interesting
challenges in how to conserve the
remaining biodiversity.
It is one of 25 hotspots worldwide. Its proximity
to the Indian Ocean and relative isolation from other
mountains has created a continuously moist climate
and rainforests that support 16 species found nowhere
else. Too, this is where the African violet came from.
Last summer I collected data for my master's
research, which concerned governance of protected
areas, specifically Village Forest Reserves (VFR).
Tanzania's efforts to improve conservation and
encourage local participation have been to devolve
forestry rights and management. VFR's are
communally owned and usually are small forest
fragments within a mountainous landscape of diverse
land uses. My research dealt with understanding the
extent to which local community members were
participating in management activities and findings
were that participation is low, however perceptions of
governance are still quite optimistic. People also have
positive attitudes towards protected areas, which differ
from many southern African narratives regarding
protected areas.
This year the purpose of my research fell within
agricultural economics, quite a different field.
However, institutions play a very important role in
shaping and affecting landscape dynamics and so this
informed and helped in my understanding of local


conditions. My research concerned
smallholder land use systems and
describes these systems in economic
terms, including private costs and
returns.
Since the introduction of
cardamom a few decades ago,
deforestation has increased. Cardamom
is shade growing and often farmers
develop a multi-crop agro-forestry
system. But, as yields decline, after
about 15 years, the agro-forestry
system is converted to support more
sun loving crops, such as annual
food crops, thereby contributing to
deforestation. Understanding land
use dynamics and decision-making by
farmers in their livelihood strategies
contribute to better understanding the
potential of integrated conservation
strategies. Complex, improved
agro-forestry, in which cardamom
production is prolonged through
fallowing seems feasible from a


development perspective, but perhaps
not from a farmer's perspective.
Current market mechanisms do not
support sustainable farm practices.
Payments for environmental services or
eco-certification schemes may provide
better incentives to practice improved
agro-forestry that supports both rural
livelihoods and conserves biodiversity.
Fieldwork in this area has been
challenging and rewarding, ranging
from trekking through knee high mud
to stunning views of mountains and the
Indian Ocean. As a researcher, my hope
is that my work contributes to better
understandings of how people and the
environment can support each other
into the future.

Renee Bullock is a doctoral student in the
Department of Geography. Her research was
funded in part through the World Agro-forestry
Centre (ICRAF) in Nairobi, Kenya. She is currently a
Center forAfrican Studies FLAS fellow forSwahili.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES RESEARCH REPORT 2009


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Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: Analyzing the
Intergeneration Health Effects of Sexual Violence

NICOLE D'ERRICO


For four months this summer I lived in
Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.
My home base was in Goma, a town on
the Rwandan border that sits on Lake
Kivu. I carried out my research under
the auspices of a HEAL Africa hospital/
NGO, where I took the first step in
preparing for my dissertation research
in the region. My dissertation will take
a bio-cultural approach at studying the
intergenerational effects of sexual violence
by tracking intrauterine stress levels and
corresponding birth outcomes for children
conceived in violence.
I worked in the maternity section of the HEAL
Africa hospital, attending the births-as a birthing
doula-of survivors of sexual violence, and then
following up, as a researcher. Much of my time was
spent doing research on the emic meanings and
dynamics of war and sexual violence. To that end,
I held focus groups and individual interviews with
members of the community in order to examine the
effect of the use of sexual violence as a strategy of war.
Time was spent not just with women survivors, but
with women who have not been raped, in order to
begin to understand the biological effects of this acute,
on-going stressor, how the omnipresent potential that
one could be raped affects us biologically, through the
production-and maintenance-of stress hormones
in the body.
I also worked as the research consultant for
HEAL Africa's "Safe Motherhood" program. This
program provides micro-grants to vulnerable women
to create Solidarity Groups. In their groups, women
make soap and mats to sell at the market. Their profits
generate a collective Maternal Insurance Fund, which
is used when a pregnant member needs to pay for
prenatal or postnatal care, sometimes to travel to a
health center, or for a C-section or other pregnancy-
related interventions.
My research sought to understand and evaluate
how the presence of Solidarity Groups in villages


affected by the ongoing war impacted
overall health and birth outcomes
for vulnerable pregnant women.
As a secondary focus, my research
evaluated the effect of the program
on the husband-wife dyad and on
perceptions of women in the villages
overall. By working with men, women,
traditional birth attendants, hospital/
health center staff and regional health
supervisors, the research tracked not
only perceptions and opinions of
the Solidarity Groups over time, but
it generated epidemiologic data on
numbers of women who utilized the
Maternal Insurance Fund, and how
this affected biological markers such as
gestational age, birth weight and infant
mortality.


I might also mention that
Secretary of State Hillary Clinton
visited HEAL Africa this August
while I was there, in her attempt to
understand the effects of sexual violence
in the region. We toured her, held
interviews with survivors, and then
she attended a panel discussion that
concluded with a press conference.

Nicole C D'Errico is pursing an MA degree
in medical anthropology and a MPH in
Epidemiology. Her research was partially funded
by HEAL Africa. She is a2009-10 FLAS fellow in
Swahili.


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Landscape Dynamics and Climate Variability in the
Okavango-Kwando-Zambezi Catchment of Southern Africa


ANDREA GAUGHAN
Southern Africa is one of the most uncertain regions in the world
with respect to projections of climate change and the response
of land-use/land-cover dynamics. How vegetation phenology,
structure, and composition will change with increased variability,
more or less rainfall, or changes in temperature is compounded
by the land-use decisions for agriculture, ranching, and
settlement. Before competing and interacting drivers of climate
and land use may be disentangled, effects of water availability
must be accounted for in landscape change as it is considered to
be the most limiting factor in a savanna environment.


Savanna environments are
characterized by a strong seasonal
response to wet and dry seasons making
quantification of initial water input,
rainfall, the first step to understanding
the influence of water in the system.
Changes in rainfall will affect system
drivers, such as soil moisture or fuel load,
in turn influencing the vegetation cover
ratios in semi-arid dry land ecosystems.
My dissertation project focuses on spatial
and temporal patterns of precipitation in
part of southern Africa and the seasonal
and long-term response ofvegetation.
The research uses geospatial analyses
and field measurements to examine
the response of vegetation productivity
to rainfall variability at a regional
catchment scale and to better understand
long-term change in woody and grass
land covers for a local protected area in
Caprivi, Namibia.


The local study area in Caprivi,
Namibia is located along the woody
end of the tree-grass continuum
with the predominant woodland
land cover resting upon a relatively
homogenous substrate of Kalahari
sand. Characteristic of rainfall in
dry land systems, this region has
experienced great fluctuations over the
past century and statements collected
from environmental history interviews
correspond to a description of southern
African rainfall variability described by
Nicholson (2001).
In addition to these environmental
history interviews, research during
the 2007 and 2008 field seasons also
included focus group discussions on
land-use perceptions and ground data
collection for use with satellite imagery.
The 2009 field season focused on
validating land-cover datasets for both


the local, Caprivi area but also for areas in the larger
Okavango-Kwando-Zambezi catchment. Several
rainfall and satellite image products were compared
to land cover along a precipitation gradient stretching
from the western side of Caprivi up to Mongu, the
capital of the Western Province in Zambia located
on the edge of the Barotse floodplain. Key informant
interviews were conducted with select people to
identify what types of development and growth have
occurred over the past 20 years in the rural western
Zambian region. In addition, training sample data
and tree cores were systematically collected to inform
analyses of land-use and land-cover changes in the
regional catchment.
All field seasons have included collaborative
efforts amongst faculty and graduate students at the
University of Florida as well as partners at African
universities and within local communities. The
overall objective of this research is to contribute to
the broader knowledge of how dynamics of human
and environmental factors interact in dry land socio-
ecological systems by accounting for precipitation-
vegetation relationships in the Okavango-Kwando-
Zambezi catchment. This study will contribute an
applied understanding to historical environmental
change necessary to look at future projections of
climate change and variability and its effect on semi-
arid dry land vegetation both at the local and regional
scale.

Andrea E Gaughan is a doctoral student in the Department
of Geography and the IGERT Adaptive Management, Water,
Watersheds, and Wetlands program. Funding for her research this
summer came from NASA Land-Cover/Land-Use Change Program,
Earth Systems Program Grant.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES RESEARCH REPORT 2009


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The 1964 Zanzibar Revolution and Its Revolutionaries

ANN LEE GRIMSTAD


I took three brief pre-dissertation research trips this summer
to examine North American sources of information on the
Zanzibar Revolution.This revolution, on the nights of 11-12
January 1964, came just one month after independence was
granted. There was an American presence in Zanzibar at the
time, which included scholars, journalists, CIA, US consular staff,
and employees of Project Mercury, a US space tracking station in


Zanzibar.
My first trip took me to the
Michael Lofchie collection of Zanzibar
Publications 1909-1965 at UCLA.
Professor Lofchie wrote the seminal
scholarly piece on the Zanzibar
Revolution in 1965, Zanzibar:
Background to Revolution. Lofchie's
collection includes numerous local
newspapers, political pamphlets, and
a 1948 social survey that has provided
critical information about different
social groups' access to education
and resources during the colonial
period that preceded the revolution.
Additionally, there were transcripts
on the hearings held by a Commission
of Inquiry into disturbances during
the 1961 elections that many scholars
see as a precursor to the revolution.
Finally, I had informative meetings with
Professor Lofchie, in which he provided
me with more contacts who were in
Zanzibar at the time of the revolution.


I then proceeded to the Lyndon
Baines Johnson Library in Austin,
Texas, where all of the official US
foreign policy documents about the
Zanzibar Revolution are housed. LBJ
came to power just months before
the Zanzibar revolution, but he was
kept abreast of the situation on a
regular basis, in part because of Project
Mercury. State Department memos
mostly outline decisions about the
tracking station, the evacuation of
American citizens, and diplomatic
relations with the new government
of Zanzibar. They became more
interesting when the US Consul was
arrested and deported from Zanzibar
by the new government. Tapes of LBJ's
phone conversations were among
the most interesting data which
clearly demonstrated Johnson's view
of the situation in Zanzibar and its
new revolutionary government. The


President outlined important strategic reasons for
recognizing this new government to the British Prime
Minister, who was stalling on the issue. The length
of time the US and UK waited to recognize the new
Zanzibar government ended up backfiring on them,
as it gave Eastern Bloc countries time to move in with
support, right in the midst of the Cold War.
Finally, I went to Ottawa, Canada to interview
Clyde Sanger, who wrote the introduction to the
autobiography of one of Zanzibar's revolutionaries.
Sanger was also a reporter for the Guardian in
1964, and was put under house arrest by the new
government when he arrived in Zanzibar just days
after the revolution. Sanger had impeccable records
from the 1960's, including never-published photos
of some of the revolutionaries, official Zanzibar
government documents, and numerous newspaper
clippings. Not only did Sanger enlighten me with his
personal experience during the revolution, but he also
put me in contact with other sources.
The opportunities presented by interviewing
principal witnesses and reviewing primary source
material allowed me to develop new networks and
sources for continuation of my dissertation research.

Ann Lee Grimstad is a doctoral student in the Department of History
and received funding from the Center forAfrican Studies to conduct
this research.


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Design for the Children: East African HIV/AIDS Clinic Design Competition

TRAVIS HERRET

Design for the Children hosted an
international design competition in
Fall 2008 to promote the health of
East African mothers and children and
help prevent treatable diseases such as
malaria, tuberculosis and HIV through the
construction of non-profit clinics in the
region.
This competition entry chose to focus on how
the architecture and planning of the clinic could best
solve the problem of social stigmas associated with
mothers receiving HIV anti-retroviral treatment to
prevent transmission to their unborn children.
A specific strategy is needed for the delivery
of both a localized need (anti-retroviral treatment)
and a larger idea (education/prevention) for the East
African region and the African continent as a whole.
The natural self-organization and self-similarity of
fractal geometry is the strategic means in connecting
the small and the large. By building the clinic in a small
rural village and allowing the local residents to interact
and take part in building, treating, and teaching, a
seed is planted that is then able to spread to other
villages. Collectively, this network begins to change
the future of HIV/AIDS in Africa.
The design of the buildings is uniquely tied to
providing the necessary medications involved in HIV/
AIDS prevention. Market places, gardens and schools
are both functional elements of the community and
also serve as a guise for treatment. By giving HIV
positive mothers a separate reason to visit the clinic,
treatments can be continued without the risk of being
ostracized by the community.
Designing and building recursive rural clinics
that are able to branch out and spread education and
treatment is crucial in the battle against HIV/AIDS.

Travis Herret graduated with a master's in Architecture in May 2009.
He worked in conjunction with Professors Donna Cohen and Nancy
Clark in Graduate Studio 3.


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Heritage Tourism and Local Capacity in NWTanzania

RACHEL IANNELLI


What is the current state of heritage
tourism in Tanzania? What future options
for expansion of heritage tourism
offerings are viable in Kagera Region of
northwestern Tanzania? This summer
I traveled with my advisor, Dr. Peter
Schmidt, and fellow student Malia Billman
to Tanzania on a CIBER grant in order to
answer these questions. Our team began
by working closely with a local tour
company in the town of Bukoba, with
an assessment of the tour company's
infrastructure upon which development
of heritage tourism might be built. Our
assessments included customer surveys
and customer evaluations of services
delivered. We joined tourists on various
local guided tours, as we also wanted to
assess tour company representations of
local histories and determine customer
appetites for these heritage themed
excursions.
In conjunction with these activities, we also
collaborated with the village of Katuruka, Tanzania,
which has recently created a village-based preservation
committee to oversee the development of three key


heritage sites within its jurisdiction.
Working with the committee, a
development plan was drafted with
specific and prioritized action points.
Among these action points was the
restoration of Mugasha's shrine as a
logical developmental starting point
because of its highly visible remains.
The focus of the shrine ofMugasha
is a laterite rock upon which can be
seen the footprint ofMugasha, the
patron of the lake and the rains, as well
as that of his child. These rocks sit
on a triangular piece of communally
owned land centrally located in the
village, a perfect location to maintain
community support and interest in the
revitalization of these historical areas
as possible tourist destinations. While
in Katuruka, I also assisted the village
in surveying 67% of the households to
determine how many elderly "keepers
of oral history" remain available to add
to the repository of knowledge needed
to create a narrative history for visitors
attending these sites.
By the end of two weeks,


Mugasha's shrine was complete and a
consecration ceremony was held. Guests
attended the festivities from the local
tourism industry, as well as the Regional
Development Director. A senior
member of the Katuruka Preservation
Committee, Benjamin Shegesha, gave
guests a guided tour of the shrines,
explaining in detail the rich histories
of these places. First impressions
of this day are that the visitors and
villagers alike were delighted by the
great potential of a reemergence
ofKaturuka's unique history, both
parties expressing the desire to realize a
partnership of sustained and dedicated
commitment to the revelation of these
histories as being beneficial to the
village, the nation, and the broader
world.

Rachel lanneli is a doctoral student in the
Department ofAnthropology. Her research was
made possible through a summer2009 UF Center
for International Business & Economic Research
(CIBER) grant.


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Capturing Water Resources for
Agriculture and Human Development in Swaziland

JILLIAN JENSEN


The Lower Usuthu Smallholder Irrigation
Project (LUSIP) is an irrigation-for-
development scheme, which involves the
construction of an off-stream reservoir and
canal system to irrigate roughly 11,000
hectares of farmland in the lowlands of
Swaziland.The targeted beneficiaries are
approximately 2300 local subsistence-
farming homesteads.The goal of the
project is the elimination of extreme
poverty through agricultural intensification
and livestock commercialization.
The project is loan-financed by nine
international donors and development
banks, and is being administered by a
parastatal of the Swazi government.
The main focal activity of the project is the
assembly of suitable land controlled by clusters of
smallholders into cooperatives for the purposes of
growing sugarcane on an equity-share basis. Also,
two supplemental and complementary activities are
being carried out: a home garden program of vegetable
production for enhanced domestic food security
and cash income, and homestead delivery of potable
water to address persistent health concerns over
the quality and quantity of domestic water supply.
The coverage of the home garden and potable water
programs reaches every homestead in the project area
to widen the scope for benefit distribution even when
soil conditions are determined to be unsuitable for
participation in a sugar cooperative.
Concurrent to the start-up of LUSIP is the
commencement of decentralized water management
across Swaziland. The Water Act of 2003 reflects in
detail the principles of Integrated Water Resources
Management (IWRM), an internationally agreed
framework for the governance of water resources.
The Act specifies the gazetting of five River Basin
Authorities (RBAs) across Swaziland and the
formation of increasingly decentralized management
committees empowered to decide issues such as
water permitting, water resources development,
water-for-conservation planning, etc. It is this
participatory model of decentralized governance that


has been given the responsibility to
manage and distribute the new water
captured by the LUSIP development.
The Swazi government has taken
an active role in capacity-building
members of the public to take on their
new administrative functions, and
sensitizing the general public as to their
new legal and financial responsibilities
for improved water management.
My case study of LUSIP provides
a unique window into the application
of a definitively western governance
model, IWRM, in a sociopolitical
context featuring a monarchy, an
agrarian bureaucracy, and feudal
chiefs. The social transformations
implicated by the conversion to
cooperative estate farming and the
relationship and management of water
on (neo)liberal terms are practically
and psychologically disturbing to
local inhabitants. The competing
logics or governmentalities at work
in the interface between LUSIP and
IWRM are speaking to larger questions
about postcolonial development. I am


centralizing the political question of
who this water development is for to
uncover how the resulting structural
transformations are directing benefits
relative to the rural poor. Further, the
research considers what the role and
relationship is of IWRM in this process.
The history of IWRM is littered
with failures to achieve its intended
social outcomes. It is my position that
IWRM may be acting as an anti-politics
machine to obscure the benefit capture
away from the rural poor under a veil of
good governance.

Jillian Jensen is a doctoral student in
Interdisciplinary E
theAM:W3 IGERTProgram with the Center for
Environmental Policy. Her research was partially
funded through an African Power& Politics
(APP) summer pre-dissertation grant from the
Center forAfrican Studies. APP is funded by a
grant from the United Kingdom's Department
for International Development (DFID) and Irish
Aid to a research consortium of which CAS is an
institutional member


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Assembling Campaigning Identity Online:The Virtual Space
of the Transnational Chinese Entrepreneurs in Ghana

YANG JIAO


For the past year, I've been doing follow-
up research on the Chinese business
community located in Accra, Ghana.
This time I focused on the virtual space
in which Chinese businessmen and
businesswomen assemble elements of a
transnational identity, construct a cyber
public domain, and establish business
networks.
The Chinese business community in Accra has
grown quickly. Up to the second quarter of 2009, 387
Chinese enterprises are registered with the Ghana
Investment Promotion Center, with a total investment
of $235,180,000. The number of Chinese companies
has almost doubled since my 2008 study. The
development of the virtual community of Chinese
represents this trend well with the number of online
discussion groups quadrupling. The website of the
Ghana central-China Chamber of Commerce has
drawn members not only from within Ghana, but
people in bordering West African countries as well.
With the contemporary inflow of Chinese
capital and labor force, the Chinese entrepreneurs I
interviewed have created a transnational space where
they are both outside of the Chinese nation-state
and bounded by a shared citizenship. For instance,
following the earthquake in southwest China in July
2009, people from different corners ofAccra gathered
together and donated money through the Chamber of
Commerce website and discussion group.
Last summer I reported that some Ghanaian
entrepreneurs called for regulations on Chinese
retailing activities. Despite the sweeping inspection
of Chinese businesses soon after the December
2008 elections in Ghana, retail/wholesale shops still
managed to operate near Rawlings Square, which
was referred to as China town inside the Chinese
business community. Frequent trips to China by
Ghanaian government officials to promote investment
in Ghana combined with the sporadic efforts of
the state to protect the national economy highlight


conflicts between state efforts to benefit
from the global market forces and to
regulate global capital and labor. The
transnational Chinese entrepreneurs are
very savvy about the situation and have
utilized the virtual space as a public
domain to strive for their legitimate
existence and rights. Recently, the
chamber of commerce has started a
campaign to collect questions and
concerns for a dialogue with the vice
president of Ghana.
Aside from the political awareness
of the Chinese business community,
they have developed the website
and online discussion group into a
space where prospective investors in
China and veteran entrepreneurs in


Ghana connect and communicate.
This is reflected in the specialization
of discussion groups, such as the one
devoted to the construction sector
business.

Yang Jiao is a doctoral student in the Department
ofAnthropology. His research was made possible
in part through a Center forAfrican Studies pre
dissertation summer research grant.


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Fairtrade South Africa: Global Models and National Realities

ALISON KETTER


I conducted my pre-dissertation field research from June to
August 2009 in the Western and Northern Cape Provinces of
South Africa, dividing my time between the Fairtrade South
Africa (FTSA) headquarters in CapeTown and numerous Fairtrade
certified farms throughout the two provinces. I met with a range
of actors engaged with the Fairtrade system and discussed
issues of certification, governance, and varying empowerment


strategies. During this research I
First, although Fairtrade is an
international initiative that aims to
empower marginalized producers
across the global South through the
promotion of equitable production,
distribution and consumption
practices, it is often not as fair or
transparent as it aims to be. In South
Africa, white commercial producers
remain privileged over their black
smallholder counterparts due to the
former's established relationships
with supermarkets, seed and fertilizer
companies and other strategic trading
partners.
Secondly, FTSA is going through
a period of adjustment where it
is rethinking its requirements for
certification, moving away from a
model based on land redistribution
and towards one that focuses instead
on adherence to the Black Economic


observed three primary issues.
Empowerment (BEE) scorecard, a
model that focuses on diversity in
management and labor practices rather
than land ownership. BEE is a South
African governmental initiative that
focuses on development of previously
disadvantaged peoples and contributing
to transformation in the post-
apartheid state through employment
incentives, preferential procurement,
skills training and ownership. This
heavily contentious transition has
been applauded by some as a more
practical and efficient approach to
empowerment in South Africa while
others lament that it detracts from
the core principal of Fairtrade-
empowering marginalized producers,
specifically smallholders.
Finally FTSA is in the process of
launching a new South-South ethical
trade regime that markets Fairtrade


certified goods locally. This new policy direction
will allow FTSA control over all of the value-added
throughout the supply chain, thus benefiting as many
sectors of the South African economy as possible.
This new form of governance is in contrast to the
established Fairtrade model of developing states
marketing their goods in the global North, thus
benefiting Northern consumers and corporations
more than the producing countries. FTSA's new
model is the culmination of a multi-year power
struggle with Fairtrade International that numerous
producer nations have watched closely.
I plan to continue researching these issues when I
return to Cape Town in October 2009 for the FTSA
Annual General Meetings.

Alison M. Ketter is a doctoral student in the Department of
A CAS FLAS fellow in Swahili for the
academic years 2007-08 and 2008-09.


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Experts and the Subjects of Expertise:
Education and Development in Madagascar


MICHELLE KIEL

I conducted dissertation fieldwork in the
eastern region of Atsinanana, Madagascar
between July 2008 and March 2009.
The investigation concentrated on
two development projects that sought
to transform the livelihoods of rural
Malagasy by training them in market
techniques and "modern"agricultural
practices. These projects were tightly
linked to the development objectives and
resources of the Malagasy state under
Marc Ravelomanana, the support of
international aid organizations, and the
cooperation of local stakeholders.
My primary research questions were: 1) How do
international partnerships affect the implementation
and maintenance of state-led development
interventions ? and 2) How does the interaction
of disparate actors (local farmers, agricultural
technicians, bureaucrats, project administrators and
project partners), influence the types of knowledge
and status conveyed by the projects. Ethnographic
research was conducted among these groups over a
variety of settings including rural homes, development
conferences, consciousness-raising events, strategy
sessions, and rural evaluations.
The rural development initiatives I examined
were characterized by struggles over the definition
of the rural subject worthy of training, the types of
knowledge worthy of dissemination, and the ideal
subjects to be produced through "development."
These struggles, and the more material struggles over
funding, materials, land, and status that they are
associated with, propelled these projects into a state
of constant evolution where the continuation of the
project, and not its successful completion, became
the preeminent goal. This dynamic brought political
prowess to the fore as project directors struggled
to align the projects to the changing objectives and
commitments of government and international
partners, while maintaining or expanding their status
among rural stakeholders.
Struggles among different interest groups were
mirrored in the Malagasy political environment, where


in December 2008, the young mayor
ofAntananarivo, Andry Rajoelina,
questioned President Ravelomanana's
commitment to democracy and
development. With local business
interests, former Malagasy leaders,
and perhaps the silent support of
the French government behind him,
Rajoelina accused Ravelomanana of
being a dictator concerned more with
personal profit than the needs of the
Malagasy people and named himself
president of a transitional government
in March 2009. The effect of the crisis
on development funding was swift:
the Millennium Challenge Account
grant was cancelled, the World Bank
froze its activities, and a number of
state-led development programs were
paralyzed. At the same time, the French
continued their aid programs and a
number of Arab nations stepped in,
thereby transforming the geopolitical
dimensions of Malagasy aid.


As the crisis continues, the
landscape of agricultural development
is shifting in a way reminiscent of the
transformations undergone during
earlier political crisis in Madagascar,
forcing development projects to re-align
their efforts and their understandings
of development to the dynamic and
interlinked politics and preferences of
government regimes, regimes of aid,
and local stakeholders. In the long run,
it will be rural populations who have
participated in development programs
who will suffer from these struggles, as
interventions in their communities are
abandoned or shifted elsewhere while
projects align to the new contours of
development objectives at the national
and international levels.

Michelle Lea Kiel is a doctoral student in the
Department ofAnthropology. Her research was
made possible by a Wenner Gren Dissertation
Fieldwork Grant.


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Agricultural Change Between the Batoro and Bakiga Peoples:
Kibale National Park, Uganda


KAREN KIRNER
This past summer I traveled to Kibale
National Park (KNP) in southwestern
Uganda, where part of my time was spent
working on a large collaborative project
looking at land use and land cover change
around parks in eastern and southern
Africa. Working with UF geographers Drs.
Michael Binford and Abraham Goldman, I
helped to record land use and land cover
in a sample of the area surrounding the
park. These data show the degree and
types of land use intensification that have
occurred outside of the park, an area with
high population growth which can put
stress on the resources available. All of
these factors underscore the importance
of understanding how the presence of
the park may influence the uses of the
surrounding landscape.


. -r"i


While collecting the land use
data and traveling around the area,
we observed some differences in the
agropastoral practices of the two main
groups of people, the Bakiga and the
Batoro, who live around the park.
I had the opportunity to use these
ideas to conduct a research project
on agricultural change around KNP
among the Bakiga and Batoro.
When talking with farmers who
own land within five kilometers of the
park boundary, I was able to learn about
the crops that people choose to grow,
the animals that they raise, and the
agricultural challenges that people face
when farming in this area. Additionally,
I talked with farmers about the
techniques they use to minimize the
challenges of farming and asked if the
strategies and techniques they use are


different from those employed by other
people who live in the area.
Understanding not only the
challenges faced by farmers living
around KNP but also the factors that
influence agricultural decision-making
among the Bakiga and Batoro farmers
can help to inform poverty reduction
initiatives, to influence the successful
introduction of new agricultural
techniques and crops, and to ameliorate
some of the negative consequences of
living in proximity to a national park.

Karen Kirer is a master's student in the
Department ofAnthropology. Her 2009 summer
research was made possible by the collaborative
NSF project, "Parks as agents of social and
environmental change in eastern and southern
Africa" led byAbraham Goidman (Geography).


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Islamic Organizations & the Provision of Education
in the Democratic Republic of Congo


ASHLEY LEINWEBER
With generous support as an African
Power and Politics Program Fellow in
2009, 1 conducted extensive dissertation
fieldwork in the Democratic Republic
of Congo on the role of the Muslim
community in providing education. Public
services are difficult to come by in a post-
conflict setting with a central state that
has been characterized as failed, weak, and
corrupt. However, religious organizations
in the Congo are the primary providers
of much needed services, such as
schooling and health care. The Catholic
and Protestant churches have been
functioning in this capacity for several
decades. What this dissertation research
has uncovered is that the Congolese
Muslim community has, in the last few
years, also taken up this vocation. Public
schools run by Islamic organizations are
blossoming at an accelerated rate in areas
with a substantial Muslim population in
order to provide a good education to
children from all religious backgrounds.
This fieldwork built upon the two-month
pre-dissertation research I did in summer 2008 in
the eastern province of Maniema, where I explored
the role of Islamic organizations in providing public
services to the local population. In spring and summer
2009, my qualitative research was expanded to include
four research sites. The majority of my research was
conducted in the Maniema province, home to the
majority of Congolese Muslims. Kindu, my primary
site, is the provincial capital where most politically
active Maniemans live. The second site of Kasongo is a
large town in southern Maniema and the birthplace of
Islam in Congo. The third site, Kisangani, is capital of
the Orientale Province, includes the most significant
Muslim population outside of Maniema, and the
location of the University of Kisangani where I was
able to meet with Muslim academics and conduct
archival research in their libraries. In Kinshasa, the
Congolese capital, I conducted interviews with


members of the national Muslim
organization, COMICO, who have
been very active in recent years to unite
the Islamic community and get them
involved in development projects.
During the pre-dissertation
research phase I had discovered that
despite the lack of support from
governmental agencies, ordinary
Congolese citizens, and more recently
Muslims, have mobilized to form
organizations that respond to the needs
of the population such as schools,
health care facilities, orphanages,
and other post-war reconstruction
projects. Building upon this finding,
in the dissertation research I narrowed
the focus to the education sector
in an attempt to better understand
the dynamic of the rapid recent
involvement of the Islamic community
in providing public goods. I observed
in each kind of school: public, private,
and those managed by each of the four
main religions in Congo. I conducted


interviews with local groups of Muslim
men and women, discussed issues with
local non-governmental organizations
of all types, and did elite interviews
with government officials and heads
of each religion. Because of my ability
to meet with various actors in multiple
settings and sites, I have pieced together
a better understanding of the political
history of the Congolese minority
Muslim population and their reasons
for becoming active providers of
education in contemporary DR Congo.

Ashley Leinweber is a doctoral candidate in the
Department of Political Science. She received
dissertation fieldwork funding as an African
Power and Politics Program Fellow APP is
funded by a grant from the United Kingdom's
Department for International Development
(DFID) and Irish Aid to a research consortium of
which CAS is an institutional member She was a
Center forAfrican Studies FLAS fellow in Swahili
during academic years 2005-06 and 200607 and
summer 2006.


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Uncovering Current Contentious Issues During Zanzibar's Electoral Process

STEVE LICHTY

My future as a fourth-year Ph.D. student entailed studying for comprehensive exams, applying for research
funding and preparing a prospectus, but this summer an opportunity arose serendipitously that was too good
to miss, and I embarked on a minor detour. In earlyJuly I was contacted by the International Law and Policy
Group (ILP), an Oslo-based political consulting firm, which was looking for long-term observers of the voter
registration process on the island of Pemba in Zanzibar,Tanzania.The three previous elections (1995, 2000,
2005) in Zanzibar were marked with serious irregularities and deemed not free and fair by several international
observer groups. With this track record, the international donor community in Tanzania wanted to keep a
watchful eye on the electoral process leading up to the next general election in October 2010.


The ILP was contracted by the
Norwegian Embassy in Dar es Salaam,
Tanzania, to spend six months on Pemba to
provide detailed accounts of the registration
process. While officially an observer, over 80
percent of my work was ethnographical in
nature, so aside from the experience gained
from interacting with the Zanzibari electoral
process, I conducted countless interviews
with political party and government
officials, members of parliament, scholars,
human rights experts and religious leaders.
This coupled with time spent at the village
level in dialogue with local peasants has
given me a clearer picture of the political,
economic and social forces at play in
Zanzibar's history and ones that still remain


relevant today and for the future.
The reports my team wrote for ILP
were disseminated among 12 donor nations
with substantial interests in Tanzania.
These reports included detailed weekly
updates, but also more topical oriented
reports including analysis of the situation
and policy recommendations. In attempting
to provide reliable information, I faced
the challenge of sorting through the
various conflicting reports of the major
stakeholders. This has shown me firsthand
the ethical dilemmas scholars often face
in the field, but simultaneously I observed
the importance of quality scholarly work
that provides a knowledge base for more
effective diplomacy and development. My


course work at the University of Florida
provided an excellent foundation to gain
the methodological tools necessary to dig
deeper into the underlying problems facing
Zanzibar today. After ten weeks in Zanzibar,
I take back to Florida not only a field work
experience that despite not being related
specifically to my dissertation topic, has
opened up new avenues of research, but it
has also given me the opportunity to co-
publish future articles with ILP partners in
Oslo.

Steve Lichty is a doctoral student in the Department
of Political Science. He was a Center forAfrican Studies
FLAS fellow in Kiswahili from 2006-08.


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The Sustainability of Public Health Interventions in Northern Tanzania

MEREDITH MARTEN


Sustainability is a popular concept in
international development, yet is rarely
addressed in international health. After
studying and working in public health,
however, I began to think that excluding a
long-term strategy for sustainability from
program planning was risky, particularly as
many health initiatives collapse once the
donors leave.
I accompanied Dr. Alyson Young to Tanzania
this summer, and started preliminary research with
a pre-dissertation grant from the Center for African
Studies. Tanzania attracts a lot of international aid,
and their national health care system is populated by
numerous facilities organized, operated and funded
by international development organizations. With
so much of the country's health care hinging on the
continued funding and collaboration with outside
donors, the pressure to scale-up the national system
increases, especially in light of recent global economic
crises.
One avenue to research sustainability in health
care is to look at how individuals enrolled in health
programs cope with the problems encountered when
the program ends or they are unenrolled. I examined
a prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV
(PMTCT) program rolled out by a mission hospital
in northern Tanzania. In this program, women and
their infants receive more free services than other
patients enrolled in highly active antiretroviral
therapy (HAART), like food support, hospital
transportation, and home-based care. After two years
they are unenrolled, but still must cope with HIV
and potentially care for a child with HIV. How these
women cope with HIV after the program's end may
illuminate cultural models of health, hierarchies
of perceived risk and the structural constraints
contributing to poor health outcomes that plague
Sub-Saharan Africa.
This summer I interviewed health care workers,
administrators, program planners and researchers,
attended regional meetings for HIV+ people about
living positively with HIV/AIDS, observed interviews
with new mothers about their experiences in the


AYh


PMTCT program, and shadowed
health workers and researchers to get a
better idea of what a typical day on the
job looks like. Through these interviews
I began to see that some coping
methods people adopt are determined
by a combination of structural and
socio-cultural factors: income and
cost of care, distance from health
facilities, access to transportation, trust
in the quality of care and health care
providers, perceptions of corruption,
discrimination, stigma, and social
network composition. I also learned
that the hospital itself was grappling
with a potential funding shortfall in the
near future, and hospital administrators
were working hard to figure out ways
to maintain services. On both the
individual level and the institutional
level, patients and administrators will
need to cope with a loss of support.


This pre-dissertation research was
critical for me to better understand the
scale of the problem of sustainability
in Tanzania, and how it is understood,
experienced, and planned for on
multiple levels and by different people.
I refined my ideas of how people
may cope in creative ways and how
institutions attempt to soften the blow
of a potential loss of funding in the
future. I will continue this research in
the fall of 2010.

Meredith Marten is a doctoral student in the
Department ofAnthropology. Her research was
made possible by a Center forAfrican Studies
Madelyn M. Lockhart pre-dissertation grant She
was a FLAS fellow during academic years 2008-09
and 2009-10forSwahili.


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Carbon Dynamics in Central African Forests Managed forTimber

VINCENT MEDJIBE


My research aims to understand the
effects of reduced-impact logging (RIL)
and conventional logging (CL) techniques
on carbon stocks in a forest managed
for timber in Central Africa. Conducted
my pre-dissertation research in a timber
concession in Gabon. Gabon has 85%
forest cover, which store large quantities of
carbon and provide goods and services for
humanity. But the various ways in which
these forests are being used has different
effects on their structure, soils, wildlife, and
carbon stores.
The primary objective of this pilot study was
to estimate aboveground forest biomass and carbon
stocks before logging then evaluate damage on trees
after logging as surrogate of biomass loss. From June
to August 2009, I worked on Mont Cristal, about 150
km from Libreville, Gabon. I worked in collaboration
with Tropical Forest Foundation (TFF) and Wildlife
Conservation Society who share similar objectives. In
addition, SEEF allocated a portion of its concession
for the study and ENEF (National School of Water
and Forests) in Libreville provided interns to learn
forest management methods and research. Timber
production constitutes a major source of revenues for
the Central African countries, which have high forest
cover and low deforestation rates. But there is a lack of
data and information on how logging affects carbon
stores in these forests.
During the fieldwork, with the help of interns
and WCS field staff, we demarcated an area of 72
hectares in the site to be harvested using reduced-
impact logging techniques. Within that area, we
established 10 one-hectare plots to collect data on
above-ground biomass before and after selective
logging. We also conducted the tree inventory; the
first plot was logged using directional felling and
other RIL techniques damaging about 14% of the
inventoried trees.
Preliminary findings show that the vegetation
on Mont Cristal is diverse with high density of
tree species but logging is a major threat to these
ecosystems. In view of the international focus on


efforts to reduce emission from
deforestation and forest degradation
(REDD), it is important to
develop strategies to improve forest
management in Central Africa.
The pilot study provided essential
information to focus my dissertation
research. However, more needs to
be done in the field, and I hope to
capitalize on the strong partnerships
with WCS, TFF, and ENEF to
compare financial costs and benefits of
activities associated with conventional
and reduced-impact logging and to
explore the extent to which reduced-


impact logging approaches sustain
timber yields of commercial species.

Vincent Medibe is a doctoral student in the
School of Natural Resources and Environment
and the Department of Biology This research
was made possible by a summer pre-dissertation
grant from the Center forAfrican Studies.
Further support was provided by the Wildlife
Conservation Society -Gabon Program, Tropical
Forest Foundation-Congo Basin Program, and
from Dr Francis E "Jack"Putz.


