Research highlights - University of Florida Water Resources Research Center

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Research highlights - University of Florida Water Resources Research Center
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Florida Water Resources Research Center Publication Number 1
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Kiker, John E.
Morgan, William H.
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This paper was presented at the 17th Annual Conference of the Florida Pollution Control Association, and the Florida Section, American Water Works Association, in Hollywood, Florida, on November 1, 1966.

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ENGINEERING PROGRESS at the UNIVERSITY of FLORIDA
LEAFLET NO 187 VOL. XX, N0.12 DECEMBER, 1966










RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH CENTER


PUBLICATION NO. 1



by

JOHN E. KIKER, Director
Water Resources Research Center

and

WILLIAM H. MORGAN, Assistant Director
Water Resources Research Center




This paper was presented at the 17th Annual Conference of the
Florida Pollution Control Association, and the Florida Section,
American Water Works Association, in Hollywood, Florida, on
November 1, 1966.









LEAFLET NO. 187



ENGINEERING PROGRESS at the University of Florida is published monthly by the
Florida Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station, College of Engineering,
University of Florida, Gainesville.

Entered as second-class matter at the Post Office at Gainesville, Florida















COVER: The color photo on the cover is one of a series taken over Florida
by orbiting astronauts James A. McDivitt and Edward H. White, II, during
their four-day GEMINI IV mission in June, 1965. Clearly visible is most of
the Florida peninsula. Distinguishable landmarks are Tampa Bay, Char-
lotte Harbor, Cape Kennedy, and Lake Okeechobee. An edge of the space-
craft can be seen at the extreme bottom of the photo. Note the cloud for-
mations over land caused by the warmer land surfaces.
The photo was furnished through the courtesy of the Spacecraft Ocean-
ography Project of the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office.





NOTE: The preparation of this report and the research described therein
have been supported by the Office of Water Resources Research, United
States Department of the Interior, as authorized under the Water Resources
Research Act of 1964, Public Law 88-379.








RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH CENTER

by

John E. Kiker, Jr.
Director

and

W. H. Morgan
Assistant Director
Water Resources Research Center




INTRODUCTION


The Water Resources Research Act of 1964, Public
Law 88-379 (July 17, 1964) as amended by Public Law 89-
404 (April 19, 1966), authorized the establishment of State
Water Resources Research Institutes and authorized to be
appropriated for the Fiscal Year 1965 and subsequent years
thereafter sums adequate to provide $75, 000 to each of the
several states in the first year, $87,500 in each of the sec-
ond and third years, and $100,000 each year thereafter.
Other sections of the Act include matching fund provisions
and, under Title II, authorization of annual grants, con-
tract, matching, and other arrangements to undertake re-
search on a wide range of water problems by academic and
nonacademic institutions; local, State, and Federal Gov-
ernment agencies; private firms, and individuals. Title II,
which has not yet been activated, authorizes $5 million for
Fiscal Year 1967, increasing $1 million each year to $10
million in 1972, and continuing at a rate of $10 million an-
nually through 1976 for grants, contracts, matching funds
or other arrangements.


Among other advantages, the Act has provided an ex-
cellent opportunity for a Federal-State joint approach to the
many problems of water resources, making possible the es-
tablishment of a water resources institute or center at a








land grant institution in each of the fifty states and in Puerto
Rico. The University of Florida was designated by the Gov-
ernor as the location of the center for the State of Florida.
The University of Florida Water Resources Research Cen-
ter was organized on July 20, 1964 under the interim direc-
torship of Dr. E. R. Hendrickson who served part-time in
that position until June 15, 1966. The present director is
also Chairman of the Bioenvironmental Engineering Depart-
ment at the University of Florida.

The Center was established to plan and coordinate
the research and graduate training activities in a number of
c o11 e g es and departments of the University in the area of
water resources. A mechanism was also provided to co-
operate in water resources research with other research
institutions and agencies throughout the State. Research
and education programs r elated to water resources have
been conducted at the University of Florida for a number of
years. These activities have been undertaken chiefly with-
in the Colleges of Engineering, Agriculture, Arts and Sci-
ences, and Law.

Application bythe University for the initial allotment
under the provisions of Public Law 88-379 was made in No-
vember, 1964. However, funds were not made available
until late in the Spring of 1965. The first Annual Allotment
Agreement of approximately $58, 000 was received May 28
and four research projects were activated on June 1. It was
necessary that the entire allotment be encumbered by June
30, 1965; therefore, much of the effort on the four projects
was devoted to securing equipment, supplies and personnel.
The projects which were initiatedwere in the top priority of
work to be performed by the Center, and were far enough
advanced in their planning to enable them to be activated in
a short period of time. Brief descriptions of the progress
made on these projects and on a newly funded proj e ct for
Florida State University in Tallahassee are presentedhere.








CURRENT RESEARCH PROJECTS


A Comprehensive Study of Florida Water Law (College of
Law)

It was contemplated that the pr oj e ct investigators
would examine case and statutory law and other related ma-
terial, and also engage in field research in an attempt to
point out both the adequacies and inadequacies of prevailing
Florida water law. This has been accomplished. During
the year, all relevant case and statutory laws pertaining to
water rights in the State of Florida were examined, and field
research in the area of water pollutior was conducted.

All cases in the State of Florida pertaining to water
law have now been studied and catalogued. All applicable
Federal case and statutory laws have also been catalogued.
The State cases not only cover decisions of the State Su-
preme Court and the State District Courts of Appeal, but
also tr ial and court cases where pertinent and recorded.
The investigators have also examined, analyzed and cata-
logued relevant statutes, books, law review articles and any
other related material deemed appropriate for the study,
and have filed them in a comprehensive card catalog filing
system established especially for this project. Upon com-
pletion of this aspect of the study, work was begun on the
compilation of material and assembly of findings.

