Ana(b)log: A Hyperlocal Blog for Indie Music Journalism

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Title:
Ana(b)log: A Hyperlocal Blog for Indie Music Journalism
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Project in lieu of thesis
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English
Creator:
Hilson, Robert
Publication Date:

Notes

Abstract:
The purpose of this project was to develop a hyperlocal music criticism blog covering indie music in Gainesville, FL. Over the course of six and a half months, from the end of August 2010 to the middle of March 2011, Ana(b)log (Anablogmusic.com) reported on Gainesville’s artists, venues, industry professionals and newsworthy occurrences through text, video, audio, photography, podcasting and local internet radio in order to cultivate an influential online presence, establish a grassroots community of users, and supplement traditional local media. An average of two to three posts per week were published on Ana(b)log and linked via social media such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, SoundCloud and Flickr. Keywords for search engine optimization were used to make the blog available for those searching via search engines. The blog was self-hosted and maintained on DreamHost servers at WordPress.org. The completed project aims to demonstrate the decisions made during a blogger’s journey starting a hyperlocal blog.

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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All rights reserved by the source institution.
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AA00001409:00001


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Ana(b)log: A Hyperlocal Blog for Indie Music Journalism


by Robert Hilson


Project in Lieu of Thesis


Spring 2011


Anablogmusic.com










Overview


The purpose of this project was to develop a hyperlocal music criticism blog
covering indie music in Gainesville, FL.

Over the course of six and a half months, from the end of August 2010 to the middle
of March 2011, Ana(b)log (Anablogmusic.com) reported on Gainesville's artists, venues,
industry professionals and newsworthy occurrences through text, video, audio,
photography, podcasting and local internet radio in order to cultivate an influential online
presence, establish a grassroots community of users, and supplement traditional local
media.

An average of two to three posts per week were published on Ana(b)log and linked
via social media such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, SoundCloud and Flickr. Keywords for
search engine optimization were used to make the blog available for those searching via
search engines.

The blog was self-hosted and maintained on DreamHost servers at WordPress.org.
The completed project aims to demonstrate the decisions made during a blogger's journey
starting a hyperlocal blog

The Uses and Gratifications of Music Blogs

It was no doubt indicative of the state of music criticism in 2010, and probably that
of print journalism as a whole, that a ranking from the indie sphere's Alpha Voice,
Pitchfork.com, was worth far more than stacks of newspaper reviews. Quantifying the
value of a positive Pitchfork review to an aspiring young band any band, for that matter -
was perhaps only possible as word-of-mouth and blogosphere hype as metrics. A zero to 10
numeric rating affected the fate of an artist's popularity. The online revolution in music
criticism confounded at times, but, if anything, it became increasingly unmistakable that
Pitchfork, an online review ezine at http://pitchfork.com/, and its followers both ardent
readers and upstart outlets taking cues did things differently.

What was once founder Ryan Shreiber's post-high school web project was some 15
years later a taste-making juggernaut: simultaneously the miles-ahead leader in snarky









blog commentary and, more pertinently to the following discussion, the preeminent voice
in pop music journalism, online or otherwise. As of late 2010, Pitchfork tallied upward of
30 million visits per month (Caramanica, 2010). It dictated artists' publicity in much of the
blogosphere. It carried a disproportionately large weight on review aggregators like
Metacritic.com. It spawned a three-day, 40-plus band music festival and spun off affiliated
sites dedicated to covering flourishing micro-genres under the mothership's banner.
Pitchfork was, in short, a monster of cultural significance: the eight-ton opinion in the
room.

The site's rise to prominence, hegemony some would say, came in the late 2000s a
time when the traditional music journalism establishment was struggling to adapt to a
rapidly shifting media landscape. Rolling Stone no longer published in its once-iconic
"wideload" format; Robert Christgau reviews no longer ran in the Village Voice; Spin

Magazine no longer showed an interest in anything other than being another Blender.

In an age of ironic hipsterdom when terms like "relevant" took on an entirely
ambiguous meaning to people in the know, it was precisely the traditional idea of relevance
with which the older publications established in the 1960s, 70s and 80s struggled.
Pitchfork lead the avant-charge to do music criticism uniquely uniquely as in the Twitter
handle "Discographies" that reviewed entire artist catalogues in 144 impossibly witty
characters; uniquely as in Markprindle.com posting a bi-weekly handful of vulgar, non
sequitur-laced incredibly influential critical assessments.

A myriad of unavoidable questions may have piqued the interest of those
uninitiated to this relatively new wave of music journalism. Did it even make sense? Did the
sea change in criticism abide by rhyme or reason? Is its future form predictable? Why did
audiences flock to online publications such as Pitchfork so fervently?

To the first question did the Pitchfork phenomenon make sense the answer was:
maybe. Could traditional communications theories adequately explain such an innovative
and rapidly shifting development? The speed of technological advancement challenged
those trying to makes sense of easily dated research data. It was harder than ever, from a
research standpoint, to keep pace with an incessantly evolving digital environment.









Mark Zuckerberg coded the Facebook prototype in a day.


Using the theory of uses and gratifications to examine why and how audiences
consume online media may assist indie music bloggers in developing a more complete
product for their audiences.

Literature

Uses and gratifications, defined by Katz, Gurevitch and Haas (1973) as an approach
"studying the gratifications which attract and hold audiences to the kinds of media and the
types of content which satisfy their social and psychological needs," (p. 164) gained a
renewed traction since the advent of the Internet and its subsequent adoption as a mass
medium. In his historical overview of the theory, Ruggiero (2000) noted that the popular
emergence of telecommunication technologies reinvigorated the uses and gratifications
field with three new attributes specific to "new media" those of interactivity,
demassification and asynchroneity. The "ability of the media user to select from a wide
menu" (Ruggiero, 2000, p. 16) and the "concept that messages may be staggered in time,"
(Ruggiero, 2000, p. 16) respectively, demassification and asynchroneity, combined with
newly available interactivity, pushed researchers to explore whether these evolved media
forms afforded the same motivational and gratification-fulfilling opportunities as
traditional ones.

As much as uses and gratifications theory evolved in its roughly 60 years of
existence, the central premise delineated in its seminal espousal applied to 2011's media
environment with only slight modifications.

Herta Herzog (1954) was among the first to suggest audiences use media to satisfy
personal gratifications with her landmark analysis of 100 radio soap opera listeners more
than a half-century ago. As outdated as such a study may seem in terms of content and
medium examined, its central proposal that media offered the potential for information and
problem-solving advice, emotional release, and vicarious experience resonated with
modern theoretical rationale at the dawn of the new millennium.

Katz (1959) probed the uses of local newspapers and advanced uses and









gratifications theory to a place not far removed from its current state. Indeed, Katz's
assertion that newspaper audiences are motivated by entertainment, escape, information
gathering, prestige and the pressure of social stigma potentially covered much the same
gratifications as Pitchfork.

The uses and gratifications studies (Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch, 1974; Katz,
Gurevitch, & Haas, 1973; McQuail, Blumler, & Brown, 1972) classified user gratifications
into social and information-gathering categories. Both classifications applied to the new
media of 2011.

Katz, Gurevitch and Haas (1973) condensed 35 different potential media uses into
five thematic categories: those satisfying cognitive needs; affective and emotion-based
needs; "personal integrative," or identity needs; social integrative needs; and tension
release needs. These typologies were similar to Charney and Greenberg's (as cited in Li,
2005, p. 14) Internet-based dimensions of information, good feelings, peer identity,
communication and diversion-entertainment. Eastin and LaRose (2003) likewise fleshed
out the "personal integrative" dimension by linking Internet consumption with personal
status. Furthermore, Katz et al.'s "tension release" dimension translated to the Internet as
flaming, in which users "criticize someone personally or... attack their utterances in an
overly harsh, disproportionate fashion" (King, 2001, p. 416).

Early uses and gratifications studies also predicted the emergence of media-induced
communities, defined as "a set of people who have diverse backgrounds and are linked by
social ties, share common values, and even are involved in a joint action in geographical
locations or settings" (Muniz & O'Guinn, as cited in Shen & Chiou, 2009, p. 394). For
example, Katz's (1959) secondary findings identified a phenomenon in which children well
connected with peer groups tend to appropriate popular adventure stories encountered in
the media to play group games.

Many researchers cited similar behaviors as those furthering the spread of social
media (Bonds-Raacke & Raacke, 2010; Li, 2005; Schmidt, 2007; Shao, 2009; Shen & Chiou,
2009). The interactive video hegemon YouTube, for example, showed an evolutionary
progression to the "adventure story" community development described by Katz (1959).









Guosong Shao (2009) concluded in a recent study of user-generated social media that,
though sites like YouTube primarily appealed to users need for entertainment, they also
spawned virtual communities through forums for text interaction and video responses to
initial videos (p. 18-19). Online communities seemed to possess the capacity to produce
their own "adventure stories" from which to develop forums for group interaction.
Moreover, Shao found audiences also create user-generated media as manifestations of
self-expression and personal identity. This production of media, he maintained, may have
stemmed from prior consumption of others' user-generated media, suggesting the
existence of organic, self-propagating communities primarily sustained by audiences' need
to interact parasocially (p. 18-19). Shirky (2008) went even further, arguing that the types
of organizations described by Shao could not exist without the market-neutralizing abilities
of social media applications like Flickr, Wikipedia and WordPress.

Similarly, Schmidt (2007) argued in her construction of an analytical framework for
blog users that this medium often spawned and sustained its own communities, and more,
often existed as the basis for personal identification within a subculture. Stafford, Stafford
and Schkade (2004) described the Internet as a social environment and distinguished
interpersonal motivations from long-established uses based on process and content
gratifications. David Schwartz (2009) further elaborated on the formation of blogging
communities by tying interaction with online peer groups to expressions of personal
identity. In addition, he found that readers' willingness to interact through blogs was
directly correlated to a willingness to disclose personal information, how much personal
information the blogger disclosed, and perception of self-efficacy within the community.

Likewise, Chung-Chi Shen and Jyh-Shen Chiou (2009) proposed that when readers
identify with a blogging community, their ability to bond with other users, knowledge of
the community and other social investment capital increased. Readers, in turn, were more
likely to continue participating in the community and reading the blog. Describing this
cyclical relationship, the researchers concluded, "higher community identification
intensified greater consumer's willingness to invest in specific assets on a blogging
community, which in turn affects the consumer's attitude and intention toward using the
blogging community" (p. 403). Lee, Im and Taylor (2008) observed that blogger-reader

6









recipricosity and smaller community sizes generally promoted identity disclosure and
community participation, but that the latter findings didn't necessarily apply to the
Internet. As with the Schmidt (2007) and Schwartz (2009) studies, these conclusions
addressed blog users' need for gratification-fulfilling social connectedness and
development of personal identity. They also suggested that bloggers can facilitate
community-building by reducing impediments to user participation and investment.

One would've expected to find vibrantly interacting communities springing up
through these blogging outlets because users visited them for social interaction. Through
an online survey of 250 MP3 blog users, O'Donnell and McClung (2008) attempted to
measure the rationale behind frequenting music blogs. The researchers examined a
socially-oriented motivation for using MP3 blogs (where music could be downloaded in the
MP3 format) one that supplemented more pragmatic reasons like building music
libraries, acquiring free music, and learning about bands (O'Donnell & McClung, 2008).
What was surprising since it's difficult to quantify was the study's "be in on the buzz" social
dimension: a measure describing audiences' desire to participate in the grassroots-level
excitement around new bands that only existed, at first, among smaller, alternative outlets.
Also notable was the idea that O'Donnell and McClung (2008) distinguished the "buzz"
factor from that of "learning about new music," defining the former as fulfilling a social and
psychological need to "listen to bands other people are talking about" (p. 17). The study
was similar to McCain, Morris and Green's "what's new/cool" gratification (as cited in Song,
Larose, Eastin, & Lin, 2004, p. 391). McCain et al.'s finding was significant because it
distinguished the gratifications offered by the blogosphere from those conferred in
traditional media specifically, diversion, knowledge acquisition, identity, and surveillance
(McQuail, Blumler, & Brown, 1972).

Blogger Chris Baltimore (2009) of Reuters' "Fan Fare" wrote a post analyzing how
music blogs differentiated themselves from newspapers and traditional criticism outlets
like "Rolling Stone." Extending O'Donnell and McClung's (2008) "buzz" logic, Baltimore
wrote that music fans, especially local and independent music enthusiasts, turned to the
blogosphere for its taste-making expertise. He argued bloggers had in some ways replaced
both local print publications and the advice of record store clerks as they utilized "one of

7









the last really enthusiastic mediums" left (Baltimore, 2009, para. 9). Blogs also differed in
their tone, he wrote. While mainstream critics, for instance, may have made careers from
biting reviews, bloggers many strapped for time and money mostly only wrote about
the bands they enjoyed. This "labor of love" mentality offered readers a more positive, less
cynical experience and may have played a role in influencing user motivations. In addition,
Baltimore further distanced music blogs like "Aquariam Drunkard"
(Aquariumdrunkard.com) and "Done Waiting" (Donewaiting.com) from newspapers in
their ability to both unearth good, local bands and generate word-of-mouth publicity.

For users, word-of-mouth fulfilled a need that was similar to both Bonds-Raacke and
Raacke's (2010) social media-induced "connection" dimension and that of "buzz" namely,
being able to talk about bands that "cool" people listened to (O'Donnell & McClung, 2008).
But given the rapid incorporation of social media within the blogosphere, word-of-mouth
may have also testified to users' longing to interact with artists, if only on a meta-level.

Of course, a willingness to interact with the artists themselves didn't necessarily
trump user motivations to develop emotional relationships with the bloggers. Indeed, that
bloggers' had the ability through voice and personality to form bonds with users (and,
reciprocally, to be the object of affection) harkened back to the golden era of 6 o'clock
news. In an analysis of television audiences, Levy (1978) found that watchers returned to
the same news programming because of bonds formed with certain anchors, who in turn,
made sense of potentially confounding information. Perse (1990), measuring the effects of
emotional and cognitive involvement on information holding and parasocial interaction,
identified similar behavior in her study of viewer interaction with local news television
broadcasts. Like Levy, she found audiences actually developed "pseudo-friendships" (p. 21)
with media personalities based on perceived similarities, liking and attraction emotional
attachments which, in turn, became motivations for repeated media use. Perse concluded
"only feeling happy while watching the news was associated with parasocial interaction;

feeling sad or angry were unrelated" (p.31).

Though such findings may have varied given the Internet's at times negative culture
(King, 2001), the application of electronic media studies to the blogosphere was clear:









audiences' development of highly personal, emotional and cognitive connections with
bloggers potentially fostered increased blog use. Trammel and Keshelashvili (2005) argued
as much in a study of "A-list" blogs. Sampling those with high readership and several
incoming links, they argued that a blogger's popularity was directly associated with high
levels of personal disclosure and a high degree of "self awareness of purported influence"
(p. 15). In addition, A-list bloggers embraced their identity as an alternative to mainstream
online media. One prominent writer wrote, "As a blogger and not an independent peer
reviewed journalist, I am able to write about what I had for lunch or my broken coffee pot
without feeling as if I'm breaking some journalistic standard" (Trammel & Keshelashvili,
2005, p. 15).

When discussing the blogosphere, one would be remiss to overlook issues of
perceived credibility. In light of the popularity of Pitchfork.com and other online music
publications, a level of blogger or writer expertise may have factored into user motivations
to read a given publication. Past research supports the need for perceived credibility.

Johnson and Kaye (2004), in a survey of 3,747 political blog readers, found a striking
73.6 percent of audiences rated the medium as either "moderately credible" or "very
credible", combined with only 3.5 percent who rated blogs as "not at all" or "not very
credible" (p. 630). This perceived credibility stemmed from blogs' independence from
corporate interests, collaborative fact-checking, interest in tackling overlooked issues, and
willingness to discuss sensitive topics (Johnson & Kaye, 2004). "Depth of information" was
rated highest in terms of credibility attributes, but readers also judged blogs to be
believable and fairly accurate as well (p. 630). Significant, too, was the idea that audiences
considered blogger bias a core strength one that factored into high credibility scores.
"While fairness may be considered a hallmark of traditional journalism, bias is likely seen
as a virtue by blog users," the researchers wrote, adding, "Blog readers are seeking out
information to support their views..." (Johnson & Kaye, 2004, p. 633).

Johnson and Kaye (2008), in a follow-up study, noted political blogs rated higher in
credibility even than issue-oriented sites and candidate sites. Again, the authors cited a
strong motivation to reinforce beliefs, stating, "Indeed, supporters of blogs perceive bias,









along with insight and analysis, as strengths over traditional media" (Johnson & Kaye,
2008, p. 7). Interestingly, this finding was not found in earlier political medium uses and
gratifications studies. Blumler and McQuail (1969), for instance, concluded that, although
British television audiences turned to political programming to fulfill informational needs,
they did not specifically tune into shows reinforcing existing beliefs. While blogs,
specifically, rated high in users' perceived credibility, other online media may have
received more reader skepticism.

Chyi and Yang (2009) concluded readers actually considered online news
publications inferior to their paper counterparts, despite their added functionality and
convenience. These findings differentiated the blogosphere from traditional publications
that had been merely duplicated on the Web. Namely, blogs did not have to contend with
print counterparts and thus deal with the negative connotations associated with existing as
a "knockoff of the real thing." Chen and Corkindale (2008) argued, however, that reader
trust and subjective norms perceptions of other referent groups within the digital
community played an important part in adoption, a finding that presumably applied to
blogs as well.

If audiences were indeed motivated to read the work of like-minded bloggers, such
actions were perhaps driven by habitual behavior. Palmgreen, Wenner, and Rayburn
(1981), in an analysis of the ritualistic consumption patterns of television news audiences,
were among the first to point out that habit may actually trump the need-gratifying pull of
certain media attributes. The study purported:

While in certain cases more specific perceptions of anchorperson, program format,
and news quality may be more important, the discriminant analyses indicate that
the perception of differential gratifications are at least as strongly related to viewing
behavior as the more traditional measures of program attributes. (Palmgreen et al.,
1981, p. 472)

Other studies have found the habit-forming consumption of traditional media to
translate to the Internet (Milani, Osualdella, & Di Blasio, 2009; Perse & Dunn, as cited in Liu,
Cheung, & Lee, 2010; Song, Larose, Eastin, & Lin, 2004). In some instances, usage once









motivated by the conscious attempt to fulfill needs specifically, virtual community,
information seeking, aesthetic experience, monetary compensation, diversion, personal
status, and relationship maintenance gave way to subconscious, mildly addictive behavior
(Song et al., 2004, p. 390). Diddi and Larose (2006) suggested, in the same vein, that online
news media was among the most habit-forming, though perhaps for different reasons
depending on the type of user. Diddi and Larose wrote:

News junkies may be understood to be those whose news consumption is prompted
by a need to escape from their everyday routines, more along the lines of ritualistic
media use... as opposed to the instrumental orientation of those with surveillance
needs. (Diddi & Larose, 2006, Discussion section, para. 9)

As O'Donnell and McClung (2008) articulated in their study of MP3 blogs, aesthetic
and practical attributes also influenced reader motivations to use a blog. Other "new"
media research yielded similar results. Stafford, Kline, and Dimmick (1999) found
conducting business to be among the most oft credited motivation schemas for using email.
Chen and Corkindale (2008) connected simplicity of user interface and supplementary
service quality to an adoption of online news services. Shao (2009) detected a correlation
between user-generated media's "ease of use" and "amount of user control" and its
subsequent appeal to audiences. Zerba (2003) emphasized the importance of multimedia
features in their perceived ability to contribute additional information from heavy news
seekers. Conversely, from the blogger's perspective, Li (2005) cited a motivation to
improve writing skills. M


Planning

Ana(b)log: Taking on Gainesville's Hyperlocal Indie Music Scene

Ana(b)log was created and developed in the mold of other prominent local music
blogs like Brookynvegan.com, Seattlesubsonic.com, Soundonthesound.com, and
Thebaybridged.com and it emulated the style, format, themes and layouts related to
hyperlocal music blogs. The audience for the blog ranged from 18 24 years of age, was
transient, as college students often are, and was oriented toward both new media and a DIY










lifestyle. I created Ana(b)log to speak to the readers of the Gainesville community.

Tone, Style and Writing on the Blog

My intentions with Ana(b)log, in keeping with journalistic norms, placed readers
and prospective audiences at the fore. In other words, I wrote for my audience. As
described in the literature review, researcher David Schwartz found a significant
correlation between a blogger's willingness to disclose personal information and the
blogger's subsequent ability to grow an online community. In turn, I both actively
participated in the Gainesville music scene by attending at least one local show per week,
interviewing local acts, friendingg" artists on Facebook and building a face-to-face rapport
with many of Gainesville's musicians and injected my blog posts with detailed, first-
person perspective. Returns showed this disclosure to be successful, as posts of a personal
nature tended to receive the most reader comments and Facebook reposts. A Pseudo Kids
album review written as first-person narrative, for example, was reported 18 times.
"Ana(b)log Crashes 'Left of the Dial'", a list of my favorite 2000s songs, was resposted eight
times.

While the tone and writing of the site may not match the typical standards of
newspaper journalism or AP style, the blog's language was designed to appeal to an
audience who appreciated humor, irony, sarcasm and irreverence sprinkled throughout its
in-depth interviews and multimedia-based reporting. As evidenced by Pitchfork.com and
other similar outlets, the indie music community circa 2010 preferred a style of writing
that employed witty wordplay, cheeky send-up, insider references, and allusions to the
broader popular music canon, and did not shy away from ridicule. However, given the
close-knit dynamics of the Gainesville community and the relative obscurity of many of the
local acts, I chose to cover only the artists I personally enjoyed. As I was once told by an
entertainment editor at the Independent Florida Alligator, there is little value in skewering
a musician no one's heard of. This tactic of positive criticism also fell in line with journalist
Chris Baltimore's claim that blogging is largely a labor of love taken up by people who only
have time to cover what they like.

With this is mind, I aimed to communicate in a style that both mirrored the
irreverent, though critically insightful prose of leading internet publications like










Pitchfork.com, Popmatters.com, Youaintnopicasso.com and Fluxblog.org, and spoke
directly to a local readership whose inclinations weren't necessarily served by typical
newspaper commentary which tended to favor long-form expository descriptions made
largely obsolete by music's free online accessibility.

The blog's style of writing fell in line with the elite online publications mentioned
above and, perhaps more pertinent to a discussion of traditional music criticism, "old"
media stalwarts like Rolling Stone and Spin. Perhaps the biggest difference was that these
outlets didn't censor curse words with asterisks. I used Ana(b)log to dabble in creative
writing, as evidenced by the post "Why is the bro from Dead To Me so angry, y'all?" a
tongue-in-cheek write-up that utilized poetic structure, text message-like shorthand, and
perhaps best resembled the punctuation-free poetry of E.E. Cummings or, more probably,
the blogger Carles of Hipsterrunnoff.com.

Content Management System

All of the content on the blog was not possible without a solid back-end content
management system (CMS) by which to upload a wide variety of material. In the final week
of August, I created the WordPress template that became Ana(b)log (though the site was
originally entitled "University & Main", signifying the cross-streets with several prominent
local venues).

Having creating another blog, Sportscasualties.com, with a self-hosted domain at
WordPress.org, I took advantage of WordPress's user-friendly design options and one-click
hosting setup with the Anablogmusic.com domain. I had also designed a syllabus for
teaching blogging in 2010 as a project for a graduate class, "Developing Digital Online
Media." In designing this syllabus, I gave much thought to platform options, development of
blogging strategies and how to teach others how to blog. WordPress was my recommended
platform because of its advantages over other platforms, such as Blogger or Tumblr.

I purchased the domain name for $10 per year in August 2010 and bought web-
hosting in July for 12 months through DreamHost, a $9.95 per month option that offered
advanced spam guards, one-click installation and automatic hosting maintenance.

In total, the web space for Ana(b)log cost exactly $119.40 per year, a somewhat










pricey option offset by the fact that DreamHost's automated service and self-updating
maintenance made it so bloggers needed only address web-hosting for matters of payment.
In effect, Ana(b)log's "back end" ran itself. According to the company's official wiki,
DreamHost backed up its clients' sites using a combination of Apache, nginx, and lighttpd
servers run by a Debian GNU/Linux operating system.

Hello Robert Hilson,

This is an electronic receipt to let you know we just
rebilled your web hosting account with DreamHost.
Your account is now current and completely paid up.

Remember, we automatically rebill your account on the 17th
of the month (when there is an amount due).

We have the last payment on this account to be $9.95 on 2010-07-03 16:01:38.
Since then the following charges have been made to the account, which you have just paid for:

2010-07-17 $119.40 for "My Happy Hosting: First Charge" through 2011-07-16.

For full information on your previous balance please visit
htlps ,',panel dreamrLost comrn.tab= billng&subtab invoice

Emailed receipt of web-hosting purchase from DreamHost

Aesthetically speaking, Ana(b)log's design was engineered using a modified version
of web designer Christian Proell's "CP-Minimal" theme (version 1.1.1). Using CSS and HTML
in WordPress.org's "Editor" feature, I (a) took out the generic header in order to make
room for the banner graphic created in Photoshop CS5 with Moderna font and custom
shapes (b) selected an appropriate text package (a mix of Helvetica Neue, Liberation Sans,
and Arial) (c) changed the color scheme and (d) inserted metadata using Google Adwords
for keyword ideas that would better optimize the site for search engines. I learned to code
in XHTML and CSS by taking MMC5015 Electronic Publishing with Professor David Carlson
and was subsequently able to tweak the design template of the site, as well as individual
posts in WordPress's "HTML Editor". Elizabeth Castro's handbook "HTML, XHTML & CSS:
Sixth Edition" was also helpful in this regard.

Widgets and Enhanced Functionality

Through a trial and error process of widget selection, I further honed the aesthetic









and functional elements of the site to incorporate social media connectivity through
Twitter and Facebook. Selected widgets also enhanced in-site navigation. OttoDestruct's
"Simple Twitter Connect Base" widget, for instance, allowed me to automatically tweet
published post links to Ana(b)log's Twitter account in the form of a shortened URL. Steve
Atty's "WordBooker" widget provided the same service in Facebook when I added it to
Anablogmusic.com in November.


WordBooker Options

The following options override the defaults set on the options page

Posts will be published on the Facebook belonging to : Afrobutterfly (You) .

And A post to the following fan page: No Fan Page ,

Length of Extract : 256 4

Action Link Option : Share Link $

MI Publish Post to Facebook
m"Force Re-Publish Post to Facebook on Edit (overrides republish window)
D Use Thumbnail as only image
0 Use Wordpress Excerpt for Wall Post
Facebook Post Attribute line. has a new post up... Shazam.

D Facebook Status Update text : : New blog post : %title% %link%
19 Fetch comments from Facebook for this post


WordBooker widget publishing options for Anablogmusic.com

WordBooker automatically posted published blog posts to Facebook with a link that
both provided a teaser excerpt and the ability to replicate comments on the Facebook link
to the blog. Any comment made under the WordBooker Facebook link, then, would be
automatically transcribed with author data to the blog.

While the generic WordPress "Tag Cloud" widget allowed readers a quick overview
of Ana(b)log's most blogged about topics and subjects, Kestas Mindziulis's "Subscribe
Widget" plugin generated a four-pronged subscription model allowing readers to subscribe
to the blog via email, Facebook, Twitter, a comments RSS feed or a Feedburner RSS feed










(though, as of March 20, 2011, no reader had used Feedburner to subscribe to Ana(b)log
compared to 26 via the Facebook fan page and 70 via Twitter). Moreover, Ricardo
Gonzalez's "Twitter for WordPress" widget showed the tweets in the sidebar of Ana(b)log's
Twitter feed at http://twitter.com/anablogmusic with links back to the original tweets.

Two photography based plug-ins also added visual appeal to the otherwise
stripped-down Ana(b)log aesthetic. The Cincopa video and photo download enabled me to
include photo galleries into my posts by uploading pictures directly to Cincopa thus
saving the time and space of having to upload jpeg files to WordPress. The Cincopa plugin
also transformed the photo galleries into slide shows upon clicking. "Defiance, Ohio At 8
Seconds: The Fest, Day 2" is an example of a post that put Cincopa to good use.


Example of embedded Cincopa photo gallery

Similarly, PlusNet's "Flickr Thumbnail Photostream" widget allowed me to create a
photo feed on Anablogmusic.com of all the pictures I uploaded to my personal account at


4 Tweet 0 Like


S--LLERY P,,-."i.ERED ',.' IBlNC,;,P-









Flickr.com. Set to show six picture thumbnails at a time, the widget automatically
generated a new thumbnail each time I uploaded a picture to Ana(b)log's Flickr account.
Should a reader click on any of the thumbnails, the widget produces a pop-out slideshow
of all the photos uploaded to the Ana(b)log Flickr account.


:~ ~ '~


"Jerusalem Guitar": Example of photo uploaded to Ana(b)log Flickr Account

Blog Design, Color and Layout

The blog's design and layout was created to assist with intuitive in-site searches, to
make it effortless to peruse news bites, and to present clean aesthetics and easily digestible
information. The color of the blog title (green) was chosen because of its tranquilizing
visual appeal and its psychological relation to growth symbolic of a blog's capacity for
organic expansion. The banner was designed to look like a professionally fashioned logo
fitting the aesthetics of "Web 2.0" hence the rounded Moderna font and the allusion to
RSS feeds. The three lime green quarter circles on the upper left also mimicked the grooves
on a vinyl record and thus played on the "analog" pun. In total, this labor-intensive process
of creating the site's logo was completed after approximately 15-hours with some input
from graphic designer Scott Purcell of the UF/IFAS Office of the Dean for Research. In
addition, the flow of images, video and audio within the text was designed to create both a

17










diverse media mix and a "live" feel as if the reader was experiencing a show in person.
Enter keywords.


Gainesville's Online Music Review


log


A Semi-Coherent Essay About "The
Ramones"
Act' 7 S Affbg^ r Clf', -l as A, njm w o J B '. g s .. Q vr jjntc _B_4 __ ji tr -
"re v. ,s.. .nP r 4t ms


Tags
103.7 the Gator 190 1982 bar AverkiD Ben
Marku best Gainesville music Chill
Bros Ci.c Media Coent Cewmno Grounds
DEPUTY Gainesville bands
Gainesville music
Gainesvile Music Makers Ba Ga ievai
p5,vcrace .-Ac Gainesville punk
Grow Radio cowRadiao ianess
hardcore hardcore punk Kadets Live
must n GaBnsvie Mom,'bol Music For
Squares Nice* Mos* p'oiessial Pseudo Kds
punk retro music in FRoda Rock 104 Ock music
is dvrg Skoiron Bsa 2 The Atlantic The
Aibnfc Ganesve The Boswellians the
death of radio The Fest The Fest 9
The R1moou K0d The Top The Venue Tom
Mir UF GColgo f c Coff uicans Uniorsty of
Florida radio station Wavclets WRUF-FM


Flickr Photostream


Ana(b)log home page screen capture


My goal for the blog's design was to create a template that stressed a clean,
uncluttered look and easily consumable, multimedia-based information. This was done
through the selection of widgets, color and, the design of the banner logo.




Links









The two blogrolls below the "archives" section in the right sidebar designated
"Headliners" and "Openers" served a number of purposes. First, they gave readers a sense
of similar publications, thereby creating a perception that Ana(b)log was similar to such
publications as Chromewaves.net and Brooklynvegan.net. In addition to enhancing identity,
the blogrolls also attempted to draw the attention of the linked websites, which have the
ability to track referring sites. For example, if a user clicked to Chromewaves.net from
Anablogmusic.com, Anablogmusic.com showed up as a referrer in Chromewaves.net's
statistical report. Linking was effective in bringing viewers to the blog as
Thezebraowl.wordpress.com, Kylerancourt.com, Gameovermedia.com and No-grain-no-
pain.com all added Ana(b)log to their respective blogrolls. In some cases
(Gainesville365.wordpress.com, Thegainesvillemusicarchive.tumblr.com,
Commongroundslive.com), I added local sites as a show of community solidarity in hopes
of tapping into an already established network.

Multimedia

The content of Ana(b)log was built by adding photography, writing, video and audio
using cloud applications and social networks such as YouTube, Vimeo, SoundCloud and
MP3 downloads via Wordpress.

On Sept. 12, 2010, I established an Ana(b)log YouTube Channel to aggregate all
previously uploaded videos into one branded directory. By providing blog information and
an Ana(b)log link with each video, I was able to direct 56 users to the blog according to
WordPress Stats (though only 14 unique users according to StatCounter Stats) and expose
the Ana(b)log name to the approximately 29,000 non-unique viewers who watched my
YouTube videos as of March 6, 2011. The Ana(b)log YouTube Channel gained 10
subscribers including music booking and promotions company Honeycomb Promotions -
and 15 friends over the life of this project.