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Rock Residences in Anomabo, Ghana:
Architectural Statements of Power and Identity

COURTNAY MICOTS


I spent six months in coastal Ghana this
summer and fall learning the local Fante
language and conducting fieldwork to
complete my dissertation. By thoroughly
examining the stone and brick residences
of the historically significant coastal
town of Anomabo, I was able to delve
into larger questions dealing with artistic
homophony.These structures visually
demarcate the struggle for identity
and power on the coast during the
nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Previously, these residences have not been
documented, as scholarly focus has been
on coastal forts and castles.
I interviewed the families of these residences as
well as leaders and historians ofAnomabo. Archival
research was conducted in Accra and Cape Coast. I
discussed my research with scholars at the University
of Ghana in Legon, the Institute of Science and
Technology in Kumasi (KNUST), and the University
of Cape Coast. I also utilized the National Archives in
Accra and Cape Coast.
Some of the earliest surviving structures in
Anomabo are European buildings. However, even
though several Fante masons were trained in stone
nogging at this time, the Fante did not incorporate
these European technologies and forms until after


the devastating Asante war of 1807. Its
seeming permanence appealed to the
Anomabos, just as today cement blocks
are the building material of choice. In
contrast, earthen architecture, once
the Fante technology of choice for
residences, is more vulnerable to war,
rain and termites. The coastal stone was
used as a rubble masonry, also termed
nog construction a system using a
wood framework with masonry infill.
These buildings may be faced with
stone or brick. During this period of
rebuilding, masons doing the work
were trained by Christian missions
who established vocational training in
Ghana by the mid-19th century. The
missions promoted the sobrado design
house that exists all over the European
colonized world.
About sixteen stone nog buildings
survive in Anomabo, most built by
wealthy Fante merchants. While
these houses vary in their plans and
elaboration of design elements, my
study will examine how the Fante
selected certain aspects to construct


an elite coastal identity that offered an
image of power during an increasingly
powerless century. Yet, several Fante
aspects of plan and design were
retained, and most importantly, new
forms were created. These identity
markers were largely possible on
the coast because of its history as a
commercial site. Individuals could
achieve wealth and power through
their own industry, rather than having
inherited it. They wanted and were
expected to express their status in a
public way.
These homes are power symbols,
demonstrating visually that the owner
has the ability to construct a stone
house of such size and prominence
and of a style reflecting his worldly
knowledge, connections and travel.
Such architecture makes a powerful
statement about Fante wealth, intellect,
and mobility in the global world.

Courtnay Micots is a doctoral student in African
Art History at the University of Florida's School of
Art & Art History. She received a summer FLAS in
2009 to study Fante.


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Student Unionism and Cultism in Nigeria

JESSICA MORE


In the summer of 2009, I spent 8 weeks
at Obafemi Awolowo University in lee-
Ife Nigeria as part of a Fulbright-Hays
Group Project Abroad program. Monday
through Friday, the other nine participants
and I had three morning Yoruba classes,
focusing on grammar, culture, and
conversation. In afternoons, we engaged
with guest lecturers, observed cultural
performances, and worked on our
research. We took mid-week trips into Ile-
Ife to visit the Oni's Palace, the Ife Museum,
the day market, the nearby night market
in Modakeke, a local shrine, and to see
a primary school celebrate its cultural
heritage day. On Saturdays, we went on
longer excursions to other Yoruba cities,
including Ibadan, Osogbo, Abeokuta,
Imesi-lle, Ondo, Akure, and Idanre. Our
Sunday were free to spend with our host
families, study, and rest.
My research is on the history of university student
unions in Nigeria, but for the program I wrote a paper
(in Yoruba!) on campus cults. I was able to meet the
Vice-Chancellor and his predecessor, the Dean of
Student Affairs, and current and former student union
members. I witnessed the effects of union activities, in
this case the academic and senior staff unions, as they
went on strike two days into our stay. The federal and
state universities were closed indefinitely. In addition,
the week before our arrival, the students' union at
OAU led a peaceful demonstration on campus and
held a two-day lecture boycott, ostensibly over lack
ofwater. I was able to gain insight into how and why
students organize through discussing this event with
both the Dean of Student Affairs and members of
the Students' Union. The students' union remained
active even when the university closed. For example,
they led a group of students to Lagos on July 10th to
commemorate the deaths of six OAU students who
were slain by cult members on July 10th, 1999.
The trip had several highlights beyond research.


One of my favorite days was a trip ending the Yoruba wars was signed in
to the famous Mapo Hall in Ibadan. Imesi-Ile; climbing the five hundred
We went to see Toyin Falola give the steps to the top ofIdanre hill and
Adegoke Adelabu Memorial Lecture. seeing its old palace (while looking
Before the lecture, I was excited to greet at the sprawl of the new city below);
Dr. Akinwumi Isola, who I recognized visiting the Osun grove, seeing artist
from his role in my favorite Nigerian Nike's gallery, and chasing an Egungu
movie Campus Queen (he also wrote through Osogbo; and making new
the script). We also got a taste of Ibadan friends in Ife-all while improving my
politics, as there were cheers and jeers Yoruba.
from the audience every time the I had a great experience in Nigeri


n



a


governor and his deputy's names were and can't wait to go back!
mentioned. I later returned to Ibadan
to interview Dr. Isola and tour the Jessica Morey is a doctoral student in African
History. Her trip to Nigeria was made possible by
University of Ibadan. Other highlights funding from the U.S. Department of Education
include visits to where the peace treaty Fulbright-Hays Summer intensive Yoruba Group
Projects Abroad (GPA) program.


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Community-Based Ecotourism Development
in Kgalagadi District, Western Botswana


NAOMI MOSWETE

Last fall (October 2008 to January 2009)
I traveled to Botswana to conduct
my doctoral research. I completed
four months of fieldwork in Kgalagadi
district where I worked with nine local
communities. My dissertation research
was supplemented by a pre-dissertation
trip to the region in 2006, during which
I introduced myself to local authorities,
familiarized with the study site, and also
conducted key informant surveys in six
villages.
In 2008 -2009 I returned to the study area,
and conducted the larger part of my dissertation
research. The study sites, Kgalagadi District and the
Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park were chosen due to
the fact that community-based ecotourism is lowly
developed, dependence on livestock farming and
rangeland resources has led to severe land degradation
and conflicts over natural resource use. Furthermore,
increased incidence of poverty has been observed.
Even though some of the Botswana's tourism policy
objectives are to promote socio-economic well being
of communities living adjacent to protected areas, and
increase the number of citizens meaningfully involved
in, and benefiting from their tourism industry, these
areas are still lacking in community-based tourism
development. It is important to emphasize that
community-based ecotourism (CBE) is still relatively


new and numerous projects are in
the initial stages of development in
Botswana. However, the government
has identified CBE projects as possible
avenues for diversification, and they
have been encouraged around the
country. Thus, this study investigated
stakeholder's perspectives about
the potential for community-based
ecotourism development, and support
for Kgalagadi Trans-frontier Park as a
Trans-boundary protected area.
The study was conducted in
nine village/settlements within the
Kgalagadi region, four of which were
located in the Wildlife Management
Area (WMAs) and Controlled
Hunting zone (areas that are strictly
protected for wildlife conservation
purposes). Two data collection methods
were employed. Participants from
700 households were interviewed.
Although I am still working on my
final data analysis, some interesting
findings have emerged. For example,
despite unfamiliarity with tourism as a


business, the majority of the residents
considered ecotourism as positive and
a worthwhile development for the
Kgalagadi region. Also, participants
indicated mistrust as a major barrier
in developing community projects
(including trans-boundary resources),
and they also emphasized the need for
strengthening local management skills
and entrepreneurship in tourism as
the best strategy for community-based
ecotourism development.

Naomi Moswete is a doctoral student in the
Department of Tourism, Recreation and
Sport Management (TRSM) and is a Kellogg
Foundation Fellow (2005-2009). Herpre and final
dissertation research (2006 & 2008) was made
possible by a WKKF Study grant via Leadership
Initiatives for Southern Africa (LISA) in partnership
with Academy for Educational Development
(AED). She was also awarded a doctoral student
research travel grant by the UF TRSM Department
in 2008.


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Democratizing wildlife management or not?
A Comparative Case Study of Three Village Trusts in Botswana


PATRICIA MUPETA

As a recourse to failed centralized wildlife
management regimes in Southern Africa,
the community based natural resource
management (CBNRM) approach has
been implemented for over two decades.
Founded on the principles of devolution
and democracy, this approach transfers
power and resources to grassroot
communities to manage and benefit
from wildlife resources. Following two
decades of implementation, this initiative
is growing in southern Africa and is
increasingly gaining recognition as the
direction that bridges rural livelihood
benefits to natural resource management.
As well as gaining recognition, the CBNRM
programs have received huge criticisms in regard to
weak institutional development both at the state and
micro community level. Poor local governance has
translated into elite capture of benefits by a few in
the rural communities. As a consequence, the process
of devolution from the state to local communities
has suffered with incomplete devolution taking
place in some areas. At the core of sustaining the
CBNRM program is an in-depth understanding of
its institutional development. The decentralization of
wildlife management that has been implemented in
CBNRM thus provides an excellent opportunity to
examine this understudied area. My research examines
this by focusing on two overall objectives: 1) the
vertical relationship between the state and CBNRM
communities and the extent of CBNRM devolution
in Botswana and Zambia; and 2) examining whether
CBNRM communities are democratizing or not;
and whether this has led to the provision of CBNRM
economic benefits and the protection of the natural
resources.
As a first stage in this study, in summer 2009,
I undertook research in Botswana in three village
communities (Khwai, Mababe and Sankuyo) that
have been implementing CBNRM for over a decade.
Situated on the northwestern side of the Okavango
Delta in northern Botswana, the three villages receive
revenue from both photographic and hunting tourism.
Revenue received is targeted at providing both
individual and communal benefits to the members


of the villages, as well as investment
into resource protection. The working
hypothesis for this link therefore,
was that if power has been devolved
from the state to local community
institutions, this should translate into
democratic entities that would provide
both CBNRM economic benefits and
in turn, contribute to the protection of
the wildlife resource.
Key informant interviews were
conducted with members of the
communities, Wildlife Department
officers, safari operators, Botswana
Tourism Board officers and staff
from nongovernmental organizations
that had worked with these village
communities. Participant observations
were also conducted in both Sankuyo
and Mababe village elections, to
examine how participatory these
democratic institutions were. Finally,
a total of 178 questionnaires were
distributed using a random sample of
members of the community who were


18 years and above. The surveys aimed
to measure two metrics of democracy
in each village, i.e. participation and
competition.
Preliminary results show that
out of the three villages, Sankuyo
performed better on both measures of
democracy, and also has done relatively
well in providing both individual and
communal CBNRM benefits. Mababe
shows poor results on democracy, and
provision of CBNRM benefits. All
three villages show poor results, in
terms of providing revenue for resource
protection.

Patricia Chilufya Mupeta is a doctoral student
in the School of Natural Resources and
Environment. She received dissertation fieldwork
funding as an African Power and Politics Program
Fellow APP is funded bya grant from the
United Kingdom's Department for International
Development (DFID) and Irish Aid to a research
consortium of which CAS is an institutional
member


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Wildlife Based Land Use and Cattle Production on Private Land in South Africa

JESSICA MUSENGEZI


Wildlife based land use has been
spreading rapidly on private land of south
Africa as individuals harness the benefits of
wildlife in semi-arid areas where traditional
agricultural activities of livestock rearing
are challenged by the harsh agro-climatic
conditions. South Africa is one of only
three countries on the African continent
that allow wildlife use on private land.
Private game ranches in South Africa cover
14% of the country's total land area, far in
excess of the 6.3% represented by official
national and provincial conservation areas.
With the majority of natural areas lying
outside of state protected areas, private
ranches present an increasingly important
avenue for conserving biodiversity and
natural habitat outside these protected
areas as well as contributing to the growth
of the national economy.
Despite the widespread adoption of wildlife
utilization there is little scientific knowledge on the
economics aspects of this industry. The purpose
of this study is to better understand the financial
and economic profitability of commercial wildlife
utilization (consumptive and non-consumptive) and
commercial livestock production on private land in
the semi arid rangelands of South Africa.
The study focuses on land use in the Limpopo
province. Data collection for the study was conducted
in eastern Limpopo province, an area with a large
concentration of game farms. Data collection
included in-depth interviews with game ranch


1I1III Iiiii~Iiifl1^Wiirj


owners to determine the costs and
revenues of wildlife enterprises. The
game ranches displayed diversity
in enterprises including traditional
safari viewing tourism, trophy
hunting, venison hunting and wildlife
breeding. In addition, interviews with
provincial conservation authorities
and agricultural officers provided
information on the policy and
regulatory environment and enterprise
budgets for cattle production.
Data collected will be analyzed
using the Policy Analysis Matrix
framework, which allows estimation
of both private profitability and
economic comparative advantage of
wildlife enterprises relative to cattle.
Quantifying the benefits of wildlife
resources and their impact on local


economy will assist in understanding
of the role of wildlife utilization in the
development process in semi arid areas.

Jessica Musengezi is a doctoral student in the
Department of Food and Resource Economics.
Her research was funded by grants from the
Wildlife Conservation Society Animal and
Human Health for the Environment and
Development (WCS-AHEAD) and the Great
Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area Seed
Grant Programme.


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Institutions and Institutional Change in CBNRM:
Understanding Interactions among Local, Meso and Macro Political Structures

SHYLOCK MUYENGWA


My research focuses on the interactions
among three governance tiers in
community-based natural resource
management (CBNRM). After two decades
of implementation, CBNRM in southern
Africa has variable outcomes ranging
from'weak'to'elite capture'of community
benefits. My objectives for my summer
research were: (1) to understand the
factors influencing variability between
the many communities involved, (2)
explore how the distribution of authority
across multiple institutions at the
micro (local people), meso (e.g. district
councils) and macro levels (e.g. central
government, NGOs) affects CBNRM, and
(3) explore how the melding of modern
democratic institutions and the traditional
arrangements of chiefs and headmen
affects performance of CBNRM programs.
My research work builds on field research started
2007 with a University of Florida research team in
Namibia. Over summer of 2009, I worked in Namibia
and Zimbabwe. I spent the first half of summer in
Namibia collecting and analyzing data, which we
fed back to the community members and wildlife
committee members in five conservancies in the
Caprivi region, Balyerwa, Kwandu, Mashi, Sobbe, and
Wuparo. The experience helped me to focus my work
in Zimbabwe.
In Zimbabwe, I worked with the Communal
Areas Management Program for Indigenous Resources
(CAMPFIRE) Association. I reviewed project
documents, workshop proceedings, consultancy
reports, and conducted informal discussions with
employees. Afterward, I visited Masoka community
(northeastern Zimbabwe) and conducted interviews,
participated in meetings, community activities, and
reviewed records of meetings and documents at the
local office for the past 12 years.
My preliminary findings in Zimbabwe show
that the macro-political and economic crisis was a


major shock on CBNRM activities
at community and district level. But
more importantly, local level shocks
exert great impacts on the CAMPFIRE
activities. In Masoka community,
there has been a gradual decline in
people's adherence to CAMPFIRE
principles. This corresponds with the
decline in external support (finance
and education) and death of Headman
Kanyurira (local leadership). Over
the years, community members have
developed a sense of mistrust over new
leadership due to a lack of financial
transparency and centralized decision-
making. Macro and meso political
factors also exert a moderating effect
on the local level, and the lack of
monitoring and education increasing
the potential for 'local elite capture.
Following the outcome of


my research, I intend to undertake
a comparative study across three
countries, Namibia, Zambia, and
Zimbabwe on the role of traditional
authorities in conservation activities.

Shylock Muyengwa is a doctoral student in the
School of Natural Resources and Environment,
and Managing EditorforAfrica Studies Quarterly
Journal This research was made possible by
Africa-Powerand Politics (APP) program. APP is
funded by a grant from the United Kingdoms
Department for International Development
(DFID) and Irish Aid, to a research consortium of
which CAS is an institutional member. Further
support was provided by a field research grant
from the Tropical Conservation and Development
(TCD) program in Latin American Studies and Dr.
Brian Child.


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Exploring Liberia's Musical History

TIMOTHY NEVIN


During the summer of 2008 my research
took me back to Liberia for a second time. I
had first visited Liberia during the summer
of 2005, a trip that was in part funded by a
travel grant from UF Student Government.
It was extremely difficult finding funding
for research in Liberia since the country
was on the State Department's travel
warning list, and there was no Fulbright
Fellowship program operational at the
time. Fortunately, I had taken a teaching
position at Old Dominion University in
Norfolk, Virginia, and was able to finance
my trips with my salary.
My dissertation topic focuses on writing a history
of Liberian popular music from roughly 1945 to 1990.
I am focusing on the decades of the 1970s and 1980s,
so most of my time in the country was spent searching
for and interviewing musicians and cultural troupe
members that were active during that time period. I
also spent time at the National Archives (such as they
are) and interviewing people at various radio stations,
and at the Ministry of Information, Culture and
Tourism. I visited a conference hosted by the Liberian
musicians union, and was interviewed myself on the
UNMIL radio station (the UN Peacekeeping Force in
Liberia), and for a local television station.
One of the biggest challenges was that most
physical evidence was destroyed during the Liberian
civil war, which lasted from 1989-1997, with a second
phase of fighting from 2000-2003. The massive


countrywide destruction meant
that I had to rely on oral histories
(over 120 interviews), and copies of
Liberian newspapers that were saved
on microfilm at the US Library of
Congress. For copies of the actual
recordings I had to rely on finding items
on cassette in the Waterside market, or
on vinyl and CD on E-bay. Essentially
I am attempting to document the
alternative multicultural vision that
these Liberian musicians, singers and
cultural performers were putting forth
before being overwhelmed in the
conflagration of the civil war in which
many of
them either
were forced
to flee into
exile or were
killed in the
fighting that
M ., *claimed an


estimated 250,000 lives.
Additionally, this is the first time
anyone has attempted to write a history
of Liberian popular music, since the
older generation ofethnomusicologists
viewed any non-traditional music as
somehow "impure." It is an exciting
and challenging project that has also
taken me to Liberian communities
all across the US, and a subsequent
article that has come from the project
on the dance dramas of the Liberian
National Cultural Troupe has been
used to inform a new generation of
young people this past summer at a
"Liberian culture camp" in Philadelphia
sponsored by the Philadelphia Folklore
Project.


Timothy Nevin is a doctoral student in the
Department of History. He was a Center for
African Studies FLAS Fellow from 2003 2005 for
the study of Wolof


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A Comparative Study of Foreign Versus
Domestic Owned Firms in the Namibian Tourism Sector

JOSHUA NIEDERRITER

My project's goals are to investigate whether or not foreign-owned lodges (hotels) face a stricter regulatory
and enforcement framework then domestic firms. I also want to find out whether differing regulatory
environments affect the level of income generated by conservancies. My final goal is to assess both the
feasibility and competitiveness of US firms operating lodges in Namibia.


To meet these goals I needed to collect
data on which lodges are Namibian, which
ones are located in conservancies and
the amount of income they generate or
contribute to a conservancy. I also needed
to interview lodge owners and managers to
find out if there is a difference in the way
they are treated by the government and the
local Namibians. Furthermore, I needed to
find out what steps a US. firm would need
to take to establish an operation in Namibia.
Most of my stay involved me doing
research at the Multidisciplinary Research
Center at the University of Namibia. There
I met with other researchers who gave
me advice on my project and whom to



r-^*-jeE sSSl^U ^B S


contact within the Namibian Government
concerning my project. The researchers
at the university also allowed me access
to a copious amount of conservancy data,
which includes social-economic data on
people living in conservancies and income
contributed by lodges.
I spent several days talking to the
Namibian Tourism Board to get data on
lodges. The Namibian Tourism Board
regulates all aspects of the tourism industry
in Namibia. They eventually gave me a list
of all foreign and domestically owned lodges
in Namibia as well as all the regulations
these firms face. From this list I drew my
sample of which lodges to interview.
su a. r st IpI"...


At the University of Namibia, I met
a collaborator, Thea Simpson, who is
continuing my research in Namibia. Thea
was selected by Dr. Silva to be a graduate
researcher for her work on community-
based natural resource management. She is
currently interviewing owners and managers
of both foreign and domestically owned
lodges in conservancies as well as officials in
government ministries.

Joshua Niederriter is a student in Economics in the
College of LiberalArts and Sciences. His research was
made possible through a grant from UFs Center for
International Business & Education Research (CIBER).


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CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES RESEARCH REPORT 2009















Informal Institutions: Do They Matter?

WINIFRED PANKANI


It is typically argued that despite
increasing urbanization, state
bureaucracies in Africa still sit atop mostly
rural populace determined to elude the
best efforts of the state to fully incorporate
it into its fold.This failure of the state to
fully penetrate society has resulted in
the proliferation of and the salience of
informal rules even though this does not
mean there is a complete absence of rules
and regulation.
In contrast to the general depiction of the African
state and its bureaucracies as highly corrupt, inefficient
operations unable to deliver basic services to their
citizens, countries like Botswana and Mauritius have
gained a reputation for their administrative integrity
and capability, reputations that preceded their
impressive rapid economic growth. An argument
could be made that Botswana and Mauritius have been
democratic and stable polities since independence
and could thus be atypical cases for Africa. However,
countries like Ghana, and Malawi and until recently
Uganda, the Ivory Coast and Kenya were considered
fairly well administered state even if they constitute a
second tier in comparison to Botswana and Mauritius.
Herein lies the interesting puzzle: why then do some
African states acquire relatively effective states ? Most
African bureaucracies operate with all but a modicum
of rationality and even though efficiency as a goal
seldom ranks high for bureaucrats, why do these
bureaucracies function relatively well?
My research answers this question in three stages.
I hypothesize that state capacity is largely shaped by
the interaction between formal and informal rules,
and the choices of state elites at critical junctures.
To test these hypotheses I spent the summer of
2009 in Ghana building on my previous research
on bureaucratic performance in select Ghanaian
ministries in an effort to tease out in a systematic
fashion the role, if any, informal institutions played in


state development. To this end I focus
on four key ministries Agriculture,
Education, Health and Transportation -
theorized in the state building literature
as important for the development
of state capacity, which is largely
dependent on the ability of the state to
penetrate and rule over its territory. I
spent the summer combing the libraries
of the Ghana Institute of Management
and Public Administration (GIMPA),
the Ministry of Finance and the Head
of Civil Service as well as the Resource
Center at the Center for Democratic
Development (Ghana).
The aim of this summer research
trip was to collect more qualitative and
historical data to complement survey
data collected in 2008. I also spent the
summer conducting extensive multiple


interviews with upper level bureaucrats
and some politicians deemed by the
bureaucrats in the ministries of interest
as being very effective ministers or
deputy ministers. I am still analyzing
my data, but my initial impressions
are that while informality is quite
pervasive, evaluation and favoritism
of the well-performing bureaucrat was
quite common.

Winifred Pankani is a doctoral candidate in the
Department of Political Science. She received
dissertation fieldwork funding as an African
Power and Politics Program Fellow APPP is
funded by a grant from the United Kingdom's
Department for International Development
(DFID) and Irish Aid to a research consortium of
whirh (AS i an institirtinnal member


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Livelihood Vulnerability and Village Economic
Structure in Systems of Covariant Shocks

GREGORY PARENT


The dry biomes of southern Africa are
home to large numbers of charismatic
megafauna. Animal biomass in these
systems is limited by the metabolite
production of the plants, and these plants
are, in turn, limited by water.The natural
system, typified by the diverse mix of
browsers and grazers at varying levels of
food selectivity, has been supplanted by
the uniformity of ranching and agricultural
systems. This has severely altered the
dynamic nature of the ecosystem that has
evolved between vegetation and high
herbivore diversity, heavily contributing to
decertification, bush encroachment and
ultimately a reduction in yields of cattle
and crops.
Yet there exist few livelihood alternatives to
ranching and rain fed agriculture. The lack of viable
alternatives to rural households increase livelihood
vulnerability as the local system becomes progressively
dryer and unpredictable in terms of rainfall. It is
important to understand the interrelationship
between covariant shocks and the local economic
structure in order to design policy mechanisms that
would both decrease vulnerability to shocks and
maximize benefit to communities from their land
while preserving its productivity.
Over the summer, I lived and worked in 7 rural
communities along the border of Kruger National
Park in South Africa. In this round of data collection,
I conducted, with help of local research assistants,
430 randomly selected household interviews. To
achieve a more dynamic understanding of household
and village level impacts, I will employ two methods:
the econometric method Vulnerability as Expected
Poverty (VEP) and the development of village level
Social Accounting Matrices.
While entitlements and factor endowments
affect a household's income level and constrains
the coupled consumption-production decisions


of rural households, poverty and
associated behavior of households,
cannot be simply explained within
these parameters. Vulnerability to risk
events itself is a factor in the poverty
equation and influences the household
choice matrix by altering constraints.
Vulnerable households face significant
uncertainty that often results in the
alteration of production/consumption
choices away from maximizing benefit
towards the mitigating of risk. Social
vulnerability can be thought of as
the interplay between the economic
entitlements and the environment,
which include: social aspects, such as
proximity to urban centers and health
facilities, natural resource endowments,
such as access to fertile land, forest
resources, minerals, etc., and climate,
frequency of drought, flood events, and
other weather events.


While communities have been
shown to establish informal insurance
mechanisms to aid in risk mitigation,
these informal mechanisms are often
brittle in the face of widespread
regional or village shocks. Formal
insurance mechanisms have the greatest
security, but few people/communities
in developing countries have access
to formal insurance. As such, to fully
understand the potential benefit of any
policy aimed at poverty alleviation,
such as CBNRM, an understanding of
rural vulnerability with its associated
influence on household decisions is
crucial.

Gregory Parent is an NSFIGERTPh.D. Fellow in
the Department of Geography & 2009 10 CAS
FLAS fellow forXhosa. He was awarded a Wildlife
Conservation Society (WCS) Animal Health for
the Environment and Development (AHEAD)
program seed grant to conduct this research.


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Re-Fashioning Africa: Ghana's 3rd Annual Fashion Weekend

CHRISTOPHER RICHARDS


This summer I traveled to Ghana for three
weeks to begin investigating my research
topic, contemporary African fashion, and
to gain insight into the development of
a fashion industry in Accra. I attended
Ghana's third annual Fashion Weekend,
which featured over 30 contemporary
African fashion designers.The designers
ranged from recent graduates to
internationally known designers like
Alphadi from Niger.Textile companies,
such as Vlisco and Da Viva sponsored
several runway shows with the intent of
showcasing their latest fabrics. Not only
did Ghana Fashion Weekend indicate a
burgeoning fashion industry in Ghana,
but it illustrated interesting continuities
between "classical"African textiles and
contemporary fashion garments.
Several designers, including Ghana's top designer,
Kofi Ansah, relied heavily on bogolan and kente cloth,
remixed into European influenced designs. Nigeria's
Modela borrowed the silhouette ofYoruba ades
(beaded crowns worn traditionally by Yoruba kings)
to produce hats and purses. As these current designers
suggest, "classical" forms of African textiles still play
an important role in African dress, but in new and
transformed styles.
I had the pleasure of interviewing Ghanaian
designer Kofi Ansah, as well as the organizer of Ghana
Fashion Weekend, Sima Ibrahim. Both individuals
provided me with an interesting perspective on
African fashion and its relationship to the European
fashion market. Both expressed their desires of making
African fashion global, while maintaining localized
production and building a fashion industry within
Ghana.
Beyond the influences of classical textiles and
forms of dress on contemporary African fashion,
questions regarding beauty and gender emerged from
my experiences during Ghana Fashion Weekend.
Several women expressed to me during the show their
frustration with the runway models, as they were too
thin and did not accurately represent the "average"
female body. What constitutes beauty in Ghana is
something to explore further, particularly the conflict
between Ghanaian and European standards of beauty.


The four-day fashion event Ghanaian society. This will include
was a whirlwind of vibrant fabrics how classical African forms and textiles
and innovative garments, suggesting are reinterpreted into contemporary
this is an area in need of further clothing, the viability of a fashion
examination. After this initial visit, I industry in Ghana, and a further
plan to return to Ghana in summer exploration of issues pertaining to
2010 to begin working directly with conceptions of ideal beauty and gender.
Ghanaian designers and exploring the
role of fashion within contemporary Christopher Richards is a doctoral student in the
School ofArt &Art History.


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Weapons and Refuse as Media:The Potent Politics of
Recycling in Contemporary Mozambican Urban Arts

AMY SCHWARTZOTT


My research explores the local and global
impact of contemporary Mozambican
artists who use recycled materials in
their art. The transformation of recycled
materials into art by artists reflects a
nexus of environmental, economic and
culturally related issues that I analyze and
are reflective of Mozambique's distinct
history in Africa and how artists utilize
recycled materials to create distinctly
Mozambican art. My research focuses on
determining how and why Mozambican
artists use recycled materials to create
their art and how the use of these
materials relates to broader themes of
recycling, visual culture and post-conflict
resolution theory. I investigate artists who
use natural and urban refuse, as well as
artists involved with the Christian Council
of Mozambique's program Transformacao
de Armas em Enxadas/Transforming Arms
into Plowshares (TAE), who transform
decommissioned weapons from the
Mozambican civil war into assemblage art.
Mozambican artists' conceptual approach in
specifically selecting recycled materials to create art
is reflected in the words of artist Fiel dos Santos,
"We have to start to re-find things, bring them back
to use." My research demonstrates that dos Santos
and his fellow artists are using recycled materials to
both literally and figuratively recycle and deconstruct
Mozambican history to create evocative and powerful
art. The pre-dissertation research I completed this
summer builds on a research trip I completed during
the summer of 2008.
I returned to Maputo in summer 2009, with
funding from a pre-dissertation research grant from
CAS. I expanded my base of artists and strengthened
my ties with religious and cultural organizations
such as the Christian Council of Mozambique, as
I began to observe and investigate the process of
weapons retrieval and destruction instrumental
to the development of art from arms by the TAE
project. I also became more fully connected to the arts
community of Maputo, receiving enthusiastic support


and access to the cultural landscape of
Maputo from organizations such as
the Museu Nacional de Arte and the
Repiblica de Mogambique Ministerio
da Educacao e Cultura/Departamento
de Artes Visuais.
One important development I am
very pleased to report this year is the
building of Peace Monument, a nine-
meter tall monument being constructed
in Maputo. I have been able to observe
the building of the monument by its
creator, Cristovao Canhavato (Kester),
a TAE artist. The monument is
designed to serve as a symbolic place of


remembrance of the Mozambican civil
war, constructed of decommissioned
weapons the imagery of which will
include such symbols as a dove, a globe,
and a map ofMozambique.

Amy Schwartzott is a doctoral student in the
School ofArt and Art History. She received
a Center forAfrican Studies summer pre
dissertation grant for this trip and is also a UF
Graduate Alumni grant awardee


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Interdisciplinary Studies for Crocodile Conservation Across Africa

MATTHEW H. SHIRLEY


Since 2005 I have been developing an
interdisciplinary program for crocodile
conservation in Africa including re-
evaluation of the systematics of these
species, surveys and capacity building
to assess conservation needs, and
implementing sustainable utilization
where appropriate. The past year was
marked by exciting advancements with
fieldwork in Senegal, Gambia, Egypt, and
Uganda. In the fall of 2008, while studying
French in Senegal, I had the opportunity
to work with the wildlife conservation
agencies of Senegal and Gambia to
determine if dwarf (Osteolaemus
tetraspis) and slender-snouted (Mecistops
cataphractus) crocodiles were locally
extinct. Neither species had been seen
for 20 40 years, but I was inspired by
our quick rediscovery of dwarf crocodiles
in both countries. Even better news is
that we rediscovered slender-snouted
crocodiles in River Gambia National
Park, though this western population
is precarious with as few as 12 20
individuals.
Starting in June 2008, I initiated a project with
the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency to
evaluate the burgeoning Nile crocodile population in
Lake Nasser as a harvestable wildlife resource. Over
the course of the year we established a population
size estimate and built strong relationships with
the Lake Nasser communities. As a culmination to
this exciting first year, my colleagues and I passed
a proposal to initiate a government- sponsored
crocodile management unit, which is now continuing
management related research, and has drafted a
proposal to the 15th CITES CoP for approval of
utilization and international trade.
In the lab I have been working on finalizing
extensive investigations into the evolutionary
history of African crocodiles. The dwarf crocodile
was recently split into three unique species, and our
analysis of samples collected in Senegambia suggest


that they warrant recognition as an
Evolutionarily Significant Unit within
the West African (as yet unnamed)
species. For the Nile crocodile, my
results provide strong evidence that
there are two species with highly
divergent evolutionary histories. Based
on this we have proposed that the taxon
Crocodylus suchus (Geoffrey 1807)
should be resurrected. This species
was described from mummies of the
historic Crocodilopolis of ancient
Egypt, and our ancient DNA analyses
confirm that these mummies are
actually a different species than existed
in the Nile River, and are aligned with
our C. suchus. This is exciting as it
suggests the Pharaonic Egyptians were
cognizant of two different species and
preferentially bred one in the temples
ofSobek. Samples collected in Uganda
from a population of pygmy crocodiles
in the Kidepo Valley provide additional
support that C. suchus was once more
widely distributed than its modern,
predominantly West African range
suggests. The conservation implications


of this species split are profound
because Nile crocodile populations
throughout East and southern Africa
are large, with harvest as the ideal
management strategy, while C. suchus
automatically qualifies as Threatened or
Endangered.
The coming year promises to
be just as exciting with continued
fieldwork in Egypt and Uganda, and
new programs starting up focused on
the ecology and conservation of the
slender-snouted crocodile in Gabon
and Republic of Congo.

Matthew H. Shirley is a doctoral student in
Wildlife Ecology & Conservation. He has received
funding for his research from USAID Egypt
JuniorScientist Visits Grant, the Conservation
Leadership Programme, Conservation
Leadership Programme Mentoring Award,
Rotary International Cultural Ambassadorial
Scholarship, The Minnesota Zoo Ulysses S. Grant
Conservation Award, and Idea Wild Foundation
Equipment Grant.


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Environmental Information & Communication
Among Stakeholders: Okavango Delta, Botswana


OLEKAE THAKADU

Information diffusion interventions have
often relied on the use of agents to
diffuse information to their constituents.
The approach has the potential of
facilitating broad-based impacts in
terms of information dissemination
and social change. However, effective
communication of information requires
an understanding of the knowledge-
sharing behaviors of the agents as well as
the effectiveness of the communication
methods used to impart knowledge
to effect the desired change. Research
related to knowledge-sharing behaviors is
scarce in environmental/natural resources
literature, though it abounds in other areas
such business, professional, IT, and public
organizations.
The current research, aimed at examining
predictors of environmental knowledge-sharing
behaviors of community-based natural resources
management (CBNRM) board members
and assessing the relative effectiveness of two
communication methods (visualized and conventional
verbal communication), is an attempt to address this
gap.
The study will enable practitioners in
environmental communication and education to;
(1) understand the knowledge sharing behaviors
of community leaders or agents often used to
diffuse environmental information, (2) design
interventions based on research that target significant
factors influencing Trustees or agents' decisions to
share acquired knowledge, and (3) select effective
communication methods that will promote maximal
information acquisition by the Trustees/agents.
Understanding factors that will promote knowledge
sharing and effective knowledge acquisition methods
will help practitioners in planning information
diffusion campaigns and interventions aimed at
promoting responsible environmental behaviors.
I did fieldwork from May through July 2009 in
the Ngamiland District in Botswana. Fifteen groups
of CBNRM Board of Trustees took part in the study


for a total sample of 150 subjects. Three
of the participating Boards were used
to pilot both the instrument and the
two interventions. Workshops were
held with each participating Board,
addressing two specific environmental
concerns and issues within the
Okavango delta: fire management and
waste management within community-
managed concession areas, often
referred to as community controlled
hunting areas (CHAs). After each
presentation, participants completed a
retrospective questionnaire addressing
relevant aspects of the subject
matter. The questionnaires assessed
participants' perceived knowledge of
the environmental issues before and
after the intervention, their attitudes,
beliefs and intention, as well as locus of
control in respect to knowledge sharing
or communication.
Fieldwork also gave me the
opportunity to work again with
CBNRM leaders and helped me to
better understand the knowledge
and information needs required for
effective management of community


areas, as well as promoting responsible
environmental behaviors among
community constituents. I was
amazed by the interest shown for
the issues that were presented (fire
and waste management) as they
related to community-managed
areas. Board members indicated
that the information provided them
with requisite knowledge, skills and
enlightenment to better manage and
ensure compliance of community areas
management plans. I was fulfilled as
a scholar and practitioner in that I
benefitted from the participation of the
subjects and imparted something that
was of immediate use in their day-to-
day lives.

Oiekae Thakadu is a doctoral student in the
Department ofAgricultural Education and
Communication and an associate in the UF NSF
IGERTprogram on Adaptive Management: Wise
Use of Waters, Wetlands, and Watersheds (AM-
W3). The summer2009 fieldwork was carried out
with funding from the University of Botswana.


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Structural Changes in the Malian Cotton Sector:
Implications for Export Performance


VERONIQUETHERIAULT

After a year of research, I finally had the
opportunity to get directly exposed to
the Malian cotton industry last summer.
Indeed, I have been able to explore the
whole cotton sector, from the field to the
capital, during my preliminary fieldwork.
Through semi-structured interviews
conducted with principal stakeholders
(e.g. cotton producers, ginning companies,
banks, state representatives and exporters),
I went further into understanding the
complex roles played by the cotton
industry in Mali's social and economic
development, and the necessity of taking
into account local realities on reform's
success.
Cotton, the primary cash crop in Mali,
significantly contributes to the national economy
by providing income and employment to over three
million smallholder farmers. In addition to its direct
impact on income and employment, the cotton
sector is affiliated with cereal production as well as
Malian manufacturing and transport industries. Two
recent developments are threatening to offset or slow
economic growth derived from cotton exports.
The first is downward pressure on cotton prices
brought about, in part by increased yields made
possible by genetically modified seed. The second
is related to institutional reform. Beginning in the
1990's, Mali and other sub-Saharan countries were
strongly recommended by the World Bank and the
International Monetary Fund to undertake reform
measures designed to privatize segments of their
cotton sector in order to render them more efficient
and more competitive. While the process is ongoing,
Malian cotton production has declined drastically
since the reform measures began and have resulted in
negative repercussions affecting the entire economy.
Using primary and secondary data collected
during my fieldtrip, I aim to quantitatively assess the
impacts of structural and economic reform on cotton
production over the last decade. Specifically, the
objective is to analyze the roots of the recent drop in
production as a function of both agro-environmental


factors and policy decisions. Choice
of explanatory variables in the
econometric model is based on
discussion with principal stakeholders.
For instance, low farm prices for
cottonseed, high input costs, delay
in payment and insufficient rainfall
were all continually mentioned as
possible causes of production decrease.
Determination of the principal factors
responsible for the production decline,
as well as their relative importance,
could serve as a guide to policymakers
in seeking to boost both the cotton
industry and larger economy. As an
example, if the recent drop is mainly
caused by low farm prices, then the
new price mechanism put in place with
the institutional reforms should be
rethought in a way that will motivate
profitable farmers to produce rather
than encouraging them to withdraw
from farming cotton. It suggests that
the actual price system is not effective


since it does not send the right
incentive to produce cotton.
I would like to thank everyone
who made this preliminary fieldwork
possible and particularly, all the Malians
who nicely welcomed me and shared
valuable information. This work would
also not have been carried out without
Dr Renata Serra's contributions and
mentoring.

