St. Vincent and the Grenadines

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
St. Vincent and the Grenadines country environmental profile
Alternate title:
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines country environmental profile
Physical Description:
xxvii, 222 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines -- Ministry of Health and the Environment
United States -- Agency for International Development
Caribbean Conservation Association
Island Resources Foundation (Virgin Islands of the United States)
St. Vincent National Trust
Publisher:
Caribbean Conservation Association
Place of Publication:
St. Michael, Barbados
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Conservation of natural resources -- Saint Vincent and the Grenadines   ( lcsh )
Environmental policy -- Saint Vincent and the Grenadines   ( lcsh )
Environmental protection -- Saint Vincent and the Grenadines   ( lcsh )
Economic development -- Environmental aspects -- Saint Vincent and the Grenadines   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 203-222).
Statement of Responsibility:
prepared under the aegis of the Caribbean Conservation Association on behalf of the government of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Ministry of Health and the Environment with the technical support of the Island Resources Foundation, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands and the St. Vincent National Trust ; funding provided by the U.S. Agency for International Development.
General Note:
"Draft prepared 1990."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 24917679
System ID:
AA00001407:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text












,-T"r .; .'. ,:*. ;; .:?,;"
,- .'- '







SLM













ij
i4'1


















A.L-, ; ,.-. _
'., ...







'id '. ,, '



-' #. ,* :
-.%v .. *
;"o '. .. ,, -'
,** .. .. -, 'j, 'i --;



"^ '. ,.^




^^14






.'^ ,' '* .' ,. .' ^ c
& ::. "',: ..

1 :,. I .iI'


-, .,.;, :,
', .1

!! : iii'i


"-,. -.' N'


B V.1


USV;


Anguilla
* St. Martin
*St. Barthelemy


Saba w
St. EustatiJse ST. KITTS

NEViS


%BARBUDA


A ANTIGUA


Montserrat


lGuadeloupe
IP^


I DOMINICA


' Martinique



, ST. LUCIA


ST. ViNCENT -
a Barbados .. ,
.* THE GRENADINES


0 GRENADA


E- *'*


IN


- -~. .,-.~. --


I." '-


.%'
" r;- .,.
'.' .:,... ,:-;... .









S
T.

V
I
N
C
E
N
T


With the Technical Support Of:


THE ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION
St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands
And
THE ST. VINCENT NATIONAL TRUST
Kingstown, St. Vincent

Funding Provided By:
THE U.S. AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Regional Development Office/Canbbein
Bridgetown, Barbados


Draft Prepared 1990
Edited and Published 1991


COUNTRY

ENVIRONMENTAL

PROFILE


Prepared Under the Aegis Of:
THE CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION
St. Michael, Barbados

On Behalf Of:
THE GOVERNMENT OF ST. VINCENT
AND THE GRENADINES
Ministry of Health and the Environment


And The


G
R
E
N
A
D
I
N
E
S














FOREWORD


One of the most serious threats to sustainable economic growth in the Caribbean is the increasing
degradation of the region's natural ecosystems and a concurrent deterioration in the quality of life for
Caribbean people. The task of reversing this unfortunate trend requires better knowledge and un-
derstanding of the region's u 'que environmental problems and the development of appropriate
technologies and public policies to lessen and even prevent negative impacts on our fragile resource
base.

In an attempt to provide such a framework thz Caribbean Conservation Association, with funding
provided by the United States Agency for International Development and with the technical assis-
tance of the Island Resources Foundation, has produced a series of Country Environmental P:ofiles
for six Eastern Caribbean countries -- Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts and Nevis,
St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines.

Even though these documents dr not c'aim to be encyclopedic in their treatment of individual sectors
and issues, each Profile represents the most current and comprehensive information base assembled
to date on environmental and conservation issues that affect, and are affected by, the development
process in the Profile countries.

Each document addresses key environmental problems, constraints, and policy directions as these
were identified and fleshed out by a team of researchers and writers, in collaboration with a local co-
ordinating committee. Each Profile also identifies and examiin';s a variety of opportunities and plan-
ning tools which may prove useful in meeting environment/development goals in the future. All of
this information should play a significant role in informing and influencing ecologically-sound
development planning in the region, and should provide a basis for improved decision-making -- both
immediate as well as long-term. This may best be accomplished by using the data to define priorities
(in view of related benefits and costs), to pursue in-depth analysis of issues, and to undertake neces-
sary follow-on activities in such a way that they are mutually reinforcing. In short, action emanating
from the recommendations contained in the Profile right best be undertaken within a comprehensive
environmental management framework, rather than from a piecemeal, project-oriented perspective.

The Caribbean Conservation Association is very pleased to be able to make this contribution to de-
velopment planning in the region.


Calvin A. Howell
Executive Director
Caribbean Conservation Association


(April 1991)














ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Overall project management for the St. Vincent and the Grenadines Country Environmental Profile
Project was provided by the Caribbean Conservation Association (CCA) under the direction of Acting
Executive Director, Mr. Calvin Howell.

Technical guidance in preparation of the Profile was the responsibility of the Island Resources Foun-
dation (IRF). Dr. Edward L. Towle, President of the Foundation, is the Team Leader for the Profile
Project in the Eastern Caribbean; Ms. Judith A. Towle, IRF Vice President, is the Editor of the CEP
Report Series; and Mr. Robert Teytaud served as Deputy Team Leader for the Profile Project in St.
Vincent and the Grenadines.

St. Vincent and the Grenadines Government liaison for the CEP effort was the Ministry of Health and
the Environment, the Honorable Burton Williams, Minister. The Junior Minister for the Environment,
the Honorable Alpian Allen, was very helpful in executing the project and provided coordination with
the Ministry. The CEP National Committee for St. Vincent and the Grenadines (a sub-committee of
the National Environmental Protection Task Force) was ably chaired by Mr. Daniel Cumm;ngs, Man-
ager of the Central Water and Sewerage Authority.

Local project management was implemented through the offices of the National Trust of St. Vincent
and the Grenadines. The Trust's officers and trustees were particularly helpful, and a special
acknowledgement is due for the assistance provided by Dr. Earle Kirby, Chairman; Mrs. Lavinia Gunn,
Vice Chairman; and Ms. Marlon Mills, Secretary, in pro -ding a warm welcome and arranging for es-
sential support services far the IRF in-country team. Ms. Diana DrFreitas of the National Trust staff
also provided expert assistance to Profile writers and investigators.

Staff at the U.S. Agency for International Development, Caribbean Regional Development Office in
Barbados facilitated implementation of the St. Vincent Piofile Project, in particular, the Mission's
Environmental Officer, Ms. Rebecca Niec, and her temporary replacement, Mr. Albert Merkel, whose
support has been ?-preciated throughout this effort by both CCA and IRF.

Many other organizations and individuals in St. Vincent and the Grenadines gave valuable assistance
during the course of the project. To each we extend our gratitude, along with the hope !hat the Envi-
ronmental Profile will assist the country in defining and achieving its goals for sustainable development
in the decade ahead.

For further information, contact any one of the implementing institutions:

Caribbean Conservation Association Island Resources Foundation St Vincent National Trust
Savannah Lodge, The Garrison Red Hook Box 33, St. Thomas Post Office Box 752
St. Michael, Barbados U.S. Virgin Islands 00802 Kingstown, St. Vincent




(June 1990)









ST. VINCENT AND 'iHE GRENADINES
COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE NATIONAL COMMITTEE

A Sub-Committee Of The National Envir mental Protection Task Force


The Honorable Alpian Allen, Minister of State
Ministry of Health and the Environment
Mr. Herman Belmar, Bequia
Mr. Bentley Browne, Planner
Physical Planning Unit
Mrs. Stephanie Browne, Union Island
Mr. Vidal Browne, Hotel Association
Mr. Stanley Campbell,
Deputy Chief Education Officer
Mr. Daniel Cummings, Manager
Central Water dand Sewerage Authority
Mr. Lennox Daisley, Chief Agricultural Officer
Dr. Ann Eustace, Ministry of Health
and the Environment


Mr. Monty Eustace, Manager
St. Vincent Banana Association
Dr. Adrian Fraser, Coordinator, CARIPEDA
Mr. Stewart Guy, CIDA Forestry Project
Mr. Brian Johnson, Senior Forest Supervis. r
Ministry of Agriculture
Mr. Kingsley Layne, Permanent Secretary
Ministry of Trade and Tourism
Mr. Kerwin Morris, Chief Fisheries Officer
Mr. Richard Robertson, Geologist
Ministry of Agriculture
Mr. Tony Sardine, Hotel Association
Mrs. Janet Wall, Union Island
Mr. Nigel Weekes, Senior Forest Supervisor
Ministry of Agriculture


KEY MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL TRUST OF ST. VINCENT and THE GRENADINES
Associated With 'The Country Environmental Profile Project


Mr. Moirison Baisden
Ms. Diana DeFreitas
Mrs. Lavinia Gunn
Dr. Earle Kirby


Trus~te
Staff .cretary
Vice Chairman
Chairman


Ms. Marion Mills Trust Secretary
Mr. Michael Moet-Wynne Trustee
Mr. Richard Robertson Trustee


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION TECHNICAL TEAM
For The Country Environmental Profile Project


CEP PROJECT TEAM LEADER
ST. VINCENT CEP COORDINATOR
EDITOR, CEP REPORT SERIES
GRAPHICS AND DESIGN
BIBLIOGRAPHY


Edward Towle
Robert Teytaud
Judith Towle
Jean-Pierre Bacle
Ian Jones


SL Vincent Environmental Profile Writing Team


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
INTRODUCTION

FORESTS AND WILDLIFE
AGRICULTURE AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT
FRESHWATER RESOURCES
COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES
ENERGY, TRANSPORTATION AND INDUSTRY
TOURISM
POLLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
GROWTH MANAGEMENT

INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK


Ro&,rt Teytaud
Robert Teytaud, Jennifer Rabalais,
Judith Towle, Bruce Potter
Robert Teytaud
Bruce Horwith
Robert Teytaud
Robert Tey2aud
Edward Towle
Bruce Potter
Robert Teytaud
Robert Teytaud, Judith Towle,
Jennifer Rabalais
Judith Towle























































Bananas or "green gold," the mainstay of St. Vincent's agricultural output.











iv









TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Foreword I
Acknowledgements II
St. Vincent and the Grenadines CEP National Committee iii
Key Members of the National Trust for the CEP Project ill
Island Resources Foundation Technical Team ill
List of Tables vill
List of Figures x
Acronyms xli
Abbreviations xlv
Conversion Co-efficients Between Imperial Measures and Weights
and the Metric System xlv
Introduction xv


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: INTEGRATION OF CRITICAL ISSUES xvii

SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Historical and Descriptive Overview of the Nation 1

1.2 The Natural Environment 7
1.2.1 Climate 7
1.2.2 Geology and Topography 9
1.2.3 Soils 11
1.2.4 Vegetation 17
1.2.5 Natural Hazards 21
1.2.6 Local Implications of Global Environmental Change 24

1.3 The Socio -economic Context 25
1.3.1 Demographics: Trends in Population Size, Distribution, and Density 25
1.3.2 National Economy and Development Trends 30


SECTION 2 FORESTS AND WILDUFE 39

2.1 Forests and Forestry 39
2.1.1 Overview 39
2.1.2 Problems and Issues 44
2.1.3 Policy Recommendations 47

2.2 Biodiversity, Endangered Species and Wildlife 50
2.2.1 Overview 50
2.2.2 Problems and Issues 58
2.2.3 Policy Recommendations 63


SECTION 3 AGRICULTURE AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT 67

3.1 Overview 67
3.2 Problems and Issues 73
3.3 Policy Recommendations 78









FRESHWATER RESOURCES


4.1 Overview 81
4.2 Problems and Issues 87
4.3 Policy Recommendations 91


SECTION 5 COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES 93

5.1 Overview 93
5.2 Problems and Issues 103
5.3 Policy Recommendations 114


SECTION 6 ENERGY, TRANSPORTATION AND INDUSTRY 117

6.1 Energy 117
6.1.1 Overview 117
6.1.2 Problems and Issues 120
6.1.3 Policy Recommendations 123

6.2 Trsnsporlation 125
6.2.1 Overview 125
6.2.2 Problems arid Issues 128
6.2.3 Policy Recommendations 128

6.3 Industry 130
6.3.1 Overview 130
6.3.2 Problems and Issues 130
6.3.3 Policy Recommendations 133


SECTION 7 TOURISM 135

7.1 Overview 135
7.2 Problems and Issues 138
7.3 Policy Recommendations 139


SECTION 8 POLLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH 141

8.1 Overview 141
8.2 Problems and Issues 148
8.3 Policy Recommendations 152


SECTION 4









GROWTH MANAGEMENT


9.1 Planning and Development Control 155
9.1.1 Overview 155
9.1.2 Problems and Issues 159

9.2 Parks and Other Protected Areas 163
9.2.1 Overview 163
9.2.2 Problems and Issues 169

9.3 Environmental Education 174
9.3.1 Overview 174
9.3.2 Problems and Issues 175

9.4 Control of Population Growth 175
9.4.1 Overview 175
9.4.2 Problems and Issues 176

9.5 Policy Recommendations 180


SECTION 10 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL
MANAGEMENT 183

10.1 Government Organization 183
10.2 Historical Development of Environmental Management Policies 183
10.3 Government Institutions Concerned with Environmental Management 185
10.4 The Non-Government Sector In Environmental Management 195
10.5 Donor-supported Resource Management Programs 197
10.6 Policy Recommendations 199


BIBLIOGRAPHY 203


SECTION 9










INTRODUCTION


Preparation of Coun:ry Environmental Pro-
files (CEPs) has proven to be an effective
means to help ensure that environmental is-
sues are addressed in the development pro-
cess. Since 1979, the U.S. Agency for Inter-
national Development (USAID) has sup-
ported Environmental Profiles in USAID :,:
sisted countries, principally in Latin America
and the Caribbean. CEPs completed to date
have provided:

(1) a description of each coun-
try's natural resource base, includ-
ing a review of the extent and eco-
nomic importance of natural re-
sources and changes in the quality
or productivity of those resources;

(2) a review of the institutions,
legislation, policies and programs
for environmental planning, eco-
romic development and natural re-
source management;

(3) identification of the major
issues, conflicts or problems in nat-
ural resource management and
opportunities for effective re-
sponses.

Profiles have highlighted gaps in the existing
information base, influenced the design and
funding of development programs, pinpointed
weaknesses in regulatory or planning mecha-
nisms, and illustrated the need for changes in
policies. Most importantly, the process of car-
rying out a profile project has in many cases
served to strengthen local institutions and to
improve their capacity for incorporating envi-
ronmental information into development
planning.


PROFILES FOR THE EASTERN
CARIBBEAN

Country Environmental Profiles have been
prepared for several countries in the Wider
Caribbean Region, including Panama, Belize,
the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Jamaica.
The potential utility of CEPs in the Eastern


Caribbean sub-region (essentially the OECS
countries) has been a subject of discussion
sirce the early 1980's. The need for the pro-
filing process to begin in those countries was
reaffirmed during a seminar on Industry, En-
vironment and Development sponsored by the
Caribbean Conservation Association (CCA)
and the University of the West Indies in
August 1986.

Shortly thereafter, USAID entered into a Co-
operative Agreement with CCA for prepara-
tion of a series of CEPs for the Eastern Carib-
bean. It was decided to begin the profile pro-
cess in the country of St. Lucia as a pilot pro-
ject, to be followed by profiles for Grenada,
Antigua-Barbuda, Dominica, St. Kitts-Nevis,
and St. Vincent and the Grenadines.

Early in 1987, CCA and the Island Resources
Foundation (IRF), of St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin
Islands, entered into an agreement whereby it
was determined that IRF would provide
technical assistance and support to CCA in
the execution of 'he profile project in the
Eastern Caribbean. The Executive Director
of the Caribbean Conservation Association is
the CEP Project Director, while the President
of the Island Resources Foundation serves as
CEP Project Manager/Team Leader.


THE ST. VINCENT AND THE
GRENADINES ENVIRONMENTAL
PROFILE

Early in 1990 a Memorandum of Under-
standing (MOU) was signed by CCA and the
Government of St. Vincent and the
Grenadines (GSVG) for the purpose of
executing a Country Environmental Profile,
with the recently established Ministry of
Health and the Environment serving as the
designated counterpart agency for the
Government. At the same time, the St.
Vincent National Trust was designated by
CCA and GSVG as the local implementing
and coordinating organization for the CEP
project.










A CEP National Committee was formed as an
advisory, technical information, and review
body for the project in St. Vincent and the
Grenadines. The CEP Committee is an offi-
cially designated sub-committee of the Na-
tional Environmental Protection Task which
was created in 1989 to advise the Minister of
the newly established Ministry of Health and
the Environment. Like the Task Force itself,
the CEP Sub-Committee included represen-
tatives from GSVG departments with envi-
ronmental responsibilities as well as persons
representing private sector environmental or-
ganizations.

The CEP National Committee was called on
to assist ihe research aad writing team from
the Island Resource., Foundation in drafting
the CEP report outline, identifying critical
environmental issues, obtaining reference
materials, and coordinating the in-country re-
view of materials prepared by the CEP techni-
cal team.

The commencement of the CEP Project in St.
Vincent and the Grenadines in February of
1990 coincided with establishment of a new
headquarters office by the St. Vincent Na-
tional Trust in Kingstown. A library of envi-
ronmental reference materials was established
at this location with documents provided by
IRF and others. This collection will form the
nucleus of a National Trust environmental li-
brary or information center which will con-
tinue to serve the community long after the
completion of the Profile Project.

The draft Profile Report was prepared during
a five month period, February June, 1990,
with draft chapters circulated to in-country re-
viewers for comments and input as each was
readied by the CEP technical team. The full
CEP document, in "draft final" format, was
completed in June and widely disseminated
for final review both in St. Vincent and to
other reviewers in the Caribbean region.


ORGANIZATION OF THE ST. VINCENT
CEP REPORT

As determined by the St. Vincent and the
Grenadines CEP National Committee and the


IRF technical writing team, this Profile has
been organized in ten primary sections plus an
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY section which intro-
duces and summarizes the country's critical
environmental issues.

SECTION ONE provides background informa-
tion on the general environmental setting of
the country and also briefly reviews historical,
economic and demographic features.

SECTION TWO begins a review of the country's
resource base, including a discussion of pri-
mary environmental issues within each key re-
source sector. SECTION TWO focuses on
Forests and Wildlife, SIECION 11THREE on
Agriculture and Watershed Management;
SECION FOUR reviews the country's Water
Resources while SE(TION FIVE specifically
deals with Coastal and Marine Resources.

The Profile moves away from an examination
of the physical environment to consider En-
ergy, Transportation and Industry issues in
SECTION SIX and Tourism issues in SECTION
SEVEN. Pollution and Environmental Health
are the subjects of SEC'ION EIGHT.

The topics of land use planning, development
control, parks, and other protected area pro-
grams are jointly examined in SECTION NINE,
along with issues related to environmental ed-
ucation and family planning education.

The final chapter, SECTION TEN focuses on the
institutional framework for environmental
management in St. Vincent and the
Grenadines, including an overview of key
agencies and organizations with resource
management and development responsibili-
ties.

A comprehensive bibliography of source ma-
terials dealing with natural resource develop-
ment and environmental management is
found at the end of the Profile. Most refer-
ences cited deal specifically with St. Vincent
and the Grenadines or with the Easterr
Caribbean sub-region. It is the most thorough
assemblage of such reference material on St.
Vincent and the Grenadines to be published
to date.










EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


The St. Vincent and the Grenadines
Country Environmental Profile serves as a
"catchment" for identifying environmental is-
sues within the state. Most issue statements
which surfaced during the writing of the Pro-
file and which are elaborated upon within this
document constitute a national work list for
which some modicum of consensus has al-
ready been established. They could also be
used constructively as a guide for a nationwide
environmental education program.

Under the best of circumstances, this
Profile and its action recommendations could
and should lead directly to the design and im-
plementation of a national conservation strat-
egy or its equivalent. At the very least, the
document stands as an addendum to St.
Vincent's development strategy and public
sector investment program. What is mo.sl
needed at this juncture is a policy framework
and a schedule of implementation.

There are two groups of issues ad-
dressed within the Profile. The first is derived
from the sector review and analysis which
constitute the chapters of the CEP which fol-
low. For the convenience of the reader, the
sector-specific issues and recommendation
summaries accompany each sector overview
statement and are clearly identified within
each chapter or sub-chapter.

The second, smaller group of critical
environmental issues and recommendations --
more national and less sectorial in scope --
have been singled out and presented in this
Executive Summary. There is a risk in doing
this, for no issue should be considered in iso-
lalion. There are important. linkages, and the
inter-relatedness of elements within both nal-
ural and human ecosystems constitutes an im-
portant concept for the Vincentian resource
manager. Solutions generally require inter-
disciplinary and inter-ministerial cooperation
and coordination and are seldom as neat and
orderly as their presentation in list form
would suggest.


CRITICAL FACTORS OR "IMPERATIVES"

Essential features on which policies
depend are called key inputs, variables, or
"imperatives"; they are considered critical for
future development and must be addressed.
Imperatives are not options from which the
government may choose a policy. If any of
them is disregarded, the policy will fail and, in
extreme cases, some kind of national catas-
trophe (environmental, economic, social or
political) will follow. In short, imperatives are
not negotiable.

Imperatives may be used as a yard-
stick by which to measure the success of pre-
vious policies and as a basis for comparing the
merits of alternative future strategies. They
are inter-related and need to be kept in bal-
ance with one another. In practice, over-em-
phasis of one may divert resources from oth-
ers in the short term, but over &. longer period
they are mutually reinforcing.

Six imperatives were identified for
the forestry sector by McHenry and Gane
(1988) but apply equally well to the environ-
ment in genera'.

(1) Water. maintaining and improv-
ing the island's capacity to collect and store
water for domestic, industrial and agricultural
use, and safeguarding water quality by proper
management of the watersheds and forest re-
sources.

(2) Soil: preventing loss of soil from
erosion and maintaining and improving soil
fertility by managing the natural woody vege-
tation and planting trees in accordance with
sound land use practices.

(3) Heritage: safeguarding the na-
tional heritage for present and future genera-
tions by preserving features of particular land-
scape value and sites of cultural, historic, sci-
entific or educational significance; protecting
endangered or threatened species; controlling
the rate of exploitation of economically useful
species; preserving examples of terrestrial and










marine ecosystems a"d maintaining the habi-
tat of plants and animals; creating national
and marine park,. for the public to enjoy this
heritage.

(4) Sustainable Output: generating
the largest possible output of products from
each sector, an a sustainable basis. TbI, means
that the growth of each sector and Lffects
on all the other rectors must be monitored so
that no sector grows at the expense of the
others. Any given secctr should be allowed to
grow only to tf point where i makes its op-
timal contribution to gross domestic product,
foreign exchange, employment and investment
opportunities, while maintainingg the quantity
and quality of the natural and human
ecosystem. This will allow the potential of
each sector for meeting the nation's socio-
economic reeds and aspirations to be reabzed
over the long term.

(5) Public Participation: widening the
range of participation in all aspects of devel-
opment, especially land and natural resource
allocation decisions, so that all elements of the
community have an opportunity to become in-
volved in the process. Private citi.'cns and
non-government organizations should share in
the costs and the work of conserving the na-
tional heritage, thereby reducing the strain on
government resources.

(6) Public awareness: to be devel-
oped about the vital role of natural resources
in national s6cio-economic development, in
order for all citizens to appreciate the extent
to which they depend on these resources for
their survival.

To these six imperatives identified by
McHenry and Gane may be added a seventh:

(7) Coastal and Marine Environment:
the need to manage coastal and marine re-
sources, including mangroves, beaches, coral
reefs, seagrass beds, water quality, wildlife and
fish stocks, and aesthetic qualities so as con-
serve these resources and assure their opti-
mum and sustainable long-term use.


OBSTACLES TO PROGRESS

Effective action to sustain and de-
velop all natural resource sectors is hampered
by several major socio-economic obstacles in
St. Vincent and the Grenadines at the present:

(1) Inadequate basis for resource
management. Most historical, cultural, and
natural resources cannot be effectively pro-
tected or managed until the area they occupy
is secmed. Marine conservation areas have
already been designated. Although large parts
of the primary watersheds covering the upper
catchments above water supply intakes and
hydro-electric schemes are state-owned land
and some areas have b,:en designated as for-
est reserves, none are adequately protected.
Reserve boundaries are mostly unmarked, and
enforcement is not very effective in both ma-
rine and terrestrial reserves.

A national park system has been con-
sidered but not fully approved or imple-
mented. At the present time, draft legislation
for creating such a system is being circulated
for review, but as yet only the Tobago Cays
Marine Park has been designated and ap-
proved. CIDA's Forestry Project, which was
originally intended to designate national park
sites, is awiting passage of revised forestry
legislation bh'f re it can move ahead. Overall
responsmlit'Ay for national parks must be as-
signed to a single agency, a national parks unit
needs to be set up, and a chased process for
development and management of national
parks and heritage sites must be implemented.
The process of safeguarding the resource base
takes time, but it is an urgent task because at-
trition continues in the meantime, and once
non-renewable resources are thoughtlessly or
deliberately destroyed, they cannot be re-
placed.

(2) Misuse of the land in watersheds.
Government ownership of land at higher ele-
vations in the mountainous interior of St.
Vincent and the Grenadines should, in theory,
enable most of the catchments abole water
supply intake points to be kept unoccupied
and free of cuimivation and use of agricultural
chemicals. Unfortunately, the Government of
St. Vincent and the Grenadines (GSVG) has
not exercised clear authority in this domain,










and large areas of crown lands are occupied
illegally by squatters. Deforestation for
agriculture and fuelwood is causing
widespread erosion. Heavy use of agricultural
chemicals by small farmers in the upper wa-
tersheds increases the risk of polluting drink-
ing water, rivers, aquifers and coastal waters.
At lower elevations, most land is privately
owned, and there is no effective control of its
use. Cultivation on precipitous slopes affects
stream flow, causes serious erosion and silta-
tion, and may endanger lives due to landslides.

Although it raises sensitive political
and social issues, some curtailment of owner's
rights is unavoidable if these issues are to be
addressed in the national interest. The conse-
quences of continuing to disregard such
problems are serious enough to warrant im-
mediate action for the most vulnerable areas,
either by legislative steps or by incentives to
alter current land use practices.

(3) Undenutilization of resources and
low productivity. The most efficient utilization
of natural resources is desirable so that these
resources make a maximum contribution to
the socio-economic development of the coun-
try. Low productivity results in fewer people
being employed or dependent on the natural
resource base for their livelihood and less ap-
preciation by the pubic of the importance of
these resources. As a consequence, natural
resource management receives a lower prior-
ity in public spending plans. Substantial im-


provements in output are possible because
these resources are undermanaged at present.
Many natural resources are unvalued, unmea-
sured or intangible, but it is important to start
to measure their benefits and to increase their
productivity through sustainable resource
management.

(4) Economic capability. The
economies of the small island countries in the
Eastern Caribbean are for the most part not
sufficiently developed to take on the broad
range of resource management activities
which are increasingly expected of modern
states. The variety of scientific and technical
expertise needed to cope with the manage-
ment of forest resources, degraded catch-
ments, pollution control, wildlife and national
park management, and the like requires a
larger, better trained staff than most Eastern
Caribbean countries, including St. Vincent
and the Grenadines, can afford to employ or
keep fully occupied. Training in a variety of
specializations cannot be provided locally;
overseas training is long and costly, and quali-
fied applicants may not be available. Infras-
tructure is also a problem. Improved infras-
tructural facilities are most often built and
funded by external aid agencies but then must
rely on local financial resources and local
technical staff to support and maintain effi-
cient systems, not always an easy task in the
developing world.


RECOMMENDATIONS RELATED TO THE MOST CRITICAL ISSUES
IDENTIFIED IN THE COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE

The Short Term


(1) CONTROL AND MONITORING OF
PESTICIDES

Existing pesticides control legislation,
which establishes a Pesticides Control Board,
contains no regulations and therefore the
Board is essentially powerless in regulating
pesticide use in the country (pesticide regula-
tions were recently drafted by an OAS con-
sultant and submitted to the Attorney General


for review). At present there are, practically
speaking, no good data on the types and
quantities of pesticides imported or applied in
the field. There are no in-country capabilities
for sampling and analysis of pesticide residues
and no on-going monitoring of the levels of
these chemicals in drinking water, crops, the
environment or human tissues. Decision-
makers therefore have little quantitative data
on which to base their decisions. Neverthe-










less, because of the extreme toxicity of some
of the chemicals which arc in common use,
the careless manner in which they are used,
and the large quantities believed to be im-
ported each year, it is imperative for GSVG to
take immediate action to protect pubis,.
health. Ironically, nations such as the United
States and Great Britain, which manufacture
and export agrochemicais to Third World
countries, are at the same time produce-im-
porters and, as such, are becoming increas-
ingly concciamd over the high levels of pesti-
cide residues in agricultural products coming
from the Caribbean region. Such concerns
could have serious economic implications for
the fgiicultural sector of Eastern Caribbean
counties.

Recommendation. As a matter of
considerable urgency, regulations should be
passed giving the Pesticide Control Board
authority to require permits for the importa-
tion and sale of any biocide, to deny permits
for the importation and sale of pesticides on
the USEPA's (or other suitable agency's) list
of restricted or cancelled chemicals, to require
distributors to report quantities sold and ma-
jor users to report quantities applied in the
field. The use of biocides in drinking water
catchment areas should be stopped immedi-
ately (see No. 2 below).

Recommendation. Agricultural
extension agents and representatives of rural
development NGOs and farmers organiza-
tions should be trained to certify farmers in
the safe use of biocides. The training pro-
grams should emphasize the use of visual in-
structional materials rather than lectures (e.g.,
videos) and should make a major effort to in-
volve the children of farmers through schools
and youth clubs. Pest control operators who
spray buildings and the environment to con-
trol insects, as well as pesticide control in-
spectors, should also receive training in the
safe use of biocides.

Recommendation. The Ministry of
Agriculture should continue to maintain and
improve its linkages and a-rangements for ob-
taining information and advice from biocide
experts through use of manuals, libraries and
computerized information systems supported
by USAID/USEPA, FAO/WHO, CIDA,


World Bank, Caribbean Environmental
Health Institute, and other international
donor agencies and health organizations. This
information is necessary not only to protect
public health but also to assure competitive-
ness on the international market in producing
fruits and vegetables using acceptable bio-
cides, i.e., those that have residue levels which
fall within internationally acceptable toler-
ances.

Recommendation. The Ministry of
Agriculture should obtain donor assistance to
establish a produce laboratory and to train a
technician in extraction of biocide residues
from samples (produce, meat, fish, human
blood/urine or environmental samples such as
water and sediment). Monitoring programs
should start with sampling for biocide residues
in produce and in drinking water. Analysis
can then be conducted by the Caribbean Envi-
ronmental Health Institute (CEHI) at its lab-
oratories in St. Lucia. Donor support to make
these facilities functional should be contingent
upon the passage of legislation that includes
revenue-generating schemes which ensure the
self-sufficiency of the produce lab over the
long-term, e.g., requiring all produce ex-
porters to have residue analyses conducted
with such fees placed in a specific account to
support operational and maintenance costs for
laboratory equipment.

Recommendation. Once the pro-
duce lab is operational, a chemist could be
trained in biocide residue analysis, and a gas
chromatograph could be obtained so that the
analyses were eventually conducted in-coun-
try. At this point, the biocide monitoring pro-
gram could be expanded to include regular
sampling from the tissues of farm workers and
from the environment. The environmental
sampling capabilities of the Central Water
and Sewerage Authority or the Public Health
Department would need to be strengthened
with support for equipment and training.
Donor assistance should be contingent upon
enactment of legislation establishing a special
environmental monitoring fund with revenues
earmarked for the fund. CEHI should con-
sider eventually assuming a quality-control
function for all the in-country biocide analysis
laboratories in the OECS countries.










(2) CONTROL OF ILLEGAL ACTIVITIES
IN WATER CATCHMENT AREAS,
FOREST RESERVES AND MARINE
CONSERVE TON AREAS

Existing legislation provides for the
protection of water catchments, crown lands
and forest reserves against illegal squatting,
deforestation, pollution by agricultural chemi-
cals and erosion. There is also legislation
prohibiting illegal fishing, mining, dredging,
and pollution in marine conservation areas.
Most of this legislation is widely ignored and
inadequately enforced. Revised legislation for
forestry and water resources management is
currently under review by GSVG.

In order to protect drinking water
quality, a solution to the "squatter problem" --
with its environmental ramifications in critical
water catchment.,, i.e., deforestation and ex-
tensive use of agrochemicals -- needs to be
identified. Additionally, effective regulation
of biocide imports and use should be imple-
mented. The required technical information
on biocides already exists, a land reform pro-
gram is underway, and surveys of catchments
and crown lands are now in progress (see
Sections 2, 3 and 8). The remaining difficul-
ties appear to be primarily social and political
rather than technical; solutions will therefore
depend on Government's ability to implement
the regulatory and enforcement provisions of
pending legislative reforms, rather than on
further research or technical assistance.

Reccommendation. A system for
effective watershed and catchment area man-
agement needs to be put in place as rapidly as
possible, squatters must be relocated, and
steps must be taken to restore those areas
which have already been damaged.

Recommendation. Management
plans are needed for all designated marine
conservation areas. Signs and markers
advising the public of the existence and
boundaries of marine conservation areas, and
the restrictions which apply within them,
should be posted immediately in appropriate
locations. This is especially needed in the
Indian Bay-Villa-Calliaqua area in St. Vincent
and in the Tobago Cays.


(3) COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT
ISSUE: CONTROL OF SAND
MINING AND COASTAL
EROSION

One causative factor responsible for
widespread beach erosion appears to be the
on-going mining of sand and aggregate from
virtually all beaches, a situation encouraged by
a lack of enforcement of existing legislation.
Alternate sources of aggregate and specific
beaches for sand mining have been desig-
nated, at least on St. Vincent proper. The
Ministry of Agriculture has been designated
as the lead agency for beach and coastal con-
servation, and legislative revisions are cur-
rently under review. Again, the remaining
difficulties appear to be primarily political
rather than technical, and ultimate solutions
will depend on Government's ability to im-
plement the regulatory and enforcement pro-
visions of existing laws and pending legislative
reforms.

Although it has been recommended
that GSVG consider beach renourishment
with dredged sand to restore the tourist
beaches on the south side of St. Vincent (e.g.,
Villa-Indian Bay-Calliaqua), this poses con-
siderable danger of destroying the nearshore
coral reefs which produce the white sand on
which the area's popularity as a recreational
and tourist destination depends. This area has
also been designated as a marine conservation
site because it has the best reef development
in St. Vincent. The reefs here are already
under stress from nutrient enrichment and
sedimentation, and their further degradation
would imperil the long-term viability of the
economically vital recreational beaches.

Recommendation. GSVG should
establish workable coordination linkages be-
tween the Ministry of Co'nmunications and
Works and the Ministry of Agriculture re-
garding jurisdiction and responsibilities for
protection of the nation's beaches. A pro-
gram needs to be established to educate the
public about the severity of the problem and
about the existing law and penalties for its vi-
olation. Law enforcement officers need to be
given authority to arrest violators of the beach
protection legislation, and those so charged
need to be vigorously prosecuted.










Recommendation: A study of the
beaches and reef systems on St. Vincent's
south shore should be undertaken by experts
in beach dynamics and reef biology, with a
view to reducing man-made disturbances and
enhancing natural regenerative capacities
without artificial beach "renourishment". The
effects of removing the various groins which
impede longshore movement of sand should
be studied, and measures should be taken to
improve the water quality in the Calliaqua Bay
area.


(4) SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Solid waste disposal practices are in-
adequate. Most of the population disposes of
its waste in any convenient place, including
roadsides, streams, the shorelines and
beaches, and open fields. Citizens in the
countryside and in most villages and towns
have no garbage collection services, and such
designated disposal sites as there are operate
as unsightly and unsanitary open dumps which
are continually smoldering, contributing to
both water and air pollution and the hazard of
disease. Many of the designated dump sites
are located in environmentally inappropriate
places such as in wetlands and along river-
banks. There are no programs aimed at waste
recycling or source reduction and no provision
for safe disposal of toxic wastes.

Recommendation. The Central
Water and Sewerage Authority (CWSA),
which already has sanitary engineering exper-
tise, should be given the authority to manage
solid waste disposal throughout the country (if
CWSA is not granted this authority, then it
should lend necessary technical support to the
designated responsible department). A "solid
waste mandate" should include authority to
define criteria for the siting of dumps, to sur-
vey and purchase necessary land, to conduct
feasibility studies in source reduction and
recycling of solid waste, and to explore alter-
native means of disposal. The designated au-
thority should also be responsible for all as-
pects of the operation of the disposal sites as
sanitary landfills, including the authority to
charge fees for waste disposal; such fees
should be earmarked for a special account
used for operation and maintenance of


equipment. Funding should be sought from
donor agencies for purchase of equipment to
operate the landfills.

Recommendation. Consideration
should be given to privatizing garbage collec-
tion and to approval of a fee structure to be
used by private companies providing this ser-
vice. An appropriate GSVG authority, such
as the Public Health Department, should li-
cense such companies and should have the
power to rescind franchises if collectors do
not perform satisfactorily.

Recommendation. Existing indus-
tries discharging toxic and/or high-BOD
wastes into the environment should be identi-
fied and required to treat their wastes and
clean up already polluted areas. A system of
fines should be implemented for violators,
with the monies collected going into a special
fund for environmental clan-up and restora-
tion.


(5) PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF
OIL AND HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS SPILLS

The potential occurrence of oil and
hazardous materials spills, which pose a threat
to the beaches and marine communities as
well as the groundwater resources of the na-
tion, is an issue not presently being addressed.
This is especially important in the islands of
the Grenadines, which are close to heavily
used shipping lanes and where tourist beaches
and extensive shallow-water marine ecosys-
tems are very vulnerable to such spills.

Recommendation. An oil and haz-
ardous materials spill contingency plan should
be prepared and implemented. Legislation is
needed to require proper disposal of waste
automotive oil and hazardous materials, and
facilities to accomplish this must be provided.

Recommendation. The nation's
maritime legislation gives St. Vincent and the
Grenadines authority to regulate ship traffic
and pollution within its exclusive economic
zone (EEZ) as defined by the law. This au-
thority should be used to set up a traffic sepa-
ration system for oil tankers passing through










the EEZ, and such traffic should be prohib-
ited in high-hazard areas. At the same time, it
is recognized that a regional system of pollu-
tion control is required since a pollution
problem could originate from a source beyond
national waters and affect more than one
country.


(6) ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES

Recommendation. The prepara-
tion of environmental impact assessment
(EIA) reports should be required of all pro-
posed major projects, especially industrial
projects and those in the coastal zone, before
they are granted development permits. Reg-
ulations should be prepared by the Central
Planning Division which provide standardized
requirements and guidelines for the content of
such reports.


(7) STRENGTHENING OF RESOURCE
MANAGEMENT UNITS OF
GOVERNMENT

St. Vincent is presently moving in the di-
rection of concentrating environmental re-
sponsibilities in a traditional line ministry --
the newly established Ministry of Health and
the Environment. However, some resource
management responsibilities already reside in
departments outside of the Ministry of Health
and the Environment. Moreover, the new
Ministry has not yet developed its environ-
mental portfolio, and there is not a defined
structure under which its environmental re-
sponsibilities are to be carried out.


At the same time, an ambitious body of
proposed environmental legislation is cur-
rently under consideration by Government in
the following areas: forest resource conserva-
tion, water resources management, national
park development, planning and development
control, public health, pesticide regulation,
and litter control.

Recommendation. GSVG needs to
address as soon as possible the institutional-
ization of environmental responsibilities
within the Ministry of Health and the Envi-
ronment; consideration should be given to the
establishment of a Department of the Envi-
ronment within the Ministry, with clearly
mandated responsibilities. Coordination of
the Ministry's environmental management re-
sponsibilities with other GSVG agencies
needs to be established, perhaps through an
institutionally strengthened Environmental
Protection Task Force.

Recommendation. The lack of ade-
quate technical, monitoring, and enforcement
personnel is often cited as the reason for the
inability of GSVG departments to effectively
enforce existing environmental and resource
management legislation. Staffing problems
will be exacerbated if proposed new environ-
mental legislation is enacted in the near fu-
ture. Therefore, with the assistance of donor
agencies, GSVG needs to examine the techni-
cal and regulatory implications of the full
spectrum of existing and proposed environ-
mental legislation and take steps now to im-
prove both the quantity and quality of staff re-
quired for implementation, particularly
middle-level management and technical staff.


RECOMMENDATIONS RELATED TO THE MOST CRITICAL ISSUES
IDENTIFIED IN THE COUNTRYY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE

The Medium Term


(8) LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT

The only two municipal sewerage
systems in the country service one small area
of downtown Kingstown and another small


area in the Kingstown suburb of Arnos Vale.
The remaining population relies on pit privies
and a small number of septic tank systems or
else has no sanitary disposal facilities at all.
Rivers and coastal waters are polluted by


xxiii










human excreta, and there is increasing risk to
public health as a result.

In addition to the urban areas and
villages, one especially critical marine area is
the Indian Bay-Villa-Young Islund-Calliaqua-
Carenage complex, where St. Vincent's best
examples of shallow-water reefs, white sand
recreational beaches, snorkeling and sport
diving facilities, yacht anchorages and impor-
tant tourist hotels are located. The reefs here
appear to be under considerable stress, pre-
sumably from liquid wastes and sediments
from land (see Section 5). 3ince the contin-
ued viability of all the recreational and
tourism activities in this area depends on
protecting the health of the reefs, it is clear
that action must be taken soon to reduce the
wastewater and sediment pollution load en-
tering the bay.

Recommendation. The most cost-
effective and ecologically sound sewage dis-
posal option needs to be identified and then
implemented for all urban area, of St. Vincent
as soon as possible. Given the fact that it is
crucial to prevent both public health hazards
and nutrient enrichment of nearshore waters,
and taking iato consideration existing techno-
logical and financial constraints, that option is
likely to be primary treatment of sewage com-
bined with a long outfall which discharges into
deep water in an area of strong currents.
Such waste disposal systems should be de-
signed to be easily upgraded to a higher level
of treatment should this prove to be necessaryy
later. This solution for sewage disposal may
be difficult if not impossible to implement in
some places in the Grenadines, due to the
shallow shelf area and reefs.

Recommendation. Solving the liq-
uid waste pollution problems in the Indian
Bay-Calliaqua area will probably require con-
struct:on of a sewerage system. Other mea-
sures may be considered, e.g., retrofitting ex-
isting hotels and houses with septic tank sys-
tems and grease traps, imposing and enforcing
building density controls and strict waste dis-
posal requirements on new developments, and
requiring yachts to be equipped with holding
tanks. However, the expense and enforce-
ment effort required to implement these
would probably make them impractical.


(9) ENVIRONMENT, ECONOMICS,
AND POPULATION

Perhaps the most important condi-
tion for sustainable development is for envi-
ronmental and economic concerns to be
merged in decision-making. An optimal de-
velopment strategy would combine acceler-
ated economic and social development
(emphasizing environmentally benign tech-
nology and environmental protection) with in-
creased efforts for family planning.

Recommendation. The 1991-1994
National Development Plan which is currently
being prepared should focus on the achieve-
ment of sustainable development over the
long term. The feasibility of implementing a
system of national income accounts which in-
cludes natural resource assets should be ex-
plored not only by St. Vincent and the
Grenadines, but by the OECS countries col-
lectively. Donor support should be sought for
an Eastern Caribbean regional feasibility
project to study the costs and benefits of im-
plementing such an accounting system and of
extending the concept of depreciation to natu-
ral resource assets.

Recommendation. The real (often
hidden) costs of resource allocation decision-
making need to be accounted for by inter-
nalizing environmental costs in prices, i.e., the
principle of "the resource user or the polluter
pays". Additionally, it is important that na-
tional economic policies, budgets and subsi-
dies that actively, if unintentionally, encourage
environmental degradation be reformed.

Recommendation. The develop-
ment of innovative means of raising revenues
for environmental protection is necessary to
reduce the burden on Government finances.
Possible options include: charging a levy to
hotels for waste collection and treatment ser-
vices; selling franchises to private waste col-
lectors for designated collection areas; charg-
ing industrial and commercial users for waste
collection and disposal; and billing polluters
for cleanup and restoration costs.

Recommendation. A decrease in
the birth rate is linked to the long-term suc-
cess of a national environmental protection










agenda in St. Vincent and the Grenadines.
While encouraging steps have been taken
through the provision of family planning edu-
cation and services, a greater effort will be re-
quired to accomplish the stated goals of the
country's National Population Policy. This
will involve, among other things, increased
efforts to deal with the major underlying so-
cial and economic constraints which influence
efforts to curb high birth rates. Underlying
cultural factors could be better identified and
clarified by carrying out a national
"knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices"
survey to guide family planning policy makers.
Educational and outreach activities need to be
continued, but other options for facilitating
change should not be neglected, such as ex-
pansion of facilities for services or efforts to
improve the cooperation of medical practi-
tioners.


(10) DEVELOPMENT CONTROL

The existing Physical Planning and
Development Guidelines could form the basis
for legally adopted regulations to the Town
and Country Planning Act, but they would
have to be strengthened by the addition of
standards for different types of development
activities, the inclusion of environmental im-
pact assessment requirements, and provisions
for the regulation of public sector, coastal and
agricultural developments. A draft revision of
the Town and Country Act, including regula-
tions, has been submitted to Government for
review.

Recommendation. Consideration
should be given to updating the institutional
structure and legal powers of the Physical
Planning and Development Board (PPDB) so
that it can require other GSVG agencies to
comply with its decisions and regulations; a
more effective system of development control,
including monitoring and enforcement re-
sponsibilities, is also needed. A technical ad-
visory group should be created to support the


PPDB in decision-making related to inte-
grated watershed management.

Recommendation. The Central
Planning Division (CPD) needs to create and
maintain a functional land use data base and
information management system, including
new large scale aerial photographs and land
use maps, up-to-date cadastral maps, and land
ownership information. There is a need to in-
crease the level of training in information
management within the CPD and to provide a
capability for on-going monitoring of land use
changes.

Recommendation. Legislation is
needed to require the preparation of envi-
ronmental impact assessments for major pro-
jects, especially within the coastal zone and
other critical areas identified in the Profile.
Appropriate standards for development
should be included in the legislation now
pending before GSVG and, when enacted,
such standards should be rigorously enforced.
An institutional capability for interpreting,
and later carrying out, the technical aspects of
environmental impact assessment needs to be
created within the CPD and other appropriate
GSVG agencies.


(11) INITIATE BASELINE SURVEYS
AND LONG-TERM MONITORING OF
FORESTS, CORAL REEFS, SEA-
GRASS BEDS AND MANGROVES
IN PROTECTED AREAS

Recommendation: A long-term
water quality and marine biological monitor-
ing program should be implemented as soon
as possible, in order to gather baseline data,
to determine the impacts of liquid waste
disposal from urban areas and industrial sites
and to determine the need for remedial
action. Laboratory and personnel capabilities
in the country will have to be upgraded in
order to accomplish this.









RECOMMENDATIONS RELATED TO THE MOST CRITICAL ISSUES
IDENTIFIED IN THE COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE

The Long Term


(12) LONG-TERM SOLID WASTE
MANA GEMENT PLAN

Recommendation. A solid waste
management plan should be prepared for a
minimum period of twenty years. From a fi-
nancial viewpoint, in the short term, a prop-
erly operated sanitary landfill is likely to be
the most attractive option for solid waste dis-
posal. However, over the long term, strategies
to reduce the quantity of solid waste and to
promote a variety of recycling options also
need to be explored -- ideally as a collabora-
tion between Government and the retail trade
sector in order to assure that such schemes
are organized on economically defensible
grounds.


(13) INTEGRATED NATIONAL PARKS
AND PROTECTED AREAS SYSTEM

Recommendation. A national
parks and protected areas plan is needed to
ensure that all critical natural and cultural re-
sources receive adequate protection and that
management is carried out in an integrated
fashion. A single agency should be given the
task of coordinating resource management in
parks and protected areas. Allocation of
manpower resources for enforcement and
management activities should be made on the
basis of priorities set out in the plan.

Recommendation. Critical areas --
such as habitat for endangered and threatened
species, important watersheds and catchment
areas, aquifers, wetlands, beaches, marine re-
serves, major diving sites, forest reserves and
recreation areas, wildlife reserves, scenic
vistas and roads, historic and archaeological
sites, and natural tourist attractions -- should
be delineated on national land use maps for
incorporation into a national parks and pro-
tected areas system.


(14) NATIONAL LAND USE PLAN,
EMPHASIZING SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT, MANAGEMENT
OF GROWTH AND MAINTENANCE
OF BIODIVERSITY

Recommendation. A national land
use plan needs to be prepared, incorporating
and updating some or all of the many sectoral
plans which have been written and focussing
on the means of achieving sustainable devel-
opment over the long term. The land use plan
should attempt to guide future development
into areas which are best suited for particular
kinds and densities of land use, based on
physical and ecological constraints as well as
national social and economic priorities. The
watershed should be adopted as the appropri-
ate management unit for land use planning.

Recommendation. The prepara-
tion of new land use maps should be the initial
step in the process of designing a land use and
growth management plan for the nation. The
degree of correlation between land capability
and present land use should be determined
after new land use maps are generated, and
areas in which there are serious discrepancies
should receive priority attention for remedial
and/or restoration programs.


(15) COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT

The coastal zone is the most heavily
utilized and heavily populated area of St.
Vincent. In the Grenadines, because of the
size of the islands, the coastal zone in effect
constitutes the primary resource management
unit. Future growth of the country's tourism
industry is dependent on implementation of
policies which promote the orderly develop-
ment and sustainable use of the coastal zone.

Nevertheless, significant environ-
mental problems affecting the coastal zone
were identified in the course of preparing the
Country Environmental Profile, some of










which have been discussed in this Executive
Summary. These include:

Accelerated "piecemeal" devel-
opment of the coastal zone, with
minimum consideration of the
cumulative effects of coastal de-
velopment projects and activities;

Unregulated removal of sand and
vegetation in the coastal zone re-
sulting in increased rates of
coastal erosion;

Increasing threats to marine life
and marine ecosystems as a result
of unregulated development ac-
tivities not only in the coastal zone
but in upland watershed areas;

Failure of artificial barriers to
withstand the erosive forcc of sea
swells during periods of high wave
activity;

In the absence of a coastal set-
back requirement, increased risk
of coastal flooding and de-


struction of structures in the
coastal zone during periods of
high tide and heavy sea swells.

Government's overall approach to
these and other development problems in the
coastal zone has lacked coherence and has
generally been one characterized by an ad
hoc, case-by-case response.

Recommendation. In addition to
other recommendations in this Executive
Summary which focus on the coastal zone
(e.g., see nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 13, and
14), Government should seek donor assistance
for preparation of a comprehensive coastal
zone management (CZM) plan and follow-on
CZM program; consideration should be given
to designing a permitting system targeted at
coastal developments, legislation to support
the CZM program, training and other support
for staff to implement the CZM program,
monitoring and enforcement procedures for
regulation of development in the coastal zone,
and a public education campaign focused
specifically on coastal environments and their
critical importance to national development.


xxvii








































Fine examples of vernacular architecture can still be found in the country's capital of Kingstown, but the town's his-
torical architectural flavor is slipping away in the absence of enforced protective legislation. An architectural en-
hancement and preservation program would greatly enhance the long-term liveability and viability of urban
Kingstown's surviving mixture of vernacular and colonial buildings. Arched arcaded buildings, such as the exam-
ple above, show a French influence, although France held the island for only a short time in the late eighteenth
century.


Traditional West Indian style buildings in Kingstown, featuring a cut stone and masonry first story and an overhung
wooden second story, one without and two with standard verandas and fancy wooden railings.









SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND


1.1 HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE OVERVIEW OF THE NATION


St. Vincent and the Grenadires is
truly an archipelagic state composed of over
30 islands, islets and cays which extend from
St. Vincent, the largest, southward for some
45 miles toward the neighboring island coun-
try of Grenada (Figures 1.1(1) and 1.1(2)).
The smaller isles in the chain comprise the St.
Vincent Grenadines, several of which are in-
habited -- Bequia, Mustique, Canouan,
Mayreau, Union, Palm, and Petit St. Vincent.
The country is one of four Eastern Caribbean
islands falling within the Windward Island
grouping, with another of the Windwards (St.
Lucia) lying to the north and a second
(Grenada) to the south.

"Rugged and mountainous" are the
descriptive terms used most often to describe
the topography of S'. Vincent, the country's
largest island and host for the capital city of
Kingstown. As the "mainland" of the nation of
St. Vincent and the Grenadines (SVG), its
high mountains cloaked in wet forests, nu-
merous rivers, and black sand beaches offer a
contrast to the smaller islands of the
Grenadines chain to the south. These 32
archipelagic islands and cays scattered over
the Caribbean Sea present a vivid panorama
of low dry hills, gleaming white beaches and
clear blue water, numerous protected bays,
and extensive coral reefs.

The main island of St. Vincent is
dominated by one large volcanic cone, La
Soufriere, which rises to 4,000 feet in the
north of the island. Dismissed prematurely in
more recent times as dormant, La Soufriere
erupted on Good Friday in 1979, thus explo-
sively ushering in the country's independent' e
the same year. Earlier explosive eruptions --
recorded since the eighteenth century -- oc-
curred in 1718, 1812, and 1902 and have influ-
enced the history, settlement patterns and
vegetation of the island. Most significantly,
the repeated eruptions have periodically de-
stroyed vegetation on the flanks of the vol-
cano, resulting in slopes of loose cinders and
ash which revegetate very slowly.


Mountainous and fertile, St. Vincent
proper is the world's leading producer of ar-
rowroot. Nevertheless, the country now sur-
vives by bananas and almost by bananas alone,
for that single crop supports approximately 85
percent of St. Vincent's population and ac-
counts for the majority of agricultural exports
-- which in turn account for close to 100 per-
cent of total exports (Courier, 1989).

Most of the island below 1,000 feet
has been cultivated for many years. This,
however, is by no means the upper limit of
cultivation, and many very steep slopes have
been cleared and planted by shifting agricul-
turalists. However, significant stands of pri-
mary forest, some of it tropical rain forest,
remain on the largely inaccessible interior
mountain ridges and at the heads of the deep,
steep valleys of the leeward coast. This desig-
nated protected forest area provides the re-
lmaining habitat for the endangered St.
Vincent Parrot and other wildlife, but it is
coming under increasingly heavy pressure
from squatters.

The Grenadines stand somewhat
apart from the main island. Noted for their
beautfui white sandy beaches, excellent sail-
ing waters, and internationally acclaimed re-
sort communities, some of these islands (like
Mustique) are privately owned, or virtually so,
and have more recently been host to royalty
and stars of the entertainment world. The
protected waters of the Tobago Cays, now
designated a marine reserve, have become a
haven for avid snorkelers and divers. Several
of the Grenadines, in particular Bequia, were
once whaling islands, from the late nineteenth
to early twentieth century during a time when
these waters were a favorite hunting ground of
American whalers. Today the Grenadines are
a community of small farmers, fishermen,
boat-builders and sailors (Frank, 1976).















61030.

SAINT VINCENI

AND

THE GRENADINE


-_ ., Parish boundary
( National capital
a Parish capital
o Town, village
Road

+ Airport
-t Airstrip
A Elevation in metres


0 10 km

0 6 mi


CARIBBEAN


61 20" St. Vincent Passage

New Standy Bay
SVillage

ST. DAVID Bfang Hill
Chtreaubelair
Chateaubelair c "d ) .Chapm
S (--- Georgetown
FRosehall"
,ali.labou S --- .3 CHARLOTTE
ST. PATRICK ., age
Barrouallie .- South ieC Friendly
8= ie.e Sans Souci
82North Union
.;-V rmontG& lS
Layou embroke-' \ Adelphi

ST. ANDREW Alot. bja Peruvian Vale
Camden Pa k I lo
KINGSTO N A s Vale ST. GEORGE
Stubbs
Young 0 Brighton Village
Caliiaqua Milligan Cay


Bequia


Port Elizabet/h4
Wetar CAY
Petit Nevis
C "e ? Isle i Quatre
Pigeon5


-1250'


Petir Canoun b


13o00'-


Baffowis
q'Baliceaux


The Pillories.

Lovell Village Mustique

2 F'Rabbit

Petit Mustique J

.PtSivan


Canouan
L'Islr. Charlestown,


North M r
catholrc Mareau Channel
Old Wa lMayreau
q U o." Tobago Cays
th reau Channel
Union Red
CFn 0ifre on 8 l: Prune
Frigate

Martinique Channel

61*30' Petit St. Vincentq 61,20'


.Sad Rock


61 1in


ATLANTIC


OCEAN


1250'-


.- / ATLANTIC
.." "l. OCEAN




CARIBBEAN SEA
a
ST. VINCENT 6
AND
THE GRENADINESy-'





6100'
I


I gure 1.1(1). Country location map, St. Vincent and the Grenadines (source: GSVG, 196b).

Figure 1.1 (1). Country location map, St. Vincent and the Grenadines (source: GSVG, 1986b).


61i00O



1320'-





SAINT

VINCENT





1310'-


-1300'


SEA


-12*40'










To the casual visitor, the Grenadines
of St. Vincent appear to be the prototypic
tropical dream island of tourist brochures and
posters -- rolling hills ending in gleaming,
palm-fringed beaches, clear water in multiple
shades of blue, and coral reefs to entice the
more adventurous. This surface appearance,
while eminently marketable, disguises more
deeply-entrenched and inter-connecting socio-
economic and ecological problems. For
example, Government has embarked on an
ambitious tourism development program to
stimulate a depressed economy. Unfortu-
nately, the large influx of cruise ship and air
tourist arrivals to Bequia, Union and other
islands is now causing increasingly serious in-
frastructural, socio-cultural and ecological
stress. The reels of the Tobago Cays, long a
noted attraction for visiting yachtsmen, have
recently suffered a marked decline which has
been variously attributed to overfishing, pol-
lution from transient boats, and careless div-
ing practices. The actual cause or causes re-
main elusive and conjectural.


HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Like many of its Caribbean neigh-
bors, the early history of St. Vincent was en-
acted against a backdrop of colonial warfare
between the French and British. Closely en-
meshed within that rivalry was a second strug-
gle, that of the indigenous Carib Indians who
long and determinedly fought to defend their
island home against European incursions.

Sighted by Christopher Columbus in
1498 on the feast day of St. Vincent and
named in honor of the saint, the island was
not occupied by Europeans until the eigh-
teenth century. While Britain and France
fought for possession of the Lesser Antilles,
the indigenous Carib Indian population
(which had earlier conquered the more peace-
ful Arawak Indians) mounted a formidable re-
sistance to settlement by either European
power. In this struggle, the Caribs of St.
Vincent were aided in no small measure by
the island's rugged, mountainous terrain
which afforded substantial protection against
would-be European settlers. So determined
were the Caribs that in 1748 by the Treaty of


Aix-la-Chapelle, the British and French
agreed to designate the two Antillean islands
with significant Carib populations -- St.
Vincent and Dominica -- as "neutral territory"
for the sole benefit of their Carib inhabitants.

St. Vincent's Caribs were particularly
impressive in warfare against the Europeans,
in part because they had as allies a larger,
more intransigent population known as "Black
Caribs," a mixed group of Indians and mainly
runaway African slaves. Together, they exer-
cised effective sovereignty over St. Vincent
until the British finally took possession in
1763. Even then, between 1771 and 1773, the
Caribs continued to mount a steady resistance
movement against the Europeans, while the
British undertook a full-scale effort to exter-
minate them. The British were forced to exe-
cute a treaty in 1773 setting aside some of the
best agricultural land on the island in a special
district for the Caribs, in return for Carib
recognition of the sovereignty of the English
monarch. The truce was short-lived, however,
for the Caribs joined forces with the French in
1778 who subsequently captured and occupied
St. Vincent until 1783.

Fighting between the British and
Caribs broke out once more in 1795, in a
French-supported revolt which lasted 16
months and resulted in the eventual defeat of
the Black Caribs. In 1797, over 5,000 Caribs
-- the majority of St. Vincent's Carib popula-
tion -- were forcibly removed from the island
by British troops and banished forever to
Ruatan Island off the coast of Honduras. The
few Caribs who remained were allocated 233
acres by the British for their subsistence
(Gregoire and Kanem, 1989).

Evidence of the Carib presence in St.
Vincent's early history can still be found in
pctroglyphs scattered throughout the island
and also in the chief military monument, Fort
Charlotte, an impressive fortification
overlooking Kingstown Harbor on the leeward
coast. It once mounted 34 guns, but these
were sited facing north and east -- not to pro-
tect its seaward approaches but to safeguard
the fort from land attack from within the
interior, where the Caribs so long maintained
control (Buisseret, 1973).









6105'


t


Horne Ronde


a --


13*20'


13*20'


Chateaubelair
Chateaubelair Islet Bay


13'15'


Camden Park
L.jnnans


13*10'


ST. GEORGE


KINGSTOWN


Young's I


0 1 2 3 4 5km
0 1 2 3 Miles
6'*05'


Figure 1.1 (2). Location map for the island of St. Vincent.


6110'1









While warfare dominated the island's
development in the eighteenth century, one
notable achievement took place far from the
battlefield, namely, the establishment of a
botanical garden. The oldest such site in the
Western Hemisphere, the Botanic Gardens of
St. Vincent, was fi-st proposed and established
by the military gove-nor of the Windward
Islands in 1765. Ti. s idea for the estab-
lishment of a government-supported botanical
garden, similar to the famous Kew Gardens in
England for "the cultivation and improvement
of many plants now growing wild and the im-
portation of others from similar climates"
(Howard, 1954), immediately took hold, and
20 acres of woodland about a mile north of
Kingstown were cleared and set aside for an
experimental garden. Under the direction of
Dr. Alexander Anderson, who was appointed
in 1783, the garden flourished and reached its
peak of maintenance and inventory, including
1,170 species of commercial and medicinal
plants, fruits, valuable woods and ornarren-
tals. Among the most renowned introductions
were nutmeg and breadfruit trees from Cap-
tain Bligh's voyage to the West Indies follow-
ing the infamous Bounty mutiny. After more
than 200 years, the St. Vincent Botanic Gar-
dens are still a place of beauty with many
interesting and economically important plants
(Birdsey, Weaver, and Nicholls, 1986;
Howard, 1954; Howard and Howard, 1983).

St. Vincent's rugged interior and
small size made the island less attractive for
the development of large-scale, plantation-
style agriculture during the decades when
sugar cane dominated West Indian land-
scapes. Smaller estates, reflecting a diversity
of agricultural production, were more repre-
sentative of settlement patterns in the seven-
teenth and into much of the eighteenth cen-
turies. Sugar did not become the dominant
crop until late in the eighteenth century when
planters from neighboring sugar islands like
Antigua and Barbados began to settle in
larger numbers in St. Vincent.

By the end of the nineteenth century,
the cane industry was struggling for survival,
precipitating the island's early specialization
in arrowroot production. The demise of sugar
was accelerated by the occurrence of two en-
vironmental disasters at the end of the century


-- a hurricane in September 1898, followed by
a volcanic eruption in May 1902 which killed
over 1,500 persons. The dual calamities drove
many white planters from the island, effec-
tively reducing enthusiasm for a recapitalized,
modernized sugar industry. What followed
was an intensified effort by the British Colo-
nial Office to purchase estate lands and re-
distribute such parcels to black smallholders.
Thus began a process which eventually trans-
formed St. Vincent's work force in the
twentieth century from a sugar proletariat
(like St. Kitts) to a system of landed small
farmers characterized by crop diversity, occu-
pational multiplicity and a small-scale subsis-
tence economy (Richardson, 1989; Finisterre
and Renard, 1987). In effect, the twin forces
of topography and landscape, combined with
the consequences of environmental change,
helped to shipe settlement and land-use pat-
terns in St. Vincent which continue to influ-
ence the country's development to the present
time.

From 1783 (when St. Vincent was re-
stored to British control by the Treaty of
Versailles following four years of French oc-
cupation) the island remained under British
sovere:,gnty. Constitutional advancements had
to wait until the twentieth century when elec-
tions for a Legislative Council were first held
in 1925 under a limited franchise; universal
adult suffrage was not introduced until 1951.
In 1969, St. Vincent became a State in Associ-
ation with Great Britain, with complete inter-
nal self-government. A decade later, in
October of 1979, St. Vincent and the
Grenadines became an independent State
within the British Commonwealth.

As the decade of the 1980's drew to a
close, the Government of St. Vincent and the
GrenadiLns took significant steps to focus
public attention on environmental concerns in
the new decade. Government reorganization
in 1989 witnessed the creation of a new Min-
istry of Health and the Environment, and, al-
though the responsibilities of the Ministry rel-
ative to the environment have not yet been
clearly defined, the potential for centralizing
and coordinating Government's envirornmen-
tal mission within the Ministry are en-
couraging.










ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES


St. Vincent and the Grenadines consists of 32 islands and cays, eight of which are inhabited. Lo-
cated at the northern end of the archipelago bounded to the south by Grenada, the main island of
St. Vincent is 100 miles west of Barbados. Bequia is the largest of the Grenadines. The other in-
habited islands are Mustique, Canouan, Mayreau, Union, Prune (Palm) and Petit St. Vincent.

Location Latitude : 13 degrees 7 minutes/13 degrees 23 minutes North
Longitude: 61 degrees 7 minutes/61 degrees 17 minutes West


Area/St. Vincent
Area/Grenadines







Total Land Area

Population


Economic Activities/St. Vincent
Economic Activities/Grenadines


Primary Crops
Secondary Crcps


Tourism


Ports of Entry


Airports


133 square miles (85,120 acres) 18 miles long and 11 miles wide
Bequla 7 square miles 4,420 acres
Mustique 2 square miles 1,290 acres
Canouan 3 square miles 1,832 acres
Mayreau 1 square mile 640 acres
Union ) 2,070 acres
Prune (Palm) ) 4 square miles 100 acres
Petit St. Vincent ) 96 acres

150 square miles (95,568 acres)

Estimated 113,000 (see Section 1.2); most dense around Kingstown on
the southwest coast; large settlements also in Mesopotamia Valley and
on the leeward coast in Layou and Barrouallie


Agriculture, tourism, fisheries, small manufacturing sector
Tourism, fisheries, boat-building


Bananas, coconuts, cocoa
Root crops, citrus, mangoes


In St. Vincent: centered around the southwest Kingstown-Indian Bay-
Calliaqua area; in the Grenadines: Bequia is a yachting center, Palm
Island and Petit St. Vincent are private resorts, and Mustique is a
residential tourism center

St. Vincect: Kingstown, Wallilabou; Grenadines: Port Elizabeth, Bequia
and Clifton, Union Island

Principal airport is the E.T. Joshua Airport at Arnos Vale outside Kings-
town. Smaller airports at Union, Canouan, and Mustique; an airport is
under construction for Bequia at Paget Farm. St. Vincent and the
Grenadines does not have an international airport; expansion of the E.T.
Joshua facility has been discussed but is not planned at this time.


Physical Features/St. Vincent




Physical Features/Grenadines


St. Vincent is of volcanic origin, dominated by a 3,864 foot
volcano, La Soufriere, which last erupted in 1979. The inter-
ior of the island is mountainous, with sharply dissected ridges
and valleys and lush vegetation.

Also volcanic, the Grenadines are lower and drier than St.
Vincent, with extensive reefs and white coral sand beaches.
The Tobago Cays in particular have been noted for excep-
tional reefs, but these are at risk from pollution.










At approximately the same time, the
Prime Minister designated the 1990's as The
Decade of the Environment in St. Vincent and
established an Environmental Protection Task
Force to assist Government in developing an
environmental agenda and programs. Equally
promising are recent initiatives to revitalize
the long-dormant St. Vincent National Trust
and to put forward new legislation for the de-
velopment of a national forest conservation
plan and for the establishment of other con-
servation areas. Indeed, as St. Vincent moves
forward in the 1990's, it has begun to exert the
kind of environmental leadership which once
made it predominant in the region -- as the
first Eastern Caribbean island to establish
both a botanical garden (1765) and a forest
reserve (King's Hill in 1791).



1.2 THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

1.2.1 Climate


THE REGIONAL CLIMATE

The normal climate of the oceanic
region at the latitude of St. Vincent and the
Grenadines is a humid tropical marine type,
with little seasonal or diurnal variation and a
fairly constant, strong wind out of the east.
This regional climate is affected mainly by the
subtropical anticyclone belt and the in-
tertropical convergence zone. The location of
these two meteorological systems varies in a
cyclical pattern, and their movement gives a
marked seasonal character to the weather.
Rain tends to be showery and is distributed
roughly into a drier season from January to
May and a wetter season from June to
December. There is some risk of hurricanes
from June to December.


THE LOCAL CLIMATE

High islands like St. Vincent manu-
facture their own local weather, creating a
range of microclimates which varies greatly
with height, location and orientation on any


given island. St. Vincent has several mountain
masses which cause a marked upward deflec-
tion of the westerly moving moisture-laden
air. This rising sea air is cooled by expansion
and the moisture is condensed so that
"orogenic" cloud formations and often heavy
precipitation result. A typical feature of cen-
tral mountain peaks in the Eastern Caribbean
islands is a cap of "trade wind clouds" which
masks their summits day after day and is only
dissipated in very still or very dry weather.

The Windward Island group of which
St. Vincent is a part is located within the belt
of "trade winds" famous among seamen for
their directional reliability and generally pre-
dictable schedule. These winds move westerly
along the southern edge of the Atlantic-
Azores sub-tropical high pressure zone and
approach St. Vincent from directions between
east-northeast mo east-southeast. Changes in
this wind regime are mostly caused by the an-
nual seasonal (vernal and autumnal) shift in
the declination of the sun from the zquator,
with stronger, more northerly winds being
common from December to May. Distu:-
bances to this system can be induced by the
passage of so-called "easterly wva'ves" in the
upper atmosphere and othey low pressure
systems during the "wet season." St. Vincent
and the Grenadines lie just within the hurri-
cane belt and have suffered the impacts of
several severe storms in the past.

Typical of small tropical islands, the
temperature of St. Vincent at sea level is gen-
erally rather high (annual mean of 26.7 de-
grees C., with a maximum of 31 degrees C.).
There is little seasonal, diurnal or locational
variation, due to the damping effect of the
surrounding ocean. Temperature data for
Kingstown on St. Vincent (close to sea level)
are displayed in Table 1.2(1). Temperature
records for the higher elevations in St.
Vincent do not appear to be available; how-
ever, the temperature falls with altitude above
3ea level at a rate of one degree C drop per
100 metres in elevation. This method of esti-
mating upland temperature at a given altitude
is very approximate, but it is useful in classi-
fying environmental units and in working out
evapotranspiration rates.





















































The extremes of St. Vincent's wet
and dry season rainfall regime and its tempo-
ral and spatial patterns create wide variations
in annual precipitation at different locations.
For the island as a whole, the period of lowest
rainfall occurs generally in winter, when the
so-called Bermuda high pressure cell extends
its sphere of influence southward, bringing
attention to its arrival by forcing a pronounced
shift of the ubiquitous trade winds from the
southeast to out of the northeast. These
"Christmas winds," as they are known to sea-
men, also bring clear, relatively dry conditions


to St. Vincent from mid-December to early
May.

Island-wide average rainfall data are
presented in Section 4 (see Table 4.1(1) and
Figure 4.1(1) which show the spatial variation
in rainfall distribution). St. Vincent's rainfall
is highest in the hilly or mountainous part of
the country; for example, it is estimated that
the highest elevations receive between 260-275
inches of rainfall per year. By contrast, most
of the valleys and coastal plains are relatively










dry, with annual precipitation averaging about
70-90 inches.



1.2.2 Geology and Topography


GEOLOGY OVERVIEW

The Antillean arc of islands in the
Caribbean is geologically young, probably not
exceeding 50 million years, and is pre-
dominantly volcanic in origin; St. Vincent is
one of the youngest of the major islands. St.
Vincent and the associated undersea ridge
upon which it is perched are located near the
edge of what is known as the Caribbean Tec-
tonic Plate (see Figure 1.2(1)). Tectonic
plates are mobile; they behave like rafts of
solid crust floating on the less dense "fluid"
materials of the underlying mantle layer of the
earth. Their movements are apparently re-
lated to the convection "currents" in the
mantle.

The Caribbean Plate is bounded by
the North American Plate to the north and
east, the South American Plate to the south
and the Cocos Plate to the west and south-
west. The North American Plate moves to the
west relative to the Caribbean Plate, while the
Cocos Plate subducts towards the northeast.
There is little relative displacement between
the Caribbean and South American Plates at
this time in geologic history.

The eastern boundary of the
Caribbean Plate is a "subduction zone" in
which the North American Plate passes under
the Caribbean Plate and into the mantle
where melting occurs. The melted plate ma-
terial forms magmas which, when extruded as
lavas by volcanos, have resulted in the forma-
tion of the islands of the Antillean Arc. At
the present time the active tectonic or moun-
tain forming process has all but ceased in the
region, except for Soufriere volcano on St.
Vincent and an underwater volcano to the
north of Grenada called Kick 'em Jenny. But
within the West Indies island arc, eight other
sites on as many islands still show signs of vol-
canic activity -- gas vents, fumaroles, steam
vents, one boiling lake, and a few near-surface


hot spots that have promising geothermal en-
ergy potential.

St. Vincent's Soufriere volcano has
erupted frequently during its present period of
activity which has been going on for about 700
years; historically recorded eruptions have oc-
curred in 1718, 1812, 1902, 1971 and 1979.
While non-explosive lava emissions do occur
on occasion (e.g., 1971) most eruptions have
been violent and destructive, characterized by
ashfalls, mudflows and glowing avalanches of
incandescent gas called "nuees ardentes". The
lake which formerly occupied the volcano's
crater disappeared after the 1979 eruption,
and today only a small pond remains inside
the volcano.

Kick 'em Jenny is the only known ac-
tive submarine volcano in the Lesser Antilles,
as well as the most active volcano in these is-
lands. Its summit lies at a depth of about 160
m below sea level. The volcano has no con-
nection with nearby Diamond Island, for
which the name "Kick 'em Jenny" is given on
some charts. Caille Island, just to the south of
Ronde Island, is the most recently emerged
island in the Lesser Antilles. It is very close to
Kick 'em Jenny and was probably formed
from a similar submarine volcano only within
the last thousand years (Francis, 1988).

The geology of the Grenadines is
fairly well known, and many papers have been
produced on the volcanic phenomena of
Soufriere, but there has been little compre-
hensive or recent work on the geology of St.
Vincent. The island's earliest volcanic erup-
tions apparently occurred in the Miocene and
have continued intermittently. Reconnais-
sance-level studies have produced a map of
surficial geology (Figure 1.2(2)), which indi.
cates that St. Vincent is composed entirely of
volcanic ejecta (mainly pyroclastics) ranging in
age from Pleistocene to Recent (Talbot,
1983).

The structure of St. Vincent is made
up of a central north-south chain of mountains
and a coastal plain of varying width. The
rugged central mountain chain seems to be
the eroded remnants of a series of volcanos,
with the oldest extinct remnants found in the
south. All of these extinct volcanos are from








































MEIT
AVES RIDGE
EXTIICT IS'.AD ARC


Figure 1.2(1)


ST. VINCENT
(Active Island Arc)
t


CAST


BARBADOS


Above: Geological features of the active boundary zone of the Caribbean
Plate (source: Dillon, etal., 1987).


Below: The eastern margin of the Caribbean Plate at the location of
Barbados and St. Vincent. Cross section showing the Caribbean
Plate being underthrust by the South American Plate. Figure
adapted from Dillon, et al., 1987.









two to five million years in age. Soufriere is
much more recent, probably being built up
within the last half-million years, with major
activity occurring only a few thousand years
ago when massive eruptions showered the
entire island with andesitic ash and rock
(UNESCO, 1982).

Geologically older than St. Vincent,
the Grenadines islands have had a more com-
plex geological history and have more varied
rock types of both volcanic and sedimentary
origin. The Grenadine Islands formed in the
late Oligocene Period, sank or eroded away
during the Pliocene and were completely
submerged during the Pleistocene Period.
Since that time a regional uplifting of the sea
floor has raised the islands above sea level.


TOPOGRAPHY (Figure 1.2(3))

The interior of St. Vincent is very
rugged; 50 percent of the island's total surface
has slopes of 30 degrees or more, and only 20
percent has slopes less than 20 degrees
(Barker, 1981). Mt. Soufriere (3,864 ft.)
dominates the northern end of the island and
is separated from the Morne Garu Mountains
and the rest of the central mountain massif by
a deep trough. Two rivers flow in this trough;
the Wallibou River to the west and the
Rabacca River to the east. Richmond Peak
(3,533 ft.) and Mt. Brisbane (3,058 ft.) are the
two highest peaks in the Morne Garu range.
The major peaks in the remainder of the cen-
tral mountains from north to south are:
Grand Bonhomme (3,181 ft.), Petit
Bonhomme (2,481 ft.), and Mt. St. Andrew
(2,413 ft.). Numerous sharp lateral ridges ra-
diate from these steep highlands of the central
range. Deep-cut valleys and high vertical
coastal cliffs characterize the leeward side of
the island, while on the windward coast the
valleys tend to be wider and flatter, opening
onto a fairly flat coastal plain.


1.2.3 Soils


SOILS OVERVIEW

Soils can be classified in many differ-
ent ways. Some classifications in common use
are based on: (a) geology of the parent rocks;
(b) climate and vegetation; (c) measurements
of the actual physical and chemical character-
istics of the soil; (d) color, physical appear-
ance, and stratification of the soil profile as
observed in the field; and (e) texture. The
classification scheme which has been most
used in St. Vincent and the Grenadines is
based largely on a combination of the last two
methods.

The soils of St. Vincent have been
studied and mapped by Hardy, et al. (1934),
Hardy (1939), and Watson, et al. (1958). They
are derived mainly from volcanic ash and rock
fragments, and most are relatively young and
immature. Three major soil groups are usu-
ally recognized -- recent volcanic ash soils,
yellow earth soils, and alluvial soils of the
coastal plain and valleys. For the present re-
port the grouping shown in Figure 1.2(4) is
most convenient (Llewellyn-Davies, 1972;
based on Hardy, et al., 1934):

Recent volcanic ash soils. Uncon-
solidated, immature, coarse-tex-
tured, and porous soils with gen-
erally good potential fertility.
They cover roughly the northern
third of the island, especially the
slopes of the Soufriere volcano,
and are highly vulnerable to ero-
sion.

High-level yellow earth soils.
Mainly found above the 600-foot
contour, these are "zonal" soils
with impeded drainage. They
are deeply weathered, leached
and highly acid due to their
occurrence in high rainfall areas.

Low-level yellow earth/brown earth
soils. Mainly found below the
600-foot level, these are
"intrazonal" soils, less leached









ST. VINCENT/SURFICIAL GEOLOGY

VOLCANIC ASH


| I j MIXED PYROCLASTIC
MAINLY AGGLOMERATE
S UNSURVEYED
AREA
EXTINCT
VOLCANO
ACTIVE
/I VOLCANO 13o20.







Morne Garu Mtns.
t/ICHMOND AMt.
S ~PEAK Brisbane



-13*15' 13*15'


BONHOMME PEAKS






r IT.ST-ANDREW


*13*10' 1310.


KINGSTOWN






0 1 2 3 Miles
61,15' 6110' 61051

Figure 1.2(2). Surficial geology of St. Vincent (source: adapted from Talbot, 1983).










6 1 I


ST. VINCENT/TOPOGRAPHY

Elevation above sea level


-1320'



















-1315'


Barroualli,


Layou


61*15'


61*10'


0 1 ? I 4 5 Km
0 1 2 3 Miles

61*05'


Topography of St. Vincent (source: Birdsey, et al., 1986).


13020'.



















13*15'




















13'10'


-13*10'


6115'


6110


6105'


Figure 1.2(3).











TERMS USED IN SOIL CLASSIFICATION


and more freely drained. The
brown earths are transported soils
which are generally more fertile,
and occur on gentler slopes.

- Alluvial soils. These mature soits
u.-upy only about three square
miles of valley bottoms mainly in
the south-west of St. Vincent.
They are the most fertile and pro-
ductive soils on the island.

- Shoal soils. These occur in coastal
areas in the south and west of the
island. They are mature soils,
sticky when wet and hard and
cracked when dry, are of medium
fertility and are difficult to culti-
vate.


- Central mountain soils. Generally
shallow soils occurring in high
rainfall areas over about twenty
percent of the island of St.
Vincent. Most of these soils are
under forest, have a high organic
matter content near the surface,
and are highly leached and acidic.
Because of the steep slopes and
high rainfall these are the soils
with the most serious erosion po-
tential; their cultivation should not
be considered.


Various terms are frequently encountered in descriptions of St. Vincent's soils.

Texture refers to the relative amounts of different-sized soil particles (i.e., sand, silt and
clay) present. Clay soils have a predominance of very fine particles ( > 40 percent), sand
soils have a predominance of sand-sized particles ( > 80 percent) and loam soils are in be-
tween. These classes can be subdivided further to cover intermediate soil compositions, e.g.,
sandy loams or clay loams. Sandy soils are sometimes called "light" and clay soils are called
"heavy" -- these terms refer not to weight but to the ease of working the soil.

Shoal is a term used to describe a special type of soil found in the relatively dry areas
of all volcanic islands. Actually "shoal" is a kind of parent rock which is made up of cemented
volcanic lava material; the cementation process is thought to have taken place under water
during a period of submergence. Shoal clay soils are fine-textured, dark brown to grey, and
have a poor physical structure. In the dry season they shrink and develop large cracks; In the
wet season they become very plastic and sticky.

Alluvial soils are derived from river-transported sediments; colluvial soils are derived
from materials brought down from neighboring hillsides by gravity.

Latosols are a very broad grouping that includes most of the red, yellow and brown
soils of the Caribbean region. These are generally mature soils of moist or wet areas with free
or only slightly impeded drainage. They vary from slightly acid to acid in reaction and are
usually leached of bases.

Lithosols are very shallow, rocky soils found in step, hilly areas with stony, rocky or
shaly parent materials.








6110 6105'


ST. VINCENT/SOILS


Recent volcanic ash
Low level yellow earth
High level yellow earth-sandy loam
High level yellow earth-clay loam
Shoal soils
Alluvial soils


1 .
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.




























-13"15'



















*13*10'


1315'.



















13*10'


0 1 2 3 5 Km
S 1 '2 3 Miles


61*151


61*10'


61"05'


Figure 1.2(4). Major soil types in St. Vincent. (source: Uewellyn-Davies, 1972, based on Hardy, etal., 1934).


13*20'J


61*05'


61"10'










RESPONSE OF SOILS TO HUMAN
DISTURBANCE

The soils of St. Vincent are in general
readily erodible, since they tern to be uncon-
solidated and friable; where cementation of
the subsoil occurs it is only incipient and the
cemented layers readily decompose when ex-
posed at the surface. The risk of erosion de-
pends on many factors, including: the type
and properties of the soil; the intensity, dura-
tion and amount of rainfall; the slope of the
land; the extent and nature of the vegetation;


and the agricultural or silvicultural practices
used.

On steep slopes denuded of their tree
cover by clearing, the soil surface is directly
exposed to the erosive force of rain and soil
erosion is greatly accelerated. Alterations in
the pathways and rates of water flow due to
clearing of vegetation can cause changes in
the timing of peak flows and greater flood dis-
charges downstream. Erosion transports soil
downslope and causes the loss of plant nutri-
ents from the uplands. When topsoil is lost,


Table 1.2(2). Mature or "climax" vegetational formations in the Lesser Antilles.



OPTIMAL FORMATION (essentially no dry season, well-d.ained soils):
Lowland Rainforest

SEASONAL FORMATION-SERIES (wet seasons alternating with dry seasons, well-drained soils):
Evergreen Seasonal Forest
Semi-evergreen Seasonal Forest
Deciduous Seasonal Forest
Thorn Woodland
Cactus Scrub

MONTANE FORMATION-SERIES (mountain climates and soils):
Lower Montane Rainforest
Montane Thicket (Elfin Woodland is a subtype due to wind and soil conditions)

DRY EVERGREEN (INCLUDING LITTORAL) FORMATION-SERIES (constant effective drought regardless of
actual rainfall, due to wind and/or excessively drained soils):
Dry Evergreen Rainforest
Dry Evergreen Forest
Dry Evergreen Woodland
Dry Evergreen Thicket
Dry Evergreen Bushland/Rock Pavement Vegetation/Cactus Scrub

SWAMP FORMATION-SERIES (constantly or frequently flooded areas with trees):
Freshwater Swamp
Mangrove Swamp

MARSH FORMATION-SERIES (constantly or frequently flooded areas with herbaceous vegetation):
Freshwater Marsh


Sources: Adapted from Beard, 1944, 1949, 1955; Teytaud, 1988.










the formation of replacement soils is an ex-
tremely slow process; it may take hundreds of
years just to form one inch of top soil.

When trees are clear-cut, there is a
permanent loss of nutrients from the soil if
the felled vegetation is removed as in logging,
and an even greater loss if the slash is burned.
If the area is replanted in crops or timber
plantations, plant diversity is sharply reduced.
If herbicides are used to keep planted areas
free from weeds, the soil is then much more
exposed than it would be under naturall condi-
tions, and erosion is thereby increased.



1.2.4 Vegetation


VEGETATION CLASSIFICATION:
BEARD'S SYSTEM

In 1942 the British Treasury in
London provided funds under a Colonial De-
velopment and Welfare plan for a forest re-
source assessment in the Windward and Lee-
ward island group. The assessment was car-
ried out by J.S. Beard, then of the Colonial
Forest Service in Trinidad and Tobago. When
Beard started his decade of work in the Lesser
Antilles, he found that the systems of vegeta-
tion classification then in use lacked any real
ecological basis. He therefore proposed a new
classification of vegetation (Beard, 1944)
which led to publication of his classic mono-
graph, The Natural Vegetation of the Windward
and Leeward Islands in 1949. This is still
widely used as a basic reference, over forty
years later.

Beard defined his climax natural veg-
etation types ("formations") on the basis of
physiognomy, structure and life-form and ar-
ranged them in several "formation-series"
along environmental gradients. Each forma-
tion was then subdivided into communities
("associations") on the basis of floristic com-
position. Lowland Rain Forest was held to be
the "optimum" expression of vegetational de-
velopment; the various formation-series rep-
resented deviations from the optimum forma-
tion along axes of increasing severity of
drought (seasonal formations), increasingly


poor soil conditions (edaphic formations), and
so on (see Table 1.2(2)).


ECOSYSTEM CLASSIFICATION:
HOLDRIDGE'S LIFE ZONES

A complementary system to Beard's
classification of vegetation is the Holdridge
scheme of bio-geoclimatic "life zones"
(Holdridge, 1967, Holdridge, et al., 1971;
Holdridge and Tosi, 1972). This system uses a
nomogram which identifies the major bio-cli-
matic zones of the world based on "bio-tem-
perature," potential evapotranspiration and
total precipitation. Use of the Holdridge sys-
tem allows one to place local ecosystems in a
worldwide classification framework so that
comparisons may be made with other areas.

Life zone maps are useful for envi-
ronmental management in places where the
natural vegetation has been severely dis-
turbed, since they are based on the measured
or inferred spatial distribution of physical cli-
matic factors. Conversely, observation of ex-
isting mature natural vegetation can be used
to predict broad environmental conditions and
the response of an ecosystem to human ma-
nipulation where site-specific climatic data are
not available. A map displaying the Holdridge
life zones has never been prepared for St.
Vincent and the Grenadines. However, the
life zone map of St. Lucia produced by the
OAS (1984) gives a good indication of the
zones that are likely to be present in this
country (Table 1.2(3)).


NATURAL VEGETATION IN ST. VINCENT
AND THE GRENADINES

The classic description of the vegeta-
tion of the Windward and Leeward Islands,
including St. Vincent and the Grenadines, was
given by Beard in 1949; Howard (1952) de-
scribed the vegetation of the Grenadines.
Beard characterized the existing vegetation
during the 1940's as primarily resulting from
man's use of the land during historical times;
only in certain small areas was the vegetation
relatively unmodified from its natural state.
Beard provided a small-scale sketch map
(Figure 1.2(5)) showing the major areas of











Table 1.2(3). Lesser Antillean life zones (Holdridge's terminology showing rough
correspondence with Beard's formations.


HOLDRIDGE'S LIFE ZONES


Tropical dry forest, transition
to tropical very dry forest

Tropical dry forest



Tropical moist forest



Subtropical moist forest



Subtropical wet forest,

Subtropical wet forest,
transition to subtropical rain forest

Subtropical rain forest


BEARD'S CLIMATIC CLIMAX
FORMATIONS


Thorn Woodlanc'


Thorn Woodland or Deciduous
Seasonal Forest (depending on
length of drought)

SemI-Everprepn or Evergreen
Seasonal Forest or Rain Forest
(depending on length of drought)

Semi-Evergreen or Evergreen
Seasonal Forest or Rain Forest
(depending on length of drounht)

Lower Montane Ra!n Forest

Montane Thicket or Elfin Woodland


Montane Thicket or Elfin Woodland


Sources: Adapted from OAS, Ufe Zones Map for St. Lucia (1984); Beard, 1944,1949,1955; Teytaud, 1988.


natural vegetation remaining in St. Vincent at
the time of his survey, but he gave no esti-
mates of coverage by any of the types.

For comparison, the theoretical dis-
tribution of potential natural vegetation, based
only on environmental factors, is shown on a
map (Figure 1.2(6)) constructed by Watson, et
al. (1958). On this map, the vegetational belts
mirror the climatic belts, and this results in a
nearly concentric zonation of vegetation types
due to the increase of rainfall with altitude
above sea level. However, the northern end
of the island is shown as covered by Secondary
Forest because of frequent disturbance due to
the intermittent eruptions of Mt. Soufriere;
subsequent plant succession on such young
volcanic soils is a slow process.


Beard (1949) provided some com-
ments on the occurrence and distribution of
the natural vegetation types he found in St.
Vincent and the Grenadines; this material is
summarized below.

Rain Forest. This formation in
Beard's time occupied only small areas in the
Colonarie, Cumberland, and Buccament Val-
leys, mainly between elevations of 1,000 to
1,600 feet. There was no Lower Montane
Rain Forest in St. Vincent. There were prob-
ably never many good stands of heavy forest
because the slopes of the central mountains
are so steep and loose as to preclude its de-
velopment there. Where the slopes were gen-
tler the forest had already been cut down.









61 10' 61'05'

ST. VINCENT/NATURAL VEGETATION (Circa 1949)

DRY SCRUB WOODLANDS

RAIN FOREST m

| PALM BRAKE

ELFIN WOODLAND

SECONDARY FOREST

|l NON-FOREST LAND

S13"20 .
















-13*15' I 3 15
















"13 o10' 1310.











S1. Km
0 1 2 3 Miles
61*15' 6110 61*05'

Figure 1.2(5). Natural vegetation In St. Vincent, clra 1949 (source: Prins, 1986, from Beard, 1949).








I11 I15


ST. VINCENT

Potential Natural Vegetation


MEa-'. r Manqrove
NA Littoral vegetation
I Cactus scrub
Dry woodland
E2DI Moist forest
i Rain forest
r Cloud forest
EiE3 Secondary vegetation


13*20'.




















13*15'





















13*10'















O 1 2 3 MHles

61*05'
I


Figure 1.2(6) Potential natural vegetation in St. Vincent, based on environmental factors
(source: ECNAMP, 1980a, based on Watson, etal., 1958).


-13"15'




















.13*10'


61*15'


61"10'


61*10'


61*05'










Secondary Rain Forest. This term
was applied to a broad spectrum of forests
disturbed either by natural occurrences such
as volcanic eruptions and hurricanes, or by
human activities. On Soufriere Mountain, the
plant communities that would normally be-
come established in the absence of distur-
bance range from Rain Forest at the lowest
elevations to Elfin Woodland at the summit
(Birdsey, et al., 1986). In actuality, due to
disturbance from the recurrent eruptions of
the volcano, there is a suite of secondary plant
communities ranging from almost bare soil at
the summit to fairly advanced stages of suc-
cession at lower elevations.

Montane Thicket. This formation
did not occur in St. Vincent.

Palm Brake. The Palm Brake was
evidently a sub-climax type, due to distur-
bances such as landslides or storms, but it
covers large areas in the central mountains
above 1,640 feet. Sites where landslides had
recently occurred were covered with moss
which appeared io stabilize the soil, the next
stage being a thicket of small tree ferns or
balisier. Other less rece .t landslides were
colonized by Mountain Cabbage, forming a
patch of Palm Brake.

Elfin Woodland. At the exposed
summits above 1,640 feet on both sides of the
central mount'.,ins pure stands of Elfin
Woodland were found, a gnarled, mossy, re-
pressed growth of trees about 10 feet in
height. Most Elfin Woodland vegetation was
covered with moss epiphytes and climbers.
These areas of Elfir. Woodland were set in a
matrix of Palm Brake.

Evergreen and Semi-evergreen Sea-
sonal Forest. Beard (1949) does not mention
this formation, probably because these moist
forest types had been extirpated by the time of
his study.

Deciduous Seasonal Forest/Cactus
Scrub. On St. Vincent some uncultivable
slopes near the coastlines were covered with a
degraded dry scrub woodland; cactus scrub
and bush (not mentioned by Beard) probably
occupied the driest coastal sites. These for-
mations probably formed most of the original


tree cover in the dry-climate Gre dinee is-
lands.

Littoral Woodland. Very little re-
mained of the dry evergreen Littoral Wood-
land formation in St. Vincent and the
Grenadines. Consisting of seagrape, button
mangrove, manchined, and other typical
species, it presumably occupied a thin strip
along the coastlines in former times.

Swamp. There were some small
mangrove swamps, chiefly in the southern part
of St. Vincent and in the Grenadines. These
contained the usual red mangrove, black man-
grove, white mangrove, and button mangrove.
Pterocarpus freshwater swamp does not occur
in St. Vincent and the Grenadines.



1.2.5 Natural Hazards

The Caribbean -- one of the most
disaster-prone areas of the world -- is exposed
to hurricanes and their associated storm
surges and wave action, earthquakes and
earthquake-generated ocean wvaves
(tsunamis), volcanic eruptions, lai slides and
rockslides, flooding and droughts. Natural
hazards, as the term is used here, include all
these occasional short-term natural phenom-
ena which have the potential for negative im-
pacts on the physical, economic and social en-
vironment of an area (man-made and
technological disasters will not be considered
in this section). The islands of the Eastern
Caribbean are particularly vulnerable to natu-
ral hazards because of their small size and
their dependence on foreign revenues earned
from agriculture and tourism. St. Vincent and
the Grenadines has suffered a number of such
occurrences and is well acquainted with the
effects of all types of natural disasters.


VOLCANIC ACTIVITY

As mentioned in Section 1.2.2 above,
the Soufriere volcano on the northern end of
St. Vincent has erupted explosively many
times in the nation's history. In the 1902
eruptions 1,565 people were killed by a glow-
ing avalanche which swept down the slopes of










the volcano, and explosions continued for
some ten months after the initial outbursts. In
the 19"9 eruptions, although there were no
fatalities, there was extensive loss ef crops,
livestock and property; over 14,000 persons
were evacuated from the northern half of the
island.

