Environmental agenda for the 1990's

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Title:
Environmental agenda for the 1990's a synthesis of the eastern Caribbean country environmental profile series : Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines
Physical Description:
71 p. : ill., map ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Caribbean Conservation Association
Island Resources Foundation (Virgin Islands of the United States)
Publisher:
Caribbean Conservation Association
Island Resources Foundation
Place of Publication:
St. Michael, Barbados
St. Thomas, V.I
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Environmental degradation -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Environmental policy -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
"September 1991."

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 25012989
lccn - 93185185
Classification:
lcc - GE160.C27 E58 1991
ddc - 363.7/009729
System ID:
AA00001403:00001


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Environmental Agenda
for the 1990's

A SYNTHESIS OF THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN
COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE SERIES


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION
ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION
U.S. AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT










CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION

The Caribbean Conservation Association (CCA) Is a regional, non-governme '.-, non-profit
organization dedicated to promoting policies and practices which contribute to the conservation,
protection and wise use of natural and cultural resources in order to enhance the quality of life for
present and future generations. In fulfilling its mission, the Association establishes partnerships
with organizations and groups which share common objectives; it focuses attention on activities
designed to anticipate and prevent, rather than react and cure.

Established in 1967, CCA's membership comprises Governments (currently 19), Caribbean-based
non-governmental organizations, and non-Caribbean institutions, as well as Associate (individual),
Sponsoring and Student members. CCA's activities span five major program areas: (1) the for-
mulation and promotion of environmental policies ar.d strategies; (2) Information collection and
dissemination services; (3) promotion of public awareness through environmental education activi-
ties; (4) research about, support for, and implementation of natural resource management projects
to foster sustainable development; and (5) assistance for cultural patrimony programs.

CCA's support is derived from Caribbean Governments, membership contributions, international
donor agencies, private corporations and concerned individuals. It is managed by a Board of Di-
rectors, while its day-to-day activities are supervised by a Secretariat comprising a small core of
dedicated staff. For more information, write: Caribbean Conservation Association, Savannah
Lodge, The Garrison, St. Michael, Barbados. Telephone: (809) 426-9635/5373; Fax: (809) 429-
8483.



ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

The Island Resources Foundation (IRF) Is a non-governmental, non-profit research and technical
assistance organization dedicated to the improvement of resource management in offshore
oceanic islands. Established in 1970, its programs focus on providing workable development
strategies appropriate for small island resource utilization through the application of ecological
principles and systems management approaches that preserve the special qualities of island life.

Key program implementation areas include coastal and marine resource utilization, land use plan-
ning, environmental impact assessment, national park and tourism planning, cultural resource
development, and resource sector policy studies. In 1986 the Foundation launched a program of
assistance to non-governmental organizations in the Eastern Caribbean designed to improve the
capabilities of such groups to provide private sector leadership for achieving environmental goals
in the region.

Foundation funding is derived from private foundations, government agencies, international
organizations, and through donations and contributions. IRF publishes research and technical re-
ports and maintains a publications office for distribution of these documents. Its reference libraries
in the Virgin Islands and Washington, D.C. are widely recognized as a unique collection of over
10,000 documentary en insular systems and resource management, with a primary emphasis on the
Caribb an. The Foundation is based in the U.S. Virgin Islands, with a branch office in Washington,
D.C. ani a program office in Antigua. For additional information, write: Island Resou'rces Founda-
tion, Red hook Center Box 33, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands 00802. TP'sphone: (809) 775-6225;
Fax: (E09) 779-2022.









INTRODUCTION


Preparation of Country Environmen-
tal Profiles (CEPs) has proven to be an effec-
tive means to help ensure that environmental
issues are addressed in the development pro-
cess. Since 1979, the U.S. Agency for Interna-
tional Development (USAID) has supported
Environmental Profiles in over one hundred
USAID-assisted countries.

Profiles have highlighted gaps in the
existing information base, suggested new
guidelines for the design and funding of devel-
opment programs, pinpointed weaknesses in
regulatory or planning mechanisms, and illus-
trated the need for changes in policies. Most
importantly, the process of carrying out a pro-
file project has in many cases helped establish
new working relationships and e ven consensus
among governmental and non-governmental
bodies concerned with environmental issues. It
has also served to strengthen local institutions
and improve their capacity for incorporating
environmental information into development
planning.


PROFILES FOR THE
EASTERN CARIBBEAN

The potentiJl utility of CEPs in the
Eastern Caribbean sub-region (essentially the
OECS countries) has been a subject of discus-
sion since the early 1980's. The need for the
profiling process to begin in those countries
was reaffirmed during a seminar on Industry,
Environment and Development sponsored by
the Caribbean Conservation Association
(CCA) and the University of the West Indies in
August 1986.

Shortly thereafter, USAID entered
into a Cooperative Agreement with CCA for
the preparation of a series of Profiles for the
Eastern Caribbean. The project would begin
in the country of St. Lucia as a pilot effort, to
be followed by Profiles for Grenada,
Dominica, St. Vincent, Antigua-Barbuda, and
St. Kitts-Nevis.


Early in 1987, CCA and the Island Re-
sources Foundation (IRF), of St. Thomas, U.S.
Virgin Islands, signed a Memorandum of
Understanding (MOU) calling for IRF to pro-
vide technical assistance and support to CCA
in the execution of the Profile Project for the
Eastern Caribbean. The executive director of
the Caribbean Conservation Association be-
came the CEP Project Director, while the
president of Island Resources Foundation
served as CEP Project Manager and Team
Leader. An IRF staff person was assigned as a
Project Ccoordinator in each CEP country.

Eventually MOUs were signed by
CCA and the governments of all six CEP
countries -- Antigua-Barbuda, Commonwealth
of Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts-Nevis, St.
Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. In
each Profile country, a National CEP Com-
mittee was established as an advisory, technical
information, and review body for the CEP
Project. Members of the National Committees
represented both government agencies and
private sector organizations concerned about
development and environment issues.

Additionally, a local non-governmen-
tal organization (NGO) was designated by
CCA and the participating government as the
in-country implementing and coordinating
group for the CEP Project. (In Dominica, a
governmental committee, called YES for Year
of the Environment and Shelter, provided the
support functions for the CEP in that country.
In St. Kitts-Nevis, one NGO was designated for
St. Kitts and a second NGO for Nevis.)


ORGANIZATION OF THE CEP REPORTS

Although the format of each Envi-
ronmental Profile was determined by a local
CEP National Committee, the documents -- as
a series -- share a common approach. Each
Profile is designed as a guide for future devel-
opment planning and resource management
decision-making in the target country. A broad
spectrum of sector-specific environment/de-
velopment topics are examined -- for example,


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION














marine and terrestrial systems, parks and
protected areas, wildlife, land use planning,
agriculture, industry, institutional capabilities.

Each topic forms a chapter (or sub-
chapter) of the Profile. Each chapter, in turn,
is sub-divided into three segments. First, a
broad Overview is provided which constitutes
an abbreviated "state of the environment"
summary for each key resource sector. Sec-
ondly, an analysis of Priority Environmental Is-
sues or Problems within each sector is pre-
sented, followed by Policy Recommendations
and Guidelines which are also sector-specific.