Veronique Theriault is a doctoral student in the
Department of Food and Resource Economics.
Her2009 summer research was made possible
by a WW McPherson Graduate Student
International Travel Scholarship from the Food
and Resource Economics Department and by
a pre-dissertation research stipend from the
African Power and Politics (APP) Program from
the Center forAfrican Studies. APP is funded by
a grant from the United Kingdom's Department
for International Development (DFID) and Irish
Aid to a research consortium of which CAS is an
institutional member.


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Primate Conservation and Environmental Education:
Re-filling the Empty Forests

CARRIE VATH


"Pana Ebo?" means,"where are the
monkeys?"in the local language of Iko.
During the summer of 2009, spent six
weeks investigating this question in the
Iko Esai Community Forest in the Cross
River State in Nigeria. This area is known
as the "people's paradise" because it is
home to the remaining 10% of tropical
forests found in Nigeria and the people
are known for their caring disposition.
I worked alongside the Centre for
Education, Research, Conservation of
Primates and Nature (CERCOPAN), a non-
governmental organization (NGO) that
has worked in Cross River State for the last
fifteen years investigating empty forest
syndrome and piloting an environmental
education program.
A forest is deemed empty when the fauna
has been depleted by hunting to the point where
it's ecological structure and the actual or potential
economic role of the forest has been altered. To assess
the forest health I conducted line-transect surveys
(focusing on diurnal primates), habitat mapping,
and helped with the collection ofphenology data.
In order to gauge the community's use of the forest,
I collaborated with CERCOPAN researchers to
determine the types of non-forest timber products
removed each day from the forest and the number
of individual hunters entering the forest. I created
an overnight tropical forest ecosystem and primate
conservation education module that brought twelve
students from the local secondary school to experience
the sights and sounds of the rainforest first hand using
the forest as our classroom.
One of the primary objectives of my visit was
to learn about the communities' views on primate
conservation and forest preservation. I conducted
informal interviews with the local chiefs, ex-hunters,
and women, attended chief council and hunter's group
meetings, and spent time interacting with school
children to determine their skill level. My initial


findings show that this forest could be
suffering from empty forest syndrome
due to unsustainable hunting practices
but the community seems committed
to learning more about sustainable
development. My dissertation work
will focus on the behavioral ecology
of the endangered red-eared monkey
(Cercopithecus -, .. ..',. developing
methods to test for empty forest
syndrome, working with hunters to
implement alternative livelihoods, and
developing environmental education
programs targeted at hunters and
women.


My stay in Nigeria resulted in
lifelong friendships, amazing cultural
experiences, and unforgettable primate
rehabilitation work. I want to dedicate
this report to the memory of Chief
Patrick, a man who was loved by all
who met him and will forever be
missed.

Carrie Vath is a doctoral student in the School of
Natural Resources and Environment Her summer
2009 research was supported by a CAS pre
dissertation research award and by the Katherine
Ordway Endowment of the Florida Museum of
Natural History.


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Moroccan Islam(s): Debating Religious Authority
Through Ritual and Musical Performance


CHRISTOPHER WITULSKI

Since 2005 I have been spending time
in Morocco researching the music of the
Gnawa, a previously enslaved population
from the south of the country. With each
passing trip to North Africa, I am able to
further probe the complexities of the
relationship between these people, their
religion, Sufism, Islam, rituals, and popular
music.The ritual music of the Gnawa,
unlike that of most Sufi groups in the
region, has two parallel goals. It not only
attempts to create a bridge between the
individual and the divine, it also engages
spirits or mluk (owner), asking them to
participate in the ceremony by capturing,
or possessing, adepts. The blessings from
these spirits rest upon the house and
the family of those who are possessed or
maskun (lived within).
Questions remain unanswered, however, as
orthodox groups and everyday Moroccans ask about
these mluk: are they syncretic Muslim/African
spiritual figures, as the Gnawa say, or are theyjinns,
troublesome demons aiming to separate Muslims from
Allah?
When this contentious set of beliefs is conflated
with the already tenuous position of music within
the Islamic world, criticisms and religious struggles
between brotherhoods and other organizations
percolate to the surface. Simultaneously, however,
groups like the Aissawa, a Sufi path originating in 18th
century Meknes, adopt Gnawa songs and even spirits,
placing them within their own ritual practices.
This past summer I was able to return to Fez
and investigate the theological, social, and economic
relationships between these different religious
organizations. By examining the motivations that
drove Aissawa and other Sufi groups to include
Gnawa material in their rituals and theological
worldviews, I worked to unravel small corners of the


densely woven Moroccan cultural
"web." As a nation renowned for
hybridityy," social relations in Morocco
fall upon innumerable parallel and
intersecting axis, with race, belief,
and language, three that implicate the
Gnawa directly, proving to be a few of
the most prominent.
During this trip, I had the
opportunity to work closely with a
diverse range of musical and ritual
leaders including Abderrahim Abd
ar-Rzaq and Gaga, both Gnawa
maalems, Adil and Abdullah Yaqubi,
Aissawa muqaddems from two
different groups, and two members of a
Hamadcha brotherhood, Abderrahim


al-Marrakechi and Fredrick Calmus.
These individuals welcomed me into
their lives and social circles, teaching
me to play and sing their music while
spending countless hours humoring my
questions about rituals, beliefs, society,
and Islam as they appear in Fez and
Morocco.

Christopher Witulski is a doctoral student in
Ethnomusicology. His research was funded by the
University of Florida Alumni Grant Program and a
summerpre-dissertation research grant from the
Center forAfrican Studies.


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Collaborative Project. Re orts





Fulbright-Hays Summer 2009 Intensive Yoruba Group Project Abroad [GPA]


AKINTUNDE AKINYEMI
This year marks the fifth successful
hosting of the Summer Intensive Yoriba
Group Project Abroad [GPA] Program,
which is funded by the US Department
of Education through its Fulbright-Hays
Group Projects Abroad Program.
This eight-week summer intensive language
program is based at Obafemi Awolowo University in
Ile-Ife in Nigeria, and provides an avenue for American
college students to achieve advanced competence
in the study of Yoribi language and culture. The
instruction therefore gave equal attention to
proficiency in the four basic skills of reading, writing,
speaking and understanding. Other components of
the program are one-on-one tutoring, interaction
with local residents, discussions with Yoribi scholars,
interaction with guest lecturers, reading a variety of
literary works in Yoribi, and field trips to cultural and
historical sites.
The program, which took place from June 18
to August 16, 2009, had 11 participants including
5 graduate students and 6 undergraduate students
from seven universities across the United States. The
institutions represented were: University of Florida,
University of Wisconsin-Madison, University of
Texas-Austin, Harvard University, California State
University-Fresno, University of Georgia, and Georgia
Southern University.
Participants were able to develop their Yoruba
language competence through classroom instruction
as well as informal interaction and socialization
outside of class. There were numerous things achieved
in the 2009 program in terms of the participants'
immersion experience, language instruction, and
program administration. The program participants
were able to use the Yoribi language to perform
various personal and professional activities in Ile Ife
and other parts of Yoribi land. Even though some
participants became integrated with their host families
and the host university community quicker than
others, all participants were able to use the Yoribi
language to perform far ranging tasks as well as learn


more about the language, people, and
culture.
Although there were some
challenges as one might find in any
study abroad program, the good news
is that we continue to see the long-term
benefits of the program. For instance,
2 former participants of the program,
Matthew Brown (University of
Wisconsin-Madison) and Regan Buck
Barden (UCLA) have been awarded
Fulbright scholarships for doctoral
dissertation fieldwork in Nigeria next
year. While Matt will be working on the
Nigerian video film industry, Regan's
research interest centers on the early
print industry in Yoribi land and the
interactions between print and oral
practices.


Finally, we continue to refine
the program to achieve the goals of
advanced language competency and
encourage the study ofYoribi language
and culture.

AkintundeAkinyemi is an associate professor in
the Department of Languages, Literatures, and
Cultures and affiliate faculty with the Center for
African Studies. He is the Principal Investigator
and program director for the Fulbright Hays
Group Projects Abroad (GPA) Intensive Yoruba
summerprogram.


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Public Utility Research Center (PURC):
African Infrastructure Research and Outreach


SANFORD BERG
With nations facing difficult financial
choices in funding health, education, and
infrastructure services, leaders have begun
to focus on ways to improve performance
in the energy, water, telecommunications,
and transportation sectors. Many African
nations have established utility regulatory
agencies to separate the political
processes behind policy-making from the
professionals who implement that policy.
Thus, there is a need for training and the
sharing of best practice across national
boundaries.
Since 1997, the Public Utility Research Center/
World Bank International Training Program on
Utility Regulation and Strategy has been delivered
every January and June. Although PURC received
seed money to design the course, the program has
been self-sufficient. The course has been customized
to offer infrastructure professionals around the world
technical skills and lessons about ways to improve
infrastructure sector performance. Of the 2,000
participants from 140 nations, nearly half have come
from African regulatory commissions, government
ministries, or utilities.
"I am now armed with the information that will
enable me to appreciate telecommunications:' said
Ugandan Communications Commissioner Timothy
Lwanga after his participation in the PURC Program.
"I have learned a lot and hope to be a more effective
commissioner. [It was] quite an experience."
The two-week program focuses on infrastructure
to prepare utility professionals with the tools they
need in their profession.
"This course [gave me] an opportunity to
interact with some of the best speakers around the
world:' said Zambian Consumer Officer Stephen
M. Bwalya of the 26th PURC/WB Program. "The
program is very good for the regulators, as it provides
insights to apply to decision-making and tariff-setting."
PURC-affiliated scholars have organized
customized courses in Botswana, Namibia, Nigeria,


South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia
(and more than 20 other countries
around the world). For example,
Ted Kury, PURC director of Energy
Studies, will be delivering courses in
Rwanda and Ghana in fall 2009. In
addition, professor Sanford Berg,
PURC director of Water Studies, has
written a number of papers, including
"State-Owned Enterprises: NWSC's
Turnaround in Uganda," in the African
Development Review with co-author
Silver Mugisha of the National Water
and Sewerage Corporation (NWSC).
The article describes the strengths
and limitations of the Ugandan water
reform efforts.


Berg and Mugisha also have a
paper forthcoming in Water Policy,
"Pro-poor Water Service Strategies
in Developing Countries: Promoting
Justice in Uganda's Urban Project:' that
examines how public standpipes (and
a combination of other options) can
meet both financial constraints and
social objectives. Infrastructure is one
arena where UF researchers are having a
significant impact.

Dr. Sanford Berg is the PURC Director of Water
Studies and a Distinguished Service Professor of
Economics at the University of Florida. Jessica
Chapman, the PURC student assistant, also
contributed to this report


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Transforming CBNRM Education in Southern Africa:
Bridging the Gap Between Classroom and Natural Resource Governance

BRIAN CHILD, GRENVILLE BARNES, SANDRA RUSSO, AND BRIJESH THAPA


In 2009, Brian Child (Geography&
CAS), Grenville Barnes (School of Forest
Resources & Conservation), Sandra Russo
(UF International Center) and Brijesh Thapa
(Department of Tourism, Recreation, &
Sports Management) were awarded a
three-year $600,000 Higher Education for
Development (HED) grant,"Transforming
CBNRM Education in Southern Africa."Our
goal is to facilitate renowned scholars and
practitioners in southern Africa region
to synthesize and record twenty years of
experience in the region's cutting edge
Community Based Natural Resources
Management (CBNRM) programs to
provide quality curricular materials
for universities, vocational colleges,
practitioner training and the private sector.
Since the 1960s southern Africa has led a global
change in conservation policy based on the principles
of sustainable use. Countries like Zimbabwe and
Namibia experimented boldly, first introducing
policies that devolved use and benefit rights from
wildlife to private landholders. The successes of these
new policy approaches are reflected in blossoming
wildlife numbers and a vigorous wildlife economy.
The next challenge, beginning in the 1980s, was to
extend the concepts of incentive-based conservation
to the socially complex communal lands where the
majority of rural Africans live.
This led to well known initiatives like
CAMPFIRE in Zimbabwe and Namibia's national
CBNRM program, whereby local communities
benefit from and therefore conserve wildlife and
other natural resources. Key to these programs was
the development of new economic and political
institutions for governing wild resources, including
strengthened property rights, new markets and rural
democratization. Other innovations combined
participation and science to improve wildlife and
natural resources through adaptive management.
In this current project UF faculty and students
work closely with southern African conservation
practitioners and communities, undertaking inter-
disciplinary environmental, social and economic


research related to state and
community conservation. We have paid
considerable attention to building long-
term relationships, and to orientating
our research towards local needs and
problems. Additionally, we work
with practitioners and communities
to develop the long-term monitoring
systems that are critical for adaptive
management.
This experience enabled us, in
July, to provide training on governance
and economics to a forum comprising
communities, government officials
and the private sector to improve the
management of and benefits from the
extraordinary resources in Botswana's
Okavango Delta. Later that month,
58 scholars and practitioners from
eight countries met in Pretoria, South
Africa, to map out a strategy for
improving curricular materials, teaching
and research related to CBNRM
in southern Africa. With matching
funding from USAID and Norway
through WWF, participation included
twelve universities, seven colleges, major
NGOs and practitioners working in the


region (WWF, AWF, WCS, IUCN,
Resources Africa), representatives of
the tourism and hunting industries,
and USAID which funds this project
and has invested over $100 million in
community conservation in the region
since 1989.
The workshop concluded that it
was essential to integrate research with
training and practice, and that although
a substantial amount of knowledge
has been accumulated by a network
of dedicated scholar practitioners, it
has extended only haphazardly into
education institutions and academia
more generally. Training materials do
not adequately reflect the current "state-
of-knowledge," and too few people are
being trained in new approaches to
issues like biodiversity conservation,
climate change, food security and
payments for environmental services.
The Pretoria workshop was the
first step to strengthen a community-
of-practice of committed scholars and
practitioners around the tasks of: 1)
collecting, collating, and designing
CBNRM curricula and materials;


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and 2) institutionalizing these in local
universities and colleges. To capture
southern Africa's extensive lessons, we will
be holding a series of write-shops in field
locations over the next three years. Our
output will be a series of books, manuals and
teaching materials written collectively by
scholars and practitioners covering subjects
like natural resource governance, economics,
marketing and business development,
social learning and adaptive management,
participatory resource management. These
write shops will include the next generation
of teachers and trainers to encourage their


buy-in to the materials and pedagogy that
links to field practice.
The Project PI is Brian Child who
has considerable experience implementing
CBNRM in southern Africa, including
Zimbabwe's pioneering CAMPIFRE
program. Brijesh Thapa adds tourism
expertise, and Grenville Barnes adds
capability in resource governance and
property rights. Sandra Russo is an
agronomist with considerable expertise
in the region and in training approaches.
The program is also linked to research
projects being implemented in the region


by Geography professors Jane Southworth
(land change science), Eric Keys (rural
sociology, agriculture and innovation),
Michael Binford (bio-geography) and
Abraham Goldman (agriculture and parks)
and more than a dozen graduate students
working on natural resource governance.

Brian Child is associate professor in the Department
of Geography and the Center forAfrican Studies. This
project is managed through the HigherEducation for
Development (HED) office with a three year funding
award of $600,000 from the United States Agency for
International Development (USAID).


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NSF-Human and Social Dynamics Program: Parks As Agents of Social Change

ABE GOLDMAN, MICHAEL BINFORD, BRIAN CHILD, J. TERRENCE MCCABE, AND PAUL LESLIE


This multi-institutional interdisciplinary
project examines the social and
environmental impacts of a sample of
parks in four countries -Tanzania, Uganda,
Botswana, and Namibia and across an
ecological gradient from mid-altitude
forests to semiarid savannas. Demographic
conditions around the parks range from
very densely populated agricultural
landscapes bordering two of the parks
to sparsely populated landscapes with
seasonal movements of people, livestock,
and wild animals. Some of the parks have
attracted many settlers from other areas,
while in other cases, people have left for
opportunities elsewhere.
Our research indicates that each of the
parks-Tarangire in northern Tanzania; Kibale in
western Uganda; Chobe and nearby protected areas
in northern Botswana; and Bwabwata and Mudumu
in northeastern Namibia have been reasonably
successful in protecting habitat and biodiversity
within their boundaries. They have also had a complex
mix of impacts on surrounding landscapes and
ecosystems, including institutional development at
various levels; demographic trends; changes in risks,
welfare, and livelihood activities; changes in attitudes
to parks and conservation; and environmental changes
in the surrounding landscapes and communities.
Some of our findings include the following: all
of the parks have stimulated social and institutional
change in neighboring communities and households.
Public and private ecotourism institutions as
well as other economic enterprises and physical
infrastructure have expanded in all of the areas. In
several cases, increased tourism associated with parks
(or its expectation) has stimulated the growth of
women's craft production groups. Community-based
management institutions that receive a substantial
share of the revenues from tourism and hunting
licenses have been established in Botswana and
Namibia. Comparable institutions are rare or absent
from the Tanzanian and Ugandan parks, although
some revenue sharing occurs. Major negative impacts
of protected area conservation include the crop losses
and other hazards posed by animals in all of the areas,


* -ft


as well as the environmental impacts of
rapidly increasing elephant populations
in the southern African cases.
Population growth, external
income sources, and marketing
opportunities have led to agricultural
expansion and intensification around
the Ugandan and Tanzanian parks,
but in southern Africa crop and
livestock agriculture has not necessarily
expanded and has often stagnated or
contracted. Income and employment
related to the parks have minor per-
capita effects in the East African cases,
but have had a large impact in some of
the southern African communities.
Local peoples' assessments of the
parks have been more positive in many,
though not all, of the cases, contrary
to the expectations of many critics
of park impacts. Most respondents
in the southern Africa and Ugandan
cases view parks positively either for
economic or environmental services
reasons. Attitudes to the park in
Tanzania are far more negative,
partly because of frequent changes


in park policy as well as occasionally
heavy-handed enforcement of
park regulations. Some Tanzanian
communities have adopted "preemptive
cultivation" in wildlife migration
corridors to avoid further loss of land to
parks and protected areas. This is one
among several examples of how parks
and conservation policy can stimulate
responses that affect the efficacy of
conservation efforts themselves.

This project is led byAbe Goldman, Michael
Binford, Brian Child University of
Florida), J.
University of Colorado at Boulder) and Paul Leslie
University of North Carolina
Chapel Hill). Additional collaborators include the
University ofDar es Salaam, Tanzania; Makerere
University, Uganda; University of Namibia; and
the Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research
Centre at the University of Botswana. There are
also several UF student participants involved
Kirne. Patricia Mupeta, Luke
Rostant, J.G. Collomb, William Kanapaux, Juanita
Garcia-Saqui, Shylock Muyengwa, Greg Parent,
Deborah Wojcik, Tim Fullman (all ENRE), Andrea
Gaughan and Cerian Gibbes (Geography), and
Katherine Mullan (Food & Resource Economics).


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Fostering International Collaboration with the University of KwaZulu-Natal

SANDRA L. RUSSO, DOUG LEVEY, ANN DONNELLY, AND TODD PALMER


In May to June 2009, the University
of KwaZulu-Natal's (UKZN) School of
Biological and Conservation Sciences
hosted a group of postgraduate students
from the University of Florida and middle
school science teachers from Gainesville.
Funded by the National Science
Foundation, the UF students spent
four weeks conducting joint research
activities under the direction of UF and
UZKN faculty.The goal of the visit was to
establish a foundation for interdisciplinary,
international research collaboration
under the umbrella of ecosystem health
focusing on three areas: aquatic zoology,
terrestrial zoology, and invasive species
management.
The aquatic zoology team was lead by UF
doctoral students Alexis Morris, Elisa Livengood, and
Dana Ehret, who each worked on different projects
related to their research interests. Alexis worked
on a comparative study on the thyroid function
of the elasmobranch species to determine how
environmental contaminants disrupt the function of
shark's thyroids. Dana focused on the aging, growth,
and body changes in fossils and modern lamniform
sharks, while Elisa studied the life support systems
and fish husbandry practices at the u'Shaka Sea
World Aquarium to supplement her research in the
ornamental fish trade industry.
The terrestrial zoology team was focused on
nutritional ecology, habitat utilization, population
genetics, and the effects of environmental
contaminants on Nile crocodile (Crocodiles niloticus)
populations in the St. Lucia Estuary and the Pongola
River system. The students, Josiah Townsend, Jackson
Frechette, Estelle Robichaux and Elan Dalton
helped capture seven adult Nile crocodiles to collect
blood and urine samples, record morphological
measurements, and mark the animal for future
identification and reference. Moreover, the students
also conducted a short study on Vervet monkey's
(Chlorocebus pygerythrus) health to determine
the level of monkeys' interaction with humans by
analyzing parasite loads. Another team of UF doctoral
students, Julian Resasco and Chris Woan, studied the
meta-community of ants to analyze the species and


size variations within bush clumps in
the New Germany Nature Reserve.
The invasive species team focused
on studying the feeding preferences
ofmousebirds and mental models of
invasive species. Kristine Callis and
Rachel Naumann analyzed the ethanol
preferences ofmousebirds to determine
if they select more or less ethanol-laden
fruit (as evidence of ripeness). Dara
Wald and Darina Palacio participated
in an ongoing research project on
the ecological impact of feral cats
which could be later used to develop a
mental model illustrating key concepts
and variables of the South African
experience compared to U.S. experience
with invasive species. They interviewed
scientist experts as well as local
stakeholders to construct the mental
model.
The UF students and Alachua
County middle school science teachers,
May Steward, Eugenia Campbell, Nate
Stewart and Carmella O'Steen, shared
informal science education lessons
and programs at some primary and
secondary schools in KwaZulu-Natal.
They visited the Mandini and Manor


Gardens primary schools and the
Siyahomula and Pholela high schools,
which provided them insights into how
universities in developing countries
transfer knowledge and research
outcomes to the primary and secondary
school level science classrooms.
This international collaboration
is one of several long-term graduate
student research programs between
UF and southern African universities.
Future research programs working
more closely with Ezemvelo KwaZulu
Natal Wildlife and the iSimangaliso
Wetland Authority are being developed
to maintain this collaboration and
broaden international research
experiences for UF students.

Dr. Sandra Russo, Director of Program
Development at the UF international Center, is
the PI on this grant c
is the Co-PI Funding was provided by multiple
NSFgrants. Drs.
Ias Nicola
Kernaghan (International Center) were group
leaders.


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American Political Science Association:
Elections and Democracy Workshop in Ghana

DANIEL SMITH


For three weeks this summer, I
coordinated a workshop on the broad
topic of Elections and Democracy in
Ghana with 2005 UF Political Science
alumnus Kevin Fridy (University of Tampa),
Beatrix Allah-Mensah (University of Ghana)
and Ukoha Ukiwo (University of Port
Harcourt, Nigeria). The workshop, which
was underwritten by a generous grant
from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation
and spearheaded by the American Political
Science Foundation, brought together
two-dozen African political scientists from
across the continent and four American-
based Ph.D. students.The workshop took
place at the Institute for African Studies at
the University of Ghana in Legon and was
intended to increase research linkages
between U.S.-based scholars and their
African colleagues.
The workshop was quite intense. In addition
to our informal discussions during meals and on our
excursions, each workshop participant presented
his or her ongoing research in the plenary sessions.


In the mornings, we broke into small
groups to critically engage a large
body of scholarly readings on political
democratic development, elections,
political parties, and campaigns.
Participants also actively interacted
with a number of guest speakers who
were experts on Ghanaian politics and
elections. During breaks, participants
sought out new collaborative research
efforts with one another.
As workshop co-leaders, we
organized several site visits for the
participants, including a trip to meet
with the Deputy Commissioner
of Ghana's National Electoral
Commission and officials from the
national headquarters of Ghana's two
major political parties. We also took
participants to visit Ghana's most
prestigious think tank, the Ghana
Center for Democratic Development
(CDD-Ghana), and had the
opportunity to question representatives
of the Coalition of Domestic Election
Observers as well as the staff members


of the AfroBarometer survey. During
the last week of the workshop, we
headed to Parliament, meeting and
with the Minority Leader for nearly
two hours. Finally, we took weekend
excursions to Kumasi, the heart of the
Asante Kingdom, and to Elmina, where
we toured a slave castle on the Atlantic
coast. Participants also got to test their
mettle by walking over a canopy bridge
suspended 150 feet in the Kakum
National Park rain forest.
In addition to getting critical
feedback on their research projects
during the workshop, each participant
will have his or her research precis
published in a forthcoming issue of
the journal, PS: Political Science and
Politics.

DanielA. Smith is an associate professor in the
Department of Political Science and affiliate
faculty with the Center forAfrican Studies. The
workshop was made possible by a grant from
theAndrew W /Mellon Foundation through the
American Political Science Foundation.


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Strengthening Teaching, Research, and
Faculty Development in Tourism Management in South Africa


BRIJESH THAPA

South Africa is the dominant tourism
market on the African continent. Tourism is
a very important industry for the economy,
which has largely focused on the core
products such as parks, wildlife, nature
and culture. In the last two decades,
the product mix has been diversified to
incorporate marine and coastal areas,
rural communities and townships, events,
urban centers, meetings, incentives,
conventions and exhibitions.
The market is largely comprised of visitors from
Africa and the Middle East. However, international
markets are increasing and there are indications of
continued growth in the future. Also, the government
expects to increase international arrivals to 10 million
by 2010. Given the projected increases in visitors,
the potential to expand this sector to generate more
income, employment and other benefits is enormous,
considering the current level of tourism development.
However, tourism growth is dependent on a
number of factors, notably, developing a trained and
skilled labor force. Capacity building and institutional
development through training is a key component for
the vitality and sustainability of the tourism industry
in South Africa. In order to address this major
need, the University of Florida (UF) and Tshwane
University of Technology (TUT) in Tshwane, South
Africa have formulated a partnership to strengthen its
teaching, research, service and faculty development
initiatives in tourism management.
In Year 1, the teaching and curriculum needs
will be accommodated at the Bachelor's degree level
with respect to the following objectives: a) review
and update existing curriculum; b) develop new
curriculum in casino management, event management,
airport and aviation management (currently these
degree programs are not offered on the African
continent); and c) develop vocational and executive
training certificate programs in tourism. Also, a more
concerted effort will be highlighted to target and
enroll disadvantaged populations to the Department
of Tourism at TUT.


In Year 2, based on a strategic
visioning meeting with faculty and
industry stakeholders, a Center for
Sustainable Tourism will be established
with active industry engagement
(Advisory Board) and partnership.
The mission of the Center will be
largely to serve tourism destinations
and industries through research,
training and outreach within the
community, province and other regions
in southern Africa. In Year 3, faculty
development will be emphasized with
regard to enhancing capacity as well
as collaborative initiatives in tourism
research with the project team and
select UF faculty. The facilitation of
collaborative initiatives in research
partnerships will be sustained during
and post-completion of the project.
Also, professional development
opportunities will be offered to current
TUT faculty through a short exchange
program with UF


The project team has been
formulated based on their respective
backgrounds, knowledge and expertise
within and outside UF which will
be instrumental in accomplishing
the objectives and strengthening the
partnership between UF and TUT.

This project is led by Dr. Brijesh Thapa, an
associate professor in the Department of
Tourism, Recreation, & Sports Management and
director of UFs Center for Tourism Research and
Development. He is also affiliate faculty with
the center forAfrican Studies. The partnership
is managed through the Higher Education for
Development agency with a three year funding
award of $250,000 from the United States Agency
for International Development


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New Master's Degree in

Sustainable Development Practice.

The John D. and CatherineT. MacArthur Foundation has awarded
the Center for Latin American Studies and the Center for African
Studies at the University of Florida nearly $1 million to create a
master's degree in development practice.

In 2007 a group of 20 leading scholars and practitioners were commissioned to
conduct a year-long study of development educational programs across the globe.
This International Commission on Education for Sustainable Development
Practice found that existing development programs lacked critical linkages between
the natural, social, and health sciences and management to address urgent problems
in the developing world. They concluded that "generalist practitioners" are needed
to bridge the gaps between specialized disciplines and "develop integrated policy
solutions that are scientifically, politically and contextually grounded."

The MacArthur Foundation has devoted $15 million to implement the
recommendations of the Commission by developing a global network of Master's
programs in Sustainable Development Practice (MDP). The first MDP program
was initiated in October 2008 at the Earth Institute at Columbia University.

In June 2009, UF was selected as one of only two universities in the U.S. to receive
this prestigious award to create an MDP program. Nine other universities in India,
Australia, Ireland, China, Senegal, Botswana, and Nigeria were also funded.

The MDP degree at the University of Florida will focus on training development
practitioners who will be able to address development challenges facing poor,
resource rich communities in innovative ways. The program will partner with
the University of Botswana as well as universities in Latin America to combine
coursework with field experiences in agriculture, policy, health, engineering,
management, environmental science, education and nutrition.

The program is aimed at individuals who have an interest or background in
some aspect of development and who want to be a part of a global network
of development specialists who will pioneer innovative responses to critical
development challenges including poverty alleviation, climate change, disease
control, natural resource governance, and sustainable housing.

We expect to admit the first class of students in Fall 2010. For more information
please visit www.africa.ufl.edu/mdp.


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Academic Year & Summer

Foreign Language and Area Studies (FLAS)

Fellowships



The University of Florida's Center for African Studies anticipates awarding
Foreign Language and Area Studies (FLAS) Fellowships for the academic
year. These fellowships are funded by the U.S. Department of Education
(USED) under Tite VI of the U.S. Higher Education Act and are awarded
to students combining graduate work in any academic discipline with
African area and language studies.

Fellowships are offered for any one of the regularly taught languages (Akan,
Amharic, Arabic, Swahili, Wolof, Xhosa, and Yoruba) as well as for other
African languages for which instruction can be arranged.

Fellowships provide a stipend of $15,000 per academic year and cover the
cost of tuition and fees (12 credits per semester). Applicants must be a
citizen or permanent resident of the United States and be admitted to a
graduate program at the University of Florida.

Summer fellowships provide students with an opportunity to undertake
intensive African language study in any USED approved program including
the Summer Cooperative African Language Institute (SCALI). Summer
fellowships cover tuition at the host institution and provide a stipend of
$2,500.

For more information, including application deadlines, please visit
www.africa.ufl.edu/graduatestudies/flas.


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Thanks to Our Donors
0QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ


Madelyn M. Lockhart
Graduate Research Award
In 2004, Dr. Madelyn
Lockhart, professor emeritus
of economics and a former
Dean of the Graduate School,
established an endowment to
-support an annual award for
graduate students doing pre-
dissertation research in Africa.


Jeanne & Hunt Davis Graduate Research Award


In 2004, Dr. R. Hunt Davis,
professor emeritus in History and
a former director of the Center
for African Studies, and his wife,
Jeanne, established an endowment to
support graduate students doing pre-
dissertation research in Africa.


African Studies Faculty & Alumni Pre-Dissertation Award


The generous contributions from Jeanne &
Hunt Davis and Dr. Lockhart has made it
possible for the Center to provide support
for graduate students each summer doing
fieldwork in Africa. In an effort to expand
our capability for supporting graduate
students, Dr. Davis has taken the lead in
helping CAS work toward establishing an
additional endowment.

Anonymous
Dr. Timothy T. Ajani
Dr. Nanette L. Barkey
Dr. Faye E Benedict
Dr. Kenneth J. Boote
Dr. Flordeliz T. Bugarin
Dr. Charles Bwenge
Dr. Bernadette Cailler
Dr. Brenda Chalfin
Dr. William L. Conwill
Dr. Susan E. Cooksey
Dr. Kristin E. Davis
Dr. Stephen A. Emerson
Professor Joan D. Frosch
Dr. Abraham C. Goldman
Dr. Holly E. Hanson


The African Studies Faculty & Alumni
Pre-Dissertation Award now has over
$20,000 in commitments and is moving full
speed ahead toward the goal of $30,000,
which will provide more support for
graduate students. Please see the following
page for more information about this fund
and how you can contribute.


Dr. Goran Hyden
Dr. Rene LeMarchand
Dr. Agnes N. Leslie
Dr. Michael Leslie
Dr. Staffan Lindberg
Dr. Barbara E. McDade-Gordon
Dr. Fiona McLaughlin
Dr. Della McMillan-Wilson
Dr. Peter P. Malanchuk
Dr. Masangu D. Matondo
Dr. Kenneth W. Mease
Dr. James E. Meier
Dr. Connie J. Mulligan
Dr. Rebecca M. Nagy
Dr. Susan M. O'Brien
Dr. Daniel J. Ottemoeller


The Center would like to thank the
following individuals who have contributed
to our various funds over the years
(with an extra special thanks to those who
are working to build the Faculty & Alumni
Pre-Dissertation Fund).





Dr. Dianne White Oyler
Dr. Robin E. Poynor
Dr. Robert M. Press
Dr. Daniel A. Reboussin
Dr. Andre B. Reese
Dr. Leonard A. Rhine
Dr. Sandra Russo
Dr. Marianne Schmink
Dr. James L. Seale, Jr.
Mrs. Zoe H. Seale
Dr. Daniel Smith
Dr. Anita Spring
Hon. Emerson R. Thompson, Jr.
Dr. Leonardo A. Villal6n
Dr. Peter A. von Doepp
Dr. Luise S. White


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES RESEARCH REPORT 2009


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"N


-7-















Be Part of This Exciting Work:

Contribute to Graduate Student

Research on Africa at UF



Funds for graduate students to travel and
carry out research in Africa are in very short
supply, especially in these trying economic
times!
Beyond their training at UF, field
research in Africa is absolutely essential for
students to write the kinds of dissertations
on which they will be able to base successful
careers, whether in academia, government,
NGOs, or the private sector. The major
dissertation research awards for Africa
are limited in number and increasingly
competitive. In order for Ph.D. candidates
to be competitive for these awards they


must demonstrate a strong familiarity with
the proposed field site and the capability to
carry out the proposed work.
As a result, preliminary summer
research trips to lay the groundwork for
dissertation fieldwork are invaluable for
making students competitive for national
awards for dissertation funding. Helping
our students launch their professional
careers in this way is one of our top priorities
at the Center for African Studies.
The Center for African Studies has
recently established a fund with the goal of
creating an endowment of at least $30,000,


so as to generate the revenue for an annual
award to help a student carry out pre-
dissertation research in Africa. If you would
like to make a contribution to this fund, we
(and future generations ofUF Africanist
students!) would be very grateful. The form
below can be used for this purpose.
If you are a UF employee and would
like to contribute via payroll deduction,
please contact CAS for assistance.
If you have any questions or would
like more information-please contact
Leonardo Villal6n (CAS director) at
villalon@africa.ufl.edu or 352-392-2183


U F |UNIVERSITY of
UF FLORIDA
Please Return To:
UF Foundation, Inc. CLAS Development
PO Box 14425 Gainesville FL 32604-2425


My Gift is For:
Alumni and Faculty Pre-Dissertation Travel Award -
013799
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CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES RESEARCH REPORT 2009


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The Center Would Like to Thank

Ashley Leinweber for coordinating this project, the students and faculty who
contributed reports and photographs, and Jane Dominguez and Aubrey Siegel for
their design and layout of this booklet. Cover photos by Gregory Parent.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES RESEARCH REPORT 2009


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Gaiesill, lorda3261-56




Full Text

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Center for African Studies427 Grinter Hall PO Box 115560 Gainesville, Florida 32611-5560 352-392-2183 352-392-2435 (FAX) www.africa.ufl.edu Center for African StudiesResearch Report2009

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C A S R R 2009 1About the Center ONE OF THE NATIONS PREMIER INSTITUTIONS FOR TEACHING AND RESEARCH ABOUT AFRICAFounded in 1965, the Center for African Studies at UF has been continuously designated a U.S. Department of Education Title VI National Resource Center for Africa for over two decades. It is currently one of only eleven such centers nationally, and the only Africa NRC located in a subtropical zone. Title VI funding to CAS supports research, teaching, outreach, and the development of international linkages in Africa. The Center has over 100 affiliated teaching and research faculty in all of the core disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, as well as in agriculture, business, engineering, education, fine arts, natural resources and environment, journalism and mass communications, law, tourism, and natural sciences. Graduate study on African issues may be pursued in any of these fields. Center faculty maintain active ties with universities across the African continent, including institutions in Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda. The Centers innovative and influential on-line journal, the African Studies Quarterly, is the first fully peer-reviewed electronic journal devoted to the field. ASQ plays an important and largely unique role in facilitating the publication of research on and from Africa, and offers invaluable professional training for UF graduate students who serve on its editorial board.GRADUATE STUDY OF AFRICA AT UFGraduate study with a focus on Africa can be carried out in virtually every graduate or professional program across the university. Prospective students are encouraged to consult the websites of the individual programs for admissions procedures and criteria. Students in any graduate program at UF have the option of pursuing a Graduate Certificate in African Studies. We also encourage them to consult the Centers website and to contact us when they submit their applications. Complementing formal coursework, a regular and dynamic series of lectures, conferences and other activities open to all interested graduate students provide rich opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange and discussion about Africa. Most significantly, a number of dynamic CAS-sponsored interdisciplinary working groups organize speakers and events that bring together faculty and graduate students with shared interests, providing students with unique opportunities for research and professional development.