It was discovered early in the project that in order
to b ett er understand Florida water law, a comprehensive
analysis of water law outside the State of Florida was nec-
essary. This meant not only an examination of Southeast-
ern water law generally but also an examination of Eastern
doctrines, especially that of riparian rights. This exami-
nation was necessary for the development of a more com-
prehensive report on Florida water law. The examination
has also taken Western.water rights into consideration, al-
though not nearly as comprehensively, in an attempt to see
if the W e s t e r n water law experience could in any way be
helpful to the State of Florida or in any way aid Florida in
averting future water rights problems.








Florida Lake Eutrophication (College of Engineering)

This particular Water Resources Research Center
project is being conducted in an area southeast of Melrose
in Putnam County, Florida. A suitable lake for the study
was found in August, 1965. By the construction of a small
earthen dam, it was possible to divide the lake into a con-
trol section and an experimental section. A hydrographic
survey of the lake was made in November, 1965, with the
timely assistance of the U. S. Geological Survey at Ocala,
Florida. Data are being recorded on precipitation, air and
water temperature, and changes in lake storage.

Examination continues on the microbiota of the sur-
face water, the sediment-water interface, the living growth
on submerged objects, and shallow benthic areas. Studies
are being made relative to production rates of phytoplankton
and estimates of standing crop. Variations have been noted
in the bioassay of the lake water. The problem of attaining
consistent results in periodic sampling maybe due to inter-
ference with the bioassay procedure by colloidal ferric iron
known to be present in the water.

Sampling of the lake for chemical data is being car-
ried out on a weekly basis. In general, the amounts of ni-
trates, phosphates, and ammonia remain low and are well
mixed. The dissolved oxygen content showed a very pro-
nounced stratification at the time of Spring turnover. The
Winter turnover will be observed very closely.

Base-line studies or basic data collection will con-
tinue through the Fall and early Winter. After the Winter
turnover, controlled addition of nutrients to the experimen-
tal body of water in the form of treated sewage will begin.
In this stage of the study, it is anticipated that determina-
tion can be made of the nutrient levels at which algal blooms
in the lake are triggered.

Irrigation Efficiency (College of Agriculture)

Research effort on this project during the past year
was directed primarily toward developing the laboratory fa-
cility that will be used in evaluating the factors influencing
irrigation water losses in Florida agriculture.








Design of the major component of the facility a
low air velocity tunnel-type environmental control chamber
- was completed and construction is approximately 30 per
cent complete. Research is continuing on the development
of a highly s ens itive dew-point hygrometer to be used in
conjunction with the environmental control chamber. Pro-
gress has also been made in developing the apparatus for
use in controlling water droplet size during the evaporation
studies.

The environmental control chamber is being fabri-
cated of aluminum sheets with structural members. All
sides of the chamber are insulated with 4 in. of rigid ure-
thane foam(formed in place) and 3 in. of cellular cardboard.
Nominal inside dimensions of the control chamber are 8 ft.
wide, 8 ft. high, and 34 ft. long. Nine-foot long sections
on either end of the test section are utilized in controlling
air turbulence and as space for mounting air sampling de-
vices and other apparatus. Air velocity, temperature, and
humidity can be independently controlled within ranges that
normally exist when sprinkler irrigation is practiced in
Florida.

It is desirable to determine the dew-point tempera-
ture within 0. 1F in order to measure evaporation losses
within the environmental control chamber to the desired ac-
curacy. A suitable hygrometer claiming this degree of ac-
curacy is not available. Research has been undertaken to
develop a suitable one for this application. A prototype hy-
grometer has been constructed, derived in principle from
the condensation hygrometer with the substitution of a wa-
ter-soluble ionic single crystal for the condensing surface.
Preliminary tests indicate that the prototype will bring the
air to its dew point and maintain crystal resistance with-
in a range corresponding to much less than 0. 01F. It is
now expected that construction of the laboratory test facili-
ty will be completed in February, 1967.

Research on the primary study, that of evaluating
the factors influencing irrigation water losses, will begin
immediately after construction of the laboratory facility has
been completed. The factors to be studied initially are air
(wind) velocity, air temperature, air humidity and water
droplet size.








Limestone Solution (College of Arts and Sciences)

Periodic observations on the Suwannee River and its
tributaries have been made to obtain data r elative to the
rate of solution of the limestone underlying the area. Based
on the amount of mineral matter leaving each unit area, it
is calculated that the erosional rate is one cu. ft. of rock
material per sq. ft. of land area per 8000 years.

From the stratigraphic and topographic studies, it
has been established that the Suwannee River originally
flowed to the Atlantic coast of Georgia during the early(Pli-
ocene) erosional history of the Ocala Arch. The karst ter-
rain throughwhich the SuwanneeRiver presently flows from
its source in the Okefenokee Swamp to the Gulf of Mexico,
was developed during Pleistocene time.

During the coming year, observations on the rate of
erosion will be continued. Rates of erosion will be recalcu-
lated and refined. Most significantly, rainfall, runoff, and
ion concentration are now being correlated. Parameters
for predicting the chemical composition of the river water
at different stages are being determined.

Engineering tests are being made on the rockmater-
ials to determine the extent to which overlying rocks have
been eroded from the area of the Ocala Arch. This is based
upon the fact that the extent of prestressing can be deter-
mined in clays and claystones. Using this method, it is ex-
pected that the amount of eroded matter as determined from
stratigraphic and geochemical studies can be calculated.

Data from these e experiments will be prepared for
publication by June 30, 1967.