All of the Profiles include an intro-
ductory chapter that incorporates background
information on the general environmental set-
ting for the country and reviews the historical,
economic and social context within which envi-
ronmental decision-making must take place. A
comprehensive bibliography of source materi-
als dealing with resource development and
environmental management is found at the end
of each Profile. Most references deal specifi-
cally with the target country or the Eastern
Caribbean sub-region. The six bibliographies
represent the most thorough assemblage of
such information compiled to date.


COMPLETION OF SIX PROFILES

Work on the St. Lucia Environmental
Profile began in mid-1987, and a final draft
document was ready for review one year later
in June of 1988. The St. Lucia report is a par-
ticularly comprehensive Profile, because it was
the first CEP to be completed and because a
larger volume of environmental data and liter-
ature is available on this Eastern Caribbean
country.

An MOU was signed in early 1989
between CCA and the Government of
Grenada to commence work on the Profile in
that nation. Hurricane Hugo in September of
that year slowed the project as Island Re-
sources Foundation's headquarters in St.
Thomas was hard hit by the storm, and the of-



CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


fice and home of IRFs coordinator for the
Grenada Profile (based in St. Croix) were de-
stroyed by Hugo. The final draft of the
Grenada CEP was ruady for circulation by
early 1990.

Thereafter, in fairly rapid succession,
followed the completion of Profiles for
Dominica (February-June), St. Vincent and the
Grenadines (February-June), Antigua-Barbuda
(June-August), and St. Kitts-Nevis (June-
September). All Profiles were finished in final
draft form by September of 1990.

A period for in-country review, fol-
lowed by final edit and re-write by the IRF
technical team, constituted the final steps in
the CEP process. The six Profiles were pub-
lished by June of 1991 and presented by
USAID and CCA to government and NGO
representatives at an official presentation cer-
emony in Barbados in July.


SYNTHESIS REPORT

Following completion of the six CEPs,
a summary of the published reports was re-
quested by USAID and the target Profile
countries. This CEP Synthesis was prepared in
response to that request. It provides an
overview summary of the key environmental is-
sues and problems identified in the six Profiles
and presents this information within an East-
ern Caribbean context. Indeed, many of the
critical environmental issues confronting St.
Lucia are similar to those faced by Grenada,
and so forth. (For more detailed information
on country-specific assessments and policy rec-
ommendations, the reader is referred to the six
Environmental Profiles published earlier in
1991.)

The Synthesis also highlights those
recommendations and guidelines which are
common to the Profile countries and, by so
doing, provides an updated and organized
framework for change in environmental poli-
cies and resource management programs in the
targeted OECS countries.


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION









THE GENIUS OF THE PLACE


"IN EVERYTHING, RESPECT THE GENIUS OF THE PLACE"
Alexander Pope, Essays on Man (1733)


The countries participating in the En-
vironmental Profile Project (Antigua-Barbuda,
Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia,
and St. Vincent and the Grenadines) are but
six of an extended archipelagic clustering of
oceanic islands in the Eastern Caribbean Sea
known collectively as the Lesser Antilles. This
biogeographic grouping, which sweeps in a
graceful curve from Puerto Rico in the north to
Trinidad in Lhe south, is notable among schol-
ars and tourists alike for its cultural, environ-
mental and geomorphological diversity. The
four-year environmental profiling exercise, of
which this volume is the last in a series of
seven, has helped define the extent to which
the differences and commonalities among the
islands in natural and physical resource en-
dowments have shaped and continue to affect
human and institutional development.

As part of the Lesser Antilles cluster,
the CEP islands are truly "archipelagic," en-
joying the characteristic features of both
oceanic and coastal islands. On the one hand,
they share qualities of insular isolation -- e.g.,
smallness, psychological independence, unam-
biguous national identities and generally pris-
tine environments distant from more polluted
continental areas. At the same time, they are
situated within well-serviced sea and air trans-
port routes, and each is surrounded at a near
distance by non-threatening small island neigh-
bors. Beyond lie the continental edges and
centers, attractive and threatening at the same
time.

The CEP islands are at once both
compact and complex, coherent and vul-
nerable, with closely interlocked ecosystems.
Perhaps their most obvious physical character-
istic (and development constraint) is their size
-- they are all very small.


The largest and most mountainous is
Dominica (just under 290 square miles). St.
Lucia -- like Dominica, without significant
satellite islands -- follows with 238 square
miles. The dual island nation St. Kitts-Nevis is
the smallest of the six countries, with a total
land mass of only 104 square miles. Antigua-
Barbuda, the other two-island state, is 170
square miles, with a physical and natural envi-
ronment quite unlike its CEP neighbors.
Grenada and its two larger satellite islands
(Carriacou and Petit Martinique) comprise 133
square miles in total, while St. Vincent and its
gem-like string of Grenadine Islands are
spread over a land area totaling 150 squar:
miles, with the main island encompassing 133
square miles.


CONTRASTING LANDSCAPES

While all Eastern Caribbean islands
share certain valuable natural amenities, such
as a favorable climate, a rich cultural heritage,
luxuriant coral reefs and a wide selection of
colorful and attractive people, flora and fauna,
not everything is distributed evenly.

Some islands, like Antigua-Barbuda,
have insufficient rainfall and a surfeit of
droughts. Others, like Dominica, experience
an excess of rainfall with associated cloudy
weather, landslides and flooding.

St. Lucia is volcanic and monolithic,
comprising one main island with only a few
miniscule nearshore satellite islets. St. Vincent
and the Grenadines, by way of contrast, is an
archipelagic state within its own right, com-
posed of over 30 islands, islets and cays which
extend from St. Vincent, the largest, southward
for some 60 miles toward the neighboring
country of Grenada.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION














The once densely forested landscapes
of Grenada and St. Kitts-Nevis have been
largely transformed to agricultural use. Along
the way, due to its successful, specialized
production of nutmeg and mace, Grenada ac-
quired a reputation as the region's "Spice Is-
land." In St. Kitts, the island's continuous cul-
tivation of cane has earned it a different repu-
tation and landscape; here centuries of consci-
entious land husbandry on sugar estates have
left an aesthetically pleasing, orderly, and well-
proportioned rural landscape, quite unlike the
other CEP states which abandoned sugar in
the past three decades.

But despite these differences in ap-
pearance, much of which is geomorphological,
all Eastern Caribbean islands share one com-
mon characteristic -- their landscapes are as
much derived from cultural factors as natural
forces, shaped by human needs and institutions
and by historical events. These contemporary
cultural landscapes often show the pernicious
influence of careless exploitation, sometimes
reveal the benign effects of good husbandry,
and on occasion display artifactual evidence of
earlier visionary policies, land use planning,
landscape design, and sound nature conserva-
tion practices.


ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING

The normal climate of the oceanic re-
gion at the latitude of the Lesser Antillean is-
lands is a humid tropical marine type, with lit-
tle seasonal or diurnal variation and a fairly
constant, strong wind out of the east. Rain is
distributed roughly into a drier season from
January to May and a wetter season from June
to December. This island grouping is located
within the belt of "trade winds" famous among
seamen for their directional reliability and
generally predictable schedule. Disturbances
can be induced by the passage of so-called
"easterly waves" in the upper atmosphere and
other low pressure systems during the "wet
season." All the CEP islands have suffered the
impacts of severe storms and hurricanes in the
past, although Grenada lies just south of the


path of most tropical storms and is only rarely
affected by hurricanes.