A submarine volcano, called "Kick
'em Jenny", located 160 meters below sea
level about seven kilometers north of
Grenada, is one of the most active volcanos in
the Lesser Antilles. It has erupted at least
nine times this century, and some scientists
believe it may emerge above sea level during
its next major eruption. The last eruption oc-
curred in early 1990. Seismic activity in the
area is being monitored by scientists in
Trinidad.


EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMIS

The location of St. Vincent and the
Grenadines near the Caribbean Plate margin
makes the islands vulnerable to considerable
seismic activity. In addition, earthquakes are
frequently produced on St. Vincent proper by
the volcanic activity of Soutriere. No major
faults or folds have been reported by previous
geological investigations of St. Vincent, which
suggests that no major tectonic disturbances,
other than the volcanic ones, have occurred on
the island.

Seismic activity at Mt. Soufriere is
monitored by a network of sensors located at
Wallibou, Owia, Belmont, Fort Charlotte, and
the summit of the volcano. These stations
transmit measurements directly to the seismic
!boratories of the Seismic Research Unit in
Trinidad, where all data processing and inter-
pretation is done. GSVG also maintains a
small Soufriere Monitoring Unit within the
Department of Agriculture to keep watch on
the level of volcanic activity. The Unit has re-
cently prepared a draft Volcanic Emergency
Plan (Robertson, 1989a, 1989b).

Seismic activity caused by plate
movements, faulting, and volcanic eruptions
has the potential to generate seismic sea
waves, or tsunamis, which can be very de-
structive to coastal areas in the region. Given


the proximity of the Kick 'em Jenny under-
water volcano, tsunamis pose a particular
threat to the Grenadine islands and the south-
ern coast of St. Vincent.


HURRICANES AND OTHER STORMS

Tropical storms and hurricanes are
prevalent in the Eastern Caribbean during the
June through October hurricane season. The
earliest recorded hurricane in St. Vincent and
the Grenadines occurred in 1780 and the most
recent (Hurricane Allen) in 1980; other tropi-
cal storms and hurricanes have struck the is-
lands in 1819, 1830, 1886, 1897, 1898, 1921 and
1967 (Birdsey, et al., 1986). Hurricane Allen
caused extensive damage to beaches, agricul-
ture, housing and general infrastructure, in-
cluding the then new deepwater port in
Kingstown. Significant damage has also been
done by tropical storms such as those which
occurred in 1983 and 1986.

Although high winds are the most
distinctive feature of hurricanes, usually the
most damaging winds affect a very sn.all ra-
dius (as small as 20 miles) of the entire storm
system. On the other hand, torrential rains
can be experienced from one edge to the
other of a 300 mile diameter storm, and ten
inch rains from well-developed tropical storms
are not unusual. Therefore, unless a storm
has very strong winds and the center passes
directly over an island, much of the damage
will be from the direct and indirect effects of
flooding. In order of decreasing impact, the
major causes of damage from most hurricanes
can be ranked as follows: flooding from
rainfall, coastal flooding and damage from
storm waves, landslides, and -- lastly -- winds.

Floods may cause property damage,
severe erosion and even the loss of life during
natural events such as rainstorms and hurri-
canes. Floods can be the result of downslope
rainwater run-off, especially over paved or
deforested areas, and/or seawater driven in-
land by above-normal tides and surges. Addi-
tionally, storm surges caused by reduced at-
mospheric pressure during hurricanes can be
augmented by wind-driven waves, swells, and
spray.









The extent of the problem associated
with inland flooding in a particular area is de-
pendent on the amount of rainfall, the slope
of the land, the porosity of the soils, and the
size and shape of the river basin through
which the water will eventually flow. Dam-
ages from inland flooding include: water
damage to normally dry property; physical
damages from the force of the waters and as-
sociated mud, silts and rocks; biochemical and
physiological damage due to the introduction
of large volumes of freshwater to the
nearshore marine ecosystems; and destruction
of sea life from overloading with silt and nu-
trients washed from the land.


LANDSLIDES AND ROCKSLIDES

Because of its steep topography and
the common occurrence of unconsolidated py-
roclastic rocks, slope instability leading to
landslides and slumping is a major problem in
St. Vincent (Talbot, 1983), and unstable
slopes tend to be the rule rather than the ex-
ception. It can be expected that many roads
would be significantly impacted by landslides
during heavy rainfall and storms.

Generally, landslides are localized
events and depend on the type of soil, the an-
gle of repose and the steepness of the slope at
the site. Landslides occur when the forces of
gravity exceed the strength of the forces
holding soil material together, resulting in a
mass of soil being pulled downward. A sec-
ondary effect of flooding on steep slopes cov-
ered with clay-rich soils is the increased ten-
dency for landslides to occur. Water in soils
contributes to increased landslide risk because
the weight of the water is an added stress on
the soil miss that is also being lubricated by
the water molecules.


TRENDS AFFECTING FUTURE RISKS
FROM NATURAL HAZARDS

The continuing urbanization of ex-
isting towns and villages, as well as the devel-
opment of new communities -- all of which
require modifications to the natural landscape
-- could easily increase the risk of damage


from natural hazards such as flooding and
landslides. Such modifications may include:

the construction of higher den-
sity, high-cost structures (like
hotels and condominiums)
closer to the shoreline or in
flood plains;

removal of mangrove trees
along the shore which buffer sea
wave and wind energy as well as
help to maintain balanced nutri-
ent levels in adjacent waters by
absorbing nutrients in run-off;

filling of salt ponds and swamps
which absorb energy and sedi-
ments of out-flowing surface
waters as well as buffer in-
coming storm surges and waves;

offshore dredging to eliminate
sandbars and shallows which
normally absorb sea wave en-
ergy and prevent inland damage;

deforestation of inland water-
sheds, including loss of ground
cover such as decayed leaves or
understory vegetation and the
decomposition of subterranean
root systems of former plants;

road building and paving.

Population growth and increased em-
phasis on tourism will promote growth of the
major towns of SVG which are all located in
the coastal areas of the country. Problems as-
sociated with high population densities, insuf-
ficient community planning, and inadequate
infrastructural support have been identified
and linked to potential environmental impacts
resulting from specific natural hazards.

Enlarged populations in towns would
place more people at risk from both inland
and coastal flooding. Steep slopes and river
banks which have been denuded of trees pro-
mote rapid rain run-off, causing an increased
risk of flooding and facilitating the occurrence
of landslides. Additionally, deforestation to
accommodate agriculture and development










increases the silt load carried by surface run-
off into rivers and streams and out to sea.

Construction and waste disposal
practices of human settlements along the
banks of the major rivers of St. Vincent have
produced blockages of the river channels, in-
creasing flood risk and damages in these
areas. Blockages result from poorly situated
roads and levees; undersized bridges, culverts,
and drains; and trash dumped in river chan-
nels.

The continuing removal of sand from
the beaches and dunes of St. Vincent and the
Grenadines for construction purposes has sig-
nificantly reduced the country's sand buffers
to storm waves and tides, thereby increasing
their destructive impacts on the shoreline. The
problems with sand mining are localized, but
severe enough to war. ant serious attention.
Beach sand mining and its negative environ-
mental implications are likely to continue,
unless alternative sources of fine aggregate
are made available at affordable prices and,
simultaneously, the Beach Protection Law is
enforced.



1.2.6 Local Implications of Global
Environmental Change

It is becoming increasingly obvious
that multiple feedback interactions are taking
place between human activities and the state
of the environment everywhere (Clark, W.,
1989). For example, there is growing concern
that human-induced changes in concentrations
of carbon dioxide and other so-called
"greenhouse gases" can cause significant
warming of the atmosphere, with consequent
climatic changes. Resulting changes in tem-
perature and precipitation distribution could
threaten natural ecosystems as well as agri-
cultural production and could trigger a
worldwide rise in sca level.

Such changes would pose particularly
severe challenges for developing nations like
St. Vincent and the Grenadines. In the
Caribbean region, critical ecosystems such as
coral reefs and mangrove swamps would be
seriously damaged if the sea level rises so fast


they cannot compensate. Global warming
would increase sea-surface water tempera-
tures, and may cause changes in the strength,
frequency and paths of hurricanes and an ex-
tension of the hurricane season. Beaches vital
to the tourism industry, such as St. Vincent's
already eroding south coast beaches, are also
at risk.

Some studies suggest that the sea
level rise due only to climatic effects will be on
the order of 2-3 cm per decade in the
Caribbean region (Maul, 1988), but others in-
dicate that it may be larger and not necessarily
linear. This may seem like a trivial change,
but one rule of thumb states that a one cen-
timeter sea level rise will generally result in a
one meter shoreline retreat (Gable,
1987/1988). At a conservative rate of 2-3
centimeters rise per decade, within the next 40
years St. Vincent and the Grenadines could
therefore expect to lose some 8-12 meters (26-
40 feet) of beach width in areas where sea
level change is due solely to climate.

At this time many if not most experts
believe that some global warming will occur,
but there is a great deal of uncertainty about
the rate and magnitude of warming and its
effects on sea level. In the face of such un-
certainty, most experts recommend that gov-
ernments should adopt a flexible, adaptive
strategy for coping with the expected effects of
climate changes. This is easiest to implement
in planning for the construction or renovation
of infrastructure such as roads, buildings, and
coastal facilities.

In the case of older infrastructure
(which would have to be replaced in any
event), the best and cheapest response may be
to do nothing and accept the loss of the
structures, provided that they can be rebuilt in
an alternative location. Where existing, eco-
nomically vital infrastructure is threatened
and no alternative location exists, such as
certain sections of the coastal road and some
coastal villages, an immediate defensive re-
sponse would be justified provided it is cost-
effective and environmentally sound.

In other cases, especially where in-
frastrtcture has not yet been built, measures
to adapt to the warming trend should be taken









only if such steps have good prospects of
yielding benefits even without a climate
change. If the predicted climate changes do
occur, then the measures taken, of course, will
yield a much greater benefit.



1.3 SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONTEXT

1.3.1 Demographics: Trends In
Population Size, Distribution
and Density


POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS

St. Vincent's first census in 1844
recorded a national population of 27,248. Be-
ginning in 1851, St. Vincent held censuses
every ten years until 1931, except for the
decade beginning in 1901 (see Figure 1.3(1)
and Table 1.3(1)). These statistics enable the
reader to examine changes in SVG population
data over five specific periods of time (see
also Bouvier, 1984 and CARICOM, 1987).

(1) 1844-1881. This was a period of
relatively rapid population growth; in 1881
total population was 40,548, representing an
average increase of about 1.1 percent per
year. After emancipation, large numbers of
former slaves chose to emigrate almost as
soon as they gained freedom. In order to off-
set the labor shortage created by this wave of
emigration, between 1841 and 1882 over 6,000
free and indentured workers were brought to
the Colony -- other West Africans, Por-
tuguese, East Indians, and poor whites from
Barbados (Rubenstein, 1987). Birth rates for
this period were high, about 46 per thousand;
death rates were also high, at 24 per thousand.

(2) 1881-1911. Population growth
during this time was negligible, remaining
between 41,000 and 44,000 because of heavy
emigration. Population loss also occurred be-
cause of the closely-spaced disasters of 1898
(hurricane) and 1902 (volcanic eruption). The
1898 hurricane resulted in the death of an es-
timated 300 persons, while 2,000 lost their
lives in the 1902 eruption of La Soufriere vol-
cano.(Bouvier, 1984). Furthermore, many
Vincentian laborers were attracted to Panama


to work on the French attempt to build a
canal (Rubenstein, 1987). Birth rates declined
somewhat to 39 per thousand.

(3) 1911-1931. These years marked
the beginning of a trend of steady population
growth. Population increased from 41,877 in
1911 to 47,961 in 193i. This growth was
fueled by a decline in the death rate to 16 per
thousand, while birth rates remained high; at
the same time, emigration decreased from a
rate of 94 percent of the natural increase over
the previous thirty years to a rate of 62 per-
cent of the increase (CARICOM, 1987).
However, one source (Bouvier, 1984) differs
somewhat with these figures, stating that
death rates in 1920-25 were 19.3 and that net
migration was particularlyy high, between 1921
and 1931, about 570 persons per year".

(4) 1931-1960. Very rapid growth
was the hallmark of this period, with the total
population going from 47,961 in 1931 to
79,948 in 1960. The birth rate increased over
these years from 38.7 per thousand in 1946 to
49.4 in 1960. The 1960 rate is one of the high-
est ever recorded in the Eastern Caribbean
and may, in fact, have surpassed 50 per thou-
sand in the mid-1950's. Mortality levels re-
mained at the 15 per thousand level according
to Bouvier (1984); however, CARICOM
(1987) states that during this time, death rates
were 9/1,000. During the 1930's and 1940's
out-migration slowed from the rates of the
1920's to about 200 per year, although it in-
creased substantially after World War Two. If
a relatively high level of emigration had not
continued, the 1946 population may well have
been over 80,000 rather than the actual 61,780
counted (Bouvier, 1984).

(5) 1960-Present. After 1955, the
very rapid growth rate of the previous three
decades appears to have slowed substantially,
at least for the first decade and a half. In
1970, the national population was 86,314, only
a little more than 6,000 greater than it had
been in 1960. This represented a growth rate
of about 0.8 percent (Bouvier, 1984). By 1970,
birth rates had fallen to 35.7 per thousand
from their 1960 high of 49.4. Death rates had
also declined from 15.0 to 8.3. In absolute
numbers, 36,565 births and 9,164 deaths were
recorded over these ten years.














120,000- 0 BOUVIER, 1984
O GSVG ADJUSTED CENSUS FIGURE A

A GSVG ESTIMATE


100,000 -




0

N 80,000 0



o 0
1-1 /
< 60,000 0





40,000 0-e
/0



2 0 ,0 0 0 4 1 1 1 1 1
WO LI 0 0 0 O'


YEAR


Figure 1.3(1). St. Vincent and the Grenadines national population curve, 1844-1989
(sources: Bouvier, 1984; CARICOM, 1987; GSVG, 1989b).











Table 1.3(1). St. Vincent and the Grenadines national population, 1844- 1989.


These data imply that emigration was
occurring at higher rates than ever before
(Bouvier, 1984). Emigration in the 1960's was
estimated at about 24 per thousand per year.
Between 1960 and 1970, 21,000 more people
left St. Vincent and the Grenadines than
moved to the islands. Emigration at this level
was fueled maily by economic necessity --
Vincentians leaving in search of jobs else-
where. Many moved to larger neighboring
islands, such as Trinidad and Tobago, or to
more developed countries in the hope of
finding employment (CARICOM, 1987).

Birth rates continued to fall in the
1970's and 1980's, reaching 31.0 per thousand
in 1980 and 23.4 per thousand in 1987
(Department of Family Planning Statistics,
1990). Crude death rates dropped to 7.3 per
thousand by 1980; infant mortality in 1979 was
39 per thousand births in infants under one
year of age (CARICOM, 1987). Net migra-
tion during the 1970's was estimated at about
1,000 per year, mostly young adults, and


slightly more women thar men (Bouvier,
1984).

The 1980 census initially showed a
total population of 97,845, but this was later
revised upward by the Government's Statisti-
cal Office to 102,000. As of February 1990,
estimates from the Statistical Office report a
SVG national population of 113,000 (pers.
comm., K. Israel, Family Planning Adminis-
trator, Min. of Health, Feb., 1990). If f.hese
figures are approximately correct, then the
country may have entered a new phase of
rapid population growth. Another census is
scheduled for 1990; the results of this exercise
will have extremely important implications for
future environmental planning efforts in the
nation (see also Section 9.4 of the Pi ofile).


POPULATION AGE STRUCTURE

As shown by the population-age
pyramid in Figure 1.3(2), in 1980 the popula-


YEAR NUMBER

1844 27,248
1851 30,128
1861 31,755
1871 35,688
1881 40,548
1891 41,054
1911 41,877
1921 44,447
1931 47,961
1946 61,780
1950 67,120 *
1955 76,050 *
1960 79,948
1970 86,314
1980 102,000 *
1989 113,000*

Indicates estimated number.

Sources: Bouvier, 1984; CARICOM, 1987; GSVG, 1989b.









tion of St. Vincent and Crenadines was a very
young one; indeed, this has historically been
the case. In 1980, the median age was about
16.5, up slightly from the extremely low figure
of 14.5 in 1970. The reasons for this low me-
dian age (among the lowest in the world) are
dual: continued high fertility levels and the
emigration of large numbers of young adults
(Bouvier, 1984). In 1980, 44 percent of the
population was under 15, while only 6 percent
was over 65 (Wirt, 1986).


POPULATION DENSITY

The main island of St. Vincent is ex-
tremely mountainous with a total of 133
square miles in land area. Using the most re-
cent population estimate of 113,000 (GOSV
estimate, Statistical Office, 1989) for the en-
tire country, and subtracting the estimated
population of the Grenadines (9,000), this re-
sults in a population density for St. Vincent of
782 persons per square mile. This figure


places St. Vincent in close competition with,
and probably slightly ahead of, Grenada for
the dubious honor or the most densely popu-
lated of the OECS countries. However, this
figure is somewhat misleading since a large
portion of the island is essentially inaccessible
and uninhabitable due to its topography. The
relative density is significantly higher in the
less steep areas along the coasts, with the area
of greatest population concentration in
Kingstown and its environs, reflecting the
movement of Vincentians from small rural
settlements to the area offering relatively
more employment opportunities. Many small
villages can be found in the low-lying coastal
areas of both the leeward and windward sides
of the island.

The land area, population, and den-
sities of the Grenadine Islands are displayed
in Table 1.3(2).


Table 1.3(2). Population densities for the Grenadine Islands of St. Vincent.


ISLAND AREA POPULATION DENSITY

Bequia 7 mi2 4,420 671/mi2
Mustique 2 mi2 1,290 645/mi2
Canouan 3 mi2 1,832 610/mi2
Mayreau 1 mi2 170 170/mi2

Con.L!ned:
- Union
- Prune(Palm)* 3.5 mi2 1,900
- Petit St. Vincent*

* Both Prune (Palm) Island and Petit St. Vincent are primarily resort islands with
very few permanent residents.

Source: GSVG, 1989c.











75+
70-74 Males Females
65-69
60-64
55-59
50-54
45-49
40-44
35-39
30-34
25-29
20-24


10-14 x
5-9


0-4 1 1 1
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9



1970 1980


Figure 1.3(2). St. Vincent and the Grenadines national population age-sex
structure (source: Bouvier, 1984).


BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF OUT-
MIGRATION

Although the 1980's have seen birth
rates drop from 31.5 per thousand in 1982 to
23.4 per thousand in 1987, St. Vincent and the
Grenadines still faces the prospect of a degree
of population growth which will place great


demands on the economy and the Govern-
ment's ability to provide services. Current out-
migration stands at about 1,000 per year; this
rate of emigration has played an important
part in slowing what would have been an even
more rapid population growth rate had it not
occurred.









1.3.2 National Economy and Development Trends


OVERVIEW


The economy of St. Vincent and the
Grenadines is similar to its sister OECS states,
where the primary characteristics are openness
and dependency on outside influences. The
SVG economy is still rather small, producing
annual per capital incomes among the lowest in
the Eastern Caribbean. However, despite its
small size, the economy has shown steady growth
over the past decade, as measured by the in-
crease in Gross Domestic Product, illustrated for
1980 through 1987 by Figure 1.3(3).



350


250-


S150-


50
80 81 82 83 84 85 85 87
YEAR

-- Co=tat $0 -,-- Current $EC

Figure 1.3(3). Gross Domestic Product, 1980 1987
(both constant 1977 and current EC$),
adapted from GSVG, 1989d.


Other characteristics of the SVG economy are:

an unusually vigorous manufacturing
sector;

a dominant agricultural sector with
major export markets in both Euro-
pean and CARICOM countries;

a fast-growing tourist sector with
major significance for the Grenadine
Islands;

a growing foreign debt;

high costs for transportation on, off
and among the islands;

expensive energy systems, given
small scale and import costs;

parallel economic systems,
representing (i) the traditional sub-
sistence economy and (ii) the export-
oriented cash economy.


A special feature of the SVG economy
is the marked differences between the economic
and social systems of the main island of St.
Vincent and the satellite islands of the
Grenadines. Although other island systems in
the Caribbean display differences when sub-
components are compared, few embody the
contrasts of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, i.e.,
the predominantly agricultural, 'pre-tourism"
model of St. Vincent and the world-class enclave
and yachting-based tourism economy of the
Grenadines.

A major limitation in comparing the two
is the fact that there are few data available which
distinguish between economic activity in the
Grenadines and on the main island of St.
Vincent. This means that many of the rather
stark difference s which might otherwise be ap-
parent are lost when data from the two areas are
casually merged.











THE DANGER OF AVERAGES


In the Eastern Caribbean context, the
economy of St. Vincent and the Grenadines
might be termed "pre-modern" (McElroy and
deAlbuquerque, 1989). The pre-modern
designation, however, is potentially a very
positive factor for the country because it means
that many of the crucial choices about future
development paths have not been already
foreclosed, as they have been in the U.S. Virgin
Islands, for example. Furthermore, although
cash incomes are relatively low, they have been
advancing steadily over the past few years, as
shown in Figure 1.3(4).

The same conditions, however, do not
prevail to the same extent in the Grenadines,
which are (relative to their total land area of 16.5
square miles and their population of
approximately 9,000 people) already intensively
involved with primarily three styles of tourism:
cruiseship visits, bareboat and crewed charter
yachts, and world-class enclave resorts.


2400"

S2000



1200-


YEAR
Cnmrud SEC -A- OzTqt $EC


Figure 1.3(4). Growth in per capital income, St. Vincent
and the Grenadines, adapted from
GSVG, 1989d.


Most of the economic analysis in the St. Vincent CEP uses aggregate data for St.
Vincent and the Grenadines, in which the differences between the two areas -- and
the unique tourism dependency (and associated Impacts) of the Grenadines -- are
lost. This problem is evident in the most recent development plans prepared by
Government (GSVG, 1986b and 1987), which do not deal substantively with differen-
tial strategies for the Grenadines and for St. Vincent. For purposes of environmental
planning, it is important for GSVG to tabulate, publish and plan on the basis of disag-
gregated data, which allows full appreciation of the special character of each sub-
system. In the broadest sense, the ecosystems of each of the islands of the country
are unique, and it is important to preserve this diversity for data analysis, planning,
and development control pu poses.













Agric

Industrial

Trade & Other

Tran/Comm

Govt Srvcs


90%-

80% -

70% -

60%

50% -

40%-

30%-

20%-

10%-

0%-


Figure 1.3(5). Economic contribution by sector, adapted from GSVG, 1989d.


INDUSTRIAL SECTOR

According to National Accounts data
published by the Ministry of Finance and Plan-
ning, the economy of St. Vincent and the
Grenadines is diversified and relatively stable, as
is illustrated in Figure 1.3(5).

In comparison with other Eastern
Caribbean states, SVG has a moderately large
industrial sector, comprising manufacturing,
electricity and water, construction, and mining
and quarrying. This is especially evident in view
of the small size of the total economy (i.e., per
capital income around EC$3,000 per year).
Manufacturing has doubled and utilities have
quadrupled in the past decade. It should be
noted, however, that manufacturing still accounts


for less than 20 percent of GDP. Nevertheless,
with a relatively significant industrial base, it will
be increasingly important for St. Vincent and the
Grenadines to enforce procedures which moni-
tor potential sources of industrial pollution to
avoid irreversible problems in the future.



AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

Agriculture is very important to the
country, and it is a sector which has gone
through a variety of changes during the past
decade. Figure 1.3(6) provides an overview of
major agricultural exports in St. Vincent and the
Grenadines for the period 1983 through 1987.


100%=-


1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987
YEAR


N
N N
N

r
A-





o0
oo










140


120-

100-


80-

60-

40-

20-

r%


8I
83


8
84


=I I Arrowroot & Others M Banana/PlaitaIn


87


Year


= Ground Provisions


Figure 1.3(6). Major classes of agricultural exports, adapted from GSVG, 1989b.


The most significant factor influencing
the sector has been the large increase in banana
production, representing a response to high
prices in protected British markets. The effect
of expanding banana production throughout the
Windward Islands has been not only increased
agricultural exports and revenues for these is-
lands but also increasingly significant environ-
mental problems, discussed in more detail in
Section 3.

A second factor influencing the agri-
cultural sector in recent years has been the
"boom and bust" character of agricultural export
marketing to CARICOM countries, Trinidad in
particular. On the production side, the remark-
able growth in root crops, shown in Figure
1.3(6), is paralleled on the export side by the
growth and subsequent drop-off in exports to
Trinidad, shown ri Figure 1.3(7).


110 -
100.
90

80
70

40
10 -


1913 1984


1085
Year


1086 1987


Caromn Exports Triade

Figure 1.3(7). Exports to CARICOM, adapted from
GSVG, 1989b.


.. .. .


ww










A final occurrence marking develop-
ment of the agricultural sector in recent years
has been the abandonment of a scheme to rein-
troduce sugar production, proposed as a major
new source of export earnings. Apparently the
instability of the world sugar market, combined
with the uncertainties associated with the re-
gion's access to U.S. markets, high costs of pro-
duction in St. Vincent, and perpetual operating
problems at the mill, was sufficient to finally put
the proposal to rest. Most of these circum-
stances reflect similar problems associated with
sugar cultivation in St. Vincent in the nineteenth
century -- which could serve to remind planners
that an important reason for focusing on envi-
ronmental issues is to learn from past mistakes
by studying earlier conditions for clues to the vi-
ability of proposed future options.


TOURISM SECTOR


Although some of the figures reported
by Government from different sources are
difficult to reconcile, all the data aie in
agreement on the direction and general
significance of the growth in tourism. Other
implications of tourism growth are discussed in
Section 7. The most important point to bear in
mind, however, is that the impact of tourism is
felt almost entirely in the Grenadines. In fact,
there is some indication that because of the
curtailment of cruiseship visits to Kingstown,
actual tourism impacts may have substantially
diminished in St. Vincent proper, while
accelerating in the Grenadine Islands. At the
same time, a number of groups in the
Grenadines have expressed concern that
cruiseships are overwhelming some of the
smaller islands.


TRADE AND FOREIGN DEBT


In addition to expansion of the manu-
facturing sector in recent years, tourism overall
has continued to grow rapidly, although its con-
tribution to the economy remains relatively small
-- probably about 10 percent of GDP.

Figure 1.3(8) illustrates the rapid recent
increase in tourists, as reported by the
Caribbean Tourism Organization (formerly the
Tourism Research Center).


YEAR


Figure 1.3(8). SVG stay-over visitors, adapted
from CTO, 1989.


For all of its relative vigor and diversity,
the economy of St. Vincent and the Grenadines
is still unable to approach a balance in
merchandise trade. Figure 1.3(9) displays
graphically the persistence of the deficit in visible
trade -- in spite of the value of bananas and root
crops in recent years.


300
250
200


50

0 T
0O B6 82 86 84 85 86 87
YEAR

-- Exprt -- Hport

Figure 1.3(9). SVG balance of trade, adapted
from GSVG, 1989d.


A simple trade deficit is relatively
harmless, however, if it is financed out of other
sources of invisible trade, such as remittances
from abroad and components of the tourist










trade. Unfortunately, that does not appear to be
the case in St. Vincent and the Grenadines, as
illustrated by Figure 1.3(10), which displays the
rate of increasing foreign-held debt.


90.0


70.0-


o 50.0
O.O
30.0

in n


78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 84 B7
YEAR


Figure 1.3(10). St. Vincent and the Grenadines'
foreign-held debt, adapted from
World Bank, 1989.



It's wortu noting that virtually all of the
country's foreign debt is held by public institu-
tions, rather than private banks. Nevertheless, a
debt this large is worrisome, unless it is simply
keeping up with inflation. That is, for a given
level of foreign debt, policy makers (and credi-
tors) need not worry excessively if the growth in
debt simply maintains parity w ith the growth in
the overall economy. This imp', s that in spite
of the growth in debt, the overa' economy is
able to maintain debt service with a constant,
rather than a growing portion of economic per-
formance.

Figure 1.3(11) shows that debt is grow-
ing as a proportion of GDP -- substantially. As
discussed in McElroy and deAlbuquerque
(1990), "traditional debt-to-GDP and debt ser-
vice ratios may be poor predictors of credit
worthiness [for OECS states].' Basically, the
authors suggest that the extreme openness of
their economies, plus poor or inelastic revenue
collection mechanisms, make OECS states much
more prone to defaulting on foreign debt than
has been assumed in the past.


32 ,


S24X

22X


z O l BI 2 83 54 85 89 87
YEAR


Rgure 1.3(11).


SVG debt as a percent of GDP,
adapted from World Bank, 1989
and GSVG, 1989d.


The implications of these trends in St.
Vincent and the Grenadines is that future eco-
nomic policy must devote more attention to re-
ducing the rate of growth of foreign-held debt
and to increasing the foreign exchange earnings
(i.e., the efficiency) of investments. This will
probably result in increased pressure for tourism
developments and export manufacturing as well
as higher returns from export agriculture. All
three options tend to increase risks to the envi-
ronment.

In summary, development priorities for
St. Vincent and the Grenadines will be driven by
the problem of managing high levels of foreign
debt, while stimulating foreign exchange earn-
ings from tourism, agriculture and manufactur-
ing. An important boost to these efforts can be
accomplished by adding elements of nature-
based tourism on the main island of St. Vincent,
:n addition to the more traditional Caribbean
tourism experiences offered by the Grenadines.


THE "GREENING" OF ECONOMICS

In the area of environmental manage-
ment, the role of economics traditionally has
been diagnostic, scene-setting, and identification
of dollars to pay for expensive infrastructure pro-
grams. Most of the prescriptive elements of en-
vironmental policies are usually dealt with within


i mL .........










natural resource sectors such as agriculture or
forestry. But that's now changing.

In the spring of 1990, two major confer-
ences, sponsored by the President of the United
States and the Prime Minister of Norway,
specifically invited ministers of finance to discuss
environmental topics. As the Economist maga-
zine (5 May, 1990) noted,

Environment policies that take no heed of
economics will backfire; but so will eco-
nomic policies that ignore the environment.

Nowhere is this more evident than in the Eastern
Caribbean in general and St. Vincent and the
Grenadines specifically.

Progressive environmental policies are
most likely to achieve their goals in a cost-effec-
tive manner if they use economic mechanisms
such as taxes and control of pricing for non-mar-
ket goods (e.g., in St. Vincent: water, electricity
and other utilities). Regulations and direct sub-
sidies are demonstrably less effective than eco-
nomic tools which control prices to consumers.

It is most important that governments
eliminate all subsidies for the exploitation of
scar ze natural resources. Although this is easy
to say, it sometimes clashes strongly with funda-
mental political issues, such as government-fi-
nanced housing schemes where a subsidy is used
to support the conversion of prime agricultural
land into housing tracts. Another traditional
subsidy with usually negative environmental con-
sequences is the construction of farm-to-market
roads. In contrast, however, taxes on scarce nat-
ural resources and energy can serve the dual
goals of revenue generation while ensuring that
the prices of such goods more fully reflect the
full costs to society.

There are many opportunities for East-
ern Caribbean governments to explore the
elimination of environmentally-harmful "sub-
sidies" or the adoption of creative fiscal dis-
incentives to protect the environment. For
example:

Are timber tax and depletion poli-
cies designed to encourage wise cul-
tivation and harvesting of exotic va-
rieties and sustainable silviculture


practices for utility grades of
lumber?

Do agricultural support programs
encourage and/or enforce environ-
mentally sound farming and soil
conservation practices?

It is important for St. Vincent and the
Grenadines to explore more ways for economics
and the environment to work together creatively.


ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL GAINS AND
LOSSES

77he discussion which follows in this section is
summarized and adapted from Repetto, 1989 and
Repetto, et al., 1989.1


The System of National Accounts
(SNA) presently used by virtually all nations is
seriously flawed in its treatment of natural re-
sources and the environment. National income
accounts treat assets such as buildings and
equipment as productive capital whose value de-
preciates over time as they perform valuable
work for the economy. Natural resources, on the
other hand, are treated as free "gifts of nature" --
not as productive assets whose value must also
be depreciated as they are used up.

In other words, a country could conceiv-
ably exhaust its mineral resources, cut down its
forests, pollute its water supplies, exterminate its
wildlife, and over-utilize its fisheries, but still its
measured income would not be directly affected
as those assets disappeared. In the long term,
such a situation is economically unrealistic for
any country but is especially so for low-income,
developing nations which are typically the most
directly dependent on their natural resource
base for employment, revenues, and foreign ex-
change. In effect, such nations are presently
using an accounting system which basically dis-
regards their principal assets.

Governments need to recognize that
natural resources make important contributions
to long-term economic productivity and should
be considered as economic assets whose value
lies not in their investment cost but in the poten-
tial income they can generate. Any definition of









income should include the notion of sustainabil- is maintained and replaced, future consumption
ity. For example, business income is defined as possibilities will inevitably decline.
the maximum amount a firm could pay out in
current dividends without reducing its net worth. In resource-dependent countries, the
This income concept encompasses not only cur- failure to extend this depreciation concept to the
rent earnings but also changes in asset positions, capital stock embodied in natural resources seri-
i.e., capital gains are a source of income, and ously distorts economic evaluations and projec-
capital losses are a reduction in income. Depre- tions. Natural resources depreciate in the same
ciation reflects the fact that unless capital stock sense that a machine depreciates; for example,
soils depreciate a:, they are eroded or as their




ECONOMICS AS IF TOMORROW MATTERED

As countries like St. Vincent and the Grenadines begin to utilize economic measures
which take account of natural resource assets, a more effective analysis of economic policy --
one which reflects long-term sustainability -- will become increasingly possible. Donor
support should be sought for an Eastern Caribbean regional project to study the concept of
depreciation for natural resource assets. Most Eastern Caribbean nations share the same
basic set of economically valuable natural resources, and the methodology could be applied
to all. The process (perhaps using methods similar to those in the WRI report by Repetto, et
a/., 1989) would involve the development of a common framework for: (a) determining which
resources are the most important to measure and how the measurement could best be
employed; (b) collection of basic field data on existing stocks of natural resources (in many
islands within the region such data may not be available for some resources); (c) constructing
physical accounts for each chosen resource; (d) determining a monetary value for each
resource -- the specific methodology will vary depending on the resource being measured;
and (e) integrating these assets into national macro-economic evaluations.

It is important to start work ncN on an accounting methodology so that appropriate
data can be collected. This process is admittedly not as straightforward as it may sound
since many important resources may have no market value, and most of the Eastern
Caribbean nations do not yet have an extensive natural resources data base. This situation is
changing, however. Recent years have seen many advances in the development of tech-
niques to determine surrogate values for non-market resources (Barbier and Burgess, 1989;
Barbier, et al., 1989; Cambers, 1989; Dixon, 1989). Several Eastern Caribbean nations either
have begun compiling resource data (e.g., the CIDA Forestry Project in St. Vincent) or will
soon need to do so for resource management reasons; it would be advantageous to collect
these data in such a way that they could be integrated into a revised national accounting
system.

As the physical impact of economic activities impinge on natural systems in the Eastern
Caribbean, environmental damage gradually becomes more visible and Is less easily Ignored
by the political leadership. In the search for a solution to this problem, attention is drawn to a
1989 OECS/NRMP-sponsored simulation model for sustainable development for Montserrat
that attempted to assess the extent to which current resource use exceeds the rate of re-
newal, producing a declining asset base. The OECS/NRMP group, having tested the model
first in Montserrat, is currently implementing a now testing phase with the Economic Devel-
opment Unit of Dominica. One aspect of this involves finding new ways of valuing natural re-
sources for use in improved national Income accounting systems.










fertility is diminished, since they can produce
only at higher costs or lower yields.

The present United Nations system of
national accounts fosters a fictitious dichotomy
between the economy and "the environment" that
in effect seems to encourage policymakers to ig-
nore or destroy the latter in the name of eco-
nomic development. The system equates uti-
lization of valuable assets with the generation of
income and promotes the notion that rapid eco-
nomic growth can be achieved and sustained
while depleting the resource base.

Since most countries follow the system
of national accounts established by the United
Nations Statistical Office, at least in regard to
their core accounts, that office is presently con-
sidering revisions to the SNA, although it has


made a preliminary decision to forego funda-
mental changes. Instead, countries are being en-
couraged to implement balance sheet accounts
for reproducible and non-reproducible tangible
assets and to link those to conventional national
income measures through "satellite accounts".
Although there are other problems with this ap-
proach (discussed at length in Repetto, 1989),
one of the most serious is limited expertise and
manpower resources. Given the overriding pri-
ority to calculate the traditional income accounts
and the perceived difficulty of calculating these
ancillary accounts, it is very unlikely that many
developing countries will actually do so. This
means that unless fundamental changes are
made, economists and politicians will continue to
use the present system whereby Gross Domestic
Product is viewed as the prime measure of each
country's economic performance..










LIST OF TABLES


Table No. Page


1.2(1) Temperatures as recorded at the Department of Agriculture,
Kingstown, 1983-1987. 8
1.2(2) Mature or "climax" vegetational formations in the Lesser Antilles. 16
1 ,(3) Lesser Antillean life zones (Holdridge's terminology),
showing rough correspondence with Beard's formations. 18
1.3(1) St. Vincent and the Grenadines national population, 1844-1989. 27
1.3(2) Population densities for the Grenadine Islands of St. Vincent. 28

2.1(1) Area by forest land class, St. Vincent, i 84. 40
2.1(2) Proportion of forest land by watershed region and elevation,
St. Vincent, 1984. 41
2.2(1) Distribution of amphibian and reptile species,
St. Vincent and the Grenadines. 51
2.2(2) Seabird species reported to breed in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. 52
2.2(3) Non-marine mammal species occurring in St. Vincent
and the Grenadines. 53
2.2(4) Biodiversity summary: St. Vincent and the Grenadines. 54
2.2(5) Flowering plants and ferns endemic to St. Vincent and the Grenadines. 54
2.2(6) Wildlife reserves declared under the 1987 Wildlife Protection Act
In St. Vincent and the Grenadines 58

3.1(1) Contribution of agriculture sector to GDP (millions EC$). 68
3.1(2) Exports of selected commodities, 1983-1989. 69
3.1(3) Estir .,isd production of selected agricultural commodities, 1984-1987. 70
3.1(4) Number of holdings and area of vegetable crop harvested. 71
3.1(5) Production, farm gate prices and value of output at current producer
prices for selected fruit commodities in SVG, 1984-1987. 72
3.1 (6) Number of livestock on all holdings. 73
3.1(7) Distribution of livestock by size of livestock holding. 73
3.1(8) Area (acres) of land holdings by land use, 1985-1986. 74
3.1(9) St. Vincent land reform program. 75

4.1(1) Monthly rainfall for selected areas, 1987. 82
4.1(2) Water supply sources on St. Vincent (production figures). 87

5.1(1) Summary of data on sea turtle populations in St. Vincent
and the Grenadines. 99

6.1(1) Energy sources for selected small islands. 118
6.3(1) Profile of DEVCO's industrial estates, December 1989. 129
6.3(2) Water pollution and waste loads from industrial effluents,
St. Vincent, 1982. 131
6.3(3) St. Vincent and the Grenadines industrial waste disposal and
its impact on the coast and sea. 132

8.1(1) Biocides imported into St. Vincent during 1988 in quantities close to
or exceeding 2,000 pounds (1 ton). 146








9.1(1) Area by land classes, St. Vincent, 1984. 161
9.1(2) Area of St. Vincent by land use/land tenure, 1980. 162
9.2(1) Designated wildlife reserves, as per the 1987 Wildlife Protection Act,
St. Vincent and the Grenadines. 166
9.2(2) Proposed forest reserves/wildlife reserves and recreation areas
Identified by CIDA Forestry Project. 167
9.3(1) Population projections, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, 1980-2030. 177

10.3(1) GSVG agencies with resource management functions,
with principal legislation and responsibilities. 186-188









LIST OF FIGURES


Figure No. Page


1.1 (1) Country location map, St. Vincent and the Grenadines. 2
1.1(2) Location map for the Island of St. Vincent. 4
1.2(1) Caribbean Plate boundaries. 10
1.2(2) Surficlal geology of St. Vincent. 12
1.2(3) Topography of St. Vincent. 13
1.2(4) Major soil types In St. Vincent. 15
1.2(5) Natural vegetation In St. Vincent, circa 1949. 19
1.2(6) Potential natural vegetation In St. Vincent,
based on environmental factors. 20
1.3(1) St. Vincent and the Grenadines national population curve, 1844-1989. 26
1.3(2) St. Vincent and the Grenadines national population age-sex structure. 29
1.3(3) Gross domestic product, 1980-1987. 30
1.3(4) Growth In per capital Income, St. Vincent and the Grenadines. 31
1.3(5) Economic contribution by sector. 32
1.3(6) Major classes of agricultural exports. 33
1.3(7) Exports to CARICOM. 33
1.3(8) St. Vincent and the Grenadines stay-over visitors. 34
1.3(9) St. Vincent and the Grenadines balance of trade. 34
1.3(10) St. Vincent and the Grenadines foreign-held debt. 35
1.3(11) St. Vincent and the Grenadines debt as a percent of GDP. 35

2.1(1) Distribution of natural vegetation In St. Vincent, circa 1983. 42
2.1(2) Forest plantations surveyed by forestry team in 1984. 43
2.1(3) Land above 1,000 feet In elevation. 46
2.2(1) Distribution map of the St. Vincent Parrot and boundaries
of the Parrot Reserve. 56
2.2(2a) Location of designated wildlife reserves, St. Vincent. 59
2.2(2h) Location of designated wildlife reserves, St. Vincent Grenadines. 60

4.1(1) Rainfall Isohyetal map and river drainage network in St. Vincent. 83
4.1(2) Watersheds In St. Vincent. 84
4.1 (3) Location of existing water supply Intakes and hydropower sites. 86
4.1(4) Major catchment areas in St. Vincent. 88

5.1(1) Cc:ast:&! helf area, 100 m contour, St. Vincent and the Grenadines. 94
8.1 (2a) Major coastal and marine habitats, St. Vincent. 96
5.1 (2b) Major coastal and marine habitats, St. Vincent Grenadines. 97
5.({1a) Sanry beaches and dunes In St. Vincent, plus quarries and sites
severely damaged by sand removal. 104
5.2(1 b) Sandy beaches and dunes In the St. Vincent Grenadines. 105
5.2(2) Condition of rayis In the Tobago Cays, St. Vincent Grenadines. 109
5.2(3a) Location of des!gnatod marine conservation areas in St. Vincent,
as established by the Fisheries Act and Regulations. 111
5.2(3b) Location of designated marine conservation areas In the Grenadines,
as established by the Fisheries Act and Regulations. 112










6.1(1) Energy resources, St. Vincent. 119
6.2(1a) Major transportation Infrastructure In St. Vincent. 126
6.2(1 b) Major transportation Infrastructure In the Grenadines. 127

7.1(1) Tourism growth. 135
7.1(2) First tourist entries, St. Vincent vs. the Grenadines. 135
7.1(3) Entries by air, St. Vincent vs. the Grenadines. 136
7.1(4) Changes in sea arrivals, St. Vincent vs. the Grenadines. 136

8.1 (1 a) Location of some pollution problems In St. Vincent. 142
8.1(1 b) Location of some pollution problems in the Grenadines. 143

9.1(1) St. Vincent land use In 1976, as Identified In the 1976
St. Vincent National Development Plan. 156
9.1(2) St. Vincent land use capability, as Identified In the 1976
St. Vincent National Development Plan. 157
9.2(1 a) Location of designated or proposed protected areas In St. Vincent. 164
9.2(1 b) Location of designated or proposed protected areas
In the Grenadines. 165
9.2(2) Proposed Soufriere National Park, St. Vincent. 170
9.2(3) Proposed Canouan National Park. 171
9.2(4) Designated or proposed protected areas In Union Island and
Prune Island. 172
9.3(1) St. Vincent and the Grenadines national population
projections, 1980-2030. 177
9.3(2) St. Vincent and the Grenadines national labor force projections. 178










ABBREVIATIONS USED IN
THE COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE


acre
biochemical oxygen demand
centimem or
Eastern Caribbean Dollar
foot
gram
gallons per day
hectare
Inch
kilogram
kilograms of oil equivalent
kilometer
knot


kV
kW
kWh
1/8
Ib
m
MGD
ml
ML
mm
MW
TOE
usS


kilovolt
kilowatt
kilowatt-hour
liter per second
pound
meter
million gallons per day
mile
millions of liters
milimeter
megawatt
Tonnes of Oil Equivalent
American Dollar
(US$1.00 = EC$2.67)


CONVERSION CO-EFFICIENTS BETWEEN IMPERIAL MEASURES AND WEIGHTS
AND THE METRIC SYSTEM


LENGTH


AREA


VOLUME


WEIGHT


TEMPERATURE


IMPERIAL

1 inch
0.39370 inch
1 yard
1.094 yards
1 mile
0.6214 mile
1 fathom (6 feet)

1 square foot
10.6 square feet
1 acre
2.471 acres
1 square mile
0.386 square mile

1 pint
1.76 pints
1 gallon
0.220 gallon
1 cubic foot
35.31 cubic feet

1 pound
2.205 pounds
1 long ton
1 short ton
0.9842 long ton
1.102322 short ton

Conversion F to C:
subtract 32 and
divide by 1.8


METRIC SYSTEM

2.540 centimetres
1 centimetre
0.91440 metre
1 metre
1.609 kilometres
1 kilometre
1.829 metres

0,093 square metre
1 square metre
0.405 hectare
1 hectare
2.59 square kilometres
1 square kilometre

0.568 litre
1 litre
4.546 litres
1 lItre
0.028 cubic metre
1 cubic metre

0.4536 kilogram
1 kilogram
1016 kilograms
907.185 kilograms
1 tonne (1,000 kilograms)
1 tonne (1,000 kilograms)


Conversion C to F:
multiply by 1.8 and
add 32


ac
BOD
cm
EC$
ft
9
apd
ha
in
kg
kgoe
km
kn









SECTION 2 FORESTS AND WILDLIFE

2.1 FORESTS AND FORESTRY

2.1.1 Overview


NATURAL FORESTS

In 1984, Birdsey, et al. (1986), for a
project funded by USAID, carried out a forest
inventory of St. Vincent which was based on
photo-interpretation and field sampling.
These authors calculated at that time that
32,385 acres or 38 percent of St. Vincent was
still covered by forests (Table 2.1(1)); most of
this remaining forested area was located on
crown lands. Primary forest (including rain
forests and moist forests) comprised only 13
percent of the forested area (five percent of
the total land), while palm forests and dwarf
or elfin forests made up 21 percent of the
forested area (eight percent of the total land).

Taken together, the secondary
forests, dry scrub forests and plantation
forests made up 67 percent of the forested
area and 25 percent of the total land. Almost
6,900 acres or eight percent of the total land
area had been deforested by the 1979 eruption
of Soufriere. The western side of the island,
and particularly the northwest, contained the
highest proportion of forest (Table 2.1(2)).

(N.B. Forests which are designated as
"primary" or "mature" have never been dis-
turbed, or at least have been undisturbed for
such a long time that they show no recogniz-
able signs of disturbance. "Secondary" or
"successional" forests are those that have been
disturbed by man or natural forces in the rel-
atively recent past and are now in the process
of recovery.)

It is often repeated (by authors
quoting Beard, 1949) that St. Vincent's re-
maining primary forests are found mostly in
the upper parts of the Colonarie, Cumberland
and Buccament Valleys, where they occupy
small pockets between 1,100 and 1,500 feet el-
evation in areas too steep for cultivation.
However, agricultural clearings have clearly
caused much damage to the remnant primary
forests, and Lambert (1983) found that the


rain forest which Beard had recorded in the
Colonarie Valley remained only in small, dis-
turbed patches. He felt that primary forest
occurred only in the Wallibou, upper Cum-
berland, and upper Buccament Valleys.
Lambert observed, however, that Hurricane
Allen, which devastated the forests of St.
Lucia in 1980, seems to have had minimal ef-
fect on the rain forest in St. Vincent.

The Grenadines have been severely
damaged ecologically by the clearing of vege-
tation and overgrazing of livestock which are
turned loose during the dry season to wander
at will. Their vegetation now consists mostly
of badly degraded secondary dry scrub and
brush. Only Bequia has significant areas of
dry woodlands. These have been disturbed by
grazing and cut over for fuelwood, charcoal
and wood for boat-building. On Canouan,
Beard (1949) mentioned a single small stand
of tall, fairly mature dry forest at a 800-900
foot elevation on the lee side of Mt. Royal
which may still exist, However, Government
has intentions to lease these lands.

Birdsey, et al (1986) have stated that
the primary forest may be the most valuable
natural resource on St. Vincent. Besides
helping to maintain the island ecosystem and
sustain water supplies in the water catch-
ments, natural forests have the potential to
attract tourists and provide habitat for endan-
gered species. The secondary forests also play
a similar role, and many of them are located
adjacent to or within the primary forests,
forming a single ecosystem.

The actual coverage and distribution
of forests and other vegetation types in St.
Vincent and the Grenadines today is very
poorly known. Talbot (1983) produced a
sketch map of actual (as opposed to potential
or "climax") vegetation on St. Vincent (Figure
2.1(1)). This map differed from an earlier
version (Beard, 1949; see Figure 1.2(5))











Table 2.1(1). Area by land class, St. Vincent, 1984.


Land Class


Hectares


Timberland
Young secondary forest
Secondary forest
Primary forest
Plantation forest


TOTAL

Other forest land
Palm forest
Dwarf forest
Dry Scrub forest


TOTAL


Non-stocked land*

Non-forest land


TOTAL LAND**


3,570
3,706
1,632
34


8,942


1,734
952
1,326


4,012

2,754

18,292


34,000


Area


Percent


10.5
10.9
4.8
0.1


26.3


53.8


100.0


* Land deforested due to natural disturbance and not currently
in Non-forest use.
** Values for total land from Nicholls, 1982.

Source: Birdsey, etal., 1986.


mainly in showing the extent of vegetation
disturbance due to the 1979 eruption of
Soufriere. Unfortunately, in the course of
their study Birdsey, et al. (1986) did not pre-
pare a new forest cover map; the map of for-
est types on page 6 of their report is adapted
from Beard's 1949 study.


TIMBERLAND

Timberland is defined as those areas
of forest which can be used for production of
timber, including primary, young secondary
and secondary natural forests and plantation
forests according to the classification scheme
of Birdsey, et al. (1986) -- see Table 2.1(1).








































Young secondary forests are located in more
accessible areas and tend to be associated
with recent agricultural activity, but most of
their usable timber volume resides in the oc-
casional large remnant trees. Secondary
forests are mainly found in very rugged, unin-
habited terrain and are probably the result of
natural disturbances; while they contain rea-
sonably large volumes of timber, physical dif-
ficulties would make log extraction extremely
difficult and/or damaging to the environment.
The primary forests contain the largest vol-
umes of timber, but they also are found in
very rugged terrain with no roads or easy ac-
cess. It therefore appears that the remaining
natural forests offer poor opportunities for
production forestry; the best hope for in-
creasing timber production is through in-
creasing the acreage of plantation forests.

GSVG's Forestry Division maintains
small parcels attached to several of the plan-
tation forests where it raises Christmas trees
for sale. The Division also sell trees for lum-


ber, posts and fuelwood; these constitute its
major activities in forest utilization. There is
only a small primary forest industry in the
country which supplies about 15 percent of the
lumber demand via a few pit sawyers using
"Alaskan mills," chain saws adapted for cutting
logs into slabs (Prins, 1986a). The secondary
forest industry sector is well-developed, pro-
ducing mainly custom-built furniture and
other finished or semi-finished products,
mostly from imported (and some local)
lumber.


PLANTATION FORESTS

To date, reforestation efforts in St.
Vincent and the Grenadines have mostly been
carried out in deforested upper watersheds for
the purpose of soil and water conservation,
with the production of poles, posts and timber
being of secondary importance. Three species
make up most of the plantations: blue mahoe
(Hibiscus elatus) accounts for 70 percent of


Tab!e 2.1(2). Proportion of forest land by watershed region and elevation,
St. Vincent, 1984.*



Watershed Elevation**
Region
Below 305 m Above 305 m

(percent)

Northwest 56 94
Southwest 36 69
Southeast 4 32
Northeast 6 83



Forest land includes Non-stocked land; watershed regions are
outlined in Figure 3.1(1).
** The 305 m used here equates to the proclamation that
reserves are all crown lands above 1,000 ft.

Source: Birdsey, etal., 1986.










6110 6105


ST. VINCENT/NATURAL VEGETATION

FF ^ MONTANE (Elfin woodland and
palm brake)

vvvvv VOLCANIC PIONEER
v VEGETATION

A TROPICAL RAIN


| SECONDARY RAiN
FOREST

DRY SCRUB
WOODLANDS

-- CULTIVATED





-4
+4
-4
+4









-13*15' 600













000





-13 10' 0


61*15'


61 10'


61'05'


Figures 2.1 (1). Distribution of natural vegetation in St. Vincent, circa 1983 (source: Talbot, 1983).


13*20'.



















13*15'




















13010'


0 1 .? 4 4 5, Km
0 1 2 3 Hles


61;10'


61 05'









the acreage, mahogany spp. (Swietenia
macrophylla and Swietenia mahagoni) and
Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea) together
make up 18 percent, and about six other
species make up the remainder. Annual
planting rates have ranged from 5 to 10 acres
per year, depending on the availability of land
and funding (Prins, 1986a).

About one-third of the plantations
were established in 1968-1969, and another 40
percent during the period 1980-1982 through
the USAID/CDB Basic Human Needs Pro-
gram (Figure 2.1(2)). Although it had been
reported by a former Chief Agricultural Offi-
cer that about 285 acres of plantations existed
in 1982, the 1984 forest inventory could locate
records for only 125 acres, making assessment
of production difficult.

A U.S. Peace Corps Volunteer
forester recently prepared stand data cards for
a total of 283 acres of plantation forests; sev-
eral small plantations have not been included
because of their inaccessibility or their failure
to become established. Sixty or seventy per-
cent of the plantations have never had silvi-
cultural treatments (like thinning) for timber
stand improvement. Hence, the majority of
the plantations are not reaching or maintain-
ing their optimal growth potential. With
proper management, the established planta-
tions could be much more productive (pers.
comm., W. Metz, U.S. Peace Corps Volun-
teer, April, 1990).


FOREST RESERVES

St. Vincent's first forest reserve,
King's Hill, was set aside by Order No. 5 of
1791. This 55 acre tract of dry forest should in
theory have been protected from cutting ever
since, but Beard (1949) observed that the law
had been "more honored in the breach than in
the observance'. Nevertheless, this reserve
still exists in a relatively intact state and has
been the focus of recent discussions by a local
community group interested in seeing the site
developed as a potential park site with facili-
ties for researchers.


Miles
0 1 2


Figure 2.1(2). Forest plantations sur-
veyed by forestry team in
1984 (source: Birdsey,
et a/., 1986).

KEY TO SITES SURVEYED:
Y Young Man's Valley H Hermitage
G Governmment House V Vermont
M Montreal C Camden Park



In 1946 Proclamation 12 declared as
a reserve "... all that area of crown land lying
upon the central main ridge and mountainous
interior of the island to the south of the
Wallibou and Rabacca Rivers, such Forest
Reserve to be entitled the Central Reserve".
Much of this area is still intact, at least in the
higher elevations and north of an east-west
line through the peaks of Petit Bonhomme










and Grand Bonhomme to the vicinity of
Dalaway, which forms the approximate south-
ern boundary of the Parrot Preserve. South of
this line the forest has been more fragmented
and disturbed, and only the highest and steep-
est areas may still be intact.

The Crown Lands Forest Reserve
(Declaration) Order of 1948 set aside as
forest reserves the following areas:

(1) "The Soufriere Forest Reserve
comprising all that area of crown lands
lying upon Soufriere Mountain, its
foothills and the mountainous interior
of the parishes of St. David and
Charlotte lying to the north of the
Waillibou and Rabacca Dry Rivers."
The upper parts of this area have not
been greatly disturbed by man, but are
subject to natural disturbance from the
eruptions of Soufriere.

(2) "The Mesopotamia Forest Re-
serve comprising all that area of crown
lands lying upon the catchment area of
the Yombou River, including the peaks
of Petit St. Andrew and Grand
Bonhomme, in the parish of St.
George." Most of this area, with the
exception of the very highest and
steepest portions, has been cleared for
agriculture.

(3) "The Colonarie Forest Re-
serve comprising all that area of crown
lands lying upon the catchment area of
the Colonarie River, including the peak
of Petit Bonhomme and its foothills in
the parish of Charlotte." Parts of the
upper watersheds are still forested, but
agricultural clearings are rapidly ex-
panding.

The UK's Directorate of Overseas
Surveys (D.O.S.) 1:50,000 scale map shows
seven "reserves" (presumably forest reserves)
on Union Island but does not show their
boundaries. Jackson, et al. (1986) indicated
that at least portions of several reserves in the
western part of the island, and an area on the
eastern slopes of Mt. Olympus, had dry
woodlands worthy of protection (see Section
9).


According to Butler (1988), his dis-
cussions with the Chief Surveyor indicated
that the St. Vincent reserves "... were all sur-
veyed (many of them in the mid-1960's) and
the survey plans of several were located and
lodged in the surveys office of the Ministry of
Trade, Industry and Agriculture" (sic). If this
was indeed done, the survey plans appear to
have been lost, and in any case the reserve
boundaries have now become overgrown, and
encroachment by agriculture is common. A
more recent survey was completed by the
Forestry Division in October 1990 (pers.
commun., CEP National Committee, 1990).



2.1.2 Problems and Issues


SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF WOOD
PRODUCTS

St. Vincent and the Grenadines im-
ports about EC$8 million worth of round-
wood, lumber and other wood products each
year, representing 50 percent of the round-
wood demand, 85 percent of the lumber de-
mand, and 75 percent of the demand for other
wood products. These imports are approxi-
mately five percent of the value of all the na-
tion's imported goods (Prins, 1986a). Prins
calculates that with proper management, at
the end of a decade of forest development, it
would be well within the capacity of managed
natural forests, agro-forestry operations and
plantation forests to reduce wood imports by
about 50 percent.

Based on an estimate of 40 percent of
households which use charcoal exclusively for
domestic cooking, and another 30 to 40 per-
cent which use it along with other fuels, Prias
concludes that this level of consumption can at
least be maintained without detrimental ef-
fects if forest management is successfully in-
troduced.


THE CROWN LANDS PROBLEM

An official proclamation of August
22, 1912, reserves all crown lands in St.
Vincent above 1,000 feet in elevation to pro-









tect them from any act that would be prej-
udicial to forest conservation (Birdsey, et al.,
1986); this area has been estimated at about
forty percent of the total I ind ?rea of the is-
land (Figure 2.1(3)). Although Butler (1988)
states that neither the Legal Affairs nor
Crown Lands Officers have been able to pro-
duce a copy of the document, a copy has re-
cently been located in Barbados and is on file
at the Forestry Division and the CIDA
Forestry Project Office.

A major problem is that the legal
definition of crown lands in various acts is
very vague. For example, the Crown Lands
Ordinance of 1906 gives the following defini-
tion: "'Crown Land' means land vested in the
Crown, or vested in the Governor for the
public uses of the Colony, but shall not in-
clude lands acquired under the Land Settle-
ment Ordinance." In the absence of survey
maps and deeds, such a definition is virtually
useless for purposes of land management.


DEFORESTATION

It i known that most of the area be-
low the 1,000 foot elevation is under perma-
nent agriculture, as well as many valleys at
higher altitudes -- this is where the best land is
found, and it has been deforested for cen-
turies. Squatters on crown lands have caused
a significant but unquantified amount of
deforestation in the natural forests. More
rapid upslope expansion of agriculture at the
expense of the forested areas has been occur-
ring in recent years, especially for banana
cultivation which is currently driven by the de-
sire to plant as much acreage as possible be-
fore British price supports are withdrawn or
reduced in 1992.

Both the intensity and extent of de-
forestation for agriculture are thought to be
far greater in the windward forests. One
"guesstimate" puts the rate of forest loss in
just six watersheds (Montreal, Vermont,
Cumberland, Silver Spoon, Colonarie, and
Perseverance) at 60 to 70 acres/year, based
on field observations (pers. comm., W. Metz,
U.S. Peace Corps Volunteer, April, 1990).
There is no information on the island-wide
rate of deforestation, but other major area of


deforestation are in Landers, Greiggs,
Montreal and the Upper Colonarie Valleys
(pers. comm., J. Poyer, GSVG Forest Officer,
April, 1990).

Fuelwood cutting and charcoal pro-
duction may be a serious problem, but it has
not been quantified to date (see Section 6.1
for further discussion of the fuelwood prob-
lem). A report funded by the CDB (Deutsch
Forstinventur Service, 1983) stated that the
total annual demand for charcoal and fuel-
wood amounted to some 25,000 to 35,000
cubic meters of wood, but this figure seems to
be based on some guesswork (pers. comm., J.
Latham, Project Manager, CIDA Forestry
Project, April, 1990). According to Prins
(1986a), the main areas where illegal charcoal
burning takes place in the forest are in the
Buccament, Cumberland, Locust and
Colonarie Valleys, particularly the latter.
However, according to a Forest Officer, the
areas with the highest rate of fuelwood defor-
estation today are in Sandy Bay, Fancy, Rose
Bank and Richmond (pers. comm., J. Poyer,
GSVG Forest Officer, April, 1990).


LACK OF ENFORCEMENT AND
MANAGEMENT

Laws prohibiting the cultivation of
crown lands are not adequately enforced. The
Crown Lands Office reportedly leases, and in
some cases has even sold, crown lands above
the 1,000 foot elevation line to private individ-
uals (Butler, 1988). Other factors making it
difficult to manage crown lands and forest re-
serves are:

outdated forestry legislatiGe,

the fact that forest officers have
no powers of arrest;

the lack of surveys and demarca-
tion of boundaries on the ground;

the development of agricultural
feeder roads which open up new
areas to cultivation;

increasing size of the population;







61*15'


ST. VINCENT

ISLAND ABOVE
1000 ft. ELEVATION


1315' 13*15.

















-13*10' 13*10'



KINGSTOWN








0 1 2 3 M11es



Figure 2.1 (3). Land above 1,000 feet in elevation (source: Birdsey, etal., 1986).









shortage of man-power on the
ground, a result, in part, of poor
benefits for staff (e.g., salary);

lack of transportation for forest
officers;

the legal, political and social
problems associated with the
eviction of squatters from crown
lands.

To date there is no formal written
forest policy and no forest management plan.
Besides patrolling of forest reserves and some
reforestation of illegally cleared areas, little
actual management of forest reserves is cur-
rently practiced.


CIDA FORESTRY ASSISTANCE
PROGRAM

A five year (1989-1994) Can$4.5
million forestry assistance program, funded by
CIDA, is currently addressing many of these
problems. Some of the major components of
the CIDA project are:


(1) A National Forest Management
Plan will be prepared by the
CIDA project team, which will be
coordinated with the National
Forestry Action Plan to be pre-
pared within the next year by the
FAO Tropical Forestry Action
Plan Mission.

(2) The personnel employed by the
Forestry Division will be ex-
panded from the present 34 to
about 50.

(3) The project will assist in the reor-
ganization of the Forestry Divi-
sion, training of Forestry Division
personnel and building of a new
headquarters.

(4) The role of the Forestry Division
in watershed management will be
defined, and a watershed man-
agement plan for at least some of


the forest reserves will be pre-
pared. A social forestry pilot
project will be begun in the
Colonarie Valley which will at-
tempt to involve local people in
the management of this watershed
via silvicultural and agro-forestry
projects.

(5) An environmental education pro-
gram, with components for
schools and the general public, is
a large part of the project (see
also Section 9).

(6) Forest management policies and a
draft Forest Resource Conserva-
tion Act have been prepared. The
Forest Resource Conservation
Act is intended to replace the
Forests Ordinance, No. 25 of
1945. The new act greatly ex-
pands the powers of the Forestry
Division in forest conservation
and management. It contains a
Schedule which declares a
Cumberland Forest Reserve.

(7) CIDA will soon survey and
gazette the boundaries of the
forest reserves. At present, there
is a significant problem of squat-
ters encroaching on the reserves.

A new aerial photography mission is
also planned by CIDA as a separate project.
This effort will provide coverage of the entire
nation. The photographs will be used to pre-
pare maps of land use, forest cover and vege-
tation types, and to derive estimates of defor-
estation rates by comparison with earlier
photographs.



2.1.3 Policy Recommendations


FOREST MANAGEMENT

The highest priority and best use of
the few remaining mature or nearly mature
forest stands may well derive from conserving
a major portion of them for their potential as










a genetic reserve, for wildlife habitat, for wa-
tershed protection, for education, for scientific
research and for nature tourism development.
Plantation forests are more suited for the
production of forest products.


RESEARCH

The rationale for the current em-
phasis on exotic species in plantation forestry
needs to be examined. In St. Lucia, CIDA has
proposed that a review of Beard's (1949) clas-
sification of the indigenous forest be carried
out and that one or more indigenous and/or
exotic species, adapted to each ecological con-
dition, be identified, followed by estab-
lishment of small experimental plantations of
species within each ecological type. Research
efforts would be initiated which focus on the
most highly valued indigenous species, with a
view toward establishing silvicultural pre-
scriptions for these. A similar program in St.
Vincent would be of great interest.

Research to select the most appro-
priate silvicultural system needs to be con-
ducted with indigenous species in each of the
secondary forest types. The major alterna-
tives for tropical forest management are
plantations, shelterwood cuttings, secondary
forest management following natural distur-
br.nce or logging, enrichment plantings, and
agro-forestry with timber species.

Throughout the Caribbean region,
dry forests have been disturbed more than any
other type, and St. Vincent is no exception.
At the Virgin Islands Biosphere Reserve in St.
John, U.S. Virgin Islands, techniques are be-
ing developed for the restoration of degraded
dry forests. Similar research should be ap-
plied to the dry forests in the King's Hill For-
est Reserve and other areas, perhaps through
a cooperative agreement with the Virgin Is-
lands Biosphere Reserve.


FOREST CONSERVATION AND
DEVELOPMENT

To reduce and eventually halt for-
est cover loss, GSVG conservation and re-


source development policies should focus on
the need to:

(1) Prevent agricultural en-
croachment and the harvesting of
trees in specifically designated
"completely protected" forest
areas;

(2) Provide for carefully supervised
harvesting on the basis of ecologi-
cally sound, sustained yield man-
agement in other parts of forest
reserves, including some young
secondary natural forest areas and
plantations, which should be
zoned according to their most ap-
propriate use, e.g., "wildlife con-
servation", "sustained yield pro-
duction" or "exploitation/con-
version to plantation forest".

(3) Develop new plantations in areas
where they are appropriate, such
as on marginal farm lands and on
some degraded forest lands.

(4) Rigorously defend water catch-
ment areas against encroachment
and permit no land use other than
controlled forestry in such areas.

Specific recommendations to assist
in carrying out these general policy goals
include:

Experimentation with Agro-
forestry Techniques. Given the
high costs of plantation mainte-
nance and the continued infringe-
ment on protected natural forests
by illegal farming, additional pro-
jects in agro-forestry/social
forestry should be implemented if
the pilet project proposed for the
Colonarie Valley supports the
feasibility of these efforts. In such
projects, farmers interplant
agricultural crops with forest trees
on selected sites which are moni-
tored and evaluated.

Incentives fer the practice of pri-
vate forestry -- e.g., technical










assistance, tax credits -- need to
be studied, and legislation that will
strengthen the ability of Govern-
ment to protect and manage critical
land areas, including private
watersheds, is needed. In St.
Lucia, for example, the institution
of a levy on domestic water bills
to raise funds for the purchase
and maintenance of private
forested watersheds has been rec-
ommended. This is an innovative
proposal and could serve as a
model for the Eastern Caribbean
region.

A similar source of funds will need
to be identified in St. Vincent to finance pro-
tective measures such as the following:

(1) purchase of conservation ease-
ments (where the owner agrees
not to do certain things, e.g., to
forego building a road, cutting
trees, harvesting fuelwood);

(2) purchase of development rights;

(3) payment of a premium for im-
proved landscape/forest man-
agement, e.g., terracing of
damaged areas or reforestation;

(4) payment for a long-term lease of
watershed land needing protec-
tion;

(5) compensation to landowners for
down-zoning (reclassifying) land
as a restricted or no develop-
ment, protected area (which
might allow certain uses but not
others, by definition).

FUELWOOD

A more systematic evaluation of
fuelwood extraction rates is required in order
to identify specific areas in St. Vincent and the
Grenadines where continued harvesting for
this purpose poses a serious environmental
problem. Although conclusive documentation
is not presently available, it would appear that
fuelwood production may represent a high-


risk threat to forest resources. Obvious areas
of concern are the forest reserves as well as
primary watersheds where removal of ground
cover for any reason endangers key water sup-
plies.

Key management strategies should
focus on enforcement and monitoring (fcr ex-
ample, repeated monitoring of the charcoal
market to pinpoint production increases from
areas of critical concern). Also, the planning,
monitoring and quantifying of fuelwood har-
vesting may be sufficiently important to war-
rant the eventual creation of a fuelwood
forester post and/or a community/social
forester post within the Forestry Division.










2.2 BIODIVERSITY, ENDANG7CED
SPECIES AND WILDLiVE,

2.2.1 Overview


BIODIVERSITY

Plants. According to Davis, et al.
(1986), the best available information on the
floristics of St. Vincent and the Grenadines is
in a late nineteenth-century flora of these is-
lands (Anon., 1893). This source, which is
now very much outdated, lists about 490
genera and 1,150 species of flowering plants
and 163 species of ferns. These numbers
could ch uige significantly now that up-to-date
if'ornmii'n on the taxonomy and distribution
i, Vi:ccntian plants has recently become
.:iable with the completion of Richard
'-. ,,ard's six volume Flora of the Lesser
Antilles (Howard, 1974-89).

Invertebrates. Information on the
occurrence and distribution of most groups of
terrestrial invertebrates in St. Vincent and the
Grenadines is unavailable. However, the de-
capod crustace in fauna of these islands in-
cludes several species of freshwater shrimp
and freshwater or terrestrial crabs, some of
which are locally prized as food. Chace and
Hobbs (1969), in their review of West Indian
terrestrial crustacea, list only Atya innocous,
Macrobrachium carcinus, M. faustinum and M.
heterochirus as collected in St. Vincent and the
Grenadines, but there are other species which
occur here. In addition to the species men-
tioned above, Talbot (1983) lists two other
species of Atya, four other species of Macro-
brachium, the prawn Palaemon pandaliformis,
and the shrimp Micratya poeyi as likely to be
found in the freshwater streams. The Blue
Land Crab (Cardisoma guanhumi) is common
in wetlands near the sea, and other land crabs
(e.g., Gecarcinus sp.) are present as well as a
terrestrial Hermit Crab (Coenobita clypeatus).
Shore-living species such as Ghost Crabs and
Rock Crabs (family Grapsidae), considered
semi-terrestrial by Chace and Smith, are also
present. Most of these animals are widely
distributed in the Caribbean.

Fishes. Estuarine fishes such as
Mullet (Mugil), Mudfish (Centropomus), and


Shad (Alosa) probably occur in the lower
reaches of the large verss in St. Vincent.
The country's "fresh-\ Ater" fishes, comprising
several species of gobies, mountain mullets,
clingfish, etc., are not well studied. However,
the freshwater fish fauna of the Lesser An-
tilles is derived from only a few families --
Poeciliidae, Anguillidae, Gobiidae, Eleotridae,
Mugilidae, Gerridae, Centropomidae, and
Carangidae. Apparently there are no species
which occur exclusively in freshwater, i.e., all
the known species can move between fresh
and salt water, and many of them spawn at
sea. Some freshwater fishes, particularly the
mountain mullet (Agonostomus monticola)
and the tri-tri (Sicydium phlmieri), are a tra-
ditional West Indian food resource. The
latter is a goby whose young seasonally swarm
in river mouths to migrate upstream; they are
caught in fine-meshed nets and made into tri-
tri cakes, a local delicacy.

Excluding the freshwater fishes, the
remainder of the living terrestrial vertebrate
fauna of the country comprises about 125
species in the groups which follow below
(Maclean, et al., 1977; pers. comm., D, Corke,
Northeast London Polytechnic, 1990).

Amphibians. The Marine Toad
(Bufo marinus), two Tree Frogs
(Eleutherodactylus johnstonei and E. urichi
shrevei) and the Pond Frog (Leptodactylus
wagneri) are the only amphibian species
known to occur in the nation. The occurrence
on St. Vincent of the edible "Mountain
Chicken" frog (Leptodactylus fallax) was ap-
parently reported in error by Faaborg and
Arendt (1985); according to Johnson (1985) it
occurs only in Montserrat and Dominica.

Reptiles. Maclean, et al. (1977) re-
ported 12 species of reptiles (three gecko
lizards, two anole lizards, two ground lzards,
an iguana, a skink and three snakes) which
occur on St. Vincent. Four additional species
(three lizards and a tortoise) are known from
the St. Vincent Grenadines (Table 2.2(1)).
The list for herpetofauna as found in Faaborg
and Arendt (1985) should not be used as it is
mostly incorrect and displays species acci-
dentally transposed from a Montserrat list.
This accounts for the fact that Faaborg and
Arendt report (erroneously) numerous









Table 2.2(1). Distribution of amphibian and reptile species, St. Vincent and the Grenadines.


St. Vincent
Bufo marinus
Eleutherodactylus johnstonei
Beutherodactylus urichi
Leptodactylus wagneri
Ameiva ameiva (?7
Anolis griseus
Anolis trinitatus
GymnophthaJmus underwoodi
Hemidactylus mabouia
Iguana iguana
Mabuya mabouya
Sphaerodactylus vincenti
Thecadactylus rapicauda
Chironius vincenti
Corallus enydris
Mastigodryas bruesi
Eleutherodactylus martinicensis

Petit St. Vincent
Iguana iguana

Prune Island
Anolis aeneus

Union Island
Anolis aenbus
Ameiva ameiva
Iguana iguana
Corallus enydris
Mastigodryas bruesi


Tobago Cays
Anolis aeneus
Iguana iguana

Mavero (= Mavreau, Mayeau)
Ameiva ameiva
Anolis aeneus
Hemidactylus maboula
Mabuya mabouya

Catholic Island
Anolis aeneus

Canouan
Geochelone carbonaria
Amelva ameiva
Iguana Iguana
Bachia heteropus
Mabuya mabouya


Petit Canoutn
Anolis aeneus

Savan Island
Anolis aeneus
Iguana iguana

Petit Mustique
'Anolis aeneus
Iguana iguana

Mustique
Ameiva ameiva
Anolis aeneus
Iguana iguana
Corallus enydris
Mastigodryas bruesi



Baliceaux
Anolis aeneus

Battowia
Anolis aeneus
Iguana iguana

Quatre Island
Anolis aeneus
Iguana iguana
Corallus enydris
Mastigodryas bruesi

Bequia
Leptodactylus wagneri
Mastigodryas bruesi
Amelva ameiva
Anolils aeneus
Anolis richardi
Bachia heteropus
Hemidactylus maboula
Iguana Iguana
Mabuya mabouya
Thecadactylus rapicauda
Corallus enydris

Petit Bateau
Ameiva ameiva
Mabuya mabouya

Cabrnoli aeneu
Anolis aeneus


Source: Maclean, t a., 1977; pers. comm., Dr. David Corke, Senior Ecologist, Northeast London
Polytechnic, 1990.












Table 2.2(2). Seablrd species reported to breed in St. Vincent and the Grenadines.


Common Name


Scientific Name


Rea. Conserv. Priority


St. Vincent


Red-billed Tropicbird
Yellow-billed Tropicbird
Roseate Tern
Brown Noddy


Phaeton aethereus
Phaeton lepturus
Sterna dougalill
Anous stolidus


To bf monitored
No immediate concern
Special concern
No immediate concern


Grenada Grenadines/Sl. Vincent Grenadines


Audubon Shearwater (?)
Red-billed tropicbird
Magnificent Frigatebird
Masked Booby
Red-footed Booby
Brown Booby
Laughing Gull
Royal Tern
Roseate Tern
Bridled Tern
Sooty Tern
Brown Noddy


Puffinus Iherminleri
Phaeton aethereus
Fregata magnificens
Sula dactylatra
Sula sula
Sula leucogaster
Larus atricilla
Sterna maxima
Sterna dougallii
Sterna anaethetus
Sterna fuscata
Anous stolidus


Special concern
To be monitored
Special concern
Special concern
To be monitored
To be monitored
No immediate concern
To be monitored
Special concern
No immediate concern
No immediate concem
No immediate concern


(?) means breeding is unconfirmed.

Source: Halowyn and Norton, 1984.


species not cited by any other investigators,
including Maclean, et al., 1977 and D. Corke
(Northeast London Polytechnic, pers. comm.,
1990), who are generally in agreement.

Birds. Faaborg and Arendt (1985)
list a total of 95 species of breeding land birds
in St. Vincent and the Grenadines, with in-
formation on their status. Halewyn and
Norton (1984) reported that St. Vincent has
only four species of breeding seabirds and is
therefore relatively unimportant to this group;
however, the Grenadines, with at least 12
breeding species, are of major regional impor-
tance (Table 2.2(2)).


Mammals. There are fifteen extant,
non-marine species of native or naturalized
mammals which are found in the wild in St.
Vincent and the Grenadines. The mammal
fauaa (mostly consisting of native bats) is
shown in Table 2.2(3). Of the non-flying
mammals, only the extinct St. Vincent Rice
Rat is thought to be native to the country;, the
other species were introduced by either
Amerindian or European settlers.

Table 2.2(4) is a provisional and in-
complete summary of biodiversity information
for the country.











Table 2.2(3). Non-marine mammal species occurring In St. Vincent and the
Grenadines.


Bats:








Rice Rat:


Mongoose:

Rats:


Mice:

ODposum:

Armadillo:


Noctillo leporinus
Artlbeus jamaicensis
Ardops nichollsi
Brachyphylla cavernosum
Natalus stramineus
Tadarida brasiliensis
Molossus molossus
Monophyllus plethodon

Oryzomys victus (extinct St. Vincent endemic)

Dasyprocta agutl (Introduced)

Herpestes auropunctatus (introduced)

Rattus rattus (introduced)
Rattus norvegicus (introduced)

Mus musculus (introduced)

Didelphis marsuplalls (introduced)

Dasypus novemcinctus (introduced)


N.B. Faaborg ard Arendt list two (unspecified) species of extinct Oryzomyinl, but
do not Include the bat Monophyllus plethodon, which is listed by Johnson.
Butler lists the armadillo, which is not listed by any of the others.

Source: Faaborg and Arendt, 1985; Johnson, 1988; Butler, 1988; CEP National Committee, 1990.


ENDEMISM AND
THREATENED/ENDANGERED SPECIES

A Kew Garden report (Anon., 1893)
listed sixteen species of flowering plants and
four species of ferns (Table 2.2(5)) as endemic
to St. Vincent and the Grenadines, i.e., occur-
ring nowhere else in the world. Beard (1949)
listed 29 regionally endemic tree species which
occur in St. Vincent but listed :o single-island
endemic trees. No information on status is
available for any of these endemic or rare
plant species. Miller, et al. (1988) pointed out
that any native plant species restricted to the
dry forest habitat would probably be under
the greatest threat since that vegetation type is


the most disturbed. Spachea perforata, known
as the "Soufriere Plant of St. Vincent," has
been widely publicized as an all-but-extinct
endemic because the only known living speci-
men resides in the Kingstown Botanical Gar-
den. However, this species is now believed to
be an introduction from South America
(Howard; in Davis, et al., 1986).

No endemic invertebrates or fishes
have been described in St. Vincent and the
Grenadines. Johnson (1988) was unable to
find any sources of information on regional
endemism among invertebrates or freshwater
fishes or any information on the ecology and
status of these groups.











Table 2.2(4). Biodiversity summary: St. Vincent and the Grenadines.


Total Species


Species Endemic to:
Island GrouD/Reaion


RDB SPecies


Mammals
Birds
Reptiles
Amphibians
Fish
Invertebrates
Plants


15
95
16
4
N/A
N/A
1,150


3

N/A
N/A
12


N/A
N/A
N/A


RDB means IUCN Red Data Book of Endangered Species.
Parentheses Indicate known species extinctions since 1600.

Source: Johnson, 1988; Butler, 1988; pers. comm., Dr. David Corke, Senior Ecologist,
Northeast London Polytechnic, 1990; CEP National Committee, 1990.


Table 2.2(5). Flowering plants and ferns endemic to St. Vincent and the Grenadines.


Endemic Flowering Plants:

Trigynaea antillana
Mellosma herbertil
Calllandra guildingili
Psidium gulldinglanum
Gustavia antillana
Tibouchina cistoides
Begonia rotundifolia
Hoffmannia tubiflora
Malouetia retroflexa
Columnea speclosa
Peperomia cuneata
Peperomia vincentiana
Croton guildingli
Epidendrum vincentinum
Tillandsia megastachya
Spachea perforata


Endemic Ferns

Cyathea tenera
Pterls long/brachiata
Asplenlum godmani
Acrostichum smithll


Source: Anon., 1893, cited in Miller, etal., 1988.










None of the amphibian species is cur-
rently thought to be a single-island endemic or
a regional endemic. However, the frog E.
urichi shrevei, now thought to be an endemic
subspecies, may eventually turn out to be a
valid endemic species (Crombie; in Johnson,
1988).

Two St. Vincent species of lizards
(Anolis griseus and A. trinitatus) and a snake
(Chironius vincenti) are single-island en-
demics, and two other lizards
(Gymnophthalmus undetwoodi and
Sphaerodactylus vicenti) ,and a snake
(Masigodryas bruesi) are regional endemics.
No information on status is available for these
reptiles, except for Anolis griseus which is re-
ported to be "fairly common" in coastal areas
(Johnson, 1988).


Two St. Vincent land birds (the St.
Vincent Parrot, Amazona guildingii, and the
Whistling Warbler, Catharopeza bishop) are
single-island endemic species. There are en-
demic sub-species of the Rufous-throated or
St. Vincent Solitaire (Myadestes genibaris) and
the House Wren (Troglodytes aedon), and an
additional seven bird species which occur in
the nation (listed in Johnson, 1988) are en-
demic to the Lesser Antilles. The Tundra
Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus tundrius)
and the St. Vincent Solitaire are both listed in
the IUCN Red Data Book (King, 1978-79) as
endangered; the House When was also for-
merly listed as endangered but is not so listed
at present.


THE ST. VINCENT PARROT

The St. Vincent Parrot is one of four remaining species of Lesser Antillean parrots in the genus
Amazona (out of an original seven). Because it is a single-island endemic and has a very low
population which is under pressure, it is listed as an endangered species by the ICBP International Bird
Red Data Book and also in Appendix 1 of the Convention on International Trade in iEndangered
Species (CITES).

The St. Vincent Parrot at present has a small but apparently stable population of about 500
(Butler, 1988), concentrated in the upper watersheds of the Buccament, Colonarie and Cumberland
Rivers. The parrot is a bird of the forest canopy and is primarily found in undisturbed rain forest
habitats; its present range is shown in Figure 2.2(1). Butler (1988) provides the most up-to-date and
comprehensive information on the St. Vincent Parrot, including summaries of previous research, con-
servation efforts, legislation, present status, and public education programs. According to Butler, the
major threats to the continued existence of the parrot are: hurricanes, volcanic activity, hunting
(virtually ceased at present), the pet trade (now illegal but highly lucrative and therefore a continuing
threat), and habitat disturbance (deforestation for fuelwood and agriculture are the most serious
threats). Areas of principal concern at this time are the Congo, Jennings, and Perseverance Valleys,
Vermont, and Cumberland, all of which have high parrot concentrations and are threatened by illegal agri-
cultural activities.

In 1972 the Houston Zoo reported that a St. Vincent Parrot had been hatched in captivity for
the first time; however, only one more was successfully hatched by 1980, and the Zoo's captive breed-
ing program was discontinued. Another attempt at captive breeding at the Jersey Wildlife Preservation
Trust/Jersey Zoo has also been discontinued. Twenty-four captive parrots are maintained in an aviary
located at the Kingstown Botanic Gardens and run by the GSVG's Forestry Division with assistance
from World Wildlife Fund-US, the Jersey Zoo and the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust. There is
presently an on-going captive breeding project at the Botanic Gardens; five chicks were hatched and
successfully fledged as of 1990.










6115 6110 61 05


ST. VINCENT/PARROT RANGE AND RESERVE


PRESENT RANGE OF A. guildingii


61-10'


-1320'



















-1315'



















-13'10'


Figure 2.2(1). Distribution map of the St. Vincent Parrot and boundaries of the Parrot Reserve
(source: adapted from Butler, 1988).


DI1IEfI~


13*20



















13*15,



















13'10'















0 '2 3 Miles

61'05'


61-15'


61"15'


610
61.10,


61'05'









The status of the St. Vincent Parrot is
discussed below. The Whisting Warbler in-
habits forest understory, and, according to
Johnson (1988), its population is believed to
be sparse and apparently localized at lower
altitudes where forest and agricultural areas
meet, but common at moderate altitudes. A
field survey of the Whistling Warbler was car-
ried out from late June to mid-August, 1988
by four students from the University of East
Anglia with secondary studies on the St.
Vincent Solitaire and St. Vincent House Wren
(Univ. of East Anglia, 1988).

Population estimates from this survey
were not reported in the University of East
Anglia report, but preliminary analysis
indicated that the warbler was common in
primary rain forest, palm brake, and elfin
woodland; it was 'u-icommon in old growth
secondary forest ai'd absent from plantations.
The Rufous-throated Solitaire was common in
the palm brake and elfin woodland in the area
of Richmond Peak and fairly numerous in the
higher areas of primary rain forest. The
House Wren was abundant on the southwest
slopes of Soufriere and around Chateaubelair,
where it occurs in all habitats from coastal
banana plantations up to the lower limit of the
palm brake. The conclusion of this study was
that none of the three bird species is presently
endangered due to habitat destruction or to
any other cause.

There are no single-island endemic
mammals in the country, but three bats
(Ardops nichollsi, Brachyphylla cavemarum,
and Monophyllus plethodon) are regional en-
demics (Johnson, 1988). The IUCN Mammal
Red Data Book (Thornback and Jenkins,
1982) does not list any of the local species as
threatened.


WILDLIFE HUNTING SEASONS AND
PROTECTED AREA LEGISLATION

The Birds and Fish Protection Ordi-
nance passed in 1901 provided legislative
protection of all species of wild birds as well
as fish and lobsters. Absolute protection was
given to all seabirds, certain wading and
swamp birds, and ali land birds with the ex-
ception of doves, pigeons, chachalaca, quail,


peregrine falcon, and merlin. A closed season
provided partial protection for pigeons, doves,
ducks, and wading birds, as well as lobster and
sea turtles. It also authorized the Governor
General to designate any area as a sanctuary
affording year-round protection from hunting
for all species. Proclamations 43 of 1947 and
82 of 1950 declared Young's Island, King's
Hill, Government House Grounds and
Botanical Gardens, Milligan Cay, Pigeon Is-
land and Isle de Quatre to be bird sanctuaries.
However, none of these laws was enforced,
and in any case the low penalties prescribed
failed as a deterrent.

In 1987 the Wildlife Protection Act
(No. 16 of 1987) was passed; this law repealed
the Birds and Fish Protection Ordinance as
far as it pertains to wildlife covered under the
new act. This act provides for the appoint-
ment of a Chief Wildlife Protection Officer
who will he responsible for the management
of wildlife and the administration and en-
forcement of the Act. Until this officer is ap-
pointed, the Chief Forest Officer will have the
responsibility of carrying out these duties.
The Act provides for the establishment of a
number of wildlife reserves (in addition to the
forest reserves) in which all wildlife is pro-
tected year-round; these reserves ore listed in
Table 2.2(6) and displayed in Fi,. .e 2.2(2).
The Act also set aside as a Parrot Reserve an
area of 7,596 acres in a single, contiguous
parcel including the Upper Buccament Valley,
the Upper Cumberland River Valley, and the
Upper Colonarie River Valley-, a separate,
isolated parcel of some 3,690 acres lying to the
north and bounded by the peak of La
Soufriere was also included in the Reserve.

The 1987 Act provides absolute year-
round protection for four species of reptiles;
all seabirds; all wading birds except yellow
legs, snipe, sandpipers, plovers and ducks; ard
all land birds except doves, pigeons,
chachalaca and quail. The exempted species
as well as the opossum, agouti, armadillo, and
iguana may be hunted except during a dosed
season Th!' closed season for the birds is
from 1 Mar ch to 30 September; and for the
armadillo, opossum, agouti and iguana it is
from 1 February to 30 September. Bats, rats,
mice and mongoose are defined as "vermin"
and may be hunted at any time.











Table 2.2(6). Wildlife reserves declared under the 1987 Wildlife Protection Act
In St. Vincent and the Grenadines.


Name of Reserve

Young Island
King's Hill
Falls of Baleine
Govt. House Grounds
Milligan Cay
Pigeon (Ramler) Island
Isle de Qua're
All Awash Island
Catholic Island
Battowia Island
Catholic Rocks
Chateaubelair Islet
La Paz Island
Frigate Rock (Island?)
Petit Canouan
Sail Rock
Tobago Cays
Big Cay
West Cay
Petit St. Vincent
Prune (Palm) Wsiand
Savan Islands
Northern end of Bequla


Reserve Area

Entire Island
Boundaries set by Chief Wildlife Officer
Boundaries set by Chief Wildlife Officer
Including Botanical Gardens
Entire island
Entire island
Entire island
Entire island
Entire Island
Entire island
Entire island
Entire island
Entire island
Entire island
Entire island
Entire island
Entire island group
Entire island
Entire Island
Entire Island
Entire island
Entire Island group
Beyond "Industry Point"


Sources: Wildlife Protection Act, No. 16,1987; Butler, 1988.


The Act also provides for fines and
jail sentences for offenders, the issuance of
hunting licenses and import or export permits,
and special provisions for the management of
the St. Vincent Parrot.


2.2.2 Problems and Issues


THE WILDLIFE PROTECTION ACT

Unfortunately, parts of the 1987
Wildlife Protection Act contained several sig-
nificant errors. Schedule 1 has an error re-
lating to the boundaries for the Parrot Re-
serve. Schedule 2 designates some species for
absolute protection which are endemic to St.
Lucia and which do not occur in St. Vincent
and the Grenadines; it also omits others which
are endemic to this country and deserve pro-
tection. Schedule 3, which lists species that
may be hunted in season, also contains errors.








'lels, E1*10' ~105'


ST. VINCENT/WILDLIFE RESERVES


-13*20'



















-13*15'


.13*10'


61*15'


61*10'


13@20'



















13*15'




















13*10'















0 1 2 3 Mles

61*0s5
I


Figure 2.2(2a). Location of designated wildlife reserves, St. Vincent (source: Wildlife Protection Act, No. 16
of 1987). Numbers correspond to names of reserves In Table 2.2(6).


$1*1'


6*10'1


1*05'
610051











ST. VINCENT GRENADINES/WILDLIFE RESERVE


I
61015'

"S 18 BEQUIA


18


13 000


Petit Nevis C3
Quatre C

6


Battowia
10#
Baliceaux


8 -


MUSTIOUE


-12050'


Petit
Canouan


Petit Mustique C(


Savan j
**1 ,


1240'-


ea Tobago Cays
0


16


Sail I Rock


0 1 2 3 4 5 N.Miles


Petit St. Vincent
610251 t


6115'


Figure 2.2(2b). Location of designated wildlife reserves, St. Vincent Grenadines (source: WildIffe Protection Act,
No. 16 of 1987). Numbers correspond to names of reserves In Table 2.2(6;.


1250'-


-12040'


CANOUAN


11 :

MAYREAU


UNION ,

<^


21

Prune (Palm)

20










Butler (1988; see his section 8:2:1) made
recommendations for the correction cf
Schedules 1, 2 and 3 and for the clarification
of other language in the legislation; Schedules
1 and 2 were corrected in 1988.

There were fundamental problems
with the two separate areas comprising the
Parrot Reserve as originally defined in Sched-
ule 1 of the Act, including: land ownership
and land use conflicts; the difficulties and ex-
pense involved in demarcating a long bound-
ary which did not follow easily visible physical
features; and the fact that much of the area
set aside had no parrots in it, while at the
same time large areas of known parrot habitat
were excluded. Butler, as the Forestry Divi-
sion's consultant on the parrot project,
therefore recommended that the GSVG re-
define and gazette the boundaries of the
Parrot Reserve as an amendment to the origi-
nal legislation.

This redefined parrot reserve forms a
single contiguous unit of 10,870 acres with
easily identifiable boundaries which for the
most part are comprised of ridges and rivers.
With the exception of a few small parcels in
the Young Man's Valley area, the entire re-
serve is crown land. By almost entirely ex-
cluding areas under cultivation, it minimizes
conflict with farmers and at the same time
affords coverage to all the principal areas of
parrot habitat. !t also protects habitat for the
Whistling Warbler and gives maximum
protection to major watershed areas, including
the Cumberland and Colonarie Rivers which
are used for hydroelcctri: power generation.
Finally, the reserve lies entirely within the
proposed forest reserve which will act as a
buffer zone. The forest reserve is expected to
include all remaining forested crown lands as
well as extremely steep lands (Butler, 1988),
and its boundaries will be demarcated by the
CIDA forest management project.

The Act's definition of all species of
bats as "vermin" which can be hunted indis-
criminately is unfortunate. Several species of
native bats are insectivorous; such bats are
some of the most efficient predators of insects
and should be protected as an important form
of biological control which reduces the need
for chemical insecticides. Other species may


be important pollinators of the native flora,
including forest trees; even the frugivorous
species which are commonly classed as pests
can be important disseminators of plant seeds.


LOSS OF NATIVE WILDLIFE HABITAT

The primary negative impact of de-
velopment on all forms of wildlife in most
Caribbean islands appears to be habitat re-
duction via the conversion of forested wild-
lands to other habitat types and land uses. In
SVG, habitat and home range requirements
and minimum viable population sizes for most
species are as yet poorly known. The smell
land mass of the country means that any sys-
tem of parks and protected areas will consist
of small, probably isolated "islands" of more-
or-less "natural" habitat surrounded by a ma-
trix of more intensive land uses. If maintained
largely as native forest and other native vege-
tation types, such reserves could perhaps in-
clude sufficient area to prevent the extinction
of some of the smaller species of wildlife
which may require that particular type of
habitat, but this is very much a matter of indi-
vidual species characteristics.

The importance of native forest for
wildlife perhaps needs to be underscored.
Unfortunately, even-age plantations of exotic
timber trees are typically almost free of native
wildlife; even mixed tree-crops are better
habitat. The suggestions offered earlier that,
for the smaller species, existing forest re-
serves and proposed parks may be adequate
to assure species survival depends on retaining
substantial tracts of native forest. To the ex-
tent that native forest within the reserves is
replaced by exotic trees, those suggestions
grow more tenuous. The question of how
much forested land is necessary to have a rea-
sonable probability of maintaining a given
species or community is difficult but not im-
possible to answer by means of research.

Various long-term studies of the
fauna of natural vegetation types in Dominica
(carried out by P. Evans and summarized in
Rainey, et al., 1987) showed that rain forest
supported the highest bird diversity and
biomass (but this is not necessarily the case on
St. Vincent). Cultivated plots with native










forest adjacent had higher bird diversity than
extensive crop monocultures. The pattern as
well as thle extent of forest clearing was found
to be significant because the forest birds dif-
fered considerably in home range size. Some
forest birds had a small home range and ihus
could be expected to persist in a smaller rem-
nant of forest. Others, such as the Red-
necked Pigeon, the Ruddy Quail Dove and the
Amazona parrots, required relatively large
areas of intact forest. A substantial number of
birds which foraged in cultivated areas re-
quired adjacent forest for roosting and
nesting.