Radiometric Studies of the Floridan Aquifer (Florida State
University)

This project, whichwas funded in April of this year,
is being conducted in the Geology Department of Florida
State University in Tallahassee. Procedures are being de-
veloped for the collection and analysis of ground water for
heavy radioactive elements by alpha spectrometry. First
results confirm that alpha spectrometry can be utilized to
measure uranium, thorium, and radium in Florida waters.








APPLICATION OF CURRENTLY SPONSORED RESEARCH


A Comprehensive Study of Florida Water Law

The water law project is developing into a major
source of reference for many state and local officials as
well as interested private organizations concerned with wa-
ter resources' development and control. For example, the
investigators have been contacted by numerous State offi-
cials, including members of the Florida House of Repre-
sentatives, requesting aid in developing proper water re-
source legislation. On several occasions, it has been urged
that everything be done to see that the completion date of
the report is prior to the opening of the 1967 Session of the
Florida Legislature.

The r es ult s gained from the project have enabled
the investigators to make recommendations concerning wa-
ter law. The report its elf should prove to be a valuable
document for all concerned with improving water conditions
in the State of Florida, be they Federal, State, or local of-
ficials, or private citizens. The report analyzes the pres-
ent law and what could be done to improve it.

The investigators have found from discussions with
various State officials and from group responses to their
talks onwater law that it would appear that the Florida Leg-
islature will take steps to improve existing water legisla-
tion. The main source available for analysis of both State
and Federal responsibility, with the exception of the re-
searchers themselves, will be the Florida Water Law Re-
port.

Florida Lake Eutrophication

In areas of rapid development suchas Florida where
a large percentage of the population prefers water sports -
mainly swimming, boating, and fishing over all others,
such sports are dependent on clean water and are greatly
curtailed in rapidly aging surface waters which have become
slimy and malodorous, and lacking in game fish. As the
population increases, the demand for water-based recrea-
tion will also increase, and the need for methods to evalu-








ate and control the eutrophy of lakes will become more ur-
gent. The objectives of this project (which, when fully a-
chieved, will provide improved methods of evaluating the
ecologic impacts of poorly planned water development) are:
(1) to determine the validity of the criteria now in use in
other areas in measuring trophic levels in shallow, sub-
tropical lakes and, if necessary, develop other criteria;
(2) to determine conditions which tr igg er the biological,
chemical, and physical changes which take place in a lake
undergoing eutrophication, and to determine if by altering
the parameters the rate of eutrophy can be retarded, and
(3) to integrate the research data and establish guidelines
which may be used by regulatory agencies to prevent the
deterioration of surface waters.


Irrigation Efficiency

As the quantity of water being used for industrial,
agricultural, and domestic purposes incr eases serious
water shortages could occur in localized areas of Florida.
When active competition for available water resources be-
comes a reality, more public attention will be directed to-
ward more efficient water utilization. Under these circum-
stances, misuse or inefficient use of water would be subject
to legal recourse by individuals receiving damages and the
regulation of water usage would become a responsibility of
government. The objective of the Irrigation EfficiencyPro-
ject is to evaluate the factors influencing irrigation water
losses in Florida agriculture. The results of the study will
furnish a basis for obtaining greater efficiency in irrigation
water application by the user and for a more precise evalu-
ation of the level of efficiency being obtained by any partic-
ular user of water for irrigation.


Limestone Solution

In the limestone solution project, the geochemistry
of the surface and ground water have been correlated with
structural and stratigraphic conditions. From this, it has
become evident that the rate of solution for the areas is a
composite and that the greatest amount of solution is occur-
ring in structural trends. Even though the limestones of the








Floridan Aquifer are both highly permeable and porous, the
greatest flow is concentrated along fracture zones. These
can be plotted by study of aerial photographs. In these lin-
ear zones, the wells are more productive but the mineral
content and surface pollution are greater.

These geological findings have already been of value
in locating wells for the City of Arcadia, Florida. The City
of Gainesville, Florida, will take the findings into consider-
ation in the further development of its water supply. Some
of its wells are presently polluted from surface water com-
ing from sewage treatment plants that are located on the
same structural trend as the well field.


Radiometric Studies of the Floridan Aquifer

Although this project was only recently activated, it
is evident that the determination of ground water ages and
sources will be of the utmost importance in future e water
resources planning for the southeastern United States as
well as for the State of Florida.




SUMMARY


The improvement of communications among the vari-
ous departments and disciplines involved in water resources
research and training in the State of Florida, and the ex-
cellent cooperationwhich has been achievedwith State agen-
cies, have provided the basis for the initiation of research
by the Florida Water Resources Research Center, which
should have profound effects upon the conservation of water
resources and economic growth of this State and region.

With encouragement from the Water Resources Re-
search Center, the Bioenvironmental Engineering Depart-
ment of the University of Florida, in the Spring of 1966, in-
itiated a graduate interdisciplinary seminar series entitled
"Urban Environmental Problems." The series was inaugu-
rated with a presentation by Dr. Allen V. Kneese of Re-
sources for the Future, Inc., and continued with nine bi-








weekly presentations by University of Florida faculty mem-
bers representing the diverse fields of Law, Political Sci-
ence, Geography, Agricultural Economics, Sociology, Real
Estate and Urban Land Studies, and Economics.


This series of seminars represented a major step in
interdepartmental cooperation at the University of Florida.
With the assistance of the Water Resources Research Cen-
ter, it is now possible for areas in which research is cur-
rently needed to be identified by a unified administrative u-
nit, and for problems to be efficiently handled by the most
capable researchers regardless of departmental barriers.