Within this climatic belt, moisture-
laden trade winds are commonly forced up-
wards when they confront the land mass of
even small tropical islands with central peaks,
like all of the CEP islands except Antigua and
Barbuda. The cooled moisture in the air pre-
cipitates as rain, falling most consistently on
the upper slopes. Therefore, island vegetation
at higher elevations receives the highest rain-
fall, while the leeward side of such ;'lands
customarily receives slightly more rain than the
windward side because the air masses and
clouds formed at .he peak move in a westerly
direction under the influence of the prevailing
winds.

An extraordinary variety of "micro-
climates" can exist in small island systems like
the CEP cluster. Altitude, temperature, hu-
midity, saltiness of the air, the intensity and in-
cidence of sunshine, wind exposure, and soil
type all interact and conspire to create numer-
ous site-specific variable "climates" within each
island. These variations are mirrored by each
island's mosaic-like overlay of diverse combi-
nations of natural vegetation which, in turn, are
the very substance of the habitat side of biodi-
versity. Without them, the landscape would be
less interesting, less colorful, and less produc-
tive. It would also be more uniform and
therefore more at risk.

The present vegetation of the CEP is-
lands shows evidence of great disturbance by
human activity. It also represents an inter-
mixture of high and low, wet and dry, volcanic
and limestone islands. The extent of undis-
turbed vegetation in Dominica is more exten-
sive than on any other island in the Lesser
Antilles, and its rain forest is considered the
finest in the Caribbean. In other CEP islands,
Antigua in particular, the natural vegetation
has been altered more significantly by human
manipulation.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION














PHYSICAL FEATURES

The Antillean arc of islands is geologi-
cally young and predominantly volcanic in ori-
qin. Some islands were formed primarily by
subaqueous and subaerial lava flows and
pyroclastics followed by seabed uplift (for ex-
ample, St. Lucia, Dominica). Some of these
acquired thick coral reef caps while still sub-
merged and emerged from the sea looking like
limestone islands (for example, parts of
Antigua).

At the present time, the active tectonic
or mountain formbing process has all lut ceased
in the region except for St. Vincent's Soufriere,
which last erupted in 1979, and the rambunc-
tious underwater volcano north of Grenada
known as Kick 'em Jenny. But within the arc,
there are still eight active volcanic sites on as
many islands -- some with gas vents, some sul-
furous steam vents, one real boiling lake
(Dominica), and a few, like St. Lucia, with
near-surface hydrothermal hot spots that have
geothermal energy potential.

The windward side of most Eastern
Caribbean islands is exposed to the full impact
of the Atlantic Ocean and its easterly and
northeasterly trade winds, waves, swells and
storm systems. By way of contrast, the Lee-
ward coasts are more likely to have generally
secure protection against heavy swells, abnor-
mal tidal currents and contrary winds. The is-
lands' capitals and most important harbors are
located on the Leeward coasts -- St. George's
in Greneda, Kingstown in St. Vincent, Castries
in St. Lucia, Basseterre in St. Kitts, Roseau in
Dominica, and St. John's in Antigua. Of these,
only two -- Gi'nada and St. Lucia -- have
good, naturaliy-protected harbors.

The so-called Windward islands of
Dominica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Grenada
all exhibit a mountainous interior of volcanic
origin which dominates the topography, with
sharply dissected ridges, isolated valleys and
lush vegetation falling away to a narrow coastal
plain of varying width and densely-populated
land. The generally high relief has had an im-


portant influence on climate, on land use, and
on general physical development. Nowhere is
this more evident than in Dominica where
landscape features like tree-covered mountain-
sides, generally rugged and steep intermediate
terrain, and relatively little flat arable land at
lower elevations have been and continue to be
considerable constraints to development.

The absence of a mountainous land-
scape and lush green ,Lcgetation distinguishes
Antigua-Barbuda from the other CEP islands.
In Antigua, flat dry plains give rise to gently
rolling hills in the north and to modest volcanic
hills in the south. About a third of Antigua has
been classified as of limestone origin, while
Barbuda to the northeast is entirely a low-lying
coralline island.

By way of contrast, St. Kitts and Nevis
have only a little of the flatness and dryness of
Antigua and Barbuda, and almost none of the
rugged mountainous irregularity of the Wind-
ward Islands. Each island is dominated by a
single, centrally-located volcanic peak sur-
rounded by fertile slopes, with the so-called
hinterland open from coastline to mountain
top in one continuously graceful sweep.


THE INSULAR DILEMMA

Whatever the physical attributes of his
or her home island, the Antiguan, Barbudan,
Dominican, Grenadian, Kittitian, Nevisian, St.
Lucian, and Vince.ntian resource planner in the
1990's confronts a shared dilemma, as each
tries to manage external development pres-
sures while also being responsive to local
environmental imperatives. Fundamentally, all
islands face the same combination of opportu-
nity and risk, the same marketing strategies for
continentally-generated development pro-
grams, the same pressures of exogenous influ-
ences, the same influx of proposed "high-tech"
quick fixes for complex local problems, and the
same siren song of growth and modernization
and material progress. Balancing these is not
easy.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION














Some may eventually lose their sense
of place, while others will find creative alterna-
tives. Some may even lead the way because
they appreciate that the difference between
just growth -i1 real development is largely a
question of now the environment is managed,
and only sustainable development will ensure
the viability of the supporting natural resource
base upon which all development is dependent.

The six Country Environmental Pro-
files for the Eastern Caribbean, and this sum-
mary or synthesis document, are about the
state of the resource base at the beginning of
the decade of the 1990's in each of six
Caribbean nations. An important question,
however, remains: What will it be like in the
year 2000?

As the twentieth century draws to a
rose, the smaller island systems of the Lesser
Antilles, formerly isolated -- and to a degree
buffered if not wholly protected by that isola-
tion -- ire having to face up to an end to their
quasi-isolation and to the influx of a variety of
new pressures from the outside. Ease of ac-
cess by cruise ship and jet aircraft, telecommu-
nication by fibre-optic cable and telefax ma-
chine, and a proliferation of television signals
from satellites overhead are now taken for
granted. But the effect of these newer media
and transport technologies on local consumer
expectations and on the supply of affordable
goods and services has changed political pri-
orities and made development projections a
very difficult task.

The new growth pressures from inside
and outside have already generated island-wide
disruptions of the self-regulating processes of
nature -- and, in the end, may very well


threaten the viability of insular wildlife, of
water supply systems, and of the very shore-
lines of these islands with their associated coral
reef, mai:grove, and seagrass buffering sys-
tems. This island dilemma of limiting the im-
pacts of outside forces while seeking to be re-
sponsive to local needs is somewhat poignantly
summed up by a poet best known for her ret-
rospective forecasting:


"Thle tidal wave devours the shore
There are no islands anymore."
(Edna St. Vincent Millay)


It is only briefly comforting to note
that the poet was not necessarily referring to
the Caribbean, for all islands face a similar
problem -- only the timing and leadership are
different. Nevertheless, it is clear that island
environments are at risk -- of sinking,
metaphorically speaking, under a sea of waste,
pollution, and environmental damage. Perhaps
not today, but soon if something is not done.

