Center for African Studies research report

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Center for African Studies research report
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Table of Contents




F R O M T H E D IR E C T O R .................................................................................................................................................................. .......................... 2

GRADUATE STUDY OF AFRICA AT THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA ................................................................................. 3

STUDENT REPORTS
A nna C they .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4
Sarah C ervone............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5
Jean-G ael C ollom b ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6
Stephen R D avis .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7
John Landon D enkler .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8
K enly G reer Fenio ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9
Jordan A Fenton ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10
T im othy Fullm an ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1 1
R am on G alifanes ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12
Juanita G arcia-Saqui ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 13
A ndrea G aughan ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14
C erian G ibbes ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 15
R achel H arvey ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 16
C ara H auck ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 17
C laudia H offm ann .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 18
A bdourahm ane Idrissa ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 19
Yang Jiao ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 20
B othepha K gabung ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 21
Joseph K raus ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 22
A shley Leinw eber ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 23
Steven Lichty.............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 24
Betty Lininger ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 25
C ourtnay M icots ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 26
Patricia M upeta .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 27
Levy O dera ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 28
A nn Lee G rim stad O m ondi .................................................................................................................................................................................... 29
W inifred Pankani...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 30
G regory Parent ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 31
Torrey Peace ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 32
Luke R ostant .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 33
A m y Schw artzott....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 34
N oelle Sullivan ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 35
A nn W ainscott ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 36
C hristopher W itulski............................................................................................................................................................................................... 37
D eborah W ojcik ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 38

COLLABORATIVE PROJECTS
U F Law Sum m er Program in C ape Tow n, South A frica.................................................................................................................................................... 39
A IM For A frica: M medicine, A rts and H health C are in G am bia....................................................................................................... ............................... 40
N SF R research Experience for U undergraduates: Studying Ecology in G hana................................................................................................................ 41
N SF IG ERT Field C ourse: W ater, W wetlands, and W atersheds in Southern A frica.......................................................................... ......................... 42
NSF International Research Experiences for Students: Engineering Sustainable Building Systems in East Africa......................... 43

RECENT THESES AND DISSERTATIONS ON AFRICA ................................................... 44

ACADEMIC YEAR & SUMMER FOREIGN LANGUAGE & AREA STUDIES FELLOWSHIPS ............................... 48

CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008 1














From the Director




At the beginning of each fall semester, the Center for African
Studies at the University of Florida buzzes with greetings and
story-swapping among colleagues and graduate students who have
spent much of the summer carrying out research in Africa-a sort of
impromptu kgotla or a baraza on the fourth floor of Grinter Hall.
Struck by the diversity of topics, geographic sites, and
disciplinary perspectives of the work being carried out by UF
graduate students in Africa, it occurred to us that this was something
worth celebrating. We are proud of the wealth of knowledge about
the continent that our students are helping to create, and of the
training and mentorship they are receiving from the Africanist
faculty across the university.
This brochure highlights some of the research being carried out
by UF graduate students in 2008. It includes accounts of work from
a broad array of disciplinary and theoretical perspectives, and in all
regions of the continent. While the short descriptions cannot always
do justice to the richness of the work, we trust that taken as a group
they help support our claim that UF is a premier institution for the
study of Africa.
For more information about African Studies at UF, and about
the faculty resources and the working groups that make this all
possible, visit our website at www.africa.ufl.edu, or contact us at the
addresses you will find on the final page.
-Leonardo A. Villal6n
Director, Center for African Studies


2 CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008













The Center for African Studies


at the University of Florida

*.....O.OOQOQOO QO000000 000000000000000000000000000000


ONE OF THE NATION'S PREMIER INSTITUTIONS
FOR THE GRADUATE STUDY OF AFRICA


The University of Florida is the state's
oldest, largest and most comprehensive
university, and among the nation's
most academically diverse public
universities. It is one of only 17 land-
grant universities that belong to the
prestigious Association of American
Universities. UF has a long history of
established programs in international
education, research and service.
Founded in 1965, the Center
for African Studies at UF has been
continuously designated a U.S.
Department of Education Title VI
National Resource Center for Africa
for over two decades. It is currently one
of only eleven such centers nationally,
and the only Africa NRC located in
a sub-tropical zone. Title VI funding
to CAS supports research, teaching,
outreach, and the development of
international linkages in Africa.
The Center has over 100 affiliated
teaching and research faculty in all of
the core disciplines in the humanities


and social sciences, as well as in
agriculture, business, engineering,
education, fine arts, natural resources
and environment, journalism and
mass communications, law, tourism,
and natural sciences. Graduate study
on African issues may be pursued in
any of these fields. Center faculty
maintain active ties with universities
across the African continent, including
institutions in Botswana, Ethiopia,
Ghana, Mali, Morocco, Mozambique,
Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal,
South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda.
The Center's innovative and
influential on-line journal, the African
Studies Quarterly, is the first fully peer-
reviewed electronic journal devoted
to the field. ASQ plays an important
and largely unique role in facilitating
the publication of research on and
from Africa, and offers invaluable
professional training for UF graduate
students who serve on its editorial
board.


FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND AREA STUDIES FELLOWSHIPS
Prestigious FLAS fellowships are offered available in the following languages:
by the Center for African Studies, with Akan, Amharic, Arabic, Swahili, Wolof,
funds provided by the US Department Xhosa, and Yoruba. Other language
of Education through Title VI of the instruction may be arranged on demand.
Higher Education Act. FLAS fellows Summer FLAS fellowships for
combine the study of an African intensive language study are also
language with African area studies in available. For more information and
any discipline. Students admitted to any application procedures and deadlines
graduate program at the University of for both academic year and summer
Florida are eligible for these fellowships, awards, please visit www.africa.ufl.edu.
Language instruction is regularly


GRADUATE STUDY OF AFRICA AT UF
Graduate study with a focus on Africa can be carried
out in virtually every graduate or professional
program across the university. Prospective students are
encouraged to consult the websites of the individual
programs for admissions procedures and criteria.
Students in any graduate program at UF have the
option of pursuing a Graduate Certificate in African
Studies. We also encourage them to consult the Center
website and to contact us when they submit their
applications.
Complementing formal coursework, a regular
and dynamic series of lectures, conferences and other
activities open to all interested graduate students
provide rich opportunities for interdisciplinary
exchange and discussion about Africa. Most
significantly, a number of dynamic CAS-sponsored
interdisciplinary working groups organize speakers
and events that bring together faculty and graduate
students with shared interests, providing students with
unique opportunities for research and professional
development. Among the active groups are those in:
African Natural Resource Management; Cultural
Heritage Management in Africa; Governance and
the African State; Dynamics of Muslim Societies
in Africa; African Urban Languages; Health and
Society in Africa; African Material Cultures; and the
Development Studies Reading Group.

GRADUATE RESEARCH AWARDS
The Center helps support graduate student travel to
conferences for presenting their research, and holds
an annual competition for graduate student summer
travel awards, which are intended to help provide
support for students doing pre-dissertation fieldwork
in Africa. The Center is also able to support a limited
number of graduate assistants for work with Center
initiatives, including the African Studies Quarterly.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008 3













Student Reports


Uncertainty Analysis for Strategic Monitoring
in ComplexTransboundary Ecological Systems

ANNA CATHEY

The Okavango Basin is a large transboundary watershed located
in southern Africa that is shared between three countries: Angola,
Namibia, and Botswana. River flow in the basin originates in the
Angolan headwaters, then continues through a sliver of land in
arid Namibia, and finally empties into the Okavango Delta, located
in Botswana.This water never finds the sea but instead spreads
out over the flat alluvial fan that is the Okavango Delta and is
evaporated on the border of the Kalahari dessert. The Okavango
Basin is one of the most pristine watersheds in southern Africa.


.....


The transboundary nature of the
basin complicates the management
of the resource. This work involves
a study within the framework of the
adaptive management of complex
transboundary hydrologic systems to
identify gaps in knowledge that are
important for the management of the
system and then communicate this
uncertainty through a participatory
process. We believe that this technique
will encourage management to develop
strategic monitoring plans to decrease
the uncertainty in the system. First, we
will conduct an uncertainty analysis
on the hydrologic models in the
Okavango system. Second, we will
involve participants throughout this
process to communicate these issues
of uncertainty. We have partnerships
with both scientists at the University


of Botswana and with managers in the
Okavango system that will facilitate
these participant interactions. Finally,
we will evaluate the success of the
study by tracking perceptions about
acknowledging uncertainty among
managers and behavioral intent to
develop strategic monitoring programs
that decrease gaps in knowledge.
The work will produce
both immediate impacts for the
Okavango Basin as well as broadly
applicable knowledge in the fields
of uncertainty analysis and adaptive
management. Theoretically adaptive
management is an attractive concept.
However, operationally a great
deal of apprehension persists about
acknowledging the uncertainty that
adaptive management embraces. This
research involves the development


and testing of a conceptual design that couples
uncertainty analysis with a participatory process to
both strategically close gaps in knowledge and promote
the acceptance of uncertainty within management.
The outcome of this research may extend beyond the
Okavango Basin to provide a theoretically persuasive
and operationally functional method for incorporating
uncertainty analysis into an adaptive decision
framework.

Anna Cathey is a doctoral student in the Department of Agricultural
and Biological Engineering. She received funding from the NSF
funded Adaptive Management: Wise Use of Waters, Wetlands, and
Watersheds (AM-W3) IGERTprogram.


4 CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008

















Rural Communities and Tourism Development
in Toubkal National Park, Morocco

SARAH CERVONE


While living in a mud and stone structure at nearly 2000 meters
in altitude, I conducted 16 months of dissertation research with
the Ait Mizane Amazighe (Berber) community in the village of
Aremd in the High Atlas Mountains in Toubkal National Park,
Morocco. Aremd has recently become a'boom town'due to
state-motivated tourism development policies that aim to
alleviate poverty in rural communities and reduce pressure on
natural resources. My dissertation in Anthropology examines the
community's transition from a primarily agricultural subsistence
economy to a predominantly cash and capital based tourism
market economy. I assess how the global tourism economy
articulates with non-tourism production strategies and previous
socio-economic arrangements. My ultimate goal is to determine
how specialization in a single tourism-based production strategy
affects community resilience and vulnerability to disaster, whether
natural or artificial.


Since participant-observation is
the hallmark of cultural anthropology,
I spent many days joining the women
in agricultural and domestic chores.
Within a short while I learned to
cut barley with a scythe, gather and
deflesh walnuts, and haul fodder on my
back, leaving my hands blistered and
calloused. However, a good deal of my
time was spent in the kitchen, clutching
a glass of Moroccan tea, or atay, and
dipping a piece of bread into a tajine
while talking with household members
about their life in Morocco and my life
in America. To penetrate the world of
men and tourists in the nearby market
place, I used a notebook and a pen to
conduct interviews and collect data.
My research experience helped me


to develop a better understanding of
the complexities involved with tourism
development in rural communities in
Morocco. Most tourism development
policies rest on the expectation that
increased cash and capital will elevate
the standard of living and improve the
quality of life for residents by increasing
the availability of goods and services to
residents. In Aremd however, tourism
development is informed by pre-existing
social and economic arrangements that
are rooted in demographic variables such
as age and gender. Such arrangements
affect the flow of goods and services, and
may limit or enhance a resident's ability
to participate and benefit from tourism
development. My research found that
in some ways, tourism development


created, exacerbated and rearranged social inequalities
in the mountain community. Therefore, within a
single community, tourism policies may succeed for
some and fail for others.
This research project would not have been
possible without the Tachelhit language training I
received as a U.S. Fulbright Fellow in 2007-2008,
as well as the Arabic language training I received at
the University of Florida and the Arabic Language
Institute in Fez (supported by the Center of African
Studies) in 2005-2007 and at the American Institute
for Maghrib Studies Arabic Language Program in
Tangier in 2006.

Sarah Cervone is a doctoral candidate in the Department of
Anthropology. Her research was made possible by a Fulbright
Fellowship in 2007- 2008 and a Polly and Paul Doughty Fellowship
Summer 2007. She was a Center forAfrican Studies FLAS fellow for
the study ofArabic during Summer 2005, as well as Academic Year
2005-06 and 2006-07


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008 5













Tourism's Impact on Human Wellbeing
in Caprivi (Namibia)

JEAN-GAEL COLLOMB

"We liked what you did because you are giving us information.
And you gave us lifts,"a local chief from Ngonga village told me.
What he meant was that after conducting research there for 6
months, I did not just leave without a trace after getting the data:
I organized sessions with villagers to present preliminary results.
It seems simple and obvious, but sadly happens much less often
than it should. And the second part of his statement? Well, I
had a car to do my research and when I had free space, I would
give rides to people. It was the least I could do to start giving
something back to the communities, and still seemed insufficient.
However, I've seen many cars simply zoom by leaving sand clouds
behind. So, my little contribution was very much appreciated. It
was good to hear that because, at times, I get frustrated being
"just"a Ph.D. researcher witnessing the challenges of life in the
Caprivi. Indeed, that's part of my research focus.


I am trying to understand how
nature-based tourism impacts the
wellbeing of local residents living
around national parks in the Caprivi
province of Namibia. Namibia gained
its independence in 1990, and is home
to 2 million people unevenly distributed
over the country's 824,000 km2 (almost
6 times the size of Florida). It has
abundant mineral resources but a harsh
climate, which represents a challenge
for people living from the land. This
has contributed to extreme income
disparity, and most rural people struggle


to make a living. In the mid-1990s,
communities were granted rights to
benefit from wildlife within communal
lands. Improving the lives of rural people
entails finding a balance between use
and conservation of natural resources.
Such strategies often incorporate
tourism activities to spur local economic
development, because tourism success
depends on intact natural resources.
However, does tourism actually improve
local residents' lives ?
Most assessments of tourism
impacts rely on relatively easily


I .. Fm.....I.


measured, but limited indicators, such as income or
employment. I wanted to consider the issue more
holistically. Following focus group discussions and
a pilot survey in 2007, I designed a study focused
on human wellbeing to capture multidimensional
socioeconomic impacts. It provides a more accurate,
albeit complex, representation of how tourism impacts
people's lives. With the help of local research assistants,
I conducted 468 interviews in 5 communal areas
between March and July 2008. Preliminary results
suggest that while tourism may improve the wellbeing
of individuals directly involved in the industry,
community-wide impacts seem fairly limited. However,
it is possible that differences exist between real and
perceived impacts. Tourism is unlikely to be the silver
bullet to reduce poverty in the region, but it does have
a role to play. After completing the data analysis, I hope
to return to Namibia to share final results with the
communities, NGOs and government agencies in order
to strengthen tourism's contribution to local people.

Jean-Gael Collomb is a doctoral candidate in the School of Natural
Resources and the Environment. His research was supported by
NSF the University of Florida (SNRE, the Center for African Studies,
the Tropical Conservation and Development, the Working Forests
in the Tropics and the Adaptive Management: Wise Use of Water,
V0 WWF LIFE, Integrated Rural
Development and Conservation, and the Namibian Ministry of
Environment and Tourism.


6 CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008














Daily Life in the Exile Camps of the African
National Congress (South Africa)

STEPHEN R. DAVIS


I spent the past year in Cape Town on an HiE Fulbright Fellowship
where I conducted oral histories of members of Umkhonto
we Sizwe; the former armed wing of the African National
Congress.This research will form the basis of my dissertation,
"Cosmopolitanism in Close Quarters; Everyday Life in the Exile
Camps of the African National Congress."My research is primarily
concerned with reconstructing the habitus of ex-combatants over
a thirty year period, roughly from 1961 to 1989.


During this time, the African
National Congress reconstituted itself as
an exiled political party while it directed
the armed struggle against apartheid.
This effort included opening training
camps in a number of southern African
countries, recruiting youths leaving
South Africa, and then infiltrating
trained combatants into South Africa.
As consequence of exile, many of these
combatants also saw combat in conflicts
in Angola, Zimbabwe and Mozambique.
Over the last twelve months, I
located several ex-combatants and
recorded their myriad experiences
in a series of extended interviews.
Interviewees discussed topics as diverse
as training and combat, food and
eating, discipline and indiscipline,
and theatrical performance and
athletics in the camps. In addition,
many interviewees contributed their
perspectives on the multiple wars that
plagued southern Africa during this


period. These interviews, combined
with newly released archival holdings,
present episodes in the liberation
struggle not often seen in more
celebratory accounts.
My research attempts to achieve
two related goals. First, I will structure
this material along the lines of new
military histories, which place a greater
emphasis on the social dimensions
of soldiering and warfare. Beneath
the surface trappings of hierarchy,
discipline and uniformity lies a lively
field of social relations in constant
flux. A major concern of this project
is explaining these relations within the
context of conflicts in southern Africa
over the latter half of the twentieth
century. Second, I hope that a detailed
historical rendering of the memories
of ex-combatants will contribute fresh
perspectives on the liberation struggle.
The vast literature on the struggle
against apartheid shares two unifying


characteristics, one, it is largely a history derived from
the autobiographies of prominent figures, two, it is
fixated on over-determined narratives that marginalize
more unwieldy accounts.
While in South Africa, I debuted portions of
this research at a colloquium entitled "Radio and
Its Publics:'," held at the Witwatersrand Institute for
Social and Economic Research, and at meeting of the
Human Sciences Research Council. Both presentations
proved to be highly enriching experiences. I had the
opportunity of presenting new research to a learned
audience of South African scholars, while in the process
gaining many valuable insights and critiques.

Stephen Davis is a doctoral candidate in the Department of History.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008 7













Development Difficulties among the
Basubiya: Community-Based Natural Resource
Management

JOHN LANDON DENKLER

This summer I travelled to Botswana in Southern Africa to conduct
anthropological research among the Basubiya (Vekuhane)
people and a development project that has been ongoing since
the early 1990s. The Basubiya occupy northern Botswana along
the Chobe river and Namibian Caprivi Strip.They are members
of a group of villages known as the Chobe Enclave.The Chobe
Enclave is composed of five villages spread out along a pot-holed
and dusty dirt road that stretches south through the territory of
Savuti on its way to Maun and the Okavango Delta.The Enclave
villages, traveling north to south, include Mabele, Kavimba,
Kachikau, Satau, and Parakarungu.The project itself falls under
a development paradigm known as Community- Based Natural


Resource Management (CBNRM).

The residents of the Chobe
Enclave live near the Chobe National
Park (Botswana's largest) in an area
that includes impressive populations
of elephants, hippos, lions, hyenas, and
crocodiles among other wildlife. The
effects of this living arrangement have
many repercussions, including the loss
of crops and livestock. Because of risks
that have accumulated from living
near this wild environment, poaching
and poverty became significant issues
within the Enclave villages. The idea of
CBNRM was to resolve this problem
of opposing forces by granting the local
communities a measure of control over
the wildlife populations nearest them.
This control is achieved through the


allotment of hunting quotas provided
by Botswana's Department of Wildlife
and National Parks. The authority
over these hunting quotas is devolved
to a trust committee that represents
all five villages. The Chobe Enclave
Conservation Trust (CECT) is made
up of officers and voting members from
all five villages. Their headquarters are
located in the village of Kavimba, and
CECT is responsible for negotiating the
sale of this hunting quota to a nearby
commercial safari operator. The funds
are then distributed among the five
villages, each with its own village trust
committee.
After traveling around the region
with Professor Brian Child's research


team of UF students and young African professionals,
I settled in the village of Kavimba because of its status
as the headquarters ofCECT. Kavimba is a village of
about six hundred inhabitants nestled into the sloping
side of the Botswana plateau as it descends into the
Chobe River valley that stretches out for miles into the
Namibian wetland. In Kavimba, I rented living quarters
from Dickson Sinka, the uncle of Lucksom Masule,
who is the Basubiya historian. Much of my time was
spent working with Masule, making contacts and
learning the history of the Basubiya.
My methods included informal interviews
and participant observation. From my findings, it
appears that CBNRM in the area is struggling. The
hunting quotas bring in profits, but much is spent on
administration and projects that are not self-sustaining,
such as a hut they transformed into a public internet
booth through the use of a satellite dish. Projects such
as this do not cover their own expenses and require
continued funding from future quota profits. From
my interviews, I discovered that what people want
the most is better education for their children and
more opportunities. There is a plan in the works for
a partnership with a lodge operator to co-finance
another lodge, which could provide more opportunities
for the youth of the villages. This could take years to
develop, however, and it is uncertain how much success
it might sustain. These challenges make CBNRM an
unpredictable development program in the Chobe
Enclave, even though it has seen some of the greatest
success in the country. Further research is needed to
fully understand the complexities of the socio-political
structure within the development program and its
connections with the DWNP before suggestions can be
made to improve the success of the program.

John London Denkler is a masters student in the Department of
Anthropology.


8 CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008













Political Institutions and HIV/AIDS
Associations in Mozambique

KENLY GREER FENIO

I spent the year (2007) in Mozambique working on my dissertation
research titled "Between Bedrooms And Ballots:The Politics of HIV's
'Economy of Infection'In Mozambique."Working from six research
sites throughout the country, I collaborated with a number of
HIV based and human rights based civil society associations to
determine (via focus groups, interviews and 350 surveys) how
volunteers are bringing what has traditionally been a private topic
into the public and political realms in a relatively new, yet aid
dependent, African democracy. The research was conducted with
fellowship funding from Rotary International under the in-country
project title of Conhecimento 6 Alimentagao (Knowledge is Food),
a community project designed to offer association members two
kilos of food in exchange for information, thus highlighting trade
rather than aid in this impoverished country.


My research has found that
members are more likely than
non-members (those who are not
volunteers of any HIV or human
rights associations) to: have better
relationships at home, discuss political
topics, and engage in civic activities
(such as debates, political meetings,
letter writing, etc). I also found that


volunteers are using theatre in the public
arena to change community institutions
and that associations have members
from different ethnic, religious and
political groups (thus illustrating cross
cutting ties of a civic nature). Yet many
of the associations have been co-opted
by government through their corporatist
reliance on the National AIDS Council


for funding, which restricts their freedom to critique
government's handling of the disease. My research
illustrates how new space for citizenship is opening up,
albeit slowly, particularly for women who often struggle
under the weight of informal patriarchal institutions in
the country.
In 2008, I returned to Mozambique to work on a
"Democratic Linkages" project with Duke University
whereby I conducted surveys with 20 journalists,
academics, and others in the fields of electoral politics
and democracy. While in Maputo, I presented "The
Politics of Theatre for Development (TFD) in
Combating HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa" at the
SACHES conference on Education and Regional
Development in Southern Africa (to be published later
this year in a book of conference proceedings). These
were funded by Duke University and travel grants from
UF's College of Liberal Arts and Sciences (CLAS)
and the Department of Political Science. In addition,
I wrote and distributed to several Mozambican
organizations five research reports in 2008 based on my
dissertation research.
Kenly Greer Fenio is a doctoral candidate in the Department of
Political Science. She is currently teaching at Virginia Tech and serving
as a consultant on Africa and Mozambique for several projects.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008 9













Qua Masquerade in Calabar, Nigeria

JORDAN A. FENTON

As a summer FLAS recipient, I had the privilege of traveling to
Calabar, the capital of the Cross River State of Nigeria in order
to study the Ejagham language. The experience exceeded my
expectations as I developed conversational skills, and acceptance
among Qua (an Ejagham sub-group) communities. With the
language training, I was able to communicate-using Ejagham-my
interest in learning about their culture and art. In showing my
enthusiasm to learn about Qua culture, and as a result of chiefs
and elders becoming interested in my research on masquerade,
they initiated me into their Mgbe society, historically known as
the leopard secret society.The opportunity granted me a firm
foundational understanding to Qua masquerade.


In the urban city of Calabar,
the Qua face problems of cultural
preservation due to historical and
contemporary circumstances.
Colonization and the slave and palm oil
trades has greatly impacted the peoples
of Calabar, especially the Qua, who have
recently become mindful of the problem
of preserving their cultural identity.
Qua cultural identity is embedded in
visual expression, chiefly their culture
is rooted in masquerade. My research


explores how the Qua use masquerade
in an effort to redefine and preserve
their cultural identity as the postcolonial
landscape of Calabar has challenged
such safeguarding. My initial findings
have led me to pursue research on
contemporary Qua masquerade societies
and examine the social workings of
masquerade in urban settings. This
research will move towards an historical
construction to Qua masquerade. To
this end, my research will investigate the


processes of change and adaptability of visual culture
by interpreting the visual, ideological, and functional
transformations reflected in Qua masquerade.

Jordan Fenton is a doctoral student in the School ofArt and Art
History. He received a summer2008 Center forAfrican Studies FLAS
fellowship to study Ejagham.


10 CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008


t'













Spatial Dynamics of Elephant Impact on Trees
in Chobe National Park, Botswana

TIMOTHY FULLMAN

This summer I spent about three months in Botswana conducting
research inside Chobe National Park in the northeast corner of
the county.The project consisted of two main components, one
looking at vegetation status and the other wildlife distribution.
The bulk of the project focused on spatial dynamics of elephant
impact on trees. Elephants are known to exert a great influence on
trees, breaking branches while foraging and sometimes stripping
bark off the trees in a process known as "ringbarking." Some trees
are completely knocked over. I looked at patterns of elephant use
correlated with distance from the Chobe River, the permanent
water source in the area. Previous studies have demonstrated high
levels of elephant use around the river, tapering off as one heads
further inland.These studies all stop, however, about 9km into
the park. I wanted to go much farther than this to see if elephants
were drinking and foraging around the river and then moving
inland to feed.This might result in two peaks in tree damage, with
important ramifications for ecosystem stability.


Working with two other UF
students, as well as individuals from
the Botswana Department of Wildlife
and National Parks and the University
of Botswana, I completed vegetation
transects stretching from the Chobe
River to the southern border of the park.
Thirty-four transects were systematically
conducted every 2.5km along a dirt road
that runs roughly north-south through
the park. Trees within a certain area
were identified to species and spatially


located using a GPS unit. We then
assessed their current health and damage
from elephants and fire. I am currently
analyzing this data in preparation for
presentations and publication Spring
2009.
The other part of the project
looked at how wildlife use the landscape
around the Chobe River. It was
primarily preliminary work to test out
methods that may be used in future
studies. Roads along the riverfront were


driven following routes used in previous ecological
studies. Large mammals were identified, counted, and
spatially located using a GPS unit, a laser rangefinder,
and a compass. This information, when combined with
remote sensing data being utilized by other graduate
students in our research group, will be used to create
a predictive habitat map for dry season riverfront use
by mammals. This information will be paired with our
group's remote sensing work to show how predicted
changes in the environment around Chobe National
Park may influence the wildlife species that live there.
This summer also helped to prepare me for my
future work and provided incredible networking
opportunities. I met with the leaders of Elephants
Without Borders, a group that collars and tracks
elephants as they move between countries in southern
Africa. They hope to use information about elephant
movements to stimulate the development of trans-
frontier conservation areas that will protect elephants,
as well as other wildlife, and provide places for them
to disperse to reduce pressure on overburdened areas
such as Chobe National Park. They have offered to
work with our team, offering their data on elephant
movements and we are currently discussing how we
can collaborate to publish papers about elephant
movements both within and outside of protected areas
of southern Africa.

Timothy Fullman is a masters student in Interdisciplinary Ecology
in the School of Natural Resources and Environment. He holds
an academic year CAS FLAS fellowship (2008-09) and was also a
recipient in 2007- 08. He received support for his summer work from
an Africa Seed Grant (Cleveland Metroparks Zoo), a UF Tropical
Conservation and Development Field Research Grant, and an IDEA
WILD grant.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008 11













An Elusive Peace: State Building and
Reconstruction in Angola

RAMON GALINANES

After several failed attempts to reach a peace settlement, Angolan
political elites and non-state combatants negotiated a fragile
ceasefire in 2002. This elusive peace and transition from civil war
draws attention to a perplexing puzzle: (1)When do powerful
political actors sit at the bargaining table to negotiate a peace
settlement in a divided society? And (2) why are some divided
societies able to establish a successful and durable democratic
pact as a resolution to civil strife while others are not? I started to
investigate this puzzle by conducting pre-dissertation fieldwork
in Angola this past summer.The Angolan civil war remains largely
understudied in the field of political science and it is an important
case study to understand successful peace settlements in divided
societies.


Previous studies on successful
peace settlements in divided societies
have largely focused on the importance
of: (1) the costs of war; (2) the balance
of power; (3) the divisibility of stakes;
(4) the establishment of power-sharing
institutions; (5) the salience of ethnic
identity; and (6) the role of mediation.
As a way of testing these competing
theories of successful/unsuccessful peace


settlements, I conducted interviews
in the Angolan cities of Luanda and
Huambo.
In Luanda and Huambo, I was able
to conduct interviews in Portuguese
with former UNITA (Uniao Nacional
para a Independencia Total de Angola)
combatants and FAPLA (Forgas
Armadas Populares de Libertacao
de Angola) military officers that had


participated in combat during the civil war. I attempted
to include a range of different ranking military officers
and combatants including, colonels, majors, and
foot soldiers who had participated in the civil war.
The interviews were used as a pilot study and as a way
to collect data on the motivations for participating
in the civil conflict as well as the perceptions that ex-
combatants and military officers had of the transition
period (including the role of mediation and elections).
What was most interesting about these interviews was
the different perceptions of the civil war and transition
period according to the level of military rank and place
of origin. I will be presenting my preliminary findings
during the SASA lunch (sponsored by the Center for
African Studies) in December.
Besides gathering preliminary data on the
perceptions of the civil war and the motivations for
fighting, conducting field research in Angola this
summer was a great opportunity to refine my research
methods and I'm excited to return to Angola next
year during their presidential elections to conduct my
dissertation field research.

Ramon Galihanes is a doctoral student in the Department of Political
Science. He was a Center for African Studies FLAS fellow in 2006-07
and 2007-08. His summer 2008 research was supported by a CAS
pre-dissertation travel award.


12 CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008













Are Livelihood Security and Attitudes
Towards Wildlife, the National Park and the
Conservancy/CBNRM Interlinked?

JUANITA GARCIA-SAQUI

Community-based natural resources management programs
(CBNRM), their benefits and influence in conservation attitudes,
needs further study. Positive attitudes towards community based
programs have been correlated to favorable attitudes towards
conservation which are also correlated with good livelihood.
However, some studies also show that local attitudes can be
negative towards conservation, wildlife and the national parks.
Here I present and comment on the findings of a study carried out
in three villages in 2007 which make up the Wuparo Conservancy,
as well as the preliminary results of the summer 2008 field season
in Northern Botswana.


The objective of this study was
to evaluate attitudes towards wildlife
conservation, the national park and
the conservancy after an intervention
such as the establishment of a CBNRM
program in the Wuparo Community
in the Caprivi Strip, Namibia, and in
Sankuyo, Mababe, Khwai and villages
of the Okavango Community Trust
(OCT) in Botswana. A proportionate-
to-size sample households was randomly
selected and interviewed using a semi-
structured questionnaire in each village
within the conservancy boundaries.
Results indicate that in Wuparo
household income is predominantly
from cash crops (55%), followed by a


variety of natural resources collected
and sold (20%). It was noted that
a significant portion of household
expenses go to food (43%). However,
households appear to spend little
on education (4%) and health (2%),
relative to electronic purchases (17%).
The study also showed respondents'
satisfaction with the conservancy or
CBNRM. A large percentage (78%) of
the sample reported being either happy
or very happy with the conservancy. A
similar percentage was seen regarding
livelihood improvement and trust
towards the conservancy. Finally, the
study also documented people's attitude
towards wildlife and the Mamilli



yFPO


National Park. Most people were neutral about the
park (51%), but among the remaining 49%, the vast
majority had either positive or very positive attitudes
towards the national park. People's attitudes towards
wildlife were also found to be positive (56%).
In Sankuyo, household income is predominantly
from wage employment with the CBNRM. 75% of
the respondents had one member of their household
employed in the CBNRM, while 12 % had two
members employed by the CBNRM. Respondent's
satisfaction with the CBNRM was found to be very
positive. 98% of the respondents reported being
either very happy or happy with the CBNRM while
2% were unsatisfied because they felt discriminated
upon. Attitudes towards wildlife were found to be
very positive. 98% of the respondents reported being
very happy or happy and having positive attitudes
towards wildlife, in-spite of the fact that they are unable
to cultivate their crops anymore because of wildlife
intrusion. They attributed this positive attitude to
wildlife because they felt that even though they can't
farm they now have a job (from wildlife) which allows
them to be able to supply the necessities for their
family's survival. The results for Mababe were similar
to those of Sankuyo where most households (90) have
a family member working with the CBNRM and their
attitudes were also found to be positive towards wildlife
and the national park.
The situation of the communities in the OCT
was found to be different. The CBNRM is not seemed
as supportive of the community. Only a selected few
benefit from the CBNRM (personal communication)
and benefits are not seen to be reaching the individual
households. However, their attitudes towards wildlife
and the protected area was predominantly positive
~70% were happy with and liked wildlife while 20%
were neutral about wildlife.