In view of the relatively small allotments from the
Department of the Interior, Office of Water Resources Re-
search, and in line with Policy Statements, only four re-
search projects were initiated at the inception of the Florida
program in 1965. One was added in April, 1966. It has
been most interesting to observe the results when small
grants are effectivelyused for the attraction of non-Federal
contributions from sources other than the University sys-
tem. Cases in point may be made for all projects sponsored
by the Office of Water Resources Research in Florida. One
instance may be cited of the direct receipt of moneys.

As the result of being granted funds by the Office of
Water Resources Research, the principal investigators of
the Florida Lake Eutrophication Projectwere able to attract
State of Florida grants for augmentation of their study. On
January 3, 1966, the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commis-
sion authorized a contribution of $15,000; on January 11,
1966, the Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund au-
thorized a grant of $30,000 both to be used over a three-
year period.




PROSPECTS


It is anticipated that one additional research project
will be funded by the Water Resources Research Center of
the University of Florida during the current fiscal year. It
is necessary to screen each application for any possible du-








plication of research effort. This process is made much
easier for the Water Resources Research Centers by the
excellent cooperation of the Science Information Exchange
of the Smithsonian Institution. At the request of a Center,
the SIE will make a thorough search of their files and re-
port all registered projects r elated to the research plan
submitted.

One recently submitted plan which is being consid-
ered for funding by the Center and one which is unique in
some respects is entitled, "The Influence of Winds on Tides
- A Correlation Analysis. "

As stated in this proposal, much work has been done
in an effort to calculate the effects of seiches and wind set-
up in reservoirs and lakes, and storm surges along the sea-
shores, particularly in those areas affected by hurricanes.
Very little, however, has been done in an effort to calculate
the variations in sea level due primarily to the effects of
daily wind and weather conditions which would make possi-
ble accurate empirical methods for prediction of wind tides
at s p e c if ic locations, and at other locations that could be
compared qualitatively and quantitatively as far as coastal
morphology, hydrography, and meteorology are concerned.
Wind stresses, acting upon the surface of the shallow near-
shore areas of the Gulf of Mexico and embayments off Flor-
ida's west coast at times other than during storms and hur-
rican e s can bring about water level changes as great as
those resulting from periodic tide-producing forces.

The calculation of both higher and lower water levels
than predicted, resulting from the influence of wind tides,
is becoming increasingly important in estuarine pollution
studies where the effects of marine environment greatly in-
fluence water quality. This factor has been dramatically
illustrated in a recent publication emanating from the Uni-
versity's Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering a
resume of which was presented at this conference by Dr.
Thorndike Saville. *


*"A Study of Estuarine Pollution Problems on a Small Un-
polluted Estuary and a Small Polluted Estuary in Florida, "
Bulletin No. 125, Engineering and Industrial Experiment
Station, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 202 pp.









ADDENDUM


To further acquaint the researchers with the oppor-
tunities afforded by the Department of the Interior Office of
Water Resources Research, we should like to include some
of the remarks made in the Report and Recommendations of
the Panel Convened to Review Operations of The Office of
Water Resources Research, U. S. Department of the Inter-
ior, dated January 5, 1966. Many of the recommendations
have become a part of the operational philosophy of the Of-
fice of Water Resources Research.


"In the Department of the Interior, the twin assign-
ments of water research and training of water scientists
under the Water Resources Research Act of 1964 have been
centered in the Office of Water Resources Research. Clear-
ly, this office has recognized both the urgency and the mag-
nitude of its responsibilities from the outs et. In its first
year of operation, it has pressed forward with vigor and
has, in fact, been the instrument through which a nation-
wide water research and training program has been initiat-
ed.

"The accomplishments to date are impressive and
merit commendation. Under the stimulus of Title I of the
Water Resources Research Act, and the leadership of the
Office of Water Resources Research, 51 water resources
r es ear ch institutes are now in being one in each State
and in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. In each, the first
stages of a water research program have been developed.
A wide range of study has been started. A significant be-
ginning has been made in the training program. The ma-
chinery has been established to carry forward, refine, and
evaluate the total research and training effort in collabora-
tion with the institutes. There is a widespread, important,
and growing enthusiasm for the research and training effort
in the associated land-grant colleges and universities.

"The panel could not and did not undertake to evaluate
the quality of the research projects initiated during 1965. At
this early stage it was content to rely on what appeared to
bean eminently thorough-going process in the Office of Wa-
ter Resources Research for reviewing and evaluating pro-








ject proposals. The panel did note, however, an imminent
need for the Office of Water Resources Research to give
more attention to the breadth and balance of the total pro-
gram. In this connection, the following points merit empha-
sis:

"1. The first round of approved projects appears to
concentrate heavily on problems of hydrology and the water
cycle.
"2. Few projects, to date, focus on the economic,
political, social, legal, and organizational problems asso-
ciated with the Nation's water future although these are
obviously among the more critical ahead. There is meager
research underway, for example, into the water problems
associated with the sharply urbanizing trends of the Nation.
"3. An increase in the tempo of river basinplanning
throughout the country is on the horizon. Inevitably, this
planning function will uncover a host of unanswered ques-
tions, demanding answers. The Office of Water Resources
Research should begin to gear itself to this oncoming chal-
lenge. For the solution of basin-wide problems, as in other
fields, therewill be a need fora multidisciplinaryapproach,
probably on an unprecedented scale. "


The Water Resources Research Center of the Uni-
versity of Florida will welcome suggestions or inquiries
from any interested individuals or organizations. The ad-
dress is 125 Building E, University of Florida, Gainesville,
Florida 32601.