Profile edt
Name: Robbie

Channel Views: 1,161

Total Upload Views: 29,615











Ana(b)log YouTube Channel stats as of March 6, 2011


I posted my first Vimeo video on Friday, Oct. 29, 2010, and immediately found it an

attractive option for formatting video interviews. Over the span of the project, I compiled

interviews of Andrew Santorelli, the President of the UF Music and Entertainment Industry

Student Association, DJ Robzilla of the hip-hop band O.N.E., Robbie Freeman of local punk

band Kadets, Amy Lobasso and Ryan Backman of the Boswellians (via YouTube due to file

size restrictions on Vimeo), and Miami recording artist Teepee. The last of these was

produced with slides, graphics, transition effects and spliced MP3 clips using Apple's

iMovie program. Teepee subsequently posted the final product to his personal MySpace

page with a link back to Ana(b)log.


Member Since 9/26/2008
Band Website senzeirecords.com/
Band Members










Interview with Teepee from Ana Slog Music on Vimeo.
Eric Lopez-Zareno w/ other musicians sometimes.
contact: teepeeasel@gmail.com

Influences For more details: http://www.discogs.com/artist/Teepee+(4);
http://teepee-miami.blogspot.com/
Type of Label Indie


Vimeo video embedded at Myspace.com/teepeeasel


As of March 15, 2011, I1 had used the SoundCloud media application twice, and,

much like YouTube, its social functionality allowed a single sound file to spread the

Ana(b)log name exponentially. Because my first two radio episodes at Grow Radio could

not be converted to downloadable MP3s (all subsequent episodes would be recorded,

converted to MP3s and made available as podcasts both through Growradio.org and

Anablogmusic.com), I created my own podcast using a combination of the Audacity Free

Audio Editor and Recorder, SoundCloud and personal podcasting equipment. I used a Blue










SnowBall podcasting microphone to record the voice parts of the podcast, recording them
directly into Audacity. With the permission of Grow Radio, I then interspersed MP3 music
files amongst the voice sections, editing the final product down into a 51-minute long file,
which I then converted to MP3 format and uploaded in SoundCloud. This process took
approximately seven hours.

I then embedded the SoundCloud file in "Music For Squares: Podcast No. 1", a post
reported on Facebook ten times one of which by Adam Hallock, a local musician whose
song I had included in the podcast. As SoundCloud worked similarly to YouTube in terms of
sustaining its own community of users, the SoundCloud file garnered 31 listens at
SoundCloud.com as of March 16, 2011. Most of these came within the first week of posting.
Like with my YouTube clips, I provided links and additional contact information directing
SoundCloud.com listeners back to the blog (though, according to StatCounter, Google
Analytics and WordPress Stats, SoundCloud did not make any referrals).

For the second SoundCloud podcast, an interview with the Reitz Union Board's
Jenna Mescon, I recorded a 20-minute conversation using a Kodak PlaySport Camcorder. I
then uploaded the video file to YouTube, extracted the sound using the MP3 converter at
Listentoyoutube.com, and pared down the interview to nine minutes in Audacity. To level
sound levels, I used the Conversations Networks's Levelator application, a free program
that automatically adjusted audio levels. Part of completing this post was a requirement for
a graduate course, MMC6936 Multimedia Blogging, with Dr. Judy Robinson. This entire
process took approximately six hours, and not including the 90 minutes it took to post the
completed interview to Ana(b)log with introductory copy and a photo modified with
Photobucket.com, a popular image hosting website.





Observations

The power of social networks was not lost on me. I was, after all, a blogger. And if
anybody spends too much time overthinking the perfectly-executed, 140-character blast of
Tweeted wit, this person was me. I went into this project aware of the depth and breadth of










digitally-faciliated, social connectivity made possible via Facebook and Twitter. So that the
speed and synergy by which readers dispersed Ana(b)log content took even this grizzled
laptop junkie off guard should give one a sense of the Internet's truly awe-inspiring power.

It was becoming an increasingly difficult task in this plugged-in global society to find
someone who was not connected. And just as Gainesville's surprisingly versatile music
scene circa 2010 ran the gamut from 18-year-old scenesters to self-described "geezer"
rockers, so too did the proverbial social network seemingly encapsulate a wide-ranging
spectrum of humanity.

This will be made clear in the following anecdote.

Moms and Metal Heads: Ana(b)log In Infancy

The pilot post for Ana(b)log was actually published on my other website
Sportscasualties.com. The intentions of this tactic were two-fold. First, as of early
September, I had not yet fully developed Ana(b)log's infrastructure. I was still tinkering
with logo design and layout and, rather than publish material on an embryonic template,
decided to instead tap into Sports Casualties' large, Gainesville-based readership as a
promotional strategy to drive traffic to the new blog.

The vigor with which metal fans reported coverage of their favorite thrash-guitar
purveyors to Facebook in fact set a benchmark for the content to follow. On Sunday, Sept.
12, 2010, I1 posted a live review of a joint Azmyth-Whiplash show at The Backstage Lounge.
By Monday, the write-up in question had been reported by 46 unique Facebook accounts
and "liked" at multiples beyond that. Though Facebook "likes" were not fully quantifiable
given the privacy settings of non-"friends", one may presume that "likes" outpaced reposts
given that 10 people "liked" Azymth's repost alone.

Evidence of viral promotion to follow:


































Posted to the Whiplash fan page


Posted by Azmyth to the Azmyth fan page


I Robbie Hilson Hey guys, I'm a local blogger who caught your show
last night. Great stuff. Here's the review.
Whiplash with Azmyth: Live at the Backstage Lounge o Sports
Casualties
www.sportscasualties.com
.. h: e t...... about bunch ofblack c ad
h s. -,s n ur*son fas .' ?..; ? f can cut
duoes5 On.. oc i ntoa '" ;meta F" t,..;? me
I'm for peace and oveas much as the next ,. .
sometimes after a week of white :, ..
] S,'. .',..: 12, 2010 I at )3pm *. Com ent Share

Whiplash Gainesville Thanks we appreciate it! You'll want to
come to the next one -see next post
.'obcr 8 at -" Spm Like

Wrte a comment..


Azmyth Hey everyone! Great show on 9/11! We will be returning to
the stage soon. We thank everyone who came out and helped fill up
The Backstage Lounge' Special thanks to Rick Tingle, Ed, and Daniel, for
helping us put on a great show. Here is a review of the show by local
blogger Robbie Hilson with some video!
IWhiplash with Azmyth: Live at the Backstage Lounge o
Sports Casualties
~'.'. SoCrtscasja tes COr

cad Y chanting DIE'in unson as fve relatively
cleancut dudes on stage ock into a throbbing meta stomp.
Don't get me wrorg m for peace and love as much as the next
guy. But sometimes after a ong week of wh te co larho,
:.;,"-."- 13, 2010 at 3:59pm Un ke Commoent Share

SYou, Jonathan Chase and 8 others like this.









whiplash with






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46 Facebook reposts of "Whiplash With Azmyth: Live at the Backstage Lounge

Perhaps unsurprisingly, proud mothers shared content promoting their sons just as
diligently as music fans did with their favorite bands. Ana(b)log's second relatively large
burst of exposure, then, came as a direct result of a mother, Renee Puzo, finding a write-up
of her son via a Google search. The subsequent chain reaction spawned a swift proliferation
of Facebook notifications.

On Thursday, Sept. 30, I talked to the Atlantic's DJ NickFresh about doing a potential
promo. On Saturday I posted "A Word About DJ NickFresh," and by later that afternoon,
Nick's mother had tipped her son off about the post. Word spread, among other avenues,
through Nick's Twitter account (via retweet), his Facebook page, his Facebookfan page, the
Atlantic's page, and Doowutchyalike Gainesville's fan page. All told, the post garnered over
150 unique visits within its first week, but the real exciting part was to witness the digitally
facilitated magic of this social network tandem unfold in real time.


Page Views for Oct. 2, 2010 according to WordPress Stats

(Note: Spikes on Sept. 26 and Sept. 29 equaled 92 and 91 hits, respectively)


0
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Through tagging and reposting on Facebook and retweets on Twitter, this one post reached
a large number of Nick's friends and family within a three-hour period.

nickfresh
E@Arab'ogMs.:c Wow, Robbie. No words can express how
appreciative I am of that writeup! THANK YOU! THANK YOU!
THANK YOU! (see you thursday!)


AnablogMusic ', >
This one's for DJ @" ckf-esh who by all accounts seems like a
pretty awesome dude. See you all Thursday it:p .o-:. y,'cNXNYO
2 .: U*. ": ... ::.


NickFresh retweet ofAnablogmusic and subsequent tweet


U


Nick Puzo well, shucks. Very nice of Robbie Hilson to writeup about
Doowutchyalike Gainesville, Cameron Creqory Burns and Yours Truly (
NickFRESH ). THANK YOU! You only make all of us want to work
harder'


c~~o~q


A Word About DJ NickFRESH Ana(b)log
brt .
Cain, ... ,.'s'~. ,_ Music Review


About an hour Comment Like Share Flag
1 Nick Puzo and 8 others like this.
Rence Puzo Congratulations NickFresh & Cameron ...... Keep up
the fantastic work!!
Minutes ago Like
Donna Mullins-Prince LUV IT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
6 m nute ..: Like

M '..','. a comment.


Tagged Nick Puzo post on Facebook















28 Facebook reposts


-> bit.ly/alb2c3 "






oTh'. -., Br.["- LUv at( Cc mon Gnounl |, ArN ..,,
oAWo A, i Nt OJNckFRESH|,f..I : 4 w



Link shared 62 times according to bit.ly

Activist Hardcore Punk Rockers Love Twitter, Obviously: Ana(b)log A Month In

The site's biggest traffic day also resulted from a collaborative
Twitter/Facebook/YouTube effort, though this time backed by the fan power of a popular
East Coast punk band. The setup went as follows: Each year in late October, downtown
Gainesville turned into one of the biggest punk music pilgrimages in the country, if not the
world. Philadelphia hardcore band "Paint It Black" headlined The Fest 9's Saturday night
show at The Venue and I braved the mass of moshing bodies to shoot photos and record
video.

After posting a live review days later on Nov. 1, I contacted the band via Twitter
with a snipped bit.ly URL linking to Ana(b)log's show coverage. Paint It Black proceeded to
share the link with their 2,500-strong Twitter following via retweet, and ultimately posted
the article to their Facebook page with an additional comment promoting both the review
and Ana(b)log. Given the size of the band's Facebook following more than 5,000 it's
quite possible the live review attracted even more impressions when combined with the
Twitter exposure and the tagged YouTube videos directing fans to seek out additional
material on my blog. Needless to say, Ana(b)log's traffic spiked in early November,


A Word About DJ NickFRESH
uVwQ Ii Ana(b)log
anabloga,'nsic corn









accumulating 322 page views on the first day of the month according to Google Analytics.
In addition, as of February 23, 2011, the YouTube video for Paint It Black's "Past Tense,
Future Perfect" the subject of one of the band's retweets had garnered 1,132 views. This
subsequent traffic increase stemming from the band's social media communications
suggested a link between artist-fan interaction that extended into the blogosphere. In other
words, fans may have been driven by a need to interact with their favorite artists using
blogs as mediums. This interaction, in turn, perhaps promoted user attendance.


Cool gig. // RT @ Awesome
video of PIB Saturday night

1 Nov 1s I r: y to A'



Paint It Black's retweet ofAna(b)log You Tube video

Tweets mentioning @AnablogMusic

SNice one. // RT @ This one's
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Paint It Black retweet ofAna(b)log live review


E Paint It Black "Past Tense, Future
Perfect" at The Fest 9
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Ana(b)log YouTube videos shared on Facebook





























Data for Ana(b)log YouTube video of Paint It Black


Page views for Nov. 1, 2010 according to Google Analytics

It's worth noting at this point that in all the previous examples, social media showed

groups traditionally associated with active grassroots networks (heavy metal fans, activist

punk kids, proud mothers) to behave in very much the way they might have in a pre-

Internet age. In 2010, fanzines, obscure record compilations and in the case of the latter

group clippings reserved proudly for the refrigerator door had been supplemented or all-

out replaced by instantaneously dispersible digital information. Though Ana(b)log existed

as one case study, evidence showed that communities established through the sharing of
"old" media (press clippings, fanzines and record albums, for instances) largely emerged in


This video is public.

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Philadelphia's Paint it Black performing "Past Tense. Future Perfect" at The Venue in Gainesville for The Fesi 9.
For more video. pictures and reviews, visit tnp-/ianablogmuswc corn
Category:
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Paint Black hatdcore haracore puck Gairesvile purk The Fest The Fest 9 Phladetipia Durk Black F ag
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the digital sphere as similarly intertwined entities. In other words, the concept of niche
translated to online social networks, but as an amplified, more easily accessible construct.

Ana(b)log "Grows" Up

Ana(b)log's Fest coverage made enough of an impact in Gainesville's independent
music community to land the blog a steady stream of modest traffic (approximately 290
hits per week in October and November of 2010 according to WordPress Stats), but more
importantly, led to a number of unexpected opportunities that subsequently transformed
the Ana(b)log name into a multi-platform endeavor.

At this juncture, it is necessary to quickly touch on the rationale behind using three
different statistical tracking programs. Though WordPress Stats recorded page views, and
was thus convenient for quickly measuring traffic, it was unable to distinguish between
"unique visitors" and return visitors those who visited the blog more than once.
StatCounter came in handy here, as it was capable of these measures and was also able to
track where site visitors came from.











..'.. ....... ........ ........ .




LJQM Rotnft Mus AutrsIah

StatCounter "Recent Visitor Map "for March 8, 2011


StatCounter also kept track of entry and exit pages, download activity and "search
engine wars" an analytic tool showing from which search engine visitors came (on the
downside, StatCounter's data log tops out at 500 entries without a premium pay-per
29










upgrade). I employed Google Analytics because it detailed similar metrics, and because it
acted as a backup should the embedded StatCounter code have encountered an unexpected
complication. This coding snag in fact affected Google Analytics when I updated Ana(b)log's
content management system to WordPress version 3.1.1. I subsequently lost all archived
data prior to February 15 and relied primarily on old screen captures to relate the provided
Google Analytics statistics. Together, the three analytics programs acted as checks on one
another and, given their varying statistical calculations, provided a range of figures by
which to estimate Ana(b)log's true traffic totals.




S-A. 700 Visits / 73.71% Bounce Rat,

A/^. 1,142 Pagovs w.'--, 00:02:24 Avg. Time on Site
1.63 Pageosiisit 59.57% % New Visits


Site usage data for Feb. 14 through March 7 according to Google Analtyics

After jumping from 838 page views in October to 1,788 page views in November
according to WordPress Stats (StatCounter shows 1,059 and 2,084 views, respectively),
Ana(b)log's visits declined to 710 in December due presumably to the University of
Florida's winter break, and the author's corresponding break, as well as the natural decline
one would expect in the wake of the successful Fest 9 coverage. Page views steadily rose in
the new year, however, as the site fetched 1,087 views in January and then climbed to
1,380 in February on an average of two to three posts per week.


The reasons for this growth largely dealt with the sites transformation into a
multimedia outlet for all things Gainesville music. In a roughly three-month span from the
end of September to the beginning of January in which I posted between two and three
times per week, Ana(b)log evolved from an outlet based solely on reporting-focused
journalism into a community partner for local Internet radio and a hub for podcasting. The
interim, however, should not be glossed over, as its events fostered a slow, but consistent
growth in influence and exposure aligning with a gradual climb up the search engine
rankings. Moreover, in keeping with journalist Chris Baltimore's findings that blogs










generate word-of-mouth publicity better than traditional media, Ana(b)log evolved into a
taste-making publication with content employed by local artists to create "buzz". In this
regard, the blog became a destination for music fans, industry professionals, and the artists
themselves.


It was during this period, for instance, that my "tell all" interview with an ex-Rock
104 DJ sparked a conversation among local radio professionals at Radio-Info.com. The
interview tallied more than 120 unique visits according to Google Analytics, landed a
referral that marginally enhanced Ana(b)log's influence, and more importantly, shed light
on a sticky situation that had otherwise been sparsely reported on.

Re: Where's The New Website?
ep 022o120 October 26, 2010. 04 1S:24 P4
Quote from: Alan McCall on October 26, 2010. 12:35:56 PM4
wNie you wait for the weaite..here's something else to read about the fi. Its an interview with a former employee of WRUF.
htp://anablOgnmusic.comtag/U103-7-the-oator/

Wow. What a mess. Didn't have to be this way...


Oct. 26 message board posting at Radio-Info.com

The interview also caught the attention of a fellow Gator alumnus who, for her part, just
happened to front a locally-popular indie rock band in Tallahassee. Her band wanted to
plug a gig at Gainesville's Backstage Lounge in October. She contacted me, writing the
following:

Greetings!

I came across your anablog (very cool, btw) and thought I'd drop you a line.

We're a band called Fantome from Tallahassee, and we're getting ready to make our
first visit to Gainesville. We will be playing @ the Backstage Lounge this Friday
night, Oct. 1st. People describe us as post punk and shoegaze.

I'm a UF journalism grad, but I haven't lived in G-ville for a while. Most of my UF
friends have moved away. I'm just trying to reach out to some cool folks who might
be interested in our show.










We just released our 2nd album, Bare Mythology, which you can download for FREE
at:

http://fantomeband.bandcamp.com

If there is any way you could help us spread the word about our show, we'd really
appreciate it. Perhaps we could return the favor with a t-shirt or some beer

Thanks for your time, and we hope to see you at the show!

Tracylhttp://www.myspace.com/fantomeband

Occurrences as these suggested that Ana(b)log had filled a need in the local music
community previously met only by stop-gap publications
(http://hearingainesville.wordpress.com/, for example) unable to sustain a long-term flow
of content. Though several credible, Florida-based music blogs had bubbled up circa 2010,
few if any had focused their attention squarely on Gainesville, and the ones that did did so
only in spurts.

After tweaking its WordPress tagline to "Covering Gainesville Indie Music Bands" to
include more pertinent Google AdWords, a Google search for "Gainesville indie music"
returned Anablogmusic.com as the third overall result as of March 17, 2011, and this
behind community stalwarts Common Grounds Live (the city's premier rock venue) and
The Gainesville Music Archive (Gainesvillemusicarchive.tumblr.com). It was evident, then,
that bands especially regional acts and touring outfits unfamiliar with the Gainesville
scene benefited from the creation of an exclusively hyper-local music publication with the
flexibility to produce quickly distributable promotional material. The rate at which the
Fantome promo was shared certainly speaks to this point.

[ JIf You're Feeling Sinister: Fantome.
Friday at Backstage...
anablog-nusic corn



Fan tome Promo Facebook reposts

Subsequent contacts namely, by Mobile, AL, space-rockers The Sunshine Factory,










St. Paul, MN, folk singer We Are The Willows, and local music vet Bob McPeek, bandleader
of garage-revivalists The Erasables certainly attested to the appeal of Ana(b)log's
promotional capabilities as well.

Ana(b)log finally came into its own via an unexpected, though certainly not
unwelcome, offer from Grow Radio's Bill Bryson. Much like Ana(b)log's correspondence
with Fantome's Tracy Horenbein, the Grow Radio connection emanated mainly by chance
and through a third-party contact. In November, I covered Gainesville rock band Driver at
Common Grounds. Driver's Naheed Mojadidi, host of Grow's "Erosion", enjoyed the
subsequent review enough to ask me to write a piece for her fanzine (also called "Erosion").
Of greater significance Naheed passed my name along to Bryson, Grow's founder and
station programmer.

By early January, after a couple meetings to discuss potential show formats and the
actual logistics of working a soundboard, I was creating and hosting the all-local "Music For
Squares" a weekly, hour-long program dedicated specifically to Gainesville music and the
touring artists passing through.

"Music For Squares" so named for Gainesville's rectangular configuration quickly
developed into Ana(b)log's podcasting arm, a collaborative coup d' etat allowing me to A)
utilize the station's technological capabilities to create downloadable podcasts and B) play
both the music available at the station and my own material without having to acquire
permissions from each individual band (though it was my overwhelming experience that
local bands, most of whom freely distributed their material anyway, wanted the exposure
without the hassles of granting any potential copyright permission).

This perhaps goes without saying, but the Grow connection both bumped the blog's
popularity and allowed me to make further inroads in the local music community. What
unfolded, then, proved an exercise in synergy: "Music For Squares" increased Ana(b)log's
exposure and credibility; Ana(b)log touted Grow and all things local internet radio.

As each of the previous anecdotes illustrated, the story of this blog was one of
spontaneous connections and optimization of social networks. Comments to Facebook and
to the blog substantiated this claim, as approximately 27 different readers commented









directly on the blog alone. In addition, several artists sent emails both complimenting
Ana(b)log and soliciting coverage. In the span of five months, I was contacted by, among
others:

Dante Lima of the Gainesville Sun, a reporter and music critic who asked me to
review an album for his band Pseudo Kids
E Dante Lima
Read this blog about Gainesville music by Robbie Hilson. It's waaaay more
devoted/better than mine. http://w'w..arablog music.com /
Ana(b)log I Covering Gainesville Indie Music Bands
vwwwv.arablogmusic corn




1 7 -' -mIcnt 3 7e

Facebook posting by Gainesville Sun music critic Dante Lima
Rock 104's Glenn Rickard, a Gainesville DJ who asked for help in compiling music for
a local music show
DJ NickFresh, who contacted me a second time to promote his Thursday night
Doowhatchyalike Gainesville dance parties at The Atlantic Nightspot
Bob McPeek, founder of Hyde & Zeke Records, Mirror Image Studios, and the
principal songwriter in The Erasables
Vice Magazine, a prominent national publication that asked me to cover an event it
sponsored at The Atlantic Nightspot










From: Rory VICEVBSUtv
TO: utbC', iC', i (.o--I
Sent: Thu, February 24, 2011 6:37:32 PM
Subject: Re: Tip: Vice Party @ The Atlan c Free Bands and Free Booze

Hey Robbie thanks for the love man! You want to come out and cover the Uncapped Live show?

Let me know man. I got spots.

R.


On Feb 22,2011, at 2:53 PM. Rory VICE/VBS.tv wrote:

Hey Robbie.
This is Rory over at Vice Magzina. On Friday February 25th we wil being throwing an even in Gainemile at The Adanoc.
Done by VICE. sponsored by Vitamin Water. and curatd by Apins Me this is set to be an naazkg show. Oh and there is
going to be free booze!


Correspondence with Rory Ahearn of Vice Magazine


Deputy, a project of Morningbell drummer Chris Hillman

The Boswellians and Kadets, two local acts

Ancient River, a popular local band who transcribed a clip of an Ana(b)log live

review and an entire album review under the "Press" section of its website

The manager of Alabama band The Sunshine Factory, to cover a tour stop in

Gainesville

Minnesota folk artist We Are The Willows, also to cover a local tour stop

The UF Music and Entertainment Industry Student Association

Charles Martin, both a physics professor at UF and the songwriter for local

psychedelic band The Righteous Kind

Bill Bryson of Grow Radio, who, as previously detailed, asked me to host a weekly

local show









Discussion


Building Rapport


In keeping with a 2005 study by Trammel and Keshelashvili that found a strong

correlation between blog popularity and a blogger's willingness to disclose personal

information, Ana(b)log strove to develop a strong, first-person voice to establish a casual,

comfortable rapport with both readers and the subjects of the blog themselves. Ana(b)log's

largely positive, but objective reviews of artists helped in this respect the blog's

analytical, though often complimentary analysis freed artists to solicit reviews and grant

interviews without the fear of negative publicity. Established blogs and print publications

in 2010 did not typically take such a one-sided, predominantly positive approach to

criticism. This proved a central difference between Ana(b)log and an outlet like the

Gainesville Sun. However, when one started from scratch without previous credentials, it

was imperative not to burn bridges or potential relationships with unfavorable press,

especially when running a one-person operation in such a small, close-knit community.


While some bloggers, including Martyn Chamberlin of Two Hour Blogger, argued

that personal style was irrelevant to driving traffic and establishing a readership, for

Ana(b)log, it was the primary feature that distinguished blogs with similar informational

content. Chamberlin wrote in a February 2011 post for Problogger.net

(http://www.problogger.net/archives/2011/02/20/teach-or-your-blog-will-die/) that a

blog must teach, or it will die. This was wise advice to a degree in that the ability to inform

audiences contributed to a blog's success. By providing interviews, photos, video of live

performances and reviews, Ana(b)log informed its audience about Gainesville's indie music

36









scene. However, the ability to entertain was very vital, especially for a music publication

existing in a digital environment in which audiences could simply visit YouTube to hear

new music.


Online music criticism had an especially rich tradition of personality-heavy first-

person voice. Seminal Web critics like Mark Prindle of Markprindle.com and Scott Floman

of Sfloman.com built large audiences and equally impressive influence (Prindle went on to

write for Crawdaddy Magazine in 2010 and occasionally appeared on Fox News' "Red Eye"

program) with an irreverent blend of personal anecdote, humor, first-person narrative and

a total dismissal of AP style. These characteristics, of course, did not stand on their own.

Thus Ana(b)log emphasized quality of information over all else an attribute that imbued

it with an air of professionalism conducive to positive reader-blogger and artist-blogger

interactions.


Knowing One's Audience


The prior discussion of building blogger-audience rapport spawned a related

question: how did a blogger get to know the audience? To establish Ana(b)log's readership,

I took a proactive approach not just with social media, but also as a participant in the

Gainesville music community. As Ana(b)log was a reporting-based publication, I went to

my sources, establishing a face-to-face relationship with multiple artists as any good

reporter would. Over the course of six months, I regularly attended bi-weekly meetings of

the University of Florida's Music and Entertainment Industry Student Association, went on

average to one show per week at a cost of $6-8 each, attended most of the major music

events (like the Gainesville Music Maker's Ball and The Fest), and, in all cases, talked to the









performers involved. I knew my audience because I was part of my audience. I put myself

in readers' shoes and would advise all bloggers looking to grow an online presence to do

the same, asking, "If I came across this post, would it both hold my attention for its duration

and leave me hungry for more?" Along those same lines, the most successful bloggers have

been ones that exploited a niche by providing original content. Consequently, bloggers

must survey their environment, researching competitors and potential partner

publications to carve out an area of specialty. For Ana(b)log, this entailed focusing heavily

on live, local music reviews and multimedia-based reporting of lesser known bands,

neither of which had been previously concentrated on.


Growing a Community: Advice for Future Bloggers


Scanning one's environment and analyzing the audience were first steps to growing

a readership. With social media providing multiple outlets for reader discussion, one must

also attempt to harness audience feedback both with the blogger and other readers by

either confining it to a single location or creating synergies between social media

applications. With Ana(b)log, readers submitted comments through YouTube, Facebook,

Twitter and email, and made it difficult to focus conversation while simultaneously

spreading thin the time and attention of the blogger. The goal, then, was to efficiently

collate reader interactions without limiting potential feedback avenues. The social media

application WordBooker helped in this regard, as it transcribed Facebook comments

directly to the blog post. Providing an RSS feed of Ana(b) log's Twitter correspondence in

the sidebar of Anablogmusic.com also helped to aggregate dialogue in one place. Ideally, a









blogger should strive to collect comments in one easily accessible location to generate

further conversation.


Bloggers should also tap into preexisting communities if at all possible. This, again,

requires an awareness of one's place in the blogosphere and a willingness to advertise

oneself. Over the course of this project, Ana(b)log was able to develop a synergistic

relationship with Grow Radio in which use of the station's facilities and access to its on-air

personalities was reciprocated with Ana(b)log coverage. The relationship between the two

shed light on how the Internet worked in general: similar communities connected with one

another through social media and then utilized each other's existing resources. Such an

interaction occurred every time an artist promoted an Ana(b)log post via retweet or

Facebook repost: the band benefited from the spread of positive press while Ana(b)log

benefitted from the increased exposure and bump in traffic.


Furthermore, bloggers should emphasize consistency of posting. Posting two to

three times per week at two to three-day intervals proved a relatively successful strategy

for building Ana(b)log's community, as dedicated readers would typically check in on off

days to make sure they hadn't missed anything. This strategy kept traffic relatively

constant throughout the week. Providing quality content that combines features of search

engine optimization (SEO) with well-written prose and engaging multimedia helps as well.

While SEO should not have been employed at the expense of content, its reputation as an

"attempt to game the system" was not entirely fair. The use of both well-constructed

permalinks (those that included popular keywords) and efficient tagging was helpful in

driving traffic, as it helped potential audiences find content more easily. To this









implementation of SEO, bloggers should additionally concentrate on posting on a regular

basis, a strategy that in time attracted both an audience and search engine crawlers. It was

beneficial to Google searchers, for instance, to include popular keywords in the title of a

post, but such a strategy should be employed with creativity and readability in mind. In

general, the more posts a blog had, the better it performed in Google searches because the

larger body of work provided more indexed words as a database for searched words.


Hyperlocal blogs, particularly ones that fulfill an original niche, should also focus on

link coverage and making contacts through social media, as these proved effective

strategies for building an audience in a short amount of time. Kylerancourt.com and Radio-

info.com, both sites that linked to Anablogmusic.com, were two of my blog's top referrers.

This spoke to the value of linking. Tapping potential local audiences through Facebook,

Twitter, SoundCloud and YouTube was also advantageous in quickly establishing a

readership.


Bloggers should never pass up a moment of inspiration. The best posts were often

the most effortless. Similarly, the pursuit of perfection should not stifle content production.

The beauty of blogging was in its informality, transience and ease of publishing. If today's

post didn't turn out exactly how the blogger envisioned, there was always tomorrow.











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Appendix



Example Post (Text transcribed below)



Album Review: Ancient River Tags
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Ancient River -4 Letter Word

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"OncoA Tabbey." the former a nao-psychoc ks-off orannmmed wth chorus, the atter
an exp r homage to Ono srj Jtr fght dOOwn to the edsoib freatkots and Bareto's M'< P'nd
laonc dorawl For a& the ad0-hose affectaton. Ancont Rver at ad fiannel ocrs exats an My 0d Knauc unabashed Och i of the Nnotea. or oeataty 4s grange orwecsors. Somewhere n
reveaton, tha bsand dacovaresd you'e LmQ AS Over Me and to answera auesion the la0 feod
music can answer for 4e yes 's al the better for Peorner Magawhe

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bfawnv low-erna. Ancent Ryer nevor stravs too far from those crunan atouchastones ano Sieoonum


Full text:


It is precisely in the sixth minute of the eight-minute psychedelic drone**** "Electric

Jesus" that I reconsider marijuana smoking as recreational pastime. This song is long. This

song is very long. This song is the kind of long over which empires rise and fall, garage


45









bands form and disperse.


But I am still listening. And Ancient River is still groping for transcendence, which
means we are both doing what we were put on this Earth to do: rock 'n roll.

Ancient River plays loud, spacey, occasionally melodic guitar music equal parts self-
loathing and reverberating wah. It is a continuous blast of distortion, heavy like a burning
desert sun, and when channeled through the expeditious Gibson of J. Barreto which is
virtually always an anachronistic head-trip into the sonic ether.

The trio's new album is entitled (somewhat preposterously) O.D.D.S. short for
outtakes, demos, demons and singles and it is misleading in two regards. First, it sounds
like a compilation album only in the sense that all long-playing rock debuts are
compilations aggregations of prime material from a band's first nascent throes. And
second, it sounds nothing at all like the batch of home recordings it alleges to be. I can't
speak to demons, but outtakes and demos these are not.

Leadoff track "4 Letter Word" in fact screams single or "howls" single, or
"caterwauls" single, or whatever it is that best describes the noise Baretto's banshee guitar
makes in these rapturous three minutes. The song chugs forward with a druggy propulsion
suited best for Madchester's stoned heyday and oddly reminiscent of the only EMF cut you
or I or anyone else can name.

It is a thing of visceral gravity, but no more or less so than "Air Conditioned Gypsy"
or "Once A Tabbey," the former a neo-psychedelic kiss-off crammed with chorus, the latter
an explicit homage to Dinosaur Jr. right down to the adlibbed freakouts and Barreto's
laconic drawl. For all the acid-hippie affectation, Ancient River at its flannel core exists an
unabashed child of the Nineties, or certainly its grunge precursors. Somewhere in
revelation, this band discovered You're Living All Over Me and to answer a question the
music can answer for itself yes, it's all the better for it.

Anchored in drummer Chad Voight's austere thump and Zach Velthelm's
appropriately brawny low-end, Ancient River never strays too far from those grungian
touchstones and as a result manage to avoid most of the indulgent trappings of its oft-
formless genre. With a few exceptions ("While You Were Gone", "Changing Skies"), most of
these songs are actual songs, employing ambience and wankery primarily as vehicles for
catharsis. "No Apology", for instance, careens into tranquilizing nothingness right up until,
invariably, Barreto pulls the ripcord with a shard-laced solo.