IMPACT OF BIOCIDES ON WILDLIFE

Large amounts of pesticides and her-
bicides (collectively referred to as biocides)
are applied to agricultural crops in St. Vincent
(see Section 8), but the effects of these
chemicals on wildlife and the terrestrial and
marinee ecosystems of St. Vincent remain un-
studied. Many persons are concerned that the
freshwater fishes, shrimp ("crayfish") and
crabs which are traditionally harvested for
food in St. Vincent have suffered a serious de-
cline in abundance in recent years. This de-
cline has not been quantitatively documented,
but there appears to be wide agreement that
the F perceived trend is significant and real. It
has been reported that the deliberate poison-
ing of streams using biocides such as Sevin is a
common means of collecting fish and crayfish
foi sale. The decline has also been attributed
by some to the widespread agricultural use of
potent biocides and to the decline in
streamwater quality caused by sedimentation
or pollution by sewage and industrial wastes,

Th: larvae of the West In-dian fresh-
water stream fauna generally require some
salinity (varying from estuarine conditions to
full-strength seawater) to complete their
development. Several land-crab species un-
dertake seasonal mass migrations, moving
from inland areas to form dense aggregations
at the shore where they release their larvae
into the sea. For such species, the local pop-
ulations are likely to be maintained by larvae
spawned on other islands and dispersed by
ocean currents. Restocking of depleted
streams would probably occur naturally if


streamwater quality were restored, provided
that viable breeding populations still remained
in ihe up-current source areas. However,
given the prevalence of biocide abuse and
stream pollution in the region, the continuing
availability of larvae should not be taken for
granted.

Even if standard toxicological data
were available for St. Vincent (which they are
not), such data by themselves are frequently
not sufficient to predict the consequences of
releasing toxic synthetic compounds in an
ecosystem. Quantitative evaluation of the ef-
fects of biocides requires a fairly detailed
ecological picture which is rarely available for
tropical vertebrates and which is exceedingly
labor-intensive to acquire. Furthermore, the
consequences for wildlife populations of expo-
sure to sublethal levels of one or more bio-
cides, often in combination with additional
environmental stresses (e.g., habitat reduction
or an unusually severe dry season), cannot yet
be predicted even at the single-species level.
Because detailed ecological field data is not
available for most species and biological
communities in St. Vincent, the reader is re-
ferred to Evan's study in Dominica (cited in
Rainey, et al., 1987), which was concerned
primarily with the effects on wildlife of the
fungicides and nematicides used in the banana
industry.

With these sweeping caveats in mind,
some broad statements in reference to verte-
brate wildlife can be made. Birds are gener-
ally more sensitive to biociez thar miammalc,
perhaps in part because mammals have Letter
detoxification systems. Fish are frequently,
but not consistently, more sensitive than
warm-blooded vertebrates. There is also a
general developmental hierarchy of sensitivity
within each species. Vertebrate embryos,
eggs and larva. are often more sensitive to
toxicants than adults because they are less
protected from the surrounding environment,
have limited means for detoxifying absorbed
substances, and are less able to move away
from noxious substances.









WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT

Little is known about the ecology,
distribution or habitat requirements of wildlife
in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Thus far,
the major wildlife focus of the Forestry Divi-
sion has been on the conservation of the St.
Vincent Parrot, with funding for captive
breeding from the World Wildlife Fund-US,
Wildlife Preservation Trust International, and
Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust (UK).

A new U.S. Peacc Corps Volunteer
Wildlife Biologist has recently arrived in the
country; over the next two years he will study
the distribution and habitat requirements of
various wildlife species and prepare manage-
meut plans for them (pers. comm., B.
Johnson, Senior Forest Supervisor, April,
1990).


INTERNATIONAL WILDLIFE TRADE

International trade is a major threat
to the survival of many wildlife species in the
Caribbean (TRAFFIC, [U.SA.], 1988). Many
Caribbean countries permit commercial ex-
port of wildlife, including species listed as en-
dangered by IUCN. The Convention on In-
ternational Trade in Endangered Species of
Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) attempts to
regulate wild;:',- trade through a worldwide
system of import and export controls for
species which are listed in three appendices.
Appendix I of the Convention lists species
which are threatened with extinction and for
which commercial trade is prohibited; Ap-
per.dix II lists species which may become ex-
tinct unle:.s trade is strictly regulated; and Ap-
pendix III reports those species protected in
their country of origin and for which the co-
operation of other nations is required in order
to enforce export restrictions. Species occur-
ring in St. Vincent and the Grenadines which
are covered by the Conven'"on include the St.
Vincent Parrot, the Green Turtle, the Hawks-
bill Turtle, and all large species of whale.

CITES offers very imperfect protec-
tion to endangered species since a member
country is obligated only to ensure that prod-
ucts from such species do not enter intema-
tional trade; hunting and killing of these


species for local trade is not prohibited.
Moreover, any country is allowed to enter
"reservations" at the time of ratifying the Con-
vention which allow it to continue its interna-
tional trade in certain species which it so des-
ignates (e.g., GSVG has entered reservations
for the Leatherback Turtle and Humpback
Whale; pers. commun., CEP National Com-
mittee, 1990).

St. Vincent and the Grenadines be-
came a signatory to the CITES convention in
November, 1988. Membership in CITES may
help to curtail trade in such species as the en-
dangered St. Vincent Parrot, but illegal export
still poses a threat because of the high prices
commanded by Caribbean parrot species.
Also, see Section 5 for further discussion of
CITES in relation to marine species.



2.2.3 Policy Recommendations


LEGISLATION

The cha.~ges in the 1987 Wildlife
Protection Act regarding revision of Schedules
2 and 3 and the boundaries of the Parrot Re-
serve which were proposed by Butler (1988)
should be officially adopted by GSVG. The
status of species in Schedules 3 and 6 should
be reviewed; some species (at a minimum
some of the bats) may need to be transferred
to Schedule 2 for absolute protection.

The St. Vincent National Trust
recommends that the chachalaca, quail and
iguana also be considered for absolute pro-
tection (due to the increasing disturbance of
their habitat and theii apparently reduced
populations), and concurs that bats should be
removed from the vermin list (pers. comm., E.
Kirby, Chairman, St. Vincent National Trust,
April, 1990).

Once a survey of wildlife habitat
and populations has been carried out (see
below), additional wildlife reserves may need
to be designated in order to protect critical
habitat for species not adequately represented
in the present system of reserves. On the
other hand, it may be determined that some of









the presently designated reserves have little
actual value for wildlife and might be dropped
from the system.


RESEARCH AND MONITORING

Distribution and habitat studies
need to be undertaken for wildlife, with prior-
ity, being given to those that are endemic, lo-
cally or internationally endangered or threat-
ened, migratory species, and those species
that are legally hunted. Population monitor-
ing should be undertaken for critical species in
addition to the St. Vincent Parrot.

The Forestry Division should en-
couiage the participation of visiting re-
searchers, natural history study expeditions
(e.g., Earthwatch), and local bird watching
enthusiasts to assist in the assemblage of
monitoring data. The use of such citizen
groups in environmental monitoring is invalu-
able and does not require the expenditure of
scarce government funds. The use of standard
methods should be required of these partici-
pants in order to obtain useful and compara-
ble data.

To maintain biodiversity in the face
of increasing demands for agricultural land
requires at least semi-quantitative knowledge
of the parameters for maintaining species or
communities (e.g., in terms of land area or
other resources). One way external aid a-
gencies, whose funds fuel the engines of de-
velopment, can aid in the maintenance of bio-
diversity is to support ecological and de-
mographic assessments of species which are
either obviously threatened or are less well-
known but closely linked to the habitat being
modified.

A Wildlife Unit needs to be estab-
lished within the Forestry Department, em-
ploying a trained wildlife biologist and one or
two assistants. Responsibilities of the Unit
should emphasize applied research in wildlife
management for selected species (e.g., estab-
lishing ranges and ecological requirements,
assessing degree of threat, estimating mini-
mum population and habitat size.., etc.) as
well as long-term monitoring of wildlife pop-
ulations and habitats. Fhose species which


are most significant and/or most critically en-
dangered should be given priority attention by
the Unit.

Seabird breeding sites should be
surveyed and populations should be moni-
tored, particularly on the offshore islets and in
the Grenadines. Some management of exotic
species (e.g., goats) and habitat restoration
may be required. Seabird population dynam-
ics around the world appear to be greatly in-
fluenced by unpredictable climatic events such
as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation phe-
nomenon (Schreiber and Schreiber, 1989).
Therefore, long-term monitoring is the only
method of gaining insight into the true status
of seabird species in a local area.

A data base on the status of wildlife
populations and their habitats, probably in
computerized form, should be established and
maintained by the recommended Wildlife
Unit.


TRAINING OF STAFF

The Forestry Division should seek
funding from appropriate donor agencies for
staff training, technical support, and equip-
ment for the Wildlife Unit and the public edu-
cation program. Forestry Division staff
training is needed in the following areas
(Butler, 1988): basic veterinary techniques
with an emphasis on parrots; tour guides and
nature interpretation; and wildlife manage-
ment.


LAND USE

A detailed land use plan should be
completed for St. Vincent and the
Grenadines, including consideration of biodi-
versity issues. Restrictions should be placed
on clearing native forest from agriculturally
marginal lands in certain areas and habitat
types. Since wildlife values are typi-"ally given
little weight in planning efforts, one require-
ment should be the development of an
ecologically-sound, quantitative analysis of
current land use practices and trends and their
effects on wildlife.









BIOCIDES


An "institutional memory" should
be developed for pollutant impacts on wildlife,
by means of a simple data base. Descriptive
information, even if unconfirmed by site visits,
would provide a perspective on the frequency
and distribution of events. It would also be
desirable to do selective sampling of soil and
groundwater levels 'or the more toxic biocides
used in the agricultural industry. Such a sur-
vey could constructively include a limited as-
sessment of chlorinated hydrocarbon residues
in wildlife as well.

There is a need to establish a
small-scale pesticide disposal system and to
review methods to avoid or minimize the dis-
persal of pesticides from agricultural industry
warehouses in natural disasters such as hurri-
canes.


ENFORCEMENT AND EDUCATION

St. Vincent and the Grenadines has
had legislation to protect wildlife since 1901,
but such laws seem to have had little or no
effect due to an almost total lack of enforce-
ment. If the 1987 Act is to have more impact,
it is obvious that GSVG must allocate suffi-
cient resources to implement the law. En-
forcement alone will not achieve total protec-
tion of wildlife; in order to fulfill legislative
goals, enforcement must be coupled with
greater and more effective public education
efforts.


PROTECTED AREAS

The proposed system of National
Parks, Forest Reserves, and Protected Areas,
or some subset of it which includes the most
critical areas for the preservation of St.
Vincent's biodiversity, should be implemented
as soo:a as possible.

















































The expansion of banana production, the mainstay of Vincentian agriculture, on to much steeper
areas can result In serious erosion and downstream sediment pollution problems.
















66









SECTION 3 AGRICULTURE AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT


3.1 OVERVIEW


PROFILE OF THE AGRICULTURAL
SECTOR

Agriculture remains the most pro-
ductive sector of the national economy of St.
Vincent and the Grenadines and is the pri-
mary generator of foreign exchange. It ac-
counts for almost 20 percent of GDP (see
Figure 1.3(5) and Table 3.1(1)) and 65 percent
of exports. Agriculture is the main source of
employment, with some two-thirds of the la-
bor force employed in that sector (FAO, 1987;
IICA, 1989). Table 3.1(2) displays exports of
selected commodities for 1983-1986, and
Table 3.1(3) provides production data for se-
lected agricultural commodities.

Agriculture in the Eastern Caribbean
is often characterized as comprising two dis-
tinct farming systems: (1) the export-
oriented, plantation system depicted chiefly by
monocultures on large estates, and (2) the
small farmer agricultural system, often
subsistence-based and developed on the more
marginal agricultural lands.

Of the plantation crops that have
been important in St. Vincent and the
Grenadines, only bananas remain a major ex-
port crop. The sugar industry collapsed in the
late l&O's, tried to make a comeback in the
1970's, but was abandoned again in 1985
(IICA, 1989).

Bananas. This has been the domi-
nant crop for more than 30 years in St.
Vincent and the Grenadines. Banana pro-
duction is the major employer of labor, the
main earner of foreign exchange (accounting
for approximately 40 percent of all export
earnings [World Bank, 1985]) and the princi-
pal user of arable land (some 7,500 active
growers use about 1,200 acres of the 29,000
acres of arable land in the country [SVBGA
data, 1990]). Frequently, the area under ba-
nanas is kept free of other crops, leading to
excessive soil erosion (Miller, et al, 1988).
Productivity for bananas is quite low, with an


average yield of 6.7 tons/acre. For compari-
son, the average yield in commercial planta-
tions in banana-exporting countries is about
20 tons/acre (Gonsalves, 1989).

Bananas for export from St. Vincent
and all the Windward Islands are bought ex-
clusively by Geest Industries (Thomson,
1987). This trans-national corporation sells
the produce almost entirely in the United
Kingdom, where it enjoys preferential market
treatment. Without some sort of market
protection, the Windward Islands would likely
lose their share of the market to other
banana-exporting countries which produce
cheaper bananas at a consistently higher
quality. The Single Europe Act of 1992, which
will remove all tariff and non-tariff barriers
within the 12-nation European Economic
Community, could devastate St. Vincent's
banana industry. Although steps are being
taken in St. Vincent to improve banana pro-
ductivity and quality and to diversify into other
crops, it is clear that only a political solution is
capable of averting a collapse of the banana
industry which could potentially undermine
the entire national economy (Gonsalves, 1989;
Courier, 1989).

Ground provisions. Ground provi-
sions eddoess, tannias, sweet potatoes, yams
and dasheens) collectively make a significant
contribution to foreign earnings. During the
mid-1980's, exports of ground provisions may
even have overtaken bananas as the main
source of foreign currency. As noted in the
IICA (1989) report, however, the downturn in
the economy of Trinidad and Tobago, the
major buyer of SVG ground provisions, has
hurt that market considerably.

Arrowroot. From the time of the
collapse of the sugar industry in the late
1800's until the predominance of banana pro-
duction in the mid-1950's, arrowroot was St.
Vincent's primary agricultural commodity
(Gonsalves, 1989). By 1957, arrowroot's share
of total exports had dropped from a 1955












Table 3.1(1). Contribution of agriculture sector to GDP (millions EC$).


Sector and
Subsectors 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985


17.7 18.7


19.1 20.5 22.7


13 17 17 17 17 19


Source: Central Statistic Unit. Adapted from N.C. Reninga,
Development, cited in IICA, 1989.


1988, Proposal for Uvestock


figure of 50 percent to 28 percent. Output of
arrowroot declined steadily through the 1960's
and 1970's, reaching a low of 600 tons of
starch in 1971. Production increased as a new
market developed for arrowroot starch as a
coating on computer paper. However, two
factors now conspire to depress the St.
Vincent arrowroot market: (1) competition
from other countries that can produce arrow-
root less expensively and (2) development of a
process for modifying less expensive starches
to substitute for arrowroot starch (World
Bank, 1985). As a consequence, arrowroot
production continues to decline; as of 1988,
only 130-140 acres were planted in arrowroot,
and this figure is only expected to increase to
200 acres even with GSVG support (CDB,
1988).

Vegetables. Vegetables are cultivated
for local consumption but must be supple-
mented with imports to meet domestic de-
mand. The vegetable sub-sector is expecl;d
to play an. increasingly important role as part
of the Government's agricultural diversifica-
tion policy. Although the country's climatic
and soil conditions are generally favorable for
vegetable production (see Table 3.1(4)), St.


Vincent's steep slopes are not ideal for inten-
sive vegetable cultivation. Sustainable pro-
duction is possible, however, if vegetables are
grown as part of mixed crop farming systems.

Fruit Tree Crops. Favorable eco-
logical cotnd,_ions support over 30 species of
fruit crops. As indicated in Table 3.1(5),
mangoes, coonut, breadfruit, avocadoes,
golden apple, oranges, grapefruit, and limes
are the primary tree crops in the country
(IICA, 1989).

Livestock. The livestock sector is not
a major factor in the agricultural economy,
although the majority of farms include some
form of livestock production which con-
tributes substantially to domestic consumption
(see Tabl',s 3.1(6) and 3.1(7)).

On the average, a Vincentian farmer
owns 1-5 head of cattle, 3-6 sheep, 1-4 goats,
and 1-3 pigs. Half of the livestock farmers are
landless, using communal grazing on private
and government open lands, roadsides and
abandoned crop lands. Native grasses grow-
ing in relatively unmanaged pastures are the
main feed. The tree legumes Leucaena


Agriculture

Crops
Uvestock
Forestry
Fisheries

% of real GDP













Table 3.1(2). Exports of selected commodities (tons and 1,000 EC$), 1983 -1989.


Bananas
Arrowroot
Coconuts
Peanuts
Sweet Potatoes
Nutmeg
Mace
Carrots
Plantains
Ginger
Eddoes/Dasheen
Tannias
Yams


1983
Volume Value



33,919 29,760
4 6
926 327
32 212
944 1,187
73 158
17 74
3 4
1,430 1,595
158 185
8,348 11,534
2,691 4,151
1,236 2,088


1984 1985 1986
Volume Value Volume Value Volume Value



32,109 31,966 40,570 45,623 39,393 52,389
1 1 4 6 3 5
3,902 1,593 831 721 865 617
52 342 17 183 18 60
2,202 3,045 7,754 10,982 10,729 15,370
74 141 51 102 79 154
20 66 33 79 11 44

3,056 3,389 3,520 3,853 4,016 4,673
256 290 329 354 644 545
16,001 24,140 23,069 34,509 20,756 31,622
6,249 9,684 8,504 13,044 8,829 14,494
3,893 6,459 2,827 4,466 712 1,164


1987 1988 1989
Crop Volume Value Volume Value Volume Value


Bananas 36,623
Arrowroot 1
Coconuts 999
Peanuts 4
Sweet Potatoes 4,169
Nutmeg 86
Mace 13
Plantains 2,417
Ginger 634
Eddoes/Dasheen 7,552
Tannias 2,920
Yams 526


53,052
2
868
21
5,958
189
48
2,668
741
11,292
4,436
865


57,560
1
881
2
7,583
128
17
2,809
1,060
14,325
5,747
638


86,103
1
776
6
10,821
444
93
3,102
1,222
21,409
8,862
1,047


66,100
*t
880
1
3,575
80
8
1,658
784
5,634
1,248
324


89,933
*
736
4
5,113
425
64
1,830
1,063
8,576
1,922
580


* No exports this year.

Source: CEP National Committee, '990.

Note: It is useful to keep in mind the general caveat raised by a consultant team asked to develop an
Eastern Caribbean agricultural sector strategy: "Agricultural statistics in the Eastern Caribbean
countries are few, unreliable, and Inconsistent from source to source" (Chemonlcs, 1988).








































leucacephala and Glericidia sepium scattered
throughout the island provide fodder, partic-
ularly during the dry season when grass forage
is not available (IICA, 1989).


LAND HOLDINGS AND TENURE
SITUATION

St. Vincent and the Grenadines has
the highest population density of the OECS
countries (Chemonics, 1988; see also Section
1.3.1 of the Profile). Estimates of the amount
of cultivable land per capital differ as a result
of inconsistencies in projections of population
size and the amount of land suitable for crop
production. In any event, well over half the
land in the country is mountainous or other-
wise unsuitable for agriculture, making land a
very scarce resource. There is general agree-
ment that current demand for land suitable
for agriculture or urban development signifi-
cantly exceeds the supply (FAO, 1987;
Chemonics, 1988). Table 3.1(8) shows land
use patterns on SVG's 29,649 acres of arable


land, the total reported in the most recent na-
tional agricultural census (GSVG, 1989a).

Since the end of the nineteenth cen-
tury and the collapse of the sugar industry,
two basic patterns reflecting changes in land
ownership have emerged, both of which con-
tinue to the present. First, GSVG has ac-
quired large, private estates and gradually re-
distributed such land to independent small
farmers. In 1899, 5,600 acres were acquired;
some 7,000 acres were acquired in 1915, and
subsequent acquisitions have been made on a
smaller scale. Table 3.1(9), which lists the
estates currently a part of the Government's
Land Reform Pro'ram, reports that some
7,760 acres are in the process of being redis-
tributed from GSVG ownership to private,
small-scaie ownership. All of this land will be
redistributed except for small areas of non-
agricultural lads that will be reserved for
watersheds and parks.

The second pattern of land ownership
reflects a long-standing tradition for the
transfer of family-held farm land, whereby --


Table 3.1(3). Estimated production of selected agricultural commodities, 1984 1987.

Unit
Commodity (in thousands) 2984 1985 1986 1987

Rum Imperial Gal. 81 145 131 136
Sweet Potatoes Kg 2,317 8,529 11,802 4,596
Yams Kg 3,773 3,262 783 612
Tannias Kg 6,512 9,354 9,711 ?,947
Eddoes, Dasheen Kg 16,068 23,326 20,964 74
Arrowroot Starch Kg 783 434 315 161
Bananas Kg 33,556 41,922 39,936 37,472
Nutmegs Kg 73 53 81 88
Mace Kg 20 34 11 13
Carrots Kg 68 1
Ginger Kg 122 362 545 668
Peanuts Kg 84 45 32 7
Tobacco Kg 41 73 66 76
Plantains Kg 3,099 4,222 4,619 2,776

Sources: Agricultural Statistics Unit, Ministry of Trade and Agriculture; Arrowroot Association;
Customs Department; Banana Association; Marketing Corporation; cited In Caribbean
Development Bank, 1988.











Table 3.1(4). Number of holdings and area of vegetable crop harvested.


through cross-generational inheritance -- an
attempt is made to provide all members of a
family with agricultural plosi. The result has
been the extensive fragmentation of farm
land. Frthermore, a familyy farm" often is
considered one !egal unit, even though each
fragment may be under the management of a
different offspring. Statistics on the current
distribution of various-sized land holdings are
not consistent among sources, but the general
pattern is clear enough. Most land holdings
are quite small -- many, in fact, too smaL to
be uconomicaliy viable (see discussion below
on Phase 1 of the Lend Reform Program). la
one source, ninety-seven percent of all farms
were reported as less than 10 acres, of which
close to half were less than one acre (CIDA,
cited in Chemonics, 1988). Of the 6,799 land
holdings included in the most recent Agricul-
tural Census, 5,862 were less than five acres,
903 were 5 to 99.9 acres, and only 34 were
over 100 acres (GSVG, 1989a; but see also
Brierley and Rubens'ein, 1988, for statistics


indicating a greater number of smaller
parcels).


WATERSHEDS

in 1912, all land above one thousand
feet in eleva!' rui was designated as crown land,
reserved by law to protect forests in the upper
watersheds (see Figure 2.1(3)). Almost all
arable land below this elevation is under per-
manent cultivati -, and considerable cultiva-
tion has occurred above this line es well.
Some of this agricultural development has
been sanctioned thro igh rental agreements
with GSVG, plus there has been considerable
illegal encroachment. A recent assessment on
the status of selected catchments within the
watersheds indicates that substantial en-
croachment has occurred both into the catch-
ments and the surrounding watersheds (pers.
comm., N. Wce's, Forest Officer, Forestry
Division). The extent of legal -- much less


No. of Acre (acre)
Crop Holdings Harvested


Cabbage 1,086 1,393.28
Tomato 1,222 1,267.46
Carrot 528 663.02
Cucumber 368 443.00
Sweet Pepper 330 381.14
Pumpkin 152 126.98
Eggplant 96 124.82
Onion 80 79.82
Watermelon 32 65.82
Hot Pepper 76 60.98
Lettuce 62 27.58
Christophene 40 18.48
Cauliflower 40 15.14
Zucchini 2 8.00
Beet 28 3.22
Radish 16 1.06
Melon 4 .02

Source: St. Vitncent and the Grenadines Agricultural Census 1985/1986,
cited In IICA, 1989.













Table 3.1(5).


Production, farm gate prices and value of output at current producer prices
for selected fruit commodities in St. Vincent and the Grenadines,
1984- 1987.


CROPS


Golden
Coconut Apple


Avocadoes Limes


Oranges Mangoes


Quantity (000 Ibs)
Farm Gate Price, EC$/Ib
Value Output, EC$

1985
Quantity (000 Ibs)
Farm Gate Price, EC$/Ib
Value Output, EC$

1986
Quantity (000 Ibs)
Farm Gate Price, EC$/Ib
Valua Output, EC$

1987
Quantity (000 Ibs)
Farm Gate Price, EC$/Ib
Value Output, EC$


10,564
.25
2,641


7,940
.36
2,696


7,817
.29
2,267


7,426
.25
1,857


411
.43
177


493
.36
2.109


185
.43
80


391 6,464
.26 .26
102 1,681


5,857
.52
751


768 4,160
.35 .51
269 2,122


768 4,992
.16 .42
123 2,092


Source: IICA, 1989.


illegal -- encroachment is unknown but will be
determined as part of CIDA's Forestry
Development Progam (pers. comm., J.
Latham, Manager, CIDA Forestry Dev.
Prog.).

Watershed management priorities
have been identified for St. Vincent and the
Grenadines based on the assumption that
agricultural development is the major driving
force in the country's economic development,
with tourism playing a secondary role
(although tourism is the leading force in the
Grenadines) (Prins, 1986b). Prins' (1986b)
comprehensive study for the Orange Hill Es-
tate remains the definitive work on SVG wa-
tershed management issues. Since little would
be gained by paraphrasing Prins' report, the
Policy Recommendations section of this


chapter instead attempts to update his study
and suggests possible next steps.


ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE
AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

Many of the issues associated with
the agricultural sector are not environmental
per se -. e.g., low productivity due to ineffi-
cient input and output services and markets --
and the responsible factors have been detailed
in other reports and studies (e.g., Chemonics,
1988; FAO, 1987). The Chemonics (1988) re-
port, in particular, provides an excellent
overview of the constraints and limits of agri-
cultural development in Eastern Caribbean
countries. In addition, IICA, in conjunction
with GSVG, is in the process of completing an


Bread
Fruit


1,791
.35
627


1,695
.2b
80


1,600
.35
560


1,600
.374
598




Full Text

PAGE 1

... B.V.1. Anguilla -= St. Martin eSt. Barthelemy Saba. BARBUDA St. EustatilJs -:T. KITTS ..&.. ANTIGUA NEV'S ,.. Montserrat r/'t;adOloupe DOMIfIJICA Martinique t ST. LUCIA ST. tp Barbados THE GRENADINES -I GRENADA

PAGE 2

S T. V I N C E N T And The G R E N A D I N E S COUNTRY ENVIRONME1\TT AL PROFILE Prepared Under the Aegis Of: THE CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION St. Michael, Barbados On Behalf Of: THE GOVERNMENT OF ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES Ministry of Health and the Environment With the Technical Support Of: THE ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands And THE ST. VINCENT NATIONAL TRUST Kingstown, St. Vincent Funding Provided By: THE U.S. AGENCY FOR INTERNAT!ONAI. DEVELOPMENT Regional Development Of!lce/Canbbeul Bridgeto ... n, Barbados Draft Prepared 1990 Edited Imd Published 1991

PAGE 3

FOREWORD One of the most serious threats to sustainable economic growth in the Caribbean is the increasing degradation of the region's natural ecosystems and a deterioration in the quality of life for Caribbean people. The task of reversing this unfortunate trend requires beBer knowledge and un derstanding of the region's u':que environll'ental problems and the development of appropriate technologies and public policies to lessen and even prevent negative impacts on our fragile resource base. In an attempt to pru;'de such a framewor:., Caribbean Conservation Association, with funding provided by the United States Agency for 1)evelopment and with the technical assis tance of the Island Resources Foundation, has produced a series of C0untry E:1vironrnental P;:'ofiles for six Eastern Caribbean countries --Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, St IGtts and Nevis, st. Lucia, and Sl. Vincent and the Grenadines. Even though these C:ocuments dr not to be encycl(lpedic in their l1eatment of individual sectors and issues, each Prufiie repre!)ents the ;;nost current and comprehensive information base assembled to date on environmental and conservation issues that affect, and are affected by, the devel<,pmeut process in the Profile co.:nLries. Each document addresses key environmental problems, constraints, and "oliey directions as these were identitied dnd fleshed Gut by a tedm of researchers and writers, in collaboiation with a local co ordinating comrni.tee. Each Profile also identifies and :t variety of opportunities and plan ning tools which may prove useful in meeting environment/development goals in the future. All of this information should play a significant role in informili.s and influencing ecologically-sound development planning i'1 t"e region, and should provide a basis for improved decision-making --both immediate as well as erm. This may best be accomplished by using the data to define priorities (in view of related benefits and costs), to pursue in-depth analysis of issues, and to undertake neces sary follow-on in such a way that they are mutually reinforcing. In short, action emanating from the recommendations contained in the Profile r.>ight be,t be undertaken within a comprehensive management framework, rather than a pici:emeal, project-oriented perspective. The Carihbean Conservltion Association is very pleasect to be able to make this contribution to de velopment planning in region. (April 1991) Calvin A. Howell Executive Director Caribbean Conservation Associatioll

PAGE 4

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Overall project management for the St. Vincent and the Grenadines Country Environmental Prome Project was provided by the Caribbean Conservation Association (CCA) under the direction of Acting Executive Director, Mr. Calvin HoweU. Technical guidance in preparation of the Prome was the responsibility of the Island Resources Foun dation (IRF). Dr. Edward L. Towle, President of the Foundation, is the Team Leader for the Prome Project in the Eastern Caribbean; Ms. Judith A. Towle, IRF Vice President, is the Editor of the CEP Report Series; and Mr. Robert Teytaud served as Deputy Team Leader for the Prome Project in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. St. Vincent and the Grenadines Government liaison for the CEP effort was the Ministry of Health and the Environment, the Honorable Burton Williams, Minister. The Junior Minister for the Environment, the A Ipian Allen, was very helpful in executing the project and provided coordination with the Ministry. The CEP National Committee for S1. Vincent and the Grenadines (a sub-committee of the National Environmental Protection Task Force) was ably chaired by Mr. Daniel Cummings, Man ager of the Central Water and Sewerage Authority. Local project management was implemented through the offices of the National Trust of St. Vincent and the Grenadines. The Trust's officer" and trustees were particularly helpful, and a special acknowledgement is due for the assistance provided by Dr. Earle Kirby, Chairman; Mrs. Lavinia Gunn, Vice Chairman; and Ms. Marlon MiUs, Secretary, in pro-iding a warm welcome and arranging for es sential support services br the IRF in-country team. Ms. Diana DeFreitas of the National Trust staff also provided expert assistance to Profile writers and investigators. Staff at the U.S. Agency for International Development, Caribbean Regional Development Office in Barbados facilitated implementation of the S1. Vin.!ent Prome Project, in particular, the Mis:siou's Environmental Officer, Ms. Rebecca Nice, and ber temporary replacement, Mr. Albert Merkel, whose support has been ??preciated throughout this effort by both CCA and IRF. Many other organizations and individuals in S1. Vincent and the Grenadines gave valuable assistance during the course of the projrct. To each we extend our gratitude, along with the hope Envi ronmental Profile will assist i:he country in defining and achieving its goals for sustainable development in the decade ahead. For further information, contact anyone of the implementing institutions: Caribbean Conservation Asscdatlon Savannah Lodge, The Garrison St. Barbados (June 19(0) Island Resources Foundation Red Hook Box 33, S1. Thomas U.S. Virgin Islands 00802 ii St. Vincent National Trost Post Office Box 752 Kingstown, St. Vincent

PAGE 5

ST. VINCEr;T AND 'HIE GRENADINES COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE NATIONAL COMMI'ITEE A Sub-Commlttee or The National Envir{ Jlmental Protection Task Force The Honorable Alpian Allen, Minister of State Ministry or Health lind the Euvironment Mr. Herman Belmar, Bequia Mr. Bentley Browne, Planner Physical Planning Unit Mrs. S:ephanie Browne, Union Island Mr. Vidal Browne, Hotel Association Mr. Stanley Campbell, Deputy Chief Education Officer Mr. Daniel Cummings, Manager Central Water .md Sewerage Authority Mr. Lennox Daisley, Chief Agricultural Otncer Dr. Ann Eustace, Ministry of Health and the Environment Mr. Monty Eusl3ce, Manager SI. Vincent Banana Association Dr. Adrian Fraser, Coordinntor, CARIPEDA Mr. Stewart Guy, CIDA Forestry Project Mr. Brian Johnson, Senior Forest SUpervis"f Ministry of Agriculture Mr. Kingsley Layne, Permanent Secretary Ministry of Trade and Tourism Mr. Kerwin Morris, Chief Fisheries Officer Mr. Richard Robertso:l, Geologist Ministry of Agriculture Mr. Tony Sardine, Hotel Association Mrs. Janet Wall, Union Island Mr. Nigel Weekes, Senior Forest Supervisor Ministry of Agriculture KEY MEM9ERS OF THE NATIONAL TRUST OF ST. VINCENT and THE GRENADINES Associated With 'The COUDtry Environmental home Project Mr. Morrison Baisden Ms. Diana DeFreitas Mrs. Lavinia Gunn Dr. Earle Kirby Staff Lccretary Vice Chairman Chairman Ms. Marlon Mills Trust Secretary Mr. Michael Moet-Wynne Trustee Mr. Richant Robertson Trustee ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION TECHNICAL TEAM For The Country Environmental Proale ProJed CEP PP.OJECT TEAM LEADER sr. VlNCENf CEP COORDINATOR EDITOR, CEP REPORT SERIES GRAPHICS AND DESIGN BIBLIOGRAPHY Edward Towle Robert Teytaud Judith Towle Jean-PiefTe Bar.le Ian Jones SL Vincent EnVironmental Prome Writing Team EXEcunVE Sl,;MMARY INfRODUcnON FORESI'S AND WILDLIFE AGRlCULl1JRE AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT FRESHWATI!R RESOURCES COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES ENERGY, TRANSPORTATION AND INDUSTRY TOURISM POLLlmON AND E8VIRONMP.NTAL HEALTH GROwrn MANAGEMENT INsmunONAL FRAMEWORK iii Teytaud Robert Teytaud, Jennifer Rabalais, Jpdilh Towle, Bruce Potter Robert Teytaud Bruce Horwith Robert Teytaud Robert Teylaud Edward Towle Bruce Potter Robert Teytaud Robert Teytaud, Judith Towle, Jennifer Rabalais Judith Towle

PAGE 6

Bananas or "green gold, the mainstay of St. Vincent.'s agricultural output. iv

PAGE 7

Foreword Acknowledgements TABLE OF CONTENTS St. Vincent and the Grenadines CEP National Committee Key Members of the National Trust for the CEP Project Island Resources Foundation Technical Team List of Tables List of Figures Acronyms Abbreviations Conversion Co-efflclents Between Imperial Measures and Weights and the Metric System Introduction EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: INTEGRATION CRITICAL ISSUES Page I II III III III vIII x xII xlv xlv XII xvII SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Hlst.lrlcal and Descriptive Overview of the Nation 1 1.2 The Natural Environment 7 1.2.1 Climate 7 1.2.2 Geology and Topography 9 1.2.3 Soils 11 1.2.4 Vegetation 17 1.2.5 Natural Hazards 21 1.2.6 Local Implications of Global Environmental Change 24 1.3 The Socia -economic Context 25 1.3.1 Demographics: Trends in Population Size, Dlstributloli, and Density 25 1.3.2 National Economy and Development Trends 30 SECTION 2 FORESTS AND WILDUFE 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 Forests and Foreltry Overview Problems and Issues Policy Recommendations Biodiversity, Endangered Species and Wlldl"e Overview Problems and Issues Policy Recommendations SECTION 3 AGRICULTURE AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT 3.1 3.2 3.3 Overview Problems and Issues Policy Recommendations v 39 39 39 44 47 50 50 58 63 67 67 73 78

PAGE 8

SECTION 4 FRESHWATER RESOURCES 81 4.1 Overview 81 4.2 Problems and Issues 87 4.3 Policy 91 SECTION 5 COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES 93 5.1 Over/lew 93 5.2 Problems and Issues 103 5.3 Polley Recommendations 114 SECTION 6 ENERGY, TRANSPORTA"TION AND INDUSTRY 117 Energy 117 6.1.1 Overview 117 6.1.2 Problems and Issues 120 6.1.3 Polley Recommendations 123 6.2 Trrmsporh1t1on 125 tl.2.1 Overview 125 6.2.2 Problems arrd Isrues 128 6.2.3 PoUcy Recommendations 128 Industry 130 6.3.1 Overview 130 6.3.2 Problems and Issues 130 6.3.3 Policy Recommendations 133 SECnON7 TOURISM 135 7.1 Overview 135 7.2 Problems and Issues 138 7.3 Polley Recommendations 139 SECTION 8 POLLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH 141 8.1 Overview 141 8.2 Problems and Issues 148 8.3 Policy Recommendations 152 vi

PAGE 9

SECTION 9 GROWTH MANAGEMENT 9.1 Planning and Development Control 9.1.1 Overview 9.1.2 Probtems and Issues 9.2 Parks and Other Protected Areal 9.2.1 9.2.2 Problems and Issues 9.3 Environmental Education 9.3.1 Overview 9.3.2 Problems and Issues 9.4 Control of Population Growth 9.4.1 Overview 9.4.2 Problems and Issues 9.5 Policy Recommendatlona SECTION 10 MANAGEMENT 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 Government Organization Historical Development of Environmental Management Policies Government Institutions Concerned with Environmental Management The Non-Govemment Sector In Environmental Management Donor-supported Resource Management Programs Polley Recommendations BIBUOGRAPHY 155 155 155 159 163 163 169 174 174 175 175 175 176 180 183 183 183 185 195 197 199 203

PAGE 10

LIST OF TABLES Table No. Page 1.2(1 ) Temperatures as recorded at the Department of Agriculture, Kingstown, 1983-1987. 8 1.2(2) Mature or "climax" vegetational formations In the lesser Antilles. 16 lesser Antillean life zones (Holdridge's terminology), showing rough correspondence with Beard's formations. 18 1.3(1 ) St. Vincent and the Grenadines national population, 1844-1989. 27 1.3(2) Population densities for the Grenadine Islands of St. Vincent. 28 2.1 (1) Area by forest land class, St. Vincent, 'i J84. 40 2.1 (2) Proportion of forest land by watershed region and elevation, St. Vincent, 1984. 41 2.2(1) Distribution of amphibian and reptile species, St. Vincent and the Grenadines. 51 2.2(2) Seabird species reported to breed in St Vincent and the Grenadines. 52 2.2(3) Non-marine mammal species occurring In St. Vincent and the Grenadines. 53 2.2(4) Biodiversity summary: St. Vincent and the Grenadines. 54 2.2(5) Flowering plants and ferns endemic to St. Vincent and the Grenadines. 54 2.2(6) Wildlife reserves declared under the 1987 Wildlife Protec;tlon Act In St. Vincent and the Grenadines 58 3.1 (1) Comrlbutlon of agriculture sector to GDP (millions EC$). 68 3.1 (2) of selected commodities, 1983-1989. 69 3.1 (3) production of selected agricultural commodities, 1984-1987. 70 3.1 (4) Number l,f holdings and area of vegetable crop h&rvested. 71 3.1 (5) Production, farm gate prices and value of output at current producer prices for selected fruit commodities in SVG, 1984-1987. 72 3.1 (6) Number of livestock on all holdings. 73 3.1 (7) DlstributlDn of livestock by size of livestock holding. 73 3.1 (8) Area (acres) of land holdings by land use, 1985-1986. 74 3.1 (9) St. Vincent land reform program. 75 4.1 (1) Monthly rainfall for selected areas, 1987. 82 4.1 (2) Water supply sources on St. Vincent (production figures). 87 5.1 (1) Summary of data on sea turtle populations In St. Vincent and the Grenadines. 99 6.1 (1) Energy sources for selected small islands. 118 6.3(1) Profile of DEVCO's Industrial estates, December 1989. 129 6.3(2) Water pollution and waste loads from industrial effluents, St. Vincent, 1982. 131 6.3(3) St. Vincent and the Grenadines Industrial waste disposal and its Impact on the coast and sea. 132 8.1 (1) Blacldes Imported Into St. Vincent during 1988 in quantities close to or exceeding 2,000 pounds (1 ton). 146 viii

PAGE 11

9.1 (1) 9.1 (2) 9.2(1) 9.2(2) 9.3(1) 10.3(1) Area by land classes, St. Vincent, 1984. Area of St. Vincent by land use/land tenure, 1980. Designated wildlife reserves, as per the 1987 Wildlife Protection Act, St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Proposed forest reserves/wildlife res9rves and recreation areas identified by CIDA Forestry Project. Population projections, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, 1980-2030. GSVG agencies with resource management functions, with principal legislation and responsibilities. ix 161 162 166 167 1n

PAGE 12

LIST OF FIGURES Figure No. Page 1.1 (1) Country location map, St. Vincent and the Grenadines. 2 1.1(2) location map for the Island of St. Vincent. 4 1.2(1) Caribbean Plate boundaries. 10 1.2(2) Surficial geology of St. Vincent. 12 1.2(3) Topography of St. Vincent. 13 1.2(4) Major soli types In St. Vincent. 15 1.2(5) Natural vegetation In St. Vincent, circa 1949. 19 1.2(6) Potential natural vegetation In 5t. Vincent, based on environmental factors. 20 1.3(1) 51. Vincent and the Grenadines national population curve, 1844-1989. 26 1.3{2) St. and the Grenadines national population age-sex structure. 29 1.3(3) Gross domestic product, 1980-1987. 30 1.3(4) Growth In per capita Income, St. Vincent and the Grenadines. 31 1.3(5) Economic contribution by sector. 32 1.3(6) Mejer classes of agricultural exports. 33 1.3(7} Exports to CARICOM. 33 1.3(8) St. Vincent and the Grenadines stay-over visitors. 34 1.3(9) 5t. Vincent and the Grenadines balance of trade. 34 1.3(10) St. Vincent and the Grenadines foreign-held debt. 35 1.3(11) St. Vincent and the Grenadines debt as a percent of GOP. 35 2.1 (1) Distribution of natural vegetation In St. Vincent, circa 1983. 42 2.1(2) Forest plantations surveyed by forestry team In 1984. 43 2.1(3) land above 1,000 feet In elevation. 46 2 1(1 ) Distribution map of the St. Vincent Parrot and boundaries of the Parrot Reserve. 56 2.2(28} L0C2.tlon of designated wildlife reserves, St. Vincent. 59 2.2(2b) Location of designated wildlife reserves, St. Vincent Grenadines. 60 4.1 (1) Raimailisohyetal map and rllJer drainage network In St. Vincent. 83 4.1(2) In St. Vincent. 84 4.1 (3) Location of existing water supply Intakes and hydropower sites. 86 4.1 (4) Major catchment areas In St. Vincent. 88 5.1 (1) Cc."sta! aroo, 100 m contour, St. Vincent and the Grenadines. 94 5.1 (2a) Major coastal ami marine habitats, St. Vincent. 96 5.'1 (2b) Major coastal and marine habitats, St. Vincent Grenadines. 97 5.2{1a) Sandy beaches and dunes In St. Vincent, plus quarries and sites by sand removal. 104 5.2(1 b) Sandy beaches and dunes In the St. Vincent Grenadines. 105 of ra1.11s In the Tobago Cays, St. Vincent Grenadines. 109 5.2{3a) location of des!gnaioo marine conservation areas In St. Vincent, as established by the) Fisheries Act and Regulations. 111 .'5.2 (3b) LtlCBt!on of desIgnated marine conservation areas In the Grenadines, as estaJiished by the Fisheries Act and Regulations. 112 x

PAGE 13

6.1 (1) Energy resources, 5t. Vincent. 119 Major transportation Infrastructure In 5t. Vincent. 126 6.2{1b) Major transportation Infrastructure In the Grenadines. 127 7.1 (1) Tourism growth. 135 7.1(2) First tourist entries, 5t. Vincent vs. the Grenadines. 135 7.1 (3) Entries by air, 5t. Vlncer,t VS. the Grenadlne:l. 136 7.1 (4) Changes In sea arrivals, 5t. Vincent VS. the Grenadines. 136 8.1{1a) Location of some pollution problems In St. Vincent. 142 8.1{1b) Location of some pollution problems In the Grenadines. 143 9.1 (1) 51. Vincent land use In 1976, as Identified In the 1976 5t. Vincent Developmant Plan. 156 9.1 (2) 5t. Vincent land use capability, as Identified In the 1976 5t. Vincent Natloilal Development Plan. 157 9.2{1a) Location of designated or proposed protected areas In 5t. Vincent. 164 9.2{1b) Location of designated or proposed protected areas In the Grenadines. 165 9.2(2) Proposed 50ufrlere National Park, 5t. Vincent. 170 9.2(3) Proposed Canouan National Park. 171 9.2(4) Designated or proposed protected areas In Union Island and Prune Island. 172 9.3(1) 5t. Vincent and the Grenadines national population projections, 1980-2030. 1n 9.3(2) 5t. VlncE'lnt and the Grenadines national labor force projections. 178 xi

PAGE 14

ARDP BOD CAR OATS CARICOM CARIPEDA CARIPOL CCA COB CDC CEHI CEP CFTC CIDA CITES CLOS CPO CPU CTO CTRC CWMP CWSA CZM DEVCO ECNAMP EDF EEC EEZ EHO EIA FAO GOP GSVG GTZ HIAMP IARM ICBP ICOD lOB I FAD IICA IPM IRF ACRONYMS 'JSED IN THE COUNTRY ENVIAO "MENTAL PROFILE Agricultural Rehabilitation and Diversification Project British Development Division Caribbean Agricultural Rural Development Advisory and Training Service Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute Caribbean Community Caribbean People's Development Agency Caribbean Pollution Program of UNEP Caribbean Conservation Association Caribbean Development Bank Commonwealth Development Corporation Caribbean Environmental Health Institute Country Environmental Profile Commonwealth Fund for Technical Cooperation Canadian International Development Agency Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna United Nations Law of the Sea Convention Central Planning Division Central Planning Unit Caribbean Tourism Organization (formerly Ceribbean Tourism Research and Development Center) Caribbean Tourism Research and Development Center Cumberland Watershed Management Project Central Water anc Sewerage Authority Coastal Zone Management St. Vincent and the Grenadines Development Corporation Eastern Caribbean Natural Area Management Program (renamed 1989 as Caribbean Natural Resources Institute, CANARI) European Development Fund European Economic Community Exclusive Economic Zone Environmental Health Officer Environmental Impact Assessment Food SlId Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Gross Domestic Product Government of St. Vincent and the Grenadines German Agency for Technical Co-operation (Deutsches Gessellschaft fur Technlsche Zusammenarbeit) High Impact Agricultural Marketing and Production (USAID) Inter-Agency Resident Mission International Council for Bird Pres&rvation International Center for Ocean Development (Canada) Inter-American Development Bank Intarnatlonal Fund for Agricultural Development Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture Integrated Pest Management Island Resources Foundation xii

PAGE 15

IUCN LAC MAR POL NCS NFPP NGO NRSE OAS OECS OECS-NRMP ORO OTA PADF PAHO PPC PPDB PPU PSIP SNA SNAP SVAIA SVBGA SVG SVPPA SWCUT TFR UNDP UNEP USAID USAID/RDO/C USEPA UWI VINLEC WHO WINBAN WRI WWF International Union for the of Nature and Natural Resources Latin America and the Caribbean International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships National Conservation Strategy National Family Pianning Program Non-Government Organization New and Renewable Sources of Energy Organization of American States Organization of Eastern Caribbean StateJ Organization of Eastern Caribbean States-Natural Resources Management Project Organization for Rural Development Office of Technology Assessment (U.S. Congruss) Pan American Development Foundation Pan American Health Organization Planning and Priorities Committee Physical Planning and Development Board Physical Planning Unit Public Sector Investment Program System of Nationa; Accounts St. Vincent Natiollal AgriCUltural Plan St. Vincent Arrowroot Industry Association St. Vincent Banana Growers Association St. Vincent and the G;'enadines St. Vincent Planned Parenthood Association Soil and Water Conservation Unit rotal Fertility Rate United Nations Development Program United Nations Environment Program U.S. Agency for International Development U.S. Agency for International Development/ Regional Development Office ICaribbean U.S. Environmental Protection Agency University of the West Indies St. Vincent Electricity Services Ltd. World Health Organization Windward Islands Banana Growers Association World Resources Institute World Wildlife Fund xiii

PAGE 16

ACBREVIA liONS USED IN THE COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE ao acre kV kilovolt BOO blochetl ,leal oxygen demand kW kilowatt em centlm8\,r kWh kilowatt-hour EC$ Eastern Caribbean Dollar I/s liter per SfJcond ft foot Ib pound g gram m meter gpcl gallons per day MGD 'l1i1lion gallons per day ha hectare ml mile In Inch ML millions of liters kg kilogram mm milimeter kgoe kilograms of all equivalent MW megawatt km kilometfjf TOE TlJnnes of Oil Equivalent kn knot US$ American Doliar (US$1.00 = EC$2.67) CONVERSION CO-EFFICIENTS BETWEEN IMPERIAL MEASURES AND WEIGHTS AND THE METRIC SYSTEM IMPERIAL METRIC SYSTEM LENGTH 1 Inch 2.540 centlmotres 0.39370 inch 1 centimetre 1 yard 0.91440 mstre 1 metre 1 rnile 1.609 kilometres 0.6214 mile 1 kilometre 1 fathom (6 feet) 1.829 metres AREA 1 square foot 0.093 square metre 10.6 square feet 1 square metre 1 acre 0.405 hectare 2.411 aeres 11\ectare 1 square mile 2.59 square kilometres 0.386 square mile 1 square kilometre VOLUME 1 pint 0.568 litre 1.76 pints 1 litre 1 gallon 4.546litres 0.220 gallon 1 litre 1 cubic foot 0.028 cubic metre 35.31 cubic feet 1 cubic metre WEIGHT 1 pound 0.4536 kilogram 2.205 pounds 1 kilogram 1 long ton 1016 kilograms 1 short ton 901.185 kilograms 0.9842 long ton 1 tonne (1.000 kilogramz) 1.102322 short ton 1 tonne (1.000 kilograms) TEMPERATURE Conversion F to C: Conversion C to F: subtract 32 and multiply by 1.8 and divide by 1.8 add 32 xiv

PAGE 17

INTRODUCTION Preparation of Environmental Pro mes (CEPs) has proven to be an effective means to help ensure that environmental is sues are addressed in the development pro cess. Since 1979, the U.S. Agency for Inter national Development (USAID) has sup ported Environmental Profiles in USAID T: sisted countries, principally iII Latin America and tne Caribbean. CEPs completed to date provided: (1) a des{:ription of each coun try's natural resource base, includ ing a review of the extent and eco nomic importance of natural re sources and changes in the quality or productivity of those resources; (2) a review of the institutions, legislation, policies programs for environmental planning, eco l'omic development and natural re source management; (3) identification of the major issues, conflicts or problems in nat ural resource and opportunities for effective re sponses. Profiles have highlighted gaps in the existing information base, influenced the design and funding of development programs, pinpointed weaknesses in regulatory or planning mecha nisms, and illustrated the need for changes in policies. Most importantly, the process of car rying out a profile project has in many cases served to strengthen local institutions and to hnprove their capacity for incorporating envi ronmental information into development planning. PROFILES FOR THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN Country Environmental Promes have been prepared for several countries in the Wider Caribbean Region, including Panama, Belize, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Jamaica. The potential utility of CEPs in the Eastern xv Caribbearl sub-region (essentially the OECS cQuntriel:) has Leen a subject of discussion sirce the early 1980's. The need for the pro filing process to begin in countries was reaffirmed during a seminar on Industry, En vironment and Deveiopment sponsored by lhe Caribbean Conservation Association (CCA) and the University of the West Indies in August 1986. Shortly thereafter, USAID entered into a Co operative Agreement with CCA for prepara tion of a series of CEPs for the Eastern Carib bean. It was decided to begin the profile pro cess in the country of St. Lucia as a pilot pro ject, to be followed by profiles for Grenada, Antigua-Barbuda, Dominica, St. Kitts-Nevis, and st. Vincent and the Grenildines. Early in 1987, CCA and the Island Resources Fcundation (lRF), of St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, entered into an agreement whereby it was determined that IRF would provide technical assistance and support to CCA in the execution of '.he profile project in the Eastern Caribbean. The Executive Director of the Caribbean Conservation Association is the CEP Project Director, while the President of the Island Resources Foundation serves as CEP Project Manager ITeam Leader. THE ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE Early in 1990 a Memorandum of Under standing (MOU) was signed by CCA and the Government of St. Vincent and the Grenadines (GSVG) for the purpose of executing a Country Environmental Profile, with the recently established Ministry of Health and the Environment serving as the designated counterpart agency for the Government. At the same time, the St. Vincent National Trust was designated by CCA and GSVG as the local implementing anci coordinating organization for the CEP project.

PAGE 18

A CEP National Committee was formed as an advisory, technical information, and re,;ew body for the project in SI. Vincent and the Grenadines. The CEP Committee is an officially designated sub-committee of the National Environmental Protection Task which was created in 1989 to advise the Minister of the newly established Ministry of Health and the Environment. Like the Task Force itself, CEP Sub-Committee included represen tatives from GSVG departments with environmental responsibilities as well as persons representing private sector emironmental or ganizations. The Cl:P National Committee was called on to assist (he aad writing team from the Island Resourcv; fou>1dation in drafting the CEP report outline, identifying critical environmental issues, obtaining reference materials, and coordinating the in-country review of materials prepar..:d by the CEP technical team. The commencement of the CEP Project in St. Vincent and the Grenadines in February of 1990 coincided with establishment of a new headquarters office by the St. Vincent National Trust in Kingstown. A library of environmental reference materials was estahlished at this location with documents provided by IRF and others. This collection will form the nucleus of a National Trust environmental library or information center which will con tinue to serve the community long after the completion of the Profile Project. The draft Profile Report was prepared during a five month period, February June, 1990, with draft chapters circulated to in-country re viewers for comments and input a5 each was readied by the CEP technical team. The full CEP document, in final" format, was completed in June and widely disseminated for fmal revil!w both in St. Vincent and to other reviewers in the Caribbean region. ORGANIZATION OF THE ST. VINCENT CEPREPORT As deterllt;ned by the St. Vincent and the Grenadines CEP National Committee and the xvi IRF technical writing team, this Profile has been organized in ten primary sections plus an EXECtJIlVE SUMMARY section which intro duces and summarizes the country's critical el1.vironmental issues. SEcnON ONE provides background informa tion on the general environmental setting of the country and also briefly reviews historical, economic and demographic features. SEL110N lWO brgins a review of the country's resource base, including a discussion of pri mary environmental issues within each key re source sector. SEcnON lWO focuses on Forests and Wildlife, SEcnON I1IREE on Agriculture and Watershed Management; SECTION FOUR reviews the country's Water Resources while SEcnON AVE specjfically deals with Coastal and Marine Rcsoui'ces. The Profile moves away from an cX(I.mination of the physical environment to con:.ider Energy, Transportation and Industry issues in SECllON SIX and Tourism issues in SEcnON SEVEN. Pollution and Environmental Health are the subjects of SECllON EIGHT. The topics of land use planning, development control, parks, and other protected area pro grams are jointly examined in SEcnON NINE, along with issues related to environmental ed ucation and family planning education. The final chapter, SEcnON TEN focuses on the institutional framework for environmental management in St. Vincent and the Grenadines, including an overview of key agencies and organizations with resource management and development responsibili ties. A comprehensive bibliography of source ma terials dealing with natural resource develop ment and environmental management is found at the end of the Profile. Most refer ences ciled deal specifically with St. Vincent and the Grenadines or with the Easterr. Caribbean sub-region. It is the most thorough assemblage of such reference material on St. Vincent and the Grenadines to be published to date.

PAGE 19

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The St. Vincent and the Grenadines Country Envi.ronmental Profile serves as a "catchment" for identifying environmental is sues within the state. Most issue statements which surfaced ul'ring the writing of the Pro file and which are elaborated within this document constitute a national work list for which somc modicum of consensus has al ready been established. They could also be used t.:onstructively as a guide for a nationwide environmental education program. lJ nder t he best of circumstances, this Profile and its action recommendations could and lead directly to the design and im plementation of a lIational coIIScTl'atioll stratt;gy or its equivalent. At the very least, the document stands as an addendum to St. Vincent's development stratc!,'Y and public sector investment program. What is mmt needed at jUI1<:ture is a policy framework and a schedule of implementation. There are two groups of issues ad dressed within the Profile. The first is derived from the sector review and analysis which constitute the chapters of the CEP which folloy!. For the convenie(lce of the reader, the sector-specific issues and recommendation accompar:y each sector overview statement and are clearly identified within each cnapter or sub-chapter. The second, smaller group of critical environmental issues and recommendations -more national and less sectorial in scope have been singled out and presented in this Executive Summary. There is a risk in doing this, for no issue should be considered in iso lalion. There are impfJftar.. linkages, and the inter-relatedness of elements within both nal uraI and human ecosystems cunstitL'.es an im portant concept for the Vincentian resource manager. Solutions generally require int".r disciplinary and inter-ministerial cooperation and coordination and are seldom as neat and orderly as thp.ir presentation in list form would suggest. XVII CRITICAL FACTORS OR "IMPERATIVES" Essential features on which policies depend are called key inputs, variables, or "imperatives"; they are considered critical for future development and must be addressed. Imperatives are nol options from which the government may cho()se a policy. If any of them is disregarded, the policy will fail and, in extreme cases, some kind cf national catas trophe (environmental, economic, social or political) will follow. In short, imperatives are not negotiable. may be used 4:!.S a yard stick by which to measure the of previous policies and as a basis for compaiing the merits of alternative fulure strategies. They are inter-rel
PAGE 20

marine ecosysrcms ID..\d fJH,ill'taining the habi tat of plan'is and animals; -creating national and marine for the public to enjoy this heritage_ (4) Sustmnable Outp:4t: generating the largest pos,sibk output of produr.ts from each sector, (.'''l [I sL.!stain(1/}!e basis. Tb,\!; means that the growth of each scrim and ;. \ dfects on aU other t":ctors must be ;nonltored so that 110 sect,cw grows .l.I the I!xpense of the others. Any gi'lcn .;eciH slwu!d be allowerl to grow only to tb poim where it maKes its op timal contribution to gross dnme:ilic product, foreign exdJetnge, employment and investment while :naint3ining the and quality of the natural and human ecosystem. This villi allow the l{)tentiClI of each secter for meeting nation's socio economic r,eeds and aspirations to be reabzed over the long term. (5) Public Participation: widening range of partic:pation in all aspects of devel opment, especially land and natural resource allocation decision." so that all clements of the community have an 0ppoitunity (0 in volved in the process. Private citi;'.cns and non-government organi7.illions should share in the costs and thr work of mnserving the national heritage, thereby redt::cing ihe strair. on government resources. (6) Public awareness: to be devel oped about the vital role of Dltural resources in national s6cio-economic development, in order for all citizens tD appreciate the extent to which they depend on these resources for their survival. To these six impera.ives identified by McHenry and Gane may be added a seventh: (7) Coastal and Mfln'nc Environment: the need to manage coastal and mr-rine re sources, including mangrow'c;, beaches, coral reefs, seagrass beds, water quality, wildlife :and fish stocks, and aesthetic qualities so as con serve these resoun;es and aSS1Jfe their opti mum and sustainable long-term use. 08bTACLES TO Effective action to sustain and de velop all natural resource sectors is hampered by several major socio-economic obstacles in St. Vincent and the Grenadices at the present: (1) Inadequate basis for resource managcnw!t. iviosi historical, cultl>ral, and natural resourcts canllot be effectively pro tecled or managed until the are) they occupy is secmed. Marine com;ervation areas have already bce.n dt'&lgnated. Alt:lOugh large parts of the primary 11, 1atersheds covering the upper catchments
PAGE 21

and large areas of crown lands are occupied illegally by squatters. Deforestation for agriculture and fuelwood is causing widespread erosion. Heavy use of agricultural chemicals by small farmers in 'he upper wa tersheds increases the risk of polluting drink ing water, rivers, aquifers and coastal waters. At lower elevations, most land is privately owned, and there is no effective control of its use. Cultivation on precipitous slopes affects stream flow, causes serious erosion and silta tion, and may endanger lives due to landslides. Although it r
PAGE 22

less, beC
PAGE 23

(2) CONTROL OF ILLEGAL ACTlVITIES IN WATER CATCHMENT AREAS, FOREST RESERVES AND MARINE CONSEm'A nON AREAS Existing legislation provides for the protection of water catchments, crown lands and forest reserves against illegal squatting, deforestation, pollution by agricultural chemi cals and erosion. There is also legislation prohibiting illegal fishing, mining, dredging, and pollution in marine conservation areas. Most of this legislation is widely ignored and inadequately enforced. Revised legislation for forestry and water resources management is currently under review by GSVG. In order to protect drinking water quality, a solution to the problem" with its environmental ramifications in critical water catchment.;, i.e., deforestation and ex tensive use of agrochemicals --needs to be identified. Additionally, effective regulation of biocide imports and use should be imple mented. The required technical information on biocides already exists, a land reform pro gram is uncierway, and surveys of catchments and crown lands are now in progress (see Sections 2, 3 and 8). The remaining diffi{;ul ties appear to be primarily social and political rather than technical; solutions will therefore depend on Government's ability to implement the regulatory and enforcement provisions of pending legislative reforms, rather than on further research or technical assistance. Ru:ommendatioll. A system for effective watershed and catchment area man agement needs to be put in place as rapidly as possible, squatters must be relocated, and steps must be taken to restore those areas which have already been damaged. Recommendation. Management plans are needed for all designated marine conservation areas. Signs and markers advising thl! public of the existence and boundaries of marine conservation areas, and the restrictions which apply within them, should be posted immediately in appropriate locations. This is especially needed in the Indian BayViUa-Calliaqua area in St. Vincent and in the Tobago Cays. xxi (3) COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT ISSUE: CONTROL OF SAND MINING AND COASTAL EROSION One causative factor responsible for widespread beach erosion appears to be the on-going mining of sand and aggregate from virtually all beaches, a situation encouraged by a lack of tnforcement of existing Alternate sources of aggregate and specific beaches fOi" sand mining have been desig nated, at least on St. Vincent proper. The Ministry of Agriculture has been designated as tbe lead agency for beach and coastal con servation, and legislative revisions are cur rently under review. Again, the remaining difficulties arpear to be primarily political rather than technical, and ultimate solutions will depend on Government's ability to im plement the regulatory and enforcement pro visions of existing laws and pending legislative reforms. Although it has been recommended that GSVG consider beach renourishment with dredged sand to restore the tourist beaches on the south side of St. Vincent (e.g., Villa-Indian Bay-Calliaqua), this poses con siderable danger of destroying the nearshore coral reefs which produce the white sand on which the area's popularity as a recreational and tourist destination depends. This are.a has also been designated as a marine conservation !lite because it ha!; the best reef developmeut in St. Vincent. The reefs here are already under stress from nutrient enrichment and sedimentation, and their further degradation would imperil the long-term viability of thr. economically vital recreation:ll beaches. GSVG should establish workable coordination linkages be tween the Ministry of Co'.nmunications and Works and the Ministry of Agriculture re garding jurisdiction and responsibilities for protection of the nalion's t-eaches. A pro gram ni!eds to be established to educate the public about the severity of the problem and about the existing law and penailies for its vi olation. Law enforcement officers need to be given authority io arrest violators of the beach protection legislation, and those so charged need lo be vigorously prosecuted.

PAGE 24

* Recommendation: A study of the beaches and reef systems on St. Vincent's south shore should be undertaken by experts in beach dynamics and reef biology, with a view to reducing man-made disturbances and enhancing natural regenerative capacities without artificial beach -renourishment-. The effects of removing the various groins which impede longshore movement of sand should be and measures should be taken to improve the water quality in the Calliaqua Bay area. (4) SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Solid waste disposal practices are in adequate. Most of the population disposes of its waste in any convenient place, including roadsides, streams, the shorelines and beaches, and open fields. Citizens in the countryside and in most villages and towns have no garbage collection sen-ices, and such designated disposal sites as there are operate as unsightly and unsanitary open dumps which are continually smoldering, contributing to both water and air pollutiol! and the hazard of disease. Many of the designated dump sites are located in environmentally inappropriate places such as in wetlands and along river banlts. There are no programs aimed at waste recycling or source reduction and no provision for safe disposal of toxic wastes. Recommendation. The Central Water and Sewerage Authority (CWSA), which already has sanitary engineering exper tise, should be given the authority to manage solid waste disposal throughout the country (if CWSA is not granted this authority, then it should lend necessary technical support to the designated responsible department). A wsolid waste mandate" should include authority to define criteria for the siting of dumps, to sur vey and purchase necessary land, to conduct feasibility studies in source reduction and recycling of solid waste, and to explore alter native means of disposal. The designated au thority should also be responsible for all as pects of the operation of the disposal sites as sanitary landfills, including the authority to charge fees for waste disposal; such fees should be earmarked for a special a<.'count used for operation and maintenance of XXII equipment. Funding should be sought from donor agencies for purchase of equipment to operate the landfills. Recommendation. Consideration should be given to privatizing garbage collec tion and to approval of a fee structure to be used by private companies providing this ser vice. An appropriate GSVG authority, such as the Public Health Department, should li cense such companies and should have the power to rescind franchises if collectors do not perform satisfactorily. Ret:ommendation. Existing indus tries discharging toxic and/or high-BOD wastes into the environment should be identi fied and required to treat their wastes and clean up already polluted areas. A system of fines should be implemented for violators, with the monies collected going into a special fund for environmental dean-up and restora tion. (5) PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF OIL AND HAZARDOUS MA TERlALS SPILLS The potential occurrence of oil and hazardous materials spills, which pose a threat to the beaches and marine communities as well as the groundwater resources of the na tion, is an issue not presently being addressed. This is especially important in the islands of the Grenadines, which are close to heavily used shipping lanes and where tourist beaches and extensive shallow-water marine ecosys tems are very vulnerable to such spills. Recommendation. An oil and haz ardous materials spill contingency plan should be prepared and implemented. Legislation is needed to require proper disposal of waste automotive oil and hazardous materials, and facilities to accomplish this must be provided. Rec.>mmendation. The nation"s maritime legislation gives St. Vincent and the Grenadines authority to regulate ship traffic and pollution within its exclusive economic zone (EEZ) as defined by the law. This au thority should be used to set up a traffic sepa ration system for oil tankers passing through

PAGE 25

the EEZ, and such traffic should be prohib ited in high-hazard areas. At the same time, it is recognized that a regional system of pollu tion control is required since a pollution problem could originate from a source beyond nat;onal waters and affect more than one country. (6) ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES Recommendation. Tile prepara tion of environmental impact assessment (EIA) reports should be required of all pro posed major projects, especially industrid projects and those in the coastal zone, before they are granted development permits. Reg ulations should be prepared by the Central Planning Division which provide standardized requirements and guidelines for the content of such reports. (7) STRENGTHENING OF RESOURCE M4NAGEMENT UNITS OF GC;VERNMENT St. Vincent is presently moving in the di rection of concentrating environmental re sponsibilities in a line mIDistry -the newly established Ministry of Health and the Environment. However, some resource management responsibilities already reside in departments outside of the Ministry of Health and the Environment. Moreover, the new Ministry has not yet developed its environ mental portfolio, and there is not a dermed structure under which its environmental re sponsibilities are to be carried out. At the same time, an ambitious body of proposed environmental legislation is cur rently under consideration by Government in the following areas: forest resource conserva tion, water resources management, national park development, planning and development control, public health, pesticide regulation, and litter control. Recommendation. GSVG needs to address as soon as possible the institutional ization of environmental responsibilities within the Ministry of Health and the Envi ronment; consideration should be given to the establishment of a Department of the Envi ronment within the Ministry, with clearly mandated responsibilities. Coordination of the Ministry's environmental management re sponsibilities with other GSVG agencies needs to be established, perhaps through an institutionally strengthened Environmental Protection Task Force. Recommendation. The lack of ade quate technical, monitoring, and enforcement personnel is often cited as the reason for the inability of GSVG departments to effectively enforce existing environmental and resource management legislation. Staffing problems will be exacerbated if proposed new environ mental legislation is enacted in the near fu ture. Therefore, with the assistance of donor agencies, GSVG needs to examine the techni cal and regulatory implications of the full spectrum of existing and proposed environ mental legislation and take steps now to im prove both the quantity and quality of staff re quired for implementation, particularly middle-level management and technical staff. RECOMMENDATIONS RELATED TO THE MOST CRITICAL ISSUES IDENTIFIED IN THE (,.QUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE The Medium Term (8) liQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT The only two municipal sewerage systems in the country service one small area of downtown and another small area in the Kingstown suburb of Aroos Vale. The remaining population relies on pit privies and a small number of septic tank systems or else has no sanitary disposal facilities at all. Rivers and coastal waters are polluted by xxiii

PAGE 26

human excreta, and there is increasing risk to public health ac; a result. In add1tion to the urban areas and villages, one e<;peciall;' critical marine area is the Indiati BayViIlaYoung hlund-Calliaqua Carellage complex, where St. Vincent's best examples of shallow-water reefs, white sand recreationv] beaches, snorkeling Jnd sport wving facilities, yacht anchorages and impor tant tOurist hotels are located. The reefs here appear to be under considerable stress, pre sumab:y from liquid wastes ar;d sediments from land (see Section 5). ')incc the contin ued viability of all the recreational and tourism in this area depends on protecting the bealth of the reefs, it is dear that action must be taken s,)on to reduce the wastewater and sediment pollution load en tering the bay. Recommendation. most cosl effective and ecologically sound sewage dis posal option nl!eds to be identified and then implemented for all urban of St. Vincent as soon as Giv:!n the fact that it is crucial to both public health hazards and enrichment of nearshore waters, and taking UI.tO consideration existing techno logical and fi.nailcial constraints, that option is likely to be primary ireatment of sewage com bined with a long outfall which discharbes into deep water in an area of strong currents. Such waste disposal systems should be de signed to be easily upgraded to a high.:!r level of treatment :ihould this prove. to be :ecessary later. This solution for sewage disposal may be difficuh if r,ot impossible to implement in some places in the Grenadines, due to the shallow shelf area and reefs. Recommendation. Solving the liq uid waste poliution problems in the Indian Bay-Calliaqua will probably require con struct!on of a sewerage system. Other mea sures may be considered, e.g., retrofitting ex isting hotels and houses ,,,ith septic tank 5yS terns and grease lra.ps, imp:lsiJ.lg and enforcing building density ctmtrols and strict waste dis posal requirements on neVi developmen
PAGE 27

agenda in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. While encouraging steps have been taken through the provision of family planning edu cation and services, a greater effort will be re quired to accomplish the stated goals of the country's National Population Policy. This will involve, among other things, increased efforts to deal with the major underlying so cial and economic constraints which influence efforts to curb high birth rates. Underlying cultural factors could be better identified and clarified by carrying out a national "knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practicesW survey to guide family planning policy makers. Educational and outreach activilies need to be continued, but other options for facilitating change should not be neglected, such as ex pansion of facilities for services or efforts to Improve the cooperation of medical practi tioners. (10) DEVELOPMENT CONTROL The existing Physical Planning and Development Guidelines could form the basis for legally adopted regulations to the Town and Country Planning Act, but they would have to be strengthened by the addition of standards for different types of development activities, the inclusion of environmental im pact assessment requirements, and provisions for the regulation of public sector, and agricultural developments. A draft revision of the Town and Country Act, including regula tions, has been submitted to Government for review. Recommendation. Consideration should be given to updating the institutional structure and legal powers of the Physical Planning and DeVelopment Board (PPDB) so that it can require other GSVG agencies to comply with its decisions and regulations; a more effective system of development control, including monitoring and enforcement re sponsibilities, is also needed. A technical ad visory group should be created to support the :xxv PPDB in decision-making related to inte grated watershed management. Recommendation. The Central Planning Division (CPO) needs to create and maintain (I. functional lund use data base and information management system, including new large scale aerial photographs and land use maps, up-to-date cadastral maps, and land ownership information. There is a need to in crease the level of training in information management withiu the CPO and to provide a capability for on-going monitoring of land use changes. Recommt:ndation. Legislation is needed to require the preparation of envi ronmental impact assessments for major pro jects, especially within the coastal zone and other critical areas identified in the Profile. Appropriate standards for development should be included in the legislativn now pending before GSVG and, when enacted, such standards should be rigorously enforced. An institutional capability for interpreting, and later carrying out, the technical aspects of environmental impact assessment needs to be created within the cpn and other appropriate GSVG agencies. (11) INITIATE BASELINE SURVEYS AND LONG-TERM MONITORING OF FORESTS, CORAL REEFS, SEA GRASS BEDS AND MANGROVES IN PROTECTED AREAS Recommendation: A long-term water quality and marine biological monitor ing program should be implemented as soon as possible, in order to gather baseline data, to determine the impacts of liquid waste disposal from urban areas and industrial sites and to oetermine the need for remedial action. Laboratory and personnel capabilities in the country will have to be upgraded in order to accomplish this.

PAGE 28

RECOMMENDATIONS RELATED TO THE MOST CRITICAL ISSUES IDENTIFIED IN THE COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE The Long Term (12) LONG-TERM SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN Recommendation. A solid W:.lste management plan should be prepared for a minimum period of twenty years. From a financial viewpoint, in the short term, a prop erly operated sanitary landfill is likely to be the most attractive option for solid waste dis posal. However, over the long term, strategies to reduce the quantity of solid waste and to promote a variety of ;ecycling options also need to be explored -ideally as a collabora tion between Government and the retail trade sector in order to assure that such schemes are organized on economically defensible grounds. (13) INTEGRATED NATIONAL PARKS AND PROTECTED AREAS SYSTEM Recommendation. A national parks and protected areas plan is needed to ensure that aU critical natural and cultural re sources receive adequate protection and that management is carried out in an integrated fashion. A single agency should be given the task of coordinating resource management in parks and protected areas. Allocation of manpower resources for enforcement and management activities should be made on the basis of priorities set out in the plan. Recommendation. Critical areas -such as habitat for endangered and threatened species, important watersheds and catchment areas, aquifers, wetlands, beaches, marine re serves, major diving sites, forest reserves and recreation areas, wildlife reserves, scenic vistas and roads, historic and archaeological sites, and natural tourist attractions --should be delineated on national land use maps for incorporation into a national parks and pro tected areas system. (14) NATIONAL LAND USE PLAN, EMPHASIZING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, MANAGEMENT OF GROWTH AND MAINTENANCE OF BIODIVERSITY '" RecommendatiGn. A national land use plan needs to be prepared, incorporating and updating some or all of the many sectoral plans which have been written and focussing on the means of achieving sustainable devel opment over the long term. The land use plan should attempt to guide future development into areas which are best suited ior particular kinds and densities of land use, based on physical and ecological constraints as well as national social and economic priorities. The watershed should be adopted as the appropri ate management unit for land use planning. The prepara tion of new land use maps should be the initial step in the process of designing a land use and growth management plan for the nation. The degree of correlation between land capability and present land use should be determined after new land use maps are generated, and areas in which there are serious discrepancies should receive priority attention for remedial and/ or restoration programs. (15) COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT The coastal zone is t".e most heavily utilized and heavily populated area of St. Vincent. In the Grenadines, because of the size of the islands, the coastal zone in effect constitutes the primary resource management unit. Future growth of the country's tourism industry is dependent on implementation of policies which promote the orderly develop ment and sustainable use of the coastal zone. Nevertheless, significant environ mental problems affecting the coastal zone were identified in the course of preparing the Country Environmental Profile, some of xxvi

PAGE 29

which have been discllssed in this Executive Summary. These include: Accelerated wpiecemeal w de/el opment of the coastal zone, with minimum consideration of the cumlllative efftcts of coastal de velopment projects and activities; Unregulated removal oi sand and vege,tation in the coastal zone re sulting in increased rates of coastal erosion; Increasing threats to marine life and marine ecosystems as a result of unregulated development ac tivities not only in the coastal zone but in upland watershed areas; Failure of artificial barriers to withstand the erosive force of sea swells during periods of high wave activity; In the absence of a coastal set back requirement, increased risk of coastal flooding and destruction of structures in the coastal zone during periods of high tide and heavy sea swells. Government's overall approach to these and other development problems in the coastal zone has 13ckcd cohereacc and has generally been one characterized by an ad IIoc, case-by-case response. Recommendation. In addition to other recommendations in this Executive Summary which foclls on the coastal zone (e.g., sec nos. 1,2,3,4,5,6,8, !O, 11, 13, and 14), Government should seck donor assistance for preparation of a coastal zone ma:1agement (CZM) plan and follow-on CZM program; consideration should be given to designing a permitting system targeted at coastal developments, legislation to support the CZM program, training and oiher support for staff to implement the CZM program, monitoring and enforcement procedures for regulation of development in the coastal zone, and a public education campaign focused specifically on coastal environments and their critical importance to national development. xxvii

PAGE 30

Rne examples of vernacular architecture can still be in the country's of Kingstown, but the town's his torical architectural flavor is slipping away in the absence of enforced protedive legislation. AIl architectural en hancement and preservation program would greatly enhance :he long-term liveability and viability Of urban Kingstown's surviving of vernaculflr and colonial buildings. Arched arcaded buildings, such a the exam ple abo,'e, show a French influenco, although France held the island for only a short time in the late eighte6nth century. Traditional West Indian style buildings in Kingstowrl, featuring a cut stone and masonry first story and an overhung wooden second story, one without and two with standard verandas and fancy wooden railings.

PAGE 31

SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 1.1 HISTORICAL AND DESCR:PTIVE OVERVIEW OF THE NATION St. Vincent and the Grenadir.es is truly an archipelagic state composed of over 10 islands, islets and cays which extend from St. Vincent, the largest, southward for 45 miles toward the neighboring island coun try of Grenada (Figures 1.1(1) and 1.1(2. The smaller isles in the chain comprise the St. Vincent Grenadines, several of which are in habited -Bequia, Mustique, Canouan, Mayreau, Union, Palm, and Petit St. Vincent. The country is one of four Eastern Caribbean islands falling within the Windward Isl.md grouping, with another of the Windwards (St. Lucia) lying to the north and a second (Grenada) to the sl)uth. "Rugged anG mountainous w are the descriptive terms used most often to the topography or Vincent, the country's largest island and for the capital city of Kingstown. As the wrnainlandw of the nation of St. and the Grenadines (SVG), its high mountains cloaked in wet forests, nu merous rivers, and black sand beaches offer a contrast to the smaller islands of the Grenadines chain to the south. These 32 archipelagic islands and cays scattered over the Caribbean Sea present a vivid panorama of low dry hills, gleaming white beaches and clear blue water, numerous protected bays, and extensive coral reefs. The main island of St. Vincent is dominated by one large volcanic cone, La Soufriere, which rises to 4,000 feet in the north of the island. Dismissed prematurely in more recent times as dormant, La Soufriere erupte:d on Good Friday in 1979, thus explo sively ushering in the country's independen'e the same year. Earlier explosive eruptions recorded since the eighteenth century --oc curred in 1718, 1812, and 1902 and have influ enced the history, settlement patterns and vegetation of the island. Most significantly, the repeated eruptions have periodically de stroyed vegetation on the flanks of the vol cano, resulting in slopes of loose cinders ancl ash which revegetate very slowly. 1 Mountainous and fertile, St. Vincent proper is the world's leading producer of ar rowroot. Nevertheless, the country now sur vives by bananas and almost by bananas alone, for that single crop supports approximately 85 percent of St. Vincent's population and ac counts for the majority of agricultural exports -which in turn account for close to 100 pr.r cent of total exports (Courier, 1989). Most of the island below 1,000 feet has been cultivated for many years. This, however, is by no means the upper limit of cultivation, and many very steep slopes have been cleared and planted by shifting agricul turalists. However, significant stands of pri mary forest, some of it tropica1 rain forest, remain on the largely inaccessible interior mountain ridges and at the heads of the deep, steep valleys of the leeward coast. This desig nated protected forest area provides the re habitat for the endangered st. Vincent Parrut and other wildlife, but it is coming under increasingly heavy pressure from squatters. The Grenadines stand somewhat apart from the main islanU. Noted for their beaut.flll white sandy beaches, excel!ent sail ing waters, and internationally acclaimed re sort communities, some of these islands (like Mustique) are privately owned, or virtually so, and have more recently been host to royalty and stars of the entertainment world. The protected waters of the Tobago Cays, now designated a marine reserve, have become a haven for avid snorkelers and divers. Several of the Grenadines, in particular Bequia, were once whaling islands, from the lai.e nineteenth to early twentieth century during a time when these waters were a favorite hunting ground of American whalers. Today the Grenadines are a community of small farmers, fishermen, boat-builders and sailors (Frank, 1976).

PAGE 32

61' SAINT VINCENT AND 61' St, Vincent THE GRENADINES @ 0 0 + -t .. 0 I I 0 13' Parish boundary National capital Parish capital Town, village Road Airport Airstrip Elevalion in melres 10 km 6 mi CARIBBEAN SEA Wot .. e,y" Derric o Petit Nevis ange HIli CHARLOTIE 61' 13' SAINT VINCENT 13' 13"00' Pr' 8 QU8tre gJn' OSlnowiIJ '6slIliCellUI( ATLANTIC OCEAN 12' 12' Petit Clnoran!) lovell ViII": 'Mustique 'tj-R.bbit Petir Mustique ,PS.votn Je ... C8nou8n L 'Islar Ch .. lestown North Nt eotrholic ayreau Channel Old W811;/:;)M8 Y':8U So li T obIJgo City. lith Nt .5.1 Rock ll!lreau Ch annei Chiton Prune Martinique Channel 61 Petir St, Vincent q 61' 61n' 12"50' A TUNTIC OCEAN ..... .. a \) CARIBBEAN SEA a ST, VINCENT 0 AND THE GRENADINES _l. 61' Figure 1.1 (1). Country location map. St. Vincent and the Grenadines (source: GSVG. 1986b). 2

PAGE 33

To the casual visitor, the Grenadines of St. Vincent appear to be the prototypic tropical dream i51and of tourist brochures and posters --rolling hills ending in gleaming, palm-fringed beaches, clear water in multiple shades of blue, and reefs to entice the more adventurous. This surface appearance, while eminently marketable, disguises more deeply-entrenched and inter-connecting socio econoiTic a;)d ecological problems. For example, Government has embarked on an ambitious tourism development program to stimulate a depressed economy. Unfortu nately, the large influx of cruise ship and air tourist arrivals to Bequia, Union and other islands is now causing increasingly serious infrastructural, socio-cultural and ecological stress. The reets of the Tobago Cays, long a noted attraction for visiting yachtsmen, have recently suffered a marked decline which has been variously attributed to overfishing, poliution from transient boats, and careless diving practices. The actual cause or causes re main elusive and conjectural. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Uke many of its Caribbean neigh bors, tbe early history of St. Vincent was en acted against a backdrop of colonial warfare between the Frem:h .md British. Closely en meshed within that rivalry was a second strug gle, that of the indigenous Carib Indians who long and determinedly fought to defend their island home against European incursions. Sighted by Christopher Columbus in 1498 on the feast day of St. Vincent and named in honor of tbe saint, the island was not occupied by Europeanc; until the eigh teenth century. While Britain and France fought for possession of the Lesser Antilles, the indigenous Carib Indian populatIon (which had earlier conquered the more peaceful Arawak Indians) mounted a formiciable re sistance to settlement by either European power. In this struggle, the of St. Vincent were aided in no small measure by the island's rugged, mountainous terrain which afforded substantial protection against woul
PAGE 34

61'IS' 61' \'-' I \ I I I" "'... n'20' nOIS' BARROUALLI E 61"IS' Horne G.lrU f'ilontilins
PAGE 35

While warfare dominated the island's development in the eighteenth century, one notable achievement took place far from the battlefield, namely, the establishment of a botanical garden. The oldest such site in the Western Hemisphere, the Botanic Gardens of st. Vincent, was proposed and established by the military gove:-nor of the Windward Islands in 1765. n..s idea for the estab lishment of a government-supported botanical garden, similar to the famous Kew Gardens in England for Wthe cultivation and improvement of many plants now growing wild and the im portation of others from similar climates (Howard, 1954), immediately took hold, and 20 acres of woodland about a mile north of Kingstown were cleared and set aside for an experimental garden. Under the direction of Dr. Alexander Anderso'1, who was appointed in 1783, the garden flo'.Jrished and reached its peak of maintenance and inventory, including 1,170 species of commercial and medicinal plants, fruits, valuabk and ornarren tals. Among the most renowned introductions were nutmeg and breadfruit trees from Cap tain Bligh's voyage to the West Indies follow ing the infamous Bounty mutiny. After more than 200 years, the st. Vincent Botanic Gar dens are still a place of beauty with many interesti.ng and economically important plants (Birdsey, Weaver, and Nicholls, 1986; Howard, 1954; Howard and Howard, 1983). St. Vincent's rugged interior and small size made the island less attractive for the development of large-scale, plantation style agriculture during the decades when sugar cane dominated West Indian land scapes. Smaller estates, reflecting a diversity of agricultural production, were more repre sentative of settlement patterns in the seven teenth and into much of the eighteenth cen turies. Sugar did not become the dominant crop until late in the eighteenth century when planters from neighboring sugar islands like Antigua and Barbados began to settle in larger numbers in St. Vincent. By the end of the nineteenth century, the cane industry was struggling for survival, precipitatillg the island's early specialization in arrowroot production. The demise of sugar was accelerated by the occurrence of two en vironmental disasters at the end of the century 5 --a hurricane in September 1898, followed by a volcanic eruption in May 1902 which killed over 1,500 persons. The dual calamities drove many white planters from the island, effec tively reducing enthusiasm for a recapitalized, modernized sugar industry. What followed was an intensified effort by the British Colo nial Office to purchase estate lands and re distribute such parcels to black smallholders. Thus began a process which eventually trans formed St. Vincent's work force in the twentieth century from a sugar proletariat (like St. Kitts) to a system of landed small farmers characterized by crop diversity, occu multiplicity and a small-scale subsis tence economy (Richardson, 1989; Finisterre and Renard, 1987). In effect, the twin forces of topography and landscape, combined with the consequences of environmental change, helped to slqpe settlement and land-use pat terns in St. Vincent which continue to influ ence the country's development to the present time. From 1783 (when St. Vincent was re stored to British Cl)ntrol by the Treaty of Versailles following four years of French oc cupation) the island remained under British sovere:.sTIty. Constitutional advancements had to wait until the twentieth century when elec tions for a Legislative Council were first held in 1925 under a limited franchise; universal adult suffrage was not introduced until 1951. In 1969, St. Vincent became a State in Associ ation with Great Britain, with complete inter nal self-government. A decade later, in October of 1979, St. Vincent and the Grenadines became an independent State within the British Commonwealth. As the decade of the 1980's drew [0 a close, the Government of St. Vincent and the Grenadir..:;s took significr.nt steps to focus public attention on environmental concerns the new decade. Government reorganization in 1989 witnessed the creation of a new Min istry of Health and the Environment, and, al though the responsihilities of the Ministry rel ative to the environment have not yet been clearly defined, the potential for centralizing and coordinating Government's envirorunen tal mission within the Ministry are en couraging.

PAGE 36

r ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES St. Vincent and the Grenadines co!lSists of 32 islands and cays, eight of which are inhabited. L0cated at the northern end of the archipelago bounded to the south by Grenada, the main island of St. Vincent is 100 miles west of Barbados. Bequia is the largest of the Grenadines. The other in habited islands are Mustique, Canouan, Mayreau, Union, Prune (Palm) and Petit St. Vincent. Location Arca/St. Vincent Area/Grenadines Total Land Area Population Latitude: 13 degrees 7 minutes/13 degrees 23 minutes North Longitude: 61 degrees 7 minutes/61 degrees 17 minutes West 133 square miles (85,120 acres) -18 miles long and 11 miles wide Bequla 7 square miles 4,420 acres Mustique 2 square miles 1,290 acres Canauan 3 square miles 1,832 acres Mayreau 1 square mile 640 acres Union ) 2,070 acres Prune (Palm) ) 4 square miles 100 acres Petit St. Vincent ) 96 acres 150 square miles (95,568 acres) Estimated 113,000 (see Section 1.2); most dense around Kingstown on the southwest coast; large settlements also in Mesopotamia Valley and on the leeward coast in Layou and Barrouallie Economic Activities/St. 'VIncent Economic Activities/Grenadines Agriculture, tourism, fisheries, small manufacturing sector Tourism, fisheries, boat-building Primary Crops Secondary Crr.ps Tourism Ports or Entry Airports Bananas, coconuts, Root crops, citrus, mangoes In St. Vincent: I;entered around the southwest Kingstown-Indian Bay Calliaqua area; in the Grenadines: Bequia is a yachting center, Palm Island and Petit St. Vincent are private resorts, and Mustl'iue is a residential tourism St. Vincer.t: Kingstown, Wallilabou; Grenadines: Port Elizabeth, Bequia and Clifton, Union Island Principal airport is the E.T. Joshua Airport at Arnos Vale outside Kings town. Smaller airports at Union, Canouan, and Mustique; an 8.irport is under construction for Bequia at Paget Farm. St. Vincent and the Grenadines does not have an international airport; expansion of the E.T. Joshua facility has been discussed but is not planned at this time. Pbyslcal Vincent St. Vincent is of volcanic origin, dominated by a 3,8M foot volcano, La Soufriere, which last e:-upted in 1979. The inter ior of the island is mountainous, with sharply dissected ridges and valleys and lush vegetation. Physical Features/Grenadines Also volCGllic, the Grenadines are lower and drier than St. Vincent, extensive reefs and coral sand beaches. The Tobago Cays in particular have been noted for excep tional reefs, but these are at risk from pollution. 6

PAGE 37

At approximately th;;: same time, the Prime Minister designa:ed the 1990's as The Decade of the Environment in St. Vincent and established an Environmental Protection Task Force to assist Government in developinB an environmental agenda and programs. Equally promising are recent initiatives to revitalize the long-dormant St. Vincent National Trust and to put forward new legislation for the de velopment of a national forest conservation plan and for the establishment of other con servation areas. Indeed, as St. Vincent moves forward in the 1990's, it has begun to exert the kind of environmental leadership which once made it predominant in the region --as the first Eastern Caribbean island to establish both a botanical garden (1765) and a forcst reserve (King's Hill in 1791). 1.2 THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT 1.2.1 Climato THE REGIONAL CLIMATE The normal dimate of the oceanic region at thc latitude of St. Vincent and the Grenadines is a humid tropical marine type, with lillIe scasonal or diurnal variation and a fairly constant, strong wind out of the east. This regional is affected utainly by the subtropical anticyclone belt and the in tertropical convergence zone. The location of these two met.:!orological systems varies in a cyclical pattern, and their movement gives a marked seasonal character to the weather. Rain tends to be showery and is distributed roughly into a drier season from January to May and a weller season from June to December. There is some risk of hurricanes from June to December. THE WCAL CUMATE High islands like St. Vincent manu facture their own local weather, creating a range of microclimates which varies greatly with height, 10000tion and orientation on any 7 given island. St. Vincent has several mountain masses which cause it marked upward deflec tion of the westerly moving moisture-laden air. This risin6 sea air is cooled by and the moisture is conceDseJ so that cloud formations and (,ften heavy precipitation result. A typical feature (If cen tral mountain peaks in the Eastern Caribbean islands is a cap of wtrade wind doudsw which masks their summits day after day and is only dissipated in VEry still or veri dry weather. The Windward Island group of which St. Vincent is a part is located within the belt of "trade wind1:w famolls among seamen for their directional reliability and generally pre dictable schedule. These winds move along the southern edge or the Atlantic Azores sub-tropical high pressure zone and approach St. Vincent from directions between east-northeast w Changes in this wind regime are mostly caused by the an nual seasonal (vernal and autumnal) shift in the declination of the sun from thc;;!quator, with stronger, more northerly winds being common from December to May. Disru:bances to this system can be by the passage of so-tailed weasterly in lae upper atmosphere and othei' low pressure systems during the WYtet seas'm. w St. Vincent and the lie just within the hurri cane belt and have the impacts of several severe storms in the past Typical of small twpied islands, the temperature of St. Vincent at sea level is gen erally rather high (annual mean of 26.7 de grees c., with a maximum of 31 degrees C.). There is little d!urnal or loeational variation, due to the damping effect of thl; surrounding ocean. Temperature data for Kingstown on St. Vincent (close to sea levd) are displayed in Table 1.2(1). records for the higher elevations in St. Vincent do not appear to be available; how ever, the temperature falls with altitude above ;,ea level at a rate of oue degree C drop per 100 metres in elevation. This m(;thod of esti matmg upland temperature at a given altitude is very approximate, but it is useful ill classi fying environmental units and in working out evapotranspiration rates.