Fortunately, in the same way that
good planning and timely action can develop
sea defenses -- familiar to those who live in a
hurricane zone -- that will hold back or dimin-
ish the effects of a tidal wave or its environ-
mental equivalent, then so can adroit, creative
national and regional leadership save the island
ecosystem from inundation. The 1985 plea of
the Trinidadian Calysonian is not irrelevant
here: "Captain, the ship is sinking!" But, in
truth, his words to the citizens of ,he Eastern
Caribbean are a call to action -- not a cry of
despair.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

















The forests of the Eastern Caribbean
have been steadily exploited since the time of
the first settlements -- as wood for construc-
tion, as a source of food, fuel, and folk
medicines, and as an expendable resource in
the clearing of land for roads, housing and
agricultural development. Gradually, the natu-
ral forest has disappeared from the coastal
areas, and today, in all of the target CEP
countries (except Antigua-Barbuda), the forest
is largely confined to the more mountainous
areas of the interior. Even in this montane,
theoretically inaccessible region -- in St. Lucia,
St. Vincent, Grenada, and Dominica -- illicit
shifting cultivation practices have had a
marked effect, and isolated patches of bananas,
coconuts, citrus and dasheen are not uncom-
mon throughout the forest.

The forested core, and especially its
peripheral edge, continue to provide downs-
lope communities in CEP countries with a
wide variety of useful goods and services such
as building materials, fuelwood, natural
medicines, wild fruits, and habitat for game
species and other wildlife. By far, however, the
most important service provided by the forest
is as a reliable source of domestic water. In a
most orderly sequence, the forest catches the
rainfall, stores the water, arranges for its dis-
tribution islandwide and releases it over time
at various locations.

Of the six CEP countries, Dominica is
the most heavily forested, with over two-thirds
of its land surface covered by forests. Indeed,
in the Eastern Caribbean, the words "rain for-
est" are almost synonymous with the name
Dominica. Antigua is at the other end of the
spectrum; in this country recurrent planting of
sugar cane over several centuries, combined
with the extensive area once under cane pro-
duction, has destroyed for all practical pur-
poses all evidence of the natural vegetation.
Each CEF report provides extended docu-
mentation on the primary vegetation types of
the target island, the extent of coverage of the


OVEhVIEW


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


various forest classifications, and a description
of reforestation efforts.

Principal forest management policies
of the Eastern Caribbean sub-region date to
the 1940's when, between 1942 and 1946, Dr.
J.S. Beard, Assistant Conservator of Forests in
Trinidad and Tobago, carried out a now well-
known reconnaissance of forests in the Wind-
ward and Leeward Islands. His report and
recommendations ultimately provided the legal
basis for many of the forest management and
conservation policies established in these is-
lands. However, the first forest reserve in the
Eastern Caribbean -- the King's Hill Forest
Reserve in St. Vincent -- long pre-dates Beard,
having been established in 1791.

Recent efforts to update forest man-
agement policies and legislation have often
been assisted by donor agencies working in the
region. For example, CIDA-funded forestry
assistance programs in St. Lucia and St.
Vincent have emphasized the development of
long-term Forest Management Plans. Similar
planning exercises in Grenada and Dominica
have been supported by FAO.

The forestry units of government in
several CEP countries have generally been
charged with a broad array of significant envi-
ronmental duties ranging from watershed pro-
tection to environmental education to parks
management -- in addition to more traditional
responsibilities related to the economic devel-
opment of forests. In Dominica and St. Lucia,
in particular, forestry personnel have played a
central role in the conservation and manage-
ment of natural resources. In Dominica, all of
the country's legally designated protected areas
are under the management control of the
Forestry Division. In Grenada, the Forestry
Department has been designated the appro-
priate administrative unit to manage a pro-
posed National Parks and Protected Areas
System. In St. Vincent, the government's
Forestry Division has assumed a principal role
in the development of environmental education
materials, and the St. Lucia Department of
Forest and Lands is a regional leader in the


U


THE MOST
CRITICAL
FUNCTION
OF FORESTED
AREAS IS
TO ENSURE
A RELIABLE
SOURCE OF
DOMESTIC
WATER


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION














MUCH OF THE
PRESSURE ON
FORESTS
COULD BE
MET
THROUGH
MORE
EFFICIENT
UTILIZATION
OF THE
RESOURCE
BASE IN
AREAS
ALREADY
CLEARED OR
OTHERWISE
DISTURBED


development of interpretive programs for nat-
ural areas and in the design of conservation
education materials for children and adults.


THE VALUE OF FORESTS

The forests of the CEP countries (with
the exception of Antigua-Barbuda where cli-
mate and terrain are substantially different)
perform an essential function in regulating
stream flow, protecting water supplies, pre-
venting erosion and landslides, and maintaining
a well-distributed rainfall for the production of
agricultural crops. The remaining natural for-
est owes its survival in large measure to the
ruggedness of terrain, lack of access, and, to
som'- degree, government protection. Unfor-
tunately, the constraints of the past may not
afford adequate protection in the future.

In these countries -- even in Dominica
where there has been a viable timber industry
in the recent past -- the value of timber and
wood products is a small proportion of the
overall economic value of the forest resource
base. To assess the importance of forests,
equal consideration must be given to the re-
source's traditional energy value (for fuel-
wood), its community value (for agroforestry),
its wildlife and biodiversity value (as habitat),
its water catchment and storage value (to pro-
mote soil and water conservation), its recre-
ational and educational value (for residents
and tourists alike), and the quality-of-land-
scape value afforded by access to undisturbed
vegetation and green space. In these islands, it
is important that the governments recognize
the multi-dimensional value of the forests --
and take appropriate steps to conserve and
promote this important resource.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
DEFORESTATION AND HILLSIDE FARMING
[with emphasis on St. Lucia, Dominica,
St. Vincent, and Grenada]

In St. Lucia, pressure to increase ba-
nana cultivation for export has necessitated the


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


clearing (often illegal) of more and more new
land, which in turn has resulted in the estab-
lishment of agricultural plots on steeper slopes
highly susceptible to er.sion. Soil erosion and
excessive downstream siltation are the com-
mon result of such deforestation. While ero-
sion has serious implications for reduced agri-
cultural productivity, it can also raise the risk
of landslides and diminish the value of valley
land by contributing to excessive flooding and
sediment deposition.

Deforestation is considered one -f the
most crucial issues confronting Dominica ac-
cording to a 1990 document prepared by YES
(for Year of Environment and Shelter), a Gov-
ernment-sponsored environmental awareness
committee. Agricultural expansion and timber
harvesting are causing rapid removal of vege-
tation on both private and public lands. In
many areas, especially on steep slopes, lands
being cleared for agriculture are unsuitable for
such uses, particularly in the absence of spe-
cialized controls to protect against soil erosion.

Similar patterns of deforestation can
be identified in St. Vincent and Grenada. In
St. Vincent, most of the area below the 1,000
foot elevation is under permanent agriculture
and has been deforested for centuries. More
rapid upslope expansion of agriculture at the
expense of the forested areas has been occur-
ring in recent years, especially for banana culti-
vation. In Grenada, deforestation and conse-
quent soil erosion due to agricultural clearing,
production forestry, fuelwood cutting, road-
building, and construction activities on steep
slopes and unsuitable soils is a problem which
will become increasingly severe as the country
continues to open up new lands for develop-
ment.