Juanita Garcia-Saqui is a doctoral student in Geography.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008 13













Landscape Dynamics in Caprivi, Namibia

ANDREA E. GAUGHAN

Over the summer I spent another field season in Caprivi, Namibia,
with a focus on understanding how and why different land-use
decisions are made, what the most important natural resources
are for communities, and how these resources are spatially
distributed across communal lands.The region is a semi-arid
savanna with average rainfall between 600-800 mm annually
and is the most undeveloped part of Namibia due to history of
regional conflict, warfare, and isolation from the rest of country.


My dissertation research takes an
interdisciplinary approach by combining
oral land-use histories with a more
quantitative examination of landscape
patterns using satellite images and
precipitation datasets. This summer
I focused on collecting additional
environmental history data (through
interviews and focus group discussions)
and land-cover data that will facilitate
the identification and quantification of
different spatial and temporal patterns
on the satellite imagery.
The work from this summer
feeds into a larger, collaborative effort
that involves other UF graduate
students and professors, partners
at African universities, and within


local communities. The collaborative
spirit emanated through the efforts
of the UF graduate students based in
Caprivi sharing a vehicle, time, and
space to work with local communities,
collect data, and also provide feedback
products. The most important data
collection for my own research involved
firstly the focus group discussions and
key informant interviews to gather
perceptions on different land-uses and
how different areas have changed over
time. The other component demanded
treks through the thorniest, densest
woody vegetation that could be found
in the communal lands. After strenuous
debate and consideration we were
able to narrow down a very scientific


definition of what constitutes dense shrub cover which
I strongly believe would hold up under peer review.
Like all field seasons uncertainties existed, time
was of the essence, and the speed of things moved at its
own pace. But productiveness prevailed, experiences
were gained, friendships strengthened and I hope to
find myself back in the region next year.

Andrea Gaughan is a doctoral student in the Department of
Geography and a recipient of funding from the NSF-funded IGERT
program on Adaptive Management, Water, Watersheds, and
Wetlands. Her research was supported by a summer2008 CAS pre-
dissertation travel award and a WFTtravel award.


14 CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008


0













Understanding Landscape Patterns in
the Four Corners Area of Southern Africa:
An Investigation of the Role of Resource
Management Decisions in Determining
Landscape Change and Fragmentation

CERIAN GIBBES

My research examines the impact of protected areas as a strategy
for limiting environmental change in southern African savanna
ecosystems.To study the impact of protected area designation
on the environment, I am examining the changes in land cover
composition and patterns within and around two protected
areas. Although changes in land cover do not encapsulate all
environmental changes, land cover composition often provides
the resource base for terrestrial ecosystems and directly impacts
ecological functioning. This study's objective is to identify the
causes of land cover change in southern African savannas, assess
the usefulness of protected areas in limiting this landscape
change and test the overarching hypothesis that protected
area designation decreases land cover change and landscape
fragmentation.


This research incorporates the
combined use of field collected and
remotely sensed land cover data
coupled with interviews with local land
managers to examine how management
decisions affect landscape change.
Landscape change can be qualitatively


and quantitatively explained using a
combination of field collected data,
remotely sensed data and social data.
This work aims to use the triangulation
of a variety of data sources (and
methodologies) to assess the impact of
human land management decisions on


landscape level changes.
The results of my research will present
findings that enable improved decisions regarding
environmental management and an increased
understanding of how human decisions affect
landscape changes, which in turn affect human systems.
To successfully manage landscapes, measurements
of change in composition and configurations are
essential to understanding how management decisions
affect landscape patterns. By first investigating the
causes of change in this region and then examining
how land management decisions influence the spatial
composition and configuration of land cover, I hope to
contribute to the understanding of human environment
interactions in southern African savannas and more
specifically the impact of protected area designation on
the landscape. This study focuses locally on changes in
the Caprivi, Nambia and in the north eastern region of
Botswana.

Cerian Gibbes is a doctoral student in the Department of Geography.
She received support for her work from the Social Sciences Research
Council Dissertation Proposal Development program, a CAS
summer pre-dissertation travel grant, and an NSF grant and UF
Incentive Seed grant to faculty in the Department of Geography.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008 15














TownshipTourism in Cape Town, South Africa

RACHEL HARVEY

In 2008, I completed nine months of fieldwork in South Africa for
my dissertation, Township Tours: Restructuring People, Place and
Cultural-Heritage in Cape Town. This was my third visit to the post-
apartheid nation to study the implications of cultural tourism in
a city which boasts over 1.7 million international arrivals for 2007.
My current research examines how members of post-apartheid
society are addressing understandings of African urban spaces,
history, and culture, as well as the structuring of contemporary
social inequality specifically through township based tourism.


Townships are sprawling residential
enclaves at the city's edges. They were
produced by decades of economic,
racial, and ethnic segregation to contain
an underclass, labor pool. In the last
10 years, township tours emerged as
a premier cultural activity for visitors
to Cape Town. This parallels a global
trend of "pro-poor" or "alternative"
tourism featuring environments offering
distinctive experiences that benefit
local communities. In Cape Town, tour
operators claim to offer an excursion
into the "real" South Africa. They visit
impoverished shantytowns and other
developing areas in dire contrast to the
European urbanism and natural beauty


of the central city bowl. Township
tourism further draws on post-apartheid
discourses ofmulticulturalism,
reconciliation, and economic
restructuring.
My fieldwork is based primarily
in the townships of Langa, Gugulethu,
and Khayelitsha. Here, I assess local
residents' roles in and reactions to
tourism practices including their view of
risks, benefits, and responsibilities that
come with involvement in township
tourism. For example, I worked with
many bed and breakfast owners,
primarily entrepreneurial women. Much
of my participant observation took place
from community arts and craft centers


frequented by foreign visitors. I spent significant time
with tour operators, guides, and tourists. And I was
invited to be a member of the City of Cape Town
Department of Tourism's Task Team on Cultural
Tourism. While much of my research with tourists was
conducted in English, in the townships I was able to
draw on my language training in Xhosa. Through the
FLAS fellowship program, I was fortunate to study
Xhosa at UF for three years with a native speaker.
Building on pre-dissertation research carried out
in Summer 2002 and 2006, I am also investigating
how members of the tourism industry shape the
production of place, history, and culture and generate
new social practices. In this component of my project,
for instance, I examine the design, construction and
competing narrative descriptions of several anti-
apartheid monuments in Cape Town's townships which
have become popular tourist sites. Finally, I probe
the paradoxical situation tourism creates between
the integration of townships into Cape Town's wider
urban landscape and continued differentiation of
townships from the city through culture, class, and
spatial organization. The project seeks to add to our
understandings of the factors that direct, sustain, and
complicate heritage tourism.

Rachel Harvey is a doctoral student in the Department of
Anthropology. Her research in 2007-08 was made possible by a
Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad Fellowship.
She also conducted fieldwork in Cape Town in Summer 2006 with
support from the Center for African Studies Madelyn M. Lockhart
Summer Research TravelAward and a Lewis and Clark Grant for
Exploration and Field Research from the American Philosophical
Society. She was a Center for African Studies FLAS fellow during
Academic Year 2005-06 and 2006-07.


16 CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008














Prospects for Peace and Transition in
Post-Conflict Burundi

CARA HAUCK

As a doctoral student in comparative political science, I have been
studying the region of the Great Lakes in Central Africa for the past
five years. Through the generous support of the Center for African
Studies, in the summer of 2008 1 was finally able to carry out a pre-
dissertation research trip to the region, and specifically to the very
understudied country of Burundi, where I plan to carry out my
dissertation research.


I was in Burundi in May-June,
coinciding with a number of exciting
and important developments in the
post-conflict political situation of the
country. While Burundi's history has
received less attention than that of
neighboring Rwanda, where genocide
killed perhaps one million people
in 1994, Burundi in fact is also just
emerging from a prolonged conflict
along ethnic lines. My research trip
gave me the opportunity to participate
in meetings with several high-ranking
opposition party leaders, helping me
to better understand the challenges


facing ethnically divided societies and
the difficult political solutions to these
problems. I was also able, in this initial
trip, to interview leading members of the
government, including various ministers
and even the president of the country!
These connections were facilitated by
the support of both the Center and the
numerous faculty affiliates from many
departments connected to the Center,
most notably my dissertation advisors
Rene Lemarchand, Leonardo Villal6n
and Benjamin Smith (Political Science),
who tirelessly support students in time,
effort, contacts and information.


I was grateful for the experience of being able to go
into the field so early in my Ph.D. studies and to utilize
the language training I received as a Center for African
Studies FLAS fellow in Kiswahili so as to increase my
speaking and comprehension capabilities. This previous
language training also gave me a distinct advantage
over other expatriate researchers whom I met there,
as Kiswahili is more widely used in the impoverished
areas of the capital city of Bujumbura, as well as in the
communities of returned refugees who once lived in
Tanzania or the Democratic Republic of the Congo, all
groups that have been underrepresented in scholarship
on political violence in Burundi.
This summer research helped to solidify my
interest in studying Burundi, focused my attention on
specific ground-level situations and current contexts
that will be crucial to understand in carrying out
dissertation-level research, and provided me with
the knowledge needed to better prepare myself for
sharpening the focus of my dissertation in writing
a prospectus and applying for grants to support
dissertation fieldwork.

Cara Hauck is a doctoral student in the Department of Political
Science. She was a Center forAfrican Studies FLAS fellow in 2006-07
and 2007-08. Her summer 2008 research was supported by a CAS
pre-dissertation travel award. Following her research in Burundi, she
was also a fellow in the Fulbright-Hays Groups Project Abroad (GPA)
Advanced Intensive Swahili program in Tanzania in summer 2008.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008 17













Undocumented Immigrants in Nigerian
Cinema.

CLAUDIA HOFFMANN

I participated in theYoruba Group Project Abroad during the
summer of 2008 to improve myYoruba language skills, learn
about Yoruba culture, and to assess potential dissertation
research on Nigerian film and migration. This opportunity was
made possible by Dr. Akinyemi who is the director of the YGPA
and under whom I have been studying Yoruba for one year.
My dissertation research is concerned with undocumented
West African migrants in Europe and the US as they appear in
international cinema and the influence that these films might
or might not have on viewers. Part of this topic is the analysis of
Nigerian movies.


My stay in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, lasted
seven weeks during which I, along with
the other GPA participants, attended
intensive language courses at Obafemi
Awolowo University as well as cultural
performances and lectures on campus
and in town. The program also included
travel within Yorubaland, for example
to Ibadan and Abeokuta. While most
of my time was dedicated to meeting
the program requirements and studying
Yoruba language and culture, I was able


to dedicate some time to my dissertation
research with the kind assistance of the
program directors.
I was placed with my host father's
family because he is involved in
broadcasting technology at Obafemi
Awolowo and was able to share with me
his vast experience in local radio and
television broadcast and its influence
on viewers and show me the studio
and equipment at the university
where I was also able to witness a live


broadcast. Apart from this, my research was largely
concerned with Nigerian cinema, more specifically
Nollywood, and its appeal to a mass audience in
Nigeria and beyond. I was able to find information on
the history and development of Nigerian cinema, meet
film makers, and investigate audience expectations,
especially among students.
I am planning on returning to Nigeria to study
the attitudes of Nigerians towards leaving Nigeria for
Europe or the US as well as general expectations and
experiences. Preliminary conversations during my stay
in Ile-Ife serve as a basis for more extensive research
on the subject matter I wish to conduct in Nigeria in
the year of 2009 to explore how the representation of
undocumented migration in cinema affects, if at all,
Nigerian westbound migration. The GPA has advanced
my research tremendously and the close collaboration
of Obafemi Awolowo University and the University of
Florida has been extremely helpful in planning further
research in Nigeria.

Claudia Hoffmann is a doctoral candidate in the Department
English. In summer2008, she participated in the Fulbright-Hays
Group Projects Abroad Intensive Yoruba program in Nigeria.


18 CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008













Ideology and Governance: Islam
and Liberalism in Niger

ABDOURAHMANE IDRISSA

My research asks the question of whether the interaction of
two ideologies-Islamism and Liberalism-that grew out of
Niger's regime democratization in the early 1990s are creating a
functioning political culture, one which would be productive of
successful governing policies.To test the hypotheses that arose
from this research question, I decided to look at issue areas that
are actually or potentially divisive in Niger's current context: the
nature of the political regime (Islamic or secular?), education
(should it train subjects of God or citizens of the Republic?) and
the gender question (the legal status of women). Key assumptions
hold that Niger's Islamism is strongly influenced by evolutions
in neighboring Northern Nigeria (where Shari'a had become a
source of law in the late 1990s) while its Liberalism is marked by
French "6sprit r6publicain,"strongly in favor of political secularism
(laTcit6).


My field research was based on
a combination of various qualitative
methods, ranging from interviews to
archival research, document analysis
and participant observation. Over a
one year period, I had the opportunity
to see many aspects of the issues I
was researching evolve and resolve
themselves in a variety of ways. I was also
able to work in a number of different
sites: the capital (Niamey), a provincial


town at the border with Nigeria
(Maradi), trips to the countryside with
members of both liberal and Islamist
groups, and trips to Northern Nigeria.
My findings point toward the
emergence of a new political culture in
Niger, one that is still hard to define.
Certainly, there is very little agreement
between Islamists and republicansn" in
Niger on any of the three issue areas I
researched. However, by "functioning


political culture" I do not mean to suggest there is
consensus. During the authoritarian era, which largely
continued the practice of the colonial government,
state policies relied very little, if at all, on inputs from
society, viewed essentially as amorphous and devoid of
legitimate opinions. Repression made these perspectives
a form of self-fulfilling prophecy.
Since the early 1990s, by contrast, regime
democratization has permitted society to organize itself
on public platforms and express ideals around specific
issues. The construction of state legitimacy now rests
on social organizations and depends on a flourishing
and sophisticated political culture. The dissertation
in progress examines the historical, theoretical and
current conditions of this evolution. It suggests that
the character and stridence of disagreements between
Islamists and republicansn" might be productive as well
as stunting with regards to political culture, but also
that other parameters must be considered, including
the fact that Islamists are just one key actor in a larger
religious civil society, not completely opposable to
republicansns"
Following fieldwork in 2006-2007, on-site writing
during part of the Spring and the entire Summer of
2008 proved to be a highly rewarding experience.
Active research provides the bulk of pertinent data,
but settling into a meditative mindset in the course
of writing better opens up the mind to incorporating
quieter, unobtrusive information. When it comes to
culture, such kind of information is invaluable.

Abdourahmane Idrissa is a doctoral candidate in the Department of
Political Science. His fieldwork was carried out with the support of an
SSRC International Dissertation Research Fellowship in 2006-2007.
In Spring 2008, he held a UF College of Liberal Arts and Sciences
Dissertation Writing Award.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008 19














Chinese Entrepreneurial Networks in Ghana

YANG JIAO

This past summer, I did pre-dissertation fieldwork in Ghana
to investigate four sets of related issues about the Chinese
entrepreneurship. Most of my data was collected in Accra and
Tema.


First, I investigated the types of
current Chinese businesses that are
based in Accra and Tema. These include
general trade, fishing, manufacturing,
food services, construction, mining and
various others. Recent years of stable
economic and political conditions have
drawn an increasing number of Chinese
to seek business ventures in Ghana.
However, not all Chinese businesses
have success stories to tell. The most
common concerns are the formal
regulations for setting up businesses
and adapting to Ghanaian culture and
society.
The variations in Chinese


entrepreneurs' knowledge of African
history and culture, experience with
formal businesses procedures, language
skills, and interaction with Ghanaian
networks have different effects on their
businesses. Some were able to blend in
to some extent, but many more found
it extremely hard to rely on themselves
to cope with the economic, cultural,
legal, religious, and political aspects of
a society that are quite different from
China's.
This points to another objective
of my work, which is to identify
networks among Chinese entrepreneurs.
Specifically, I paid close attention to the


interactions among members of the Ghana Central
China Chamber of Commerce. Established by five
Chinese entrepreneurs, this Accra-based organization
is the most active informal business organization of
Chinese entrepreneurs in Ghana. Through online
interactions and regular activities, many members
were facilitated in overcoming difficulties to some
extent. The website and instant messenger discussion
group serves as an online platform where Chinese
entrepreneurs can find up-to-date information about
specific policies and share their own experiences of
dealing with relevant officials. The organization
also holds lecture series on immigration policies, tax
regulations, and so on.
The third part concerns the influences of Chinese
investments on Ghana's social and economic spheres.
On one side, Chinese businesses have made many
manufactured goods more affordable to Ghanaians
and contributed to technology diffusion in some
sectors. From the Ghanaian side, some entrepreneurs
have called for more government regulation of
Chinese counterparts in the retail sector to stem
competition. From the point of view of network
analysis, I am interested in how Chinese entrepreneurs
have contributed to Ghana's development through
interactions with their Ghanaian counterparts.
Many Chinese entrepreneurs are not familiar with
Ghanaian culture and society at all. This has resulted in
misunderstandings and even prejudices. Some Chinese
entrepreneurs I have interviewed have expressed a
negative view on some Ghanaian employees. I am
also interested in how Chinese entrepreneurs perceive
Ghanaian culture and behavior during their direct
contact with ordinary Ghanaians along with the
impressions of Ghanaians about the Chinese. I hope to
collect more data about this on my next research trip.

Yang Jiao is a doctoral student in the Department ofAnthropology.


20 CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008













The Effects of Elephant Management on
Rural Livelihoods and Conservation Attitudes
around Chobe National Park, Botswana

BOTHEPHA KGABUNG

The overall goal of this study is to investigate the impact of
the evolution, operation, and uses of Chobe National Park
generally, and elephant management more specifically, on both
rural development and biodiversity conservation.The focus is
examining the influence of these conservation strategies on rural
livelihoods and socio-political systems, and subsequently on
conservation attitudes and behavior. Particular attention is paid to
elephants, which though a significant resource of the park, pose
a'big issue'emanating from the high growth of their population
to levels that are detrimental to the environment and conflicting
with human uses within and beyond the park.The question
therefore arises: how to manage 130,000 elephants (doubling
every thirteen years), which support a large tourism industry but
cause substantial on-farm conflict? In broader terms: does Chobe
National Park foster improvement in rural livelihoods, equitable
distribution of the local-national trade-offs and conservation
attitudes and practices?


The study will advance the
understanding of the effects of parks
on the environment in its totality and
enable decision makers to develop
more balanced conservation measures
and effectively address the prevalent
resource use issues. The study will also
inform some of the contested issues
which center on the elephant-habitat-
human interface. Overall, the study


will not only benefit Botswana but all
the elephant range states, the savanna
environments, and the world at large. As
the study hinges on the frameworks of
integrated environmental management
and sustainable rural livelihoods it
will give insights about more holistic
approaches in order to promote
sustainability within and beyond park
boundaries.


The study area is Chobe National Park and
its broader hinterland (northern Botswana). The
preliminary work I undertook in summer 2008 was
exploratory and focused on establishing collaboration
and rapport with local communities, and undertaking
in-depth interviews on the evolution and designation
processes of the park, as well on getting the historical
perspective of the relationship between natural
resources, livelihoods and conservation attitudes/
practices. Preliminary findings show that the years
leading to the designation of the park witnessed a
lot of unusual activities and changes in the broader
landscape (ecology, political economy, and socio-
cultural spheres). Overhunting was rampant, including
the killing of elephants for ivory trade by white
hunters. Also, the colonial state started to exert control
over natural resources through the introduction of
taxes, hunting decrees and the designation of some
areas as crown-land. This initiated the phasing-off
of the traditional (utilitarian/people-based) resource
governance and tenure systems. These changes are
noted to have led to a lot of population displacements
and relocations to various places within and outside of
the Chobe District.

Bothepha Kgabung is a doctoral student in Interdisciplinary Ecology
in the School of Natural Resources and Environment. Her summer
research was funded by UFs Tropical Conservation and Development
Program and the NSF Parks Project (Dr. Child).


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008 21













The Politics of "Corporate Social Responsibility"
in Equatorial Guinea

JOSEPH KRAUS

My research in Equatorial Guinea focuses on an increasingly
popular type of international development: public-private
partnerships between multinational corporations and host
governments. Equatorial Guinea, the 3rd largest producer of oil in
Sub-Saharan Africa, provides an interesting context to study the
joint efforts of governments and businesses to eradicate poverty.
Before the discovery of oil 15 years ago, Equatorial Guinea was one
of the poorest countries in the world; today, average per capital
income is more than $10,000.The government's ability to translate
this wealth into societal improvements, however, has been marred
by corruption and ineffective government institutions, and the
government's provision of basic social services like health and
education lags far behind most other African countries.


Multinational oil companies are
attempting to bridge the gap in social
services while simultaneously working
to increase the government's ability
to provide social services in the near
future. With this in mind, oil companies
have initiated social development
(officially known as Corporate Social
Responsibility or "CSR") projects
that seek to improve the country's
health and education programs. One
set of oil companies is working with


several nongovernmental organizations
(NGOs) to decrease the infection rates
of malaria, while another oil company
is working with the government to
overhaul the national education system.
A summer research trip to
Equatorial Guinea allowed numerous
insights into the promises and challenges
of these types of public-private
development partnerships. Interviews
with oil company representatives
revealed that the companies, accustomed


to efficiency and a results-oriented focus, are sometimes
frustrated by lackluster government involvement
with and support for the projects. At the same time,
however, several interviewees expressed optimism that
government capacity will increase incrementally, albeit
slowly and non-linearly, and stressed the companies'
commitment to ensuring government involvement.
Despite the early frustrations and growing pains
associated with these projects, real improvements are
already noticeable. Interviews with oil company and
NGO representatives revealed that in just four years
the anti-malaria project has managed to decrease
the incidence of malaria in children by 26%. On the
education front, in the past two years more than 1000
teachers have been trained and, by the end of next year,
40 schools will be refurbished.
Thus, there is hope that partnerships between
the public and private sectors can lead to sustainable
development outcomes that improve the wellbeing of
some of the world's most impoverished people. Such
optimism, however, must be tethered by a healthy
dose of caution. Given their nascent nature, very few
empirical studies have analyzed the outcomes of public-
private development partnerships. I will be returning to
Equatorial Guinea to build on the research enabled by
the Center for African Studies, to more closely analyze
the projects and assess whether they can, in fact, lead to
the improvements in government capacity necessary to
make these projects sustainable in the long-term.

Joseph Kraus is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Political
Science. His pre-dissertation research in Equatorial Guinea was made
possible with help from a CAS summer pre-dissertation travel award
and a Department of Political Science summer travel award.


22 CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008














Muslim Organizations in the
Democratic Republic of Congo

ASHLEY LEINWEBER

Building on years of study and interest in the Democratic Republic
of Congo, this summer I was thrilled to finally be able to travel
there. I was primarily located in the eastern province of Maniema,
where I spent two months conducting pre-dissertation research
on the role of Islamic organizations in providing public services to
the local population. Many Western political scientists classify the
Congo as a "failed state"because the central government is unable
to perform many of the tasks that the modern state is supposed to
be able to carry out. However, in the post-conflict reconstruction
phase of the Congo, these tasks are in fact largely being carried
out by a burgeoning civil society.


During the months of June and July
2008 I was able to conduct numerous
interviews with local, regional, national,
and international organizations in the
towns of Kindu and Kasongo. These
interviews were in large part possible
because of the three years of training
in Swahili that I received as a FLAS
fellow through the Center for African
Studies at UE What was most striking
about these discussions was the extent to
which they showed a high level of social
mobilization among the population
to undertake activities promoting
development and reconstruction.


Even though the central government
is still struggling to carry out its duties,
ordinary people are forming non-
governmental organizations to provide
public services that the population
desperately needs, such as schools,
health care, orphanages, and facilities for
the rehabilitation of both victims and
perpetrators of the civil war.
The primary focus of my
dissertation, and thus my trip this
summer to Maniema, is on the role of
Islamic organizations in the provision
of education. The Congo has a long
history of religious affiliation with the


education sector, notably by the Catholic Church,
which has been in charge of schools for over a century.
However, in the post-conflict reconstruction phase,
the Muslim community, which constitutes a majority
in this particular province of the Congo, has realized
that for their own well-being they must become
actively involved in activities that beforehand were
seen as outside the realm of religion. As such, in order
to improve conditions for the community, Muslims
have seen a need to engage in development activities
in addition to spiritual matters. Evidence of this can be
seen all over the Maniema province as Islamic non-
governmental organizations spring up by the dozens
and the Congolese state officially recognizes Muslim
schools that teach children the state curriculum.
My research demonstrates the vibrancy of
Congolese civil society, even in the face of devastating
civil wars and a malfunctioning central government. In
addition, it highlights the expanding political activities
of this minority Muslim community, a society that
has received virtually no scholarly attention since
the Congo was granted independence in the early
1960s. The summer provided exceptional preliminary
information for my research, and I very much look
forward to returning to the Congo next year to gain
more nuanced information about the work and
aspirations of Islamic organizations.

Ashley Leinweber is a doctoral student in the Department of Political
Science. Her research in summer 2008 was made possible by a Pre-
dissertation Research Stipend from the African Power and Politics
(APP) Program. APP is funded by a grant from the United Kingdom's
Department for ** a research
consortium of which CAS is an institutional member. She was a
Center for African Studies FLAS fellow during academic years 2005-06
and 2006-07, as well as summer 2006.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008 23














Religious Beliefs and Political Behavior in Kenya

STEVE LICHTY

After working in various regions of Africa for three years with two
different humanitarian aid organizations, I experienced my first
foray into Africa as a researcher in the summer of 2008. During
my previous exposure to the continent, I became curious about
the underlying issues that have an impact on its economic
and political development. Along with this I was fascinated
with the different religious dynamics I witnessed, and intrigued
by their influence on development processes. It is with these
interests that I began a Ph.D. in political science at the University
of Florida. In the last two years I have taken courses that have
provided a historical context and a sense of the methodological
approaches that might be employed to study religion and politics
in Africa. Thanks to several Foreign Language and Areas Studies
(FLAS) Fellowships, I was able to study both Swahili and Arabic,
invaluable tools for understanding the cultural aspects of my
region of interest, East Africa and more specifically Kenya.


The highlight of my Ph.D.
experience thus far, was the opportunity
to conduct pre-dissertation research
in the summer of 2008. Generous
funding from the Center for African
Studies and the Department of Political
Science enabled me to spend five weeks
in Nairobi, Kenya. During this time I
accomplished three major tasks related
to my dissertation, which will examine
how religious beliefs and practices
impact political behaviour in Kenya.
The first was making contact
with different academic institutions,
including the Institute for Development
Studies (IDS) at the University of
Nairobi, where I have been accepted
as a research affiliate when I return for
dissertation research. The IDS and
other institutions will be vital sources of
secondary literature as well as scholarly


feedback, advice and support. Secondly,
I was able to get a more nuanced sense
of the impact of Kenyan cultural
dynamics on the feasibility of my
research project. This will be important
as I begin to determine the specific
scope of my dissertation fieldwork.
Finally, I conducted numerous in-
depth interviews with both religious
and civil society leaders. These men
and women were found in churches,
seminaries, parachurch and human
rights organizations. The outcome of
these meetings was a more profound
understanding of the underlying issues
related to religion and politics in Kenya,
thus enabling me to better define
important variables that have been
unconsidered or marginalized.
I came away from this initial
research with two significant


impressions. The first relates to the friendly reception
I received among scholars and religious leaders. These
men and women expressed enthusiasm and interest
for my research topic and agenda. Having their
support and cooperation during my future dissertation
research will be crucial, and it is reassuring to know
that I will be able to build on these good relationships.
The second is more personal in nature. The first
few years of a Ph.D. program in political science is
dominated by coursework, but because my primary
focus in comparative politics requires fieldwork, it
was immensely encouraging to have this positive
preliminary experience. It provides a basis for my
research prospectus, and has laid the groundwork for
dissertation fieldwork beginning in fall 2009.

Steve Lichty is a doctoral student in the Department of Political
Science. He was a Center for African Studies FLAS fellow in 2006-07,
2007-08 and in summer 2007. His summer2008 research was
supported by a CAS pre-dissertation travel award and a Department
of Political Science summer travel award.


24 CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008














Post Migration Experience of Somali
Female Refugees in the United States:
A Case Study of Atlanta, Georgia

BETTY LININGER

In America today, there are many thriving Somali communities
located in both large diverse metropolitan areas and smaller
mono-ethnic cities.The United States, which did not have a
previously significant migration history with Somalia, became a
destination that was likely, in part, a result of military involvement
in 1992. In recent years, Somalis were identified by the United
States Homeland Security Department as representing the largest
refugee group (25%) being resettled in the United States.This
population is primarily Muslim, arriving from a region of the world
that has alleged links with Islamic terrorist groups.


My research involves examining
the post migration experience from
a woman's perspective. This study
illuminates specific economic and
social challenges faced by Somali female
refugees as they attempt to adapt and
integrate into American society.
Often Muslim women are more
"visible" in the predominately Anglo-
Christian American society due to their
attire, thus making their adaptation/
assimilation process potentially even
more complex. Wearing either a head
scarf or Islamic dress, women can be
quickly identified as "outsiders." This
can lead to such problems as an inability
to gain employment, exclusion from
mainstream society due to perceived
"differences:'," or to becoming the
recipient of outright hostility in
the public sphere. Adding to these
challenges in America, is the potential
for Somali women to also suffer racial
discrimination due to their dark skin
color.


Notably, refugee women face
many obstacles in their integration
process that differ significantly from
their male counterparts. This includes
such concerns as employment, childcare
responsibilities, and health care issues.
Many female refugees lack English
fluency, are accompanied by several
dependents, and have a myriad of both
physical and mental health problems.
Their journey to America has often
occurred under extreme duress,
frequently these women have endured
significant war traumas, such as rape,
food shortages, separation from loved
ones, as well as having witnessed brutal
killings and attacks. Importantly, these
women have the strength and fortitude
to take charge of their families and
attempt to rebuild their lives abroad
when given the chance.
After visiting several different
Somali communities located in
various cities in the United States
for three summers (2005-07), the


Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area was selected as
a representative field site because it has a significant,
stable Somali population (approximately 5,000) as
well as having been in existence for approximately
twenty years. I found Somali community leaders, all
of whom were male, eager to assist me in this research
project, however gaining access to conduct a survey
questionnaire with female respondents presented
a challenge. Finally, I was put into contact with
female community leaders and access to this group
was established. Using data collected from survey
questionnaires during early 2008, both qualitative
and quantitative analysis was conducted, resulting in
a comprehensive study of this group's adjustment and
adaptation to life in America.

Betty Lininger is a doctoral candidate in the Department of
Geography.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008 25













Art and Architecture of Anomabo, Ghana:
A Case Study in Cultural Flow

COURTNAY MICOTS

My research has been supplemented by two pre-dissertation
trips to southern Ghana. Contacts initially made in the historically-
significant town of Anomabo in the summer of 2007 revealed the
potential for dissertation study. I returned this summer to conduct
interviews with scholars at the University of Ghana in Legon and
the University of Cape Coast as well as several of the leaders and
townspeople of Anomabo. Although English is spoken widely
throughout Ghana, I am pursuing formal Akan Twi training at
the University of Florida. I also picked up a few Fante words on


location in Anomabo.
Anomabo provides an example
of long-term cultural contact, the flow
of visual forms and cultural ideas, and
the resulting choices that cultures make
in appropriating, transforming and
recontextualizing visual forms in art
and architecture. The coastal city of
Anomabo, the primary commercial hub
along the Gold Coast during the late-
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries,
exemplifies the impact of globalization.
The filter of art and architecture will
allow my research to make visible these
influences which may otherwise be
overlooked. Today, Anomabo's port is
closed and much of its historic grandeur
i--i ^^- S


lies in ruins, resulting in an erroneous
first impression of a sleepy, rural town
unaffected by global concerns.
Numerous pre-colonial African
cities, such as the Edo urban center of
Benin in Nigeria, experienced similar
urbanization, attracting and combining
cultures. The absorption of ideas and
their translation into visual forms
however, is not always documented or
evident in the contemporary setting.
My research in Anomabo will add to the
understanding of both pre-colonial and
contemporary urban Africa by providing
an example drawing from numerous
historical documents and an active


contemporary art scene. My approach will bring to
the fore the enduring influence of cultural and artistic
behaviors that developed during the pre-colonial
period. Anomabo's historic cosmopolitanism continues
to influence current art forms evidencing the openness
of artists to new influences, motifs, experimentation,
and cultural blending.
Visual forms of primary importance are textiles,
architecture, posuban or cement shrines, performance,
sculpture and painting, and in many instances, these
media are combined. Of particular relevance to this
study are the many Fante constructs that blend visual
forms from seemingly-unrelated sources to create
something entirely new. One contemporary example is
a group of paintings found on the facade of a building
entitled Holy Land. The paintings blend Christian,
Fante and Hindi religious ideas and motifs. Study
of these appropriations and recontextualizations
will aid in understanding how contemporary forms
display artistic syncretism and the way current artistic
expressions reflect Anomabo's cosmopolitan heritage.
My research will place globalization of an African
city and culture in a historical perspective. Anomabo's
worldliness does not stem from its position as a satellite
to Accra, Cape Coast or any western urban center, nor
its positioning at the periphery of global flows, but
in reference to its past position at the center of a vast
cultural and commercial network.