PAGE 38

Table 1.2(1). Temperatures as recorded at the Deportment of Agriculture, Kingstown, 1983-1987. Tem!;!eratures (Degrees El Mean Period Mean Moan Maximum 1983 March 82.6 88.3 June 82.4 88.0 Sept. 82.7 89.1 Oat,. BO.9 85.7 1984 March BO.o 85.4 June 83.3 87.6 Sept. 82.6 87.5 Dec. BO.9 90.4 1985 March 78.6 83.6 June 82.3 86.6 Sept. 83.4 87.1 Dec. BO.6 84.0 1986 March 79.2 84.2 June 81.1 85.3 Sept. 81.9 86.2 Dec. BO.1 84.2 1987 March 81.1 86.4 June 82.8 86.9 Sept. 83.1 87.3 Dec. 81.7 86.0 Source: GSVG, 1989b. The extremes of St. Vincent's wet and dry' season rainfall regime and its tempe ral and spatial patterns create wide variations in annual precipitation at different locations. For the island as a whole, the period of lowest rainfall occurs generally in winter, when the so-called Bermuda high pressure cell extends its sphere of innuence southward, bringing attention to its arrival by forcing a pronounced shift of the ubiquitous trade winds from the southeast to out of the northeast. These WChristmas winds,w as they are known to sea men, also bring clear, relatively dry conditions 8 Mean Extremo Extreme Relative Minimum Maximum Minimum Humidity 72.9 90.0 70.0 72.9 75.9 89.0 75.0 72.0 75.9 91.0 74.0 73.6 71.9 87.0 70.0 72.1 70.7 87.0 69.0 00.8 75.8 89.0 74.0 70.5 74.9 90.0 72.0 72.5 69.2 91.0 66.0 83.3 72.8 85.1 71.4 74.2 no 88.7 70.0 73.9 76.7 89.2 72.9 75.8 74.3 86.2 71.2 75.1 73.2 85.6 66.9 72.9 76.3 86.4 73.4 78.7 76.5 87.8 71.6 79.4 74.7 86.2 72.1 no 75.0 87.8 70.0 71.3 n5 89.1 73.8 78.9 76.8 89.1 73.6 78.9 75.6 eS.9 71.6 Tl.7 to St. Vincent from mid-December to early May. Island-wide average rainfall data are presented in Section 4 (see Table 4.1(1) and Figure 4.1(1) which show the spatial variation in rainfall distribution). St. Vincent's rainfall is highest in the hilly or mountainous part of the country; for example, it is estimated that the highest elevations receive between 260-275 inches of rainfall per year. By contrast, most of the valleys and coastal plains are relatively

PAGE 39

dry, with annual precipitation averaging about 70-90 inches. 1.2.2 Geology and Topography GEOWGY OVERVIEW The Antillean arc of islands in Caribbean is geologically young, probably not exceeding 50 million years, and is pre dominantly volcanic in origin; St. Vincent is one of the youngest of the major islands. St. Vincent and the associated undersea ridge upon which it is perched are located near the edge of what is known as the Caribbean Tec tonic Plate (see Figure 1.2(1. Tectonic plates are mobile; they behave like rafts of solid crust floating on the less dense "fluid materials of the underlying mantle layer of the earth. Their movements are apparently re lated to the convection "currents in the mantle. The Caribbean Plate is bounded by the North American Plate to the north and east, the South Amerir..an Plate to the south and the Cocos Plate to the west and south west. The North American Plate moves to the west relative to the Caribbean Plate, while the Cocos Plate subducts towards the no:"theast. There is little relative displacement between the Caribbean and South American Plates at this time in geologic history. The eastern boundary of the Caribbean Plate is a "subduction zone" in which the North American Plate passes under the Caribbean Plate and into the mantle where mehing occurs. The melted plate ma terial forms magmas which, when extruded as lavas by volcan:ls, have resulted in the forma tion of the islands of the Antillean Arc. At the present time the active tectonic or moun tain forming process has all but ceased in the region, except for Soufriere vokano on St. Vincent and an underwater volcano to the north of Grenada called Kick 'em Jenny. But within the West Indies island arc, eight other sites on as many islands still show signs of vol canic activity --gas vents, fUanaroles, steam vents, one boiling lake, and a few near-surface 9 hot spots that have promising geothermal en ergy potential. St. Vincent's Soufriere volcano has erupted frequently during its present period of activity which has been going on for about 700 years; historically recorded eruptions have oc curred in 1718, 1812, 1902, 1971 and 1979. While non-explosive lava emissions do occur on occasion (e.g., 1971) most eruptioa1s have been violent and destructive, characterized by ashfalls, mudflows and glowing avalanches of incandescent gas called "nuees ardentes". The lake which formerly occupied the volcano's crater disappeared after the 1979 eruption, and today only a small pond remains inside the volcano. Kick 'em Jenny is the only known ac tive submarine volcano in the Lesser Antilles, as well as the most active volcano in these is lands. Its summit lies at a depth of about 160 m below sea level. The volcano has no con nection with nearby Diamond Island, for which the name "Kick 'em Jenny" is given on some charts. Caille Island, just to the south of Ronde Island, is the most recently emerged island in the Lesser Antilles. It is very close to Kick 'em Jenny and was probably formed from a similar submarine volcano only within the last thousand years (Francis, 1988). The geology of the Grenadines is fairly well known, and many papers have been produced on the volcanic phenomena of Soufriere, but there has been little compre hensive or recent work on the geology of St. Vincent. The island's earliest voicanic erup tions apparently occurred in the Miocene and have intermiUently. Reconnais sance-level studies have produced a map of surficial geology (Figure 1.2(2, which indi cates that St. Vincent is composed entirely of volcanic ejecta (mainly pyroclastics) ranging in age from Pleistocene to Recent (Talbot, 1983). The structure of St. Vincent is made up of a central north-south chain of mountains and a coastal plain of varying width. The rugged central mountain chain seems to be the eroded remnants of a series of volcanos, with the oldest extinct remnants fornd in the south. All of these extinct volcanos are from

PAGE 40

!: Q,. 80 w[1T AIlES RIDGE [lTUlCT ARC ILl$( Of elM T 0 100 Figure 1.2(1) CARIBBEAN PLATE III" ..... ... APPROXIMATE I i .. OIRfC \ ION Of \!., CARibBEAN fOLATE 1'.1 MOTION nt:LATIVE TO N end S AMEP.ICA AW[RICA BARBADOS '!Ali1&A CARIBBEAN PLATE PLATE VERTICAl. rUGG(RATOI Z:I CAST 40 __ --..J 200 300 600 700 KILOMETERS Above: Geological features of the act iva boundary zone of the Caribbean Plate (source: Dillon, et a/., 1987). Below: The eastern margin of the Caribbean Plate at location of Barbados and St. Vincent. Cross section showing the Caribbean Plate being underthrust by the South American Plate. Figure adapted from Dillon, et al., 1987. 10

PAGE 41

two to five million years in age. Soufriere is much more recent, probably being built up within the last half-million years, with major activity occurring only a few thousand years ago when massive eruptions showered the entire island with andesitic ash and rock (UNESCO, 1982). Geologically older than St. Vincent, the Grenadines islands have had a more com plex geological history and have more varied rock t;pes of both volcanic and sedimentary origin. The Grenadine Islands formed in the late Oligocene Period, sank or eroded away during the Pliocene and were completely submerged during the Pleistocene Period. Since that time a regional uplifting of the sea floor has raised the islands above sea level. TOPOGRAPHY (Figure 1.2(3) The interior of St. Vincent is very rugged; 50 percent of the island's total surface has slopes of 30 degrees or more, and only 20 percent has slopes less than 20 degrees (Barker, 1981). Mt. Soufriere (3,864 ft.) dominates the northern end of the island and is separated from the Morne Garu Mountains and the rest of the central mountain massif by a deep trough. Two rivers flow in this trough; the Wallibou River to the west and the Rabacca River to the east. nichmond Peak (3,533 ft.) and Mt. Brisbane (3,058 ft.) are the two highest peaks in the Morne Garu range. The major peaks in the remainder of the cen tral mountains from north to south are: Grand Bonhomme (3,181 ft.), Petit Bonhomme (2,481 ft.), and Mt. St. Andrew (2,413 ft.). Numerous sharp lateral ridges ra diate from these steep highlands of the central range. Deep-cut Valleys and high vertical coastal cliffs characterize the leeward side of the island, while on the windward coast the valleys tend to be wider and flatter, opening onto a fairly flat coastal plain. 11 1.2.3 SOll8 SOIlS OVERVIEW Soils can be classified in many differ ent ways. Some classifications in common use are based on: (a) geology of the parent (b) climate and vegetation; (c) measurements of the actual physical and chemical character istics of the soil; (d) color, physical appear ance, and stratification of the soil profile as observed in the field; and (e) texture. The classification s\!heme which hJS been most used in St. Vincent and the Grenadines is based largely on a combination of the last two methods. The soils of SL Vincent have been studied and mapped by Hardy, et al. (1934), Hardy (1939), and Watson, et al. (1958). They are derived mainly from volcanic ash and rock fragments, and most are relatively young and immature. Three major soil groups are usu ally recognized -recent volcanic ash soils, yellow earth soils, and alluvial soils of the coastal plain and valleys. For the present re port the grouping shown in Figure 1.2(4) is most convenient (Llewellyn-Davies, 1972; based on Hardy, et al., 1934): Recent volcanic ash soils. U ncon solidated, immature, coarse-tex and porous soils with gen erally good potential fertility. They cover roughly the northern third of the island, especially the slopes of the Soufriere volcano, and are hlghly vulnerable to ero sion. High-level yellow earth soils. Mainly found above the 6OO-foot contour, these are "zonal" soils with impeded drainage. They are deeply weathered, leached and highly acid due to their occurrence in high rainfall areas. Low-level yellow earth/brown earth soils. Mainly found below the 6OO-foot level, these are ""mtrazonal" soils, less leached

PAGE 42

13' 13' 61U' ST. VINCENT/SURFICIAL GEOLOGY II 1111 I VOLCANIC ASH AND SCORIA MIXED PYROCLASTIC MAINLY AGGLOMERATE UNSURVEYED AREA EXTI NCT VOLCANO ACTIVE VOLCANO 61' ):1 I BONHOMME PEAKS ) II If v 61' J I I II 1/ II 1 \ II / I { I I ( I J 1 1 Figure 1.2(2). Surficial geology of St. Vincent (source: adapted from Talbot, 1983). 12 61' 13' 13' I 13' 61'

PAGE 43

13 13' ST. VINCENT/TOPOGRAPHY Elevation above sea level Barroualli 13' 61"15' 61 61' Figure 1.2(3). Topography of St. Vincent (source: Blrdsey, et al., 1986). 13 61' 13' GEORGETOWN 13' 13' o 1 5Km 1=1 ====' ==r=!:'"=:!:::r==-==;'/ o '2 3 Hiles 61"05'

PAGE 44

TERMS USED IN SOIL CLASSIFICATION Various terms are frequently encountered in descriptions of St. Vincent's solis. Textum refers to the relative amounts of different-sized soil particles (I.e., sand, slit and clay) present. Clay soils have a predominance of very fine particles ( > 40 percent), sand solis have a predominance of sand-sized particles ( > 80 percent) and loam soils are In between. These classes can be subdivided further to cover Intermediate soil compositions, e.g., sandy loams or clay loams. Sandy soils are sometimes called "light" and clay solis are called "heavy" --these terms refer not to weight but to the ease of working the soil. Shoal is a term used to dscribe a special type of soil found In the relatively dry areas of all volcanic islands. Actually "shoal" is a kind of parent rock which is made up of cemented volcanic lava material; the cementation process is thought to have taken place under water during a period of submergence. Shoal clay are fine-textured, dark brown to grey, and have a poor physical structure. In the dry season they shrink and develop large cracks; In the wet season they become very plast.ic and sticky. Alluvial soils are derived from river-transported sediments; col/uvial soils are derived from materials brought drown from neighboring hillsides by gravity. Latosols are a very broad grouping that includes most of the red, yellow and brown soils of the Caribbean region. These are generally mature soils of moist or wet areas with free or only slightly impeded drainage. They varl from slightly acid to acid In reaction and are usually leached of bases. Lithosols are very shallow, rocky soils found In stenp, hilly areas with stony, rocky or shaly parent materials. and more freely drained. The brown earths are transported soils which are generally more fertile, and occur on gentler slopes. Alluvial soils. These mature soilS l>';';uPY only about three square miles of valley bottoms mainly in the south-west of St. Vincent. They are the most fertile and pro ductive soils on the island. Shoal soils. These occur in coastal areas in the south and west of the 1sland. They are mature soils, sticky when wet and hard and cracked when dry, are of medium fertility and are difficult to culti vate. 14 Central mountain soils. Generally shallow soils occurring in high rainfall areas over about twenty percent of the island of St. Vincent. Most of these soils are under forest, have a high organic matter content near the surface, and are highly leached and acidic. Because of the steep slopes and high rainfall these are the soils with the most serious erosion po tential; their cultivation should not be considered.

PAGE 45

ST. VINCENT/SOILS 1. Recent volcanic ash 2. Low level yellow earth 3. Hiyh level yellow earth-sandy loam 4. High level yellow earth-clay loam 5. Shoal soils 6. Alluvial soils (]) Dune sands Soils liable to erosion ,3,5' 3 13,0' 6',5' 6,,0' 3 6,,0' o I a 1 61' 13"15' U"10' J 5. KII '2 i Mtln 51OS' Figure 1.2(4). Major soil types in St. Vincent. (source: Uewellyn-Davles, 1972, based on Hardy, et al., 1934). 15

PAGE 46

RESPONSE OF SOILS TO HUMAN DISTURBANCE The soils of St. Vincent are in general readily erodible, since they tep.-{ to be uncon solidated and friable; where cementation of the subsoil occurs it is only incipient and the cemented layers readily decompose when exposed at the surface. The risk of erosion de pends on many factors, including: the type and properties of the soil; the intensity, dura tion and amount of rainfall; the slope of the land; the extent and nature of the vegetation; and the agricultural or silvicultural practices used. On steep slopes denuded of their tree cover by clearing, the soil surface is directly exposed to the erosive force ('If rain and soil erosion is greatly accelerated. Alterations in the pathways and rates of water flow due to clearing of vegetation can cause changes in the timing of peak flows and greater flood dis charges downstream. Erosion transports soil downslope and causes the IQSS of plant nutri ents from the uplands. When topsoil is lost, Table 1.2(2). Mature or "climax" vegetational formations in the Lesser Antilles. OPTIMAL FORMATION (essentially no dry season, soils): Lowland Rainforest SEASONAL FORMATlONSERIES (wet seasons alternating with dry seasons, well-dralned solis): Evergreen Seasonal Forest Semi-evergreen Seasonal Forest Deciduous Seasonal Forest Thorn Woodland Cactus Scrub MONTANE FORMATIONSERIES (mountain climates and soils): Lower Montane Rainforest Montane Thicket (Elfin Woodland is a subtype due to wind and soil conditions) DRY EVERGREEN L1ITORAL) FORMATIONSERIES (constant effective drought regardless of actual rainfall, due to wind and/or excessively drained soils): Dry Evergreen Rainfore::;t Dry Evergreen Forest Dry Evergreen Woodland Dry Evergreen Thicket Dry Evergreen Bushland/Rock Pavement Vegetation/Cactus Scrub SWAMP FOnMATlONSERIES (constantly or frequently flooded areas with trees): Freshwater Swamp Mangrove Swamp MARSH FORMATlONSERIES (constantly or frequently flooded areas with herbaceous vegetation): Freshwater Marsh Sources: Adapted 1rom Beard, 1944, 1949, 1955; Teytaud, 1988. 16

PAGE 47

the formation of replacement soils is an ex tremely slow process; it may take hundreds of years just to fo:m one inch of top soil. When (rees are clear-cut, there is a permanent loss of nutrients from the soil if the felled vegetation is removed as in logging, and an even greater loss if the slash is burned. If the 3rea is replanted in crops or timber plantations, plant diversity is sharply reduced. If herbicides are used to keep planted areas free from weeds, the soil is then much more exposed than it would be under'atural condi tions, and erosion is thereby increased. 1.2.4 Vegetation VEGETATION CLASSIFICATION: BEARD'S SYSTEM In 1942 the British Treasury in London provided funds under a Colonial De velopment and Welfare plan for a forest re source assessmcnt in the Windward and Lee ward island group. The assessment was car ried out by J.S. Beard, then of the Colonial Forest Servite in Trinidad and Tobago. When Beard startcd his decade of work in the Lesser Antilles, he found that the systems of vegeta tion classification then in use lacked real ecological basis. He therefore proposed a new classification of ver.,etation (Beard, 1944) which led to publication of his classic mono graph, 17,e Natural Vegetation of the Windward and Leeward Islands in 1949. This is still widely used as a basic reference, over forty years later. Beard defmed his climax natural veg etation types rformations,,) on the basis of physiognomy, structure and life-form and ar ranged them in several Wformation-series" aiong environmental gradients. Each forma tion was then subdivided into communities ("associations,,) on the basis of floristic com position. Lowland Rain Forest was held to be the "optimum" expression of vegetational de velopment; the various formation-series rep resented deviations from the optimum forma tion along axes of increasing severity of drought (seasonal formations), increasingly 17 poor soil conditions (edaphic formations), and so on (see Table 1.2(2. ECOSYSTEM CLASSIFICATION: HOLDRIDGE'S LIFE ZONES A complementary system to Beard's classification of vegetation is the Holdridge scheme of bio-geoclimatic "life zones" (Holdridge, 1967, Holdridge, et al., 1971; Holdridge and Tosi, 1972). This system uses a nomogram which identifies the major bio-c1i matic zones of the world based on "bio-tem perature," potential evapotranspiration and total precipitation. Use of the Holdridge sys tem allows one to place local ecosysiems in a worldwide classification framework so that comparisons may be made with other areas. Life zone maps are useful for envi ronmental management in places where the natural vegetation has been severely dis turbed, since they are based on the measured or inferred spatial distribution of physical cli matic factors. Conversely, observation of ex isting mature natural vegetation can be used to predict broad environmental conditions and the response of an ecosystem to human ma nipulation where site-specific climatic data are not available. A map displaying the Holdridge life zones has never been prepared for S1. Vincent and the Grenadines. However, the life zone map of S1. Lucia produced by the OAS (1984) gives a good indication of the zones that are likely to be pn:sent in this country (Table 1.2(3. NATURAL VEGETATION IN ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES The classic description o! the vegeta tion of the Windward and Leeward lfilands, including St. Vincent and the Grenadines, was given by Beard in 1949; Howard (1952) de scribed the vegetation of the Grenadines. Beard characterized the existing vegetation during the 1940's as primarily resulting from man's use of the land during historical times; only in certain smaU areas was the vegetation relatively unmodified from its natural state. Beard provided :I small-scale sketch map (Figure 1.2(5 showing the major areas of

PAGE 48

Table 1.2(3). Lesser Antille2m life zones (Holdridge's showing rough correspondence with Beard's formations. HOLDRIDGE'S LIFE ZONES Tropical dry forest, transition to tropical very dry forest Tropical dry forest Tropical moist forest Subtropical moist forest Subtropical wet forest, Subtropical wet forest, transition to subtropical rain forest Subtropical rain forest BEARD'S CLIMATIC CLIMAX FORMATIONS Thorn Thorn Woodland or Declduoufi Seasonal Forest (depending on length of drought) Soml-Even;rep.n or Evergreen Seasc.'nal Forest or Rain Forest (depending on length of drought) Semi-Evergreen or Evergreen Seasonal Forest or Rain Forest (dependlng on length of dmuQt.t) Lower Montane Ra!n Forest Montane Thicket or Elfin Woodland Montane Thicket or Elfin Woodland Sources: Adaptedlrom OAS, Ufe Zan!!s Map for St. lucia (1984); Beard, 1944, 1949, 1955; Teytaud, 1988. natural vegetation remaining in St. Vincent at the time of his survey, but he gave no esti mates of coverage by any of the types. For comparison, the :heoretical dis tribution of potential natural vegetation, based only on environmental factors, is shown on a map (Figure 1.2(6 constructed by Watson, et 01. (1958). On this map, the vegetational belts mirror the climatic belts, and this results in a nearly concentric zonation of vegetation types due to the increase of rainfall with altitude above sea level. However, the northern end of the island is shown as covered by Secondary Forest becaus.: of frequent disturbance due to the intermittent eruptions of Mt. Soufriere; subsequent plant succession on such young volcanic soils is a slow process. 18 Beard (1949) provided some com ments on the occurrence and distribution of the natural vegetation types he found in St. ViD'::ent and the Grenadines; this material is summarized below. Rain Forest. This formation in Btard's time occupied only small areas in the Colonarie, Cumberland, and Buccament Val leys, mainly between elevations of 1,000 to 1,600 feet. There was no Lower Montane Rain Forest in St. Vincent. There were prob ably never many goej stands of heavy forest because the slopes of the central mountains are so steep and loose as to preclude its de velopment there. the slopes were gen tler the forest had already been cut down.

PAGE 49

, 61"10' ST. VINCENT/NATURAL VEGETATION (Circa 1949) DRY SCRUB WOODLANDS RAIN FOREST II I 111 PALM BRAKE WIltllB ELFIN WOODLAND tiiiiiJ SECONDARY FOREST [ N0N-FOREST LAND 13"15' 13"10' 61"'5' 61"10' o I o 1 61"05' 6,"05' Figure 1.2(5). Natural vegetation In 51. Vincent, clr.;;a 1949 (source: Prins, 1986, from Beard, 1949). 19 13"20' 13",5' 13"'0' '\ 5. KIll 3 "ties

PAGE 50

61"10' 61"5' ST. VI NCENT Potential Natural Vegetation Mangrovc NA Littoral vegctatlon Cactus scrub IHIHHB Dry woodland Moist forest c::=J Ram forcst Cloud lurest E=:=:3 Secol"dar'( vegetatiun 13"15' n"10' 61"15' Figure 1.2(6) .. ':':'::: ...... :.:.:.:: -.::.:.:.:.:.:-. . :.":: :.:.' .. 61"10' 0 I 0 61"05' Potential natural vegetation in 51. Vincent, based on environmental factors (source: ECNAMP, 1980a, based on Watson, et al., 1958). 20 13"20' 13"'5' 13'0' SKII 2 3 Mlle,

PAGE 51

Secondary Rain Forest. This term was applied to a broad spectrum of forests disturbed either by natural occurrences such as volcanic eruptions and hurricanes, or by human activities. On Soufriere Mountain, the plant communities that would normally be come established in the absence of distur bance range from Rain Forest at the lowest e1ev[::ions to Elfin Woodland at the summit (Birdsey, et al., 1986). In actuality, due to disturbance from the recurrent eruptions of the volcano, there is a suite of secondary plant communities ranging from almost bare soil at the summit to fairly advanced stages of suc cession at lower elevations. Montane Thicket. This formation did not occur in St. Vincent. Palm Brake. The Palm Brake was evidently a sub-climax type, due to distur bances such as landslides or storms, but it covers large areas in the central mountains above 1,640 feet. Sites where landslides had recently occurred were covered with moss which appeared stabilize the soil, the next stage being a thicket of small tree ferns or balisier. Other less rece .. t landslides were colonized by Mountain Cabbage, forming a patch of Palm Brakl!. Elfin Woodland. At the exposed summits above 1,640 feet on both sides of the central pure stands of Elfin Woodland were found, a gnarled, mossy, re pressed growth l,f trees about 10 feet in height. Most Elfin Woodland vegetation was covered with moss epiphytes and climbers. These areas of Elfir. Woodland were set in a matrix of Palm Brake. Evergreen and Semi-evergreen Sea sonal Forest. Beard (1949) does not mention this formation, probably because these moist forest types had been extirpated by the time of his study. Deciduous Seasonal Forest/Cactus Scrub. On St. Vincent some uncultivable slopes near the coastlines were covered with a degraded dry scrub woodland; cactus scrub and bush (not mentioned by Beard) probably occupied the driest coastal sites. These for mations probably formed most of the original 21 tree cover in the dry-climate Jtline islands. Littoral Woodland. Very little re mained of the dry evergreen Littoral Wood land formation in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Consisting of seagrape, button mangrove, manchined, and other typical species, it Fresumably occupied a thin strip along the coastlines in former times. Swamp.. There were some small mangrove swamps, chiefly in the southern part of St. Vincent and in the These contained the usual red mangrove, black man grove, white mangrove, and button mangrove. Pterocarpus freshwater swamp does not occur in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. 1.2.5 Natural Hazards The Caribbean --one of the mosl disaster-prone areas of the world --is exposed to hurricanes and their associated storm surges and wave action, earthquakes and earthqudke-generated ocean ;'/aves (tsunamis), v'Jlcanic eruptions, lai. :.hlides and rockslides, flooding and droughts. Nc:tural hazards, as the term is used here, include aU these occasional short-term natural phenom ena which have the for negative im pacts on the physical, eCClnomic and social en vironment of an area (man-made and technological disasters will not be considered in this section). The islands of the Eastern Caribbean are particularly vulnerable to natu ral hazards because of their small size and their dependence on revenues earned from agriculture and tounsm. St. Vincent and the Grenadines has suffered a number of such occurrences and is well acquainted with the effects of all types of natural disasters. VOLCANIC ACfM'IY As mentioned in Section 1.2.2 above, the Soufriere volcano on the northern end of St. Vincent has erupted explosively many times in the nation's history. In the 1902 eruptions 1,565 people were killed by a glow ing avalanche which swept down the slopes of

PAGE 52

the volcano, and explosions continued for some ten months after the initial outbursts. In the 19""1) eruptions, although there were no fatalities, there was extf.nsive loss cf crops, livestock and property; over 14,000 pC'rsons were evacuated from the norther'l half of the island. A submarine volcano, called "Kick 'em Jenny", located 160 meters below sea level :tbout seven kilometers norlh of Grenadl.l, is one of the mosl active volcanos in the Lesser Antilles. It has erupted at least nine times this century, and some :,.::ientists believe it may emerge above sea level during its next major eruption. The last eruption oc curred in early 1990. Seismic aClivity in the area is being monitored by scientists in Trinidad. EARTHQUAKES -\ND TSUNAMIS The location of St. Vincent and the Grenadines near the Caribbean Plate margin makes the is'.ands vulnerable to considerable seismic activity. In addition, earthquakes are frequently produced on St. Vincent proper by the volcanic activity of Soufriere. No major faults or folds have been reported by previous geological;'lvestigations of St. Vincent, which suggests that no major tectonic disturbances, other than the volc:.mic ones, have occurred Oil the island. Seismic actiVIty at Mt. Soufriere is monitored by a network of sensors located at Wallibou, Owia, Belmont, Fort Charlotte, and the summit of the volcano. These stations transmit measurements directly to the seismic of the Se,;smic Research Unit in Trinidad, where all data rrocessing and inter pretation is done. GSVG also maintains a small Soufriere Monitoring Unit wilhin the Department of Agriculture to keep watch on the level of volcanic activity. The Unit has re cently prepared a draft Volcanic Emergency Plan (Robertson, 1989a, 1989b). Seismic activity caused by plate movements, faulting, and volcanic eruptions has the potential to generate seismic sea waves, or tsunamis, which can be very de structive to coastal areas in the region. Given 22 the proximity of the Kick 'em Jenny under water volcano, tsunamis pose a particular threat to the Grenadine islands and tbe south ern coast of St. Vincent. HURRICANES AND OTHER STORMS Tropical storms and hurricanes are prevalent in the Eastern Caribbean during the June through October hurricane season. The earliest recorded hurricane in St. Vincent and the Grenadines occurred in 1780 and the most recent (Hurricane Allen) in 1980; other tropi cal storms and hurricanes have struck the is lands in 1819, 1830, 1886, 1897, 1898, 1921 and 1%7 (Birdsey, et al., 1986). Hurricane Allen caused extensive damage to beaches, agricul ture, housing and general infrastructure, in cluding the then new deepwater port in Kingstown. Significant damage has also been done by tropical storms such as those which occurred in 1983 and 1986. Although high winds are the most distinctive feature of hurricanes, usually the most damaging winds affect a very sn.all ra dius (as small as 20 miles) of the entire storm system. On the other hand, torrential rains can be experienced from one edge to the other of a 300 mile diameter storm, and ter. inch rains from well-developed tropical storms are not unusual. Therefore, unless a storm has very strong winds and the center passes directly over all island, much of the damage will be from the direct and indirect effects of flooding. In order of decreasing impact, the major causes of damage from most hurricanes can be ranked as follows: flooding from rainfall, coastal flooding and damage fiOm storm waves, landslides, and --lastly --winds. Floods may cause property damage, severe erosion and even the of life during natural events such as rainstorms and hurri canes. Floods can be the result of downslope rainwater run-off, especially over paved or deforested areas, and/Oi seawater driven in land by abcvc-normal tides and surges. Addi tionally, stolm surges caused by reduced at mospheric pressure during hurricanes can be augmented by wind-driven waves, swells, and spray.

PAGE 53

The extent of the problem associated with inland flooding in a particular area is de pendent on the amount of rainfall, the slope of the land, the porosity of the soils, and the size and shape of the river basin through which the water will eventually flow. Dam ages from inland flooding include: water damage to normally dry property; physical damages from the force of the waters and as sociated mud, silts and rocks; biochemical and physiological damage due to the introduction of large volumes of to the neanhore marine ecosystems; and destruction of sea life from overloading with silt and nu trients washed from the land. LANDSLIDES AND ROCKSLIDES Because of its steep topography and the common occurrence of unconsolidated py rocks, slope instability leading to and slumping is a major problem in St. Vincent (Talbot, 1983), and unstable slopes tend to be the rule rather than the ex ception. It can be expected that many roads would be significantly impacted by landslides during heavy rainfall and storms. Generally, landslides are localized events and depend on the type of soil, the an gle of repose and the steepness of the slope at the site. Landslides CJCcur when the forces of gravity exceed the strength of the forces holding soil material together, resultinc in a mass of soil being pulled downward. A sec ondary effecl of flooding on steep slopes covered with clay-rich soils is the increased ten dency for landslides to occur. Water in soils contributes to increased landslide risk because the weight of the water is an added stress on the soil m'\Ss that is also being lubricated by the water molecules. TRENDS AFFECfING FUrURE RISKS FROM NATURAL "AZARi:;:; The continuing urbanization of existing towns and villages, as well as the devel opment of new --all of which require modifications to the natural landscape -could easily increase the risk of damage 23 from natural hazards such as flooding and landslides. Such modifications may include: the construction of higher den sity, high-cost structures (like hotels and condominiums) closer to the shoreline or in flood plains; remnval of mangrove trees along the shore which buffer sea wave and wind energy as well as help to maintain balanced nutri ent levels in adjacent waters by absorbing nutrients in run-off; filling of salt ponds and swamps which absorb energy and sedi ments of ou,f-flowing surface waters as as buffer in coming storm surges and waves; offshore dredging to eliminate sandbars and shallows which normally absorb sea wave en ergy a'Jd prevent inland damage; deforestation of inland water sheds, including loss of ground cover such as decayed leaves or understory vegetation and the decomposition of subterranean root systems of former plants; road building aud paving. Population groW!h and increased em phasis on tourism will promote growth of the major towns of SVG which are all located in the coastal areas of the country. Problems as sociated with high population densities, insufficient community planning, and inadequate infrastructural have been identified and linked to potentia: environmental impacts resulting from specific natural hazards. Enlarged populations in towns would place more people at risk from both inland and coastal flooding. Steep slopes and river banks which have been denuded of trees pro mote rapid rain run-off, causing an increased risk of flooding and facilitating the occurrence of landslides. Additionally, deforestation to accommodate agriculture and development

PAGE 54

increases the silt load carried by surface run off into rivers and streams and out to sea. Construction and waste disposal practices of human settlements along the banks of the major rivers of St. Vincent have produced blockages of the river channels, in creasing flood risk and damages in these areas. Blockages result from poorly situated roads and levees; undersized bridges, culverts, and drains; and trash dumped in river chan nels. The continuin5 removal of sand from the beaches and dunes of St. Vincent and the Grenadines for construction purposes has sig nificantly reduced the country's sand buffers to storm waves and tides, thereby increasing their destructive impacts on the shoreline. The problems with sand mining are localized, but severe enough to ant serious attention. Beach sand mining and its negative environ mental implicalions are likely to continue, unless alternative sources of fine aggregate are made available at affordable prices and, simultaneously, the Beach Protection Law is enforced. 1.2.6 Local Implications of Global Environmental Change It is becoming increasingly obvious that multipie feedback interactions are taking place between human activities and the state of the environment everywhere (Clark, W., 1989). For example, tnere is growing concern that human-induced changes in concentrations of carbon dioxide and other so-called "greenhouse gases" can cause significant warming of the atmosphere, with consequent climatic changes. Resulting changes in tem perature and precipitation distribution could threaten natural ecosystems as well as agri cultural production and could trigger a worldwide rise in sea level. Such changes would pose pal ticularly severe challenges for developing nations like St. Vincent and the Grenadines. I n the Caribbean region, critical ecosystems such as coral reefs and mangrove swamps would be seriously damaged if the sea level rises so fast 24 they cannot compensate. Global warming would increase sea-surface water tempera tures, and may cause changes in the strength, frequency and paths of hurricanes and an ex tension of the hurricane season. Beaches vital to the tourism industry, such as St. Vincent's already eroding south coast beaches, are also at risk. Some studies suggest that the sea level rise due only to climatic effects wiU be on the order of 2-3 cm per decade in the Caribbean region (Maul, 1988), but others indicate that it may be larger and not linear. This may seem like a trivial change, but one rule of thumb states that a one cen timeter sea level rise will generally result in a one meter shoreline retreat (Gable, 1987/1988). At a conservative rate of 2-3 centimeters rise per decade, within the next 40 years St. Vbcent and the Grenadines could therefore expect to lose some 8-12 meters (26-40 feet) of beach width in areas where sea level change is due solely to climate. At this time many if not most experts belie've that some global warming will occur, but there is a great deal of uncertainty about the rate and magnitude of warming anci its effects on sea level. In the face of such un certainty, most experts recommend that gov ernments should adopt a flexible, adaptive strategy for coping with the expected effects of climate changes. This is easiest to implement in planning for the construction or renovation of infrastructure such as roads, buildings, :rod coastal facilities. In the case of older infrastructure (which would have to be replaced in any event), the best and cheapest response may be to do nothing and accept the loss of the structures, provided that they can be rebuilt in an alternative location. Where existing, eco nomically vital infrastructure is threatened and no alternative location exists, such as c(:rtain sections of the coastal road and some coastal villages, an immediate defensive re sponse would be justified provided it is cost effective and environmentally sound. In other cases, especially where in frastn.cture has not yet been built, measures to adapt to the warming trend should be taken

PAGE 55

only if such steps prospects of yielding benefits even without a climate change. If the predicted climate changes do occur, then the measures taken, of course, will yield a much greater benefit. 1.3 SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONTEXT 1.3.1 Demographics: Trends In Population Size, Distribution and Density POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS St. Vincent's first census in 1844 recorded a national population of 27,248. Be ginning in 1851, St. Vincent held censuses every ten years until 1931, except for the decade beginning in 1901 (see Figure 1.3(1) and Table 1.3(1. These statistics enable the reader to examine changes in SVG population data over five specific periods of time (see also Bouvier, J984 and CARICOM, 1987). (1) 1844. This was a period of relatively rapid population growth; in 1881 total population was 40,548, representing an average increase of about 1.1 percent per year. After emancipation, large numbers of former slaves chose to emigrate almost as soon as they gained freedom. In order to off set the labor shurtage created by this wave of emigration, between 1841 and 1882 over 6,000 free and indentured workers were brought to the Colony -other West Africans, Por tuguese, East Indians, and poor whites from Barbados (Rubenstein, 1987). Birth rates for this period were high, about 46 per thousand; death rates were also high, at 24 per thousand. (2) 1881-1911. Population growth during this time was negligible, remaining between 41,000 and 44,000 because of heavy emigration. Population loss also occurred be cause of the closely-spaced disasters of 1898 (hurricane) and 1902 (volcanic eruption). The 1898 hurricane resulted in the death of an es timated 300 persons, while 2,000 lost their lives in the 1902 eruption of La Soufriere vol cano.(Bouvier, 1984). Furthermore, many Vincentian laborers were attracted to Panama 25 to work on the French attempt to build a canal (Rubenstein, 1987). Birth rates declined somewhat to 39 per thousand. (3) 1911. These years marked the beginning of a trend of steady pop'Jiation growth. Population increased from 41,877 in 1911 to 47,%1 in 1931. This growth was fueled by a decline in the death rate to 16 per thousand, while birth rates remained high; at the same time, emigration decreased from a rate of 94 percent of the natural increase over the previous thirty ye(lrs to a rate of 62 per cent of the increase (CARICOM, 1987). However, one source (Bouvier, 1984) differs somewhat with these figures, stating that death rates in 1920-25 were 19.3 and that net migration was "pat ticularly high, between 1921 and 1931, about 570 persons per year". (4) 1931. Very rapid growth was the hallmark of this period, with the total popUlation going from 47,%1 in 1931 to 79,948 in 1960. The birth rate increac;ed over these years from 38.7 per thousand in 1946 to 49.4 in 1960. The lY60 rate is one of the high est ever recorded in the Eastern Caribbean and may, in fact, have surpassed 50 per thou sand in the mid-1950's. Mortality levels re mained at the 15 per thousand level according to Bouvier (1984); however, CARICOM (1987) states that during this time, death rates were 9/1,000. During the 1930's and 1940's out-migration slowed from the rates of the 1920's to about 200 per year, although it in creased substantially after World War Two. If a relatively high level of emigration had not continued, the 1946 population may well have been over 80,000 rather than the actual 61,780 counted (Bouvier, 1984). (5) 1960Present. After 1955, the very rapid growth rate of the previous three decades appears to have slowed substantially, at least for the first decade and a ha!f. In 1970, the national population was 86,314, only a little more than 6,000 greater than it had been in 1960. This represented a growth rate of about 0.8 percent (Bouvier, 1984). By 1970, birth rates had fallen to 35.7 per thousand from their 1960 high of 49.4. Death rates had also declined from 15.0 to 8.3. In absolute numbers, 36,565 births and 9,164 deaths were recorded over these ten years.

PAGE 56

I.&J N ..... V) z: o ..... I....J ::::J a. o a. 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 o o I:. BOUVIER, 1984 GSVG ADJUSTED CENSUS FIGURE GSVG ESTIMATE .... r-. IX) en IX) YEAR .... N m .... M m \D 0 11'1 0 0<1" 11'1 11'1 \D mm m m Figure 1.3(1). St. Vincent and the Grenadines national population curve, 1844-1989 (sources: Bouvier, 1984; CARICOM, 1987; GSVG, 1989b). o IX) m m IX) m

PAGE 57

Table 1.3(1). St. Vincent and the Grenadines national population, 1844 -1989. YEAR 1844 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891 1911 1921 1931 1946 1950 1955 1960 1970 1980 1989 Indicates estimated NUMBER 27,248 30,128 31,755 35,688 40,548 41,054 41,877 44,447 47,961 61,780 67,120 76,050 79,948 86,314 102,000 113,000 Sources: Bouvier, 1984; CARICOM, 1987; GSVG, 1989b. These data imply that emigration was occurring at higher rates than ever before (Bouvier, 1984). Emigration in the 1960's was estimated at about 24 per thousand per year. Between 1960 and 1970, 21,000 more people left St. Vincent and the Grenadines than moved to the islands. at this level was fueled mai:tly by economic necessity Vincentians leaving in search of jobs else where. Many moved to larger neighboring islands, such as Trinidad and Tobago, or to more developed countries in the hope of rmding employment (CARICOM, 1987). Birth rates continued to fall in the 1970's and 1980's, reaching 31.0 per thousand in 1981) and 23.4 per thousand in 1987 (Department of Family Planning St"tisti:s, 1990). Crude death rates dropped to 7.3 per thousand by 1980; infant in 1979 was 39 per thousand birth!: in infants under one year of age (CARl COM, 1987). Net migra tion during the 1970's was estimated at about 1,000 per year, mostly young adults, and 27 slightly more women than men (Bouvier, 1984). The 1980 census initiaUy showed a total population of 97,845, but this was later revised upward by the Government's Statisti cal Office to 102,000. As of February 1990, estimates from the Statistical Office report a SVG national population of 113,000 (pers. comm., K. Israel, Family Planning Adminis trator, Min. of Health, Feb., 1990). If r:hese figures are apprmcimately correct, then the country may have entered a new phase of rapid popUlation growth. Another census is scheduled fuf 1990; the results of this exercise will have extremely important implications for future environmental planning efforts in the nation (see also Section 9.4 of the PI oftle). POPULATION AGE STRUCTURE As shown by the population-age pyramid in Figure 1.3(2), in the popula-

PAGE 58

tion of St. Vincent and Crenadines was a very young one; indeed, this has historically been the case. In 1980, the median age was about 16.5, up slightly from the extremely low figua"e of 14.5 in 1970. The reasons for this low me dian age (among the lowest in the world) are dual: continued high fertility levels and the emigration of large numbers of young adults (Bouvier, 1984). In 1980, 44 percent of the population was under 15, while only 6 percent was over 65 (Wirt, 1986). POPULATION DENSITY The main island of St. Vincent is ex tremely mountainous with a total of 133 square miles in land area. Using the most re cent population estimate of 113,000 (GOSV estimate, Statis.ical Office, 1989) for the en tire country, and subtracting the estimated populat.ion of the Grenadines (9,000), this re sults in a population density for St. Vir-cent of 782 persons per square mile. This figure places St. Vincent ir. close competition with, and probably slightly ahead of, Grenada for the dubious honor or the most densely popu lated of the OECS countries. However, this figure is somewhat misleading since a large portion of the island is essentially inaccessible and uninhabitable due to its topography. The relative density is significantly higher in the less steep areas along the coasts, with the area of greatest population concentration in Kingstown and its environs, reflecting the movement of Vincentians from small rural settlements to the area offering relatively more employment opportunities. Many small villages can be found in the low-lying coastal areas of both the leeward and windward sides of the island. The land area, population, and den sities of the Grenadine Islands arc displayed in Table 1.3(2). Table 1.3(2). Population dens!tle& for the Grenadine Islands of St. Vincent. ISLAND Bequia Mustique Canouan Mayreau Com:":!ned: -Union PrL;ne(Palm)* -Petit St. Vincent* AREA 7ml2 2ml2 3 rnl2 1 ml2 3.5mi 2 POPULATION DENSITY 4,420 671/m12 1,290 645/m12 1,832 610/m12 170 170/mi 2 1,900 Both Prune (Palm) Island and Petit St. Vincent are primarily resort Islands with very few permanent residents. Source: GSVG,1989c. 28

PAGE 59

75+ 70-74 65-69 60 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 0-4 Males Females 9 8 765 4 321 0 1 234 567 8 9 ftiMiJ rZZJ 1970 1980 Figure 1.3(2). St. Vincent and the Grenadines national population age-sex structure (source: Bouvier, 1984). BENEFICIAL EFFECI'S OF OUT MIGRATION Although the 1980's have seen birth rates drop from 31.5 per thousand in 1982 to 23.4 per thousand in 1987, St. Vincent and the Grenadines still faces the prospect of a degree of population growth which will place great 29 demands on the coonomy and the Govern ment's ability to provide services. Current out migration stands at about 1,000 per year; this rate of emigration has played an important part in slowing what would have been an even more rapid population growth rate had it not occurred.

PAGE 60

1.3.2 National Economy and Development Trends OVERVIEW The economy of St. Vincent and the Grenadines is similar to its sister OECS states, where the primary characteristics are openness and dependency on outside influences. The SVG economy is still rather small, producing annual per capita incomes among the lowest in the Eastern Caribbean. However, despite its small size, the economy has shown steady growth over the past decade, as measured by the in crease in Gross Domestic Product, illustrated for 1980 through 1987 by Figure 1.3(3). ... SO 81 82 83 84 85 85 87 YEAR Conmri SEc ...... Cwratt ac Figure 1.3(3). Gross Domestic Product, 1980 1987 (both constant 19n and current EC$), adapted from GSVG, 1989d. 30 Other characteristics of the SVG economy are: an unusually vigorous manufacturing sector; a dominant agricultural sector with major export markets in botL Euro pean and CARICOM countries; a fast-growing tourist sector with major significance for the Grenadine Islands; a growing foreign debt; high costs for transportation on, off and among the islands; expensive energy systems, given small scale and import costs; parallel economic systems, representing (i) the traditional sub sistence economy and (ii) the export oriented cash economy A special feature of the SVG economy is the marked differences between the economic and social systems of the main island of St. Vincent and the satellite islands of the Grenadines. Although other island systems in the Caribbean display differences when sub components are compared, few embody the contrasts of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, i.e., the'. predominantly agricultural, "pre-tourism" model of St. Vincent and the world-class enclave and yachting-based tourism economy of the Grenadines. A major limitation in comparing the two is the fact that there are few data available which distinguish between economic activity in the Grenadines and on the main island of St. Vincent. This means that many of the rather stark differenc s which might otherwise be ap parent are lost when data from the two areas are casually merged.

PAGE 61

THE DANGER OF AVERAGES Most of the economic analysis in the St. Vincent CEP uses aggregate data for St. Vincent and the Grenadines, In which the differences between the two areas -and the unique tourism dependency (and associated Impacts) of the Grenadines --are lost. This problem is evident In the most recent development plans prepared by Government (GSVG, 1986b and 1987), which do not deal substantively with differen tial strategies for the Grenadines and for St. Vincent. For purposes of environmental planning, it is important for GSVG to tabulate, publish and plan on the basis of disag gregated data, which allows full appreciation of the special character of each sub system. In the broadest sense, the ecosystems of each of the islands of the country are unique, and it is important to preserve this diversity for data analysis, planning, and development control pu; poses. In the Eastern Caribbean context, the economy of St. Vincent and the Grenadines might be termed "pre-modern(McElroy and deAlbuquerque, 1989). The pre-modern designation, however, is potentially a very positive factor for the country because it means that many of the crucial choices about future development paths have 1101 been already foreclosed, as they have been in the U.S. Virgin Islands, for example. Furthermore, although cash incomes are relatively low, they have been advancing steadily over the past few years, as shown in Figure 1.3(4). The same conditions, however, do not prevail to the same extent in the Grenadines, which are (relative to their total land area of 16.5 square miles and their population of approximately 9,000 people) already intensively involved with primarily three styles of tourism: cruiseship visits, bareboat and crewed charter yachts, and world-class enclave resorts. 31 2"'0 J 2000 l'IDO o 10 81 02 13 84 85 86 17 lEAR CanrstcIII SEc C&rrtnt SEc Figure 1.3(4). Growth in per capita income, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, adapted from GSVG,1989d.

PAGE 62

100" 90r. 80r. 70% 60% 'd I sore p;. 30r. 20r. lOr. III Al1'ic InMtriaJ .. Trade at other Trcm/Conm o Govt Srvcs 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 YEAR Figure 1.3(5). Economic contribU1ion by sector, adapted from GSVG, 1989d. INDUSTRIAL SECTOR According to National Accounts data published by the Ministry of Finance and !>lan ning, the economy of Sl. Vincent ano the Grenadines is diversified and relatively stable, as is illustrated in Figure 1.3(5). In comparison with other Easte,rn Caribbean states, SVG has a moderately large industrial sector, comprising manufacturing, electricity and water, construction, and mining and quarrying. This is especially evident in view of the small size of the total economy (i.e., per capita income around EC$3,OOO per year). Manufacturing has doubled and utilities have quadrupled in the past decade. It should be noted, however, that manufacturing still accounts 32 for less than 20 percent of GOP. Nevertheless, with a relatively significant industrial base, it will be increasingly important for St. Vincent and the Grenadines to enforce procedures which moni tor potential sources of industrial pollution to avoid irreversible problems in the future. AGRICULTURAL SECTOR Agriculture is very important to the country, and it is a sector which has gone through a variety of changes during the past decade. Figure 1.3(6) provides an overview of major agricultural exports ill St. Vincent and the Grenadines for the period 1983 through 1987.

PAGE 63

120 100 c: o = 80 (.) 60 w 40 20 8.3 84 85 Yeer D Arrowroot &: Others Bcnm/fb'ltafn 86 87 .. GroLnd Provlslons Figure 1.3(6). Major classes of agricultural exports, adapted from GSVG, 1989b. The most significant factor influencing the sector has been the large increase in banana production, representing a response to high prices in pwtected British markets. The effect. of hanana production throughout the Windward Uslands has been not only increased agricultural exports and revenues for these islands but. also increasingly significant environ mental problems, di:icussed in more detail in Section 3. A second factor influencing the agri cultural sector in recent years has been the "boom and bustcharacter of agricultural export marketing to CARl COM countries, Trinidad in particular. On the production side, the remark able growth in root crops, shown in Figure 1.3(6), is paralleled on t!le export side by the growth and subsequent drop-off in \!X1t)orts to Trinidad, shown b Figure 1.3(7). 33 100 10 j 80 I 70 10 50 '" '113 '.14 1.85 1.8. '187 y., Agure 1.3(7). Exports to CARICOM, from GSVG,1989b.

PAGE 64

A fma! occurrence marking develop ment of the agricultural sector in recent years has been the abandonment of a scheme to rein troduce sugar production, proposed as a major new source of export earnings. Apparently the instability of the world sugar market, combined with the uncertainties associated with the re gion's access to U.S. markets, high costs of pro duction in St. Vincent, and perpetual operating problems at the mill, was sufficient to finaUy put the proposal to rest. Most of these circum stances reflect similar problems associated with sugar cultivation in St. Vincent in the nineteenth century -which could serve to remind planners that an important reason for focusing on envi ronmental issues is to Icarn from past mistakes by studying earlier conditions for clues to the vi ability of proposed future options. TOURISM SECTOR In addition to expansion of the manu facturing sector in recent years, tourism overaU has continued to grow rapidly, although its con tribution to the economy remains relatively smaU -probably about 10 percent of GDP. Figure 1.3(8) illustrates the rapid recent increase in tourists, as reported by the Caribbean Tourism Organization (formerly the Tourism Research Center). 50.0 -r------------'7""-I 48.0 148 0 IU 'o ,n.o "D.o t184 1i1l5 It81 11117 1188 III. YEAR Figure 1.3(8). SVG stay-over visitors, adapted from eTO, 1989. 34 Although some of the figures reported by Government from different sources are difficult to reconcile, all the data at e in agreement on the direction and general significance of the growth in tourism. Other lin plications of tourism growth are discussed in Section 7. The most important point to bear in mind, however, is that the impact of tourism is felt almost entirely in the Grenadines. In fact, there is some indication that because of the curtailment of cruiseship visits to Kingstown, actual tourism impacts may have substantially diminished in St. Vincent proper, while accelerating in the Grenadine Islands. At the same time, a number of groups in the Grenadines have expressed concern that cruiseships are overwhelming some of the smaUer islands. TRADE AND FOREIGN DEBT For aU of its relative vigor and diversity, the economy of St. Vincent and the Grenadines is still unable to a balance in mercltandise trade. Figure 1.3(9) displays graphically the persistence of the deficit in visible trade --in spite of the value of bananas and root crops in recent years. 300 250 i 200 150 100 50 0 8D 81 82 83 84 115 III 87 YEAR Figure 1.3(9). SVG balance of trade, adapted from GSVG, 1989d. A simple trade deficit is relatively harmless, however, if it is financed out of other sources of invisible trade, such as remittances from abroad and components of the tourist

PAGE 65

trade. Unfortunately, that does not appear to be the case in St. Vincent and the Grenadines, as illustrated by Figure 1.3(10), which displays the rate of increasing foreign-held debt gD.D 70.0 u 50.0 30.0 10.0 78 1t 80 81 82 83 M 85 U 87 ft'AR Figure 1.3(10). St. Vincent and the Grenadines' foreign-held debt, adapted from World Bank, 1989. It's wortD noting that virtually all of the country's foreign cebt is held by public institu tions, rather than pr;vate banks. Nevertheless, a debt this large is worrisome, unless it is simply keeping up with inflation. That is, for a given level of foreign debt, policy makers (and credi tors) need not worry cxces.rively if the growth in debt simply maintains parity with the growth in the overall economy. This impLI 5 that in spite of the growth in debt, the overa.' economy is able to maintain debt service with a constant, rather than a growing portion of economic per formance. Figure 1.3( 11) shows that debt is grow ing as a proportion of GOP -. substantially. As discussed in McElroy and deAlbuquerque (1990), Wtraditional debt-to-GOP and debt ser vice ratios may be poor predictors of credit worthiness [for OECS states).w Basically, the authors suggest that the extreme openness of their economies, plus poor or inelastic revenue collection mechanisms, make OECS states much more prone to defaulting on foreign debt than has been assumed in the past. 35 121 80 81 82 83 84 15 II 17 ruR FIgure 1.3(11). SVG debt as a percent of GOP, adapted from World Bank, 1989 and GSVG, The implications of these trends in St. Vincent and the Grenadines is that future eco nomic policy must devote more attention to re ducing the rate of growth of foreign-held debt and to increasing the foreign exchange earnings (i.e., the efficiency) of investments. This will probably result in increased pressure for tourism developments and export manufacturing as well as higher returns from export agriculture. All three options tend to increase risks to the envi ronment. In summary, development priorities for St. Vincent and the Grenadines will be driven by the problem of managing high levels of foreign debt, while stimulating foreign exchange earn ings from tourism, agriculture and manufactur ing. An important boost to these efforts can be accomplished by adding elements of nature based tourism on the main island of St. Vincent, :n addition to the more traditional Caribbean tourism experiences offered by the Grenadines. THE "GREENING" OF ECONOMICS In the area of environmental manage ment, the role of economics traditionally has been diagnostic, scene-setting, and identification of dollars to pay for expensive infrastructure pro grams. Most of the prescriptive elements of en 'Monmental policies are usually dealt wit!! within

PAGE 66

natural resource sectors such as agriculture or forestry. But that's now changing. In the spring of 1990, two major confer ences, sponsored by the President of the United States and the Prime Minister of Norway, specifically invited ministers of finance to discuss environmental topics. As the Ecollomist maga zine (5 May, 1990) noted, Em'irOllme1lt policies that take "0 heed of ecollomics will IJUck/ire; bllt so will eco nomic policies that igllore the t'IB'irOllmellt. Nowhere is this more evident than in the Eastern Caribbean in general and SI. Vincent and the Grenadines specifically. Pmgressive environmental policies are most likely to achieve their goals in a cost-effec tive manner if they usc economic mecha:1isms such as taxes and control of pricing for non-mar ket goods (e.g., in SI. VinLent: water, electricity and other Regulations and direct sub sidies are demonstrably less effective than eco nomic tools which control prices to consumers. It is most important that governments eliminate all subsidies for the exploitation of natural resources. Although this is easy to say, it sometimes clashes strongly with funda mental political issues, such as governmt:nt-fi nanced housing schemes where a subsidy is used to support the conversion of prime agricultural land into housing tracts. Another traditional subsidy with usually negative environmental con sequences is the construction of farm-to-market roads. In contrast, however, taxes on scarce nat ural resources and energy can the dual goals of revenue generation while ensuring that the prices of such goods more fully renect the full costs to society. There are many opportunities for East ern Caribbean governments to explore the elimination of environmentally-harmful sub sidies or the adoption of creative fiscal dis incentives to protect the environment. For example: Are timber tax and depletion poli cies designed to encourage wise cul tivation and harvesting of exotic va rieties and sustainable silviculture 36 practices for utility grades of lumber? Do agricultural support programs encourage and/or enforce environ mentally sound farming and soil conservation practices? It is important for SI. Vincent and the Grenadines to explore more ways for economics and the environment to work together creatively. ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL GAINS AND LOSSES 1771C disCllSSioll which follows ill this section is summarized alld adapted from Repetto, 1989 and Repetto, et al., /989.1 The System of National Accounts (SNA) presently used by virtually all nations is seriously nawed in its treatment of natural re sources and the environment. National income accounts treat assets such as buildings and equipment as capital whose value de preciates over time as they perform valuable work for the economy. Natural resources, on the other hand, arc tn.:ated as free "giits of nature" not as productive assets whose value must also be depreciated as they arc used up. In other words, a country could conceiv ably exhaust its mineral resources, cut down its forests, pollute its water supplies, exterminate its wildlife, and over-utilize its fisheries, but still its measured income would nol be directly affected as those assets disappeared. In the long term, such a situation is economically unrealistic for any country but is especially so [or low-income, developing nations which are typically the most directly dependent on their natural resource base for employment, revenues, and foreign ex change. In effect, such nations are presently using an accounting system which basically dis regards their principal assets. need to recognize that natural resources make important contributions to long-term economic productivity and should be considered as economic assets whose value lies not in their investment cost but in the poten tial {"come they can generate. Any defmition of

PAGE 67

income should include the notion of sustainability. For example, business income is defined as the maximum amount a firm could payout in current dividends without reducing its net worth. "Chis income concept encompasses not oi1ly cur rent earnings but also changes in asset positions, i.e., capital gains are a source of income, and capital losses are a reduction in income. Depre ciation reflects the fact that unless capital stock is maintained and replaced, future consumption possibilities will inevitably decline. Vn resource-dependent countries, the failure to .. xtend this depreciation concept to the capital st.Jck embodied in natural resources seri ously distorts economic evaluations and projec tions. Natural resources depreciate in the same sense that a machine depreciates; for cr_:{mple, soils depreciate a:. they are eroded or as their ECONOMICS AS IF TOMORROW MAITERED As countries like St. Vincent and the Grenadines begin to utilize economic measures which take account of natural resource assets, a more effective analysis of economic policy -one which reflects long-term sustainability --will become Increasingly possible. Donor support should be sought for an Eastern Caribbean regional project to study the concept of depreciation for natural resource assets. Most Eastern Caribbean nations share the same basic set of economically valuable natural resources, and the methodology could be applied to all. The process (perhaps using methods similar to those in the WRI report by Repetto, et al., 1989) wOIJld involve the development of a common framework for: (a) determining which resources are the most important to measure and how the measurement could best be employed; (b) collection of basic field data on existing stocks of natural resources (in many within the region such data may not be available for some resources); (c) constructing physical accounts for each chosen resource; (d) determining a monetary value for each resource --the specific methodology will vary depending on the resource being measured; and (e) integrating these assets into national macro-economic evaluations. It is important to start work neN on an accounting methodology so that appropriate data can be collected. Thin process is admittedly not as straightforward as it may sound since many important resources may have no market value, and most of the Eastern Caribbean nations do not yet have an extensive natural resources data base. This situation Is changing, however. Recent years have seen many advances in the development of tech niques to determine surrogate values for non-market resources (Barbier and Burgess, 1989; Barbier, et al., 1989; Cambers, 1989; Dixon, 1989). Several Eastern Caribbean nations either have begun compiling resource data (e.g., the CIDA Forestry Project In St. Vincent) or will soon need to do so for resource management reasons; it would be advantageous to collect these data in such a way that they could be integrated into a revised national accounting system. As the physical impact of eccnomic activities impinge on natural systems In the Eastern Caribbean, environmental damage gradually becomes more visible and is less easily Ignored by the political leadership. In the search for a solution to this problem, attention Is drawn to a 1989 OECS/NRMP-sponsored simulation model for sustainable development for Montserrat that attempted to assess the extent to which current resource use exceeds the rate of re newal, producing a declining asset base. The OECS/NRMP group, having tested the model first In Montserrat, Is currently implementing a new testing phase with the Economic Devel opment Unit of Dominica. One aspect of this involves finding new ways of valuing natural resources for use In improved national Income accou:ltlng systems. 37

PAGE 68

fertility is diminished, since they can produce only at higher costs or lower yields. The present Uniterl system of national accounts fosters a fictitious dichotomy between the economy and "the environment" that in effect seems to encourage policymakers to ig nore or destroy the latter in the name of eco nomic development. The sys(em equates uti lization of valuable assets with tIle generation of income and promotes the notion that rapid eco nomic growth can be achieved and while depleting the resource base. Since most countries follow the system of national accounts established by the United Nations Statistical Office, at least in regard to their core accounts, that office is presently con sidering revisions to the SNA, although it has 38 made a preliminary decision to forego funda mental changes. Instead, countries are bemg en couraged to implement balance sheet accounts for reproducible and non-reproducible tangible assets and to link those to conventional national income measures through "satellite accounts". Although there are other problems with this ap proach (discussed at length in Repetto.. 1989), one of the most serious is limited expertise and mt:npower resources. Given the overriding pri ority to calcuiatf! the traditional income accounts and the perceived difficulty of calculating these ancillary accounts, it is very unlikely that many developing countries will actually do so. This means that unless fundamental changes are mat:!e, economists and politicians will continue to use the present system whereby Gross Domestic Product is viewed as the prime measure of each country's economic performancr..

PAGE 69

SECTION 2 FORESTS AND WILDLIFE 2.1 FORESTS AND FORESTRY 2.1.1 Overview NATURAL FORESTS In 1984, Birdsey, et al. (1986), for a project funded by USAID, carried out a forest inventory of St. Vincent which was based on photo-interpretation and field sampling. These authors calculated at that time that 31,385 acres or 38 percent of St. Vincent was still covered by forests (Table 2.1(1; most of this remaining forested area was located on crown lands. Primary forest (including rain forests and moist forests) comprised only 13 percent of the forested area (five percent of the total land), while palm forests and dwarf or elfm forests made up 21 percent of the forested area (eight percent of the total land). Taken together, the secondary forests, dry scrub forests and plantation forests made up 67 percent of the forested area and 25 percent of the total land. Almost 6,900 acres or eight percent of the total land area had been deforested by the 1979 eruption of Soufriere. The western side of the island, and particularly the northwest, contained the highest proportion of forest (Table 2.1(2. (N.B. Forests which are designated as "primary" or "mature" have never been disturbed, or at least have been undisturbed for such a long time that they show no recogniz able signs of disturbance. "Secondary" or "successional" are those that have been disturbed by man or natural forces in the rel atively recent past and are now in the process of recovery.) It is often repeated tJY authors quoting Beard, 1949} that St. Vincent's re maining primary forests are found mostly in the upper parts of the Colonarie, Cumberland and Buccament Valleys, where they occupy small pockets between 1,100 and 1,500 feet el evation in areas too steep for cultivation. However, agricultural clearings have clearly caused much damage to the remnant primary forests, and Lambert (1983) found that the 39 rain forest which Beard had recorded in the Colonarie VaUey remained only in smaU, dis turbed patches. He felt that primary forest occurred only in the WaUibou, upper Cum berland, and upper Buccament Valleys. Lambert observed, however, that Hurricane Allen, which devastated the forests of St. Lucia in 1980, seems to have had minimal ef fect on the rain forest in st. Vincent. The Grenadines have been severely damaged ecologically by the clearing of vege tation and overgrazing of livestock which are turned loose during the dry season to wander at will. Their vegetation now consists mostly of badly degraded secondary dry scrub and brush. Only Bequia has significant areas of drj woodlands. These have been disturbed by grazing and cut over for fuelwood, charcoal and wood for boat-building. On Canouan, Beard (1949) mentioned a single small stand of tall, fairly mature dry forest at a 800-900 foot elevation on the lee side of Mt. Royal which may still exist. However, Government has intentions to lease these lands. Birdsey, et al (1986) have stated that the primary forest may be the most valuable natural resource on St. Vincent. Besides helping to maintain the island ecosystem and sustain water supplies in the water catch ments, natural forests the potential to attract tourists and provide habitat for endan gered species. The secondary forests also play a similar role, and many of them are located adjacent to or within the primary forests, forming a sinsJe ecosystem. The actual coverage and distribution of forests and other vegetation types in St. Vincent and the Grenadines today is very poorly known. Talbot (1983) produced a sketch map of actual (as opposed to potential or "climax") vegetation on St. Vincent (F'JgU1"e 2.1(1. This map differed from all. earlier version (Beard, 1949; see Figure 1.2(5

PAGE 70

Table 2.1 (1). Area by land class, St. Vincent, 1984. Land Class Timberland Young secondary forest Secondary forest Primary forest Plantation forest TOTAL Other forest land Palm forest Dwarf forest Dry Scrub forest TOTAL Non-stocked land Non-forest land TOTAL LAND** 3,570 3,706 1,632 34 B,942 1,734 952 1,326 4,012 2,754 1B,292 34,000 Area Percent 10.5 10.9 4.B 0.1 26.3 5.1 2.B 3.9 11.B B.1 53.B 100.0 Land deforested due to natural disturbance and not currently In Non-forest use. ** Values for total land from Nicholls, 1982. Source: Blrdsey, et 801., 1986. mainly in showing the extent of vegetation disturbance due to the 1979 eruption of Soufriere. Unfortunately, in the course of their study Birdsey, el 01. (1986) did not pre pare a new forest cover map; the map of for est types on page 6 of their report is adapted from Beard's 1949 study. 40 TIMBERLAND Timberland is defined as those areas of forest which can be used for production of timber, including primary, young secondary and secondary natural forests and plantation forests according to the classification scheme of Birdsey, el 01. (1986) -see Table 2.1(1).

PAGE 71

Tab!e 2.1 (2). Proportion of forest land by watershed region and elevation, St. Vince;;t, 1984. Region Northwest Southwest Northeast Elevatlon** Below 305 m 56 36 4 6 (percent) AbQve305 m 94 69 32 83 Forest land Includes Non-stocked land; watershed regions are outlined in Figure 3.1 (1). ** The 305 m used hera equates to the proclamation that reserves ara all crown lands above 1,000 ft. Source: Birdsey, et a/., 1986. Young secondary forests are located in more accessible areas and tend to be associated with recent agricultural activity, but most of their usable timber volume resides in the oc casional large remnant trees. Secondary forests are mainly found in very rugged, unin habited terrain and are probably the result of natural disturbances; while they contain rea sonably large volumes of timber, physical dif ficulties would make log extraction extremely difficult and/or damaging to the environment. The primary forests contain the largest vol umes of timber, but they also are found in very rugged terrain with no roads or easy ac cess. It thereiore appears that Ihe remaining natural forests offer poor opportunities for production forestry; the best hope for in creasing timber production is through in creasing the acreage of plantation forests. GSVG's Forestry Division maintains small parcels attached to several of the plan tation f.orests where it raises Christmas trees for sale. The Division also sell trees for lum-41 ber, posts and fuelwood; these constitute its major activities in forest utilization. There is only a small primary forest industry in the country which supplies about 15 percent of the lumber demand via a few pit sawyers using "Alaskan mills," chain saws adapted for cutting logs into slabs (Prins, 1986a). The secondary forest industry sector is well-developed, pro mainly custom-buill furniture and other finished or semi-finished products, mostly from imported (and some local) lumber. PLANTATION FORESTS To date, reforestation efforts in St. Vincent and the Grenadines have mostly been carried out in deforested upper watersheds for the purpose of soil and water conservation, with the production of poles, posts and timber being of secondary importance. Three species make up most of the plantations: blue mahoe (Hibiscus elatlls) accounts for 70 percent of

PAGE 72

ST. VINCENT/NATURAL VEGETATION I fflti I 13' 13' MONTANE (Elfin woodland and palm brake) VOLCANIC PIONEER VEGETATION TROPICAL RAIN FOREST SECONDARY RAIN FOREST DRY SCRUB WOODLANDS CULTIVATED 61' 61' 61' 13' 13' 13' KIn o '2 3 Hiles 61' 61' Figures 2.1 (1). Distribution of natural vegetation In 5t. Vincant, circa 1983 (source: Talbot, 1983). 42

PAGE 73

the acreage, mahogany spp. (Swielenia macrophylla and Swietenia mahagoni) and Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea) together make up 18 percent, and about six other species make up the remainder. Annual planting rates have ranged from 5 to 10 acres per year, depending on the availability of land and fund;ng (Prins, 1986a). About one-third of the plantations were established in 1968-1969, and another 40 percent during the period 1980-1982 through the USAlDjCDB Basic Human Needs Pro gram (Figure 2.1(2. Although it had been reported by a former Chief Agricultural Offi cer that about 285 acres of plantations existed in 1982, the 1984 forest inventory could locate records for only 125 acres, making assessment of production difficult. A U.S. Peace Corps Volunteer forester recently prepared stand data cards for a total of 283 acres of plantation forests; several small plantations have not been included because of their inaccessibility or their failure to become established. Sixty or seventy per cent of the plantations have never had silvicultural treatments (like thinning) for timber stand improvement. Hence, the majority of the plantations are not reaching or maintain ing heir optimal growth potential. With proper management, the established planta tions could be much more productive (pers. comm., W. Metz, U.S. Peace Corps Volun teer, April, 1990). FOREST RESERVES St. Vincent's fIrst forest reserve, King's Hill, was set aside by Order No.5 of 1791. This 55 acre tract of dry forest should in theory have been protected from cutting ever since, but Beard (1949) observed that the law had been "more honored in the breach than in the observance". Neverthele:is, this reserve still exists in a relatively intact state and has been the focus of recent discussions by a local community group interested in seeing the site developed as a potential park site with facili ties for researchers. 43 Miles o 1 2 Figure 2.1 (2). Forest plantations surveyed by forestry team In 1984 (source: Blrdsey, et al., 1986). KEY TO SITES SURVEYED: Y Young Man'a Valley G Gowmmflnt House M Montreal H Hermitage V Vermont C Camden Park In 1946 Proclamation U declared as a reserve ... all that area of crown land lying upon the central main ridge and mountainous interior of the island to the :.Outh of the Wallibou and Rabacca Rivers, such Forest Reserve to be entitled the Central Reserve". Muc!:l of this area is still intact, at least in the higher elevltions ruld north of an east-west line tht'oJug2l the peaks of Petit Bonhomme

PAGE 74

and Grand Bonhomme to the vidnity of Dalaway, which forms the approximate south ern boundary of the Parrot Preserve. South of this line the forest has more fragmented and disturbed, and only the highest and steep est areas may still be intact. The Crown Lands Forest Reserve (Declaration) Order of 1948 set aside as fgrest reserves the following areas: (1) "'The Soufriere Forest Re:lerve comprising all that area of crown lands lying upon Soufriere Mountai,n, its foothills and the mountainous interior of the parishes of St. David and Charlotte lying to the north of the Wai:ibou and Rabacca Dry Rivers.w The upper parts of this area have not been greatly disturbed by man, but are subject to natural disturbance from the eruptions of Soufriere. (2) "'The Mesopotamia Forest Re serve comprising all that area of crown lands lying upon the catchment area of the Yombou River, including the peaks of Petit St. Andrew and Grand Bonhomme, in the parish of St. George. w Most of this area, with the exception of the very highest and steepest portions, has been cleared for agriculture. (3) "'The Colonarie Forest Re serve comprising all that area of crown lands lying upon the catchment area of the Colonarie River, including the peak of Petit Bonhomme and its foothills in the parish of Charlotte. w Parts of the upper watersheds are stitl forested, but agricultural clearings are rapidly ex panding. The UK's Directorate of Overseas Surveys (D.O.S.) 1:50,000 scale map shows seven "reserves" (presumably forest reserves) on Union Island but does not show their boundaries. Jackson, et 01. (1986) indicated that at least portions of several reserves in the western part of the island, and an area on the eastern slopes of Mt. Olympus, had dry woodlands worthy of protection (see Section 9). 44 According to Butler (1988), his dis cussions with the Chief Surveyor indicated that the S1. Vincent reserves ... were all sur veyed (many of them in the mid-1960's) and the survey plans of several were located and lodged in tile surveys office of the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Agriculture" (sic). If this was indeed done, the survey plans appear to have been lost, and in any case the reserve boundaries have now become overgrown, and encroachment by agriculture is common. A more recent survey was completed by the Forestry Division in October 1990 (pers. commun., CEP National Committee, 1990). 2.1.2 Problems and Issues AND DEMAND OF WOOD PRODUcrs St. Vincent and the Grenadines im ports about EC$8 million worth of round wood, lumber and other wood products each year, representing 50 percent of the round wood demand, 85 percent of the lumber de mand, and 75 percent of the demand for other wood products. These imports are approxi mately five percent of the value of all the na tion's imported goods (Prins, 1986a). Prins calculates that with proper management, at the end of a decade of forest development, it would be well within the capacity of managed natural forests, agro-forestry operations and plantation forests to reduce wood imports by about 50 percent. Based on an estimate of 40 percent of households which use charcoal exclusively for domestic cooking, and another 30 to 40 per cent which use it along with other fuels, Prins concludes that this level of consumption can at least be maintained without detrimental ef fects if forest management is successfully introduced. THE CROWN LANDS PROBLEM An official proclamation of August 22, 1912, reserves all crown lands in St. Vincent above 1,000 feet in elevation to pro-

PAGE 75

tect them from any act that would be prej udicial to forest (Birdsey, et 01., 1986); this area has been estimated at about forty percent of the total 1 ina of the is land (Figure 2.1(3. Although Butler (1988) states that neither the Legal Affairs nor Crown Lands Officers have been able to pro duce a copy of the document, a copy has re cently been located in Barbados and is on me at the Forestry Division and the CIDA ForesLry Project Office. A major problem is that the legal definition of crown lands in various is very vague. For example, the Crown Lands Ordinance of 1906 gives the following defmi tion: w'Crown Land' means land vested in the Crown, or vested in the Governor for the public uses of the Colony, but shall not in clude lands acquired under the Land Settle ment Ordinance. w In the absence of survey maps and deeds, such a definition is virtually useless for purposes of land management. DEFORESTATION It j. known that most of the area be low the 1,000 foot elevation is under perma nent agriculture, as well as many valleys at higher altitudes --this :s where the best land is found, and it has been deforested for cen turies. Squatters on crown lands have caused a significant but unquantified aIJlount of deforestation in the natural forests. More rapid upslope expansion of agriculture at the expense of the forested areas has been occur ring in recent years, especially for banana cultivation which is currently driven by thr. de sire to plant as much ,1creage as possible be fore British price supports are withrlrawn or reduced in 1992. Both the intensity and extent of de forestation for agriculture are thOUght to be far greater in the windward forests. One wguesstimateW puts the rate of forest loss in just six watersheds (Montreal, Vermont, Cumberland, Silver Spoon, Colonarie, and Perseverance) at 60 to 70 acres/year, based on field (pers. comm., W. Metz, u.S. Peace Corps Volunteer, April, 1990). There is DO information on the island-wide rate of deforestation, but other major area of 45 deforestation are in Landers, Greiggs, Montreal and the Upper Colonarie Valleys (pers. comm., J. Poyer, GSVG Forest Officer, April, 1990). Fuelwood cutting and charcoal pro duction may be a 'ierious problem, but it has not been quantified to date (see Section 6.1 for further discussion of the fuel wood prob lem). A report funded by the COB (Deutsch Forstinventur Service, 1983) stated that the total annual demand for charcoal and fuel wood amounted to some 25,000 to 35,000 cubic meters of wood, but this figurr> seems to be based on some guesswork (pers. comm., J. Latham, Project Manager, CIDA Forestry Project, April, 199D). According to Prins (1986a), the main areas where illegal charcoal burning takes place in the forest are in the Buccament, Cumberland, Locust and Colonarie Valleys, particularly the latter. However, according to a Forest Officer, the areas with the highest rate of fuelwood defor estation today are in Sandy Bay, Fancy, Rose Bank and Richmond (pers. comm., J. Poyer, GSVG Forest Officer, April, 1990). LACK OF ENFORCEMENT AND MANAGEMENT Laws prohibiting the cultivation of crown lands are not adequately enforced. The Crown Lands Office reportedly leases, and in some cases has even sold, crown lands above the 1,000 foot elevation line to private individ uals (Butler, 1988). Other factors making it difficult to manage crown lands and forest re serves are: outdated forestry legislatic,.:" the fact that forest officers have no powers of arrest; the lack of surveys and demarca tion of boundaries on the ground; the development of agricultural feeder roads which open up new areas to cultivation; increasing size of the population;

PAGE 76

61"15' '1"10' 61 "OS' 5T. VINCENT E3 LAND ABOVE 1000 ft. ELEVATION n"20' n"20' 13"15' n"15' 13"10' 61"15' 61"10' 61 "OS' Figure 2.1 (3). Land 1,000 feet In elevation (source: Blrdsey, et 8/., 1986). 46

PAGE 77

shortage of man-power on the ground, a result, in part, of poor benefits for staff (e.g., salary); lack of transportation for forest officers; the legal, political and social problems associated with the eviction of squatters from crown lands. To date there is no formal written forest policy and no forest management plan. Besides patrolling of forest reserves and some reforestation of illegally cleared areas, little actual management of forest reserves is cur rently practiced. CIDA FORESTRY ASSISTANCE PROGRAM A five year (1989-1994) Can$4.5 million forestry assistance program, funded by CIDA, is cunently addressing many of these problems. Some of the major components of the CIDA project are: (1) A National Forest Management Plan will be prepared by the CIDA project team, which will be coordinated with the National Forestry Action Plan to be pre pared within the next year by the FAO Tropical Forestry Action Plan Mission. (2) The personnel employed by the Forestry Division will be ex panded from the present 34 to about SO. (3) The project will assist in the reor ganization of the Forestry Divi sion, training of Forestry Division personnel and building of a new headquarters. (4) The role of the Forestry Division in watershed management will ':>e defined, and a watershed man agement plan for at least some of 47 the forest reserves will be pre pared. A social forestry pilot project will be begun in the Colonarie Valley which will at tempt to involve local people in the management of this watershed vin silvicultural and agro-forestry projects. (5) An environment31 education pro gram, with components for schools and the general public, is a large part of the project (see also Section 9). (6) Forest management policies and a draft Forest Resource Conserva tion Act have been prepared. The Forest Resource Conservation Act is intended to replace the Forests Ordinance, No. 25 of 1945. The new act greatly ex pands the powers of the Forestry Division in forest conservation and management. It contains a Schedule which declares a Cumberland Forest Reserve. (7) CIDA will soon survey and gazette the bollndaries of the forest reserves. At present, there is a significant problem of squat ters encroaching on the reserves. A new aerial photography mission is also pUnned by CIDA as a separate project. This effort will provide coverage of the entire nation. The photographs will be used to pre pare maps of land use, forest cover and vege tation types, and to derive estimates of defor estation rates by comparison with earlier photographs. 2.1.3 Policy Recommendatlona FOREST MANAGEMENT The highest priority and best use of the few remaining mature or nearly mature forest stands may well derive from conserving a major portion of them for their potential as

PAGE 78

a genetic reserve, for wildlife habitat, for wa tershed protection, for education, for scientific research and for nature tourism development. Plantation forests are more suited for the production of forest products. RESEARCH The rationale for the current em phasis on exotic species in plantation forestry needs to be examined. In Sl. Lucia, CIDA has proposed that a review of Beard's (1949) clas sification of the indigenous forest oe carried out and that one or more indigenous and/or exotic species, adapted to each ecologic
PAGE 79

assistance, tax credits --need to be studied, and legislation that will strengthen the ability of Government to protect and manage critical land areas, including private watersheds, is needed. In St. Lucia, for example, the institution of a levy on domestic waler biUs to raise funds for the purchase and mairatenance of private forested watersheds has rec ommended. This is an innovative proposal and t;Ould serve as a m.Cldel for the Eastern Caribbean region. A similar source of funds will need to be identified in St. Vincent to finance pro tective measures such as the following: (1) purchase of conservation ease ments (where the owner agrees not to do certain things, e.g., to forego building a road, cutting trees, harvesting fuelwood); (2) purchase of development rights; (3) payment of a premium for im proved landscape/forest man agement, e.g., terracing of damaged areas or reforestation; (4) payment for a long-term lease of watershed land needing protec tion; (5) compensation to landowners for down-zoning (reclas3ifying) land as a restricted or no develop. ment, protected area (which might allow certain <:ses but not others, by definition). FUELWOOD A more systematic evaluation of fuclwood extraction rates is required in order to identify specific areas in St. Vincent and the Grenadines where continued harvesting for this purpose poses J. serious environmental pfi.Jblem. Although conclusive documentation is not presently available, it would appear that fuelwood production rna!, represent a high-49 risk threat to forest resources. Obvious areas of concern are the forest reserves as well as primary watersheds where removal of ground cover for any reason endangers key water sup plies. Key management strategies should focus on enforcement and monitoring (fc,r ex ample, repeated monitoring of the chdrcoal market to pinpoint production increases from areas of critical concern). Also, the planning, monitoring and quantifying of fuelwood har vesting may be sufficiently important to war rant the eventual creation of a fuelwood forester post and/or a community/social forester post within the Forestry Division.

PAGE 80

2.2 BIODIVERSITY, ENDAPGCnr!.) SPECIES AND WILDLiFt: 2.2.1 Overview BIODIVERSllY Plants. According to Davis, et 01. (1986), the best available information on the floristics of St. Vincent and the Grenadines is in a late nineteenth-century flora of these islands (Anon., 1893). This source, which is now very much outdated, lists about 490 genera and 1,150 species of flowering plants and 163 species of ferns. These numbers could cll !.lge significantly now that up-to-date on the taxonomy and distribution 1)1 \'\I.,:cntian plants has recently become .l"' ,: I j a hie with the completion of Richard lk',ard's six vvlume Flora of the Lesser Alltilles (Howard, 1974-89). Invertebrates. Information on the occurrence and distribution of most groups of terrestrial invertebrates in St. Vincrnt and the Grenadines is unavailable. However, the de capod crustace 10 fauna of these islands in cludes several species of freshwater shrimp and freshwater or terrestrial crabs, some of which are locally prized as food. Chace and Hobbs (1%9), in their review of West Indian terrestrial crustacea, list only Atya innocous, Macrobrachium carcinus, M. faustinllm and M. heterochirus as collected in St. Vincent and the Grena.dines, but there arc other species which occur here. In addition to the species men tioned above, Talbot (1983) lists two other species of Atya, four other species of Macrobrachium, the prawn Palaemo" pandaliformis, and the shrimp Micratya poeyi as likely to be found in the freshwater streams. The Blue Land Crab (Cardisoma guanhumi) is common in wetlands near the sea, and other land crabs (e.g., Gecarcinus sp.) a.e present as well as a terrestrial Hermit Crab (Coenobita clypeatus). Shore-living species such as Ghost Crabs and Rock Crabs (family Grapsidae), considered semi-terrestrial by Chace and Smith, are also present. Most of these animals are widely distributed in the Caribbean. Fishes. Estuarine flShes such as Mullet (Mugi/), MudflSh (Centropomus), and 50 Shad (Alosa) probably occur in the lower reaches of the largr in St. Vincent. The country's -fresh-, .u::rflShes, comprising several species of gobies, mountain mullets, clingflSh, etc., arc not well studied. However, the freshwater flSh fauna of the Lesser Antilles is derived from only a few families Poeciliidae, Anguillidae, Gobiidae, Eleotridae, Mugilirlae, Gerridae, Centropomidae, and Carangidae. A.?parently there are no species which occur exclusively in freshwater, i.e., all the known species can move between fresh and salt water, and many of them spawn at sea. Some freshwater flShes, particularly the mountain mullet (Agonostomus monticola) and the tri-tri plumieri), arc a tra ditional West Indian food resource. The latter is a goby whose young seasonally swarm in river mouths to migrate upstream; they arc caught in fine-meshed nets and made into tri tri cakes, a local delicacy. Excluding the freshwater flSnes, the remainder of the living terrestrial vertebrate fauna of the country comprises about 125 species in the groups which follow below (Maclean, et 01., 1977; pers. comm., D. Corke, Northeast London Polytechnic, 1990). Amphibians. The Marine Toad (Bufo marinus), two Tree Frogs (Eleutherodoctylus joJmstonei and E. urich; shrtvei) and the PO!ld Frog (Leptodactylus wagneri) are the only amphibian species known to occur in the nation. The occurrence on St. Vincent of the edible "Mountain Chickenfrog (Leptodactylus fallax) was ap parently reported in error by Faaborg and Arendt (1985); according to Johnson (1985) it occurs only in Montserrat and Dominica. Reptiles. Maclean, et 01. (1917) re ported 12 species of reptiles (three gecko lizards, two anole lizards, two ground llzards, an iguMla, a skink and three snakes) which occur on St. Vincent. Four "dditional species (three lizards and a tortoise) itre known from the St. Vincent Grenadines (Table 2.2(1. The list for herpetofauna as found in Faaborg and Arendt (1985) should not he used as it is mostly incorrect and displays species acci dentally transposed from a Montserrat list. This accounts for the fact that Faaborg and Arendt report (erroneously) numerous

PAGE 81

Table 2.2(1). Distribution of amphibian and reptile species, St. Vincent and the Grenadines. st. Vincent Buto marinus Beutherodactylus johnstonel Beuthorodactylus urichi Leptodactylus wagneri Ameiva ameiva (?j Anolis gril8us Anolls trinitatus Gymnophthalmus underwoodi Hemldactylus mabouia Iguana iguanlil Mabuya mabouya Sphaerodactylus vincenti Thecadactylus rapicauda Chironius vincenti Corallu5 onydris Mastigodryas brutsi Eleutherodactylus martinicensis Petit St. Vincent Iguana iguana Prune Island Anolls aeneus Union Island Anolis aentiiJS Ameiva ameiva Iguana Iguana Corallus enydrls Mastlgodryas bruesi Tobago Cava Anolls aeneus Iguana Iguana Mayero (= Maynlau, Maveau) Ameiva amelva Anolis aeneus Hemldactylus maboula Mabuya mabouya Catholic Island Anolls aeneus Canouan Geochelone !'.arbonaria Amelva amelva Iguana Iguana Bachla heteropus Mabuya mabouya Petit CanoUktD Anolis aeneus Savan Island Anolls aeneus Iguana Iguana Petit Mustigue !41olis aeneus Iguana Iguana Mustlgue Amelva am elva Anolls aeneus Iguana iguana Corallus enydrls Mastigodryas bruesl Baliceaux Anolis aeneus Battowla Anolis aeneus Iguana Iguana Quatre Island Anolls aeneus Iguana Iguana Corallus enydrls Mastlgodryas bruesl Leptodactylus wagnerl Mastlgodryas bruesl Amelva amelva Anolls aeneus Anolis richardl Bachla heteropus Hemldactylus maboula Iguana Iguana Mabuya mabouya Thecadactylus raplcauda Corallus enydrls Petit Bateau Amelva amelva Mabuya mabouya Anolis aeneus Source: 19n; pars. comm., Dr. David Cortee, Senior ecologist, Northeast London Polytechnic, 1990. 51

PAGE 82

Table 2.2{2}. 5eaIJIrd species reported to breed in 5t. Vincent and the Grenadines. Common Name St. Vincent Redbilled Tropicbird Yellowbilled Tropicbird Roseate Tern Brown Noddy Scientific Name Phaeton ao1hereus Phaeton lepturus Sterna dougallii Anou3 stoiidus Reg. ConsaIV. Priority To bf! monitored No immediate concern Speocial concern No immediate concern Grenadinfls/SI. Villt'ent Grenadines Audubon Shearwater (1) Redbilled tropicbird Magnificent Frigatebird Masked Booby Redfooted Booby Brown Booby Laughing Gull Royal Tern Roseate Tern Rridled Tern Sooty Tern Brown (1) means breeding is unconfirmed. Source: Halllwyn and Norton, 1984. species not cited by any other investigators, including Maclean, el al., 19n and D. Corke (Northeast London Polytechnic, pers. comm., 1990), who are generally in agreement. Birds. Faaborg and Arendt (1985) list a total of 95 species of breeding land birds in St. Vincent and the Grenadines, with in formation on their status. Halewyn and Norton (1984) reported that St. Vincent has only four species of breeding seabirds and is therefore relatively unimportant to this group; however, the Grenadines, with at least 12 breeding species, are of major regional impor tance (Table 2.2(2. Puffinus Iherminieri Phaeton aethereus Fregata magnificens Sula dactylatra Special concern To be monitored Special concern Special concern To be monitored To be monitored Sula sula Sula leucogaster Larus Rtricilla Sterna maxima Sterna dougallii Sterna anaethetus Sterna fuscata Anous stolidus No imme-diate concern To be monitored Spacial concern No immediate concern No immediattt concem No immediate concern 52 Mammals. There are fifteen extant, non-marine species of native or naturalized mammals which are found in the wild in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. The mammal faWlil (mostly consisting of native bats) is shown in Table 2.2(3). Of the non-flying mammals, only the extinct St. Vincent Rice Rat is thought to be native to the country; the other species were introduced by either Amerindian or European settlers. Table 2.2(4) is a provisional and in complete summary of biodiversity information for the country.

PAGE 83

Table 2.2(3). Non-marine mammal species occuring In St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Rice Rat: .AgQyt!: Mongoose: Rats: .M!.Q: Opposum: Armadillo: Noctlllo leporinus Artlbeus jamalcensls Ardops nlchol/sl Brachyphyl/a cavernosum Natalus stramlneus Tadarida brasiliensis Mo/ossus mo/osstls Monophyl/us plethodon Oryzomys vicws (extinct St. Vincent endemic) Dasyprocta agutl (introduced) Herpestes auropunctatus (introduced) Rattus rattus (introduced) Rattus norvegicus (introduced) Mus musculus (introducecl) Didelphis marsuplalls (introduced) Dasypus novemcinctus (introduced) N.B. Faaborg ar-:f Arendt list two (unspecHied) species of extinct Oryzomyinl, but do not include the bat Monophyl/us plethodon, which is listed by Johnson. Butler lists the armadillo, which is not listed by any of the others. Source: Faaborg and Arendt, 1985; Johnson, 1988; I:3utler, 1988; CEP National Committee, 1990. ENDEMISM AND THREATENED/ENDANGERED SPECIES A Kew Garden report (Anon., 1893) listed sixteen species of flowering plants and four species of ferns (Table 2.2(5 as endemic to St. Vincent and the Grenadines, i.e., occur ring nowhere else in the world. Beard (1949) listed 29 regionally endemic tree species which occur in St. Vincent but listed ':0 single-island endemic trees. No information on status is available for any of these endemic or rare plant species. Miller, et 01. (1988) pointed out that any native plant species restricted to the dry forest habitat would probably be under the greatest threat since that vegetation type is 53 the most disturbed. Spachea per/orata, known as the "Soufriere Plant of St. Vincent," has been widely publicized as an aII-but-extinct endemic because the only known living speci men resides in the Kingstown Botanical Gar den. However, this species is now believed to be an introduction from South America (Howard; in Davis, et 01., 1986). No endemic invertebrates or fishes have been described in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Johnson (1988) was unable tC' find any sources of information on regional endemism among invertebrates or freshwater fIShes or any information on the ecology and status of these groups.

PAGE 84

Table 2.2{4}. Biodiversity summary: St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Species Endemic to: Total Species Island Groyp/Reglon RDBSpecles Mammals 15 {1 } 3 Birds 95 2 7 4 Reptiles 16 3 3 3 Amphibians 4 Fish N/A N/A N/A Invertebrates N/A N/A N/A Plants 1,150 12 N/A ROB means IUCN Red Data Book of Endangered Species. Parentheses Indicate known species extinctions since 1600. Source: Johnson, 1988; Butler, 1988; pers. comm., Dr. David Corke, Senior Ecologist, Northeast London Polytechnic, 1990; CEP National Committee, 1990. Table 2.2{5}. Flowering plants and ferns endemic to St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Endemic Flowering Plants: Trlgynaea antillana Mellosma herbertil Call1andra gui/dlngii Psldium gulldinglanum Gustavia antillana Tibouchina clstoides Begonia rotundifolia Hoffmannia tubiflora Ma/ouetia retroflex a Columnea spec/osa Peperomia cuneata Peperomia vincentiana Croton gui/ding/i Ep/dendrum vincentinum Tillandsia megastachya Spachea perforata Source: Anon., 1893, cited in Miller, et al., 1988. 54 Endemic Ferns Cyathea tenera Pter/s long/brachiata Asplenium godman/ Acrostlchum smlthll

PAGE 85

None of the amphibian species is cur rently thought to be a single-island endemic or a regional endemic. However, the frog E. urich; shrevei, now thought to be an endemic subspecies, may eventually tum out to be a valid endemic species (Crombie; in Johnson, 1988). Two St. Vincent species of lizards (Anolis griseus and A. trinitatus) and a snake (Clrironius vincenti) are single-island endemics, and two other lizards (Gymnophtllalmlls underwoodi and Splraerodactyills vicenti) tJ1d a snake (Mastigodryas blllesi) are regional endemics. No iilformation on status is available for these reptiles, except for Anolis gn'seus which is re ported to be Wfairly common W in coastal areas (Johnson, 1988). Two St. Vincent land birds (the St. Vincent Parrot, Amazona guildingii, and the Whistling Warbler, Catharopeza bishopi) are single-island endemic species. There are en demic sub-species of the Rufous-throated or St. Vincent Solitaire (Myadestes genibaris) and the House Wren (Troglodytes aedon), and an additional seven bird species which occur in the nation (listed in Johnson, 1988) are en demic to the Lesser Antilles. The Tundra Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus tundrius) and the st. Vincent Solitaire are both listed in the IUCN Red Data Book (King, 1978-79) as endangered; the House W. was also for merly listed as endangered but is not so listed at present. THE ST. VINCENT PARROT The St. Vincent Parrot is one of four remaining species of Lesser Antillean parrots in the genus Amazona (out of an original seven). Because it is a single-island endemic and has a very low population which is under pressure, it is listed as an endangered species by the ICBP International Bird Red Data Book and also in Appendix 1 of the Convention on International Trade in "2ndange:;red Species (CITES). The St. Vincent Parrot a't present has a small but apparently stable population of about 500 (Butler, 1988), concentrated in the upper watersheds of the Buccament, Colonarie and Cumberland Rivers. The parrot is a bird of the forest canopy and is primarily found in undisturbed rain forest habitats; its present range is shown in Figure 2.'l(1). Butler (1988) provides the most up-to-date and comprehensive information on the st. Vincent Parrot, including summaries of previous research, con servation efforts, legislation, present status, and public education programs. According to Butler, the major threats to the continued existence of the parrot are: hurricanes, volcanic activity, hunting (virtually ceased at present), the pet trade (now illegal but highly lucrative ?.nd therefore a continuing threat), and habitat disturbance (deforestation for fuelwood and agriculture are the most serious threats). Areas of principal concern at this time are the Cortgo, Jennings, and Perseverance Valleys, Vennont, ane." Cumberland, all of which have high parrot conce.ltrations and are threatened by illegal agri cultural activities. In 1972 the Houston Zoo reported that a St. Vincent Parrot had been hatched in captivity for the flrst time; only one more was successfully hatched by 1980, and the Zoo's captive breed ing program was discontmued. Another attempt at captive breeding at the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust/Jersey Zoo has also been discontinued. Twenty-four captive parrots are maintained in an aviary located at the Kingstown Botanic Gardens and run by the GSVG's Forestry Division with assistance from World Wildlife Fund-l:S, the Je.rsey Zoo and the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust. There is presently an on-going captive breeding project at the Botanic Gardens; flve chicks were hatched and successfully fledged as of 1990. 55

PAGE 86

13"20' 13"15' 13"10' 61",5' 61"10' 61' ST. VINCENT/PARROT RANGE AND RESERVE 111111111 PRESENT RANGE OF A. guildingii PARROT RESERVE Proposed by Butler, 1988 61"15' 61"10' 61' Figure 2.2(1). Distribution map of the St. Vincent Parrot and boundaries of the Parrot Reserve (source: adapted from Butler. 1988). 56 13' 13' 13'

PAGE 87

The status of the St. Vincent Parrot is discussed below. The Whistling Warbler in habits forest understory, and, according to Johnson (1988), its population is believed to be sparse and apparently localized at lower altitudes where forest and agricultural areas meet, but common at moderate altitudes. A field survey of the Whistling Warbler was car ried out from late June to mid-August, 1988 !;j four students from the Ulliversity of East Anglia with secondary studies on the St. Vincent Solitaire and St. Vincent House Wren (Univ. of East Anglia, 1988). Population estimates from this l't: ... cy were not in the University of East Anglia report, but preliminary analysis indicated that the warbler was common in primary rain foresl, palm brake, and elfin woodland; it was 'jliCOmmOI1 in old growth secondary forest a'id absent from plantations. The Rufous-throal.:d Solitaire was common in the palm brake ar.d elfin woodland in the area of Richmond Peak and fairly numerous in the higher areas of primary rain forest. The House Wren was abundant on the southwest slopes of Soufriere and around Chateaubelair, where it occurs in all habitats from coastal banana plantations up to the lower limit the palm brake. The condusion of this study was that none of the three bird species is presently endangered due to habitat destruction or to any other cause. There are no single-island endemic mammals in the country, but three bats (Ardops nie/lOlIsi, Brochypllyllo covemorum, and M01/opilyllus plethodo1/) are regionai en demics (Johnson, 1988). The IUCN Mammal Red Data Book (Thornback and Jenkins, 1982) does not list any of the local species as threatened. WILDLIFE HUNTING SEASONS AND PROTECTED AREA LEGISLATION The Birds and Fish Protection Ordi nance passed in 1901 provided legislative protection of aU species of wild birds as well as fish and lobsters. Absolute protection was given to all seabirds, certain wading and swamp birds, and ali land birds with the exception of doves, pigeons, chachalaca, quail, 57 peregrine fakon, and merlin. A dosed season provided partial protection for pigeons, doves, ducks, and wading birds, as well as lobster and sea turtles. it also authorized the Governor General to designate any area as a sanctuary affording year-round protection from hunting for all species. 43 of 1947 and 82 of 1950 declared Young's Island, King's Hill, Government Grounds and Botanical Gardens, Milligan Cay, Pigeon Is land and Isk de Quatre to be bird sanctuaries. However, none of these laws was enforced, and in any case the low penalties failed as a deterrent. In 1987 the W ild!ife Protection Act (No. 16 of 1987) was passed; this law repealed the Birds and Fish Protection Ordinance as far as it pertains to wildlife covered under the new act. This act provides for the appoint ment of a Chief Wildlife Protection Officer who will he responsible for the manaBement of wildlife and the administration and en forcement of the Act. Until this officer is ap pointed, the Chief Forest Officer will have the responsibility of carrying out these duties. The Act provides for the establishment of a number of reserves (in addition to the forest reserves) in whice all wildlife is pro tected these reserves listed in Table 2.2(6) and displayed in FIb .: 2.2(2}. The Act also set aside as a Parrot Reserve an area of 7,596 acres in a single, contiguous parcel inclllding the Upper Buccament Valley, the Upper Cumberland River Valley, and the Upper Colon'lfie River Valley; a separate, isolated parcel of some 3,690 acres lying to the north and bounded by the peak of La Soufriere was also included in the Reserve. The 1987 Act provides absollO!e year round protection for [our species of reptiles; all seabirds; all wading birds except yellow legs, snipe, sandpipers, plovers and ducks; ar.j all land birds except doves, pigeons, chachalaca and quail. The exeMpted species as well as the opossum, agouti, armadillo, and iguana may be hunted except during a closed season closed season for the birds is from 1 Mai ch to 30 September; and for the armadillo, opossum, agouti and iguana it is from 1 Februa.}' to 30 September. Bats, rats, mice and mongoose are defined as "vermin" and may be hunted at any time.