So, yes, in moments as these the blistering final heave of stoner dirge "Places No









One Knows," the sixth minute of "Electric Jesus" I very much wish I'd said yes in
the high school parking lot. I wish I had longer hair. I wish I drove a Plymouth Superbird. I
wish I could rock 'n roll like Ancient River.

To purchase O.D.D.S, visit AncientRiverMusic.com or download the album on iTunes.



















Most Visited Post According To WordPress Stats (Text Transcribed Below)



- 181 unique visitors


Paint It Black at The Fest 9

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Full text:


Philly hardcore juggernaut Paint It Black is the band Tipper Gore warned you about

- primal, aggressive, violent in the name of non-violence.


They're also smart as hell and shockingly melodic for an outfit whose vocalist, Dan

Yemin, does nothing more (or less) than militantly bark spitfire sermons about how WE'RE

NOT GONNA FREAKIN' TAKE IT ANYMORE!!


Hey, I still got a healthy share of raging teenage angst in me, so I'll just come out and

49










say it: I love this band.


Their formula is a limited one on paper bash/thump/bash/thump + singer who
doesn't sing. But injected with a needle-stab to the heart of anthem and adrenaline, the
final product transforms into a take-on-all-comers distillation of sheer power.

The live spectacle is this: Kids shaking with nervous energy before the first chords;
unleashing a visceral surge toward stage after. The clawing and climbing to reach the mic is
something out of "The Inferno." Difference is, there's no moshing in Hell.

I seriously want to break something right now. Subsist on a steady diet of
carcinogens. Run through a wall.

These are for you, Tip. And remember, the worst kind of poser is the one with a
crappy record collection.









Top Posts for All Days Ending March 17, 2011 According to WordPress Stats

Home page 4,033
Gainesville, Thursday Night: A Playlist 299
Paint It Black at The Fest 9 181
Interview with The Boswellians 103
The Rock 104 Interview with Ben Markus 94
Local Radio "Grows" Up 84
The Sh*tty Beatles: Live at Common Grounds 83
Skeletron Ball 2: Night 1 83
About 71
Michael Parallax at The Atlantic 68
Vice Magazine throws FREE party at The Atlantic this Friday 65
Why is the bro from Dead To Me so angry, y'all? 65
To All My Dear Friends at The Atlantic 65
Album Review: Deputy "Filthy Stinkers" (NSFW) 62
Interview with Teepee 59
Skeletron Ball 2: Night 2 56
Album Review: Pseudo Kids "Pseudo Kids" 55
Introducing: Internet Sensation Kyle Rancourt 55
Interview With Tom Miller of The Righteous Kind: Pt. 1 53
Doowutchyalike Gainesville: What You Missed 50
"Music For Squares": Podcast No. 1 50
Interview with UF MEISA's Andrew Santorelli 42
Plastic Plastic at The Atlantic 41
Dear Mr. Anderson... 38
A Top 5 for The Top 38
Metallica plus Stubbies = Alcoholica? 35
Fest Interview with Robbie Freeman of Kadets 33
Interview with R.U.B. Entertainment's Jenna Mescon 32
Kadets at 1982 32
Wavelets at 1982 30
Hard Skin at The Venue: The Fest, Day 1 29
The Rock 104 Interview: Part 2 27
10-4 Eleanor at 1982: The Fest, Day 1 26
Sweet Bronco, Driver and A cient River: Live at C m m...........................on......................... 25









Grounds
Listening to records with Jonathan Richman 24
The Rock 104 Interview: Part 3 24
Chotto Ghetto: An Intro to the Fest 9 21
A Word About DJ NickFRESH 21
Defiance, Ohio at 8 Seconds: The Fest, Day 2 20
Interview with DJ Robzilla of O.N.E. 20
The Rock 104 Interview: Part 4 20
Album Review: Ancient River "O.D.D.S." 20
Grow Radio Sends Off The White Stripes 19
Grow Radio's "Music For Squares": Episode 8 19
Ana(b)loq Crashes "Left Of The Dial" 18
Ring In The Belated New Year With "Music For Squares" 18
A Wilhelm Scream at The Venue: The Fest, Day 1 18
Bruise Cruise Recap 16
Observations 15
If You're Feeling Sinister: Fantome, Friday at Backstage
14
Lounge
Ex-Rock 104 DJ Finds Job 14
Is Radio the best pop song of the Nineties? 13
The Sound, The Fury, The Faux-Hawk: Thieves and The
11
Stampede at 1982
The Captives: Live at The Venue 11
Interview With Tom Miller of The Righteous Kind: Pt. 2 11
Waking up to "Sweet Leaf" 11
Music For Squares, Pt. 1: Averkiou 10
Grow Radio's "Music For Squares": Episode 3 10
Thankfully... I'm Still Alive! WOOT WOOT! 10
Interview with Tom Miller of The Righteous Kind: Pt. 3 9
Whiplash with Azmyth: Live at the Backstage Lounge 9
AM/FM Gainesville Music Showcase x 3 Bands 8
Interview with Dave Melosh 8
Planning 5
Tanks In Series at The Atlantic 5
.Literature 4g......-.








UF MEISA Benefit Show 4
We Are The Willows: Live at Common Grounds 3
Grow. adio's "MusicForquares"Episode9 1











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Monthly Hits According to WordPress Stats



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W07 2011
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W05 2011
W04 2011
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W02 2011
W01 2011
W52 2010
W51 2010
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272
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179
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Referrers for All Days Ending March 17, 2011 According to WordPress Stats

Referrer Views
facebook.com 517
boards. radio-info.com/smf/index.Dphp?topic= 177625.10 54
thinkmultimedia.word press.com 50
twitter.corn 44
anabloqmusic.com. 38
youtu be.com/user/wschamp95 22
kylerancourt.com 22
toall mydearfriends. corn/press. html 12
qainesvillebands.com/forum/forum posts.asp?TID=31040&PN=1 12
WordPress Dashboard 10
qooqle.com 9
sportscasualties.com 8
youtube.com/watch?v=S7Fc 6Eb7Ss 8
twitter.com/pibphilly 7
healthyfood lazypeople.com 7
twitter.com/ana bloa music 7
qainesvillebands.com/forum/forum posts.asp?TID= 31307&TPN= 2 6
youtube.comr/watch?v=VWozvA84oUOQ 5
youtube.comrn/watch?v= 5zXvmrnBfbBOO 5
twitter. comr/SCasua Ities 5
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Gainesville's Online Music Review


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Grow Radio's "Music For Squares" -
Episode 9


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Flickr Photostream


The real reason I'm hemr
Not gonra Ie An (D]ioggers I tr, ougnt not so 1oneily about hijacking this week's episode
of "Music For Souares" with a 52-minute all-Athens Couoe-de-Stioe. You may know.


1t, kf ".^odi













should you have the misfortune of access to my Facebook. I've been on a not-so-secret
R.E.M. bender since, well age Inree, really, but more vociferously since last week, when the
Greatest American Band of All-Time released its 15th stupio effort on the '08 heels of
hard- rocking "comeback" Accelerate,

Needless to say. such an event irrespective of the new album's actual merits gave me
an excuse TO plunge ino ine rCn aepths of this once- quartet s .rrm.aculate Back catalog
I ve suDsecuently lost rryself in a glorious rush of jangly post- punk ana metoic
Americana- (orange] crushing hard on Stipe/Mills/Buck/Berry to the point where I, just
last nignt. played -iDon't Go Back To) Rockvllle" 23 consecutive times in hopes its
evocative countryisms would write the appendix to my thesis.

No luck. But I'm In a much better place.

Apropos of nothing. here's Episode 9 of "Music For Squares." You might like it.

Love,

The Seventh Chinese Brother

Music For Squares Episode 9

Playlist

1 Hota The Art Teacher and The Little Stallion
2. The Srims side project from Travis Atria and Collin Whitlock) 2 Believe That Shit
3 Eight Track Automatic Transmission
4. PiilvW Equipment
5. TomGabl Anna Is A Stool Pigeon
6. Basiamo Love Chila of ROCK n RolI Hallelujah I'Ve Been BLORR n Again
7. Wavlon horton and The Heavy Hands Arcane Luv
8. Pseudo Kids Heat Wave
9. Th e rs Friends In Bottles
10. Nina Gun Restless Rubes
11. Dear + Glorious Phvsician Berlin


Backlog

March 2011

February 2011

January 2011

December 2010

November 2010

October 2010

So temb e2010




Headliners


ChromeWaves

Common Grounds

FluxBlog

Ganesevde Bands

Grow Rano

HIDst" Runoff

Hptlers Un4ed

Mar Pnriolo

My Old Kentucky BSog

No Idea Reooros









Defintition of Literature Review Terms


Social capital investment: the acquisition and development of information and
interpersonal connections for the purpose of expanding one's social networks. This
definition is borrowed from Portes (1998), who defined social capital as "the ability of
actors to secure benefits by virtue of membership in social networks or other social
structures" (Alder & Kwon, 2002, p. 20).

Personal identity: the sense of individuality achieved through A) the acquisition of
information or B) development of interpersonal connections perceived as distinguishing
one from his or her peer group. This definition, borrowed from D'Arcangelo's (2005) essay
on music and personal identity, argues, "musical material provides terms and templates for
elaborating self-identity" (p. 2).

Community participation: interaction with the blogger and other blog visitors through text-
based communications. Commenting under individual posts was the primary medium of
participation, but other examples included: joining the blog's Facebook page, commenting
on a Facebook fan page, tweeting the blogger and others in the community, linking and
sending trackbacks from one's own blog, subscribing to an RSS feed, and "liking" a blog
post.

Identity disclosure: the sharing of personal information through avenues available on the
blog. Examples include the posting of contact information, revealing of one's real name (i.e.
commenting without a pseudonym), and recounting anecdotal experiences.

Parasocial behavior: activity that cultivates a level of friendship with the blogger and other
community members. This definition borrowed from Perse (1990), who characterized
"parasocial" as "a pseudo-friendship with media personalities that connotes liking,

perceived similarity and... attraction" (p. 21).

Habitual behavior: repetitive activity with a level of automaticity that pre-empts attitudes
and intentions. This definition is borrowed from Bas Verplanken (2006), who used a
similar meaning to distinguish habit from frequency in his analysis of negative thinking
patterns.




Full Text

PAGE 1

Ana(b)log: A Hyperlocal Blog for Indie Music Journalism by Robert Hilson Project in Lieu of Thesis Spring 2011 Anablogmusic.com

PAGE 2

2 Overview The purpose of this project was to develop a hyperlocal music criticism blog covering indie music in Gainesville, FL. Over the course of six and a half months, from the end of August 2010 to the middle of March 201 1, Ana(b)log (Anablogmusic.com) reported industry professionals and newsworthy occurrences through text, video, audio, photography, podcasting and local internet radio in order to cultivate an influential online presence establish a grassroots community of users and supplement traditional local media. An average of two to three posts per week were published on Ana(b)log and linked via s ocial media such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, SoundCloud and Flickr. Keywords for s earch engine optimization were used to make the blog available for those searching via search engines. The blog was self hosted and maintained on DreamHost servers at WordPress .org. The completed project aims to demonstrate the decisions made during starting a hyperlocal b log The Uses and Gratifications of Music Blogs It was no doubt indicative of the state of music criticism in 2010, and probably that Pitchfork.com, was worth far more than stacks of newspaper reviews. Quantifying the value o f a positive Pitchfork review to an aspiring young band any band, for that matter wa s perhaps only possible as word of mouth and blogosphere hype as metrics. A zero to 10 numeric rating affected the The online revolut ion in music criticism confounded at times, but, if anythi ng, it became increasingly unmistakable that Pitchfork, an online review ezine at http://pitchfork.com/, and its followers both ardent readers and upstart outlets taking cues did things differently high school web project was some 15 years later a taste making juggernaut: simultaneously the miles ahead leader in snarky

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3 blog commentary and, more pertinently to the following discussion, the preeminent voice in pop music journalism, online or otherwise. As of late 2010, Pitchfork tallied upward of blogosphere. It carried a disproportionately large weight on review ag gregators like Metacritic.com. It spawned a three day, 40 plus band music festival and spun off affiliated sites dedicated to covering flourishing micro Pitchfork was, in short, a monster of cultural significance: the eight ton opinion in the room. in the late 2000s a time when the traditional music journalism establishment was struggl ing to adapt to a rapidly shifting media landscape. Rolling Stone no long er published in its once iconic Magazine no longer showed an interest in any thing other than being another Blender. ambiguous meaning to people in the know, it was precisely the traditional idea of relevance with which the older publications established in the 1960s, 70s and 80s struggled. Pitchfork lead the avant charge to do music criticism uni quely uniquely as in the Twitter characters; uniquely as in Markprindle.com posting a bi weekly handful of vulgar, non sequitur laced incredibly influential critica l assessments. A myriad of unavoidable questions may have piqued the interest of those uninitiated to this relatively new wave of music journalism. Did it even make sense? Did the sea change in criticism abide by rhyme or reason? Is its future form predic table? Why did audiences flock to online publications such as Pitchfork so fervently? To the first question did the Pitchfork phenomenon make sense the answer was: maybe. Could traditional communications theories adequately explain such an innovative and rapidly shifting development? The speed of technological advancement challenged those trying to makes sense of easily dated research data. It was harder than ever, from a research standpoint, to keep pace with an incessantly evolving digital environmen t.

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4 Mark Zuckerberg coded the Facebook prototype in a day. Using the theory of uses and gratifications to examine why and how audiences consume online media may assist indie music bloggers in developing a more complete product for their audiences. Literat ure Uses and gratifications, defined by Katz, Gurevitch and Haas (1973) as an approach 4) gained a renewed traction since the advent of the Internet and its subsequent adoption as a mass medium. In his historical overview of the theory, Ruggiero (2000) noted that the popular emergence of telecommunication technologies reinvigorated the uses and gratifications those of interactivity, (Ruggiero, 2000, p. 16) respectively, demassification and asynchroneity, combined with newly available interactivity, pushed researchers to explore whether these evolved media forms afforded the same motivational and gratification fulf illing opportunities as traditional ones. As much as uses and gratifications theory evolved in its roughly 60 years of environment with only slight modifications. Herta Herzog (1954) was among the first to suggest audiences use media to satisfy personal gratifications with her landmark analysis of 100 radio soap opera listeners more than a half century ago. As outdated as such a study may seem in terms of content a nd medium examined, its central proposal that media offered the potential for information and problem solving advice, emotional release, and vicarious experience resonated with modern theoretical rationale at the dawn of the new millennium. Katz (1959) p robed the uses of local newspapers and advanced uses and

PAGE 5

5 assertion that newspaper audiences are motivated by entertainment, escape, information gathering, prestige and the pressure of social stigma potentially covered much the same gratifications as Pitchfork. The uses and gratifications studies (Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch, 1974; Katz, Gurevitch, & Haas, 1973; McQuail, Blumler, & Brown, 1972) classified user gratificati ons into social and information gathering categories. Both classifications applied to the new media of 2011. Katz, Gurevitch and Haas (1973) condensed 35 different potential media uses into five thematic categories: those satisfying cognitive needs; affe ctive and emotion based release needs. These typologies 2005, p. 14) Internet based dimensions of information, good feelings, peer identity, communication and diversion entertainment. Eastin and LaRose (2003) likewise fleshed imension translated to the Internet as Early uses and gratifications studies also predicted the emergence of media induced social ties, share common values, and even are involved in a joint action in geographical Chiou, 2009, p. 394). For connected with peer groups tend to appropriate popular adventure stories encountered in the media to play group games. Many researchers cite d similar behaviors as those furthering the spread of social media (Bonds Raacke & Raacke, 2010; Li, 2005; Schmidt, 2007; Shao, 2009; Shen & Chiou, 2009). The interactive video hegemon YouTube, for example, showed an evolutionary

PAGE 6

6 Guosong Shao (2009) concluded in a recent study of user generated social media that, though sites like YouTube primarily appealed to users need for entertainment, they also spawned virtual communit ies through forums for text interaction and video responses to initial videos (p. 18 19). Online communities seemed to possess the capacity to produce Moreover, Shao found au diences also create user generated media as manifestations of self expression and personal identity. This production of media, he maintained, may have generated media, suggesting the existence of organic, self to interact pa rasocially (p. 18 19). Shirky (2008) went even further, arguing that the types of organizations described by Shao could not exist without the market neutralizing abilities of soc ial media applications like Flickr, Wikipedia and WordPress. Similarly, Schmidt (2007) argued in her construction of an analytical framework for blog users that this medium often spawned and sustained its own communities, and more, often existed as the ba sis for personal identification within a subculture. Stafford, Stafford and Schkade (2004) described the Internet as a social environment and distinguished interpersonal motivations from long established uses based on process and content gratifications. Da vid Schwartz (2009) further elaborated on the formation of blogging communities by tying interaction with online peer groups to expressions of personal directly correla ted to a willingness to disclose personal information, how much personal information the blogger disclosed, and perception of self efficacy within the community. Likewise, Chung Chi Shen and Jyh Shen Chiou (2009) proposed that when readers identify with a blogging community, their ability to bond with other users, knowledge of the community and other social investment capital increased. Readers, in turn, were more likely to continue participating in the community and reading the blog. Describing this cyc bl reader

PAGE 7

7 recipricosity and smaller community sizes generally promoted identity disclosure and I nternet. As with the Schmidt (2007) and Schwartz (2009) studies, these conclusions fulfilling social connectedness and development of personal identity. They also suggested that bloggers can facilitate community building by reducing impediments to user participation and investment. through these blogging outlets because users visited them for social interaction. Through an online surve measure the rationale behind frequenting music blogs. The researchers examined a socially oriented motivation for using MP3 blogs (where music could be downloaded in the MP3 format) one t hat supplemented more pragmatic reasons like building music dimension: a level excitement around new bands that only existed, at first, among smaller, alternative outlets. fa (as cited in Song, distinguished the gratifications offered by the blogosphere from those conferred in traditional media specifically, diversion, knowledge acquisit ion, identity, and surveillance (McQuail, Blumler, & Brown, 1972). music blogs differentiated themselves from newspapers and traditional criticism outlets wrote that music fans, especially local and independent music enthusiasts, turned to the blogosphere for its taste making expertise. He argued bloggers had in some ways replaced both local

PAGE 8

8 their tone, he wrote. While mainstream critics, for instance, may have made car eers from biting reviews, bloggers many strapped for time and money mostly only wrote about cynical experience and may have played a role in influencing user m otivations. In addition, their ability to both unearth good, local bands and generate word of mouth publicity. For users, word of mouth fulfilled a need that was similar to both Bonds Raacke and namely, 2008). But given the rapid incorporation of social media within the blogosphere, word of mouth level. Of course, a willingness to interact with the artists themselves d trump user motivations to develop emotional relationships with the bloggers. Indeed, that reciprocally, to be the object of affection) harkened back to news. In an analysis of television audiences, Levy (1978) found that watchers returned to the same news programming because of bonds formed with certain anchors, who in turn, made sense of potentially confounding information. P erse (1990), measuring the effects of emotional and cognitive involvement on information holding and parasocial interaction, identified similar behavior in her study of viewer interaction with local news television broadcasts. Like Levy, she found audience with media personalities based on perceived similarities, liking and attraction emotional attachments which, in turn, became motivations for repeated media use. Perse concluded atching the news was associated with parasocial interaction; (King, 2001), the application of electronic media studies to the blogosphere was clear:

PAGE 9

9 personal, emotional and cognitive connections with bloggers potentially fostered increased blog use. Trammel and Keshelashvili (2005) argued high readership and several (p. 15). In addition, A list bloggers embraced their identity as an alternative to mainstream reviewed journalist, I am able to write about what I had for lunch or my broken coffee pot 2005, p. 15). When discussing the blogosphere, one would be remiss to overlook issues of perceived credibility. In light of the popularity of Pitchfork.com and other online music publications, a leve l of blogger or writer expertise may have factored into user motivations to read a given publication. Past research supports the need for perceived credibility. Johnson and Kaye (2004), in a survey of 3,747 political blog readers, found a striking 73.6 p corpor ate interests, collaborative fact checking, interest in tackling overlooked issues, and rated highest in terms of credibility attributes, but readers also judged blo gs to be believable and fairly accurate as well (p. 630). Significant, too, was the idea that audiences considered blogger bias a core strength one that factored into high credibility scores. urnalism, bias is likely seen Johnson and Kaye (2008), in a follow up study, noted political blog s rated higher in credibility even than issue oriented sites and candidate sites. Again, the authors cited a

PAGE 10

10 along with insight and analysis, as strengths over tra 2008, p. 7). Interestingly, this finding was not found in earlier political medium uses and gratifications studies. Blumler and McQuail (1969), for instance, concluded that, although British television audiences turned to p olitical programming to fulfill informational needs, they did not specifically tune into shows reinforcing existing beliefs. While blogs, received more reader skepticism. Chyi and Yang (2009) concluded readers actually considered online news publications inferior to their paper counterparts, despite their added functionality and convenience. These findings differentiated the blogosphere from traditional publications that had been merely duplicated on the Web. Namely, blogs did not have to contend with print counterparts and thus deal with the negative connotations associated with existing as reader trust and subjective norms perceptions of other referent groups within the digital community played an important part in adoption, a finding that presumably applied to blogs as well. If audiences were indeed motivated to read the work of like m inded bloggers, such actions were perhaps driven by habitual behavior. Palmgreen, Wenner, and Rayburn (1981), in an analysis of the ritualistic consumption patterns of television news audiences, were among the first to point out that habit may actually tru mp the need gratifying pull of certain media attributes. The study purported: While in certain cases more specific perceptions of anchorperson, program format, and news quality may be more important, the discriminant analyses indicate that the perceptio n of differential gratifications are at least as strongly related to viewing behavior as the more traditional measures of program attributes. (Palmgreen et al., 1981, p. 472) Other studies have found the habit forming consumption of traditional media to translate to the Internet (Milani, Osualdella, & Di Blasio, 2009; Perse & Dunn, as cited in Liu, Cheung, & Lee, 2010; Song, Larose, Eastin, & Lin, 2004). In some instances, usage once

PAGE 11

11 motivated by the conscious attempt to fulfill needs specifically, vir tual community, information seeking, aesthetic experience, monetary compensation, diversion, personal status, and relationship maintenance gave way to subconscious, mildly addictive behavior (Song et al., 2004, p. 390). Diddi and Larose (2006) suggested, in the same vein, that online news media was among the most habit forming, though perhaps for different reasons depending on the type of user. Diddi and Larose wrote: News junkies may be understood to be those whose news consumption is prompted by a nee d to escape from their everyday routines, more along the lines of ritualistic needs. (Diddi & Larose, 2006, Discussion section, para. 9) articulated in their study of MP3 blogs, aesthetic media research yielded similar results. Stafford, Kline, and Dimmick (1999) found conducting business to be among the most oft credited motivation schemas for using email. Chen and Corkindale (2008) connected simplicity of user interface and supplementary service quality to an adoption of online news services. Shao (2009) detected a correlation between user generated medi subsequent appeal to audiences. Zerba (2003) emphasized the importance of multimedia features in their perceived ability to contribute additional information from heavy news seekers. Conversely, from t improve writing skills. Planning Ana(b)log was created and developed in the mold of other prominent local music blogs like Brooky nvegan.com, Seattlesubsonic.com, Soundonthesound.com, and The baybridged.com and it emulated the style, format, themes and layouts related to hyperlocal music blogs. The audience for the blog ranged from 18 24 years of age, was transient, as college students often are, and was oriented toward both new media and a DIY

PAGE 12

12 lifestyle. I created Ana(b)log to speak to the readers of the Gainesville community. Tone, Style and Writing on the Blog My intentions with Ana(b)log, in keeping with journalistic norms, placed readers and prospective audiences at the fore. In other words, I w rot e for my audience. As described in the literature review, researcher David Schwartz found a significant rmation and the both actively participated in the Gainesville music scene by attending at least one local show per week, lding a face to face rapport and injected my blog posts with detailed first person perspective. Returns showed this disclosure to be successful, as posts of a personal nature tended to receive the most reader comment s and Facebook reposts. A Pseudo Kids album review written as first person narrative, for example, was reposted 18 times. eight times. While the tone and writing of the site may not match the typical standards of audience who appreciated humor, irony, sarcasm and irreverence sprinkled throughout its in depth interviews and multimedia ba sed reporting. As evidenced by Pitchfork.com and other similar outlets, t he indie music community circa 2010 preferred a style of writing that employed witty wordplay, cheeky send up, insider references, and allusions to the broader popular music canon, an d did not shy away from ridicule. However, given the close knit dynamics of the Gainesville community and the relative obscurity of many of the local acts, I chose to cover only the artists I personally enjoy ed As I was once told by an entertainment edito r at the Independent Florida Alligator, there is little value in skewering fell in line with journalist hat blogging is largely a labor of love taken up by people who only have time to cover what they like. With this is mind, I aim ed to communicate in a style that both mirror ed the irreverent, though critically insightful prose of leading internet publications like

PAGE 13

13 Pitchfork .com Popm atters .com, Youaintnopicasso.com and Fluxb log.org and sp oke directly to a local readership whose inclinations wer ne wspaper commentary which tended to favor long form expository descriptions made The style of writing f e ll in line with the elite online publications mentioned above and, perhaps more pertinent to a media stalwarts like Rolling Stone and Spin. Perhaps the biggest difference wa s that these outlets d idn curse words with asterisks. I use d Ana(b)log to dabble in creative writing, as evidence d by th a tongue in cheek write up that utilize d poetic structure, text message like shorthand, and perhaps best resemble d the punctuation free poetry of E.E. Cummings or, more probably, the blogger Carles of Hipsterrunnoff.com. Content Management System All of the content on the blog w as not possible without a solid back end content management system (CMS) by which to upload a wide variety of material. In the final week of August, I creat ed the WordPress template that became Ana(b)log (though the site was streets with several prominent local venues). Having creating another blog, Sportscasualties.com, with a self hosted domain a t WordPress.org, I t ook friendly design options and one click hosting setup with the Anablogmusic.com domain. I had also designed a syllabus for teaching blogging in 2010 as a project for a graduate class, Developing Digital Online Media blogging strategies and how to teach others how to blog. WordPress was my recommended platform because of its advantages over other platforms such as Blogger or Tumblr. I purchased the domain name for $10 per year in August 2010 and bought web hosting in July for 12 months through DreamHost a $9.95 per month option that offered advanced spam guards, o ne click installation and automatic hosting maintenance. In total, the web space for Ana(b)log cost exactly $119.40 per year, a somewhat

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14 updating maintenance ma d e it so blogger s needed only address web hosting for matters of payment. an DreamHost back ed servers run by a Deb ian GNU/Linux operating system. Emailed receipt of web hosting purchase from DreamHost d HTML ook out the generic header in order to make room for the banner graphic created in Photoshop CS5 with M oderna font and custom shapes (b) select ed an appropriate text package (a mix of Helvetica Neue, Liberation Sans, and Arial) (c) change d the color scheme and (d) insert ed metadata using Google Adwords for keyword ideas that would better optimize the site for search engines. I learned to code in XH TML and CSS by taking MMC5015 Electronic Publishing with Professor David Carlson and was subsequently able to tweak the design template of the site, as well as individual S Widgets and Enhanced Functionality Through a trial and error process of widget selection, I further hone d the aesthetic

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15 and functional elements of the site to incorporate social media connectivity through Twitter and Facebook. Selected widgets also enhanced in site navigation. Simple Twitter Connect Base shortened URL Steve A WordBooker when I added it to Anablogmusic.com in November WordBooker widget publishing options for Anablogmusic.com WordBooker automatically posted pub lished blog posts to Facebook with a link that both provided a teaser excerpt and the ability to replicate comments on the Facebook link to the blog. Any comment made under the WordBooker Facebook link, then, would be automatically transcribed with autho r data to the blog. Tag Cloud Subscribe Widget pronged subscription model allowing readers to subscribe to the blog via email, Facebook, Twitter, a comments RSS feed or a Feedburner RSS feed

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16 (though, as of March 20 2011, no reader had used Feedburner to subsc ribe to Ana(b)log compared to 26 via the Facebook fan page and 70 via Twitter ). Moreover, Ricardo Twitter for WordPress Twitter feed at http://twitter.com/anablogmusic with links back to the original tweets. Two photography based plug ins also added visual appeal to the otherwise stripped down Ana(b)log aesthetic. The Cincopa video and photo download enabled me to include photo galleries into my posts by uploading pictures directly to Cincopa thus saving the time and space of having to upload jpeg files to WordPress. The Cincopa plugin Defiance, Ohio At 8 S econds: The Fest, Day 2 Example of embedded Cincopa photo gallery widget allowed me to create a photo feed on Anablogmusic.com of all the pictures I uploaded to my personal account at

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17 Flickr.com. Set to show six picture thumbnails at a time, the widget automatically gen erate d a new thumbnail each time I upload ed a picture to Should a reader click on any of the thumbnails, the widget produces a pop out slideshow of all the photos uploaded to the Ana(b)log Flickr account. "Jerusalem Guitar": Example of photo uploaded to Ana(b)log Flickr Account Blog Design, Color and Layout site searches, to make it effortless to perus e news bites, and to present clean aesthetics and easily digestible information. The color of the blog title (green) was chosen because of its tranquilizing visual appeal and its psychological relation to growth or ganic expansion. The banner was designed to look like a professionally fashioned logo hence the rounded Moderna font and the allusion to RSS feeds. The three lime green quarter circles on the upper left also mimic ked t he grooves on a vinyl record and thus play ed intensive process hours with some input from graphic designer Scot t Purcell of the UF/IFAS Office of the Dean for Research. In addition, the flow of images, video and audio within the text was designed to create both a

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18 as if the reader was experiencing a show in person. Ana(b)log home page screen capture uncluttered look and easily consum able multimedia based information. This was done through the selection of widgets, color and the design of the banner logo. Links

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19 d a number of purposes. First, they g a ve readers a sense of similar publications, thereby creating a perception that Ana(b)log wa s similar to such publications as Chromewaves.net and Brooklynvegan.net In addition to enhancing identity, the blogrolls also attempt ed to draw the attention of the linked websites, which have the ability to track referring sites For example, if a user c lick ed to Chromewaves.net from Anablogmusic.com, Anablogmusic.com show ed up as a referrer in Chromewaves. statistical report Linking was effective in bringing viewers to the blog as Thezebraowl.wordpress.com, Kylerancourt.com, Gameovermedia.com and N o grain no p ain .com all added Ana(b)log to their respective blogrolls In some cases ( Gainesville365.wordpress.com Thegainesvillemusica rchive .tumblr.com, Commongroundslive.com ), I added local sites as a show of community solidarity in hopes of tapping in to an already established network. Multimedia The content of Ana(b)log was built by adding photography, writing, video and audio using cloud applications and social networks such as YouTube, Vimeo, SoundCloud and MP3 downloads via Wordpress. On Sept. 12, 2010, I established an Ana(b)log YouTube Channel to aggregate all previously uploaded videos into one branded directory. By providing blog information and an Ana(b)log link with each video, I was able to direct 56 users to the blog according to WordPress Stats (though only 14 unique users according to StatCounter Stats) and expose the Ana(b)log name to the approximately 29,000 non unique viewers who watched my YouTube videos as of March 6, 2 011. The Ana(b)log YouTube Channel gained 10 subscribers including music booking and promotions company Honeycomb Promotions and 15 friends over the life of this project.