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2 C A S R R 2009 Table of ContentsF rom the D irector ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4F aculty ReportsAKINTUNDE AKINYEMI Contemporary African Dramatists & the Question of Orality .......................................................................................... 5 STEVEN BR ANDT Southwest EthiopiaHomo sapiens Across & Out of Africa During the Late Pleistocene .................................................... 6 CHARLES BWENGE Language Contact & Communicative Innovations: The African Experience ......................................................................... 7 BREND A CHALFIN Ghanas Modernist Metropolis: National Ideals & Urban Imperatives in Tema ....................................................................... 8 DONNA L COHEN Integrating the Study of African Architecture into the Curriculum ............................................................................................ 9 SUSAN COOKSEY African Beadwork at the Harn Museum ............................................................................................................................................. 10 JA MES ESSEGBEY The Nyagbo Documentation Project .................................................................................................................................................. 11 JO AN FROSCH Focusing a Choreographic Lens on Fresh Practices of the Imagination ............................................................................................ 12 BRENT HENDERSON Documentation of Chimiini, a Bantu Language of Somalia ................................................................................................... 13 AGNES LESLIE The Zambia-China Relationship: State Accommodation & Public Disaffectation ..................................................................... 14 ST AFF AN LINDBERG Interrogating Accountability in Ghana ......................................................................................................................................... 15 FIONA M cLA UGHLIN Dakar Wolof: The Language of an African City ...................................................................................................................... 16 PETER MALANCHUK African Wildlife & Range Management Collection ................................................................................................................ 17 REBECCA MARTIN NA GY Restoration: On the Trail of the Artist Behind an Ethiopian Painting of the Holy Trinity ................................... 18 ESTHER OBONYO Optimizing Building Performance Parameters: The East African Context ............................................................................. 19 SUSAN O BRIEN Youth Culture, Islam and Democracy in West Africa ......................................................................................................................... 20 JACK PUTZ & CLA UDIA ROMERO Collaborations with Rhodes University in South Africa ............................................................................... 21 DANIEL REBOUSSIN The Martin Rikli Photo Albums: A Snapshot of Ethiopia Circa 1935 ................................................................................ 22 VIC TORIA ROVINE African Fashion: Innovation, Social Status, and Tradition in Mali ............................................................................................ 23 PETER SCHMIDT Heritage Tourism: Sustainability & Capacity Building in Northwestern Tanzania ................................................................. 24 RENA T A SERR A Institutions, Power and Norms in African Cotton Reforms (Benin, Mali & Burkina Faso) ..................................................... 25 JULIE SILV A Nature-Based Tourism as a Rural Development Strategy in Southern Africa ....................................................................................... 27 JILL SONKE Arts in Medicine (AIM) for Africa: Rwanda .................................................................................................................................................. 28 ANIT A SPRING African Entrepreneurs: From Micro to Global ........................................................................................................................................ 29 ANDREW TA TEM & MARC O SALEMI HIV Spread in Central & East Africa ............................................................................................................. 30 LEONARDO A. VILLALN Formalizing School: Religion & the Education Sector in the Sahel ............................................................................ 31 L UISE WHITE Unpopular Sovereignty: Rhodesian Independence and African Decolonization .............................................................................. 32 ALY SON Y OUNG Waterborne Zoonotic Disease & Its Impact on Health Behavior in Tanzania ............................................................................ 33S tudent ReportsCHRISTIAN AHIHOU Ken Bugul: A Unique African Woman Novelist & Message ................................................................................................... 34 PHILLIP ALDERM AN Improving Soil Fertility Management in Northern Ghana ...................................................................................................... 35 RENEE BULLOCK Land-Use Profitability in Northeast Tanzania .................................................................................................................................... 36 NIC OLE D ERRIC O Intergenerational Health Effects of Sexual Violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo .............................................. 37 ANDREA GA UGHAN Landscape Dynamics & Climate Variability in the Okavango-Kwando-Zambezi Catchment ...................................... 38 ANN LEE GRIMST AD The 1964 Zanzibar Revolution & Its Revolutionaries .............................................................................................................. 39 TR A VIS HERRET Design for the Children: East African HIV/AIDS Clinic Design Competition ........................................................................ 40 RACHEL IANNELLI Heritage Tourism & Local Capacity in Northwestern Tanzania ................................................................................................ 41

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C A S R R 2009 3 JILLIAN JENSEN Capturing Water Resources for Agriculture & Human Development in Swaziland .................................................................. 42 YANG JIA O The Virtual Space of the Transnational Chinese Entrepreneurs in Ghana .............................................................................................. 43 ALISON KETTER Fairtrade South Africa: Global Models & National Realities ........................................................................................................... 44 MICHELLE KIEL Experts and the Subjects of Expertise: Education & Development in Madagascar ...................................................................... 45 KAREN KIRNER Agricultural Change Between the Batoro & Bakiga Peoples: Kibale National Park, Uganda ................................................... 46 ASHLEY LEINWEBER Islamic Organizations & the Provision of Education in the Democratic Republic of Congo ........................................ 47 STEVE LICHTY Uncovering Current Contentious Issues During Zanzibars Electoral Process ................................................................................ 48 MEREDITH MARTEN The Sustainability of Public Health Interventions in Northern Tanzania ........................................................................... 49 VINCENT MEDJIBE Carbon Dynamics in Central African Forests Managed for Timber ........................................................................................ 50 COURTNA Y MIC OT S Rock Residences in Anomabo, Ghana: Architectural Statements of Power & Identity ................................................... 51 JESSICA MOREY Student Unionism and Cultism in Nigeria ........................................................................................................................................... 52 NA OMI MOSWETE Community-Based Ecotourism Development in Kgalagadi District, Western Botswana .................................................. 53 P A TRICIA MUPET A Democratizing Wildlife Management or Not? Three Village Trusts in Botswana ................................................................ 54 JESSICA MUSENGEZI Wildlife-Based Land Use and Cattle Production on Private Land in South Africa ......................................................... 55 SHYLOCK MUYENGW A Institutions & Change in Community-Based Natural Resources Management (CBNRM) .................................... 56 TIMOTHY NEVIN Exploring Liberias Musical History ....................................................................................................................................................... 57 JOSHU A NIEDERRITER Foreign & Domestic-Owned Firms in the Namibian Tourism Sector ............................................................................. 58 WINIFRED P ANK ANI The Informal Institutions: Do They Matter? ............................................................................................................................... 59 GREGORY P ARENT Livelihood Vulnerability and Village Economic Structure: Kruger National Park in South Africa ................................. 60 CHRISTOPHER RICHARDS Re-Fashioning Africa: Ghanas 3rd Annual Fashion Weekend .................................................................................... 61 AMY SCHW ARTZOTT The Potent Politics of Recycling in Contemporary Mozambican Urban Arts ................................................................. 62 MA TTHEW H SHIRLEY Crocodile Conservation Across Africa ...................................................................................................................................... 63 OLEK AE THAK ADU Environmental Information & Communication Among Stakeholders: Okavango Delta, Botswana ............................. 64 VERONIQUE THERIA ULT Structural Changes in the Malian Cotton Sector: Implications for Export Performance ........................................ 65 C ARRIE VA TH Primate Conservation & Environmental Education: Re-filling the Empty Forests .......................................................................... 66 CHRISTOPHER WITULSKI Moroccan Islam(s): Debating Religious Authority Through Ritual & Musical Performance .............................. 67C ollaborative P rojectsFulbright-Hays Summer 2009 Intensive Yoruba Group Project Abroad (GPA) .............................................................................................................. 68 Public Utility Research Center (PURC): African Infrastructure Research and Outreach ............................................................................................. 69 Higher Education for Development: Transforming CBNRM Education ......................................................................................................................... 70 NSF-Human and Social Dynamics Program: Parks As Agents of Social Change ............................................................................................................. 72 NSF-Fostering International Collaboration with the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN) ..................................................................................... 73 American Political Science Association: Elections and Democracy Workshop in Ghana ............................................................................................... 74 Higher Education for Development: Tourism Management in South Africa .................................................................................................................... 75New Masters Degree in Sustainable Development P ractice ...................................................................................................... 76F oreign Language & A rea S tudies F ellowships ........................................................................................................................................ 77Support Research on A frica! ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 78

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4 C A S R R 2009 We are delighted to present the 2009 Research Report of the University of Floridas Center for African Studies (CAS). We hope this report will give a sense of the extraordinary diversity and the academic caliber of the work on Africa carried out by UF faculty members and graduate students, as well as reflect the depth of our engagement with the continent. The research covered in this report represents work in over 30 countries on the continent from the perspective of nearly twenty disciplines and incorporates a high degree of interdisciplinarity. UF work in Africa this year has been supported from a variety of prestigious sources. In addition to the many grants received by individual faculty members, we are particularly proud of our collaborative projects. Among some of the highlights you will read about in this report are major initiatives funded by Higher Education for Development (HED) to collaborate with universities in southern Africa to develop curriculum and training capacity in community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) and CASs ongoing participation as a consortium member of the Africa Power and Politics Program (APPP), which is funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and Irish Aid. We are also continuing to expand our outreach efforts with a documentary film on Islam in West Africa, a project funded by the Social Science Research Council (SSRC).From the Director And a crowning highlight for the year: In a joint initiative between CAS and the UF Center for Latin American Studies, UF is one of only two US universities selected by the MacArthur foundation to receive nearly $1 million dollars to initiate a new Masters in Sustainable Development Practice (MDP) degree. We are proud to join the emerging worldwide network of MDP programs, dedicated to the idea of training a new generation of development practitioners. We hope you will enjoy reading about the exciting work reported on here. For more information on African Studies at UF, please consult our website at www.africa.ufl.edu or contact us at 352.392.2183. Leonardo A. Villaln Director, Center for African Studies

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C A S R R 2009 5 Faculty Reports Contemporary African Dramatists and the Question of OralityAKINTUNDE AKINYEMI This summer I began field research in Nigeria and Ghana on a new project in which I am examining the role of oral traditions in African dramaturgy, film, and cinema. The thrust of this project is to argue that there has been an increasing tendency on the part of many African writers to identify with the literary tradition of their people. Writers, especially playwrights, demonstrate this commitment by incorporating materials from oral traditions into their works to sustain the functions performed by such materials in oral society in modern literary production. However, the project is not just about preservation and survival of African oral traditions, but more about the ways oral traditions have been adjusted by African playwrights and film script writers to address contemporary interests and concerns. On several occasions, these folkloric materials also become instruments that African writers manipulate easily to raise social consciousness in the minds of their readers and audiences. Therefore, African playwrights and film scriptwriters convert various genres of their oral traditions to a complex set of symbols that are only partly indigenous, thereby freeing them from impediments of a fixed cultural perspective. It is essential after the initial conception of a project like this to interact with colleagues in Africa working on the same problems and period. Therefore, during my trip to Africa this past summer, I interviewed several African writers, literary scholars, scriptwriters, and film producers based in Nigeria and Ghana. I also attended two international conferences where I made presentations and shared my thoughts on the project with colleagues. The preliminary results of my investigation reveal that integration of oral literary materials into the works of contemporary African dramatists manifests at two levels: that of documentation and manipulation. By documentation, I mean a writers adoption of specific samples of literary materials from oral genres, which he or she lifts verbatim, transcribes, and inserts in appropriate places in his or her writing with little or no addition or subtraction. As for manipulation, however, African playwrights carefully make only selective use of elements of oral traditions, which they exploit to advance their political opinion. What appeals to this category of playwrights in their recourse to oral traditions is not just the preservation of the material itself but the ideas contained in it, which are seen as having an enduring relevance. At this level, playwrights turn oral traditions into metaphorical or symbolic use to articulate political vision. As I progress on this project, I hope to discuss further how contemporary African playwrights borrow specific traditional literary materials for the construction of characters and situations in their works. I also think this research will benefit my undergraduate African literature and culture course, which is structured to expand the humanities offerings of the Center for African Studies and the Department of Languages, Literatures, and Cultures. Akintunde Akinyemi is an associate professor in the Department of Languages, Literatures, and Cultures and affiliate faculty with the Center for African Studies. His summer research trip was funded by a 2009 award from the CLAS Humanities Scholarship Enhancement Fund.

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6 C A S R R 2009 Out of SW Ethiopia? The Spread of Homo sapiens Across and Out of Africa During the Late PleistoceneSTEVEN BRANDT Sometime between 60,000 to 50,000 years ago, one of the most significant events in human evolution occurred, according to recent fossil, archaeological, and genetic data. This happened when anatomically and behaviorally modern hunter-gatherers migrated out of Africa into Arabia to successfully colonize western Asia. Thus began a process that would lead over the next 20,000 years to the extinction of all non-modern humans, including the Neanderthals, and the spread of Homo sapiens and modern cultural behavior across Asia, Australia, and Europe into the Americas. One of the major gaps in our understanding of this Great Diaspora, as it is sometimes referred to, is an understanding of its African roots: Where in Africa did these colonizing hunter-gatherer populations come from? Why and where did they leave Africa and what were their routes? How were they able to adapt so successfully to the new worlds they encountered? In 2006, Dr. Elisabeth A. Hildebrand of Stony Brook University and I received a grant from the National Science Foundation to begin archaeological research in Ethiopia aimed at answering these questions. We wanted to test the hypothesis that the tropical highlands of southwestern Ethiopia (where annual rainfall today can be more than 110 inches), served as an environmental refugium for hunter-gatherer populations from what are now Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, and Somalia, as they learned to cope with the extremely arid climatic conditions that characterized much of Africa between approximately 70,000 to 60,000 years ago. We further hypothesized that those huntergatherer groups that learned the technological, economic and social skills necessary to survive this period of major environmental stress, would also have been the founder populations that adapted rapidly to the new environments they encountered as they migrated out of the refugium and out of Africa during the period of climatic amelioration that followed soon after approximately 60,000 years ago. In order to test this hypothesis, my colleagues and students from Ethiopia, France, Belgium, and the United States conducted excavations over the last three years at Moche Borago, a large cave situated on the slopes of a dormant volcano in SW Ethiopia. Our goal was to find evidence for human occupation and abandonment correlating with periods of major environmental change during the critical period of 70,000 to 50,000 years ago, and to recover archaeological evidence for how populations adapted culturally to these changes. While we were successful in recovering some of the information we were searching for, we also quickly realized that considerably more data from many more sites, and from many different SW Ethiopian environments over many more years of research, would be needed to truly test our hypothesis! Therefore, we decided to join forces with archaeologists from the University of Cologne and other German universities on a proposal to the German Science Foundation to establish a Center for Research Cooperation (CRC), based in Cologne, that would allow for long term research on how, why, where and when Homo sapiens, originating of course in Africa, got to Europe by about 40,000 years ago. The proposal was successful and along with support from UFs Department of Anthropology, Center for African Studies, and the International Center, the grant will provide partial to full funding for 3 graduate and 3 undergraduate students from UF to collaborate with fellow Ethiopian and German students in field research in Ethiopia.Steven A. Brandt is an associate professor in the Department of Anthropology and affiliate faculty in the Center for African Studies.

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C A S R R 2009 7 FACULTY REPOR TS My research focuses on the contact and interaction between Swahili and English languages and the resultant linguistic culture in Swahili-speaking east Africa, notably in Kenya and Tanzania. The coexistence between the two languages in the public space is not only a fascinating phenomenon, but also an insightful one in terms of sociolinguistic explorations. Language Contact and Communicative Innovations: The African ExperienceCHARLES B WENGE business and local linguistic culture, a testimony to the generally acknowledged claim that culture can be as important to multinational success as capital. Reflected in this representative sample of billboards is one of the common officially practiced use patterns that keep the two languages apart, that is, Swahili or English. In other domains such as the media one finds English or Swahili medium newspapers. Similarly in education, the medium is either Swahili or English. But in other formal communicative interactions such as the parliamentary debates, the Swahili or English policy does strictly separate them in actual communicative practice. Charles Bwenge is an assistant professor in the Department of Languages, Literatures, & Cultures and the Center for African Studies, where he coordinates the Program in African Languages (PAL). Particularly, my interest has been in parliamentary discourse (debates and campaigns) and billboard advertisement discourse in which language use patterns are not just viewed as motivated and constrained by the linguistic culture of the speech community, but also they may constitute distinct varieties in their own right. In this regard, this exploration does not only entail language use pattern between Swahili and English, but also between varieties of the same language, especially Swahili, which has been a source of enormous communicative innovations. While working on my book manuscript on the rise of elite Swahili (Swahili as spoken by the educated/ globalized elites as opposed to standard Swahili and popular Swahili) and its related dynamics in the Tanzanian parliamentary debating chamber, I am exploring patterns of language use in business signs and billboard ads in Dar es Salaam. One of my current projects explores how global business operators make use of local linguistic culture for successful business. Barclays Bank billboards in Dar es Salaam are a case in point clearly illustrating the intersection between global

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8 C A S R R 2009 Ghanas Modernist Metropolis: National Ideals and Urban Imperatives in the Port City of TemaBRENDA CHALFIN I spent June 2009 engaged in a new research project on the port city of Tema. A sprawling industrial, commercial, and residential complex, Tema was built and conceived in tandem with the staking out of Ghanaian independence in the 1950s and early 1960s. Designed with an eye to both productive enterprise and domestic life, nation-building and international engagement, Tema at its founding provided an urban example of high-modernist infrastructural development, among the first of its kind in sub-Saharan Africa. Though subject to new forms of global interdependence, the expansion of population and premises, and a sometimes unsteady state, some 50 years hence Tema continues to thrive with its original plan largely in-tact. While other cities across Africa straddle the knifes edge of chaos and creativity brought about by inadequate infrastructure, migration and mismanagement, Tema is the sight of remarkable order and prosperity. Temas realization was driven by the socialist-inspired nationalist vision of Kwame Nkrumah and the input of a Greek urban planner, Constantinos Dioxiadis, whose firm authored the designs for a host of new cities in South Asia and the Middle East. Reflecting a totalizing conception of public and private life, Tema remains organized around separate residential zones for workers, a middle managerial class, and high-level bureaucrats and industrialists. Marked by a sleek form-equals-function aesthetic, each neighborhood is equipped with schools, sports facilities, and places of worship. At the citys coastal edge, Tema Harbor, once the largest and most technically sophisticated ports in West Africa, was built by African laborers and expatriate technicians to facilitate the countrys engagement in the world market. Hosting a mix of state-owned and foreign industries, an extensive industrial zone was sited next to the port. After two decades of decline, the harbor is once again among the most active on the continent, but defying the original nationalizing impulse, its functioning now depends on partnerships with global shipping and logistics firms. As a preliminary foray, this summer I sought to explore the on-going impact of the nationalist imperatives and modernist ideals shaping Temas founding on the life of the metropolis. I spoke with the management of the Tema Development Corporation (TDC), the citys first governing body, and conducted preliminary interviews with members of the original planning division. I also met with representatives of the Tema Municipal Assembly (TMA), the current governing authority, along with the leaders from the Ga House of Chiefs. The terms of power sharing between TDC and TMA, it soon became clear, are still unsettled, and the traditional authorities, largely eclipsed. Beneath the aura of urban provisioning I learned of the planned exile of the citys indigenes and underclass into under-serviced locals at the port periphery. In the midst of these inequities however, across the city there is a strong local identity, tinged with national pride and cosmopolitan consciousness. For Temanians of this ilk, the reproduction of urban order is less about the efforts of governing authorities than the force of selfmonitoring driven by suburban ideals of homesteading and the lingering promise of upward mobility. Brenda Chalfin is an associate professor in the Department of Anthropology and affiliate faculty with the Center for African Studies. Dr. Chalfins research on Tema was supported in part by a College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Humanities Scholarship Enhancement Award.

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C A S R R 2009 9 FACULTY REPOR TS Designing for the African Context: Integrating the Study of Architecture in Africa into the Curriculum DONNA L. COHEN American schools of architecture have historically relied on Western tradition and assumptions that the constructed infrastructure of the developed world was sustainable. As universities across the United States expand their global reach, interest in study of African architectural history, cultural interactions, and the design of contemporary buildings in the African context of limited resources has become essential to the education of this generation of architects. As a teacher and practitioner, support from the Center for African Studies has allowed me to offer an annual graduate seminar which focuses on historic and contemporary architecture in East Africa, to travel to Moshi, Tanzania for my work on the tunaHAKI Center, and to begin the collaborative effort of the Architecture| Africa Initiative at the University of Florida. Over the past year, several celebrated architects practicing across Africa visited and presented to architecture students and the campus community. Students were inspired and informed, and both faculty and students have formed partnerships that are resulting in new collaborative efforts. Architect Francis Kere, winner of the Aga Khan Award for the design of a primary school in Gando, Burkina Faso, presented his work and reviewed our students designs for a clinic in East Africa. Architect Fasil Ghiorghis, from Ethiopia, lectured about his contemporary projects and his efforts to preserve the cultural heritage site of Axum, and architect Joe Addo of Accra, Ghana, lectured and led a design workshop on housing in developing countries. I have a particular interest in the design of contemporary architecture in cultural heritage sites, and am currently collaborating with architects from Finland, Tanzania, and Ethiopia who share this interest.Donna L Cohen is an associate professor in the School of Architecture and affiliate faculty with the Center for African Studies. She is a principal in Armstrong & Cohen Architecture, with her partner Claude E Armstrong, AIA. They are co-directors of the Architecture | Africa Initiative, which is supported by the Center for African Studies and the Ivan Smith Endowment of the School of Architecture.

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10 C A S R R 2009 African Beadwork at the Harn Museum: Developing Interpretative Materials Through Cross Disciplinary Collaboration SUSAN COOKSEY In October of 2008, an exhibition I curated, Between the Beads: Reading African Beadwork, opened at the Harn Museum of Art. The exhibition was a collaborative effort between the museum, faculty and students from the Center for African Studies, School of Art and Art History, UF Special Collections, and the Digital Library Center, in addition to collectors and scholars outside the university. The Harn invited Professor Frank Jolles, of Natal University to the Museum as a consultant on South African objects in the collection in 2007. Later that year, the Harn acquired a portion of Jolles collection of Zulu beadwork panels and photographs of individuals wearing beadwork that shows a progression from symbolic imagery in the 1940s to use of text in the 1960s, and the decline of beaded personal adornment in the late 20th century. Jolles fascination with transformations of Zulu beadwork is reflected in his collection of prints and negatives from the commercial portrait photographer Richard Ndimande, whose studio in Greytown was active until the late 1990s. Ndimandes portraits are primarily of women dressed in beadwork that he supplied as props in his studio, as many women no longer owned beadwork but still recognized its value in communicating social and marital status. The Zulu beaded panels and photographs of Zulu women from Jolles collection formed a key thematic section of the exhibition. The exhibition included 107 beaded objectsgarments, masks, jewelry and other items for personal adornment from the Harn collection and private collections in the US. Dr. Victoria Rovine, assistant professor of African Art History & African Studies, incorporated research for the exhibition into the curriculum for her course on African Textiles and Clothing in Fall 2007. Students produced interpretive labels for the exhibition which were incorporated into the didactics in the gallery and also were featured on a website linked to the exhibition. The Dr. Madelyn M. Lockhart Faculty Exhibition Endowment supported this collaborative component of the exhibition. Dr. Jonathan Walz, a recent Ph.D. from UFs Department of Anthropology, provided further historical contextualization by lending excavated and surface samples of beads from his fieldwork in northeastern Tanzania. Developing a website in conjunction with the exhibition was the brainchild of Dwight Bailey, Director of Museum Technology at the Harn, and Eric Kesse, the former Director of the Digital Library Center (DLC). DLC staff took digital images of 86 objects in the Harns collection, many of which were included in the exhibition. Three-dimensional beaded objects were photographed from 108 angles as they were rotated, and the images were then processed into a video file to replicate the experience of viewing them in the round. The images were loaded onto the University of Floridas Digital Collections website, and then onto the Between the Beads: Reading African Beadwork website which was designed by Katherine McGonigle ( M.A. 2008), a student of Digital Media Professor Katerie Gladdys. The exhibition website is an interactive and dynamic resource instigated by the exhibition that has exposed the Harn collections to wider audiences while linking it to other scholarly materials housed in the Universitys Special Collections Library. It is the first time an interactive website has accompanied an exhibition at the Harn, and participants at the Florida Association of Museums conference in 2008 hailed it as a highly innovative project for a state art museum. Although the exhibition will close in October 2009, the website will continue as a resource and will encourage scholarship on African beadwork well into the future. The exhibition website address is http:// www.harn.ufl.edu/beadwork/index. php. Susan Cooksey is Curator of African Art at the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art and affiliate faculty with the Center for African Studies.

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C A S R R 2009 11 FACULTY REPOR TS For the past three years I have been working on a multimedia ethnographic documentation of Nyagbo, one of fourteen languages classified as Togo Remnant, Central Togo, or Ghana-Togo Mountain (GTM) languages. Nyagbo has been without a detailed description, which is unfortunate because its lexicon and structure are being eroded by Ewe, the dominant regional language. My documentation project, which is funded by the NSF, involves collecting audio-visual recordings of different communicative events, most importantly the ones that depict the culture of the Nyagbo. The recordings include funeral practices, durbar of chiefs, child-naming ceremonies and story telling. As evidence of cultural erosion, childnaming ceremonies among the Nyagbo has become a completely Christian affair where, instead of family and friends gathering at dawn to perform traditional rites on the seventh day after the birth of a child, they are rather led in prayers and worship by a catechist in Ewe. I also recorded Nyagbo economic activities such as rice and maize cultivation, palm wine tapping, preparation of palm oil and gari (a type of flour). The recordings have been transcribed and annotated and sent for archiving to the DOBES program for the documentation of endangered languages at the Max-Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, where they can be accessed from all over the world. Part of the texts was used to create a primer for the speakers to learn to read and write the language. This primer was presented to the chiefs and people at a durbar organized at Odumasi, one of the townships. Copies of the cultural events have been put on VCDs for presentation to the community. Another aspect of the documentation project involves writing a reference grammar of the language as well as producing a tri-lingual dictionary. Nyagbo has an intricate tonal system and resolving that in the field hasnt been easy. Fortunately for me I was able this summer, with the help of a Humanities Scholars Enhancement grant, to invite Madam Judith Glover, my principal language assistant to Gainesville. The Nyagbo Documentation ProjectJAMES ESSEGBEYWith the help of Dr. Ratree Wayland (Linguistics), we have worked to resolve this problem using PRATT, a program for phonetic analysis. Also assisting in the work was Dr. Felix Ameka, an expert on GTM languages from Leiden University, the Netherlands, who also joined me over the summer, with the support of the NSF grant, to work on the typological profile of the GTM languages. Lee Ballard, a graduate student from Linguistics who is interested in the investigation of tones took part in some of the sessions. The synergism produced by us meeting together at this place has been tremendous.James Essegbey is an assistant professor in the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures and affiliate faculty with the Center for African Studies. His research was made possible through an NSF grant and a UF Humanities Scholarship Enhancement Grant.

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12 C A S R R 2009 The films Movement (R)Evolution Africa and Nora have shared their mythbusting stories of African experimental dance artists with approximately 200,000 audience members worldwide to date. The films have been awarded 30 top prizes in over 100 official selections throughout the world, including Toronto Film Festival, New York African Film Festival, Cannes African Film Festival, Ann Arbor, Oberhausen, and Clermont Ferrand, to name just a few, highlighted by a rousing reception at the official selection screening of both films at FESPACO in February 2009 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. The riveting work of the late Batrice Komb (1971-2007), Ivorian artistic director of the womens dance company TchTch, planted the seed of African contemporary dance in my imagination. The more I learned about this extraordinary movement, the more it grew. Ms Komb was later featured in the Center for African Studies inaugural arts-based Gwendolen M. Carter Conference Movement (R)evolution Dialogues: Contemporary Performance in and of Africa, on which my film Movement (R)Evolution Africa was based. In the film, experimental choreographers personalize an emergent art form by sharing their diverse viewpoints and stunning choreography: their works challenge stale stereotypes of traditional Africa and reveal soul-shaking choreographic responses to incidents of beauty and tales of tragedy. Along with Ms. Komb, the film features the choreographic signatures and philosophies of Germaine Acogny and Pape Ibraham NDiaye (Jant Bi, Senegal), Faustin Linyekula (Studios Kabako, DRC), Souleymane Badolo and Lacina Coulibaly (Kongo Ba Teria, Burkina Faso), Sello Pesa (South Africa), Ariry Andriamoatsiresy (Ariry, Madagascar), Nora Chipaumire (Zimbabwe), and Rosy Timas and Rosy Fernandes (Raiz de Polon, Cape Verde), among others. Nora was shot in Mozambique in fall of 2007 and features Nora Chipaumire, directed by Focusing a Choreographic Lens on Fresh Practices of the ImaginationJO AN FR OSCHAlla Kovgan and David Hinton, in a choreographic recollection of her youth in Zimbabwe with original music by Zimbabwean legend, Va Thomas Mapfumo. Nora was commissioned by EMPAC Dance MOViES, Rensselear Polytechnic Institute, in association with the University for Florida Center for World Arts, with additional funding by the University of Florida Center for African Studies, Office of Research, Fine Arts Scholarship Enhancement Fund, and France Florida Research Institute, and funding from Capture, and Movement Revolution Productions. The films were also selected by AFRI-Doc, an organization dedicated to disseminating fresh stories about Africa to distributors and broadcasters across the Continent and the Diaspora, helping to create new paradigms of thought, expression and social action for the twenty-first century. Movement (R)Evolution Africa and Nora will soon join forces in a broadcast initiative by the National Black Programming Consortium, the principal provider of African American programming to PBS, who is taking the lead in a rapidly changing digital media environment with initiatives designed to maximize the potential of multiplatform delivery systems, in order to foster black public engagement and enrich mainstream public interest media. Both Movement (R)Evolution Africa and Nora will be screened at the Reitz Union at the University of Florida in February 2010.Joan Frosch is a professor of dance in the Department of Theatre and Dance and CoDirector of the Center for World Arts in the College of Fine Arts. She is also an affiliate faculty member with the Center for African Studies.

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C A S R R 2009 13 FACULTY REPOR TS Chimiini is the language of the port city of Brava on the coast of southern Somalia. It is the northernmost and perhaps the most isolated and divergent of the Swahili dialects. Though spoken in Brava for a millennium, the majority of Chimiini speakers fled their home during the early years of the Somali civil war. Most of them now live in refugee communities in the US, UK, and Kenya with little hope of returning to Somalia. As a result, the unique language and culture of the Bravanese is in quick decline. In a three-year project funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) through the NSF/NEH Documenting Endangered Languages program, I am working with the Bravanese communities in Columbus, Atlanta, London, and Mombasa to further document their language. This includes writing a reference grammar of Chimiini, archiving digital recordings of the language, publishing traditional stories, personal narratives, and other ethno-linguistic material, and developing webbased materials useful to the community and heritage speakers. It also includes exploring the language from a scientific perspective and bringing out insights that might be interesting for theoretical linguistics. I spent five weeks in the Clarkston suburb of Documentation of Chimiini, a Bantu Language of SomaliaBRENT HENDERSON Atlanta, GA this summer meeting many of the 2,000 or so Bravanese who live there and working closely with a few of them to gather enough linguistic data to begin writing a draft of the grammar. In addition, I interviewed several elders who shared their memories of life in Brava, their stories about the origins of the city and its people, and their experiences during the war and their flight from it. I also collected several stenzi, very long (some nearly an hour) rhythmic religious or historical poems that are recited from memory. Sadly, I also confirmed fears that the language is not being adequately passed on to young adults and children, despite the best efforts of the community. Together with the continuing war that plagues those few who remain in Brava, this suggests that Chimiinis decline may be rapid and permanent. Next summer I will conduct fieldwork in London where the largest Bravanese community (more than 5,000 people, about a third of the original population of Brava) now resides. While there I hope to collect more linguistic data, but also to support local efforts of the community to encourage their languages continued use through literacy development and online content. Brent Henderson is assistant professor in Linguistics and affiliate faculty in the Center for African Studies. His research was supported by a three-year grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) through the NSF/ NEH joint program for Documenting Endangered Languages.

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14 C A S R R 2009 The Zambia-China Relationship: State Accommodation and Public DisaffectionA GNES NGOMA LESLIE My research focuses on the Zambian leadership and its relationship to the Chinese government and private companies during the first government of Kenneth Kaunda (the 1970s through the 1980s), from the 1990s with Frederick Chiluba, during the third government of Levy Mwanawasa (2002-2008), and during the current period under Rupiah Banda. The objective of the research is to assess the strength of the Zambian state by examining how a weak economy, a fragile political climate and the leadership collaborate with international economic partnerships and the resulting impact on society and human rights. There has been much controversy regarding the role of China in Africa. At present, China is Zambias third largest investor, after South Africa and the United Kingdom. The number and scope of economic partnerships between the two countries continues to expand. Chinese private investments have also grown. I went to Lusaka, Zambia to investigate the impact of these developments on the society and Zambian views regarding the impacts of this expansion. I used various methods to collect the data including archival documents research, interviews, surveys and field visits to various Zambia-China business enterprises. I surveyed members of parliament (MPs) to examine their views regarding Chinese investments in the country and MPs roles in enacting laws, which promote economic conditions that benefit the country and workers. I also surveyed and interviewed faculty from the University of Zambia, personnel from major newspapers, business professionals and government authorities in various ministries, including the Ministry of Labor and Social Services. Part of my study investigated the nature of Chinese business operations and the conditions and benefits of the workers in these enterprises. I toured Chinese businesses including a steelmaking company to study working conditions and worker safety concerns, health and compensation. My findings indicate government weakness in defining the roles of foreign investors in development and implementing laws and policies that adequately benefit the country and safeguard the health, security and economic rights of Zambian workers. The majority of the people interviewed believe there is a role for Chinese investment in Zambia in large-scale developments such as schools, roads, and stadia where most Zambian companies cannot compete. However, Chinese competition in small-scale enterprises has provoked the ire of local business people. While there is a strong relationship between the two countries at the top leadership, there is unease in the general population regarding the uncontrolled growth of Chinese private investment in Zambia. Agnes Ngoma Leslie is Senior Lecturer and Outreach Director for the Center for African Studies.

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C A S R R 2009 15 FACULTY REPOR TS As the principal investigator (PI) for the research project MPs, Citizens, Accountability, and Collective Goods, I spent a good portion of the summer working with Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Goran Hyden, and a team of junior professionals under the leadership Professor Emmanuel GyimahBoadi at the Center for Democratic Development, (CDD) Ghana. The project is concerned with investigating the various accountability pressures Members of Parliament (MPs) face, and how these pressures shape politicians behavior. Much of the literature on African politics, as well as common wisdom hold that politicians engage in clientelistic relationships mainly with various constituencies to attain and hold onto power. This current project builds off my earlier research interrogating, and putting question marks to some of these claims. The present project is designed to provide more definitive answers based on rigorous data collection and analysis. This summer Dr. Hyden and I jointly conducted over 35 elite interviews with MPs and Ministers of State in Ghana (one of whom Ms. Samia Nkrumah, the daughter of Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, Ghanas first post-independence leader). Ghana held general elections in December 2008 that resulted in both an alternation in the presidency as well as a large turnover in the legislature. The interviews were used both to measure the types of accountability pressures during and after the elections, as well as to understand how MPs handled and/or coped with such pressures. While my previous series of interviews in Ghana have uncovered a high prevalence of informal pressures compelling legislators to expend lots of energy and resources on providing private goods through clientelistic relationships, this recent round of interviews seems to indicate that a new crop of MPs is emerging who view the provision of collective and public goods for the larger good as more important. I followed these interviews up with a selfInterrogating AccountabilitySTAFFAN LINDBERG administered elite survey with all the MPs on preand post-election finance, strategies, and accountability pressures. In order to enable analysis of congruence between citizens and their representatives, I also carried out a survey with citizens in collaboration with CDD. Thirteen strategically selected constituencies were sampled (N=1,720) through a two-staged randomization procedure based on standard household survey methodology. Thirty-five research assistants were recruited, trained and deployed in June through July. The results from the surveys and the integrated, nested analysis are forthcoming.Staffan Lindberg is assistant professor in the Department of Political Science and the Center for African Studies. The research described is part of the African Power and Politics Program (APPP), funded by a grant from the United Kingdoms Department for International Development (DFID) and Irish Aid to a consortium of which CAS is a member. For more information, go to the APPP website, www.institutions-africa.org.

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16 C A S R R 2009 Dakar Wolof: The Language of an African CityFIONA MCLAUGHLIN I have long been interested in the urban variety of Wolof spoken in Senegals capital city, Dakar, which is distinguishable from its rural counterparts by its liberal incorporation of French borrowings even in the speech of those who do not otherwise speak French. I spent the 2008-2009 academic year on research leave, thanks to a sabbatical from the University of Florida and a fellowship from the American Council of Learned Societies, and I am currently finishing up a book, tentatively entitled Dakar Wolof: The Language of an African City. My research for this book is based on extensive fieldwork that I have carried out over the course of several years in Dakar, and most centrally on a database of natural speech that I recorded in the summer of 2005. My research revolves around three interrelated questions, the first of which is how the grammars of two unrelated and typologically different languages, Wolof and French, come together in the minds of speakers of Dakar Wolof. Here I have focused primarily on the ways that Wolof has borrowed verbs from various lexical and syntactic categories such as adjectives, nouns, and prepositional phrases in French and how this is having a very subtle effect on the use of verbal extensions in Wolof. Wolof is a language that does not have an infinitival marker, yet French verbs are borrowed in their infinitival form. I argue that the French infinitival marker, /-er/, has been reanalyzed by Wolof speakers as a verbal extension that encodes the applicative, locative, and detransitive, as well as a host of other functions. The second question addresses the history of urban Wolof and why it is the way it is as opposed to, say, a creole, given the possible outcomes of language contact. Based primarily on historical linguistic data from the mid 19th century I have been able to trace a social history of urban Wolof from its origins in the island city of Saint-Louis du Sngal. I argue that the nature of early contact between African and European populations in the 18th century and the later role played by the mtis or mixedrace population of the island as linguistic brokers were not conducive to the formation of a creole, but led instead to the maintenance of Wolof, albeit a Wolof with French borrowings which subsequently became a prestigious urban way of speaking. The third question considers the ways in which Dakar Wolof shapes and is shaped by the social environment in which it spoken. Here I trace the way in which Dakar Wolof, as an urban vernacular and national lingua franca, has contributed to the emergence of a post-ethnic urban identity that fundamentally reconfigures the ways in which people identify themselves. Fiona Mc Laughlin is an associate professor of African Linguistics in the Department of Languages, Literatures, & Cultures and the Linguistics program and affiliate faculty in the Center for African Studies. The research for this project was funded by a Humanities Scholarship Enhancement Award from the College of Liberal Arts & Sciences (2007) and an SSRC/NEH/ACLS International and Area Studies Fellowship from the American Council of Learned Societies (20082009).