Courtnay Micots is a doctoral student in the School ofArt &Art
History.


26 CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008














Democratic Governance and Its Effect On
Community Based Natural Resource
Management (CBNRM): Botswana and
Zambia

PATRICIA MUPETA

My doctoral research focuses on examining how democratic
governance affects the performance of Community Based
Natural Resource Management (CBNRM), a conservation and rural
development initiative that has been practiced over the past two
decades in Southern Africa.


As part of developing this doctoral
research, preliminary research was
conducted during summer 2008
in Botswana and Zambia with the
following objectives: to undertake a
governance assessment of four CBNRM
villages in the Okavango Delta and
build collaborative linkages with
Department ofWildlife and National
Parks, Community Institutions and the
University of Botswana and to assess, the
status of CBNRM in Zambia.
In Botswana, I worked as part of
a larger group of both University of
Florida faculty and graduate students
and Young African Professionals
who are broadly studying social and
ecological systems in Southern Africa.
One main focus of the team has been


to develop standardized systems for
measuring the effectiveness, legitimacy
and performance of community
governance. The areas of study were
Mababe, Sankuyu, Khwai and the
Okavango Community Trust (OCT).
Using a survey instrument termed the
"Community Dashboard" household
interviews were conducted. This
included a total of 32 surveys in
Mababe; 33 in Khwai; 41 in Sankuyu
and 167 in OCT. Household heads
were interviewed on their perceptions of
how CBNRM was performing in their
areas. The survey gathered information
on demographics; community
structures and functions; participation
in CBNRM meetings; elections;
community resource rights; information
I -'p um


dissemination; trust in leadership; and an overall rating
of the CBNRM program.
In addition to the household surveys, Participatory
Rural Appraisal (PRA) methods were undertaken in all
four communities. Using PRA tools, focus groups were
organized that included young, middle and old-aged
members of the community. Information gathered
included environmental, institutional, and major
historical events that had occurred in each community.
At the completion of research in each community,
feedback meetings were organized to present the results
to the general assembly. This process is both an auditing
system for the data gathered, and is important in
ensuring research done is not extractive but beneficial
to communities.
In Zambia, research was conducted for a period
of three weeks. Zambia has one of the oldest CBNRM
programs in Southern Africa, however it has recently
slacked in its implementation and government support.
This preliminary research was to determine the current
status of CBNRM in Zambia, and examine whether
it could be used as a comparative site in the doctoral
research. A total of nine in-depth interviews were
conducted with practitioners in the field of CBNRM.
These interviews reveal that CBNRM in Zambia faces
three major challenges: donor support for natural
resource management has greatly reduced; community
institutions are focusing on more ownership of natural
resource areas; and government, particularly the
Zambia Wildlife Authority, is investing into measures
that would increase good governance at the community
level.

Patricia Mupeta is a doctoral student in Interdisciplinary Ecology
in the School of Natural Resources and Environment. Her research
in summer 2008 was made possible by a Pre-dissertation Research
Stipend from the African Power and Politics (APP) Program. APP
is funded by a grant from the United Kingdom's Department for
a research consortium of
which CAS is an institutional member.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008 27














Citizen-Politician Linkages in the Formal and
Informal Sector in Kenya

LEVY ODERA

I landed in Kenya to undertake pre-dissertation research in May
2008, just two months after the end of the post-election crisis
that was marked by the signing of a power sharing agreement
between the two main political parties in Kenya, namely: Orange
Democratic Movement (ODM) and Party of National Unity (PNU).
In spite of the politically unstable situation I was able to conduct
my research from May to August.


Initially, the objective that I set out
for the pre-dissertation research was to
find out how the nexus between power
relations and informal institutions
affect business performance in the
informal sector by 1) conducting three
focus group discussions in three
different cities; 2) conducting 60
in-depth interviews, and 3) carrying
out an exploratory survey based on the
focus group discussions and in-depth
interviews. Before starting my research
I recruited three research assistants who
I trained for one week. The training
sessions also included fieldwork, where
we did mapping in the nine markets
where I conducted the research.
After training was over, we started by
conducting the focus group discussions.
Following the focus group discussions,
and based on the information we
gathered from them, we then conducted
20 semi-structured interviews in each of


the three cities. All these interviews were
tape recorded and notes taken. Upon
completing the interviews we spent two
weeks transcribing. I then went through
each transcribed interview looking for
common themes. The analysis of the
interviews revealed that a more urgent
problem in the informal sector seemed
to be the very weak linkages between
citizens and politicians. To confirm that
the citizen-politician linkages are indeed
very weak in the informal sector, I then
conducted 360 surveys in the three
cities.
In the final stage I decided to
descriptively analyze some of the key
variables from the data. The preliminary
findings from the surveys confirmed
that the linkages between citizens and
politicians in this sector are very weak.
With respect to these findings, I used
the last week in the field to conduct
three key informant interviews on


the nature of citizen-politician linkages in the formal
sector. The three key informants whom I interviewed
were a politician and scholar who contested for a
parliamentary seat but lost, a personal assistant for
the Deputy Prime Minister of Kenya, and a journalist
who is a communications officer for the ODM party.
From these interviews I tentatively learned that the
citizen-politician linkages in the formal sector are
stronger than those in the informal sector, but this is
yet to be confirmed through future research. These
findings have subsequently led to a refinement of the
issue that I intend to study for my dissertation. I now
intend to focus on whether citizen-politician linkages
are stronger in the formal sector, whether formal
institutions play any role in establishing the linkages,
and whether these linkages contribute to state building
in Kenya.

Levy Odera is a doctoral student in the Department of Political
Science. His research in Kenya in summer 2008 was supported by an
African Politics and Power (APP) program pre-dissertation award
from the UF Center forAfrican Studies. APP is funded by a grant from
the United Kingdoms Department for International Development
o" a research consortium of which CAS is an institutional
member.


28 CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008














The Unraveling of John Okello

ANN LEE GRIMSTAD OMONDI

I find that sometimes the most relevant insights, information,
and leads in research come from unexpected circumstances and
opportunities. I have been preparing to conduct my dissertation
research on the Zanzibar Revolution, but I had not yet found
the specific focus of my inquiry.This summer I was teaching
undergraduates about conflict and reconciliation through an SIT
Study Abroad program called Peace and Conflict Studies in the
Lake Victoria Basin, when I unexpectedly ran into my dissertation
topic. The two conflicts we were teaching about were the
situation in Northern Uganda and the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda.


During the preparation for an
educational excursion to former camps
for "internally-displaced persons"
(IDPs) outside of Lira, Uganda, I was
discussing the Ugandan rebel leader
Joseph Kony, with the Vice Chairman
(a local government official) of Lira
District. I made a comparison between
the rhetoric of Kony and that of 'Field
Marshall' John Okello, the leader of
the 1964 Zanzibar Revolution. The
Vice Chairman informed me that Field
Marshall Okello was actually born in a
village some 25 km from Lira. He also
offered to connect me with an elder


from the area whom I could interview.
I spoke with two other people in the
following days who were willing to give
me more information on the life and
death ofJohn Okello, and take me to his
birthplace. Since I was only in Lira for a
few days of work, I knew that I did not
have time to investigate these leads this
year, but that indeed, I would have to
return for research to follow up on this
information.
In 1964, there had been much
speculation by journalists, politicians,
and government intelligence operatives
about the identity and background of


the revolutionary leader John Okello. However, once
the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar firmed its
own footing without him and he was declaredpersona
non grata in Zanzibar, Tanganyika, and Kenya, the
speculation seemed to die down. Okello, with the help
of at least one writer, authored his own account of his
life and role in the revolution, which many scholars
seem to take almost at face value. Although this non-
Zanzibari, primary-school educated, painter-mason-
builder led a revolution that, in only a matter of hours,
was able to overthrow a constitutional monarchy set up
by the British, Okello's life and role in Zanzibar has not
to date been thoroughly investigated.
When I reached Zanzibar in July for pre-
dissertation research, I interviewed several people
who were on the islands at the time of the revolution
and I was able to undertake some initial consultation
of relevant documents in the National Archives.
The questions that will guide me in my next steps of
dissertation research are: How did this man accomplish
what he seems to have accomplished ? Why was there
was so much speculation and so many contradictory
stories about him? And how are those two paths of
inquiry linked ?

Ann Lee Grimstad Omondi is a doctoral student in the Department
of History.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008 29


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...............................
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Informal Institutions and Public Goods in
Ghanaian Bureaucracies

WINIFRED PANKANI

Why do some government ministries, department and agencies
perform better than others? Some scholars contend robust
and responsive governmental performance is driven in part
by increasing levels of wealth. Others posit formal institutions
like bureaucratic performance reviews are positively correlated
with increased governmental performance, due to increased
supervision and monitoring by high-level officials of their lower-
level colleagues.Yet an increasing number of scholars, however,
argue for the inclusion of informal institutions in our analysis of
bureaucratic performance because informal institutions, though
not officially authorized or intended to enable citizens to hold
government officials accountable, may do so nonetheless by
providing a set of standards for awarding moral standing.


Nevertheless, the consensus in the
literature on governance in a clientelistic
context, especially within public
institutions, is that informal institutions
undermine governance systems, which
in turn impedes economic growth.
Clientelistic behavior is theorized to
be more prevalent in societies with
great social and status inequalities, and
where there are incongruities between
formal and informal rules. During
a six week pre-dissertation research
trip in summer 2008, I tested these
hypotheses in Ghana by collecting data
in four government bureaucracies: The
ministries of Agriculture and Water
Resources, and of Works and Housing,


the Accra Metropolitan Authority, and
the Parliamentary Services Corps.
I used a multipronged approach
combining qualitative data with
quantitative data. First, I focused
on developing an understanding of
everyday office politics and governance
issues and norm use by collecting
information through extensive
observation and interviews with both
lower and upper-level bureaucrats.
My selection of interviewees in each
ministry where it was possible was
randomized, including as many
departments as I could.
The most often quoted informal
norm during my interviews was: "do no


harm to those who help you:'," a belief that included not
shaming the persons) who helped you get your job or
the boss who has been sticking up for you. The belief
that one had to help one's own/group (though this did
not necessarily mean ethnic group) was also widely
shared, as was the norm of "chopping" from one's work
or place of work. Finally, the belief that wealth can
often be fleeting was a broadly shared norm that under-
girded many people's behavior and choices.

Winifred Pankani is a doctoral student in the Department of Political
Science. Her research in Ghana in summer 2008 was made possible
by a Pre-dissertation Research Stipend from the African Power and
Politics (APP) Program. APP is funded by a grant from the United
Kingdoms Department for International .* a
research consortium of which CAS is an institutional member.


30 CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008













An Economic Analysis on the Viability of
Wildlife Hunting and Viewing Tourism as a
Conservation and Rural Development Tool in
Namibia

GREGORY PARENT

The lack of sustainability and developmental potential of cattle
and agricultural systems has been a stimulus for many southern
African countries move towards a focus on wildlife utilization
as a development and conservation tool. While countries have
taken different strategies, the ultimate goal of the various policy
approaches is to capture wildlife's biophysical and economic
advantage to generate a steady stream of benefits to local
communities, thereby incentivizing the conservation of wildlife
and the ecosystems they are present in. While studies have
demonstrated wildlife's economic advantage at the national
and regional level, there is a gap in the wildlife economic
research for the understanding of benefit attainment at the
community level. If wildlife viewing and hunting tourism is to be a
sustainable source of revenue and continue to produce incentives
towards conservation of wildlife and biomes in which they live,
understanding how institutional factors effect local benefit
attainment is key, as it is the local inhabitant who will ultimately
make the decision to plant another row of crops, pasture more
cattle, poach another animal, or conserve for future benefit.


The purpose of the summer 2008 round of
research was threefold. First, it was a preliminary
investigation to gain an increased understanding into
structure of the rural southern African economy in
order to improve the econometric models to be utilized
in my Ph.D. research. Secondly, it was used to pilot
question design, specifically methods to minimize
participant recall errors to survey questions. Finally, as
much of the southern African region is characterized by
recurrent droughts and a lack of water infrastructure,
water is potentially a serious input constraint to
households. As such, this study investigated the
importance of water access to a household's ability to
participate in the market economy by integrating spatial
classes of households differentiated by their distance
to potable water so as to analyze the distributional
impact on household income using the Foster-Greer-
Thorbecke P2 measure.
The study was conducted in four villages
within the Choi village area located in the Mayuni
Conservancy in the Caprivi Strip, Namibia.
Participants from 100 households were interviewed as
part of the study. While final data analysis has yet to
be completed, some interesting patterns have emerged.
Of note, all four villages have little internal commerce.
Households rely on traveling to distant urban centers
(2 hours) to conduct the majority of their purchases.
The lack of internal commerce reduces the possible
multiplier affect that any tourism enterprise may
produce through direct or indirect income impacts. As
such, much of the potential benefit is leaked to urban
centers in the form of expenditure for goods.

Gregory Parent is a doctoral student in Geography and is an NSF
IGERT Fellow (Adaptive Management: Water, Wetlands, and
Watersheds). He was awarded a preliminary summer research
grant from the Working Forest in the Tropics IGERTprogrom at the
University of Florida.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008 31













The Use of Client Focused Technology by
Microfinance Organizations in Tanzania: A
Case Study

TORREY PEACE

Although I was originally going to graduate in May 2008 with a
UF MBA, I changed my plans when I was informed of a $2,000
CIBER grant available to conduct research on microfinance in
Africa. had taken an interest in microfinance since my service
as a Peace Corps volunteer in Guatemala (2004-06), and did not
have a chance to study it in depth during my MBA career. I initially
decided as my proposal to do research on how technology
affects microfinance, however later changed the subject to be a
case study on client focused technology and how it is used by
microfinance organizations in Tanzania. I decided to change the
proposal to a case study because it would be difficult to measure
the impact in a short period of time and also because most of
the technologies being used were only recently introduced and
therefore the impact could not be assessed.


I was fortunate enough to choose
Tanzania as my destination for my
research. Tanzania has a solid history
in microfinance, and Dr. Todd Leedy,
Associate Director of the Center
for African Studies, assisted me in
contacting the Faculty of Commerce
and Management at the University of
Dar es Salaam. Another fortunate event
was that this year the International
Academy of African Business and
Development Conference was hosted
in Gainesville and so I was able to meet
some of the faculty from UDSM before
even going to Tanzania!


Using these contacts enabled me
to find a list of alumni that worked at
microfinance organizations. I then sent
these alumni emails about my research
and requested interviews. I received a
response from three commercial banks
and one nonprofit organization. I also
was able to interview the financial trust
(Financial Sector Deepening Trust)
that conducted a survey regarding the
financial sector of Tanzania in 2006.
Between the interviews as well as
literature reviews, I was able to form a
well-rounded perspective of how client-
focused technology (Automated Teller


Machines, Point of Sale Devices, etc) were being used
by these organizations.
Apart from working on my research, Tobias
Swai asked me to assist in the organization of the
second Business in Development business plan
competition, an activity conducted by the UDSM
Entrepreneurship Centre along with a Dutch
nonprofit organization, the Business in Development
Network (www.bidnetwork.org). I assisted them with
updating their website, talking to entrepreneurs at the
annual "Saba Saba" business tradeshow and visiting
entrepreneurs from last year's competition. It was a
very enlightening experience and the business plan
competition is an innovative way to stimulate local
creativity along with the economy by assisting small
businesses in developing business plans and obtaining
funding.
While in Tanzania I had several opportunities
to travel and see other parts of the country aside
from Dar es Salaam. I was able to visit Morogoro,
Bagamoyo, Arusha and Zanzibar. I was also able
to participate in cultural events such as weddings,
birthdays, local concerts and soccer matches. I took
a few Kiswahili classes as well. All of these activities
gave me a better understanding of the Tanzanian
culture and people.
Overall, my experience in Tanzania was a
fantastic one. Not only was I able to complete my
MBA by doing research in a field I was interested
in, I was also able to experience a different culture
and make friends on a different continent. I would
certainly recommend it to future students as a
way to obtain a better understanding of business
development in other countries.

Torrey Peace is an MBA candidate in the Warrington College of
Business Administration. She received funding for her summer
research from the Center for International Business Research (CIBER)
and the Department of Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate.


32 CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008














The Efficacy of Community-Based Monitoring
in Namibia:The Event Book System

LUKE VICTOR ROSTANT

A novel monitoring system developed in Namibia is the Event
Book System (EBS).This community based monitoring system
was created to inform management decisions in communal
conservancies throughout Namibia. While the system has been
in operation for almost a decade, to date, no examination of
the EBS in terms of its ability to enhance the adaptive capacity
of conservancies has been performed. Community-based
monitoring is also often criticised based on concerns about
communities lacking the capacity, sustained interest, and
resources needed for effective monitoring.To this end, the main
objective of my research is to understand the EBS in the context of
how information is being created, accumulated, and transmitted
in the communal conservancies of Namibia.Three conservancies
along the Kwando River will be the focus of this research, the
Kwandu, Mashi, and Mayuni conservancies.


Information about the EBS was
gathered through semi-structured
interviews with the communal
conservancy management, as well as
conservancy membership and key
informants in the associated NGO's
and the Ministry of Environment and
Tourism. These interviews will allow
me to assess the way that information
is collected, where this information is
stored, whether or not this information
is shared, and what decisions are made
based on the information gathered.
Preliminary findings indicate that
there appears to be some elite capture


of information from the EBS by the
management committees within the
communal conservancies, with little
information getting down to the
household level. I also observed that
though the information is being stored
within the conservancy offices, the full
potential of this information was not
being capitalized upon, perhaps because
the communities lack the capacity and
resources (for example, the spatial aspect
of the data is largely ignored).
To assess some of the EBS's
potential, I collected all of the EBS data
from these three focal conservancies,


~-~- -,

- -
.- -
- --
~ ."~.


and will analyze this information using GIS and remote
sensing to determine whether or not the community-
based datasets might be enhanced using more
"scientific" methods. Ultimately, this will test whether
or not so called scientific and community monitoring
systems can be complementary, and, if so, how can
scientists and communities work together to enhance
community-based datasets to aid communities in terms
of their adaptive capacity.
While these methods contribute towards an
understanding of the EBS, previous interviews
conducted in the 2007 field season revealed that
information about the vegetation dynamics of the
region was being omitted from the EBS. To this end,
a comparison of the vegetation in these three focal
conservancies and the Bwabwata National park on the
Western side of the Kwando River will be conducted.
Thirty transects on either side of the river were
established in 2007 and 2008. Analysis of this data
will not only allow me to examine how different land
use strategies have affected the vegetation within and
outside of the communal conservancies, but will also
provide the communities with valuable vegetation
baseline data which can be re-sampled in the future to
see whether or not ecosystem management strategies
need to be adjusted.

Luke Rostant is a doctoral student in Interdisciplinary Ecology in the
School of Natural Resources and Environment. His research was
funded in part by a Fulbright Faculty Improvement grant and a grant
from the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA).


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008 33













Weapons and Refuse as Media:
The Potency and Politics of Recycling in
Contemporary Mozambican Urban Arts

AMY SCHWARTZOTT

My research focuses on contemporary Mozambican urban artists
that use recycled materials in the creation of their art, which
illustrates the intersection between art and life. Mozambican
artists involved with the Christian Aid funded program,
"Transforming Arms into Tools," utilize decommissioned weapons
for assemblage art pieces to engage the viewer and urge them
to remember the violence and destruction in Mozambique's
struggle toward liberation. Mozambican artists also utilize natural
and urban refuse in the creation of their contemporary artworks,
which underscores recycling as a way of life throughout the
continent of Africa


These artists working in urban
Mozambique today are linked in their
connection to major themes related to
the environment of Mozambique in
particular, and Africa in general. Within
a broader framework, the use of recycled
materials by these contemporary artists
reflects a nexus of environmental,
economic and culturally related issues
that creates an expanding discourse
surrounding the identity and materiality
of objects. These theoretical ideas frame
the pre-dissertation research I completed
this summer in the Mozambican
capital city of Maputo, where I spent
time interviewing many artists, arts


administrators, and museum officials in
order to develop a greater understanding
of the contemporary arts environment
within Mozambique. Through these
interviews, I learned of the strength,
vitality, and overarching sense of
community within their contemporary
arts network.
I spent time visiting artists in
their studios, homes and exhibition
spaces where I could directly engage in
discussions with them about their art
processes, techniques and theoretical
concerns surrounding their use of
recycled materials in their artworks.
There is a great diversity in the different


I.


types of recycled materials that are used, the forms that
are created, as well as in the age and background of the
many artists I interviewed. The striking link between
all of the artists I spoke with is their understanding and
belief in the power of art.
The transformative power of art in Mozambique
became widely apparent to me not only in the
emotionally engaging artworks made from traded
decommissioned weapons, collected urban detritus,
and natural landscape elements, but also from the
intense personal commitment of the artists I spoke
with. Many artists expressed their need to create
art as a continuation of their cultural traditions in a
contemporary context by using discarded materials
that they recycled into artworks. Several of the artists
I spoke to carried on the power of the visual arts by
teaching Mozambican orphans and youth in arts
education programs that they designed, facilitated, and
in most cases, financed themselves.
To create connections within the arts community
on a larger scale, I also met with directors, managers
and curators of organizations such as the National
Museum of Mozambique, the Franco-Mozambican
Cultural Center, Nucleo de Arte, MovArte, MozArte,
ENAV (National School of Visual Arts) and the
Christian Council. Through these discussions, I have
gained a greater understanding of the transformative
power of art and its impact as a force within
Mozambican society and culture. Since my return to
the US, I have received word that a projected weapons
monument that I discussed with several of the artists
and administrators while I was in Maputo is indeed
underway.

Amy Schwartzott is a doctoral student in the School ofArt and Art
History.


34 CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008













Hospitals as a Window into Global Flows and
Local Articulations in Tanzania

NOELLE SULLIVAN

Since December 2007, have been on the outskirts of Arusha,
Tanzania, conducting dissertation field research investigating
the ways that privatization of medicine has affected medical
practice. In particular, I have been exploring how global, multi-
national, and national organizations have influenced the
opportunities and constraints experienced by health care workers
at the micro level-within a Tanzanian hospital.This research
investigates how global agencies (such as WHO and the World
Bank), various donors (such as USAID or DANIDA), and various
volunteer organizations (such as Work the World and Students
for International Change) have affected the ways that medicine
is practiced within Tanzania, and what kinds of opportunities and
constraints health care workers experience as a result of the rapid
changes that have been effected within the health sector.


An important aspect of this research has been to
consider the ways that multiple forces come to bear on
the hospital and the ways that power operates on the
local scale within the hospital. I am using participant
observation, archival research, and individual
and group interviews with hospital workers, local
government officials, officers within the Tanzanian
Ministry of Health, and representatives within various
aid and volunteer organizations to investigate the ways
that global and state forces articulate on the micro scale
(within one hospital), the politics of these interactions,
and what this context means for the people who work
within this system and for those who use it in order to
achieve better health for themselves and their relatives.

Noelle Sullivan is a doctoral candidate in the Department of
A culbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research
Abroad awardee (2007-08) and was a CAS FLAS fellow in 2003-04,
2004-05, as well as summer 2005.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008 35














Religion and Politics in Morocco

ANN WAINSCOTT

I was very fortunate to be awarded a summer FLAS grant to
study Arabic during the summer of 2008 in Fez, Morocco. As a
student of Moroccan politics, with an interest in the role of various
Sufi groups in Moroccan political discourse, language skills are
absolutely essential. In addition to the four hours of classroom
instruction that I received each day, I lived with a family in the
new city of Fez, attended a number of cultural events and also
traveled throughout the country. Most importantly, this period
allowed me to begin to refine the research I plan to carry out for
my dissertation topic.


Fez, as the spiritual and cultural
capital of Morocco, is an excellent
location to live and study. During the
month of June, the city hosts a sacred
music festival that highlights spiritual
music from around the world as well as
showcasing the different Sufi groups and
their rituals from within the country.
Many other cities within the country
also host festivals including the Gnawa
music festival in Essaouira. Attending
these events afforded me a glimpse of
youth culture, government development
strategies and the complicated role of
tourism in the Moroccan economy.
By far, living with a Moroccan
family was the most important cultural
experience of my summer. My Moroccan
mom, upon learning of my recent
engagement, showered me with cooking
tips and her favorite recipes. She also


served as a sort of cultural interpreter
as she had excellent French and English
skills and was willing to discuss a myriad
of issues, from political parties to the
role of Sufis in Moroccan society to her
concerns about unemployment. Further,
her daughter provided an interesting
window into Moroccan teenage life
and while I was shocked at how many
Bollywood movies she could fit into
a day, she was appalled at how little I
knew of American pop culture! I am
sure that the cultural nuances I was able
to learn from living with a family will
prove invaluable as I continue with my
research.
Thanks to an introduction by CAS
director Leo Villal6n, the academic
highlight of my summer was meeting the
scholar Maati Monjib, from the Institute
of African Studies in Rabat, and a one-


time visiting professor at the University of Florida. I
was privileged to enjoy his hospitality and his advice on
Moroccan scholarship. I was particularly interested in
his opinion because of his broad knowledge of nearly
every piece of scholarship on Moroccan politics in
multiple languages. At one point he actually began
listing the dissertation topics that have yet to be done
in Arabic, French or English! Professor Monjib's advice
will certainly prove invaluable as I work to define the
precise focus of my dissertation research.
By studying within my country of interest, I was
able to gain a broad understanding of the issues relevant
in Moroccan society and establish a network of close
contacts while I continued to develop the language
skills necessary for my research. Truly, the summer of
2008 was an important step in my development as a
political scientist and a student of Moroccan politics.

Ann Wainscott is a doctoral student in Political Science. She has held
Center for African Studies FLAS fellowships in 2007-08 and 2008-09.
Her 2008 summer stay in Morocco was made possible by a CAS
Summer FLASAward to the Arabic Language Institute of Fez (ALIF).


36 CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008













Perceptions and Misperceptions of the
Gnawa and their Music in Morocco

CHRISTOPHER WITULSKI

Pre-dissertation fieldwork this summer allowed me to witness
more thoroughly the complex relationship between people,
their religion, and their music in Fez, Morocco. While living with
a devout Tijaniyya family in Blida, a region of the old medina,
I learned more concretely the place and meaning of dhikr (a
prayerful act of remembrance) in this tailor's home and in the
nearby zawiya, one of the most famous in the Arab world.


Simultaneously I had the
opportunity to study the hajhuj (the
primary Gnawa musical instrument),
with Abd ar-Rzaq, a professional Gnawa
maalem who has led layla possession
ceremonies and "folkloric" performances
in houses and on stages from the Congo
to France. We sat in his small "office,"
decorated with pictures, certificates,
and letters celebrating his musical
and spiritual career. The Gnawa are
a population in Morocco commonly
presented as black ex-slaves whose


religion involves trance and possession
by various spirits, personifications of
significant Muslim figures. Examples
include shurfa (from sharif, descendent
of the Pr .pl.) 7. Musa (Moses), and
LallaAisha. Religious debate surrounds
the Gnawa centers on the ontology of
these spirits: are they truly saints, or are
theyjnun (demons, evil spirits) ?
While assembling activities for a
short visit by a study abroad group from
the University of Florida, I forged a
close relationship with Adil, muqaddem


of a local Aissawa Sufi brotherhood. The Aissawas are
renown for their music, their own layla ceremonies, and
more recently, for performing exorcisms.
The differences between these faiths and their
accompanying musical traditions are not surprising, but
the ease with which they participated in each others
musical and ceremonial activities demonstrates much
regarding the frequently cited hybridityy" in Moroccan
religion and culture. This is despite the perceived
marginalization of the Gnawa and heated intellectual
debate regarding Sufism. The time in Morocco helped
me to better comprehend the interesting ways in which
these groups are interrelated and how they claim
religious authenticity and validity.

Christopher Witulski is a doctoral student in the School of Music
. He received a CAS FLAS fellowship in summer
2006 and is also a UF Alumni fellowship recipient.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008 37













Building Capacity for Community-Based
Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) in
Southern Africa

DEBORAH WOJCIK

I spent summer 2008 conducting exploratory and pre-dissertation
research in the Okavango Delta region of Botswana and the
Caprivi region of Namibia. Learning as much as I could about the
place and building relationships critical to my future research
success, I had the opportunity to be a part of Dr. Brian Child's
cross-cultural, interdisciplinary research team in Botswana for
five weeks of my two month trip. The group was comprised of
faculty, doctoral, masters and undergraduate students from the
University of Florida, young African professionals from throughout
southern Africa, and undergraduate students from the University
of Botswana. Academic research within the group ranged
widely, including studies of economics, ecology, political science,
psychology and anthropology. While the students brought
knowledge of research methods and academic disciplines, the
young professionals brought experience in natural resource
management from their home countries and the practitioner
perspective. I worked with a subset of the group who in turn
worked with local community members to collect survey data
from various rural communities involved with Community-Based
Natural Resource Management (CBNRM), looking at everything
from governance and financial accounting to natural resource
management. Called "the Dashboard"for its application as
monitoring and research tool to provide quick and simple views
of what's happening in a community, much like the dashboard of
a car provides an overview of the car's functionality, a large team
conducted surveys in a number of rural communities.


The interdisciplinary and cross-cultural character
of the combined group of young African professionals
and academicians created a dynamic and unique
learning experience. Interested in how this type of
research may help to build capacity for members of the
group as well as the communities in which we worked,
I conducted interviews and observations that will feed
into my overall research plan and dissertation. I will
continue studying this research process throughout
the year, as students continue to work on their own
research and collaborate with one another through Dr.
Child's facilitation. I will also follow up with the young
African professionals remotely, assessing how they are
or are not applying their new techniques and research
methods in their home countries. I will continue this
line of research in my dissertation, looking beyond
conventional capacity building methods, which are
dominated by supply-driven training programs, to see
how other approaches may serve to build the capacity
of community members involved with CBNRM.
After working with Dr. Child's group, I moved
from Botswana to Namibia for three weeks to join
other University of Florida students conducting their
dissertation research there. Though involvement
in projects as diverse as conducting ecological
transects to an economic study, I built a foundational
understanding of the place, people and concerns related
to CBNRM in the Caprivi region of Namibia. Beyond
providing an opportunity to help with their work,
fellow University of Florida students were invaluable
contacts, introducing me to the key people and
organizations with whom I hope to work again in the
near future.
Deborah Wojcik is a doctoral student in the School of Forest
Resources and Conservation. Her research was supported by a
Working Forests in the Tropics NSF IGERT Summer Research Grant.
She is also the recipient of funding from the NSF-funded IGERT
Adaptive Management: Wise Use of Water, Wetlands and Watersheds
2007- 2008.