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20 Ana(b)log YouTube Channel stats as of March 6, 2011 I posted my first Vimeo video on Friday, Oct. 29, 2010, and immediately found it an attractive option for formatting video interviews. Over the span of the project, I compiled interviews of Andrew Santorelli the President of the UF Music and Entertainment Industry Student Association, DJ Robzilla of the hip hop band O.N.E., Robbie Freeman of local punk band Kadets, Amy Lobasso and Ryan Backman of the Boswellians (via YouTube due to file size restrictions on Vimeo), and Miami recording artist Teepee The last of these was iMovie program. Teepee subsequently posted the final product to his personal MySpace page with a link back to Ana(b)log. Vimeo video embedded at Myspace.com/teepeeasel As of March 15, 2011 I ha d used the SoundCloud media application twice, and, much like YouTube, its social funct ionality allow ed a single sound file to spread the Ana(b)log name exponentially. Because my first two radio episodes at Grow Radio could not be converted to downloadable MP3s (all sub sequent episodes would be recorded, converted to MP3s and made available as podcasts both through Growradio.org and Anablogmusic.com), I created my own podcast using a combination of the Audacity Free Audio Editor and Recorder SoundCloud and personal podcasting equipment. I used a Blue

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21 SnowBall podcasting microphone to r ecord the voice parts of the podcast, recording them directly into Audacity. With the permission of Grow Radio, I then interspersed MP3 music files amongst the voice sections, e diting the final product down into a 51 minute long file which I then converted to MP3 format and uploaded in SoundCloud. This process took approximately seven hours. Music For Squares: Podcast No. 1 reposted on Facebook ten times one of which by Adam Hallock, a local musician whose song I had included in the podcast. As SoundCloud work ed similarly to YouTube in terms of sustaining its own community o f users, the SoundCloud file garnered 31 listens at SoundCloud.com as of March 16, 2011 M ost of these c ame within the first week of posting. Like with my YouTube clips, I provided links and additional contact information directing SoundCloud.com listeners back to the blog (though, according to StatCounter, Google Analytics and WordPress Stats, SoundCloud did n ot make any referrals). Jenna Mescon, I recorded a 20 minute conversation using a Kodak PlaySport Camcorder. I then uploaded the video file to YouTube, extracted the sound using the MP3 converter at Listentoyoutube.com, and pared down the interview to nine minutes in Audacity. To level sound levels ogram that automatically adjusted audio levels. Part of completi ng this post was a requirement for a graduate course, MMC6936 Multimedia Blogging, with Dr. Judy Robinson. This entire process took approximately six hours, and not including the 90 minutes it took to post the completed interview to Ana(b)log with introduc tory copy and a photo modified with Photobucket.com, a popular image hosting website. Observations The power of social networks was not lost on me. I was after all, a blogger. And if anybody spends too much time overthinking the perfectly executed, 14 0 character bla st of Tweeted wit, this person wa s me. I went into this project aware of the depth and breadth of

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22 digitally faciliated, social connectivity made possible via Facebook and Twitter. So that the speed and synergy by which readers dispersed An a(b)log content took even this grizzled inspiring power. It wa s becoming an increasingly difficult task in this plugged in globa l society to find someone who was not connected. An scene circa 2010 ran the gamut from 18 year old scenesters to self descri rockers, so too did the proverbial social n etwork seemingly encapsulate a wide ranging spectrum of humanity. This wi ll be made clear in the following anecdote. Moms and Metal Heads: Ana(b)log In Infancy The pilot post for Ana(b)log was actually published on my other website Sportscasualties.com The intentions of this t actic were two fold. First, as of early ng with logo design and layout and rather than publish material on an embryonic template, decided to instead tap into Sports Ca based readership as a promotional strategy to drive traffic to the new blog. The vigor with which metal fans reposted coverage of their favorite thrash guitar purveyors to Facebook in fact set a benchmark for the content to fo llow. On Sunday, Sept. 12, 2010, I posted a live review of a joint Azmyth Whiplash show at The Backstage Lounge. By Monday, the write up in question had been reposted by 46 unique Facebook accounts were not fully quantifiable given the privacy settings of non may Evidence of viral promotion to follow:

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23 Posted to the Whiplash fan page Posted by Azmyth to the Azmyth fan page

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24 Perhaps unsurprisingly, proud mothers share d content promoting their sons jus t as diligently as music fans did with their favorite bands. Ana(b) burst of exposure, then, came as a direct result of a mother, Renee Puzo, finding a write up of her son via a Google search. The subsequent chain reaction spawned a swift proliferation of Facebook notifications. On Thursday, Sept. 30, I talked to the DJ NickFresh about doing a potential promo. On Saturday I posted bout DJ NickFresh and by later that afternoon, via retweet ), his Facebook page, his Facebook fan page, the fan page. All told, the post garnered over 150 unique visits within its first week, but the r eal exciting part was to witness the digitally facilitated magic of this social network tandem unfold in real time. Page Views for Oct. 2, 2010 according to WordPress Stats (Note: Spikes on Sept. 26 and Sept. 29 equaled 92 and 91 hits, respectively)

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25 Thro ugh tagging and reposting on Facebook and retweets on Twitter, this one post reached hour period. NickFresh retweet of Anablogmusic and subsequent tweet Tagged Nick Puzo post on Facebook

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26 28 Facebook reposts Link shared 62 times according to bit.ly Activist Hardcore Punk Rockers Love Twitter, Obviously: Ana(b)log A Month In Twitter/Facebook/YouTube effort, though this time ba cked by the fan power of a popular East Coast punk band. The setup went as follows: Each year in late Octo ber, downtown Gainesville turned into one of the biggest punk music pilgrimages in the country, if not the s Saturday night show at The Venue and I braved the mass of moshing bodies to shoot photos and record video. After posting a live review days later on Nov. 1, I contacted the band via Twitter with a snipped bit.ly URL share the link with their 2,500 strong Twitter following via retweet, and ultimately posted the article to their Facebook page with an additional comment promoting both the review and Ana(b)lo g more than 5,000 quite possible the live review attracted even more impressions when combined with the Twitter exposure and the tagged You Tube videos directing fans to seek out additional

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27 accumulating 322 page views on the first day of the month according t o Google Analytics. In addition as of February 23, 2 011, Past Tense, Future Perfect had garnered 1,132 views. This subsequent traffic increase stemming from the b al media communications suggested a link between art ist fan interaction that extended into the blogosphere. In other words, fans may have be en driven by a need to interact with their favorite artists using blogs as mediums. This intera ction, in t urn, perhaps promoted user attendance. Paint It Black's retweet of Ana(b)log YouTube video Paint It Black retweet of Ana(b)log live review Ana(b)log YouTube videos shared on Facebook

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28 Data for Ana(b)log YouTube video of Paint It Black Page views for Nov. 1, 2010 according to Google Analytics ous examples, social media showed groups traditionally associated with active grassroots networks (heavy metal fans, activist punk kids, proud mothers) to behave in very much the way they might have in a pre Internet age. In 2010 fanzines, obscure record compilations and in the case of the latter group clippings reserved proudly for the refrigerator door had been supplemented or all out replaced by inst antaneously dispersible digital information. Though Ana(b)log existed a s one case study, evidence showed that communities established through the sharing of

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29 the dig ital sphere as similarly intertwined entities. In other words, the concept of niche translated to online social networks, but as an amplified, more easily accessible construct. music community to land the blog a steady stream of modest traffic (approximately 290 hits per week in October and November of 2010 according to WordPress Stats ), but more importantly, led to a number of unexpected opportunities that subsequently transformed the Ana(b)log name into a multi platform endeavor. At this juncture, it is necessary to quickly touch on the rationale behind using three different statistical tracking programs. Though WordPress Stats recorded page views, and was thus convenient for quickly measuring traffic, it was unable to distinguish between those who visited the blog more than once. StatCounter came in handy here, as it was capable of these measures and was also able to track where site visitors came from. StatCounter "Recent Visitor Map" for March 8, 2011 StatCounter also kept an analytic tool sho wing from which search engine visitors came (on the per

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30 upgrade). I employed Google Analytics because it detailed simi lar metric s, and because it acted as a backup should the embedded StatCounter code have encounter ed an unexpected content management system to WordPress version 3.1.1. I subs equently lost all archived data prior to February 15 and relied primarily on old screen captures to relate the provided Google Analytics statistics. Together, the three analytics programs act ed as checks on one another and, given their varying statistical calculations, provide d a range of figures by which to estimate Site usage data for Feb. 14 through March 7 according to Google Analtyics After jumping from 838 page views in October to 1,788 page views in November according to WordPress Stats (StatCounter shows 1,059 and 2,084 views, respectively), one would expect in the wake of the successful Fest 9 coverage. Page views steadily rose in the new year, however, as the site fetched 1,087 views in January and then climbe d to 1,380 in February on an average of two to three posts per week The reasons for this growth largely dealt with the sites transformation into a multimedia outlet for all things Gainesville music. In a roughly three month span from the end of September to the beginning of January in which I posted between two and three times per week Ana(b)log evolved from an outlet based solely on reporting focused journalism into a community partner for local Internet radio and a hub for podcasting. The interim, howe ver, should not be glossed over, as its events fostered a slow, but consistent growth in influence and exposure aligning with a gradual climb up the search engine

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31 generate word of mouth publicity better than traditional media, Ana(b)log evolved into a taste regard, the blog became a destination for music fans, industry professionals, and the artists themselves. It was during this period, for instance with an ex Rock 104 DJ sparked a conversation among local radio professionals at Radio Info.com The interview tallied more than 120 unique visits according to Google Analytics, landed a influence, and more importantly, shed light on a sticky situation that had otherwise been sparsely reported on Oct. 26 message board posting at Radio Info.com The interview also caught the attention of a fellow Gator alumnus who, for her part, just happened to front a locally popular indie rock band in Tallahassee. Her band wanted to Backstage Lounge in October. S he contacted me, writing the following: Greetings! first visit to Gainesville. We will be playing @ the Backstage Lounge this Friday night, Oct. 1st. People describe us as post punk and shoegaze. ville for a while. Most of my UF rying to reach out to some cool folks who might be interested in our show.

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32 We just released our 2nd album, Bare Mythology, which you can download for FREE at: http://fantomeband.bandcamp.com If there is appreciate it. Perhaps we could return the favor with a t shirt or some beer Thanks for your time, and we hope to see you at the show! Tracy http://www.myspace.com/fantomeband Occurrences as these suggest ed that Ana(b)log had filled a need in the local music community previously met only by stop gap publications ( http://hearingainesville.wordpress.com/, for example) unable to sustain a long term flow of content. Though several credible, Florida based music blogs had bubbled up circa 2010 few if any had focused their attention squarely on Gainesville, and th e ones that did did so only in spurts. returned Anablogmusic.com as the third overall result as of March 17, 2011 and this behind community stalwarts Common Grounds Live The Gainesville Music Archive (Gainesvill emusicarchive.tumblr.com). It was evident, t hen, that bands especially regional acts and touring outfits unfamiliar with the Gainesville scene benefit ed from the creation of an exclusively hyper local music publication with the flexibility to produce quickly distributable promotional material. T he rate at which the Fantome promo was shared certainly speaks to this point. Fantome Promo Facebook reposts Subsequent contacts namely, by Mobile, AL, space rockers The Sunshine Factory,

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33 St. Paul, MN, folk singer We Are The Willows, and local music vet Bob McPeek, bandleader of garage revivalists T he Erasables certainly attested promotional capabilities as we ll. Ana(b)log finally came into its own via an unexpected, though certainly not unwelcome, offer from Grow Radio onnection emanated mainly by chance and through a third party contact. In November, I covered Gainesville rock band Driver at Erosion d the Of greater significance Nah eed passed my name along to Bryson station programmer. By early January, after a couple meetings to discuss p otential show formats and the actual logistics of working a soundboard, I was creating and hosting the all Music For Squares a weekly, hour long program dedicated specifical ly to Gainesville music and the touring artists passing through. quickly utilize the sta create downloadable podcasts and B) play both the music available at the station and my own material without having to acquire permissions from each individual band (though it was my overwhelming experience that local b ands, most of whom freely distribute d their material anyway, want ed the exposure without the hassles of granting any potential copyright permission). popularity and allowed m e to make further inroads in t he local music community. What unfolded, then, proved an exercise in synerg exposure and credibility; Ana(b)log touted Grow and all things local internet radio. As each of the previ ous anecdotes illus trated, the story of this blog wa s one of spontaneous connections and optimization of social networks Comments to Facebook and to the blog substantiated this claim as a pproximately 27 different readers commen ted

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34 directly on the blog alone. In addition, several artists sent emails both complimenting Ana(b)log and soliciting coverage. In the span of five months, I was contacted by, among others: Dante Lima of the Gainesville Sun, a reporter and music critic who asked me to review an al bum for his band Pseudo Kids Facebook posting by Gainesville Sun music critic Dante Lima a local music show DJ NickFresh, who contacted me a second time to promote his T hursday night Doowhatchyalike Gainesville dance parties at The Atlantic Nightspot Bob McPeek, founder of Hyde & Zeke Records, Mirror Image Studios, and the principal songwriter in The Erasables Vice Magazine a prominent national publication that asked me to cover an event it sponsored at The Atlantic Nightspot

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35 Correspondence with Rory Ahearn of Vice Magazine Deputy, a project of Morningbell drummer Chris Hillman The Boswellians and Kadets, two local acts Ancient River, a popular local band who transcribed a clip of an Ana(b)log live review and an entire album review The manager of Alabama band The Sunshine Factory, to cover a tour stop in Gainesville Minnesota folk artist We Are The Willows, also to cover a local tour stop The UF Music and Entertainment Industry Student Association Charles Ma rtin, both a physics professor at UF and the songwriter for local psychedelic band The Righteous Kind Bill Bryson of Grow Radio, who as previously detailed, asked me to host a weekly local show

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36 Discussion Building Rapport In keeping with a 2005 study by Trammel and Keshelashvili that found a strong information, Ana(b)log strove to develop a strong, first person voice to establish a casual, comfortable rapport with both readers and the subjects of the blog themselves. largely positive but objective reviews of artists helped in this respect analytical though often complimentary analysis freed artists to solicit revie ws and grant interviews without the fear of negative publicity. Established blogs and print publications in 2010 did not typically take such a one sided predominantly positive approach to criticism This proved a central difference between Ana(b)log and a n outlet like the Gainesville Sun. However, when one started from scratch wit hout previous credentials, it was imperative not to burn bridges or potential relationships with unfavorable press, especially when running a one person operation in such a small, close knit community. While some bloggers, including Martyn Chamberlin of Two Hour Blogg e r, argued that personal style was irrelevant to driving traffic and establishing a readership, for Ana ( b ) log it wa s the primary feature that distinguish ed blogs wit h similar informational content. Chamberlin wrote in a February 2011 post for Problogger.net ( http://www.problogger.net/archives/2011/02/20/teach or your blog will die/ ) that a blog must teach, or it will die This was wise advice to a degre e in that t he a bility to inform audiences contribute d B y providing interviews, photos, video of live performances and reviews, Ana(b)log

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37 scene. However, the ability to entertain wa s very vital es pecially for a music publication existing in a digital environment in which audiences could simply visit YouTube to hear new music Online music criticism ha d an especially rich tradition of personality heavy first person voice S eminal Web critics like Mark Prindle of Markprindle.com and Scott Floman of Sfloman.com built large audiences and equall y impressive influence (Prindle went on to write for Crawdaddy Magazine in 2010 and occasionally appeared program) with an irreverent ble nd of personal anecdote, humor, first person narrative and a total dismissal of AP style. These characteristics, of course, did not stand on their own. Thus Ana(b)log emphasized quality of information over all else an attribute that imbued it with an air of professionalism conducive to positive reader blogger and artist blogger interactions. The prior discussion of building blogger audience rapport spawned a related question: how d id a blogger get to know the I took a proactive approach not just with social media, but also as a participant in the Gainesville music community. As Ana(b)log was a reporting based publication, I went to my sources, establishing a face t o face relationship with multiple artists as any good reporter would. Over the course of six months, I regularly attended bi weekly meetings of average to one show pe r week at a cost of $6 8 each, attended most of the major music events (like the

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38 performers involved. I knew my audience because I was part of my audience. I put myself in reade r shoes and would advise all bloggers looking to grow an online presence to do o se same lines, the most successful blog gers have been ones that exploited a niche by providing original content. Consequently, blogger s must survey their environment, researching competitors and potential partner publications to carve out an area of specialty. For Ana(b)log, this entailed focus ing heavily on live, local music reviews and multimedia based reporting of lesser known bands, neither of which had been previously concentrated on. Growing a Community: Advice for Future Bloggers e first steps to growing a readership. With social media providing multiple outlets for reader discussion, one must also attempt to harness audience feedback both with the blogger and other readers by either confining it to a single location or creatin g synergies between social media applications. With Ana(b)log, readers submitted comments through YouTube, Facebook, Twitter and email, and made it difficult to focus conversation while simultaneously spreading thin the time and attention of the blogger. T he goal, then, was to efficiently collate reader interactions without limiting potential feedback avenues. The social media application WordBooker helped in this regard, as it transcribed Facebook comments directly to the blog post. Providing an RSS feed o the sidebar of Anablogmusic.com also helped to aggregate dialogue in one place. Ideally, a

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39 blogger should strive to collect comments in one easily accessible location to generate further conversation. Bloggers shou ld also tap into preexisting communities if at all possible. This, again, oneself. Over the course of this project, Ana(b)log was able to develop a synergistic relations air personalities was reciprocated with Ana(b)log coverage. The relationship between the two shed light on how the Internet work ed in general: similar communities connect ed w ith one another through social media and then utilize d interaction occurred every time an artist promoted an Ana(b)log post via retweet or Facebook repost: the band benefited from the spread of positive press while Ana(b)log benefitted from the increased exposure and bump in traffic. Furthermore, bloggers should emphasize consistency of posting P osting two to three times per week at two to three day intervals proved a relatively successful strategy for building An s community, as dedicated readers would typically check in on off This strategy kept traffic relatively constant throughout the week. P roviding quality content that combines features of search engine o ptimization (SEO) with well written prose and engaging multimedia helps as well While SEO should not have be en employed at the expense of content, its reputation as an both well constructed pe rmalinks (those that included popular keywords ) and efficient tagging was helpful in driving traffic as it helped potential audiences find content more easil y To this

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40 implementation of SEO, b loggers should additionally concentrate on p osting on a regular basis, a strategy that in time attract ed both an audie nce and search engine crawlers. I t wa s beneficial to Google searchers, for instance, to include popular keywords in the title of a post, but such a strategy should be employed with creativity and readability in mind In general the more posts a blog ha d the better it perform ed in Google searches because the larger body of work provided more indexed words as a database for search ed words H yperlocal blogs, particularly ones that fulfill an orig inal niche, should also focus on link coverage and makin g contacts through social media, as these proved effective strategies for building an aud ience in a short amount of time. Kylerancourt.com and Radio info.com, both sites that linked to Anablogmusic.co This spoke to the value of linking. Tapping potential local audiences through Facebook, Twitter, SoundCloud and YouTube was also advantageous in quickly establishing a readership. B loggers should never pass up a mom ent of inspiration. The best posts were often the most effortless. Similarly, the pursuit of perfection should not stifle content production. The beauty of blogging was post turn out exactly how the blogger envi sioned, there was always tomorrow.

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41 References Alder, P., & Kwon, S. W. (2002). Social capital: Prospects for a new concept. The Academy of Management Review, 27 (1), 17 40. Baltimore, C. (2009, March 9). Bloggers: Music industry tastemakers? Message posted to http://blogs.reuters.com Blumler, J. G., & McQuail, D. (1969). Television in politics: Its uses and influence Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Bonds Raacke, J., & Raacke, J. (2010). MyS pace and Facebook: Identifying dimensions of uses and gratifications for friend networking s ites. Individual Differences Research 8 (1), 27 33. Retrieved from the Academic Search Premier database. Caramanica, J. (2010, July 14). Upstart music site becomes establishment. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/15/arts/music/15pitchfork.html Chen, Y. H., & Corkindale, D. (2008). Towards an understanding of the behavioral intention to use online news ser vices. Internet Research, 18 (3), 286 312. doi: 10.1108/10662240810883326 Chyi, H., & Mengchieh Jacie, Y. (2009). Is online news an inferior good? Examining the economic nature of online news/ among users. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 86 (3), 594 612. Retrieved from Communication & Mass Media Complete database. The new cosmopolites: Activating the role of mobile music listeners Paper presented at the 2 nd International Workshop on Mobile Music Technology for NIM Diddi, A., & Larose, R. (2006). Getting hooked on news: Uses and gratification and the formation of news habits among college students in an internet environment. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 50 (2), 193 210. East in, M., & LaRose, R. (2003). A social cognitive explanation of internet u ses and gratifications: Toward a new theory of media a ttendance. Conference Papers -International Communication Association, 1 36. doi:ica_proceeding_11705.PDF. Herzog, H. (195 4 ). Motivations and gratifications of daily serial listeners. In W. Schramm (Ed.), The processes and effects of mass communication (pp. 50 55 ). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press

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42 Johnson, T., & Kaye, B. (2004). Wag the blog : How reliance on traditional media and the internet influence credibility perceptions of weblogs among blog users Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 81 (3), 622 642. Johnson, T., & Kaye, B. (2008). In blog we trust? Deciphering credibility of components of the internet among politically interested internet users. Computers In Human Behavior. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2008.08.004 Katz, E. (1959). Mass communication research and the study of popular culture: An editorial note on a possible future for this journal. Studies in Public Communication, 2 1 6. Retrieved from http://repository.upenn.edu Katz, E., Blumler, J. G., & Gurevitch, M. (1974). Utilization of mass communication by the individual. In O. Boyd Barrett & C. Newbold (Eds.), Approaches to media: A re ader (pp. 164 173) London: Arnold. Katz, E., Gurevitch, M., & Haas, H (1973). On the use of the mass media for important things. American Sociological Review 38 (2), 164 181. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/pss/2094393 King, A. (2001). Affective dim ensions of internet culture. Social Science Computer Review, 19 (4), 414 430. doi: 10.1177/089443930101900402 Lee, D., Im, S., & Taylor, C. (2008). Voluntary self disclosure of information on the internet: A multimethod study of the motivations and consequences of disclosing information on blogs. Psychology and Marketing, 25 (7), 692 710. DOI: 10.1002/mar.20232 Levy, M. R. (1978). The audience experience with television news Lexington, KY : Association for Education in Journalism. Li, D. (200 5). Why do you blog: A uses and ( Liu, I., Cheung, C., & Lee, M. (2010). Understanding Twitter usage: What drive people continue to Tweet. Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems: Proceedings of the 2010 PACIS Conference Taipei, Taiwan (paper 92). McQuail, D., J.G. Blumler, & Brown, J. R. (1972). The television audience: A revised perspective. In P. Marris & S. Thornham (Eds.), Media Studies: A reader (pp 438 454). New York: New York University Press. Milani, L., Osualdella, D., & Di Blasio, P. (2009). Quality of interpersonal relationships and problematic internet use in adolescence. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12 (6), 681 684.

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43 O'Donnell, P., & McClung, S. (2008). MP3 music blogs: Their efficacy in selling m usic and marketing b ands Atlantic Journal of Communication, 16 (2), 71 87. doi:10.1080/15456870701840004. Palmgreen, P., Wenner, L. A., & Rayburn II, J. D. (1981). Gratification discrepanc ies and news program choice. Communication Research, 8 (4), 451 478. Perse, E. (1990). Media involvement and local news e ffects. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 34 (1), 17 36. Ruggiero, T. (2000). Uses and Gratifications Theory in the 21st C entury. Mass Communication & Society, 3 (1), 3 37. Shao, G. (2009). Understanding the appeal of user generated media: A uses and gratification perspective. Internet Research, 19 (1), 7 25. Shen, C. C., & Chiou, J. S. (2009). The effect of community ide ntification on attitude and intention toward a blogging community. Internet Research, 19 (4), 393 407. Schmidt, J. (2007). Blogging practices: An analytical fr amework. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 12 (4), 1409 1427. Schwartz, D. (2009). K nowing who you are and trusting who you know. Internet Research, 19 (5). Introductory essay retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/ Shirky, C. (2008). Here comes everybody: The power of organizing without organizations. New York: Penguin Books. Song, I., Larose, R., Eastin, M. S., & Lin, C. A. (2004). Internet gratifications and internet addiction: On the uses and abuses of new media. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 7 (4), 384 394. Stafford, L., Kline, S., & Dimmick, J. (1999). Home e mail: Relational maintenance and gratification opportunities. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 43 (4), 659 669. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database. Stafford, T., Stafford, M., & Schkade, L. (2004). Dete rmining uses and gratifications for the internet. Decision Sciences, 35 (2), 259 288. Retrieved from Google Scholar. Trammell, K., & Keshelashvili, A. (2005). Examining the new influencers: A self presentation study of A list blogs. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 82 (4), 968 982. Retrieved from Communication & Mass Media Complete database. Verplanken, B. (2006). Beyond frequency: Habit as mental construct British Journal of Social Psychology 45 (3), 639 656. DOI: 10.1348/014466605X49122

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44 Zerba, A. (2003). Perceived motives for clicking on multimedia features on n ews web sites: An exploratory study Dissertations database.

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45 Appendix Example Post (Text transcribed below) Full text: It is precisely in the sixth minute of the eight song is very long. This song is t he kind of long over which empires rise and fall, garage

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46 bands form and disperse. But I am still listening. And Ancient River is still groping for transcendence, which Ancient Ri ver plays loud, spacey, occasionally melodic guitar music equal parts self loathing and reverberating wah. It is a continuous blast of distortion, heavy like a burning desert sun, and when channeled through the expeditious Gibson of J. Barreto which is v irtually always an anachronistic head trip into the sonic ether. O.D.D.S. short for outtakes, demos, demons and singles and it is misleading in two regards. First, it sounds like a compilati on album only in the sense that all long playing rock debuts are compilations second, it sounds nothing at all speak to dem ons, but outtakes and demos these are not. makes in these rapturous three minutes. T he song chugs forward with a druggy propulsion only EMF cut you or I or anyone else can name. psychedelic kiss off crammed with chorus, the latter an explicit homage to Dinosaur Jr. right down to the adlibbed freakouts and Bar laconic drawl. For all the acid hippie affectation, Ancient River at its flannel core exists an unabashed child of the Nineties, or certainly its grunge precursors. Somewhere in revelation, this band discovered and to answer a question the music can answer for itself appropriately brawny low end, Anci ent River never strays too far from those grungian touchstones and as a result manage to avoid most of the indulgent trappings of its oft these songs are actual songs, employing ambience and wankery primarily as vehicles for invariably, Barreto pulls the ripcord with a shard laced solo. So, yes, in moments as these the blist

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47 the high school parking lot. I wish I had longer hair. I wish I drove a Plymouth Superbird. I ncient River. To purchase O.D.D.S, visit AncientRiverMusic.com or download the album on iTunes

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48 Most Visited Post According To WordPress Stats (Text Transcribed Below) 181 unique visitors

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49 Full text: Philly hardcore juggernaut Paint It Black is the band Tipper Gore warned you about primal, aggressive, violent in the name of non violence. smart as hell and shockingly melodic for an outfit whose vocalist, Dan Hey, I still got a healthy share of raging teenage angst i

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50 say it: I love this band. Their formula is a limited one on paper bash/thump/bash/thump + singer who stab to the heart of anthem and adrenaline, the final product transforms into a take on all comers distillation of sheer power. The live spectacle is this: Kids shaking with nervous energy before the first chords; unleashing a visceral surge toward stage after. The clawing and climbing to reach the mic is I seriously want to break something right now. Subsist on a steady diet of carcinogens. Run through a wall. These are for you, Tip. And remember, the worst kind of poser is the one with a crappy record coll ection.

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51 Top Posts for All Days Ending March 17, 2011 According to WordPress Stats Home page 4,033 Gainesville, Thursday Night: A Playlist 299 Paint It Black at The Fest 9 181 Interview with The Boswellians 103 The Rock 104 Interview with Ben Markus 94 Local Radio 84 The Sh*tty Beatles: Live at Common Grounds 83 Skeletron Ball 2: Night 1 83 About 71 Michael Parallax at The Atlantic 68 Vice Magazine throws FREE party at The Atlantic this Friday 65 65 To All My Dear Friends at The Atlantic 65 Album Review: Deputy 62 Interview with Teepee 59 Skeletron Ball 2: Night 2 56 Album Review: Pseudo Kids 55 Introducing: Internet Sensation Kyle Rancourt 55 Interview With Tom Miller of The Righteous Kind: Pt. 1 53 Doowutchyalike Gainesville: What You Missed 50 50 Andrew Santorelli 42 Plastic Plastic at The Atlantic 41 38 A Top 5 for The Top 38 Metallica plus Stubbies = Alcoholica? 35 Fest Interview with Robbie Freeman of Kadets 33 32 Kadets at 1982 32 Wavelets at 1982 30 Hard Skin at The Venue: The Fest, Day 1 29 The Rock 104 Interview: Part 2 27 10 4 Eleanor at 1982: The Fest, Day 1 26 Sweet Bronco, Driver and Ancient River: Live at Common 25

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52 Grounds Listening to records with Jonathan Richman 24 The Rock 104 Interview: Part 3 24 Chotto Ghetto: An Intro to the Fest 9 21 A Word About DJ NickFRESH 21 Defiance, Ohio at 8 Seconds: The Fest, Day 2 20 Interview with DJ Robzilla of O.N.E. 20 The Rock 104 Interview: Part 4 20 Album Review: Ancient River 20 Grow Radio Sends Off The White Stripes 19 19 Ana(b)log 18 18 A Wilhelm Scream at The Venue: The Fest, Day 1 18 Bruise Cruise Recap 16 Observations 15 Lounge 14 Ex Rock 104 DJ Finds Job 14 Is Radio the best pop song of the Nineties? 13 The Sound, The Fury, The Faux Hawk: Thieves and The Stampede at 1982 11 The Captives: Live at The Venue 11 Interview With Tom Miller of The Righteous Kind: Pt. 2 11 11 Music For Squares, Pt. 1: Averkiou 10 10 10 Interview with Tom Miller of The Righteous Kind: Pt. 3 9 Whiplash with Azmyth: Live at the Backstage Lounge 9 AM/FM Gainesville Music Showcase x 3 Bands 8 Interview with Dave Melosh 8 Planning 5 Tanks In Series at The Atlantic 5 Literature 4

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53 UF MEISA Benefit Show 4 We Are The Willows: Live at Common Grounds 3 Episode 9 1

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54 Weekly Hits According to WordPress Stats Monthly Hits According to WordPress Stats

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55 Weekly Hits According to StatCounter

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56 Weekly Hits According to StatCounter (Continued)

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57 Monthly Hits According To Statcounter

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58 Referrers for All Days Ending March 17, 2011 According to WordPress Stats Referrer Views facebook.com 517 boards.radio info.com/smf/index.php?topic=177625.10 54 thinkmultimedia.wordpress.com 50 twitter.com 44 anablogmusic.com. 38 youtube.com/user/wschamp95 22 kylerancourt.com 22 toallmydearfriends.com/press.html 12 gainesvillebands.com/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=31040&PN=1 12 WordPress Dashboard 10 google.com 9 sportscasualties.com 8 youtube.com/watch?v=S7Fc_6Eb7Ss 8 twitter.com/pibphilly 7 healthyfoodlazypeople.com 7 twitter.com/anablogmusic 7 gainesvillebands.com/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=31307&TPN=2 6 youtube.com/watch?v=VWozvA84oUQ 5 youtube.com/watch?v=5zXvmBfbBO0 5 twitter.com/SCasualties 5 gainesvillebands.com/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=31307&PN=1&TP N=2 5 sportscasualties.com/2011/02/18/breaking melo to nets hilson right again i am the effing man etc 4 youtube.com/watch?v=Rjm pUfMKW4 4 touch.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fanablogmusic.com%2 F&h=65280 4 no grain no pain.com 4 ancientrivermusic.com/press.html 4 youtube.com/watch?v=2givNmwGfvU 4 facebook.com/l.php?u=http://anablogmusic.com/2010/12/metallica plus stubbies alcoholica/&h=98665 4 youtube.com/watch?v=vrfxtTJPs0k 4

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59 facebook.com/l.php?u=http://anablogmusic.com/&h=65280 4 youtube.com/watch?v=xdZ2BWbWQfg 4 gainesvillebands.com/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=31307&PN=0&TPN=2 4 facebook.com/l.php?u=http://anablogmusic.com/&h=045b8 3 kickbrightzine.com 3 facebook.com/l.php?u=http://anablogmusic.com/&h=f49fe 3 youtube.com/watch?v=qXecNxfO6lw 3 facebook.com/l.php?u=http://anablogmusic.com/2010/11/skeletron ball 2 night 1/&h=0493c 3 facebook.com/l.php?u=http://anablogmusic.com/2010/12/metallica plus stubbies alcoholica/&h=89e60 3 facebook.com/l.php?u=http://bit.ly/99tugL&h=6245b 3 facebook.com/l.php?u=http://bit.ly/99tugL?ref=nf&h=58aee 3 Sample Screen Captures

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60

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61

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62 Defintition of Literature Review Terms Social capital investment: the acquisition and development of information and interpersonal connections for etworks. This definition is borrowed actors to secure benefits by virtue of membership in social networks or other social 02, p. 20 ). Personal identity: the sense of individuality achieved through A) the acquisition of information or B) development of interpersonal connections perceived as distinguishing one from his or her pee r group. This definition borrowed on music and personal identity elaborating self Community participation: interaction with the blogger and other blog visitors through text based communication s. Com menting under individual posts wa s the primary medium of participation, but other examples include d on a Facebook fan page, t weeting the blogger and others in the community, linking and sending trackbacks post. Identity disclosure: the sharing of personal information through avenues available on the .e. commenting without a pseudonym), and recounting anecdotal experiences. Parasocial behavior: activity that cultivates a level of friendship with the blogger and other community members. This definition borrowed from Perse (1990), who characterized friendship with media personalities that connotes liking, Habitual behavior: repetitive activity with a level of automaticity that pre empts attitudes and int entions. This definition is b orrowed from Bas Verplanken (2006) who used a similar meaning to distinguish habit from frequency in his analysis of negative thinking patterns.