In general, the most fundamental
problem facing the managers of forests in
these CEP countries is the rapidly expanding
pressure on the resource as a source of timber,
fuelwood and charcoal and as an area increas-
ingly utilized for crop cultivation. Much of this
pressure, however, could be reduced, inasmuch
as most of the requirements for forest re-


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION














sources or for land now under natural forest
could be met (1) in areas already, cleared or
otherwise disturbed and (2) through ,'ore effi-
cient utilization of the resource base.

Recommendation. To reduce the
loss of forest cover, government conservation
and resource development policies must focus
on ways to reduce and phase out illegal banana
production, land clearing, and farming in gen-
eral on very steep upland slopes, in critical
water catchment areas, and in designated for-
est reserves. It is essential that government
policies rigorously defend water catchments
against encroachment and permit no extractive
land use other than controlled forestry in such
areas. This will require improved monitoring
and regulatory control initiatives, as well as a
variety of positive -- even economic -- in-
centives that present alternatives to illegal
squatting or illegal land clearing.

More specific recommendations to as-
sist in carrying out these general policy objec-
tives include:

Implementation and enforcement of
land use regulations designed to pre-
vent agricultural and residential en-
croachment and the informal harvest-
ing of trees in designated "protected"
forest areas;

Greater emphasis on promoting
agroforestry practices ar. plantation
forestry on private land in an effort to
improve the involvement of small
farmers as part of the forestry re-
source management team;

Assessment of incentives to increase
the practice of private forestry (e.g.,
tax credits);

Enactment of supporting legislation
that will strengthen the ability of gov-
ernment,, to protect and manage criti-
cal land areas, including private water-
sheds;


Identification of funds to finance pro-
tective measures, such as:

1) purchase of conservation
easements;

2) purchase of development
rights;

3) payment of a premium to
landowners for improved
lanuscape/forest manage-
ment practices (e.g., ter-
racing or reforestation);

4) payment for a long-term
lease of watershed land
needing protection;

5) compensate" : to landown-
ers for down-zoning (re-
classifying) land as a re-
stricted or no development
"protected area" that might
allow certain uses but not
others, by definition.

Recommendation. The best use of
the remaining mature or nearly mature forest
stands may well derive from conserving a ma-
jor portion for their potential as a generic re-
serve, for wildlife habitat, for watershed pro-
tection, for education, for scientific research,
and for nature tourism development. Sec-
ondary forests and plantation forests are gen-
erally more suited for the production of forest
products.

Steps need to be taken by govern-
ments to ensure the protection of those areas
which are appropriate only for wildlife conser-
vation, watershed protection, recreation, na-
ture tourism and biological diversity. Exam-
ples include lands too steep for sustainable
cultivation, commercial forestry or other hu-
man activity and areas which are unique by
virtue of their scenic, floral or faunal charac-
teristics or their overall contribution to the
natural heritage of the country.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


GOVERNMENT
POLICIES
MUST
RIGOROUSLY
DEFEND
CRITICAL
WATER
CATCHMENTS
AGAINST
ENCROACH-
MENT AND
PERMIT ONLY
CONTROLLED
FORESTRY IN
SUCH AREAS


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION














FOREST MANAGEMENT ISSUES IN
ST. KITTS-NEVIS

Forests have not as a matter of public
policy figured largely in the history or devel-
opment of St. Kitts and Nevis (unlike
Dominica, for example, where forests domi-
nate the island's landscape and have been a key
geographic determinant in shaping its history
and development options). As a result the
composition, condition, area and resources of
the upland forest regions in St. Kitts-Nevis are
poorly defined; furthermore, the extent to
which these areas are presently used, by whom
and for what purposes has not been evaluated
or documented on a consistent basis.

One emerging forestry issue is the
more recent availability of former cane pro-
duction acreage for alternative land use activi-
ties. Since much of this land should not have
been cleared for agriculture in the first place, it
is important that the Government recognize
the need to protect and utilize some of this
acreage in appropriate forest plantation and/or
agroforestry programs.

Recommendation. An updated for-
est resource inventory and assessment should
be launched as soon as possible for St. Kitts-
Nevis. A comprehensive forest resources pol-
icy and plan needs to be prepared (ideally
under the mandate of the newly established
National Conservation Commission) and
should include associated regulations covering:
production forestry, agroforestry, watersheds,
forest reserves, and fuelwood production and
other plantation development on forested
lands. Guidelines for the restoration/recovery
of abandoned cane lands should be provided.


FOREST MANAGEMENT ISSUES IN
ANTIGUA-BARBUDA

In the drier, less steep areas of CEP
countries, uncontrolled livestock grazing ad-
versely affects vegetative land cover. Given its
drier climate and flatter terrain, this is an espe-
cially important issue in Antigua-Barbuda.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


Here over-grazing has contributed to land
deterioration (especially during wet periods),
deforestation, erosion, and general denudation
of the landscape.

Recommendation. Agroforestry
techniques need to be encouraged to improve
the economic viability of small farmers while
conserving the natural resource base. Live-
stock projects can incorporate forage trees into
pasture improvement activities.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
FUELWOOD PRODUCTION

The continued demand of generally
poor and marginalized rural populations for
charcoal and to a lesser extent firewood as a
fuel source contributes to the overall exploita-
tion of forest resources in CEP countries.
During the 19S0's, concern about the contrib-
utory role played by fuelwood production in
deforestation has increased, but conclusive
documentation is not presently available to
confirm the extent of environmental risk asso-
ciated with this traditional practice.

Recommendation. A more system-
atic evaluation of fudlwood extraction rates in
CEP countries (particularly the Windward Is-
lands) is required in order to identify specific
areas within each country where continued
harvesting for this purpose poses a substantial
environmental problem. Obvious areas of con-
cern are the forest reserves as well as primary
watersheds where removal of ground cover for
any reason endangers key water supplies.

It needs to be noted that the
"f.:e!wood production issue" is as much a de-
velopment issue as it is an environmental issue.
As a by-product of larger land-clearing activi-
ties (e.g., for agriculture or infrastructure), the
fuelwood issue is but one component of inten-
sifying land use pressures being felt throughout
the CEP islands. Furthermore, as a traditional
technology for rural communities, it cannot be
ignored as an important economic and social --
as well as environmental -- issue.


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION























KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
RELATED TO FORESTS


* ECONOMIC PRESSURES TO INCREASE EXPOR r CROP PRODUCTION WHICH HAVE RE-
SUI.TFO IN ACCELERATED CLEARING ,IF FORESTED LAND AND THE ESTABLISHMENT
OF AGRICULTURAL PLOTS ON EVER STEEPER HILLSIDES AREAS HIGHLY SUSCEP-
TIBLE TO EROSION.

* THE AE.SENCE OF CONTROLS TO PROTECT AGAINST SOIL EROSION, RESULTING
IN AN INCREASED RISK OF LANDSLIDES, FLOODING, AND EXCESSIVE DOWNSTREAM
SILTATION WHEN FORESTED LANDS ON STEEP SLOPES AND UNSUITABLE SOILS
ARE CL EARED FOR AGRICULTURE, PRODUCTION FORESTRY, FUELWOOD, ROAD
BUILDING AND OTHER CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES.