PUBLICATIONS OF THE FLORIDA


ENGINEERING AND INDUSTRIAL EXPERIMENT STATION


The Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station, College of Engineering,
issues five series of publications under the general title, ENGINEERING
PROGRESS at the University of Florida: (1) Bulletin Series original publica-
tions of research, or conference proceedings, usually on problems of specific
interest to the industries of the State of Florida; (2) Technical Paper Series -
reprints of technical articles by staff members appearing in national publications;
(3) Leaflet Series nontechnical articles of a general nature written by staff
members; (4) Technical Progress Reports reports of research which is still in
progress, and (5) Florida Engineering Series books on technical engineering
problems.


A complete list of these publications is available upon request to:

The Editor
Florida Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida




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VVATER RESOURCES RESEARCH CENTER ENGINEERING PROGRESS at the UNIVERSITY of FLORIDA LEAFLET NO 187 VOL. XX, NO. 12 DECEMBER, 1966

PAGE 2

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH CENTER PUBLICATION NO.1 by JOHN E. KIKER, Director Wafer Resources Research Center and WILLIAM H. MORGAN, Assistant Director Water Resources Research Center This paper was presented at the 17th Annual Conference of the Florida Pollution Control Association, and the Florida Section, American Water Works Association, in Hollywood, Florida, on November 1, 1966. LEAFLET NO. 187 ENGINEERING PROGRESS at the University of Florida is published monthly by the F lorida Eng ineering and Industria I Experiment Station, College of Eng ineering, University of Florida, Gainesville. Entered as second-class matter at the Post Office at Gainesville, Florida

PAGE 3

COVER: The color photo on the cover is one of a series taken over Florida by orbiting astronauts James A. McDivitt and Edward H. White, II, during their four-day GEMINI IV mission in June, 1965. Clearly visible is most of the Florida peninsula. Distinguishable landmarks are Tampa Bay, Char lotte Harbor, Cape Kennedy, and Lake Okeechobee. An edge of the space craft can be seen at the extreme bottom of the photo. Note the cloud for mations over land caused by the warmer land surfaces. The photo was furni shed through the courtesy of the Spacecraft Ocean ography Project of the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office. NOTE: The preparation of this report and the research described therein have been supported by the Offi ce of Water Resources United States Department of the Interior, as authorized under the Water Resources Research Act of 7964, Public Law 88-379. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH CENTER by John E. Kiker, Jr. Director and W. H. Morgan As s istant Director Water Resources Research Center INTRODUCTION The Water Resources Research Act of 1964, Public Law 88-379 (July 17, 1964) as amended by Public Law 89404 (April 19, 1966), authorized the establishment of State Water Resources Research Institutes and authorized to be appropriated for the Fiscal Year 1965 and subsequent years thereafter sums adequate to provide $75,000 to each of the several states in the first year, $87,500 in each of the second and third years, and $100,000 each year the rea ft e r Other sections. of the Act include matching fund provisions and, under Tit 1 e II, authorization of annual grants, contract, matching, and other arrangements to undertake research on a wide range of water problems by academic and nonacademic institutions; 10 cal, State, and Federal Government agencies; private firms, and individuals. Title IIr which has not yet been activated, authorizes $5 million for Fiscal Year 1967, increasing $1 million each year to $10 million in 1972, and continuing at a rate of $10 million annually through 1976 for grants, contracts, matching funds or other arrangements. Among other advantages, the Act has provided an excellent opportunity for a Federal-State joint approach to the many problems of water resources, making possible the el3tablishm.ent of a water resources ins tit ute or center at a 1

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land grant institution in each of the fifty states and in Puerto Rico. The University of Florida was designated by the Governor as the location of the center for the State of Florida. The University of Florida Water Resources Research Center was organized on July 20, 1964 under the interim directorship of Dr. E. R. Hendrickson who served part-time in that position until June 15, 1966. The present director is also Chairman of the Bioenvironmental Engineering Department at the University of Florida. The Center was established to plan and coordinate the research and graduate training activities in a number of c.o 11 e g e s and departments of the University in the area of water resources. A mechanism was also provided to cooperate in water resources research with other research institutions and age n c i e s throughout the State. Research and education programs r elated to water resources have been conducted at the University of Florida for a number of years. These activities have been undertaken chiefly within the Colleges of Engineering, Agriculture, Arts and Sciences, and Law. Application by the University for the initial allotment under theprovisions of Public Law 88-379 was made in No vember, 1964. However, funds were not made .available until late in the Spring of 1965. The first Annual Allotment Agreement of approximately $58,000 was received May 28 and four research projects were activated on June 1. It was necessary that the entire allotment be encumbered by June 30, 1965; therefore, much of the effort on the four projects was devoted to securing equipment, supplies and personnel. The projects which were initiated were in the top priority of work to be performed by the Center, and were far enough advanced in their planning to enable them to be activated in a short period cif time. Brief descriptions of the progress made on these projects and on a newly funded pro j e c t for Florida State University in Tallahassee ar'e presented here. 2 CURRENT RESEARCH PROJECTS A Comprehensive Study of Florida Water Law (College of Law) It was contemplated that the pro j e c t investigators would examine case and statutory law and other related material, and also engage in fi e 1 d research in an attempt to point out both the adequacies and inadequacies of prevailing Florida water law. This has been accomplished. During the year, all relevant case and statutory laws pertaining to water rights in the State of Florida were examined, and field research in the area of water pollutior was conducted. All cases in the State of Florida pertaining to water law have now been studied and catalogued. All applicable Federal case and statutory laws have also been catalogued. The State cas es not only cover dec is ion s of the State Supreme Court and the State Dis t ric t Courts of Appeal, but als 0 t ria 1 and court cases where pertinent and recorded. The investigators have also examined, analyzed and catalogued relevant statutes, books, law review article's and any other reI ate d material deemed appropriate for the study, and have filed them in a comprehensive card catalog filing system established especially for this project. Upon com pletion' of this aspect of the study, work was begun on the compilation of material and assembly of findings. It was discovered early in the pJ:oject that in order to b ett e r understand Florida water law, a comprehensive analysis of water law outside the State of Florida was necessary. This meant not only an examination of Southeastern water law generally but also an examination of doctrines, especially that of riparian rights. This exami,. nation was necessary for the development of a more comprehensive report on Florida water law. The examination has also taken Western,water rights into consideration, although not nearly as comprehensively, in an attempt to see if the We s t ern water law experience could in any way be helpful to the State of Florida or in any way aid Florida in averting future water rights problems. 3