38 CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008












Collaborative Projects





UF Law Summer Program in CapeTown, South Africa


Increasingly, United States and
international legal employers are looking
for individuals with an understanding of
today's complex legal environment. As
South Africa emerges as a leading political
and economic force, opportunities for
business, trade and cultural exchanges
increase significantly within the region.
Its progressive constitution has become a
model for developing democracies.
Recognizing the importance of providing
students with an education that transcends national
boundaries, the University of Florida's Levin College
of Law jointly sponsors the only U.S.-based summer
program approved by the American Bar Association
with the University of Cape Town Faculty of Law
in South Africa's most beautiful, cosmopolitan
and diverse city. The program celebrated its 10th
anniversary during summer 2008.
During summer 2008, 19 UF law students,
7 students from other ABA law schools and 9
University of Cape Town students (representing


South Africa, Botswana, Tanzania,
and Zimbabwe) participated in the
5 1/2 week UF/University of Cape
Town Study Abroad Program. Students
studying in the program benefited
from a dual focus on comparative
and international law. South African
professors presented an introduction
to the South African legal system.
In addition, U.S. and South African
students analyzed how race and
race relations have influenced U.S.
and South African legal systems in a
comparative constitutional law course.
In the comparative cultural property,
students supplemented readings
by visiting cultural sites, including
Robben Island, where Nelson Mandela
was imprisoned, and the District Six
Museum, commemorating the removal
of a mixed race community to single
race townships outside of the city, and
UNESCO heritage sites.
The Florida/Cape Town program
allowed students and faculty to live in
and enjoy a rich culture, while studying
law amidst the historic legal, political
and social changes occurring in South


Africa. Students visited Parliament,
courts, and museums. In addition,
several student groups took trips to
Kruger National Park, the Garden
Route, and Namibia before and after
the program.
As part of a service component to
the program, the students volunteered
at Kalksteenfontein Primary School
(KPS), which is located in the Cape
Flats outside of Cape Town. Many of its
residents were forced from Cape Town
when District Six became a whites
only area under apartheid. The UF
students, along with the High Springs
Community School, also sponsored a
pen pal project that raised $3,400 to
benefit KPS. The money raised paid
136 KPS students' tuition.
For further information, http://
www.law.ufl.edu/students/abroad/
summer africa.shtml or contact
Kathleen Price pricek@law.ufl.edu,
Faculty Director of the Cape Town
program, or Michelle Ocepek ocepek@
law.ufl.edu, Director of Student
Programs.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008 39











AIM For Africa:

Medicine, Arts and Health Care in the Gambia


Since 2006, UF's innovative Center
for Arts in Healthcare Research and
Education (CAHRE) has launched a series
of new initiatives intended to create
cultural bridges between the arts and
healthcare in the US and African nations.
The "AIM for Africa" program is committed
to cross-cultural collaborations that
fill needs in African communities
and provide meaningful learning
opportunities for UF students.

In addition to initiatives in Kenya and Rwanda,
CAHRE and the College of Medicine are working
to establish a permanent research and training
program in the Gambia. This program will
include clinical work and reciprocal training, arts
in medicine projects and programs and research
projects focused on the delivery of health care to
citizens of the Gambia. The program began in 2008
with several trips to the Gambia, including a March
trip led by CAHRE's director, Jill Sonke-Henderson,
accompanied by labor and delivery nurse Cindy
Nelly. Sonke-Henderson is also a faculty member
in UF's department of Theater and Dance, and
artist-in-residence in the Shands Arts in Medicine
program. The group of UF College of Fine Arts
students and nurses spent a two-week residency


together in the Gambia. They
brought 1,100 pounds of medical
supplies and provided medical and
arts in healthcare services at the Royal
Victoria Teaching Hospital, Brikama
Hospital, Kubuneh Health Center,
and in rural villages and schools in the
Gambia.
In June of 2008, Nina Stoyan-
Rosenzweig, director of medical
humanities for UF's College of
Medicine, led a group that included
a 4th year UF medical student, Raj
Mehta, Nghi Lam, an undergraduate
interested in medicine and arts-in-
medicine interventions, and a group
of students who put together a project
researching emergency medical care
and triage systems in place in the
Gambia.
These students researched and
developed the project that was then
funded through the Medical Sciences
Research Program at the UF College
of Medicine. This project began with
a survey that provides the capacity to
determine strengths and weaknesses
of Gambian emergency healthcare


system. The students generated a
survey tool and worked with the Royal
Victoria Teaching Hospital in Banjul,
at the Brikama Clinic in Brikama, and
a small clinic in Kubuneh6a village in
south east Gambia6to gather data.
The data acquired through this
first survey will be supplemented
through continuing visits to the
Gambia by UF medical students, in
an effort to put together a report
than can be used by the Gambian
government and public health service
to evaluate their emergency treatment
system. The students who designed
the study (Janeen Alidina, Archna
Eniasivam, Komal Gandhi, Ryan
Gerrity, Menna Haider, Mariana
Khawand, and John Martino) will
continue to work with incoming
medical students and faculty to
continue the project.
More information on the AIM
for Africa Gambia initiative, including
some slides shows of these trips, can
be found at: http://www.arts.ufl.edu/
CAHRE/aimgambia.asp.


40 CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008











NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates:

Studying Ecology in Ghana


I really began to get excited when we all met in Gainesville for
the first time. Carmen had flown in from UC Fullerton, Angela
from James Madison University and Jon from the College
of the Atlantic. These were the students I would be working
with for the next six weeks on various research projects at the
University of Cape Coast in Ghana. We were all selected for the
highly competitive National Science Foundation's Research
Experience for Undergraduates through the University of
Florida, or UF-UCC REU for short. Although there are literally
dozens of NSF REUs to chose from, this particular program in
Ghana is tailored towards research in ecology, environmental
science and conservation biology. I was about to start my last
year in Environmental Engineering Sciences and was eager for
some international research experience.


We flew out in late May and arrived
in Accra to see our new home for
the next few weeks. We stayed in
the Sasakawa chalets, an on-campus
guesthouse with AC, refrigerator and
a hot water heater. On our second
day in Cape Coast we met our project
mentors, a team of professors in the
school of biological sciences who take
an REU student each year and help
them conceive and follow through
on a research topic of their interest.


I was assigned to a veteran professor
who had graduated from the same
department years ago and spent his
life researching aquatic ecology in the
area.
Carmen studied pollination
efficiency in the cocoa plant, a
project of direct application, as the
cocoa bean is one of Ghana's primary
exports. Jon studied egg-laying
behavior of a local butterfly, trying
to discern any preference in the plant


.. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . I


species that this butterfly lays eggs on. Angela
studied traditional medicine, interviewing local
herbalists and patients about common ailments
and their respective treatments. I studied algal
populations and associated epifauna ecology on a
nearby section of rocky shore.
Everyday, we woke up, ate breakfast, went to
the lab, met up for lunch and returned to the lab
before going back home to our humble chalets. On
the weekends we would go into town and browse
through the various markets, occasionally trying
to bargain with a merchant for some uniquely
Ghanaian product. On one occasion we made it to
Accra for a World Cup qualifier match, Ghana vs.
Gabon, that Ghana won 2-0. Throughout our stay
in Ghana we made wonderful friends who brought
us into their homes and offered their help with all
of our acclimating needs. They made us kenkey,
fufu, jolof rice and yams. In the end, we presented
our work to fellow students and professors and
said goodbye to all of the friends we had made
throughout campus. It was an extremely rewarding
experience that I will continue to benefit from for
years to come.
-Beniamin Lee Branoff


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008 41











IGERT Field Course:

Managing Water, Wetlands,

and Watersheds in Southern
A multidisciplinary team from the University of Florida's Integrative Graduate
Education, Research and Traineeship in Adaptive Management (IGERT-AM) spent
the summer of 2008 in Southern Africa participating in a field course designed
to examine adaptive management of water, wetlands and watersheds. The
course is part of a National Science Foundation (NSF) IGERT Program grant at
UF Designed as an integral part of the IGERT-AM program, each summer for the
past three years a new cohort of Ph.D. students has spent 6 weeks in southern
Africa studying the biophysical, social, legal and political issues involved in the
management of major watersheds in Botswana, South Africa, and Swaziland. This
year's team was composed often students, a post-doctoral fellow, three faculty,
and one staff member.


Africa


The course began in Durban, South
Africa, where the team met with students
and faculty from the University of
KwaZulu Natal to share experiences and
understandings of water management
issues in their respective areas. The
Florida team presented a synthesis of
the management issues of the Florida
Everglades, a system they had studied as
part of the summer field course prior to
traveling to Africa. Students and faculty
from UKZN presented an overview of
management issues and research related
to the St. Lucia estuary on the east cost of
South Africa. The UF team then traveled
from Durban to St. Lucia to further
examine the unique hydrological system
and its management issues.
Following the St. Lucia experience,
the team traveled to Swaziland and
explored the Lower Usuthua Smallholder
Irrigation Project, a poverty alleviation
initiative situated in the lowveld of
Swaziland. The dam project will
ultimately provide irrigation to over
11,000 hectares of land, transforming the
local economy from subsistence farming
into sustainable commercial agriculture.
The team visited the project site and
participated in round table discussions
with community leaders about capacity
building, farm managed institutions,
water management institutional
frameworks and participatory planning,
and monitoring/evaluation processes.
Next, the team traveled to Kruger
National Park where they participated
in several days of discussion sessions
with biologists, hydrologists, planners,
and managers concerning initiatives to
adaptively manage park resources. Kruger
has a very robust research program
with over 200 research projects spread


throughout its 2 million hectares of land
and across all spheres of its operation.
Important areas of research include
the role of fire (frequency, timing, and
intensity) in the Kruger ecosystem and
programs regarding elephant dynamics,
the most controversial ofwhich involves
testing contraception as a means of
controlling their population growth.
The Kruger system was an important
juxtaposition to the park system of
Botswana, visited next by the UF team.
The bulk of the overseas course
(about four weeks) was spent in and
around the Okavango Delta. The UF
team heard lectures from faculty at
the University of Botswana's Harry
Oppenheimer Okavango Research
Center (HOORC) in Maun and had
the opportunity to meet one-on-one
with HOORC scientists working in
their areas of interest. The UF team
traveled to multiple sites throughout the
Delta and its surrounding area, learning
the general ecology as well as details
about the unique geology, chemistry,
hydrology, and management of the
area. Of particular interest to the team
was meeting with members of a local
Community-Based Natural Resource
Management (CBNRM) project.
Students were able to see and hear first
hand how CBNRM projects function
and are impacting the well-being of these
communities. Students participated
in ongoing research efforts of UF and
HOORC joint projects through data
collection to assess the impact of elephant
damage, hydrologic data collection, and
ecological transects in the Delta to assess
characteristics of vegetative cover in
floodplains.
While objectives of the summer


included increasing students' understanding of the
factors affecting the management of various watersheds
as well as introducing students to basic physical and
ecological data collection, one of the overarching
goals was to create an interdisciplinary team through
which students are asked to perform and deliver as
a collective. Throughout the summer, students were
organized into teams and worked on assignments that
revolved around the science and management issues of
each of the watershed systems visited. Overall, a major
objective IGERT-AM program is to develop a sense
of camaraderie and respect for fellow students that
will ultimately enable each student to become skilled
in collaborative, cross- discipline, integrative science
that will inform management of complex systems. The
summer Africa field course is the first step in that process
for each cohort of students entering the program.

Participants:
Carol Binello, IGERTProgram Manager
Susanna Blair, G IGERTPh.D. Student
Mark Brown, Ph.D., Director of the Center for
Environmental Policy
Megan Brown, SNRE, IGERTPh.D. Student
Lisa Gardner, Water and Soil Sciences, IGERTPh.D.
Student
Robin Gl..1 .l., R. IGERTPh.D. Student
Hollie Hall, Water and SoilSciences, IGERTPh.D.
Student
Richard Hamann, JD, Assistant Director, Center for
Governmental Responsibility
Jillian Jensen, SNRE, IGERTPh.D. Student
Marie Kurz, G IGERTPh.D. Student
Dina Liebowitz, SNRE, IGERTPh.D. Student
Sarah McKune, SNRE, IGERTPh.D. Student
David Pfahler, EnvironmentalEngineering Sciences,
IGERTPh.D. Student
Sandra Russo, Ph.D., Director ofProgram Development,
International Center
Lynn Saunders, H T Odum Center for Wetlands,
Postdoctoral Research Associate


42 CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008











NSF International Research Experiences for

Students (IRES): Engineering Sustainable

Building Systems in East Africa
This is a 3-year program supported by an NSF award to Drs. Esther Obonyo and modern and recent residentialpr
Robert Ries in collaboration with University of Nairobi. It creates International es Salaam. His primary focus was
Research Experiences for Students (IRES) in the East Africa Region. The focus construction-engineering strategy
of the project is giving undergraduate and graduate students an opportunity be used to achieve thermal comfo
to acquire a global perspective on developing innovations that can make the use of mechanical condition
construction processes, products and services more sustainable using East Africa for thermal comfort.
as the deployment context. The first year of the project focused on selected sites Jessica Laushine focused on
from Dares Salaam, Tanzania. The students spent 9 weeks in Tanzania working a life cycle assessment of sand-cer
closely with East African professors. The motivation for the research was creating using selected case studies of con
a construction engineering education platform that would prime construction and residential construction fron
engineers for the challenges associated with globalization by improving Salaam and Bagamoyo. The scop
their understanding of contextual issues through international experiences, research was restricted to studying
facilitating problem-focused and team-based learning, and developing new extraction ofrawmaterials consi(
educational materials based on the student's research. time, transportation, labor, envir


Several students carried out research in five
different areas. Glenn Darling investigated
the use of clay-fired brick within the
Tanzanian context. His research focused on
assessing the use and availability of natural
resources used in the mix of brick as well as
the fuel sources for the firing process. He
also assessed the availability of the necessary
infrastructure or equipment to facilitate
construction, and perceptions and or stigmas
associated with brick construction. He
studied the linear manufacturing progression
of fired clay bricks from the first extraction
of the raw materials through to the mixing,
forming, drying, and firing. He also studied
the manufacturing of burned or fired clay
brick in small scale local production and
analyzed the potential for large scale factory
production of brick and the various efforts to
revitalize that industry once existed.
Iris Zielske and Andrew Wehle
investigated how technologies in low-
income housing areas are developed,
disseminated and used by various small-
scale contractors including how practical
physical sustainability knowledge in terms
of materials, construction styles, and
building design could be infused in the
work of small-scale builders. They assessed
the current level of knowledge and support
of engineering sustainable construction
systems within stakeholder groups (informal
construction labor), and how groups access
various housing resources, namely: finance;
land; building materials; technology; labor


and resources. The students identified key
players in the construction sector focusing
on their operations in the social marketplace.
The investigative tools used by the students
included literature reviews, library research,
on-site surveys of housing communities,
consultations with local university
researchers, interviews with members of
various government agencies, interviews
with administrators of participating local
NGO's and members of community based
organizations (CBO's). They also spoke
with various members of the housing
construction community such as architects,
quantity surveyors, urban planners and
construction laborers. The resulting social
network developed by the students defines
a knowledge map that can be used for the
dissemination of knowledge on sustainable
construction engineering practices.
Dereck Winning focused on identifying
and analyzing passive design strategies used
in openings to achieve thermal comfort.
He assessed this issue at multiple scales of
residences, which use a variety shading and
screening techniques and materials. He
also studied how the different buildings
exploited orientation, location of openings
and daylighting strategies to control thermal
gain. He developed a checklist for passive
design strategies for residential projects in
East Africa, which he used to compare and
contrast the passive design strategies used for
openings in traditional houses and historical
buildings in Bagamoyo, Tanzania, and


objects in Dar
identifying
ies that can
)rt without
ng systems

performing
nent blocks
imercial
n Dar es
e of her
g the
during cost,
onmental


impact, transportation and their location.
She also studied the production process,
which involved assessing things such as the
cost of materials, labor and fuel as well as the
efficiency of the forming and curing process.
For the construction phase, she investigated
the craftsmanship and quality control in
the use of sand-cement blocks. She also
considered the differences in approaches
to using blocks depending on the type of
construction. The final aspect of her analysis
was assessing the potential for extracting value
from the blocks used in Dar es Salaam during
the demolition phase.
Stephanie Sims analyzed the potential
for rainwater harvesting in Tanzania using
selected case studies from Dar es Salaam
and Bagamoyo. Her analysis included
considering the gaps in the supply of water
and the extent to which rainwater harvesting
can be used to meet this gap. She was
able to identify a number of case studies
for her study and assess the materials and
technologies used for rainwater harvesting
in the existing applications. She identified
some key challenges that would have to be
overcome before rainwater harvesting can
make a significant impact on the water supply
needs for the people in developing countries.
In addition to the technical challenges of
developing technologies that are affordable,
she also identified some social barriers that
have prevented the widespread adoption of
rainwater harvesting in Bagamoyo and Dar es
Salaam.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008 43












Selected Theses & Dissertations


on Africa Since 2000


Ajani, Timothy Temilola. Aspect in Yoruba
and Nigerian English. Linguistics
Ph.D.

Altman, Danielle. Feminist activism in post-
apartheid South Africa: the politics of
postnatal depression. Anthropology
M.A.

Anderson, Andrea Snyder. Smallholder
farmers in Malosa, Malawi: food
security and household composition.
Agricultural Education and
Communication M.S.

Apodaca, Christine K. Damselflies in
extreme environments: Distribution
and ecophysiology of Proishnura
subfurcatum. Zoology M.S.

Arthur, John W. Ceramic ethnoarchaeology
among the Gamo of southwestern
Ethiopia. Anthropology, Ph.D.

Balcomb, Sophia Robb. Patterns of seed
dispersal at a variety of scales in a
tropical forest system: do post-dispersal
processes disrupt patterns established
by frugivores? Zoology Ph.D.

Baird, Ann Brisbane. The sign of the
leopard: Leopard imagery in the
kingdoms of the Yoruba, the kingdom
of Benin, and the kingdom of
Dahomey. Art and Art History M.A.

Baird, Jaime. Looking at Ethiopia: history,
photography, and power. Art and Art
History M.A.

Barham, James G. Linking farmers to
markets assessing planned change
initiatives to improve the marketing
performance of smallholder farmer
groups in northern Tanzania.
Interdisciplinary Ecology Ph.D.

Barkey, Nanette Louise. Intracultural
variation in blood pressure in Beira,


Mozambique. Anthropology Ph.D.

Bostick, Welch McNair. Soil carbon
dynamics in West African cropping
systems. Agricultural and Biological
Engineering Ph.D.

Breeyen, Alana Den. Biological control
of Imperata cylindrica in West
Africa using fungal pathogens. Plant
Pathology Ph.D.

Brookman-Amissah, Mark. A GIS decision
support system for siting high voltage
electric transmission lines in Ghana,
West Africa. Civil and Coastal
Engineering M.S.

Bugarin, Flordeliz T. Trade and interaction
on the Eastern Cape frontier : an
historical archaeological study of the
Xhosa and the British during the early
nineteenth century. Anthropology
Ph.D.

Cassidy, Lin. Anthropogenic burning in the
Okavango panhandle of Botswana:
Livelihoods and spatial dimensions.
Interdisciplinary Ecology M.S.

Choudar, Lakhdar. Poetique du desert:
parcours narratifs dans l'oeuvre de Le
Clkzio et Malika Mokeddem. French
M.A.

Cohen, Leah A. J. The impact of illness on
livelihoods in rural western Kenya: The
influence of livelihood type, gender,
and seasonality. Geography M.S.

Cohen, MatthewJ. Systems evaluation
of erosion and erosion control in a
tropical watershed. Environmental
Engineering Sciences thesis, Ph.D.

Curtis, Matthew Chad. Archaeological
investigations in the greater Asmara
area: a regional approach in the central
highlands of Eritrea. Anthropology


Ph.D.

Davidheiser, Mark Frederick. The role of
culture in conflict mediation: Toubabs
and Gambians cannot be the same.
Anthropology Ph.D.

Davis, Kristin Elizabeth. Technology
dissemination among small-scale
farmers in Meru Central District of
Kenya: Impact of group participation.
Agricultural Education and
Communication Ph.D.

Donkor, Augustine Kwame. Biochemistry
of mercury in an impacted gold
mining tropical aquatic system: the Pra
River Basin in Southwestern Ghana.
Environmental Engineering Sciences
Ph. D.

Dorn, Nicholas Carlton. Mapping the
contours of imperium: an analysis
of geographical representation
in nineteenth-century European
exploration of Africa. History M.A.

Downs, Maxine. Microcredit and
empowerment among women cloth
dyers of Bamako, Mali. Anthropology
Ph.D.

Duncan, Robert Scot. Tropical forest
succession: integrating theory and
application in forest restoration.
Zoology Ph.D.

Dzotsi, Kofikuma Adzewoda. Comparison
of measured and simulated responses
of maize to phosphorus levels in
Ghana. Agricultural and Biological
Engineering M.S.

Edwards, Tahra. "Nao bate-me!" (Don't
beat me!): domestic violence in
Mozambique. Anthropology, M.A.

Efitre, Jackson. Life history variation in
tilapia populations within the crater


44 CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008










lakes of western Uganda the role of
size-selective predation. Zoology Ph.D.

El-Shall, Maryam Hassan. Modern
interpretations of gender in Naguib
Mahfouz's Cairo Trilogy. English M.A.

Evans, Meredith Morgan. Land use and prey
density changes in the Nakuru Wildlife
Conservancy, Kenya: Implications for
cheetah conservation. Interdisciplinary
Ecology M.S.

Feleke, Shiferaw Tesfaye. Determinants of
food security in southern Ethiopia
at the household level. Food and
Resource Economics M.S.

Fisher, Erich Christopher. A complex
systems theory of technological
change: a case study involving a
morphometrics analysis of Stone Age
Flake Debitage from the Horn of
Africa. Anthropology M.A.

Friday, Kevin S. "We only vote but do
not know" The social foundations
of partisanship in Ghana. Political
Science Ph.D.

Gates, James F The structural and cultural
construction of race in the handline
fishing industry on South Africa's
western Cape coast. Anthropology
Ph.D.

Gebre, Yntiso Deko. Population
displacement and food insecurity in
Ethiopia: resettlement, settlers, and
hosts. Anthropology Ph.D.

Grier, Christina E. Potential impact of
improved fallows on small farm
livelihoods, Eastern Province, Zambia.
Food and Resource Economics M.S.

Gough, Amy Elizabeth. The Starter Pack
Program in Malawi: implications for
household food security. Agricultural
Education and Communication M.S.

Gwata, Eastonce Tendayi. Inheritance of
promiscuous nodulation in soybean
[Glycine max (L.) Merrill] and the
evaluation of potential RAPD markers
for the trait. Agronomy Ph.D.

Hamilton, Jacqueline Marie.
Telecommunications reform in Africa


and the United States. Economics
Ph.D.

Harbison, Justin Eric. Development of a
practical technique for sampling the
afrotropical malaria vectors Anopheles
gambiae S.L. and An. funestus.
Entomology and Nematology M.S.

Hartter, Joel Nathan. Landscape change
around Kibale National Park, Uganda
impacts on land cover, land use, and
livelihoods. Geography Ph.D.

Haslerig, Janet Miliah. People and wildlife
conservation in Tanzania: three case
studies of shifting paradigms from the
colonial to independence eras. Wildlife
Ecology and Conservation Ph.D.

Hoon, Parakh. Between exchange and
reciprocity: the politics of wildlife
conservation in Botswana and
agricultural diversification in Zambia.
Political Science Ph.D.

Hundie, Girma. The emergence of
prehistoric pastoralism in Southern
Ethiopia.
Anthropology Ph.D.

Hussey, Robert Scott-Pailos. Construction
of the top of the egyptian pyramids: an
experimental test of a levering device.
Anthropology M.A.

Jin, Sungwon. The "Self-Reliance Strategy"
of the Imvepi Sudanese refugee
settlement in northern Uganda.
Anthropology M.A.

Jones-Nelson, Alice C. Castles in their
midst: world heritage sites in Ghana.
History M.A.

Kasozi, Gabriel Nuffield. Characterization
ofsorption and degradation of
pesticides in carbonatic and associated
soils from south Florida and Puerto
Rico, and oxisols from Uganda. Soil
and Water Sciences Ph.D.

Kaya, Bocary. Soil fertility regeneration
through improved fallow systems in
southern Mali. Forest Resources and
Conservation Ph.D.

Keifer, Dorion A. Last lumbar facet and
pedicle orientation in orthograde


primates. Anthropology M.A.

Kiel, Michelle Lea. Boundaries and
bureaucrats: higher education reform
in Madagascar. Anthropology M.A.

Kimura, Birgitta K. An archaeological
investigation into the history and
socio-political organization of Konso,
Southern Ethiopia. Anthropology
Ph.D.

Kis, Adam Daniel. Labor migration, gold
mining, and low HIV prevalence in
Guinea. Anthropology Ph.D.

Klein, Rebecca A. "We do not eat meat
with the Christians" Interaction and
integration between the Beta Israel
and Amhara Christians of Gonder,
Ethiopia. Anthropology Ph.D.

Koo, Jawoo. Estimating soil carbon
sequestration in Ghana. Agricultural
and Biological Engineering Ph.D.

Lau, Yoke Fong. A comparative analysis of
temperament-based learning styles of
United States of America, Singapore,
and Zimbabwe students. Educational
Psychology M.A.E.

Ledermann, Samuel Thomas. Agriculture,
GDP and inequality in sub-Saharan
Africa cross-country analysis of the
impact of agricultural production
and exports on income inequality by.
Geography M.A.

Leedy, Todd Holzgrefe. The soil of
salvation: African agriculture and
American methodism in colonial
Zimbabwe, 1939-1962. History Ph.D.

Lehmensiek, May. Evaluation of tourism
in the Okavango Delta in Botswana
using environmental accounting.
Environmental Engineering Sciences
M.S.

Leong, Kirsten Mya. The reproductive
context of low-frequency vocalizations
for a group of captive African elephants
(Loxodonta africana). Wildlife Ecology
and Conservation M.S.

Lepetu, Joyce Phonkga. Socio economic
impact and stakeholder preference
to conservation of forest reserves a


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008 45










case study of Kasane Forest Reserve,
Botswana. Forest Resources and
Conservation Ph.D.

Lepp, Andrew Paul. Tourism in a rural
Ugandan village: Impacts, local
meaning, and implications for
development. Health and Human
Performance Ph.D.

Leslie, Agnes George Ngoma. Social
movement and democracy in Africa:
The impact of women's struggle for
equal rights in Botswana. Political
Science Ph.D.

Lyons, Andrew. An Effective Monitoring
Framework for community based
natural resource management: a case
study of the ADM.A.DE program
in Zambia. Wildlife Ecology and
Conservation M.S.

Magembe, Lucy. Transformation of valley-
bottom cultivation and its effects
on Tanzanian wetlands a case study
of Ndembera wetland area in Iringa
region. Geography M.S.

Manganyi, Tirhani. Perceived group
cohesiveness among participants in
redistributed farms of Capricorn
District, Limpopo Province.
Agricultural Communication and
Education Ph.D.

Marcus, Richard Ryan. Cultivating
democracy on fragile grounds:
environmental institutions and non-
elite perceptions of democracy in
Madagascar and Uganda.
Political Science, Ph.D.

Marr, Stephen. Spaces ofAspiration,
Liberation and Exclusion: The
Politics of Urban Space in an African
Democracy. Political Science Ph.D.

Martin, Dana Che. A translation into
English of Amadou Kone's Traites sous
le pouvoir des Blakoros [Exploitation,
under the Blakoros' power]. Romance
Languages and Literatures Ph.D.

Martinez, Eugenia Soledad. Crossing
cultures Afro-Portuguese ivories of
fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Sierra
Leone. Art History M.A.


Masozera, Michel K. Socioeconomic impact
analysis of the conservation of the
Nyungwe Forest Reserve, Rwanda.
Forest Resources and Conservation
M.S.

Mbeh, George Ngong. Parents' responses
to children's illnesses : the case of
childhood diarrhea in the Bakoum
Area, Eastern Province, Cameroon.
Anthropology Ph.D.

M'Cormack, Fredline A. O. Whose
Democracy? NGOs and the
Democracy Project in Post-Conflict
Sierra Leone. Political Science Ph.D.

Meier, James Eric. "On the margins": the
emergence and growth of informal
settlements in the greater Cape Town
area, 1939-1960. History Ph.D.

Mero, Samantha Anne. Language diversity
in Guinea, West Africa. Linguistics
M.A.

Mijumbi, Peter B. The demand for food
staples in Uganda. Food and Resource
Economics Ph.D.

Moon, Mackenzie. Apt appropriation:
contemporary African artists'
utilization of canonical Western art.
Art History M.A.

Mousa, Waleed. Islam, democracy, and
governance: Sudan and Morocco in
a comparative perspective. Political
Science Ph.D.

Morgan-Brown, Theron. Butterfly farming
and conservation behavior in the East
Usambara Mountains of Tanzania.
Interdisciplinary Ecology M.S.

Mtenga, KibibyJabir. Comparative
analysis of strategies for linking
farmers to market discourse on gender
equity, community empowerment
and soil fertility management in
Malawi. Agricultural Education &
Communication Ph.D.

Mudhara, Maxwell. Assessing the
livelihood systems of smallholder farm
households: potential for adoption of
improved fallows and green manure
in Zimbabwe. Food and Resource
Economics Ph.D.


Mugisha, Arthur Rwabitetera. Evaluation
of community-based conservation
approaches: management of protected
areas in Uganda. Wildlife Ecology and
Conservation Ph.D.

Murphy, James Timothy. Networks, trust,
and innovation: the social dimensions
of entrepreneurship in Tanzania's
manufacturing sector. Geography
Ph.D.

Negash, Agazi. The Holocene prehistoric
archaeology of the Temben region,
northern Ethiopia. Anthropology
Ph.D.

Ngantchui, Evelyne. Topic structures in
Batoufam. Linguistics Ph.D.

Odubela, Tolulope Opeyemi.
Contextualized qualitative research in
Nigeria coercive isomorphic pressures
of the socioeconomic and political
environment on public relations
practices. Mass Communication M.A.

Ofunniyin, Ajani Ade. The Oogbo
Connection: transnational identities,
modernity and world view ofYoruba
Americans in Sheldon, South Carolina
and Alachua County, Florida.
Anthropology Ph.D.

Osborne, Todd Z. Fine particulate and
dissolved organic carbon export of a
tropical watershed in the Ugandan
Highlands. Environmental Engineering
Sciences M.S.

Owusu, Kwadwo. Analysis of rainfall
variability in sub-humid Ghana.
Geography M.S.

Paul, John R. Patterns of seed dispersal
by animals: influence of sapling
composition in a tropical forest.
Zoology M.S.

Pfeifer, Kimberly. Echoing silence and
narcissistic violence. Political Science
Ph.D.

Press, Robert M. Establishing a culture of
resistance: The struggle for human
rights and democracy in authoritarian
Kenya 1987-2002. Political Science
Ph.D.


46 CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008










Randle, April M. Respiratory behavior and
ecology of the African air-breathing
fish Ctenopoma muriei. Zoology M.S.

Richter, Heidi V. The foraging ecology of
fruit bats in the seasonal environment
of Central Zambia. Wildlife Ecology
and Conservation M.S.

Rodlach, Alexander. Blaming 'others' for
HIV/AIDS in an urban township
in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe: witchcraft
beliefs and conspiracy suspicions.
Anthropology Ph.D.

Rogers, Peter J. The political ecology
ofpastoralism, conservation, and
development in the Arusha region of
Northern Tanzania. Political Science
Ph.D.

Romatz, Rachel Maren. The interface of
jembe traditions: an American student
in West African tradition. Music M.M.

Savage, Amy Frances. Identity and
prevalence of blood parasites in
wild-caught birds from Madagascar.
Veterinary Medical Sciences M.S.

Schaack, Sarah. Functional morphology
and foraging ecology of the African
cyprinid, Barbus neumayeri:
implications for faunal diversification.
Zoology M.S.

Seifert, Ashley W. Respiratory allocation
and the resting rate of metabolism
in the African lungfish Protopterus
aethiopicus. Zoology M.S.

Solomon, Jennifer N. An evaluation of
collaborative resource management and
the measurement of illegal resource use
in a Ugandan national park. Wildlife
Ecolofy & Conservation Ph.D.

Soud, Fatma A. Medical pluralism and
utilization of maternity health care by
Muslim women in Mombasa, Kenya.
Anthropology Ph.D.

Stewart, Kearsley Alison. Socio-economic
determinants of HIV/AIDS in
adolescents in rural western Uganda.
Anthropology Ph.D.

Stickler, Claudia Margret. The effects
of logging on primate-habitat


interactions: A case study ofredtail
monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius)
in Kibale National Park, Uganda.
Interdisciplinary Ecology M.S.

Stubina, RodneyJ. Cameroonian safety
nets in the Korup National Forest.
Anthropology Ph.D.

Sugita, Eri Woods. Domestic water
use, hygiene behavior, and
children's diarrhea in rural Uganda.
Anthropology Ph.D.