PAGE 88

Table 2.2(6). Wildlife resell'Ves declared under the 1987 Wildlife Protection Act In St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Nllme of Reserve 1. Young Island 2. King's Hili 3. Falls of Balelne 4. Govt. House Grounds 5. Milligan Cay 6. Pigeon (Ramler) Island 7. Isle de Qua'!'e 8. All Awash Island 9. Catholic Island 10. Battowia Island 11. Catholic Rocks 12. Ctateaubelair Islet 13. La Paz Island 14. Frigate Rocl\ (Island?) 15. PAtit Canouan 16. Sail Rock 17. Tobago Cays 18. Big Cay 19. West Cay 20. Petit St. Vincent 21. Prune (Palm) :tiiand 22. Savan Islands 23. Northern end of Bequia RetJerVe Area Entire Island Boundaries set by Chief Wildlife OffIcer Boundaries set by Chief Wildlife Officer Including Botanical Gardens Entire island Entire i:>land Entirl3 Island Entire island Entire Island Entire Island Entire. island Entire Island Entire Island Entire Island Entire Island Entire island Entire Island group Entire Island Entire island Entire island Entire island Entire Island group Beyond "Industry Point" Sources: Wildlife ProFection Act, No. 16, 1987; Butler, 1988. The Act also provides for fines and jail sentences for offenders, the issuance of hunting licenses and import or export permits, and special provisions for the management of the St. Vincent Parrot. 58 2.2.2 Problems and I.aues THE WILDLIFE PROTECI10N ACT Unfortunately, parts of the 1987 Wildlife Protection Act contained several sig nificant errors. Schedule 1 has an error re lating to the boundaries for the Parrot Re serve. Schedule 2 designates some species for absolute protection which are endemic to Lucia and which do not occur in St. Vincent and the Grenadines; it also omits others which ate endemic to this and deserve pro tection. Schedule 3, which lists species that may be hunted in season, also contains errors.

PAGE 89

""'5' ""'0' ""OS' ST. VINCENT/WILDLIFE RESERVES 1]"20' n",s' n",o' ""'5' Figure 2.2(2a). Location of designated wildlife reserves, St. Vincent (source: Wildlife Protection Act, No. 16 of 1987). Numbers correspond to names of reserves In Table 2.2(6). 59 n"20' n",o'

PAGE 90

GRENADINES/WILDLIFE RESEkVES 18 19 9 11 ... Q HAYREAU {? 21 -Petit Canouan 17 I( Tobago Cays c o (Palm) 20 .. I\;;) Petit St. Vincent Battow;a Baliceaux HUSTIQUE Petit Hust;que <\) o + 15 san Rock 16 + o Sayan Df. "f't 22 o 1 2 3 4 5 N.Hiles Figure 2.2{2b). L.oc:atlon of designated wildllfo reserves, St. Vincent Grenadlntfs (source: Protection Act, No. 16 of 1987). Numbers correspond to nall"bSS of rese.ves In Table 2.2(0,. 60

PAGE 91

Butler (1988; see his section 8:2:1) made recommendations for the correction of Schedules 1, 2 and 3 and for the clarification of other language in the legislation; Schedules 1 and 2 were corrected in 1988. There were fundamental problems with the two separate areas comprising the Parrot Reserve as originally defined in Sched ule 1 of the Act, including: land ownership and land use conflicts; the difficulties alid ex pense involved in demarcating a long bound ary which did not follow easily visible physical features; and the fact that much of the area set aside had no parrots in it, while at the same time large areas of known parrot habitat were excluded. Butler, as the Forestry Divi sion's c.onsultant on 'he parrot project, therefore recommended that the GSVG re define and gazette the boundaries of the Parrot Reserve as an amendment to the origi nallegislation. This .edefilled parrot reserve forms a single contiguous unit of 10,870 acres with easily identifiable boundaries which for the most part are comprised of ridges and rivers. With the exception of a few small parcels in the Young Man's Valley area, the entire re serve is crown land. By almost entirely ex cluding areas under cuitivation, it minimizes corJ1ict with farmers and at the same t;me affords coverage to all the principal areas of parrot habitat. !t also protects habitat for the WhisHing Warbler and gives maximum protection to major watershed areas, including the Cumberland and Colonarie Rivers which are used for hydroelcctri:. power generation. Finally, the reserve lies entirely within the proposed forest reserve which will act a'i a buffer zone. The forest reserve is expected to include all remaining forested crown lands as well as extremely steep lands (Butler, 1988), and its boundaries will be demarcated by the CIDA forest management project. The Act's definition of all species of bats as "vermin" which can be hunted indis criminately is unfortunate. Several species of native bats are insectivorous; such bats are some of the most efticient predators of insects and should be protected as an imPOl'tIDt form of biological control which reduces the need for chemical insecticides. Other species may 61 be important pollinators of the native flora, including forest trees; even the frugivorous species which are commonly dassed as pests can be important disseminators of plant seeds. WSS OF NATIVE WILDLIFE HABITAT The primary negative imp'lct of de0:1 all forms of wildlife in most Caribbean islands appears to be habitat re duction via the conversion of forested wild lands to other habitat types and land uses. In SVG, habitat and home range reqllirements and minimum viabie population sizes for most species are as yet poorly known. The smcll land mass of the country means that any sys tem of parks and protected areas will consist of smail, probably isolated of more or-less "natural" habitat surrounded by a ma trix of more intensive land uses. If maintained largely as native forest and other native vege tation types, such reserves could perhaps in clude sufficient area to prevent the extinction of some of the smaller species of wildlife which may require that particular type of habitat, but this is very much a matter of indi vidual species characteristics. The importance of native forest for wildlife perhaps needs to be underscored. Unfortunately, even-age plantations of exotic timber trees are typically almost free of native wildlife; even mixed tree-crops are better habitat. The suggestions offered earlier that, for the smaller species, existing forest re serves and proposed parks may be adequate to assure species survival depends on retaining substantial tracts of native forest. To the ex tent that native forest within the reserves is replaced by exotic trees, those suggestions grow more tenuous. The question of how much forested land is necessary to have a rea sonable probability of maintaining a given species or community is difficult but not im possible to answer by means of research. Various long-term studies of the fauna of natural vegetation types in Domini.ca (carried out by P. Evans and summarized in Rainey, et al., 1987) showed that rain foro:st supported the highest bird and biomass (but this is not neceSarily the case on St. Vincent). Cultivated plots with native

PAGE 92

forest adjacent had higher bird dive,'sity than extensive crop monoculturl!s. The pattern as well ac; tile exteot of forest clearing was found to be significant because Hie forest birds dif fered conside:!ably in home range size. Some forest birds had ,1 small horne range and (hl:s could be expected to persist in a smaller rem nant of forest. Others, such as (he Red necked Pigeon, the Ruddy Quail Dove and the Amazona parrots, required relatively large areas of intact forest. A substantial number of birds which fvraged in cultivated areas re quired adjacent forest for roosting and nesting. IMPACT OF BlOCIDES ON WILDLIFE Large amounts of pesticides and her bicides (collectively referred to as biocidcs) are applied to agricultural crops in S1. Vincent (see Sec:ion 8), bur the effects of th.ese chemicals on wildlife and the terrestrial ar.d l..larine ecosyc;tems of S1. Vincent remain un studied. Many persons are concerned that the freshwater fhhes, shrimp (crayfish,,) and which are traditionally harvested for food in S1. Viacent have suffered ..I serious de .. cline in abundance in recent years. This de cline has not been quantitatively documented, but there appears to be wide agreement tbat the I trend is signific:mt and real. It has been report\!d that the deliberate poison ing of streams uf,ing biocides such as Sevin is a common means of collecting fish and crayfISh for sale. The flecline ha:, also been attributed by some to the widespread agricultural use of potent biocides and to the decline in stream water quality catJ5ed by sedimentation or pollution by sewage and industrial wastes. 1'h:! larvae of the West Iniian fresh water stream fauna generally require some salinity (varying from estuarine conditions to full-strength seawater) to complete th.:ir development. Several land-crab species un dertake seasonal mass migrations, moving from inlanrl areas to form dense at the s!1ore where they release their larvae into the sea. For such species, the local pop ulations likely to be maintained by larvae spawned ml other islands by ocean currents. Restocking or depleted streams would probably occur nalurally if 62 stream water quality were restored, provided that viable breeding populations still ret.lained in Ihe up-current source areas. However, given prevalence of biocide abuse and stream pollution in the region, the continuing availability of larvae should not be taken for granted. Even if standard toxicological data were available for S1. Vincent (which they are not), such data by themselves are frequently not sufficient to predict the consequences of releasing toxic synthetic compounds in an ecosystem. Ouantitative evaluation of the ef fects of biocides requires a fairly detailed ecological picture which is rarely available for tropical vertebrates and which is exceedingly labor-intensive to acquire. Furthermore, the consequences for wildlife populations of expo sure to sublethal levels of olle or more bio cides, often in combination with additional environmental stresses (e.g., habitat reduction or an unusually severe dry season), cannot yet be predicted even at the single-species level. Because detailed \!cological field data is not available for most species and biological communities in S1. Vincent, the reader is re ferred to Evan's study in Dominica (cited in Rainey, et al., 1987), which was concerned prima{i1y with the on wildlife of the fungicides and nematicides used in the banana industry. these sweeping caveats in mind, some broad statements in reference to verte brate wildlife c:m be made. Birds are gener ally more sensitive to thar 'TIammalc perhaps in part because mammals have Letter ddoxification systems. Fish are frequently, but not consistently, more sensitive than warm-blooded vertebrates. There is also a general d-.:velopmental hierarchy of sensitivity within each species. Vertebrate embryos, eggs ahd larva:; are often more sensitive to toxicants than adults because they are less protected from the surrounding environment, have Emited means for det.oxifying absorbed substances, are less able to move away fmm noxious substances.

PAGE 93

WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT Little is known about the ecology, distribution or habitat requirements of wildlife in SI. Vincent and the Grenadines. Thus far, the major wildlife focus of the Forestry Divi sion has been on the conservation of the SI. Vincent Parrot, with funding for captive breeding from the World Wildlife Fund-US, Wildlife Preservation Trust International, and Jersey Wildlife Preservation TrUSl (UK). A new U.S. Corps Volunteer Wildlife Biologist recently arrived in the country; over the next two years he will study the distribution and habitat requirements of various wildlife species and prepare manage ment plans for them (pers. comm., B. JohnsGn. Senior Forest Supervisor, April, 1990). INTERNATIONAL WILDLIFE TRADE International trade is a major threat to the survival of many wildlife species in the Caribbean (TRAFFIC, [U.S A.], 1988). Many Caribbean countries permit conlmercial ex port of wildlife, including species listed as en dangered by IUCN. The Convention on In ternational Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) attempts to regulate wilcii:r,_ trade through a worldwide system of import and export controls for species which arc listed in three appendices. Appendix I of the Convention lists species which arc threatened with extinction and for which conlmercial trade is prohibited; Ap per.dix II lists species which may become ex tinct unle:.s trade is strictly regulated; and Ap pendix III reports those species protected in their ccuntry of origin and for which the co operation of other n:>.tions is required in order to enforce export restrictions. Species occur ring in St. Vincent and the Grenadines which covered by the Conven" "n include the SI. Vincent Parrot, the Green Turtle, the Hawks bill Turtle, and all large species of whale. CITES off;:,!"!'. \'uy imperfect protec tion to endangered species since a member country is obligated only to ensw'e that prod ucts from such species do not enter interna tional trade; hunting and killing of these 63 species for local trade is not prohibited. Moreover, any country is allowed to enter -reservationsat the time of ratifying the Con vention which allow it to continue its interna tionaltrade in certain species which it so des ignates (e.g., GSVG has entered for the Leatherback Turtle and Humpback Whale; pers. commun., CEP Com mittee, 1990). SI. Vincent and the Grenadines be came a signatory to the CITES convention in November. 1988. Membership in CITES may help to curtail trade in slJch species as the en dangered SI. Vincent Parrot, but illegal export still poses a threat because of the high prices commanded by Caribbean parrot species. Also, Section 5 for further discussion of CITES in relation to marine species. 2.2.3 Policy Recommendations LEGISLATION The cha.\'tes in the 1987 Wildlife Protection Act regarding revision of Schedules 2 and 3 and the boundaries of the Parrot Re serve which were proposed by Butler (1988) should be officially adopted by GSVG. TJte status of species in Schedules 3 and 6 should be reviewed; some species (at a minimum some of the bats) may need to be transferred to Schedule 2 for absolute protection. The SI. Vincent National Trust recommends that the chachalaca, quail and iguana also be considered for absolute pro tection (due to the increasing disturbance of their habitat and theil apparently reduced populations), and concurs that bats should be removed from the vermin list (pers. comm., E. Kirby, Chairman, SI. Vincent National Trust, April, 1990). Once a survey of wildlife habitat and populations has been carried out (see below), additional wildlife reserves may need to be in order to protect critical habitat for species not represented in the present system of reserves. On the other hand, it may be determined that some of

PAGE 94

the pre.sently designated reserves have little actual value for wildlife and might be dropped from the system. RESEARCH AND MONITORING Distribution and habitat studies need to be undertaken for wildlife, with prior it)/. being given to those that are endemic, lo cally or internationally endangered or threat ened, migratory species, and those species that are legally hunted. Population monitor ing should be undertaken for critical species in addition to the St. Vincent Parrot. The Forestry Division should en COUI :'::'l,e the participation of visiting re searchers, natural history study expeditions (e.g., Earthwatch), and local bird watching enthusiasts to assist in the assemblage of monitoring data. The use of such citizen groups in environmental monitoring is invalu able and does not require the expenditure of scarce governmrnt funds. The use of standard methods should be required of these partici pants in order to obtain useful and compara ble data. #: To maintain biodiversity in the face of increasing demands for agricultural land requires at least semi-quantitative knowledge of the parameters for maintaining species or communities (e.g., in terms of land area or other resources). One way external aid a gencies, whose funds fuel the engines of de velopment, can aid in the maintenance of bio diversity is to support ecological and de mographic assessments of species vlhich are either obviously threatened or are less well known but closely linked to the habitat being modified. A Wildlife Unit needs to be estab lished within the Forestry Department, em ploying a trained wildlife biologist and one or two assistants. Responsibilities of the Unit should em phasize applied research in wildlife management for selected species (e.g., estab lishing ranges and ecological requirements, assessing degree of threat, estima'.ing minimum population and habitat size.:, etc.) as well as long-term monit'lring of wildlife pop ulations and habitats. fhose species which 64 are most significant and/or most critically en dangered should be given priority attention by the Unit. Seabird breeding sites should be surveyed and populations 'ihould be moni tored, particularly on the offshore islets and in the Grenadines. Some management of exotic species (e.g., goats) and habitat restoration may be required. Seabird population dynam ics around the world appear to be greatly in fluenceu by unpredictable dimatic events such as the EI NinoSouthern Oscillation phe nomenon (Schreiber and Schreiber, 1989). Therefore, long-term monitoring i!' the only method of gaining insight into the true status of seabird species in a local area. A data base on the status of wildlife populations and their habitats, probably in computerized form, should be established and maintained by the recommended Wildlife Unit. TRAINING OF STAFF The Forestry Division should seek funding from appropriate d'Jnor for staff training, technical support, and equip ment for the Wildlife Unit and the public education program. Forestry Division staff training is needed in the following areas (Butler, 1988): basic veterinary techniques with an emphasis on parrots; tour guides and nature interpretation; and wildlife manage ment. LAND USE A detailed land use plan should be completed for St. Vincent and the Grenadines, including consideration of biodi versity issues. Restrictions should be placed on clearing native forest from agriculturally marginal lands in certain areas and habitat types. Since wildlife values are typj,..ally given little weight in planning efforts, one require ment should be the of aft ecologically-sound, quantitative analysis of current land use practices and trends and their effects on wildlife.

PAGE 95

BIOCIDES An "institutional memory" should be developed for pollutant impacts on wildlife, by means of a simple data base. Descriptive information, even if unconfirmed by site visits, would provide a perspective on the frequency and distribution of events. It would also be desirable to do selective sampling of soil and groundwater levels ior the more toxic biocides used in the agricultural industry. Such a sur vey could constructively include a limited as sessment of chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in wildlife as well. There is a need to establish a small-scale pesticide disposal system and to review methods to avoid or minimize the dis persal of pesticides from agricultural industry warehouses in natural disasters such as hurri canes. 65 ENFORCEMENT AND EDUCATION St. Vincent and the Grenadines has had legislation to protect wildlife since 1901, but such laws seem to have had little or no effect due to an almost total lack of enforce ment. If the 1987 Act is to have more impact, it is obvious that GSVG must allocate suffi cient resources to implement the law. En forcement alone will not achieve total protec tion of wildlife; in order to fulfill legislative goals, enforcement must be coupled with greater and more effective public education efforts. PROTECTED AREAS The proposed system of National Parks, Forest Reserves, and Protected Areas, or some subset of it which includes the most critical areas for the preservation of St. Vincent's biodiversity, should be implemented as soo:n as possible.

PAGE 96

The expansion of banana production, the mainstay of Vincentlan agriculture, on to much steeper areas can result In serious '3roslon and downstream sedlr,lent pollution problems. 66

PAGE 97

SECTION 3 AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT 3.1 OVERVIEW PROFILE OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR Agriculture remains the most pro ductive sector of the national economy of St. Vincent and the Grenadines and is the pri mary generator of foreign exchange. It ac counts for almost 20 percent of GDP (see Figure 1.3(5) and Table 3.1(1 and 65 percent of exports. Agriculture is the main source of employment, with some two-thirds of the labor force employed in that sector (FAO, 1987; IICA, 1989). Table 3.1(2) displays exports of selected commodities for 1983-1986, and Table 3.1(3) provides production data for se lected agricultural commodities. Agriculture in the Eastern Caribbean is often characterized as comprising two dis tinct farming systems: (1) the export oriented, plantat!on system depicted chiefly by monocultures on large estates, and (2) the small farmer agricultural system, often subsistence-based and developed on the more marginal agricultural lands. Of the plantation crops that have been important in St. Vincent and the Grenadines, only bananas remain a major ex port crop. The sugar industry collapsed in the late U:''.iQ's, tried to make a comeback in the 1970's, but was al:andoned again in 1985 (IlCA, 1989). Bananas. This has been the domi nant crop for more than 30 years in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Banana pro duction is the major employer of labor, the main earner of foreign exchange (accounting for approximately 40 percent of all export earnings [World Bank, 1985]) and the princi pal user of arable land (sGme 7,500 active growers use about 1,200 acres of the 29,000 acres of arable land in the country [SVBGA data, 1990]). Frequently, the area under ba nanas is kept free of other crops, leading to excessive soil erosion (Miller, et 0/, 1988). Productivity for bananas is quite low, with an 67 average yield of 6.7 tons/acre. For compari son, the average yield in cOl!lmercial planta tions in banana-exporting countries is about 20 tons/acre (Gonsalves, 1989). Bananas for export from St. Vincent and all the Windward Islands are bought ex clusively by Geest Industries (Thomson, 1987). This trans-national corporation sells the produce almost entirely in the United Kingdom, where it enjoys preferential market treatment. Without some sort of market protection, the Windward Islands would likely lose their share of the market to other banana-exporting countries which produce cheaper bananas at a consistently higher quality. The Single Europe Act of 1992, which will remove all terriff and non-tariff barriers within the 12-nation European Economic Community, could devastate St. Vincent's banana industry. Although steps are being taken in St. Vincent to improve banana pro ductivity and quality and to diversify into other crops, it is clear that only a political solution is capable of averting a collapse of the banana industry which could potentially UlIdermine the entire national economy (Gonsalves, 1989; Courier, 1989). Ground provisions. Ground provi sions (eddoes, tannias, sweet potatoes, yams and dasheens) collectively make a significant contribution to foreign earnings. During the mid-1980's, exports of ground provisions may even have overtaken bananas as the main source of foreign currency. As noted in the IICA (1989) report, however, the downturn in the economy of Trinidad and Tobago, the major buyer of SVG ground provisions, has hurt that market Arrowroot. From the time of the collapse of the sugar industry in the l.::te 1800's until the predominance of banana pro duction in the mid-1950's, arrowroot was St. Vincent's primary agricultural commodity (Gonsalves, 1989). By 1957, arr('wroot's share of total exports had dropped from a 1955

PAGE 98

Table 3.1 (1). Contribution of agriculture sector to GOP (millions EC$). Sector and Subsectors 1980 1981 1982 1983 1004 1985 Agricu;(ure 12.5 17.7 18.7 19.1 20.5 22.7 Crops 9.0 14.3 15.2 16.1 16.9 17.7 Uvestock 1.7 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 2.3 Forestry 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 Fisheries 1.7 1.5 1.7 1.7 1.7 2.3 % of real GOP 13 17 17 17 17 19 Source: Central Statistic Unit. Adapted from N.C. RIIninga, 1988, Proposal for Uvestock Development, cited in ileA. 1989. figure of 50 percent to 28 percent. Output of arrowroot declined steadily through the 1960's and 1970's, reaching a low of 600 tons of starch in 1971. Prvductioll increased as a new market developed for arrowroot starch as a coating on computer paper. However, two factors now conspire to depress the St. Vincent arrO'.VI'oot market: (1) competition from other countries that can produce arrow root less expensively and (2) development of a process for modifying less expen!>ive starches to substitute for arrowroot starch (World Bank, 1985). As a consequence, arrowroot production continues to decline; as of 1988, only 130-140 acres were planted in arrowroot, and this figure is only expected to increase to 200 acres even with GSVG support (COB, 1988). Vegetables. Vegetables are cultivated for local consumption but must be supple mented with imports to meet domestic de mand. The vegetable sub-sector is exper:d to play an, increasingly important role as part of the Government's agricultural diversifica tion policy. Although the climatic and soil conditions are generally favorable for vegetable production (see Table 3.1(4, St. 68 Vincent's steep slopes are not ideal for intensive vegetable cultivation. Sustainable pro duction is possible, however, if vegetables are grown as part of mixed crop farming systems. Fruit Tree Crops. Favorable eco logical support over 3D species of fruit crGtls. As indicated in Table 3.1(5), mangoes, c}..;.onut, breadfruit, avocadoes, golden appk, oranges, grapefruit, and limes are the primary tree crops in the country (IICA, 1989). Livestock. The livestock sector is not a major factor in the agricultural economy, although the majority of farms include some form of livestock production which con tributes substantially to domestic consumption (see TabLs 3.1(6) and 3.1(7. On the average, a Vincentian farmer owns 1-5 head of cattle, 3-6 sheep, 1-4 goats, and 1-3 pigs. Half of the livestock farmers are landlt.ss, uSing communal grazing on private and government open lands, roadsides and abandoned crop lands. Native grasses grow ing in relatively unmanaged pastures are the main feed. The tree legumes LeucaelJa

PAGE 99

Table 3.1 (2). Exports of selected commodities (tons and 1,000 EC$), 1983 -1989. 1983 1984 1985 1986 Crop Volume Value Volume Value Volume Value Volume Value Bananas 33,919 29,760 32,109 31,966 40,570 45,623 39,393 52,389 Arrowroot 4 6 4 6 3 5 Coconuts 926 327 3,902 1,593 831 721 865 &17 Peanuts 32 212 52 342 17 183 18 60 Sweet Potatoes 944 1,187 2,202 .),045 7,754 10,98,2 10,729 15,370 Nutmeg 73 158 74 141 51 102 79 154 Mace 17 74 20 66 33 79 11 44 Carrots 3 4 Plantair.s 1,430 1,595 3,056 3,389 3,520 3,853 4,016 4,673 Ginger 158 185 256 290 329 354 644 545 EddoesjDasheen 8,348 11,534 16,001 24,140 23,069 34,509 20,756 31,622 Tannies 2,691 4,151 6,249 9,684 8,504 13,044 8,829 14,494 Yams 1,236 2,088 3,893 60459 2,827 4,466 712 1,164 1987 1988 1989 Crop Volume Value Volume Value Volume Value Bananas 36,623 53,052 57,560 86,103 66,100 89,933 Arrowroot 1 2 1 1 Cocrmuts 999 868 881 n6 880 736 Poanuts 4 21 2 6 4 Sweet Potatoes 4,169 5,958 7,583 10,821 3,575 5,113 Nutmeg 86 189 128 444 80 425 Mace 13 48 17 93 8 64 Plantains 2,417 2,668 2,809 3,102 1,658 1,830 Ginger 634 741 1,060 1,222 784 1,063 EddoesjDasheen 7,552 11,292 14,325 21,409 5,634 8,576 Tannias 2,920 4,436 5,747 8,862 1,248 1,922 Yams 526 865 638 1,047 324 580 No exports this year. Source: CEP National Committee, :e90. Note: It is useful to keep in mind the general caveat raised by a consultant team asked to develop an Eastern Caribbean agricultural sector strategy: "Agricultural statistics In the Eastern Caribbean countries are few, unreliable, and Inconsistent from SClurce to source" (Chemonlcs, 1988). 69

PAGE 100

Table 3.1 (3). Estimated production of selected agricultural commodities, 1984 -1987. Unit Commodity On thousands) Rum Imperial Gal. 81 145 131 136 Sweet Potatoes Kg 2,317 8,529 11,802 4,596 Yams Kg 3,n3 3,262 783 612 Tannlas Kg 6,512 9,354 9,711 Eddoes, Dasheen Kg 16,068 23,326 20,964 74 Arrowroot Starch Kg 783 434 315 161 Bananas Kg 33,556 41,922 39,936 Nutmegs Kg 73 53 81 88 Mace Kg 20 Z4 11 13 Carrots I(g 68 1 Ginger Kg 122 362 545 668 Peanuts Kg 84 45 32 7 Tobacco Kg 41 73 66 76 Plantains Kg 3,099 4,222 4,619 2,776 Sources: Agricultural Statistics Unit, Ministry of Trade and Agriculture; Arrowroot Association; Customs Department; Banana Association; Marketing Corporation; cited In Caribbean 06velopmillnt Bank, 1988. /eucacephala and Glericidia sepium scattered throughout the island provide fodder, partic ularly during the dry season when grass forage is not available (I1CA, 1989). LAND HOLDINGS AND TENURE SITUATION St. Vincent and the Grenadines has the highest population density of the DECS countries (Chemonics, 1988; see also Section 1.3.1 of the Profile). Estimates of the amount of cultivable land per capita differ as a result of inconsistencie!. in projections of population size and the amount of land suitable for crop production. In any event, well over haU the land in the country is mountainous or other wise unsuitable for agriculture, making land a very scarce resource. There is general agree ment that current demand for land suitable for agriculture or urban development signifi cantly exceeds the supply (FAD, 1987; Chemonics, 1988). Table 3.1(8) shows land use pattr.cus on SVG's acres of arable 70 land, the total reported in the mnst recent na tional census (GSVG, 1989a). Since the end of the nineteenth cen tury and the collapse of the sugar industry, two basic patterns reflecting changes in land oW1Jership have emerged, both of which con tinue to the present. First, GSVG has ac quired large, private estates and gradually re distributed such land to independent small farmers. In 1899, 5,600 acres were acquired; some 7,000 acres were acquired in 1915, and subsequent acquisitions have been made on a smaller scale. Table 3.1(9), which lists the estates current!y a part of the Government's Land Reform Pro'g-am, reports that some 7,7(fJ acrt.;s are in ',he procer.s of being redis tributed from GSVG ownership to private, small-scaie ownership. All of this land will be redistributed except for small areas of non agricultural !ar;ds that will be reserved for watersheds and parks. The second pattern of land ownership reflects a long-standing tradition for the transfer of f?mily-held farm land, whereby --

PAGE 101

Table 3.1 (4). Number of holdings and area of vggetable crop harvested. Crop Cabbage Tomato Canot Cucumber Sweet Pepper Pumpkin Eggplant Onion Watermelon HOi ?epper Lettuce Christophene Cauliflower Zucchini Beet Radish Melon No. of Holdings 1.086 1.222 528 368 330 152 96 80 32 76 62 40 40 2 28 16 4 Acre (acre) Harvested 1.267.46 663.02 443.00 381.14 126.98 79.82 65.82 60.98 27.58 18.-18 15.14 B.OO 3.22 1.06 .02 Source: St. Vh.cent and the Crenadlnes Agricultural Census 1985/1986. In IICA. 1989. through inheritance an attempt is made to provide all members of a family with agricultural ploiS. The result has been the fragmentation of farm land. Fl'rtL'!rm.ore, a "'f,'mily farm" often is considered one legal unit, even though each fragmer,t may he under the management of a different offspring. Statistics on the current distribution of various-sized land holdings are not consistent among sources, but the general pattern is dear enougb. Most land holdings are quitl: small --many, in fact, too small to be ucol!omica.ily viable (see disclll>Sion below on Phase 1 of the L:md Reform Program). III one source, ninety-seven percent <)f all farms were reported as less than 1f) ac.es, of which close to half were less than one acre (CIDA, cited in ChemoDjcs, 198e). Of the 6,799 land holdings included in the most recent Agricul tural Census, 5,862 wert:; iess than five acres, 903 were 5 to 99.9 acres, and only 34 were over 100 acres 1989a; but see also Brierley and 1988, for statistics 71 indicatmg a greater number of smaller parcels). WA'i'KRSHEDS in 1912, all land above one thousand feet in eleva(' 'Ii was designated as crown land, reserved by law to protect forests in the Uppel watersheds (see Fagu .. e 2.1(3. Almost all arab!/': land below this elevation is under per manent cultivatir -, and considerable r,ultiva tion has occurred above this line ("Ii well. Some of "his agricultural development has been sanCl.ioned thro Igh rental agreemeDt3 with GSVG, plus there has reeD considerable illegal enc..roachm'!nt. A recent assessmr.nt OD the status of selected catchments withiil the watersheds indicates that substantial eD croachment has occurred both into the catch ments and th: su rounding watersheds (pers. comm., N. Forest Officer, Forestry Division). 'fhe extent of legal -much less

PAGE 102

Table 3.1 (5). Production. farm gate plices and value of outpU1 at current producer prices for selected fruit commodities in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. 1984. Golden Coconut Apple Ouantity (000 Ibs) 10,564 450 Farm Gate Price, EC$/Ib .25 .43 Value Output, EC$ 2,641 194 Quantity (000 Ibs) 7,940 480 Farm Gate Price, EC$/Ib .36 .38 Value Output., EC$ 2,696 180 1986 Quantity (000 Ibs) 7,817 420 Farm Gate Price, EC$/Ib .29 .43 Valua Output, EC$ 2,267 181 1987 Quantity (000 Ibs) 7,426 420 Farm Gate Price, EC$/Ib .25 ,43 Value Output, EC$ 1,857 181 Source: IICA, 1989. illegal encroachment is unknown but will be determined as part of CIOA's Forestry Development Pro.;,ram (pers. comm., J. Latham, Manager, CIOA Porestry Dev. Prog.). Watershed management priorities have been identified for st. Vincent and the Grenadines based on the assumption that agricultural development is the major driving force in the country's economic development, with tourism playing a secondary role (although tourism is the leading force in the Grenadines) (Prins, 1986b). Prins' (1986b) comprehensive study for !he Orange Hill Es tate remains the definitive work on SVG wa tershed management issues. Since little would be gained by paral-'hrasing Prins' report, the Policy Recommendations section of this Bread Avocadoes Urnes Oranges Mangoes Fruit 72 470 411 391 6,464 1,791 .40 .43 .26 .26 .35 188 1n 102 1.681 627 473 493 580 5.857 1,695 .42 .36 .085 .52 .2:' 207 2,109 650 751 eo 495 185 768 4.160 1,600 .43 .43 .35 .51 .35 213 80 269 2,122 560 446 185 768 4,992 1.600 .59 .499 .16 .42 .374 263 92 123 2.092 598 chapter instead attempts to update his study and suggests possible next steps. ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE AGRICUL11JRAL Many of the issues associated with the agricultural sector
PAGE 103

Te.ble 3.1 (6). Number of livestock on all holdings. 1972 St. Vincent Cattle 6,944 6,458 5,891 4,010 Sheep 2,243 4,724 4,766 8,6('9 Goats 8,475 6,284 3,293 5,268 Pigs 8,602 5,044 5,096 1,668 Grenadines Cattle 797 1,444 578 358 Sheep 1,511 799 1,254 1,978 Goats 2,564 583 905 1,348 Pigs 767 428 428 183 Source: 198 Agricultural Census, cited In IICA, 1989. Table 3.1 (7). Distribution of livestock b}l size of livestock holding. Size of NymQeLQf livestock Holding Cattle Sheep Goats Swine 1 -4 head 1,506 2.091 1,496 582 5 -9 head 121 578 305 45 10 -19 head 16 117 77 16 -25 head 7 25 18 11 TOTAL 1,650 2,817 1,896 654 Source: 1986 Agricultural Census, cited In ileA, 1989. assessment of the country's agricultural sec tor. Thus, the focus of the discussion in the Sl. Vincent Country Environmentai Profile will be on the environmental issues that affect, and are affected by, agriculLurai practices. 73 3.2 PROBleMS AND ISSUES The major environmental issues associated with the agricultural sector can be summarized as: (1) mismanagement of watersheds, (2) environmentally unsound agricultural practices, and (3) agrochemical pollution. The latter is briefly discussed in

PAGE 104

Table 3.1 (8). Area (acres) of land holdings by land use, 1985 -1986. Arable LAnd Foresti All Temp. Temp. Othar Perm. Wood All LAnd Crops F'at1unll Fallow Arable Crops land Other St. Vincent! Grenadines 29,649 4,016 2,289 371 16,062 3,625 1,030 St. Vincent 27,831 3,897 2,2'N 347 15,779 592 Grenadines 1,818 119 74 10 24 283 1170 4'38 Northern 1,3.18 32 66 6 274 859 100 Southern 480 :37 8 9 18 9 11 338 Source: 1986 Census, ci!ed in ileA, 1989. this chapter within the CO:1text of agricultural issues but is dealt with in more detail in Sections 4 and 8 cf the ProfIle. WATERSHED MANAt;EMENT CONCERNS Despite the, 1912 Crown Lands some forested areas above 1,000 teet have DeeI.' convertied to agri culture. of fOiicsted "a:nd to agri culture in watersheds :mportlfDt implir..a tions fm' environmcmlCas must be prolt:cled to ensUf(; adequate, safe supplies of for and domestic purposes. SVG are not only steeply sloped, but much of their natunl veg etation has been repla.:-ed by ann:lal and short-lived perennial crops, which have less extensive canopies and shallower root compared to trees. Soil erosion is lea\rlllg to loss of soil fertility and increased sedimenta74 tion of catchment areas and dams. When they are able to afford them, farmers often add in organic fertilizers to the soil in an attempt (0 replace the minerals lost through erosion. But the eroded soi15 typically are low in organic maHer and therefore are inefficient at binding inorganic nutrie.nts. Syntbetic ferl ilizers are GU.ickly washed away from the agricultural land wktl!re are applied Uld re-er."!erge as downstreao. Pesticides are linked with fertilizers through the same process but are more problcma:tk because of their greater toxicity (OECS-NRMI', lSm). ENVURONMENTAL IMPUCATIONS OF CURRENT PRACTICES St. Vincent and the was once re':ognizcd regiQm:liy for its efforts in soil and water conservation. Unfortunately, C01lSf..:!"I!ation measure!>, such as grass barriers students from She Univer:;ity of the W .. :!Jf Indies m.re came to St. Vincent to ob s.erve, have largely been abandoned. The fact

PAGE 105

Table 3.1 (9). St. Vincent land reform program. 1. Orange Hill 2. Langley Park 3. Grand Sable 4. CoIonarie 5. 3ans Soucl 6. Diamond 7. Cane Grove 8. Wallilabou 9. Richmond TOTAL Source: FAO, 1987. that cultivation occurs on steeply-sloped laud and that the fairly erodible soLis are exposed to seasonal rainfall sup,gests !hat current and potential soil losses are high (OECS NRMP, 1987). Soil erosion losses in one study area of the Rabacca River have been estimated to be at least 50 acres per year, but this approximation was based onJy on visual inspection of the (John, 1985). Much of the country's crop production takes place with little, if any, consideration of possible envi ronmental impacts, and the data base on soil erosion rates is woefully inadequate. In many areas, land that once was considered too steep to farm, now is used to grow bananas and a variety of other crops. Only 20 percent of the land available for farming in SVG is on less than a 20 degree slope. According to IlCA (1989), cultivation is rapidly advancing onto marginal agricultural lands due to economic pressures to make room for banana production and because small landholders are not knowledgeable about soil conservation practices (IICA, 1989). The relative importance of these factors is uncertain, but it would be naive to assume that ignorance --rather than economic pressure -is driving the actions of these farmers who make their living from the land. 75 Area (acres) 3,400 332 150 300 88 90 100 1,300 2,000 7,7&J Basic soil conservation measures, e.g., contour planting, grass barriers, mini-ter racing, are seldom employed, even on slopes as high as 40 degrees. The negative impacts of soil erosion and of run-off water containing excessive agrochemicals are discussed above ("Watershed Management Concerns,,), but it should also be noted that these problems occur even on moderately sloped, 10w-e1evatioAl farms in the absence of adequate conser vation measures (OECS-NRMP, 1987; Prins, 1986b). IMPACT OF INSECURE LAND TENURE The majority of arable land ;n St. Vincent and the Grr.nadines -some 85 cent --is owned or held in owner-like posses sion (GSVG, 1989a). Nevertheless, lack of secure tenure is thought to be an important issue as it affects two groups of landholders. The most important, in terms of negative environ mental impacts, is the squatters cultivating land in water catchmenl areas. The critical issue here, however, may not be lack of tenure but the fact that agriculture is occurring at all in these areas. Secondly, insecure tenure is also a problem for farmers operating "famil1 farms, many of whom may lack clear legal title to the fragment they cultivate.

PAGE 106

Lack of dear tenure often is cited in development literature an obstacle to good natural resource management, including '.he adoption of conselvation Thi: con ventional wisdom is now being questioned, specifically in terms of the necessity for tenure to be legal rather than de facto; but it is clear that farmers cannot be expected to invest in long-term conservation racasures unless are confident they MIl reap the returns of their investment. 'f he absence of secure tenure rights to f-lrms anG fdrM fragments probably is hindering greater adoption of con servation praciices in St. Vincent, although the extent of the problem is presently !Jndocu mented. The combined effect of these related problems --ineffective watersbed manage ment, environmenla!\y damaging cultivation practices and insecure land tenure --can be a formidable obstacle, as evidenced by the modest acc,)mplishments of the conservation component of the recently completed Cum berland Waters:led Management Project (CWMP). CWMP, an adjunct to the USAID funded Cumberland Hydroelectric Project, had a bu<.lget of USS500,OOO for watershed management activities to be impkmented over the four year period from January 1985 to March 1989. At the completion of the projed, only 31.3 acres of farm land had been treated with conservation measurr.s, and some of these were not being properly maintained (see GSVG, n.d., circa 19B9). A variety of factors, many based on the project's inability to find technically viable anrl socially accept able technologies, hindered the adoption of conservation measures by farmers. CWMP is cited as a case in point not to criticize retroactivdy project efforts (in fact, the forestry components, survey work, and were considered quite success ful). Rather the project serves as a case study from which important IcSSOllS can be drawn. Two point!: seem paramount: (1) Conservation activil.ies require long-term commitments and sup port; progress may have to be measured through small and in cr(;mental impro'Jemenr.s; and 76 (2) Conservation measures require close collaboration -Nith and the full participation of the farmers intended to benefit from them. As a recent study of technology transfer and adoption in developing countries concluded, wpromising technologies share some common characteristics: they are technically and envi ronmentally sound, socially desirable, eco nomically affordable, and sustainable (OTA, 1988). INSTITUTIONAL CONSIDERATIONS During the last five years, several projects alid studies dealing with SVG's wa tel'shedc; and related resources bave been im plemented. The discussion that follows pro vides a summary of these activities with an emphasis on what remains to be done. (l) SoH ond Water Conservatbn Unit (SWCUT). SWCUT, a new section of GSVG's Ministry of Agriculture, Industry and Labor, was established in 1988 a<; a by-product of .he Cumberland Watershed Management Project. Its mandate and respo.'1sibilities are not yet fully defined, but SWCUT wuuld be a logical lead institution to coordinate water shed management in the country. The unit's program plan for 1990-91 proposes to accom plish the following: (1) Evaluate the magnitude and rate of soil erosion in St. Vincent. SWCUT is ih the process of ad ministering a questionnaire to farmers to determine their atti tude on, and knowledge ef, con servation practices. (2) Evaluale and demonstrate tradi tional and more recently developed techniques in soil conserva tion. (3) Collect data to demonstrate how soil conservation affects the fertil ity and productivity of agricultural land and consequently the ex peeled income from it.

PAGE 107

(4) Extend the above information to the farming community and the general public through an ongoing public educational program. (5) Train extension officers, forest officers and farmers in the estab lishment and maintenance of soil and water coru;ervation tech niques. (6) Coordinate, monitor and provide technical assistan';e on all soil conservation Geld work. (7) Review and upgrade legislation on soil and water conservation. (8) Contribute to the Government's Agrkultural Rehabilitation and Diversification Project by using elephant grass (Penn;setum purpureum) both as a conserva tion measure and a source cf for age for livestock in a cut-and carry system. In order to implement its ambitious soil conservation program, SWCUT will need fmancial and personnel resources (IICA, 1989). In its Advance Proposals for 1990-91, SWCUT has req'l!csted that the Ministry of Agriculture implement specific proposals put forward by the Unit (pers. comm., C. Simon, Chief Of., SWCUT, March 1990). These include: Assignment of two extension agents and an extension supervi sor to SWCUT; Increasing the Unit's operating budget and enabling it to buy simple monitoring equipment; Incorporation of soil and conser vation issues into the biannual in service training that all Extension Agents receive; and Collaboration with independent farmers or farmers participating in the GSVG's Land Reform Pro gram to establish demonstration 77 sites that illustrate conservation practices and explain the eco nomic advllDtages associated with s!Jch practices. (2) Land Reronn Prngram. The overall objectives of the GSVG Land Reform Program call for promoting growth and diver sification in agricul:oral prodl1ction and im proving income distaibution for smallholder farmers. Program components include dives"iiture of state-owned land to small-scale farmers, improvements in farm access roads, and technical assistance and training to sup port the program and strengthen the Ministry. Admini:;tratively, the Land Reform Program is divided into two phases: Phase 1 -Rabacca Farms and Phase 2 Agricultural Rehabilitation and Diversification Project (ARDP). bOOCCD Fanns. The project to de velop Rzbacca Farms, formerly Orange Hill Estate, is a collaborative effort of GSVG, the European Economic Community and the Caribbean Development Bank. Loans to small farmers under the pmgram only became available in 1989. The effort will involve 3,400 acres and some 550 farmers (pers. comm., A Standon, Manager, Rabacca Farms, March 1990). Agricultural Rehabilitation and 01-verslficatJon Project. effort began in 1988 with joint support from GSVG, the World Bank, and the Governments of Japan and Denmark. It involves some 4,250-4,500 acres of the former estates of Langley Park, Grand Sable, Colonarie, Sans Souci, Cane Grove, Wallilabou and Richmond. The num ber of farmers involved is estimated to be 750, but the actual number will be based on project determinations of economically viable farm size (The Vincent;an, 2 February, 1990; pers. comm., K. Jow., Manager, ARDP; FAD, 1987). A approach IS being used for both projects: A survey of the current land use of the area.

PAGE 108

Establishment of a protected watershed area, relocating farmers so that this zone is free of agri culture, and of Wl:i tersheds where necessary. Consolidatation of farmers' resi dences in the lower elevation lands to protect watersheds and agricultural land and to provide services such as potable water. Determim:tion of an economically viable farm size, to be based on factors such as topngraphy and preferred crops and livestock. Preliminary estimates for Rabacca Farms call for average farms of 4.2 acres. Provision of leases for "pproved farmers, many of whom are squatters; some farmers will have to be relocated out of the project areas. Establishment of conservation measures that are most a.ppropri ately done at the community level; e.g., water run-off ditches for feeder Development of conservation i.ailowi to each individ ual farmer's needs; e.g., one farmer may WaItt to establish an agro-forestry system of field and tree crops, while another farmer may use grass barriers and agro forestry tree species for fodder to feed his or her livestock. Each prC'ject is staffed to provide some extension requirements, but GSVG ser vices are expected to supplement project needs. Potentially, this could be ve:.y prob lematic, and attention will have to be paid to ensure that the necessary coordination occurs. For example, currently neither ARDP, the Ministry of Agriculture, nor the Central Plan ning Division have agreed to assume respon sibility for the farmer conservation component of ARDP (pers. comm., K. John, Manager, ARDP; A. Standon, Manager, Rabacca 78 Farms; L. Daisley, Chief Agricultural Officer; R Cato, Director of Planninc, March 1990). 3.3 POUCY RECOMMENDATIONS (1) Clarify the responsibilities of the various institutions involved in management of SVG's watershed areas, soil and water resources lind redefine these responsibilities, if necessary, to ellsure that there is a coordinated approach jor resource management and cOllservation efforts. responsibilities reside in several agencies, establishmellt oj a coo,dinating committee should be considered; alternatively, a sillgle ag.mcy could be designated as lhe lead agency for managemellt alld soil and water cOllservation programs. As noted by Prins (1986b), numerous agencies, authorities, associations and organi zations are involved in and affected by water shed management issues. Prins (1986b) pro posed that GSVG adopt a three-pronged in stitutional approach to watershed manage ment: (a) The Central Planning Division (the renamed Central Planning Unit) would focus on those policy issues related to integrating watershed management with agricultural development; (b) A new bo
PAGE 109

It may be more effective to designate one agency and invest it with the necessary authority. To be successful, this Government unit would need to be on an equal adminis trative basis with the other agencies of Gov ernment indicated above, and would require overriding authority for watershed manage ment issues. An OAS consultant is in the pro cess of working with GSVG to sort through these institutional issues and propose steps to allow a national apprcach to management of watershed areas and soil and water resources (pers. comm., W. McCalla, OAS consultant, April 1990). The Soil and Water Conservation Unit has an important role in managing field operations, but its responsibilities and authority need to be clarified. In order for SWCUT to be able to implement its program objectives, it will need an increase in staff and in budget to enable it to have access to simple monitoring equipment and to ensure that extension agents meet with farmers on a regular basis. In order to develop the economic arguments necessary to convince farmers to adopt conservation measures, an economist should work with SWCUT on its proposed demonstration sites. (2) Consolidate soil and water conservation legislation into a single legislative mandate, with clearly designated lilies of responsibility and authority. A recent report by Mains (1989) identifies seven SVG legislative acts related soil conservation but notes "that much of the legislation is either not used or rarely en forced." Conservation efforts would clearly be adv
PAGE 110

such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, thereby reducing production costs. Mixed cropping and agro-forestry systems also maximize internal resources while serving multiple purposes, i.e., diversification of crop production, more efficient use of rain water, reduction of si)il erosion and pest pl'Oblems, and production of forage and fodder for live stock (OTA, 1988). Fruit trees, many of which grow well intercropped with bananas, also have cousiderable potential (ileA, 1989). Such techniques W(l.rrant further support and adaptive research to expand their use in St. Vincent. Several excellent opportunities exist for collaborative efforts among government and non-government organizations for the purpose of improving cultivation practices. For example, the Government's Soil and Water Conservation Unit hopes to establisl. and maintain demonstration sites to illustrate soil and water conservation practices. The 80 newly established organic farmers group in St. Vincent -AMOVA -could be a valuable re source in this regard, and the St. Vincent based Organization for Rural Development (ORD) could contribute information and ex perience gained through its decade of work on non-traditional crops. There is also potential for institutional collaboration within GSVG's Land Reform Program, where Phase I and Phase II projects call for demonstration farms producing mixed crops using appropriate con servation measures. (4) Regulate tile importation, use and disposal of agrocllemicals. At a minimum, GSVG should pro hibit importation of pesticides and other agro chemicals that have been banned for use in the United States and other developed coun tries (see Section 8 for a fuller discussion of this issue).

PAGE 111

SECTION 4 FRESHWATER RESOURCES 4.1 OVERVIEW Annual rainfall in St. Vincent proper varies from approximately 1,700 mm (67 in) in dry coastal locations to 7,000 mm (276 in) in the wet central mountains (Shawnigan, 1983; cited in Talbot, 1983); see Table 4.1(1) and Figufe 4.1(1}. The length of the dry and wet seasons varies greatly depending on location, but there tends to be a comparatively dry sea son from about January to May and a wet sea son from about June to Dtcember. Data on daily rainfall for St. Vincer, t are collected by the Central Water and Sewerage Authority (CWSA) using a network of rain gauges. In the Grenadines annual rainfall is variously es timated at between 762 mm (30 in) to 1,360 mm (54 in), although there are no long-term meteoro!ogical records readily available. It has been estimated (Birdsey, et 01., 1986) that on average St. Vincent receives about 838,500 acre-feet (1,035 million cubic meters) of rainwater on its surface each year. No data or estimates are available for evapo transpiration, rUll-off, or groundwater storage, but rough evapotranspiration estimates from Grenada and other neighboring islands range from 1,000 mm/year to 1,500 mm/year. Rivers in St. Vincent tend to be 500rt and straight; in the mountains they have deep, narrow valleys which broaden into small allu vial flats in the lowlands. The largest river is the Colonarie, and the next largest is the Wallibou. Very little good data on stream flow, flood peaks, sediment loads or other hy drologic characteristics exist for any water shed in St. Vincent. The only long-term streamflow data is from the Richmond River hydroelectric projec" which collected data between 1971 to 1981. A water resources study by Underwood-Mclelland (1972) col lected strcamilow data from several small rivers between 1969 to 1971. Rough estimates for some basic climatic and hydrologic char acteristics hdvc been made for the Cumber land wat;;:rshed (Talbot, 1983), which may give indication of conditions in other compara ble sites. 81 A study of the streamflow, water quality and rainfall in the Buccament River watershed was initiated in 1983 (Diaz, et 01., 1985) as part of a comparative study of one watershed on each of three Eastern Caribbean islands. The intent of this study was to obtain a two-year data base in order to construct and calibrate a rainfall/ruo-off sediment model to be used in watershed maliagcment of high-rainfall areas in the region. Preliminary results indicated that the Buccament River had the highest sediment concentrations of the three rivers, ranging from 2 to 654 mg/L. This project was discon tinued before completion, at least in St. Vincent. Surface water (streams, rivers and springs) constitutes the major source of fresh water for human consumption and agriculture in st. Vincent. Household water supplies in the Grenadines depend almost entirely upon catching rainwater and storing it in cisterns, while water for agriculture and livestock comes mainly from withdrawal of groundwa ter and surface water run-off stored in ponds. A watershed is topographically de fined area having a ct:iI1mon system of drainage and a netwclk of drainage channels, streams, or rivers. The watershed provides a convenient conceptual framework for the as of hydrological budgets and erosion, as well for the delimitation of ecological systems. For these reasons, watersheds have been recognized as fundamental units for land use planning, land suitability analysis and land use management. By contrast, the term "cdchment area" as used herein simply means a sub-watershed area upslope from a water supply or hydropower intake, from which the water feeding into the intake is cc,llected. It should be kept in mind that it is usually nat a complete as defmed above. The

PAGE 112

Table 4.1 (1). Monthly ralrlfall for select(3(j areas, 1987. STATIONS FEB Botanic Gardens 4.15 1.43 Belmont 3.53 1.11 Campden Park :;.12 1.00 Dumbarton 4.64 1.14 Georgetown 4.73 0.89 Laycu Rivulet 4.29 0.42 Spring Village 3.00 1.11 Three Rivers 0.50 1.02 Wallilabou 1.77 0.35 Greggs/Lauders 0.03 1.98 Vermont 5.50 0.35 Head Office 3.84 0.82 SEPT Botanic Gardens 10.61 13.15 Belmont 12.58 22.31 Campden Park 10.38 14.95 Dumbarton 8.35 14.82 Georgetown 6.71 15.29 Laycu 2.75 8.80 Rivulet 3.04 8.83 Spring Village 13.96 20.31 Three Rivers 7.10 11.40 Wallilabou 14.72 21.83 Gregg3/Lauders 9.04 8.15 Vermont 11.95 22.90 Head Office 8.51 14.74 Source: GSVG,1989b. of the island of St. Vincent are identified in Figure 4.1(2) There are 16 public potable water supply systems in operation in St. Vincent. In addition, some seven springs are available as emergency supplies. There are no weDs in production. All water is supplied by surface water sources (rivers) or springs. The Dalaway, Cumb,rland, Montrea! and Majorca systems together comprise about 90 percent of total production. Dalaway serves Kingstown MAN APR MAY 0.39 1.10 5.11 13.43 4.47 0.23 0.19 9.22 12.25 10.20 0.19 0.36 8.29 13.09 5.66 1.07 0.18 9.22 15.16 7.70 0.17 0.48 12.22 8.52 7.13 0.31 2.65 5.75 5.26 0.27 0.35 4.04 9.65 3.86 0.03 0.33 7.01 12.67 9.38 0.04 0.40 5.52 6.80 10.25 0.03 0.66 11.95 4.62 1.50 0.03 9.82 2.92 9.11 0.74 0.37 10.50 13.60 10.50 0.63 O.SS 5.61 13.41 6.14 TOTAL AVERAGE OCT NOV DEC YEAR 8.74 16.84 7.68 87.10 7.26 9.82 10.35 5.43 97.28 8.11 7.51 13.98 6.54 85.07 7.00 11.31 28.06 16.51 118.16 9.85 11.17 29.13 8.90 105.'34 8.78 5.04 13.57 5.62 49.75 4.15 6.22 11.87 9.39 62.23 5.19 9.51 13.15 6.00 96.52 8.04 12.40 28.66 7.57 91.66 7.64 82 6.66 12.72 2.85 78.16 6.51 7.96 28.36 7.92 86.32 7.19 8.96 14.40 9.30 109.07 9.09 7.70 13.46 8.02 83.26 6.94 and its environs. The Cumberland system serves the northern leeward area from Barrouallie to Fitzhuges. The Majorca and Montreal systems serve the southeastern coastal areas. (pers. comm., D. Cummings, CWSA Manager, February 1990). The locatioru. of the water supply fa cilities and hydropower sites in St. Vincent are given on Figure 4.1(3). Information on supply sources is provided in Table 4.1(2). The catchment areas which contribute to the water

PAGE 113

13' 13'15' 13"10' 61' 61' ST. VINCENT/RAINFALL ISOHYETAL AND RIVER DRAINAGE 6,,5' 6,,0' o I o 61:;' 13' 13,5' 13'10' 1 } 5. ""' '2 i Hlle. 61' Figure 4.1 (1). Rainfaliisohyetal map and river drainage network In St. Vincent (source: Talbot, 1983). 83

PAGE 114

61' 61' ST. VINCENT/WATERSHEDS 1. Karot and Fancy 2. Wal1ibou 3. Richmond 4. Chateaubelair & Bordel 5. Cumberland 6. Rutlalld 7. Buccament 8. Kingstown North 9. YambolJ 10. Union & Camacarbou 11. Colonaire 12. Caratal 13. Rabacca 11 nl0' 61' 61' Figure 4.1(2). Watersheds In St. Vincent (source: Prins, 19868). 84 o I o 1 61' 61' 13,0' 13' 1,"10' 3 Mllea

PAGE 115

supply systems are given in Figure 4.1(4). Catthment areas for the three existing hy dropower sites are also shown in this Figure. WATER SUPPI.Y AND DE-MAND Potable water supply in St. Vincent is estimated to vary from 6.2 million imperial gallons per day in the rainy season to 3.5 mil lion per day at the height of the dry season. Water supply matches demand in the rainy season. In the dry season, particularly in the month of April, there is a shortfall of up to ftfty percent in some areas, and rationing be comes necessary. This, however, only occurs during very drj years. Estimates of per capita consumption vary from 30 gallons per capita pe: day for standpipe users to 50 gallons per capita per d"y fO\' house connection service. About 25 p'.!rcent of the population of St. Vincent obtains water from public stand pipes. An additional sixty-five percent has piped water to their homes, and the remain der of the population is located more than 300 yards from a piped supply. Losses in the dis tribution system are high; estimates put the rate at 40 percent. There is a full-time leak detection unit in CWSA which is responsible for ensuring a steady reduction in losses. Metering of consumers is also reducing the rate of loss. Apart from resort hotels and similar tourism-related demands, water usage rates in the Grenadines are extremely low. The public water supply is limited to rainwater catchment and storage with discharge through stand pipes. Private rainwater cistern systems are, however, quite popular. Desalination units are employed on Mustique, Union Island, Petit St. Vincent, and Canouan for the major hotels. WATER MANAGEMENT AND LEGISLATION The CWSA is responsible for coordi nating the collection of hydrological data in conjunction with the Ministry of Agricwture, VINLEC, and the Metrological Office at the E.T. Joshua Airport. In conjunctioD with the 8S British Geological Service, the CWSA has re cently pmduced a hydrogeological atlas of St. Vincent and the Grenadint!s (Cumming.; and Lawrence, 1989). The wate' resources study completed by Underwood, McLelland and Associates Ud. (1972) remains the most comprehensive analysis of water rf,sources in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. At present, the CWSA is in the process of preparing a five-year develop ment plan. CWSA has its own laboratory which monitors drinking water quality throughout the state. The frequency of sampling varies from daily to monthly, depending on the size and location of the water supply system. Analysis are c':trrie'.l oul routinely for bacteri ology, chlorine residual, odor, taste, turbidity and acidity. Results of all analyses are for warded to the Ministry of Health and the En vironment through the Chief Environmenta! Health Officer. There is no substantial mon itoring of water quality for the public supply in the Grenadines (pers. comm., Dr. A. EU3tace, Medical Officer, Min. of Health and the Envi ronment, 1990). The present legislation under which CWSA operates dates to 1978, while the reg ulations date back to 1973. Both the CWSA Act and accompanying regulations have been under review for several years. A revised act was prepared by a PAHO consultant (Dr. N. Liverpool) in 1985. In 1989, a legal consultant from FAO proposed a new water resources act as well as water supply and sewerage reg ulations (Clark, S., 1989). More recently, a harmonization of the two proposals was ac complished by an OAS consultant, Dr. W. McCalla. This new act and regulations are expected to become law in the near future. The proposed legislative package will provide CWSA with necessary authority to protect and distribute water resources properly (pers. comm., D. Cummings, CWSA Manager, 1990).

PAGE 116

61"15' 61'10' 61"05' ST. VINCENT/WATER SUPPLY 13' 13"20' Ceorgetown 13"15' 13"15' 1 8yera 2 Carnal 3 Chateaubelalr 4 Cumberland River 5 Dalaway 8 Fancy 7 Georgetown 8 Greiggs 9 10 John HBI 11 Layou 12 Uvely 13 Majorca 13' 14 Mamoon 13' 15 Momeel 16 Owls 17 Richmond 18 19 SouIh Rivers 20 Spring Vllage 21 Peraeverance 61"15' 61"10' 61"05' Figure 4.1 (3). location of existing water supply Intakes and hydropower sites. Unes delineate watershed regions (source: adapted from Blrdsey, etal., 1986), 86

PAGE 117

Table 4.1 (2). Water supply sources on St. Vincent (production figures). No. Name 1 Camel 2 Dalaway* 3 Diamond 4 Grelggs 5 Higher Lowmans 6 Lauders (lively) 7 Layou 8 Majorca** 9 MamOOil 10 Montreal 11 Owla 12 Sandy Bay 13 South Rivers 14 Perseverance 15 Fancy 16 Hermitage 17 Cumbe!1and R. .Dalaway includes both 6" x 12" pipes. U Majorca also includes John Hill. Source: CEP National Committee, 1990. 4.2 PROBLEMS AND 'SSUES 'RESENT CONDmON OF WATER SUPPLY CATCHMENTS A survey of the conditions and ing problems in the water catchments was carried out in March, 1990 by the Forestry Divi sion (pers. comm., N. Weeks, Forest Officer, Forestry Division and W. Metz, US Peace Corps Volunteer, April 1990). The prelimi nary results of the survey can be summarized as follows: Number and Type Average Averaga of Intake Production Production (gals.jmln.) Olters/mln.) 2 springs 7 32 2 rivers 2,397 10,897 1 spring 22 100 2 springs 21 96 1 spring 1 river 35 159 2 springs 30 136 2 springs 161 732 2 rivers 420 1,909 1 river 32 145 1 spring 6 rivers 388 1,764 1 river 16 73 1 river eo 364 2 springs 142 646 1 river 175 796 1 river 3 14 1 river 800 3,037 1 river 3,785 6,359 -Biggut (spring northwest of Layou), supplies water to Layou and Buccament). Excellent condition; vegetation is Seasonal Ever green Forest. No land use conflicts. Chaleaubelair, due to impacts from poor agrkultural land use prac tices. -Dalaway (Stream 24) supplies water to areas from Lowmans leeward to Villa. Un satisfactory condition; vegetation is Rain For est, Seasonal Evergreen Forest, and Blue Mahoe plantations; banana and cocoa planta tions, ground provisions; erosion, siltation, agrochemica1 use.

PAGE 118

_----------,-, __ ST. V I NCENT. CA TWMENT AREAS D Drinking water H Hydropowr ci'lb;hments P -Potential catchments (dr:l1hil1:j water) DIH Combination Drinking water Hydropower -Water' 'ntake QD Richmond ""'5' i 6'"'0' Fancy/;\ \ Owfa ff! \ "'0' Figure 4.1 (4), Major catchment areas in St. Vincent (source: ONSA, 1990.) 88 6' "OS' 0i:: .. ::;::f'==}::;::='==i'5,!111 o '2 i Mil., ""05'

PAGE 119

-Dalaway (6" systems), supplies water to areas from Campden Park to Vermont to Lowmans/Campden Park. Ex cellent condition; vegetation is Evergreen Forest; DO farming, no erosion or siltation (except naturally occurring), no agrocbemical use, no hiild use conflict in the catchment. Diamonds (spring near Lively), supplies water to Mount Greenan and Diamonds. Unsatisfactory condition; vegeta tion is Seasonal Evergreen Forest; intel'sive banana cultivation, livestock farming, intensive use of agrochemicals. -Fancy (Fancy Ri.,er), supplies to Fancy Village. Marginally acceptable con dition; vegetation is secondary forest, fair to good vegetative cover; but erosion from foot paths in catchment leading to subsistence farming in upper areas; livestock pasturing, possible use of agrochemicals. -Grieggs (spring nNth of Grieggs Village), supplies water to Grieggs and Halyd's Villages. Extremely unsatisfactory condition rthe worst catchment in St. Vincent"), almost no natural vegetation; inten sive banana farming throughout the catch ment; livestock farming, agrochemicals, ero sion. -Hennitage (Cumberland River), supplies water t\l North Windward and to the VINLEC hydroelectric plant. Excellent con dition; vegetation is Rain Forest. No land use conflicts or other problems at present. -Higher Lowmans ("system 9"; Union River and one spring near New Adelpm), supplies water to Biabou, Cbapmans and Lowmans. fu1remely unsatisfactory condi tion; vegetation is Seasonal Evergreen Forest; :ntensive banana plantations and provision cultivation; erosion, agrochemicals, livestock farming. -Majorca (Yambou River), supplies water to Sharps Vale, Gommier, Belau-, Rockies, Murray Villages, east central Kingstown and St. George areas. Excellent condition; vegetation is pdmary Rain Forest; no land use conflicts or other problems at pre sent. 89 -Mamoon ("system 1"; Kingstown North River), supplies water to Largo Heights and Green Hill. Satisfactory condition; vege tation is Seasonal Evergreen Forest; no farmwg or use of agrochemicals, but some erosion due to steep road leading to the radio telephone transmission facilities operaied by the Cable and Wireless Compacy. -Montreal and John Hill ("system 5,,), supplies water to Mesopotamia Valley and the area from Peruvian Vale south to Villa. Ex tremely unsatisfactory condition; vegetation is Rain Forest and Seasonal Evergreen Forest; erosion, siltation, banana plantations, agro chemical use, marijl!ana cultivation, livestock pasturing and other land use conflicts. -Owia ("system 15"; Big Owia River), supplies water to Owia and Point Villages. Marginally acceptable condition; vegetation is secondary forest, fair to good vegetative cover, but provision cultivation and deforestation; erosion from footpaths in catchment leading to subsistence farming in upper areas; possi ble use of agrocbemicals. -Perseverance ("system 20"; Caratal River), supplies water to GeorgetoWil. Marginally acceptable condition; vegetation is Seasonal Evergreen Forest with adequate except for private land adjacent to catchment; water system was only installed about one year ago, but access road to intake allowed banana and provision farmers to in vade a previously inaccessible area. Erosion, sPltation, use of agrochemicals. Sandy Bay ("system 14", Cayo River), supplies water to Sandy Bay. Satis factory condition; vegetation is secondary for est; some agrochemical use and erosion from subsistence farming in catchment. DRINKING WATER POLLUTION The silting-up of streams due to soil erosion in the catchment areas and conse quent loss of water quality at water production facilities is a growing problem. There are often high levels of turbidity and particulate matter m. drinking water (pers. comm., Dr. A. Eustace, Medical Officer, Min. of Health and

PAGE 120

the Environment, Feb. 1990), especially dur ing the ramy season. In addition to in'itituting more effect1ve watershed and catchment area management, the installatlon of treatment equipment (coagulation, sedimentation and filtration) at the water production facilities is necessary to correct this condition, but fund ing has not yet been identified. St. Vincent lacks legislation which establishes specific drinking water quality standards or sampling and analysis proce dures. Thr. CWSA currently uses PAHO ds as guidelines for water quality (pers. comm., D. Cummings, Manager, CWSA, Feb. 1990). All drinking water is chlorinated to elim:.nate disease organisms. One of the dan gers of chlorinating water without premtration is that a class of carcinogenic compowlds called chloramines can be formed if the waters are rich in organic substances. There is no information on the extent to which this may be a problem in St. Vincent. As also di::icussed in Sections 3 and 8, agricultural encroachment 10 the catchment areas for drinking water intakes has caused considerable concern about contamination from fertilizers and biocides. Although atten tion has been focused mainly on the Montreal catchment, the problem is certainly Dot COD fined to that single area. Since several of the biocides used in large quantities in St. Vincent are very hazardoU!; to human health, and since high nitrate levels in potable water (exceeding 10 mg/liter as nitrogen or 45 rng/liter as ni trate) are very toxic to infants, such concern does not appear to be unwarranted. WATER SUrPLY AND DEMAND Hydrogeological surveys have shown that there is good groundwater potential in the Rabacca, Yambou, and Vermont river valleys in St. Vincent. There are plans to in crease groundwater production by the con struction of several new bore-holes in these areas in the future. This may compensate for a projected increase in water demand in the agricultural sector. While bananas do Qot re quire irrigation duc'.ng the dry season, under 90 GSVG's agricultural diversification program, the production of new crops do require dry season irrigation is increasing, and there is potential for further expansion of vegetable production. In the dry climate characteristic of the Grenadines, an adequate water supply is highly dependent on the timely arrival of the rainy season. During a drought, private indi viduals and businesses depend on Govern ment storage reservoirs to make up the shortfall, but because there is not enough storage capacity, all the Grenadine islands now import water by tanker from St. Vincent. Estimates of the water resource availability or demand in these islands have been made by Jackson, et 01. (1986). l'OLICY MATTERS AND LEGISLATION The CWSA shares administrative authority in the area of water quality moni toring with the Public Health Department of the Ministry of Health and the Environment. Responsihility for monitoring water quality in the distribution network and at the consumer lies with the Ministry of Health, but because the Ministry does not have laboratory facili ties, the CWSA takes its own samples for chemical and bacteriological testing and sends results to the Ministry of Health. This is not the optimum situation from a regulatory standpoint, but no funds have been allocated to give the Public Health Department its own monitoring capability. It is also not clear which agency is actually responsible for mon itoring and enforcement of water quality in rivers and marine waters. The Central Water and Sewerage Authority Act of 1978 contains substantial to protect water supplies from pol lution by agricultural chemicals and sediment (Lausche, 1986). The Minister of Health and the Environment has the power, upon the recommendation of the CWSA Board, to de clare any site a protected area for water re source conservation; although this authority does not appear to be restricted ti> public lands, it has simply not been exercised. The proposed Water Resources Act and ac companying Regulations would also enable

PAGE 121

CWSA to establish "protected zones" around water supplies, but --even if enacted -en forcement of the regulations which protect designated conservation areas would be re quired. There are also major weaknesses in existing legislati.on pertaining to water re sources management. Most catchments and intakes for water production are located on crown lands, but the provisions of the Crown Lands Ordinance and Regulations pertain primarily to the rental and sale of lands. Forestry legislation also relates principally to crown lands but has virtually no provisions for water resource protection; this will be recti fied if currently proposed revisions (i.e., For est Resource Conservation Act) are enacte.d (see also Section 10). Although the issue has been recog nized and discussed for years, the problem of squatten on crown lands has not been re solved, with squatters continuing to deforest critical water catchments and pollute thl!Dl with agrochemicals. As early as 1968 and re peatedly during the 1980's, attempts were made to remm'e squatters from the Montreal catchment, but these efforts met with little success. Thtre now seems to be a at titude among GSVG middle-management personnel that the squatter issue is too politi cally sensitive for them to deal with effectively. Under these circumstances, many question whether proposed legislative revisions will ac complish stated objectives, no matter how well-designed they may be. 91 4.3 POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS In order to protect dllDking water quality, a solution to the "squatter problem" with its environmental ramifications in critical water catchments, i.e., deforestation and ex tensive use of agrochemicals --needs to be identified. Additionally, effective regulation of biocide imports and use should be imple mented. The required technical ittformation on biocides already exists, a land reform pro gram is underway, and surveys of catchments and crown lands rue now in progress (see Sections 2, 3 and 8). The remaining difficul ties appear to be primarily social and political rather than technical; solutions will therefore depend on Government's ability to implement the regulatory and enforcement provisions of pending legislative reforms, rather than on further research or technical assistance. A system for effective watershed and catchment area management needs to be put in place as rapidly as possible, and steps must be taken to restore those areas which ilave already been damaged (see Sections 3 and 9 and especially Prins, 1986b). It is critical tbat the wastage of water in the public distribution system on St. Vincent be reduced in order to avoid short falls in supply. Full treatment should be installed at all the major surface supplies to im prove the quality during the rainy season and to eliminate the danger of chloramine COD tamination. Consideration should be given to placing responsibility for mon::oring and en forcing water quality standards within the Public Health Department. facili ties and staff would need to be provided for this purpose within the Department.

PAGE 122

Coastal village with typical picturesque line of coconut palms along the back beach area and with equally typical and ubiquitous bananas in the foreground. 92

PAGE 123

SECTION 5 COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES 5.1 OVERVIEW PHYSICAL FEATURES The shallow coastal shelf (less than 100 meters or 330 feet deep) surrounding St. Vincent and the Grenadines a total area of about 690 square miles (FigtllI'e 5.1(1. Around st. Vincent proper, the shelf is widest on the southeastern side of the island and very narrow on the northern, western and southwestern sides. There is a narrow trough between st. Vincent and the Grenadine Islands, which attains depths of 1,800 feet or more. The Grl!.nadines are situated on a long, relatively broad shelf which falls off steeply to deep water on the north, east and west. The dominant ocean currents in the vicinity of st. Vincent and the Grenadines flow from the east-southeast. Some upwelling of deeper ocean waters is thought to exist along eastern part of the insular shelf. During tle South American rainy season enormous quantities of fresh water are discharged from the Orinoco and Amazon rivers; this water then drifts toward and across the southern islands of the Eastern Caribbean chain. As this low-salinity water mass moves across the area, distinct interfaces between the turbid green (Orinoco) cleW' blue (oceanic) water are recognizable. This phe nomenon is believed to affect fishing opera tions in that neither oceanic pelagic fishes nor bottom fIShes are thought to be easily catch able when such water masses are present in the area. Most beaches in the Grenadines are composed of the:: brilliant white sand so beloved by tourists and White sand is produced by the fragmentation of material from the organisms making up the extensive coral reefs in these waters, e.g., corals, calcareous algae and coraline algae. The long-term existence of this type of beach therefore depends on the continued health of their "sand factories" -the living animals and plants (If the adjacent reefs. 93 By contrast, the majority of St. Vincent's beaches are made up of black sand, stones and boulders derived from the volcanic rocks of the mountains which are delivered to the coastline by rivers. Only at Indian Bay, Villa Bay, Calliaqua Bay and Young Island on the south coast are there white coral sand beaches, due to the extensive reefs in these bays. Not surprisingly, the major tourist hotel and resort developments are found in this area. Along the southeastern coast of St. Vincent, the beaches are backed by extensive vegf.tated black sand dunes which can be as high as 150 feet; these dune systems are best developed at Brighton anc: Diamond Bays. Some of the bays in the Grenadines also have dunes, e.g., Carenage, Godhalt, Mysore and Windward Bays on Canouan, and Chatham and Bloody Bays on lJ nion. CRITICAL HABITATS Three habitats -mangroves, coral reefs, and seagrass beds --are of critical importance in nearshore tropical marine ecosystems. There are many direct links between the extent and health of these habitats and the productivity of the inshore fisheries. The majority of bottom-dwelling fish species in the shallow nearshore waters of the Eastern Caribbean (more than 300 species, of which an estimated 180 species are lande,d for human consumption) are associated with coral reefs as adults. Many of these reef fishes, in cluding species important in local fisheries, utilize mangrove swamps and/or seagrass beds as "nursery" habitats in the juvenile stages. Commercially important invertebrates such as conch and lobster also are found in these habitats as juveniles and in some cases as adults. Seagrass 00ds provide significant energy inputs to the reef system by serving as feeding grounds for adult reef fishes. Man groves and seagrass br.ds also serve important functions in protecting coral reefs by filtering

PAGE 124

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES .;.-...... /' / \. I \ o 5 10 l-,, ___ ..L... __ ---I \ i i ,. (' '. ..... _----, Miles I i ST. VINCENT / 1._.-. ,-, ........ ." I ; / ; I i ,.-.-..-...... --._.'" 'l) I I ) 0 Battowi a ;' d Quatre I'l P i Baliceauxp '. '. ',.-'-. \} .. 0 ; / [J. ., .I i I Mustique' j / i Petit ,/ ( Mustique / ..... (' .... .J ) / 0 Sayan 0 f',tit ,. .", .... _. Canouan /-' I /./ ./ M I .,/ I I .1' ./ II 1 / Mayreau f"-l Tobago V Cays Union <. ... "0 :1 Prune (Palm) i !'. / c., Peti t St. Vi ncent .n._,_. __ ....J ______________ --' Figure 5.1 (1). Coastal sbell' area, '100 m contour, St. Vincent and the Grenadines (source: 1987),

PAGE 125

out sediments from land run-off, and reefs in turn protect mangroves, grass beds and beaches from the destructive effects of storm waves. A very general and incomplete picture of the distribution of these major coastal and marine habitat types in St. Vincent and the Grenadines is shown in Figure 5.1(2). Detailed mapped informatioD on marine biological communities in the country is unfortunately lacking, but partial surveys and mapping of bottom habitats have been carried out in a few locations such as the Tubago Cays, the southwest coast of Bequia and southeastern St. Vincent. The Forestry Division is currently engaged in mapping mangrove areas throughout the country. (1) Mangroves (information provided by W. Metz, US Peace Corps Volunteer, Forestry Div., pers. comm., April 1990). On St. Vincent only a few very small areas of mangroves remain today; however, it is prob able that there never were extensive areas of this habitat type on the island. A small (0.4 ac) fringe of white mangroves surrounding a pond at Milikin Bay on St. Vincent's south coast is thought to be that island's most im portant mangrove habitat for wildlife (mainly birds). The Forestry Division has recently (June 1990) entered into a five year renewable Cooperative Forest Agreement with private landowners to protect and preserve the Milikin Bay mangroves. Other minor areas of mangroves occur at the C.ll'enage in Calli aqua Bay and at Almond Tree Bay on Johnson Point. Union Island in the Grenadines lays claim to the largest stand of mangroves in the nation, found ill! the 50 acre Lagoon Swamp adjacent to Ashton Harbor. In the past these mangroves were heavily damaged by cutting, according to Faaborg and Arendt (1985). Today the swamp is still bordered by a fringe of red and has good stands of black mangroves in its interior. This mangrove wetland is probably very important to birds a!!d other wildlife, but no surveys have yet been done. The Forestry Division intends to designate Lagoorl Swamp as a reserve or conservation area for protection of flora and fauna as well as to 95 ensure sustainable yields of forest products. The swamp aireddy lies within the boundaries of the Ashton Bay Marine Reserve. Also on Union Island are abouL 15 acres of red, white, black and button mangroves at Richmond Bay; a 5 acre fringe of white, black and button mangroves and clumps of red mangroves in the salt pond at Belmont Bay; a red mangrove fringe at Queensberry Point; a fringe of red mangroves along the beach to the east of Lagoon Swamp; and some degraded mangroves in the salt pond adjacent to the airstrip at Point Lookout. The For{.'.stry Division completed a survey of the mangroves on Mustique in 1990. The most complex mangrove system on Mustique is found at Lagoon Bay on the southwest coast, an area occupying approxi mately 20 acres of sandy shoalE. and mud flats. It is characterized by a 19 acre zone of black mangroves; direcdy inland and adjacent to this zone is a 0.7 acre belt of red mangroves, en circling the southwest perimeter of the lagoon. About 0.3 acres of red mangrove can also be found north of the lagoon in proximity to the old salt pond that was turned into a refuse site. Another mangrove wetland, immediately adjacent to and north of the Mustique airport, encompasses apprmcimately 27 acres of black and button mangrove. The privately-owned Mustique Company has reserved this man grove wetland as a bird sanctuary (Forestry Division Mustique Mangrove Survey, 1990). There is a narrow mangrove fringe around the large salt pond on Mayreau. (2) Coral Reefs. In the waters around st. Vincent, well-developed reefs occur mainly on the south and southeast coasts in the Indian Bay-Young Island Calliaqua Bay-Johnson Point area. The Indian Bay and Johnson Point/Sharps Bay reefs were studied in the early 1960's by Adams (1968). Concern has been expressed in the literature (e.g., Cambers, 1985b) that these reefs may be dead due to the effects of land-based pollution. While the reefs do show unmistakable signs of stress, they a.re far from dead, and there is still a considerable area of living coral remaining (R. Teytaud, IRF Staff Ecologist, personal observc.tions, Feb.-April,

PAGE 126

ST. VINCENT/COASTAL AND MARINr: HABITATS .--. LIVING REEF SALT POND 13-20' 13-15' 13-10' 61-15' 61-10' Figure 5.1 (2a). Major coastal and marine habitats, St. Vincent (source: ECNAMP, '980a). % o I o 1 13-15' 13-10' t \ S,b '2 i Mtlel

PAGE 127

ST. VINCENT GRENADINES Coastal and Marine Habitats LIVINC REEF o SALT POND WETLAND Peti t Nevi 5 C'::J Battowh ... Bal iceaux Q "USrIQUE to Petit MustiQue <\7 Petit Canouan 0 aOOUAN'J ;JI UNION ar" (Pcdm) Petit St. Vincent savc.n/iJ -o 1 2 3 4 5 N.Miles Figure 5.1 (2b). Major coastal and marine habitats, St. Vincent Grenadines (source: ECNAMP, 1980b). 97

PAGE 128

1990). A more recent detailed statur; report can be fOUlld in the St. Vincent chapter of IVCN's Coral Reefs of tile World, published in late 1988 (Wells, 1988). From Kingstown to Chateaubelair on the western coast, the narrow insular shelf supports a patchy but nevertheless considerable amount of coral growth on rocky substrates adjacent to many of thl! headlands. However, there are no well-developed fringing or patch reef structures here. According to Adams (1968) and Wells (1988), Sharps Bay is the easternmost occurence of vigorous cora) growth and well-developed reefs on St. Vincent; the exposed north and east coasts are said to lack coral reefs entirely. Three-quarters of the Grelladines platform is 120 to 130 feet deep and has no shallow coral reef systems. There is a signifi cant submerged ridge system on the eastern margin of the shelf, extending fOf over 27 miles and presumably .epr..::senting an extinct barrier reef (B. D' .Anglejean and E. Mountjoy, 1973; cited in Wells, 1988). The northernmost parts of the Grenadines such as Bequia, Battowia and Isle de Quatre lack large bank-barrier reef systems, although some small reefs occur in coves, off headlands or between small islands. Although Mustique has a shallow shelf, it also lacks significant reef development. The east ern side of Canouan has large but relatively undeveloped tracts of reefs which are said to be dominated by coraliue algae, with incipient mounds of coraline algae and fire coral but little growth of branching corals or head corals (Adey and Burke, 1976). The most extensive and well-devel oped coral reef complexes in the country are found on the shallow (30 to 40 feet deep) shelves around the windward sides of Mayreau and Vnion Islands and the Tobago Cays. The bank-barrier and fringing reefs of the Tobago Cays are dominated by the branching elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata) in shallow water and by various head corals in the deeper fore-reef zones; their struc(ure has been described by Lewis (1975), Adey and Burke (1976), and Heyman, et al. (1988). These reefs have long been famous for thl.!ir underwater scenery and bountiful production 98 of fISh, conch and lobsters, but in recent years they reportedly have suffered serious deterio ration. The present condition of these reefs is discussed in Seclion 5.2. (3) Seagrass beds. Little or no accu rate information exists on the distribution of seagruss beds m St. Vincent or the Grenadines. MARINE WILDLIFE Humpback Whales (Megaptera lIovaeallgliae), Sperm Whales (Physeter eatodoll), Blackfish or Pilot Whales (Globieephala maerorhYllehus), Killer Whales (Orcillus orca), Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops tnmeatus), Spinner Dolphins (StelleUa IOllgirostris), and several other species of dol phins are some of the marine mammals which frequen .. the waters of St. Vincent aUG the Grenadines. Humpback Whales migrate from northern waters to calving grounds in the Grenadines during January to April each year, B1ackfish migrate through the area between July November or mid-December, and a wide variety of dolphins are year round. Other cetacean species are less com monly encountered. Four species of sea turtles are found in the nation's waters: the Hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbrieata) the Green (Chelonia mydas) the Loggerhead (Carena c.,vena) and the Leatherback (Demwehelys eoriaeea). Table 5.1(1) summarizes informa tion on sea turtle populations in the area; un fortunately, although these data are a decade and more old, they are still the latest available information (Groombridge and Luxmoore, 1989). FISHERIES A regional context for fisheries re source management in the OECS nations is provided by Mahon (1988), who summarized the current state of knowledge regarding re source assessment and also suggested general management options for the various fisheries. A comprehensive and environmentally sensi tive overview of the fIShery sector in St.

PAGE 129

Table 5.1 (1). Summary of data on sea turtle populations In St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Abundant Common Frequent Occasional Rare Nesting Ei Dc CcCm Foraging Adults JLNeniles CcCm EIDc ernEI .N1!sting Areas: Richmond Beach, Barrouallie (EI, Dc); Rose Bani<, Troumaka Bay, Cumber1and Bay, Wallilabou Bay, Orange Hili, Colonarie Bay, Stubbs (EI); Dark View, Clare Valley, Mt. Pleasant, Sandy Bay (Dc) Areas: No data .fQmjlatlon Estimates: None Source: Bacon, 1981. EI Dc Cc Cm Vincent and the Grenadines was provided by an FAO consultant (Mattbes, 1984). Addi tional background information on fisheries may be found in a series of papers by Adams (l97lla, 1970b, 1971, 1973, 1m, 1980, 1985). The fisheries of the Tobago Cays have been described by Berwick (1986) and Heyman, et 01. (1988). Morris (1989) provides data on landings and landing trends at the Kingstown fISh market, describes the prr.sent fishing fleet and fisheries, and discusses the current fISh eries data coUection system. In St. Vincent and the Grenadines fishing continues to be primarily an artisanal industry. No complete census of fIShermen Eretmochelys Imbrlcata (Hawksblll) Dermochefr.: coriacfYJ (Leatherback) Caretta .;aretta (Loggerhead) Chelonia mydas (Green) 99 has yet been taken. According to the FAO fISheries development study, in 1984 there were perhaps 5,000 to 6,000 fIShermen (about 3,000 fuU-time) and abou( 2,500 persons working in fIShery-related sectors such as marketing, boat building and repair services (Matthes, 1984). Including families, this means that at the time of the :itudy approxi mately 30,000 people depended for their living on marine fISheries-related activities. Some 85-95 percent of adult males in the Grenadines were tither fIShermen or active in related sectors. Berwick (1986), based on in formation from the Chief Fisheries Officer, gave a somewhat lower estimate of 2,500 full time fIShermen and 1,000 part-time. With the

PAGE 130

growth of tourism and other st-ctors and the decline of stocks, these figures may be some what lower today (particularly in the Grenadines). The major types of fisheries and the fIShing gear and methods used in St. Vincent and the Grenadines include the following (Matthes, 1984; Morris, 1989): Shallow reef fishes and deepwater bottom living (or fishes, are fished most extensively in the Grenadines. Fish traps or may be set baited or un baited for reef fishes in 100 to 200 feet. Bottom hand lines are fished in depths from 70 to more than 600 feet, by driftfIShing or stationary Occasion ally bottom-set gill nets and "Palangs" (bottom-set longlines with about 100 hooks) are also used. Trammel nets or tangle nets are typically set in shallow reef areas where lobster, conch, and a wide variety of fish may be captured. Because they are uDselective and are often left unattended for one to three days, these nets are very destructive. They are now illegal, but some no doubt continue to be used. Spearflshing is a popular method of taking reef fishes among local fishermen, and al though it is now illegal without a license, no doubt it is stilI commonly done by vis iting yachts and tourists i,'l the Grenadines. Offshore pelagic species are mostly caught by trolling east of the Grenadines Bank. TroUing lines (with artificial feather lures or baited hooks) are deployed at 300 feet or more while the boat is drifting, or at the surface with outriggers when underway. Small inshore tJelagic species are caught by seines, which are set from a rowboat to enclose these schooling fish and then hauled to shore or set offshore from a !arge double-ended rowboat assisted by two to three smaller boats and a team of SCUBA divers to tend the foot-rope. Seining is the most common fishery on the west coast of St. Vincent, especially at Barrouallie. Gill nets set at the surface are 100 used primarily for catching ballahoo and in one location for flying-fish; some of these are used as drift nets. Lobsters are taken mainly in the Grenadines by teams of 11 or 12 men, five to six of whom are SCUBA divers using wire loops or nooses. Each team deploys four to five sailboats or boats with out board engines; camps are subsequently set up, mainly on the Tobago Cays, Mustique, Petit St. Vincent and Palm Is land. There are three to four such teams which are estimated to take about 90 per cent (Jf the catch. The live lobsters are kept at the camps in crawls until they are bagged and sold to a trader boat. Conch are taken by the SCUBA-diving lobster teams, but there are also special ized free-diving conch teams operating out of Union Island. Sea turdes (mostly Green and Hawksbill) are caught in turtle nets or harpooned, probably year-round despite a five-month closed season. Whales and dolphins are taken by har pooning with hand-held harpoons or har poon guns. A Humpback Whale may oc casionally be taken in the vicinity of Beqllia or Mustique by whalers operating out of Friendship Bay in Bequia; none were taken in 1987, 1989, and 1990, al though one was taken in 1988 comm., CEP National Committee, 1990). Blackfish, f.perm Whales, Bottlenose and other dolphins are routinely hunted by fishermen based in Barrouallie, mostly fer the meat which is locally prized. Recreational sportfishlng is done by pri vate fIShermen, but there are no charter boats at present. Fishing vessels are mostly small, open or partly-decked boats of several types, pow ered by oars, sails, diesels or outooards. In 1984 it was estimated that some 30 seine teams were operating mainly on leeward and southern St. Vincent and Bequia. At least 100 boats were using gill nets, trammel nets, traps and palangs; and some 2,000 fIShermen were

PAGE 131

estimated to be either tromng or drop-lining. Many fishermen also used several types of gear either seasonally or simultaneously, and about 50 were regular SCUBA divers. The main fishing centers on the i5land of St. Vincent are at Kingstown (the largest) and Barrouallie; there are about twenty other areas where fISh are landed. FIShing is a major (if not the major) activity ill. all the villages in the Grenadine Islands. There are two fishing seasons during tht: yeaI' for St. Vincent the "low season" from September to December or January and a "high season" from January or February to August. The higber landings are associated with the exploitation of migratory offshore pelagic species --dolphin (Coryphaena hippurus), tU:,a (1hunnus a/bacares), kingflSh (Scomberomorus caval/a), bonito (Thunnus ot/anticus), and skipjack (KatsulVonus pe/amis), and the inshore pelagics --jacks (Se/ar crumenophtha/mus), ballahoo (Hemiramphus ba/ao), spratt (Harengu/a pensaco/ae), dodger (Decpterus punctatus), and robin (Decapterus macarel/us). In the Grenadines year-round and in St. Vincent during the low season for pelagics, fIShermen concentrate on shallow-water reef fIShes or deep demersal species such as certain snap pers ano groupers. No current data on the annual fISh landings for the I;ntire country are available, but between 1984 and 1986 annual landings were "guesstimated" to be at least 1,700-1,800 metric tons including about 850 tons from the Grenadines; perhaps 70 percent of the Gren&dines catch was exported to MlI'tinique via middlemen with iceboats. Shallow reef and deep demersal species probably ac counted for 700-800 tons per year; offshore and inshore pel .. gics uccounted for the re maining 1,000 tons (Matthes, 1984; Berwick, 1986). At that time, it was also estimated that landings of fISh caught locally accounted for only one-half of the annual per capita fish consu:nption, with the remainder made up by imported fISh products. 101 FISHERIES MANAGEMENT AND [tEVELOPMENT The multi-specif',s nature of reef fIsh eries, coupled with the: scarcity of information on landings, fIShing effort and sire of the ex ploited stock, makes it very difficult to obtain reliable estimates of sustainable yields for the fISheries of st. Vincent and the Grenadines and other Eastern Caribbean nations (Goodwin, et a/., The current GSVG fISheries data collection system is limited to a total census at the Kingstown Fish Market (from receipts species) and data from incomt>lete export records for fISh leaving the islands. Due to manpower limitations (only six per sons ar'; employed in the entire Fisheries Di vision, with plans to hire an additional five or six in the near future) and because of the number of isla'lds and landing sites involved, expanding the system will be difficult. How ever, there are plans (Morris, 1989) to con duct a minimal sampling program in the fu ture to acquire data from other landing sites on the main island and in the Grenadines. The OEes Fisheries Unit (with headquarterr in Kingstown) has been assisting with imple, mentation of standardized fisheries data col lection systems throughout the OEes mem ber states, including st. Vincent. CIDA has recently funded a Can$18 million fISheries stock assessment project for the CARICOM region. The project will com prise three case studies on different types of fISheries. St. Vincent and the Grenadines will be the project center for the study of pelagic fISheries in the OEes countries; other centers will be in Belize (demersal fISheries) and Guyana (shrimp fISheries). An EC$10 million grant from the Japanese Government has been used to fi nance a modem fish market complex just opened in Kingstown, with cold storage facili ties and fISheries laboratory. Additional funds from the Japanese will be used to provide fIShing equipment for the Fisheries Division. A Japanese fISheries expert was assigned to the country for three months in 1990 to look at lobster, turtle and conch management and possibilities for seamoss mariculture.