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Florida Lake Eutrophication (College of Engineering) This particular Water Resources Research Center project is being conducted in an area southeast of Melrose in Putnam County, Florida. A suitable lake for the study was found in August, 1965. By the construction of a small earthen dam, it was possible to divide the lake into a control section and an experimental section. A hydrographic survey of the lake was made in November, 1965, with the timely assistance of the U. S. Geological Survey at Ocala, Florida. Data are being recorded on precipitation, air and water temperature, and changes in lake storage. Examination continues on the microbiota of the surface water, the sediment-water interface, the living growth on submerged obj ects, and shallow benthic areas. Studies are being made relative to production rates of phytoplankton and estimates of standing crop. Variations have been noted in the bioassay of the lake water. The problem of attaining consistent results in periodic sampling maybe due to interference with the bioassay procedure by colloidal ferric iron known to be present in the water. Sampling of the lake for chemical data is being carried out on a weekly basis. In general, the amounts of nitrates, phosphates, and a=onia remain low and are well mixed. The dissolved oxygen content showed a very pronounced stratification at the time of Spring turnover. The Winter turnover will be observed very closely. Base-line $tudies or basic data collection will continue through the Fall and early Winter. After the Winter turnover, controlled addition of nutrients to the experim:ental body of water in the form of treated sewage will begin. In this-stage of the study, it is anticipated thatdeterm:ination can be made of the nutr ient levels at which algal blooms in the lake are triggered. Irrigation Efficiency (College of Agriculture) Research effort on this project during the past year was directed primarily toward developing the laboratory facility that will be used in evaluating the factors influencing irrigation water loss es in Florida agriculture. 4 Design of the major component of the facility -a low air velocity tunnel-type environmental control chamber -was completed and construction is approximately 30 per cent complete. Res earch is continuing on the development of a highly sen sit i v e dew-point hygrometer to be used in conjunction with the environmental control chamber. Progress has also been made in developing the apparatus for use in controlling water droplet size during the evaporation studies. The environmental control chamber is being fabricated of aluminum she e t s with structural members. All sides of the chamber are insulated with 4 in. of rigid urethane foam (formed in place) and 3 in. of cellular cardboard. Nominal inside dimensions of the control chamber are & ft. wide, 8 ft. high, .and 34 ft. iong. Nine-foot long sections on either end of the test s I;!ction ar e utilized in contr olling air turbulence and as space for mounting air sampling devices and other apparatus. Air velocity, temperature, and humidity can be independently controlled within ranges that normally exist when sprinkler i r rig at ion is practiced in Florida. It is desirable to determine the dew-point temperature within 0.1 OF in order to measure evaporation losses within the environmental control chamber to the desired accuracy. A suitable hygrometer claiming this degree of accuracy is not available. Research has been undertaken to develop a suitable one for this application. A prototype hygrometer has been constructed, derived in principle from the condensation hygrometer with the substitution of a water -s oluble ionic single crystal for the conde.ns ing surface. Preliminary tests indicate that the prototype will bring the air to its dew poi n t and maintain crystal resistance within a range corresponding to much less than 0.01 of. It is now expected that construction of the laboratory test facility will be completed in February, 1967. Research on the primary stu d y, that of evaluating the factors influencing irrigation water losses, will begin immediately after construction of the laboratory facility has been completed. The factors to be studied initially are air (wind) vel 0 cit y, air temperature, air humidity and water droplet size. 5

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I I I, ,I 'I, Limestone Solution (College of Arts and Sciences) Periodic observations on the Suwannee River and its tributaries have been made to obtain data reI a t i veto the rate of soluti,on of the limestone underlying the area. Based on the amount of mineral matter leaving each unit area, it is calculated tha,t the erosional rate is one cu. ft. of rock material per sq. ft. of land area per 8000 years. From the stratigraphic and topographic studies, it has been est a b lis he d that the Suwannee River originally flowed to the Atlantic coast of Georgia during the early (Pliocene) erosional history of the Ocala Arch. The karst terrain through which the Suwannee River presently flows from its source in the Okefenokee Swamp to the Gulf of Mexico, was developed during Pleistocene time. During the coming year, observations on the rate of erosion will be continued. Rates of erosion will be recalculated and refined. Most significantly, rainfall, runoff, and ion concentration are now be in g correlated. Parameters for predicting the chemical composition of the river water at different stages are being determined. Engineering tests are being made on the rock materials to determine the extent to which overlying rocks have been 'E!roded the area of the Ocala Arch. This is based upon the fact that the extent of prestressing can be determined in clays and claystones. Using this method, it is expected that the amount of eroded matter as determined from stratigraphic and geochemical studies can be calculated. Data from the s e experiments will be prepar ed for publication by June 30, 1967. Radiometric Studies' of the Floridan Aquifer (Florida State University) This project, whichwas funded in April of this year, is being con d u c ted in the Geology Department of Florida State University in Tallahassee. Procedures are being de-,veloped for the collection and analysis of ground water for heavy radioactive elements by alpha spectrometry. First results ,confirm that alpha spectrometry can be utilized to measure uranium, thorium, and radium in Florida waters. 6 APPLICATION OF CURRENTLY SPONSORED RESEARCH A Comprehensive Study of Florida Water Law The water law pro j e c t is developing into a major source of reference for many state and local officials as well as interested private organizations concerned with water resources I development and control. For example, the investigators have been contacted by numerous State officials, including members of the Florida House of Repres entatives, requesting aid in developing proper w ate r resource legislation. On several occasions, it has been urged that everything be done to see that the completion date of the report is prior to the opening of the 1967 Session of the Florida Legislature. The res u Its gained from the project have enabled the investigators to make recommendations concerning wa ter law. The report its elf should prove to be a valuable document for all concerned with improving water conditions in the State of Florida, be they Federal, State, or local officials, or private citizens. The report analyzes the present law and what could be done to improve it. The investigators have found from discussions with va rio us State officials and from group responses to their talks on water law that it would appear that the Florida Legislature wlll take steps to improve existing water legislation. The main source available for analysis of both State and Fed era I responsibility, with the exception of the researchers themselves, will be the Florida Water Law Report. Florida Lake EutrophiCation In, areas of rapid development suchas Florida where a large percentage of the population prefers water sports mainly swimming, boating, and fishing -over all others, such sports are dependent on clean water and are greatly curtailed in rapidly aging surface waters which have become slimy and malodorous, and I a c kin g in game fish. As the population increases, the demand for water-based recreation will also increase, and the need for methods to evalu-7