Takimoto, Asako. Carbon sequestration
potential of agroforestry systems in
the West African Sahel an assessment
of biological and socioeconomic
feasibility. Forest Resources and
Conservation Ph.D.

Tangka, Florence. Crossbred cows and
food security in Ethiopia. Food and
Resource Economics Ph.D.

Thangata, Paulanco. The potential for
agroforestry adoption and carbon
sequestration in smallholder
agroecosystems of Malawi: an
ethnographic linear programming
approach. Interdisciplinary Ecology
Ph.D.

Thomson, Alfred William. Taxonomic
revision of the Amphilius uranoscopus
group of east-central Africa
(Teleostei:Amphiliidae). Zoology M.S.

Vonesh, James Richard. Sequential
predation in a complex life-history:
Interactions among egg, larval, and
post-metamorphic predators of the
East African Treefrog, Hyperolius
spinigularis. Zoology Ph.D.

Wanda, Fred Masifwa. Resurgence potential
of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes
(Mart.) solms) in Lake Victoria.
Environmental Engineering Sciences
Ph.D.

Ward, Carlton. Conservation Photography.
Interdisciplinary Ecology M.S.

Washington, Natalie A. Yoruba responses to
the Christian missionaries from 1840
to 1880. History M.A.


Weedman, Kathryn Jane. An
ethnoarchaeological study of stone
scrapers among the Gamo people of
southern Ethiopia. Anthropology
Ph.D.

White, Monica T. Speaking in our own
tongues: Language and conversations
between African based creative theory
and western based traditional theory
towards a theory of womanist dramatic
discourse. English M.A.

Willems, Roos. Embedding the refugee
experience: Forced migration and
social networks in Dar es Salaam,
Tanzania. Anthropology Ph.D.

Worman, Cedric O'Driscoll. Forest,
fragments, and fruit: Spatial and
temporal variation in habitat quality
for two species of frugivorous primates
(Cercopithecus mitis and Lophocebus
albigena) in Kibale National Park,
Uganda. Zoology M.S.

Yoder, Traci L.'Is use of cosmetics Anti-
Socialist?': gendered consumption and
the fashioning of urban womanhood in
Dares Salaam, Tanzania, 1975-1990.
Anthropology M.A.

Zanne, Amy Elise. Adaptations to
heterogenous habitats: Life-history
characters of trees and shrubs. Zoology
Ph.D.


CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008 47












Academic Year & Summer

FOREIGN LANGUAGE & AREA STUDIES (FLAS)

FELLOWSHIPS


The University of Florida's Center for African
Studies anticipates awarding Foreign Language
and Area Studies (FLAS) Fellowships for the
academic year.These fellowships are funded by
the U.S. Department of Education (USED) under
Title VI of the U.S. Higher Education Act and are
awarded to students combining graduate work
in any academic discipline with African area and
language studies.
Fellowships are offered for any one of the
regularly taught languages (Akan, Amharic,
Arabic, Swahili, Wolof, Xhosa, and Yoruba)
as well as for other African languages for which
instruction can be arranged.


Fellowships provide a stipend of $15,000
per academic year and cover the cost of tuition
and fees (12 credits per semester). Applicants
must be a citizen or permanent resident of the
United States and be admitted to a graduate
program at the University of Florida.
Summer fellowships provide students
with an opportunity to undertake intensive
African language study in any USED approved
program including the Summer Cooperative
African Language Institute (SCALI). Summer
fellowships cover tuition at the host institution
and provide a stipend of $2,500.


For more information, including application deadlines, please visit www.africa.ufl.edu/fellowships.










The Center would like to thank
Dr. Brenda Chalfin for coordinating this project, the
students and faculty who contributed reports and
photographs, and Jane Dominguez for her design and
layout of this booklet.

48 CENTER FOR AFRICAN STUDIES GRADUATE RESEARCH 2008














































































PO0ox1156
Gaiesill, lorda3261-56




Full Text

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Center for African StudiesGraduate Student Research2008 Center for African Studies427 Grinter Hall PO Box 115560 Gainesville, Florida 32611-5560 352-392-2183 352-392-2435 (FAX) www.africa.ufl.edu

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C A S G R 2008\011 1 Table of ContentsFROM THE DIRECTOR. ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2 GRAdD UATE STUdD Y OfF Af AF RICA AT THE U U NIVER sS ITY OfF FLORIdD A ..................................................................................... 3 STU dD ENT R R EPORT s S Anna Cathey. .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4 Sarah Cervone. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5 Jean-Gael Collomb. ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6 Stephen R. Davis. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7 John Landon Denkler. .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8 Kenly Greer Fenio. ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9 Jordan A. Fenton. ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10 Timothy Fullman. ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11 Ramon Galianes. ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12 Juanita Garcia-Saqui. ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 13 Andrea Gaughan. ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 Cerian Gibbes. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 15 Rachel Harvey. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 16 Cara Hauck. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 17 Claudia Hoffmann. .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 18 Abdourahmane Idrissa. ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 19 Yang Jiao. ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 20 Bothepha Kgabung. ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 21 Joseph Kraus. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 22 Ashley Leinweber. ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 23 Steven Lichty. .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 24 Betty Lininger. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 25 Courtnay Micots. ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 26 Patricia Mupeta. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 27 Levy Odera. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 28 Ann Lee Grimstad Omondi. .................................................................................................................................................................................... 29 Winifred Pankani. ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 30 Gregory Parent. ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 31 Torrey Peace. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 32 Luke Rostant. .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 33 Amy Schwartzott. ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 34 Noelle Sullivan. ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 35 Ann Wainscott. ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 36 Christopher Witulski. ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 37 Deborah Wojcik. ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 38 CC OLLABORATIVE P P ROJECTs S UF Law Summer Program in Cape Town, South Africa. .................................................................................................................................................... 39 AIM For Africa: Medicine, Arts and Health Care in Gambia .......................................................................................................................................... 40 NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates: Studying Ecology in Ghana. ................................................................................................................ 41 NSF IGERT Field Course: Water, Wetlands, and Watersheds in Southern Africa ...................................................................................................... 42 NSF International Research Experiences for Students: Engineering Sustainable Building Systems in East Africa. ............................................... 43 RR ECENT T T HE sS E sS ANdD DIssSS ERTATIONsS ON Af AF RICA. ...................................................................................................................... 44 AA CAd D EMIC Y Y EAR & SUMMER FOREIg G N L L ANg G UAg G E & A A REA STUd D IEs S FELLOWs S HIPs S ............................... 48

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2 \011 C A S G R 2008 At the beginning of each fall semester, the Center for African Studies at the University of Florida buzzes with greetings and story-swapping among colleagues and graduate students who have spent much of the summer carrying out research in Africaa sort of impromptu kgotla or a baraza on the fourth floor of Grinter Hall. \011 Struck by the diversity of topics, geographic sites, and disciplinary perspectives of the work being carried out by UF graduate students in Africa, it occurred to us that this was something worth celebrating. We are proud of the wealth of knowledge about the continent that our students are helping to create, and of the training and mentorship they are receiving from the Africanist faculty across the university. \011 This brochure highlights some of the research being carried out by UF graduate students in 2008. It includes accounts of work from a broad array of disciplinary and theoretical perspectives, and in all regions of the continent. While the short descriptions cannot always do justice to the richness of the work, we trust that taken as a group they help support our claim that UF is a premier institution for the study of Africa.\011 For more information about African Studies at UF, and about the faculty resources and the working groups that make this all possible, visit our website at www.africa.ufl.edu, or contact us at the addresses you will find on the final page. Leonardo A. Villaln Director, Center for African Studies From the Director

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C A S G R 2008\011 3 GRAdD UATE R R E sS EARCH A A WARdsDS The Center helps support graduate student travel to conferences for presenting their research, and holds an annual competition for graduate student summer travel awards, which are intended to help provide support for students doing pre-dissertation fieldwork in Africa. The Center is also able to support a limited number of graduate assistants for work with Center initiatives, including the African Studies Quarterly. The Center for African Studies at the University of Florida OO NE OfF THE NATIONs S PREMIER INsS TITUTION sS f F OR THE g G RAdD UATE s S TU dD Y OfF Af AF RICAThe University of Florida is the states oldest, largest and most comprehensive university, and among the nations most academically diverse public universities. It is one of only 17 landgrant universities that belong to the prestigious Association of American Universities. UF has a long history of established programs in international education, research and service.\011 Founded in 1965, the Center for African Studies at UF has been continuously designated a U.S. Department of Education Title VI National Resource Center for Africa for over two decades. It is currently one of only eleven such centers nationally, and the only Africa NRC located in a sub-tropical zone. Title VI funding to CAS supports research, teaching, outreach, and the development of international linkages in Africa.\011 The Center has over 100 affiliated teaching and research faculty in all of the core disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, as well as in agriculture, business, engineering, education, fine arts, natural resources and environment, journalism and mass communications, law, tourism, and natural sciences. Graduate study on African issues may be pursued in any of these fields. Center faculty maintain active ties with universities across the African continent, including institutions in Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda. \011 The Centers innovative and influential on-line journal, the African Studies Quarterly, is the first fully peerreviewed electronic journal devoted to the field. ASQ plays an important and largely unique role in facilitating the publication of research on and from Africa, and offers invaluable professional training for UF graduate students who serve on its editorial board.GRAdD UATE STUdD Y OfF Af AF RICA AT U U F Graduate study with a focus on Africa can be carried out in virtually every graduate or professional program across the university. Prospective students are encouraged to consult the websites of the individual programs for admissions procedures and criteria. Students in any graduate program at UF have the option of pursuing a Graduate Certificate in African Studies. We also encourage them to consult the Center website and to contact us when they submit their applications.\011 Complementing formal coursework, a regular and dynamic series of lectures, conferences and other activities open to all interested graduate students provide rich opportunities for interdisciplinary exchange and discussion about Africa. Most significantly, a number of dynamic CAS-sponsored interdisciplinary working groups organize speakers and events that bring together faculty and graduate students with shared interests, providing students with unique opportunities for research and professional development. Among the active groups are those in: African Natural Resource Management; Cultural Heritage Management in Africa; Governance and the African State; Dynamics of Muslim Societies in Africa; African Urban Languages; Health and Society in Africa; African Material Cultures; and the Development Studies Reading Group.FOREI gG N L L AN gG UAg G E ANdD A A REA STUdD IE sS FELLOWs S HIP sS Prestigious FLAS fellowships are offered by the Center for African Studies, with funds provided by the US Department of Education through Title VI of the Higher Education Act. FLAS fellows combine the study of an African language with African area studies in any discipline. Students admitted to any graduate program at the University of Florida are eligible for these fellowships. Language instruction is regularly available in the following languages: Akan, Amharic, Arabic, Swahili, Wolof, Xhosa, and Yoruba. Other language instruction may be arranged on demand.\011 Summer FLAS fellowships for intensive language study are also available. For more information and application procedures and deadlines for both academic year and summer awards, please visit www.africa.ufl.edu.

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4 \011 C A S G R 2008 Student Reports Uncertainty Analysis for Strategic Monitoring in Complex Transboundary Ecological SystemsAA NNA C C ATHEY The Okavango Basin is a large transboundary watershed located in southern Africa that is shared between three countries: Angola, Namibia, and Botswana. River flow in the basin originates in the Angolan headwaters, then continues through a sliver of land in arid Namibia, and finally empties into the Okavango Delta, located in Botswana. This water never finds the sea but instead spreads out over the flat alluvial fan that is the Okavango Delta and is evaporated on the border of the Kalahari dessert. The Okavango Basin is one of the most pristine watersheds in southern Africa.\011 The transboundary nature of the basin complicates the management of the resource. This work involves a study within the framework of the adaptive management of complex transboundary hydrologic systems to identify gaps in knowledge that are important for the management of the system and then communicate this uncertainty through a participatory process. We believe that this technique will encourage management to develop strategic monitoring plans to decrease the uncertainty in the system. First, we will conduct an uncertainty analysis on the hydrologic models in the Okavango system. Second, we will involve participants throughout this process to communicate these issues of uncertainty. We have partnerships with both scientists at the University of Botswana and with managers in the Okavango system that will facilitate these participant interactions. Finally, we will evaluate the success of the study by tracking perceptions about acknowledging uncertainty among managers and behavioral intent to develop strategic monitoring programs that decrease gaps in knowledge.\011 The work will produce both immediate impacts for the Okavango Basin as well as broadly applicable knowledge in the fields of uncertainty analysis and adaptive management. Theoretically adaptive management is an attractive concept. However, operationally a great deal of apprehension persists about acknowledging the uncertainty that adaptive management embraces. This research involves the development and testing of a conceptual design that couples uncertainty analysis with a participatory process to both strategically close gaps in knowledge and promote the acceptance of uncertainty within management. The outcome of this research may extend beyond the Okavango Basin to provide a theoretically persuasive and operationally functional method for incorporating uncertainty analysis into an adaptive decision framework. Anna Cathey is a doctoral student in the Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering. She received funding from the NSFfunded Adaptive Management: Wise Use of Waters, Wetlands, and Watersheds (AM-W3) IGERT program.

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C A S G R 2008\011 5 While living in a mud and stone structure at nearly 2000 meters in altitude, I conducted 16 months of dissertation research with the Ait Mizane Amazighe (Berber) community in the village of Aremd in the High Atlas Mountains in Toubkal National Park, Morocco. Aremd has recently become a boom town due to state-motivated tourism development policies that aim to alleviate poverty in rural communities and reduce pressure on natural resources. My dissertation in Anthropology examines the communitys transition from a primarily agricultural subsistence economy to a predominantly cash and capital based tourism market economy. I assess how the global tourism economy articulates with non-tourism production strategies and previous socio-economic arrangements. My ultimate goal is to determine how specialization in a single tourism-based production strategy affects community resilience and vulnerability to disaster, whether natural or artificial. Rural Communities and Tourism Development in Toubkal National Park, MoroccoSARAH C C ERVONE \011 Since participant-observation is the hallmark of cultural anthropology, I spent many days joining the women in agricultural and domestic chores. Within a short while I learned to cut barley with a scythe, gather and deflesh walnuts, and haul fodder on my back, leaving my hands blistered and calloused. However,\240 a good deal of my time was spent in the kitchen, clutching a glass of Moroccan tea, or atay and dipping a piece of bread into a tajine while talking with household members about their life in Morocco and my life in America. To penetrate the world of men and tourists in the nearby market place, I used a notebook and a pen to conduct interviews and collect data. \011 My research experience helped me to develop a better understanding of the complexities involved with tourism development in rural communities in Morocco. Most tourism development policies rest on the expectation that increased cash and capital will elevate the standard of living and improve the quality of life for residents by increasing the availability of goods and services to residents. In Aremd however,\240 tourism development\240 is \240 informed by pre-existing social and economic arrangements that are\240 rooted in demographic variables such as age and gender. Such arrangements affect the flow of goods and services, and may limit or enhance a residents\240 ability to participate and benefit from tourism development. My research found that in some ways, tourism development created, exacerbated and rearranged social inequalities in the mountain community. Therefore, within a single community, tourism policies may succeed for some and fail for others. \011 This research project would not have been possible without the Tachelhit language training I received as a U.S. Fulbright Fellow in 2007, as well as the Arabic language training I received at the University of Florida and the Arabic Language Institute in Fez (supported by the Center of African Studies) in 20052007 and at the American Institute for Maghrib Studies Arabic Language Program in Tangier in 2006.Sarah Cervone is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Anthropology. Her research was made possible by a Fulbright Fellowship in 2007 and a Polly and Paul Doughty Fellowship Summer 2007. She was a Center for African Studies FLAS fellow for the study of Arabic during Summer 2005, as well as Academic Year 2005-06 and 2006-07.

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6 \011 C A S G R 2008 We liked what you did because you are giving us information. And you gave us lifts, a local chief from Ngonga village told me. What he meant was that after conducting research there for 6 months, I did not just leave without a trace after getting the data: I organized sessions with villagers to present preliminary results. It seems simple and obvious, but sadly happens much less often than it should. And the second part of his statement? Well, I had a car to do my research and when I had free space, I would give rides to people. It was the least I could do to start giving something back to the communities, and still seemed insufficient. However, Ive seen many cars simply zoom by leaving sand clouds behind. So, my little contribution was very much appreciated. It was good to hear that because, at times, I get frustrated being just a Ph.D. researcher witnessing the challenges of life in the Caprivi. Indeed, thats part of my research focus. Tourisms Impact on Human Wellbeing in Caprivi (Namibia)JJ EANGAEL C C OLLOMB measured, but limited indicators, such as income or employment. I wanted to consider the issue more holistically. Following focus group discussions and a pilot survey in 2007, I designed a study focused on human wellbeing to capture multidimensional socioeconomic impacts. It provides a more accurate, albeit complex, representation of how tourism impacts peoples lives. With the help of local research assistants, I conducted 468 interviews in 5 communal areas between March and July 2008. Preliminary results suggest that while tourism may improve the wellbeing of individuals directly involved in the industry, community-wide impacts seem fairly limited. However, it is possible that differences exist between real and perceived impacts. Tourism is unlikely to be the silver bullet to reduce poverty in the region, but it does have a role to play. After completing the data analysis, I hope to return to Namibia to share final results with the communities, NGOs and government agencies in order to strengthen tourisms contribution to local people.Jean-Gael Collomb is a doctoral candidate in the School of Natural Resources and the Environment. His research was supported by NSF, the University of Florida (SNRE, the Center for African Studies, the Tropical Conservation and Development, the Working Forests in the Tropics and the Adaptive Management: Wise Use of Water, Wetlands and Watersheds programs), WWF-LIFE, Integrated Rural Development and Conservation, and the Namibian Ministry of Environment and Tourism. \011 I am trying to understand how nature-based tourism impacts the wellbeing of local residents living around national parks in the Caprivi province of Namibia. Namibia gained its independence in 1990, and is home to 2 million people unevenly distributed over the countrys 824,000 km2 (almost 6 times the size of Florida). It has abundant mineral resources but a harsh climate, which represents a challenge for people living from the land. This has contributed to extreme income disparity, and most rural people struggle to make a living. In the mid-1990s, communities were granted rights to benefit from wildlife within communal lands. Improving the lives of rural people entails finding a balance between use and conservation of natural resources. Such strategies often incorporate tourism activities to spur local economic development, because tourism success depends on intact natural resources. However, does tourism actually improve local residents lives?\011 Most assessments of tourism impacts rely on relatively easily

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C A S G R 2008\011 7 Daily Life in the Exile Camps of the African National Congress (South Africa)STEPHEN R R DAVIsS I spent the past year in Cape Town on an IIE Fulbright Fellowship where I conducted oral histories of members of Umkhonto we Sizwe; the former armed wing of the African National Congress. This research will form the basis of my dissertation, Cosmopolitanism in Close Quarters; Everyday Life in the Exile Camps of the African National Congress. My research is primarily concerned with reconstructing the habitus of ex-combatants over a thirty year period, roughly from 1961 to 1989. \011 During this time, the African National Congress reconstituted itself as an exiled political party while it directed the armed struggle against apartheid. This effort included opening training camps in a number of southern African countries, recruiting youths leaving South Africa, and then infiltrating trained combatants into South Africa. As consequence of exile, many of these combatants also saw combat in conflicts in Angola, Zimbabwe and Mozambique.\011 Over the last twelve months, I located several ex-combatants and recorded their myriad experiences in a series of extended interviews. Interviewees discussed topics as diverse as training and combat, food and eating, discipline and indiscipline, and theatrical performance and athletics in the camps. In addition, many interviewees contributed their perspectives on the multiple wars that plagued southern Africa during this period. These interviews, combined with newly released archival holdings, present episodes in the liberation struggle not often seen in more celebratory accounts.\011 My research attempts to achieve two related goals. First, I will structure this material along the lines of new military histories, which place a greater emphasis on the social dimensions of soldiering and warfare. Beneath the surface trappings of hierarchy, discipline and uniformity lies a lively field of social relations in constant flux. A major concern of this project is explaining these relations within the context of conflicts in southern Africa over the latter half of the twentieth century. Second, I hope that a detailed historical rendering of the memories of ex-combatants will contribute fresh perspectives on the liberation struggle. The vast literature on the struggle against apartheid shares two unifying characteristics, one, it is largely a history derived from the autobiographies of prominent figures, two, it is fixated on over-determined narratives that marginalize more unwieldy accounts.\011 While in South Africa, I debuted portions of this research at a colloquium entitled Radio and Its Publics, held at the Witwatersrand Institute for Social and Economic Research, and at meeting of the Human Sciences Research Council. Both presentations proved to be highly enriching experiences. I had the opportunity of presenting new research to a learned audience of South African scholars, while in the process gaining many valuable insights and critiques.Stephen Davis is a doctoral candidate in the Department of History.

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8 \011 C A S G R 2008 This summer I travelled to Botswana in Southern Africa to conduct anthropological research among the Basubiya (Vekuhane) people and a development project that has been ongoing since the early 1990s. The Basubiya occupy northern Botswana along the Chobe river and Namibian Caprivi Strip. They are members of a group of villages known as the Chobe Enclave. The Chobe Enclave is composed of five villages spread out along a pot-holed and dusty dirt road that stretches south through the territory of Savuti on its way to Maun and the Okavango Delta. The Enclave villages, traveling north to south, include Mabele, Kavimba, Kachikau, Satau, and Parakarungu. The project itself falls under a development paradigm known as CommunityBased Natural Resource Management (CBNRM). Development Difficulties among the Basubiya: Community-Based Natural Resource ManagementJJ OHN L L AN dD ON DENKLL ER \011 The residents of the Chobe Enclave live near the Chobe National Park (Botswanas largest) in an area that includes impressive populations of elephants, hippos, lions, hyenas, and crocodiles among other wildlife. The effects of this living arrangement have many repercussions, including the loss of crops and livestock. Because of risks that have accumulated from living near this wild environment, poaching and poverty became significant issues within the Enclave villages. The idea of CBNRM was to resolve this problem of opposing forces by granting the local communities a measure of control over the wildlife populations nearest them. This control is achieved through the allotment of hunting quotas provided by Botswanas Department of Wildlife and National Parks. The authority over these hunting quotas is devolved to a trust committee that represents all five villages. The Chobe Enclave Conservation Trust (CECT) is made up of officers and voting members from all five villages. Their headquarters are located in the village of Kavimba, and CECT is responsible for negotiating the sale of this hunting quota to a nearby commercial safari operator. The funds are then distributed among the five villages, each with its own village trust committee. \011 After traveling around the region with Professor Brian Childs research team of UF students and young African professionals, I settled in the village of Kavimba because of its status as the headquarters of CECT. Kavimba is a village of about six hundred inhabitants nestled into the sloping side of the Botswana plateau as it descends into the Chobe River valley that stretches out for miles into the Namibian wetland. In Kavimba, I rented living quarters from Dickson Sinka, the uncle of Lucksom Masule, who is the Basubiya historian. Much of my time was spent working with Masule, making contacts and learning the history of the Basubiya. \011 My methods included informal interviews and participant observation. From my findings, it appears that CBNRM in the area is struggling. The hunting quotas bring in profits, but much is spent on administration and projects that are not self-sustaining, such as a hut they transformed into a public internet booth through the use of a satellite dish. Projects such as this do not cover their own expenses and require continued funding from future quota profits. From my interviews, I discovered that what people want the most is better education for their children and more opportunities. There is a plan in the works for a partnership with a lodge operator to co-finance another lodge, which could provide more opportunities for the youth of the villages. This could take years to develop, however, and it is uncertain how much success it might sustain. These challenges make CBNRM an unpredictable development program in the Chobe Enclave, even though it has seen some of the greatest success in the country. Further research is needed to fully understand the complexities of the socio-political structure within the development program and its connections with the DWNP before suggestions can be made to improve the success of the program. John Landon Denkler is a masters student in the Department of Anthropology.

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C A S G R 2008\011 9 I spent the year (2007) in Mozambique working on my dissertation research titled Between Bedrooms And Ballots: The Politics of HIVs Economy of Infection In Mozambique. Working from six research sites throughout the country, I collaborated with a number of HIV based and human rights based civil society associations to determine (via focus groups, interviews and 350 surveys) how volunteers are bringing what has traditionally been a private topic into the public and political realms in a relatively new, yet aid dependent, African democracy. The research was conducted with fellowship funding from Rotary International under the in-country project title of Conhecimento Alimentao (Knowledge is Food), a community project designed to offer association members two kilos of food in exchange for information, thus highlighting trade rather than aid in this impoverished country. Political Institutions and HIV/AIDS Associations in MozambiqueKK ENLY GREER FENIO \011 My research has found that members are more likely than non-members (those who are not volunteers of any HIV or human rights associations) to: have better relationships at home, discuss political topics, and engage in civic activities (such as debates, political meetings, letter writing, etc). I also found that volunteers are using theatre in the public arena to change community institutions and that associations have members from different ethnic, religious and political groups (thus illustrating cross cutting ties of a civic nature). Yet many of the associations have been co-opted by government through their corporatist reliance on the National AIDS Council for funding, which restricts their freedom to critique governments handling of the disease. My research illustrates how new space for citizenship is opening up, albeit slowly, particularly for women who often struggle under the weight of informal patriarchal institutions in the country.\011 In 2008, I returned to Mozambique to work on a Democratic Linkages project with Duke University whereby I conducted surveys with 20 journalists, academics, and others in the fields of electoral politics and democracy. While in Maputo, I presented The Politics of Theatre for Development (TFD) in Combating HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa at the SACHES conference on Education and Regional Development in Southern Africa (to be published later this year in a book of conference proceedings). These were funded by Duke University and travel grants from UFs College of Liberal Arts and Sciences (CLAS) and the Department of Political Science. In addition, I wrote and distributed to several Mozambican organizations five research reports in 2008 based on my dissertation research.Kenly Greer Fenio is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Political Science. She is currently teaching at Virginia Tech and serving as a consultant on Africa and Mozambique for several projects.

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10 \011 C A S G R 2008 As a summer FLAS recipient, I had the privilege of traveling to Calabar, the capital of the Cross River State of Nigeria in order to study the Ejagham language. The experience exceeded my expectations as I developed conversational skills, and acceptance among Qua (an Ejagham sub-group) communities. With the language training, I was able to communicateusing Ejaghammy interest in learning about their culture and art. In showing my enthusiasm to learn about Qua culture, and as a result of chiefs and elders becoming interested in my research on masquerade, they initiated me into their Mgbe society, historically known as the leopard secret society. The opportunity granted me a firm foundational understanding to Qua masquerade. Qua Masquerade in Calabar, Nigeria JJ OR dD AN A A FENTON processes of change and adaptability of visual culture by interpreting the visual, ideological, and functional transformations reflected in Qua masquerade. Jordan Fenton is a doctoral student in the School of Art and Art History. He received a summer 2008 Center for African Studies FLAS fellowship to study Ejagham. \011 In the urban city of Calabar, the Qua face problems of cultural preservation due to historical and contemporary circumstances. Colonization and the slave and palm oil trades has greatly impacted the peoples of Calabar, especially the Qua, who have recently become mindful of the problem of preserving their cultural identity. Qua cultural identity is embedded in visual expression, chiefly their culture is rooted in masquerade. My research explores how the Qua use masquerade in an effort to redefine and preserve their cultural identity as the postcolonial landscape of Calabar has challenged such safeguarding. My initial findings have led me to pursue research on contemporary Qua masquerade societies and examine the social workings of masquerade in urban settings. This research will move towards an historical construction to Qua masquerade. To this end, my research will investigate the

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C A S G R 2008\011 11 This summer I spent about three months in Botswana conducting research inside Chobe National Park in the northeast corner of the county. The project consisted of two main components, one looking at vegetation status and the other wildlife distribution. The bulk of the project focused on spatial dynamics of elephant impact on trees. Elephants are known to exert a great influence on trees, breaking branches while foraging and sometimes stripping bark off the trees in a process known as ringbarking. Some trees are completely knocked over. I looked at patterns of elephant use correlated with distance from the Chobe River, the permanent water source in the area. Previous studies have demonstrated high levels of elephant use around the river, tapering off as one heads further inland. These studies all stop, however, about 9km into the park. I wanted to go much farther than this to see if elephants were drinking and foraging around the river and then moving inland to feed. This might result in two peaks in tree damage, with important ramifications for ecosystem stability. Spatial Dynamics of Elephant Impact on Trees in Chobe National Park, BotswanaTT IMOTHY FULLMAN \011 Working with two other UF students, as well as individuals from the Botswana Department of Wildlife and National Parks and the University of Botswana, I completed vegetation transects stretching from the Chobe River to the southern border of the park. Thirty-four transects were systematically conducted every 2.5km along a dirt road that runs roughly north-south through the park. Trees within a certain area were identified to species and spatially located using a GPS unit. We then assessed their current health and damage from elephants and fire. I am currently analyzing this data in preparation for presentations and publication Spring 2009. \011 The other part of the project looked at how wildlife use the landscape around the Chobe River. It was primarily preliminary work to test out methods that may be used in future studies. Roads along the riverfront were driven following routes used in previous ecological studies. Large mammals were identified, counted, and spatially located using a GPS unit, a laser rangefinder, and a compass. This information, when combined with remote sensing data being utilized by other graduate students in our research group, will be used to create a predictive habitat map for dry season riverfront use by mammals. This information will be paired with our groups remote sensing work to show how predicted changes in the environment around Chobe National Park may influence the wildlife species that live there.\011 This summer also helped to prepare me for my future work and provided incredible networking opportunities. I met with the leaders of Elephants Without Borders, a group that collars and tracks elephants as they move between countries in southern Africa. They hope to use information about elephant movements to stimulate the development of transfrontier conservation areas that will protect elephants, as well as other wildlife, and provide places for them to disperse to reduce pressure on overburdened areas such as Chobe National Park. They have offered to work with our team, offering their data on elephant movements and we are currently discussing how we can collaborate to publish papers about elephant movements both within and outside of protected areas of southern Africa.Timothy Fullman is a masters student in Interdisciplinary Ecology in the School of Natural Resources and Environment. He holds an academic year CAS FLAS fellowship (2008-09) and was also a recipient in 2007-08. He received support for his summer work from an Africa Seed Grant (Cleveland Metroparks Zoo), a UF Tropical Conservation and Development Field Research Grant, and an IDEA WILD grant.

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12 \011 C A S G R 2008 After several failed attempts to reach a peace settlement, Angolan political elites and non-state combatants negotiated a fragile ceasefire in 2002. This elusive peace and transition from civil war draws attention to a perplexing puzzle: (1) When do powerful political actors sit at the bargaining table to negotiate a peace settlement in a divided society? And (2) why are some divided societies able to establish a successful and durable democratic pact as a resolution to civil strife while others are not? I started to investigate this puzzle by conducting pre-dissertation fieldwork in Angola this past summer. The Angolan civil war remains largely understudied in the field of political science and it is an important case study to understand successful peace settlements in divided societies. An Elusive Peace: State Building and Reconstruction in Angola RR AMON GALIANEsS \011 Previous studies on successful peace settlements in divided societies have largely focused on the importance of: (1) the costs of war; (2) the balance of power; (3) the divisibility of stakes; (4) the establishment of power-sharing institutions; (5) the salience of ethnic identity; and (6) the role of mediation. As a way of testing these competing theories of successful/unsuccessful peace settlements, I conducted interviews in the Angolan cities of Luanda and Huambo. \011 In Luanda and Huambo, I was able to conduct interviews in Portuguese with former UNITA (Unio Nacional para a Independncia Total de Angola) combatants and FAPLA (Foras Armadas Populares de Libertao de Angola) military officers that had participated in combat during the civil war. I attempted to include a range of different ranking military officers and combatants including, colonels, majors, and foot soldiers who had participated in the civil war. The interviews were used as a pilot study and as a way to collect data on the motivations for participating in the civil conflict as well as the perceptions that excombatants and military officers had of the transition period (including the role of mediation and elections). What was most interesting about these interviews was the different perceptions of the civil war and transition period according to the level of military rank and place of origin. I will be presenting my preliminary findings during the SASA lunch (sponsored by the Center for African Studies) in December. \011 Besides gathering preliminary data on the perceptions of the civil war and the motivations for fighting, conducting field research in Angola this summer was a great opportunity to refine my research methods and Im excited to return to Angola next year during their presidential elections to conduct my dissertation field research. Ramon Galianes is a doctoral student in the Department of Political Science. He was a Center for African Studies FLAS fellow in 2006-07 and 2007-08. His summer 2008 research was supported by a CAS pre-dissertation travel award.