PAGE 132

A new CIDA-funded FISheries Dr. velopment Program provide in frastructure (retail centers, boat haul out sheds, improved gear and methods, fISherman training, cold storage facilities, etc.) in Union Island, Canouan, Bequia and Mustique. LEGISLATION FOR FlSHERlF.8 MANAGEMENT AND MARINE CONSERVATION The United Nations Law of tht Sea Convemion (CLOS), of which St. Vincent and the Grenadines is a signatory, obligates coastal member states to "protect and pre serve the marine environment" and provides a legal framework for doing so utilizing the con cept of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Following a seminar on the EEZ of small is land states held in St. Vincent lklder the spon sorship of the Dalhousie Ocean Studies Pro gram in 1931, GSVG declared an EEZ by passage of the Maritime Areas Act (No. 15 of 1983). The EEZ extends seaward for 200 nautical miles and encompasses a total area of about 11,000 square miles (Matthes, 1984). Within this zone the nation claims exclusive control, tbrol!gh the Minister tor Foreign Af fairs, of: (1) fishing and other economic ac tivities, (2) conservation and management of living and non-living resources, and (3) the protection and preservation of the marine en vironment. The Act also gives the Minister broad powers to set up sea lanes and vessel traffic separation schemes for the purpose of, among others, preventing pollution. The Act states that the Minister shall publish charts and lists of coordinates delineating the limits of the various special zones set up by the Act, but this has not yet been done (pers. comm., K Morris, Chief Fisheries Officer, April, 1990). GSVG is also a signatory to two other international conventions: MARPOL (International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships), which prohibits nearshore discharges of oil, noxious liquid substances in bulk. harmful substances Iil packaged forms, sewage and garbage. CITES (Convention on International Trade of Endmrgered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna), which regulaies trade in species listed in appendices (see also Section 2 of the Profile). Appendlx I I5sts species which are threatened with extinction and in which commercial trade is prohibited; Appenilix I! lists species wh.ich may become extinct unless trade is strictly regulated; and Appendix III identifies species protected in tLeir country of origin and in which the cooperation of other na tions is required in order to enforce export restrictiOlIS. The Fisheries Act (No. 8 of 1986) es tablished for the first time a legal framework for fISheries m:magement in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. The Act covers fISheries ac cess agreements, foreign fIShing licenses, fISh processing establishments, fISheries research and the registration of fIShing vessels. The Act also prohibits use of any explosive, poison or other noxious substance for the purpose of killing, stunning, disabling or catching fish. It empowers the Minister to set up marine reserves for the conservation of the environment and the enhancement of fISheries and to promulgate regulations for prohibiting harmful fishing methods. The Minister may declare any area of the fishery waters (i.e., the waters of the EEZ, lerritorial sea, archipelagic waters, and internal waters as defmed in the Maritime Areas Act),llnd adjacent or sur rounding land, to be a mariue reserve. The Fisheries Regillations (SRO No.1 rl 1987) pertain to the e:\tablishment of a Fisheries Advisory Committee and include provisions for foreign fIShing vessels, local fishing and fish aggregating devices. The regulations also set out fishery conser la tion measures, such as closed seasons and gear restrictions, and specify coordinates for the boundaries 0; ten marine conservation areas. Enforcement of the law regarding fISh eries and marine .. atioD area'> is the re sponsibility of "any office,." (i.e., any fisheries officer, aIly customs officer or police officer, or any otller person designated by the Minister); upon conviction for violating 102

PAGE 133

any of the regulations, pt:rsons so charged are liable to a fme not to exceed five thousand dollars. There is a closed season for lobsters from 1 April to 31 October. It is prohibited to take lobster other than by hand, loop, pot or trap or to tJce any lobster that is moultiilg, carrying eggs ormdersize (less than 9 inches total length or 3,j inches carapace length, or less than 1.5 pounds total weight). There is a closed season for turtles from 1 March to 31 July. It is prohibited to disturb, take, possess, purchase or seU turtle eggs or to interfere with f.ily turtle nest; or to take, purchase or possess any undersized turtle or the shell of an undersized turtle. There is l. provision for the Minister to declare a closed season for conch, but this has not been done yet. It is prohibited to take, sell, purcbase or possess any "'lD1mature" conch (dermed a:; a conch having a sheU with out a flared lip or a shell smaUer than 7 inches total length, or with a total meat weight of less than 8 ounces after removal of the digestive gland). It is prohibited, except by permission of the Chief Fisheries Officer, to take or col lect "coral" or to use a speargun within the fishery waters or to import, seU or export any aquarium fISh. Fishing is ['lot permitted at all in any designated marine area. The use of tangle nets is prohibited. The mesh size of seines must be greater than one inch square, and the mesh size of a "ballahoo net" must be greater than half an inch square. A ballahoo may not be hauled out of the water onto land or any structure, or onto any vessel lying within fifty feet of land. 5.2 PROBLEMS AND ISSUES SAND AND ROCK MINING FROM BEACHES The unregulated mining of sand and rocks from beaches for use in the consb'uction industry is generally perceived to be the most important coastal resource issue in the COUD try. Mining is believed to have caused consid erable damage to beaches over the years, and as a result many of them are thOUght to be greatly diminished in width. Virtually all the beaches which are accessible by road have reen mined to some extent, but those closest to Kingstown and other population centers have been the most affected. Figure 5.2(1) shows the distribution of sandy beaches and dune systems, quarries for sand and aggre gate, and beaches where mining has been particularly intensive. There seems to be general consensus locally that the .emoval of sand and rock is t.he major causative factor in the reduction of the country's beaches. According to a report by Robertson (1990), the impact on beaches has accelerated over the last five years due to A combination of factors: a recent building oollstruction boom, the destruction of beach vegetation by trucks used in transporting lae sand, greater use of the shoreline for tourism relateo "'" 'lStruction, and increased damage to marine ecosystems from land-based sources of poUution. However, there are no quantitative data on the amount of materials that have been extracted or any documentation of the impact due to mining per se. Beach mining has been recognized as a problem for many years, even as early as the 1960's (Robertson, 1990; Cambers, 1981 ",nd 1985a), but Government has never made a se rious attempt to control it. In 1981 a Beach Protection Act (No. 10) was passed, making it illegal to remove sand, corals, stones, shingle or gravel from any part of the beach or sea bed, except by permit from the Minister of Agriculture. Any police officer is to arrest violators, and a schedule of fines was established. However, no altemiltive source of sand was provided, regulations were never HE

PAGE 134

"'5' ST. VINCENT rg;!J SAt-tDY BEACH SEVERE SAND RHlOVAL IMPACT DESIGNATED MAJOR QUARRY OR MINING SITE Lowmans Bay Ottley Hall Bay j L'bDU Greathead Bay 6''0' Rabacca R. mining site "OS' Chapmans to Georgetown ..c R. Argyle to Vale 1 J ) 5"-0l=d::=;:===:;:'2--=!i' "tin Figure 5.2(la). Sandy beaches and dunes In St. Vlncont, plus quarries and sites severely damaged by sand removal. 104

PAGE 135

ST. VINCENT SANDY BEACH DUNES Peti t Nevi s ., Quatre J MUSTIQUE Batto""ia Bat'c.,ux Potft Mu&tique '\7 Savan 0 Petf t Canouan 0 Q MAVItEAU.p Tobago Cays UNION Pru (Patml ,eM. o 2 3 4 5 N.Miles b Petit St. Vfncent Figura 5.2(1 b). Sandy beaches and dunes In the St. Vincent Grenadines. 105

PAGE 136

enacted, and the legislation has generally not been enforced. In 1983 an Environmental Improve ment Committee was appointed by Govern ment to study problems relating to sand min ing and beach destruction. The Committee updated an earlier study by Cambers (1981) and made detailed rec(lmmendations and proposals for regulations to implement the Act. Its report, however, was never taken to Cabinet, and once again no regulatory action was taken by GSVG. More recently, a study was commis sioned by the Ministry of Communications and WOlks to the feasibility of quarry developmclit to supply constructiun materials and to relieve the pressure on beaches. The consultants' report (Golder As sociates, 1987) recommended that a statutory body should be set up to operate two quarries, one at Lowmans Bay to produce coarse sand and aggregate and another at Rabacca Dry River to produce aggregate only. These quar ries are presently being developed. The 1987 study recommended that beach mining in all other areas should be controlled and that a fee be charged for sand from Diamond Estate. The issue of charging for sand removal is a critical one; since beach sand is currently unless the Government is prepared to institute a management system and to enforce the prohi bition against illegal beach mining, the prac tice will undoubtedly continue unabated. Under the Golder Associates' plan, sand from the dunes at Diamond Estate would continue to be mined, since Rabacca sand is not fine enough for plastering. It has been stated that the sand deposits in the Diamond and Brighton dunES could supply St. Vincent's needs fo:the next few decades if sand extrac tion were properly managed (Cambers, n.d.). However, the assumptions underlying this cal culation (e.g., rate of extraction) have not been clearly stated. At thp. present time, various proposed mechanisms for sand mining from beaches are still under review. Regulations are being drafted which would allow commer cial mining from the Diamonrl and Brighton 100 sand dunes, the Rabacca Dry River, and the Wallibou Dry River; mining would be pro on all ether beaches in St. Vincent. In the Grenadines, it is proposed that sand re moval for building homes on-island should be allowed only from specific beaches (still to be designated), except that no mining would be allowed on Bequia, Petit St. Vincent and Mustique, or the entire east coast of Canouan. Presumably, sand for any building on Petit St. Vincent, Bequia ano Mustique, and for com mercial building on the other Grenadines, would have to be impclted. N.B. The Mustique Company reports that sand mining has already been banned on that island (pers. comm., 1990). The Ministry of Agriculture has pro posed that the Forestry Division all aspects of beach protection," and the geol ogist att2l.ched to the Sonfriere Monitoring Unit is currently advising the Ministry in this area. The Ministry of Communications and Works is responsible for management of the quarries and operations. A registra ,ion and license system for all sand miners has been proposed, but it is not dear at this time what the institutional relation.::hip will be be tween the two ministries. the next fis cal year, the Forestry Division plans to submit a request for funds to hire beach guards; in the interim, it is expected thCl.t Forest Guards will perform this function, in addition to their regular duties. In the medium term, the Ministry plans to initiate a public awareness campaign, to seek assistance from donor agencies in conducting of the coastal ecosystem", and to train local personnel iat beach moni toring techniques. The Ministry has also ex pressed its interest in developing and imple menting a comprehensive coastal zone man agement plan. However, there are at present no personnel within the Ministry with the nec essary specialized expertise to deal with the marine-related aspects of such a program, i.e., physical oceanography and beach dynamics, biological oceanography, impact assessment or coastal zone resource management. The Fisheries Division, if strengthened, could con ceivably assist in dealing with biological issues, but at present it is not able even to manage

PAGE 137

the marine conservation areas for which it is responsible, BEACH EROSION The extensive beach erosion which has taken place over the last twenty years or so on the south coast of St. Vincent har; caused considerable concern to GSVG tourism officials and to hoteliers and residents in the area. These beaches appear to be defi cient of sand; at high tide only narrow strip:, of beach are visible where in former years the beach was considerably wider. Other beaches on St. Vincent and in the Grenadines have also experienced erosion during this period, which has usually been attributed to the im pacts of sand mining. Although there is no doubt that sand removal has contributed to the erosion, it mayor may not be the major cause of beach loss. Hurricane Allen in 1980 also pro duced severe beach erosiol' on all coasts, in cluding the beaches in the Indian Bay/Villa area. At Young Island the beach totally dis appeared during the storm and never recov ered to its former extent (Cambers, 1985b). 'fo counter the erosion, arbitrary groins have been constructed at Young Island and at Calliaqua and Indian Bays. In there are gray water drains and jetties, which act as groins, and an artificial rock spit cOI!llecting Dike Island to the shore (built about twenty yearlJ ago). The great majority of these structures are probably either useless or actu ally do harm by impeding the natural long shore movement of sand along the bay. in Be-quia severe erosion is occurring along the shoreline of Port Eli7.abeth, where gabions and seawalls have been built to pro tect shoreline developments. Other Grenadine where erosion is a prob lem are Industry Bay on Bequia, Windward Carenage on Mayreau, Haradal Beach in the Tobago Cays, Palm Island Beach (north) and Southern Beach on Petit St. Vincent (Jackson, et 01., 1986). The increased erosion of the nation's beaches during the past two decades parallels a similar trend noted in other islands in the region, e.g, BarbJdos, St. Kitts/Nevis, Montserrat, and Grenada. Data from studies carried out in Grenada (Cambers, 1984; 1988) indicate that during the period 1951-1970 there was generally little change in beaches, which were mostly stable except for localized erosion attributed to sand mining. From 1970 to the there was a general increase in beach erosion rates, attributed mainly to sea level rise and possibly also to increased wave energy from winter swells and hurricane swells. In some local areas, land subsidence may have played a dominant role. At least for Grand Anse Beach (the most intensively studied area in Grenada), human-induced causes of beach erosion, such as sand mining, removal of beach vegetation, and the death of coral reefs, were felt to be of lesser impor tance. In order to pinpoint the major factors causing beach erosion in St. Vincent and the Grenadines, it would be necessary to carry out a research program similar to Grenada's, combining measurement:; (from aeria.1 pho tographs) of the historical rates of beach ero sion with long-term monitoring of beach pro files. A handbook of field procedures for such a coastal monitoring program has already been developed for Grenada (Cambers 1985a). Recommendations have been (Cambers, n.d.) for GSVG to investigate the feasibility of using sand dredged from offshore to wrenourishw the beaches at Villa and Indian Bay. Under normal conditions, sand remains on a natural beach because its grain size is adapted to the average wave I egime, but dredged offshore saud has a much wider range of grain sizes and always contains large quantities of fine sediments. Furthermore, sedimentation resulting from a beach renour ishment project could combine with existing stresses (e.g., from increased nutrients in run off and sewage or from anchor damage) to further degcade the remaining areas of living corals in these bays. For this reason, such a project for this particular location would be ill-advised because the reefs themselves are an invaluable resource in terms of fISh produc tion, as recreational attractions for local in habitants and tourists, and as a continuing source of sand generation for the beaches. 107

PAGE 138

Although hard .exe lacking, on the basis of circumstantial e .. idence mnst authorities agret: with ./I,1uull.:'!; (1984) that many of the nation's fish shr-Ufish stocks -snappers and gr:)upel :>, ronch, whelk, white sea black COl al, and turtles --arc se'Vc .. e1y overEshed. Ill&hore '.vaters and the leeward in part:c,ai21' appear to 'tJe the r.lOst over-exp!oited. average size of captUffA it. the i:; very small, and juvenile fish often taken by the use of ever-smalkr mesh siZt;S in the. COli struction of I.raps and sdnes. In:-:hore. fiShir.lg 11\ the northern Cind southern Grenadines have badly d!f.!eted. Interviews with fiShermen from tht' Grenadines (Berwick, 1986) indkated drastic creases in landings of fish, iouster and conch have occurred since about 1980. These ermen must now !I1akc longer tYlpS to fish the deeper banks such as off rail Rock. The seasonal pd3giC fish resoun:e not yet display My certain :\igcs of o'ler .. ftshinp;. Unfortunately, this iE no re2Son for complacency about ito; statns if cilrrcnt re gional trends towards industrh::lizatlon of fish arc pursued. Since mid-1980's, the United States fishing fleet ha;, greatly in creased its exploitation of the bil!fisll resource. in the Eastern Caribbean. Japu" Taiwan and SiJuth Korea have also rapidly f!t;panded their longlining activities in the Caribbean in the last few years. Their fleets ha'.'e !ong operated as "outlaws" in the EEZ of nations which lack the means to pc,trol thdr waten:, but several of these natiom. are noVl begiHDRng to form fIShing partnerships with Caribbean countries. Estimates of abundancl;: and sustain able yield are not available fcy must pelagic species (with the exception of some tunas, dolphin, and flying fish, e.g., Bunte, 1987b; Oxenford, 1985; Oxenford and Hlmte, 1987). Many important species are migratory and possibly con<.ist of several stocks, which im plies thltt any management of such stocks must be carried out on a regional basis. Re gional management, however, is not presently feasible pending collection of the required data. 108 Recent (1989) findings by the U.S. South Atlantic Fishery Management Council provide a sobering preview of the possible fate of industr:a1ized pelagic fiSheries in the Caribbean. The Council concluded after a lengthy study that the swordfiSh spawning biomass off the southeastern U.S. has de clined st.eadily 5mce 1979; the current biomass is estimated to be only 40 percent of the 1978 ievel (Leech, 1989). The average weight of swordfISh has oontinually declined due to high fLshing mortality rates. This stock assessment was based on 1987 data, the most recent availa0lc, but presuLably the swordfish stock has continued to decline since then. An emergency management plan has been drawn up in an attempt to save the fiShery; it recommends a quota s)stem which is a reduction of 78 percent from the 1987 commercial harvest. As another example, sharks have of ten been promoted as an "underfiShed" reSOIUce which hoids great promise for indus uial fishery development in the Caribbean, but it is now recognized by the U.S. National Marine Fisheri,es Service that shark stocks are heavily overfisbed in the Gulf of Mexico and the ':aribbean, at least in U.S. waters. It is quite possible, therefore, that the pelagic fiSh ery resources of the region are not great enough to sustain further large increases in fIShing pressure. Uncontrolled expansion of industrial longline or drift-net fishing could severdy deplete these f.sheries in a very short time. DETERIORATION OF CORAL REEFS IN THE TOBAGO CAYS Within the past 10 to 15 years the widespread deterioration of coral reefs has emerged as a very scriolJS problem in many areas of the world, including the Caribbean (Rogers, 1985). In addition to the south St. Vincent reefs (already mentioned), great concern has beeD expressed in recent years over the rapid decline of the. famous reefs in the Tobago Cays. Reconnaissance surveys (e.g., Heyman, et 01., 1988) indicate that large areas of these reefs are in a degraded condition. This is particularly so in the vicinity of the "Lagoon", i.e., the yacht anchorage ar';;a be hind Horseshoe Reei which is by

PAGE 139

MAYREAU Park Boundar; TOBAGO CAYS / ST. VINCENT ... c .. Petit Tabac .,. ...... L..'.-EXCELLENT AS DIVING ATTRACTION GOOD REEFS BUT DIMINISHED FISH POPULATION GENERALLY POOR REEFS BUT WITH ISOLATED ATTRACTIVE AREAS POOR REEF HEALTH OF LIMITED ATTRACTION YACHT ANCHORAGE AREA OR "LAGOON" -.' ..... 5.2(2). Condition of reefs in the Tobago Cays, St. Vincent Grenadines (source: Heyman, et 81., 1988). ---

PAGE 140

the small islets of Petit Rameau, Petit Bateau, Baradal and Jamesby (Figure 5.2(2)}. While there are still considerable areas of living corals and gorgonians remaining in the Cays, only one area of reef was still found by Heyman, et 01. (1988) to be of truly exceptional quality. The death of much of the elkhorn coral in the Tobago Cays can probably be at tributed to the effects of White Band Disease, which has ravaged many shallow reef areas all over the Caribbean. However, there are ex tensive areas of dead corals belonging to other groups which are not susceptible to this dis ease. Algal overgrowth and the "bleaching" phenomenon are also very apparent, as well as areas of smashed coral. Both the local fIsh ermen and the crews of visiting yachts have been responsible for the decimation of fish life; reef fishes have been so reduced by trap and spear fishing that very little of these activities now takes place in the area. Conch and lobster are very scarce in shallow water and are now being harvested by SCUBA divers at 60 to 90 feet. White sea urchins have been dramatically reduced by over-exploitation for sale to Martinique and Barbados. Some have attributed the reef decline primarily to the effects of visiting yachts, e.g., the physical implcts (anchoring, grounding, breakage of coral by snorkelers) and the sewage discharged in the Lagoon. Until ac tual measurements of currents and water quality have been done, it will be difficult to determine the true significance of sewage from yachts as a factor in the decline of these reefs. Very preliminary calculations by Berwick (1986) suggest that the quantities of sewage discharged by the estimated numoor of yachts during the course of a year could contain enough nutrients to cause negative impacts on the marine communities in the immediate vicinity. Even without such studies, the fact that reef damage is not confmed to the La goon area, but includes large areas of dead coral and algal overgrowth on Horseshoe and World/s End Reefs, indicates that more is in volved than simply the impacts from yachting. The cause of reef decline in the Tobago Cays and elsewhere is more likely to be a complex 110 mixture of natural and human-induced fac tors. In addition to localized sewage pollution, these probably include: storm damage; epidemics of "white band" and other coral diseases; drastically lowered populations of herbivorous black sea urchins (reduced by disease in 1983-84); the "bleaching phenomenon" of corals (agent unknown); physical damage from boats, an chors, fish traps, and divers; spearfIshing; over-harvesting of white sea urchins and herbivorous fishes; and algal overgrowth stimulated by many of the preceding factors. It is difficult but necessary to separate natural from the human-induced changes on the reefs so that management efforts can focus on controlling the latter while allowing the reef ecosystem to regenerate itself. Basic biological surveys and monitoring of reef communities and water quality, similar to the studies carried out in Grenada by Hunte (1987a), should therefore be an integral part of any management scheme for the site. An excellent plan which covers all aspects of management for the recommended Tobago Cays National Park has already been prepared by OAS (Heyman, et 01., 1988), but to date there has been little action by GSVG to im plement it. If effective management is not be gun soon, the area's attraction as a park may well be lost (see also Section 9.2). LACK OF ENFORCEMENT IN MARINE CONSERVATION AREAS Besides the Tobago Cays National Park, the boundaries of nine other marine conservation areas were established under the

PAGE 141

Fisheries Act and Regulations; these are dis played in Figure 5.2(3) (additionally, the Mustique Conservation Act of 1989 designates the entire island, including its marine envi ronment, as a conservation area). However, it seems that no action is being taken to enforce prohibitions against fishing or to regulate other damaging activities in thec;e designated areas. For example, fishermen are observed on a daily basis using seines, gill nets, fish traps and spearguns in the Indian Bay Marine Conselvation Area. Land-based and water based sources of pollution, anchoring of ves sels in coral, and sand mining are likewise unregulated. In the absence of signs, bound ary markers or an educational campaign, it is also quite likely that a majority of people who live, use and fish in these areas may not even be aware of their designation as conservation z.:>nes or what that means in terms of their day-to-day activities. Although Fisheries Regulations state "any authorized including fisheries officers, can enfofle the regulations, fisheries officers have no powers of arrest. Therefore, it appears that in practical terms enforcement rests with the Customs and Police Depart ments, especially the Coast Guard (which is under the Police Department). DESTRUCTION OF' MANGROVES AND OTHER COASTAL WILDLIFE HABITATS Forests, wetlands and coastal habitats in the Lesser Antilles provide critical feeding and resting habitat for many species of birds migrating along the West Indian Flyway be tween North and South America (Johnson, et 01., 1988). The continuing loss of these habi tats, especially coastal systems sueh as man groves, salt ponds, and other wetlands, could threaten the long-term survival of a number of migratnry shorebird and songbird species. Over 100 migrant species art! regularly recorded in the Lesser Anti!.!es; most of these species nest in North America and spend the winter in the Caribbean or South America. There are reportedly plans for devel opment of a 300 hoat marina in, or adjacent to, the nation's Ia:,gcst mangrove swamp near Ashton on Union Island, ignoring the fact that 111 the entire swamp is part of a designated ma rine conservation area. A preliminary sur'ley of the area was made by GSVG Fisheries and Forestry personnel who recommended pro tection of the area as part of the nation's Fisheries Development Plan. Other surveys have been carried out by Smith (1986) and the Forestry Division in 1990, both of which sup ported tht! recommendation for protection. In spite of these fmdings, plans for the marina development are still moving forward. There appears to be no formal mechanism for Mor din at ion and project review between ihe Cen tral Planning Division and the Fisheries Divi sion (see also Sectiun 10). On Prune (Palm) Isl:tI1d, there were reportedly many swanlpy areas before the is land was leased to a private individual for re sort development. According to several ac counts, the developer filled several swamps, planted great numbers of coconut trees, and poisoned armies uf land crabs to turn the is land into a "tourist's paradise". The develop ment of the nr.w airport on Bequia will fill in an a:ea of degraded former reef and destroy a small mangrove stand, already partially bullAgure 5.2(38). location of deSignated marine conservation areas In St. V1n""8nt, as estab IIshed by the Asherles kt and Regulations.

PAGE 142

ST. VINCENT GRENADINES Designated Marine Conservation Areas UNION Petit Nevis 0 Battowia "'lc ux ou.": 4J.. Petit Hustique <\7 Savan D Petit Canouan 0 CANOUAN Tobago Cays o EM St. Vir.cent o 1 2 3 4 5 N.Hiles Figure 5.2(3b}. location of designated marine conservation areas In the Grenadines. as established by the Fisheries Act and Regulations. 112

PAGE 143

dozed, at Paget Farm. There are plans to ex tend the airport runway on Union Island onto the backreef area of the adjacent living reef. About 50-75 acres of land have re portedly been cleared during the last year at Chatham Bay on Union Island preparatory to construction of a tourist resort there. This area of Union, formerly mostly tiry deciduous scrub and scrub forest, and some parts of Bequia are the only places in the nation where the "Cocricow (Orlalis ruficauda or Rufous vented Chachalaca) is found (pers. comm., W. Metz, US Peace Corps Volunt., Forestry Div., April 1990). The current status of the species in this country is not known, but its numbers are thought to be declining. EXPWITATION OF ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries New England whalers from North America hunted Humpback Whales and Blackfish for their oil throughout the Caribbean, and by the 1860's regular trips were being made to the Grenadines in pursuit of the abundant animals (Price, 1985). The technology of whaling was picked up by West Indian seamen, and between 1870 and 1925 more than tweaty shore whaling stations op erated in the Grenadines, each with three to five boats and employing some 100 men. In St. Vincent and the Grenadines, there were stations on Be'!l'ia, Petit Nevis, Palm Island, Frigate Rock and Canouan. By the end of tbe nineteenth century, over-hunting had so re duced the stocks, especially the Humpbacks, that the American whaling fleets moved else where, and by 1925 all the shore stations but Bequia and Petit Nevis had closed down. Today a small-scale artisanal fIShery for Humpbacks is carried on out of Friendship Bay (Bequia) and Petit Nevis and takes about zero to five whales per year. Whales are most sighted in the area between Mustique and Bequia. Female whales with a calf are the target of the whalers since the calf cannot swim very quickly; usually the calf is harpooned first and towed closer to the shore station. The mother always stays close to the calf even after it is dead; when close to shore 113 she is also harpooned and dragged ashore. The meat and oil are sold for local consump tion, and some of the oil is exported. Between 1950 and 1984, it has been estimated that about 52 Humpback Whales were killed by the Bequia fishery, about 70 percent of them female:; (Price, 1985). How ever, this is in all probability a low estimate, since cow and calf pairs are often escorted by another whale, presumably a male, which may be lanced and driven off by the whalers to keep it from attacking the boat. These deep wounds are most likely fatal, so it is probable that more whales may have been killed during this period than the statistics show, for a total of up to 70 animals. In Barrouallie whale boats operate all year in an area extending north to within a few miles of St. Lucia and up to 15 miles west of St. Vincent's leeward coast. From July to December Blackfish are the main species hunted, and during tbe rest of the year a vari ety of Dolphin species are taken as well as an occasional Sperm Whale or Killer Whale. The meat is sold at local markets, either fresh or corned and dried, and is locally prized. Some oil is rendered for local sale as a medicinal or tonic for bodybuilders. The sale of whale and dolphin teeth to artisans and tourists is becoming a lucrative part of the fIShery (Price, 1985). GSVG is a member of the Interna tional Wl iling Commission, which regulates whaling worldwide. In 1987 the Commission for the first time established a quota for the Bequia fIShery of three Humpback Whales per year during the 1987/88 to 1989/CXJ sea son. Since St. Vincent and the Grenadines is one of the areas in the Caribbean where whales and dolphins can reliably be sighted, it should be possible to operate properly regu lated whale and dolphin watching tours simi lar to those in Hawaii and many other tourist destinations. In fact, one tour boat operator already does this in St. Vincent on a small scale. If GSVG were to promote such tours on a larger scale, the potential revenue to fISherman would be greater than income cur-

PAGE 144

rently derived from the continued slaughter of these endangered cetaceans. Sea turtles, especially the Hawksbill because of its beautiful shell, are believed to be heavily exploited in the Grenadines, and small turtles are captured with spearguns to be stuffed and sold as tourist curios (Groombridge and Luxmoore, 1989). GSVG entered a "reservation" to allow continued ex ploitation of the endangered sea turtles at the time it ratified the CITES treaty; thus, these species are not protected under the ratified Convention. The Japanese have been major importers of HawksbiU shell from tropical countries all over the world. Although Japanese customs reports indicate that small quantitks of Hawksbill shell have been im ported frein St. Vincent, much of the export to Japan and other countries is undoubtedly unreported. Aside from the whale and turtle fish eries, the sale of exotic tourist souvenirs or live wildlife is probably the area of most con cern to those monitoring wildlife trade in the Caribbean since it is largely unreported (TRAFFIC, [U.SA.], 1988). As mentioned in Section 2, the CITES convention does not affect local trade ir. endangered species. Stony corals and black corals are examples of threatened species in which there is substan tiallocal trade. 5.3 POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS BEACHES AND GENERAL COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT A coastal setback of at least 50 m should be implemented and rigorously en forced, and beach vegetation should be pro tected. Revegetation of beaches cleared in the past should be accelerated in order to sta bilize the beaches. Since sources of construction ag gregate, which cause less damaging environ mental impacts than the mining of beach sand, have been identified and developed, sand mining should be discontinued on all beaches 114 in st. Vincent. What is needed now is effec tive enforcement and a long-term solution to the sand mining problem in the Grenadines. Control of upland erosion and sediment discharges and appropriate treat ment of sewage and other disr.harges with high nutrient loads is vital to protect coastal water quality, public health and the integrity of coral reefs. This is especially ccitical in the south coastal areas of St. Vincent. An environmental impact assess ment process should be required for all large coastal development projects. The cumulative effects of such projects must he assessed rather than analyzing ea.ch project in isolation. The Central Planning Division should be des ignated as the GSVG lead agency responsible for impact assessment in the country, but a formal evaluation process should be estab lished whereby other agencies have an op portunity for input into re\N.ew procedures, perhaps including veto power over develop ment projects in critical areas. MARINE PARKS AND PROTECfED AREAS Signs and markers advising the public of the existence and boundaries of ma rine conservation areas, and the restrictions which apply within them, should be posted in appropriate locations. This is especially needed in the !ndian BayViUa-Caliiaqua area in St. Vincent and in the Tobago Cays. A beach renourishment project for the south coast beaches OD. St. Vincent should not be considered, due to the probable ad verse effects on the adjacent reefs. Instead, GSVG should consider engaging a specialist in coastal dynamics to make recommenda tions regarding the removal of the many structures (groins, etc.) built on the area's beaches, which are unsightly at best and may at worst be aggravating beach erosion. The OAS plan for management of the Tobago Cays National Park should be im plemented as soon as possible. Quantitative investigations of water quality and flushing characteristics of the Lagoon and baseline

PAGE 145

surveys of marine communities throughout the park shoulrl begin immedi&.ltely. Long term reef monitoring transects should also be established. Guidelines should be prepared for the visits of small cruise ships to the Tobago Cays. When passengers are deployed in the Cays, provision should be made for monitor ing their activities by GSVG "beach wardens". Incoming tourists should be de prived of spearguns by Customs Officials upon arrival in the country (such equipr.:ent to be returned upon departure), in order to elimi nate the use of spearguns by visitors (regulations only permit local residents to use them). FISHERIES MANAGEMENT The important fIsheries man agement and development challenges for St. Vincent and the Grenadines are: to regulate fIshing efforts so to maintain stock levels which do not over-exploit the resource; to implement long-term monitor ing of catch and fIshing effort for each major fIshery; and to introduce appropriate tech nologies that tlrovide for ec0-nomically effIcient fIShing opera tions and therefore provide good returns to local fIShermen. The of previously enacted con servation measures such as gear restrictions, closed areas, and closed seasons should also be a high priority. Given the scarcity of fIScal and staff resources, GSVG should opt for a strategy of adaptive management of fISheries; i.e., com monsense trial and envr management mea sures should be implemented while simulta neously emphasizing monitoring of the fIshery to evaluate the impact of such measures. F'lSheries managers should always be ready to modify regulatory measures based on the re-115 sults of monitoring. Summaries of appropri ate management approaches for fu.heries reg ulation are given in Mahon (1988). .. A priority item for Vincentian fISh eries management is to expand the existing data collection system as soon as possible by providing for the following: sampling of landing sites; purchase slips for middlemen, hotels and restaurants; enforcement of export licenses; logbooks for large offshore boats to include catch and effort data; and monitoring of foreign fIShing. Effective management of reef fIshes could be implemented, at least for trap fISheries, once a working fISheries data collec tion system has been established. The imme diate objective should be to reduce fisbing mortality, particularly on juvenile fishes. Since it is clear that the resource is over-ex ploited, some means must be found to reduce the fIShing effort by an appropriate fIgure and then to observe the results over a period of several years. However, in order for this to be a workable solution, some mechanism must be identifIed to ease the burden which a reduction of fIShing effort would impose on artisanai fIShermen. .. Lobsters are covered by the fish er:es regulations which are already in place in St. Vincent and the Grenadines, but these regulations are poorly enforced. Monitoring of catch and effort for several years will be es sential to determine whether the new regula tions are effective. Some means of limiting effort will probably be required in the long run. The availability of suitable juvenile nurs ery habitats -mangrove lagoons and seagrass beds -may limit the abundance of bar vestable lobsters, and these habitats should be protected. The situation for conch is very sim ilar to that for lobster, and the same recom mendations apply. Too little is currently known about the status of deep demersal fIshes to propose management measures. However, there are reports of local depletion in the Lesser Antilles, particularly of knOwtl spawning ag gregations. Monitoring of catch and effort, as

PAGE 146

well as mapping the distribution of these re sources, should be priorities for management. The virtual lack of data Oil the distri bution or migration of coastal relagics also makes it impossible to do any serious man agement planning for stocks. The most important priority is to implement data 001lection. A total moratorium on exploitation of all species of sea turtles and marine mam mals should be adopted by GSVG. Assuming that in the near future such a moratcrium can successfully be implemented and enf(.:ced, the recovery of turtle population!. ,;houlrl be mon116 iiored by collecting data on nesting frequency. The participation of "latural history groups members of the National Trust) and schools may be an appropriate means of monitoring turtles and cetaceans at low cosl and should be seriously considered by GO"J ernment. effcl ts to increase public awareness biodiversity issues should be pursued by both public and privzte sectllr groups. Management of white f,ea urchins in St. Vinr.ent and the Grenadines should aim at conserving the resource aud monitoring the stocks.

PAGE 147

SECTION 6 ENERGY, TRANSPORTATION AND INDUSTRY 6.1 ENERGY 6.1.1 Overview One serious development problem facing St. Vincent and the Grenadines at the present time is the high cost of energy, much of it imported at prices set by fluctuating, hard-to-pledict world market conditions. As in all the OECS nations, imported petroleum products constitute SVG's largest energy source as a proportion of total supply. The common petroleum fuels are gasoline and diesel oil. Gasoline is used almost en tirely within the and fISheries sector. Diesel is used primariiy for generating electricity but also rOf transportation 3.S an ind'Jstrial fuel, e.g., for marine transport, farm machinery, and enterprises such as over half the COU.lltry's bakeries. All petroleum-based used on the main island of St. Vincent arrives by tanker and ;s subse quently distributl!d by truck. For the smaller islands in the Grenadines, fuel is supplied in drum.; and by small tankers, which results ;71 inefficiencies greatly increasing the landed cost. St Vincent and the Grenadines has no known or proven fossil fuel resources, but the country does enjoy modest hydroelectric power potential and some expandable biomass (mostly wood fud) sources. Table 6.1(1) displays the percentages for major en ergy sources for St. Vincent and the Grenadines and, for purposes of comparison, also shows data for St. Lucia, Haiti and sev eral smaller island systems in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. In most cases, both oil and biomass, essentially wood fuel and charcoal, are the major contributors to the country's energy supply with each serving distinct sec tors of the economy. Figures for per capita annual energy consumption (including non cummercial fuels) in Table 6.1(1) fall in the range of 220 kilograms of oil equivalent (kgoe) to 430 kgoe, levels of consumption that compare with many Third World countries. As the. lowest consumer in the table, SVG typifies the problem facing other (lECS island communities. With these levels of C'.onsump tion, very significant increases will be neces-117 sary if tangible progress is to be made in sus tainable economic development. There is no formal national energy program although a number of strategies in tended to reduce dependencies on imported fuels are underway. A 1984 World Bank sponsored st'Jdy is particularly iru'l:ructive in this regard. T't!e principal Government focus to date has b:!en on improving the adminis tration, power distribution efficiencies, and generating capacity of the st. Vincent Elec tricity Services, Ltd. (VINLEC), a joint corpo ration of the (U.K.) Commonwealth Devel opment Corporation (CDC) and GSVG, whicl! is the sole supplier of public electricity in the state. VINLEC operaies an integrated sys tem with cill generating units, regardless of type -whetlier diesel direct-powered or hydro-powered units -tied into a common distribution system or grid (Figure 6.1(1. Before the expa:lSion scheme outlined below was implemented, total installed capacity was officially just under seven megawatts (MW) but actually was probably about five MW, of which 60 percent was diesel and 40 percent was hydropower (World Bank, 1985). Since peak demand olten exceeded five MW, load shedding (i.e., tlilrning off the power) was a common with costly implications for most of the country's businesses and for the operavon of Government facilities and other public services. After several years of serious advance pla:tming, in 1984 GSVG embarked on an am bitious five year public sector investment pro gram (PSIP) to improve the delivery of elec trical services and to reduce both petroleum imports and the level of system distribution losses which exceeded 26 percent for the year ending March 1983 (World Bank, 1984). The overall program included the construction of three new hydroelectric sites in the Cumber land watershed, rr.habilitation of existing diesel-driven plants, new and improved high

PAGE 148

Table 6.1 (1). Energy sources for selocted small Islands. AREA POPULATION ANNUAL (km2 ) (000) PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION (kgoe) St. VincentI Grenadines 388 113 220 St. Lucia 616 124 320 Haiti 2;'.756 5,000 270 Mauritius 2ilOO 983 380 Seychelles 4100 65 350 Solomon Is. 28000 246 430 FIJI 658 370 Source: Krlstoferson. at al., 1985. voltage transmission lines, a training and loss reduction program, and ather refinements at a round fJgW'e cost of $US40 million. Funding was provided by a combination of donors: World Bank, CIDA, USAID, CDB and the European Investment Bank. One of the goals was to reduce the country's dependence on imported fuels by some 35,000 barrels of fuel (or about US$l million per year at the time). St. Vincent and the Grenadines has no formally established energy office although an energy desk was established (and later dis established) in the Central Planning Division .. Additionally, while the country lacks an active energy conservation program, the Forl".stry Division's fuelwood plantation initiatives in years past were clearly rooted in a concern over the incremental depletion of fuelwood supplies. mE CUMBERJ..Al-.. 'WATERSHED HYDROPOWER SCHEME The Cumberland Hydropower Pro ject was an ambitious venture inasmuch as the Government had previously commissioned 118 PRIMARY ENERGY SUPPUES OIL IMPORTS (ew.) ASA%OF Oil Biomass Others EXPORT EARNINGS 53 45 2 9 61 39 17 17 79 4 29 60 2 16 91 9 29 34 66 22 43 55 2 10 only two Sl>lall hydropower projects in the 32year period from 1952 to 1984. The Cumber land scheme, initiated in 1985 following a study of SVG's potential (Shawnigan Engineering, 1983), was lite third in the state and is unique in that it was the first to require (at the initiative of the donor partners) a review of the environmental im pacts of both the construction and operational phases of the project. The environmental as sessment task was carried out by the Regional Environmental Management Specialist for USAfD, who described the project components as follows: a run-off-river/diversion system consisting of a dam, diversion canal, settling basin, storage tank for low flow con ditions, pipeline, penstock, power house with turbine/generator, and outlet works. Mitiga tive measures were presented in considerable detail, and a watershed management plan was prepared by USAID's R<:gional Forestry Ad visor (Talbot, 1983). Electrical line losses were cut by 1988 to 16 percent (CDB, 1988) and to approxi mately 11 percent by 1989 and 8 percent by 1990 (pers. oomm., CEP National Committee, 1990). Other potential sites with various

PAGE 149

6'"'0' ST. VINCENT/ENERGY RESOURCES n,5' n",o' Power Station .. Substation 33 Kit' HV Li nes 11 KV HIJ Lines 6.3 KV Lines CHATBUBEL\IR / !f I I P.S.l Vermont SOUTH RIVER P.S. _...,.. .... l Sprf"g : -.. 0 2 3 I I I 0 6'"'5' 6"10' 6'"05' FIgure 6.1 (1). Energy resources, St. VJncent (source: adapted from World Bank. 1984 and updated by CEP National Commfttee, 1990). 119 I 13"20' 13"'5' 13"'0' It SKI! I I I 3 Mlln

PAGE 150

degrees of hydroelectric possibilities, some with greater environmental risk, however, include: Colonarie, Buccament, Yambou, Rabacca, Wallibou and the possible upgrade of facilities at the older, sm:i IJer sites at South River and Richmond (see Figure 6.1(1. OTHER ENERGY SOURCES Recent studies c::. o;ilergj' in the state (one basp,d on a household survey) showed that durin 6 the 1980's St. Vincent and the Grenadines arillually used about 3,600 tons of charcoal and 8,000 tons of frrewood for nok ing and commerdal baking, wIDch translates to a total national domestic demand of about 63,000 cubic meters of wood (World Bank, 1984; COB, 1988). Assuming a 10 percent conversion efficiency (by weight) for the tra ditional earth kilns that are in common use through the country, some 46,000 cubic me ters of wood were consumed by charcoal pm Based on standard biomass yields fot St. Vincent's known areas of unmanaged tropical forests and woodlands (estimated at 13,000 hectares), there is some evidence at the present time of a national biomass deficit or production short-fall for fuelwood of perhaps 20,000 or morr! cubic meters per annum, de pending on annuz:i I.ainfall levels and other related factors such as the pace of land clear ing for development activity. It is noteworthy that the Forestry Division has developed sev eral experimental plots of a fast-growing fuel wood species, Leucaena, one of wh.ich is in the upper reaches of the Cumberland Valley. To protect the watershed and the water supply for the new hydropower facilities and to es tab!ish a replicable example for the commu nity, it may be necessary to forego harvesting this particular patch of fuelwood forest. At the very least, it poses a challenging resource management problem for GSVG. 8.1.2 Problems and IIIU8I mE ALTERNATIVES The spectrum of options avail&ble to St Vincent and the Grenadines for what are known by energy planners as NRSEs or New and Renewable Sources of Energy is not very wide and certainly not promising in the near future. The very narrowness of r.hoice makes the "'no choice"' option of conserving existing energy sources initially the best choice and more likely to be effective in the short term. The major problem with assessing new energy options, one 5hared by all OECS countries, is the difficulty of identifying pract!caI, intelligi ble, easy to use units for comrlarison, evalua tion and exposition. This is especially true for what is known as biomass which includes not only wood from trees from naturally forested areas, including secondary and scrub growth, but also coconut plantation waste (trees, husks and shells), bagasse, agricultural and agro processing waste3, manure and even "'left back"' bananas, leaves and stems. They all represent stored solar energy options. For example, the fuelwood/charcoal mix, derived from trees which are "'renewable on a ten t(J fifty year cycle, is a case in point. First, the trading units employed for tradi tional fuels of charcoal and firewood are in consistent. Second, various wood species with differing ages, densities and moisture contents are utilized; and, third, it has always been a.na continues to be difficult to select a survey sample for which the re-growth rates or rate of tree renewal will be representative of the broader wooded landscape. Fmally, the con version ratio of wood to charcoal, i.e., the production efficiency rate, is as widely variable as are the illicit and informal sources of the resource (wood/charcoal) that materialize in the market or in any given coalpot. As a re sult of these factors, consumption of energy from NRSE not regulariy quantified or re ported (OAS, 1987a). There are some areas where even the price is right, wood-derived energy sources cannot make a significant contribution 120

PAGE 151

to overall energy needs, as in the case of en ergy requirements for transportation, whether on land or sea. Presently there arc no viable alternatives to petroleum products as the power source in this sector, and the situation is not expected to change in the near future. Furthermore, in small island economies, en ergy conservatiou for transportation has to be extremely difficult (Kristoferson, et 01., 1985). In light (If the above, it is important to fO<'.us on alternative energy sources in those segments of the Vincentian economy where there is a proven technology and where adjustmellts to the energy mix in corubination with targeted conservation efforts will con tribute to greater self-reliance and reduced environmental risks, both for Vincentians and for the reSO!lrce system. BIOMl;SS/BIOGAS Methane can be produced through the anaerobic digestion of vegetable and ani mal wastes. Since it does not require centralized production and distribution, it is well suited to small farms and remote communities (Hinrichsen, 1981) and thus to use in a coun try like St. Vincent and the Grenadines. However, the question has not yet been ad dressed of whether can make a significant contribution to reducing St Vincent's de pendence on petroleum. According to UNDP (1985), the years of biogas experimentation ira the region have" .. merely endorsw the obvi ous fact that biogas can be produced, provided external funds can be obtained to construct and run the plants." Factors such as net production costs, optimru location of the pl:mts, and social acceptability of the gas as an energy source have not been investigated. In fact, it appears to be generally true that the main at traction of biogas technology is its capability to dispose of agro-industrial and agricultur31 wastes, rather than its as a source of enertD' (VNDP, 1985). ALCOHOL Alcohol fuels can be from aerobic fermentation of sugar or .;tarch bear-121 ing crops. These fuels can even be used as a substitute for gasoline (Hinrichsen, 1981). However, on the small islands of the Eastern Caribbean, any large-scale use of land to grow crops for this use rather than food production or export crops would likely be unacceptable and therefore not feasible. CHARCOAL Charcoal and firewood harvesting are not necessarily damaging to most forest ecosystems; the important variable is how much biomass per year for any given area can safely be Where charcoal is pro duced as a by-product of land-clearing activities, there is even a positive benefit since the cleared biomass would otherwise be burned on the site for its nuis .. nce value and thereby wasted. While the traditional earth kiln is not v:.ry efficient, it is simple, and charcoal production by this method requires very little capital investment (e.g., an axe, shovel, rake, and cutlass). A charcoal producer can live on the income from his/her efforts which are admittedly labor-intensive bllt socially useful. Charcoal is produced from wood be cause it has a higher calorific output per unit weight and is thus more valuable (also per unit weight) than fuelwood on the open market. Firewood (because it is much heavier) generally must be gathered close to where it \\iU be sold and/or used as it can rarely support transportation costs and remain competitive with other available fuels. However, when producing charcoal from wood, a great deal of the latter is wasted due primarily to kiln and process inefficiencies. But this is not an insoluble problem and could be dealt with even without substantially changing the systems currently employed. For example, Nelson in OAS (1987a) reports that firewood is generally stacked for only a few days before it is put, insufficiently dry, into a charcoal kiln. Furthermore, in traditional earth kilns, it is difficult to restrict combustion to only that portion of the total wood supply required to generate sufficient heat to char the remainder. Since the conversion effi ciency of charcoaling is primarily a function of the wood moisture content and of the tech-

PAGE 152

nology employed for py:,o!ysis process, there is room for considerable increases in ef ficiency and thus for less wastage of the coun try's wood (and other biomass) resources. Furthermore, for the traditimlal biomass fuels of firewood and charcoal, gains in efficiency could also be made through some combina tion of extension services, a licensing strategy, and a program for assisting charwal produc ers in mming the more efficient metal kilns from place to place. The efficiency of earth kilns can vary a lot depending on the size of the kiln, the skill of the charcoalers, soil dampness, winds, rainfall and the care provided to control smoke (Jerutings, 1979). With modern, low cost portable charcoal kilns, the conversion efficiency can reach 40 percent. The charcoal stoves used by individual households are more efficient than wood fires, but presumably a simple wood-burning stove design could be developed to improve efficiency at this level. OTHER ENERGY SOURCES Hydropower. Currently hydropower is viewed by some Government officials as offering a nearly complete solution to energy generation in the country, except for very pro nounced periods of water shortage in the dry season. However, the enVtIOnmentai as sessment report prepared for the Cumberland Watershed Hydf()l?lectric Project raised some difficult questions "bout the aggregate or cu mulative effects of widespread deployment of dozens of hydro sites, in addition to the risk to pipelines and penstocks from landslides, earthquake tremors and flooding conditions. Nevertheless, on a more positive note, hy dropower projects do generate one unique by product --namely, an induced national pro gram of integrated watershed management. Geothermal Manifestations of geotherma! activity outside the crater of the Soufriere volcano are scarce or nor:.-existent. Although the outside slopes of the volcano might have some thermal potential, the likeli hood of recurring eruptions tends to inhibit the enthusiastic development of any such sites. In light of these factors as well as the very 122 Jt.igh-risk nature of geothermal exploration, the fmancial costs of development are high while the benefits appear to be marginal at this time. Furthermore, the rugged topography of St. Vincent proper makr.s it difiicult to con struct facilities, roads and transmission lines generating significant erosional ef fects. Other environmental impacts are also common in relation to geothermal projects, including air aud water pollution. Solar Energy. A number of small scrJe solar units with different applications are presently available, including water heaters, water pumps, desalination devices, and crop driers. Such systems can contribute to improvements in the quality of life, particu larly of rural people living in remote areas. Solar water heating, for eXmlple, is a very Nell-developed technology and the most im mediate use worldwide of solar energy at pre sent. Its adoption' in St. Vincent and the Grenadines, however, has been slow due prin cipally to the absence of a suitable combina tion of more favorable tax policies regarding imPO/t duties for solar units, a public ed ucation campaigr., and a revised building code to encourage utilization of the technology available. Offshore Oil. Favorable strata for oil and gas resources exist in many areas of the Eastern Caribbean, including the South American coastal shelf, Grenada, the Grenadines, and in St Vincent waters (Mitchell and Gold, 1982). St. Vincent and the Grenadines, like most of the countries in the region, does not possess the capability to develop any such deep water or shelf reserves on its own, The areas have not been aggressively examined by the larger oil companies, (with the excepti.on of Venezuela's Aves ridge to the west), and it seems obvious that the major multinational companies nave accepted the general assumption that the region, for them, is not commercially promising. How ever, what may not be a commercially pmmising prospect for a large oil firm, might be an important option for solving the energy problems of a small state like St. Vincent and the Gre'lladines. Both Barbados and Jamaica have, with help from Petro-Canada, developed

PAGE 153

modest oil and gas fidds previously disre garded by the oompanies. Obviously, an offshore oil strike, even a modest fmd such as has been brought into production Oil land in Barbados, would have a significant impact on the energy (and eco nomic) picture in the country; unfortunately, it would also have potential for substantial envi ronmental damage, such as disturbances to bottom communities during exploration and installation phases and even more significant environmental risks during production phases as a result of the potential for oil spills from tankers and/or oil well accidents. 6.1.3 Polley Recommendations It is clear that St Vincent and the Grenadines would greatly improve its balance of trade position if it were not quite so reliant on imported petroleum products -a depen dency which is increasing year by year. To move away from this undesirable situation, there are certain policy directions which could be viewed as prerequisites for change. The objective is to devise and implement an energy policy that will: (1) place greater emphasis on energy conservation; (2) improve and develop simple tech nologies for more efficient energy conversion and utilization of indige nous resources (e.g., better charcoal kilns); and (3) make a greater effort to promote and adopt alternative forms of energy which already are feasible in the Caribbean context. Pursuant to these general the following is a series of more specific rec ommendations by energy resource category. BIOMASS Intensify conservation of existing biomass. The resource supply should be as-123 sured over the long term through careful management of existing and growing re sources, improved watershed management through and in combination with multiple land use policies (e.g., agroforestry), and effective recycling of agricultural process residues. Promote integrated land use sys tems (e.g., agroforestry) and community forestry. This will help make fuelwood re sources available on a more widespread basis and thereby reduce the need for charcoal, in light of the latter's lower systemic efficiency. Utilize more efficient systems for processing biomass into desirable forms for use. Charcoalers should be encouraged to employ mme efficient kilns in converting wood to charcoal. This has often been diffi cult in many countries because the less effi cient earth kilns require very low capital in vestment and provide much-needed employ ment. However, metal kilns of a very simple design which are easy to build and maintain can be utilized. They can be constructed of sheet metal local craftsmen in a workshop equipped with basic for cutting, welding, rolling, and dri1ling. Two men working a regular five-day work week can produce two to three tonnes of charcoal with the kiln. In general, the use and sustained production of biomass fuels, in part to dis place more costly imported fuels, is obviously an issue of major importance for small island countries and is rarely given the attention it deserves. GEOTHERMAL The viability of geothermal electri cal power generation is not assured. Before moving ahead, St. Vincent and the Grenadines should carefully examine the St. Lucia model where a recently installed geothermal well is to be brought on line shortly. Some of the economic risk factors associated with geo thermal development need to be weighed against the obvious advantages of reducing the country's dependency on foreign oil; these in clude:

PAGE 154

Extremely expensive drilling and pipe costs; Heavy dependence on specialized foreign technology and equipment. Unique and costly maintenance re quirements, including exotic materi als to withstand the corrosive effects of superheated brine; The variable quality of support from outside contractors and consultants. There is a wide range of largely unforeseeable negative environmental effects associated with development of geothermal generating facilities, and these also should be carefully reviewed by GSVG. Some of these impacts include: Chemical and thermal pollution of stream water and air from the geothermal steam discharge, health impacts on workers from toxic gases, and emironmental damage to vege tation and wildlife, all of which have been reported at geothermal plants (e.g. in Sonoma County, California); Physical damage to the vegetation and soil erosion in the watershed re sulting from development activities and pollution of drinking water sup plies by sediment or chemicals; The siting of incompatible industries in the area to use the waste heat from the wells. If successful, geothermal electrical power generation risks over-dependence on a very fragile producing system. A small geo logic shift could sever all of the country's geothermal wells at the same time; this is not unlikely considering the proximity of any site to the known active volcano, Soufriere. OTHER NEW AND RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY Expand wind power site testing not only for electrical generation but also for me chanical tasks (e.g., water pumping). Promote the use of solar power for water heating, water pumps, crop drying, and so forth. Remove existing barriers and disin centives to its use, e.g., import duties on solar equipment. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT In the Caribbean, and especially for countries like St Vincent and the Grenadines, there is insufficient support for research and development by Government, regional insti tutions and the private sector. This is as true in relation to the energy sector as it is to other activities, and it was a driving force behind Grenada's decision to establish a Science and Technology Council. GSVG should probably follow Grenada's example but should also consider evaluation of alternative models by consulting the Commonwealth Science Coun cil, among others. If technological develop ment is left to foreign concerns, which are generally larger and continentally-focused, then local conditions will be given insufficient consideration and local development patterns will continue to be dominated by outsiders. The technological developments and innovations created by developed, continental countries tend to be inappropriate to the needs of small island state:.. In other locations in the region, various efforts to impose conti nentally-derived strategies on local coastal zone management needs constitute a classic example of this problem. They also provide the best argument for a loea ly-s tructured science and technology policy unit (or group ing of applied science advisors) which could provide guidance to Government for deter mining the appropriateness of resource man agement technologies and for evaluating pro posed development schemes and strategies. Additionally, if small island nations are realistically to develop energy systems which are better suited to their environmental 124

PAGE 155

and socio-economic requirements, titey must cooperate with each other and pool their scarce research and development resources to maximize economies of scale. 6.2 TRANSPORTATION 6.2.1 Overview Virtually every econo;nic and devel opment planning study done for St. Vincent and the Grenadines over the past decade has remcrked on the constraints posed by the ex isting transportation sector. Tourism studies, for example, highlight the difficulty would-be visitors have in quickly, conveniently and eco nomically reaching a destination in the smaller Grenadine Islands. Export-oriented manufacturing studies have consistently de plored the weakness of air cargo services and port congestion and have routinely criticized the inadequate container-handling facilities at Kingstown Harbor -although less so in re cent years as some improvements for an up grade of the harbor were made under a COB funded loan and a CIDA-sponsored grant. Even the Prime Minister has noted the need fot a new cruise ship pier at Cane Garden, hinting ia a speech at the opening ceremonies of the new Japanese-funded Kingstown FISh Market that planning for 5uch a cruise ship at the south end of Kingstown Harbor was underway (The News, February 16, 1990). Construction for a new airport at Paget Farm, Bequia has just begun. Origi nally proposed in 1975 and revived by the Prime Minister in 1985, this undertaking wac; delayed slightly pending completion of several stages of an Environmental Impact Assess ment (EIA), called for by the EEC funding source. According to the Director of Flanning, improvements to both the aiqrJrt at Union Island (reportedly the busiest in the Grenadines with approximately 20 flights a day) and the Amos ValrAirport, which serves Kingstown, are also being discussed (pers. comm., R. Cato, March 1990). In neither case have impact assessm:::::c; been completed, but preliminary studier. have been done for Union. Present plaru. call for shifting the airport at Uillon eastward 125 slightly into the sea. Because there are two small ponds adjacent to the existing airport, an EIA will undoubtedly be required. Additionally, a CDB multi-faceted project for the Grenadines incorporates a va riety of road building and upgrading activities as well as con!:itruction of several jetties for cargo and boat passengers, all designed to im prove the transportation facilities base. No concern has been expressed by the donor about the absence of a national transportation plan. During the early part of the 1980's, the major outstanding issues in the transport sector focused primarily on fmancial and ad ministrative constraints relating to the ports and airports &ub-sector and to the question of improving agricultural feeder roada. During tJ,e 1980's, with funding support from USAID, the country \ieveloped a feeder roads rehabilitation program fOf St. Vincent which was completed in More rect;ntly, interest in and discus sion about a cross-island highway continues to surface, but the ooncept is not, according to the Central Planning Division, being seriously pursued. A similar suggestion for a coastal road around the tip of the island has been put forward than once, but also with no follow-up. in a more practical vein, the notion of a Kingstown by-pass has been propnsed, but there are no fl11l1 plans for I.his scheme and even preliminary engineering studies have not yet been completed. Nevertheless, the continuom; mainte nance and upgrade of five marine terminals and five airports (see Figure 6.2 (1 is no small achievement for a coantry the size of St. Vin:ent and the Grenadines. However, as the facilities and equ.lpment for air and se.1 termi nals become ever more expensive and techni cally more complex to maintain, the time is fast approaching for the country to consider development of a national transportation plan. Such an effort would be cost-effective by combining the projected i:ransportation needs of the tourism, manufacturing, agricultural and service sectors with the requirements of citizens for better mobility to form one ratio-

PAGE 156

6,,5' ST. VINCENT/TRANSPORTATION 13' 13,5' 13,0' MAIN ROADS SECONDARY ROADS MAJOR PORT AIRPORT KINGSTO\;N 6,,5' 6,,0' 6,,0' Figure 6.2(1a). Major transportation Infrastructure In St. Vincent. 126 I \ \ ... "\ \ \ ,J .. \ L, ..... \ ---"-, \ ........ Georgetown J I o 61' 13"20' n"15' "! n",o' J ) 5, ICII =; '2 3 Mil ..

PAGE 157

GRENADINES/TRANSPORTATION MAJOR PORTS AIRPORTS o BEQUIA II!!!!!:._(under construction) Peti t Nevi s 0 Battowi a Quatre d MUSTIQUE Petft Mustfque <\7 Savan D o Petit Canouan CANOUAN Tobago Cays o UNION O::IPrune (Palm) o 1 2 3 4 5 N.Mfles Petft St. Vfncent 6.2(1 b). Major transportation Infrastructure In the Grenadlt16S. 127

PAGE 158

nal transportation system suitable for the decade of the 1990's. 8.2.2 Problems and Issues It is both obvious and noteworthy that virtually all the major transportation fa cilities under discussion in this section of the Profile (see Figure 6.2(1, except for the agricultural feeder road network, are situated in the coastal zone or narrow coastal margin where thp. sea and land meet and in which most of the citizens of St. Vincent and the Grenadines live, work, and play. It is also noteworthy that since the Government has not yet developed a management plan or strategy for the coastal zone, the transport facilities, coastal highways, bridges, ports, airports, and marinas in that zone are being pJ.anned, sited and developed in a vacuum or in isolation. There is no overall coastal resource assess ment or management framework and no ar ticulated sense of direction as to how new fa cilities could or should relate both to antici pated uses in the long term and to the public interest in maintaining a quality environment. Planning for the rational and orderly growth of the transportation sector in a devel oping country like St. Vincent and the Grenadines --with the irregular coastline and landscape of the main island and with a clus ter of offshore sateUite wdependencies" in the Grenadines --will be an especially difficult task. Since there is no coastal resource man agement piau for either St. Vincent or the Grenadines, the would-be transportation sys tem planner must rely entirely on his or her own intuition and the general and slightly out of-date guidelines as promulgated in the GSVG National De'il!lopment Plan (GSVG, 1986b and 1987). This task is made even more difficult by the alI-too-common insular dilemma of having to determine what to do with wastes from the transport industry: e.g., waste lubri cating oils (from automobiles and marine transport vehicles); accidentally wasted fuel (i.e., oil spills); waste (or discarded) tires; waste (i.e., derelict) automobiles, trucks and 128 boats; and wastes -both liquid and solid from cruise ships, commercial vessels, and even pleasure yachts in coastal waters (see also Sections 5 and 8). These constitute one of the sector's largest, yet mainly unaddressed and nagging problems. Much of the waste flow from the transport industry is highly visi ble, aesthetically ugly and hard to dispose of. It is simply difficult to fmd a discreet way to throwaway an old bus! Furthermore, at the core of a sector as decentralized as this --with some parts run by the private sector and other parts run by Government --there is a serious structural problem, namely, the difficulty of determining who is in charge and who is responsible when critical environmental issues need to be ad dressed. This is one important reason to sup port developrr.ent of a national transportation plan in order to bring the sector's side-effects or by-product problems out into the open and to identify strategies for dealing with them. Issues such as facilities siting, people and cargo routing, safety and fmancing are im portant within the planning process but so are the mostly unintended impacts or secondary effects of transportation activities which tend to undermine the natural resource system. 8.2.3 Policy Recommendations Sbce, at present, the Government of St. Vincent and the Grenadines has not de veloped --nor are there plans for developing --a national transportation plan, alternatives should be explored. For example, persons interviewed for the Country Environmental Prome expressed concern about land use con flicts, pollution and environmental degrada tion in SVG's coastal zone, at least m the more densely-settled and heavily-used por tions of this highly active, economically signifi cant sea-land interface. It is conceivable that a local initiative aimed at reducing resource conflicts and at designing sustainable devel opment strategie.. for this extraordinarily productive special area will in fact emerge long before a constituency for a national transportation coalesces.

PAGE 159

Table 6.3(1). Profile of DEVCO's Industrial estates, December 1989. ENTERPRISE ACTIVITY LOCATION Sq.Ft. STAFF YEAR STARTED World Food Program Packaging Campden Park 6,000 15 1985 Venus Enterprises Garments Campden Park 3,000 3 1976 S1. Vincent Plastlcs/ Plastics Campden Park 6,000 11 1979 Chemical St. Vincent Electronic Campden Park 3,000 71 1978 Electronics Assemt'iY S1. V!ncent Campden Park 53,000 469 1974 Sporting Goods Racquets Plco Electronics Campden Park 12,000 55 1981 Children's Wear Girls' Dresses Campden Park 24,000 188 1981 Container Cardboard Campden Park 45,000 78 1978 Corporation Boxes Buhlt3r's Yachts Fiberglass Calilaqua 6,000 13 1977 Boats Ea!;t Caribbean Galvanized Campden Park 24,000 33 1979 Metals Sheets East Caribbean Flour, Feeds, Campden Park 54,500 197 1977 Group Rice, Bags SVG Brewery Beer, Soft Campden Park 28,000 68 1985 Drinks SVG Bottlers Soft Drinks Campden Park 12,000 35 1980 Cariwear Knitted Campden Park 20,000 93 1988 Sports Wear TOTALS 298,500** 1,329 1,500 persons employed In cottage Industry. ** 178,000 sq. ft. at Campden Park owned by DEVCO. Source: Figures from DEVCO. 129

PAGE 160

* Ideally speaking, a coastal man agement plan for each of the Grenadine "microcosms", such as Union, should precede any decision on a fundamental infrastructural component like a modernized and expanded airport. Conversely, any move to develop the rust stages of a coastal zone management strategy for St. Vincent's densely JK'pulated, heavily used, southwestern coast or for the Grenadines could be designed to pay spedal attention to transportation issues, nodal point siting impacts, and the like, since these have not been previously addressed in & formal, national transport system planning exercise. 6.3 INDUSTRY 6.3.1 Overview The manufacturing sector in St. Vincent and the Grenadines is still at an early stage of development, but the range of com modities produced is fairly broad. They in clude garments, packaging, plastic products, assembled electronic components, tennis rac quets, boxes, boats, metal products, furniture, building materials, flour, soft drinks, beer, knitted wear and animal feeds. Externally-fo cused enclave manufacturing activities are re sponsible for much of this production as the potential for development of domestic-ori ented manufacturing activities is limited by the small size of the domestic market. The private industry sector in St. Vincent and the Grenadines has traditionaUy been dominated by a small number of rums controlling the distribution trade. In recem. years, however, there has been a significant growth of small local manufacturers and a dramatic revit:llization of the local Chamber of Industry and Commerce which now has a fuU time manager and secretariat. The small business sector comprises a number of hotels and guest houses in St. Vincent and especially in the Grenadines; these are mostly locally owned and managed. FoUowing a major. reorganization in the mid-1980's assisted by USAID and CDB, the St Vincent and the Grenadines Development Corporation, (a parastatal known as VCO) has ha": considerable success at promotiug and expanding the industrial es tates concept begun in the mid-1WO's at Campden Park. DEVCO, which is concerned with development promotion in the state, pro vides loan funding for agricultural, educa tional and industrial purposes. At present most of the industrial plants are, in fact, con centrated at the industrial estate Campden Park and in the densely-populated ur ban/suburban areas of Kingstown and Amos Vale. The enterprises presently sited at DEVCO's industrial estates are listed in Table 6.3.(1). Since the Campden Park area is fun, a new industrial park is preselltly planned for Diamond Estates. To be built on Govern ment land, the project has just recently ob tained funding from USAID for a water sup ply, from CIDA for other infrastructure, and from CDB for the construction of the neces sary factory shells. An impact assessment wiU by prepared uoder the new environmental regulations of CIDA. There is, unfortunately, no zoning plan for the area so the demonstra tion and clustering effect of the industrial es tate with regard to the surrounding area may require sl'ecial attention. 6.3.2 Problems and Issues Archer's (191W) estimated quantities of industrial poUutants received by watershed drainage systems and coastal areas in Sl. Vincent are seriously in need of an update, if only to reflect new industries and to adjust for the growth of outputs by those industries with waste streams --some as effllJents and some as solid w;lSte. The sporting goods factory, the breweries (of which there are two), the boxing plant and the steel galvaniz ing enterprise, amung others, have industrial effluents that should be periodically evaluated, quantified and then monitored. But other than Archer's (1984) preliminary report pro duced for PAHO, no study has been done to determine waste generation by industries or to assess the effects of those wash:.s on the envi ronment of the nation (see Tables 6.3(2) and 63(3. 130

PAGE 161

Table 6.3(2). Water pollution and waste loads from !ndustrlal effluents. St. Vincent (East. Southeast and Southwest areas/. 1982. Industry and Process Production Waste Vol. BOD5 COO SS TOS Oil Total Alk. tons/yr 103 units/yr 103 m3/yr tons/yr tOl'ls/yr tons/yr tons/if tons/yr Sugarcane Molasus Coconut 011. crude Coconut all, refined Coconut meal Soft drinks Flour Animal feed Milk processing Chocolate Fruit Juices Arrowroot starch TOTALS 7,000 2,100 0.560 0.560 0.360 1,364 20,445 5,000 2,282 0.018 c ....... .uv.; 725 ag,118 200.2 65.8 .280 32.2 (\.23 9.68 12.27 3.0 5.48 .004 .269 23.93 362.3 18.2 5.98 4.2 7.22 0.41 3.41 22.5 5.5 12.1 .009 .134 9.72 89.38 30.8 11.8 15.8 58.4 27.3 8.97 18.5 9.18 0.58 1.n 32.7 8.0 5.02 .004 .045 7.03 119.1 494 7.53 .006 30.7 532 3.64 5.05 3.64 5.05 Disposal to land and sea: Sugar cane, 90% via Georgetown River; crude coconut 011. 90% via Greathead River at Amos Vale; soft drinks, 90% to land, 10% to sea; arrowroot starch, 25% to land via drains, 75% via rivers. FlamM(S: There is 25% higher actual waste water recording than the rapid assessment estimate for augar products. Other small differences In other Industries. Heavy BOD pollution on east coast via rivers. Edlbl') 0/1 refinery contributes heav}' solid pollution. There appears to be no highly toxic industrial waste discharged onto the coasts. Sour;e: AJapted from Archer, 1984. St. Vincent's industrial waste loads are low compared to other CARICOM coun tries. Its agrochemical and agricultural waste, as weU as sewage, are considered more &ig nificant water poUution problems. EssentiaUy, there are no major poUuting industries in St. Vincent at present, and most of the newer in dustries such as garment and furniture man ufacturing and electronic components assem-131 bly use little or no water for industrial pro cesses. Nevertheless, the point can be made that to protect the public from injurious sur prises in the future, a careful screening pro cess of new industries and a periodic check on existing production processes are very much in order.

PAGE 162

Table 6.3(3). St. Vincent and the Grenadines industrial waste disposal and its impact on the coast and sea. Types of Total Waste Total Waste Loads/ Industry/ Volume Conlaminants Air Pollution Process 103 m 3/yr. tons/yr. Sugar cane/ molasses 362.3 BODS 89.38 Measurable polluCOD S8.4O tion limited to Coconut oil SS 119.10 particulate matter IDS 532.00 from sugar factory. Coconut meal Oil 3.64 Limited from bum-Alkalinity S.OS ing on refuse dump. Soft drinks Flour Animal feed Dairy prodoiCts Fruit juices Arrowroot starch Total Source: Archer, 1984. 807.57 Other than the agricultural fertilizers and biocides discussed in Sectioat 8, the major types of induslrial effluents that are poten tially harmful to the environment include: (1) Wastes from food and drink pro cessing plants, e.g., arrowroot starch, coconut meal and oil, flour and rice mills, animal feed, dairy products, fruit pieces, soft drinks, beer brewery and rum distillery effluents, which are discharged 132 Impact On CollEt and Sea Cane sugar, edible oil, and arrowroot starch industries contribute a large volume of waste to the sea via rivers. BOD, COD and solids could have adverse effect on coastal ecosystems through 02 deficiency in localized areas, and turbidity in areas with coral reefs. No significant toxic discharges except from pesticides and fungicide residues from banana, arrowroot and vegetable agro industries. Remarks Rivers used for disposal of industrial ernuents, which gradually reach the sea. There is need for some code and/or legislation to control the treatment and disposal of waste into rivers and streams Study of effect of industrial and domestic waste on coastal ceosystems should be undertaken. Need for trained per-sonne I to enforce control over industrial processing and waste treatment and disposal. into rivers and end up in coastal waters. The organic maller in these wastes has a high nutrient load aud exerts a large biological oxygen demand (BOD) during their decomposition, which has a deleterious effect on the biologi cal communities of streams and coastal waters. (2) By-products from manufacturing, transportation or repair facilities

PAGE 163

which are toxic or potentially toxic or create an aesthetic problem, e.g., smoke, dust from quarries, grease and oil from garages, wastes from electrical generation utilities, sheet metal galvanizing factories, garment manufacturing wastes, and boxing plants. 8.3.3 Policy Recommendatlan. INDUSTRIAL WASTE Government policy should be to attract and grant permits only to those indus tries which are relatively non-polluting. Environmental impact assessment reports should be required of all proposed major projects, especially industrial ones, be fore they are granted construction and oper ating permits. Existing industries discharging toxic and/or high-BOD wastes into the environ ment should be identified and required to treat their and clean up already pol luted areas. A system of fmes should he im plemented for violators, with the monies col lected going into a special fund for environ mental c1ecm-ups. 133 According to Archel (1984), the former Chief Environmental Health Engineer of Barbados and a P AHO consultant, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and other CARIC1)M countries would be well served if they worked with CARICOM to develop a re gional wde of practice for industrial waste disposal to marine and coastal environments, the objective being to ensure protection of coastal ecosystems and amenities. Countries in the region should consider taking this one step further. It would be worthwhile for them to cooperatively set standards on the degree to which effluent and all other forms of in dustrial pollution must be treated before dis posal, and on methods of disposal as weU. In reality such measures would be very difficult to achieve. However, when it is realized that environmental impacts invariably involve opportunity oosts, for instance by harming fisheries or tourism amenities, it be comes evident that at le&t some minimum pollution staudards can have economic bene fits and can be customized to reduce costs. Furthermore, in the absence of sum dards, on-going industrial development in the Caribbean may create a situation in which one country becomes a polluter's haven" because of minimal regulation and no monitoring. If St. Vincent and the Grenadines doee not pro ceed to set standards for enclave industries and neighboring states do, it poses a special risk for future generations of Vincentians.

PAGE 164

St. Vincent's Botanic Gardens, a popular place tor residents and tourists seeking a pleasant and Informative display of 'LIlo wonders of nature In an orderly setting. Other specialized protected areas like the King's Hill Forest Reserve might also be developed and opened to the publiC and to researchers. Sites such as these have educational and recreational value, as well as serving ecotourlsm. 134

PAGE 165

SECTION 7 TOURISM 7.1 OVERVIEW DEVEI..oPMENT TRENDS Tourism has been a strong growth sector of the economy of St. Vincent and the Grenadines in recent years, but of the industry has not been without problems, some of which are clearly linked to environ mental planning and growth management issues. The tourism growth curve for St. Vincent and the Grenadines displayed in Figure 7.1(1) shows a solid annual compound growth rate for stay-over tourists of over five percent (5.32 percent) for the five year period, 1984-89. McElroy and deAlbuquerque (1989) estimate total tourist expenditures in the country to be equivalent to 38 percent of GOP. The reader should note that this does not mean that tourism accounts for over of GOP, for it is the net earnings from tourism which contribute to GOP, about 10 or 15 percent of GOP. Nevertheless, is not an insignificant amount, and it is espedally important in terms of in creasing foreign exchange earnings. McElroy and deAlbuquerque (1989) estimate that in many Eastern Caribbean states, every doUar contribution of tourism to GOP is alc;o a doUar in foreign exchange. 4B.O 1114 11B5 1181 11117 11111 1111 \'EM figure 7.1 (1). Tourism growth, adapted from ero, 1989 Ilnd 1990. 135 In addition to stay-over visitors, cruise ship tourism is coming to assume a more signifi cant role in the country, especially in the Grenadines. This ic discussed in more detail below. There are striking differences in the scale of tourism on the mainland of St. Vincent and in the satellite Grenadine Islands. Figure 7.1(2) shows the dramatic reversal which has oc curred in recent years, as the overall leadership in first tourist arrivals has shifted from the main island of St. Vincent to the Grenadines. (It should be noted that these data purport to mea sure the fust port of entry of all visitors to St. Vincent and the Grenadines, not just those who would be classified as stay-over tourists.) 75.0 I I I I I I S I )55.0 ,," I I 1.B5 .1... .ta 1.B. ,...7 \'EM Agure 7.1 (2). Arst tourist entries, St. Vincent VB. the Grenadines, adapted from GSVG, 1989b. One of the primary explanations for the rising fortunes of the Grenadines has been the abrupt downturn in the number of cruise ship visits to Kingstown on the main island. Perhaps less weU appreciated as a causative fador has been the increase in tourist acivals to the outly-

PAGE 166

iDg islands by airplane, which has been growing at a much faster rale than in St. Vincent. As played in F"JgW'e 7.1(3), over a five year period (1983-87), air arrivals in St. Vincent and the Grenadines increased about tite eame amount (i.e., by about 6,000 arrivals in each destination). However, this means that the ral;! of arrival i.,. crease is nearly twice as high in the Grenadines as in the main island. 3:1.0 $ J: 15.0 1.15 .114 .Ias Itll 1117 YEAR -1iIaHIrrt Grwwd. Figure 7.1 (3). Entries by air, St. Vincent va. the GrenadlnCis, ada.pted trom GSVG, 19000. When population fJgUl'es are wen into consideration (i.e., the Grenadines has one-tenth the population of the main island), it becomes clear that the apparently small levels of tourist activity in the Grenadines are really extraordi narily high in terms of per capita impacts. For comparisen purposes, if it could be that only h;df of the air visitors are stay-ewer tourists, then tht: measure of tourism deru;ity in the Grenadines is among the highest in tite Caribbean (McElroy and De Albuquerque, 1989). The picture becomes mOfe complicated when the arrival trends of vil:iitors by sea are also examined. In the Grenadines, these arrivals are divided between yacht-baded tourism and cruise ships. 136 .50.0 140.0 J:: 10.0 0.0 1 5 1184 ill5 188. 1te7 YEAR -McMn! -Q ...... Figure 7.1 (4). Changes In sea arrivals, St. Vincent YO. the Grenadines, edapted from GSVG, 1989b. As is evident from FJgW'e 7.1(4), cruise ships have turned away from Kingstown as a port-of-call and are increasingly seeking ports in the Grenadines. This statistical phenomenon is further reflected in the uneasiness of some Grenadine Island residents, including those in volved in the tourism industry, who are voicing concerns !tbout the lack of adequate infrastruc ture and OI'her services required to support the current lewd of tourism (see also Section 7.2 below). Gove.mment bas undertaken to improve the provisiov. of basic water and sanitation ser vices to thr. out islands and generally to improve conditioDfj. In addition, the Organization of AmeriClJD States has provided a relatively com'let policies and specific devell)pmp;ot pmposals for tourism in the Grenadines {Jackson, el aI., 1986). These focus predomi nantly on protecting and enhancing the environ mental amenities of the ,area. Most significant is the proposal, acrepted by Government, to estab lish the Tobago Cays National Park (see also Sections 5 and 9 of the Profile). A secondary aspect of the OAS devel opmeut proposals for the Grenadines which has not received as much attention, but which may have more direct developmental impact, is a se ries of recommendations for increasi.ll8 local in-

PAGE 167

volvement with and earnings from yacht-based tourism --e.g., various yacht service industries such as marinas, riggers, and sailmakers. As demonstrated by the successful model in the British Virgin Islands, there are a variety of ways to increase the local-value-added com ponent of yacht-based tourism, without unduly restritting investment opt.:ons. TOURISM POLICY The development of a comprehensive tourism policy for this multi-island country is not an easy task. In the first place, St. Vincent and the Grenadines is out of the mainstream of well-established transportation routes in the Eastern Caribbean. Secondly, and more importantly, any national tourism policy must reflect complementary objectives for two contrasting destination points. Strategies for the fust tourism node --the main island of st. Vincent --must optimize development opportunities within the context of what is primarily an agricultural island, where touiism is confined to a narrow coastal rim of land and wb\':re the industry must compete with other a'ajor coastal activities and settlement patterns. Given these restrictions, St. Vincent tourism relies almost I!ntirely on one main tourism enclave in the southwest of the island --the Kingstown-Indian Bay-CaUiaqua area. The second tourism node --the Grenadines --presents a different set of issues for the tourism planner. These off-shore is lands are considerably smaller than St. Vin cent and hal''' for the most part, more marginal infrastructure. They are also "outof-sight," dispersed and lying further from the parent island than most other satellite islands in the Eastern Caribbean --the most southern of the St. Vincent Grenadin.::o are actually closer to Grenada than they are to St. Vincent proper. Thus, the challenge for st. Vincent and the Grenadines is to devise a tourism policy (including a marketing strategy) which is s[ 'table for each "node" and which will work for both destinations (the one common denominator which both seem to share is 137 development of the yachting industry). It is a task fraught with difficulties, not the least of which is the rugh cost of maintaining multiple infrastructure fi!cilities, such as airports. Furthermore, the general Eastern Caribbean experience of parent island/satellite island(s) relationships is not encouraging, particularly given the additional burdens faced by St. Vincent and the Grenadines --e.g., a poorer country in which the satellite islands are smaller and the distances among the various outlying islands are greater. TOURISM DEVELOPMENT PLANS Government is presently rewriting the country/ s tourism development plan for the next five years. Several sites have been targeted by the Tourism Department in pro ject development proposals (pers. comm., B. Thomas, Dept. of Tourism, March 1990). These include: -Mt. uy,rne Beach, the best black sand beach on the island of St. Vincent which is used by visitors en route to and from the Falls of Baleine (another popular tourism site). Current objectives of the Depart ment for Mt. Wynne Beach include its protection and development as a tourist attraction and recreation area for visitors and residents. The site has also been mentioned as a potential cruise shi p facil ity. -Access ramp for Falls of Baleine. The ob jective is to construct em access ramp in the fOIDl of a floating jetty to accommo date boats, ensure safe disembarkation, and increase uti1ization of the site. -Promotion of nature tourism through deYel opment oJ :hp. Petit Wallibou Falls. proposed project includes improvement of 2.5 miles of trail from Richmond Vale Academy to the falls. Approximately one mile will be paved for four-whed drive ac cess with the remainder a four-foot wide path to the falls. Combination tours --i.e., boat ride to Richmond with four-wheel drive to the falls --are anticipated.

PAGE 168

-Union Island, Grenadines: beautification and restoration of Old Fort. The objectives of the two proposals for Union Island are: (1) to enhance the desirability of Union as an attraction by launching a clean up/beautification campaign which includes an environmental education component and (2) to implement a vegetation clearing and replanting program at the Old Fort to facilitate visitor access to the site and to provide interpretive materials (signs, printed leaflets) for visitor use. 7.2 PROBLEMS AND ISSUES Appreciation of the pristine beauty and pleasing natural resources of the Grenadines, combined with assistance from external aid agencies such as the OAS ali well as local organizations and "celeblity' visitors, has resulted in some attention being given to identifying strategies to protect these islands from over-exploitation by the tourism indus try. Less well defmed are proposals for more coordinated development of tourism possibi! ities for Vincent proper or for approaches which integrate tourist experiences in St. and the Grenadines. On the main island of St. Vincent, there are opportunities for developing a more explicit nature-based tourism, which is the stated but unofficial of tourism pol icy for the entire country. Some of these op portunities have already been identified in proposals put forward by the Department of Tourism (see Section 7.1). Unfortunately, the reduction of cruise ship visits to Kingstown has deprived St. Vincent of a chance to more fully "commercialize" visits to the St. Vincent Botanic Gardens, the oldest in the Western Hemisphere. The issue of tourism "style" is one which confronts all Eastern Caribbean islands, including St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Development projects or development ap proaches catering to the "mass tourism" mar ket can significantly impact on many aspects (e.g., physical, biological, socio-cultural) of island life, particularly small islands like the Grenadines. But, as has been well docu-138 mented (e.g., McElroy and deAlbuquerque, 1989), oftentimes the economic benefits of mass tourism are illusory, the result of a fail ure to account for the social costs to the community and the environmental costs to the ecosystem. Bequia, the largest of the st. Vincent Grenadines, is only seven square miles in area.. Yet, given the small size of the Grenadines, planners have often ignored the cumulative impacts of tourism projects (e.g., a proposed 3OO-boat marina on Union) on the infrastructure of these islands. For example, the OAS action plan for the Grenadines (Jackson, et al., 1986) recommends that the maximum number of rooms for each hotel de velopment in Bequia, Canouan and Union Is land be set at 150, and in Mayreau, Palm Is land and Petit St. Vincent at 50 rooms. Eight hotels are envisioned for tiny Canouan (three square miles total area), five of which are within a proposed "national park" (see Section 9). In retrospect, the numbers proposed by the OAS report may seem high, at least to those for whom the assumption that "less is more" is a valid one, meaning that there is an advantage to pursuing the "up-scale" tourism market -where the number of tourists is fewer but the revenue per room is higher. Whether, instead, a tourist island moves in the direction of the mass tourism market depends in large measure on what the country is trying to optimize: employment, revenue, the re source base or other national concern'l. The dramatic increases in cruise ship visits to Bequia and Mayreau and one-day air excursions to Union Islancl in recent years have raised local concerns about a diminished quruity of life and the impacts of mar keting more and more to a mass tourism clientele. The Bequia Tourist Committee, formed by a group of private citizens involved in the tourism industry, worries that the fa vored stay-over visitors will le,we if the island loses its renowned charm and tranquillity. This group has carried out a survey (Simmons, 1988) to assess the public's perceptions about these issues and its attitude toward the ex panding cruise ship market. It has also re quested that GSVG take action to lower the

PAGE 169

number of cruise ships per year, limit their size and length of stay, and control illegal vendors. However, the Department of Tourism has responded that it does not have the authority to place limits and controls on cruise ships, and it is not clear which (if any) government agency does have jurisdiction. GSVG tourism officials are not oblivious to the problems ass-Jciated with mass tourism, as evidenced by with the CEP Technical Team (pers. comm., K. Layne and B. Thomas, Dept. of Tourism, April 1990). Likewise, GSVG planners have included tourism policy state ments in the National Development Plan (GSVG, 1986b) and have prerared reports dealing with these problems (e.g., Browne, n.d.). Nevertheless, the Department of Tourism is not represented on either the Planning and Priorities Committee or the Physical Planning ar.d Development Board (see Section 10), and there does not seem to be any formal mechanism for ensuring that tourism policies are included in the develop ment control process or that the social, cul tural, and environmental impacts of tourism developments are addressed. 7.3 POUCY RECOMMENDATIONS St. Vincent and the Grenadines has a relatively strong and expanding tourism sector, especially in the Grenadines. It is a significant element in the nation's total economy and contributes directly to improving 139 the country's foreign exchange earnings (a significant issue, given the large and growing foreign debt --see Section 1.3.2 of the Pro file). Over-exploitation of the country's natural resources, especially in the Grenadines, both from yachting and cruise ship visitors (see also Section 5), is a growing problem which needs to be addressed by tourism officials z.nd the tourism industry. High priority attention needs to be directed to the following issues: Recognition in the development plan ning --that specific areas in the Grenadines have been granted protected area status and therefore certain types of tourism development should be excluded from such sites. Prnvision of basic public services and in frastructure in the islands and cay!! of the Grenadines, including trash di sposal, potable water, and supervised anchnages. Development of incentive programs to support development of locally-owned or locally-staffed yachting-based enterprises. Coordir.tated development of a larger number of nature-based tourism e.-q>eri ences on St. Vincent proper in order to enhance this node of the national tourism industry, to diversify the nation's tourism market, and to improve opportunities for extending the length of stay and expenditure level of tourists visiting the island.

PAGE 170

Kingstown Harbor, although not as naturally deep or protected as Castries in 5t. Lucia or 5t. George's In Grenada, neverthe less has been Improved by various works and can handle larger cargo vessels. North of the terminal bullcJlngs shown In the photo, a new market complex and a new government financial center have recently been completod. A water front park or esplanade area should be next, with some portion of thfl remaining shoreline dedicated to a promenade, parklike recreational area. This, in turn, suggests the need to reduce current pollution loading, by h&lf In the next decade, especially that derived from agricultural fertilizers and pss1icides In upland run-off water and from those suburban and urban domestic and industrial wastes reaching the harbor. 140

PAGE 171

SECTION 8 POLLUTION AND PUBLIC HEALTH 8.1 OVERVIEW SOLID WASTE T.;le proper coUection and disposal of solid waste is perceived by many Vincentians, including members of the National Environ mental Protection Task Force, to be the high est priority issue for improved environmental management b St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Indeed, the solid waste problem confronts visitors as soon as they arrive byair, for the municipal dump for Kingstown is im mediately adjacent to the airport and is usu aUy smoldering. Elsewhere in the country un coUected trash and litter, abandoned vehicles, and garbage are common on beaches, in streambeds, on roadsides and around villages and banana plantations (the blue plastic ba nana bags are ubiquitous in the latter areas). Banana rejects and leaves are dumped in streambeds and rivers ar!d in the sea, and the remains of arrowroot plants after processing are discharged as a slurry from factories into the rivers. Solid waste is coUected daily in Kingstown and once a week in the suburbs by the Public Health Department. In rural areas, coUection hills under tbe jurisdiction of local town councils where these exist; hence, most rural areas have DO coUection service. At present the only "official" solid waste disposal site in st. Vincent is at Amos Vale near Kingstown, mentioned above as immediately adjacent to the airport (Figure 8.1(1. In Georgetown, a local dump is oper ated by the Georgetown Town Board and is located between Georgetown and Caratal Village near the mouth of the Caratal River (Shortte, 1990). It is overburdened and in need of relocation. Village once dumped its refuse at Morgan Bay and the "Bottle and Glass" rocks, but since 1986 it has used a site along the river banks at Wallilabou. Layou uses a dump site Olt Rutland Vale which is now filled and has no mom for 141 expansion. A new site at the Mt. Es tate has been proposed by the Public Health Department, but this estate has also been identified by the Tourism Department for beach recreation development. There is no identified refuse disposal site in Chateaubelair; its trash is dumped on the beach along the road leading to Fitz-Hughes Village. The Public Health Department wants to establish a new disposal site near the southern part of Richmond, but this area also has been proposed by the Forestry Division as a new recreation site. In the rest of the countryside on st. Vinr.ent, the areas used for solid waste dis posal are various ad hoc dumps, watercourses, beaches or the sea. In some areas, wheel-bar rows are stiu used for the transportation of refuse to the disposal sites, and in others trucks are used when available, supplemecled by wheel-barrows. In Bequia, the disposal site W3S for merly located in Port Elizabeth adjacent to the shore on the northern side of the harbor; it has recently been moved to a new location about half a mile from the cente:, of town. This new site appears to be functioning as a sanitary landfill. There are no designated disposal sites on Omouan, Mayreau or Union Island; refuse is dumped indiscriminately in various unused areas of land. In Mayreau, the village above Saline Bay is particularly littered with plastic waste and refuse. SEWAGE AND OTHER HOUSEHOLD LIQUID WASTES A national survey of household sewage disposal was done by we Public Health Department in 1988, but no report was availabIe as of March, 1990. The only areas in the c:)untry that are presently sewered are some parts of downtown Kingstown and about

PAGE 172

""5' ST. VINCENT Location Df some pollution problems U'20' Bottle ... & Glass/ Rocks 13"0' INDUSTRIAL WASTES __ --J Fttz-Hughs Village KINGSTOWN --* ARNOS VALE DUMP ""5' INDUSTRIAL WASTES PETROLEUM TERMINAL ""0' Ca rata 1 Vi 11 age Georgetown wr----FEr.AL POLLUTION FROM FARMS 0 1 I I I 0 ,,"0' ,,'OS' I I Figure 8.1 (1 a), Location of some pollution problems In St Vincent. 142 13'20' n"'5' 5,1Ca 2 3 "tlu

PAGE 173

ST. VINCENT GRENADINES Location of some problems 13' .. c:..-_ Peti t Nevi s 0 Quatre HUSTIQUE Battowia B"'ee.ux Petit Hustique <\7 Petit Canouan Q Cit Tobago Cays o UNION DUMP Prune (Palm) Petit St. Vincent Figure 8.1 (1 b). location 01 some pollution problems In the Grenadines. 143 Savan D o 2 3 4 5 N.Hiles

PAGE 174

40 houses in the Amos Vale suburbs (near the St. Vincent airport). Most of the population of all islands in the country still use pit la trines, but there is some usage of septic tanks, Pail closets are no longer in wide use, except perhaps in a few rural areas. Approximately four percent of the homes have no facilities at all for the disposal of excreta (pers. comm., CEP National Committee, 1990). In some areas, hard volcanic soils limit percolation and therefore present problems for waste water disposal by septic tanks and soakaways. At some locations along the coast of St. Vincent, high groundwater tables limit the absorption capacity of the soil, creating the risk of sewage pollution; this is the case particularly in Kingstown and Georgetown (Archer, n.d). The Kingstown sewer system was planned in 1956 but was only partially com pleted in 1974, with trunk sewers being laid in most of the areas as originally planned. How ever, branch lines and laterals were completed to serve mainly the reclaimed waterfront commercial area adjacent to Bay Street, mostly west of the market at Bedford Street. Connections to the sewer system are only made from water closets; at least in theory no gray wal.er or industrial effluents are allowed. The CUI Tent sewer system experiences fre quent breakdowns at the Bay Street pumping station, with the result that sewage occasionally backs up and overflows in the streets and sewers. The sewer system has become in creasingly inadequate as development in Kingstown becomes progressively more dense, e.g., in the rest of the waterfront commercial sector; in the housing developments north and south of Victoria Park, Stony Ground, and Paul's Avenue; and in the Rose Place fishing village (Bottom Town). Raw sewage from Kingstown is dis charged without treatment in Kingstown Harbor. The sewer outfall is located close to the pmmontory known as "Old Woman's Point" (Figure 8.1(1, which is a popular site fOlr SCUBA divers. The outfall pipe has been broken by storms twice and was most recently repaired in the early 1980's with a plastic ,tPVC) pipe. Although no studies have been rlone, there are reportedly strong currents sweeping through the harbor which are thought to disperse the effluent quickly (pers. 144 comm., D. Cummings, Manager, CWSA, Feb. 1990 and W. Tewes, dive tour operator, March 1990). Amos Vale is an expanding residen tial and inJustrial suburb of Kingstown with a high groundwater table that presents prob lems for septic tank disposal. A small "package plant sewerage system was installed to treat the sewage via aeration. Originally intended to serve 1,000 house!;, the Technical College and the primary school in Arnos Vale, the package plant is no longer functioning. Raw sewage is discharged into a drain leading directly to the sea in Greathead Bay. There are no regulations for domestic sewage disposal or standards for septic tank design. The Central Water and Sewerage Authority (CWSA) provides specifications upon request from builders, but no enforce ment authority emls. Both the PI arming Divi sion and the Public Health Department will consult with builders on questions of sewage disposal if asked, but again there are no legal requirements for consultation. Due mostly to economic factors (i.e., more people are able to afford them in the urban area), most of the existing septic systems on St. Vincent are lo cated around Kingst .vn. Nevertheless, in many of the lower-lying coastal neig!lbor hoods of town, high groundwater levels make the use of septic tanks impractical. The lower reaches of virtually all streams in densely populated areas of St. Vincent are thought to be polluted by sewage and gray water. In addition to the l'ublic health hazard presented by disease organisms in the sewage, nutrient enrichment may be having an adverse impact on stream wildlife. Because the steep hillside slopes cause water to move rapidly to the sea, stream pollution would most likely be more serious during the dry season. Coastal pollution is likely to be a problem in most areas; however, on St. Vincent, the relatively few enclosed and shal low embayments helps to promote mOCng and flushing. In some of the Grenadines (e.g., Bequia, Mayreau, Union), shallow reef-en closed embayments with lower volume for di lution and poor,:r flushing capabilities are more common.

PAGE 175

No studies of stream water quality have been done; consequently no quantitative information on the extent and severity of the suspected pollution problem is available. The following locations have been mentioned by members of the Environmental Protection Task Force as problem areas: Stoney Ground Housing Settlement: raw sewage disposed in the Kingstown North River (N.B. CWSA is in the process of connecting the Stoney Grounds settlement to the Kingstown Sewerage System); -Amos Vale Housing Development: raw sewage disposed in the stream at back of Arnos Vale School. TRENDS IN THE USE OF AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS Agriculture generally and banana growing in particular have become increas ingly dependent on "inputs", not omy of chemical fertilizers but also of pesticides and herbicides (the latter two classes of chemicrus are collectively called biocides in this reporl). The banana-producing Windward Islands are the heaviest users of biocides in the OECS countries. Almost all of the biocides imported in these countries are listed as "restricted" by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Chemicals listed as "restricted" re quire a special permit in th\! United States which is only issued for certain uses under rigorously controlled conditions. There are about twelve importers of biocides in st. Vincent; in mid-1989 an at tempt was made by the Pesticide Control Boar(j to get figures on the amount of bio cides imported by these concerns during the previous year (DeGeorges, 1989). A response was received from only six importers (the re maining six which did not respond included one major importer). The responding compa nies None had imported a total of 968,965 pounds of these chemicals (this is a corrected total; due to arithmetic errors DeGeorges gives a figure of 906,679). The imported bio cides included eight compounds listed as re stricted and two listed as canceled by the 145 US EPA (see DeGeorges, 1989, for a complete listing). The biocides used in the largest quantities are: Mocap, F'uradan, Gramoxone, Vydate and Calyxin, in that order. According to this very bcomplete survey, the nine bio cides imported into st. Vincent during 1988 in quantities close to or exceeding 2,000 pounds (one ton) are listed in Table 8.1(1). Highly tmcic chemicals on this list include the US EPA-cancelled Basudin and the USEPA restricted Mocap, Furadan, Vydate and Gran.oxone (thesr, chemicals were canceled or restricted by USEPA because of their toxi city to humans). DeGeorges (1989) notes that in 1989 the Banana Growers Association alone brought in 1,211,452 pounds of Furadan, Vydate, and Mocap, more (han the total re ported by all six respondents in the previous year. The CEP National Committee (pers. comm., 1990) reports that the SVBGA is the sole importer of the nematicides primarily ilsed in banana production. More specific data were not available at the time the CEP was being prepared. In St. Vincent, many of the biocides used for controlling leaf spot in bananas are applied aerially, including Benlate, Calixin and Tilt, raising ooncern about the aerial drift of these into the catchment areas for municipal water supplies (DeGeorges, 1989). Some of the most intensive biocide usage in St. Vincent takes place in several adjacent valleys of the southeast coast where banana growing is concentrated. In the Mesopotamia Valley, large-scale (illegal) banana cultivation takes place on crown lands in the upper watershed on steep slopes draining directly into the water intakes for the Montreal water treatment plant. Similar situations exist in other valleys. Fertilizer and biocide use in such areas poses a direct threat of drinking-water pollution to some of the major water supply systems on the island. Recognizing this threat, GSVG requested the Organization of Eastern Caribbean Statp.s Natural Resources Management Project (OECS-NRMP) to fund a pilot study of water quality and pesticide residues at this plant.