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:! '1'1 ate and control the eutrophy of lakes will becoITle ITlore urgent. The objectives of this project (which, when fully achieved, will provide iITlproved ITl e tho d s of evaluating the ecologic iITlpacts of poorly planned water developITlent) are: (1) to deterITline the validity of the criteria now in use in other in ITleasuring t r 0 phi c leveis in shallow, subtropical lakes and, if necessary, develop other c r it e ria; (2) to deterITline conditions which t rig g e r the biological, cheITlical, and physical changes which take place in a lake undergoing eutrophication, and to deterITline if by altering the paraITleters the rate of eutrophy can be retarded, and (3) to integrate the research data and establish guide lines which ITlay be used by regulatory age n c i e s to prevent the deterioration of surface waters. Irrigation Efficiency As the quantity of water being us ed for industrial, agricultural, and dOITlestic purpos es inc rea s e s, serious water shortages could occur in localized areas of Florida. When active cOITlpetition for available water resources be COITles a reality, ITlore public attention will be directed toward ITlore ef;ficient water utilization. Under these circuITl stances, ITlisus e or inefficient us e of water would be subj ect to legal recourse by individuals receiving daITlages and the regulation of water usage would becoITle a responsibility of goverUITlent. The objective of the Irrigation Efficiency Project is to evaluate the factors influencing irrigation water losses in Florida agriculture. The results of the study will furnish a basis for obtaining greater efficiency in irrigation water application by the user and for a ITlore precise evaluation of the, level of efficiency being obtained by any particular user of water for irrigation. LiITlestone Solution In the liITlestone solution project, the geocheITlistry of the surface and ground water have been correlated with structural and stratigraphic conditions. FroITl this, it has becoITle evident that the rate of solution for the areas is a cOITlposite and that the greatest aITlount of solution is occurring in structural trends. Even though the liITlestones of the 8 Floridan Aquifer are both highly perITleable and porous, the greatest flow is concentrated along fracture zones. These can be plotted by study of aerial In these linear zones, the wells are ITlore productive but the ITlineral content and surface pollution are greater. These geological findings have already been of value in locating wells for the City of Arcadia, Florida. The City of Gainesville, Florida, will take the findings into consideration in the further developITlent of its water supply. SOITle of its wells are presently polluted froITl surface water COITl ing froITl sewage treatITlent .p 1 ant s that are located on the saITle structural as the well field. RadioITletric Studies of the Floridan Aquifer Although this project was only recently activated, it is evident that the deterITlination of ground water ages and sources will be of the utITlost iITlportance in futur e water resources planning for the southeastern Un i ted States as well as for the State of Florida. SUMMARY The iITlproveITlent of cOITlITlunications aITlong the various departITlents and disciplines involved in water resources research and training in the State of Florida, and the excellent cooperation which has been achieved with State agencies, have provided the basis for the initiation of research by the Florida Water Resources Research Center, which should have profound effects upon the conservation of water ;/;'.esources and econoITlic growth of this State and region. With encourageITlent froITl the Water Resources Research Center, the BioenviroUITlental Engineering Depart ITlent of the University of Florida, in the Spring of 1966, initiated a graduate interdisciplinary seITlinar series entitled "Urban EnviroUITlenta1 ProbleITls." The series was inaugurated with a presentation by Dr. Allen V. Kneese of Re: sources for the Future, Inc., and continued with nine 9