* THE FAILURE OF EASTERN CARIBBEAN GOVERNMENTS TO CONSISTENTLY DEFEND
CRITICAL WATER CATCHMENTS AGAINST NON-FORESTED LAND USE ACTIVITIES,
THUS PLACING AT RISK THE CONTINUED AVAILABILITY OF RELIABLE SOURCES OF
DOMESTIC WATER.

* THE LACK OF LAND USE REGULATIONS DESIGNED TO PREVENT AGRICULTURAL AND
RESIDENTIAL ENCROACHMENT IN DESIGNATED "PROTECTED" FOREST AREAS.

* UNCONTROLLED LIVESTOCK GRAZING, CONTRIBUTING TO LAND DETERIORATION,
DEFORESTATION, EROSION, AND GENERAL DENUDATION OF THE LANDSCAPE.

* THE ABSENCE OF INCENTIVES TO INCREASE AGROFORESTRY AND PLANTATION
FORESTRY ON PRIVATE LANDS OR TO COMPENSATE LANDOWNERS FOR IM-
PROVED LANDSCAPE/FOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES SUCH AS TERRACING
OR REFORESTATION.

* THE NEED TO IMPROVE THE UNDERSTANDING OF POLITICAL DECISION-MAKERS
ABOUT THE VALUE OF FORESTS, PARTICULARLY WITH REGARD TO SOIL AND
WATER CONSERVATION.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION











































St. Lucia Parrot, Amazona versicolor.


\'









2. WILDLIFE, HABITATS, AND BIODIVERSITY


From the earliest colonial period to
modern times, export agriculture has domi-
nated the land use patterns of the CEP coun-
tries and produced major changes in terrestrial
habitats and biodiversity in all the islands.
Nearly three centuries of deforestation and
land clearing for intensive agricultural use have
resulted in the removal or degradation of much
of the original vegetation and contributed to
the loss of wildlife habitat and the subsequent
reduction of species richness. To a lesser ex-
tent, urban development, new residential
housing, and sporadic hurricanes have further
modified natural habitats, while the in-
troduction of exotic (non-native) species --
such as food plants, domestic animals, "weeds"
and animal "pests" -- have, in more subtle ways,
also altered natural biogeographic patterns.

Uncontrolled livestock grazing, most
notably in Antigua-Barbuda, continues to have
a detrimental effect on native plant communi-
ties. More recently, accelerated tourism devel-
opment in CEP countries, again most notably
in Antigua, has resulted in major bio-physical
alterations to the coastline and destruction of
coastal and marine habitats (a specific discus-
sion of coastal and marine habitats is found in
Section 4 of this report).

The combined result of these impacts
is that there now are endemic species in all
CEP islands which are considered threatened
or endangered. Some of these endemic species
and sub-species (either regional endemics or
island endemics) are of scientific interest.
Many have also become symbols of national
pride in their native country -- for example, the
endangered St. Lucia Parrot (Amazona
versicolor); St. Vincent Parrot (Amazona
guildingii); and two parrots in Dominica, the
Imperial Parrot (Amazona imperialis) and the
Red-Necked Parrot (Amazona arausiaca).

The six Environmental Profiles
provide an overview of biodiversity and wildlife
resources in the six CEP countries and assess
the status of threatened and endangered


OVERVIEW


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


species to the extent that such information is
- available. Furthermore, each Profile describes
those areas which have been set aside for the
protection of wildlife and makes detailed rec-
ommendations for additional sites.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
LOSS OF NATIVE WILDLIFE HABITAT

In CEP countries, habitat reduction is
the principal negative impact of development
activities on wildlife. Habitat is reduced or de-
stroyed when forested wildlands are converted
to other habitat types and land uses.

Unfortunately, the home range re-
quirements and minimum viable population
sizes for most wildlife species in these islands
are as yet poorly known. The limited land
mass of individual CEP countries means that
any system of parks or other protected areas
(e.g., wildlife reserves) will, of necessity, consist
of small, probably isolated "pockets" of more-
or-less "natural" habitat surrounded by a matrix
of more intensive land uses. If maintained
largely as native vegetation, such reserves can
include sufficient area to protect smaller
species of wildlife requiring that particular type
of habitat, but this is very much a matter of in-
dividual species characteristics.

The importance of native forest for
wildlife needs to be underscored. Regenera-
tion of forests which favor exotic or pioneering
forms of vegetation will be of more limited
value in promoting biodiversity. An active
program of selective reforestation and natural
avian dispersal of native plant species may be
more beneficial to the recovery of biodiversity
than passive regeneration of forests.

Many so-called marginal lands or
former agricultural lands now reverting to
scrub (particularly in Antigua-Barbuda and St.
Kitts-Nevis) are often considered of minimal
economic importance, primarily because they
cannot be profitably developed for agricultural
production. However, the value of such
acreage extends beyond its potential economic


THE PRIMARY
NEGATIVE
IMPACT OF
DEVELOPMENT
ON WILDLIFE
IS HABITAT
REDUCTION
THROUGH
CONVERSION
OF FORESTED
WILDLANDS TO
OTHER LAND
USES


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION














productivity; most importantly, such lands can
be developed as wildlife habitat and for water-
shed protection. From a biodiversity perspec-
tive, these "marginal lands" have considerable
potential value and therefore require the de-
velopment of appropriate management strate-
gies.

Recommendation. Any land use
planning efforts in CEP countries should in-
clude consideration of biodiversity issues. Re-
strictions should be placed on the clearing of
native forests from agriculturally marginal
lands in designated areas and habitat types.
Since wildlife va!v,,' are typically given little
consideration in planning efforts, one require-
ment should be the development of an ecologi-
cally sound, quantitative analysis of current
land use practices and trends and their effects
on wildlife.

Recommendation. Additionally,
CEP governments should carefully examine the
recommendations contained in the individual
Country Environmental Profiles which specify
the most critical areas requiring "protected
area" status for wildlife protection and the
preservation of biodiversity.

Recommendation. Natural resource
data, including base line data, are limited in
CEP countries, which makes assessment of bi-
ological diversity very difficult. To maintain
biodiversity in the face of increasing demands
on wildlife habitat for development requires at
least a semi-quantitative knowledge of what is
needed to maintain species or communities.
Priority consideration should be given to those
species that are endemic, locally or interna-
tionally endangered or threatened, migratory
species, or those species legally hunted. Pop-
ulation monitoring needs to be undertaken for
critical species.

Since government resources are
limited, much of the required research could
be carried out with the assistance of local non-
governmental organizations. NGOs could
assist in collecting data and in providing
support for already over-burdened forestry and


wildlife staffs. Building on local research
efforts, educational programs for schools could
be developed cooperatively by government
agencies and NGOs to pi'omote interest in
wildlife conservation.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
IMPACT OF BIOCIDES ON WILDLIFE

The CEP countries are importers of
significant amounts of pesticides and herbi-
cides (collectively referred to as biocides).
Water pollutants, including biocides, have re-
portedly caused fish-kills ii; many CEP coun-
tries, and there have been isolated instances of
bird mortality associated with agrochemicals
applied during planting seasons. However, the
effects of biocides on wildlife and the terres-
trial and marine ecosystems of these islands
remains mostly undocumented and therefore
unknown. While there is cause for concern, if
only from a human water quality perspective,
the dimension of the problem is unclear.