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Ana(b)log: A Hyperlocal Blog for Indie Music Journalism by Robert Hilson Project in Lieu of Thesis Spring 2011 Anablogmusic.com

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2 Overview The purpose of this project was to develop a hyperlocal music criticism blog covering indie music in Gainesville, FL. Over the course of six and a half months, from the end of August 2010 to the middle of March 2011, Ana(b)log (Anablogmusic.com) reported on Gainesvilles artists, venues, industry professionals and newsworthy occurrences through text, video, audio, photography, podcasting and local internet radio in order to cultivate an influential online presence, establish a grassroots community of users, and supplement traditional local media. An average of two to three posts per week were published on Ana(b)log and linked via social media such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, SoundCloud and Flickr. Keywords for search engine optimization were used to make the blog available for those searching via search engines. The blog was self-hosted and maintained on DreamHost servers at WordPress.org. The completed project aims to demonstrate the decisions made during a bloggers journey starting a hyperlocal blog The Uses and Gratifications of Music Blogs It was no doubt indicative of the state of music criticism in 2010, and probably that of print journalism as a whole, that a ranking from the indie spheres Alpha Voice, Pitchfork.com, was worth far more than stacks of newspaper reviews. Quantifying the value of a positive Pitchfork review to an aspiring young band any band, for that matter was perhaps only possible as word-of-mouth and blogosphere hype as metrics. A zero to 10 numeric rating affected the fate of an artists popularity. The online revolution in music criticism confounded at times, but, if anything, it became increasingly unmistakable that Pitchfork, an online review ezine at http://pitchfork.com/, and its followers both ardent readers and upstart outlets taking cues did things differently. What was once founder Ryan Shreibers post-high school web project was some 15 years later a taste-making juggernaut: simultaneously the miles-ahead leader in snarky

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3 blog commentary and, more pertinently to the following discussion, the preeminent voice in pop music journalism, online or otherwise. As of late 2010, Pitchfork tallied upward of 30 million visits per month (Caramanica, 2010). It dictated artists publicity in much of the blogosphere. It carried a disproportionately large weight on review aggregators like Metacritic.com. It spawned a three-day, 40-plus band music festival and spun off affiliated sites dedicated to covering flourishing micro-genres under the motherships banner. Pitchfork was, in short, a monster of cultural significance: the eight-ton opinion in the room. The sites rise to prominence, hegemony some would say, came in the late 2000s a time when the traditional music journalism establishment was struggling to adapt to a rapidly shifting media landscape. Rolling Stone no longer published in its once-iconic wideload format; Robert Christgau reviews no longer ran in the Village Voice; Spin Magazine no longer showed an interest in anything other than being another Blender. In an age of ironic hipsterdom when terms like relevant took on an entirely ambiguous meaning to people in the know, it was precisely the traditional idea of relevance with which the older publications established in the 1960s, 70s and 80s struggled. Pitchfork lead the avant-charge to do music criticism uniquely uniquely as in the Twitter handle Discographies that reviewed entire artist catalogues in 144 impossibly witty characters; uniquely as in Markprindle.com posting a bi-weekly handful of vulgar, non sequitur-laced incredibly influential critical assessments. A myriad of unavoidable questions may have piqued the interest of those uninitiated to this relatively new wave of music journalism. Did it even make sense? Did the sea change in criticism abide by rhyme or reason? Is its future form predictable? Why did audiences flock to online publications such as Pitchfork so fervently? To the first question did the Pitchfork phenomenon make sense the answer was: maybe. Could traditional communications theories adequately explain such an innovative and rapidly shifting development? The speed of technological advancement challenged those trying to makes sense of easily dated research data. It was harder than ever, from a research standpoint, to keep pace with an incessantly evolving digital environment.

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4 Mark Zuckerberg coded the Facebook prototype in a day. Using the theory of uses and gratifications to examine why and how audiences consume online media may assist indie music bloggers in developing a more complete product for their audiences. Literature Uses and gratifications, defined by Katz, Gurevitch and Haas (1973) as an approach studying the gratifications which attract and hold audiences to the kinds of media and the types of content which satisfy their social and psychological needs, (p. 164) gained a renewed traction since the advent of the Internet and its subsequent adoption as a mass medium. In his historical overview of the theory, Ruggiero (2000) noted that the popular emergence of telecommunication technologies reinvigorated the uses and gratifications field with three new attributes specific to new media those of interactivity, demassification and asynchroneity. The ability of the media user to select from a wide menu (Ruggiero, 2000, p. 16) and the concept that messages may be staggered in time, (Ruggiero, 2000, p. 16) respectively, demassification and asynchroneity, combined with newly available interactivity, pushed researchers to explore whether these evolved media forms afforded the same motivational and gratification-fulfilling opportunities as traditional ones. As much as uses and gratifications theory evolved in its roughly 60 years of existence, the central premise delineated in its seminal espousal applied to 2011s media environment with only slight modifications. Herta Herzog (1954) was among the first to suggest audiences use media to satisfy personal gratifications with her landmark analysis of 100 radio soap opera listeners more than a half-century ago. As outdated as such a study may seem in terms of content and medium examined, its central proposal that media offered the potential for information and problem-solving advice, emotional release, and vicarious experience resonated with modern theoretical rationale at the dawn of the new millennium. Katz (1959) probed the uses of local newspapers and advanced uses and

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5 gratifications theory to a place not far removed from its current state. Indeed, Katzs assertion that newspaper audiences are motivated by entertainment, escape, information gathering, prestige and the pressure of social stigma potentially covered much the same gratifications as Pitchfork. The uses and gratifications studies (Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch, 1974; Katz, Gurevitch, & Haas, 1973; McQuail, Blumler, & Brown, 1972) classified user gratifications into social and information-gathering categories. Both classifications applied to the new media of 2011. Katz, Gurevitch and Haas (1973) condensed 35 different potential media uses into five thematic categories: those satisfying cognitive needs; affective and emotion-based needs; personal integrative, or identity needs; social integrative needs; and tension release needs. These typologies were similar to Charney and Greenbergs (as cited in Li, 2005, p. 14) Internet-based dimensions of information, good feelings, peer identity, communication and diversion-entertainment. Eastin and LaRose (2003) likewise fleshed out the personal integrative dimension by linking Internet consumption with personal status. Furthermore, Katz et al.s tension release dimension translated to the Internet as flaming, in which users criticize someone personally or attack their utterances in an overly harsh, disproportionate fashion (King, 2001, p. 416). Early uses and gratifications studies also predicted the emergence of media-induced communities, defined as a set of people who have diverse backgrounds and are linked by social ties, share common values, and even are involved in a joint action in geographical locations or settings (Muniz & OGuinn, as cited in Shen & Chiou, 2009, p. 394). For example, Katzs (1959) secondary findings identified a phenomenon in which children well connected with peer groups tend to appropriate popular adventure stories encountered in the media to play group games. Many researchers cited similar behaviors as those furthering the spread of social media (Bonds-Raacke & Raacke, 2010; Li, 2005; Schmidt, 2007; Shao, 2009; Shen & Chiou, 2009). The interactive video hegemon YouTube, for example, showed an evolutionary progression to the adventure story community development described by Katz (1959).

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6 Guosong Shao (2009) concluded in a recent study of user-generated social media that, though sites like YouTube primarily appealed to users need for entertainment, they also spawned virtual communities through forums for text interaction and video responses to initial videos (p. 18-19). Online communities seemed to possess the capacity to produce their own adventure stories from which to develop forums for group interaction. Moreover, Shao found audiences also create user-generated media as manifestations of self-expression and personal identity. This production of media, he maintained, may have stemmed from prior consumption of others user-generated media, suggesting the existence of organic, self-propagating communities primarily sustained by audiences need to interact parasocially (p. 18-19). Shirky (2008) went even further, arguing that the types of organizations described by Shao could not exist without the market-neutralizing abilities of social media applications like Flickr, Wikipedia and WordPress. Similarly, Schmidt (2007) argued in her construction of an analytical framework for blog users that this medium often spawned and sustained its own communities, and more, often existed as the basis for personal identification within a subculture. Stafford, Stafford and Schkade (2004) described the Internet as a social environment and distinguished interpersonal motivations from long-established uses based on process and content gratifications. David Schwartz (2009) further elaborated on the formation of blogging communities by tying interaction with online peer groups to expressions of personal identity. In addition, he found that readers willingness to interact through blogs was directly correlated to a willingness to disclose personal information, how much personal information the blogger disclosed, and perception of self-efficacy within the community. Likewise, Chung-Chi Shen and Jyh-Shen Chiou (2009) proposed that when readers identify with a blogging community, their ability to bond with other users, knowledge of the community and other social investment capital increased. Readers, in turn, were more likely to continue participating in the community and reading the blog. Describing this cyclical relationship, the researchers concluded, higher community identification intensified greater consumers willingness to invest in specific assets on a blogging community, which in turn affects the consumers attitude and intention toward using the blogging community (p. 403). Lee, Im and Taylor (2008) observed that blogger-reader

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7 recipricosity and smaller community sizes generally promoted identity disclosure and community participation, but that the latter findings didnt necessarily apply to the Internet. As with the Schmidt (2007) and Schwartz (2009) studies, these conclusions addressed blog users need for gratification-fulfilling social connectedness and development of personal identity. They also suggested that bloggers can facilitate community-building by reducing impediments to user participation and investment. One wouldve expected to find vibrantly interacting communities springing up through these blogging outlets because users visited them for social interaction. Through an online survey of 250 MP3 blog users, ODonnell and McClung (2008) attempted to measure the rationale behind frequenting music blogs. The researchers examined a socially-oriented motivation for using MP3 blogs (where music could be downloaded in the MP3 format) one that supplemented more pragmatic reasons like building music libraries, acquiring free music, and learning about bands (ODonnell & McClung, 2008). What was surprising since its difficult to quantify was the studys be in on the buzz social dimension: a measure describing audiences desire to participate in the grassroots-level excitement around new bands that only existed, at first, among smaller, alternative outlets. Also notable was the idea that ODonnell and McClung (2008) distinguished the buzz factor from that of learning about new music, defining the former as fulfilling a social and psychological need to listen to bands other people are talking about (p. 17). The study was similar to McCain, Morris and Greens whats new/cool gratification (as cited in Song, Larose, Eastin, & Lin, 2004, p. 391). McCain et al.s finding was significant because it distinguished the gratifications offered by the blogosphere from those conferred in traditional media specifically, diversion, knowledge acquisition, identity, and surveillance (McQuail, Blumler, & Brown, 1972). Blogger Chris Baltimore (2009) of Reuters Fan Fare wrote a post analyzing how music blogs differentiated themselves from newspapers and traditional criticism outlets like Rolling Stone. Extending ODonnell and McClungs (2008) buzz logic, Baltimore wrote that music fans, especially local and independent music enthusiasts, turned to the blogosphere for its taste-making expertise. He argued bloggers had in some ways replaced both local print publications and the advice of record store clerks as they utilized one of

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8 the last really enthusiastic mediums left (Baltimore, 2009, para. 9). Blogs also differed in their tone, he wrote. While mainstream critics, for instance, may have made careers from biting reviews, bloggers many strapped for time and money mostly only wrote about the bands they enjoyed. This labor of love mentality offered readers a more positive, less cynical experience and may have played a role in influencing user motivations. In addition, Baltimore further distanced music blogs like Aquariam Drunkard (Aquariumdrunkard.com) and Done Waiting (Donewaiting.com) from newspapers in their ability to both unearth good, local bands and generate word-of-mouth publicity. For users, word-of-mouth fulfilled a need that was similar to both Bonds-Raacke and Raackes (2010) social media-induced connection dimension and that of buzz namely, being able to talk about bands that cool people listened to (ODonnell & McClung, 2008). But given the rapid incorporation of social media within the blogosphere, word-of-mouth may have also testified to users longing to interact with artists, if only on a meta-level. Of course, a willingness to interact with the artists themselves didnt necessarily trump user motivations to develop emotional relationships with the bloggers. Indeed, that bloggers had the ability through voice and personality to form bonds with users (and, reciprocally, to be the object of affection) harkened back to the golden era of 6 oclock news. In an analysis of television audiences, Levy (1978) found that watchers returned to the same news programming because of bonds formed with certain anchors, who in turn, made sense of potentially confounding information. Perse (1990), measuring the effects of emotional and cognitive involvement on information holding and parasocial interaction, identified similar behavior in her study of viewer interaction with local news television broadcasts. Like Levy, she found audiences actually developed pseudo-friendships (p. 21) with media personalities based on perceived similarities, liking and attraction emotional attachments which, in turn, became motivations for repeated media use. Perse concluded only feeling happy while watching the news was associated with parasocial interaction; feeling sad or angry were unrelated (p.31). Though such findings may have varied given the Internets at times negative culture (King, 2001), the application of electronic media studies to the blogosphere was clear:

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9 audiences development of highly personal, emotional and cognitive connections with bloggers potentially fostered increased blog use. Trammel and Keshelashvili (2005) argued as much in a study of A-list blogs. Sampling those with high readership and several incoming links, they argued that a bloggers popularity was directly associated with high levels of personal disclosure and a high degree of self awareness of purported influence (p. 15). In addition, A-list bloggers embraced their identity as an alternative to mainstream online media. One prominent writer wrote, As a blogger and not an independent peer reviewed journalist, I am able to write about what I had for lunch or my broken coffee pot without feeling as if Im breaking some journalistic standard (Trammel & Keshelashvili, 2005, p. 15). When discussing the blogosphere, one would be remiss to overlook issues of perceived credibility. In light of the popularity of Pitchfork.com and other online music publications, a level of blogger or writer expertise may have factored into user motivations to read a given publication. Past research supports the need for perceived credibility. Johnson and Kaye (2004), in a survey of 3,747 political blog readers, found a striking 73.6 percent of audiences rated the medium as either moderately credible or very credible, combined with only 3.5 percent who rated blogs as not at all or not very credible (p. 630). This perceived credibility stemmed from blogs independence from corporate interests, collaborative fact-checking, interest in tackling overlooked issues, and willingness to discuss sensitive topics (Johnson & Kaye, 2004). Depth of information was rated highest in terms of credibility attributes, but readers also judged blogs to be believable and fairly accurate as well (p. 630). Significant, too, was the idea that audiences considered blogger bias a core strength one that factored into high credibility scores. While fairness may be considered a hallmark of traditional journalism, bias is likely seen as a virtue by blog users, the researchers wrote, adding, Blog readers are seeking out information to support their views (Johnson & Kaye, 2004, p. 633). Johnson and Kaye (2008), in a follow-up study, noted political blogs rated higher in credibility even than issue-oriented sites and candidate sites. Again, the authors cited a strong motivation to reinforce beliefs, stating, Indeed, supporters of blogs perceive bias,

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10 along with insight and analysis, as strengths over traditional media (Johnson & Kaye, 2008, p. 7). Interestingly, this finding was not found in earlier political medium uses and gratifications studies. Blumler and McQuail (1969), for instance, concluded that, although British television audiences turned to political programming to fulfill informational needs, they did not specifically tune into shows reinforcing existing beliefs. While blogs, specifically, rated high in users perceived credibility, other online media may have received more reader skepticism. Chyi and Yang (2009) concluded readers actually considered online news publications inferior to their paper counterparts, despite their added functionality and convenience. These findings differentiated the blogosphere from traditional publications that had been merely duplicated on the Web. Namely, blogs did not have to contend with print counterparts and thus deal with the negative connotations associated with existing as a knockoff of the real thing. Chen and Corkindale (2008) argued, however, that reader trust and subjective norms perceptions of other referent groups within the digital community played an important part in adoption, a finding that presumably applied to blogs as well. If audiences were indeed motivated to read the work of like-minded bloggers, such actions were perhaps driven by habitual behavior. Palmgreen, Wenner, and Rayburn (1981), in an analysis of the ritualistic consumption patterns of television news audiences, were among the first to point out that habit may actually trump the need-gratifying pull of certain media attributes. The study purported: While in certain cases more specific perceptions of anchorperson, program format, and news quality may be more important, the discriminant analyses indicate that the perception of differential gratifications are at least as strongly related to viewing behavior as the more traditional measures of program attributes. (Palmgreen et al., 1981, p. 472) Other studies have found the habit-forming consumption of traditional media to translate to the Internet (Milani, Osualdella, & Di Blasio, 2009; Perse & Dunn, as cited in Liu, Cheung, & Lee, 2010; Song, Larose, Eastin, & Lin, 2004). In some instances, usage once

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11 motivated by the conscious attempt to fulfill needs specifically, virtual community, information seeking, aesthetic experience, monetary compensation, diversion, personal status, and relationship maintenance gave way to subconscious, mildly addictive behavior (Song et al., 2004, p. 390). Diddi and Larose (2006) suggested, in the same vein, that online news media was among the most habit-forming, though perhaps for different reasons depending on the type of user. Diddi and Larose wrote: News junkies may be understood to be those whose news consumption is prompted by a need to escape from their everyday routines, more along the lines of ritualistic media use as opposed to the instrumental orientation of those with surveillance needs. (Diddi & Larose, 2006, Discussion section, para. 9) As ODonnell and McClung (2008) articulated in their study of MP3 blogs, aesthetic and practical attributes also influenced reader motivations to use a blog. Other new media research yielded similar results. Stafford, Kline, and Dimmick (1999) found conducting business to be among the most oft credited motivation schemas for using email. Chen and Corkindale (2008) connected simplicity of user interface and supplementary service quality to an adoption of online news services. Shao (2009) detected a correlation between user-generated medias ease of use and amount of user control and its subsequent appeal to audiences. Zerba (2003) emphasized the importance of multimedia features in their perceived ability to contribute additional information from heavy news seekers. Conversely, from the bloggers perspective, Li (2005) cited a motivation to Planning Ana(b)log: Taking on Gainesvilles Hyperlocal Indie Music Scene Ana(b)log was created and developed in the mold of other prominent local music blogs like Brookynvegan.com, Seattlesubsonic.com, Soundonthesound.com, and Thebaybridged.com and it emulated the style, format, themes and layouts related to hyperlocal music blogs. The audience for the blog ranged from 18 24 years of age, was transient, as college students often are, and was oriented toward both new media and a DIY

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12 lifestyle. I created Ana(b)log to speak to the readers of the Gainesville community. Tone, Style and Writing on the Blog My intentions with Ana(b)log, in keeping with journalistic norms, placed readers and prospective audiences at the fore. In other words, I wrote for my audience. As described in the literature review, researcher David Schwartz found a significant correlation between a bloggers willingness to disclose personal information and the bloggers subsequent ability to grow an online community. In turn, I both actively participated in the Gainesville music scene by attending at least one local show per week, interviewing local acts, friending artists on Facebook and building a face-to-face rapport with many of Gainesvilles musicians and injected my blog posts with detailed, firstperson perspective. Returns showed this disclosure to be successful, as posts of a personal nature tended to receive the most reader comments and Facebook reposts. A Pseudo Kids album review written as first-person narrative, for example, was reposted 18 times. Ana(b)log Crashes Left of the Dial, a list of my favorite 2000s songs, was resposted eight times. While the tone and writing of the site may not match the typical standards of newspaper journalism or AP style, the blogs language was designed to appeal to an audience who appreciated humor, irony, sarcasm and irreverence sprinkled throughout its in-depth interviews and multimedia-based reporting. As evidenced by Pitchfork.com and other similar outlets, the indie music community circa 2010 preferred a style of writing that employed witty wordplay, cheeky send-up, insider references, and allusions to the broader popular music canon, and did not shy away from ridicule. However, given the close-knit dynamics of the Gainesville community and the relative obscurity of many of the local acts, I chose to cover only the artists I personally enjoyed. As I was once told by an entertainment editor at the Independent Florida Alligator, there is little value in skewering a musician no ones heard of. This tactic of positive criticism also fell in line with journalist Chris Baltimores claim that blogging is largely a labor of love taken up by people who only have time to cover what they like. With this is mind, I aimed to communicate in a style that both mirrored the irreverent, though critically insightful prose of leading internet publications like

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13 Pitchfork.com, Popmatters.com, Youaintnopicasso.com and Fluxblog.org, and spoke directly to a local readership whose inclinations werent necessarily served by typical newspaper commentary which tended to favor long-form expository descriptions made largely obsolete by musics free online accessibility. The blogs style of writing fell in line with the elite online publications mentioned above and, perhaps more pertinent to a discussion of traditional music criticism, old media stalwarts like Rolling Stone and Spin. Perhaps the biggest difference was that these outlets didnt censor curse words with asterisks. I used Ana(b)log to dabble in creative writing, as evidenced by the post Why is the bro from Dead To Me so angry, yall? a tongue-in-cheek write-up that utilized poetic structure, text message-like shorthand, and perhaps best resembled the punctuation-free poetry of E.E. Cummings or, more probably, the blogger Carles of Hipsterrunnoff.com. Content Management System All of the content on the blog was not possible without a solid back-end content management system (CMS) by which to upload a wide variety of material. In the final week of August, I created the WordPress template that became Ana(b)log (though the site was originally entitled University & Main, signifying the cross-streets with several prominent local venues). Having creating another blog, Sportscasualties.com, with a self-hosted domain at WordPress.org, I took advantage of WordPresss user-friendly design options and one-click hosting setup with the Anablogmusic.com domain. I had also designed a syllabus for teaching blogging in 2010 as a project for a graduate class, Developing Digital Online Media. In designing this syllabus, I gave much thought to platform options, development of blogging strategies and how to teach others how to blog. WordPress was my recommended platform because of its advantages over other platforms, such as Blogger or Tumblr. I purchased the domain name for $10 per year in August 2010 and bought webhosting in July for 12 months through DreamHost, a $9.95 per month option that offered advanced spam guards, one-click installation and automatic hosting maintenance. In total, the web space for Ana(b)log cost exactly $119.40 per year, a somewhat

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14 pricey option offset by the fact that DreamHosts automated service and self-updating maintenance made it so bloggers needed only address web-hosting for matters of payment. In effect, Ana(b)logs back end ran itself. According to the companys official wiki, DreamHost backed up its clients sites using a combination of Apache, nginx, and lighttpd servers run by a Debian GNU/Linux operating system. Emailed receipt of web-hosting purchase from DreamHost Aesthetically speaking, Ana(b)logs design was engineered using a modified version of web designer Christian Proells CP-Minimal theme (version 1.1.1). Using CSS and HTML in WordPress.orgs Editor feature, I (a) took out the generic header in order to make room for the banner graphic created in Photoshop CS5 with Moderna font and custom shapes (b) selected an appropriate text package (a mix of Helvetica Neue, Liberation Sans, and Arial) (c) changed the color scheme and (d) inserted metadata using Google Adwords for keyword ideas that would better optimize the site for search engines. I learned to code in XHTML and CSS by taking MMC5015 Electronic Publishing with Professor David Carlson and was subsequently able to tweak the design template of the site, as well as individual posts in WordPresss HTML Editor. Elizabeth Castros handbook HTML, XHTML & CSS: Sixth Edition was also helpful in this regard. Widgets and Enhanced Functionality Through a trial and error process of widget selection, I further honed the aesthetic

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15 and functional elements of the site to incorporate social media connectivity through Twitter and Facebook. Selected widgets also enhanced in-site navigation. OttoDestructs Simple Twitter Connect Base widget, for instance, allowed me to automatically tweet published post links to Ana(b)logs Twitter account in the form of a shortened URL. Steve Attys WordBooker widget provided the same service in Facebook when I added it to Anablogmusic.com in November. WordBooker widget publishing options for Anablogmusic.com WordBooker automatically posted published blog posts to Facebook with a link that both provided a teaser excerpt and the ability to replicate comments on the Facebook link to the blog. Any comment made under the WordBooker Facebook link, then, would be automatically transcribed with author data to the blog. While the generic WordPress Tag Cloud widget allowed readers a quick overview of Ana(b)logs most blogged about topics and subjects, Kestas Mindziuliss Subscribe Widget plugin generated a four-pronged subscription model allowing readers to subscribe to the blog via email, Facebook, Twitter, a comments RSS feed or a Feedburner RSS feed

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16 (though, as of March 20, 2011, no reader had used Feedburner to subscribe to Ana(b)log compared to 26 via the Facebook fan page and 70 via Twitter). Moreover, Ricardo Gonzalezs Twitter for WordPress widget showed the tweets in the sidebar of Ana(b)logs Twitter feed at http://twitter.com/anablogmusic with links back to the original tweets. Two photography based plug-ins also added visual appeal to the otherwise stripped-down Ana(b)log aesthetic. The Cincopa video and photo download enabled me to include photo galleries into my posts by uploading pictures directly to Cincopa thus saving the time and space of having to upload jpeg files to WordPress. The Cincopa plugin also transformed the photo galleries into slide shows upon clicking. Defiance, Ohio At 8 Seconds: The Fest, Day 2 is an example of a post that put Cincopa to good use. Example of embedded Cincopa photo gallery Similarly, PlusNets Flickr Thumbnail Photostream widget allowed me to create a photo feed on Anablogmusic.com of all the pictures I uploaded to my personal account at

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17 Flickr.com. Set to show six picture thumbnails at a time, the widget automatically generated a new thumbnail each time I uploaded a picture to Ana(b)logs Flickr account. Should a reader click on any of the thumbnails, the widget produces a pop-out slideshow of all the photos uploaded to the Ana(b)log Flickr account. "Jerusalem Guitar": Example of photo uploaded to Ana(b)log Flickr Account Blog Design, Color and Layout The blogs design and layout was created to assist with intuitive in-site searches, to make it effortless to peruse news bites, and to present clean aesthetics and easily digestible information. The color of the blog title (green) was chosen because of its tranquilizing visual appeal and its psychological relation to growth symbolic of a blogs capacity for organic expansion. The banner was designed to look like a professionally fashioned logo fitting the aesthetics of Web 2.0 hence the rounded Moderna font and the allusion to RSS feeds. The three lime green quarter circles on the upper left also mimicked the grooves on a vinyl record and thus played on the analog pun. In total, this labor-intensive process of creating the sites logo was completed after approximately 15-hours with some input from graphic designer Scott Purcell of the UF/IFAS Office of the Dean for Research. In addition, the flow of images, video and audio within the text was designed to create both a

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18 diverse media mix and a live feel as if the reader was experiencing a show in person. Ana(b)log home page screen capture My goal for the blogs design was to create a template that stressed a clean, uncluttered look and easily consumable, multimedia-based information. This was done through the selection of widgets, color and, the design of the banner logo. Links

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19 The two blogrolls below the archives section in the right sidebar designated Headliners and Openers served a number of purposes. First, they gave readers a sense of similar publications, thereby creating a perception that Ana(b)log was similar to such publications as Chromewaves.net and Brooklynvegan.net. In addition to enhancing identity, the blogrolls also attempted to draw the attention of the linked websites, which have the ability to track referring sites. For example, if a user clicked to Chromewaves.net from Anablogmusic.com, Anablogmusic.com showed up as a referrer in Chromewaves.nets statistical report. Linking was effective in bringing viewers to the blog as Thezebraowl.wordpress.com, Kylerancourt.com, Gameovermedia.com and No-grain-nopain.com all added Ana(b)log to their respective blogrolls. In some cases (Gainesville365.wordpress.com, Thegainesvillemusicarchive.tumblr.com, Commongroundslive.com), I added local sites as a show of community solidarity in hopes of tapping into an already established network. Multimedia The content of Ana(b)log was built by adding photography, writing, video and audio using cloud applications and social networks such as YouTube, Vimeo, SoundCloud and MP3 downloads via Wordpress. On Sept. 12, 2010, I established an Ana(b)log YouTube Channel to aggregate all previously uploaded videos into one branded directory. By providing blog information and an Ana(b)log link with each video, I was able to direct 56 users to the blog according to WordPress Stats (though only 14 unique users according to StatCounter Stats) and expose the Ana(b)log name to the approximately 29,000 non-unique viewers who watched my YouTube videos as of March 6, 2011. The Ana(b)log YouTube Channel gained 10 subscribers including music booking and promotions company Honeycomb Promotions and 15 friends over the life of this project.