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weekly pres entations by University of Florida faculty members representing the diverse fields of Law, Political Sci ence, Geography, Agricultural Economics, Sociology, Real Estate and Urban Land Studies, and Economics. This serie's of seminars represented a major step in interdepartmental cooperation at the University of Florida. With the assistance of. the Water Resources Research Center, it is now possible for areas in which research is currently needed to be identified by a unified administrative unit, and for problems to be efficiently handled by the most capable researchers regardless of departmental barriers. In view of the relatively small allotments from the Department of the Interior, Office of Water Resources Research, and in line with Policy Statements, only four research projects were initiated at the inception of the Florida program in 1965. One was added in April, 1966. It has been most interesting to observe the res u 1 t s when small grants are effectively used for the attraction of non-Federal contributions from sources other than the University system. Cases in point may be made for all projects sponsored by the Office of Water Resour.ces Research in Florida. One instance may be cited of the direct receipt of moneys. As the result of being granted funds by the Office of Water Resources Research, the principal investigators of the Florida Lake Eutrophication Projectwere able to attract State of Florida grants for augmentation of their study. On January 3, 1966, the Game and Fresh Water Fish Com.m.ission authorized a contribution of $15,000; on Jan u a r y 11, 1966, the Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund authorized a grant of $3"0,000 -both to be used over a threeyear period. PROSPECTS It is anticipated that one additional research project will be funded by the Water Resources Research Center of the University of Florida during the current fiscal year. It is necessary to screen each application for any possible du10 plication of research effort. This process is made' much easier for the Water Resources Research C en t e r s by the excellent cooperation of the Science Information Exchange of the Smithsonian Institution. At the request of a Center, the SIE will make a thorough search of their files and report all registered projects r elated to the research plan submitted. One recently submitted plan which is being consider ed for fun din g by the C enter and one which is unique in some respects is entitled, liThe Influence of Winds on Tides -A Correlation Analysis. II As stated in this proposal, much work has been done in an effort to .calculate the effects of seiches and wind s etup in reservoirs and lakes, and storm surges along the seashores, particularly in those areas affected by hurricanes. Very little, however, has been done in an effort to calculate the variations in sea level due primarily to the e ff e c t s of daily wind and weather conditions which would make possible accurate empirical methods for prediction of wind tides at s p e c if i c locations, and at other locations that could be compared qualitatively and quantitatively as far as coastal morphology, hydrography, and meteorology are concerned. Wind stresses, acting upon the surface of the shallow nearshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico and embayments off Florida I s west coast at times other than during storms and hurric an e s, can bring about water level changes as great as those resulting from periodic tide-producing forces. The calculation of both higher and lower water levels than predicted, resulting from the influence of wind tides, is becoming increasingly important in estuarine pollution studies where the effects of marine environment greatly influence water quality. This fa c tor has been dramatically illustrated in a recent publication emanating from the Uni versityls Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering -a resume of which was presented at this conference by Dr. Thorndike Sa ville. *IIA Study of Estuarine Pollution Problems on a Small Un polluted Estuary and a Small Polluted Estuary in Florida, II Bulletin No. 125, Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 202 pp. 11

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ADDENDUM To further acquaint the res earcher s with the opportunities afforded by the Department of the Interior Office of Water Resources Research, we should like to include some of the remarks made in the Report and Recommendations of the Panel Convened to Review Operations of The Office of Water Resources Research, U. S. Department of the Interior, dated January 5, 1966. Many of the recommendations have become a part of the operational philosophy of the Of fice of Water Resources Research. "In the Department of the Interior, the twin as signments of water research and training of water scientists under the Water Resources Research Act of 1964 have been centered in the Office of Water Resources Research. Clearly, this office has recognized both the urgency and the magnitude of its responsibilities from the 0 u t set. In its first year of operation, it has pressed forward with vigor and has, in fact, been the instrument through which a nationwide water research and training program has been initi;;tt ed. "The accomplishments to date are impressive and merit commendation. Under the stimulus of Title I of the Water Resources' Research Act, and the leadership of the Office of Water Resources Research, 51 wC!-ter resources res ear c h institutes are now in being -one in each State and in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. In each, the first stages of a water research program have been developed. A wide range of study has been started. A significant beginning has been made in the training program. The machinery has been established to carry forward, refine, and evaluate the total research and training effort in collaboration with the institutes. There is a widespread, important, and growing enthusiasm for the research and training effort in the associated land-grant colleges and universities. "The panel could not and did. not undertake to evaluate the quality of the res earch pr oj ects initiated during 1965. At this early stage it was content to rely on what appeared to be an eminently thorough-going process in the Office of Water Resources Research for reviewing and evaluating pro-12 ject proposals. The panel did note, however, an imminent need for the Offi c e 6f Water Resources Research to give more attention to the breadth and balance of the total program. In this connection, the following points merit emphasis: "1. The first round of approved projects appears to concentrate heavily on problems of hydrology and the water cycle. "2. Few projects, to date, focus on the economic, political, social, legal, and organizational problems associated with the Nation's water future -although these are obviously amohg the more critical ahead. There is meager research underway, for example, into the water problems associated with the sharply urbanizing trends of the Nation. "3. An increase in the tempo of river basin planning throughout the country is on the horizon. Inevitably, this planning function will uncover a host of unanswered questions, dema.nding answers. The Office of Water Resources Research should begin to gear itself to this oncoming chaJ lenge. For the solution of bas in-wide problems, as in other fields, there will be a need fora multidisciplinary approach, probably on an unprecedented scale. The Water Resources Research Center of the Univer s ity of Florida will welcome suggestions or in qui r i e s from any interested individuals or organizations. The address is 125 Building E, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32601. 13

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PU SLICA TIONS OF THE FLORIDA ENGINEERING AND INDUSTRIAL EXPERIMENT STATION The Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station, College of Engineering, issues fi ve series of publications under the general title, ENGINEERING PROGRESS at the University of Florida: (1) Bulletin Series -original publications of research, or conference proceedings, usually on problems of specific interest to the industries of the State of Florida; (2) Technical Paper Series -reprints of technical articles by staff members appearing in national publications; (3) Leaflet Series -nontechnical articles of a general nature written by staff members; (4) Technical Progress Reports -reports of research which is stil! in progress, and (5) Florida Engineering Series -books on technical engineering problems. A complete list of these publications is available upon request to: The Editor Florida Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station University of Florida Gainesville, Florida