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C A S G R 2008\011 13 Community-based natural resources management programs (CBNRM), their benefits and influence in conservation attitudes, needs further study. Positive attitudes towards community based programs have been correlated to favorable attitudes towards conservation which are also correlated with good livelihood. However, some studies also show that local attitudes can be negative towards conservation, wildlife and the national parks. Here I present and comment on the findings of a study carried out in three villages in 2007 which make up the Wuparo Conservancy, as well as the preliminary results of the summer 2008 field season in Northern Botswana. Are Livelihood Security and Attitudes Towards Wildlife, the National Park and the Conservancy/CBNRM Interlinked? JJ UANITA GARCIASAQUI\011 The objective of this study was to evaluate attitudes towards wildlife conservation, the national park and the conservancy after an intervention such as the establishment of a CBNRM program in the Wuparo Community in the Caprivi Strip, Namibia, and in Sankuyo, Mababe, Khwai and villages of the Okavango Community Trust (OCT) in Botswana. A proportionateto-size sample households was randomly selected and interviewed using a semistructured questionnaire in each village within the conservancy boundaries. \011 Results indicate that in Wuparo household income is predominantly from cash crops (55%), followed by a variety of natural resources collected and sold (20%). It was noted that a significant portion of household expenses go to food (43%). However, households appear to spend little on education (4%) and health (2%), relative to electronic purchases (17%). The study also showed respondents satisfaction with the conservancy or CBNRM. A large percentage (78%) of the sample reported being either happy or very happy with the conservancy. A similar percentage was seen regarding livelihood improvement and trust towards the conservancy. Finally, the study also documented peoples attitude towards wildlife and the Mamilli National Park. Most people were neutral about the park (51%), but among the remaining 49%, the vast majority had either positive or very positive attitudes towards the national park. Peoples attitudes towards wildlife were also found to be positive (56%). \011 In Sankuyo, household income is predominantly from wage employment with the CBNRM. 75% of the respondents had one member of their household employed in the CBNRM, while 12 % had two members employed by the CBNRM. Respondents satisfaction with the CBNRM was found to be very positive. 98% of the respondents reported being either very happy or happy with the CBNRM while 2% were unsatisfied because they felt discriminated upon. Attitudes towards wildlife were found to be very positive. 98% of the respondents reported being very happy or happy and having positive attitudes towards wildlife, in-spite of the fact that they are unable to cultivate their crops anymore because of wildlife intrusion. They attributed this positive attitude to wildlife because they felt that even though they cant farm they now have a job (from wildlife) which allows them to be able to supply the necessities for their familys survival. The results for Mababe were similar to those of Sankuyo where most households (90) have a family member working with the CBNRM and their attitudes were also found to be positive towards wildlife and the national park. \011 The situation of the communities in the OCT was found to be different. The CBNRM is not seemed as supportive of the community. Only a selected few benefit from the CBNRM (personal communication) and benefits are not seen to be reaching the individual households. However, their attitudes towards wildlife and the protected area was predominantly positive ~70% were happy with and liked wildlife while 20% were neutral about wildlife.Juanita Garcia-Saqui is a doctoral student in Geography.

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14 \011 C A S G R 2008 Over the summer I spent another field season in Caprivi, Namibia, with a focus on understanding how and why different land-use decisions are made, what the most important natural resources are for communities, and how these resources are spatially distributed across communal lands. The region is a semi-arid savanna with average rainfall between 600-800 mm annually and is the most undeveloped part of Namibia due to history of regional conflict, warfare, and isolation from the rest of country. Landscape Dynamics in Caprivi, NamibiaAA N dD REA E E GAUgG HAN \011 My dissertation research takes an interdisciplinary approach by combining oral land-use histories with a more quantitative examination of landscape patterns using satellite images and precipitation datasets. This summer I focused on collecting additional environmental history data (through interviews and focus group discussions) and land-cover data that will facilitate the identification and quantification of different spatial and temporal patterns on the satellite imagery. \011 The work from this summer feeds into a larger, collaborative effort that involves other UF graduate students and professors, partners at African universities, and within local communities. The collaborative spirit emanated through the efforts of the UF graduate students based in Caprivi sharing a vehicle, time, and space to work with local communities, collect data, and also provide feedback products. The most important data collection for my own research involved firstly the focus group discussions and key informant interviews to gather perceptions on different land-uses and how different areas have changed over time. The other component demanded treks through the thorniest, densest woody vegetation that could be found in the communal lands. After strenuous debate and consideration we were able to narrow down a very scientific definition of what constitutes dense shrub cover which I strongly believe would hold up under peer review.\011 Like all field seasons uncertainties existed, time was of the essence, and the speed of things moved at its own pace. But productiveness prevailed, experiences were gained, friendships strengthened and I hope to find myself back in the region next year. Andrea Gaughan is a doctoral student in the Department of Geography and a recipient of funding from the NSF-funded IGERT program on Adaptive Management, Water, Watersheds, and Wetlands. Her research was supported by a summer 2008 CAS predissertation travel award and a WFT travel award.

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C A S G R 2008\011 15 landscape level changes.\011 The results of my research will present findings that enable improved decisions regarding environmental management and an increased understanding of how human decisions affect landscape changes, which in turn affect human systems. To successfully manage landscapes, measurements of change in composition and configurations are essential to understanding how management decisions affect landscape patterns. By first investigating the causes of change in this region and then examining how land management decisions influence the spatial composition and configuration of land cover, I hope to contribute to the understanding of human environment interactions in southern African savannas and more specifically the impact of protected area designation on the landscape. This study focuses locally on changes in the Caprivi, Nambia and in the north eastern region of Botswana. Cerian Gibbes is a doctoral student in the Department of Geography. She received support for her work from the Social Sciences Research Council Dissertation Proposal Development program, a CAS summer pre-dissertation travel grant, and an NSF grant and UF Incentive Seed grant to faculty in the Department of Geography. Understanding Landscape Patterns in the Four Corners Area of Southern Africa: An Investigation of the Role of Resource Management Decisions in Determining Landscape Change and FragmentationCC ERIAN GIBBEsS My research examines the impact of protected areas as a strategy for limiting environmental change in southern African savanna ecosystems. To study the impact of protected area designation on the environment, I am examining the changes in land cover composition and patterns within and around two protected areas. Although changes in land cover do not encapsulate all environmental changes, land cover composition often provides the resource base for terrestrial ecosystems and directly impacts ecological functioning. This studys objective is to identify the causes of land cover change in southern African savannas, assess the usefulness of protected areas in limiting this landscape change and test the overarching hypothesis that protected area designation decreases land cover change and landscape fragmentation. \011 This research incorporates the combined use of field collected and remotely sensed land cover data coupled with interviews with local land managers to examine how management decisions affect landscape change. Landscape change can be qualitatively and quantitatively explained using a combination of field collected data, remotely sensed data and social data. This work aims to use the triangulation of a variety of data sources (and methodologies) to assess the impact of human land management decisions on

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16 \011 C A S G R 2008 In 2008, I completed nine months of fieldwork in South Africa for my dissertation, Township Tours: Restructuring People, Place and Cultural-Heritage in Cape Town. This was my third visit to the postapartheid nation to study the implications of cultural tourism in a city which boasts over 1.7 million international arrivals for 2007. My current research examines how members of post-apartheid society are addressing understandings of African urban spaces, history, and culture, as well as the structuring of contemporary social inequality specifically through township based tourism. Township Tourism in Cape Town, South AfricaRR ACHEL H H ARVEY \011 Townships are sprawling residential enclaves at the citys edges. They were produced by decades of economic, racial, and ethnic segregation to contain an underclass, labor pool. In the last 10 years, township tours emerged as a premier cultural activity for visitors to Cape Town. This parallels a global trend of pro-poor or alternative tourism featuring environments offering distinctive experiences that benefit local communities. In Cape Town, tour operators claim to offer an excursion into the real South Africa. They visit impoverished shantytowns and other developing areas in dire contrast to the European urbanism and natural beauty of the central city bowl. Township tourism further draws on post-apartheid discourses of multiculturalism, reconciliation, and economic restructuring. \011 My fieldwork is based primarily in the townships of Langa, Gugulethu, and Khayelitsha. Here, I assess local residents roles in and reactions to tourism practices including their view of risks, benefits, and responsibilities that come with involvement in township tourism. For example, I worked with many bed and breakfast owners, primarily entrepreneurial women. Much of my participant observation took place from community arts and craft centers frequented by foreign visitors. I spent significant time with tour operators, guides, and tourists. And I was invited to be a member of the City of Cape Town Department of Tourisms Task Team on Cultural Tourism. While much of my research with tourists was conducted in English, in the townships I was able to draw on my language training in Xhosa. Through the FLAS fellowship program, I was fortunate to study Xhosa at UF for three years with a native speaker. \011 Building on pre-dissertation research carried out in Summer 2002 and 2006, I am also investigating how members of the tourism industry shape the production of place, history, and culture and generate new social practices. In this component of my project, for instance, I examine the design, construction and competing narrative descriptions of several antiapartheid monuments in Cape Towns townships which have become popular tourist sites. Finally, I probe the paradoxical situation tourism creates between the integration of townships into Cape Towns wider urban landscape and continued differentiation of townships from the city through culture, class, and spatial organization. The project seeks to add to our understandings of the factors that direct, sustain, and complicate heritage tourism.Rachel Harvey is a doctoral student in the Department of Anthropology. Her research in 2007-08 was made possible by a Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad Fellowship. She also conducted fieldwork in Cape Town in Summer 2006 with support from the Center for African Studies Madelyn M. Lockhart Summer Research Travel Award and a Lewis and Clark Grant for Exploration and Field Research from the American Philosophical Society. She was a Center for African Studies FLAS fellow during Academic Year 2005-06 and 2006-07.

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C A S G R 2008\011 17 \011 I was in Burundi in May-June, coinciding with a number of exciting and important developments in the post-conflict political situation of the country. While Burundis history has received less attention than that of neighboring Rwanda, where genocide killed perhaps one million people in 1994, Burundi in fact is also just emerging from a prolonged conflict along ethnic lines. My research trip gave me the opportunity to participate in meetings with several high-ranking opposition party leaders, helping me to better understand the challenges facing ethnically divided societies and the difficult political solutions to these problems. I was also able, in this initial trip, to interview leading members of the government, including various ministers and even the president of the country! These connections were facilitated by the support of both the Center and the numerous faculty affiliates from many departments connected to the Center, most notably my dissertation advisors Rene Lemarchand, Leonardo Villaln and Benjamin Smith (Political Science), who tirelessly support students in time, effort, contacts and information. Prospects for Peace and Transition in Post-Conflict BurundiCC ARA H H AUCK As a doctoral student in comparative political science, I have been studying the region of the Great Lakes in Central Africa for the past five years. Through the generous support of the Center for African Studies, in the summer of 2008 I was finally able to carry out a predissertation research trip to the region, and specifically to the very understudied country of Burundi, where I plan to carry out my dissertation research. \011 I was grateful for the experience of being able to go into the field so early in my Ph.D. studies and to utilize the language training I received as a Center for African Studies FLAS fellow in Kiswahili so as to increase my speaking and comprehension capabilities. This previous language training also gave me a distinct advantage over other expatriate researchers whom I met there, as Kiswahili is more widely used in the impoverished areas of the capital city of Bujumbura, as well as in the communities of returned refugees who once lived in Tanzania or the Democratic Republic of the Congo, all groups that have been underrepresented in scholarship on political violence in Burundi. \011 This summer research helped to solidify my interest in studying Burundi, focused my attention on specific ground-level situations and current contexts that will be crucial to understand in carrying out dissertation-level research, and provided me with the knowledge needed to better prepare myself for sharpening the focus of my dissertation in writing a prospectus and applying for grants to support dissertation fieldwork. Cara Hauck is a doctoral student in the Department of Political Science. She was a Center for African Studies FLAS fellow in 2006-07 and 2007-08. Her summer 2008 research was supported by a CAS pre-dissertation travel award. Following her research in Burundi, she was also a fellow in the Fulbright-Hays Groups Project Abroad (GPA) Advanced Intensive Swahili program in Tanzania in summer 2008.

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18 \011 C A S G R 2008 Undocumented Immigrants in Nigerian Cinema. CC LAUdD IA H H O ffFF MANN I participated in the Yoruba Group Project Abroad during the summer of 2008 to improve my Yoruba language skills, learn about Yoruba culture, and to assess potential dissertation research on Nigerian film and migration. This opportunity was made possible by Dr. Akinyemi who is the director of the YGPA and under whom I have been studying Yoruba for one year. My dissertation research is concerned with undocumented West African migrants in Europe and the US as they appear in international cinema and the influence that these films might or might not have on viewers. Part of this topic is the analysis of Nigerian movies. \011 My stay in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, lasted seven weeks during which I, along with the other GPA participants, attended intensive language courses at Obafemi Awolowo University as well as cultural performances and lectures on campus and in town. The program also included travel within Yorubaland, for example to Ibadan and Abeokuta. While most of my time was dedicated to meeting the program requirements and studying Yoruba language and culture, I was able to dedicate some time to my dissertation research with the kind assistance of the program directors. \011 I was placed with my host fathers family because he is involved in broadcasting technology at Obafemi Awolowo and was able to share with me his vast experience in local radio and television broadcast and its influence on viewers and show me the studio and equipment at the university where I was also able to witness a live broadcast. Apart from this, my research was largely concerned with Nigerian cinema, more specifically Nollywood, and its appeal to a mass audience in Nigeria and beyond. I was able to find information on the history and development of Nigerian cinema, meet film makers, and investigate audience expectations, especially among students.\011 I am planning on returning to Nigeria to study the attitudes of Nigerians towards leaving Nigeria for Europe or the US as well as general expectations and experiences. Preliminary conversations during my stay in Ile-Ife serve as a basis for more extensive research on the subject matter I wish to conduct in Nigeria in the year of 2009 to explore how the representation of undocumented migration in cinema affects, if at all, Nigerian westbound migration. The GPA has advanced my research tremendously and the close collaboration of Obafemi Awolowo University and the University of Florida has been extremely helpful in planning further research in Nigeria. Claudia Hoffmann is a doctoral candidate in the Department English. In summer 2008, she participated in the Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Intensive Yoruba program in Nigeria.

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C A S G R 2008\011 19 political culture I do not mean to suggest there is consensus. During the authoritarian era, which largely continued the practice of the colonial government, state policies relied very little, if at all, on inputs from society, viewed essentially as amorphous and devoid of legitimate opinions. Repression made these perspectives a form of self-fulfilling prophecy. \011 Since the early 1990s, by contrast, regime democratization has permitted society to organize itself on public platforms and express ideals around specific issues. The construction of state legitimacy now rests on social organizations and depends on a flourishing and sophisticated political culture. The dissertation in progress examines the historical, theoretical and current conditions of this evolution. It suggests that the character and stridence of disagreements between Islamists and republicains might be productive as well as stunting with regards to political culture, but also that other parameters must be considered, including the fact that Islamists are just one key actor in a larger religious civil society, not completely opposable to republicains.\011 Following fieldwork in 2006-2007, on-site writing during part of the Spring and the entire Summer of 2008 proved to be a highly rewarding experience. Active research provides the bulk of pertinent data, but settling into a meditative mindset in the course of writing better opens up the mind to incorporating quieter, unobtrusive information. When it comes to culture, such kind of information is invaluable. Abdourahmane Idrissa is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Political Science. His fieldwork was carried out with the support of an SSRC International Dissertation Research Fellowship in 2006-2007. In Spring 2008, he held a UF College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Dissertation Writing Award. Ideology and Governance: Islam and Liberalism in NigerAA B dD OURAHMANE Id ID RI ssSS A My research asks the question of whether the interaction of two ideologiesIslamism and Liberalismthat grew out of Nigers regime democratization in the early 1990s are creating a functioning political culture, one which would be productive of successful governing policies. To test the hypotheses that arose from this research question, I decided to look at issue areas that are actually or potentially divisive in Nigers current context: the nature of the political regime (Islamic or secular?), education (should it train subjects of God or citizens of the Republic?) and the gender question (the legal status of women). Key assumptions hold that Nigers Islamism is strongly influenced by evolutions in neighboring Northern Nigeria (where Sharia had become a source of law in the late 1990s) while its Liberalism is marked by French sprit rpublicain, strongly in favor of political secularism (lacit). \011 My field research was based on a combination of various qualitative methods, ranging from interviews to archival research, document analysis and participant observation. Over a one year period, I had the opportunity to see many aspects of the issues I was researching evolve and resolve themselves in a variety of ways. I was also able to work in a number of different sites: the capital (Niamey), a provincial town at the border with Nigeria (Maradi), trips to the countryside with members of both liberal and Islamist groups, and trips to Northern Nigeria.\011 My findings point toward the emergence of a new political culture in Niger, one that is still hard to define. Certainly, there is very little agreement between Islamists and republicains in Niger on any of the three issue areas I researched. However, by functioning

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20 \011 C A S G R 2008 interactions among members of the Ghana Central China Chamber of Commerce. Established by five Chinese entrepreneurs, this Accra-based organization is the most active informal business organization of Chinese entrepreneurs in Ghana. Through online interactions and regular activities, many members were facilitated in overcoming difficulties to some extent. The website and instant messenger discussion group serves as an online platform where Chinese entrepreneurs can find up-to-date information about specific policies and share their own experiences of dealing with relevant officials. The organization also holds lecture series on immigration policies, tax regulations, and so on. \011 The third part concerns the influences of Chinese investments on Ghanas social and economic spheres. On one side, Chinese businesses have made many manufactured goods more affordable to Ghanaians and contributed to technology diffusion in some sectors. From the Ghanaian side, some entrepreneurs have called for more government regulation of Chinese counterparts in the retail sector to stem competition. From the point of view of network analysis, I am interested in how Chinese entrepreneurs have contributed to Ghanas development through interactions with their Ghanaian counterparts. \011 Many Chinese entrepreneurs are not familiar with Ghanaian culture and society at all. This has resulted in misunderstandings and even prejudices. Some Chinese entrepreneurs I have interviewed have expressed a negative view on some Ghanaian employees. I am also interested in how Chinese entrepreneurs perceive Ghanaian culture and behavior during their direct contact with ordinary Ghanaians along with the impressions of Ghanaians about the Chinese. I hope to collect more data about this on my next research trip.Yang Jiao is a doctoral student in the Department of Anthropology. Chinese Entrepreneurial Networks in GhanaYY AN gG J J IAO This past summer, I did pre-dissertation fieldwork in Ghana to investigate four sets of related issues about the Chinese entrepreneurship. Most of my data was collected in Accra and Tema. \011 First, I investigated the types of current Chinese businesses that are based in Accra and Tema. These include general trade, fishing, manufacturing, food services, construction, mining and various others. Recent years of stable economic and political conditions have drawn an increasing number of Chinese to seek business ventures in Ghana. However, not all Chinese businesses have success stories to tell. The most common concerns are the formal regulations for setting up businesses and adapting to Ghanaian culture and society. \011 The variations in Chinese entrepreneurs knowledge of African history and culture, experience with formal businesses procedures, language skills, and interaction with Ghanaian networks have different effects on their businesses. Some were able to blend in to some extent, but many more found it extremely hard to rely on themselves to cope with the economic, cultural, legal, religious, and political aspects of a society that are quite different from Chinas. \011 This points to another objective of my work, which is to identify networks among Chinese entrepreneurs. Specifically, I paid close attention to the

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C A S G R 2008\011 21 \011 The study area is Chobe National Park and its broader hinterland (northern Botswana). The preliminary work I undertook in summer 2008 was exploratory and focused on establishing collaboration and rapport with local communities, and undertaking in-depth interviews on the evolution and designation processes of the park, as well on getting the historical perspective of the relationship between natural resources, livelihoods and conservation attitudes/ practices. Preliminary findings show that the years leading to the designation of the park witnessed a lot of unusual activities and changes in the broader landscape (ecology, political economy, and sociocultural spheres). Overhunting was rampant, including the killing of elephants for ivory trade by white hunters. Also, the colonial state started to exert control over natural resources through the introduction of taxes, hunting decrees and the designation of some areas as crown-land. This initiated the phasing-off of the traditional (utilitarian/people-based) resource governance and tenure systems. These changes are noted to have led to a lot of population displacements and relocations to various places within and outside of the Chobe District. Bothepha Kgabung is a doctoral student in Interdisciplinary Ecology in the School of Natural Resources and Environment. Her summer research was funded by UFs Tropical Conservation and Development Program and the NSF Parks Project (Dr. Child). The Effects of Elephant Management on Rural Livelihoods and Conservation Attitudes around Chobe National Park, BotswanaBB OTHEPHA Kg KGABUN gG The overall goal of this study is to investigate the impact of the evolution, operation, and uses of Chobe National Park generally, and elephant management more specifically, on both rural development and biodiversity conservation. The focus is examining the influence of these conservation strategies on rural livelihoods and socio-political systems, and subsequently on conservation attitudes and behavior. Particular attention is paid to elephants, which though a significant resource of the park, pose a big issue emanating from the high growth of their population to levels that are detrimental to the environment and conflicting with human uses within and beyond the park. The question therefore arises: how to manage 130,000 elephants (doubling every thirteen years), which support a large tourism industry but cause substantial on-farm conflict? In broader terms: does Chobe National Park foster improvement in rural livelihoods, equitable distribution of the local-national trade-offs and conservation attitudes and practices? \011 The study will advance the understanding of the effects of parks on the environment in its totality and enable decision makers to develop more balanced conservation measures and effectively address the prevalent resource use issues. The study will also inform some of the contested issues which center on the elephant-habitathuman interface. Overall, the study will not only benefit Botswana but all the elephant range states, the savanna environments, and the world at large. As the study hinges on the frameworks of integrated environmental management and sustainable rural livelihoods it will give insights about more holistic approaches in order to promote sustainability within and beyond park boundaries.

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22 \011 C A S G R 2008 The Politics of Corporate Social Responsibility in Equatorial GuineaJJ O sS EPH K K RAUsS My research in Equatorial Guinea focuses on an increasingly popular type of international development: public-private partnerships between multinational corporations and host governments. Equatorial Guinea, the 3rd largest producer of oil in Sub-Saharan Africa, provides an interesting context to study the joint efforts of governments and businesses to eradicate poverty. Before the discovery of oil 15 years ago, Equatorial Guinea was one of the poorest countries in the world; today, average per capita income is more than $10,000. The governments ability to translate this wealth into societal improvements, however, has been marred by corruption and ineffective government institutions, and the governments provision of basic social services like health and education lags far behind most other African countries. \011 Multinational oil companies are attempting to bridge the gap in social services while simultaneously working to increase the governments ability to provide social services in the near future. With this in mind, oil companies have initiated social development (officially known as Corporate Social Responsibility or CSR) projects that seek to improve the countrys health and education programs. One set of oil companies is working with several nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to decrease the infection rates of malaria, while another oil company is working with the government to overhaul the national education system.\011 A summer research trip to Equatorial Guinea allowed numerous insights into the promises and challenges of these types of public-private development partnerships. Interviews with oil company representatives revealed that the companies, accustomed to efficiency and a results-oriented focus, are sometimes frustrated by lackluster government involvement with and support for the projects. At the same time, however, several interviewees expressed optimism that government capacity will increase incrementally, albeit slowly and non-linearly, and stressed the companies commitment to ensuring government involvement. \011 Despite the early frustrations and growing pains associated with these projects, real improvements are already noticeable. Interviews with oil company and NGO representatives revealed that in just four years the anti-malaria project has managed to decrease the incidence of malaria in children by 26%. On the education front, in the past two years more than 1000 teachers have been trained and, by the end of next year, 40 schools will be refurbished. \011 Thus, there is hope that partnerships between the public and private sectors can lead to sustainable development outcomes that improve the wellbeing of some of the worlds most impoverished people. Such optimism, however, must be tethered by a healthy dose of caution. Given their nascent nature, very few empirical studies have analyzed the outcomes of publicprivate development partnerships. I will be returning to Equatorial Guinea to build on the research enabled by the Center for African Studies, to more closely analyze the projects and assess whether they can, in fact, lead to the improvements in government capacity necessary to make these projects sustainable in the long-term. Joseph Kraus is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Political Science. His pre-dissertation research in Equatorial Guinea was made possible with help from a CAS summer pre-dissertation travel award and a Department of Political Science summer travel award.

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C A S G R 2008\011 23 education sector, notably by the Catholic Church, which has been in charge of schools for over a century. However, in the post-conflict reconstruction phase, the Muslim community, which constitutes a majority in this particular province of the Congo, has realized that for their own well-being they must become actively involved in activities that beforehand were seen as outside the realm of religion. As such, in order to improve conditions for the community, Muslims have seen a need to engage in development activities in addition to spiritual matters. Evidence of this can be seen all over the Maniema province as Islamic nongovernmental organizations spring up by the dozens and the Congolese state officially recognizes Muslim schools that teach children the state curriculum. \011 My research demonstrates the vibrancy of Congolese civil society, even in the face of devastating civil wars and a malfunctioning central government. In addition, it highlights the expanding political activities of this minority Muslim community, a society that has received virtually no scholarly attention since the Congo was granted independence in the early 1960s. The summer provided exceptional preliminary information for my research, and I very much look forward to returning to the Congo next year to gain more nuanced information about the work and aspirations of Islamic organizations. Ashley Leinweber is a doctoral student in the Department of Political Science. Her research in summer 2008 was made possible by a Predissertation Research Stipend from the African Power and Politics (APP) Program. APP is funded by a grant from the United Kingdoms Department for International Development (DFID), to a research consortium of which CAS is an institutional member. She was a Center for African Studies FLAS fellow during academic years 2005-06 and 2006-07, as well as summer 2006.Building on years of study and interest in the Democratic Republic of Congo, this summer I was thrilled to finally be able to travel there. I was primarily located in the eastern province of Maniema, where I spent two months conducting pre-dissertation research on the role of Islamic organizations in providing public services to the local population. Many Western political scientists classify the Congo as a failed state because the central government is unable to perform many of the tasks that the modern state is supposed to be able to carry out. However, in the post-conflict reconstruction phase of the Congo, these tasks are in fact largely being carried out by a burgeoning civil society. Muslim Organizations in the Democratic Republic of CongoAsAS HLEY L L EINWEBER \011 During the months of June and July 2008 I was able to conduct numerous interviews with local, regional, national, and international organizations in the towns of Kindu and Kasongo. These interviews were in large part possible because of the three years of training in Swahili that I received as a FLAS fellow through the Center for African Studies at UF. What was most striking about these discussions was the extent to which they showed a high level of social mobilization among the population to undertake activities promoting development and reconstruction. Even though the central government is still struggling to carry out its duties, ordinary people are forming nongovernmental organizations to provide public services that the population desperately needs, such as schools, health care, orphanages, and facilities for the rehabilitation of both victims and perpetrators of the civil war. \011 The primary focus of my dissertation, and thus my trip this summer to Maniema, is on the role of Islamic organizations in the provision of education. The Congo has a long history of religious affiliation with the

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24 \011 C A S G R 2008 Religious Beliefs and Political Behavior in KenyaSTEVE L L ICHTY After working in various regions of Africa for three years with two different humanitarian aid organizations, I experienced my first foray into Africa as a researcher in the summer of 2008. During my previous exposure to the continent, I became curious about the underlying issues that have an impact on its economic and political development. Along with this I was fascinated with the different religious dynamics I witnessed, and intrigued by their influence on development processes. It is with these interests that I began a Ph.D. in political science at the University of Florida. In the last two years I have taken courses that have provided a historical context and a sense of the methodological approaches that might be employed to study religion and politics in Africa. Thanks to several Foreign Language and Areas Studies (FLAS) Fellowships, I was able to study both Swahili and Arabic, invaluable tools for understanding the cultural aspects of my region of interest, East Africa and more specifically Kenya.\011 The highlight of my Ph.D. experience thus far, was the opportunity to conduct pre-dissertation research in the summer of 2008. Generous funding from the Center for African Studies and the Department of Political Science enabled me to spend five weeks in Nairobi, Kenya. During this time I accomplished three major tasks related to my dissertation, which will examine how religious beliefs and practices impact political behaviour in Kenya. \011 The first was making contact with different academic institutions, including the Institute for Development Studies (IDS) at the University of Nairobi, where I have been accepted as a research affiliate when I return for dissertation research. The IDS and other institutions will be vital sources of secondary literature as well as scholarly feedback, advice and support. Secondly, I was able to get a more nuanced sense of the impact of Kenyan cultural dynamics on the feasibility of my research project. This will be important as I begin to determine the specific scope of my dissertation fieldwork. Finally, I conducted numerous indepth interviews with both religious and civil society leaders. These men and women were found in churches, seminaries, parachurch and human rights organizations. The outcome of these meetings was a more profound understanding of the underlying issues related to religion and politics in Kenya, thus enabling me to better define important variables that have been unconsidered or marginalized.\011 I came away from this initial research with two significant impressions. The first relates to the friendly reception I received among scholars and religious leaders. These men and women expressed enthusiasm and interest for my research topic and agenda. Having their support and cooperation during my future dissertation research will be crucial, and it is reassuring to know that I will be able to build on these good relationships. The second is more personal in nature. The first few years of a Ph.D. program in political science is dominated by coursework, but because my primary focus in comparative politics requires fieldwork, it was immensely encouraging to have this positive preliminary experience. It provides a basis for my research prospectus, and has laid the groundwork for dissertation fieldwork beginning in fall 2009.Steve Lichty is a doctoral student in the Department of Political Science. He was a Center for African Studies FLAS fellow in 2006-07, 2007-08 and in summer 2007. His summer 2008 research was supported by a CAS pre-dissertation travel award and a Department of Political Science summer travel award.

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C A S G R 2008\011 25 Post Migration Experience of Somali Female Refugees in the United States: A Case Study of Atlanta, GeorgiaBB ETTY L L ININ gG E RR In America today, there are many thriving Somali communities located in both large diverse metropolitan areas and smaller mono-ethnic cities. The United States, which did not have a previously significant migration history with Somalia, became a destination that was likely, in part, a result of military involvement in 1992. In recent years, Somalis were identified by the United States Homeland Security Department as representing the largest refugee group (25%) being resettled in the United States. This population is primarily Muslim, arriving from a region of the world that has alleged links with Islamic terrorist groups. \011 My research involves examining the post migration experience from a womans perspective. This study illuminates specific economic and social challenges faced by Somali female refugees as they attempt to adapt and integrate into American society. \011 Often Muslim women are more visible in the predominately AngloChristian American society due to their attire, thus making their adaptation/ assimilation process potentially even more complex. Wearing either a head scarf or Islamic dress, women can be quickly identified as outsiders. This can lead to such problems as an inability to gain employment, exclusion from mainstream society due to perceived differences, or to becoming the recipient of outright hostility in the public sphere. Adding to these challenges in America, is the potential for Somali women to also suffer racial discrimination due to their dark skin color.\011 Notably, refugee women face many obstacles in their integration process that differ significantly from their male counterparts. This includes such concerns as employment, childcare responsibilities, and health care issues. Many female refugees lack English fluency, are accompanied by several dependents, and have a myriad of both physical and mental health problems. Their journey to America has often occurred under extreme duress, frequently these women have endured significant war traumas, such as rape, food shortages, separation from loved ones, as well as having witnessed brutal killings and attacks. Importantly, these women have the strength and fortitude to take charge of their families and attempt to rebuild their lives abroad when given the chance. \011 After visiting several different Somali communities located in various cities in the United States for three summers (2005-07), the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area was selected as a representative field site because it has a significant, stable Somali population (approximately 5,000) as well as having been in existence for approximately twenty years. I found Somali community leaders, all of whom were male, eager to assist me in this research project, however gaining access to conduct a survey questionnaire with female respondents presented a challenge. Finally, I was put into contact with female community leaders and access to this group was established. Using data collected from survey questionnaires during early 2008, both qualitative and quantitative analysis was conducted, resulting in a comprehensive study of this groups adjustment and adaptation to life in America.Betty Lininger is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Geography.