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20 Ana(b)log YouTube Channel stats as of March 6, 2011 I posted my first Vimeo video on Friday, Oct. 29, 2010, and immediately found it an attractive option for formatting video interviews. Over the span of the project, I compiled interviews of Andrew Santorelli, the President of the UF Music and Entertainment Industry Student Association, DJ Robzilla of the hip-hop band O.N.E., Robbie Freeman of local punk band Kadets, Amy Lobasso and Ryan Backman of the Boswellians (via YouTube due to file size restrictions on Vimeo), and Miami recording artist Teepee. The last of these was produced with slides, graphics, transition effects and spliced MP3 clips using Apples iMovie program. Teepee subsequently posted the final product to his personal MySpace page with a link back to Ana(b)log. Vimeo video embedded at Myspace.com/teepeeasel As of March 15, 2011, I had used the SoundCloud media application twice, and, much like YouTube, its social functionality allowed a single sound file to spread the Ana(b)log name exponentially. Because my first two radio episodes at Grow Radio could not be converted to downloadable MP3s (all subsequent episodes would be recorded, converted to MP3s and made available as podcasts both through Growradio.org and Anablogmusic.com), I created my own podcast using a combination of the Audacity Free Audio Editor and Recorder, SoundCloud and personal podcasting equipment. I used a Blue

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21 SnowBall podcasting microphone to record the voice parts of the podcast, recording them directly into Audacity. With the permission of Grow Radio, I then interspersed MP3 music files amongst the voice sections, editing the final product down into a 51-minute long file, which I then converted to MP3 format and uploaded in SoundCloud. This process took approximately seven hours. I then embedded the SoundCloud file in Music For Squares: Podcast No. 1, a post reposted on Facebook ten times one of which by Adam Hallock, a local musician whose song I had included in the podcast. As SoundCloud worked similarly to YouTube in terms of sustaining its own community of users, the SoundCloud file garnered 31 listens at SoundCloud.com as of March 16, 2011. Most of these came within the first week of posting. Like with my YouTube clips, I provided links and additional contact information directing SoundCloud.com listeners back to the blog (though, according to StatCounter, Google Analytics and WordPress Stats, SoundCloud did not make any referrals). For the second SoundCloud podcast, an interview with the Reitz Union Boards Jenna Mescon, I recorded a 20-minute conversation using a Kodak PlaySport Camcorder. I then uploaded the video file to YouTube, extracted the sound using the MP3 converter at Listentoyoutube.com, and pared down the interview to nine minutes in Audacity. To level sound levels, I used the Conversations Networkss Levelator application, a free program that automatically adjusted audio levels. Part of completing this post was a requirement for a graduate course, MMC6936 Multimedia Blogging, with Dr. Judy Robinson. This entire process took approximately six hours, and not including the 90 minutes it took to post the completed interview to Ana(b)log with introductory copy and a photo modified with Photobucket.com, a popular image hosting website. Observations The power of social networks was not lost on me. I was, after all, a blogger. And if anybody spends too much time overthinking the perfectly-executed, 140-character blast of Tweeted wit, this person was me. I went into this project aware of the depth and breadth of

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22 digitally-faciliated, social connectivity made possible via Facebook and Twitter. So that the speed and synergy by which readers dispersed Ana(b)log content took even this grizzled laptop junkie off guard should give one a sense of the Internets truly awe-inspiring power. It was becoming an increasingly difficult task in this plugged-in global society to find someone who was not connected. And just as Gainesvilles surprisingly versatile music scene circa 2010 ran the gamut from 18-year-old scenesters to self-described geezer rockers, so too did the proverbial social network seemingly encapsulate a wide-ranging spectrum of humanity. This will be made clear in the following anecdote. Moms and Metal Heads: Ana(b)log In Infancy The pilot post for Ana(b)log was actually published on my other website Sportscasualties.com. The intentions of this tactic were two-fold. First, as of early September, I had not yet fully developed Ana(b)logs infrastructure. I was still tinkering with logo design and layout and, rather than publish material on an embryonic template, decided to instead tap into Sports Casualties large, Gainesville-based readership as a promotional strategy to drive traffic to the new blog. The vigor with which metal fans reposted coverage of their favorite thrash-guitar purveyors to Facebook in fact set a benchmark for the content to follow. On Sunday, Sept. 12, 2010, I posted a live review of a joint Azmyth-Whiplash show at The Backstage Lounge. By Monday, the write-up in question had been reposted by 46 unique Facebook accounts and liked at multiples beyond that. Though Facebook likes were not fully quantifiable given the privacy settings of non-friends, one may presume that likes outpaced reposts given that 10 people liked Azymths repost alone. Evidence of viral promotion to follow:

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23 Posted to the Whiplash fan page Posted by Azmyth to the Azmyth fan page

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24 46 Facebook reposts of Whiplash With Azmyth: Live at the Backstage Lounge Perhaps unsurprisingly, proud mothers shared content promoting their sons just as diligently as music fans did with their favorite bands. Ana(b)logs second relatively large burst of exposure, then, came as a direct result of a mother, Renee Puzo, finding a write-up of her son via a Google search. The subsequent chain reaction spawned a swift proliferation of Facebook notifications. On Thursday, Sept. 30, I talked to the Atlantics DJ NickFresh about doing a potential promo. On Saturday I posted A Word About DJ NickFresh, and by later that afternoon, Nicks mother had tipped her son off about the post. Word spread, among other avenues, through Nicks Twitter account (via retweet), his Facebook page, his Facebook fan page, the Atlantics page, and Doowutchyalike Gainesvilles fan page. All told, the post garnered over 150 unique visits within its first week, but the real exciting part was to witness the digitally facilitated magic of this social network tandem unfold in real time. Page Views for Oct. 2, 2010 according to WordPress Stats (Note: Spikes on Sept. 26 and Sept. 29 equaled 92 and 91 hits, respectively)

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25 Through tagging and reposting on Facebook and retweets on Twitter, this one post reached a large number of Nicks friends and family within a three-hour period. NickFresh retweet of Anablogmusic and subsequent tweet Tagged Nick Puzo post on Facebook

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26 28 Facebook reposts Link shared 62 times according to bit.ly Activist Hardcore Punk Rockers Love Twitter, Obviously: Ana(b)log A Month In The sites biggest traffic day also resulted from a collaborative Twitter/Facebook/YouTube effort, though this time backed by the fan power of a popular East Coast punk band. The setup went as follows: Each year in late October, downtown Gainesville turned into one of the biggest punk music pilgrimages in the country, if not the world. Philadelphia hardcore band Paint It Black headlined The Fest 9 s Saturday night show at The Venue and I braved the mass of moshing bodies to shoot photos and record video. After posting a live review days later on Nov. 1, I contacted the band via Twitter with a snipped bit.ly URL linking to Ana(b)logs show coverage. Paint It Black proceeded to share the link with their 2,500-strong Twitter following via retweet, and ultimately posted the article to their Facebook page with an additional comment promoting both the review and Ana(b)log. Given the size of the bands Facebook following more than 5,000 its quite possible the live review attracted even more impressions when combined with the Twitter exposure and the tagged YouTube videos directing fans to seek out additional material on my blog. Needless to say, Ana(b)logs traffic spiked in early November,

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27 accumulating 322 page views on the first day of the month according to Google Analytics. In addition, as of February 23, 2011, the YouTube video for Paint It Blacks Past Tense, Future Perfect the subject of one of the bands retweets had garnered 1,132 views. This subsequent traffic increase stemming from the bands social media communications suggested a link between artist-fan interaction that extended into the blogosphere. In other words, fans may have been driven by a need to interact with their favorite artists using blogs as mediums. This interaction, in turn, perhaps promoted user attendance. Paint It Black's retweet of Ana(b)log YouTube video Paint It Black retweet of Ana(b)log live review Ana(b)log YouTube videos shared on Facebook

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28 Data for Ana(b)log YouTube video of Paint It Black Page views for Nov. 1, 2010 according to Google Analytics Its worth noting at this point that in all the previous examples, social media showed groups traditionally associated with active grassroots networks (heavy metal fans, activist punk kids, proud mothers) to behave in very much the way they might have in a preInternet age. In 2010, fanzines, obscure record compilations and in the case of the latter group clippings reserved proudly for the refrigerator door had been supplemented or allout replaced by instantaneously dispersible digital information. Though Ana(b)log existed as one case study, evidence showed that communities established through the sharing of old media (press clippings, fanzines and record albums, for instances) largely emerged in

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29 the digital sphere as similarly intertwined entities. In other words, the concept of niche translated to online social networks, but as an amplified, more easily accessible construct. Ana(b)log Grows Up Ana(b)logs Fest coverage made enough of an impact in Gainesvilles independent music community to land the blog a steady stream of modest traffic (approximately 290 hits per week in October and November of 2010 according to WordPress Stats), but more importantly, led to a number of unexpected opportunities that subsequently transformed the Ana(b)log name into a multi-platform endeavor. At this juncture, it is necessary to quickly touch on the rationale behind using three different statistical tracking programs. Though WordPress Stats recorded page views, and was thus convenient for quickly measuring traffic, it was unable to distinguish between unique visitors and return visitors those who visited the blog more than once. StatCounter came in handy here, as it was capable of these measures and was also able to track where site visitors came from. StatCounter "Recent Visitor Map" for March 8, 2011 StatCounter also kept track of entry and exit pages, download activity and search engine wars an analytic tool showing from which search engine visitors came (on the downside, StatCounters data log tops out at 500 entries without a premium pay-per

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30 upgrade). I employed Google Analytics because it detailed similar metrics, and because it acted as a backup should the embedded StatCounter code have encountered an unexpected complication. This coding snag in fact affected Google Analytics when I updated Ana(b)logs content management system to WordPress version 3.1.1. I subsequently lost all archived data prior to February 15 and relied primarily on old screen captures to relate the provided Google Analytics statistics. Together, the three analytics programs acted as checks on one another and, given their varying statistical calculations, provided a range of figures by which to estimate Ana(b)logs true traffic totals. Site usage data for Feb. 14 through March 7 according to Google Analtyics After jumping from 838 page views in October to 1,788 page views in November according to WordPress Stats (StatCounter shows 1,059 and 2,084 views, respectively), Ana(b)logs visits declined to 710 in December due presumably to the University of Floridas winter break, and the authors corresponding break, as well as the natural decline one would expect in the wake of the successful Fest 9 coverage. Page views steadily rose in the new year, however, as the site fetched 1,087 views in January and then climbed to 1,380 in February on an average of two to three posts per week. The reasons for this growth largely dealt with the sites transformation into a multimedia outlet for all things Gainesville music. In a roughly three-month span from the end of September to the beginning of January in which I posted between two and three times per week, Ana(b)log evolved from an outlet based solely on reporting-focused journalism into a community partner for local Internet radio and a hub for podcasting. The interim, however, should not be glossed over, as its events fostered a slow, but consistent growth in influence and exposure aligning with a gradual climb up the search engine rankings. Moreover, in keeping with journalist Chris Baltimores findings that blogs

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31 generate word-of-mouth publicity better than traditional media, Ana(b)log evolved into a taste-making publication with content employed by local artists to create buzz. In this regard, the blog became a destination for music fans, industry professionals, and the artists themselves. It was during this period, for instance, that my tell all interview with an ex-Rock 104 DJ sparked a conversation among local radio professionals at Radio-Info.com. The interview tallied more than 120 unique visits according to Google Analytics, landed a referral that marginally enhanced Ana(b)logs influence, and more importantly, shed light on a sticky situation that had otherwise been sparsely reported on. Oct. 26 message board posting at Radio-Info.com The interview also caught the attention of a fellow Gator alumnus who, for her part, just happened to front a locally-popular indie rock band in Tallahassee. Her band wanted to plug a gig at Gainesvilles Backstage Lounge in October. She contacted me, writing the following: Greetings! I came across your anablog (very cool, btw) and thought Id drop you a line. Were a band called Fantome from Tallahassee, and were getting ready to make our first visit to Gainesville. We will be playing @ the Backstage Lounge this Friday night, Oct. 1st. People describe us as post punk and shoegaze. Im a UF journalism grad, but I havent lived in G-ville for a while. Most of my UF friends have moved away. Im just trying to reach out to some cool folks who might be interested in our show.

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32 We just released our 2nd album, Bare Mythology, which you can download for FREE at: http://fantomeband.bandcamp.com If there is any way you could help us spread the word about our show, wed really appreciate it. Perhaps we could return the favor with a t-shirt or some beer Thanks for your time, and we hope to see you at the show! Occurrences as these suggested that Ana(b)log had filled a need in the local music community previously met only by stop-gap publications (http://hearingainesville.wordpress.com/, for example) unable to sustain a long-term flow of content. Though several credible, Florida-based music blogs had bubbled up circa 2010, few if any had focused their attention squarely on Gainesville, and the ones that did did so only in spurts. After tweaking its WordPress tagline to Covering Gainesville Indie Music Bands to include more pertinent Google AdWords, a Google search for Gainesville indie music returned Anablogmusic.com as the third overall result as of March 17, 2011, and this behind community stalwarts Common Grounds Live (the citys premier rock venue) and The Gainesville Music Archive (Gainesvillemusicarchive.tumblr.com). It was evident, then, that bands especially regional acts and touring outfits unfamiliar with the Gainesville scene benefited from the creation of an exclusively hyper-local music publication with the flexibility to produce quickly distributable promotional material. The rate at which the Fantome promo was shared certainly speaks to this point. Fantome Promo Facebook reposts Subsequent contacts namely, by Mobile, AL, space-rockers The Sunshine Factory,

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33 St. Paul, MN, folk singer We Are The Willows, and local music vet Bob McPeek, bandleader of garage-revivalists The Erasables certainly attested to the appeal of Ana(b)logs promotional capabilities as well. Ana(b)log finally came into its own via an unexpected, though certainly not unwelcome, offer from Grow Radios Bill Bryson. Much like Ana(b)logs correspondence with Fantomes Tracy Horenbein, the Grow Radio connection emanated mainly by chance and through a third-party contact. In November, I covered Gainesville rock band Driver at Common Grounds. Drivers Naheed Mojadidi, host of Grows Erosion, enjoyed the subsequent review enough to ask me to write a piece for her fanzine (also called Erosion). Of greater significance Naheed passed my name along to Bryson, Grows founder and station programmer. By early January, after a couple meetings to discuss potential show formats and the actual logistics of working a soundboard, I was creating and hosting the all-local Music For Squares a weekly, hour-long program dedicated specifically to Gainesville music and the touring artists passing through. Music For Squares so named for Gainesvilles rectangular configuration quickly developed into Ana(b)logs podcasting arm, a collaborative coup d etat allowing me to A) utilize the stations technological capabilities to create downloadable podcasts and B) play both the music available at the station and my own material without having to acquire permissions from each individual band (though it was my overwhelming experience that local bands, most of whom freely distributed their material anyway, wanted the exposure without the hassles of granting any potential copyright permission). This perhaps goes without saying, but the Grow connection both bumped the blogs popularity and allowed me to make further inroads in the local music community. What unfolded, then, proved an exercise in synergy: Music For Squares increased Ana(b)logs exposure and credibility; Ana(b)log touted Grow and all things local internet radio. As each of the previous anecdotes illustrated, the story of this blog was one of spontaneous connections and optimization of social networks. Comments to Facebook and to the blog substantiated this claim, as approximately 27 different readers commented

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34 directly on the blog alone. In addition, several artists sent emails both complimenting Ana(b)log and soliciting coverage. In the span of five months, I was contacted by, among others: Dante Lima of the Gainesville Sun, a reporter and music critic who asked me to review an album for his band Pseudo Kids Facebook posting by Gainesville Sun music critic Dante Lima Rock 104s Glenn Rickard, a Gainesville DJ who asked for help in compiling music for a local music show DJ NickFresh, who contacted me a second time to promote his Thursday night Doowhatchyalike Gainesville dance parties at The Atlantic Nightspot Bob McPeek, founder of Hyde & Zeke Records, Mirror Image Studios, and the principal songwriter in The Erasables Vice Magazine, a prominent national publication that asked me to cover an event it sponsored at The Atlantic Nightspot

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35 Correspondence with Rory Ahearn of Vice Magazine Deputy, a project of Morningbell drummer Chris Hillman The Boswellians and Kadets, two local acts Ancient River, a popular local band who transcribed a clip of an Ana(b)log live review and an entire album review under the Press section of its website The manager of Alabama band The Sunshine Factory, to cover a tour stop in Gainesville Minnesota folk artist We Are The Willows, also to cover a local tour stop The UF Music and Entertainment Industry Student Association Charles Martin, both a physics professor at UF and the songwriter for local psychedelic band The Righteous Kind Bill Bryson of Grow Radio, who, as previously detailed, asked me to host a weekly local show

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36 Discussion Building Rapport In keeping with a 2005 study by Trammel and Keshelashvili that found a strong correlation between blog popularity and a bloggers willingness to disclose personal information, Ana(b)log strove to develop a strong, first-person voice to establish a casual, comfortable rapport with both readers and the subjects of the blog themselves. Ana(b)logs largely positive, but objective reviews of artists helped in this respect the blogs analytical, though often complimentary analysis freed artists to solicit reviews and grant interviews without the fear of negative publicity. Established blogs and print publications in 2010 did not typically take such a one-sided, predominantly positive approach to criticism. This proved a central difference between Ana(b)log and an outlet like the Gainesville Sun. However, when one started from scratch without previous credentials, it was imperative not to burn bridges or potential relationships with unfavorable press, especially when running a one-person operation in such a small, close-knit community. While some bloggers, including Martyn Chamberlin of Two Hour Blogger, argued that personal style was irrelevant to driving traffic and establishing a readership, for Ana(b)log, it was the primary feature that distinguished blogs with similar informational content. Chamberlin wrote in a February 2011 post for Problogger.net (http://www.problogger.net/archives/2011/02/20/teach-or-your-blog-will-die/) that a blog must teach, or it will die. This was wise advice to a degree in that the ability to inform audiences contributed to a blogs success. By providing interviews, photos, video of live performances and reviews, Ana(b)log informed its audience about Gainesvilles indie music

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37 scene. However, the ability to entertain was very vital, especially for a music publication existing in a digital environment in which audiences could simply visit YouTube to hear new music. Online music criticism had an especially rich tradition of personality-heavy firstperson voice. Seminal Web critics like Mark Prindle of Markprindle.com and Scott Floman of Sfloman.com built large audiences and equally impressive influence (Prindle went on to write for Crawdaddy Magazine in 2010 and occasionally appeared on Fox News Red Eye program) with an irreverent blend of personal anecdote, humor, first-person narrative and a total dismissal of AP style. These characteristics, of course, did not stand on their own. Thus Ana(b)log emphasized quality of information over all else an attribute that imbued it with an air of professionalism conducive to positive reader-blogger and artist-blogger interactions. Knowing Ones Audience The prior discussion of building blogger-audience rapport spawned a related question: how did a blogger get to know the audience? To establish Ana(b)logs readership, I took a proactive approach not just with social media, but also as a participant in the Gainesville music community. As Ana(b)log was a reporting-based publication, I went to my sources, establishing a face-to-face relationship with multiple artists as any good reporter would. Over the course of six months, I regularly attended bi-weekly meetings of the University of Floridas Music and Entertainment Industry Student Association, went on average to one show per week at a cost of $6-8 each, attended most of the major music events (like the Gainesville Music Makers Ball and The Fest), and, in all cases, talked to the

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38 performers involved. I knew my audience because I was part of my audience. I put myself in readers shoes and would advise all bloggers looking to grow an online presence to do the same, asking, If I came across this post, would it both hold my attention for its duration and leave me hungry for more? Along those same lines, the most successful bloggers have been ones that exploited a niche by providing original content. Consequently, bloggers must survey their environment, researching competitors and potential partner publications to carve out an area of specialty. For Ana(b)log, this entailed focusing heavily on live, local music reviews and multimedia-based reporting of lesser known bands, neither of which had been previously concentrated on. Growing a Community: Advice for Future Bloggers Scanning ones environment and analyzing the audience were first steps to growing a readership. With social media providing multiple outlets for reader discussion, one must also attempt to harness audience feedback both with the blogger and other readers by either confining it to a single location or creating synergies between social media applications. With Ana(b)log, readers submitted comments through YouTube, Facebook, Twitter and email, and made it difficult to focus conversation while simultaneously spreading thin the time and attention of the blogger. The goal, then, was to efficiently collate reader interactions without limiting potential feedback avenues. The social media application WordBooker helped in this regard, as it transcribed Facebook comments directly to the blog post. Providing an RSS feed of Ana(b)logs Twitter correspondence in the sidebar of Anablogmusic.com also helped to aggregate dialogue in one place. Ideally, a

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39 blogger should strive to collect comments in one easily accessible location to generate further conversation. Bloggers should also tap into preexisting communities if at all possible. This, again, requires an awareness of ones place in the blogosphere and a willingness to advertise oneself. Over the course of this project, Ana(b)log was able to develop a synergistic relationship with Grow Radio in which use of the stations facilities and access to its on-air personalities was reciprocated with Ana(b)log coverage. The relationship between the two shed light on how the Internet worked in general: similar communities connected with one another through social media and then utilized each others existing resources. Such an interaction occurred every time an artist promoted an Ana(b)log post via retweet or Facebook repost: the band benefited from the spread of positive press while Ana(b)log benefitted from the increased exposure and bump in traffic. Furthermore, bloggers should emphasize consistency of posting. Posting two to three times per week at two to three-day intervals proved a relatively successful strategy for building Ana(b)logs community, as dedicated readers would typically check in on off days to make sure they hadnt missed anything. This strategy kept traffic relatively constant throughout the week. Providing quality content that combines features of search engine optimization (SEO) with well-written prose and engaging multimedia helps as well. While SEO should not have been employed at the expense of content, its reputation as an attempt to game the system was not entirely fair. The use of both well-constructed permalinks (those that included popular keywords) and efficient tagging was helpful in driving traffic, as it helped potential audiences find content more easily. To this

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40 implementation of SEO, bloggers should additionally concentrate on posting on a regular basis, a strategy that in time attracted both an audience and search engine crawlers. It was beneficial to Google searchers, for instance, to include popular keywords in the title of a post, but such a strategy should be employed with creativity and readability in mind. In general, the more posts a blog had, the better it performed in Google searches because the larger body of work provided more indexed words as a database for searched words. Hyperlocal blogs, particularly ones that fulfill an original niche, should also focus on link coverage and making contacts through social media, as these proved effective strategies for building an audience in a short amount of time. Kylerancourt.com and Radioinfo.com, both sites that linked to Anablogmusic.com, were two of my blogs top referrers. This spoke to the value of linking. Tapping potential local audiences through Facebook, Twitter, SoundCloud and YouTube was also advantageous in quickly establishing a readership. Bloggers should never pass up a moment of inspiration. The best posts were often the most effortless. Similarly, the pursuit of perfection should not stifle content production. The beauty of blogging was in its informality, transience and ease of publishing. If todays post didnt turn out exactly how the blogger envisioned, there was always tomorrow.

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41 References Alder, P., & Kwon, S. W. (2002). Social capital: Prospects for a new concept. The Academy of Management Review, 27 (1), 17-40. Baltimore, C. (2009, March 9). Bloggers: Music industry tastemakers? Message posted to http://blogs.reuters.com Blumler, J. G., & McQuail, D. (1969). Television in politics: Its uses and influence Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Bonds-Raacke, J., & Raacke, J. (2010). MySpace and Facebook: Identifying dimensions of uses and gratifications for friend networking sites. Individual Differences Research 8 (1), 27-33. Retrieved from the Academic Search Premier database. Caramanica, J. (2010, July 14). Upstart music site becomes establishment. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/15/arts/music/15pitchfork.html Chen, Y. H., & Corkindale, D. (2008). Towards an understanding of the behavioral intention to use online news services. Internet Research, 18 (3), 286-312. doi: 10.1108/10662240810883326 Chyi, H., & Mengchieh Jacie, Y. (2009). Is online news an inferior good? Examining the economic nature of online news/ among users. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 86 (3), 594-612. Retrieved from Communication & Mass Media Complete database. DArcangelo, G. (2005). The new cosmopolites: Activating the role of mobile music listeners Paper presented at the 2nd International Workshop on Mobile Music Technology for NIME Vancouver, Canada. Diddi, A., & Larose, R. (2006). Getting hooked on news: Uses and gratification and the formation of news habits among college students in an internet environment. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 50 (2), 193-210. Eastin, M., & LaRose, R. (2003). A social cognitive explanation of internet uses and gratifications: Toward a new theory of media attendance. Conference Papers -International Communication Association, 1-36. doi:ica_proceeding_11705.PDF. Herzog, H. (1954). Motivations and gratifications of daily serial listeners. In W. Schramm (Ed.), The processes and effects of mass communication (pp. 50-55). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

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42 Johnson, T., & Kaye, B. (2004). Wag the blog: How reliance on traditional media and the internet influence credibility perceptions of weblogs among blog users. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 81 (3), 622-642. Johnson, T., & Kaye, B. (2008). In blog we trust? Deciphering credibility of components of the internet among politically interested internet users. Computers In Human Behavior. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2008.08.004 Katz, E. (1959). Mass communication research and the study of popular culture: An editorial note on a possible future for this journal. Studies in Public Communication, 2 1-6. Retrieved from http://repository.upenn.edu. Katz, E., Blumler, J. G., & Gurevitch, M. (1974). Utilization of mass communication by the individual. In O. Boyd-Barrett & C. Newbold (Eds.), Approaches to media: A reader (pp. 164-173). London: Arnold. Katz, E., Gurevitch, M., & Haas, H (1973). On the use of the mass media for important things. American Sociological Review 38 (2), 164-181. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/pss/2094393 King, A. (2001). Affective dimensions of internet culture. Social Science Computer Review, 19 (4), 414-430. doi: 10.1177/089443930101900402 Lee, D., Im, S., & Taylor, C. (2008). Voluntary self-disclosure of information on the internet: A multimethod study of the motivations and consequences of disclosing information on blogs. Psychology and Marketing, 25 (7), 692-710. DOI: 10.1002/mar.20232 Levy, M. R. (1978). The audience experience with television news Lexington, KY: Association for Education in Journalism. Li, D. (2005). Why do you blog: A uses-and-gratifications inquiry into bloggers motivations (Masters thesis). Liu, I., Cheung, C., & Lee, M. (2010). Understanding Twitter usage: What drive people continue to Tweet. Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems: Proceedings of the 2010 PACIS Conference Taipei, Taiwan (paper 92). McQuail, D., J.G. Blumler, & Brown, J. R. (1972). The television audience: A revised perspective. In P. Marris & S. Thornham (Eds.), Media Studies: A reader (pp. 438454). New York: New York University Press. Milani, L., Osualdella, D., & Di Blasio, P. (2009). Quality of interpersonal relationships and problematic internet use in adolescence. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12 (6), 681684.

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43 O'Donnell, P., & McClung, S. (2008). MP3 music blogs: Their efficacy in selling music and marketing bands Atlantic Journal of Communication, 16 (2), 71-87. doi:10.1080/15456870701840004. Palmgreen, P., Wenner, L. A., & Rayburn II, J. D. (1981). Gratification discrepancies and news program choice. Communication Research, 8 (4), 451-478. Perse, E. (1990). Media involvement and local news effects. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 34 (1), 17-36. Ruggiero, T. (2000). Uses and Gratifications Theory in the 21st Century. Mass Communication & Society, 3 (1), 3-37. Shao, G. (2009). Understanding the appeal of user-generated media: A uses and gratification perspective. Internet Research, 19 (1), 7-25. Shen, C. C., & Chiou, J. S. (2009). The effect of community identification on attitude and intention toward a blogging community. Internet Research, 19 (4), 393-407. Schmidt, J. (2007). Blogging practices: An analytical framework. Journal of ComputerMediated Communication, 12 (4), 1409-1427. Schwartz, D. (2009). Knowing who you are and trusting who you know. Internet Research, 19 (5). Introductory essay retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/ Shirky, C. (2008). Here comes everybody: The power of organizing without organizations. New York: Penguin Books. Song, I., Larose, R., Eastin, M. S., & Lin, C. A. (2004). Internet gratifications and internet addiction: On the uses and abuses of new media. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 7 (4), 384-394. Stafford, L., Kline, S., & Dimmick, J. (1999). Home e-mail: Relational maintenance and gratification opportunities. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 43 (4), 659669. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database. Stafford, T., Stafford, M., & Schkade, L. (2004). Determining uses and gratifications for the internet. Decision Sciences, 35 (2), 259-288. Retrieved from Google Scholar. Trammell, K., & Keshelashvili, A. (2005). Examining the new influencers: A selfpresentation study of A-list blogs. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 82 (4), 968-982. Retrieved from Communication & Mass Media Complete database. Verplanken, B. (2006). Beyond frequency: Habit as mental construct. British Journal of Social Psychology 45 (3), 639-656. DOI: 10.1348/014466605X49122

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44 Zerba, A. (2003). Perceived motives for clicking on multimedia features on news web sites: An exploratory study (Masters thesis). Available from the University of Florida Online Dissertations database.

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45 Appendix Example Post (Text transcribed below) Full text: It is precisely in the sixth minute of the eight-minute psychedelic drone**** Electric Jesus that I reconsider marijuana smoking as recreational pastime. This song is long. This song is very long. This song is the kind of long over which empires rise and fall, garage

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46 bands form and disperse. But I am still listening. And Ancient River is still groping for transcendence, which means we are both doing what we were put on this Earth to do: rock n roll. Ancient River plays loud, spacey, occasionally melodic guitar music equal parts selfloathing and reverberating wah. It is a continuous blast of distortion, heavy like a burning desert sun, and when channeled through the expeditious Gibson of J. Barreto which is virtually always an anachronistic head-trip into the sonic ether. The trios new album is entitled (somewhat preposterously) O.D.D.S. short for outtakes, demos, demons and singles and it is misleading in two regards. First, it sounds like a compilation album only in the sense that all long-playing rock debuts are compilations aggregations of prime material from a bands first nascent throes. And second, it sounds nothing at all like the batch of home recordings it alleges to be. I cant speak to demons, but outtakes and demos these are not. Leadoff track Letter Word in fact screams single or howls single, or caterwauls single, or whatever it is that best describes the noise Barettos banshee guitar makes in these rapturous three minutes. The song chugs forward with a druggy propulsion suited best for Madchesters stoned heyday and oddly reminiscent of the only EMF cut you or I or anyone else can name. It is a thing of visceral gravity, but no more or less so than Air Conditioned Gypsy or Once A Tabbey, the former a neo-psychedelic kiss-off crammed with chorus, the latter an explicit homage to Dinosaur Jr. right down to the adlibbed freakouts and Barretos laconic drawl. For all the acid-hippie affectation, Ancient River at its flannel core exists an unabashed child of the Nineties, or certainly its grunge precursors. Somewhere in revelation, this band discovered Youre Living All Over Me and to answer a question the music can answer for itself yes, its all the better for it. Anchored in drummer Chad Voights austere thump and Zach Velthelms appropriately brawny low-end, Ancient River never strays too far from those grungian touchstones and as a result manage to avoid most of the indulgent trappings of its oftformless genre. With a few exceptions (While You Were Gone, Changing Skies), most of these songs are actual songs, employing ambience and wankery primarily as vehicles for catharsis. No Apology, for instance, careens into tranquilizing nothingness right up until, invariably, Barreto pulls the ripcord with a shard-laced solo. So, yes, in moments as these the blistering final heave of stoner dirge Places No

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47 One Knows, the sixth minute of Electric Jesus I very much wish Id said yes in the high school parking lot. I wish I had longer hair. I wish I drove a Plymouth Superbird. I wish I could rock n roll like Ancient River. To purchase O.D.D.S, visit AncientRiverMusic.com or download the album on iTunes.

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48 Most Visited Post According To WordPress Stats (Text Transcribed Below) 181 unique visitors

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49 Full text: Philly hardcore juggernaut Paint It Black is the band Tipper Gore warned you about primal, aggressive, violent in the name of non-violence. Theyre also smart as hell and shockingly melodic for an outfit whose vocalist, Dan Yemin, does nothing more (or less) than militantly bark spitfire sermons about how WERE NOT GONNA FREAKIN TAKE IT ANYMORE!! Hey, I still got a healthy share of raging teenage angst in me, so Ill just come out and

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50 say it: I love this band. Their formula is a limited one on paper bash/thump/bash/thump + singer who doesnt sing. But injected with a needle-stab to the heart of anthem and adrenaline, the final product transforms into a take-on-all-comers distillation of sheer power. The live spectacle is this: Kids shaking with nervous energy before the first chords; unleashing a visceral surge toward stage after. The clawing and climbing to reach the mic is something out of The Inferno. Difference is, theres no moshing in Hell. I seriously want to break something right now. Subsist on a steady diet of carcinogens. Run through a wall. These are for you, Tip. And remember, the worst kind of poser is the one with a crappy record collection.

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51 Top Posts for All Days Ending March 17, 2011 According to WordPress Stats Home page 4,033 Gainesville, Thursday Night: A Playlist 299 Paint It Black at The Fest 9 181 Interview with The Boswellians 103 The Rock 104 Interview with Ben Markus 94 Local Radio Grows Up 84 The Sh*tty Beatles: Live at Common Grounds 83 Skeletron Ball 2: Night 1 83 About 71 Michael Parallax at The Atlantic 68 Vice Magazine throws FREE party at The Atlantic this Friday 65 Why is the bro from Dead To Me so angry, yall? 65 To All My Dear Friends at The Atlantic 65 Album Review: Deputy Filthy Stinkers (NSFW) 62 Interview with Teepee 59 Skeletron Ball 2: Night 2 56 Album Review: Pseudo Kids Pseudo Kids 55 Introducing: Internet Sensation Kyle Rancourt 55 Interview With Tom Miller of The Righteous Kind: Pt. 1 53 Doowutchyalike Gainesville: What You Missed 50 Music For Squares: Podcast No. 1 50 Interview with UF MEISAs Andrew Santorelli 42 Plastic Plastic at The Atlantic 41 Dear Mr. Anderson 38 A Top 5 for The Top 38 Metallica plus Stubbies = Alcoholica? 35 Fest Interview with Robbie Freeman of Kadets 33 Interview with R.U.B. Entertainments Jenna Mescon 32 Kadets at 1982 32 Wavelets at 1982 30 Hard Skin at The Venue: The Fest, Day 1 29 The Rock 104 Interview: Part 2 27 10-4 Eleanor at 1982: The Fest, Day 1 26 Sweet Bronco, Driver and Ancient River: Live at Common 25

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52 Grounds Listening to records with Jonathan Richman 24 The Rock 104 Interview: Part 3 24 Chotto Ghetto: An Intro to the Fest 9 21 A Word About DJ NickFRESH 21 Defiance, Ohio at 8 Seconds: The Fest, Day 2 20 Interview with DJ Robzilla of O.N.E. 20 The Rock 104 Interview: Part 4 20 Album Review: Ancient River O.D.D.S. 20 Grow Radio Sends Off The White Stripes 19 Grow Radios Music For Squares: Episode 8 19 Ana(b)log Crashes Left Of The Dial 18 Ring In The Belated New Year With Music For Squares 18 A Wilhelm Scream at The Venue: The Fest, Day 1 18 Bruise Cruise Recap 16 Observations 15 If Youre Feeling Sinister: Fantome, Friday at Backstage Lounge 14 Ex-Rock 104 DJ Finds Job 14 Is Radio the best pop song of the Nineties? 13 The Sound, The Fury, The Faux-Hawk: Thieves and The Stampede at 1982 11 The Captives: Live at The Venue 11 Interview With Tom Miller of The Righteous Kind: Pt. 2 11 Waking up to Sweet Leaf 11 Music For Squares, Pt. 1: Averkiou 10 Grow Radios Music For Squares: Episode 3 10 Thankfully Im Still Alive! WOOT WOOT! 10 Interview with Tom Miller of The Righteous Kind: Pt. 3 9 Whiplash with Azmyth: Live at the Backstage Lounge 9 AM/FM Gainesville Music Showcase x 3 Bands 8 Interview with Dave Melosh 8 Planning 5 Tanks In Series at The Atlantic 5 Literature 4

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53 UF MEISA Benefit Show 4 We Are The Willows: Live at Common Grounds 3 Grow Radios Music For Squares Episode 9 1

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54 Weekly Hits According to WordPress Stats Monthly Hits According to WordPress Stats

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55 Weekly Hits According to StatCounter

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56 Weekly Hits According to StatCounter (Continued)

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57 Monthly Hits According To Statcounter

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58 Referrers for All Days Ending March 17, 2011 According to WordPress Stats facebook.com 517 boards.radio-info.com/smf/index.php?topic=177625.10 54 thinkmultimedia.wordpress.com 50 twitter.com 44 anablogmusic.com. 38 youtube.com/user/wschamp95 22 kylerancourt.com 22 toallmydearfriends.com/press.html 12 gainesvillebands.com/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=31040&PN=1 12 WordPress Dashboard 10 google.com 9 sportscasualties.com 8 youtube.com/watch?v=S7Fc_6Eb7Ss 8 twitter.com/pibphilly 7 healthyfoodlazypeople.com 7 twitter.com/anablogmusic 7 gainesvillebands.com/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=31307&TPN=2 6 youtube.com/watch?v=VWozvA84oUQ 5 youtube.com/watch?v=5zXvmBfbBO0 5 twitter.com/SCasualties 5 gainesvillebands.com/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=31307&PN=1&TP N=2 5 sportscasualties.com/2011/02/18/breaking-melo-to-nets-hilson-rightagain-i-am-the-effing-man-etc 4 youtube.com/watch?v=Rjm-pUfMKW4 4 touch.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fanablogmusic.com%2 F&h=65280 4 no-grain-no-pain.com 4 ancientrivermusic.com/press.html 4 youtube.com/watch?v=2givNmwGfvU 4 facebook.com/l.php?u=http://anablogmusic.com/2010/12/metallicaplus-stubbies-alcoholica/&h=98665 4 youtube.com/watch?v=vrfxtTJPs0k 4

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59 facebook.com/l.php?u=http://anablogmusic.com/&h=65280 4 youtube.com/watch?v=xdZ2BWbWQfg 4 gainesvillebands.com/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=31307&PN=0&TPN=2 4 facebook.com/l.php?u=http://anablogmusic.com/&h=045b8 3 kickbrightzine.com 3 facebook.com/l.php?u=http://anablogmusic.com/&h=f49fe 3 youtube.com/watch?v=qXecNxfO6lw 3 facebook.com/l.php?u=http://anablogmusic.com/2010/11/skeletronball-2-night-1/&h=0493c 3 facebook.com/l.php?u=http://anablogmusic.com/2010/12/metallicaplus-stubbies-alcoholica/&h=89e60 3 facebook.com/l.php?u=http://bit.ly/99tugL&h=6245b 3 facebook.com/l.php?u=http://bit.ly/99tugL?ref=nf&h=58aee 3 Sample Screen Captures

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62 Defintition of Literature Review Terms Social capital investment: the acquisition and development of information and interpersonal connections for the purpose of expanding ones social networks. This definition is borrowed from Portes (1998), who defined social capital as the ability of actors to secure benefits by virtue of membership in social networks or other social structures (Alder & Kwon, 2002, p. 20). Personal identity: the sense of individuality achieved through A) the acquisition of information or B) development of interpersonal connections perceived as distinguishing one from his or her peer group. This definition, borrowed from DArcangelos (2005) essay on music and personal identity, argues, musical material provides terms and templates for elaborating self-identity (p. 2). Community participation: interaction with the blogger and other blog visitors through textbased communications. Commenting under individual posts was the primary medium of participation, but other examples included: joining the blogs Facebook page, commenting on a Facebook fan page, tweeting the blogger and others in the community, linking and sending trackbacks from ones own blog, subscribing to an RSS feed, and liking a blog post. Identity disclosure: the sharing of personal information through avenues available on the blog. Examples include the posting of contact information, revealing of ones real name (i.e. commenting without a pseudonym), and recounting anecdotal experiences. Parasocial behavior: activity that cultivates a level of friendship with the blogger and other community members. This definition borrowed from Perse (1990), who characterized parasocial as a pseudo-friendship with media personalities that connotes liking, perceived similarity and attraction (p. 21). Habitual behavior: repetitive activity with a level of automaticity that pre-empts attitudes and intentions. This definition is borrowed from Bas Verplanken (2006), who used a similar meaning to distinguish habit from frequency in his analysis of negative thinking patterns.