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C A S R R 2009 17 FACULTY REPOR TS African Wildlife and Range Management Collection from Drs. Graham & Brian ChildPETER MAL ANCHUK I curated this impressive wildlife/ecology gift resource collection for southern Africa. The Child family has made a valuable donation of their personal papers and library to the University of Florida Libraries Africana Collection. The organizational preparation and research work has been ongoing for the last two years and the collection will become accessible during the fall of 2009. Doctoral student Theron Morgan Brown assisted me throughout. Dr. Brian Child is an associate professor in Geography & African Studies. He trained at Oxford University and has worked in various official Zimbabwean governmental and non-governmental wildlife capacities prior to his arrival at the University of Florida. Graham Child, his father, received his doctorate from the University of Cape Town and served as Zimbabwes initial governmental wildlife ecologist and subsequently as FAO forestry officer for the Botswana government advising on wildlife and land use. He then became Director of National Parks and Wild Life Management in Zimbabwe from 19711986. Their collection includes more than three hundred rare books, periodicals, government and NGO reports, many of which are sole source items within the U.S. There are another two thousand monographs, government and NGO research reports and grey literatures concerned with wildlife and game management for Zimbabwe, Zambia, Botswana, and South Africa. Maps, field notes, and interviews with other prominent African wildlife and biodiversity scholars are significant components as well. Of special note is that the collection includes nearly 25 masters and doctoral theses from African institutions. The combined collection includes resources from the mid1960s through 2005. There are seventy cubic feet of manuscript archives related to game ranching, CAMPFIRE, Luangwa Valley (Zambia), protection areas and conservation strategies. Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM), sustainable wildlife use, tourism, and the Zimbabwe Department of National Parks and Wildlife (1971-1986) are also principal components. The books and journals will be available for use by December 2009. The papers will become available in Spring 2010 and selected items may be scanned with permission from the Child family.Peter Malanchuk M.A., M.L.S., is the University Librarian for the Africana Collection and affiliate faculty with the Center for African Studies. Funding for the curation of this collection was provided by the Center for African Studies through its Department of Education Title VI grant & the University of Florida Libraries.

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18 C A S R R 2009 The Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art at the University of Florida has significant holdings of religious art from the tradition of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church (EOC), including processional and hand crosses, illustrated manuscripts and healing scrolls, icons and mural paintings. In recent months I have worked to resolve some questions surrounding one of the Ethiopian mural paintings in the museums collection, which is so heavily damaged that it cannot presently be exhibited at the museum. Like most EOC mural paintings, it was painted on cotton cloth that was then pasted to the walls of a church. The painting measures 7 ft. 6 in. by 9 ft. 11 in. and portrays the Holy Trinity as three identical haloed, robed men with white hair and beards. These figures are surrounded by the four beasts that support the throne of God and 24 crowned and winged bust-length figures representing the elders of the Apocalypse (Ezekiel 1:10 and Revelations 4:4-7). Restoration: On the Trail of the Artist Behind An Ethiopian Painting of the Holy Trinity REBECCA MARTIN NAGY All elements of the design are rendered in bright, saturated colors and heavily outlined in black. In 2005, Karen French, a painting conservator at Baltimores Walters Art Museum, conducted an initial analysis of the painting and made a preliminary proposal for treatment. In 2008, conservator Rustin Levenson, who like French has expertise in restoring mural paintings, prepared a proposal for treatment based on her examination of the painting at the Harn in the context of a workshop for graduate students in the universitys Museum Studies program. Prior to this year I had concluded that the painting dates to the midtwentieth century and had tentatively narrowed the region of its production to the northern highlands of Ethiopia. Among those I consulted about the painting were older Ethiopian artists trained in the EOC, but until recently no helpful leads developed. A turning point came when Curator of African Art Susan Cooksey and I were working with a young Washington DC-based artist, Daniel Berhanemeskel, on the acquisition of one of his icon paintings for the museums collection. Daniel comes from a distinguished lineage of church painters in Aksum in northern Ethiopia, which includes his great grandfather Aleqa Yohannes Teklu (c. 1883-1978) and his father Berhanemeskel Fisseha (b. 1947). Daniel kindly agreed to send photographs of our Trinity mural to his father in hopes that he might help us to identify the artist. When Daniel saw the photographs he remarked with surprise that the style of the mural resembles early works by his father. Indeed, when Berhanemeskel Fisseha received the photographs he confirmed that the Harns Trinity mural is his own work from around 40 years ago. Although he does not recall the specific church for which he painted the mural, he says it was probably in or near the city of Adigrat, east of Aksum in the old Agame region, now part of Tigray. My work on the Trinity mural will now focus on interviewing the artist to learn more about its origins, technique, style and iconography, and on securing the resources for its restoration.Rebecca Martin Nagy is director of the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art at the University of Florida and affiliate with the Center for African Studies. Since 2001 she has been conducting research in Ethiopia, primarily on the work of contemporary artists based in Addis Ababa. Her research culminated in the exhibition Continuity and Change: Three Generations of Ethiopian Artists, which she co-curated with Professor Achamyeleh Debela of North Carolina Central University. The exhibition, accompanied by a publication of the same name, opened at the Harn and traveled to the Diggs Gallery at WinstonSalem State University in North Carolina in 2007.

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C A S R R 2009 19 FACULTY REPOR TS My current research portfolio includes projects focusing on optimizing building performance parameters using selected examples from the East African context. The major initiatives supported by various National Science Foundation (NSF) grants include a workshop held in on May 2021, 2009, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, on advancing the structural use of earthbased brick, ongoing investigations of adaptations that can be made to existing earth bricks to improve their hygrothermal performance in hot and humid climates, and a continuing program for graduate and undergraduate students to carry out research in construction engineering technologies. The workshop in Dar es Salaam provided both a national and international forum for researchers in earth-based technologies and experts from closely aligned disciplines to discuss the fundamental structural and durability performance parameters of earth-based bricks. The workshop was held in collaboration with Tanzanias National Housing Building Research Association, AQE Associates, the National Environmental Management Council and Ardhi University in Dar es Salaam. The NSF Small Grants for Exploratory Research (SGER) program provided funding for a two-week field trip to Tanzania in February 2009, for development of a project on optimizing the hygrothermal performance of earth bricks in hot and humid climates. Finally, the NSF: IRES project on global perspectives on engineering sustainable building systems once again provided opportunities for student research in construction engineering technologies in partnership with professors from the University of Nairobi at selected sites in Kenya and Tanzania. There were six student participants in 2008 and four in 2009. The themes that have been investigated so far include ecological building materials and water purification strategies.Esther Obonyo is an assistant professor in UFs M.E. Rinker School of Building Construction and affiliate faculty in the Center for African Studies. She is the principal investigator (PI) for the three NSF grants supporting the projects described in this article. Her co-PIs on the NSF workshop grant are Derreck Tate and Lakshmi Reddi. Her co-PI on the NSF-IRES grant is Robert Ries. Optimizing Building Performance Parameters: The East African ContextESTHER OBONY O

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20 C A S R R 2009 Youth Culture, Islam and Democracy in West AfricaSUSAN O BRIEN In July, I spent an exciting three weeks in northern Nigeria with Saman Piracha and Alexander Johnson, who are masters students in UFs Documentary Film Institute. It was my first taste of life as a film producer as I was helping to create a documentary on youth culture, Islam and democracy in West Africa that will be submitted as an MA thesis by Piracha and Johnson in May 2010. are dominant. As part of its broader effort to sanitize society in line with sharia implementation, the Kano state government has censored song lyrics, arrested musicians and film stars, and insisted on Muslim Hausa authenticity in the arts. In the courts and in their artistic production, musicians and filmmakers have resisted these measures and in so doing they are shaping public debate about what it means to retain Islamic identity and values in a modern democracy. Johnson and Piracha followed their time in Nigeria with a week in Senegal with UF professor Fiona McLaughlin where they interviewed and filmed several musicians and artists. It is our hope that the final product will be a resource and tool for educators, students, and the general public in understanding the many facets of Islam in West Africa.Susan OBrien is an assistant professor in the Department of History and the Center for African Studies. Support for this project was provided by an Social Science Research Council (SSRC) Academia in the Public Sphere grant to CAS and the Documentary Institute at the University of Florida. The film profiles two very different Muslim West African contexts, northern Nigeria and Senegal, to give viewers a sense of the diversity of Islam and democracy within the region. The project draws on the scholarly strengths of its three CAS faculty producers (OBrien on the politics of sharia implementation in Nigeria; Villaln on democratization in Francophone West Africa; and African linguistics professor Fiona McLaughlin on popular culture and Islam), but was also shaped by the research, interests, and story ideas of the young filmmakers Piracha and Johnson. In Nigeria, the filmmakers focused on the recent emergence of hip hop music and the continued growth of the Hausa film industry in the northern city of Kano. Young musicians and film actors face government censorship and popular ambivalence about Western and Hindi cultural influences in a society where conservative interpretations of Islam

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C A S R R 2009 21 FACULTY REPOR TS Claudia and Jack spent most of July to August 2009 as visiting professors in the Department of Environmental Science at Rhodes University in Grahamstown, South Africa. While they were teaching and interacting with researchers, their 11-year-old son, Antonio, attended Graeme College where, instead of playing soccer and goofing around, he ended up studying Xhosa and playing wing for the schools rugby team. Encouragement to apply for the visiting professorship regularly offered by Rhodes University came from research collaborations with Sheona Shackleton and James Gambiza that she established 10 years ago when the couple spent a sabbatical year in Zimbabwe. During their recent stay in Grahamstown, their network of research partners was expanded by their frequent interactions with other faculty and students in Environmental Science and other departments including Botany, Environmental Education, Geography, and Economics. Claudia coordinated a Journal Club discussion with Honors and graduate students on the topic of evaluation of conservation projects. Jacks interactions with honor students in Botany and his public lectures focused on the ecological/social/economic tradeoffs inherent in conservation interventions. They found both the university (6000 students) and Grahamstown as a whole (population 125,000) to be extremely accessible and friendly. Most of Claudia and Jacks activities centered on the topic of global climate change as it relates to South Africa, especially the spectacular Eastern Cape Province. One module they ran with Environmental Science students was a prototype of the Carbon Clinic on which they have been working for the past year. Although neither Claudia nor Jack have much experience in semi-arid ecosystems and were entirely new to South Africa, their hosts appreciated Collaborations with Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South AfricaJACK PUTZ & CL AUDIA ROMER O their insights and curiosity. Of particular interest in the Eastern Cape region is the fate of thicket, a nearly impenetrable endemic ecosystem dominated by succulent trees and spinescent lianas except where decimated by wild elephants or domestic goats. Their visit culminated with two keynote presentations at the Thicket Forum, a regional meeting of researchers, property managers, and governmental officials concerned about thicket conservation and restoration. Although the visit of the RomeroPutz family was relatively short, they were in residence long enough to build some strong ties and fully expect to continue working in the region. Claudia and Jack already serve on several M.S. and Ph.D. committees and are writing a policy brief on climate change mitigation options for a series published by the Department of Environmental Science. Reciprocal visits to UF by Rhodes faculty and students are already planned and a formal exchange agreement is in the works. Claudia Romero and Francis E. Jack Putz are courtesy professor of biology and professor of biology, respectively, as well as affiliates of the Center for African Studies at the University of Florida.

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22 C A S R R 2009 The Martin Rikli Photo Albums: A Snapshot of Ethiopia Circa 1935D ANIEL REBOUSSIN I worked with the George A. Smathers Libraries Digital Library Center staff this summer to digitize and provide contextual metadata for about 900 photographic prints relating to Ethiopia (coinciding with the Second Italo-Abyssinian War of 1935-36) in the Martin Rikli Photographs collection. Our partner in the cooperative effort to acquire this unique collection has been the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art. Harn Director Dr. Rebecca Nagy originally viewed these albums in Munich in 2004, and after consulting colleagues at the Museum fur Vlkerkunde there, contributed Harn funds to jointly purchase them along with the Libraries Africana Collection. These albums may have been a gift to members of an official German delegation whose voyage it documents. Germany was one of only a few countries to assist and arm Ethiopia against the impending attack by Mussolinis forces in 1935, despite their membership in the League of Nations. The photographs depict a passenger ship voyage from Marseilles through the Suez Canal to Aden and Djibouti, followed by a railway trip to Addis Ababa. The cultural and physical settings of rural and urban areas of Ethiopia are documented, including images of Emperor Haile Selassie I, his family and court, state ceremonies, dinners at the Gibbi palace, a number of government and religious assemblies, diplomats and their families. Schools, shops, market and street activities, rural villages and landscapes (including aerial images of a variety of locales) and Ethiopians in a wide variety of situations are included. The official opening of a military training school (the cole de Guerre Haile Selassie I at Gannat) in April 1935 is documented, along with the general mobilization of soldiers and other preparations for war. Later prints depict the consequences of war: refugees, looters, burning buildings, corpses in the streets of Addis Ababa, a withdrawal of European expatriates to temporary camps outside of the city, followed by images of the Italian occupation including officers and troops both working and in repose after a long campaign as well as in formal parades and official ceremonies. A few posted signs, announcements, general orders and otherwise distributed official communications from the Italian military are also reproduced. The quality, subject matter and historical moment of the creation of these images combine to make their potential use extremely broad and their value in any number of academic projects high. Dr. Martin Rikli was among the best known instructional and documentary filmmakers in Germany during the 1920s through the 1940s. He worked for Zeiss Ikon as well as Ufa and Gorch Fock (Kriegsmarine) from 1934 is probably his best-known film. A detailed finding aid with additional contextual information is available online at: http://web.uflib.ufl.edu/spec/ manuscript/guides/rikli.htm The original still photographic albums are located in the Libraries Manuscripts collection (Special and Area Studies Collections). Digital surrogates of the entire contents of four albums and accompanying manuscripts and ephemera are now available online to the public in UF Digital Collections (Photographs of Africa).Daniel A. Reboussin, Ph.D., is assistant librarian for African Studies and Anthropology at the University of Florida. Funding for this project was provided by the Center for African Studies through its U.S. Department of Education NRC Title VI grant.

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C A S R R 2009 23 FACULTY REPOR TS This summer I spent a month in Mali, where I pursued my research on African fashion. I worked in three cities: Bamako, the capital, and Timbuktu and Djenne, cities famous for their rich histories as centers of trade and Islamic scholarship. I investigated two embroidery traditions as part of my research on the countrys art and fashion markets. Each of these styles of embroidery is associated with a specific garment and a specific form of male status. One style, used to make large robes called tilbi, is closely linked to the status of piousness and elderhood in the Sahel. Tilbi have been adorned with the same symbolic abstract motifs for over a century, yet skilled embroiderers still innovate within the restrictions of longstanding custom. The other type of embroidery, called Ghana Boy or Bambara embroidery, is completely different in its appearance and intention. Tunics embroidered in this style date to the 1960s and s, when they were created by young men who traveled to Ghana as labor migrants. They are adorned with fanciful figures, airplanes, motorcycles, and bold colorful patterns, and they are associated with the special status of young male adventurers who return home with exotic goods and stories. These two styles of dress provide insights into creativity, conceptions of status, and the ways in which artists and consumers negotiate the balance between precedent and innovation. In Timbuktu, I interviewed embroiderers and, on behalf of UFs Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art, I negotiated the commission of a tilbi that exemplifies the citys classic embroidery style from the important embroiderer Baba Djitteye. The robe will be featured in a 2010 exhibition, along with documentation from my work with Djitteye. In Djenne, I interviewed and documented the work of two embroiderers who still make garments in the Ghana Boy style, which has largely fallen out of use. In both cities, I also spoke with authorities on local culture and history. In Bamako, the countrys capital and home to a small network of professional fashion designers, I pursued my research on a fashion market that intersects with Western fashion (unlike the tilbi and Ghana Boy embroidery, which dont share the same market as Bamakos professional designers). I met with and interviewed designers, artists, consumers, and experts on Malis clothing traditions. I also made use of the countrys national archives, viewed collections, and presented a lecture on my embroidery research to an audience of Malians and expatriates under the auspices of the U.S. Embassys Public Affairs Office. African Fashion: Innovation, Social Status, and Tradition in MaliVICT ORIA RO VINE This research is one element of a larger project focused on clothing as an art form that moves garments, dress styles, and images readily cross cultural boundaries and conceptual categories. As they move, clothing styles are often transformed as artists and consumers adapt them to new functions in new markets. I have conducted research on fashion produced by Africans, and on Africas influence on Western fashion in both historical and contemporary contexts. I have found that clothing, whether in Timbuktu or in Paris, provides significant insights into shifting identities and conceptions of distant cultures.Victoria L. Rovine is an associate professor in the School of Art and Art History and the Center for African Studies. Her research was made possible by funding from a UF Faculty Enhancement Opportunity Award and the Pasold Research Fund.

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24 C A S R R 2009 Heritage Tourism: Sustainability and Capacity Building in Northwestern TanzaniaPETER SCHMIDT During August of 2009, I traveled to northwestern Tanzania with two students, Rachel Iannelli and Malia Billman, to conduct preliminary research into the capacity of institutions in Kagera Region to sustain heritage tourism. This research had four primary components: 1) investigation into local capacity to undertake and sustain heritage tourism in partnership with American tour companies; 2) inquiry into the attitudes and receptivity of American tour companies to expand their vision and itineraries to include a well designed and organized heritage tourism in northwestern Tanzania; 3) perspective on the attitudes of foreign tourists, mostly Americans and Europeans, about heritage themes and destinations of interest, including those visited in Kagera Region; and 4) development of local capacity to sustain heritage destinations of significant global interest, regardless of local infrastructural development in the local tour industry. These multiple objectives were funded by a CIBER grant from the Business School at the University of Florida. Rachel Iannelli and Malia Billman constructed a survey instrument to plumb the interests of American companies in heritage destinations that differ from the trite Masai village experience or the Spice Tour in Zanzibar. Their chief finding was that American company representatives are very suspicious of any inquiries, rebuffing most discussions, and preferring to operate within the limitations that have constrained the development of a more robust heritage tourism in East Africa. While in Bukoba, Malia Billman worked inside the only significant local tour company in the region, to better understand the connections that this company had with American counterparts and other international connections. In addition, Rachel and Malia participated in a number of cultural and heritage tours conducted by this local company to assess tourists reactions to the effectiveness of the tours as well as assess the historical accuracy of information discussed by guides during the tours. The results of these investigations were both informative and provide clear guideposts for future development of heritage tours by foreign companies into the region. Our preliminary findings suggest that the local tour company pays relatively little attention to the evaluations that its clients complete after each tour, contributing to repeated mistakes and numerous, easily rectified complaints. This finding suggests that mechanisms for self-assessment and improvement do not meet international standards for handling high-end boutique tourism with well-educated clients holding high expectations for good value in destinations. Another important finding is that the managerial capacity for interaction with and delivery of services to international clients, e.g., American and European owned tour companies, is not adequate to meet international standards in terms of local transport, timely organization, and sufficient background information. This suggests that opportunities exist for other tour companieslocal and foreignto enter into partnerships to fill a special need in this sector. Peter Schmidt is a professor in the Department of Anthropology and affiliate faculty in the Center for African Studies. His research was made possible by funding from UFs Center for International Business Education & Research (CIBER).

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C A S R R 2009 25 FACULTY REPOR TS main economic sector. Finally, cotton sector reforms raise some very fundamental questions about the balance of responsibilities between the state, the private sector and cotton farmers associations; about the trade-off between market competition and coordination; and about the type of rural development envisaged for the vast areas concerned. Given the high and multiple stakes in these delicate decisions, the study of cotton sectors in these three African countries is expected to yield invaluable insights into the role of collective values, informal institutions and local political realities in supporting (or alternatively contrasting) different solutions and arrangements for the sector. As a research coordinator for this project, I spent a considerable amount of time in the last months to identify research teams in the three countries, think about the most appropriate methodology for pursuing our research questions, and start fieldwork. I am very pleased I can rely now on a solid network of cotton experts, almost all of whom are West African nationals. Other key collaborators for the project are: Bourma Kone in Mali (Institut dEconomie Rural Bamako, Mali), for the Burkina Faso team: Dr. Jonathan Kaminski (Department of Agricultural Economics and Management, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel) and Dr. Yiriyibin Bambio (Department of Economics, University of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso); and for the Benin team: Dr. Borgui Yerima (Laboratoire dAnalyse Rgionale et dExpertise Sociale, LARES, Cotonou) and Fabien Affo (Laboratoire dEtudes et de Recherches sur les Dynamiques Sociales et le Dveloppement Local, LASDEL, Parakou, and Department of Sociology and Anthropology at Universit dAbomey-Calavi). In order to foster collaboration within and across teams and give more visibility to the project locally, I organized a workshop in Bamako, Mali, on May 18-19, to I which I invited my collaborators from the three countries, as well as a number of key stakeholders in the Malian cotton sector. This was an excellent opportunity not only for us researchers to exchange information on research progress and decide on the next steps, but also to participate in, and witness, some hot debates on policies, reform principles and underlying ideologies. Besides organizing and attending the workshop, I spent the rest of my time in Mali this year conducting The objective of this research is to identify governance that works within African productive sectors, by examining the potential role of hybrid institutional arrangements and unconventional reform paradigms as a valuable and recognizable resource for development. It does so by undertaking a comparative study of recent and/or ongoing reforms taking place in the cotton sectors of Benin, Burkina Faso, and Mali and examining the complex relationship between reform policies, the dynamics of social norms and institutions, and developmental outcomes. This project represents one of the research streams undertaken by the African Power and Politics Program (APPP), a research consortium funded between several research institutions and individuals spread across three continents, and of which the Center for African Studies is the only US-based institutional partner. The main objective of the APPP is to produce research that contributes to a better understanding of how formal and informal institutions work and interact in African societies; examines how local norms, practices, and beliefs may positively shape development policies and outcomes; and, ultimately, change perceptions about modalities of good governance in Africa. I chose to focus on this particular productive sector for several reasons. First, having done research in Mali for several years, I am aware not only that cotton is a main economic export for this and neighboring countries, sustaining millions of small-holders and their families livelihoods, but also that it shapes much of rural life, defining collective identity, pride and beliefs. The distinctive know-how and the established practices around cotton production and allied activities, which are found both within rural villages and in the relationship with extension agents and decentralized government authorities, represent a set of collective resources that merit to be closely examined. Second, cotton reforms are still current or very recent events in the three chosen countries, thus providing an excellent opportunity to witness in real time how various powers and interests play into these countries Institutions, Power and Norms in African Cotton ReformsRENATA SERRA continued on page 26

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26 C A S R R 2009 some fieldwork, which was then continued by my Malian team, locally coordinated by a researcher based at the Institut dEconomie Rural. At the village level, we conducted both focus group discussions with cotton farmer cooperatives, and individual interviews with farmers, extension agents, and other key local actors. We found there is a surprising variety across villages in the types of issues farmer cooperatives face, such as high debt, a collapse of trust and cooperation, and inadequate access to extension and training. The set of resources available to each village to surmount these difficulties seem also to vary, yielding a more complex picture of the actual situation in cotton areas than that often portrayed in the capital. We also conducted fieldwork in Bamako, where we interviewed key stakeholders in the government, producer organizations and civil society, heard their positions in the reform debate and their views about cotton sector directions and prospects, and discussed political realities and influences, social norms and values. There are definitely positive forces for change in the Malian landscape that are not properly harnessed by those who seem to make most of the decisions. The next objective for the project will be not only to continue to observe how things evolve in Mali in the immediate future, when a number of important steps will be taken, but also to compare the situation in Mali with that in Burkina Faso and Benin, in order to learn about other countries experiences of dealing with similar issues, and ways in which solutions may, or may not, emerge from within existing collective resources and values. Veronique Theriault, a doctoral student in UFs Food and Resource Economics Department, is assisting with this project and came with me to Mali last May. If you want to know what she thinks about this experience, check out her description in the student section of this report!Renata Serra is a Lecturer in the Center for African Studies. The research described is part of a larger project on African Power and Politics (APP), which is funded by a grant from the United Kingdoms Department for International Development (DFID) and Irish Aid to a consortium of which CAS is an institutional member. For more information, go to the APPP website, www.institutions-africa.org.

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C A S R R 2009 27 FACULTY REPOR TS and I interviewed the heads of local households, asking about their economic wellbeing and how it was affected by the emphasis on tourism. Positive effects include employment by hotels and other businesses that serve tourists. But there are also negative effects, often involving interactions with protected wildlife. Elephants can destroy crops, while other animals attack livestock, and even sometimes humans. The research teams collected data on such conflicts between humans and wildlife, as well as conducted about 1,300 detailed household surveys. The study makes four key contributions to our understanding of rural economies in southern Africa. It investigates how well trade theory explains the effects of tourism on poverty and inequality in rural regions, assesses the effects of nature tourism on poverty and inequality, investigates how experiences of rural development strategies are influenced by community organization and empowerment, and uses an iterative, mixed methodology to explore the impacts of export-led rural development strategies at multiple scales. The project will thus enhance our understanding of the dynamics driving rural development in countries such as Namibia and Mozambique. Research results will also be integrated into teaching at all three universities. For more information, see the project website (www.clas.ufl.edu/users/jasilva/ project/index.html).Julie A. Silva is an assistant professor in the Department of Geography and the Center for African Studies. Her research was funded by an NSF CAREER grant, a program that supports faculty in early career development. Nature-Based Tourism as a Rural Development Strategy in Southern AfricaJULIE SIL VA As an economic geographer, I look at the effects of trade on poverty and inequality and my main current project examines nature-based tourism as a rural development strategy in southern Africa. Many African countries have tried to boost their economies by emphasizing agricultural exports. Because this has had limited success, governments are looking increasingly to tourism as a source of growth. My study looks at Namibia and Mozambique, which have tried to emphasize nature tourism: tourists coming to see wildlife and the natural environment, and some others coming to hunt large animals such as lions and elephants. Namibia is a pioneer of using community-based nature tourism as a development strategy, while Mozambique has more recently embarked on this. This study asks how nature tourism affects poverty and inequality in Namibia and Mozambique at the regional, community, and household levels, while also accounting for environmental, economic, and cultural diversity between and within countries. The study involves collaboration between the University of Florida, the University of Namibia (UNAM), and the Pedagogical University of Mozambique (UP). From February to August 2009, working with professors and students from UNAM and UP, I conducted four case studies: two in Namibia and two in Mozambique. In each case study area, my research teams

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28 C A S R R 2009 AIM for Africa: RwandaJILL SONKE The UF Center for the Arts in Healthcares AIM for Africa initiatives create cultural bridges between the arts and healthcare in the U.S. and African nations. In March of 2009, UF students and faculty spent two weeks in Rwanda implementing programs in a government-built genocide survivor village and in two regional health clinics. The primary goals of the initiative were: 1) to provide relevant education to healthcare professionals and lay healthcare providers in the Rugerero Survivor Village and surrounding region; 2) to use theatre and the visual arts to enhance health literacy and community engagement in the Rugerero region; 3) to use the arts to enhance familiarity with and utilization of health services in the Rugerero region; and 4) to create and present to Florida audiences a theatre production utilizing international exchange and dialogue, and exploring relevant social issues. Two CAHRE faculty members, along with four student members of the College of Fine Arts International Fine Arts for Healing (IFAH) organization, four UF School of Theatre & Dance theatre majors, and two UF College of Nursing graduate students, traveled to Rwanda to implement the projects in partnership with the Red Cross of the Western Region of Rwanda, the Barefoot Artists, Engineers without Borders, Jefferson Health, and the Rwandan Village Concept Project. While the actors used playback and improvisational theatre techniques to help residents tell their stories of survival, loss and healing, the art and nursing students collaborated with local partners to undertake significant health education projects, such as murals, in two primary clinics and several health outposts, several area schools, and in the village. The health and health education projects focused on nutrition, hygiene, HIV prevention, and womens empowerment. Upon their return, the actors were joined by other theatre students and, working under the direction of Dr. Mikell Pinkney, created a full-evening work reflecting the cross-cultural collaboration and learning that took place in Rwanda. The performance piece reflected the students experiences in Rwanda and related them to cultural issues of violence and healing in Rwanda as well as in the United States. The piece was presented in a variety of venues in the Gainesville community, including the Alachua Juvenile Detention Center, Shands Hospital, and a 6-day run at the McGuire Blackbox Theatre, to spur awareness of the potential for violence and for healing in any society. The AIM for Africa Rwanda project will continue through 2010 with extended residencies in Rugerero by healthcare providers, artists, and faculty and students from the UF School of Architecture who will lead the building of a health clinic in Rugerero Village. For more information, see www.arts.ufl.edu/ CAHRE/aimrwanda.asp.Jill Sonke is Director of the Center for the Arts in Healthcare Research and Education (CAHRE) as well as Assistant Director of Shands Arts in Medicine program. The AIM for Africa Rwanda project was supported through funding from the Florida Division of Cultural Affairs and the UF Center for World Arts, and undertaken in partnership with Barefoot Artists, the UF School of Theatre and Dance, Shands Arts in Medicine, Jefferson Health, Engineers without Borders, and the Rwandan Village Concept Project.

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C A S R R 2009 29 FACULTY REPOR TS Dr. Anita Spring has been researching African entrepreneurs from micro to global and now has carried out research in ten countries on the subject, adding countries annually but analyzing data already collected. For the study, she went once each to Botswana, Kenya, Mozambique, Senegal, and Tanzania; twice to Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, and Uganda; and three times to South Africa. She also interviewed global entrepreneurs from Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe outside their countries. She mapped out the entrepreneurial landscape in the formal and informal sectors in a variety of publications. The landscape consists of micro to large informal-sector vendors and traders; formal-sector small to medium to large companies; and global businesspersons who refer to themselves as the new generation of African entrepreneurs (NGAEs). African Entrepreneurs: From Micro to Global ANITA SPRING In one case study, Spring detailed two-fold data from South Africa to show an end-point of success for the inclusion of female and black entrepreneurs and businesspersons in the formal sector in decisionmaking capacities. The Business Womens Association became multi-racial and gained support from the Johannesburg Stock Exchange, major corporations, Business Partners, Inc., banks, and state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Its annual census of women in the work force (especially managers and company board members and directors) has become a powerful indicator in the country (what gets measured gets done). The South African governments Black Economic Empowerment program requires and measures advances for blacks and women in formalsector private companies and SOEs, and results show widespread compliance and inclusion. Starting in 2007, Spring also began researching Chinese entrepreneurs in Africa focusing on Ghana, Mozambique, and Tanzania, while considering trends in other countries in terms of Chinese centralgovernment funded development assistance projects, Chinese provincial contracts and for-profit endeavors, and individual/family Chinese private-sector entrepreneurs (many of whom believe the continent presents opportunities). Chinas non-interference in African politics, construction of large and small infrastructures (railways, roads, dams, government buildings, stadium, hospitals), and exports of inexpensive manufactured products have found favor with governments and local people. However, Chinese entrepreneurial activities generate direct competition with African businesses and entrepreneurs, and Springs current research focuses on the reality of Chinese-African business interactions, competition strategies, and outcomes. Dr. Spring is Professor Emerita in the Department of Anthropology and affiliate faculty in the Center for African Studies. Funding for these activities came from an Opportunity Research Grant, UFs Center for International Business & Education Research, the Center for African Studies, and USAID. Some of her findings are: (1) informal sector and more traditional formal-sector entrepreneurs have more enterprise diversification than NGAEs to protect against risk; (2) women in both the informal and formal sectors have more kin than men in their business networks, but also utilize business associations effectively; (3) there is upward mobility between sector categories for men and women entrepreneurs due to the requirements of education, capital, and networks to move upward; (4) there are few gender differences for the globalists who have similar education, formal-sector work experience, types of enterprises, and association memberships; and (5) entrepreneurial women and men differ from salaried personnel because they have taken risks and created businesses while others only dream of doing so.

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30 C A S R R 2009 HIV Spread in Central and East AfricaANDREW T ATEM & MARC O SALEMI ADAPTED FR OM ORIGINAL ARTICLE WRITTEN BY JOHN D P AST OR Scientists studying biology and geography may seem worlds apart, but together they have answered a question that has defied explanation about the spread of the HIV-1 epidemic in Africa. Writing in the September issue of AIDS, a research team led by scientists at the University of Florida explained why two subtypes of HIV1the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDSheld steady at relatively low levels for more than 50 years in west central Africa before erupting as an epidemic in east Africa in the 1970s. Essentially, the explanation for the HIV explosionobscured until nowinvolves the relative ease with which people can travel from city to city in east Africa as opposed to the difficulties faced by people living in the population centers of the Democratic Republic of Congo, the point where HIV emerged from west central Africa in its spread to the east. We live in a world that is more interconnected every day, and we have all seen how pathogens such as HIV or the swine flu virus can arise in a remote area of the planet and quickly become a global threat, said Marco Salemi, an assistant professor of pathology, immunology, and laboratory medicine at the UF College of Medicine and senior author of the study. Understanding the factors that can lead to a fullscale pandemic is essential to protect our species from emerging dangers. Investigators used databases, including GenBank from the National Center for Biotechnology Information, as well as actual DNA samples, including samples recently collected in Ugandathe vicinity where HIV entered east Africato follow the virus molecular footprints since its emergence in the 1920s. Researchers wanted to know why, the virus smoldered during the 1950s and 1960s, before spreading like wildfire through east Africa in the 1970s. A fateful piece of the puzzle came in the form of geographic information system data, which uses satellite imagery and painstakingly takes into account the availability and navigability of roads between population centers, transportation modes, elevation, climate, terrain and other factors that influence travel. We were able to use geographic data to interpret the genetic data, said Andrew J. Tatem, an assistant professor of geography in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and a member of UFs Emerging Pathogens Institute. Genetic data showed once HIV moved out of the Democratic Republic of Congo, it expanded fast and moved rapidly across Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania, all while staying at low levels in the DRC. What was happening was the virus was circulating at stable levels in the urban centers of the DRC, but these centers were isolated. Once it hit east Africa, connectivity between population centers combined with better quality transportation networks, and higher rates of human movement caused HIV to spread exponentially. If we can predict the specific routes of an epidemic, we can find the geographic regions more at risk and target these areas with medical intervention and strategies for prevention, Salemi said. In terms of health-care applications, coupling genetic analysis with geographic information systems can give us a powerful tool to understand the spread of pathogens and contain emerging epidemics. Working with Maureen M. Goodenow, the Stephany W. Holloway university chair for AIDS research at the UF College of Medicine, UF researchers collaborated with an array of scientists hailing from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the Rakai Health Sciences Program and Makerere University of Uganda, and the Johns Hopkins University.Andrew Tatem is an assistant professor in the Department of Geography and a member of the UF Emerging Pathogens Institute. Marco Salemi is an assistant professor of pathology, immunology, and laboratory medicine in the College of Medicine at UF.

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C A S R R 2009 31 FACULTY REPOR TS Formalizing School: Religion and the Education Sector in the SahelLEONARDO A VILL AL N In much of Africa (and perhaps especially in Francophone Africa), the educational systems that were inherited from colonialism and largely maintained since then have been a very poor fit with societal demands and cultural realities, and this is at least part of the reason for the widespread failure of educational policies, as measured by such things as literacy and school enrollment rates. For many parents, sending children to the official state schools carries significant risks of uprooting them culturally and morally from their society, while presenting rather minimal advantages (the chances of having a child make it all the way through to a diploma and a job are very small). Across the Muslim majority countries of the Sahel, one response to this bad fit between the provision of public education and social and parental expectations was the development of a vast parallel system of informal religiously-based education, outside the official state system, and created largely in explicit response to the limitations of the state educational system. These unofficial schools are widely varied, ranging from very basic Quranic schools to quite sophisticated Franco-Arabic schools. Strikingly, a number of factors in recent years have prompted several countries in the region to embark on experiments in reforming education, both by attempting to bring the informal religious schools more squarely into the state system and at times by reforming the formal state system to borrow characteristics from the informal, such as the introduction of religious education. In collaboration with Mahaman Tidjani Alou of the Universit Abdou Moumouni and the Laboratoire dEtudes et de Recherche sur les Dynamiques Sociales et le Dveloppement Local (LASDEL) in Niger, and with the additional participation of recent UF Ph.D. Abdourahmane Idrissa, we are engaged in a comparative examination of the reform processes in three countriesNiger, Mali and Senegalall of which are fairly well advanced in the implementation of reforms. These reform processes are largely driven by the argument that bringing educational institutions more into line with local social realities and expectations will help to make things work better by creating systems that will work with social and cultural realities rather than against them. The research project is organized around three basic questions: 1) Why have these reform processes been undertaken at this historical juncture? 2) How has reform proceeded? And, 3) What are the emerging or likely outcomes of these reforms? The fieldwork, carried out with the help of research assistants in each country, involves documenting official state actions, as well as interviews with a wide range of actors: state officials involved in the process; social groups both in favor and against these reforms, including religious and secular NGOs; officials in the ministries of education and in the state education bureaucracy, and school principles and teachers involved in the process. We are also interviewing a sample of parents of students in schools in each country, and carrying out ethnographic observation in the new reformed schools. This collaborative project grows out of my broader research project on how aspects of democracy are being negotiated in the Muslim social contexts of the three countries. The educational reform projects represent one aspect of the more significant and profound long term transformations that have been sparked by the ongoing experimentation with democracy in these African Muslim countries.Leonardo A. Villaln is director of the Center for African Studies and associate professor of Political Science. In 2007, he was named a Carnegie Fellow by the Carnegie Corporation of New York for research on a project entitled Negotiating Democracy in Muslim Contexts: Political Liberalization and Religious Mobilization in the West African Sahel. The collaboration with Mahaman Tidjani Alou on educational reform is part of the African Power and Politics program, which is funded by the United Kingdoms Department for International Development (DFID) and Irish Aid as part of a consortium project of which both CAS and LASDEL are members.