Even if standard toxicological data
were routinely available in the Eastern
Caribbean, such data by themselves are fre-
quently not sufficient to predict the conse-
quences of releasing toxic synthetic compounds
in an ecosystem. Quantitative evaluation of the
effects of biocides requires a fairly detailed
ecological picture which is rarely available for
tropical vertebrates and which is exceedingly
labor-intensive to acquire. Furthermore, the
consequences for wildlife populations of expo-
sure to sublethal levels of one or more bio-
cides, often in combination with additional en-
vironmental stress such as habitat reduction or
an unusually dry season, cannot yet be pre-
dicted even at the single-species level.

Nevertheless, some broad statements
in reference to vertebrate wildlife can be made.
Birds are generally more sensitive to biocides
than mammals. Fish are frequently, but not
consistently, more sensitive than warm-blooded
vertebrates. There is also a general develop-
mental hierarchy of sensitivity within each
species. Vertebrate embryos, eggs and larvae


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


WILDLIFE
PROTECTION
AND THE
PRESERVATION
OF BIO-
DIVERSITY ARE
TYPICALLY
GIVEN LITTLE
WEIGHT IN
THE PLANNING
PROCESS IN
CARIBBEAN
ISLANDS


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION














THE EFFECTS
OF BIOCIDES
ON WILDLIFE
AND MARINE/
TERRESTRIAL
ECOSYSTEMS
IS MOSTLY
UNDOCUMENT-
ED AND
THEREFORE
NOT KNOWN


are often more sensitive to toxicants than
adults because they are less protected from the
surrounding environment, have limited means
for detoxifying absorbed substances, and are
less able to move aw'ay from noxious sub-
stances.

Recommendation. A long-term
record-keeping capability should be developed
by an appropriate government agency in each
CEP country for logging and docunm'nting
pollutant impacts on wildlife by means of a
simple database. Descriptive information,
even if unconfirmed by site visits, would pro-
vide a perspective on the frequency and distri-
bution of events. The members of environ-
mental NGOs or national trusts could be called
upon to assist with monitoring and data collec-
tion.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
INSTITUTIONAL CONSIDERATIONS

Legislative oversight for the protection
of wildlife differs among the CEP target coun-
tries. A new Wildlife Protection Act was en-
acted in St. Vincent in 1987 but is undergoing
review to correct some oversights. The St.
Lucia Wildlife Protection Act of 1980 is
comprehensive and effective in curtailing gross
violations against threatened or endangered
wildlife by hunters and collectors; it could be
strengthened by incorporating specific re-
quirements of appropriate international con-
ventions (e.g, CITES). The laws pertaining to
wildlife in Antigua-Barbuda and in Grenada
are outdated and not effectively enforced;
these are being updated in Antigua with the as-
sistance of FAO. A Forestry and Wildlife Act
has been in effect in Dominica since 1976, but
it lacks regulations. The new (1987) National
Conservation and Environment Protection Act
in St. Kitts-Nevis includes several sections per-
taining to wildlife and the maintenance of bio-
diversity; however, regulations which would
make the provisions of the law fully opera-
tional have not been enacted.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


Wildlife management is generally an
adjunct responsibility of the forestry divisions
in CEP governments. However, implementa-
tion of specific wildlife protection and educa-
tion programs, usually requiring specialized
training or expertise, is often delegated to per-
sons provided through foreign assistance agen-
cies. Ideally, in each CEP country, an officially
recognized, professionally trained wildlife unit
should be established within an appropriate
government agency (or perhaps two agencies
to separate terrestrial from marine require-
ments), with designated responsibilities for ap-
plied research in wildlife management for se-
lected species, as well as long-term monitoring
of wildlife populations and habitats.

International trade is a major threat to
the survival of many wildlife species in the
Caribbean. Many Caribbean countries permit
commercial export of wildlife including species
listed as endangered by IUCN. The Conven-
tion on Intema anal Trade in Endangered
Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (known as
CITES) attempts to regulate wildlife trade
through a worldwide system of import and ex-
port controls for listed species. Of the CEP
countries, only the Government of St. Lucia
and the Government of St. Vincent and the
Grenadines have joined CITES.

Recommendation. Each Profile in-
cludes a discussion of steps which should be
taken to strengthen, update, or revise existing
wildlife protection legislation. Additionally,
forestry divisions should seek funding from ap-
propriate donor agencies for staff training,
technical support and equipment for wildlife
management and education programs. Staff
training is needed in such areas as: basic vet-
erinary skills, wildlife management techniques,
and natural area interpretation.

Recommendation. The Govern-
ments of Antigua-Barbuda, Dominica,
Grenada, and St. Kitts-Nevis should become
members of CITES, since membership offers
access to a wealth of materials, training, and
expertise on species conservation and wildlife
trade regulation.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION















































































CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
RELATED TO BIODIVERSITY AND WILDLIFE


* SIGNIFICANT LOSS OF WILDLIFE HABITAT AND THE SUBSEQUENT REDUCTION OF
SPECIES RICHNESS AS FORMERLY FORESTED WILDLANDS ARE CONVERTED TO
OTHER LAND USES.

* LIMITED NATURAL RESOURCE DATA, INCLUDING BASE LINE DATA, MAKING ASSESS-
MENT OF BIODIVERSITY REQUIREMENTS VERY DIFFICULT.

* FAILURE OF GOVERNMENTS TO CONSIDER BIODIVERSITY ISSUES IN THE PLAN-
NING PROCESS, RESULTING IN INEFFECTIVE RESTRICTIONS ON THE CLEAR-
ING OF NATIVE FORESTS AND LITTLE APPRECIATION OF THE VALUE OF AGRI-
CULTURALLY MARGINAL LANDS AS POTENTIAL WILDLIFE HABITAT.

* LACK OF DOCUMENTATION ON THE EFFECTS OF BIOCIDES ON WILDLIFE AND
ON TERRESTRIAL AND MARINE ECOSYSTEMS.

* THE NEED FOR PROFESSIONAL EXPERTISE WITHIN CEP GOVERNMENTS AND NGOs
FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A FULL SPECTRUM OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
ACTIVITIES WHICH, AT PRESENT, ARE LARGELY DEPENDENT ON EXTERNAL
TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS.

* LACK OF INVOLVEMENT OF LOCAL NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS IN
MONITORING AND DATA COLLECTION TASKS RELATED TO WILDLIFE RESOURCES
AND BIODIVERSITY.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION
















Rainfall distribution patterns differ
significantly among the six CEP countries.
Dominica is the recipient of the most rainfall,
as much as 300 inches per year in some areas
at high elevations. The island also has the
highest ratio of forest cover as a proportion of
total area and boasts a total of 365 "rivers"
(many of which are really small streams). The
country has been exporting freshwater for at
least ten years.

Antigua-Barbuda, at the other ex-
treme, is characterized by low rainfall animall
average in Antigua, 42-45 inches; in Barbuda,
30-39 inches), a situation made worse by the
fact that the amount of precipitation varies
sharply between the wet and dry seasons and is
highly variable between years. There are no
permanent natural lakes or perennial rivers in
Antigua or Barbuda. Although much of the
country's groundwater is saline, some estimates
indicate that 25 percent of Antigua's water
supply comes from this source. Approximately
500 ponds are distributed throughout Antigua;
the majority are less than one acre-foot in
storage capacity and are used primarily for
agriculture. Reservoirs serve both agricultural
and non-agricultural needs, while many indi-
vidual residences have cisterns.