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26 \011 C A S G R 2008 Art and Architecture of Anomabo, Ghana: A Case Study in Cultural FlowCC OURTNAY M M ICOTs S My research has been supplemented by two pre-dissertation trips to southern Ghana. Contacts initially made in the historicallysignificant town of Anomabo in the summer of 2007 revealed the potential for dissertation study. I returned this summer to conduct interviews with scholars at the University of Ghana in Legon and the University of Cape Coast as well as several of the leaders and townspeople of Anomabo. Although English is spoken widely throughout Ghana, I am pursuing formal Akan Twi training at the University of Florida. I also picked up a few Fante words on location in Anomabo.\011 Anomabo provides an example of long-term cultural contact, the flow of visual forms and cultural ideas, and the resulting choices that cultures make in appropriating, transforming and recontextualizing visual forms in art and architecture. The coastal city of Anomabo, the primary commercial hub along the Gold Coast during the lateseventeenth and eighteenth centuries, exemplifies the impact of globalization. The filter of art and architecture will allow my research to make visible these influences which may otherwise be overlooked. Today, Anomabos port is closed and much of its historic grandeur lies in ruins, resulting in an erroneous first impression of a sleepy, rural town unaffected by global concerns.\011 Numerous pre-colonial African cities, such as the Edo urban center of Benin in Nigeria, experienced similar urbanization, attracting and combining cultures. The absorption of ideas and their translation into visual forms however, is not always documented or evident in the contemporary setting. My research in Anomabo will add to the understanding of both pre-colonial and contemporary urban Africa by providing an example drawing from numerous historical documents and an active contemporary art scene. My approach will bring to the fore the enduring influence of cultural and artistic behaviors that developed during the pre-colonial period. Anomabos historic cosmopolitanism continues to influence current art forms evidencing the openness of artists to new influences, motifs, experimentations, and cultural blending. \011 Visual forms of primary importance are textiles, architecture, posuban or cement shrines, performance, sculpture and painting, and in many instances, these media are combined. Of particular relevance to this study are the many Fante constructs that blend visual forms from seemingly-unrelated sources to create something entirely new. One contemporary example is a group of paintings found on the faade of a building entitled Holy Land. The paintings blend Christian, Fante and Hindi religious ideas and motifs. Study of these appropriations and recontextualizations will aid in understanding how contemporary forms display artistic syncretism and the way current artistic expressions reflect Anomabos cosmopolitan heritage.\011 My research will place globalization of an African city and culture in a historical perspective. Anomabos worldliness does not stem from its position as a satellite to Accra, Cape Coast or any western urban center, nor its positioning at the periphery of global flows, but in reference to its past position at the center of a vast cultural and commercial network. Courtnay Micots is a doctoral student in the School of Art & Art History.

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C A S G R 2008\011 27 dissemination; trust in leadership; and an overall rating of the CBNRM program. \011 In addition to the household surveys, Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) methods were undertaken in all four communities. Using PRA tools, focus groups were organized that included young, middle and old-aged members of the community. Information gathered included environmental, institutional, and major historical events that had occurred in each community. At the completion of research in each community, feedback meetings were organized to present the results to the general assembly. This process is both an auditing system for the data gathered, and is important in ensuring research done is not extractive but beneficial to communities.\011 In Zambia, research was conducted for a period of three weeks. Zambia has one of the oldest CBNRM programs in Southern Africa, however it has recently slacked in its implementation and government support. This preliminary research was to determine the current status of CBNRM in Zambia, and examine whether it could be used as a comparative site in the doctoral research. A total of nine in-depth interviews were conducted with practitioners in the field of CBNRM. These interviews reveal that CBNRM in Zambia faces three major challenges: donor support for natural resource management has greatly reduced; community institutions are focusing on more ownership of natural resource areas; and government, particularly the Zambia Wildlife Authority, is investing into measures that would increase good governance at the community level.Patricia Mupeta is a doctoral student in Interdisciplinary Ecology in the School of Natural Resources and Environment. Her research in summer 2008 was made possible by a Pre-dissertation Research Stipend from the African Power and Politics (APP) Program. APP is funded by a grant from the United Kingdoms Department for International Development (DFID), to a research consortium of which CAS is an institutional member. Democratic Governance and Its Effect On Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM): Botswana and Zambia PP ATRICIA M M UPETA My doctoral research focuses on examining how democratic governance affects the performance of Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM), a conservation and rural development initiative that has been practiced over the past two decades in Southern Africa. \011 As part of developing this doctoral research, preliminary research was conducted during summer 2008 in Botswana and Zambia with the following objectives: to undertake a governance assessment of four CBNRM villages in the Okavango Delta and build collaborative linkages with Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Community Institutions and the University of Botswana and to assess, the status of CBNRM in Zambia.\011 In Botswana, I worked as part of a larger group of both University of Florida faculty and graduate students and Young African Professionals who are broadly studying social and ecological systems in Southern Africa. One main focus of the team has been to develop standardized systems for measuring the effectiveness, legitimacy and performance of community governance. The areas of study were Mababe, Sankuyu, Khwai and the Okavango Community Trust (OCT). Using a survey instrument termed the Community Dashboard household interviews were conducted. This included a total of 32 surveys in Mababe; 33 in Khwai; 41 in Sankuyu and 167 in OCT. Household heads were interviewed on their perceptions of how CBNRM was performing in their areas. The survey gathered information on demographics; community structures and functions; participation in CBNRM meetings; elections; community resource rights; information

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28 \011 C A S G R 2008 Citizen-Politician Linkages in the Formal and Informal Sector in KenyaLL EVY Od OD ERA I landed in Kenya to undertake pre-dissertation research in May 2008, just two months after the end of the post-election crisis that was marked by the signing of a power sharing agreement between the two main political parties in Kenya, namely: Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) and Party of National Unity (PNU). In spite of the politically unstable situation I was able to conduct my research from May to August.\011 Initially, the objective that I set out for the pre-dissertation research was to find out how the nexus between power relations and informal institutions affect business performance in the informal sector by 1) conducting three focus group discussions in three different cities; 2) conducting 60 in-depth interviews, and 3) carrying out an exploratory survey based on the focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Before starting my research I recruited three research assistants who I trained for one week. The training sessions also included fieldwork, where we did mapping in the nine markets where I conducted the research. After training was over, we started by conducting the focus group discussions. Following the focus group discussions, and based on the information we gathered from them, we then conducted 20 semi-structured interviews in each of the three cities. All these interviews were tape recorded and notes taken. Upon completing the interviews we spent two weeks transcribing. I then went through each transcribed interview looking for common themes. The analysis of the interviews revealed that a more urgent problem in the informal sector seemed to be the very weak linkages between citizens and politicians. To confirm that the citizen-politician linkages are indeed very weak in the informal sector, I then conducted 360 surveys in the three cities. \011 In the final stage I decided to descriptively analyze some of the key variables from the data. The preliminary findings from the surveys confirmed that the linkages between citizens and politicians in this sector are very weak. With respect to these findings, I used the last week in the field to conduct three key informant interviews on the nature of citizen-politician linkages in the formal sector. The three key informants whom I interviewed were a politician and scholar who contested for a parliamentary seat but lost, a personal assistant for the Deputy Prime Minister of Kenya, and a journalist who is a communications officer for the ODM party. From these interviews I tentatively learned that the citizen-politician linkages in the formal sector are stronger than those in the informal sector, but this is yet to be confirmed through future research. These findings have subsequently led to a refinement of the issue that I intend to study for my dissertation. I now intend to focus on whether citizen-politician linkages are stronger in the formal sector, whether formal institutions play any role in establishing the linkages, and whether these linkages contribute to state building in Kenya.Levy Odera is a doctoral student in the Department of Political Science. His research in Kenya in summer 2008 was supported by an African Politics and Power (APP) program pre-dissertation award from the UF Center for African Studies. APP is funded by a grant from the United Kingdoms Department for International Development (DFID), to a research consortium of which CAS is an institutional member.

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C A S G R 2008\011 29 The Unraveling of John OkelloAA NN L L EE GRIMsS TAdD O O MON dD I I find that sometimes the most relevant insights, information, and leads in research come from unexpected circumstances and opportunities. I have been preparing to conduct my dissertation research on the Zanzibar Revolution, but I had not yet found the specific focus of my inquiry. This summer I was teaching undergraduates about conflict and reconciliation through an SIT Study Abroad program called Peace and Conflict Studies in the Lake Victoria Basin, when I unexpectedly ran into my dissertation topic. The two conflicts we were teaching about were the situation in Northern Uganda and the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda. \011 During the preparation for an educational excursion to former camps for internally-displaced persons (IDPs) outside of Lira, Uganda, I was discussing the Ugandan rebel leader Joseph Kony, with the Vice Chairman (a local government official) of Lira District. I made a comparison between the rhetoric of Kony and that of Field Marshall John Okello, the leader of the 1964 Zanzibar Revolution. The Vice Chairman informed me that Field Marshall Okello was actually born in a village some 25 km from Lira. He also offered to connect me with an elder from the area whom I could interview. I spoke with two other people in the following days who were willing to give me more information on the life and death of John Okello, and take me to his birthplace. Since I was only in Lira for a few days of work, I knew that I did not have time to investigate these leads this year, but that indeed, I would have to return for research to follow up on this information.\011 In 1964, there had been much speculation by journalists, politicians, and government intelligence operatives about the identity and background of the revolutionary leader John Okello. However, once the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar firmed its own footing without him and he was declared persona non grata in Zanzibar, Tanganyika, and Kenya, the speculation seemed to die down. Okello, with the help of at least one writer, authored his own account of his life and role in the revolution, which many scholars seem to take almost at face value. Although this nonZanzibari, primary-school educated, painter-masonbuilder led a revolution that, in only a matter of hours, was able to overthrow a constitutional monarchy set up by the British, Okellos life and role in Zanzibar has not to date been thoroughly investigated.\011 When I reached Zanzibar in July for predissertation research, I interviewed several people who were on the islands at the time of the revolution and I was able to undertake some initial consultation of relevant documents in the National Archives. The questions that will guide me in my next steps of dissertation research are: How did this man accomplish what he seems to have accomplished? Why was there was so much speculation and so many contradictory stories about him? And how are those two paths of inquiry linked?Ann Lee Grimstad Omondi is a doctoral student in the Department of History.

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30 \011 C A S G R 2008 Informal Institutions and Public Goods in Ghanaian BureaucraciesWW INI fF RE dD P P ANKANI Why do some government ministries, department and agencies perform better than others? Some scholars contend robust and responsive governmental performance is driven in part by increasing levels of wealth. Others posit formal institutions like bureaucratic performance reviews are positively correlated with increased governmental performance, due to increased supervision and monitoring by high-level officials of their lowerlevel colleagues. Yet an increasing number of scholars, however, argue for the inclusion of informal institutions in our analysis of bureaucratic performance because informal institutions, though not officially authorized or intended to enable citizens to hold government officials accountable, may do so nonetheless by providing a set of standards for awarding moral standing.\011 Nevertheless, the consensus in the literature on governance in a clientelistic context, especially within public institutions, is that informal institutions undermine governance systems, which in turn impedes economic growth. Clientelistic behavior is theorized to be more prevalent in societies with great social and status inequalities, and where there are incongruities between formal and informal rules. During a six week pre-dissertation research trip in summer 2008, I tested these hypotheses in Ghana by collecting data in four government bureaucracies: The ministries of Agriculture and Water Resources, and of Works and Housing, the Accra Metropolitan Authority, and the Parliamentary Services Corps. \011 I used a multipronged approach combining qualitative data with quantitative data. First, I focused on developing an understanding of everyday office politics and governance issues and norm use by collecting information through extensive observation and interviews with both lower and upper-level bureaucrats. My selection of interviewees in each ministry where it was possible was randomized, including as many departments as I could. \011 The most often quoted informal norm during my interviews was: do no harm to those who help you, a belief that included not shaming the person(s) who helped you get your job or the boss who has been sticking up for you. The belief that one had to help ones own/group (though this did not necessarily mean ethnic group) was also widely shared, as was the norm of chopping from ones work or place of work. Finally, the belief that wealth can often be fleeting was a broadly shared norm that undergirded many peoples behavior and choices. Winifred Pankani is a doctoral student in the Department of Political Science. Her research in Ghana in summer 2008 was made possible by a Pre-dissertation Research Stipend from the African Power and Politics (APP) Program. APP is funded by a grant from the United Kingdoms Department for International Development (DFID), to a research consortium of which CAS is an institutional member.

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C A S G R 2008\011 31 An Economic Analysis on the Viability of Wildlife Hunting and Viewing Tourism as a Conservation and Rural Development Tool in Namibia GRE gG ORY P P ARENT The lack of sustainability and developmental potential of cattle and agricultural systems has been a stimulus for many southern African countries move towards a focus on wildlife utilization as a development and conservation tool. While countries have taken different strategies, the ultimate goal of the various policy approaches is to capture wildlifes biophysical and economic advantage to generate a steady stream of benefits to local communities, thereby incentivizing the conservation of wildlife and the ecosystems they are present in. While studies have demonstrated wildlifes economic advantage at the national and regional level, there is a gap in the wildlife economic research for the understanding of benefit attainment at the community level. If wildlife viewing and hunting tourism is to be a sustainable source of revenue and continue to produce incentives towards conservation of wildlife and biomes in which they live, understanding how institutional factors effect local benefit attainment is key, as it is the local inhabitant who will ultimately make the decision to plant another row of crops, pasture more cattle, poach another animal, or conserve for future benefit. \011 The purpose of the summer 2008 round of research was threefold. First, it was a preliminary investigation to gain an increased understanding into structure of the rural southern African economy in order to improve the econometric models to be utilized in my Ph.D. research. Secondly, it was used to pilot question design, specifically methods to minimize participant recall errors to survey questions. Finally, as much of the southern African region is characterized by recurrent droughts and a lack of water infrastructure, water is potentially a serious input constraint to households. As such, this study investigated the importance of water access to a households ability to participate in the market economy by integrating spatial classes of households differentiated by their distance to potable water so as to analyze the distributional impact on household income using the Foster-GreerThorbecke P2 measure.\011 The study was conducted in four villages within the Choi village area located in the Mayuni Conservancy in the Caprivi Strip, Namibia. Participants from 100 households were interviewed as part of the study. While final data analysis has yet to be completed, some interesting patterns have emerged. Of note, all four villages have little internal commerce. Households rely on traveling to distant urban centers (2 hours) to conduct the majority of their purchases. The lack of internal commerce reduces the possible multiplier affect that any tourism enterprise may produce through direct or indirect income impacts. As such, much of the potential benefit is leaked to urban centers in the form of expenditure for goods. Gregory Parent is a doctoral student in Geography and is an NSF IGERT Fellow (Adaptive Management: Water, Wetlands, and Watersheds). He was awarded a preliminary summer research grant from the Working Forest in the Tropics IGERT program at the University of Florida.

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32 \011 C A S G R 2008 The Use of Client Focused Technology by Microfinance Organizations in Tanzania: A Case StudyTT ORREY P P EACE Although I was originally going to graduate in May 2008 with a UF MBA, I changed my plans when I was informed of a $2,000 CIBER grant available to conduct research on microfinance in Africa. I had taken an interest in microfinance since my service as a Peace Corps volunteer in Guatemala (2004-06), and did not have a chance to study it in depth during my MBA career. I initially decided as my proposal to do research on how technology affects microfinance, however later changed the subject to be a case study on client focused technology and how it is used by microfinance organizations in Tanzania. I decided to change the proposal to a case study because it would be difficult to measure the impact in a short period of time and also because most of the technologies being used were only recently introduced and therefore the impact could not be assessed. \011 I was fortunate enough to choose Tanzania as my destination for my research. Tanzania has a solid history in microfinance, and Dr. Todd Leedy, Associate Director of the Center for African Studies, assisted me in contacting the Faculty of Commerce and Management at the University of Dar es Salaam. Another fortunate event was that this year the International Academy of African Business and Development Conference was hosted in Gainesville and so I was able to meet some of the faculty from UDSM before even going to Tanzania!\011 Using these contacts enabled me to find a list of alumni that worked at microfinance organizations. I then sent these alumni emails about my research and requested interviews. I received a response from three commercial banks and one nonprofit organization. I also was able to interview the financial trust (Financial Sector Deepening Trust) that conducted a survey regarding the financial sector of Tanzania in 2006. Between the interviews as well as literature reviews, I was able to form a well-rounded perspective of how clientfocused technology (Automated Teller Machines, Point of Sale Devices, etc) were being used by these organizations. \011 Apart from working on my research, Tobias Swai asked me to assist in the organization of the second Business in Development business plan competition, an activity conducted by the UDSM Entrepreneurship Centre along with a Dutch nonprofit organization, the Business in Development Network (www.bidnetwork.org). I assisted them with updating their website, talking to entrepreneurs at the annual Saba Saba business tradeshow and visiting entrepreneurs from last years competition. It was a very enlightening experience and the business plan competition is an innovative way to stimulate local creativity along with the economy by assisting small businesses in developing business plans and obtaining funding. \011 While in Tanzania I had several opportunities to travel and see other parts of the country aside from Dar es Salaam. I was able to visit Morogoro, Bagamoyo, Arusha and Zanzibar. I was also able to participate in cultural events such as weddings, birthdays, local concerts and soccer matches. I took a few Kiswahili classes as well. All of these activities gave me a better understanding of the Tanzanian culture and people.\011 Overall, my experience in Tanzania was a fantastic one. Not only was I able to complete my MBA by doing research in a field I was interested in, I was also able to experience a different culture and make friends on a different continent. I would certainly recommend it to future students as a way to obtain a better understanding of business development in other countries.Torrey Peace is an MBA candidate in the Warrington College of Business Administration. She received funding for her summer research from the Center for International Business Research (CIBER) and the Department of Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate.

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C A S G R 2008\011 33 The Efficacy of Community-Based Monitoring in Namibia: The Event Book SystemLL UKE V V ICTOR R R O sS TANT A novel monitoring system developed in Namibia is the Event Book System (EBS). This community based monitoring system was created to inform management decisions in communal conservancies throughout Namibia. While the system has been in operation for almost a decade, to date, no examination of the EBS in terms of its ability to enhance the adaptive capacity of conservancies has been performed. Community-based monitoring is also often criticised based on concerns about communities lacking the capacity, sustained interest, and resources needed for effective monitoring. To this end, the main objective of my research is to understand the EBS in the context of how information is being created, accumulated, and transmitted in the communal conservancies of Namibia. Three conservancies along the Kwando River will be the focus of this research, the Kwandu, Mashi, and Mayuni conservancies. \011 Information about the EBS was gathered through semi-structured interviews with the communal conservancy management, as well as conservancy membership and key informants in the associated NGOs and the Ministry of Environment and Tourism. These interviews will allow me to assess the way that information is collected, where this information is stored, whether or not this information is shared, and what decisions are made based on the information gathered. Preliminary findings indicate that there appears to be some elite capture of information from the EBS by the management committees within the communal conservancies, with little information getting down to the household level. I also observed that though the information is being stored within the conservancy offices, the full potential of this information was not being capitalized upon, perhaps because the communities lack the capacity and resources (for example, the spatial aspect of the data is largely ignored).\011 To assess some of the EBSs potential, I collected all of the EBS data from these three focal conservancies, and will analyze this information using GIS and remote sensing to determine whether or not the communitybased datasets might be enhanced using more scientific methods. Ultimately, this will test whether or not so called scientific and community monitoring systems can be complementary, and, if so, how can scientists and communities work together to enhance community-based datasets to aid communities in terms of their adaptive capacity.\011 While these methods contribute towards an understanding of the EBS, previous interviews conducted in the 2007 field season revealed that information about the vegetation dynamics of the region was being omitted from the EBS. To this end, a comparison of the vegetation in these three focal conservancies and the Bwabwata National park on the Western side of the Kwando River will be conducted. Thirty transects on either side of the river were established in 2007 and 2008. Analysis of this data will not only allow me to examine how different land use strategies have affected the vegetation within and outside of the communal conservancies, but will also provide the communities with valuable vegetation baseline data which can be re-sampled in the future to see whether or not ecosystem management strategies need to be adjusted. Luke Rostant is a doctoral student in Interdisciplinary Ecology in the School of Natural Resources and Environment. His research was funded in part by a Fulbright Faculty Improvement grant and a grant from the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA).

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34 \011 C A S G R 2008 types of recycled materials that are used, the forms that are created, as well as in the age and background of the many artists I interviewed. The striking link between all of the artists I spoke with is their understanding and belief in the power of art. \011 The transformative power of art in Mozambique became widely apparent to me not only in the emotionally engaging artworks made from traded decommissioned weapons, collected urban detritus, and natural landscape elements, but also from the intense personal commitment of the artists I spoke with. Many artists expressed their need to create art as a continuation of their cultural traditions in a contemporary context by using discarded materials that they recycled into artworks. Several of the artists I spoke to carried on the power of the visual arts by teaching Mozambican orphans and youth in arts education programs that they designed, facilitated, and in most cases, financed themselves.\011 To create connections within the arts community on a larger scale, I also met with directors, managers and curators of organizations such as the National Museum of Mozambique, the Franco-Mozambican Cultural Center, Nucleo de Arte, MovArte, MozArte, ENAV (National School of Visual Arts) and the Christian Council. Through these discussions, I have gained a greater understanding of the transformative power of art and its impact as a force within Mozambican society and culture. Since my return to the US, I have received word that a projected weapons monument that I discussed with several of the artists and administrators while I was in Maputo is indeed underway.Amy Schwartzott is a doctoral student in the School of Art and Art History. Weapons and Refuse as Media: The Potency and Politics of Recycling in Contemporary Mozambican Urban ArtsAA MY SCHWARTZOTT My research focuses on contemporary Mozambican urban artists that use recycled materials in the creation of their art, which illustrates the intersection between art and life. Mozambican artists involved with the Christian Aid funded program, Transforming Arms into Tools, utilize decommissioned weapons for assemblage art pieces to engage the viewer and urge them to remember the violence and destruction in Mozambiques struggle toward liberation. Mozambican artists also utilize natural and urban refuse in the creation of their contemporary artworks, which underscores recycling as a way of life throughout the continent of Africa \011 These artists working in urban Mozambique today are linked in their connection to major themes related to the environment of Mozambique in particular, and Africa in general. Within a broader framework, the use of recycled materials by these contemporary artists reflects a nexus of environmental, economic and culturally related issues that creates an expanding discourse surrounding the identity and materiality of objects. These theoretical ideas frame the pre-dissertation research I completed this summer in the Mozambican capital city of Maputo, where I spent time interviewing many artists, arts administrators, and museum officials in order to develop a greater understanding of the contemporary arts environment within Mozambique. Through these interviews, I learned of the strength, vitality, and overarching sense of community within their contemporary arts network.\011 I spent time visiting artists in their studios, homes and exhibition spaces where I could directly engage in discussions with them about their art processes, techniques and theoretical concerns surrounding their use of recycled materials in their artworks. There is a great diversity in the different

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C A S G R 2008\011 35 Hospitals as a Window into Global Flows and Local Articulations in TanzaniaNN OELLE SULLIVAN Since December 2007, I have been on the outskirts of Arusha, Tanzania, conducting dissertation field research investigating the ways that privatization of medicine has affected medical practice. In particular, I have been exploring how global, multinational, and national organizations have influenced the opportunities and constraints experienced by health care workers at the micro levelwithin a Tanzanian hospital. This research investigates how global agencies (such as WHO and the World Bank), various donors (such as USAID or DANIDA), and various volunteer organizations (such as Work the World and Students for International Change) have affected the ways that medicine is practiced within Tanzania, and what kinds of opportunities and constraints health care workers experience as a result of the rapid changes that have been effected within the health sector. \011 An important aspect of this research has been to consider the ways that multiple forces come to bear on the hospital and the ways that power operates on the local scale within the hospital. I am using participant observation, archival research, and individual and group interviews with hospital workers, local government officials, officers within the Tanzanian Ministry of Health, and representatives within various aid and volunteer organizations to investigate the ways that global and state forces articulate on the micro scale (within one hospital), the politics of these interactions, and what this context means for the people who work within this system and for those who use it in order to achieve better health for themselves and their relatives.Noelle Sullivan is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Anthropology. She is a Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Dissertation Research Abroad awardee (2007-08) and was a CAS FLAS fellow in 2003-04, 2004-05, as well as summer 2005.

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36 \011 C A S G R 2008 I was very fortunate to be awarded a summer FLAS grant to study Arabic during the summer of 2008 in Fez, Morocco. As a student of Moroccan politics, with an interest in the role of various Sufi groups in Moroccan political discourse, language skills are absolutely essential. In addition to the four hours of classroom instruction that I received each day, I lived with a family in the new city of Fez, attended a number of cultural events and also traveled throughout the country. Most importantly, this period allowed me to begin to refine the research I plan to carry out for my dissertation topic. Religion and Politics in MoroccoAA NN W W AIN sS COTT \011 Fez, as the spiritual and cultural capital of Morocco, is an excellent location to live and study. During the month of June, the city hosts a sacred music festival that highlights spiritual music from around the world as well as showcasing the different Sufi groups and their rituals from within the country. Many other cities within the country also host festivals including the Gnawa music festival in Essaouira. Attending these events afforded me a glimpse of youth culture, government development strategies and the complicated role of tourism in the Moroccan economy.\011 By far, living with a Moroccan family was the most important cultural experience of my summer. My Moroccan mom, upon learning of my recent engagement, showered me with cooking tips and her favorite recipes. She also served as a sort of cultural interpreter as she had excellent French and English skills and was willing to discuss a myriad of issues, from political parties to the role of Sufis in Moroccan society to her concerns about unemployment. Further, her daughter provided an interesting window into Moroccan teenage life and while I was shocked at how many Bollywood movies she could fit into a day, she was appalled at how little I knew of American pop culture! I am sure that the cultural nuances I was able to learn from living with a family will prove invaluable as I continue with my research.\011 Thanks to an introduction by CAS director Leo Villaln, the academic highlight of my summer was meeting the scholar Mati Monjib, from the Institute of African Studies in Rabat, and a onetime visiting professor at the University of Florida. I was privileged to enjoy his hospitality and his advice on Moroccan scholarship. I was particularly interested in his opinion because of his broad knowledge of nearly every piece of scholarship on Moroccan politics in multiple languages. At one point he actually began listing the dissertation topics that have yet to be done in Arabic, French or English! Professor Monjibs advice will certainly prove invaluable as I work to define the precise focus of my dissertation research.\011 By studying within my country of interest, I was able to gain a broad understanding of the issues relevant in Moroccan society and establish a network of close contacts while I continued to develop the language skills necessary for my research. Truly, the summer of 2008 was an important step in my development as a political scientist and a student of Moroccan politics.Ann Wainscott is a doctoral student in Political Science. She has held Center for African Studies FLAS fellowships in 2007-08 and 2008-09. Her 2008 summer stay in Morocco was made possible by a CAS Summer FLAS Award to the Arabic Language Institute of Fez (ALIF).

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C A S G R 2008\011 37 Perceptions and Misperceptions of the Gnawa and their Music in MoroccoCC HRI sS TOPHER W W ITUL sS KI Pre-dissertation fieldwork this summer allowed me to witness more thoroughly the complex relationship between people, their religion, and their music in Fez, Morocco. While living with a devout Tijaniyya family in Blida, a region of the old medina, I learned more concretely the place and meaning of dhikr (a prayerful act of remembrance) in this tailors home and in the nearby zawiya, one of the most famous in the Arab world. \011 Simultaneously I had the opportunity to study the hajhuj (the primary Gnawa musical instrument), with Abd ar-Rzaq, a professional Gnawa maalem who has led layla possession ceremonies and folkloric performances in houses and on stages from the Congo to France. We sat in his small office, decorated with pictures, certificates, and letters celebrating his musical and spiritual career. The Gnawa are a population in Morocco commonly presented as black ex-slaves whose religion involves trance and possession by various spirits, personifications of significant Muslim figures. Examples include shurfa (from sharif, descendent of the Prophet), Sidi Musa (Moses), and Lalla Aisha. Religious debate surrounds the Gnawa centers on the ontology of these spirits: are they truly saints, or are they jnun (demons, evil spirits)? \011 While assembling activities for a short visit by a study abroad group from the University of Florida, I forged a close relationship with Adil, muqaddem of a local Aissawa Sufi brotherhood. The Aissawas are renown for their music, their own layla ceremonies, and more recently, for performing exorcisms. \011 The differences between these faiths and their accompanying musical traditions are not surprising, but the ease with which they participated in each others musical and ceremonial activities demonstrates much regarding the frequently cited hybridity in Moroccan religion and culture. This is despite the perceived marginalization of the Gnawa and heated intellectual debate regarding Sufism. The time in Morocco helped me to better comprehend the interesting ways in which these groups are interrelated and how they claim religious authenticity and validity. Christopher Witulski is a doctoral student in the School of Music (Ethnomusicology). He received a CAS FLAS fellowship in summer 2006 and is also a UF Alumni fellowship recipient.

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38 \011 C A S G R 2008 Building Capacity for Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) in Southern AfricaDEBORAH W W OJCIK I spent summer 2008 conducting exploratory and pre-dissertation research in the Okavango Delta region of Botswana and the Caprivi region of Namibia. Learning as much as I could about the place and building relationships critical to my future research success, I had the opportunity to be a part of Dr. Brian Childs cross-cultural, interdisciplinary research team in Botswana for five weeks of my two month trip. The group was comprised of faculty, doctoral, masters and undergraduate students from the University of Florida, young African professionals from throughout southern Africa, and undergraduate students from the University of Botswana. Academic research within the group ranged widely, including studies of economics, ecology, political science, psychology and anthropology. While the students brought knowledge of research methods and academic disciplines, the young professionals brought experience in natural resource management from their home countries and the practitioner perspective. I worked with a subset of the group who in turn worked with local community members to collect survey data from various rural communities involved with Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM), looking at everything from governance and financial accounting to natural resource management. Called the Dashboard for its application as monitoring and research tool to provide quick and simple views of whats happening in a community, much like the dashboard of a car provides an overview of the cars functionality, a large team conducted surveys in a number of rural communities. \011 The interdisciplinary and cross-cultural character of the combined group of young African professionals and academicians created a dynamic and unique learning experience. Interested in how this type of research may help to build capacity for members of the group as well as the communities in which we worked, I conducted interviews and observations that will feed into my overall research plan and dissertation. I will continue studying this research process throughout the year, as students continue to work on their own research and collaborate with one another through Dr. Childs facilitation. I will also follow up with the young African professionals remotely, assessing how they are or are not applying their new techniques and research methods in their home countries. I will continue this line of research in my dissertation, looking beyond conventional capacity building methods, which are dominated by supply-driven training programs, to see how other approaches may serve to build the capacity of community members involved with CBNRM.\011 After working with Dr. Childs group, I moved from Botswana to Namibia for three weeks to join other University of Florida students conducting their dissertation research there. Though involvement in projects as diverse as conducting ecological transects to an economic study, I built a foundational understanding of the place, people and concerns related to CBNRM in the Caprivi region of Namibia. Beyond providing an opportunity to help with their work, fellow University of Florida students were invaluable contacts, introducing me to the key people and organizations with whom I hope to work again in the near future.Deborah Wojcik is a doctoral student in the School of Forest Resources and Conservation. Her research was supported by a Working Forests in the Tropics NSF IGERT Summer Research Grant. She is also the recipient of funding from the NSF-funded IGERT Adaptive Management: Wise Use of Water, Wetlands and Watersheds 2007.

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C A S G R 2008\011 39 Collaborative ProjectsIncreasingly, United States and international legal employers are looking for individuals with an understanding of todays complex legal environment. As South Africa emerges as a leading political and economic force, opportunities for business, trade and cultural exchanges increase significantly within the region. Its progressive constitution has become a model for developing democracies.\011 Recognizing the importance of providing students with an education that transcends national boundaries, the University of Floridas Levin College of Law jointly sponsors the only U.S.-based summer program approved by the American Bar Association with the University of Cape Town Faculty of Law in South Africas most beautiful, cosmopolitan and diverse city. The program celebrated its 10th anniversary during summer 2008.\011 During summer 2008, 19 UF law students, 7 students from other ABA law schools and 9 University of Cape Town students (representing UF Law Summer Program in Cape Town, South Africa South Africa, Botswana, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe) participated in the 5 1/2 week UF/University of Cape Town Study Abroad Program. Students studying in the program benefited from a dual focus on comparative and international law. South African professors presented an introduction to the South African legal system. In addition, U.S. and South African students analyzed how race and race relations have influenced U.S. and South African legal systems in a comparative constitutional law course. In the comparative cultural property, students supplemented readings by visiting cultural sites, including Robben Island, where Nelson Mandela was imprisoned, and the District Six Museum, commemorating the removal of a mixed race community to single race townships outside of the city, and UNESCO heritage sites.\011 The Florida/Cape Town program allowed students and faculty to live in and enjoy a rich culture, while studying law amidst the historic legal, political and social changes occurring in South Africa. Students visited Parliament, courts, and museums. In addition, several student groups took trips to Kruger National Park, the Garden Route, and Namibia before and after the program.\011 As part of a service component to the program, the students volunteered at Kalksteenfontein Primary School (KPS), which is located in the Cape Flats outside of Cape Town. Many of its residents were forced from Cape Town when District Six became a whites only area under apartheid. The UF students, along with the High Springs Community School, also sponsored a pen pal project that raised $3,400 to benefit KPS. The money raised paid 136 KPS students tuition.\011 For further information, http:// www.law.ufl.edu/students/abroad/ summer_africa.shtml or contact Kathleen Price pricek@law.ufl.edu, Faculty Director of the Cape Town program, or Michelle Ocepek ocepek@ law.ufl.edu Director of Student Programs.