PAGE 176

Table 8.1 (1). Blocldes Imported Into St. Vincent during 1988 In quantities close to or exceeding 2,000 pounds (1 ton). Biocide Basudin (Diazlnon) Benlate (Benomyl) Calrnlrt (Trldemorph) Furadan (Carbofuran) Gramoxone (Paraquat) Mocap (Ethoprop) Sevin (Carbaryl) Tilt (Proplconazole) Vydate (Oxamyl) Source: DeGeorges, 1989. The project was undertaken by the Caribbean Environmental Health Institute (CEHI), with the intention of sampling r)Ver at least one dry season and one wet season. On the basis of a single set of samples taken in May, 1987, CEHI (OECS NRMP, 1987) stated that the results of chemical analyses for nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, organochlorine pesticides, PCB's and other water quality parameters were "generally withLt acceptable limits". Sampling was also done for carbofuran and oxamyl, but the vClJues are not given; instead these samples are simply as "not yet done". The report noted that the results of the single sampling period as given cannot be taken as representative and conclusions must await the results of future samplbg. However, no further work was ever done as the project was canceled hy GSVG shortly thereafter, for reasons which are not clear. A subsequent OECS-NRMP Report (1988) stated in relation to this project, "The assumption that the Government of st. Vincent and the Grenadbes is supportive of an administrative solution to the problem was evidently wrong." 146 Quantity (ItII.) 1,891 5,626 11,220 121,000 91,963 684,200 2,030 3,4J2 40,643 OIL POLLUTION The nation's oil and other petroleum products are brought to St. Vincent and the Grenadines by tankers. Location of the petroleum off-loading terminal is shown in Fagure 8.1(1). The oil tankers at the St. Vincent terminal during the period 1979-1989 had an average capacity of about 13,000 barrels. According to a local representative for Shell Oil, thie; company requires its tankers to carry oil booms and chemical dispersants on board, and they are not allowed to pump any oil from tank washings and so forth into the sea (D. Brewster, Shell Oil Co. local man ager; radio interview with C. Connell on "Naturally Yours," National Broadcasting Corp., April 25, 1990). At present there is no system for the collection and proper disposal of waste oil. Waste oil and grease from garages is simply dumped into storm drains and on the ground, and together with oil from street surface run off, it i.e: then Ylashed into rivers and coastal waters during rains. The potential problem of underground leakage frem older gasoline sta tions' storage tanks into the water table, which has been commonly reported in many other

PAGE 177

areas in the Caribbean and elsewhere, has not been investigated in St. Vincent. The occurrence of petrcleUlli1 tar on beaches is common throughout the region, and the problem has been monitored by the CARIPOL Program (Atwood, et al., 1987/88). Windward coasts are the most often contami nated with tar, indicating that the source of much of the tar is upwind and beyond the control of individual governments. CARIPOL monitoring data have shown that when beach tar values reach 10 grams per meter of shore front, persons using the reaches commonly report getting tar on their feet. When levels are close to 100 grams per meter, be come virtually unusable for tourism. No data are available for the average concentrations of beach tar on St. Vincent and the Grenadines, which did not participate in the CARIPOL study. INDUSTRIAL WASTES While manufacturing is still in an early stage of development, its potential for employment creation and export expansion is ranked highly by GSVG economic planners. Only anecdotal infor.nation is available to in dicate the extent of possible poUution from industrial sources, since no recent quantitative sampling has been done. There is speculation that a fish kill which occurred in the Amos Vale River about two years ago may have been caused by the dumping of waste oils from one or more of Ithe industrial plants ad jacent to the river. Some industries at the Campden Park industrial site reportedly dump waste and high-nutrient wastes into Campden PMk Bay_ There are suspected nu trient and fecal poUution problems in the Diamond River, attributed to fUll-off from the cattle farms nearby. Figure 8.1(1) shows the location of some of these alleged industrial waste problems. PUBLIC REALm The incidence of wateror sewage related communicable diseases is low com pared with the other Windward Islands. No cases of typhoid have been reported in the 147 country for over 20 years (Archer, n.d.; pers. comm., A. Eustace, Medical Of., Dept. of H(;alth and the Environment, Feb. 1990). Gastro-erlteritis is still a major public health probtem related to poor sanitation, particu larly in the low-lying coastal areas of Kingstown and other densely populated loca tions. However, data on gastro-enteritis are only coUeded on children under five years f.)f age. The CWSA has a laboratory which is capable of analyzing water for oxygen, tem perature, salinity, chlorine, and bact.t".ria (fecal coliform, fecal streptococcus, total coliform). CWSA monitors drinking water supplies, mainly testing for bacterial contamination and residual chlorine levels, and notifies the Public Health Department when levels are unaccept ably high. A Public Heal.th Department pro gram employs a truck with "'fogging" equip ment to apply Malathion insecticide in urban areas. The intent is to control the Aedes aegypti mosquito (the vector of dengue and yeUow fevers). Regarding this program, the foUowing points should be kept in mind (pers. camm., Dr. A. Eustace, Min. of Health and the Environment, 1990): The use of Malathion as an aerosol dispersed in the manner in which it applied in SVG is approved by the World Health Organization; Malathion fogging is used sporadically, not routinely, primarily as an emergency measure to reduce the popula.tion of adult mosquitos in localized areas; The small risk involved in the use of Malathion, which is known to be of low toxicity, must be weighed against the risk and cost of an epi demic of dengue fever; The main thrust of GSVG's Insect Vector Control Program in its day to-day activities is source reduction through the elimination and/or treatment of household breeding

PAGE 178

sites, and the education of hOllse holders. 8.2 PROBLEMS AND ISSUES SOLID WASTE COLLECflON AND DISPOSAL Kingstown's Arnos Vale dump site, although intended to be a sanitary landfill, has operated more often as an open dump, which is its present statu5. The site was originally between 7.5 and 10 acres in size and was esti mated to have a useful life of about 20 years if properly oprr al'ed, but some of the land has ttC!1 exprl1iJI ia\'ed for other uses and the liv.:iLlhk Hfca is now smaller. There are no (;lIJ r P fOjections for the expected lifetime of trl!.' .J \Imp. No wa:;te reduction or recycling programs are presently in operation. The in
PAGE 179

have tended to follow temperate design stan dards for the three basic "levels of treatment. Thus, emphasis has been placed on primary ;!reatment (removal of grease, grit and large particulate matter and maceration of solids); secondary treatment (the preceding plus re duction of matter and suspended solids); and lastly tertiary treatment (the pre ceding plus removal of nutrients). The emu ent from any of these levels of treatment is usually chlorinated to ensure the destruction of disease organisms. These three options represent a range of installation and operating expenses and maintenance re quirements. Usually, if funds are available following construction of the treatment plant, a short outfall into the nearshore waters with minimum concern for marine habitats or currents --is added. However, primaryor secondary treated effluent may still harbor pathogenic viruses even after chlorination. It is not con sidered safe fOl disposal in nearshore waters that are used Ifor swimming and bathing, and its high le,vels of nutrients are certainly detri mental to the marine environment. Only the extremely e,xpensive and technically sophisti cated tertiary systems offer sufficient protec tion to the environment and to public health when the effluents are discharged close to shore, and even these would still benefit from a long outfall as a safety factor when the in evitable breakdowns .')r seasonal on-shore winds occur. For these reasons, more recent opinions (e.g., Hunte, et 01.,1989) have tended to recommend that the most cost-effective way to protect the environment and public health is to build an efficient collection system for both sewage and gray water, with an ocean outfall that is long enough to discharge via a diffuser into deep water and/or strong off shore currents. With this design, only a "preliminary" level of treatment (removal of grease, grit and large particulate matter) is necessary, since the nutrients and other pol lutants wiU be carried away from the coast and wiU be rapidly diluted to background levels. Such a system has the lowest costs for con struction, operation and maintenance and also requires the lowest level of technical ski11 to operate. Because of the proximity of deep water to the coastline in most areas of St. Vincent, the type of municipal sewage dis posal system described above is well-suited to the urban areas of that island. Environmen tally safe disposal is more difficult in the is lands of the Grenadines, due to the preva lence of extensive coral reefs on a relatively shallow shelf and to the fact that settlements tend to be in bays which are more sheltered. In the Grenadines, septic tank systems are probably the method of choice for sewage treatment. Tertiary treatment package plants may be considered for large hotel or resort developments, but it needs to be recognized that the lack of skilled operators, Government inspectors and spare parts wiU probably guarruatee substandard operation. (One option which has had some limited suc cess elsewhere 1S to require that the tertiary effluent be re-os,ed for irrigation water on the grounds of the c!stablishment, with perhaps a large holding tank for emergencies but no bypass to the ocean. When combined with peri odic Government inspections this provides a incentive to keep the plant operating properly.) Although they can be effective when used within their inherent limitations, it should be realized that septic tanks are not a panacea for areas without sewerage systems: they are relatively expensive, have severe lim, itations when used on steep slopes and/or in soils with poor percolation characteristics, and (oocause their effluent is still high in nutri wiU not reduce nutrient pol lution in areas of high population density. One source of sewage which is fre quently singled out as a major cause of water quality problems in SVG is the effluent from yachts and live-aboard vessels of all kinds. An area where this is suspected to be a problem is the Indian Bay-Young Island Cut-Calliaqua Bay complex. In the Grenadines, the decline of reef communities around the yacht anchor ages on Union Island and in the Tobago Cays has been attributed in part to sewage pollution from boats (Berwick, 1986; see also Section 5 of the Profile). 149

PAGE 180

WASTE GENERATION RATES Solid or liquid generation or discharge rates are not available from any sin gle industry or disposal site or from any area of the country. This makes waste; dispcsal planning and quantitative estimation of im pacts difficult. Neverthelr.ss, methods exist for the rapid estimation of such rates (e.g., \\1{O, 1982). ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS OF AGRICULnJRAL CHEMICAlS Fertilizers. Chemical fertili7...ers are in widespread use in St. Vinrenl. NPP (nitrogen/phosphorus/potassium) types of fertilizers are most commonly used. Sulphate of ammonia, a source of nitrogen, is also pop ular as an input to ban811a production. The greatest potential risks from such use in the environment are reported to be soil ration and nutriellt overload in dowDstream and coastal receiving waters. Cora! reef ecosystems are especially to the ef fects of overfertilization of the nearshore waters. At present there is not sufficient in formation to determine whethf;r there is sig nificant pollution of the drinking water sup plies or the rivers and coastal waters by fertil izer residues, although some regard this as likely. Blocides. The bene.fits of using bio cides are usually straight-fvTWard and imme diate, but environmental and health hazards caused by their use are much more difficult to evaluate because they are often delayed in ap pearance, subtle, undetected or ignored. Properly asses.sing the risks posed by biocides requires data on the fate of these compow\ds in the environment and the level of exposure of humans and other biota. The data in the Caribbean are very limited, but alarming in at least some cases. A Jamaican study (Mausingh and Prasad; cited in Larew, 1988) found persistent pesticide residues in soil, frc:.sh and salt water, and vegetables. Very limited sampling in Dominica and st. Luc!a (cited in CCA/IRF, 1988) found only low 150 levels of pesticide residues in the environ ment. Clearly it would be in the best inter ests of all concerned with the environment to determine whicl1 of the two for bio cide given in Sertion 8.1 above is more ne:uly correct; this could be easily done if GSVG required biocide importers to pro vide accurate records on the types and quan tities brought into the country. Until an accu rate estimation of biocide importation and us age is conducted in St. Vincent, it will not be possible to adequately assess e&:'!!!Onmental or hum.an health risks. Among the different insecticides, nematiddes, herbicides and fungicides available, some are more critical than others from an environmental perspec tive. Each group has its own characteristics and repre&ents a special challenge to the re source manager who must seek to use them with the least possible damage. One way of clarifying some of the is sues involved in the management of agricul tural biocid'! use might be the introduction of a scientific approach. This involves screening all biocide imports and iden tification of the most hazardous compounds as well as sampling to determine levels of bio cide residues and to trace their pathways through the ecosystem (including human pop ulations). Then a quantitative estimate of risk, e.g., in terms of probability of premature death or injury per capita prr amount ingested per body weight, can be computed. Fmally, on the basili of this information, an evaluation can be m!lde by comp'lring the quantitative estimate of risk against the economic benefits and the willingness of the public to accept various levels and types of risk. In the final analysis, social and political judgements must be made l'egarding the costs and feasibility of alternative methods of crop protection and the distribution of risks and benefits among the different sectors of society. Many technical people in the country feel that it should be a GSVG priority to initi ate monitoring for biocide residues. At pre sent there is no institutional capability within the country to monitor the levels of biocides either in the environment or in human tissues. Unlike the other Windward Islands, Sl.

PAGE 181

Vincent does not have a produce laboratory or any chemists trained in the analysis of bio cides. PUBLIC HEALTH The insecticide fog (Malathion) used to control mosquitoes in urban areas is broad cast indiscriminately; it settles on people, animals, food and any surfaces. In areas where cisterns are used, the biocide is washed by rainwater into water sup plies, ",nd some of it is also inevitably inhaled by residents. Although Malathion is suppos edly among the most environmentally "safe" biocides, such chemicals are not meant for di rect human consumption, and their routine use in this manner may pose a significant public health risk. Responsibilities of the Public Health Department for pollution moritoring and control overlap broadly with other depart ments; e.g., the Central Water and Sewerage Authority carries the actual work of bacte riological mon;:oring for frcc;h waters and gives reports to the Chief Public Health Offi cer. No agency monitors marine pollution on a regular basis, but occasional monitoring of stations in Kingstown Harbor, Bay and Bay is done by CWSA within a program directed by CEHI. No regulations concerning specific standards for solid and liquid waste manage ment/treatment, water quality in rivers or ma rine areas, or drinking water quality are in ex istence for the country. Officers of the CWSA and the Public Health Department make use ofPAHO and WHO guidelines, but it appears to be a matter left to the discretion of de partmental officials as to which guidelines ap ply to which projects. No effort is being made to monitor or document exposure of pesticide workers. The general lack of training in thf" safe handling of pesticides combined with the toxicity of some of the biocides in use present an unacceptable level of risk. All parties interviewed by DeG.'orges (1989) felt that programs to cer tify pesticide applicators and farmers and to 151 monitor workers and the, environment for pesticide residues should have a high priority. OIL POLLUTION No oil spill contingency plan now ex ists for any port or other coastal area iu st. Vincent and the Grenadines. Since the coun try is near the major oil transportation routes from the oil producing and refining countries of Trinidad anJ Tobago and Venezuela, there is a high risk to coastal areas from marine oil spills. Any spill which deposited a heavy coating of oil on tourist beaches could, de pending on the size of the spill, diminish or even destroy the tourist industry for years. The coral reefs of the Grenadines and the Tobago Cays National Park are also very vul nerable to oil spills. DISPOSAL OF DERELICT VEHICLES AND SHIPS AT SEA There have been suggestions by vari ous members of the Environmental Protection Task Force and others that the derelict vehi cles and ships which are a problem through out SVG might be disposed of at ser. or might be used to form artificial reefs. This proposal is currently being acted on, wjth the Police Department being responsible for the removal of the vehicles from the roadsidL' and storing them temporarily at the Amos Vale dump site. The Fisheries Division has designated certain marine areas between Bequia and st. Vincent as suitable sites for the dumping of the abandoned vehicles. It is not clear, however, that the vehi cles would have substantial benefit as artificial reefs for increasing fish production. If the major reason for declining fish catches is overfishing, then adding more fish habitat in the form of junked vehicles to the sea bottom will not improve production. In fact, if fish populations have declined, there should be an excess of natural habitat. In this situation, the remedy most likely to have a positive effr.ct will be regulation of the fishery, and, there fore, creation of artificial reefs must be viewed primarily as a response to the country's solid

PAGE 182

waste problem, i.e., a justification for dumping solid waste at sea. The National Trust and the Public Health Department have both expressed con cern that unless the vehicles are properly detoxified and cleaned before disposal, they will contribute to the degradation of the ma rine envimnment. While this is a very legiti m.,ate concern, methods of detoxifying derelict vehicles for disposal at sea are routinely used in other countries. At this point, it is not clear whether detoxification is in fact being con templated by GSVG, that information on how to do it properly is in the hands of the respon sible agencies, or that suitable facilities and funds exist for carrying it out. This matter needs to be clarified, and responsibilities for detoxification assigned before the vehicles are allowed to be dumped. INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES AND LEGISLATION Solid aud Liquid Wastes. There are presently no laws requiring the use of desig nated sites for solid waste disposal. Legal authority for solid waste management is not vested in any department of Government, and it is not covered in the 1977 Public Health Act. A draft revision of the Public Health Act was reportedly prepared in 1988 to deal with this omission, but so far it has not been en acted. The Public Health Deprutment has as sumed de facto responsibility for the Amos Vale dump and for making recommendations about locations for other dump sites, but it has no real kgal authority in the matter. A draft Anti-litter Act has been prepared and is undergoing r,eview by GSVG. or Pesticides. A Pesticide Control Act was passed in 1973, but there are no amendments or regulations to give the Pesticide Control Board authority to control import, distribution or use of pesticides. Pes ticide regulations were recently drafted by an OAS consultant (pers. comm., W. McCalla, OAS consultant, June 1990) and sumitted to the Attorney General for review. 011 Pollution Control. No legislation exists. 152 8.3 POUCY RECOMMENDATIONS GENERAL Financing for all recommended measures in this section is perhaps the most critical element in addressing long-term re quirements. The development of new and in novative means of raising revenues is neces sary to reduce the burden on the Government treasury. Possible options include: charging a levy to all hotels for waste collection and treatment services; seIling franchises to pri vate waste collectors for designated collection areas; charging industrial and commercial users for waste collection and disposal; and billing polluters for cleanup and restoration costs. Public education programs directed at both children and adults regarding envi ronmental pollution, proper waste storage and disposal, and general cleanliness should be implemented. An anti-litter act and regula tions should also be immediateiy legislated and then rigorously enforced. SOLID WASTE Collection of garbage should be turned over to private companies which would charge a fee for the service, something which is not presently done. The Public Health De partment should IiceIiSe such companies and should have the power to rescind franchises if collectors do not perform satisfactorily. A solid waste management plan should be prepared covering a minimum pe riod of twenty years. From a financial viewpoint, in the short term, a properly operated sanitary landfill is likely to be the most attractive option for solid waste disposal. However, strategies to reduce the quantity of solid waste and to promote' a variety of recycling options also need to be explored ideally as a collaboration between Gov ernment and the retail trade sector in order to ensure that such schemes are organized on economically defensible grounds.

PAGE 183

LIQUID WASTE The most cost-effective and eco logically sound sewage disposal option needs to be identified and then implemented for all urban areas of St. Vincent as soon .1S possible. Given the fact that it is crucial to prevent both public health hazards and nutrient enrichment of Learshore waters, and taking into consider ation existing technological and fmancial con straints, that option is likely to be preliminary treatment combined with a long outfall which discharges into deep water in an area of strong currents. Such waste disposal systems should be dli!signed to be easilYilpgraded to a higher level of treatment shoulr. this prove to be necessary later. This solution for sewage disposal may be difficult if not impossible to implement in some places in the Grenadines, due to the shallow shell' area and reefs. A long-term water quality and ma rine biological monitoring program .. be implemented immediately in order to: gather baseline determine the impacts of :":'Juid waste disposal in urban areas and at industrilll sites, and identify areas requa-ing remedial ac tion. Laboratory and personnel capabilities in the country will have to be upgraded in order to accomplish this, and perhaps additional as sistance from CEHI would need to be secured. An oil and hazardous materials spill contingency plan shouid be Mitten and implemented. Legislation is needed to re quire proper disposal of waste automotive oil and hazardous materials, and facilitie.; to ac complish this must be provided. BIOCIDES As a maUer of considerable ur gency, regulations should be passed giving the Pesticide Controi Board the necessary au thority to lequire permits for the importation and sale of any biocide, to deny permits for the importation and sale of pesticides on the USEPA's (or other agency's) list of restricted or cancelled chemicals, and to require distributors to report quantities sold and major users to report applied in the field. The use of biocides in drinking 153 water catchment areas should be stopped immediately. Agricultural extension agents and representatives of local rural development NGOs and farmers organizations should be trained to certify farmers in the safe use of biocides. The training programs should em phasize the use of visual instructional methods (e.g., videos rather than lectures) and should make a concerted effort to involve the chil dren of farmers through schools and youth clubs. Pest control operators who spray buildings and the environment to control in sects, as well as pesticide inspectors, should also receive training in l!1e safe use of biocides (DeGeorges, The Ministry of Agriculture shoul& make arrangements to obtain iuformation and advice from biocide experts by tapping into the JJJanual.c, libraries and coreputeriLed in formation systems mairdained by USAID/USEPA, FAOjWHO, CIDA and other international donor agencies and health organizations. This information is necessary not only to protect public health but also to assure competitiveness on the international market in producing fruits and vegetables us ing acceptable biocides, i.e., those that have residue levels which fall within acceptable tobrances (DeGeorges, 1989). The Ministry of Agriculture should obtain donor assistance to establish a produce laboratory and to train a technician in extraction of biocide residues from samples (produce, meat, fish, human blood/urine or environmental samples such .as water and sediment). Extracted samples can be frozen and stored for weeks prior to analysis (compared to 7-14 bDurS for an unpmcessed sample that is frozen). Monitoring progIams should with sampling for biocide residues in produce and in drinking water. Analysis can then be conducted by the Caribbean Envi ronmental Health Institute at its laboratories in St. Lucia. Donor support to make these fa cilities functional should be contingent upon the passage of legislation that includes rev enue-generating schemes which ensure the self-sufficiency of the produce lab over the long-term, e.g., requiring all produce ex porters to have residue analyses conducted

PAGE 184

with such fees plared in a specific account to support operational and maintenance costs for laboratory equipment (DeGeorges, 1989). Once the produce lab is opera tional, a chemist could be trained in biocide residue analysis, and a gas chromatograph could be so that the analyses were eventually conducted in-country. At this point, the biocide monitoring program could be expanded to include regular sampling from farm workers and the environment. The envi ronmental sampling capabilities of the Central Water and Sewerage Authority or the Public Health Department would need to be strengthened with support for equipment and training. Donor assistance should be ('.ontin gent upon enactment of legislation establish-154 ing a special monitoring fund with revenues earmarked for the fund. CEHI shCluid consider eventually assuming a quality control function for all the in-country biocide analysis laboratories in the OECS countries (DeGeorges, 1989). 'II GSVG should pursue an official policy to reduce the a:nount of biocides used in agro-industries and to regulate where and how they are applied. The methods of Inte grated Pest Management (IPM) should be em ployed, whereby the objectives of pest control are accompli;hed by employing a wide spec trum of chemical agents and biological tech niques as an alternative to the saturation of crops with toxic compounds.

PAGE 185

SECTION 9 GROWTH MANAGEMENT 9.1 PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT CONTROL 9.1.1 Overview NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING Interest in within GSVG originated with British colonial policy in the early 1960's and 1970's which attempted to ti" the approval of grants and loans to the prepa ration and approval of development plans. During this period GSVG prepared several development plans which focused almljst ex clusively on I!conomic expansion, with little or no concern for physical plali:ting or liociaJ. concerns. Most of these plans ... failed spectac'llarly to met" their !argets", which led to disillusionment with plan.ning as a development tool (GSVG, 1986b). By the early 1970' s the economic development planning apparatus within Government was totally de funct. After 1973 the planning process re verted to an annual budgetary exercise, sup plemented by the planning activities of various international aid agencies for specific projects, writing of economic reviews and projectio:lS, and the preparation of a Public Sector In vestment Program. Durrng the same period in the early 1970' s, driven to some extent by heightened environmental concerns in the developed countries alid by the pressures of population growth and the increasing complexity of land use decis:l).,-making in st. Vincent and the Grenadines, a renewed interest in physical plan..r.ting emerged within GSVG. The two volume St. Vincent Tourism Development Strategy (Uewelyn-Davies, et 01., 1972), pre pared by consultants for the Government and funded by the British Development Division, was on: of the first eft'orts in pbysical development planning at the national "evel. In 1976 a Physical Planning and Development Board and a Physical Planning Unit were established under the Town acd Country Planning Act. Their stated functions were to institute a study of national, regional and local physical plan ning; to control all developmental building and subdivisions of land; and to carry out in-spections of all buildings in progress (see also Section 10). The formulation of national, regional and local physiccl development plans was mIDldated by Town and Country Planning Act of 1976. A draft St. Vincent Naiional Plan, 1976-1.990 (UNDP, 1976), was prepared as pm of a UNDP regional project. The plan was written by a team of outside experts with very little input ok' ,0mmitment from GSVG and no public involvement. It presented maps (Figures 9.1(1) and 9.1(2 which showed a great divergence between land use and land capability, "ad it attempted to optimize re source use oy proposing a land reform scheme based on the subdivision of some Government e&tates into rive acre plots. According to Browne (198.5), this proposal ... neglected is sues related to the crops, suitability and the commercial viability of 5 acre farms"; he be lieved that a program of this type (which is similar !o a reform program now being im plemented liJ GSVG) would only have in creased land fragmentation and inefficienc..y in land use. Although the UNDP plan is now outdaied aDd may have been flawed to begin with, it nevertheless contained valuable base' line clata, planning maps, and many useful recommendations, some of which might have been of benefit to subsequent planning efforts but were not adopted by Government. Much the same enD be said of the 1972 Tourism De velopment Strategy. Unfortunately, neither of these plans was ever officially accepted, or ap parently even used tc any extent, by GSVG. Also in 1976, a St. Vincent Natiorutl Ayicu1tural Plan (SNAP) was prepared by the Ministry of Agriculture and a: by G()vel1lDlent. SNAP was intended to promote the di-:tersific:ttion of agricultural exports, en hance me 1'1Dd management capabilities of GSVG, and build agricultural infrastructure. Although the land tenure system was identi155

PAGE 186

n"20' 13"15' 13"10' 61"lS' ST. VINCENT/LAND-USE IN 1976 c:=:::J Wildlands EZZlJ Graling Annual crops Urban and suburbiln C!::!J Industrial ... Solid waste disposal 61"15' 61"10' 61"10' o I o 1 I 61"05' } 61 "OS' Figure 9.1 (1). St. Vincent land use In 1916, as identified In the 1976 St. Vincent National Development Plan (source: UNDP, 1976). 156 13"20' 13"15' 13"10' 5Kn -=t' 3 Mil

PAGE 187

61' ST. VINCENT/LAND-USE CAPABILITY 13' 13' 13' CIm:J Annual crops c=::J Wildlands _Tourism C!:!:J Urban and suburban Industrial 61' 61' 61' 13' 110j5' 13' =;='===':;=='_'114'5 KII I .. o 2 3 MIl .. Figure 9.1 (2). St. Vincent land use capabBlty. as identified In the 1976 St. Vincent National Development Plan (source: UNDP. 1976). 157

PAGE 188

fied as a fundamental agricultural constraint, SNAP studiously avoided addressing this problem, recommending instead that Gov ernment should appoint a committee to study the sttuation and propose a 1imited land re form SNAP was hastily prepared with input or cooperation from other ministries and very little involvement by farm ers or the public. Although accepted by GSVG, it was never seriously implemented or updated (Browne, 1985). In addition to the 1972 National Tourism Devp.lopment Strategy discussed above, other physical development planning efforts have been specificaJly carried out for the Grenadines, including plans for Prune (Palm) Island and Petit St. Vincen:. in stituted by the private companies to which these islands have been leased. The OAS Ac tion Plan for Tourism Deve1r.>pment in the Grenadines (Jackson, el 01., 1986) also in cluded many recommendations for physical development policies and projects. A Central Planning Unit was estab lished in 1978; initially its main responsibilities were the coordination of donor agency pro jects and the development and monitoring of public sector projects. With the mere recent emphasis on medium-term rather than annual planning, its scope has been considerably ex panded, and it has been renamed the Central Planning Divisi,)n (CPD). The CPD now comprises four units: physical planning, eco nomic planning, manpower planning, and statistics; at one time the Division included an energy unit, but this has been eliminated. During 1984 the CPD embarked on a major project --the preparation of a National Development Plan for the three-year period 1986-1988, in the format of a which would be updated yearly. Becausr. the CPD's institutional precluded completion of the entire plan by in-house staff, a number of donor agencies (UNDI', IARM, OECS, OAS) provided assistance for writing the plan and also for strengthening the institutior.al capabilities of the CPD. This docUIDent (GSVG, 1986b) is currently the of ficial policy statement guiding devdnpment ill St. Vincent and the Grenadine3. Work on the 158 plan began in 1985, Cabinet approved the final draft in July 1986, and the fmal document was published in March 1987. The tirst update for the period 1987-1989 (GSVG, 1987) was pre pared and published by CPD in-house, with the assistance of UNDP. A second update, covering 1988-1990 was dralted in 1988, but it has never been reieaserl. Work will begin in 1990 on a new overall plan, covering the five year period 1991-1994. The Planning and Priorities Com mittee (PPC), chaired by thl! Prime Minister (who is also the Midster of Finance, Planning and Developmeut), oversees tht, National De veiopmem Plan and all ,')f planning. It includl'.s the technical and administrative heads of the Ministry of Agriculture, Industry and Labor and the Ministry of Communica tions and Works, as wel.l as the Director and Deputy Director of the Ministry of Finance, Planning and Developmt;Dt. The CPD func tions as the secretariat to the Committee. The PPC has decided sectorial planning units will be established in the near future within each of the key ministries reslX'nsible for implementation of the Devel opment Plan. These units will receive infor on overall development !:trategies from the CPD, and thc:y will then be responsi ble for the preparation of sectorial plans, for project developmeut, management and mon itoring, and for coordination of external tech nical assistance. The first of these units will be esta:'lished within the Ministries of Agriculture and Communications and Works. DEVEWPMENT CONTROL The Physical Planning and Develop ment SIllJ'd (PPDB) has authority, under the Tow.! and Country Planning Act of 1976, to regulate all private sector developments by requiring advance approval of development permits. "Physir.al Planning and Development Guidelines," which provide criteria and requirements for permit applications, have been prepared by the Central Phmning Division, but these have not heen legally adopted. Govermnent projects and agricul-

PAGE 189

tural land use changes are excluded from the permitting process. The PPDB, which meets monthly to consider permit applications, theoretically acts as an inter-ministerial coordinating body for development control. Its membership com prises the Director of Planning (who is the e.t' officio Secretary of the Board); the Manager of the Development Corporation; the Chief Engineer of the Minist.ry of Communications and Works; the Chief Agricultural Officer and the Chief Surveyor of the Ministry of Agri culture, Industry and Labor; the Public Health Superintendent of the Ministry of Health and the Environment; the General Manager of the Housing and Land Development Corporatio"J; the Manager of the Central Water and Sewer age Authority; and three appointed meUlbers not in public service. The PPDB has the authority to re quire the owner or occupier of land to pre serve trees in order to provide amenities, con serve soil and water, or for any other public purpose. Under the 1983 amendment to the Act, fmes for violations may be imposed; a form of temporary injunction, under which any act that could constitutr an offense must be ceased during the appeal process, is also authorized. 9.1.2 Problema and Inues PLANNING, ECONOMICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT The focus of the 1986 Natio::1al De velopment Plan was ftrmly ftxed on "eoonomic development" as this terminology has been traditionally (and narrowly) defmed. Envi ronmental concerns received short shrift in the Plan; even the latest available Plan Update (1987) contains only the barest passing mention of environmental issues (in relation to water supply, sewerage, solid waste dis posal, tourism and forestry). This is in con trast to earlier plans such as the National Tourism Development Strategy and the UNDP Development Strategy, which Md a stronger environmental orientation but were 159 undoubtedly weaker in terms of fIScal and economic policy. The Prime Minister recently pro claimed the 1990's to be a national "Decade of the Environment", reorganized the Ministry of Health into the Ministry of Health and the Environment, and established a National En vironmental Protection Task Force to recom mend environmental policy. If these changes are to hav!! tangible impacts, however, it is clear that the forthcoming National Develop ment Plan (1991-1994) wiU have to lay much greater emph:lSis on funding for environmental protection and restoration projects m gen eral. The environmental responsibilities and institutional relationships of all GSVG agen cies, particularly the Ministry of Health and the Environment, must be clearly speUed out (see also Section 10). Beyond this, it will be necessary to make some very fundamental changes in the country's approach to national development planning, since the most impor tant condition for sustainable development is that environmental .:oncems and economics should be as closely linked in decision-making as they are in the real world (Macneil, 1989; see also Section 13.2). COORDINATION OF PROJECf PLANNING AND HARMONIZATION OF LEGISLATION Lack of coordination IDf10ng Gov ernment ministries and agencies in plan ning and development control activities is a serious problem. Today the sectorial plans prepared by donor agencies tend to take an integrated approach to development; i.e., they attempt to guide development so that activities in each sector will support those in other or at least will conflict with them as little as possible. In several instances where supposedly "'mtegrated" development projects have been planned by international agencies, GSVG has subsequently foUowed a piecemeal approach to implementation, which is the very antithesi" of an integrated development scheme. This leads to difftculties in avoiding or mitigating even perfectly predictable and obvious environmental and socio-economic impacts or to a failure to link mutwilly beneft cial sectorial programs.

PAGE 190

Th Government of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, with assistance from ltD OAS legal consultant, is presently engaged in a review of legislation in the areas of town and country planuing, crown lands, forestry, fISheries, beath protection, national paries, public health, and water resource management. The intention is to harmonize these Acts and ensure that GSVG has sufficient enforcement authority in the area of natural resource protection (see also Section 10). NEED FOR CURRENT CADASTRAl .. AND LAND-USE INFORMATION Even with improved, more integrative legislation, GSVG agencies will conticue to be seriously hampered in fulfilling environmental management mandates by a. lack of basic in formation on the locaticn, ownership and condition of the country's natural resource base. An up-lo-date cadastral map and data b'se do Got exist for St. Vincent and the Gk'enadines, making planning and develop ment control more difficult becal.se it is often not clear which parcels belong to whom. Al though there is an official Lands :md Surveys Office, several Government agencies employ their own surveyors, and apparently neither the public nor private sectors are required to regist new land surveys and subdivisions. Preparation of an updated cadastral map would be a very difficult and time-consuming task, albeit ar. essential one; it would undoubtedly require fmancial assistance and technical support from a donor agency. The Town and Coltntry Planni.!lg Act of 1976 charges the PPDB with the prepara tion, implementation and review of national, regional and local land !lSe plan'i. Such plans were intended to provide the basis for rational decision-making by the Board in matters pertaining to development control; YF.t none have been prepared (with exception of the 1976 UNDP plan, which was net ac cepted by Cabinet). There is an immediate need to pre pare a cun"eDt land use map for st. Vincent crud the Grenadines. The Illmt rr.:cent land use maps now available were cor..;-:!ed in 1976 100 for the UNDP devel"pment planning project. Figure 9.1(1), which is based on the UNDP maps, shows a generalized picture of the ma jor t'.rpes of land uses in St. Vincent at that time, and Figure 9.1(2) shows land capability. Table 9.1(1) displays the land area in three major land use classes -agriculture, forest, and urban --as of 1984, and Table 9.1(2) provides a breakdown of land use and tenure for 1979/1980. The UNDP maps need to be up dated by using data from the new aerial pho tography and surveys of forest reserves, water sheds and crown lands to be carried out by the CIDA Forestry Project in the near future. Much of the information from the existing land use map:. (e.g., slopes, soils, land capa bility) would still be relevant and can be uti lized in the preparation of the new maps. DEVEI..OPMENTCONTROL A new planning la\l' with substantive regulations has been drafted by an OAS con sultant and to the Attorney General for review (pets. {'omm., W. McCalla, OAS consultant, June 1990; see also Section 10 of the CEP). Until recently, when a set of physical planning guidelines was administra tiveiy adopted by the PPDB, each develop ment was on an ad hoc discre tionary basis. These guidelines now provide information regarding format and content for development applications as well as general standards for plot cover, parking capacity, set backs from roads and property lines, sewage disposal, and building construction require ments. Even thuugh GSVG has promulgated many good policies on the conservation and wise use of the physical and biologica; emironment, 'be lack of legally enforceable envi ronmental standard.!; and regulations makes it difficult to implement them and ensures that ad hoc land use decisions will continue to be made. No specific slepe standards aimed at erosion control for construction, logging, or r:Jarl building activities appear to exist. De forestation and consequent soil erosion (due to agriculture, forestry, fuelwood cutting, road building .wd construction nn steep slopes and unswtablr s'Jils) are problems which will become increasingly severe as the

PAGE 191

Table 9.1 (1). Area by land classes, St. Vincent, 1984. Land CIa.s Acres Percent Agilcyltyral Land Arable lands, cultivated Arable lands, fallow Subtotal, arable lands Pasture (cultivated and uncultivated) Total area, agricultural lands 25,930 2.070 28,000 6.000 34,000 30.9 J& 33.4 40.6 Forest Lands Tlmber1ands Other forest lands Subtotal, forest Non-stocked forest lands Total area, forest lands 22,100 9.910 32,010 38,810 26.3 -1U 38.1 46.2 .urmn and Non-Cyltivable Lands Urban areas and roads lIJ'':'n-cultiv&ble and meadows Total, urban and non-cultivable ** TOTAL LAND AREA 8,000 3.000 11,000 83,810 9.5 13.1 100.0 Land deforesttKi due to natural disturbance and currently not In non-forest use. Tota/land area falls about 1,200 acres short of St. Vincent's total land area of 133 square miles. Sourco: cited In Prins, 1986b. country A coastal setback of at least 15() feet from the high water mark has been luommended by many consultunts due to increasing problems of coastal erflsion in the country. Hawever, a setback is not specifically recommended in the development guidelines or required by any law. 161 There is at present no legal require ment fo[, formal environmental impact as sessments, for major projects. There is also a lack of sufficient capability within CPD to properly evaluate the eavironmental im pacts of proposed major projects or to specify appropriate control measures.

PAGE 192

Table 9.1 {2}. Area of 5t. Vincent by land use/land tenure, 1980. land Category Crown lands New land settlement Old land settlement Peasant holdings Large estates Towns /villages TOTAL Source: Talbot, 1983. There is a need to establish an effi cient information management system within CPD for tracking and spatial correlation of developments and land use changes, environ mental data, and cadastral information. Much useful information on setting up an appropri ate system for Caribbean islands, with options for eventual computerization, may be found in Potter, et 01. (1988) and Island Re sources Foundation (1989). It is not clear whether either the Department of Agriculture or the PPDB Ius authority to regulate developments (e.g., marinas) below the tide marks in coastal areas, but this is a question that will need to be resolved. The Department of Agriculture has been assigned the task of impiementing the Beach Protection Act and is considering setting up a coastal zone management unit, primarily to control beach mining. However, the implications of coastal zone management are much broader than lhis; on small islands the entire land ma..c;.s as weD as the nearshore waters are part of a single ecological unit. The PPDB now deals mainly with regulation of urban and industrial develop ment activities. Although it appears to have the authority as weD as the legal mandate to do so, the Board does not generally its powers in regard to natural man agement and land use planning. In ecoiogical terms the appropriate planning unit on small 162 Area {hal 16,475 2,448 2,335 4,698 8,223 465 34,179 islands is the coastal ecosystem, which may be dermed as including an upland watershed, the coastline and the nearshore waters enclused within a bay. Since erosion or poDutiun in any watershed will inevitably have an impact on coastal areas, any successful land use man agement program must include protection of all the critic.aJ components --forests, soils and watercourses in the upland watersheds; man grove swamps and beaches in the coastal areas; water quality, seagrass beds and coral reefs in the nea:shore waters. An effort is being made by the Min istry of Agriculture, the CIDA Forestry Pro ject, and. the Attorney General's Office to build watershed management requirements into va .. -ious ongoing p:rojects and revisions of legislation relating to the management of public lands. However, overall planning ap proaches should move beyond these efforts to provide for an integration of watershed land use management into the entire planning and development control process for both the public and private sectors. Just such an integrated watershed management system has already been pro posed to GSVG in an exceDent repon by an OAS consultant (Prins, 1986b), but it has never been implemented. The major compo nents still lacking are:

PAGE 193

(a) town and country planning legis lation which specifically recogIDzes the water shed/coastal ecosystem as the basic unit for land use planning and management; and (b) a workable watershed manage ment system which would essentially consist of some institutionalized mechanism for coordi nation among the agencies involved in re source management, planning and develop ment control and the involvement of appro priate private sector interests (especially small farmers). The pivotal agencies and groups which must be involved in setting up a water shed management system include: the Physi cal Planuing Unit; the Soil and Water Conser vation Unit; the Forestry Division; the Agrii:uJture Department; the (proposed) Coastal Zone Management Unit; Engineers from the Public Works Division, VINLEC, and the Central Water and Sewerage Authority; tech nical representatives from the Ministry of Health and the Envtmnment, the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development Program, farmers' associations and cooperatives, and community development groups. Since this list includes many agencies already repre sented on the PPDB, perhaps what is needed is a "watershed technical advisory group" which could re formed from the above-cited agencies to provide input to the PPDB (see wso Section 3.3 of the Profile). 9.2 PARKS AND OTHER PROTECTED AREAS There is some interest withiu GSVG at this time to create a system of national parks and protected areas. Provisiollli for the designation of national parks had originally been included with the 'lew draft forestry leg islation which is currently under review by Cabinet; howevel", an administrative decWon was recently made :0 draft a separate bill for national parks. Such a bill is currently being drafted with assistance from an OAS legal 163 consultant (pers. comm., W. McCalla, OAS consultant, Apri11990); see also Section 10. NATIJRAL AREAS The existing and propDsed protected areas in St. Vincent and the Grenadines (F'IgW'e 9.2(1 consist of various water catchments, forest reserves, wildlife reserves, and marine conservation areas as also dis cussed in Sections 2, 4, and 5 of the CEP. There is a designated marine national park for Mayreau and the Tobago Cays for which leg islation ha, been drafted. The OAS has also prepared a feasibility study for the area, in cluding an economic analysis and manage ment recommendations (Heyman, et aI., 1988), but this park plan has yet to be imple mented. The same site was designated as a marine reserve under the 1986/87 F'lSheries Act and Regulations. The Soufriere volcano (Uewelyn-Davies, et 01., 1972) and most of the eas'Lem side of Canouan (Jackson, et aI., 1986) also bel n recommended as national park sites, but no further action has been taken and no manage"llent plans have been prepared for either area. ARCHAEOWGICAL AND CULTURAL SITES While St. Vincent has a National T'\1ISt which dates to the late 1960's, this quasi-governmental body had until very re cently been inactive, and the country lacked a strong unifying force for historical resource protection. Within Government, the relatively new Department of Culture has promulgated a "Cultural Policy" for the country, whose ob jectives overlap somewhat with those stated in the Trust's authorizing legislation. However, as the Department's staff is limited to one Cultural Officer, iro effectiveness is consider ably diminished. Resource Surveys. The recently reactivated National Trust (see also Section 10) has set as an immediate priority the establishment of a National Registry to include historic sites, nat-aral features, and cultural objects worthy of protection as part of

PAGE 194

ST. VINCENT/PROPOSED PROTECTED AREAS Protected Area Boundary 0,3 NaHonal Park j ............ Approx;mate locat;on of ISJ, 1000 foot contour Major Water Catchments lSI 0; ve S; tes __ / n'20' e : 1]'20' J I ( ; .. ,.' !'o .. 0;; "" c .. 1 ... It_I I I ... \ I ISJ--",,--,,- -. ;;;;:7 9' I ( I De,;,oated( G 13'5' Protected Area I Boundary 1&r'''' / i \ H L. ...J II I 1]"0' lSI ,:s,o' 4 KINGSTOWN 2 B lSI A o J 5, KII 1=1 ::::i!==;::5::='T"';===r: o 2 3 Mil., Figure 9,2(1a). Location of deslgMted or proposed protected areas In St. Vincent. Numbers refer to Table 9.2(1), letteld to Table 9.2(2). 164

PAGE 195

ST. VINCENT/GRENADINES Proposed National Park Boundary of Desi9nated Marine Conservatl0n Zone 18 I 19 __ c:::;..-..... lSI Peti t Nevh 0 6 lSI IS] lSI 23 fJ 6)-. 10 BaHceaux p Petit Hustique <\) 15 Petit Canouan lSI 17 11----__ -J Q L"NION J 14 lSI fo Tobago Cays o f5J. P,une (Palmi 21 20 lSI 61025' Petit St. Vincent I Savan t:==-_ 22 o 1 2 3 4 5 N.Hiles Figure 9.2(1 b). Location of daslgnated or proposed protected areas In the Grenadines. Numbers refer to Table 9.2(1), letters to Table 155

PAGE 196

Table 9.2(1). Designated reseNes as per the 1987 Wildlife Protection Act, St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Name of Reserve 1. Young Island 2. King's HIli 3. Falls of Balelne 4. Govt. House Grounds 5. Milligan Cay 6. Pigeon (Ramler) Island 7. Isle de Quatre 8. All Awash Island 9. Catholic Island 10. Battowla Island 11. Catholic Rocks 12. Chateaubelalr Islet 13. La Paz Island 14. Frigate Rock (Island?) 15. Petit Canouan 16. Sail Rock 17. Tobago Cays 18. Big Cay 19. West Cay 20. Petit St. Vincent 21. Prune (Palm) Island 22. Savan Islands 23. Northern end of Bequla Reserve A.rea Entire Island Boundaries set by Chief Wildlife Officer Boundaries set by Chief Wildlife OffIcer Including Botanical Gardens Entire Island Entire Island Entire Island Entire Island Entire Island Entire Island Entire Island Entire Island Entire Island Entire Island Entire Island Entire Island Entire Island group Entire Island Entire Island Entire Island Entire Island Entire Island g!"oup Beyond "Industry Point" Sources: Wildlife Protection Act, No. 16, 1987; Bl.Itiw. i91;'t3. the national patrimony. A fIrst step was the completion in 1990 of a UNESCO-funded project to inventory national archaeological and historical places. The project report provides a listing of military installations and sugar mill sites (by parish) and a list of his toric build5ngs which have appeared, since 1985, as feature articles in a local press series on historic places. There is also an inventory of historical books, maps, photographs and paintings found in public and private collec tions on the island. However, no natur."'. arr-as or al'caaeoloWcaI have yr;t been in cluded in the inventory. Other tasb remain ing include more specificity as to location, present condition and use (this type of infor mation is only included by referral to the arti-c1es on historic buildings appearing in The Vincentian); equally important is the need to evaluate, prioritize and rank sites. An earlir.r, very preliminary inventory of historic sites in St. Vincent was carried out by the Trust as part of an American Revolu tion Bicen;,mnial Project sponsored by the Caribbean Conservation Association and Is land Resources Foundation in 1976 (Towle, 1978). A uniform reporting methodology was used for all sites surveyed in St. Vincent and other Caribbean countries. The most com prehensive historical resource survey to date was undertaken on behalf of the now inactive Archaeological and Historical Society and focuses almost exclusively on the sugar mills 166

PAGE 197

Table 9.2{2}. Proposed forest reserves/wildlife reserves and recreation arear identified by CIDA Forestry Project. A. Milikin Bay Forest ReservejWlldllfe Reserve B. Diamond River Wildlife Reserve C. Salt Pond Recreation Area D. Falls of Balelne Recreation Area E. Wallibou ralls Recreation Area F. Richmond Beach Recreation Area G. Wallilabou Falls Recreation Area H. MOl'nt Wynne Beach Recreation Area I. Richmond Bay Mangroves/Belmont Bay Salt Pond Forest ReservejWildlife Reserve J. Lagoon Swamp Forest ReservejWlldllfe Reserve K. Lagoon Bay Salt Pond Forest ReservejWlldllfe Reserve Source: CIDA Forestry P:";)ject Personnel. of St. Vincent (Kirby, 1973). This publication includes a site-by-site, parish-by-parish brief locational description of extant mills and their remains. Many of these surviving ruins are neglected or abandoned and often can only be viewed at a distance or are inaccessible Oecause of the overgrown terrain. Military Sites. The most important military site on the island is that of Fort Chariotte, located on tht western ridge above Kingstown Harbor. The fort is primarily of local rather than regional importance; nonetheless, it was once a formidable complex of batteries, barracks, moats, powder maga zines, draw-bridges and outworks, built some 600 feet above the sea in the closing years of the eighteenth century. It was to have been the chief defence of tbe island, but the Black Caribs (a mixed group of Carib Indians and runaway African slaves) had been subdued and their French supporters had withdrawn before the fort was completed in 1806. The citadel continues to provide a matchless view of the capital city and its harbor, of the volcanic vertebrae of the island, of the pJacid leeward coast, and -to the south --of the jewel-like Grenadines, from Lequia to neigh boring Grenada. Fort Charlotte is public property, and the Government has given its approval to vest ownership of the site in the St. Vincent Na tional Trust, although it has not yet officially done so. 1 he site is open to the public, but no visitor records are kept, there is no entrance fee, no interpretation, and no sales itemf'. Part of the fort is presently used as a prison facility, and the Port Authority maintains a signal tower. At its annual general meeting in 1989, the reactivated National Trust set as one of its priorities the establishment of a national mu seum. possibly at Fort Charlotte. The site has long been under consideration by the Trust for utilization as an office and headquarters (these functions are now centralized in Kingstown) or as a natiunal museum. Restoration and landscaping continue as Gov ernment funds are available; the Trust's ex penditure budget does not provide for these activities, although it has sought and continues to seek external funding for such assistance. A development planning study for Fort Charlotte was recently carried out by Arthur Young International for the Cruribbean Conservation Association with CDB funding. It was part of a larger regional effort to assess 167

PAGE 198

development strategies for historic monu ments in the Eastern Caribbean. In St. Vincent, the study recommends that entire peninsula incorporating the Fmt should be designated as a national park. Furthermore, since the site has tourism potential, the report states boundaries need to be clearly defined, the prison facilities should be transferred to another location, and strict planning controls o.n future development need to be introduced. The report concludes that Fort Charlotte should be vested in the Trust which could ad minister and manage the site (Arthur Young, 1989). The Young document does not provide detailed development plans, nor has funding been identified to assist with more compre hensive planning or with restoration/adaptive use activities at the fort. A second military site, Fort Duvernette, was also selected by the Arthur Young consuitiug team for potential tourism development. Lying some three miles south east of Kingstown, the fort is situated on a bare, precipitous reck about 100 yards from Young Island, which is some 300 yards from the main island. Built about 1800, tltis site defended Calliaqua Harbor, then an im portant anchorage, and also the approaches to the capital of Kingstown. The massive rock on which the fort stands is some 196 feet above sea level. Government has also ap proved the vesting of Fort Duvernette in the National Trust, but official action has not yet been taken. In addition to Fort Charlotte and Fort Duvernette, the National Trust's recent report on national archaeological and histori cal resources (St. Vincent National Trust, 1990) lists over 30 military installations, most of which are difficult to impossible to visit be cause of vegetation over-growth or distance from the town area. Architectural Features. Fine exam ples of vernacular architecture can still be fOWld in the island's capital of Kingstown, which is laid out on a grid pattern with three main streets parallel to the harbor and intersecting secondary streets leading to ward the surrounding hills. Although suburbs have grown around the town, its original cen ter can still be clearly identified. Because development pressures have not been as great in St. Vincent as elsewhere in the Caribbean, the architectural integrity of Kingstown has been substantially retained, including features which are distinctively French (despite the fact that the French occupied the island for only four years). Regrettably. some of the best ex amples of arched arcaded buildings were de stroyt.:.d in rICes as recently as 1989, while in trusions of incompatible structures conl:inue to threaten the architectural and historical character of the town. A tourism development plan in the early 1970's (Llewelyn-Davies, el 01., 1m) strongly recommended that consideration be given to the renovation of historic towns as part of the island's overall tourism planning. Areas noted, in addition to Kingstown, were Calli aqua, Lnyou, Barrouallie, Chateaubelair, Georgetown, and Port Elizabeth, all said to possess considerable historic interest and charm which, collectively, create a sense of place and identity. The report also recom mended that a list of historic buildings should be established (under the Development Control Authority) and that such buildings should be "safeguarded from destruction," that tax incentive and low interest loans should be made available for restoration of historic buildings, and that community development groups should be encouraged to participate in renovation plans. Little has been accom plished since then to promote the establish ment of "urban historic districts" or to protect historic building:; in general. Consideration could still be given to development of an "historic district" conservation and restoration policy, but it must be done before the island's unique architectural character becomes too fragmented by new development. Museums. The country's only mu seum is the Archaeology Museum operated by the National Trust from the old Agricultural Officer's building in the 225 year old Botanic Gardens just outside of Kingstown. Govern ment provides a small annual subvention for the Museum, whose volunteer curator is also the Chairman of the National Trust and a re gionally recognized archaeologist responsible for putting together the impressive coller.tion housed at the Museum. At present, the building in the Botanic Gardens incorporates 168

PAGE 199

display functions, Viith relatively limited inter pretation, as well as research and storage functions. Space is inadequate for all of these activities in the present structure. Over time, there has been consider able discussion by Government and the Na tional Trust concerning expansion of the (iTe sent mUJieUm facility and development of ad ditional sites. Options include: improvement of the present musr.um to add ooUections other than archaeology (for example, natural history exhibitr which would be app.opriate in the prest:nt or an upgraded Botanic Gl:udrrs), development of Fort Charlotte ar a National Museum or, alternatively, developffi.!nt of the fort as a military museuu" and establishment of a National Museum in a yet-to-be-identi fied town location. 9.2.2 Problems and Issues NEED FOR A PARKS AND PROTECl'ED AREAS PLAN With the exception of the approved but not implemented Tobago Cays National Park, tdere have been no management plans written for any F'otected area. In addition to plans for the management of other specific sites, the country needs a comprehensive and integrated parks and protected areas plan which evaluates all presently designated pro tected a"eas, -ieleting (at least for the present time) those that may be of minimal value and adding other areas which are not presently protected. Figure 9.".(1} displays the distribu tion of existing and proposed protected natu ral areas in the nation; the National Trust is in the process of preparing a location map of extant historical, arch?eological and cultural sites, but it has not yet been completed. Out standing sites which are not presently desig n:tted as protrcted areas include many marine sites known for their importance to the dive tourism (see Figure 9.2(1, the pro posed Soufriere Volcano national park on St. Vincent (Llewellyn-Davie.s, 1972; see Figure 9.2(2, anci sites on Canouan and Union Is lana (Jackso41, et al., 1986; see 9.2(3) :md 9.2(4. 169 NATURAL AREAS The nation's existing "protecLed natu ral areas" are a disparate collection of water catchments, wildlife reserves, forest reserves, and marule conservation areas, under the control of the Central Water and Se .... /erage Authority, thp. Forestry Division and the Fish eries These areas were created in an ad hoc manr.l!r over the years without any overall plan; at p!esent none of Lhem enjoy any real protection. Enforcement in all cases is hampered by the lack of sufficient man p0wer in designated agencies and by the fact that forest guards and fisheries officers do not have powers of an"et. Some declared "wildlife reserves" (Mustique, Palm Island, Petit St. Vincent) are actually developed tourist re50rt islands with greatly altered habitats and continuous humac disturbance; the value to wildlife of such reserves is not documented. Some of the best areas for diving along St. Vincent's coasts are found at Old Woman's PC'int off Fort Charlotte, Qut.'.steUes Point, La Paz Rock, Milligan Cay, Cane GarPoint, Ottley Hall and Lowman's Point (pers. comm., V. and W. Schoen, S. Halbich and W. Tewes, April 1990; all are members of the National Trust and involved in local wa tcrsports industries). Clearly it would be in the best inter ests of GSVG to take special precautions to protect these and other dive sAtes, if only for t;) reason that St. Vincent and the Grenadines is promoted by the Touric;m De partment as a SCUBA diving destination. QuesteUes Point, which somz rate as one of the b ct "wall" dives in area, is in great danger of degradation frOUl pollution origi nating from the industri.ll park at Campden Park Bay, and the Fort Charlotte dive site is threatened by effluent from the municipal sewer ,1Utfall. The Point dive site is threatened by run-off and sedimentation from the new Governmf;!nt qll.arT'"; operation at Lc'WlaJJ's Est3te, and Cane Garden Point is'lDdf,i' threat from rapirl!y expanding resi dentiai development on the Point. There is a proposal for a large-scale hotd development at Ottley Hall which ..!Quid adversely affect the

PAGE 200

ST. VINCENT/PROPOSED SOUFRIERE NATIONAL PARK L o :' .: :'.'------------rI .... ,:. -,. ;A.--"r-----------------:'A'r.. ... : ,. ".: .... ,. II' .. fa .... I:------\--\ ........ ----. ,. .. ", .. : ...... --------7""'. 4ft' ....... .... .". ,,' '" II -----."., : .. : : .. : _,' .. _, :"':'.' .. ':": ,,'J-------t=_\. 0'----:...-------.,.,... : : : ," : # ...... : ., -. .: .. : ....... I': I' ....... ". ,..oC.. ____ I-____ ......... .. .. .. ... .,. ... I" ,.' '.1-------------, \-____ .... ... ..... : .. ,. II -...... ...... t-------------ii----'''"'' .. .. ,., ... .... ',,' \-------E,----i.. : : .. ...... :; .. : .. '. '.' I .. ".' .. .. ,.t------------;,.--................ ... #' .. ,-..... ,'" ;1'-----=:,----;,. .... .. .. .. .. ... .. ... .r-------_,;----4 :. : : ., = CRATER:." ... : .... t----------------,J--f .. : .. :." : i' ., .. .. .. : I,"" I, '1,.,1---------.----..,.-'--/ )' _.....' ;.,"t-; ... .. .' .... .. .1_ ......... ,. I' .. fill -#f.'--__________ ,. fill .... "* fill ... ,"...... ..." '" .. .. .......... : it .. # ...... f." ,,' : \.) 'III' I, .... ...... #_1 ,. ., In .'''. '. ... ,! '. J .,.. # : : # : '" ......... #. \. ,.. f# .. # # # II' \ .... ,-' RABACCA R. \ ..., _____ .....--... ',-',_r eJ ,, 1-----( ( \ \ I 1 \ I ".. .... FOOT TRA I L SECONDARY RA i N fOREST IN t 972 VOLCANIC PIONEER VEGETATION (recently disturbed) in 1572 .. .. ... --1000' FOOT CONTOUR (Suggested park boundary) ., 2 Hiles AGRICULTURAL LAND IN 1972 Figure 9.2(2}. Proposed Soufrlere National Park, St. Vincent (source: adapted from Uewelyn-Davles, 1972). 170

PAGE 201

CANOUAN ISLAND/PROPOSED NATIONAL PARK LAND SEGMENT OF PARK IIV\. GRAND CO I S BARR I ER VIIIIIl REEF (to be ; nc 1 uded ;n Mar;ne Segment) .. HOTEL SITES 2 Mile Figure 9.2(3). Proposed ".anouan National Park (source: Jackson, et a/., 1986). dive site unless proper precautions are taken. There has already been extensive damage to reefs at Young Island, Calliaqua and Indian Bay. IUSTORICAL, ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND CULTIJRAL SITES GSVG has approved vesting of the following properties in the National Trust (SVG Nat'1. Trust, 1989), although official transfer has only been recorded for those sites indicated with an asterif:k: Fort CharlQtte Fort at St. CiQud Fort Duvernette Fort at Owia Fort at Hamilton, Bequia Fort at LookQut PQint, Union Island 171 West Cay/Big Cay Frigate Island [Rockl, Grenadines Red Island, Grenadines L'Islot, Grenadines -Mong Rouge Islet, Union Island Archaeological Museum Building, Botanic Gardens In 1976 new kgislation (Act for the Preservation of Historic Buildings and Antiq uities) was enacted including procedures wmch potentially CQuid protect all histQric structures and sites, not simply thQse acquired by the NatiQnal Trust CQmpilatiQn Qf an official listing of histQric buildings is called fQr, which may be changed frQm time to time, and prQvisiQn is made fQr the acquisition Qf prQp erty Qn the list, with Qr withQut the agreement of the Qwner. Permission must be Qbtained by private Qwners the further develQpment a.'" listed buildings, and penalties are prescribed

PAGE 202

UNION ISLANn AND PRUNE ISLAND/PROPOSED PROTECTED AREAS (\('\t1'l SAND DUNES \11111111. MANGROVES VJ:!. REEF Chatham Bay --BOUNDARY OF DES I GNATED MARINE CONSERVATION AREA DESIGNATED WILDLIFE RESERVE -., ./ BOUNDAR\, OF RESERVES PROPOSED BY JACKSON, 1986 UNION ISLAND Mt. Olympus (000000: DES I GNA TEll FOREST RESERVE (UNSURVEYED) ...... site) PRUNE ISLAND I (Palm Is. Wildlife Reserve I Figure 9.2(4}. Designated or proposed protected areas in Union Island and Prune Island (source: Jackson, et a/., 1986).

PAGE 203

for violations. The exportation of antiquities without proper licenses is also dealt with. There is little evidence this law has been im plemented or enforced; the legislation falls under control of the Ministry of Trade and Tourism (pers. comm., W. McCalla, OAS consultant, June 1990). The Department of Culture (Ministry of Justice, Information and Culture) has de veloped a "Cultural Policy" which in cludes as an objective the preservation and conservation of cultural heritage. Sub-compo nents of this objective define activities similar to those falling under the mandate of the Na tional Trust (e.g., development of museums, acquisition and restoration of historic build ings, acquisition of historical documents and artifacts). However, to date, it does not ap pear the Trust and the Culture Department have developed strong lines of coordination or even communication, although in 1987 the in cumbent Cultural. Officer stated his depart ment preferred to cooperate with the Trust in the development cf proposals to external agencies and in the establishment of a na tional museum (Towle, et 01., 1987). The activities of the Department of Culture are presently limited to one staff per son, and the St. Vincent National Trust is in an early stage of redefining its mission and programmatic goals. Nevertheless, as eadl continues to develop institutionally, it will be come increasingly important for coordination linkages to be initiated and for the relative roles of each to be more clearly defined and understood. MANAGEMENT OF A PROTECTED AREAS SYSTEM The 1969 legislation establishing the St. Vincent National Trust outlined that body's purpose as the conserv&tion of the historical and natural heritage of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, defmed in an early publi cation on the Trust to include historic build ings, pre-historic sites and stone age relics, areas of special beauty and interest with their associated flora and fauna, the reefs, shore lines and small islets of the country (Brisbane, 1970). The enabling legislation empowers the 173 Trust to identify, document and preser .. e buildings, monuments and places of historic and architectural interest, including the acqui sition of property and the raising of fundo; for the management of such property. Executive authority for the administration of the Trust is vested in a Board of Trustees which is elected at an annual general meeting. While it is desirable to vest title of protected sites and property in fhe National Trust and to formulate long-range management policies and plans with input from this quasi-governmental body, the over all implementation of and responsibility for a parks and protected areas program for St. Vincent and the Grenadines would best be handled at the present time by appropriate GSVG agencies. However, it would be most efficient to designate a single lead agency (probably the Forestry Division) to coordinate management of the parks and protected areas system. Management of protected areas in St. Vincent and the Grenadines would benefit from an integrated approach. For example, the Fort Charlotte historical site could be combined with a marine component to form a larger and more meaningful protected area which would protect both the leading histori cal monument in the country and one of its most outstanding dive sites; any project to up grade the municipal sewerage system in Kingstown would be required to minimize im pacts on this site by extending the outfall further offshore. The wildlife reserves at Milligan Cay, La Paz Rock, Sail R.xk and some other offshore islets could each be com bined with a marine component; the proposed Soufriere National Park could be combined with the existing Parrot Preserve into a single management unit which would also protect many important catchment areas. A parks and protected areas plan prepared for Grenada by OAS (Government d Grenada and OAS, 1988) proposed the fol lowing management categories for protected areas, which might also be appropriate for St. Vincent and the Grenadines:

PAGE 204

National Porks: to protect outstanding natural and scenic areas of national or in ternational importance and provide recre ational, scientific and educational activi ties. These are relatively large areas con taining a diversity of ecosysto:!ms. -Natural Lalidmarks: to plOtect rtatural features of a ul1ique charactl!r which are in a near-natural state. These are generally small areas rather than complele ecosys tems and recreational activities. Cultural Landmarks (including a'.'chaeo logical and historical sites) and Recre ational Areas; to protect cultural features of a unique character and to provide public access for educational and ret::reational uses related te (he feature. -Forest Reserl'es, Wildlife Reserves and Ma rine Conservation Areas: to protect upland forests, littoral mangrove and island scrub vegetation, wildlife habitats, productive fish habitats, salt ponds, dunes, beaches, seagra!>s beds .. nd coral reefs which pos sess special aesthetk and/or ecological qualities. -Multiple Use Management Areas: to man age large areas (e.g., watersheds) which are suitable for production of water, wood products, wildlife, forage, and/or rmuine products and fm soil con servation, outdoor recreation and educa tion. Use of tht'Se areas would be primar ily oriented to the support of economic ac tivities, but special zones may be estab lished within them for nature protection. 9.3 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION 9.3.1 Overview The Ministry of Education is in tl:.e proces':i of a curriculum upgrade for primary schOOL': which will include an "environmental awareness component" integrated throughout all subjects, particularly in the areas of biol ogy, sodal studies and agriculture. AI pre sent, environmental education programs in 174 primary schools art; aimed at sensitizing stu dents to their immediate surroundings (e.g., school ground landscaping, anti-litter cam paigns). The environmental education goal of tbe currku!um upgrade effcrt will be to create an awareness of how environmental issues affect almost every aspect of daily life (pers. comm., S. Campbell, Deputy Chief Educ. Off. and D. Rawlins, Science Organizer for Pri mary Schools, Min. of Education, April 1990). The Environmental Education Com mittee of the St. Vincent National Trust spon sors a short but frequently presented radio show called "Naturally Yours", spotlighting local environmental issues and projects. It also sponsors a monthly environmt:ntal award program to draw aHention to individuals or groups for significant envimnmental contri butions and submits regular articles to the print media on environmental topics. In con junction with the Environmental Protection Task Force (Ministry of Health and the Envi ronment), the Trust also sponsors monthly public activities focused on a variety of envi ronmental topi':S --forests, rivers and streams, beaches, and so forth; one recent project in volved community groups and school children in a cleanup of the North River in Kingstown. Environmental education in SVG be gan with initiatives promoted by the Forestry Division in the early 1980's. These efforts were intensified in 1988 in association with the implementation of a parrot conservation and education project sponsored by the RARE Center for Tropical Bird Conservation. More recently, CIDA has included an environmental education component in its Forestry Project for St. Vincent and is carrying out a number of on-going activities: .. Presentation, upon request, of in-school programs on environmental topics. Production of a 3O-minute children'!, video which has been shown on national televi sion, mth additional copies to be made available through the Ministry of Educa tion. publication of Vincie's Nature Notes, focusing on the "'lSSue of the month" as designated by the Task Force and Na-

PAGE 205

tional Trust. Each month a different school is responsible for drawings in Na ture Notes; students also submit articles. The publication, which was originated by the Forestry Division with local funding from the St. Vincent Brewery, is dis tributed tv all schools. An "adopt-a-tree" program in major water sheds. Under this program, now in the planning stage, children will plant trees near then villages in environmentally sen sitive areas which have been cleared, oCten illegally. As a tie-in with SVG's Decade of the Enll; romnent, a public education campaign will be implemented, including preparation of radio spots, a watershed protection poster and a bumper sticker. Two to three day teacher training work shops in the summer, :argeting teachers from major watersheds and the Grenadines, to prepare them for teaching environmental education. Distributing "What's Wrong/What's Right" puzzle posters to all schools (a co operative effort with the Enwonmental Protection Task Force and the National Trust). These address four areas of activ ity (urban, forest, agricultural, marine) and depict people doing 25 things harmful to the environment; then another picture shows how those 25 wrongs can be made right. The CIDA Forestry Project recently acquired CanS25,OOO worth of video and audio equipment to expand in-house capabilities for video production. Once fIlms are produced, they will be distributed to schools and inter ested organizations. Additionally, a volunteer specialist with the crDA project is working with the Ministry of Education's Curriculum Development Director on the environmental education component of the school curricu lum. CIDA has also provided funds (although not through its Forestry Project) for a Vincentian to be trained in Canada as a fulltime environmental education specialist, to be 175 attached to the Forestry Division at the conclusion of the training program. Government is upgrading Vermont Nature Trail as a joint recreation and environmental education project New steps and bridges, interpretive sigru; and a brochure (the latter funded by World Wildlife Fund-US) will be provided. An ultimate goal is to improve t.he road to the trailhead and add a parking lot and interpretive cenler. 9.3.2 Problema end hlluel Although the nation is no stranger to public education campaigns on selected envi ronruental topics, a 5tructured and integrated program of environmental education is not yet in place. However, GSVG fully realizes the importance of environmental education to the continued and sustained development of the country. This need is being very capably ad dressed on several levels, thrnugh the joint efforts of the Ministry of Education, the Envi ronmental Education Committee of the Na tional Trust, and the Ministry of Agricul ture/CIDA Forestry Project. If the present programs and those now in the planning stage are fully implemented and then e::panded, St. Vincent and the Grenadines will have laid the groundwork for a truly impressive and worthwhile effort in environmental education. 9.4 CONTROL OF POPULATION GROWTH 9.4.1 Overview FAMILY PLANNING EDUCAll0N Family planning efforts in St. Vincent and the Grenadines began in the mid-1960's with formation of an NGO called the St. Vincent Planned Parenthood Association (SVPPA), an associate of Caribbean FamUy Planning Affiliation and the Intt;mational Planned Parenthood Federation. SVPPA provided the country's only contraceptive ser vices, including counselling, up to 1976. It

PAGE 206

continues to supply and distribute some birth control devices, recently embarked on a com munity-based distribution program, and has plans to re-open its clinic with an expanded range of services. Much of its focus is on edu cation. All active and well-organized Na tional Family Planning Program (NFPP) is housed within the Ministry of Health :md the Environment. NFPP was organized in 1975 to augment the educational efforts of the SVPPA with additional educational and direct medical services in the family planning area. NFPP services are provided through the existing network of 35 primary health care a!nters throughout the country. A program of "Family Life Education" is taught in all pri mary schools in the state. When it met resis tance from parents at its inception ten years ago, the scope 0f the program was broa(lened to include activif.ies to help youngsters set goals and assume personal responsibility as well as learn about reproductive biology and contraception. The program now apparently enjoys strong support ,;ountry-wide (pers. comm., K. Israel, NFPP Administrator, Feb., 1990), although only recently has there been a sys\ematic attrmpt to train teachers in this area. In Febfllary 1988, GSVG officially accepted a document produced by CAR!COM "A Statement of National Population Policy for St. Vincent and the Grenadines." This is an ambitious proposal, giving an overview of SVG population history and demographics and projecting future trends. It sets out concrete goals, strategies and recommendations for population control. The National Family Planning Program (NFPP) has already implemented many of these and is working on most of the others. A divisiun of NFPP called the National Population and Development Unit, which will be the implementation body for the Population Policy, has been formed. 176 9.4.2 Probleml InclIIIU88 IMPACf OF POPULATION GROWI'H ON NATIONAL OEVEWPMENT Despite very high birth rates, popula tion growth in St. Vincent and the Grenadines has generally been tempered by the emigra tion of substantial numbers of people over a period of many years. However, emigration is a potentially volatile factor, subject to external influences, and changes could occur at any time (see also Section 1.3.1). The present population of St. Vincent and the Grenadines is estimated at approxi mately 113,000. Several studies (Bouvier, 1984; CARICOM, 1988) suggest that the na tion/s population capacity" (i.e., the upper limit for a "reasonable" zero-growth population size) may be in the neighborhood of only 125,000 to 150,000 people. If the emi gration "safety valve" was no longer effective (other factors being equal), this would cause a corresponding rise in the rate of population growth and the country could soon fmd itself in a rapidly worsening situation (see Table 9.3(1) and Figure 9.3(1) for various popula tion growth scenarios). Infrastructure prob lems (e.g., schools, housing, sanitil.tion, water supply, roads) are already serious, and a more rapidly increasing population would place ad ditional stress on the natural and socia-eco nomic resow'ces of the country. Such consid erations point to the need to examine strate gies for further reducing the birth rate. In a youthful population such as the one in St. Vincent and the Grenadines, there is a built-in "momentum of growth". Even though fertility rates are decreasing, the num ber of women now in their child-bearing years is so large that births continue to exceed deaths. If present trends of decreaskg birth rates continue, however, this difference will gradually diminish and disappear in about two generations (70 years). The segment of the population aged 15-44 has increased over the last few decades; it was 33 percent between 1960-1970, rising to 40 percent between 1970-1980. This is a fac tor based on the number of children born

PAGE 207

Table 9.3(1). Population projections, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, 1980 2030. Scenario 1S80 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 A 97,845 114,375 137,137 165,316 201,903 248,972 B 97,845 116,751 126,997 139,149 147,377 150,505 C 97,845 109,058 116,352 123,980 128,079 128,641 0 97,845 123,034 140,275 160,593 177,469 189,256 E 97,845 128,788 174,197 232,302 308,803 408,020 A: TFR of 4.5, net emigration of 1,000 B: TFR of 2.1, net emigration of 500 C: TFR of 2.8, net emigration of 1,000 0: TFR of 2.1, net migration of 0 E. TFR of 4.5, net migration of 0 Source: Bouvier, 1934. Population r----------------------_ 240,000 160,000 80,000 1980 -----------:.------"--------------C ----------.... ---------1990 200G 2010 2020 A: TFR of 4.5, net emigration of 1,000 B: TFR of 2.1, net emigration of 500 C: TFR of 2.8, net emigration of 1,000 2030 Figure 9.3(1). St. Vincent and the Grenadines national population proJections, 1980 -2030 (source: Bouvier, 1984). In

PAGE 208

LABOR FORCE 90,000 60,000 30,000 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 A: TFR of 4.5, NET EMIGRATION OF 1,000 B: TFR of 2.1, NET EMIGRATION OF 500 C: TFR of 2.8, NET EMIGRATION OF 1,000 Figure 9.3(2). 5t. Vincent and the Grenadines national labor force projections (source: Bouvier, 1984). between 196D-1964, when birth rates were at their highest: children born then are now in prime f.hild-bearing years. Even if this group of Vincentian "baby-bo,)mers" continues tbe trend of decreasing birth rates, the population will contim1c to increase due to their numbers; this growth will be m0fC pi'ODounced and prololJged if birth rates among this group do not-:ontinue to drop (CARICOM, 1987). The dependency ratio (proportion of tilose under 15 or over 64 per 100 persons aged 15-64) in St Vincent and the Grenadines has been very high in the recent past. In 1970, it was 127:100. Eecausf! of declining fertility, the ratio in 1980 was 98:100. Although this meant that fewer working-age people were required to support the young and the old, the ratio remains high when compared with 178 Barbados (78) or Antigua and Barbuda (62) (Bouvier, 1984). Between 1970 and 1980 the percent age of the population over 65 grew by 33 per cent (from 4,190 to 5,613). This trend, which will continue as the present population ages in the face of decreased death rates, will place additional stress on the country's resources, especially in areas of health care and infras tructure. In the 1980 census, 65 percent of the population met the definition of being "in the labor force" (see Figure 9.3(2) for various labor force projections to the year 2030). Two-thirds of this force were men. Depend ing on the criteria used, unemployment rates in 1980 were between 19.5 percent and 23.5

PAGE 209

POPULATION FUTURES In order to estimate future growth trends for a nation, various assumptions must be made about rates of fertility, mortality and net emigration. The changes (or lack of changes) in these factors will determine future population size. The problem in St. Vincent and the Grenadines is that hard data regarding the current values of these parameters are not available; the results of the 1990 census will therefore be of great interest to planners. In the meanwhile, any predictions of future popUlation trends are at best tenuous. For example, Figure 9.3(1) shows the projected population size under three hypothetical scenarios constructed by Bouvier (1984), which make various assumptions about net emigration rates and fertility rates: Scenario A assumes a total fertility rate of 4.5 and a net emigration at the current level of about 1,000 per year. Scenario B assumes that the total fertility rate is reduced to the replacement level of 2.1, and that the current level of net emigration would be cut by half to around 500 persons per year, pri marily due to an imposition of immigration quotas by popular destinations. Scenario C assumes the current (1988) total fertility of 2.8 and current net emigration of 1,000 persons per year. Projected expansion of the labor force (Bouvier, 1984) is presented decade by decade in Figure 9.3(2), under the same three alternative growth scenarios as above. This projection indi cates that under all assumptions illustrated, the country's labor force will grow substantially for at lea'it the next twenty or thirty years and that a decline in net emigratio'l would pose major prob lems of unemployment (all other factors being equal). Table 9.3(1) presents the numerical results of the above three plus two additional scenarios for different components of the popUlation. (N.B. Although these projections use a 1980 popula tion size of 97,845, this was subsequently adjusted to 102,000 by GSVG [see Section 1.3.1]. Total Fertilily Rate (TFR) is the average number of live births per woman.) These examples from Bouvier are used for illustrative purposes only. However, given the information available on current population size, net emigration and TFR in St. Vincent and the Grenadines, it seems as if scenario C may come closest to the pattern of growth that has actually occuned. percer.t. Unemployment rates for teenagers and those 20-24 are significantly higher than for the population as Cl whole, and increasing unemployment rates have had more impact on those under 30 than any other age group (CARl COM, 1987). Furthermore, since the 1544 age-group is the most rapidly increasing sector of the population (after the high birth rates of the 1950's and 1960's), the size of the 179 labor force increases with the size of this group. The continuing loss of skilled labor ers, primarily to the United States, Canada, and England, is also a matter of serious con cern to St. Vincent and the Grenadines. However, attempts to reverse this trend must also consider the effect which the emigration option has had on population, namely, that

PAGE 210

high net emigration has in general reduced the rate of population growth. NATIONAL GOALS FOR POPULATION GROWfH AND FERTILITY The goal of the country's national population policy is to reduce the annual rate of population growth from 1.3 percent to 0.7 percent per year so that the total population wiU not exceed 150,000 in the year 2030. In order to achieve this, the policy sets forth the following fertility goals: 1. r. '. -duce the average number of children per woman to 2.1 so that the TFR will be around 2.8 by the year 2000. The 1938 TFR was already 2.8 according to the Family Planning Department (pers. comm., K. Israel, FPD Administrator, Feb. 1990). 2. Reduce the current fertility rate of teenagers to one half its present rate by the year 2000. Teenage fertility rates, while still high, are on the decline. Among girls aged 10-19, birth rates in 1984 were 124 per thou sand (7,063 girls, 874 births). In 1987, the last year for which these statistics are available, the rate was 90 per thousand (7,315 girls, 661 births). In 1988, teenage births accounted for 25 percent of all births in the state (635 of 2,531 total). 3. Increase the proportion of women in the reproductive age group who are contra ceptors to 68 per cent. Current contraceptive compliance rate for women is 61 percent. 4. Increase the proportion of male contraceptors to 25 percent. Male contracep tive use is presently at about five percent. These very specific goals are being addressed by a number of programs discussed in Section 9.4.1, e.g., Family Life Education, widespread and easily accessible contracep tion services, and special focus on adolescents and their particular needs. NFPP's near-fu ture goals include expanding outreach and services f 0 adolescents and increasing male participalion in contraception. 180 9.5 POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS INTEGRATION OF PHYSICAL AND ECONOMIC PLANNING Perhaps the most important condi tion for sustainable development is for envi ronmental and economic concerns to be merged in decision-miling, otherwise even the best land use planning efforts will meet with limited success. The feasibility of im plementing a system of national illcome ac counts which includes natural resoarce assets should be e)plored not only by St. Vincent and the Grenadines, but by the OECS coun tries collectively. Donor support should be sought for an Eastern Caribbean regional fea sibility project to study the costs and benefits of implementing such an accounting system and of extending the concept of tlepreciation to natural resource assets (see Section 1.3.2). The real (often hidden) costs of re source allocation decision-making need to be accounted for internalizing environmental costs in prices. e.g., the principle of "the re source user and/or the polluter pay". Addi tionaUy, it is increasingly important that na tional economic polides, budgets and subsi dies that actively, if unintentionally, encourage environmental degradation be reformed. LAND USE PLANNING A national land use plan needs to be prepared, incorporating and updating c;ome or all of the many sectoral plans which have been written, and focusing on the meaos of achieving sustainahle development over the long term. The land use plan should attempt to guide future development into areas which are best suited for particular kinds and densi ties of land use, based on physical and eco logical constraints as well as national social and economic priorities. The watershed should be adopted as the appropriate man agement unit for land use planning. The preparation of new land use maps should be the initial step in the process of designing a land use and growth manage ment plan for the nation. The degree of cor-

PAGE 211

relation between land capability and present land use should be determined after new land use maps are generated, and areas in which there are serious discrepancies should receive priority attention for remedial and/or restoration programs. Critical areas -such as habitat for endangered and threatened species, important watersheds and catchment areas, aquifers, wetIand:3, beaches, marine reserves, major diving sites, forest reserves and recreation areas, wildlife reserves, vistas and roads, historic and archaeological sitl!s, and natural tourist attractions -should be delin eated on the maps for incorporation into a national parks and protected areas system. DEVEWPMENT CONTROL Consideration should be given to updating the institutional structure and legal powers of the Physical Planning and Devel opment Board so that it can require other GSVG agencies to comply with its decisions and regulations; a more effective system of development control, including monitoring and enforcement responsibilities, is also needed. Consideration should be given to implementing a nation-wide watershed man agement program for purposes of develop ment control in these critical areas. A techni cal advisory group should be created tl) sup port the PPDB in decision-making related to integrated watershed management. '" The Central Planning Division needs to create and maintain a functional land use data base and informatbn-management system, i.Iduding new large scale aerial pho togrnphs and land use maps, up-to-date cadastral maps, and land ownership informa tion. There is a need to increase the level of training in information management within the CPO and to provide a capability for on going monitoring of land use changes. Legislation is needed to require the preparation of environmental impart assess ments for major projects, especially within the coastal zone and other critical areas identified in this Prome. A draft revision of the Town 181 and Country Planning Act, prepared by an OAS consultant and submitted recently to the Attorney General for review, makes provision for EIAs (pers. comm., W. McCalla, OAS consultant, June 1990). Appropriate stan dards for development should be included in the proposed legislation and, when enacted, such stdndards should be rigorously enforced. An institutional capability for interpreting, and later carrying out, the technical aspects of environmental impact assessment needs to be created within the CPO and other appropriate GSVG agencies. The existing "Physical Planning and Development Guidelinesw could form the basis for legally adopted regulations to the Town and Country Planning Act, but they would have to be strengthened by the addition of standards for various kinds of develop ments, the inclusion of environmental \mpact assessment requirements, and provisions for regulation of public sector, coastal and agri cultural developments. PARKS AND OTHER PROTECTED AREAS A parks and protected areas plan is needed to ensure that all critical natural and culturaJ resources receive adequate and that management is carried out ill :ill in tegrated fa3hion. A single agency should be given the task of coordinating resource man agement fur parks and protected areas. Allo cation of manpower resources for entol ce ment and management activities should be made on the basis of priorities established in the plan. HISTORICAL, ARCHAEOWGICAL AND CULTURAL SITES The National Trust has set as one of its program goals the establishment of a National Registry and has made some progress toward this objective with funding from UNESCO; the Trust is presently seeking to identify additional support to expand and complete the project. In order to fully imple ment this task, the Trust will need to: include archaeological sites;

PAGE 212

classify and evaluate all sites more systematically and comprehen sively; establish priorities which assess high risk as opposed to less threatened sites; establish the development poten tial of selected sites (for tourism, educational programs, etc.), per haps in consultation with other government agencies; put in place an acquisition sched ule; eventually develop management criteria which mlDlmlZe and regulate intrusions or distur bances to sites included on the Registry. Government should give consider ation to the of a Kingstown Historic District and to promotion of devei opment control guidelines in the District which redur.e non-compatible U5es not in keeping with the historical character of the town. Government could encourage adaptive use and restor""!un strategies by the employ ment of economic and other incentives and by adnption of design control regulations for new construction, perhaps along the lines of the recently released OAS recommendations for St. John's, Antigua (OAS, 1989). 182 GSVG, in cooperation with the National Trust, should review the provisions of the 1976 Act for the Preservation of His toric Buildings and Antiquities to determine why the legislation has not been enforced and what revisions could make its implementation feasible. POFULATION CONTROL Control of population growth has been reCl)gnized by GSVG a<; an important social issue. A decrease in the birth rate is linked to the long-term succr;ss of i:l'fly national environmental protection .i:::enda in st. Vincent and the Grenadines. While enc;')ur aging steps have been taken through the pro vision of family planning education and ser vices, a greater eifort will be required to ac complish the stated goals of the National Population Policy. This will involve, among other things, increased efforts to deal with the major underlying constraints which efforts to curb high birth rates (e.g., high un employment, low income kvels, illiteracy, poor housing conditions). Underlyin[ factors could be better identified and clarified by carrying out a national "knowledge, atti tudes, bdiefs and practices" survey to gl.ude family planning policy makers. and outreach activities need to be but other options for facilitating should not be neglected, such as expansion of facilities for services or efforts to improve the cooperation of medical practitioners.

PAGE 213

SECTION 10 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOA EN"IRONMENTAL 10.1 GOVE!RNMENT st. Vincent and the Grenadines is a constitutional monarchy within the British Commonwealth of Nations. The Head of State, the British monarch, is represented by the Governor-General who is appointed on the advice of the Prime Minister. The Gover nor-General appoints ao; Prime Minister the elected leader of the majority party in the House of Assembly. Legislative power is vested in Parlia menl, which comprises a House of Assembly with i5 representatives, elected five years, and six senators who are appointed by the Governor-General (four on the advicc of the Prime Minister and two on the advitc of the Leader of thc Opposition). Executive power is vested in the Cabinet. Government is presently organized as follows: Prime Minister's Office, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and Police Ministry of Finance, Plan ning, and Development Mimstry of Housing, Local Govcrnment and Commu nity Development Ministry of Education, Youth, Sports and Women's Affairs Ministry of Agriculture, In dustry and Labor Ministry of Communications and Works Ministry of Health and the Environment Ministry of Jwtice, Informa tion and Culture Ministry of Trade and Tourism. The country's legal system is based on English Common Law. For the adminis tration of justice, the country is divided into three Magisterial Districts, and the highest local judicial body io; the Court of Appeal of the Leeward and Windward Islands. 10.2 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT POUCIES Local initiatives to protect natural re sources developed early in St. Vincent when, almost two hundred years ago in 1791, the King's Hill Forest Reserve --possibly the first in the Eastern Caribbean --was established. St. Vincent also boasts the oldest (1765) botanical garden in the Western Hemisphere, a local attraction which is still flourishing to day. Yet, despite this early leadership and even more recent legislative gains at the beginning of this century (e.g., Birds and Fish Protection Ordinance of 1901), substantive changes in the area of environmental man agement and protection did not develop in st. Vincent --or in other Eastern Caribbean is lands --until the 1940's, beginning with en actment of the Forests Act of 1945, and fol lowed in the next three decades by legislation governing establishment of a National Trust (1969), soil and water conservation practices (1950's), planning and development control (1976), and regulation of public health (1977). A new Central P}anning Unit was created in 1978 on the eve of Independence. 183

PAGE 214

The decade of the 1980's produced even more significant advancements, perhaps best illustrated by a body of approved or pro posed legislation designed to strengthen Gov ernment's ability to protect and manage re sources and to plan and control development A new Fisheries Act was implemented in 1986 and a Wildlife Protection Act in 1987; draft forest conservation legislation which provides f,!r improved watershed protection is expected to be enacted in 1990; a draft water resources act and regulations were prepared with the as sistance of an FAO-supported legal consultant and revised by an OAS consultant; a prelimi nary design for national parks legislation is under consideration; and the OAS legal con sultant has also prepared and submitted a re vision of the Town and Country Planning Act as well as draft Anti-litter Act and Pesticide Regulations. During the same period, with assis tance from a North American NGO, the Forestry Division stepped up efforts to expand environmental education programs and to protect the rain forest habitat of the endan gered St. Vincent parrot. Over 10,000 acres were set aside as a Parrot Reserve, while Government took steps to control illegal trade by ratifying the global Convention on Interna tional Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). More recently, with technical aid from CIDA, the Forestry Division launched a long-term development program to up-grade forest management and conservation in country. During the 1980's Government also focused attention on the improvement of national development planning, including (1) reorganization of the Ministry of Finance and Planning with a restyled Central Planning Division as the technical focal point in the planning process and (2) the publication of a three-year development plan in 1986, followed by an up-date the following year. During this period, the emergence of official interest in physical development planning was attributed in part to heightened concern over environ mental degradation (GSVG, 1986). As the decade drew to a close, a ma rine park plan was prepared for the Tobago Cays in the Grenadines, a new Environmental Protection Task Force to advise Government 184 was created, and the Prime Minister desig nated the 1990's as the Decade of the Envi ronment in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Equally important, the long inactive St. Vincent National Trust became once more a viable organization. It sponsored an aggres sive membership campaign in 1989 to stimu late interest and growth and had, bj early 1990, opened new offices in Kingstown. Almost as a complement to the reju venation of the Trust, a reorganization of gov ernmental departments in 1989 resulted in the creation of a new Ministry of Health and the Environment, making St. Vincent one of the few Caribbean governments to highlight the environment in delegating ministerial respon sibilities. Nevertheless, while the institutional framework for environmental management has been strengthened in the last decade, many challenges still remain. In the rust place, several legislative initiatives, while promising, have not yet been officially enacted (e.g., new forestry and watershed manage ment legislation, a draft anti-litter law, a pro posed water resources act and regulations, national parks draft legislation, and a revised, consolidated version of Town and Country Planning Laws and Regulations). Other irn. portant legislation is seriously outdated, the most critical being the Public Health Act of 19n, which also lacks regulations. Furthermore, while primary respon sibility for the environment has recently shifted, at least symbolically, to the year-old Ministry of Health and the Environment, an organizational basis for the Ministry's newen vironmental responsibilities has not yet been introduced; nor have clear lines of authority been established to the environ mental mission of the new Ministry with the responsibilities of other, longer-established Government departments. issues of consensus-building, accountability, Iir.es of communication, and coordination functions must still be addressed before the potential leadership role of the new Ministry in the en vironmental sector can be realized.

PAGE 215

10.3 GOVEqNMENT INSTITUTIONS CONCERNED WITH ENVIRON MENTAL MANAGEMENT Responsibility for environmental management in st. Vincent is dispersed among a number of departments of Govern ment. Tahle 10.3(1) identifies key institu tional responsibilitip.s, along with enabling or relevant legislation. No single agency of Government is charged with responsibility for the environ ment, although the newly created Ministry of Health and the Environment could potentially assume such a role. Despite the lack of a strong centralized agency for environmental management, St. Vincent has over time: (1) strengfhened the national planning and development con trol process (which, df'spite problems discussed below and in Section 9, has been identified by one observer [Lausche, 1986] as among the most functional in the region); al:d (2) attempted to structure several forms of inter-agency coordimtion which have the potential to improve overall e.r.vironmental accountability within Government and to lessen fragmentation of envi ronmental responsibilities. A discussion of the key divisions of Government with environmental responsibili ties and of important environmental legisla tion follow!:. PLANNING AND DEVEWPMENT CONTROL Since the mid-1960's, various at tempts have been made to institutionalize de velopment planning in St. Vincent. Prior to 1978, physical plan !ing activities were primar ily confmed to new developments adminis-185 tered by the Central Housing and Planning Authority. In 1966 a FiveYeruDevelopment Plan for St. Vincent was drawn up by the Colc'nial Administration, shortly thereafter !>y enactment of a La;ld Develop ment Control Act (No. 37, 1%8). A Devel opment ContI 01 Authority was set up but largely did not fulfill its mandate due to a lack of trained staff (UNDP, 1977). An embryonic Physical Planning Unit was established within the Ministry of Finance in 1975. However, it was not until after en actment of a new planning law, the ':"OWD and Country Plamdng Act (No.8, 1976), that a full Central Planning Unit (CPU) was estab lished wilhin the Ministry of Finance. The CPU was set up in 1978 and was initially envi sioned as a coordinating office responsible for dealing with donor agencies and for the de velopment and 1Or...itoring of public sector projects (GSVG, 1986). A new Draft St. Vincent National Plan (1976-1990) was prepared by a UNDP consulting team in 1976, as part of a statutory requirement !)f the Town and Country Plan ning law. This plan l'eportedly received little support from Government and haE. been de scribed by one local planner as "& technical document imposed by foreign experts rather than a plan reflecting the views and aspira tions of the people in St. Vincent" (Browne, 1985). (Section 9.1 of the "Profile provides more details about past and present national planning efforts.) The role and mission of the CPU were reviewed in a study conducted by the OECS Economic Affah::; Secretariat in 1983. Recommendations growing out of that study were primarily accepted by Government a.t!d in the current organization of the CPU: which has been renamed the Central Planning Division (CPO). The scope of ac tivities of the Division has been considerably expanded, and its reflect the Gov ernment's integrated approach to develop ment planning, now comprising both an Eco nomic Planning Unit (EPU) and a Physical Planning Unit (PPU), as well as a Statistical Office and Manpower Planning Office.