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Ana(b)log: A Hyperlocal Blog for Indie Music Journalism by Robert Hilson Project in Lieu of Thesis Spring 2011 Anablogmusic.com

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2 Overview The purpose of this project was to develop a hyperlocal music criticism blog covering indie music in Gainesville, FL. Over the course of six and a half months, from the end of August 2010 to the middle of March 201 1, Ana(b)log (Anablogmusic.com) reported industry professionals and newsworthy occurrences through text, video, audio, photography, podcasting and local internet radio in order to cultivate an influential online presence establish a grassroots community of users and supplement traditional local media. An average of two to three posts per week were published on Ana(b)log and linked via s ocial media such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, SoundCloud and Flickr. Keywords for s earch engine optimization were used to make the blog available for those searching via search engines. The blog was self hosted and maintained on DreamHost servers at WordPress .org. The completed project aims to demonstrate the decisions made during starting a hyperlocal b log The Uses and Gratifications of Music Blogs It was no doubt indicative of the state of music criticism in 2010, and probably that Pitchfork.com, was worth far more than stacks upon stacks of newspaper reviews. Quantifying the value of a positive Pitchfork review to an aspiring young band any band, for that matter wa s perhaps only possible as word of mouth and blogosphere hype as metrics. A zero to 10 numeric rating affected the The onlin e revolut ion in music criticism confounded at times, but, if anythi ng, it became increasingly unmistakable that Pitchfork, an online review ezine at http://pitchfork.com/, and its followers both ardent readers and upstart outlets taking cues did things differently.

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3 high school web project was some 15 years later a taste making juggernaut: simultaneously the miles ahead leader in snarky blog commentary and, more pertinently to the following discussion, the pree minent voice in pop music journalism, online or otherwise. As of late 2010, Pitchfork tallied upward of blogosphere. It carried a disproportionately large weight on review aggregators like Metacritic.com. It spawned a three day, 40 plus band music festival and spun off affiliated sites dedicated to covering flourishing micro Pitchfork was, in short, a monster of cultural signif icance: the eight ton opinion in the room. in the late 2000s a at time when the traditional music journalism establishment had was struggl ing ed to adapt to a rapidly shifting media landscape. Rolling Stone no longer published in its once iconic Magazine no longer showed an interest in any thing other than being an other Blender. ambiguous meaning to people in the know, it was precisely the traditional idea of relevance with which the older publications established in the 1960s, 70s and 80 s struggled. Pitchfork lead the avant charge to do music criticism uniquely uniquely as in the Twitter characters; uniquely as in Markprindle.com posting a bi weekly ha ndful of vulgar, non sequitur laced incredibly influential critical assessments. A myriad of unavoidable questions may have piqued the interest of those uninitiated to this relatively new wave of music journalism. Did it even make sense? Did the sea c hange in criticism abide by rhyme or reason? Is its future form predictable? Why did audiences flock to online publications such as Pitchfork so fervently? To the first question did the Pitchfork phenomenon make sense the answer was: maybe. Could trad itional communications theories adequately explain such an innovative and rapidly shifting development? The speed of technological advancement challenged

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4 those trying to makes sense of easily dated research data. It was harder than ever, from a research st andpoint, to keep pace with an incessantly evolving digital environment. Mark Zuckerberg coded the Facebook prototype in a day. Using the theory of uses and gratifications to examine why and how audiences consume online media may assist indie music blogg ers in developing a more complete product for their audiences. Literature Uses and gratifications, defined by Katz, Gurevitch and Haas (1973) as an approach types renewed traction since the advent of the Internet and its subsequent adoption as a mass medium. In his historical overview of the theory, Ruggiero (2000) noted that the popul ar emergence of telecommunication technologies reinvigorated the uses and gratifications those of interactivity, de (Ruggiero, 2000, p. 16) respectively, demassification and asynchroneity, combined with newly available interactivity, pushed researchers to explore whether these evo lved media forms afforded the same motivational and gratification fulfilling opportunities as traditional ones. As much as uses and gratifications theory evolved in its roughly 60 years of existence, the central premise delineated in its seminal espousal environment with only slight modifications. Herta Herzog (1954) was among the first to suggest audiences use media to satisfy personal gratifications with her landmark analysis of 100 radio soap opera listeners over more than a ha lf century ago. As outdated as such a study may seem in terms of content and medium examined, its central proposal that media offered the potential for information and problem solving advice, emotional release, and vicarious experience resonated with

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5 mode rn theoretical rationale at the dawn of the new millennium. Katz (1959) probed the uses of local newspapers and advanced uses and assertion that newspaper audiences are motivated by entertainment, escape, information gathering, pres tige and the pressure of social stigma potentially covered much the same gratifications as Pitchfork. The uses and gratifications studies (Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch, 1974; Katz, Gurevitch, & Haas, 1973; McQuail, Blumler, & Brown, 1972) classified user gr atifications into social and information gathering categories. Both classifications applied to the new media of 2011. Katz, Gurevitch and Haas (1973) condensed 35 different potential media uses into five thematic categories: those satisfying cognitive ne eds; affective and emotion based release needs. These typologies 2005, p. 14) Internet based dimensions of in formation, good feelings, peer identity, communication and diversion entertainment. Eastin and LaRose (2003) likewise fleshed Early uses and gratifications studies also predicted th e emergence of media induced social ties, share common values, and even are involved in a joint action in geographical in Shen & Chiou, 2009, p. 394). For connected with peer groups tend to appropriate popular adventure stories encountered in the media to play group games. Many resea rchers cited similar behaviors as those furthering the spread of social

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6 media (Bonds Raacke & Raacke, 2010; Li, 2005; Schmidt, 2007; Shao, 2009; Shen & Chiou, 2009). The interactive video hegemon YouTube, for example, showed an evolutionary progression to Guosong Shao (2009) concluded in a recent study of user generated social media that, though sites like YouTube primarily appealed to users need for entertainment, they also spawned virtu al communities through forums for text interaction and video responses to initial videos (p. 18 19). Online communities seemed to possess the capacity to produce Moreover, Sh ao found audiences also create user generated media as manifestations of self expression and personal identity. This production of media, he maintained, may have generated media, suggesting the existence of or ganic, self to interact pa rasocially (p. 18 19). Shirky (2008) went even further, arguing that the types of organizations described by Shao could not exist without the market neutralizing abili ties of social media applications like Flickr, Wikipedia and WordPress. Similarly, Schmidt (2007) argued in her construction of an analytical framework for blog users that this medium often spawned and sustained its own communities, and more, often existe d as the basis for personal identification within a subculture. Stafford, Stafford and Schkade (2004) described the Internet as a social environment and distinguished interpersonal motivations from long established uses based on process and content gratifi cations. David Schwartz (2009) further elaborated on the formation of blogging communities by tying interaction with online peer groups to expressions of personal direc tly correlated to a willingness to disclose personal information, how much personal information the blogger disclosed, and perception of self efficacy within the community. Likewise, Chung Chi Shen and Jyh Shen Chiou (2009) proposed that when readers id entify with a blogging community, their ability to bond with other users, knowledge of the community and other social investment capital increased. Readers, in turn, were more likely to continue participating in the community and reading the blog. Describi ng this

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7 sing the reader recipricosity and smaller community sizes generally promoted identity disclosure and ly to the Internet. As with the Schmidt (2007) and Schwartz (2009) studies, these conclusions fulfilling social connectedness and development of personal identity. They also suggested that bloggers can facilitat e community building by reducing impediments to user participation and investment. through these blogging outlets because users visited them for social interaction. Through an o measure the rationale behind frequenting music blogs. The researchers examined a socially oriented motivation for using MP3 blogs (where music could be downloaded in the MP3 form at) one that supplemented more pragmatic reasons like building music di level excitement around new bands that only existed, at first, among smaller, alternative outlets. he ratification (as because it distinguished the gratifications offered by the blogosphere from those conferred in traditional media specifically, diversion, knowle dge acquisition, identity, and surveillance (McQuail, Blumler, & Brown, 1972). music blogs differentiated themselves from newspapers and traditional criticism outlets

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8 wrote that music fans, especially local and independent music enthusiasts, turned to the blogosphere for its taste making expertise. He argued bloggers had in some ways replace d their tone, he wrote. While mainstream critics, for instance, may h ave made careers from biting reviews, bloggers many strapped for time and money mostly only wrote about cynical experience and may have played a role in influe ncing user motivations. In addition, their ability to both unearth good, local bands and generate word of mouth publicity. For users, word of mouth fulfilled a need that was similar to both Bonds Raacke and namely, l & McClung, 2008). But given the rapid incorporation of social media within the blogosphere, word of mouth level. Of course, a willingness to interact with the artists trump user motivations to develop emotional relationships with the bloggers. Indeed, that reciprocally, to be the object of affection) hark news. In an analysis of television audiences, Levy (1978) found that watchers returned to the same news programming because of bonds formed with certain anchors, who in turn, ably made sense of potentially confoundi ng information. Perse (1990), measuring the effects of emotional and cognitive involvement on information holding and parasocial interaction, identified similar behavior in her study of viewer interaction with local news television broadcasts. Like Levy, s attraction emotional attachments which, in turn, became motivations for repeated media ing happy while watching the news was associated with

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9 (King, 2001), the application of electronic media studies to the blogosphere was clear: personal, emotional and cognitive connections with bloggers potentially fostered increased blog use. Trammel and Keshelashvili (2005) argued Sampling those with high readership and several (p. 15). In addition, A li st bloggers embraced their identity as an alternative to mainstream reviewed journalist, I am able to write about what I had for lunch or my broken coffee pot without feeli 2005, p. 15). When discussing the blogosphere, one would be remiss to overlook issues of perceived credibility. In light of the popularity of Pitchfork.com and other online music publications, a level of blogger or writer expertise may have factored into user motivations to read a given publication. Past research supports the need for perceived credibility. Johnson and Kaye (2004), in a survey of 3,747 political blog readers, fo und a striking ependence from corporate interests, collaborative fact checking, interest in tackling overlooked issues, and rated highest in terms of credibility attributes, but re aders also judged blogs to be believable and fairly accurate as well (p. 630). Significant, too, was the idea that audiences considered blogger bias a core strength one that factored into high credibility scores. ark of traditional journalism, bias is likely seen Johnson and Kaye (2008), in a follow up study, noted political blogs rated higher in

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10 credibility even than issue oriented sites and candidate sites. Again, the authors cited a along with insight and analysis, 2008, p. 7). Interestingly, this finding was not found in earlier political medium uses and gratifications studies. Blumler and McQuail (1969), for instance, concluded that, although British television audiences turned to political programming to fulfill informational needs, they did not specifically tune into shows reinforcing existing beliefs. While blogs, received mo re reader skepticism. Chyi and Yang (2009) concluded readers actually considered online news publications inferior to their paper counterparts, despite their added functionality and convenience. These findings differentiated the blogosphere from traditio nal publications that had been merely duplicated on the Web. Namely, blogs did not have to contend with print counterparts and thus deal with the negative connotations associated with existing as rgued, however, that reader trust and subjective norms perceptions of other referent groups within the digital community played an important part in adoption, a finding that presumably applied to blogs as well. If audiences were indeed motivated to re ad the work of like minded bloggers, such actions were perhaps driven by habitual behavior. Palmgreen, Wenner, and Rayburn (1981), in an analysis of the ritualistic consumption patterns of television news audiences, were among the first to point out that h abit may actually trump the need gratifying pull of certain media attributes. The study purported: While in certain cases more specific perceptions of anchorperson, program format, and news quality may be more important, the discriminant analyses indicat e that the perception of differential gratifications are at least as strongly related to viewing behavior as the more traditional measures of program attributes. (Palmgreen et al., 1981, p. 472) Other studies have found the habit forming consumption of traditional media to

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11 translate to the Internet (Milani, Osualdella, & Di Blasio, 2009; Perse & Dunn, as cited in Liu, Cheung, & Lee, 2010; Song, Larose, Eastin, & Lin, 2004). In some instances, usage once motivated by the conscious attempt to fulfill need s specifically, virtual community, information seeking, aesthetic experience, monetary compensation, diversion, personal status, and relationship maintenance gave way to subconscious, mildly addictive behavior (Song et al., 2004, p. 390). Diddi and Lar ose (2006) suggested, in the same vein, that online news media was among the most habit forming, though perhaps for different reasons depending on the type of user. Diddi and Larose wrote: News junkies may be understood to be those whose news consumption is prompted by a need to escape from their everyday routines, more along the lines of ritualistic needs. (Diddi & Larose, 2006, Discussion section, para. 9) nd McClung (2008) articulated in their study of MP3 blogs, aesthetic media research yielded similar results. Stafford, Kline, and Dimmick (1999) found conducting busines s to be among the most oft credited motivation schemas for using email. Chen and Corkindale (2008) connected simplicity of user interface and supplementary service quality to an adoption of online news services. Shao (2009) detected a correlation between u ser subsequent appeal to audiences. Zerba (2003) emphasized the importance of multimedia features in their perceived ability to contribute additional information from heavy news seekers. improve writing skills. Planning local Indie Music Scene Ana(b)log was created and developed in the mold of other prominent local music blogs like Brookynvegan.com, Seattlesubsonic.com, Soundonthesound.com, and The baybridged.com and it emulated the style, format, themes and layouts related to

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12 hyperlocal music blogs. The audience for the blog ranged from 18 24 years of age, was tra nsient, as college students often are, and was oriented toward both new media and a DIY lifestyle. I created Ana(b)log to speak to the readers of the Gainesville community. Tone, Style and Writing on the Blog My intentions with Ana(b)log, in keeping with journalistic norms, placed readers and prospective audiences at the fore. In other words, I w rot e for my audience. As described in the literature review, researcher David Schwartz found a significant personal information and the both actively participated in the Gainesville music scene by attending at least one local show per week, to face rapport and injected my blog posts with detailed first person perspective. Returns showed this disclosure to be successful, as posts of a personal nature tended to receive the most reader comments and Facebook reposts. A Pseudo Kids album review written as first person narrative, for example, was reposted 18 times. eight 8 times. While the tone and writing of the site may not match the typical standards of audience who appreciated humor, irony, sarcasm and irreverence sprinkled throughout its in depth interviews and multimedia based reporting. As evidenced by Pitchfork.com and other similar outlets, t he indie music community circa 2010 preferred a style of writing that employed witty wordplay, cheeky send up, insider references, and allusions to the broader popular music canon, and did not shy away from ridicule. However, given the close knit dynamics of the Gainesville community and the relative obscurity of many of the local acts, I chose to cover only the artists I personally enjoy ed As I was once told by an entertainment editor at the Independent Florida Alligator, there is little value in skewering fell in line with journalist hat blogging is largely a labor of love taken up by people who only have time to cover what they like.

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13 With this is mind, I aim ed to communicate in a style that both mirror ed the irreverent, though critically insightful prose of leading internet publications like Pitchfork.com Popm atters .com, Youaintnopicasso.com and Fluxb log.org and sp oke directly to a local readership whose inclinations wer ne wspaper commentary which tended to favor long form expository descriptions made The styl e of writing f e ll in line with the elite online publications mentioned above media stalwarts like Rolling Stone and Spin. Perhaps the biggest difference wa s that these outlet s d idn curse words with asterisks. I use d Ana(b)log to dabble in creative writing, as evidence d a tongue in cheek write up that utilize d poetic structure, text message like shorthand, and perhaps best resemble d the punctuation free poetry of E.E. Cummings or, more probably, the blogger Carles of Hipsterrunnoff.com. Content Management System All of the content on the blog w as not possible without a solid back end content management system (CMS) by which to upload a wide variety of material. In the final week of August, I creat ed the WordPress template that became Ana(b)log (though the site was streets with several prominent local venues). Having creating another blog, Sportscasualties.com, with a self hosted domain at WordPress.org, I t ook friendly design options and one click hosting setup with the Anablogmusic.com domain. I had also designed a syllabus for teaching blogging in 2010 as a project for a graduate class, Developing Digital Online Media In designing this syllabus, I gave much thought to platform options, development of blogging strategies and how to teach others how to blog. WordPress was my recommended platform because of its advantages over other platforms such as Blogger or Tumblr. I purchased the domain name for $10 per year in August 2010 and bought web

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14 hosting i n July for 12 months through DreamHost a $9.95 per month option that offered advanced spam guards, one click installation and automatic hosting maintenance. In total, the web space for Ana(b)log cost exactly $1 19.40 per year, a somewhat updating maintenance ma d e it so bloggers needed only address web hosting for matters of payment. an itself. According DreamHost back ed servers run by a Debian GNU/Linux operating system. Emailed receipt of web hosting purchase from DreamHost Aesthetically speaking, ook out the generic header in order to make room for the bann er graphic created in Photoshop CS5 with M m oderna font and custom shapes (b) select ed an appropriate text package (a mix of Helvetica Neue, Liberation Sans, and Arial) (c) change d the color scheme and (d) insert ed metadata using Google Adwords for keyword ideas that would better optimize the site for search engines. I learned to code in XHTML and CSS by taking MMC5015 Electronic Publishing with Professor David Carlson and was subsequently able to tweak the design template of the site, as well as

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15 Widgets and Enhanced Functionality Through a trial and error process of w idget selection, I further hone d the aesthetic and functional elements of the site to incorporate social media connectivity through Twitter and Facebook. Selected widgets also enhanced in site navigation. Simple Twitter Connect Base shortened URL Steve WordBooker when I added it to Anablogmusic.com in November WordBooker widget publishing options for Anablogmusic.com WordBooker automatically posted published blog posts to Facebook with a link that both provided a teaser excerpt and the ability to replicate comments on the Facebook link to the blog. Any comment made under the WordBooker Fac ebook link, then, would be automatically transcribed with author data to the blog. Tag Cloud Subscribe

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16 Widget pronged subscription model allowing readers to subscribe to the blog via email, Facebo ok, Twitter, a comments RSS feed or a Feedburner RSS feed (though, as of March 20 2011, no reader had used Feedburner to subsc ribe to Ana(b)log compared to 26 via the Facebook fan page and 70 via Twitter ). Moreover, Ricardo Twitter for WordPress Twitter feed at http://twitter.com/anablogmusic with links back to the original tweets. Two photography based plug ins also ad ded visual appeal to the otherwise stripped down Ana(b)log aesthetic. The Cincopa video and photo download enabled me to include photo galleries into my posts by uploading pictures directly to Cincopa thus saving the time and space of having to upload jpeg files to WordPress. The Cincopa plugin Defiance, Ohio At 8 Seconds: The Fest, Day 2 s Cincopa to good use. Example of embedded Cincopa photo gallery

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17 widget allowed me to create a photo feed on Anablogmusic.com of all the pictures I uploaded to my personal account at Flickr.com. Set to show six picture thumbnails at a time, the widget automatically gen erate d a new thumbnail each time I upload ed a picture to Should a reader click on any of the thumbnails, the widget produces a pop out slideshow of all the photos uploaded to the Ana(b)log Flickr account. "Jerusalem Guitar": Example of photo uploaded to Ana(b)log Flickr Account Blog Design, Color and Layout site searches, to make it effortless to perus e news bites, and to present clean aesthetics and easily digestible information. The color of the blog title (green) was chosen because of its tranquilizing visual appeal and its psychological relation to growth or ganic expansion. The banner was designed to look like a professionally fashioned logo hence the rounded Moderna font and the allusion to RSS feeds. The three lime green quarter circles on the upper left also mimic ked the grooves on a vinyl record and thus play ed intensive process hours with some input

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18 from graphic designer Scott P urcell of the UF/IFAS Office of the Dean for Research. In addition, the flow of images, video and audio within the text was designed to create both a as if the reader was experiencing a show in person. Ana(b)log home page screen capture uncluttered look and easily consum able multimedia based information. This was done through the selection of widgets, color and the design of the banner logo.

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19 Links d a number of purposes. First, they g a ve readers a sense of like similar publications, thereby creating the reader a perception that Ana(b)log wa s similar to such publications as Chromewaves.net and Brooklynvegan.net In addition to enhancing identity, the blogrolls also attempt ed to draw the attention of the linked websites, which have the ability to track referring sites For exa mple, if a user click ed to Chromewaves.net from Anablogmusic.com, Anablogmusic.com show ed up as a referrer in Chromewaves. statistical report Linking was effective in bringing viewers to the blog as Thezebraowl.wordpress.com, Kylerancourt.com, Gameov ermedia.com and No grain no p ain .com all added Ana(b)log to their respective blogrolls In some cases ( Gainesville365.wordpress.com Thegainesvillemusica rchive .tumblr.com, Commongroundslive.com ), I added local sites as a show of community solidarity in hopes of tapping into an already established network. Multimedia The content of Ana(b)log was built by adding photography, writing, video and audio using cloud applications and social network s such as YouTube, Vimeo, SoundCloud and MP3 downloads via Wordpress. On Sept. 12, 2010, I established an Ana(b)log YouTube Channel to aggregate all previously uploaded videos into one branded directo ry. By providing blog information and an Ana(b)log link with each video, I was able to direct 56 users to the blog according to WordPress Stats (though only 14 unique users according to StatCounter Stats) and expose the Ana(b)log name to the approximately 29,000 non unique viewers who watched my YouTube videos as of March 6, 2011. The Ana(b)log YouTube Channel gained 10 subscribers including music booking and promotions company Honeycomb Promotions and 15 fri ends over the life of this project.

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20 Ana(b)log YouTube Channel stats as of March 6, 2011 I posted my first Vimeo video on Friday, Oct. 29, 2010, and immediately found it an attractive option for formatting video interviews. Over the span of the project, I compiled interviews of Andrew Santorelli the President of the UF Music and Entertainment Industry Student Association, DJ Robzilla of the hip hop band O.N.E., Robbie Freeman of local punk band Kadets, Amy Lobasso and Ryan Backman of the Boswellians (via YouTube due to file size restrictions on Vimeo), and Miami recording artist Teepee The last of these was produced with slides, graphics, transition iMovie program. Teepee subsequently posted the final product to his personal MySpace page with a link back to Ana(b)log. Vimeo video embedded at Myspace.com/teepeeasel As of March 15, 2011 I ha d used the SoundCloud media application twice, and,

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21 much like YouTube, its social functionality allow ed a single sound file to spread the Ana(b)log name exponentially. Because my first two radio episodes at Grow Radio could not be converted to downloadable MP3s (all subsequent episodes would be recorded, converted to MP3s and made available as podcasts both through Growradio.org and Anablogmusic.com), I created my own podcast using a combination of the Audacity Free Audio Editor and Recorder SoundCloud and personal podcasting equipment. I used a Blue SnowBall podcasting microphone to record the voice parts of the podcast, recording them directly into Audacity. Wit h the permission of Grow Radio, I then interspersed MP3 music files amongst the voice sections, e diting the final product down into a 51 minute long file which I then converted to MP3 format and uploaded in SoundCloud. This process took approximately seven hours. Music For Squares: Podcast No. 1 reposted on Facebook ten times one of which by Adam Hallock, a local musician whose song I had included in the podcast. As SoundCloud work ed similarly to YouTube in terms of sustaining its own community of users, the SoundCloud fi le garnered 31 listens at SoundCloud.com as of March 16, 2011 M ost of these c ame within the first week of posting. Like with my YouTube clips, I provided links and additional contact information directing SoundCloud.com listeners back to the blog (though, according to StatCounter, Google Analytics and WordPress Stats, SoundCloud did not make any referrals). Jenna Mescon, I recorded a 20 minute conversation using a Kodak PlaySpor t Camcorder. I then uploaded the video file to YouTube, extracted the sound using the MP3 converter at Listentoyoutube.com, and pared down the interview to nine minutes in Audacity. To level sound levels cation, a free pr ogram that automatically adjusted audio levels. Part of completing this post was a requirement for a graduate course, MMC6936 Multimedia Blogging, with Dr. Judy Robinson. This entire process took approximately six hours, and not including the 90 minutes it took to post the completed interview to Ana(b)log with introductory copy and a photo modified with Photobucket.com, a popular image hosting website.

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22 Observations The power of social networks was not lost on me. I was after all, a blogger. And if anybody spends too much time overthinking the perfectly executed, 14 0 4 character bla st of Tweeted wit, this person wa s me. I went into this project aware of the depth and breadth of digitally faciliated, social connectivity m ade possible via Facebook and Twitter. So that the speed and synergy by which readers dispersed Ana(b)log content took even this inspiring power. It wa s becoming an incre asingly difficult task in this increasingly plugged in globa l society to find someone who was not versatile music scene circa 2010 ran the gamut from 18 year old scenesters to self descri rockers, so too did the proverbial social n etwork seemingly encapsulate a wide ranging spectrum of humanity. This will be made clear in the following anecdote. Moms and Metal Heads: Ana(b)log In Infancy The pilot post for Ana(b)log was actually published on my other website Sportscasualties.com The intentions of this tactic were two fold. First, as of early September, I had not yet fully developed Ana(b)l ng with logo design and layout and rather than publish material on an embryonic template, based readership as a promotional strategy to drive traffic to the new blog. The vigor with which metal fans reposted coverage of their favorite thrash guitar purveyors to Facebook in fact set a benchmark for the content to follow. On Sunday, Sept. 12, 2010, I posted a live review of a joint Azmyth Whiplash show at The Backstage Lounge. By Monday, the write up in question had been reposted by 46 unique Facebook accounts were not fully quantifiable given the privacy settings of non may pre

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23 Evidence of viral promotion to follow: Posted to the Whiplash fan page Posted by Azmyth to the Azmyth fan page

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24 at the Backstage Lounge Perhaps unsurprisingly, proud mothers share d content promoting their sons jus t as diligently as music fans did burst of exposure, then, came as a direct result of a mot her, Renee Puzo, finding a write up of her son via a Google search. The subsequent chain reaction spawned a swift proliferation of Facebook notifications. On Thursday, Sept. 30, I talked to the DJ NickFresh about doing a potential promo. On Saturday I posted and by later that afternoon, bout the post. Word spread, among other avenues, via retweet ), his Facebook page, his Facebook fan page, the fan page. All told, the post garnered over 150 unique visits within its first week, but the real exciting part was to witness the digitally facilitated magic of this social network tandem unfold in real time. Page Views for Oct. 2, 2010 according to WordPress Stats (Note: Spikes on Sept. 26 and Sept. 29 equaled 92 and 91 hits, respectively)

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25 Through tagging and reposting on Facebook and retweets on Twitter, this one post reached a hour period. NickFresh retweet of Anablogmusic and subsequent tweet Tagged Nick Puzo post on Facebook

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26 28 Facebook reposts Link shared 62 times according to bit.ly Activist Hardcore Punk Rockers Love Twitter, Obviously: Ana(b)log A Month In Twitter/Facebook/YouTube effort, though this time backed by the fan power of a popular East Coast punk band. The setup went as follows: Each year in late Octo ber, downtown Gainesville turned into one of the biggest punk music pilgrimages in the country, if not the s Saturday night show at The Venue and I braved the mass of moshing bodies to shoot photos and record video. After posting a live review days late r on Nov. 1, I contacted the band via Twitter with a snipped bit.ly URL share the link with their 2,500 strong Twitter following via retweet, and ultimately po sted the article to their Facebook page with an additional comment promoting both the review and Ana(b)log ove r more than 5,000 quite possible the live review attracted even more several thousand impressions when combined with the Twitter exposure and the tagged YouTube videos directing fans to seek

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27 November, accumulating 322 page views on the first day of the month according t o Google Analytics. In addition as of February 23, 2011, the YouTube video for Paint I Past Tense, Future Perfect had garnered 1,132 al media communications suggested a link between art ist fan interaction that extended into the blogosphere. In other words, fans may have be en driven by a need to interact with their favorite artists using blogs as mediums. This intera ction, in turn, perhaps promoted user attendance. Paint It Black's retweet of Ana(b)log YouTube video Paint It Black retweet of Ana(b)log live review

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28 Ana(b)log YouTube videos shared on Facebook Data for Ana(b)log YouTube video of Paint It Black Page views for Nov. 1, 2010 acco rding to Google Analytics ous examples, social media showed groups traditionally associated with active grassroots networks (heavy metal fans, activist punk kids, proud mothers) to behave in very much t he way they might have in a pre Internet age. In 2010 fanzines, obscure record compilations and in the case of the latter group clippings reserved proudly for the refrigerator door had been supplemented or all out replaced by instantaneously dispersib le digital information. Though Ana(b)log existed a s one case study, evidence showed that communities established through the sharing of

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29 the digital sphere as simila rly intertwined entities. In other words, the concept of niche translated to online social networks, but as an amplified, more easily accessible construct. independent music community to land the blog a steady stream of modest traffic (approximately 290 hits per week in October and November of 2010 according to WordPress Stats ), but more importantly, led to a number of unexpected opportunities that subsequent ly transformed the Ana(b)log name into a multi platform endeavor. At this juncture, it is necessary to quickly touch on the rationale behind using three different statistical tracking programs. Though WordPress Stats recorded page views, and was thus conv enient for quickly measuring traffic, it was unable to distinguish between those who visited the blog more than once. StatCounter came in handy here, as it was capable of t hese measures and was also able to track where site visitors came from. StatCounter "Recent Visitor Map" for March 8, 2011 StatCounter also kept an analytic tool showing from which search engine visitors came (on the