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40 \011 C A S G R 2008 Since 2006, UFs innovative Center for Arts in Healthcare Research and Education (CAHRE) has launched a series of new initiatives intended to create cultural bridges between the arts and healthcare in the US and African nations. The AIM for Africa program is committed to cross-cultural collaborations that fill needs in African communities and provide meaningful learning opportunities for UF students. In addition to initiatives in Kenya and Rwanda, CAHRE and the College of Medicine are working to establish a permanent research and training program in the Gambia. This program will include clinical work and reciprocal training, arts in medicine projects and programs and research projects focused on the delivery of health care to citizens of the Gambia. The program began in 2008 with several trips to the Gambia, including a March trip led by CAHREs director, Jill Sonke-Henderson, accompanied by labor and delivery nurse Cindy Nelly. Sonke-Henderson is also a faculty member in UFs department of Theater and Dance, and artist-in-residence in the Shands Arts in Medicine program. The group of UF College of Fine Arts students and nurses spent a two-week residency AIM For Africa: Medicine, Arts and Health Care in the Gambia together in the Gambia. They brought 1,100 pounds of medical supplies and provided medical and arts in healthcare services at the Royal Victoria Teaching Hospital, Brikama Hospital, Kubuneh Health Center, and in rural villages and schools in the Gambia. \011 In June of 2008, Nina StoyanRosenzweig, director of medical humanities for UFs College of Medicine, led a group that included a 4th year UF medical student, Raj Mehta, Nghi Lam, an undergraduate interested in medicine and arts-inmedicine interventions, and a group of students who put together a project researching emergency medical care and triage systems in place in the Gambia.\011 These students researched and developed the project that was then funded through the Medical Sciences Research Program at the UF College of Medicine. This project began with a survey that provides the capacity to determine strengths and weaknesses of Gambian emergency healthcare system. The students generated a survey tool and worked with the Royal Victoria Teaching Hospital in Banjul, at the Brikama Clinic in Brikama, and a small clinic in Kubuneha village in south east Gambiato gather data.\011 The data acquired through this first survey will be supplemented through continuing visits to the Gambia by UF medical students, in an effort to put together a report than can be used by the Gambian government and public health service to evaluate their emergency treatment system. The students who designed the study (Janeen Alidina, Archna Eniasivam, Komal Gandhi, Ryan Gerrity, Menna Haider, Mariana Khawand, and John Martino) will continue to work with incoming medical students and faculty to continue the project. \011 More information on the AIM for Africa Gambia initiative, including some slides shows of these trips, can be found at: http://www.arts.ufl.edu/ CAHRE/aimgambia.asp.

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C A S G R 2008\011 41 I really began to get excited when we all met in Gainesville for the first time. Carmen had flown in from UC Fullerton, Angela from James Madison University and Jon from the College of the Atlantic. These were the students I would be working with for the next six weeks on various research projects at the University of Cape Coast in Ghana. We were all selected for the highly competitive National Science Foundations Research Experience for Undergraduates through the University of Florida, or UF-UCC REU for short. Although there are literally dozens of NSF REUs to chose from, this particular program in Ghana is tailored towards research in ecology, environmental science and conservation biology. I was about to start my last year in Environmental Engineering Sciences and was eager for some international research experience. NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates: Studying Ecology in GhanaWe flew out in late May and arrived in Accra to see our new home for the next few weeks. We stayed in the Sasakawa chalets, an on-campus guesthouse with AC, refrigerator and a hot water heater. On our second day in Cape Coast we met our project mentors, a team of professors in the school of biological sciences who take an REU student each year and help them conceive and follow through on a research topic of their interest. I was assigned to a veteran professor who had graduated from the same department years ago and spent his life researching aquatic ecology in the area. \011 Carmen studied pollination efficiency in the cocoa plant, a project of direct application, as the cocoa bean is one of Ghanas primary exports. Jon studied egg-laying behavior of a local butterfly, trying to discern any preference in the plant species that this butterfly lays eggs on. Angela studied traditional medicine, interviewing local herbalists and patients about common ailments and their respective treatments. I studied algal populations and associated epifauna ecology on a nearby section of rocky shore.\011 Everyday, we woke up, ate breakfast, went to the lab, met up for lunch and returned to the lab before going back home to our humble chalets. On the weekends we would go into town and browse through the various markets, occasionally trying to bargain with a merchant for some uniquely Ghanaian product. On one occasion we made it to Accra for a World Cup qualifier match, Ghana vs. Gabon, that Ghana won 2-0. Throughout our stay in Ghana we made wonderful friends who brought us into their homes and offered their help with all of our acclimating needs. They made us kenkey, fufu, jolof rice and yams. In the end, we presented our work to fellow students and professors and said goodbye to all of the friends we had made throughout campus. It was an extremely rewarding experience that I will continue to benefit from for years to come. Benjamin Lee Branoff

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42 \011 C A S G R 2008 The course began in Durban, South Africa, where the team met with students and faculty from the University of KwaZulu Natal to share experiences and understandings of water management issues in their respective areas. The Florida team presented a synthesis of the management issues of the Florida Everglades, a system they had studied as part of the summer field course prior to traveling to Africa. Students and faculty from UKZN presented an overview of management issues and research related to the St. Lucia estuary on the east cost of South Africa. The UF team then traveled from Durban to St. Lucia to further examine the unique hydrological system and its management issues. \011 Following the St. Lucia experience, the team traveled to Swaziland and explored the Lower Usuthua Smallholder Irrigation Project, a poverty alleviation initiative situated in the lowveld of Swaziland. The dam project will ultimately provide irrigation to over 11,000 hectares of land, transforming the local economy from subsistence farming into sustainable commercial agriculture. The team visited the project site and participated in round table discussions with community leaders about capacity building, farm managed institutions, water management institutional frameworks and participatory planning, and monitoring/evaluation processes. \011 Next, the team traveled to Kruger National Park where they participated in several days of discussion sessions with biologists, hydrologists, planners, and managers concerning initiatives to adaptively manage park resources. Kruger has a very robust research program with over 200 research projects spread throughout its 2 million hectares of land and across all spheres of its operation. Important areas of research include the role of fire (frequency, timing, and intensity) in the Kruger ecosystem and programs regarding elephant dynamics, the most controversial of which involves testing contraception as a means of controlling their population growth. The Kruger system was an important juxtaposition to the park system of Botswana, visited next by the UF team.\011 The bulk of the overseas course (about four weeks) was spent in and around the Okavango Delta. The UF team heard lectures from faculty at the University of Botswanas Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Center (HOORC) in Maun and had the opportunity to meet one-on-one with HOORC scientists working in their areas of interest. The UF team traveled to multiple sites throughout the Delta and its surrounding area, learning the general ecology as well as details about the unique geology, chemistry, hydrology, and management of the area. Of particular interest to the team was meeting with members of a local Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) project. Students were able to see and hear first hand how CBNRM projects function and are impacting the well-being of these communities. Students participated in ongoing research efforts of UF and HOORC joint projects through data collection to assess the impact of elephant damage, hydrologic data collection, and ecological transects in the Delta to assess characteristics of vegetative cover in floodplains. \011 While objectives of the summer included increasing students understanding of the factors affecting the management of various watersheds as well as introducing students to basic physical and ecological data collection, one of the overarching goals was to create an interdisciplinary team through which students are asked to perform and deliver as a collective. Throughout the summer, students were organized into teams and worked on assignments that revolved around the science and management issues of each of the watershed systems visited. Overall, a major objective IGERT-AM program is to develop a sense of camaraderie and respect for fellow students that will ultimately enable each student to become skilled in collaborative, crossdiscipline, integrative science that will inform management of complex systems. The summer Africa field course is the first step in that process for each cohort of students entering the program. Participants: Carol Binello, IGERT Program Manager Susanna Blair, Geology, IGERT Ph.D. Student Mark Brown, Ph.D., Director of the Center for Environmental Policy Megan Brown, SNRE, IGERT Ph.D. Student Lisa Gardner, Water and Soil Sciences, IGERT Ph.D. Student Robin Globus, Religion, IGERT Ph.D. Student Hollie Hall, Water and Soil Sciences, IGERT Ph.D. Student Richard Hamann, JD, Assistant Director, Center for Governmental Responsibility Jillian Jensen, SNRE, IGERT Ph.D. Student Marie Kurz, Geology, IGERT Ph.D. Student Dina Liebowitz, SNRE, IGERT Ph.D. Student Sarah McKune, SNRE, IGERT Ph.D. Student David Pfahler, Environmental Engineering Sciences, IGERT Ph.D. Student Sandra Russo, Ph.D., Director of Program Development, International Center Lynn Saunders, H.T. Odum Center for Wetlands, Postdoctoral Research Associate A multidisciplinary team from the University of Floridas Integrative Graduate Education, Research and Traineeship in Adaptive Management (IGERT-AM) spent the summer of 2008 in Southern Africa participating in a field course designed to examine adaptive management of water, wetlands and watersheds. The course is part of a National Science Foundation (NSF) IGERT Program grant at UF. Designed as an integral part of the IGERT-AM program, each summer for the past three years a new cohort of Ph.D. students has spent 6 weeks in southern Africa studying the biophysical, social, legal and political issues involved in the management of major watersheds in Botswana, South Africa, and Swaziland. This years team was composed of ten students, a post-doctoral fellow, three faculty, and one staff member. IGERT Field Course: Managing Water, Wetlands, and Watersheds in Southern Africa

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C A S G R 2008\011 43 This is a 3-year program supported by an NSF award to Drs. Esther Obonyo and Robert Ries in collaboration with University of Nairobi. It creates International Research Experiences for Students (IRES) in the East Africa Region. The focus of the project is giving undergraduate and graduate students an opportunity to acquire a global perspective on developing innovations that can make construction processes, products and services more sustainable using East Africa as the deployment context. The first year of the project focused on selected sites from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The students spent 9 weeks in Tanzania working closely with East African professors. The motivation for the research was creating a construction engineering education platform that would prime construction engineers for the challenges associated with globalization by improving their understanding of contextual issues through international experiences, facilitating problem-focused and team-based learning, and developing new educational materials based on the students research. NSF International Research Experiences for Students (IRES): Engineering Sustainable Building Systems in East AfricaSeveral students carried out research in five different areas. Glenn Darling investigated the use of clay-fired brick within the Tanzanian context. His research focused on assessing the use and availability of natural resources used in the mix of brick as well as the fuel sources for the firing process. He also assessed the availability of the necessary infrastructure or equipment to facilitate construction, and perceptions and or stigmas associated with brick construction. He studied the linear manufacturing progression of fired clay bricks from the first extraction of the raw materials through to the mixing, forming, drying, and firing. He also studied the manufacturing of burned or fired clay brick in small scale local production and analyzed the potential for large scale factory production of brick and the various efforts to revitalize that industry once existed. \011 Iris Zielske and Andrew Wehle investigated how technologies in lowincome housing areas are developed, disseminated and used by various smallscale contractors including how practical physical sustainability knowledge in terms of materials, construction styles, and building design could be infused in the work of small-scale builders. They assessed the current level of knowledge and support of engineering sustainable construction systems within stakeholder groups (informal construction labor), and how groups access various housing resources, namely: finance; land; building materials; technology; labor and resources. The students identified key players in the construction sector focusing on their operations in the social marketplace. The investigative tools used by the students included literature reviews, library research, on-site surveys of housing communities, consultations with local university researchers, interviews with members of various government agencies, interviews with administrators of participating local NGOs and members of community based organizations (CBOs). They also spoke with various members of the housing construction community such as architects, quantity surveyors, urban planners and construction laborers. The resulting social network developed by the students defines a knowledge map that can be used for the dissemination of knowledge on sustainable construction engineering practices. \011 Dereck Winning focused on identifying and analyzing passive design strategies used in openings to achieve thermal comfort. He assessed this issue at multiple scales of residences, which use a variety shading and screening techniques and materials. He also studied how the different buildings exploited orientation, location of openings and daylighting strategies to control thermal gain. He developed a checklist for passive design strategies for residential projects in East Africa, which he used to compare and contrast the passive design strategies used for openings in traditional houses and historical buildings in Bagamoyo, Tanzania, and modern and recent residential projects in Dar es Salaam. His primary focus was identifying construction-engineering strategies that can be used to achieve thermal comfort without the use of mechanical conditioning systems for thermal comfort. \011 Jessica Laushine focused on performing a life cycle assessment of sand-cement blocks using selected case studies of commercial and residential construction from Dar es Salaam and Bagamoyo. The scope of her research was restricted to studying the extraction of raw materials considering cost, time, transportation, labor, environmental impact, transportation and their location. She also studied the production process, which involved assessing things such as the cost of materials, labor and fuel as well as the efficiency of the forming and curing process. For the construction phase, she investigated the craftsmanship and quality control in the use of sand-cement blocks. She also considered the differences in approaches to using blocks depending on the type of construction. The final aspect of her analysis was assessing the potential for extracting value from the blocks used in Dar es Salaam during the demolition phase. \011 Stephanie Sims analyzed the potential for rainwater harvesting in Tanzania using selected case studies from Dar es Salaam and Bagamoyo. Her analysis included considering the gaps in the supply of water and the extent to which rainwater harvesting can be used to meet this gap. She was able to identify a number of case studies for her study and assess the materials and technologies used for rainwater harvesting in the existing applications. She identified some key challenges that would have to be overcome before rainwater harvesting can make a significant impact on the water supply needs for the people in developing countries. In addition to the technical challenges of developing technologies that are affordable, she also identified some social barriers that have prevented the widespread adoption of rainwater harvesting in Bagamoyo and Dar es Salaam.

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44 \011 C A S G R 2008 Selected Theses & Dissertations on Africa Since 2000Ajani, Timothy Temilola. Aspect in Yoruba and Nigerian English. Linguistics Ph.D. Altman, Danielle. Feminist activism in postapartheid South Africa: the politics of postnatal depression. Anthropology M.A. Anderson, Andrea Snyder. Smallholder farmers in Malosa, Malawi: food security and household composition. Agricultural Education and Communication M.S. Apodaca, Christine K. Damselflies in extreme environments: Distribution and ecophysiology of Proishnura subfurcatum. Zoology M.S. Arthur, John W. Ceramic ethnoarchaeology among the Gamo of southwestern Ethiopia. Anthropology, Ph.D. Balcomb, Sophia Robb. Patterns of seed dispersal at a variety of scales in a tropical forest system: do post-dispersal processes disrupt patterns established by frugivores? Zoology Ph.D. Baird, Ann Brisbane. The sign of the leopard: Leopard imagery in the kingdoms of the Yoruba, the kingdom of Benin, and the kingdom of Dahomey. Art and Art History M.A. Baird, Jaime. Looking at Ethiopia: history, photography, and power. Art and Art History M.A. Barham, James G. Linking farmers to markets assessing planned change initiatives to improve the marketing performance of smallholder farmer groups in northern Tanzania. Interdisciplinary Ecology Ph.D. Barkey, Nanette Louise. Intracultural variation in blood pressure in Beira, Mozambique. Anthropology Ph.D. Bostick, Welch McNair. Soil carbon dynamics in West African cropping systems. Agricultural and Biological Engineering Ph.D. Breeyen, Alana Den. Biological control of Imperata cylindrica in West Africa using fungal pathogens. Plant Pathology Ph.D. Brookman-Amissah, Mark. A GIS decision support system for siting high voltage electric transmission lines in Ghana, West Africa. Civil and Coastal Engineering M.S. Bugarin, Flordeliz T. Trade and interaction on the Eastern Cape frontier : an historical archaeological study of the Xhosa and the British during the early nineteenth century. Anthropology Ph.D. Cassidy, Lin. Anthropogenic burning in the Okavango panhandle of Botswana: Livelihoods and spatial dimensions. Interdisciplinary Ecology M.S. Choudar, Lakhdar. Potique du dsert: parcours narratifs dans loeuvre de Le Clzio et Malika Mokeddem. French M.A. Cohen, Leah A. J. The impact of illness on livelihoods in rural western Kenya: The influence of livelihood type, gender, and seasonality. Geography M.S. Cohen, Matthew J. Systems evaluation of erosion and erosion control in a tropical watershed. Environmental Engineering Sciences thesis, Ph.D. Curtis, Matthew Chad. Archaeological investigations in the greater Asmara area: a regional approach in the central highlands of Eritrea. Anthropology Ph.D. Davidheiser, Mark Frederick. The role of culture in conflict mediation: Toubabs and Gambians cannot be the same. Anthropology Ph.D. Davis, Kristin Elizabeth. Technology dissemination among small-scale farmers in Meru Central District of Kenya: Impact of group participation. Agricultural Education and Communication Ph.D. Donkor, Augustine Kwame. Biochemistry of mercury in an impacted gold mining tropical aquatic system: the Pra River Basin in Southwestern Ghana. Environmental Engineering Sciences Ph. D. Dorn, Nicholas Carlton. Mapping the contours of imperium: an analysis of geographical representation in nineteenth-century European exploration of Africa. History M.A. Downs, Maxine. Microcredit and empowerment among women cloth dyers of Bamako, Mali. Anthropology Ph.D. Duncan, Robert Scot. Tropical forest succession: integrating theory and application in forest restoration. Zoology Ph.D. Dzotsi, Kofikuma Adzewoda. Comparison of measured and simulated responses of maize to phosphorus levels in Ghana. Agricultural and Biological Engineering M.S. Edwards, Tahra. Nao bate-me! (Dont beat me!): domestic violence in Mozambique. Anthropology, M.A. Efitre, Jackson. Life history variation in tilapia populations within the crater

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C A S G R 2008\011 45 lakes of western Uganda the role of size-selective predation. Zoology Ph.D. El-Shall, Maryam Hassan. Modern interpretations of gender in Naguib Mahfouzs Cairo Trilogy. English M.A. Evans, Meredith Morgan. Land use and prey density changes in the Nakuru Wildlife Conservancy, Kenya: Implications for cheetah conservation. Interdisciplinary Ecology M.S. Feleke, Shiferaw Tesfaye. Determinants of food security in southern Ethiopia at the household level. Food and Resource Economics M.S. Fisher, Erich Christopher. A complex systems theory of technological change: a case study involving a morphometrics analysis of Stone Age Flake Debitage from the Horn of Africa. Anthropology M.A. Fridy, Kevin S. We only vote but do not know The social foundations of partisanship in Ghana. Political Science Ph.D. Gates, James F. The structural and cultural construction of race in the handline fishing industry on South Africas western Cape coast. Anthropology Ph.D. Gebre, Yntiso Deko. Population displacement and food insecurity in Ethiopia: resettlement, settlers, and hosts. Anthropology Ph.D. Grier, Christina E. Potential impact of improved fallows on small farm livelihoods, Eastern Province, Zambia. Food and Resource Economics M.S. Gough, Amy Elizabeth. The Starter Pack Program in Malawi: implications for household food security. Agricultural Education and Communication M.S. Gwata, Eastonce Tendayi. Inheritance of promiscuous nodulation in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] and the evaluation of potential RAPD markers for the trait. Agronomy Ph.D. Hamilton, Jacqueline Marie. Telecommunications reform in Africa and the United States. Economics Ph.D. Harbison, Justin Eric. Development of a practical technique for sampling the afrotropical malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae S.L. and An. funestus. Entomology and Nematology M.S. Hartter, Joel Nathan. Landscape change around Kibale National Park, Uganda impacts on land cover, land use, and livelihoods. Geography Ph.D. Haslerig, Janet Miliah. People and wildlife conservation in Tanzania: three case studies of shifting paradigms from the colonial to independence eras. Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Ph.D. Hoon, Parakh. Between exchange and reciprocity: the politics of wildlife conservation in Botswana and agricultural diversification in Zambia. Political Science Ph.D. Hundie, Girma. The emergence of prehistoric pastoralism in Southern Ethiopia. Anthropology Ph.D. Hussey, Robert Scott-Pailos. Construction of the top of the egyptian pyramids: an experimental test of a levering device. Anthropology M.A. Jin, Sungwon. The Self-Reliance Strategy of the Imvepi Sudanese refugee settlement in northern Uganda. Anthropology M.A. Jones-Nelson, Alice C. Castles in their midst: world heritage sites in Ghana. History M.A. Kasozi, Gabriel Nuffield. Characterization of sorption and degradation of pesticides in carbonatic and associated soils from south Florida and Puerto Rico, and oxisols from Uganda. Soil and Water Sciences Ph.D. Kaya, Bocary. Soil fertility regeneration through improved fallow systems in southern Mali. Forest Resources and Conservation Ph.D. Keifer, Dorion A. Last lumbar facet and pedicle orientation in orthograde primates. Anthropology M.A. Kiel, Michelle Lea. Boundaries and bureaucrats: higher education reform in Madagascar. Anthropology M.A. Kimura, Birgitta K. An archaeological investigation into the history and socio-political organization of Konso, Southern Ethiopia. Anthropology Ph.D. Kis, Adam Daniel. Labor migration, gold mining, and low HIV prevalence in Guinea. Anthropology Ph.D. Klein, Rebecca A. We do not eat meat with the Christians Interaction and integration between the Beta Israel and Amhara Christians of Gonder, Ethiopia. Anthropology Ph.D. Koo, Jawoo. Estimating soil carbon sequestration in Ghana. Agricultural and Biological Engineering Ph.D. Lau, Yoke Fong. A comparative analysis of temperament-based learning styles of United States of America, Singapore, and Zimbabwe students. Educational Psychology M.A.E. Ledermann, Samuel Thomas. Agriculture, GDP and inequality in sub-Saharan Africa cross-country analysis of the impact of agricultural production and exports on income inequality by. Geography M.A. Leedy, Todd Holzgrefe. The soil of salvation: African agriculture and American methodism in colonial Zimbabwe, 1939-1962. History Ph.D. Lehmensiek, May. Evaluation of tourism in the Okavango Delta in Botswana using environmental accounting. Environmental Engineering Sciences M.S. Leong, Kirsten Mya. The reproductive context of low-frequency vocalizations for a group of captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Wildlife Ecology and Conservation M.S. Lepetu, Joyce Phonkga. Socio economic impact and stakeholder preference to conservation of forest reserves a

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46 \011 C A S G R 2008 case study of Kasane Forest Reserve, Botswana. Forest Resources and Conservation Ph.D. Lepp, Andrew Paul. Tourism in a rural Ugandan village: Impacts, local meaning, and implications for development. Health and Human Performance Ph.D. Leslie, Agnes George Ngoma. Social movement and democracy in Africa: The impact of womens struggle for equal rights in Botswana. Political Science Ph.D. Lyons, Andrew. An Effective Monitoring Framework for community based natural resource management: a case study of the ADM.A.DE program in Zambia. Wildlife Ecology and Conservation M.S. Magembe, Lucy. Transformation of valleybottom cultivation and its effects on Tanzanian wetlands a case study of Ndembera wetland area in Iringa region. Geography M.S. Manganyi, Tirhani. Perceived group cohesiveness among participants in redistributed farms of Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. Agricultural Communication and Education Ph.D. Marcus, Richard Ryan. Cultivating democracy on fragile grounds: environmental institutions and nonelite perceptions of democracy in Madagascar and Uganda. Political Science, Ph.D. Marr, Stephen. Spaces of Aspiration, Liberation and Exclusion: The Politics of Urban Space in an African Democracy. Political Science Ph.D. Martin, Dana Che. A translation into English of Amadou Kones Traites sous le pouvoir des Blakoros [Exploitation, under the Blakoros power]. Romance Languages and Literatures Ph.D. Martinez, Eugenia Soledad. Crossing cultures Afro-Portuguese ivories of fifteenthand sixteenth-century Sierra Leone. Art History M.A. Masozera, Michel K. Socioeconomic impact analysis of the conservation of the Nyungwe Forest Reserve, Rwanda. Forest Resources and Conservation M.S. Mbeh, George Ngong. Parents responses to childrens illnesses : the case of childhood diarrhea in the Bakoum Area, Eastern Province, Cameroon. Anthropology Ph.D. MCormack, Fredline A. O. Whose Democracy? NGOs and the Democracy Project in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone. Political Science Ph.D. Meier, James Eric. On the margins: the emergence and growth of informal settlements in the greater Cape Town area, 1939-1960. History Ph.D. Mero, Samantha Anne. Language diversity in Guinea, West Africa. Linguistics M.A. Mijumbi, Peter B. The demand for food staples in Uganda. Food and Resource Economics Ph.D. Moon, Mackenzie. Apt appropriation: contemporary African artists utilization of canonical Western art. Art History M.A. Mousa, Waleed. Islam, democracy, and governance: Sudan and Morocco in a comparative perspective. Political Science Ph.D. Morgan-Brown, Theron. Butterfly farming and conservation behavior in the East Usambara Mountains of Tanzania. Interdisciplinary Ecology M.S. Mtenga, Kibiby Jabir. Comparative analysis of strategies for linking farmers to market discourse on gender equity, community empowerment and soil fertility management in Malawi. Agricultural Education & Communication Ph.D. Mudhara, Maxwell. Assessing the livelihood systems of smallholder farm households: potential for adoption of improved fallows and green manure in Zimbabwe. Food and Resource Economics Ph.D. Mugisha, Arthur Rwabitetera. Evaluation of community-based conservation approaches: management of protected areas in Uganda. Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Ph.D. Murphy, James Timothy. Networks, trust, and innovation: the social dimensions of entrepreneurship in Tanzanias manufacturing sector. Geography Ph.D. Negash, Agazi. The Holocene prehistoric archaeology of the Temben region, northern Ethiopia. Anthropology Ph.D. Ngantchui, Evelyne. Topic structures in Batoufam. Linguistics Ph.D. Odubela, Tolulope Opeyemi. Contextualized qualitative research in Nigeria coercive isomorphic pressures of the socioeconomic and political environment on public relations practices. Mass Communication M.A. Ofunniyin, Ajani Ade. The ogbo Connection: transnational identities, modernity and world view of Yoruba Americans in Sheldon, South Carolina and Alachua County, Florida. Anthropology Ph.D. Osborne, Todd Z. Fine particulate and dissolved organic carbon export of a tropical watershed in the Ugandan Highlands. Environmental Engineering Sciences M.S. Owusu, Kwadwo. Analysis of rainfall variability in sub-humid Ghana. Geography M.S. Paul, John R. Patterns of seed dispersal by animals: influence of sapling composition in a tropical forest. Zoology M.S. Pfeifer, Kimberly. Echoing silence and narcissistic violence. Political Science Ph.D. Press, Robert M. Establishing a culture of resistance: The struggle for human rights and democracy in authoritarian Kenya 1987-2002. Political Science Ph.D.

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C A S G R 2008\011 47 Randle, April M. Respiratory behavior and ecology of the African air-breathing fish Ctenopoma muriei. Zoology M.S. Richter, Heidi V. The foraging ecology of fruit bats in the seasonal environment of Central Zambia. Wildlife Ecology and Conservation M.S. Rodlach, Alexander. Blaming others for HIV/AIDS in an urban township in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe: witchcraft beliefs and conspiracy suspicions. Anthropology Ph.D. Rogers, Peter J. The political ecology of pastoralism, conservation, and development in the Arusha region of Northern Tanzania. Political Science Ph.D. Romatz, Rachel Maren. The interface of jembe traditions: an American student in West African tradition. Music M.M. Savage, Amy Frances. Identity and prevalence of blood parasites in wild-caught birds from Madagascar. Veterinary Medical Sciences M.S. Schaack, Sarah. Functional morphology and foraging ecology of the African cyprinid, Barbus neumayeri: implications for faunal diversification. Zoology M.S. Seifert, Ashley W. Respiratory allocation and the resting rate of metabolism in the African lungfish Protopterus aethiopicus. Zoology M.S. Solomon, Jennifer N. An evaluation of collaborative resource management and the measurement of illegal resource use in a Ugandan national park. Wildlife Ecolofy & Conservation Ph.D. Soud, Fatma A. Medical pluralism and utilization of maternity health care by Muslim women in Mombasa, Kenya. Anthropology Ph.D. Stewart, Kearsley Alison. Socio-economic determinants of HIV/AIDS in adolescents in rural western Uganda. Anthropology Ph.D. Stickler, Claudia Margret. The effects of logging on primate-habitat interactions: A case study of redtail monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) in Kibale National Park,\240 Uganda. Interdisciplinary Ecology M.S. Stubina, Rodney J. Cameroonian safety nets in the Korup National Forest. Anthropology Ph.D. Sugita, Eri Woods. Domestic water use, hygiene behavior, and childrens diarrhea in rural Uganda. Anthropology Ph.D. Takimoto, Asako. Carbon sequestration potential of agroforestry systems in the West African Sahel an assessment of biological and socioeconomic feasibility. Forest Resources and Conservation Ph.D. Tangka, Florence. Crossbred cows and food security in Ethiopia. Food and Resource Economics Ph.D. Thangata, Paulanco. The potential for agroforestry adoption and carbon sequestration in smallholder agroecosystems of Malawi : an ethnographic linear programming approach. Interdisciplinary Ecology Ph.D. Thomson, Alfred William. Taxonomic revision of the Amphilius uranoscopus group of east-central Africa (Teleostei:Amphiliidae). Zoology M.S. Vonesh, James Richard. Sequential predation in a complex life-history: Interactions among egg, larval, and post-metamorphic predators of the East African Treefrog, Hyperolius spinigularis. Zoology Ph.D. Wanda, Fred Masifwa. Resurgence potential of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) solms) in Lake Victoria. Environmental Engineering Sciences Ph.D. Ward, Carlton. Conservation Photography. Interdisciplinary Ecology M.S. Washington, Natalie A. Yoruba responses to the Christian missionaries from 1840 to 1880. History M.A. Weedman, Kathryn Jane. An ethnoarchaeological study of stone scrapers among the Gamo people of southern Ethiopia. Anthropology Ph.D. White, Monica T. Speaking in our own tongues: Language and conversations between African based creative theory and western based traditional theory towards a theory of womanist dramatic discourse. English M.A. Willems, Roos. Embedding the refugee experience: Forced migration and social networks in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Anthropology Ph.D. Worman, Cedric ODriscoll. Forest, fragments, and fruit: Spatial and temporal variation in habitat quality for two species of frugivorous primates (Cercopithecus mitis and Lophocebus albigena) in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Zoology M.S. Yoder, Traci L. Is use of cosmetics AntiSocialist?: gendered consumption and the fashioning of urban womanhood in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 1975-1990. Anthropology M.A. Zanne, Amy Elise. Adaptations to heterogenous habitats: Life-history characters of trees and shrubs. Zoology Ph.D.

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48 \011 C A S G R 2008 The University of Floridas Center for African Studies anticipates awarding Foreign Language and Area Studies (FLAS) Fellowships for the academic year. These fellowships are funded by the U.S. Department of Education (USED) under Title VI of the U.S. Higher Education Act and are awarded to students combining graduate work in any academic discipline with African area and language studies.\011 Fellowships are offered for any one of the regularly taught languages (Akan Amharic, Arabic, Swahili, Wolof, Xhosa and Yoruba) as well as for other African languages for which instruction can be arranged.\011 Fellowships provide a stipend of $15,000 per academic year and cover the cost of tuition and fees (12 credits per semester). Applicants must be a citizen or permanent resident of the United States and be admitted to a graduate program at the University of Florida.\011 Summer fellowships provide students with an opportunity to undertake intensive African language study in any USED approved program including the Summer Cooperative African Language Institute (SCALI). Summer fellowships cover tuition at the host institution and provide a stipend of $2,500.The Center would like to thankDr. Brenda Chalfin for coordinating this project, the students and faculty who contributed reports and photographs, and Jane Dominguez for her design and layout of this booklet.Academic Year & SummerFOREIGN LANGUAGE & AREA STUDIES (FLAS) FELLOWSHIPSFor more information, including application deadlines, please visit www.africa.ufl.edu/fellowships.