PAGE 216

.--------._--Table 103(1). GSVG 3gendes with resource management functions, with principal lcgi.slOltion and key AGE-NCY RESf" W{cE MANAGEMENT LEGISLA nON MINlS'"nflY or FINANCE, Pu\NNING, AND DEVELOPMEr-ff Cermlll Planning Livi sion/Physical Planning Unit Physical Planning and Development Board Planning and Priorilies Commitr.ee Town and Planning Act (No.8, 19"76) Town and Cv.'.r;try (Ar .. endment) Act (No. I, 1981) fC'WII and Country (Amendment) Act (No. 30, 1983) T09ffl Ilnd (.:ountry Plannirlg Regulations (No. 24, 19W) Town and Country Planning Act (No.8, 1976), as amended (No.1, 1981; No. 30, 19!13) MINIS'r.lY OF 'SiRlCln1TURE. INDUSfRY AND lABOR Agriculture: Extension and Advisory Se rvir.e:; -Tree Crop Develop ment Unit Research Unit Soil and Wattr Conservation Unit Lands IIInd Surveys Agriculture Ordinance (No. 23, 1951) Agriculture Ordinan.:e (Amendment) (No. 21, 1956) Agricultural Small '-,ancies Act (No. 16, 1957) Crown Lands Ordinar:ce (1906); 77(1926) Crown Lands (Amentfment) Ordinance, No. 22 of 1945, No. 19 of 1946, No. 12 of 1947 Crown Lands (Sale) Regulations (No. 24, 1933 Crown Lands Regulations (No. 25, 1983) Pesticide Control Board Pesticides Control Art (No. 23 of 1973) 186 RESOURCE MANAGEMENf RESPONSlBlLmES Preparation of physical developmenl plans; administration of development control; advise on environmental mnllers; Secretariat to Pl:ysical Planning and Development Board DeciSion-making authority for develC'pment activities Revi-:"" and malee recommendations regarding dt'velopment plans, projects an!! programs; Central Planning Division ,;erves as Secretariat to PPC Extension services, research, agronomy and soil conservation Undertake surveys for all Government Departments Control of the importation, distribution and usc of pesticides (continued)

PAGE 217

Table 10.3(1) [continued), GSVG agencies with resource management functions, with principal legislation and key respDnsibilities. AGENCY Forestry Division Fisheries Division National Trust RESOURCE MANAGEMENT LEGISlATION Forests Ordinance (Cap. 23, No. 25 of 1945) Crown Land Forest Produ.:e Rules (Cap. 23, No. I, 1946) Crown Forest Proclamation (Cap. 23, No.2,1946) Crown Lands Forest Reserves (Declaration) Order (Cap. 23, No.3, 1948) Crown Lands (Prohibited Areas) Order (Cap. 23, No.4, 1948) Wildlife Protection Act (No. 16 of 1987) lkach Protection Act (No. 10 of 1981) Fisheries Act (No.8, 1986) Fisheries Act Regulations (SRO No. I, 1987) Maritime Areas Act (No. 15 of 1983) St. Vincent National Trust Ordinance (No. 32, 1969) St. Vincent National Trust (Amendment) (No. 29 of 1971) MINISTRY OF COMMUNICATIONS AND WORKS Ministry of Communications and Works Central Water and Sewerage Authority Central Water and Sewerage Authority Act (No.6,1978) IU amended (No. 11, 1985) Central Water Authority (Water Supply) Regulations, as amended (No. 30, 1973) MINISTRY OF rusnca INFORMATION AND CUL11JRE Department of CultUI'C 187 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBJLmES Protection and management of the nation's forests and wildJi(e Designated as lead agency to coordinate all aspects of beach protection Promotion and management of fisheries; pro,ection of marine reserves Establishes SVG's EEZ Protection and preservation of the country's national Responsible for management of quarries and mining operations Conservation, apportionment and usc of water resources Preservation orthe nation', cultural heritage (continued)

PAGE 218

Table 10.3(1) [continued]. GSVG agencies with resource management functions, with principal legislation and key responsibilities. AGENCY RESOURCE MANAGEMENT LEGISlA110N MINISTRY OF HEAL TIl AND TIlE ENVlRONMENf Public Health Det1!rtment Environmental Protection Task Force Public Health Act (No.9, 19'n) Public Health (Amendment) Act (No.6, 1985) MINISTRY OF TRADE AND TOURISM RESOURCE MANAGEMENI' RESPONSIBILmES Maintenance of eevironmental health Policy advisory board to Government regarding directions and focw; for the Ministry Act for the Preservation of Historic Buildings and Antiquities (No.9 of 1976) Affords protection to historic structures and sites The mid-1980's reorganization of the Ministry of F'mance, Planning and Develop ment reflected Government's large,. commit ment to more formal national development planning. In 1986 Cabinet approved a new comprehensive Development Plan, 1986-1988, which was prepared by the CPD with assis tance from several donor agencies including UNDP, OECS, OAS, and CDB. An update was is=iued in 1987, and the CPD is currently at work on a new National Development Plan for 1991-94 (see also Section 9). To further strt:ngthen the planning process, a new coordinating body at the high est level of Government was created concur rently with preparation of the 1986-88 Devel opment Plan. The Planning Dnd Priorities Committee (PPC) was established as an inter agency body to review and make recomme.n dations to Cabinet regarding development plans, projects and programs. The Committee is chaired by the Prime Minister {Minister of 188 rmance and consists, in addition, of the Min ister of Trade, Industry and Agriculture (now reorganized as the Ministry of AgricuitW'e, Industry and Labor at'id the Ministry of Tracie and Tourism), the Minister of Communica tions and Works, the technical and adminis trative heads of these Ministries, the Director of the Ministry of rmance, Planning and De velopment, and the Deputy Director responsi ble for Planning who performs the duties of Secretary. The Central Planning Division functions as Secretariat to the Committee (GSVG, 1986). The rus[ Annual Update to the Gov ernment's Development Plan identified the PPC as the institution responsible for the co ordination of development in the country. It also pointed out that a recent report from the Caribbean Development Bank had com mended the Committee for having succeeded in developing and updating the national plan-

PAGE 219

ning agenda in St. Vincent and the Grenadines (GSVG, 1987). Development control activities in the country are the responsibility of the Pbyslcal Planning and Development Board which was created by the Town and Country Planning Act of 1976. The Board has broad regulatory powers to control development activities in the state and is still functional today, meeting monthly to consider development applications. Its membership is comprised of the Director of Planning, Manager of the Devel opment Corporation, Chief Engineer, Chief Agricultural Officer, Chief Surveyor, Public Health Superintendent, General Manager of the Housing and Land Development Corpo ration, Manager of the Central Water and Sewerage Authority, and three other ap pointed persons not in public service. At pre sent, there is no representation on the Board from the environmental component of the Ministry of Health and the Environment. Be cause of its broad inter-ministerial base, Lausche (19R6) points out that the Board functions like a coordinating body for plan ning and development conlrol decision-mak ing in the country. The Physical Plann2ng Unit within the CPD serves as the Secretariat to the Board and provides the Board with technical staff. Additionally, the PPU is charged with the preparation of physical development plans and with the administratio>1 of development control regulations. In effect, the PPU fulfills the dual functLms of development planning and development control. The office also maintains that one of its responsibillities t; to advise Government on environmental matters and to assist in environmental management. Although there is no staff position specifically designated for this assignment, a planning technician is presently pursuing a one-year diploma in environmental management and will be returning to the office in mid-1990. Lausche (1986) points out that one weakness in the planning and development control process in St. Vincent is the lack of substantive regulations which provide better direction to developers about the applica tion/approval process and which specify crite-189 ria and conditions for major developmeul ac tivities. Admmistrative guidelines are cur rently used by the PPU (see Section 9.1.1), and these could be strengthened, according to Lausche, by the enactment of regulations. A new draft planning law, with regulations, was recently &ubmitted by an OAS consultant to the Attorney General's office for review comm., W. McCalla, OAS legal consultant, June 1990). is no official "national land use plan" for SVG, no update has completed to the physical development strategy included in the UNDP National Plan of 1976, and the PPU has not scheduled preparation of a com prehensive land use plan for the near future (pers. com., R. Cato, Director of Planning, 1990). Thus, the responsibilities of PPU are presently carrieo out in the absence of an accepted physical planning framework. Lausche (1986) also points Oi.Jt that developwent activities u.ndertaken by GSVG agencies are not formally submitted to the Physical Planning and Development Board for approval. As an inter-agency body, the Board might informally review such activities (as might the PPC for projects), but there is no formal procedure requiring that Government development pians be submitted to the Board. One observer reporteJ that as much as 50 percent cf all new development and over 80 percent of all land subdivisions and changes of land use may be impiemented outside of the CUlTem development wntrol framework (Browne, 1985). Another weakness of the current planning and development control ac cording to Lausche (1986) is its emphasis on urban and industrial development and the concurrent weakness of the process when dealing with rural land use or natural resource regulation. Browne (1985) also points to a weak data base and a low level of tramed manpower as additional problems. rmally, there are no requirements for an environ mental impact assessment for deveillpment activities or proredures which mandate that such a review be carried out by the PPU be fore presenting its recommendations to the Physical Planning and Development Board. However, provisions for EIA requirements

PAGE 220

have been made in the proposed revisions to the Town and Country Planning Act (pers. comm., W. McCalla, OAS legal consultant, June 1990). DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTIJRE A Soil and Water Conservation Unit (SWCUT) was set up within the Ministry of Agriculture in 1988 in response to growing concern about soil erosion and the need to improve soil conservation techniques among small farmers. At present, the unit is staffed by only three persons, one on temporary as signment. The agricultural officer who heads the Unit is preparing a five-year soil conser vation program to include public education, demonstration farms, data collection, and soil erosion surveys. relating to soil conserva tion is also in need of review and revision. The legal authority calling for environmentally sound agricultural practices dates to the 1950's, when ordinances were enacted (see Table 10.3(1 which require owners and oc cupiers of agricultural lands to mt:ntain good estate management and husbandry practices in order to prevent soil erosion (Lausche, 1986). Agriculture legislation from this period also provided for the establishment ot local level Agricultural Committees to which land holders may appeal if served with notice foc violation of soil and water conservati()n re sponsibilities. Additionally, tenants renting crown lands entt-r into a contract with Government requiring them to utilize soil and water conservation practices. However, in his review of legislation, Main (1989) found that soil conservation laws were either not being used or were rarely en forced. Fines are outdated, and the Agricul ture Act itself was written for a large estate tenure situation which no longer prevails. Even with revised legislation, however, en forcement would be difficult given the fact that SWCUT is a new government agency in the process of developing programs and priorities with a very limited staff. The Ministry's Extension and Advi sory Services Division, in addition to provid-190 ing customary field services for farmers, oper ates the Botanic Gardens and supports a small Tree Crop Development Program (which at present includes a BOD-funded project for mangos). The Ministry also supports a small (one person) Research Unit which lends ser vices to the Extension Division, works in col laboration with CAROl's St. Vincent office, and monitors rainfall in the country's eig .llt agricultur 11 districts. The Ministry of Agricuhure has re sponsibility for administration of the Beach Protection Act (No. 10, 1981) which provides Co.' the protection of beaches and the regula tiun of sand removal. Applications for per mission to remove sand from beaches are re quired, but the law has never been fully en forced. Only recently has the Minister of Agriculture proposed that the Forestry Divi sion be the lead agen';}' for coordinating all aspects of beach protection, and the geologist attached to the Soufriere Monitoring Unit is currently advising the Ministry in this area. The Ministry of Communications and Works is responsible for management of quarries and mining operations, but it is not clear what the institutional relationship between the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Works will be relative to beach protection and regulation of sand mwing. Regulations to the 1981 Beach Protection Act have never been issued, but proposed regulations are under review by GSVG. Another piece of legislation which fuUs under the authority of the Ministry of Agriculture but which has not been substan tially enforced is the Pesticides Control Act (No. 23, 1973), which legislates control proce dures for the importation, sale, storage, and use of pesticides. The law also establishes a Pesticide Control Board, but Lausche re ported in 1986 that it was unclear how fre quently the Board met or how active it was in implementing the law (Lausche, 1986). This situation is due in part, according to DeGeorges (1989), to the lack of regulations which limit the enforcement capacity of the Board. The Ministry has requested assistance from OAS to upcJate the legislation and to provide regulations; the latter have been drafted by an OAS consultant and submitted to the Attorney General for review (pers.

PAGE 221

comm., W. McCalla, OAS legal consultant, June 1990). The Pesticide Cnntrol Board was recently revitalized and is receiving advisory support from St. Lucia; its chairman is the Chief Agricultural Officer. However, until regulations are enacted, the Board has little or no control over the import, distribution or use of pesticides in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. COMMODl1Y ASSOCIATIONS Two commodity associations in the agricultural sector have responsibilities broadly linked to resource development and resource management functions. Both were created by statute but function as quasi governmental bodies. The St. Vintcnt Arrowr.oot Industry Association (SV AlA) VIas originally formed ill 1930, but more recent legislation (No. 20, 1976) created the present day SV AlA. Its purpose is to encouragt production wd undertake thf.! processing of arrowroot and the marL'eting of arrowroot starch. Although it had some 2,600 recorded farmer/members in the early 1960's, current membership has declined to 65 and permanent staff reduced to six persons plus seasonal laborers, ooth figures reflecting a general downturn ill the industry (riCA, 1989). The St. VAnctnt Banana Growers Association (SVBGA) was created by statute in 1954 (Act No. 44), but that legislation was repealed in 1979 cy the Banana Industry Act (No. 10, 1978) to form the present SVBGA. The purpose of the Assodalton is to promote and control the banana industry and to provide production and marketing services for growers. In 1987, there were over 11,000 registered growen although only approx imately 5,500 were considered (I1CA, 1989). SVBGA does not have specific authority to regulate the cultivation practices of its members, llor does it appear to have a position relative to soil conservation and related environmental !ssues. It provides aerial and ground spraying semces fcr members as a part of its di.sease control program. 191 FORESTRY DMSION The staff level of the Forestry Division within the Ministry of Agriculture, In dustry and Labor is currently at 34, including 2 senior forestry supervisors, 10 forestry officers (5 untrained) and 24 forest guards. However, under a CIDA-funded Forestry Development Project (Can$4.52 million over the period 1989-94), it has been proposed that personnel will increase to approximately 50, and a new headquarters is to be provided. Additionally, a forest manageml!nt plan is to br developed, environmental education activities imple mented, agroforestry and social forestry pro jects supported, and the boundaries of the forest reserve surveyed and demarcated. New legislation (proposed Forest Re source Conservation Act) is also undergoing final review which, when enacted (anticipated in 1990), will forestry functions in Government under a new Forestry Depart ment, to replace current Forestry Division and to be headed by a Chief Forest Officer. The responsibilities of the Chief Forest Offi cer are detailed in the draft legislation and in clude management of forests, preparation of management plans, protection of watersheds, and the education of the public (McHenry and Gane, 1988). The new legislation would re place the existing Forests Ordinance which has guided management of these resources since 1945. It is designed to strengthen forestry management and conservation func tions by introducing modern forestry concepts such as management plan.s and conservation "zones" and by providing a more integrated approach to forest management and water shed protection. The Forestry Division is also respon sible for implementation of the Wildlife Pro tection Act (No. 16 of 1987) which, in part, replaced the much earlier (1901) Birds and Fish Protection Ordinance. In the absence of a Wildlife Protection Officer, the Chief Forest Officer is responsible for the management of wildlife, for the establishment and protection of wildlife reserves and for the enforcement of the Wildlife Act. At the present time, there is no Wildlife Protection Officer, although a wildlife specialist from the U.S. Peace Corps is currently assigned to the Division.

PAGE 222

A draft national parks law is also under consideration by Government which would provide thl' legislative base for the es tablishment of national parks in the country. The overall management of terrestrial parks WGuid be placed wirt:.in Forestry, according to the draft legislation, although there has been some cliscussion in Government of terrestrial parle management being given to the reactivp.ted National Trust. No terrestrial park areas have been der.igna1;(:d as yet. Other a.ctivities of [he Forestry Division focus on puhlic education. Substantial support for education was pro vided in 1988 by the U.S. organization RARE Center for Tropical Bh'd Conservation, which its efforts on thF. endangered st. Vi::lcent Parrot. An aggressive program sup ported by the Forestry Division brought envi ronmental educational aclivitie5 to lhe schOOls, churches, and community groups and substantially increased local awareness about wildlife conservf\tion in general and the St. parrot in particular. Under the current ClDA-funded forestry sUr,Jport progI am, lhis empnasis on environme!lta: education wi!1 continue. An erlvironme.l.lltal education specialist h&s been stationed by CIDA in St. Villcent fo ... a lWO year period, attached to the Forestry Division. Additionally, a Vincentiau counterpart, now receiving traiiling in Can:ldn, will be back on staff at Forestry by the end of 1990 (see "lso Section 9.3.1 of t!1e Proftle). Given the substantial rcl'ource man agement responsibilities already a5sumed by the Forestry Division and if.. view of th::: proposed leadership role for a reorganized Forestry Departmt:nt in such areas as water shed management and park devdopment, this unit of GSVG is presenlly and will to be a key resourCt: management in the country. Its abllity to efff-ctively carry out these responsibilities will depend iu large measure on the support it recdves for staff training and upgrade. Equally important will be a demonstration by Government tbt it places a high priority on those environmental concerns and identitied for the Foresh'Y Division in the new ley,islation and program plans discussed above and in Sec tions 2 and 9 of the Proflle. FISHERIES DMSION The management of fISheries, in cluding enhancement of catch productivity, re search and stock assessment, and maintenance of marine reserves, is the responsibility of the Fisheries Division within the Ministry of Agriculture, Industry and Labor. The Divi sion presently includes a Chief Fisheries Offi cer, one addit.ional Fisheries Officer and three Fisheries Extension Assistants (one for the Grenadines). That the Division is severely understaffed has been recognized by donor agencies working with the unit (e.g., FAO, CIDA) and by Division personnel. The nl'ed for more emphasis on extension work, im provement of data collection and statistical analysis, and expansion of educational pro grams have also been identified as important components in any restructuring of this GSVG resource management unit. The Division has put forward a reor ganization plan elevating it in status to a De partment of Fisheries which would report di rectly to the Permanent Secretary and would include an Extension Services Section. It has been proposed that personnel of a reorga nized Fisheries Departmel1t would need to be increased to 25-34 positions including two data collectors and five middle manage ment/professional positions with re sponsibility for quality control, aquaculture, extension and marketing, conservation, and data analysis. The substantial increase in size is dictated in part by the need to manage and coordinate a significant expansion of infras tructure currently being put into place with Japanese and Canadian foreign assistance. At the present time, much of the Di vision's work is focused on the new Kingstown Fish Market (funded with Japanese aid) and the development of new fisheries centers in the Grenadines (Union Island, Canouan and Bequia), to be funded by CIDA. The Division is also currently engaged in setting up a small laboratory for fish market quality control and basic water quality monitoring. With its small staff, the Division has not been able to give a 192

PAGE 223

high prtOrtty to management of designated marine conservation areas or to implementa tion of the Tobago Cays Marine Park Plan, but reportedly funds will soon be available for four park patrol rangers (pers. comm., K. Morris, Chief Fisheries Officer, 1990). Relevant legislation, the Fisheries Act (No.8, 1986), provides for the manage ment and development of fishing and fisheries in the state. Additionally, it gives the Minister the authority to identify and declare as marine reserves those fishery waters and adjacent land requiring special protective status. It is patterned after a unified draft law prepared by FAO and enacted by many islands in the re gion (Lausche, 1986). The Act also authorizes the Minister to make regulations for the tak ing of coral, shells, and aquarium fish, for the protection of turtles, lobsters and conchs, and for controllillg the importation and exporta tion of fish. Regulations were passed in 1987. In addition to recent donor support from the Japanese and CIDA, the country's fisheries program potentially benefits from the presence of OECS's Fisheries Unit which maintains its regional headquarters in Kingstown. The presence of the OECS unit in St. Vincent helps to focus attention on this re source management sector and could poten tially expand the pool of technical expertise available to Government in-country. ST. VINCENT NATIONAL TRUST The St. Vincent National Trust Or dinance (No. 32, 1969) established the St. Vincent National Trust as a statutory body to conserve and protect the historical and natural heritage of the country. The Trust is admin istered by a Board of Trustees consisting of not less than eight members, including the Minister (presently the Minister of Agricul ture), who is an ex officio member. The potential role of the Trust in re source conservation is substantial under the authorizing legislation. The Trust is empow ered lo raise funds, to acquire property, and to make regulations governing the use of property it holds (see also Section 9). Nev ertheless, after reaching a peak membership 193 of approximately 100 in the 1970's, by the mid-1980's, the Trust was no longer an active organization. It did continue, however, to manage the country's only museum (the Ar chaeological Museum in the Botanic Garden) and to receive a small annual subvention fwm Government for the operation of that facility. In 1989, the period of long inactivity for the Trust came to an end as a small ener gized group of Trust members, supported by the then Acting Governor General, embarked on an aggressive membership campaign and spearheaded the first annual general meeting held in maliy years. The Trust is now engaged in an energetic program of institution building and fund raising and has recently (February 1990) set up offices in Kingstown. The St. Vincent National Trust was named as the exe cutmg NGO for the St. Vincent Country Envi ronmental Profile Project. Although, in the early 1970's, the Government approved vesting of several properties in the Trust (see Section 9), the official transfer process has not been com pleted. Trust ownership and management of such properties as Fort George and Fort Duvernette received support ill a recent de velopment feasibility study of these sites (Arthur Young, 1989), and the1'e has been some discussion within Government of the Trust assuming responsibility for the man agement of terrestrial national parks. To date, regulations on the management of Trust properties have not been issued. The future role of the Trust in St. Vincent and the Grenadines is predicated at the present time on the organization's ability to demonstrate its long-term viability, on the effectiveness of current plans to build staff and strengthen institutional structure, and on the group's capacity to generate support and commitment within the country for its pro gram goals and priorities. CENTRAL WATER AND SEWERAGE AUTHORI1Y The Central Water and Sewerage Authority (CWSA) was established by legisla tion of the same title in 1978 (Central Water

PAGE 224

and Sewerage Authority Act, No.6, 1978) and is governed by an inter-ministerial Board. The Authority was given broad powers to pro vide for the conservation, control, apportion ment, and use of water resources. A labora tory for the monitoring of drinking water quality at public production facilities is main tained by CWSA. With the assistance of PARO and FAO legal consultants, the erosting water re sources legislation and administrative frame work have been analyzed, and a draft water resources act and regulations ccoe currently under review by the Ministry of Justice, In formation and Culture. The draft under re view had been further revised by an OAS con sultant (pers. comm., W. McCalla, OAS legal consultant, June 1990). Lausche (1986) had pointed out earlier that while the 1978 Act gave the Authority power to make regulations in such areas as water pollution control, soil conservation, and water quality regulation, such regulations had never been enacted. The proposed new legislation would expand the powers of the CWSA and man dates that the Authority prepare a national water resources development plan; construct and operate sewerage works; regulate private sewers, septic tanks and latrines; regulate commercial and industrial treatment of efflu ents; establish "protected zones" around water supplies; and impose substantial penalties for violations of anti-pollution laws. A Water Re sources Advisory Council would be estab lished to provide periodic, short-term, high level coordinated advice to those public au thorities charged with water management responsibilities. DEPARTMENT OF CULTURE The Department or Culture is housed within the Ministry of Justice, Information and Culture and is responsible for preserva tion of the country's cultural heritage and promotion of national art forms. It has no legislative mandate and is currently staffed by only one Cultural Officer. Some of the Department's responsi bilities, as defined in a national Cultural Pol194 icy, broadly overllip with those of the St. Vincent National Trust, such as the develop ment of museums, acquisition and restoration of historic buildings, and the acquisition of historical documents and artifacts. Little co ordination seems to exist at present between this GSVG department and the quasi-gov ernmental National Trust. Furthermore, im plementation of the Preservation of Historic Buildings and Antiquities Act is not thr-re sponsibility of the Department of Culture; the Ministry of Trade and Tourism is responsible for the Act, although, as stated in Section 9, this legislation has essentially never been im plemented. MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT In 1989 a new Ministry or Health and the Environment was formed. At present, the Ministry essentially comprises the public health services transferred from the former Ministry of Health. No organizational chart is yet available for the environmental functions of the Ministry, nor have these responsibilities been clearly c:efmed. Nevertheless, the Min istry carries primary responsibility for the en vironment within Government (pers. comm., A. Allen, Jr. Min., Min. of Health and the Env., 1990), and it also offers potential as a strong, centralizing force for environmental concerns within Government. Within the Ministry's Public Health Department, public health responsibilities are carried out under two broad divisions: Envi ronmental Health and Community Health. A Central Board of Health was established un der the Public Health Act (No.9, 1977), but it has not been functional <,ince 1979. The De partment coordinates some 'If its responsibili ties with the Central Water and Sewerage Authority which monitors drinking water sup plies and notifies the Public Health Depart ment when levels of bacterial contamination are excessively high. The Ministry's Depart ment or Family Planning provides medical and educational services through 35 district health agencies and is also responsible for im plementation of the country's National Popu lation Policy, officially accepted by Govern-

PAGE 225

ment in 1988 (see also Section 9.3 of the Prome). The Public Health Act of 1977 pro vides a legal basis for pollution control in st. Vincent but cc:rries no regulations for en forcement, althot':)t draft regulation:; were prepared almost a decade ago; these are now seriously outdated. There is no legal authority in any Government department for solirl waste management, and the subject is not dealt with in the existing public health legisla tion. New public health legislation was drafted under the Caribbean Justice Im provement Project in 1988 but has not yet been officially acted upon. A draft anti-litter act is also under review within Government. Pollution control under the older public health legislation follows the legal the ory of "nuisance" violations, but enforcement is difficult in the absence of regulations and because concepts are outdated and penalties extremely low. At the time the new Ministry of Health and the Environment was created in 1989, an Environmental Protection Task Force was also set up as an interdepartmental coordinating body to advise and assist the Minister in dGfming, directions and programs for the environmental portfolio of the new ministry. The Task Force includes represen tatives from relevant GSVG deparlDlents, such as Health, Forestryt Plan ning, Education, Tourism, the National Trust, and CWSA, as well as representatives from at least one community group (JEMS). There is no authorizing legislation for the Task Force, nor does it have an operational budget at the present time. It has been meeting on a regu lar basis since August of 1989. It is not yet clear the direction which the new Ministry will take and what the long term role for the Environmental Protection Task Force will be as it continues its liaison role with the Ministry. Legislative authority to strengthen the mandate of the Task Force and to specifically defme its responsibilities may be required. A clearer definition I\)f its functions and tasks would improve the elJiciency and effectiveness ofthe Task Force. The establishment of an Environ mental Bureau within the Ministry --perhaps later to be expanded to ;;;. Department of the Environrr.ent --has also been discussed. However, before such a department is institu tionalized, it will be important for the Ministry to provide an opportunity for cross-sectorial and interdepartmental assessment and con sultation --probably best handled tillough the Environmental Protection Task Force --in order to clearly defme the structure, composi tion, functions, accountability, and operating procedures of the new department. 10.4 THE NON-GOVERNMENT SECTOR IN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT In St. Vincent, until the recent reju venation of the National Trust (which, while a statutory body, functions in many ways a non-governmental organization [NGO)), lead ership for the environment in the Jlrivate 5ec tor came primarily from community-based, rural development organizations. Active envi ronmental advocacy from thL support is unlike most other islands in the Eastern Caribbean where private sector leadership has come from more t:-aditional conservation or ganizations, historical societies, or national trusts. One recent example of involvement by st. Vincent's non-government sector in prorr':>ting environmental awareness was a 1989 seminar on the Preservation and Protec tion of the Environment sponsored by the local group JEMS, which brought together more than 60 persons from neighboring islands who joined with in a week long, UNEP-funded workshop focused on en vironmental education and training. The seminll' was only one manifesta tion of the environmental leadership displayC'i by JEMS (full title: JEMS Com munity Organization), a rural development group whose target audience is a 15 village area in the southeast of St. Vincent. Since 195

PAGE 226

1978, it has promoted community self-help programs, many of which have been resource management-focused, for example, develop ment of pipe-borne village water systems with funding support from the OECS Natural Re sources Management Project. In recent years, JEMS has explored with Government and with external assistance agencies the feasibility of developing the King's Hill Forest Reserve (which is situated within JEMS' program boundaries) into a natural area visitor site or research center. Members of the JEMS exec utive board were involved in the recent revival of the National Trust, and a JEMS represen tative serves on the Environmental Protection Task Force. Projects Promotion, another St. Vincent community development group, de scribes itself as a human resource develop ment organization focusing on skills training, development, program plan ning, and leadership training. This group has also added an environmental focus to its pro gram agenda, and in 1988 it organized a work shop on balanced development and a cleaner t;nvironment which resulted in a publication eli titled Putting tile Environment First. CARIPEDA (for Caribbean People's Development Agency) is a regional umbrella group representing nine local development organizations in Belize, Jamaica, Dominica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Grenada. Its head quarters is based in St. Vincent, and its local member organization is Projects Promotion. It has sponsored educational forums on disaster preparedness and has promoted net working among Caribbean rural development groups on environmental issues such as the use of pesticides and their impacts. Additionally, CARIPEDA recently sponsored publica tion of Environmental JOUnley, a cartoon booklet on the environment produced in a CARIPEDA-Olganized workshop on the use of alternative graphic forms for promoting en vironmental education. The 14-year old Organization for Rural Developmtnt (ORD) is the foremost rural development group in St. Vincent. Its status is that of a community-based, voluntary, Ilon-profit organization, and its objective is to provide development services to rural com-196 munities through, for example, leadership training, crop development, agricultural mar keting, and credit disbursement programs. In one donor report, it was estimated that ap proximately 2,500 farm families have been reached directly by ORD's activities (Bran a Shute, 1985). ORD is a well-established organiza tion which, while avoiding a formal organiza tional structure, is nonetheless sufficiently institutionalized to have attracted substantial external support (Brana-Shute, 1985). Since its beginning in 1976, ORD has received funding and technical support from a variety of donors, including PADF, U.S. Peace Corps, CIDA, Canadian Crossroads International, USAID, Rockefeller Brothers Fund, and the Inter-American Foundation. The National Youth Council is an umbrella organization of over 45 youth groups anct secondary school student councils located throughout the country. The Council's affili ates have over the years organized a number of educational fora on euvironmental issues and implemented practicai enviroumental projects. These have included semin .. rs and panel discussions, construction of garbage collection units, and beautification campaigns. The Council also uses its weekly 45-minute radio program aired on Saturday mornings to promote environmental awareness. To gi.ve recognition to the environ mental work being done by its membership, in March of 1990 the Council hosted a weekend "camp-in" conference on the environment in Layou. This activity brought together more than 40 persons representing various affiliated youth organizations, including church, student, and community groups. Using the theme "Youth Environmental Action for SUEtainable Development," the sessions examined en vironmental implications of the country's industrial, agricultural and physical planning policies and practices. Recommendations in the form of a conference report were dis tributed to Government departments and non-governmental organizations. While the organizational objectives of many of St. Vincent's NGOs are not directly related to the environment, their emphasis is

PAGE 227

often sufficiently natural resource-focused to link their work with emerging environmental initiatives in the country, both public and pri vate sector. In fact, in the long term, im proved communication and association be tween the country's strong base of grass-roots, community development organiLations and the rejuvenated National Trust, which repre sents a more traditional conservation organi zation, should be encouraged. The commu nity groups constitute an estab lished base with confirmed environmental in terests and programs which were operational during the Trust's relatively long hiatus of in activity. Furthermore, one systemic problem throughout the Eastern Caribbean affecting more traditional conservation organizations has been the difficulty of securing a broader base of community support for environmental programs and resource management issues. Outreach programs by traditional conserva tion groups, which identify and "!ncourage cooperative community-based approaches to resource management issues, offer an opportuHity to substantially improve the sometimes "e1itist," exclusionary image pro jected b}' National Trusts and similar group.:: St. Vim:ent seems an appropriate place in which to pursue such strategies. 10.5 DONOR-SUPPORTED RE SOURCE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS PLANNING, RESEARCH AND TRAINING The Organization of Eastern Caribbean States' Natural Resources Man agement Project (OECS-NRMP) was set up in 1986 as a cooperative program of OECS with OAS and GTZ (the German Agency for Technical Cooperation). Its overall program objective is to improve the capadty of OECS member countries to plan and manage natural resource management programs. OECS NRMP activities in Sf. Vincent have focused on water resource issues, including a study of the Montreal Water Catchment Area and funding for a self-help project to provide pipe borne water to the Village of Lower Stubbs. St. Vincent was included in regional surveys 197 sponsored by OECS-NRMP (e.g., envi ronmentallegislation [Lausche, 1986] and self help organizations [Finisterre and Renard, 1987]) and has also participated in OECS NRMP-sponsored workshops. The OECS re gional fISheries desk is located in St. Vincent. The Caribbean Agricultural Re search and Development Institute (CAROl) is the agricultural research arm of CARl COM. With primary laboratories in Trinidad, CAROl also maintains representa tives and a full program in each member is land, including St. Vincent. The Windward Islands Banana Growers Association, known regionally as WINBAN, assist.mce to the respec tive growers associations in the islands nf St. Vincent, Grenada, Dominica, and St. Lucia, through coordination of shipping and mar keting for banana exports and the implemen tation of research activities on banana pro duction. WINBAN operates a research center in St. Lucia, the largest agricultural research unit in the Eastern Caribbean; activities there benefit all participating islands, including St. Vincent. The Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (I1CA) is an in tergovermnental agency comprised of mem ber states in the Americas and the Caribbean; the Institute enjoys a specialized working re lationship with OAS. Its mandate is to en courage, promote and support the efforts of member countries to improve agricultural de velopment and to achieve rural well-being. In St. Vincent and the Grenadines, I1CA's recent programs have focused on: preparation of an agricultural sector assess ment for the country, strengthening of plant protection and quarantine capabilities, im proving the produ,=tion/marketing capabilities of farmer organizations, and support for tech nology generation and transfer systems. INTERNATIONAL DONOR ASSISTANCE The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAlD) maintains a project office in St. Vincent for its HIAMP (Hig..i Im-

PAGE 228

pact Agricultural Marketing and Production) program. The overall aim of HIAMP is to improve th,., investment climate for agricul tural enterprises (including fisheries) in tar geted countries such as st. Vincent, specifi cally by providing equity investmr.nt loans to fmance large projects and commercialization grants to support smaller enterprises. Other resource management-related programs supported by USAID in st. Vincent have included assistance for: the Cumberland Hydroelectric Project; an integrated agricul tural management, production and marketing pmject (through the Pan American Develop ment Foundation); a 1986 study of the forest resources of St. Vincent; and environmental legislation reform (e.g., Public Health law) through the USAID-supported Caribbean Law Institute. Additionally, USAID provides funding to the Island Resources Foundation for institutional development support for St. Vincent environmental NGOs, primarily the National Trust and JEMS at the present time. Substantial assistance in the natural resource sector is currently being provided by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) specifically support for an ambitious five year forestry development pro gram (1989-1994) and a fisheries development project which includes construction of fish eries centers in the Grenadines. Additionally, the Canadians are funding several water supply projects and have supported the Cum berland Hydroelectric Pro.;ect. Additional to the aid provided by CIDA and USAlD, the Cumberland Hydro electric Project has been supported by the United Nation's International Fund ror AgrIcultural Development (IF AD) and the Euro pean Economic Community (EEC). The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organl:mtion (FAO) has provided as sistance to Government for the development of new environmental legislation relative to forests, watershed protection, wildlife, water resources, and national parks. In these ef forts, additional support for legislative reform has come from the Organization or American Slates and USAID. 198 British aid in the resource manage ment sector, adminis1ered through the British Development Division (BDD), primarily has emphasized agricultural support, currently tree crop deveJopffient projects implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture. Other agri cultural support programs are funded by: the International Fund ror Agri cultural Developmel1.t (IFAD); major funding from the Caribbean Development Bank for land reform, specifically for the Rabacca Farms Development Program (formerly called Orange Hill Development Program) and the more recent Agricultural Re habilitation and Diversification Project; additional support for the Orange Hill Estate/Rabacca Farms land reform program from the Euro pean Economic Community (EEC) and CIDA, and for the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Diversification Project from the Governments or Japan and Denmark. In the fisheries sector, in addition to the support of CIDA, the Japanese Govern ment fmanced the Kingstown Fisheries Mar ket. Devdopment of a national marine park for the Tobago Cays has received support from both the Organization or American SlaWs (OAS) and the EEC. OAS's Depart ment of Regional Development has provided assistance in st. Vincent and the Grenadines through its integrated Natural Resources Management Project. This project, similar to OAS programs in other OECS countries, focuses on technical cooperation with Covern ment in areas related to the management of natural resources and has included, in addi tion to support for the 'fobago Cays, devel opment of an experimental watershed man agement project at Orange Hill Estate and environmental legislation reform. Finally, assistance with the prepara tion of the CPO's Development Plan for 1986-B8 was provided by the United Nations Devel-

PAGE 229

opmeDt Program (UNDP), IDter-AgeDCY ResldeDt MlssloD (IARM), OECS, OAS, and COB. 10.8 POUCY RECOMMENDATIONS (1) Strengthening the role of the Ministry of Health aad the Enviroi:ment and the Environmental Protection Task Force. St. Vincent is presently moving in the direction of concentrating environmental responsibilities in a traditional line ministry, i.e., the newly established Ministry of Health and the Envi ronment. The centralization of environmental functions within a single department of Gov erOluen: has many advantages, including economies of scale, optimization of limitt:d re sources, improved coordination, and an in creased emphasis on environmental priorities. ID St. Vincent, however, where some resource management responsibilities already reside in departments outside of the Ministry (e.g., Forestry, Fisheries, CWSA, CeDtrai Planning Division), Government must addi tionally develop an integrated approach to eD vironmental management which cuts across sectorial and ministeriru lines. It has accom plished this to a limited extent within the membership structure of the Planning and Priorities Committee and the Physical Plan ning and Deveiopment Board which coordi nate the planning and develcpment control process iD the country. The establishmeDt of the Environmental Protection Task Force is a more recent attempt to address integration and coordination issues with specific reference to environmental concerns. Nevertheless, at the (JreseDt time, the institutioDal base for environmeDtai manage meDt within the Ministry of !-Iealth and the Environment is weak, primarily because the Ministry is only a year old and has not yet had time to develop its environmental portfolio. At the same time, the EDvironmentai Protec tion Task Force seems to .ack clear guidelines as to its specific responsibilities. GSVG Deeds to addreS!' as SooD as possible the institutioDalizatioD of environ meDtai responsibilities within the Ministry of 199 Health and the Environment. In addition to issues regarding structure, composition, and operating p' ocedures, equally important is sues of accountability, institutional capacity, environmental monitoring, and regulatory policies must be addressed. GSVG should also consider strength ening the role of the Environmental Protec tion Task Force with more substantive re sponsibilities. For example, as an inter-de partment body, its coordination role could be strengthelled by the addition of review and oversight ff sponsibilities regarding the envi ronmental impacts of development activities. (1) Updating of public health legislation. In a recent review of natural re source legislation in St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Lausche (1986) po;.nts out the need for an up-dating of public health legisla tion, noting the difficulty of poUUtiOD control procedures under the existing law. Not only are its provisions outdated, but extremely low penalties trivialize the best of efforts aimed at poUution control. New public health legislatioD was drafted in 1988, and it is important that Gov ernment take steps to officially act upon the peDding draft and to ensure that adequate regulations are provided to support enacted legislatioD. (3) Strengthening of planning and development control regulatiOlIS and procedures. Lausche (1986) also identified the Deed to provide more sub5tantive regulations to current planning legislation. Regulations should provide better directioD about the development approval process and should specify criteria and conditions for major de velopment activities. With the assistance of OAS, the To\\n and Country Planning Act has beeD revised and draft regulations provided; these are now under review by the Attorney General. GSVG should be eDcouraged to move ahead as quickly as possible in providing more substantive regulations for planning and development control. The draft regulations DOW before Government call for the implementation of EDvironmentai Impact Assessment (EIA)

PAGE 230

procedures which are not pref>ently required for development applications. The recom mendation for the inclusion of EIAs in the planning regulations should be retained by GSVG in its rc\iew of the proposed legislative revISIons. formal EIA procedures force a more holistic integration of technical data and environmental expertise across departmental lines while guaranteeing more systematic in put of environmental considerations in the project plannir,g process. Although the Central Planning Divi sion does not anticipate development of a na tional physical development plan, the lack of a comprehensive land use framework will continue to reduce the effectiveness of the development control process. Land use plan ning provides a stn:cture for assf"ssing the physical and natural ieatures of ari area and for suggesting its long-term sustainable uses. The development of a national land use pla.n, to complement the Government's National Development IJlan, should be considered by the Central Planning Division. (4) Staffing for environmental programs within Government. An ambitious bndy of proposed legislation is currently ur-der con sideration by Government, including the fol lowing: Forest Resource Conservation Act Water Resources Act (redrafted by an OAS consGltant as Central Water and Sewerage Authority Act) and Regulations National Parks Act Laws and Regulations on Town and Country Planning Public He,,lth Act and Regula tions Pesticides Control Regulations Anti-Litter Law. In addition, several environmental laws already on the books, or laws with envi-200 rorunental implications, have not been effec tively enforced, although in some cases steps ar: now being t&ken to itr.prove enforcement. These include thr following: Agriculture Ordinance and the Agricultural Small Tenancies Act (relative to floil and water conser '/atinn pral;tices) Pesticides Control Act Beach k'rotectiou Act Public Health Act Pr(;;!:ervatiolJ of Historic Buildings and Antiquities Act. The lack of adequate technical, mon itoring, and enforcement personnel is often cited for the inability of respective depart ments to enforce existing legislation (Lausche (1986) and otherf> would add that the lack of supporting regulati(ln.c; to much of the extant body of environmental legislation also dimin ishes the effectiveness of the legal base). The staffmg problem will be exacerba:ed if the proposed new environmental laws are enacted in the near future (official approval of the Forest Resource Conservation Act, for exam ple, is anticipated in 1990). Therefore, with the assistance of donor agencies, GSVG needs to carefully exam:ne the technical and regu latory implications of th: full spectrum of ex isting and propo:;ed environmental legislation and take step!: now to improve both the quan tity and quality of staff required for imple mentation, plUticularly middle-level manage ment and techn\cal staff. Governmental in stitutional strengthening was given the highest priority in the Government's most recent i'olational Development Plan; as stated in the 1987-89 Plan Update, "... weakness in this area is at present the binding constraint to development in aU sectorsW (GSVG, 1987). (5) Public participation. In an as sessment d the planning process ill st. Vincent, Btowne (1985) r.mphasizes the need for public involvement if truly self-reliant de velopment strategies are to be sustained. Addifionally, the Foreword to the Government's 1986-88 National Plan states that the current

PAGE 231

approach to planning provides for a timely re sponse by Government to public reaction to policy issues and that the annual updates to the document will give the public opportunity to comment critically (GSVG, 1986). How effectively the Government is using a ':cocess of public participation and public involvement to inform and expand the planning process is not clear. In all probl.lbil ity, GSVG needs to improve the opportunities for public consultation in its planning process and in its deliberations about resource devel opment and environmental management is sues. While efforts to facilitate public par ticipation can make the task of the govern ment pb'nner or resource manager more complex and time consuming, such efforts also provide important advantages by: facilitating Government access to a iarger information base, e.g., public perceptions and prefer ences and NGO technical exper tise; providing an opportunity for Gov ernment to build coalitions or support Oil behalf of its projects or decisicr.s; 201 allowing for discussion and possi ble resolution of conflicts prior to an extensive commitment of re sources to a potentially controver sial activity or project; enhancing the likelihood of suc cess by expanding the base of in formation, expertise, public opin ion, and potential support avail able to Government decision makers. The Government of St. Vincent and the Grenadines is to be commended for ac tions taken in recent years to highlight n,, tional planning issues and environmental con cerns, most specifically in its reorganization of several ministries of Government including the Ministry of Finance, Planning, and Devel opment and the Ministry of Health and the Environment. With the assistance of donor agencies. Government has also pursued an ambitious program of legislative reform in the environmental sector. Follow-up actions a.l'e now required to build on and strengthen these important steps, and never has the time been more appropriate for such a focus -as st. Vincent and the Grenadines looks ahead to the 1990's, a ten year period which has been appropriately declared the Decade of tire Environment by the Prime Minister.

PAGE 232

BIBUOGRAPHY ST. VINCENT COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE Adams, J., 1970a. Conch fIShing indw.try of Union Island, Grenadines, West Indies. lour. Trop. Sci., 12(4):279-288. Adams, J., 1970b. Marine indU5tries of the St. Vincent and the Grenadines, West Indies. PIt.D. Thesis, Uruv. Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN. Adams, J., 1971. The lobster fIShing industry of Mt. Pleasant, Bequia Island, West Indies, In: Pro ceedings of the Gulf 2Dd Caribbean Fisheries Institute, 24(1971):126-133. Rosenstiel School of Marine and A.tmospherir. Sciences, Coral Gables, FL. Adams, J., Maritime industry of st. Vincent and the Grenadines. American Neptune, Adams, J., 1973. Shore whaling in St. Vincent Island, West Indies. Caribbean Quarterly, 19(December 1973):42-50. Adams, J., 1976. Environmental and cultural factors in the decline of agricmture in a small West in dian island. Essays, Center for Latin America Studies, Univ. Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI. Adams, J., 1977. Spiny lobster fLc;hing in the Grenadines. Sea Frontiers, (November-December 1977):322-330. Adams, J., 1980. F'lShfood preferences and prejudices in a small Caribbean island: a study of fish oonsumption patterns in St. Vincent based on a household survey. Presented to the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Inst. 32nd Annual Meeting, 1979. Adams, J., 1985. The fISheries and fISh markets of St. Vincent island, Eastern Caribbean. Singapore lour. Trop. Geog., 6(1):1-12. Adams, R., 1%8. The leeward reefs of st. Vincent, West Indies. lour. Geol. 76(5):587-595. Adey, W. and Burke, R., 19"i6. Holocene bioherms (algal ridges and bank-barrier reefs) of the East ern Caribbean. Geol. Soc. of Am. Bull., 87:95-109. Ahmad, N., 1987. Land capability of St. Vincent (Bequia). Dept. Reg. Dev., Organization of Ameri can States, Wac;hington, DC. Alexander, S., 1987. Land survey at Orange Hill. Organization c:f American States, Washi'lgton, DC. Anderson, T., 1908. Report on the eruptions of the Soufriere in St. Vincent in 1902 and on a visit to Montagne Pelee in Martinique. Part II. Philosophical transactions series A. Mathematical and physical sciences. Royal Society, London, 208:275-304. Anon., 1893. Flora of St. Vincent and adjacent islets. Bull. Misc. Inform. Royal Gardens, Kew, 81:231-296. Archer, A., 1984. Report on land-based sources of pollution in ..:oastal, marine and land areas of CARiCOM states. Prep. for UNEP /CARICOM/PAHO project for the protection of the coastaJ and marine environment of Caribbean islands .. .... .. 1.." 203

PAGE 233

Archer, A. (Prelim. Draft), n.d. Report on sewage disposal problems in the Eastern Caribbean. Re gional sewage disposal coastal conservation studies. Vol. n. UN/ECLAC. Artt.ur Young, 1989. The unique fortified refuge of Fort Charlotte, St. study of the preservation, restoration and development of major hi:.toric and military sites in the Eastern Caribbean. Prepared for Carib. ConselV. Assoc., St. Michael, Barbados. Atwood, D., et al., 1987/88. Petroleum JhlUution in the Caribbean. Oceanus, 30:25-32. Bacon, P., 1981. The status (f sea turtle stocks management i.n the western Central Atlantic. WECAF studies no. 7. Interregional fISheries developr:tent and program (WECAF component), UNDP IFAO. Barbier, E. and Burgess, J., 1989. An approach to economic w.Juation of tropical wetlands, with ex amples from GuatemrJa and Nicaragua. Paper presented at Carib. Conserv. NIDC. roof. on economics and the environment, Nov. 6-8, 1989, Barbados. Barbier, E., et al., 1989. The environment and sustainable developmellt: the eco[lomic contribulion. Paper presented at Carib. Conserv. Assoc. coof. on economics and the environment, Nov. 68, 1989, Barbados. Barker, G., 1981. St. Vincent, an agricultural proftle. Report to CARDI/USAID. Barker, S., 1981. F.3ctors influencing the diffusion and adoption of recommended cultural practices among carrot farmers in St. Vincent. M. Sc.. thesis, UWI, Dept. Agri. &1;., St. Augustine, Trinidad. Barr, S., 1982. Skirt clouds associated with the Soufriere eruption .af 17 ApiJ 1979. Science, 216:1111-1112. Barr, S. and Hemer, J., 1982. Meteorological analysis of the eruption of Soufriere in April 1979. Science, 216:1109-1111. Beaci1e, G., 1984. Watershed management for St. Vmcent. In: Lugo, A., and Brown, S. (etis.), Case studies on forestry activities in the Eastern Caribbean and Jamaica, pp. 54-63. Inst. T!op. Forest., Rio Piedras, PRo Beard, J., 1944. A forest lover in the Caribbean islands. II. On St. Vincent's Soufrie.Te. Jour. New Yorlc Bot. Gord., 45:175-180. Beard, J., 1945. The progress of plant succession on Soufriere of St. Vincent. Jour. Ecol., 33(1):1-9. BeMd, J., 1949. The natural vegetation of the Wmdward and Leeward Islands. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Beard, J., 1955. The classification of tropical American vegetation types. 36(1):89-100. Beard, J., 1976. The progress of plant su.:cession on the Soufriere of St. Vincent: otservations in 1972. Vegetation, 31(2):69-77. Bennett, A., 1986. Orange Hill estate development program: low cost housing projecl. Organization of American Slates, Washington, DC. 204

PAGE 234

Berwick, N., 1986. Tourism and the nearshore marine environment in the St. Vincent Grenadines. Sector paper submitted for OAS study of tourism development in the St. Vincent Grenadines. Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Birdsey, R., Weaver, P. and Nicholls, c., 1986. The forest resources of St. Vincent, West Indies. Re search Paper SO-229. U.S. Depl:. Agri., Serv., Southern Forest E:.:p. Stn., New Or leans, LA. Bookers Agricultural and Te.::hnical Services Ud., 1971. Re-establishment of the sugar industry in St. Vincent: a preliminary report. Prepared for Carib. Dev. Bank, Bridgetown, Barbados. Bottrell, D., 1983. St. Vincent agrkaltural development project: environmental assessment. Consort. Int. Crop Prot., Ulliv. California, Berkeley, CA. Bouvier, L., 198t St. Vincent and the Grenadines: yesterday, today and tomorrow. Pop. Ref. Bur"3.1). Washington, DC. Brana-Shute; G., 1985. The Organization for Rural Development: helping the farmers of St. Vincent stay on tLe farm. Grassroots Development, 9(1):29-33. Inter-American Foundation, ington, DC. Brewster, H., 1969. The development problem in St. Vincent. A report by a University of the West Indies development mission. Brierley, J. aud Rubenstein, H. (eds.), 1988. Small farming and peasant resources in the Caribbean. Manitoba geographical studies 10. Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. Brisbane, 0., 1970. St. Vincent National Trust. Caribbean Conservation Association Newsletter, July:46-47. Browne, B., 1985. The environment, planning and development in small island states: the case of St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Master's Thesis, University of Nottingham, UK. Browne, B., n.d. The self-destruct theory of tourism. GSVG, Central Planning Division, Kingstown, St. Vincent. Browne, G., 1987. Status of the arrowroot industry of St. Vincent and the Grenadines with proposals for its improvement. Dept. Reg. Dev., Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Buisseret, D., 1973. The elusive deodond: a study of the fortified refuges of the Lesser Antilles. Joumal of Carib. Hist., 6:43-80. Buissere:, D. and Clark, B., 1971. A rerort on the chief Ll0numents of Antigua, Briti.h Virgin Is lands, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Tudes and Caicos Islands. Commissioned on behaH of the Governments by tbe British Development Division of the Caribbean. Butler, P., 1988. Saint Vincent Parrot (Amazona gui/dingii): the road to recovery. Forestry Div., Govt. of St. Vincent and the Grenadines/RARE. 205

PAGE 235

Buller, P., 1989. The Saint Vincent Parrot (Amazona gui/dingii) and its conservation. In: Wildlife management in the Caribbean islands: proceedings of the fourth meeting of Caribbean foresters. A publication of the Institute of Tropical and the Caribbean National Forest, Rio Piedras, PRo Butler, P. and Charles, G., 1986. St. Vincent parrot coDc;ervation project: a status report. Forestry Div., Govt. of St. Vincent and the Grenadines/RARE. Byrne, J., 1980. Population growth in St. Vincent. Sociul and Economic Studies, 18(2):152-188. Caldeira, W., 1985. Management survey of Orange Hill Estate. Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Caldeira, W., 1987. Recent developments of smallholder settlement schemes and efficient resources aUocation. Dept. Reg. Dev., Organization of American States, Washington, DC. CaldweU, D., et al., 1971. Cretaceans from the Lesser Antillean island of st. Vincent. Fish. Bull., U.S. Nat. Mar. Fish. Serv., 69:303-312. Cambers, G., 1981. Coastal erosion in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Prep. for World Tourism Organization. Cambers, G., 1984. Beach erosion study at Grand Anse, Grenada: coastal dynamics. Report pre pared for Organization of American States and the World Bank. Cambers, G., 1985a. Grenada coastal monitoring field manual. Dept. Reg. Dev., Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Cambers, G., 1985b. Erosion of coasts and beaches in the Caribbean islands: an overview of coastal zone management in six Eastern Caribbean islands. Prepared under contract for UNESCO Reg. Off. Sci. T,ch. Latin Amer./Carib., Montevideo, Uruguay. Cambers, G., 1988. An evaluation of the Grenada coastal monitoring program, January 1987 to June 1988. Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Cambers, G., 1989. Economic imp15cations of the grounding of the tanker Unicorn Derek in st. Thomac; Bay, Virgin Gorda. Conservation Of., Min. of Natural Resources and Labor, British Virgin Isiands. Cambers, G., n.d. (preliminary draft, circa 1988). Regional survey of coastal conservation. Regional sewage disposal and coastal conservation studies, vols. I-B and m. UN/ECLAC. L., J965. Production on small farms in St. Vincent: prospects for increasing efficiency. Agri. Ser. no. 4, Inst. Soc. Econ. Res., UWI, Cave Hill, Barbados. Campbell, L. and Phelps, H., 1964. Preliminary report on irrigation for banll1las in St. Vincent. 1nst. Soc. Econ. Res., UWI, St. Augustine, Trinidad. Campbell, L., el al., 1965. Enquiry into the feasibility of re-establishing tbe sugar industry in st. Vincent. UWI, Mona, Jamaica. Caribbean Community Secretariat, 1987. A statement of national population policy for st. Vincent the Grenadines. CARICOMjUSAID Population and Development Project. 206

PAGE 236

Caribbean Comml,t:ity Secletariat, n.d. 1980-1981 population census of the Commonwealth Caribbeau: Sf.. Vincent and tlte Grenadines. Vols. 1-3. Caribbean Community Secretariat, GenrgetoliVl\ Guyana. Caribbeaa Coos\.:rv-;'!:Oli Ass..xiation ond Isla:td Resources Foundation, 1988. Draft country envi iOitrnentai )JICm,e for St Lucia. Prepared for USAID/RDO/C. Caribbean veveiop:nent BarJc, 1975. A.ppraisal report on arrowroot factory, Owia, St. Vincent. Bridgetowc, 83.Ibado5. Caribbean Hank, l?AA. An<1U'tl economic report, 1988: St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Econemics and l'rogramm:.ng Dept., Carib. Dev. Bank, Barbados. Caribbean Nel\vork for Rmul Development, 1989. Developing the rural network: a di of rural development reSOl!rces in the Caribbean. st. Augustine, Trinidad and Tc,bago. Caribbean Tourism Organa.ation, 1989. Caribbean tourism statistical report, 1988. Christ Church, Barbados. Caribbean Tourism Ors,3Wzation, 1990. Statistical News, March 1990. Christ Church, Barbados. Caribbean-Ct.ntral American Action, 1982. Investing in st. Vincent and the Grenadines. Washing ton, DC. Carlson, C. and Morsal, D., 1989. 1989 Whaling Commission meeting sets stage for renewed whal ing. WkalewatcJr, 7(3):1. Carr, A., et al., 1982. ::;urvl!Ys of sea turtle populatior.s and habitats in the western Atlantic. NOAA tech. memoran./.b:.:.u NMFS-SEFC-91, U.S. Dept. of Commerce. Chace F. and H,ohbs, Il, 1969. The ireshwater and terrestrial decapod crustaceans of the West Indies witL reference to Dominica. U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull., 292:1-258. Smithsonian Inst., Washinglon, DC. Chemonics, 1928. Eastern Caribbean agrkuitural sector strategy. Rept. prepared for USAJD/RDO/C. Ciski, R., 1973. Settlement and land use: Villo Point. In: Fraser, T. (ed.), Windward Road: contri butions to the anthropology of St. Vinceilt. Dept. Anthrop., Univ. Massachusetts, ADlherst, MA. Research i'e.t><>rt no. 12. Clark, J., forthcoming, n.d. Coastal and marine parks in the Caribbean: Jamaica, St. Vincent and the Grenadines (1987). Clark, S., 1989. Water legislation and administration: St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Final report: draft water resources act and regulations. FAO, Rome. Clark, W., 1989. Managing planet earth. Scientific American, 261(3). Cochrane, T., 1962. A study of the land lise potential of two of the major soil types of St. Vincent, the yellow earths and the recent soils from volcanic ash. UWI, St. Augustine, Tr;nidad, D.T.A. report.

PAGE 237

Cordice, G., 1984. Wildlife protection for St. Vincent. In: Lugo, A., and Brown, S. (eds.), Case stud ies on forestry activities in the Eastern Caribbean and Jamaica, pp. 114-120. Inst. Trop. For est. Publ., Rio Piedras, PRo Coward, L., 1977. Report on a visit to St. Vincent, January 1977. Tropical Products Institute, London, UK. Courier, The, 1989. St. Vincent and the Grenadines: under the volcano. No. 115(May-June):39-SO. Croon, D. and Nutmagul, W., 1982. Volcanic gases in the April 1979 Soufriere eruption. Science, 216:1121-1123. Cummins, A., 1989. The history and development of museums in the English-speaking Caribbean. MA. Dissettation. University of Leicester, England. Cummings, D. and Lawrence, A., 1989. Contributions to the UNESCO hydrogeological atlas of the Caribbean islands. Vol. 5: St. Vincent and the Grenadine Islands. British Geological Survey technical report 1988. D' Anglejean, B. and Mountjoy, E., 1973. Submerged reefs of the eastern Grenadines shelf margin. Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., 84:2445-2454. Daniel, G., 1971. Toward thrre-diversification of St. Vincent's agriculture. Proceedings, Wisconsin Agri. Econ. Center, 6:75-84. Davis, S., et 01., 1986. Plants in danger: what do we know? IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. DeGeorges, P., 1988. St. Vincent and the Grenadines: biodiversity and natural resources management, draft field notes, USAID/REMS/Caribbean (1988). DeGeorges, P., 1989. Pesticides and environmental monitoring in the Eastern Caribbean: current setting and needs, vols. 1 and 2. Draft rpt. to USAID /RDO /C, Bridgetown, Barbados. Deutsche Forstinventur Service GmbH, 1983. Regional forestry sector study country report, St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Caribbean Dev. Barbados. Diaz, P., Lugo, A., and McDoweU, W., 1985. General hydrology and water quality of Layou River in Dominica, Buccament River in St. Vincent, and Troumassee River in St. Lucia, British West Indies. In: Quinones, F., and Sanchez, F. (eds.), Proc. Int. Symp. Trop. Hydr. and 2nd Carib. Water Res. Congr.Am. Water Resources Assoc., Maryland. DiUon, W., et 01., 1987. Geology of the Caribbean. Oceanus, 30(4):42-52. Dixon, J., 19t19. Project appraisal: evolving applications of environmental economics. Paper deliv ered at Carib. Conserv. Assoc. coof. on economics and the environment, Nov. 6-8, 1989, Barbados. Duncan, E., 1970. A brief history of St. Vincent with studies in citizenship. Govt. House, Kingstown, St. Vincent. Earle, K., 1928. Report on the geology of Saint Vincent. Kingstown Govt. Printing Off., Kingstown, St. Vincent. 208

PAGE 238

Eastern Caribbean Natural Area Management Program, 1980a. St. Vincent: preliminary data atlas. Survey of conservation priorities in the Lesser Antilles. ECNAMP, St. Croix, VI. Eastern Caribbean Natural Area Management Program, 1980b. St. Vincent Grenadines: preliminary data atlas. Survey of conservation priorities in the Lesser Antilles. ECNAMP, St. Croix, VI. Faaborg, J. and Arendt, W., 1985. Wildlife assessments in the Caribbean. u.S. Dept. Agric., Forest Serv., Inst. Trop. Forestry, Rio Piedras, PR F.,arquharson, N., 1985. Orange Hill development (integrated regional development for northeast St. Vincent). Organization of American States, Dept. Reg. Dev., Tech. Assist. Mission, St. Vincent. Farquharson, N., 1986a. Financial analysis of the Orange Hill land settlement project in St. Vincent. Prepared for Organization of American States, Dept. Reg. Dev., Washington, DC. Farquharson, N., 1986b. Improving management and initiating other agricultural components of the Orange Hill project in St. Vincent. Prepared for Organization of American States, Dept. Reg. Dcv., Washington, DC. Farquharson, N., 1987. Farm models for phase 2A settlements in St. Vincent. Prepared for Organi zation of American States, Dept. Reg. Dev., Washington, DC. Farquharson, N. and Gulston, E., 1985. Alternative plans for development of the Orange Hill Estate project in St. Vincent (1986-90). Prepared for Organization of American States, Dept. Reg. Dev., Washington, DC. Fiester, D., 1977. St. Vincent. In: Agricultural development in the Eastern Caribbean: a survey. AID survey team visit, Ch. XI. Finisterre, F. and Renard, Y., 1987. A survey of self-help activities relevant to natural resource man agement in the OECS member states: island report. St. Vincent and the Grenadines. OECS-Nat. Res. Mgt. Proj., Castries, st. Lucia. Fiske, R, 1982. Soufriere Volcano, St. Vincent: observations of its 1979 eruption from the ground, aircraft, and satellites. Sciellce, 216:1105-1106. Fiske, R and Shepherd, J., 1982. Deformation studies on Soufriere, St. Vincent, between 1977 and 1981. Sciellce, 216:1125-1126. Food and Agriculture Organization, 1987. St. Vincent and the Grenadines, agricultural sector pro ject: project brief and annexes 1-6. Report of the FAO/World Bank Cooperative Program Investment Center. FAO, Rome. Frampton, A., et ul., 1957. Report and recommendations for the development of st. Vincent by a team of experts (Frampton plan). Francis, c., 1988. Kick 'em Jenny submarine volcano. Caribbean Disaster News, No. 14, June 1988. Frank, C., 1976. History of Begos: the Grenadines from Columbus to today. Cole's Printery, Ltd., Bridgetown, Barbados. Fuller, W. and Hunt, W., 1982. Airborne Lidar measurements of the Soufriere eruption of 17 April 1979. Sciellce, 216:1113-1115. 209

PAGE 239

Gable, F., 1987/88. Changing climate and Caribbean coastlines. Oceanus, 30(4):53-56. Gaynes, R, 1973. Prospects for increasing the agricultural improvement in St. Vincent. BA. thesis (Geography), UWI, Mona, Jamaica. Geddes, M., 1972. Prospects for increasing the production of high value vegetables in St. Vincent. M. Sc .. thesis, UWI, St. Augustine. Gibbs, B. (ed.), 1961. A plan for the development of the colony of St. Vincent. Trinidad. Golder Associates, 1987. Feasibility study of quarry development in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Consultant's report to the Govt. of st. Vincent and the Grenadines. Goldsmith, F., 1973. The ecologist's role in development for tourism: a case study in the Caribbean. Bioi. Jour. Linnean Soc., 5(3):265-287. Gonsalves, R, 1989. Banana in trouble: its present and future. Movement for National Unity pam phlet. Kingstown, St. Vincent. Goodwin, M. and Bannerot, S., Forthcoming. Information for coral reef management: a handbook for the Eastern Caribbean. Goodwin, M. and Cambers, G., 1983. Artificial reefs: a handbook for the Eastern Caribbean, Carib. Conserv. Assoc., St. Michael, Barbados. Goodwin, et cl., 1985. Fishery sector assessment for the Eastern Caribbean. Rpt. prepared for USAID /RDO /C by Island Resources Foundation, St. Thomas, VI. Gregoire, C. and Kanem, N., 1989. The Caribs of Dominica: land rights and ethnic consciousness. Cultural Survival Quarterly, 13(3):52-55. Grenada Government and Organization of American States, 1988. Plan and policy for a system of national parks and protected areas. Dept. Reg. Dev., Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Groombridge, T. and Luxmoore, R, 1989. The green turtle and hawksbill (reptila: Cheloniidae): world status, exploitation and trade. IUCN Conservation and Monitoring Center, Cam bridge, UK. Gulston, E., 1986a. Agriculture: St. Vincent and the Grenadines development plan: 1986-1988. Dept. Reg. Dev., Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Gulston, E., 1986b. Orange Hill development program: executive summary. Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Halewyn, R. van and Norton, R, 1984. The status and conservation of seabirds in the Caribbean. In: Crowell, J., Evans, P., and Schreiber, R (eds.), Status and conservation of the world's seabirds. ICBP Tech. Publ. No. 1, Cambridge, UK. J., 1975. Some aspects of agriculture in St. Vincent. BA. thesis (Geography), UWI, Mona, Jamaica. Hardy, F., 1939. Soil erosion in St. Vincent, B.W.I. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), 16(3):58-65. 210

PAGE 240

Hardy, F., Robinson, C. and Rodriguez, G., 1934. The agricultural soils of St. Vincent. In: Studies in West Indian soils VIII. Imperial College of Tropica! Agriculture, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad. Hawks, D., 1985. St Vincent and the Grenadines: a marketing plan for North America. Organization of American St::.tes, Wrsilington, DC. Haydock, R., 1987. Report on assignment (0 Orange Hill Development Project on St. Vincent. Dept. Reg. Dev., Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Heyman, A., Recalde, A. and Campbell, C, 1986. Physical and economic planning for Colonarie and Sans Souci Estates, St. Vincent. Report on preliminary mission. Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Heyman, A., et 01., 1988. Development of the Tobago Cays National Park: project proposal. Govt. St. Vincent & Grenadines/Organization or American States, Kingstown, Sl. Vincent. Hinrichsen, D., 1981. Energy resources in the wider Caribbean. Ambio, 10(6):332-334. Holdridge, L., 1967. Life zone ecology. Tropical Science Center, San Jose, Costa Rica. Holdridge, L. and Tosi, J., 1972. The world life zone classification system and forestry research. Fac simile series no. 2. Tropical Science Center, San Jose, Costa Rica. Holdridge, et 01.,1971. Fore!i.t environments in tropical life zones: a pilot study. Pergamon Press. Howard, R., 1952. The vegetation of the Grenadines, Windward Islands, British West Indies. Grey Herbarium Contrib., 174:1-129. Harvar1 University. Howard, R., 1954. A history of the botanic garden of St. Vincent, British West Indies. Geog. Rev., 44(3):381-393. Howard, R. 1974-1989. Flora of the Lesser Antilles. Leeward and Windward Islands. Arnold Ar boretum of Harvard Urnv., Cambridge, MA. Howard, R., 1980. The Soufriere tree of St Vincent: some facts at last. Carib. Conserv. News, 2(1):8-11. Howard, R. and Clausen, K., 1980. The Soufriere plant of St. Vincent. Jour. Amold Arboretum, 61:765-770. Howard, R. and Howard, E. (eds.), 1983. Alexander Anderson's geography and history of St. Vincent, West Indies. Arnold Arboretum, Cambridge, MA. Huber, R., et 01., 1987. Tourism development in the Grenadines: immediate action program and in vestment estimates for private and public sector activities. Dept. Reg. Dev., Organization of American Washington, DC. Huggins, B., 1987. Phase II, government land reform program for Cane Grove, Langley Park, Sans Souci, Grand Sable, Colonarie, WaUilabou and Richmond Estates. Dept. Reg. Dev., Orga nization of American States, Washington, DC. Hunte, W., 1987a. A survey of coral reefs near Grand Anse, Grenada. Organization of American States, Washington, DC. 211

PAGE 241

Hunte, W., 1987b. Summary of the available database on oceanic pelagic fisheries in the Lesser An tilles. In: Mahon, R. (ed.), FAO Fish. Rept. No. 383. Hunte, W., et al., 1989. Environmental assessment study of sewage treatment and disposal for the Grand Anse area of Grenada. Report to USAID. Hunting Technical Services, Ltd., 1971. Agricultural credit in St. Vincent. Rep.lCt to the Government of St. Vincent. Overseas Dev. Admin., Borehamwood, UK. Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture, 1989. St. Vincent and the Grenadines: agricultural sector assessment for project identification. I1CA office in St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Kingstown, st. Vincent. Ishmael, L., 1985. Orange Hill Estate project. Prepared for Organization of American States/Govt. St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Ishmael, L. and Wirt, D., 1985. Draft report on North Windward settlements/Orange Hill Estate study. Dept. Reg. Dev., Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Island Resources Foundation, 1989. Virgin Islands land use survey. Final report to Department of Planning and Natural Resources, Govt. of the U.S. Virgin Islands. St. Thomas, VI. Jackson, I., et al., 1986a. Action plan for tourism development in the Grenadines, 1987-1992. Organi zation of American States Mission, Kingstown, St. Vincent. Jackson, I., et al., 1986b. Consultant activity report (December). Organization of American States Mission, Kingstown, St. Vincent. Jennings, P., 1979. Dry forests of the Dominican Republic and their energy production capacity. In: Boyce, S. (ed.), Biological al.ld sociological basis for a rational use of forest resources for cn ergy and organics. Proc. of an interntl. workshop held May 1979, Michigan State Univ. UNESCO. Jo""1, I., 1985. A study of/and proposals for soil c' nservation of the watersheds in the north eastern section of St. Vincent. Prepared for Organization of American States, Dept. Reg. Dev., Washington, DC. John, I., 1986. Farming development plan identifying land settlement scheme, core farm, and private sector farm. Prepared for Govt. St. Vincent and the Grenadin!s, Kingstown. Organization of American States, Washingt"n, DC. John, I., 1987. Sub-division and land use plan of the core farm for Rabacca Farm Ltd. Organization of American States, Dept. Reg. Dev., Washington, DC. John, K., 1914. Policies and programs of intervention into the agraria!1 structure of St. Vincent, 1890-1974. MA. thesis, Univ. Waterloo, Onto Canada. Johnson, M., 1985. Forest inventory in Grenada. Land Res. Div. Cent., Tolworth, UK. Johnson, N., et al., 1988. Biological diversity and tropical forest assessment for the Eastern Caribbean. Report prepared by the Center for Interntl. Dev. and Environment for USAID /RDO/C, Barbados. 212

PAGE 242

Johnson, T., 1988. Biodiversity and conservation in the Caribbean: profiles of selected islands. In terntl. Council for Bird Preservation, Monograph No.1, Cambridge, UK. King, W., 1978-79. Endangered birds of the world. Red Data Book 2. Aves. 2nd edition. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Kirby, I., 1971. Pre-Columbian Indians in St. Vincent, West Indies. st. Vincent Arch. Hist. Soc., Kingstown, St Vincent. Kirby. I., 1973. The sugar mills of St. Vincent: their sites. 172-to 1962. st. Vincent Arch. Hist. Soc., Kingstown, St. Vincent. Krasnow, M., 1973. Fishing in Calliaqua. In: Fraser, T., (ed.), Windward Road: contribudons to the anthropology of St. Vincent. Dept. Anthrop., Univ. Mass., Amherst. MA. Research report, 12:23-28. Kristoferson, L., O'Keefe, P., and Soussan, J., 1985. Energy in small island economies. Ambio,14(4-5):242-244. Krueger, A., 1982. Geostationary satellite observations of the April 1979 Soufriere eruption. Science, 216:1108-1109. Lack, D. et 01., 1973. Birds on St. Vincent. Ibis, 115:46-52. Lambert, F., 1983. Report of an expedition to survey the status of the St. Vincent Parrot, Amazona gllildingii. Int. Council for Bird Preserv., Cambridge, UK. Lambert, F., 1985. The St. Vincent parrot, an endangered Caribbean bird. Oryx, 19: 34-37. Lang, D., et 01., 1980. Proposals for a soil and water conservation project in Diamond Catchment, st. Vincent. Overseas Dev. Admin., UK. Larew, H., 1988. Initial environmental examinations: pesticide usage in projects developed under High Impact Agricultural Marketing and Project. Report to USAID on Project No. 538-0140-C-OO-6035. Lathwell, D., 1974. Report of the Caribbean and tropical America soils conference held at the Univ. of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad, January 8-18, 1973. Lausche, B., 1986a. Analysis of existing legisl<.ltion for resource conservation and watershed man agement in St. Vincent/Grenadines. Organization of American States, Washington. DC. Lausche, B., 1986b. St. Vincent and the Grenadines: nalionallegislation related to natural resource management. Country legal report no. 1, based on country visit July 31-August 3, 1986. OECS-Nat. Res. Mngt. Proj., Castries, St. Lucia. Leech, M., 1989. U.S. moves towards strong swordflSh management plan. The International Angler, 51(3). International Gamefish Assoc. Lewis, J., 1975. A preliminary description of the coral reefs of the Tobago Cays, Grenadines, West Indies. Atoll Res. Bull., 178:14. 213

PAGE 243

N., 1987. Laws and regulations on town and country planning for st. Vincent and the Grenadines. Natural resources management for agricultural development. Dept. Reg. Dev., Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Llewelyn-Davies, el 01., 1972. St. Vincent tourism development strategy. 2 vols. Lockhart, K., 1970. Arrowroot in St. Vincent: a historical and geographical review. BA. thesis, (Geography), UWI, Mona, Jamaica. Looby, G., 1986. Design of a system of agricultural roads for the (iroposed Orange Hill development. Dept. Reg. Dev., Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Looby, G., 1987a. Design of a farm road system for Orange Hill core farm area. Rept. no. GA 87 024. Dept. Reg. Dev., Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Looby, G., 1987b. Farm and feeder roads estimate for phase II, land reform program. Dept. Reg. Dev., Organization of American States, Warhington, DC. Maclean, W., el 01., 1977. Island lists of West Indian amphibians and reptiles. Smithsonian Her petological Information Service no. 40. Washington, DC. Macneil, J., 1989. Strategies for sustainable economic development. Sci. American, 261(3):154-165. Mahon, R., 1988. A perspective on managing Eastern Caribbea;t fisheries and some preliminary management options. In: Challenger, B. and Williams, C., 1989. Report of the first OECS workshop on fisheries management and development. OECS fIShery rept. no. 1, OECS FISheries Unit, Cane Garden, St. Vincent. Main, M., 1989. Overview of St. Vincent and the Grenadines legislation related to soil conservation. Soil Conservation Unit, Min. of Ag., Industry and Labor, Kingstown, St. Vincent. Martin, C., 1966. The role of government in agricultural development with reference to st. Vincent. Proceedings, Wisc. Agri. Econ. Center, 1:26-34. Martin, c., 1967. The arrowroot industry in St. Vincent: a case study of a unique root crop industry. In: Proc. of the International Symposium on Tropical Root Crops, 2-8 April 1967:125-144. UWI, St. Augustine, Trinidad. Martin, C., 1968. The role of government in the agricultural development of St. Vincent. M. Sc .. thesis, UWI, St. Augustine. Martin, C., 1971. The functioning of the agricultural marketing protocol of the CARIFfA agreement with particular reference to e).'ports from St. Vincent. Proceedings, Wisc. Agri. Econ. Center, 6:60-74. Matthes, H., 1984. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: formulation of a fISheries development pro gram. FAO, Rome. Maul, G., 1988. Climate change and sea level rise in the Caribbean. The Siren News from UNEP's oceans and coastal areas program, no. 39. McCormick, M., el aI., 1982. Stratm.pheric aerosol effects from Soafriere Volcano as measured by the SAGE Satellite System. Science, 216:1115-1118. 214

PAGE 244

McElroy, J. and deAlbl,querque, K, 1989. Tourism Jtyles and policy responses in the open economy closed enviroDD'ent context. Paper presented at Carib. COJ).serv. Assoc. coof. on economics and the environment, Nov. 6-8, 1989, Barbados. McElroy, J. and de Albuquerque, K, 1990. Recent debt and adjustment experience in !he OECS coUl!lries of the Caribbean. Caribbean Affairs, 3(1):49-64 (January-Maich). McFarlane, M., 1974. Phosphate studies on volcanic ash soils from St. Vincent. Ph.D. thesis, UWI, St. Augustine, Trinidad. McHenry, T. and Gane, M., 1988. Report to the Government of St. Vincent iUld the Grenadines on forestry, wildlife 3lad national parks policy and It:gislation. FAO, Rome. McIntosh, E., 1986. Hill proceuing plant project. Organization of American States, Washington, DC. McIntosh, E., 1987. Agro-prrn:essing plant, Rabacca Farms Ud. Natural resource management for agricultural development project. Dept. of Reg. Dev., Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Mente, A., 1985. Assessment of the development potential of the \Vater resources of Carriacou. Un published report prepared by the Organization of American States, Dept. of Reg. Dev., Washington, DC. Midwest Universities Consortium for International Activities, 'nc., 1982. St. Vincent and the Grenadines agriculture sector assessment. Prepared for lJSAlD, Coclnct No. LAC-OOOO-l00-2030-00, Project No. 538-000. Migeot, J. and Hadwen, P., 1986. St. Lucia walet resources. United Nations water resource explo ration as!iessment. Dept .. Troch. Coop., Bridgetown, Barbados. 2 volumes. Miller, G., et al., 1988. An assessment of biodiversity and tropical forestry for the Eastern Caribbean islands. Annex to USAID/RDO/C action plan, FY 1988-89. USAID, Bridgetown, Barbados. Mills, R., Lewis, L. and Hall, P., 1970. Hurricane data analysis for 20 Caribbean islands, 1494-1963. Carib. Research Institute, College of the Virgin Islands, St. Thomas, VI. Mitchell, J., 1973. Our strategy in agriCUlture: aa new policy for St. Vincent and the Grenadines. (Jovt. Printer, Kingstown, St. Vincent. Mitchell, C. and Gold, E., 1982. The integration of marine fipace in national de ... elopment of small island states. The case of Grenada and St. Lucia. Dalhousie Ocean Studies Pro gram, Halifax, NS, Canada. Morgan, A., forthcoming, n.d. Technical feasibility study of jetty for Baleine (1986). Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Morris, G., 1985. Water resource development strategies: northern St. Vincent. Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Morris, K., 1989. Fisheries country proftle, St. VinCGnt and the Grenadines. GSVG Fisheries Div., Kingstown, St. Vincent. 215

PAGE 245

Neil, W., 1987. Mechanical engineering aspects on the Orange Hill Estate. Natural resource man agement for agricultural development project. Organization of American S:ates, Dept. Reg. Dev., Washington, DC. Nicholls, C., 1982. Forestry in St. Vincent rutd the Grenadin!!s. In: Lugo, E. and Brown, S. (ed ... ), Forestry in the Caribbean. Proc. ftrst workshop of Caribbean foresters, Castries, St. Lucia, May 24-28,1982, pp.30-37. U.S. MAB Prog., Report no. 7, Washington, DC. Nichols, T., 1980. St. Vincent Amazon (Amazona gui/dinf,ii): predators, clutch size, plumage poly morphism, effect of the volcanic enlption and population estimate. Smithsonian Institution Press, ICBP Tech. Publ. no. 1, Washington, DC. Nurse, J., 1985. Agricultural sector studly policy and programs. of American States, Washington, DC. Organization of 1984. [Map of] Saint Lucia: life zones. Scale 1:50,000. Dept. of Reg. Dev., Washington, DC Organizat.ion of American States, 1985. Development of the tourism attractions of st. Vincent. OrWlDization of American States, Washington, DC. Orgz.nization of American States, 1987a. Elementary data collection approaches for measuring the use of new and renewable sources of energy in the Eastern Caribbean. Human Settlements and Energy Project, Secretariat fo, Economic and Social Affairs, Washington, DC. Organiza:ion of American Stat':.."" 1987b. Guide to selected attractions on the island of st. Vincent. Produced for the St Vincent and the Grenadines Dept. of Tourism by the Dept. of Reg. Dev., Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Organization of American States, 1987c. Tourism development in the Grenadines. Immediate action program and investment estimatr.s for private and public sector activities. Organizatinn of American States, Washington, DC. Organization of American St.ates, 1989. The conservation of buildings of historic and architectural interest in downtoW1J St. John's, Antigua and Barbuda. Dept. of Reg. Dev., Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Organizatio:: of Eastern Caribbean States, 1987. Water quality analysis: Montreal intakes. Natural Resources Management Project, Castries, St. Lucia. Organization of Eastern Caribbean States, Working paper 10: report of activities in OECS member countries for period April 1, 1988 September 30, 1988. Natural Resources Man agement Project, Castries, St. Lucia. Oxenford, H., 1985. The biology and fIShery of the dolphin Coryphaena hippurus near Barbados. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. West Indies, Cave Hill, Barbados. Oxenford, H. and Hunte, W., 1987. A preliminary investigation of the dolphin, Coryphaena hippurus. in the cenlral western Atlantic. Fish. Bull., 34(2):20-120-10. Parris, D., 1986. Tow ism development plan for the Grenadines: socio-cultural considerations. Or ganization of American States, Washington, DC. 216

PAGE 246

Peters, M., 1989. A brief overview of tourism in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Dept. of Tourism, Kingstown, St. Vincent. Pines, J. and Pilgrim, c., 1988. F'mal evaluation of the St. Vincent integrated management production and mcuketing project. USAID project no. 538-0147. Potter, B., et a/., 1988. Management of natural resource information for the Virgin Islands National Park and Biosphere Reserve. Special Biosphere Rese,ve Report. Island Resources Foun dation, St. Thomas, VI. Price, W., 1985. Whaling in the Caribbean: historical perspective and update. Rep. Int. Whal. Comm., 35:413-420. Prins, P., 1986a. St. Vincent and the Grenadines forestry sector analysis: revision and update. CIDA. Prins, P., 1986b. Proposed watershed management policy and system and its application on the Orange Hill Estate. Dept. Reg. Dev., Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Quammie, L., 1989. Wildlife of Saint ViD'.:ent and Grenadines. In: Wildlife management in the Caribbean islands: proceedings of the fourth meeting of Caribbean foresters. A publication of the InstitlJte of Tropical Forestry and the Caribbean Forest, Rio Piedras, PRo Quammie, L., 1990. Putting the record straight on parrots. The Vtncentian, 16 February, 1990, Kingstown, St. Vincent. Rainey, W., et 0/., 1987. Dominica banana rehabilitation project: pesticide assessment. Final report to USAID/RDO/C by Island Resources Foundation, St. Thomas, VI. Rasmussen, G., 1986. Tourism and the Grenadines. Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Repetto, R., 1989. Environmental resources in national income accounting. Paper delivered at Carib. Conserv. Assoc. coof. on economics and the environment, Nov. 6-8, 1989, Barbados. Repetto, R., ct 0/., 1989. Wasting assets: natural resources in the national income accounts. World Resources Institute, Washineton, DC. Resources Management Consultants Ltd., 1976a. Proposals for a study and implementation program to re-establish the sugar industry in St. Vincent. Toronto, Canada. Management Consultants Ud., 1976b. Proposal for a study of opportunities to improve the operating effectiveness of the St. Vincent Marketing Corporation. Toronto, Canada. Richardson, B., 1989. Catastrophes and changes on St. Vincent. Nationa/ Geog. Research, 5(1):111-125. Riegert, T., 1935. Development of tourism attractions of Saint Vincent. Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Robertson, R., 1989a. Draft volcanic emergency management plan --Annex 1 of the national disaster plan. Department of Agriculture, Govt. of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Kingstown, St. Vincent. 217

PAGE 247

Robertson, R., 1989b. Monitoring Unit annua! report. Departmeot oi Agriculture, Govt. of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Kingstown, St. Vincent. Robertson, R., 1990. Beach erosion -general effects and proposal for action. Soufriere Monitoring Unit, GoVl. of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Kingstown, S,t. Vincent. Robertson Ward and Associates, Associated Consulting Engineers, and Gore and Storie, 1986. Wa terfront development plan, Port Elizabeth, Bequia, St. Vin"cut and the Grenadines .. Rogers, C., 1985. Degradation of Carib1:..:an and Western Atlantic corall'eefs and decline of associated fisheries. Proc. Ftfth International Coral Reef Congress, 6:491-496. Romick, G., Murcray, D. and Williams, W., 1982. Stratospheric nitrogen dioxide in the vicinity of Soufriere, St. Vincent. Science, 216:1123-1124. Romney, D., 1969. Report of the coconut industry of St. Vincent. Brit. Dev. Div., Bridgetown, Barbados. Rubenstein, H., 1987. Coping with poverty: adaptive strategies in a Ctuibbean village. Westview Press, Boulder, CO. Sands, W., 1912. An account of the return of vegetation and the revival of agriculture, 10 the area devastated by the Soufriere of St. Vincent in 1902-03. West Indies Bull., 12:22-33. Schreiber, E. and Schreiber, R., 1989. Insights into seabird ecology from a global "natlll'llt experi ment". National Geographic Research, 5(1):64-81. Scoll, S., 1987. ('Lgricultural marketing study. Reg. Dev., Organization of A merican States, Washington, DC. Sedlacek, W., et 01., 1982. Aerosols from the Soufriere eruption plume of 17 April 1979. Science, 216:1119-1121. ShawY_ Engineering Company Limited, 1983. St. Vincent hydroelectric scheme feasibility study (2 vols.). Report to UNDP and GSVG tmder the sponsorship of the World Bank. Shephenl, J., et 01.,1972. The Soufriere volcanic eruption, St. Vmcent Island, Caribbean Event Chronology, 22 December 1971 16 February 1972 (continued from 20 December 1971 reput). UWI, St. Augustine, Trinidad. Shong, C. de, 1971. Agricultural land use in the Marriague Valley, St. Vincent. BA. thesis, (Geography), UWI, Mona, Jamaica. Shortte, E., 1990. Preliminary report presented to the Environmental Protection Task Force by the Chief Public Health Officer, Ministry of Hf" .. lIth and the Environment. Kingstown, St. Vincent. Sigurdsson, H., 1982. Tephra from the 1979 Soufriere eruption. Science, 216:1106-1108. Simmons, G., 1987. Orange Hill Estate marketing development project, phase I. Dept. Reg. Dev., Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Simmons, J., 1988. A call for organization and control. Prepared for Bequia Tourist Committee. 218

PAGE 248

Singh, N., 1987. Watershed management, Montreal. OECS-Natural Resources Management Pro ject, Castries, St. Lucia. Smith, A., et aI., 1986. A preliminary survey cf Frigate Island and Frigate Bay, Union Island, St. Vincent. ORCA, Victoria, BC. Smith, G., 1960. i.rrigation needs of St. Vincent, W.I. Reg. Res. Center, Imp. Coli. Trop. Agri., St. Augustine, Trinidad. Smith, L., 1985. Land classification and land use study of Orange Hill Estate. Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Soler, F., 1987. Development control and physical planning: the case of St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Dept Rp,g. Dev., Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Spinelli, J., 1973. Land use and population in St. Vincent, 1763-1960. A contribution to the study of the patterns of economic and demographic change in a sm:ill West Indian island. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Florida, Gainesville, FL. St. Vincent and the Grenadines Government, 1963. The advisability of re-establishing th-; cotton gin nery a.:1d cotton factory at st. 'Vincent. Kingstown, St. Vincent. St. Vincent and tf.e Grenadines Government, 1963. Development program, 1963-66. Kingstown, St. Vincent. St. Vincent and the Grenadines Government, 1968. Development plan, 1966-1970. Kingstown, St. Vincent. St. Vincent and the Grenadines Government, 1970. Arrowroot mechanization preliminary field trials, December 1970. Kingstown, St. Vincent. St. Vinrzo!. and the Grenadines Government, 1975a. Report on the pilot survey of tourism in St. Vincent. Kingstown, St. Vincent. St. Vincent and the Grenadines Go',ernment, 1975b. St. Vincent national agricultural program (S.NA.P.). Kingstown, St. Vincent. St. Vincent and the Grenadines Government, 1983. Coastal preservation in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Environmental Improvement Sub-committee, Kingstown, St. Vincent. St. Vincent and the Grenadines Government, 1986a. Soil conservation and tree crop establishment. Cumberland watershed project. Comm. Unit, Min. Trade, Indust. and Agri., Kingstown, St. Vincent. St. Vincent and the Grenadines Government, 1986b. St. Vincent and the Grenadines development plan, 1986-1988. Growth, diversification and redistribution. Central Planning Div., Min. of F'mance and Planning, Kingstown, St. Vincent. St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1987. St. VinCCilt and the Grenadines devdopment plan, 1986-88: first annual upd;> .e, 1987-90. Central Planning Div., Min. of Finance and Planning, Kingstown, St. Vincer ,t. 219

PAGE 249

St. Vincent ?.nd the Grenadines Government, 1989a. Agricultural census for St. Vincent and the Grenadines (April 1, 1985 to March 31, 1986 reference period). Min. of Ag., Industry and Labor, Kingstown, St. Vincent. St. Vincent and the Grenadines Government, 1989b. Digest of statistics for the year 1987 (No. 37). Statistical Or., Central Planning, Div., Min. of Finance and Planning, Kingstown, St. Vincent. St. Vincent and the Grenadines Go,ernment, 1989c. Discover St. Vincent and the Grenadines. De partment of Tourism. St. Vincent and the Grenadines Government, 1989d. National accounts of St. Vincent and the Grenadiui!s, 1980-1987. Statistical Of., Central Planning Div., Min. of Finance and Planning, Kingstown, St. Vincent. St. Vincent and the Grenadines Government, n.d. (circa 1989). Cumberland watershed management project: fmal report. Ministry of Agriculture, Industry and Labor, Kingstown, St. Vincent. St. Vincent and the Grenadines Government, USAID, and u.s. Peace Corps, 1985. The Cumbt: .. River hydroelectric and watershed management projr.ct. '
PAGE 250

Twyford, I. and Freitas, c., 1963. Extension methods, soil conservation and land productivity in St. Vincent, West Indies. World Crops, 15(March):88-91, 105. Underwood, Mclelland and Associates Ltd., 19n. Water resou:ces study for St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Prepared for GSVG by the Canadian International Development Agency. United Kingdom Goveroment, 1984. St. Vincent. Dir. Overseas Surv., Se .... E703 (DOS 417), Scale 1:50,000, Tolworth, UK. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 1982. Project report to the Government of St. Vincent. UNESCO/UNFrA/ISER Man and the Biosphere Pro ject: studies on population, dcv:!lopment and the environment in the E3stem Caribbean. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 1987. Coast and beach stability in the Eastern Caribbean islands: St. Vincent. Audio visual aids. UNESCO, Div. Mar. Sci., COMAR, Paris. United Nations Development Program. 1976. St. Vincent national development plan, 1976-1990 UNDP Physical Planning Project, Castries, St. Lucia. United Nations Development Program, 1977. Public administration (0 & M): St. Vincent project fmdings and recommendations. Prepared for the Government of St. Vincent by the United Nations, New York. United Nations Development Program, 1985. Formulation and implementation of national energy policy, Grenada. New York. United States Agency for International Development, 1977. Agricultural development in the J:astern Caribbean: a survey. Prepared by an AID survey team visiting Antigua, Barbados, DOl11inica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. IGtts-Nevis-(AnguiUa), St. Lucia, and st. Vincent, October 16-November 23,1977. United States Agency for International Development, 1979. St. Vincent. Countries of the Caribbean Community: a regional profile. Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance, Washington, DC. United States Agency for International Developmenl, 1982. St. Vincent agricultural develooment program: project identification document (PID). AID/LAC, Washington, DC. United States Agency for International Development, 1985. St. Vincent and the Grenadines country supplement to the Caribbean regional CDSS, 1986 to 1990. Regional Development Of fice/Caribbean, Bridgetown, Barbados. United States Office of Technology Assessment, 1988. Enhancing agriculture in Africa: a role for U.S. development assifit.ance. OTA-F-356. U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, DC. University of East Anglia, 1988. Univ. of East Auglia 1988 St. Vincent WhistlinB Warbler expeation: preliminary report. Univ. of East Anglia, UK (unpublished student field expedition report). Uphoff, N., 1986. Local institutional development: an analytical sourcebook with cases. Kumarian Press, West Hartford, CT. Vidaeus, L., 1969. The St. Vincent fishing industry. UNDP /FAO Caribbean fIShery, development project. 221

PAGE 251

Vincentilln, 1711', 19'..'0. A political party as an organism. February 2, 1990. Kingstown, St. Vincent. Ward, N., 1987. The whalers of Bequia. Oceanus, 30(4):89-93. Watson, J., Spector, J. and Jones, T., 1958. Soil and land use surveys, no. 3: St. Vincent. Imp. Coll. Trop. Agri.: Regional Research Center, Univ. of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad. Weaver, P. and Valenta, J., 1984. Timber plantations and water resources on St. Vincr'lt, West Indies. In: Lugo, A. and Brown, S., (eds.), Watershed management in the Caribbean, pp. 96-110. Inst. Trop. Forestry, Rio Piedras, PRo Wells, S., 1987. Directory of coral reefs of international importance (draft). Vol. 1: Atlantic and Eastern Pacific. IUCN/UNEP. Wells, S., 1988. Cora!. reef:. of the world. IUCN Conservation Mmtitoring Center, Cambridge, UK. Westermann, J., 1952. Conservation in the Caribbean. No.7. Foundation for Sci. Res. Surinam and Nether. Antill., Utrecht. Westermann, J., 1953. Nature preservation in the Caribbean. Vol. 9. Found. Sci. Res. Surinam and Nether. AntilL, Utrecht. Willems, W., 1967. Note of fisheries development in St. Vincent. Brit. Dev. Div., Bridgetown, Barbados. Williams, E., 1984. Development of a forest nursery in St. Vincent. In: Lugo, A., and Brown, S. (eds.), Case studies on forestry activities in the Eastern Caribbean and Jamaica, pp. 47-53. Inst. Trop. Forest., Rio Piedras, PRo Wirt, D., 1986. An assessment of socio-economic conditions of human settlements in St. Vincent. Natural resources management project. Dept. of Reg. Dev., Organization of American States, Washington, DC. Whiting, J., 1983. St. Vincent country visit report. Consultant's report to the Organization of Ameri can States. Woods, D. and Chuan, R., 1982. Fine particles in the Soufriere eruption plume. Science, 216:1118-1119. World Bank, 1984. St. Vincent and the Grenadines: issues and options in the energy sector. World Bank Report no. 5103-STV, Washington, DC. World Bank, 1985. St. Vincent and the Grenadines: economic situation and selected development is sues. A World Bank country study. The World Bank, Washington, DC World Bank, 1989. World tables, 1988-89 edition. The Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, MD. World Health Organization, 1982. Rapid assessment of sources of air, water, and land pollution. WHO offset publ. no. 62. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. 222

PAGE 252

CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION The Caribbean Conservation Association (eCA) Is a regional, non-governmental, non-profit organization dedicated to promoting policies and practices which contribute to the conservation, protection and wise use of natural and cultural resources in order to enhance the quality of life for present and future generations. In fulfilling its mission, the Association establishes partnerships with organizations and groups which share common objectlvds; it focuses attention on activities designed to anticipate and prevent, rather than react and cure. Established in 1967, CCA's membership comprises Governments (currently 19), Caribbean-based non-governmental organizations, and non-Caribbean institutions, as well as Associate (Individual), Sponsoring and Student members. CCA's activities span five major program areas: (1) the for mulation and promotion of environmental policies and strategies; (2) information collection and dissemination servlcbs; (3) promotion of public awareness through environmental xtucation activi ties; (4) research about, support for, and Implementation of natural resource management projects to foster sustainable development; and (5) assh3tance for cultural patrimony prograr.1s. CCA's support is derived from Caribbean Governments, membership contributions, International donor agencies, private corporations and concerned individuals. It is managed by a Board of Di rectors, while its day-to-day activities are supervised by a Secretariat comprising a small core of dedicated staff. For more information, write: Caribbean Conservation Association, Savannah Lodge, The Garrison, St. Michael, Barbados. Telephone: (809) 426-9635/5373; Fax: (809) 4298483. ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION The Island ResourcGS Foundation (IRF) Is a non-governmental, non-profit research and technical assistance organization dedicated to the Improvement of resource management In offshore oceanic islands. Established In 1970, its programs focus on jlrovidlng workable development strategies appropriate for small island resource utilization through the application of ecological principles and systems management approaches that preserve the special qualities of Island life. Key program implementation areas include coastal and marine resource utilization, land use plan ning, environmental impact assessment, national park and tourism planning, cultural resource development, and resource sector policy studies. In 1986 the Foundation launched a program of assistance to non-governmental organizations in the Eastern Caribbean designed to inlprove the capabilities of such groups to provide private sector leadership for achieving environmental goals in the region. Foundation funding Is derived from private foundations, government agencies, International organizations, and through donations and contributions. IRF publishes research ai'd technical re ports and maintains a publications office for distribution of these documents. Its ref{)rence libraries in the Virgin Islands and Washington, D.C. are widely recognized as a unique collection of over 10,000 documents on insular systems and resource management, with a primary emphasis on the Caribbean. The Foundation is based in the U.S. Virgin Islands, with a branch office in Washington, D.C. and a program office In Antigua. For additionallnforrnation, write: Island Resources Founda tion, Red Hook Center Box 33, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands 00802. Telephone: (809) 775-6225; Fax: (809) 779-2022.