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30 per upgrade). I employed Google Analytics because it detailed simi lar metrics, and because it acted as a back up should the embedded StatCounter code have encounter ed an unexpected complication. This coding snag in fact affected Google Analytics when I updated archived data prior to February 15 and relied primarily on old screen c aptures to relate the provided Google Analytics statistics. Together, the three analytics programs act ed as checks on one another and, given their varying statistical calculations, provide d a range of figures by which to triangulate estimate ue traffic totals. Site usage data for Feb. 14 through March 7 according to Google Analtyics After jumping from 838 page views in October to 1,788 page views in November according to WordPress Stats (StatCounter shows 1,059 and 2,084 views, respectively ), one would expect in the wake of the successful Fest 9 coverage. Page views st eadily rose in the new year, however, as the site fetched 1,087 views in January and then climbed to 1,380 in February on an average of two to three posts per week The reasons for this growth largely dealt with the sites transformation into a multimedia outlet for all things Gainesville music. In a roughly three month span from the end of September to the beginning of January in which I posted between two and three times per week Ana(b)log evolved from an outlet based solely on reporting focused journali sm into a community partner for local Internet radio and a hub for podcasting. The interim, however, should not be glossed over, as its events fostered a slow, but consistent growth in influence and exposure aligning with a gradual climb up the search engi ne

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31 generate word of mouth publicity better than traditional media, Ana(b)log evolved into a taste regard, my publication has proven the blog became a destination for music fans, industry professionals, as well as and the artists themselves. It was during this period, for instance with an ex Rock 104 DJ sparked a conversation among local radio professionals at Radio Info.com The interview tallied more than 120 unique visits according to Google Analytics, lan ded a influence, and more importantly, shed light on a sticky situation that had otherwise been sparsely reported on. Oct. 26 message board posting at Radio Info.com The interview also caught the attention of a fellow Gator alumnus who, for her part, just happened to front a locally popular indie rock band in Tallahassee. Her band wanted to Naturally, S s he contacted me, writing the following: Greetings! first visit to Gainesville. We will be playing @ the Backstage Lounge this Friday night, Oct. 1st. People describe us as post punk and shoegaze. ville for a while. Most of my UF

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32 be interested in our sh ow. We just released our 2nd album, Bare Mythology, which you can download for FREE at: http://fantomeband.bandcamp.com appreciate it. Perhaps we could return the favor with a t shirt or some beer Thanks for your time, and we hope to see you at the show! Tracy http://www.myspace.com/fantomeband Occurrences as these sugg est ed that Ana(b)log had filled a need in the local music community previously met only by stop gap publications ( http://hearingainesville.wordpress.com/, for example) unable to sustain a long term flow of content. Though several credible, Florida based music blogs had bubbled up circa 2010 few if any had focused their attention squarely on Gainesville, and the ones that did did so only in spurts. returned Anablogmusic.com as the third overall result as of March 17, 2011 and this behind community stalwarts Common Grounds Live The Gainesville Music Archive (Gainesvill emusicarchive.tumblr.com). It was evident, then, that bands especially regional acts and touring outfits unfamiliar with the Gainesville scene benefit ed from the creation of an exclusively hyper local music publication with the flexibility to produce quickly distributable promotional material. The rate at which the Fantome promo was shared certainly speaks to this point. Fantome Promo Facebook reposts

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33 Subsequent contacts namely, by Mobile, AL, space rockers The Sunshine Factory, St. Paul, MN, folk singer We Are The Willows, and local music vet Bob McPeek, bandleader of garage revivalists T he Erasables certainly attested promotional capabilities as well. Ana(b)log finally came into its own via an unexpected, though certainly not unwelcome, offer fro m Grow Radio and through a third party contact. In November, I covered Gainesv ille rock band Driver at Erosion Of greater significance Nah eed passed my name along to Bryson station programmer. By early January, after a couple meetings to discuss potential show formats and the actual logistics of working a soundboard, I was creating and hosting th e all Music For Squares a weekly, hour long program dedicated specifically to Gainesville music and the touring artists passing through. so named for quickly create downloadable podcasts and B) play both the music availabl e at the station and my own material without having to acquire permissions from each individual band (though it was my overwhelming experience that local bands, most of whom freely distribute d their material anyway, want ed the exposure without the hassles of granting any potential copyright permission). popularity and allowed me to make further inroads in t he local music community. What unfolded, then, proved an exercise in sy nerg exposure and credibility; Ana(b)log touted Grow and all things local internet radio. As each of the previous anecdotes illus trated, the story of this blog wa s one of spontaneous connections and optimization of social networks Comments to Facebook and

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34 to the blog substantiated this claim as a pproximately 27 different readers commen ted directly on the blog alone. In addition, several artists sent emails both complimenting Ana(b)log and soliciting coverage. I n the span of five months, I was contacted by, among others: Dante Lima of the Gainesville Sun, a reporter and music critic who asked me to review an album for his band Pseudo Kids Facebook posting by Gainesville Sun music critic Dante Lima Glenn Rickard, a Gainesville DJ who asked for help in compiling music for a local music show DJ NickFresh, who contacted me a second time to promote his Thursday night Doowhatchyalike Gainesville dance parties at The Atlantic Nightspot Bob McPeek, founder of Hyde & Zeke Records, Mirror Image Studios, and the principal songwriter in The Eras e ables Vice Magazine a prominent national publication that asked me to cover an event it sponsored at The Atlantic Nightspot

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35 Correspondence with Rory Ahearn of Vice Magazine Deputy, a project of Morningbell drummer Chris Hillman The Boswellians and Kadets, two local acts Ancient River, a popular local band who transcribed a clip of an Ana(b)log live review and an entire album re view The manager of Alabama band The Sunshine Factory, to cover a tour stop in Gainesville Minnesota folk artist We Are The Willows, also to cover a local tour stop The UF Music and Entertainment Industry Student Association Charles Martin, both a physics professor at UF and the songwriter for local psychedelic band The Righteous Kind Bill Bryson of Grow Radio, who as previously detailed, asked me to host a weekly local show

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36 Discussion Building Rapport In keeping with a 2005 study by Trammel and Keshelashvili that found a strong information, Ana(b)log strove to develop a strong, first person voice in order to establish a casual, comfortable rapport with both readers and the subjects of the blog themselves. but objective reviews of artists criticism helped in this respect objective analytical though often complimentary analysis fr eed artists to solicit reviews and grant interviews without the fear of negative publicity. That established publications circa Established bl ogs and print publications in 2010 did not typically take such a one sided predominantly positive approach to cri ticism This proved a central difference between Ana(b)log and a n outlet publication like the Gainesville Sun. However, when one started from scratch wit hout previous credentials, it was imperative not to burn bridges or potential relationships with unfavorable press, especially when running a one man person operation in such a small, close knit community. While some bloggers, including Martyn Chamberlin of Two Hour Blogg e r, argued that personal style was irrelevant to driving traffic and establishing a readership, for Ana ( b ) log it wa s the primary feature that distinguish ed blogs with similar informational content. Chamberlin wrote in a February 2011 post for Problogger.net ( http://www.p roblogger.net/archives/2011/02/20/teach or your blog will die/ ) that a blog must teach, or it will die This was wise advice to a degre e in that t he ability to inform audiences contribute d B y providing interviews, photos, video of live

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37 performances and reviews, Ana(b)log scene. However, the ability to entertain wa s just very as vital especially for a a criticism based music publication existing in a digital environment in which audi ences could simply visit YouTube to hear new music Online music criticism ha d an especially rich tradition of personality heavy first person voice S as s eminal Web critics like Mark Prindle of Markprindle.com and Scott Floman of Sfloman.com built large audiences and equall y impressive influence (Prindle went on to write for Crawdaddy Magazine in 2010 and occasionally appeared person narrative and a total dismissa l of AP style. These characteristics, of course, did not stand on their own. Thus Ana(b)log emphasized quality of information over all else an attribute that imbued it with of an air of professionalism conducive to positive reader blogger and artist blog ger interactions. The prior discussion of building blogger audience rapport spawned a related question: how d id a blogger get to know the readership, I took a proactive approach not just wit h social media, but also as a participant in the Gainesville music community. As Ana(b)log was a reporting based publication, I went to my sources, establishing a face to face relationship with multiple artists as any good reporter would. Over the course of six months, I regularly attended bi weekly Association, went on average to one show per week at a cost of $6 8 each, attended most of

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38 the major music events (like the Gaine cases, talked to the performers involved. I knew my audience because I was part of my audience. I put myself in the reader shoes and would advise all bloggers looking to grow an online presence to do o e se same lines, the most successful bloggers have been ones that exploited a niche by providing original content. Conse quently, a blogger s must survey his or her their environment, researching competitors and potential partner publications in order to carve out an area of specialty. For Ana(b)log, this entailed focusing heavily on live, local music reviews and multimedia based reporting of lesser known bands, neither of which had been previously concentrated on. Growing a Community: Advice for Futur e Bloggers a readership. With social media providing multiple outlets for reader discussion, one must also attempt to harness audience feedback both with the blogger and o ther readers by either confining it to a single location or creating synergies between social media applications. With Ana(b)log, readers submitted comments through YouTube, Facebook, Twitter and email, and made it difficult to focus conversation while s imultaneously spreading thin the time and attention of the blogger. The goal, then, was to efficiently collate reader interactions without limiting potential feedback avenues. The social media application WordBooker helped in this regard, as it transcribed Facebook comments

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39 the sidebar of Anablogmusic.com also helped to aggregate dialogue in one place. Ideally, a blogger should strive to collect comments in one easily accessible location in order to generate further conversation. Bloggers should also tap into preexisting communities if at all possible. This, again, oneself. Over the course of this project, Ana(b)log was able to develop a synergistic air personalities was reciprocated with Ana(b)log coverage. The relationship between the two she d light on how the Internet work ed in general: similar communities connect ed with one another through social media and then utilize d interaction occurred every time an artist promoted an Ana(b)log post via retweet o r Facebook repost: the band benefited from the spread of positive press while Ana(b)log benefitted from the increased exposure and bump in traffic. Furthermore, bloggers should emphasize consistency of posting ( P p osting two to three times per week at t wo to three day intervals proved a relatively successful strategy for building Ana(b)log s community, as dedicated readers would typically check in on off This strategy kept traffic relatively constant through out the week. on a regular schedule helps ) and P p roviding quality content that combines features of search engine optimization (SEO) with well written prose and engaging multimedia helps as well While SEO should not have be en employed at the The use of both well constructed permalinks (those that included popular keywords ) and

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40 efficient tagging was helpful in driving traffic as it hel ped potential audiences find content more easil y To this implementation of SEO, b loggers should additionally concentrate on p osting on a regular basis, a strategy that in time attract ed both an audie nce and search engine crawlers. I t wa s beneficial to Goo gle searchers, for instance, to include popular keywords in the title of a post, but such a strategy should be employed with creativity and readability in mind In general the more posts a blog ha d the better it perform ed in Google searches because the larger body of work provided more indexed words as a database for search ed words H yperlocal blogs, particularly ones that fulfill an original niche, should also focus on link coverage and makin g contacts through social media, as these proved effective s trategies for building an aud ience in a short amount of time. That Kylerancourt.com and Radio referrers spoke This spoke to the value of linking. Tapping potential local audie nces through Facebook, Twitter, SoundCloud and YouTube was also advantageous in quickly establishing a readership. B Finally, b loggers should never pass up a moment of inspiration. The best posts were often the most effortless. Similarly, the pursuit of pe rfection should not stifle content production. The beauty of blogging was in its informality, transience and ease of publishing. turn out exactly how the blogger envi sioned, there was always tomorrow.

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41 References Alder, P., & Kwon, S. W. (2002). Social capital: Prospects for a new concept. The Academy of Management Review, 27 (1), 17 40. Baltimore, C. (2009, March 9). Bloggers: Music industry tastemakers? Message posted to http://blogs.reuters.com Blumler, J. G., & McQuail, D. (1969). Television in politics: Its uses and influence Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Bonds Raacke, J., & Raacke, J. (2010). MyS pace and Facebook: Identifying dimensions of uses and gratifications for friend networking s ites. Individual Differences Research 8 (1), 27 33. Retrieved from the Academic Search Premier database. Caramanica, J. (2010, July 14). Upstart music site becomes establishment. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/15/arts/music /15pitchfork.html Chen, Y. H., & Corkindale, D. (2008). Towards an understanding of the behavioral intention to use online news services. Internet Research, 18 (3), 286 312. doi: 10.1108/10662240810883326 Chyi, H., & Mengchieh Jacie, Y. (2009). Is online news an inferior good? Examining the economic nature of online news/ among users. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 86 (3), 594 612. Retrieved from Communication & Mass Media Complete database. The new cosmopolites: Activating the role of mobile music listeners Paper presented at the 2 nd International Workshop on Mobile Music Diddi, A., & Larose, R. (2006). Getting hooked on news: Uses and gratification and the

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42 formation of news habits among college students in an internet environment. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 50 (2), 193 210. East in, M., & LaRose, R. (2003). A soci al cognitive explanation of internet u ses and gratifications: Toward a new theory of media a ttendance. Conference Papers -International Communication Association, 1 36. doi:ica_proceeding_11705.PDF. Herzog, H. (195 4 ). Motivations and gratifications of daily serial listeners. In W. Schramm (Ed.), The processes and effects of mass communication (pp. 50 55 ). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press Johnson, T., & Kaye, B. (2004). Wag the blog : How reliance on tr aditional media and the internet influence credibility perceptions of weblogs among blog users Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 81 (3), 622 642. Johnson, T., & Kaye, B. (2008). In blog we trust? Deciphering credibility of components of the i nternet among politically interested internet users. Computers In Human Behavior. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2008.08.004 Katz, E. (1959). Mass communication research and the study of popular culture: An editorial note on a possible future for this journal. Studies in Public Communication, 2 1 6. Retrieved from http://repository.upenn.edu Katz, E., Blumler, J. G., & Gurevitch, M. (1974). Utilization of mass communication by the individual. In O. Boyd Barrett & C. Newbold (Eds.), Approaches to media: A re ader (pp. 164 173) London: Arnold. Katz, E., Gurevitch, M., & Haas, H (1973). On the use of the mass media for important things. American Sociological Review 38 (2), 164 181. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/pss/2094393 King, A. (2001). Affective dimensions of internet culture. Social Science Computer Review, 19 (4), 414 430. doi: 10.1177/089443930101900402 Lee, D., Im, S., & Taylor, C. (2008). Voluntary self disclosure of information on the internet: A multimethod study of the motivations and consequences of disclosing information on blogs. Psychology and Marketing, 25 (7), 692 710. DOI: 10.1002/mar.20232 Levy, M. R. (1978). The audience experience with television news Lexington, KY : Association for Education in Journalism. Li, D. (200 5). Why do you blog: A uses and ( Liu, I., Cheung, C., & Lee, M. (2010). Understanding Twitter usage: What drive people continue to Tweet. Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems: Proceedings of the 2010 PACIS Conference Taipei, Taiwan (paper 92).

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43 McQuail, D., J.G. Blumler, & Brown, J. R. (1972). The television audience: A revised perspective. In P. Marris & S. Thornham (Eds.), Medi a Studies: A reader (pp. 438 454). New York: New York University Press. Milani, L., Osualdella, D., & Di Blasio, P. (2009). Quality of interpersonal relationships and problematic internet use in adolescence. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12 (6), 681 684 O'Donnell, P., & McClung, S. (2008). MP3 music blogs: Their efficacy in selling m usic and marketing b ands Atlantic Journal of Communication, 16 (2), 71 87. doi:10.1080/15456870701840004. Palmgreen, P., Wenner, L. A., & Rayburn II, J. D. (1981). Gratification discrepancies and news program choice. Communication Research, 8 (4), 451 478. Perse, E. (1990). Media involvement and local news e ffects. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 34 (1), 17 36. Ruggiero, T. (2000). Uses and Gratifications Theory in the 21st Century. Mass Communication & Society, 3 (1), 3 37. Shao, G. (2009). Understanding the appeal of user generated media: A uses and gratification perspective. Internet Research, 19 (1), 7 25. Shen, C. C., & Chiou, J. S. (2009). The effect of community identification on attitude and intention toward a blogging community. Internet Research, 19 (4), 393 407. Schmidt, J. (2007). Blogging practices: An analytical fr amework. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 12 (4), 1409 1427. Schwartz, D. (2009). Knowing who you are and trusting who you know. Internet Research, 19 (5). Introductory essay retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/ Shirky, C. (2008). Here comes everybody: The power of organizing without organizations. New York: Penguin Books. Song, I., Larose, R., Eastin, M. S., & Lin, C. A. (2004). Internet gratifications and internet addiction: On the uses and abuses of new media. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 7 (4), 384 394. Stafford, L., Kline, S., & Dimmick, J. (1999). Home e mail: Relational maintenance and gratification opportunities. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 43 (4), 659 669. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database. Stafford, T., Stafford, M., & Schkade, L. (2004). Determining uses and gratifications for the

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44 internet. Decision Sciences, 35 (2), 259 288. Retrieved from Google Scholar. Trammell, K., & Keshelashvili, A. (2005). Examining the new influencers: A self presentation study of A list blogs. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 82 (4), 968 982. Retrieved from Communication & Mass Media Complete database. Verplanken, B. (2006). Beyond frequency: Habit as mental construct British Journal of Social Psychology 45 (3), 639 656. DOI: 10.1348/014466605X49122 Zerba, A. (2003). Perceived motives for clicking on multimedia features on n ews web sites: An exploratory study Dissertations database. Alder, P., & Kwon, S. W. (2002). Social capital: Prospects for a new concept The Academy of Management Review, 27(1), 17 40. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4134367 Baltimore, C. (2009, March 9). Bloggers: Music industry tastemakers? Message posted to http://blogs.reuters.com Blumler, J. G., & McQuail, D. (1969). Television in politics: Its uses and influence. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Bonds Raacke, J., & Raacke, J. (2010). MySpace and Facebook: Identifying dimensions of uses and grat ifications for friend networking sites. Individual Differences Research, 8(1), 27 33. Retrieved from the Academic Search Premier database. Caramanica, J. (2010, July 14). Upstart music site becomes establishment. The New York Times. Retrieved from http: //www.nytimes.com/2010/07/15/arts/music/15pitchfork.html Chen, Y. H., & Corkindale, D. (2008). Towards an understanding of the behavioral intention to use online news services. Internet Research, 18(3), 286 312. doi: 10.1108/10662240810883326 Chyi, H., & Mengchieh Jacie, Y. (2009). Is online news an inferior good? Examining the economic nature of online news/ among users. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 86(3), 594 612. Retrieved from Communication & Mass Media Complete database.

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45 G. (2005). The new cosmopolites: Activating the role of mobile music l isteners. Paper presented at the 2nd International Workshop on Mobile Music Diddi, A., & Larose, R. (2006). Getting hooked on news: Uses an d gratification and the formation of news habits among college students in an internet environment. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 50(2), 193 210. Eastin, M., & LaRose, R. (2003). A social cognitive explanation of internet uses and gratif ications: Toward a new theory of media attendance. Conference Papers International Communication Association, 1 36. doi:ica_proceeding_11705.PDF. Herzog, H. (1954). Motivations and gratifications of daily serial listeners. In W. Schramm (Ed.), The proc esses and effects of mass communication (pp. 50 55). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. Johnson, T., & Kaye, B. (2004). Wag the blog: How reliance on traditional media and the internet influence credibility perceptions of weblogs among blog users. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 81(3), 622 642. Johnson, T., & Kaye, B. (2008). In blog we trust? Deciphering credibility of components of the internet among politically interested internet users. Computers In Human Behavior. doi:10.1016/j.c hb.2008.08.004 Katz, E. (1959). Mass communication research and the study of popular culture: An editorial note on a possible future for this journal. Studies in Public Communication, 2, 1 6. Retrieved from http://repository.upenn.edu. Katz, E., Blumler, J. G., & Gurevitch, M. (1974). Utilization of mass communication by the individual. In O. Boyd Barrett & C. Newbold (Eds.), Approaches to media: A reader (pp. 164 173). London: Arnold. Katz, E., Gurevitch, M., & Haas, H (1973). On the use of the mass med ia for important things. American Sociological Review 38(2), 164 181. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/pss/2094393

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46 King, A. (2001). Affective dimensions of internet culture. Social Science Computer Review, 19(4), 414 430. doi: 10.1177/089443930101900 402 Lee, D., Im, S., & Taylor, C. (2008). Voluntary self disclosure of information on the internet: A multimethod study of the motivations and consequences of disclosing information on blogs. Psychology and Marketing, 25(7), 692 710. DOI: 10.1002/mar.202 32 Levy, M. R. (1978). The audience experience with television news. Lexington, KY: Association for Education in Journalism. Li, D. (2005). Why do you blog: A uses and Google Scholar. Liu, I., Cheung, C., & Lee, M. (2010). Understanding Twitter usage: What drive people continue to Tweet. Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems: Proceedings of the 2010 PACIS Conference, Taipei, Taiwan (paper 92). McQuail, D., J.G Blumler, & Brown, J. R. (1972). The television audience: A revised perspective. In P. Marris & S. Thornham (Eds.), Media Studies: A reader (pp. 438 454). New York: New York University Press. Milani, L., Osualdella, D., & Di Blasio, P. (2009). Quality of interpersonal relationships and problematic internet use in adolescence. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12(6), 681 684. doi: 10.1089/cpb.2009.0071 marketing bands Atlantic Journal of Communication, 16(2), 71 87. doi:10.1080/15456870701840004. Palmgreen, P., Wenner, L. A., & Rayburn II, J. D. (1981). Gratification discrepancies and news program choice. Communication Research, 8(4), 451 478. doi: 10.1177/00936502 8100800404 Perse, E. (1990). Media involvement and local news effects. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 34(1), 17 36. Retrieved from the Academic Search Premier database.

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47 Ruggiero, T. (2000). Uses and Gratifications Theory in the 21st Century. Mass Communication & Society, 3(1), 3 37. Retrieved from Communication & Mass Media Complete database. Shao, G. (2009). Understanding the appeal of user generated media: A uses and gratification perspective. Internet Research, 19(1), 7 25. doi: 10.110 8/10662240910927795 Shen, C. C., & Chiou, J. S. (2009). The effect of community identification on attitude and intention toward a blogging community. Internet Research, 19(4), 393 407. doi: 10.1108/10662240910981362 Schmidt, J. (2007). Blogging practices : An analytical framework. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 12(4), 1409 1427. doi:10.1111/j.1083 6101.2007.00379.x. Schwartz, D. (2009). Knowing who you are and trusting who you know. Internet Research, 19(5). Retrieved from http://www.emer aldinsight.com Shirky, C. (2008). Here comes everybody: The power of organizing without organizations. New York: Penguin Books. Song, I., Larose, R., Eastin, M. S., & Lin, C. A. (2004). Internet gratifications and internet addiction: On the uses and abus es of new media. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 7(4), 384 394. doi: 10.1089/cpb.2004.7.384 Stafford, L., Kline, S., & Dimmick, J. (1999). Home e mail: Relational maintenance and gratification opportunities. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 43(4), 659 669. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database. Stafford, T., Stafford, M., & Schkade, L. (2004). Determining uses and gratifications for the internet. Decision Sciences, 35(2), 259 288. Retrieved from Google Scholar. Trammell, K., & Keshelashvili, A. (2005). Examining the new influencers: A self presentation study of A list blogs. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 82(4), 968 982. Retrieved from Communication & Mass Media Complete database.

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48 Verplanken, B. (2006). Beyond fr equency: Habit as mental construct. British Journal of Social Psychology, 45(3), 639 656. DOI: 10.1348/014466605X49122 Zerba, A. (2003). Perceived motives for clicking on multimedia features on ews web sites: able from the University of Florida Online Dissertations database.

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49 Appendix Example Post (Text transcribed below)

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50 Full text: It is precisely in the sixth minute of the eight reconsider marijuana smoking as recreational pastime. This song is long. This song is very long. This song is the kind of long over which empires rise and fall, garage bands form and disperse. But I am still listening. And Ancient River is still groping f or transcendence, which Ancient River plays loud, spacey, occasionally melodic guitar music equal parts self loathing and reverberating wah. It is a continuous blast of distortion heavy like a burning desert sun, and when channeled through the expeditious Gibson of J. Barreto which is virtually always an anachronistic head trip into the sonic ether. O.D.D.S. short f or outtakes, demos, demons and singles and it is misleading in two regards. First, it sounds like a compilation album only in the sense that all long playing rock debuts are compilations And second, it sounds nothing at all speak to demons, but outtakes and demos these are not. makes in these rapturous three minutes. The song chugs forward with a druggy propulsion only EMF cut you or I or anyone else can name. psychedelic kiss off cramme d with chorus, the latter laconic drawl. For all the acid hippie affectation, Ancient River at its flannel core exists an unabashed child of the Nineties, or certainly it s grunge precursors. Somewhere in revelation, this band discovered and to answer a question the music can answer for itself appropriately brawny low end, Ancient River never strays too far from those grungian touchstones and as a result manage to avoid most of the indulgent trappings of its oft formless genr

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51 these songs are actual songs, employing ambience and wankery primarily as vehicles for invariably, Barreto pulls the ripcord with a shard laced solo. So, yes, in moments as these the high school parki ng lot. I wish I had longer hair. I wish I drove a Plymouth Superbird. I To purchase O.D.D.S, visit AncientRiverMusic.com or download the album on iTunes

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52 Most Visited Post According To WordPress Stats (Text Transcribed Below) 181 unique visitors

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53 Full text: Philly hardcore juggernaut Paint It Black is the band Tipper Gore warned you about primal, aggressive, violent in the name of non violence. Yemin, does nothing more (or less) than militantly bark spitfire sermons about how

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54 say it: I love this band. Their formula is a limited one on paper bash/thump/bash/thump + singer who injected with a needle stab to the heart of anthem and adrenaline, the final product transforms into a take on all comers distillation of sheer power. The live spectacle is this: Kids shaking with nervous energy before the first chords; unleashing a visce ral surge toward stage after. The clawing and climbing to reach the mic is I seriously want to break something right now. Subsist on a steady diet of carcinogens. Run through a wal l. These are for you, Tip. And remember, the worst kind of poser is the one with a crappy record collection.

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55 Top Posts for All Days Ending March 17, 2011 According to WordPress Stats Home page 4,033 Gainesville, Thursday Night: A Playlist 299 Paint It Black at The Fest 9 181 Interview with The Boswellians 103 The Rock 104 Interview with Ben Markus 94 84 The Sh*tty Beatles: Live at Common Grounds 83 Skeletron Ball 2: Night 1 83 About 71 Michael Parallax at The Atlantic 68 Vice Magazine throws FREE party at The Atlantic this Friday 65 65 To All My Dear Friends at The Atlantic 65 Album Review: Deputy 62 Interview with Teepee 59 Skeletron Ball 2: Night 2 56 Album Review: Pseudo Kids 55 Introducing: Internet Sensation Kyle Rancourt 55 Interview With Tom Miller of The Righteous Kind: Pt. 1 53 Doowutchyalike Gainesville: What You Missed 50 50 Andrew Santorelli 42 Plastic Plastic at The Atlantic 41 38 A Top 5 for The Top 38 Metallica plus Stubbies = Alcoholica? 35 Fest Interview with Robbie Freeman of Kadets 33 32 Kadets at 1982 32 Wavelets at 1982 30 Hard Skin at The Venue: The Fest, Day 1 29 The Rock 104 Interview: Part 2 27 10 4 Eleanor at 1982: The Fest, Day 1 26 Sweet Bronco, Driver and Ancient River: Live at Common 25

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56 Grounds Listening to records with Jonathan Richman 24 The Rock 104 Interview: Part 3 24 Chotto Ghetto: An Intro to the Fest 9 21 A Word About DJ NickFRESH 21 Defiance, Ohio at 8 Seconds: The Fest, Day 2 20 Interview with DJ Robzilla of O.N.E. 20 The Rock 104 Interview: Part 4 20 Album Review: Ancient River 20 Grow Radio Sends Off The White Stripes 19 19 Ana(b)log 18 18 A Wilhelm Scream at The Venue: The Fest, Day 1 18 Bruise Cruise Recap 16 Observations 15 Lounge 14 Ex Rock 104 DJ Finds Job 14 Is Radio the best pop song of the Nineties? 13 The Sound, The Fury, The Faux Hawk: Thieves and The Stampede at 1982 11 The Captives: Live at The Venue 11 Interview With Tom Miller of The Righteous Kind: Pt. 2 11 11 Music For Squares, Pt. 1: Averkiou 10 10 10 Interview with Tom Miller of The Righteous Kind: Pt. 3 9 Whiplash with Azmyth: Live at the Backstage Lounge 9 AM/FM Gainesville Music Showcase x 3 Bands 8 Interview with Dave Melosh 8 Planning 5 Tanks In Series at The Atlantic 5 Literature 4

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57 UF MEISA Benefit Show 4 We Are The Willows: Live at Common Grounds 3 Episode 9 1

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58 Weekly Hits According to WordPress Stats Monthly Hits According to WordPress Stats

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59 Weekly Hits According to StatCounter

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60 Weekly Hits According to StatCounter (Continued)

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61 Monthly Hits According To Statcounter

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62 Referrers for All Days Ending March 17, 2011 According to WordPress Stats Referrer Views facebook.com 517 boards.radio info.com/smf/index.php?topic=177625.10 54 thinkmultimedia.wordpress.com 50 twitter.com 44 anablogmusic.com. 38 youtube.com/user/wschamp95 22 kylerancourt.com 22 toallmydearfriends.com/press.html 12 gainesvillebands.com/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=31040&PN=1 12 WordPress Dashboard 10 google.com 9 sportscasualties.com 8 youtube.com/watch?v=S7Fc_6Eb7Ss 8 twitter.com/pibphilly 7 healthyfoodlazypeople.com 7 twitter.com/anablogmusic 7 gainesvillebands.com/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=31307&TPN=2 6 youtube.com/watch?v=VWozvA84oUQ 5 youtube.com/watch?v=5zXvmBfbBO0 5 twitter.com/SCasualties 5 gainesvillebands.com/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=31307&PN=1&TP N=2 5 sportscasualties.com/2011/02/18/breaking melo to nets hilson right again i am the effing man etc 4 youtube.com/watch?v=Rjm pUfMKW4 4 touch.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fanablogmusic.com%2 F&h=65280 4 no grain no pain.com 4 ancientrivermusic.com/press.html 4 youtube.com/watch?v=2givNmwGfvU 4 facebook.com/l.php?u=http://anablogmusic.com/2010/12/metallica plus stubbies alcoholica/&h=98665 4 youtube.com/watch?v=vrfxtTJPs0k 4

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63 facebook.com/l.php?u=http://anablogmusic.com/&h=65280 4 youtube.com/watch?v=xdZ2BWbWQfg 4 gainesvillebands.com/forum/forum_posts.asp?TID=31307&PN=0&TPN=2 4 facebook.com/l.php?u=http://anablogmusic.com/&h=045b8 3 kickbrightzine.com 3 facebook.com/l.php?u=http://anablogmusic.com/&h=f49fe 3 youtube.com/watch?v=qXecNxfO6lw 3 facebook.com/l.php?u=http://anablogmusic.com/2010/11/skeletron ball 2 night 1/&h=0493c 3 facebook.com/l.php?u=http://anablogmusic.com/2010/12/metallica plus stubbies alcoholica/&h=89e60 3 facebook.com/l.php?u=http://bit.ly/99tugL&h=6245b 3 facebook.com/l.php?u=http://bit.ly/99tugL?ref=nf&h=58aee 3 Sample Screen Captures

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66 Defintition of Literature Review Terms Social capital investment: the acquisition and development of information and interpersonal connections for etworks. This definition is borrowed actors to secure benefits by virtue of membership in social networks or other social as cited in Alde r & Kwon, 2002, p. 20 ). Personal identity: the sense of individuality achieved through A) the acquisition of information or B) development of interpersonal connections perceived as distinguishing one from his or her pee r group. This definition borrowed f on music and personal identity that templates for elaborating self Community participation: interaction with the blogger and other blog visitors through text b ased communications. Com menting under individual posts wa s the primary medium of participation, but other examples include d on a Facebook fan page, t T weeting the blogger and others in the community, linking and post. Identity disclosure: the sharing of personal information through avenues available on the blog. Examples include the posting of contact information, revealing of commenting without a pseudonym), and recounting anecdotal experiences. Parasocial behavior: activity that cultivates a level of friendship with the blogger and other community members. This definition borrowed from Perse (1990), who characterized friendship with media personalities that connotes liking, Habitual behavior: repetitive activity with a level of automaticity that pre empts attitudes and int entions. T his definition is borrowed from Bas Verplanken (2006) who used a similar meaning to distinguish habit from frequency in his analysis of negative thinking patterns.