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32 C A S R R 2009 In the course of working on a book on the history of the Rhodesian state during its renegade independence (1965-80), I became very interested in the history of universal suffrage and how one man, one vote became the natural logic of decolonization. With funds from the Center for Humanities and the Public Sphere at UF and the Center for African Studies, I was able to organize a small workshop here in April 2009, to bring South Asian historians together with those of Anglophone and Francophone Africa. The discussion was terrific, but made me realize that suffrage was only part of the question; the very mechanics of voting was also critical. Unpopular Sovereignty: Rhodesian Independence and African DecolonizationLUISE WHITE With the help of a CLAS Humanities Enhancement summer award, I was able to go to Zimbabwe for three weeks of research. I had hoped to find material on a quickly organized African-run referendum on Southern Rhodesias controversial 1961 constitution. I didnt find very much as most files from the early 1960s in Southern Rhodesia have not yet been accessioned in Zimbabwe. I did however find some excellent newspaper accounts, especially from the African press, that described the actual practices of the referendum in several cities. But archives are places of great riches and to my surprise I found material I had long despaired ever finding, especially some of the submissions to the 1969 constitutional commission. This was the constitution by which Rhodesia became a republic and attempted to re-invent Africans as tribal people, unconcerned with politics and policies and eager to follow their chiefs. Indeed, as the 1969 constitution was debated and drafted, tribes became races and Rhodesia was to be eventually divided into three provinces, one for Europeans, one for Ndebele, and one for Shona. The submissions that led to such a constitution were quite weird and wonderful, about why Rhodesia should not only continue to be a monarchy but should be ruled directly by the Queen, about voting rights for American Indians in the US, and projections of the extent to which republican status would impact tobacco sales. Luise White is a professor in the Department of History and affiliate faculty with the Center for African Studies at the University of Florida.

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C A S R R 2009 33 FACULTY REPOR TS Understanding Local Perceptions of Waterborne Zoonotic Disease and Its Impact on Health Behavior (Tanzania)AL YSON YOUNGMy research in northern Tanzania focuses on understanding the political ecology of resource security among agro-pastoral populations, and the impact of perceived household vulnerability on the health and wellbeing of men and women. In particular, I study local perceptions of risk for zoonotic infection and the ways that perceptions of illness and food/ water scarcity impact emotional health, decisions about the use of resources, and risk for waterborne infection. As part of this research, I spent May to July 2009, in Manyara District, Tanzania conducting ethnographic fieldwork on ethnohydrology and local ideas about animal and waterborne disease transmission. Food and water insecurity are growing problems with major health implications. Approximately 1.1 billion people worldwide lack adequate water provision and unsafe water has been linked to 80% of illnesses and 30% of deaths in developing countries (WHO, UNICEF 2000). Sub-Saharan Africa faces a particularly serious water supply crisis. It is estimated that half the population of Southern Africa does not have access to either clean water or sanitation services, and that by 2025, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania and Zimbabwe will all face critical water shortages. Unfortunately, while we grasp the physical consequences of resource scarcity, our knowledge of the emotional consequences of resource insecurity remains underdeveloped. This summer I visited several villages in rural Tanzania and talked to informants about their perceptions of resource security, beliefs about water and animal transmitted infections, and the strategies that they use to reduce their risk for illness. Perceptions of resource security varied between men and women, however most agreed that resource insecurity was becoming more common. In particular, the predictability and cost of resources was a source of distress. Many informants cited poor rains or fluctuations in the timing of rains as a challenge to securing food and water for households and animals. Disagreements over the maintenance and distribution of water supplies were also a source of concern. When pumps failed in one village, it took three weeks for local hospital and government administrators to agree about replacing the broken part. In the meantime, the village relied on a local stream for their daily water and a number of people became very ill. Perceptions of animal and waterborne diseases varied as well. While many informants cited the risks associated with unclean water and food, very few had adequate resources to consistently boil water or milk for household use. Every person interviewed had experienced at least one illness in the past month that related to unhygienic water supplies. A primary source of anxiety among informants was the combined inability to access adequate water/ food resources and the constraints on utilizing the resources they did have. Often, informants stated that they were making risky decisions by using what they considered unhealthy resources, but felt they had few options under the circumstances. The information collected this summer is being incorporated into a grant application that will be submitted to the National Science Foundation in July 2010. Alyson Young is an assistant professor in the Department of Anthropology and affiliate faculty with the Center for African Studies. This research was funded by a Humanities Scholarship Enhancement Fund grant from the University of Florida.

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34 C A S R R 2009 Ken Bugul: A Unique African Woman Novelist and Message CHRISTIAN AHIHOU During summer 2009, I traveled to Benin to conduct an interview with the African writer Ken Bugul at her home in Porto-Novo. Ken Bugul is the pseudonym used by the Senegalese writer Maritou Mbaye Biloma. Her novel Riwan ou le chemin de sable (Riwan or the Sandy Track) was awarded the 1999 prestigious literary prize Grand Prix littraire de lAfrique noire. In collaboration with my dissertation director, Dr. Carol Murphy, I prepared a questionnaire, which highlighted the two principal axes that characterize the Bugulian novels: first, her conception of the word tongue, and second, what she expresses with it in her fiction. Some of my questions follow. For example, what does emotion effectively have to do with the notion of mother tongue, a theme that she developed in her presentation at the 2009 Gwendolen M. Carter Conference hosted by the UF Center for African Studies. How did the loss of her mother, who abandoned her at a very young age, affect her choice of language or tongue as well as her writing skills? Has the loss of her mother produced in her writing a unique tongue different from that of other African women who express themselves in French? Does she worry about not being understood by her readers, since her tongue is not the admissible one in an African society in which women are not allowed to talk about everything and any way? And finally, for whom is she writing? Ken Bugul graciously welcomed all my questions, answered them fully and even went beyond my expectations. Her tongue for example is exclusively hers since she did not have any chance to learn it from anyone. On contrary, life had forced her to make it up by herself. So, she is not embarrassed at all by being understood or not. The orality in her writings is the manifestation of her will and need to hear herself while she is writing. In many ways this interview will help structure my dissertation. For the moment, I aim to write an article for publication that will convey the content of our conversation. Finally, I would like to thank the French Graduate Committee for having awarded me the Else Duelund scholarship to travel to Benin. Christian Ahihou is a doctoral student in Languages, Literatures, and Cultures studying French. Funding for his research was provided by the Else Duelund scholarship.Student Reports

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C A S R R 2009 35 STUDENT REPOR TS In Ghana, as in many countries in SubSaharan Africa, poor soil fertility is a major cause of hunger and malnutrition. Therefore, improving soil fertility is key to improving human health and well-being. Through my dissertation research, I am collaborating with smallholder farmers and scientists in the Upper West Region of Ghana. We are working together to develop locally-appropriate soil fertility management strategies. As scientists, we are aware of fundamental physical and biological processes that influence food production. Similarly, farmers possess vital experiential knowledge of their livelihood systems that we, as outsiders, lack. Both perspectives are essential to identifying and implementing environmentally and socio-economically viable farming practices. With that in mind, this summer we established two researchermanaged experiments and one on-farm experiment managed by local farmers. The researcher-managed experiments are being conducted in partnership with the Savanna Agricultural Research Institute (SARI), an agency of the Ghanaian government. Both experiments focus on characterizing pigeon pea growth and development under local climatic conditions. The results will provide important information for advising farmers on how best to grow pigeon pea in the Upper West Improving Soil Fertility Management in Northern GhanaPHILLIP ALDERMAN Region. Unlike typical on-station experiments, which utilize large amounts of irrigation and fertilizer, we tried to approximate farmer conditions as much as possible. Initially it seemed sporadic rainfall early in the season would ruin the experiments. The experience gave me an increased appreciation for the farmers concern about the shortage of rain. In the on-farm experiment, farmers, SARI scientists, and I are collaborating to determine the effects of integrated nutrient management (a combination of crop rotation and fertilizer use) on soil fertility. This year we planted three crop species: maize, peanut, and pigeon pea. Next year, all plots will be planted with maize to determine the effects of the previous crop. Small amounts of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers will also be applied to evaluate the combined effect of crop rotation and fertilization. Though previous on-farm trials in the area have generally involved between six and eight farmers, a record 15 farmers are participating this year. Farmers expressed genuine interest in the research; especially with respect to how pigeon pea might fit into their farming system. I look forward to our continuing work together.Phillip D. Alderman is a doctoral student in Agronomy. His research was funded in part through the USAID Peanut Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP). He was a CAS FLAS Fellow in 2006-07 and 2007-08 for Akan.

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36 C A S R R 2009 For the past two summers now, I have had the opportunity to work in the East Usambaras, part of the Eastern Arc mountain range and located in northeast Tanzania. This part of the world hosts unique biodiversity and poses interesting challenges in how to conserve the remaining biodiversity. It is one of 25 hotspots worldwide. Its proximity to the Indian Ocean and relative isolation from other mountains has created a continuously moist climate and rainforests that support 16 species found nowhere else. Too, this is where the African violet came from. Last summer I collected data for my masters research, which concerned governance of protected areas, specifically Village Forest Reserves (VFR). Tanzanias efforts to improve conservation and encourage local participation have been to devolve forestry rights and management. VFRs are communally owned and usually are small forest fragments within a mountainous landscape of diverse land uses. My research dealt with understanding the extent to which local community members were participating in management activities and findings were that participation is low, however perceptions of governance are still quite optimistic. People also have positive attitudes towards protected areas, which differ from many southern African narratives regarding protected areas. This year the purpose of my research fell within agricultural economics, quite a different field. However, institutions play a very important role in shaping and affecting landscape dynamics and so this informed and helped in my understanding of local Land Use Profitability in Northeast Tanzania RENEE BULLOCKconditions. My research concerned smallholder land use systems and describes these systems in economic terms, including private costs and returns. Since the introduction of cardamom a few decades ago, deforestation has increased. Cardamom is shade growing and often farmers develop a multi-crop agro-forestry system. But, as yields decline, after about 15 years, the agro-forestry system is converted to support more sun loving crops, such as annual food crops, thereby contributing to deforestation. Understanding land use dynamics and decision-making by farmers in their livelihood strategies contribute to better understanding the potential of integrated conservation strategies. Complex, improved agro-forestry, in which cardamom production is prolonged through fallowing seems feasible from a development perspective, but perhaps not from a farmers perspective. Current market mechanisms do not support sustainable farm practices. Payments for environmental services or eco-certification schemes may provide better incentives to practice improved agro-forestry that supports both rural livelihoods and conserves biodiversity. Fieldwork in this area has been challenging and rewarding, ranging from trekking through knee high mud to stunning views of mountains and the Indian Ocean. As a researcher, my hope is that my work contributes to better understandings of how people and the environment can support each other into the future. Renee Bullock is a doctoral student in the Department of Geography. Her research was funded in part through the World Agro-forestry Centre (ICRAF) in Nairobi, Kenya. She is currently a Center for African Studies FLAS fellow for Swahili.

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C A S R R 2009 37 STUDENT REPOR TS Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: Analyzing the Intergeneration Health Effects of Sexual ViolenceNIC OLE D ERRIC O For four months this summer I lived in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. My home base was in Goma, a town on the Rwandan border that sits on Lake Kivu. I carried out my research under the auspices of a HEAL Africa hospital/ NGO, where I took the first step in preparing for my dissertation research in the region. My dissertation will take a bio-cultural approach at studying the intergenerational effects of sexual violence by tracking intrauterine stress levels and corresponding birth outcomes for children conceived in violence. I worked in the maternity section of the HEAL Africa hospital, attending the birthsas a birthing doulaof survivors of sexual violence, and then following up, as a researcher. Much of my time was spent doing research on the emic meanings and dynamics of war and sexual violence. To that end, I held focus groups and individual interviews with members of the community in order to examine the effect of the use of sexual violence as a strategy of war. Time was spent not just with women survivors, but with women who have not been raped, in order to begin to understand the biological effects of this acute, on-going stressor, how the omnipresent potential that one could be raped affects us biologically, through the productionand maintenanceof stress hormones in the body. I also worked as the research consultant for HEAL Africas Safe Motherhood program. This program provides micro-grants to vulnerable women to create Solidarity Groups. In their groups, women make soap and mats to sell at the market. Their profits generate a collective Maternal Insurance Fund, which is used when a pregnant member needs to pay for prenatal or postnatal care, sometimes to travel to a health center, or for a C-section or other pregnancyrelated interventions. My research sought to understand and evaluate how the presence of Solidarity Groups in villages affected by the ongoing war impacted overall health and birth outcomes for vulnerable pregnant women. As a secondary focus, my research evaluated the effect of the program on the husband-wife dyad and on perceptions of women in the villages overall. By working with men, women, traditional birth attendants, hospital/ health center staff and regional health supervisors, the research tracked not only perceptions and opinions of the Solidarity Groups over time, but it generated epidemiologic data on numbers of women who utilized the Maternal Insurance Fund, and how this affected biological markers such as gestational age, birth weight and infant mortality. I might also mention that Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visited HEAL Africa this August while I was there, in her attempt to understand the effects of sexual violence in the region. We toured her, held interviews with survivors, and then she attended a panel discussion that concluded with a press conference.Nicole C. DErrico is pursing an MA degree in medical anthropology and a MPH in Epidemiology. Her research was partially funded by HEAL Africa. She is a 2009-10 FLAS fellow in Swahili.

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38 C A S R R 2009 Southern Africa is one of the most uncertain regions in the world with respect to projections of climate change and the response of land-use/land-cover dynamics. How vegetation phenology, structure, and composition will change with increased variability, more or less rainfall, or changes in temperature is compounded by the land-use decisions for agriculture, ranching, and settlement. Before competing and interacting drivers of climate and land use may be disentangled, effects of water availability must be accounted for in landscape change as it is considered to be the most limiting factor in a savanna environment. Landscape Dynamics and Climate Variability in the Okavango-Kwando-Zambezi Catchment of Southern AfricaANDREA GAUGHANthe local, Caprivi area but also for areas in the larger Okavango-Kwando-Zambezi catchment. Several rainfall and satellite image products were compared to land cover along a precipitation gradient stretching from the western side of Caprivi up to Mongu, the capital of the Western Province in Zambia located on the edge of the Barotse floodplain. Key informant interviews were conducted with select people to identify what types of development and growth have occurred over the past 20 years in the rural western Zambian region. In addition, training sample data and tree cores were systematically collected to inform analyses of land-use and land-cover changes in the regional catchment. All field seasons have included collaborative efforts amongst faculty and graduate students at the University of Florida as well as partners at African universities and within local communities. The overall objective of this research is to contribute to the broader knowledge of how dynamics of human and environmental factors interact in dry land socioecological systems by accounting for precipitationvegetation relationships in the Okavango-KwandoZambezi catchment. This study will contribute an applied understanding to historical environmental change necessary to look at future projections of climate change and variability and its effect on semiarid dry land vegetation both at the local and regional scale.Andrea E. Gaughan is a doctoral student in the Department of Geography and the IGERT: Adaptive Management, Water, Watersheds, and Wetlands program. Funding for her research this summer came from NASA Land-Cover/Land-Use Change Program, Earth Systems Program Grant. Savanna environments are characterized by a strong seasonal response to wet and dry seasons making quantification of initial water input, rainfall, the first step to understanding the influence of water in the system. Changes in rainfall will affect system drivers, such as soil moisture or fuel load, in turn influencing the vegetation cover ratios in semi-arid dry land ecosystems. My dissertation project focuses on spatial and temporal patterns of precipitation in part of southern Africa and the seasonal and long-term response of vegetation. The research uses geospatial analyses and field measurements to examine the response of vegetation productivity to rainfall variability at a regional catchment scale and to better understand long-term change in woody and grass land covers for a local protected area in Caprivi, Namibia. The local study area in Caprivi, Namibia is located along the woody end of the tree-grass continuum with the predominant woodland land cover resting upon a relatively homogenous substrate of Kalahari sand. Characteristic of rainfall in dry land systems, this region has experienced great fluctuations over the past century and statements collected from environmental history interviews correspond to a description of southern African rainfall variability described by Nicholson (2001). In addition to these environmental history interviews, research during the 2007 and 2008 field seasons also included focus group discussions on land-use perceptions and ground data collection for use with satellite imagery. The 2009 field season focused on validating land-cover datasets for both

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C A S R R 2009 39 STUDENT REPOR TS The 1964 Zanzibar Revolution and Its RevolutionariesANN LEE GRIMSTAD I took three brief pre-dissertation research trips this summer to examine North American sources of information on the Zanzibar Revolution. This revolution, on the nights of 11-12 January 1964, came just one month after independence was granted. There was an American presence in Zanzibar at the time, which included scholars, journalists, CIA, US consular staff, and employees of Project Mercury, a US space tracking station in Zanzibar. My first trip took me to the Michael Lofchie collection of Zanzibar Publications 1909-1965 at UCLA. Professor Lofchie wrote the seminal scholarly piece on the Zanzibar Revolution in 1965, Zanzibar: Background to Revolution. Lofchies collection includes numerous local newspapers, political pamphlets, and a 1948 social survey that has provided critical information about different social groups access to education and resources during the colonial period that preceded the revolution. Additionally, there were transcripts on the hearings held by a Commission of Inquiry into disturbances during the 1961 elections that many scholars see as a precursor to the revolution. Finally, I had informative meetings with Professor Lofchie, in which he provided me with more contacts who were in Zanzibar at the time of the revolution. I then proceeded to the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library in Austin, Texas, where all of the official US foreign policy documents about the Zanzibar Revolution are housed. LBJ came to power just months before the Zanzibar revolution, but he was kept abreast of the situation on a regular basis, in part because of Project Mercury. State Department memos mostly outline decisions about the tracking station, the evacuation of American citizens, and diplomatic relations with the new government of Zanzibar. They became more interesting when the US Consul was arrested and deported from Zanzibar by the new government. Tapes of LBJs phone conversations were among the most interesting data which clearly demonstrated Johnsons view of the situation in Zanzibar and its new revolutionary government. The President outlined important strategic reasons for recognizing this new government to the British Prime Minister, who was stalling on the issue. The length of time the US and UK waited to recognize the new Zanzibar government ended up backfiring on them, as it gave Eastern Bloc countries time to move in with support, right in the midst of the Cold War. Finally, I went to Ottawa, Canada to interview Clyde Sanger, who wrote the introduction to the autobiography of one of Zanzibars revolutionaries. Sanger was also a reporter for the Guardian in 1964, and was put under house arrest by the new government when he arrived in Zanzibar just days after the revolution. Sanger had impeccable records from the 1960s, including never-published photos of some of the revolutionaries, official Zanzibar government documents, and numerous newspaper clippings. Not only did Sanger enlighten me with his personal experience during the revolution, but he also put me in contact with other sources. The opportunities presented by interviewing principal witnesses and reviewing primary source material allowed me to develop new networks and sources for continuation of my dissertation research.Ann Lee Grimstad is a doctoral student in the Department of History and received funding from the Center for African Studies to conduct this research.

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40 C A S R R 2009 Design for the Children hosted an international design competition in Fall 2008 to promote the health of East African mothers and children and help prevent treatable diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis and HIV through the construction of non-profit clinics in the region. This competition entry chose to focus on how the architecture and planning of the clinic could best solve the problem of social stigmas associated with mothers receiving HIV anti-retroviral treatment to prevent transmission to their unborn children. A specific strategy is needed for the delivery of both a localized need (anti-retroviral treatment) and a larger idea (education/prevention) for the East African region and the African continent as a whole. The natural self-organization and self-similarity of fractal geometry is the strategic means in connecting the small and the large. By building the clinic in a small rural village and allowing the local residents to interact and take part in building, treating, and teaching, a seed is planted that is then able to spread to other villages. Collectively, this network begins to change the future of HIV/AIDS in Africa. The design of the buildings is uniquely tied to providing the necessary medications involved in HIV/ AIDS prevention. Market places, gardens and schools are both functional elements of the community and also serve as a guise for treatment. By giving HIV positive mothers a separate reason to visit the clinic, treatments can be continued without the risk of being ostracized by the community. Designing and building recursive rural clinics that are able to branch out and spread education and treatment is crucial in the battle against HIV/AIDS.Travis Herret graduated with a masters in Architecture in May 2009. He worked in conjunction with Professors Donna Cohen and Nancy Clark in Graduate Studio 3. Design for the Children: East African HIV/AIDS Clinic Design CompetitionTRAVIS HERRET

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C A S R R 2009 41 STUDENT REPOR TS Heritage Tourism and Local Capacity in NW TanzaniaR ACHEL IANNELLI What is the current state of heritage tourism in Tanzania? What future options for expansion of heritage tourism offerings are viable in Kagera Region of northwestern Tanzania? This summer I traveled with my advisor, Dr. Peter Schmidt, and fellow student Malia Billman to Tanzania on a CIBER grant in order to answer these questions. Our team began by working closely with a local tour company in the town of Bukoba, with an assessment of the tour companys infrastructure upon which development of heritage tourism might be built. Our assessments included customer surveys and customer evaluations of services delivered. We joined tourists on various local guided tours, as we also wanted to assess tour company representations of local histories and determine customer appetites for these heritage themed excursions. In conjunction with these activities, we also collaborated with the village of Katuruka, Tanzania, which has recently created a village-based preservation committee to oversee the development of three key heritage sites within its jurisdiction. Working with the committee, a development plan was drafted with specific and prioritized action points. Among these action points was the restoration of Mugashas shrine as a logical developmental starting point because of its highly visible remains. The focus of the shrine of Mugasha is a laterite rock upon which can be seen the footprint of Mugasha, the patron of the lake and the rains, as well as that of his child. These rocks sit on a triangular piece of communally owned land centrally located in the village, a perfect location to maintain community support and interest in the revitalization of these historical areas as possible tourist destinations. While in Katuruka, I also assisted the village in surveying 67% of the households to determine how many elderly keepers of oral history remain available to add to the repository of knowledge needed to create a narrative history for visitors attending these sites. By the end of two weeks, Mugashas shrine was complete and a consecration ceremony was held. Guests attended the festivities from the local tourism industry, as well as the Regional Development Director. A senior member of the Katuruka Preservation Committee, Benjamin Shegesha, gave guests a guided tour of the shrines, explaining in detail the rich histories of these places. First impressions of this day are that the visitors and villagers alike were delighted by the great potential of a reemergence of Katurukas unique history, both parties expressing the desire to realize a partnership of sustained and dedicated commitment to the revelation of these histories as being beneficial to the village, the nation, and the broader world.Rachel Iannelli is a doctoral student in the Department of Anthropology. Her research was made possible through a summer 2009 UF Center for International Business & Economic Research (CIBER) grant.

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42 C A S R R 2009 Capturing Water Resources for Agriculture and Human Development in SwazilandJILLIAN JENSEN The Lower Usuthu Smallholder Irrigation Project (LUSIP) is an irrigation-fordevelopment scheme, which involves the construction of an off-stream reservoir and canal system to irrigate roughly 11,000 hectares of farmland in the lowlands of Swaziland. The targeted beneficiaries are approximately 2300 local subsistencefarming homesteads. The goal of the project is the elimination of extreme poverty through agricultural intensification and livestock commercialization. The project is loan-financed by nine international donors and development banks, and is being administered by a parastatal of the Swazi government. The main focal activity of the project is the assembly of suitable land controlled by clusters of smallholders into cooperatives for the purposes of growing sugarcane on an equity-share basis. Also, two supplemental and complementary activities are being carried out: a home garden program of vegetable production for enhanced domestic food security and cash income, and homestead delivery of potable water to address persistent health concerns over the quality and quantity of domestic water supply. The coverage of the home garden and potable water programs reaches every homestead in the project area to widen the scope for benefit distribution even when soil conditions are determined to be unsuitable for participation in a sugar cooperative. Concurrent to the start-up of LUSIP is the commencement of decentralized water management across Swaziland. The Water Act of 2003 reflects in detail the principles of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM), an internationally agreed framework for the governance of water resources. The Act specifies the gazetting of five River Basin Authorities (RBAs) across Swaziland and the formation of increasingly decentralized management committees empowered to decide issues such as water permitting, water resources development, water-for-conservation planning, etc. It is this participatory model of decentralized governance that has been given the responsibility to manage and distribute the new water captured by the LUSIP development. The Swazi government has taken an active role in capacity-building members of the public to take on their new administrative functions, and sensitizing the general public as to their new legal and financial responsibilities for improved water management. My case study of LUSIP provides a unique window into the application of a definitively western governance model, IWRM, in a sociopolitical context featuring a monarchy, an agrarian bureaucracy, and feudal chiefs. The social transformations implicated by the conversion to cooperative estate farming and the relationship and management of water on (neo)liberal terms are practically and psychologically disturbing to local inhabitants. The competing logics or governmentalities at work in the interface between LUSIP and IWRM are speaking to larger questions about postcolonial development. I am centralizing the political question of who this water development is for to uncover how the resulting structural transformations are directing benefits relative to the rural poor. Further, the research considers what the role and relationship is of IWRM in this process. The history of IWRM is littered with failures to achieve its intended social outcomes. It is my position that IWRM may be acting as an anti-politics machine to obscure the benefit capture away from the rural poor under a veil of good governance. Jillian Jensen is a doctoral student in Interdisciplinary Ecology and an NSF Fellow in the AM:W3 IGERT Program with the Center for Environmental Policy. Her research was partially funded through an African Power & Politics (APP) summer pre-dissertation grant from the Center for African Studies. APP is funded by a grant from the United Kingdoms Department for International Development (DFID) and Irish Aid to a research consortium of which CAS is an institutional member.

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C A S R R 2009 43 STUDENT REPOR TS Assembling Campaigning Identity Online: The Virtual Space of the Transnational Chinese Entrepreneurs in GhanaY ANG JIA O For the past year, Ive been doing followup research on the Chinese business community located in Accra, Ghana. This time I focused on the virtual space in which Chinese businessmen and businesswomen assemble elements of a transnational identity, construct a cyber public domain, and establish business networks. The Chinese business community in Accra has grown quickly. Up to the second quarter of 2009, 387 Chinese enterprises are registered with the Ghana Investment Promotion Center, with a total investment of $235,180,000. The number of Chinese companies has almost doubled since my 2008 study. The development of the virtual community of Chinese represents this trend well with the number of online discussion groups quadrupling. The website of the Ghana central-China Chamber of Commerce has drawn members not only from within Ghana, but people in bordering West African countries as well. With the contemporary inflow of Chinese capital and labor force, the Chinese entrepreneurs I interviewed have created a transnational space where they are both outside of the Chinese nation-state and bounded by a shared citizenship. For instance, following the earthquake in southwest China in July 2009, people from different corners of Accra gathered together and donated money through the Chamber of Commerce website and discussion group. Last summer I reported that some Ghanaian entrepreneurs called for regulations on Chinese retailing activities. Despite the sweeping inspection of Chinese businesses soon after the December 2008 elections in Ghana, retail/wholesale shops still managed to operate near Rawlings Square, which was referred to as China town inside the Chinese business community. Frequent trips to China by Ghanaian government officials to promote investment in Ghana combined with the sporadic efforts of the state to protect the national economy highlight conflicts between state efforts to benefit from the global market forces and to regulate global capital and labor. The transnational Chinese entrepreneurs are very savvy about the situation and have utilized the virtual space as a public domain to strive for their legitimate existence and rights. Recently, the chamber of commerce has started a campaign to collect questions and concerns for a dialogue with the vice president of Ghana. Aside from the political awareness of the Chinese business community, they have developed the website and online discussion group into a space where prospective investors in China and veteran entrepreneurs in Ghana connect and communicate. This is reflected in the specialization of discussion groups, such as the one devoted to the construction sector business. Yang Jiao is a doctoral student in the Department of Anthropology. His research was made possible in part through a Center for African Studies predissertation summer research grant.

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44 C A S R R 2009 I conducted my pre-dissertation field research from June to August 2009 in the Western and Northern Cape Provinces of South Africa, dividing my time between the Fairtrade South Africa (FTSA) headquarters in Cape Town and numerous Fairtrade certified farms throughout the two provinces. I met with a range of actors engaged with the Fairtrade system and discussed issues of certification, governance, and varying empowerment strategies. During this research I observed three primary issues. Fairtrade South Africa: Global Models and National RealitiesALISON KETTER certified goods locally. This new policy direction will allow FTSA control over all of the value-added throughout the supply chain, thus benefiting as many sectors of the South African economy as possible. This new form of governance is in contrast to the established Fairtrade model of developing states marketing their goods in the global North, thus benefiting Northern consumers and corporations more than the producing countries. FTSAs new model is the culmination of a multi-year power struggle with Fairtrade International that numerous producer nations have watched closely. I plan to continue researching these issues when I return to Cape Town in October 2009 for the FTSA Annual General Meetings.Alison M. Ketter is a doctoral student in the Department of Anthropology. She was a CAS FLAS fellow in Swahili for the academic years 2007-08 and 2008-09. First, although Fairtrade is an international initiative that aims to empower marginalized producers across the global South through the promotion of equitable production, distribution and consumption practices, it is often not as fair or transparent as it aims to be. In South Africa, white commercial producers remain privileged over their black smallholder counterparts due to the formers established relationships with supermarkets, seed and fertilizer companies and other strategic trading partners. Secondly, FTSA is going through a period of adjustment where it is rethinking its requirements for certification, moving away from a model based on land redistribution and towards one that focuses instead on adherence to the Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) scorecard, a model that focuses on diversity in management and labor practices rather than land ownership. BEE is a South African governmental initiative that focuses on development of previously disadvantaged peoples and contributing to transformation in the postapartheid state through employment incentives, preferential procurement, skills training and ownership. This heavily contentious transition has been applauded by some as a more practical and efficient approach to empowerment in South Africa while others lament that it detracts from the core principal of Fairtrade empowering marginalized producers, specifically smallholders. Finally FTSA is in the process of launching a new South-South ethical trade regime that markets Fairtrade

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C A S R R 2009 45 STUDENT REPOR TS Experts and the Subjects of Expertise: Education and Development in MadagascarMICHELLE KIEL I conducted dissertation fieldwork in the eastern region of Atsinanana, Madagascar between July 2008 and March 2009. The investigation concentrated on two development projects that sought to transform the livelihoods of rural Malagasy by training them in market techniques and modern agricultural practices. These projects were tightly linked to the development objectives and resources of the Malagasy state under Marc Ravelomanana, the support of international aid organizations, and the cooperation of local stakeholders. My primary research questions were: 1) How do international partnerships affect the implementation and maintenance of state-led development interventions? and 2) How does the interaction of disparate actors (local farmers, agricultural technicians, bureaucrats, project administrators and project partners), influence the types of knowledge and status conveyed by the projects. Ethnographic research was conducted among these groups over a variety of settings including rural homes, development conferences, consciousness-raising events, strategy sessions, and rural evaluations. The rural development initiatives I examined were characterized by struggles over the definition of the rural subject worthy of training, the types of knowledge worthy of dissemination, and the ideal subjects to be produced through development. These struggles, and the more material struggles over funding, materials, land, and status that they are associated with, propelled these projects into a state of constant evolution where the continuation of the project, and not its successful completion, became the preeminent goal. This dynamic brought political prowess to the fore as project directors struggled to align the projects to the changing objectives and commitments of government and international partners, while maintaining or expanding their status among rural stakeholders. Struggles among different interest groups were mirrored in the Malagasy political environment, where in December 2008, the young mayor of Antananarivo, Andry Rajoelina, questioned President Ravelomananas commitment to democracy and development. With local business interests, former Malagasy leaders, and perhaps the silent support of the French government behind him, Rajoelina accused Ravelomanana of being a dictator concerned more with personal profit than the needs of the Malagasy people and named himself president of a transitional government in March 2009. The effect of the crisis on development funding was swift: the Millennium Challenge Account grant was cancelled, the World Bank froze its activities, and a number of state-led development programs were paralyzed. At the same time, the French continued their aid programs and a number of Arab nations stepped in, thereby transforming the geopolitical dimensions of Malagasy aid. As the crisis continues, the landscape of agricultural development is shifting in a way reminiscent of the transformations undergone during earlier political crisis in Madagascar, forcing development projects to re-align their efforts and their understandings of development to the dynamic and interlinked politics and preferences of government regimes, regimes of aid, and local stakeholders. In the long run, it will be rural populations who have participated in development programs who will suffer from these struggles, as interventions in their communities are abandoned or shifted elsewhere while projects align to the new contours of development objectives at the national and international levels.Michelle Lea Kiel is a doctoral student in the Department of Anthropology. Her research was made possible by a Wenner-Gren Dissertation Fieldwork Grant.

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46 C A S R R 2009 This past summer I traveled to Kibale National Park (KNP) in southwestern Uganda, where part of my time was spent working on a large collaborative project looking at land use and land cover change around parks in eastern and southern Africa. Working with UF geographers Drs. Michael Binford and Abraham Goldman, I helped to record land use and land cover in a sample of the area surrounding the park. These data show the degree and types of land use intensification that have occurred outside of the park, an area with high population growth which can put stress on the resources available. All of these factors underscore the importance of understanding how the presence of the park may influence the uses of the surrounding landscape. Agricultural Change Between the Batoro and Bakiga Peoples: Kibale National Park, UgandaK AREN KIRNER While collecting the land use data and traveling around the area, we observed some differences in the agropastoral practices of the two main groups of people, the Bakiga and the Batoro, who live around the park. I had the opportunity to use these ideas to conduct a research project on agricultural change around KNP among the Bakiga and Batoro. When talking with farmers who own land within five kilometers of the park boundary, I was able to learn about the crops that people choose to grow, the animals that they raise, and the agricultural challenges that people face when farming in this area. Additionally, I talked with farmers about the techniques they use to minimize the challenges of farming and asked if the strategies and techniques they use are different from those employed by other people who live in the area. Understanding not only the challenges faced by farmers living around KNP but also the factors that influence agricultural decision-making among the Bakiga and Batoro farmers can help to inform poverty reduction initiatives, to influence the successful introduction of new agricultural techniques and crops, and to ameliorate some of the negative consequences of living in proximity to a national park. Karen Kirner is a masters student in the Department of Anthropology. Her 2009 summer research was made possible by the collaborative NSF project, Parks as agents of social and environmental change in eastern and southern Africa, led by Abraham Goldman (Geography).

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C A S R R 2009 47 STUDENT REPOR TS Islamic Organizations & the Provision of Education in the Democratic Republic of CongoASHLEY LEINWEBER With generous support as an African Power and Politics Program Fellow in 2009, I conducted extensive dissertation fieldwork in the Democratic Republic of Congo on the role of the Muslim community in providing education. Public services are difficult to come by in a postconflict setting with a central state that has been characterized as failed, weak, and corrupt. However, religious organizations in the Congo are the primary providers of much needed services, such as schooling and health care. The Catholic and Protestant churches have been functioning in this capacity for several decades. What this dissertation research has uncovered is that the Congolese Muslim community has, in the last few years, also taken up this vocation. Public schools run by Islamic organizations are blossoming at an accelerated rate in areas with a substantial Muslim population in order to provide a good education to children from all religious backgrounds. This fieldwork built upon the two-month pre-dissertation research I did in summer 2008 in the eastern province of Maniema, where I explored the role of Islamic organizations in providing public services to the local population. In spring and summer 2009, my qualitative research was expanded to include four research sites. The majority of my research was conducted in the Maniema province, home to the majority of Congolese Muslims. Kindu, my primary site, is the provincial capital where most politically active Maniemans live. The second site of Kasongo is a large town in southern Maniema and the birthplace of Islam in Congo. The third site, Kisangani, is capital of the Orientale Province, includes the most significant Muslim population outside of Maniema, and the location of the University of Kisangani where I was able to meet with Muslim academics and conduct archival research in their libraries. In Kinshasa, the Congolese capital, I conducted interviews with members of the national Muslim organization, COMICO, who have been very active in recent years to unite the Islamic community and get them involved in development projects. During the pre-dissertation research phase I had discovered that despite the lack of support from governmental agencies, ordinary Congolese citizens, and more recently Muslims, have mobilized to form organizations that respond to the needs of the population such as schools, health care facilities, orphanages, and other post-war reconstruction projects. Building upon this finding, in the dissertation research I narrowed the focus to the education sector in an attempt to better understand the dynamic of the rapid recent involvement of the Islamic community in providing public goods. I observed in each kind of school: public, private, and those managed by each of the four main religions in Congo. I conducted interviews with local groups of Muslim men and women, discussed issues with local non-governmental organizations of all types, and did elite interviews with government officials and heads of each religion. Because of my ability to meet with various actors in multiple settings and sites, I have pieced together a better understanding of the political history of the Congolese minority Muslim population and their reasons for becoming active providers of education in contemporary DR Congo. Ashley Leinweber is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Political Science. She received dissertation fieldwork funding as an African Power and Politics Program Fellow. APP is funded by a grant from the United Kingdoms Department for International Development (DFID) and Irish Aid to a research consortium of which CAS is an institutional member. She was a Center for African Studies FLAS fellow in Swahili during academic years 2005-06 and 2006-07 and summer 2006.

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48 C A S R R 2009 My future as a fourth-year Ph.D. student entailed studying for comprehensive exams, applying for research funding and preparing a prospectus, but this summer an opportunity arose serendipitously that was too good to miss, and I embarked on a minor detour. In early July I was contacted by the International Law and Policy Group (ILP), an Oslo-based political consulting firm, which was looking for long-term observers of the voter registration process on the island of Pemba in Zanzibar, Tanzania. The three previous elections (1995, 2000, 2005) in Zanzibar were marked with serious irregularities and deemed not free and fair by several international observer groups. With this track record, the international donor community in Tanzania wanted to keep a watchful eye on the electoral process leading up to the next general election in October 2010. Uncovering Current Contentious Issues During Zanzibars Electoral ProcessSTEVE LICHTY The ILP was contracted by the Norwegian Embassy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to spend six months on Pemba to provide detailed accounts of the registration process. While officially an observer, over 80 percent of my work was ethnographical in nature, so aside from the experience gained from interacting with the Zanzibari electoral process, I conducted countless interviews with political party and government officials, members of parliament, scholars, human rights experts and religious leaders. This coupled with time spent at the village level in dialogue with local peasants has given me a clearer picture of the political, economic and social forces at play in Zanzibars history and ones that still remain relevant today and for the future. The reports my team wrote for ILP were disseminated among 12 donor nations with substantial interests in Tanzania. These reports included detailed weekly updates, but also more topical oriented reports including analysis of the situation and policy recommendations. In attempting to provide reliable information, I faced the challenge of sorting through the various conflicting reports of the major stakeholders. This has shown me firsthand the ethical dilemmas scholars often face in the field, but simultaneously I observed the importance of quality scholarly work that provides a knowledge base for more effective diplomacy and development. My course work at the University of Florida provided an excellent foundation to gain the methodological tools necessary to dig deeper into the underlying problems facing Zanzibar today. After ten weeks in Zanzibar, I take back to Florida not only a field work experience that despite not being related specifically to my dissertation topic, has opened up new avenues of research, but it has also given me the opportunity to copublish future articles with ILP partners in Oslo.Steve Lichty is a doctoral student in the Department of Political Science. He was a Center for African Studies FLAS fellow in Kiswahili from 2006-08.

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C A S R R 2009 49 STUDENT REPOR TS The Sustainability of Public Health Interventions in Northern TanzaniaMEREDITH MARTEN Sustainability is a popular concept in international development, yet is rarely addressed in international health. After studying and working in public health, however, I began to think that excluding a long-term strategy for sustainability from program planning was risky, particularly as many health initiatives collapse once the donors leave. I accompanied Dr. Alyson Young to Tanzania this summer, and started preliminary research with a pre-dissertation grant from the Center for African Studies. Tanzania attracts a lot of international aid, and their national health care system is populated by numerous facilities organized, operated and funded by international development organizations. With so much of the countrys health care hinging on the continued funding and collaboration with outside donors, the pressure to scale-up the national system increases, especially in light of recent global economic crises. One avenue to research sustainability in health care is to look at how individuals enrolled in health programs cope with the problems encountered when the program ends or they are unenrolled. I examined a prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) program rolled out by a mission hospital in northern Tanzania. In this program, women and their infants receive more free services than other patients enrolled in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), like food support, hospital transportation, and home-based care. After two years they are unenrolled, but still must cope with HIV and potentially care for a child with HIV. How these women cope with HIV after the programs end may illuminate cultural models of health, hierarchies of perceived risk and the structural constraints contributing to poor health outcomes that plague Sub-Saharan Africa. This summer I interviewed health care workers, administrators, program planners and researchers, attended regional meetings for HIV+ people about living positively with HIV/AIDS, observed interviews with new mothers about their experiences in the PMTCT program, and shadowed health workers and researchers to get a better idea of what a typical day on the job looks like. Through these interviews I began to see that some coping methods people adopt are determined by a combination of structural and socio-cultural factors: income and cost of care, distance from health facilities, access to transportation, trust in the quality of care and health care providers, perceptions of corruption, discrimination, stigma, and social network composition. I also learned that the hospital itself was grappling with a potential funding shortfall in the near future, and hospital administrators were working hard to figure out ways to maintain services. On both the individual level and the institutional level, patients and administrators will need to cope with a loss of support. This pre-dissertation research was critical for me to better understand the scale of the problem of sustainability in Tanzania, and how it is understood, experienced, and planned for on multiple levels and by different people. I refined my ideas of how people may cope in creative ways and how institutions attempt to soften the blow of a potential loss of funding in the future. I will continue this research in the fall of 2010.Meredith Marten is a doctoral student in the Department of Anthropology. Her research was made possible by a Center for African Studies Madelyn M. Lockhart pre-dissertation grant. She was a FLAS fellow during academic years 2008-09 and 2009-10 for Swahili.

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50 C A S R R 2009 My research aims to understand the effects of reduced-impact logging (RIL) and conventional logging (CL) techniques on carbon stocks in a forest managed for timber in Central Africa. I conducted my pre-dissertation research in a timber concession in Gabon. Gabon has 85% forest cover, which store large quantities of carbon and provide goods and services for humanity. But the various ways in which these forests are being used has different effects on their structure, soils, wildlife, and carbon stores. The primary objective of this pilot study was to estimate aboveground forest biomass and carbon stocks before logging then evaluate damage on trees after logging as surrogate of biomass loss. From June to August 2009, I worked on Mont Cristal, about 150 km from Libreville, Gabon. I worked in collaboration with Tropical Forest Foundation (TFF) and Wildlife Conservation Society who share similar objectives. In addition, SEEF allocated a portion of its concession for the study and ENEF (National School of Water and Forests) in Libreville provided interns to learn forest management methods and research. Timber production constitutes a major source of revenues for the Central African countries, which have high forest cover and low deforestation rates. But there is a lack of data and information on how logging affects carbon stores in these forests. During the fieldwork, with the help of interns and WCS field staff, we demarcated an area of 72 hectares in the site to be harvested using reducedimpact logging techniques. Within that area, we established 10 one-hectare plots to collect data on above-ground biomass before and after selective logging. We also conducted the tree inventory; the first plot was logged using directional felling and other RIL techniques damaging about 14% of the inventoried trees. Preliminary findings show that the vegatation on Mont Cristal is diverse with high density of tree species but logging is a major threat to these ecosystems. In view of the international focus on Carbon Dynamics in Central African Forests Managed for TimberVINCENT MEDJIBE efforts to reduce emission from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD), it is important to develop strategies to improve forest management in Central Africa. The pilot study provided essential information to focus my dissertation research. However, more needs to be done in the field, and I hope to capitalize on the strong partnerships with WCS, TFF, and ENEF to compare financial costs and benefits of activities associated with conventional and reduced-impact logging and to explore the extent to which reducedimpact logging approaches sustain timber yields of commercial species. Vincent Medjibe is a doctoral student in the School of Natural Resources and Environment and the Department of Biology. This research was made possible by a summer pre-dissertation grant from the Center for African Studies. Further support was provided by the Wildlife Conservation Society-Gabon Program, Tropical Forest Foundation-Congo Basin Program, and from Dr. Francis E. Jack Putz.

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C A S R R 2009 51 STUDENT REPOR TS the devastating Asante war of 1807. Its seeming permanence appealed to the Anomabos, just as today cement blocks are the building material of choice. In contrast, earthen architecture, once the Fante technology of choice for residences, is more vulnerable to war, rain and termites. The coastal stone was used as a rubble masonry, also termed nog construction a system using a wood framework with masonry infill. These buildings may be faced with stone or brick. During this period of rebuilding, masons doing the work were trained by Christian missions who established vocational training in Ghana by the mid-19th century. The missions promoted the sobrado design house that exists all over the European colonized world. About sixteen stone nog buildings survive in Anomabo, most built by wealthy Fante merchants. While these houses vary in their plans and elaboration of design elements, my study will examine how the Fante selected certain aspects to construct an elite coastal identity that offered an image of power during an increasingly powerless century. Yet, several Fante aspects of plan and design were retained, and most importantly, new forms were created. These identity markers were largely possible on the coast because of its history as a commercial site. Individuals could achieve wealth and power through their own industry, rather than having inherited it. They wanted and were expected to express their status in a public way. These homes are power symbols, demonstrating visually that the owner has the ability to construct a stone house of such size and prominence and of a style reflecting his worldly knowledge, connections and travel. Such architecture makes a powerful statement about Fante wealth, intellect, and mobility in the global world. Courtnay Micots is a doctoral student in African Art History at the University of Floridas School of Art & Art History. She received a summer FLAS in 2009 to study Fante. Rock Residences in Anomabo, Ghana: Architectural Statements of Power and IdentityCOURTNAY MIC O TS I spent six months in coastal Ghana this summer and fall learning the local Fante language and conducting fieldwork to complete my dissertation. By thoroughly examining the stone and brick residences of the historically significant coastal town of Anomabo, I was able to delve into larger questions dealing with artistic homophony. These structures visually demarcate the struggle for identity and power on the coast during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Previously, these residences have not been documented, as scholarly focus has been on coastal forts and castles. I interviewed the families of these residences as well as leaders and historians of Anomabo. Archival research was conducted in Accra and Cape Coast. I discussed my research with scholars at the University of Ghana in Legon, the Institute of Science and Technology in Kumasi (KNUST), and the University of Cape Coast. I also utilized the National Archives in Accra and Cape Coast. Some of the earliest surviving structures in Anomabo are European buildings. However, even though several Fante masons were trained in stone nogging at this time, the Fante did not incorporate these European technologies and forms until after

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52 C A S R R 2009 One of my favorite days was a trip to the famous Mapo Hall in Ibadan. We went to see Toyin Falola give the Adegoke Adelabu Memorial Lecture. Before the lecture, I was excited to greet Dr. Akinwumi Isola, who I recognized from his role in my favorite Nigerian movie Campus Queen (he also wrote the script). We also got a taste of Ibadan politics, as there were cheers and jeers from the audience every time the governor and his deputys names were mentioned. I later returned to Ibadan to interview Dr. Isola and tour the University of Ibadan. Other highlights include visits to where the peace treaty ending the Yoruba wars was signed in Imesi-Ile; climbing the five hundred steps to the top of Idanre hill and seeing its old palace (while looking at the sprawl of the new city below); visiting the Osun grove, seeing artist Nikes gallery, and chasing an Egungun through Osogbo; and making new friends in Ifeall while improving my Yoruba. I had a great experience in Nigeria and cant wait to go back!Jessica Morey is a doctoral student in African History. Her trip to Nigeria was made possible by funding from the U.S. Department of Education Fulbright-Hays Summer Intensive Yoruba Group Projects Abroad (GPA) program. In the summer of 2009, I spent 8 weeks at Obafemi Awolowo University in IleIfe Nigeria as part of a Fulbright-Hays Group Project Abroad program. Monday through Friday, the other nine participants and I had three morning Yoruba classes, focusing on grammar, culture, and conversation. In afternoons, we engaged with guest lecturers, observed cultural performances, and worked on our research. We took mid-week trips into IleIfe to visit the Onis Palace, the Ife Museum, the day market, the nearby night market in Modakeke, a local shrine, and to see a primary school celebrate its cultural heritage day. On Saturdays, we went on longer excursions to other Yoruba cities, including Ibadan, Osogbo, Abeokuta, Imesi-Ile, Ondo, Akure, and Idanre. Our Sundays were free to spend with our host families, study, and rest. My research is on the history of university student unions in Nigeria, but for the program I wrote a paper (in Yoruba!) on campus cults. I was able to meet the Vice-Chancellor and his predecessor, the Dean of Student Affairs, and current and former student union members. I witnessed the effects of union activities, in this case the academic and senior staff unions, as they went on strike two days into our stay. The federal and state universities were closed indefinitely. In addition, the week before our arrival, the students union at OAU led a peaceful demonstration on campus and held a two-day lecture boycott, ostensibly over lack of water. I was able to gain insight into how and why students organize through discussing this event with both the Dean of Student Affairs and members of the Students Union. The students union remained active even when the university closed. For example, they led a group of students to Lagos on July 10th to commemorate the deaths of six OAU students who were slain by cult members on July 10th, 1999. The trip had several highlights beyond research. Student Unionism and Cultism in NigeriaJESSICA MOREY

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C A S R R 2009 53 STUDENT REPOR TS Community-Based Ecotourism Development in Kgalagadi District, Western BotswanaNA OMI MOSWETE Last fall (October 2008 to January 2009) I traveled to Botswana to conduct my doctoral research. I completed four months of fieldwork in Kgalagadi district where I worked with nine local communities. My dissertation research was supplemented by a pre-dissertation trip to the region in 2006, during which I introduced myself to local authorities, familiarized with the study site, and also conducted key informant surveys in six villages. In 2008 -2009 I returned to the study area, and conducted the larger part of my dissertation research. The study sites, Kgalagadi District and the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park were chosen due to the fact that community-based ecotourism is lowly developed, dependence on livestock farming and rangeland resources has led to severe land degradation and conflicts over natural resource use. Furthermore, increased incidence of poverty has been observed. Even though some of the Botswanas tourism policy objectives are to promote socio-economic well being of communities living adjacent to protected areas, and increase the number of citizens meaningfully involved in, and benefiting from their tourism industry, these areas are still lacking in community-based tourism development. It is important to emphasize that community-based ecotourism (CBE) is still relatively new and numerous projects are in the initial stages of development in Botswana. However, the government has identified CBE projects as possible avenues for diversification, and they have been encouraged around the country. Thus, this study investigated stakeholders perspectives about the potential for community-based ecotourism development, and support for Kgalagadi Trans-frontier Park as a Trans-boundary protected area. The study was conducted in nine village/settlements within the Kgalagadi region, four of which were located in the Wildlife Management Area (WMAs) and Controlled Hunting zone (areas that are strictly protected for wildlife conservation purposes). Two data collection methods were employed. Participants from 700 households were interviewed. Although I am still working on my final data analysis, some interesting findings have emerged. For example, despite unfamiliarity with tourism as a business, the majority of the residents considered ecotourism as positive and a worthwhile development for the Kgalagadi region. Also, participants indicated mistrust as a major barrier in developing community projects (including trans-boundary resources), and they also emphasized the need for strengthening local management skills and entrepreneurship in tourism as the best strategy for community-based ecotourism development. Naomi Moswete is a doctoral student in the Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management (TRSM) and is a Kellogg Foundation Fellow (2005-2009). Her preand final dissertation research (2006 & 2008) was made possible by a WKKF Study grant via Leadership Initiatives for Southern Africa (LISA) in partnership with Academy for Educational Development (AED). She was also awarded a doctoral student research travel grant by the UF TRSM Department in 2008.

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54 C A S R R 2009 As a recourse to failed centralized wildlife management regimes in Southern Africa, the community based natural resource management (CBNRM) approach has been implemented for over two decades. Founded on the principles of devolution and democracy, this approach transfers power and resources to grassroot communities to manage and benefit from wildlife resources. Following two decades of implementation, this initiative is growing in southern Africa and is increasingly gaining recognition as the direction that bridges rural livelihood benefits to natural resource management. As well as gaining recognition, the CBNRM programs have received huge criticisms in regard to weak institutional development both at the state and micro community level. Poor local governance has translated into elite capture of benefits by a few in the rural communities. As a consequence, the process of devolution from the state to local communities has suffered with incomplete devolution taking place in some areas. At the core of sustaining the CBNRM program is an in-depth understanding of its institutional development. The decentralization of wildlife management that has been implemented in CBNRM thus provides an excellent opportunity to examine this understudied area. My research examines this by focusing on two overall objectives: 1) the vertical relationship between the state and CBNRM communities and the extent of CBNRM devolution in Botswana and Zambia; and 2) examining whether CBNRM communities are democratizing or not; and whether this has led to the provision of CBNRM economic benefits and the protection of the natural resources. As a first stage in this study, in summer 2009, I undertook research in Botswana in three village communities (Khwai, Mababe and Sankuyo) that have been implementing CBNRM for over a decade. Situated on the northwestern side of the Okavango Delta in northern Botswana, the three villages receive revenue from both photographic and hunting tourism. Revenue received is targeted at providing both individual and communal benefits to the members Democratizing wildlife management or not? A Comparative Case Study of Three Village Trusts in BotswanaP ATRICIA MUPETA of the villages, as well as investment into resource protection. The working hypothesis for this link therefore, was that if power has been devolved from the state to local community institutions, this should translate into democratic entities that would provide both CBNRM economic benefits and in turn, contribute to the protection of the wildlife resource. Key informant interviews were conducted with members of the communities, Wildlife Department officers, safari operators, Botswana Tourism Board officers and staff from nongovernmental organizations that had worked with these village communities. Participant observations were also conducted in both Sankuyo and Mababe village elections, to examine how participatory these democratic institutions were. Finally, a total of 178 questionnaires were distributed using a random sample of members of the community who were 18 years and above. The surveys aimed to measure two metrics of democracy in each village, i.e. participation and competition. Preliminary results show that out of the three villages, Sankuyo performed better on both measures of democracy, and also has done relatively well in providing both individual and communal CBNRM benefits. Mababe shows poor results on democracy, and provision of CBNRM benefits. All three villages show poor results, in terms of providing revenue for resource protection.Patricia Chilufya Mupeta is a doctoral student in the School of Natural Resources and Environment. She received dissertation fieldwork funding as an African Power and Politics Program Fellow. APP is funded by a grant from the United Kingdoms Department for International Development (DFID) and Irish Aid to a research consortium of which CAS is an institutional member.

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C A S R R 2009 55 STUDENT REPOR TS Wildlife Based Land Use and Cattle Production on Private Land in South AfricaJESSICA MUSENGEZI Wildlife based land use has been spreading rapidly on private land of south Africa as individuals harness the benefits of wildlife in semi-arid areas where traditional agricultural activities of livestock rearing are challenged by the harsh agro-climatic conditions. South Africa is one of only three countries on the African continent that allow wildlife use on private land. Private game ranches in South Africa cover 14% of the countrys total land area, far in excess of the 6.3% represented by official national and provincial conservation areas. With the majority of natural areas lying outside of state protected areas, private ranches present an increasingly important avenue for conserving biodiversity and natural habitat outside these protected areas as well as contributing to the growth of the national economy. Despite the widespread adoption of wildlife utilization there is little scientific knowledge on the economics aspects of this industry. The purpose of this study is to better understand the financial and economic profitability of commercial wildlife utilization (consumptive and non-consumptive) and commercial livestock production on private land in the semi arid rangelands of South Africa. The study focuses on land use in the Limpopo province. Data collection for the study was conducted in eastern Limpopo province, an area with a large concentration of game farms. Data collection included in-depth interviews with game ranch owners to determine the costs and revenues of wildlife enterprises. The game ranches displayed diversity in enterprises including traditional safari viewing tourism, trophy hunting, venison hunting and wildlife breeding. In addition, interviews with provincial conservation authorities and agricultural officers provided information on the policy and regulatory environment and enterprise budgets for cattle production. Data collected will be analyzed using the Policy Analysis Matrix framework, which allows estimation of both private profitability and economic comparative advantage of wildlife enterprises relative to cattle. Quantifying the benefits of wildlife resources and their impact on local economy will assist in understanding of the role of wildlife utilization in the development process in semi arid areas. Jessica Musengezi is a doctoral student in the Department of Food and Resource Economics. Her research was funded by grants from the Wildlife Conservation Society-Animal and Human Health for the Environment and Development (WCS-AHEAD) and the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area Seed Grant Programme.

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56 C A S R R 2009 My research focuses on the interactions among three governance tiers in community-based natural resource management (CBNRM). After two decades of implementation, CBNRM in southern Africa has variable outcomes ranging from weak to elite capture of community benefits. My objectives for my summer research were: (1) to understand the factors influencing variability between the many communities involved, (2) explore how the distribution of authority across multiple institutions at the micro (local people), meso (e.g. district councils) and macro levels (e.g. central government, NGOs) affects CBNRM, and (3) explore how the melding of modern democratic institutions and the traditional arrangements of chiefs and headmen affects performance of CBNRM programs. My research work builds on field research started 2007 with a University of Florida research team in Namibia. Over summer of 2009, I worked in Namibia and Zimbabwe. I spent the first half of summer in Namibia collecting and analyzing data, which we fed back to the community members and wildlife committee members in five conservancies in the Caprivi region, Balyerwa, Kwandu, Mashi, Sobbe, and Wuparo. The experience helped me to focus my work in Zimbabwe. In Zimbabwe, I worked with the Communal Areas Management Program for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) Association. I reviewed project documents, workshop proceedings, consultancy reports, and conducted informal discussions with employees. Afterward, I visited Masoka community (northeastern Zimbabwe) and conducted interviews, participated in meetings, community activities, and reviewed records of meetings and documents at the local office for the past 12 years. My preliminary findings in Zimbabwe show that the macro-political and economic crisis was a Institutions and Institutional Change in CBNRM: Understanding Interactions among Local, Meso and Macro Political StructuresSHY LOCK MUYENGWA major shock on CBNRM activities at community and district level. But more importantly, local level shocks exert great impacts on the CAMPFIRE activities. In Masoka community, there has been a gradual decline in peoples adherence to CAMPFIRE principles. This corresponds with the decline in external support (finance and education) and death of Headman Kanyurira (local leadership). Over the years, community members have developed a sense of mistrust over new leadership due to a lack of financial transparency and centralized decisionmaking. Macro and meso political factors also exert a moderating effect on the local level, and the lack of monitoring and education increasing the potential for local elite capture. Following the outcome of my research, I intend to undertake a comparative study across three countries, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe on the role of traditional authorities in conservation activities.Shylock Muyengwa is a doctoral student in the School of Natural Resources and Environment, and Managing Editor for Africa Studies Quarterly Journal. This research was made possible by Africa-Power and Politics (APP) program. APP is funded by a grant from the United Kingdoms Department for International Development (DFID) and Irish Aid, to a research consortium of which CAS is an institutional member. Further support was provided by a field research grant from the Tropical Conservation and Development (TCD) program in Latin American Studies and Dr. Brian Child.

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C A S R R 2009 57 STUDENT REPOR TS Exploring Liberias Musical HistoryTIMO THY NEVIN During the summer of 2008 my research took me back to Liberia for a second time. I had first visited Liberia during the summer of 2005, a trip that was in part funded by a travel grant from UF Student Government. It was extremely difficult finding funding for research in Liberia since the country was on the State Departments travel warning list, and there was no Fulbright Fellowship program operational at the time. Fortunately, I had taken a teaching position at Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia, and was able to finance my trips with my salary. My dissertation topic focuses on writing a history of Liberian popular music from roughly 1945 to 1990. I am focusing on the decades of the 1970s and 1980s, so most of my time in the country was spent searching for and interviewing musicians and cultural troupe members that were active during that time period. I also spent time at the National Archives (such as they are) and interviewing people at various radio stations, and at the Ministry of Information, Culture and Tourism. I visited a conference hosted by the Liberian musicians union, and was interviewed myself on the UNMIL radio station (the UN Peacekeeping Force in Liberia), and for a local television station. One of the biggest challenges was that most physical evidence was destroyed during the Liberian civil war, which lasted from 1989-1997, with a second phase of fighting from 2000-2003. The massive countrywide destruction meant that I had to rely on oral histories (over 120 interviews), and copies of Liberian newspapers that were saved on microfilm at the US Library of Congress. For copies of the actual recordings I had to rely on finding items on cassette in the Waterside market, or on vinyl and CD on E-bay. Essentially I am attempting to document the alternative multicultural vision that these Liberian musicians, singers and cultural performers were putting forth before being overwhelmed in the conflagration of the civil war in which many of them either were forced to flee into exile or were killed in the fighting that claimed an estimated 250,000 lives. Additionally, this is the first time anyone has attempted to write a history of Liberian popular music, since the older generation of ethnomusicologists viewed any non-traditional music as somehow impure. It is an exciting and challenging project that has also taken me to Liberian communities all across the US, and a subsequent article that has come from the project on the dance dramas of the Liberian National Cultural Troupe has been used to inform a new generation of young people this past summer at a Liberian culture camp in Philadelphia sponsored by the Philadelphia Folklore Project. Timothy Nevin is a doctoral student in the Department of History. He was a Center for African Studies FLAS Fellow from 2003-2005 for the study of Wolof.

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58 C A S R R 2009 My projects goals are to investigate whether or not foreign-owned lodges (hotels) face a stricter regulatory and enforcement framework then domestic firms. I also want to find out whether differing regulatory environments affect the level of income generated by conservancies. My final goal is to assess both the feasibility and competitiveness of US firms operating lodges in Namibia. A Comparative Study of Foreign Versus Domestic Owned Firms in the Namibian Tourism SectorJOSHUA NIEDERRITER To meet these goals I needed to collect data on which lodges are Namibian, which ones are located in conservancies and the amount of income they generate or contribute to a conservancy. I also needed to interview lodge owners and managers to find out if there is a difference in the way they are treated by the government and the local Namibians. Furthermore, I needed to find out what steps a U.S. firm would need to take to establish an operation in Namibia. Most of my stay involved me doing research at the Multidisciplinary Research Center at the University of Namibia. There I met with other researchers who gave me advice on my project and whom to contact within the Namibian Government concerning my project. The researchers at the university also allowed me access to a copious amount of conservancy data, which includes social-economic data on people living in conservancies and income contributed by lodges. I spent several days talking to the Namibian Tourism Board to get data on lodges. The Namibian Tourism Board regulates all aspects of the tourism industry in Namibia. They eventually gave me a list of all foreign and domestically owned lodges in Namibia as well as all the regulations these firms face. From this list I drew my sample of which lodges to interview. At the University of Namibia, I met a collaborator, Thea Simpson, who is continuing my research in Namibia. Thea was selected by Dr. Silva to be a graduate researcher for her work on communitybased natural resource management. She is currently interviewing owners and managers of both foreign and domestically owned lodges in conservancies as well as officials in government ministries. Joshua Niederriter is a student in Economics in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. His research was made possible through a grant from UFs Center for International Business & Education Research (CIBER).

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C A S R R 2009 59 STUDENT REPOR TS Informal Institutions: Do They Matter? WINIFRED P ANKANI It is typically argued that despite increasing urbanization, state bureaucracies in Africa still sit atop mostly rural populace determined to elude the best efforts of the state to fully incorporate it into its fold. This failure of the state to fully penetrate society has resulted in the proliferation of and the salience of informal rules even though this does not mean there is a complete absence of rules and regulation. In contrast to the general depiction of the African state and its bureaucracies as highly corrupt, inefficient operations unable to deliver basic services to their citizens, countries like Botswana and Mauritius have gained a reputation for their administrative integrity and capability, reputations that preceded their impressive rapid economic growth. An argument could be made that Botswana and Mauritius have been democratic and stable polities since independence and could thus be atypical cases for Africa. However, countries like Ghana, and Malawi and until recently Uganda, the Ivory Coast and Kenya were considered fairly well administered state even if they constitute a second tier in comparison to Botswana and Mauritius. Herein lies the interesting puzzle: why then do some African states acquire relatively effective states? Most African bureaucracies operate with all but a modicum of rationality and even though efficiency as a goal seldom ranks high for bureaucrats, why do these bureaucracies function relatively well? My research answers this question in three stages. I hypothesize that state capacity is largely shaped by the interaction between formal and informal rules, and the choices of state elites at critical junctures. To test these hypotheses I spent the summer of 2009 in Ghana building on my previous research on bureaucratic performance in select Ghanaian ministries in an effort to tease out in a systematic fashion the role, if any, informal institutions played in state development. To this end I focus on four key ministries Agriculture, Education, Health and Transportation theorized in the state building literature as important for the development of state capacity, which is largely dependent on the ability of the state to penetrate and rule over its territory. I spent the summer combing the libraries of the Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration (GIMPA), the Ministry of Finance and the Head of Civil Service as well as the Resource Center at the Center for Democratic Development (Ghana). The aim of this summer research trip was to collect more qualitative and historical data to complement survey data collected in 2008. I also spent the summer conducting extensive multiple interviews with upper level bureaucrats and some politicians deemed by the bureaucrats in the ministries of interest as being very effective ministers or deputy ministers. I am still analyzing my data, but my initial impressions are that while informality is quite pervasive, evaluation and favoritism of the well-performing bureaucrat was quite common. Winifred Pankani is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Political Science. She received dissertation fieldwork funding as an African Power and Politics Program Fellow. APPP is funded by a grant from the United Kingdoms Department for International Development (DFID) and Irish Aid to a research consortium of which CAS is an institutional member.

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60 C A S R R 2009 The dry biomes of southern Africa are home to large numbers of charismatic megafauna. Animal biomass in these systems is limited by the metabolite production of the plants, and these plants are, in turn, limited by water. The natural system, typied by the diverse mix of browsers and grazers at varying levels of food selectivity, has been supplanted by the uniformity of ranching and agricultural systems. This has severely altered the dynamic nature of the ecosystem that has evolved between vegetation and high herbivore diversity, heavily contributing to desertication, bush encroachment and ultimately a reduction in yields of cattle and crops. Yet there exist few livelihood alternatives to ranching and rain fed agriculture. The lack of viable alternatives to rural households increase livelihood vulnerability as the local system becomes progressively dryer and unpredictable in terms of rainfall. It is important to understand the interrelationship between covariant shocks and the local economic structure in order to design policy mechanisms that would both decrease vulnerability to shocks and maximize benefit to communities from their land while preserving its productivity. Over the summer, I lived and worked in 7 rural communities along the border of Kruger National Park in South Africa. In this round of data collection, I conducted, with help of local research assistants, 430 randomly selected household interviews. To achieve a more dynamic understanding of household and village level impacts, I will employ two methods: the econometric method Vulnerability as Expected Poverty (VEP) and the development of village level Social Accounting Matrices. While entitlements and factor endowments affect a households income level and constrains the coupled consumption-production decisions Livelihood Vulnerability and Village Economic Structure in Systems of Covariant ShocksGREGORY P ARENT of rural households, poverty and associated behavior of households, cannot be simply explained within these parameters. Vulnerability to risk events itself is a factor in the poverty equation and influences the household choice matrix by altering constraints. Vulnerable households face significant uncertainty that often results in the alteration of production/consumption choices away from maximizing benefit towards the mitigating of risk. Social vulnerability can be thought of as the interplay between the economic entitlements and the environment, which include: social aspects, such as proximity to urban centers and health facilities, natural resource endowments, such as access to fertile land, forest resources, minerals, etc., and climate, frequency of drought, flood events, and other weather events. While communities have been shown to establish informal insurance mechanisms to aid in risk mitigation, these informal mechanisms are often brittle in the face of widespread regional or village shocks. Formal insurance mechanisms have the greatest security, but few people/communities in developing countries have access to formal insurance. As such, to fully understand the potential benefit of any policy aimed at poverty alleviation, such as CBNRM, an understanding of rural vulnerability with its associated influence on household decisions is crucial.Gregory Parent is an NSF IGERT Ph.D. Fellow in the Department of Geography & 2009-10 CAS FLAS fellow for Xhosa. He was awarded a Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) Animal Health for the Environment and Development (AHEAD) program seed grant to conduct this research.

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C A S R R 2009 61 STUDENT REPOR TS Re-Fashioning Africa: Ghanas 3rd Annual Fashion WeekendCHRIST OPHER RICHARDS This summer I traveled to Ghana for three weeks to begin investigating my research topic, contemporary African fashion, and to gain insight into the development of a fashion industry in Accra. I attended Ghanas third annual Fashion Weekend, which featured over 30 contemporary African fashion designers. The designers ranged from recent graduates to internationally known designers like Alphadi from Niger. Textile companies, such as Vlisco and Da Viva sponsored several runway shows with the intent of showcasing their latest fabrics. Not only did Ghana Fashion Weekend indicate a burgeoning fashion industry in Ghana, but it illustrated interesting continuities between classical African textiles and contemporary fashion garments. Several designers, including Ghanas top designer, Kofi Ansah, relied heavily on bogolan and kente cloth, remixed into European influenced designs. Nigerias Modela borrowed the silhouette of Yoruba ades (beaded crowns worn traditionally by Yoruba kings) to produce hats and purses. As these current designers suggest, classical forms of African textiles still play an important role in African dress, but in new and transformed styles. I had the pleasure of interviewing Ghanaian designer Kofi Ansah, as well as the organizer of Ghana Fashion Weekend, Sima Ibrahim. Both individuals provided me with an interesting perspective on African fashion and its relationship to the European fashion market. Both expressed their desires of making African fashion global, while maintaining localized production and building a fashion industry within Ghana. Beyond the influences of classical textiles and forms of dress on contemporary African fashion, questions regarding beauty and gender emerged from my experiences during Ghana Fashion Weekend. Several women expressed to me during the show their frustration with the runway models, as they were too thin and did not accurately represent the average female body. What constitutes beauty in Ghana is something to explore further, particularly the conflict between Ghanaian and European standards of beauty. The four-day fashion event was a whirlwind of vibrant fabrics and innovative garments, suggesting this is an area in need of further examination. After this initial visit, I plan to return to Ghana in summer 2010 to begin working directly with Ghanaian designers and exploring the role of fashion within contemporary Ghanaian society. This will include how classical African forms and textiles are reinterpreted into contemporary clothing, the viability of a fashion industry in Ghana, and a further exploration of issues pertaining to conceptions of ideal beauty and gender. Christopher Richards is a doctoral student in the School of Art & Art History.

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62 C A S R R 2009 My research explores the local and global impact of contemporary Mozambican artists who use recycled materials in their art. The transformation of recycled materials into art by artists reflects a nexus of environmental, economic and culturally related issues that I analyze and are reflective of Mozambiques distinct history in Africa and how artists utilize recycled materials to create distinctly Mozambican art. My research focuses on determining how and why Mozambican artists use recycled materials to create their art and how the use of these materials relates to broader themes of recycling, visual culture and post-conflict resolution theory. I investigate artists who use natural and urban refuse, as well as artists involved with the Christian Council of Mozambiques program Transformao de Armas em Enxadas/Transforming Arms into Plowshares (TAE), who transform decommissioned weapons from the Mozambican civil war into assemblage art. Mozambican artists conceptual approach in specifically selecting recycled materials to create art is reflected in the words of artist Fiel dos Santos, We have to start to re-find things, bring them back to use. My research demonstrates that dos Santos and his fellow artists are using recycled materials to both literally and figuratively recycle and deconstruct Mozambican history to create evocative and powerful art. The pre-dissertation research I completed this summer builds on a research trip I completed during the summer of 2008. I returned to Maputo in summer 2009, with funding from a pre-dissertation research grant from CAS. I expanded my base of artists and strengthened my ties with religious and cultural organizations such as the Christian Council of Mozambique, as I began to observe and investigate the process of weapons retrieval and destruction instrumental to the development of art from arms by the TAE project. I also became more fully connected to the arts community of Maputo, receiving enthusiastic support Weapons and Refuse as Media: The Potent Politics of Recycling in Contemporary Mozambican Urban ArtsAMY SCHWARTZ O TT and access to the cultural landscape of Maputo from organizations such as the Museu Nacional de Arte and the Repblica de Moambique Ministrio da Educao e Cultura/Departamento de Artes Visuais. One important development I am very pleased to report this year is the building of Peace Monument, a ninemeter tall monument being constructed in Maputo. I have been able to observe the building of the monument by its creator, Cristovao Canhavato (Kester), a TAE artist. The monument is designed to serve as a symbolic place of remembrance of the Mozambican civil war, constructed of decommissioned weapons the imagery of which will include such symbols as a dove, a globe, and a map of Mozambique. Amy Schwartzott is a doctoral student in the School of Art and Art History. She received a Center for African Studies summer predissertation grant for this trip and is also a UF Graduate Alumni grant awardee.

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C A S R R 2009 63 STUDENT REPOR TS Interdisciplinary Studies for Crocodile Conservation Across AfricaMATTHEW H SHIRLEY Since 2005 I have been developing an interdisciplinary program for crocodile conservation in Africa including reevaluation of the systematics of these species, surveys and capacity building to assess conservation needs, and implementing sustainable utilization where appropriate. The past year was marked by exciting advancements with fieldwork in Senegal, Gambia, Egypt, and Uganda. In the fall of 2008, while studying French in Senegal, I had the opportunity to work with the wildlife conservation agencies of Senegal and Gambia to determine if dwarf (Osteolaemus tetraspis) and slender-snouted (Mecistops cataphractus) crocodiles were locally extinct. Neither species had been seen for 20 40 years, but I was inspired by our quick rediscovery of dwarf crocodiles in both countries. Even better news is that we rediscovered slender-snouted crocodiles in River Gambia National Park, though this western population is precarious with as few as 12 20 individuals. Starting in June 2008, I initiated a project with the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency to evaluate the burgeoning Nile crocodile population in Lake Nasser as a harvestable wildlife resource. Over the course of the year we established a population size estimate and built strong relationships with the Lake Nasser communities. As a culmination to this exciting first year, my colleagues and I passed a proposal to initiate a governmentsponsored crocodile management unit, which is now continuing management related research, and has drafted a proposal to the 15th CITES CoP for approval of utilization and international trade. In the lab I have been working on finalizing extensive investigations into the evolutionary history of African crocodiles. The dwarf crocodile was recently split into three unique species, and our analysis of samples collected in Senegambia suggest that they warrant recognition as an Evolutionarily Significant Unit within the West African (as yet unnamed) species. For the Nile crocodile, my results provide strong evidence that there are two species with highly divergent evolutionary histories. Based on this we have proposed that the taxon Crocodylus suchus (Geoffrey 1807) should be resurrected. This species was described from mummies of the historic Crocodilopolis of ancient Egypt, and our ancient DNA analyses confirm that these mummies are actually a different species than existed in the Nile River, and are aligned with our C. suchus. This is exciting as it suggests the Pharaonic Egyptians were cognizant of two different species and preferentially bred one in the temples of Sobek. Samples collected in Uganda from a population of pygmy crocodiles in the Kidepo Valley provide additional support that C. suchus was once more widely distributed than its modern, predominantly West African range suggests. The conservation implications of this species split are profound because Nile crocodile populations throughout East and southern Africa are large, with harvest as the ideal management strategy, while C. suchus automatically qualifies as Threatened or Endangered. The coming year promises to be just as exciting with continued fieldwork in Egypt and Uganda, and new programs starting up focused on the ecology and conservation of the slender-snouted crocodile in Gabon and Republic of Congo.Matthew H. Shirley is a doctoral student in Wildlife Ecology & Conservation. He has received funding for his research from USAID Egypt Junior Scientist Visits Grant, the Conservation Leadership Programme, Conservation Leadership Programme Mentoring Award, Rotary International Cultural Ambassadorial Scholarship, The Minnesota Zoo Ulysses S. Grant Conservation Award, and Idea Wild Foundation Equipment Grant.

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64 C A S R R 2009 Information diffusion interventions have often relied on the use of agents to diffuse information to their constituents. The approach has the potential of facilitating broad-based impacts in terms of information dissemination and social change. However, effective communication of information requires an understanding of the knowledgesharing behaviors of the agents as well as the effectiveness of the communication methods used to impart knowledge to effect the desired change. Research related to knowledge-sharing behaviors is scarce in environmental/natural resources literature, though it abounds in other areas such business, professional, IT, and public organizations. The current research, aimed at examining predictors of environmental knowledge-sharing behaviors of community-based natural resources management (CBNRM) board members and assessing the relative effectiveness of two communication methods (visualized and conventional verbal communication), is an attempt to address this gap. The study will enable practitioners in environmental communication and education to; (1) understand the knowledge sharing behaviors of community leaders or agents often used to diffuse environmental information, (2) design interventions based on research that target significant factors influencing Trustees or agents decisions to share acquired knowledge, and (3) select effective communication methods that will promote maximal information acquisition by the Trustees/agents. Understanding factors that will promote knowledge sharing and effective knowledge acquisition methods will help practitioners in planning information diffusion campaigns and interventions aimed at promoting responsible environmental behaviors. I did fieldwork from May through July 2009 in the Ngamiland District in Botswana. Fifteen groups of CBNRM Board of Trustees took part in the study Environmental Information & Communication Among Stakeholders: Okavango Delta, BotswanaOLEKAE THAKADU for a total sample of 150 subjects. Three of the participating Boards were used to pilot both the instrument and the two interventions. Workshops were held with each participating Board, addressing two specific environmental concerns and issues within the Okavango delta: fire management and waste management within communitymanaged concession areas, often referred to as community controlled hunting areas (CHAs). After each presentation, participants completed a retrospective questionnaire addressing relevant aspects of the subject matter. The questionnaires assessed participants perceived knowledge of the environmental issues before and after the intervention, their attitudes, beliefs and intention, as well as locus of control in respect to knowledge sharing or communication. Fieldwork also gave me the opportunity to work again with CBNRM leaders and helped me to better understand the knowledge and information needs required for effective management of community areas, as well as promoting responsible environmental behaviors among community constituents. I was amazed by the interest shown for the issues that were presented (fire and waste management) as they related to community-managed areas. Board members indicated that the information provided them with requisite knowledge, skills and enlightenment to better manage and ensure compliance of community areas management plans. I was fulfilled as a scholar and practitioner in that I benefitted from the participation of the subjects and imparted something that was of immediate use in their day-today lives. Olekae Thakadu is a doctoral student in the Department of Agricultural Education and Communication and an associate in the UF NSFIGERT program on Adaptive Management: Wise Use of Waters, Wetlands, and Watersheds (AMW3). The summer 2009 fieldwork was carried out with funding from the University of Botswana.

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C A S R R 2009 65 STUDENT REPOR TS Structural Changes in the Malian Cotton Sector: Implications for Export Performance VER ONIQUE THERIAUL T After a year of research, I finally had the opportunity to get directly exposed to the Malian cotton industry last summer. Indeed, I have been able to explore the whole cotton sector, from the field to the capital, during my preliminary fieldwork. Through semi-structured interviews conducted with principal stakeholders (e.g. cotton producers, ginning companies, banks, state representatives and exporters), I went further into understanding the complex roles played by the cotton industry in Malis social and economic development, and the necessity of taking into account local realities on reforms success. Cotton, the primary cash crop in Mali, significantly contributes to the national economy by providing income and employment to over three million smallholder farmers. In addition to its direct impact on income and employment, the cotton sector is affiliated with cereal production as well as Malian manufacturing and transport industries. Two recent developments are threatening to offset or slow economic growth derived from cotton exports. The first is downward pressure on cotton prices brought about, in part by increased yields made possible by genetically modified seed. The second is related to institutional reform. Beginning in the 1990s, Mali and other sub-Saharan countries were strongly recommended by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to undertake reform measures designed to privatize segments of their cotton sector in order to render them more efficient and more competitive. While the process is ongoing, Malian cotton production has declined drastically since the reform measures began and have resulted in negative repercussions affecting the entire economy. Using primary and secondary data collected during my fieldtrip, I aim to quantitatively assess the impacts of structural and economic reform on cotton production over the last decade. Specifically, the objective is to analyze the roots of the recent drop in production as a function of both agro-environmental factors and policy decisions. Choice of explanatory variables in the econometric model is based on discussion with principal stakeholders. For instance, low farm prices for cottonseed, high input costs, delay in payment and insufficient rainfall were all continually mentioned as possible causes of production decrease. Determination of the principal factors responsible for the production decline, as well as their relative importance, could serve as a guide to policymakers in seeking to boost both the cotton industry and larger economy. As an example, if the recent drop is mainly caused by low farm prices, then the new price mechanism put in place with the institutional reforms should be rethought in a way that will motivate profitable farmers to produce rather than encouraging them to withdraw from farming cotton. It suggests that the actual price system is not effective since it does not send the right incentive to produce cotton. I would like to thank everyone who made this preliminary fieldwork possible and particularly, all the Malians who nicely welcomed me and shared valuable information. This work would also not have been carried out without Dr Renata Serras contributions and mentoring.Veronique Theriault is a doctoral student in the Department of Food and Resource Economics. Her 2009 summer research was made possible by a W.W. McPherson Graduate Student International Travel Scholarship from the Food and Resource Economics Department and by a pre-dissertation research stipend from the African Power and Politics (APP) Program from the Center for African Studies. APP is funded by a grant from the United Kingdoms Department for International Development (DFID) and Irish Aid to a research consortium of which CAS is an institutional member.

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66 C A S R R 2009 Pana Ebo? means, where are the monkeys? in the local language of Iko. During the summer of 2009, I spent six weeks investigating this question in the Iko Esai Community Forest in the Cross River State in Nigeria. This area is known as the peoples paradise because it is home to the remaining 10% of tropical forests found in Nigeria and the people are known for their caring disposition. I worked alongside the Centre for Education, Research, Conservation of Primates and Nature (CERCOPAN), a nongovernmental organization (NGO) that has worked in Cross River State for the last fifteen years investigating empty forest syndrome and piloting an environmental education program. A forest is deemed empty when the fauna has been depleted by hunting to the point where its ecological structure and the actual or potential economic role of the forest has been altered. To assess the forest health I conducted line-transect surveys (focusing on diurnal primates), habitat mapping, and helped with the collection of phenology data. In order to gauge the communitys use of the forest, I collaborated with CERCOPAN researchers to determine the types of non-forest timber products removed each day from the forest and the number of individual hunters entering the forest. I created an overnight tropical forest ecosystem and primate conservation education module that brought twelve students from the local secondary school to experience the sights and sounds of the rainforest first hand using the forest as our classroom. One of the primary objectives of my visit was to learn about the communities views on primate conservation and forest preservation. I conducted informal interviews with the local chiefs, ex-hunters, and women, attended chief council and hunters group meetings, and spent time interacting with school children to determine their skill level. My initial Primate Conservation and Environmental Education: Re-filling the Empty ForestsC ARRIE V ATH findings show that this forest could be suffering from empty forest syndrome due to unsustainable hunting practices but the community seems committed to learning more about sustainable development. My dissertation work will focus on the behavioral ecology of the endangered red-eared monkey ( Cercopithecus erythrotis), developing methods to test for empty forest syndrome, working with hunters to implement alternative livelihoods, and developing environmental education programs targeted at hunters and women. My stay in Nigeria resulted in lifelong friendships, amazing cultural experiences, and unforgettable primate rehabilitation work. I want to dedicate this report to the memory of Chief Patrick, a man who was loved by all who met him and will forever be missed.Carrie Vath is a doctoral student in the School of Natural Resources and Environment. Her summer 2009 research was supported by a CAS predissertation research award and by the Katherine Ordway Endowment of the Florida Museum of Natural History.

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C A S R R 2009 67 STUDENT REPOR TS Moroccan Islam(s): Debating Religious Authority Through Ritual and Musical PerformanceCHRIST OPHER WITULSKI Since 2005 I have been spending time in Morocco researching the music of the Gnawa, a previously enslaved population from the south of the country. With each passing trip to North Africa, I am able to further probe the complexities of the relationship between these people, their religion, Sufism, Islam, rituals, and popular music. The ritual music of the Gnawa, unlike that of most Sufi groups in the region, has two parallel goals. It not only attempts to create a bridge between the individual and the divine, it also engages spirits or mluk (owner), asking them to participate in the ceremony by capturing, or possessing, adepts. The blessings from these spirits rest upon the house and the family of those who are possessed or maskun (lived within). Questions remain unanswered, however, as orthodox groups and everyday Moroccans ask about these mluk: are they syncretic Muslim/African spiritual figures, as the Gnawa say, or are they jinns, troublesome demons aiming to separate Muslims from Allah? When this contentious set of beliefs is conflated with the already tenuous position of music within the Islamic world, criticisms and religious struggles between brotherhoods and other organizations percolate to the surface. Simultaneously, however, groups like the Aissawa, a Sufi path originating in 18th century Meknes, adopt Gnawa songs and even spirits, placing them within their own ritual practices. This past summer I was able to return to Fez and investigate the theological, social, and economic relationships between these different religious organizations. By examining the motivations that drove Aissawa and other Sufi groups to include Gnawa material in their rituals and theological worldviews, I worked to unravel small corners of the densely woven Moroccan cultural web. As a nation renowned for hybridity, social relations in Morocco fall upon innumerable parallel and intersecting axis, with race, belief, and language, three that implicate the Gnawa directly, proving to be a few of the most prominent. During this trip, I had the opportunity to work closely with a diverse range of musical and ritual leaders including Abderrahim Abd ar-Rzaq and Gaga, both Gnawa maalems, Adil and Abdullah Yaqubi, Aissawa muqaddems from two different groups, and two members of a Hamadcha brotherhood, Abderrahim al-Marrakechi and Fredrick Calmus. These individuals welcomed me into their lives and social circles, teaching me to play and sing their music while spending countless hours humoring my questions about rituals, beliefs, society, and Islam as they appear in Fez and Morocco.Christopher Witulski is a doctoral student in Ethnomusicology. His research was funded by the University of Florida Alumni Grant Program and a summer pre-dissertation research grant from the Center for African Studies.

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68 C A S R R 2009 Fulbright-Hays Summer 2009 Intensive Yoruba Group Project Abroad [GPA] AKINTUNDE AKINYEMI This year marks the fifth successful hosting of the Summer Intensive Yorb Group Project Abroad [GPA] Program, which is funded by the US Department of Education through its Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program. This eight-week summer intensive language program is based at Obafemi Awolowo University in Ile-Ife in Nigeria, and provides an avenue for American college students to achieve advanced competence in the study of Yorb language and culture. The instruction therefore gave equal attention to proficiency in the four basic skills of reading, writing, speaking and understanding. Other components of the program are one-on-one tutoring, interaction with local residents, discussions with Yorb scholars, interaction with guest lecturers, reading a variety of literary works in Yorb, and field trips to cultural and historical sites. The program, which took place from June 18 to August 16, 2009, had 11 participants including 5 graduate students and 6 undergraduate students from seven universities across the United States. The institutions represented were: University of Florida, University of Wisconsin-Madison, University of Texas-Austin, Harvard University, California State University-Fresno, University of Georgia, and Georgia Southern University. Participants were able to develop their Yoruba language competence through classroom instruction as well as informal interaction and socialization outside of class. There were numerous things achieved in the 2009 program in terms of the participants immersion experience, language instruction, and program administration. The program participants were able to use the Yorb language to perform various personal and professional activities in Ile Ife and other parts of Yorb land. Even though some participants became integrated with their host families and the host university community quicker than others, all participants were able to use the Yorb language to perform far ranging tasks as well as learn more about the language, people, and culture. Although there were some challenges as one might find in any study abroad program, the good news is that we continue to see the long-term benefits of the program. For instance, 2 former participants of the program, Matthew Brown (University of Wisconsin-Madison) and Regan Buck Barden (UCLA) have been awarded Fulbright scholarships for doctoral dissertation fieldwork in Nigeria next year. While Matt will be working on the Nigerian video film industry, Regans research interest centers on the early print industry in Yorb land and the interactions between print and oral practices. Finally, we continue to refine the program to achieve the goals of advanced language competency and encourage the study of Yorb language and culture. Akintunde Akinyemi is an associate professor in the Department of Languages, Literatures, and Cultures and affiliate faculty with the Center for African Studies. He is the Principal Investigator and program director for the Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad (GPA) Intensive Yoruba summer program.Collaborative Project Reports

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C A S R R 2009 69 C OLLABOR ATIVE PROJECT REPOR TSWith nations facing difficult financial choices in funding health, education, and infrastructure services, leaders have begun to focus on ways to improve performance in the energy, water, telecommunications, and transportation sectors. Many African nations have established utility regulatory agencies to separate the political processes behind policy-making from the professionals who implement that policy. Thus, there is a need for training and the sharing of best practice across national boundaries. Since 1997, the Public Utility Research Center/ World Bank International Training Program on Utility Regulation and Strategy has been delivered every January and June. Although PURC received seed money to design the course, the program has been self-sufficient. The course has been customized to offer infrastructure professionals around the world technical skills and lessons about ways to improve infrastructure sector performance. Of the 2,000 participants from 140 nations, nearly half have come from African regulatory commissions, government ministries, or utilities. I am now armed with the information that will enable me to appreciate telecommunications, said Ugandan Communications Commissioner Timothy Lwanga after his participation in the PURC Program. I have learned a lot and hope to be a more effective commissioner. [It was] quite an experience. The two-week program focuses on infrastructure to prepare utility professionals with the tools they need in their profession. This course [gave me] an opportunity to interact with some of the best speakers around the world, said Zambian Consumer Officer Stephen M. Bwalya of the 26th PURC/WB Program. The program is very good for the regulators, as it provides insights to apply to decision-making and tariff-setting. PURC-affiliated scholars have organized customized courses in Botswana, Namibia, Nigeria, Public Utility Research Center (PURC): African Infrastructure Research and OutreachSANFORD BERG South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia (and more than 20 other countries around the world). For example, Ted Kury, PURC director of Energy Studies, will be delivering courses in Rwanda and Ghana in fall 2009. In addition, professor Sanford Berg, PURC director of Water Studies, has written a number of papers, including State-Owned Enterprises: NWSCs Turnaround in Uganda, in the African Development Review with co-author Silver Mugisha of the National Water and Sewerage Corporation (NWSC). The article describes the strengths and limitations of the Ugandan water reform efforts. Berg and Mugisha also have a paper forthcoming in Water Policy, Pro-poor Water Service Strategies in Developing Countries: Promoting Justice in Ugandas Urban Project, that examines how public standpipes (and a combination of other options) can meet both financial constraints and social objectives. Infrastructure is one arena where UF researchers are having a significant impact.Dr. Sanford Berg is the PURC Director of Water Studies and a Distinguished Service Professor of Economics at the University of Florida. Jessica Chapman, the PURC student assistant, also contributed to this report.

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70 C A S R R 2009 In 2009, Brian Child (Geography & CAS), Grenville Barnes (School of Forest Resources & Conservation), Sandra Russo (UF International Center) and Brijesh Thapa (Department of Tourism, Recreation, & Sports Management) were awarded a three-year $600,000 Higher Education for Development (HED) grant, Transforming CBNRM Education in Southern Africa. Our goal is to facilitate renowned scholars and practitioners in southern Africa region to synthesize and record twenty years of experience in the regions cutting edge Community Based Natural Resources Management (CBNRM) programs to provide quality curricular materials for universities, vocational colleges, practitioner training and the private sector. Since the 1960s southern Africa has led a global change in conservation policy based on the principles of sustainable use. Countries like Zimbabwe and Namibia experimented boldly, first introducing policies that devolved use and benefit rights from wildlife to private landholders. The successes of these new policy approaches are reflected in blossoming wildlife numbers and a vigorous wildlife economy. The next challenge, beginning in the 1980s, was to extend the concepts of incentive-based conservation to the socially complex communal lands where the majority of rural Africans live. This led to well known initiatives like CAMPFIRE in Zimbabwe and Namibias national CBNRM program, whereby local communities benefit from and therefore conserve wildlife and other natural resources. Key to these programs was the development of new economic and political institutions for governing wild resources, including strengthened property rights, new markets and rural democratization. Other innovations combined participation and science to improve wildlife and natural resources through adaptive management. In this current project UF faculty and students work closely with southern African conservation practitioners and communities, undertaking interdisciplinary environmental, social and economic Transforming CBNRM Education in Southern Africa: Bridging the Gap Between Classroom and Natural Resource GovernanceBRIAN CHILD, GRENVILLE B ARNES, SANDRA R USSO AND BRIJESH THAPA research related to state and community conservation. We have paid considerable attention to building longterm relationships, and to orientating our research towards local needs and problems. Additionally, we work with practitioners and communities to develop the long-term monitoring systems that are critical for adaptive management. This experience enabled us, in July, to provide training on governance and economics to a forum comprising communities, government officials and the private sector to improve the management of and benefits from the extraordinary resources in Botswanas Okavango Delta. Later that month, 58 scholars and practitioners from eight countries met in Pretoria, South Africa, to map out a strategy for improving curricular materials, teaching and research related to CBNRM in southern Africa. With matching funding from USAID and Norway through WWF, participation included twelve universities, seven colleges, major NGOs and practitioners working in the region (WWF, AWF, WCS, IUCN, Resources Africa), representatives of the tourism and hunting industries, and USAID which funds this project and has invested over $100 million in community conservation in the region since 1989. The workshop concluded that it was essential to integrate research with training and practice, and that although a substantial amount of knowledge has been accumulated by a network of dedicated scholar practitioners, it has extended only haphazardly into education institutions and academia more generally. Training materials do not adequately reflect the current stateof-knowledge, and too few people are being trained in new approaches to issues like biodiversity conservation, climate change, food security and payments for environmental services. The Pretoria workshop was the first step to strengthen a communityof-practice of committed scholars and practitioners around the tasks of: 1) collecting, collating, and designing CBNRM curricula and materials;

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C A S R R 2009 71 C OLLABOR ATIVE PROJECT REPOR TS and 2) institutionalizing these in local universities and colleges. To capture southern Africas extensive lessons, we will be holding a series of write-shops in field locations over the next three years. Our output will be a series of books, manuals and teaching materials written collectively by scholars and practitioners covering subjects like natural resource governance, economics, marketing and business development, social learning and adaptive management, participatory resource management. These write shops will include the next generation of teachers and trainers to encourage their buy-in to the materials and pedagogy that links to field practice. The Project PI is Brian Child who has considerable experience implementing CBNRM in southern Africa, including Zimbabwes pioneering CAMPIFRE program. Brijesh Thapa adds tourism expertise, and Grenville Barnes adds capability in resource governance and property rights. Sandra Russo is an agronomist with considerable expertise in the region and in training approaches. The program is also linked to research projects being implemented in the region by Geography professors Jane Southworth (land change science), Eric Keys (rural sociology, agriculture and innovation), Michael Binford (bio-geography) and Abraham Goldman (agriculture and parks) and more than a dozen graduate students working on natural resource governance.Brian Child is associate professor in the Department of Geography and the Center for African Studies. This project is managed through the Higher Education for Development (HED) office with a three-year funding award of $600,000 from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).

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72 C A S R R 2009 NSF-Human and Social Dynamics Program: Parks As Agents of Social ChangeABE GOLDMAN, MICHAEL BINFORD, BRIAN CHILD, J. TERRENCE MC C ABE, AND P AUL LESLIE This multi-institutional interdisciplinary project examines the social and environmental impacts of a sample of parks in four countries Tanzania, Uganda, Botswana, and Namibia and across an ecological gradient from mid-altitude forests to semiarid savannas. Demographic conditions around the parks range from very densely populated agricultural landscapes bordering two of the parks to sparsely populated landscapes with seasonal movements of people, livestock, and wild animals. Some of the parks have attracted many settlers from other areas, while in other cases, people have left for opportunities elsewhere. Our research indicates that each of the parksTarangire in northern Tanzania; Kibale in western Uganda; Chobe and nearby protected areas in northern Botswana; and Bwabwata and Mudumu in northeastern Namibia have been reasonably successful in protecting habitat and biodiversity within their boundaries. They have also had a complex mix of impacts on surrounding landscapes and ecosystems, including institutional development at various levels; demographic trends; changes in risks, welfare, and livelihood activities; changes in attitudes to parks and conservation; and environmental changes in the surrounding landscapes and communities. Some of our findings include the following: all of the parks have stimulated social and institutional change in neighboring communities and households. Public and private ecotourism institutions as well as other economic enterprises and physical infrastructure have expanded in all of the areas. In several cases, increased tourism associated with parks (or its expectation) has stimulated the growth of womens craft production groups. Community-based management institutions that receive a substantial share of the revenues from tourism and hunting licenses have been established in Botswana and Namibia. Comparable institutions are rare or absent from the Tanzanian and Ugandan parks, although some revenue sharing occurs. Major negative impacts of protected area conservation include the crop losses and other hazards posed by animals in all of the areas, as well as the environmental impacts of rapidly increasing elephant populations in the southern African cases. Population growth, external income sources, and marketing opportunities have led to agricultural expansion and intensification around the Ugandan and Tanzanian parks, but in southern Africa crop and livestock agriculture has not necessarily expanded and has often stagnated or contracted. Income and employment related to the parks have minor percapita effects in the East African cases, but have had a large impact in some of the southern African communities. Local peoples assessments of the parks have been more positive in many, though not all, of the cases, contrary to the expectations of many critics of park impacts. Most respondents in the southern Africa and Ugandan cases view parks positively either for economic or environmental services reasons. Attitudes to the park in Tanzania are far more negative, partly because of frequent changes in park policy as well as occasionally heavy-handed enforcement of park regulations. Some Tanzanian communities have adopted preemptive cultivation in wildlife migration corridors to avoid further loss of land to parks and protected areas. This is one among several examples of how parks and conservation policy can stimulate responses that affect the efficacy of conservation efforts themselves. This project is led by Abe Goldman, Michael Binford, Brian Child (Geography, University of Florida), J. Terrence McCabe (Anthropology, University of Colorado at Boulder) and Paul Leslie (Anthropology, University of North CarolinaChapel Hill). Additional collaborators include the University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Makerere University, Uganda; University of Namibia; and the Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre at the University of Botswana. There are also several UF student participants involved including Amy Panikowski (Geography), Karen Kirner (Anthropology), Patricia Mupeta, Luke Rostant, J.G. Collomb, William Kanapaux, Juanita Garcia-Saqui, Shylock Muyengwa, Greg Parent, Deborah Wojcik, Tim Fullman (all SNRE), Andrea Gaughan and Cerian Gibbes (Geography), and Katherine Mullan (Food & Resource Economics).

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C A S R R 2009 73 C OLLABOR ATIVE PROJECT REPOR TS Fostering International Collaboration with the University of KwaZulu-NatalSANDRA L. R USSO DOUG LEVEY, ANN DONNELL Y, AND TODD P ALMER In May to June 2009, the University of KwaZulu-Natals (UKZN) School of Biological and Conservation Sciences hosted a group of postgraduate students from the University of Florida and middle school science teachers from Gainesville. Funded by the National Science Foundation, the UF students spent four weeks conducting joint research activities under the direction of UF and UZKN faculty. The goal of the visit was to establish a foundation for interdisciplinary, international research collaboration under the umbrella of ecosystem health focusing on three areas: aquatic zoology, terrestrial zoology, and invasive species management. The aquatic zoology team was lead by UF doctoral students Alexis Morris, Elisa Livengood, and Dana Ehret, who each worked on different projects related to their research interests. Alexis worked on a comparative study on the thyroid function of the elasmobranch species to determine how environmental contaminants disrupt the function of sharks thyroids. Dana focused on the aging, growth, and body changes in fossils and modern lamniform sharks, while Elisa studied the life support systems and fish husbandry practices at the uShaka Sea World Aquarium to supplement her research in the ornamental fish trade industry. The terrestrial zoology team was focused on nutritional ecology, habitat utilization, population genetics, and the effects of environmental contaminants on Nile crocodile (Crocodiles niloticus) populations in the St. Lucia Estuary and the Pongola River system. The students, Josiah Townsend, Jackson Frechette, Estelle Robichaux and Elan Dalton helped capture seven adult Nile crocodiles to collect blood and urine samples, record morphological measurements, and mark the animal for future identification and reference. Moreover, the students also conducted a short study on Vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) health to determine the level of monkeys interaction with humans by analyzing parasite loads. Another team of UF doctoral students, Julian Resasco and Chris Woan, studied the meta-community of ants to analyze the species and size variations within bush clumps in the New Germany Nature Reserve. The invasive species team focused on studying the feeding preferences of mousebirds and mental models of invasive species. Kristine Callis and Rachel Naumann analyzed the ethanol preferences of mousebirds to determine if they select more or less ethanol-laden fruit (as evidence of ripeness). Dara Wald and Darina Palacio participated in an ongoing research project on the ecological impact of feral cats which could be later used to develop a mental model illustrating key concepts and variables of the South African experience compared to U.S. experience with invasive species. They interviewed scientist experts as well as local stakeholders to construct the mental model. The UF students and Alachua County middle school science teachers, May Steward, Eugenia Campbell, Nate Stewart and Carmella OSteen, shared informal science education lessons and programs at some primary and secondary schools in KwaZulu-Natal. They visited the Mandini and Manor Gardens primary schools and the Siyahomula and Pholela high schools, which provided them insights into how universities in developing countries transfer knowledge and research outcomes to the primary and secondary school level science classrooms. This international collaboration is one of several long-term graduate student research programs between UF and southern African universities. Future research programs working more closely with Ezemvelo KwaZulu Natal Wildlife and the iSimangaliso Wetland Authority are being developed to maintain this collaboration and broaden international research experiences for UF students.Dr. Sandra Russo, Director of Program Development at the UF International Center, is the PI on this grant and Dr. Doug Levey (Biology) is the Co-PI. Funding was provided by multiple NSF grants. Drs. Todd Palmer (Biology) and Ann Donnelly (Particle Engineering) as well as Nicola Kernaghan (International Center) were group leaders.

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74 C A S R R 2009 American Political Science Association: Elections and Democracy Workshop in GhanaD ANIEL SMITH For three weeks this summer, I coordinated a workshop on the broad topic of Elections and Democracy in Ghana with 2005 UF Political Science alumnus Kevin Fridy (University of Tampa), Beatrix Allah-Mensah (University of Ghana) and Ukoha Ukiwo (University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria). The workshop, which was underwritten by a generous grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and spearheaded by the American Political Science Foundation, brought together two-dozen African political scientists from across the continent and four Americanbased Ph.D. students. The workshop took place at the Institute for African Studies at the University of Ghana in Legon and was intended to increase research linkages between U.S.-based scholars and their African colleagues. The workshop was quite intense. In addition to our informal discussions during meals and on our excursions, each workshop participant presented his or her ongoing research in the plenary sessions. In the mornings, we broke into small groups to critically engage a large body of scholarly readings on political democratic development, elections, political parties, and campaigns. Participants also actively interacted with a number of guest speakers who were experts on Ghanaian politics and elections. During breaks, participants sought out new collaborative research efforts with one another. As workshop co-leaders, we organized several site visits for the participants, including a trip to meet with the Deputy Commissioner of Ghanas National Electoral Commission and officials from the national headquarters of Ghanas two major political parties. We also took participants to visit Ghanas most prestigious think tank, the Ghana Center for Democratic Development (CDD-Ghana), and had the opportunity to question representatives of the Coalition of Domestic Election Observers as well as the staff members of the AfroBarometer survey. During the last week of the workshop, we headed to Parliament, meeting and with the Minority Leader for nearly two hours. Finally, we took weekend excursions to Kumasi, the heart of the Asante Kingdom, and to Elmina, where we toured a slave castle on the Atlantic coast. Participants also got to test their mettle by walking over a canopy bridge suspended 150 feet in the Kakum National Park rain forest. In addition to getting critical feedback on their research projects during the workshop, each participant will have his or her research prcis published in a forthcoming issue of the journal, PS: Political Science and Politics.Daniel A. Smith is an associate professor in the Department of Political Science and affiliate faculty with the Center for African Studies. The workshop was made possible by a grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation through the American Political Science Foundation.

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C A S R R 2009 75 C OLLABOR ATIVE PROJECT REPOR TS South Africa is the dominant tourism market on the African continent. Tourism is a very important industry for the economy, which has largely focused on the core products such as parks, wildlife, nature and culture. In the last two decades, the product mix has been diversified to incorporate marine and coastal areas, rural communities and townships, events, urban centers, meetings, incentives, conventions and exhibitions. The market is largely comprised of visitors from Africa and the Middle East. However, international markets are increasing and there are indications of continued growth in the future. Also, the government expects to increase international arrivals to 10 million by 2010. Given the projected increases in visitors, the potential to expand this sector to generate more income, employment and other benefits is enormous, considering the current level of tourism development. However, tourism growth is dependent on a number of factors, notably, developing a trained and skilled labor force. Capacity building and institutional development through training is a key component for the vitality and sustainability of the tourism industry in South Africa. In order to address this major need, the University of Florida (UF) and Tshwane University of Technology (TUT) in Tshwane, South Africa have formulated a partnership to strengthen its teaching, research, service and faculty development initiatives in tourism management. In Year 1, the teaching and curriculum needs will be accommodated at the Bachelors degree level with respect to the following objectives: a) review and update existing curriculum; b) develop new curriculum in casino management, event management, airport and aviation management (currently these degree programs are not offered on the African continent); and c) develop vocational and executive training certificate programs in tourism. Also, a more concerted effort will be highlighted to target and enroll disadvantaged populations to the Department of Tourism at TUT. Strengthening Teaching, Research, and Faculty Development in Tourism Management in South AfricaBRIJESH THAPA In Year 2, based on a strategic visioning meeting with faculty and industry stakeholders, a Center for Sustainable Tourism will be established with active industry engagement (Advisory Board) and partnership. The mission of the Center will be largely to serve tourism destinations and industries through research, training and outreach within the community, province and other regions in southern Africa. In Year 3, faculty development will be emphasized with regard to enhancing capacity as well as collaborative initiatives in tourism research with the project team and select UF faculty. The facilitation of collaborative initiatives in research partnerships will be sustained during and post-completion of the project. Also, professional development opportunities will be offered to current TUT faculty through a short exchange program with UF. The project team has been formulated based on their respective backgrounds, knowledge and expertise within and outside UF which will be instrumental in accomplishing the objectives and strengthening the partnership between UF and TUT.This project is led by Dr. Brijesh Thapa, an associate professor in the Department of Tourism, Recreation, & Sports Management and director of UFs Center for Tourism Research and Development. He is also affiliate faculty with the center for African Studies. The partnership is managed through the Higher Education for Development agency with a three-year funding award of $250,000 from the United States Agency for International Development.

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76 C A S R R 2009 The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation has awarded the Center for Latin American Studies and the Center for African Studies at the University of Florida nearly $1 million to create a masters degree in development practice.In 2007 a group of 20 leading scholars and practitioners were commissioned to conduct a year-long study of development educational programs across the globe. This International Commission on Education for Sustainable Development Practice found that existing development programs lacked critical linkages between the natural, social, and health sciences and management to address urgent problems in the developing world. They concluded that generalist practitioners are needed to bridge the gaps between specialized disciplines and develop integrated policy solutions that are scientifically, politically and contextually grounded. The MacArthur Foundation has devoted $15 million to implement the recommendations of the Commission by developing a global network of Masters programs in Sustainable Development Practice (MDP). The first MDP program was initiated in October 2008 at the Earth Institute at Columbia University. In June 2009, UF was selected as one of only two universities in the U.S. to receive this prestigious award to create an MDP program. Nine other universities in India, Australia, Ireland, China, Senegal, Botswana, and Nigeria were also funded. The MDP degree at the University of Florida will focus on training development practitioners who will be able to address development challenges facing poor, resource rich communities in innovative ways. The program will partner with the University of Botswana as well as universities in Latin America to combine coursework with field experiences in agriculture, policy, health, engineering, management, environmental science, education and nutrition. The program is aimed at individuals who have an interest or background in some aspect of development and who want to be a part of a global network of development specialists who will pioneer innovative responses to critical development challenges including poverty alleviation, climate change, disease control, natural resource governance, and sustainable housing. We expect to admit the first class of students in Fall 2010. For more information please visit www.africa.ufl.edu/mdp.New Masters Degree in Sustainable Development Practice

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C A S R R 2009 77 Academic Year & Summer Foreign Language and Area Studies (FLAS) Fellowships The University of Floridas Center for African Studies anticipates awarding Foreign Language and Area Studies (FLAS) Fellowships for the academic year. These fellowships are funded by the U.S. Department of Education (USED) under Title VI of the U.S. Higher Education Act and are awarded to students combining graduate work in any academic discipline with African area and language studies. Fellowships are offered for any one of the regularly taught languages (Akan, Amharic, Arabic, Swahili, Wolof, Xhosa, and Yoruba ) as well as for other African languages for which instruction can be arranged. Fellowships provide a stipend of $15,000 per academic year and cover the cost of tuition and fees (12 credits per semester). Applicants must be a citizen or permanent resident of the United States and be admitted to a graduate program at the University of Florida. Summer fellowships provide students with an opportunity to undertake intensive African language study in any USED approved program including the Summer Cooperative African Language Institute (SCALI). Summer fellowships cover tuition at the host institution and provide a stipend of $2,500. For more information, including application deadlines, please visit www.africa.ufl.edu/graduatestudies/flas.

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78 C A S R R 2009 Madelyn M. Lockhart Graduate Research AwardIn 2004, Dr. Madelyn Lockhart, professor emeritus of economics and a former Dean of the Graduate School, established an endowment to support an annual award for graduate students doing predissertation research in Africa. Anonymous Dr. Timothy T. Ajani Dr. Nanette L. Barkey Dr. Faye F. Benedict Dr. Kenneth J. Boote Dr. Flordeliz T. Bugarin Dr. Charles Bwenge Dr. Bernadette Cailler Dr. Brenda Chalfin Dr. William L. Conwill Dr. Susan E. Cooksey Dr. Kristin E. Davis Dr. Stephen A. Emerson Professor Joan D. Frosch Dr. Abraham C. Goldman Dr. Holly E. Hanson Dr. Goran Hyden Dr. Rene LeMarchand Dr. Agnes N. Leslie Dr. Michael Leslie Dr. Staffan Lindberg Dr. Barbara E. McDade-Gordon Dr. Fiona McLaughlin Dr. Della McMillan-Wilson Dr. Peter P. Malanchuk Dr. Masangu D. Matondo Dr. Kenneth W. Mease Dr. James E. Meier Dr. Connie J. Mulligan Dr. Rebecca M. Nagy Dr. Susan M. OBrien Dr. Daniel J. Ottemoeller Dr. Dianne White Oyler Dr. Robin E. Poynor Dr. Robert M. Press Dr. Daniel A. Reboussin Dr. Andre B. Reese Dr. Leonard A. Rhine Dr. Sandra Russo Dr. Marianne Schmink Dr. James L. Seale, Jr. Mrs. Zoe H. Seale Dr. Daniel Smith Dr. Anita Spring Hon. Emerson R. Thompson, Jr. Dr. Leonardo A. Villaln Dr. Peter A. von Doepp Dr. Luise S. WhiteThanks to Our Donors The generous contributions from Jeanne & Hunt Davis and Dr. Lockhart has made it possible for the Center to provide support for graduate students each summer doing fieldwork in Africa. In an effort to expand our capability for supporting graduate students, Dr. Davis has taken the lead in helping CAS work toward establishing an additional endowment. The African Studies Faculty & Alumni Pre-Dissertation Award now has over $20,000 in commitments and is moving full speed ahead toward the goal of $30,000, which will provide more support for graduate students. Please see the following page for more information about this fund and how you can contribute. The Center would like to thank the following individuals who have contributed to our various funds over the years (with an extra special thanks to those who are working to build the Faculty & Alumni Pre-Dissertation Fund).Jeanne & Hunt Davis Graduate Research AwardIn 2004, Dr. R. Hunt Davis, professor emeritus in History and a former director of the Center for African Studies, and his wife, Jeanne, established an endowment to support graduate students doing predissertation research in Africa. African Studies Faculty & Alumni Pre-Dissertation Award

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C A S R R 2009\011 79 Funds for graduate students to travel and carry out research in Africa are in very short supply, especially in these trying economic times!\011 Beyond their training at UF, field research in Africa is absolutely essential for students to write the kinds of dissertations on which they will be able to base successful careers, whether in academia, government, NGOs, or the private sector. The major dissertation research awards for Africa are limited in number and increasingly competitive. In order for Ph.D. candidates to be competitive for these awards they must demonstrate a strong familiarity with the proposed field site and the capability to carry out the proposed work. \011 As a result, preliminary summer research trips to lay the groundwork for dissertation fieldwork are invaluable for making students competitive for national awards for dissertation funding. Helping our students launch their professional careers in this way is one of our top priorities at the Center for African Studies.\011 The Center for African Studies has recently established a fund with the goal of creating an endowment of at least $30,000, so as to generate the revenue for an annual award to help a student carry out predissertation research in Africa. If you would like to make a contribution to this fund, we (and future generations of UF Africanist students!) would be very grateful. The form below can be used for this purpose.\011 If you are a UF employee and would like to contribute via payroll deduction, please contact CAS for assistance. \011 If you have any questions or would like more informationplease contact Leonardo Villaln (CAS director) at villalon@africa.ufl.edu or 352-392-2183Be Part of This Exciting Work: Contribute to Graduate Student Research on Africa at UF PP lease R R eturn T T o: My Gift is For: A A lumni and F F aculty P P re-D D issertation T T ravel A A ward 013799 A A mount EE nclosed: $ ______________________________ A A mount PP ledged: $ _______________________________ (A pledge reminder will be mailed to the address provided.) __________________________________________ ________________________________________ ____________________________________ ___________________________________________ _________________________________________ Remember to enclose your companys MATCHING GIFT FORM! It can double or triple your gift!MM ethod of payment: (Make check payable to: UF Foundation, Inc.) __________________________________ _________________________ _______________________ B B illing II nformation (if different from on at left): ________________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________________ ___________________________________________ S S ignature:_ _______________________________________ Thank you for your support!

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80 \011 C A S R R 2009Ashley Leinweber for coordinating this project, the students and faculty who contributed reports and photographs, and Jane Dominguez and Aubrey Siegel for their design and layout of this booklet. Cover photos by Gregory Parent.The Center Would Like to Thank