The other CEP islands fall between
these two extremes.

Rainfall over the main elevated land-
mass of St. Kitts is relatively plentiful. The up-
lift effect of its central mountain range pro-
duces an annual average of 64 inches for the
entire island; however, in the driest area, the
Southeast Peninsula, precipitation ranges from
only 34 to 39 inches per year. Until the early
1970's, groundwater on St. Kitts was virtually a
virgin resource as the island's needs were sat-
isfied entirely by surface water from springs
and streams. Attention has turned increasingly
to the island's groundwater resources as a
potential source of supply, necessitated by a
growing water deficit and because surface
water resources are fully developed. Never-


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


OVERVIEW


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


theless, surface water -- rather than ground-
water -- continues to dominate the St. Kitts
system.

Nevis is somewhat drier than its sister
island, St. Kitts; this is primarily a function of
the lower elevation of its central mountain.
Annual rainfall varies from approximately 35
inches in the drier, coastal regions of the
southeast to a maximum of 100 inches at Nevis
Peak, the highest point on the island. Nevis'
water needs arc met by a combination of sur-
face water, rainwater (collected in cisterns for
domestic consumption), and groundwater. The
island is drawing increasingly on groundwater
(about 80 percent of the public piped supply)
because no lakes or ponds and virtually no
rivers (only intermittent streams) exist.

Annual rainfall in Grenada varies
from about 50 inches in dry coastal regions to
160 inches in the wet central mountains. Sur-
face water from streams, rivers and ponds is
the major source of freshwater for both human
consumption and agriculture. Surveys have
shown that there is good groundwater potential
in several areas of the island.

Annual rainfall in St. Vincent proper
varies from approximately 67 inches in dry
coastal locations to 276 inches in the wet cen-
tral mountains; in the Grenadines, annual
rainfall is variously estimated at between 30
and 54 inches. Surface water (streams, rivers
and springs) constitutes the major source of
freshwater for human consumption and agri-
culture in St. Vincent, while household water
supplies in the Grenadines depend almost en-
tirely upon rainwater collected and stored in
cisterns.

St. Lucia's rainfall is highest in the
hilly or mountainous south-central part of the
country which normally receives more than 120
inches of rain a year. By way of contrast, most
of the valleys and coastal plains are relatively
dry, with annual precipitation of less than 80
inches. Cap Estate to the north and Vieux
Fort to the south, which are quasi-peninsulas
with mostly low relief, both average less than


DEMAND FOR
WATER IS
INCREASING,
PARTICULARLY
NEAR URBAN
AREAS AND
CLUSTERED
TOURISM
F.hCILITIES














60 inches and are therefore the driest parts of
the country. Rainfall is the primary source of
freshwater in the country. However, due to the
rugged topography and the absence of lakes
and ponds to serve as storage reservoirs, most
of this water flows quickly to the sea. Only a
small proportion is stored naturally as ground-
water because of the generally impervious na-
ture of the volcanic bedrock.

Each Environmental Profile provides
detailed information on primary sources of
freshwater and on major watersheds and key
catchment areas in the CEP target countries.


INCREASED DEMAND,
DECLINING QUALITY AND QUANTITY

In all CEP countries, as a result of
centuries of agriculturally-based economics,
and more recently because of tourism, acceler-
ated land development, road building, and in-
creased demand in virtually all sectors, both
the quality and quantity of water resources are
declining. Demand is increasing for ever
higher rates of water extraction near urban
areas and near clustered coastal tourism facili-
ties.

In Dominica, Grenada, St. Lucia and
St. Vincent, there is continuing pressure to
clear undeveloped forested areas for more
agricultural land, primarily as small plots for
landless farmers. In countries like St. Lucia,
there is also pressure for more irrigation water
for downstream farmers in the alluvial valleys
and drier coastal plains.

In this context, one of the most critical
problems facing the higher-elevation CEP is-
lands is the need for improved management of
the surviving, increasingly degraded forested
lands and steeper, upland watersheds. The is-
sue is considered critical because almost all
water consumed or used in these islands is the
run-off product of catchment areas in the up-
per reaches of major river basins, most of
which have headwaters in each island's central,
forested mountain core.


In Antigua-Barbuda, because water is
a limited resource, water-rclated issues are in-
creasingly seen as critical factors in shaping
national policies -- particularly in light of the
water demands of a rapidly t landing tourism-
based economy. Droughtsi occur every 5-10
years and are a regular, if unpredictable, fea-
ture of the environment. When several low-
rainfall years occur consecutively (as in 1964-68
and 1983-84), the country faces critical water
shortages. In the 1983-84 drought, water had
to be imported from neighboring islands.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND
PROTECTION OF THE WATER SUPPLY

Upper slope catchment and forest re-
serves, particularly in the higher-elevation CEP
islands, are not adequately protected against
deforestation and other, often illegal, land
uses. Additionally, there has been very little
expansion (by formal land acquisition and
protection) of areas previously identified as
important for water production, further placing
at risk water supplies required for downstream
consumers. Present legislative measures and
land use controls, where private land is in-
volved, have also proven to be generally inef-
fective.

Government ownership of som' key
water catchments at higher elevations in
mountainous interiors should, in theory, enable
most of the catchments above water supply in-
take points to be kept unoccupied and free of
cultivation, agricultural chemicals, and all set-
tlement. Unfortunately, CEP governments
have found it difficult to exercise authority in
most "protected" areas sufficient to prevent
non-compatible development activities, in-
cluding surreptitious timber harvesting, char-
coal production, and other smaller-scale illicit
extraction of forest resources. At lower eleva-
tions, land tends to be privately owned; here,
too, land use control measures have generally
not been adequate to ensure protection of
water supplies.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCtATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


THE CEP
GOVERNMENTS
HAVE FOUND IT
DIFFICULT TO
EXERCISE
ADEQUATE
AUTHORITY
TO LIMIT
ILLICIT
DEVELOPMENT
IN MANY
LEGALLY
PROTECTED
WATER
CATCHMENT
AREAS




18


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION














Recommendation. A comprehen-
sive national water policy and development
plan for water resources and watershed man-
agement, including land acquisition programs
to protect and maintain water supplies, needs
to be developed by the government of each
CEP country.

Perhaps nowhere is the need for a na-
tional water policy more urgent than in
Antigua-Barbuda where water is a very limited
resource. In that country, most of the more
recent improvements in the supply and delivery
of municipal water were an offshoot of the se-
vere drought of 1983-84. It would be unfortu-
nate if another such crisis is required before
the country's critical water situation is fully as-
sessed and integrated as an essential part of
national economic and development planning.
Water policy planning in Antigua-Barbuda
needs to include a serious assessment of the
growing water demands of the country's lead
economic sector -- tourism -- in view of limita-
tions on the availability of water.

Recommendation. The difficult po-
litical issues, such as a solution to tne problem
of illegal squatting and land clearing in key
watersheds, need to be addressed by CEP gov-
ernments. In fact, many of the difficulties in
dealing with water issues in CEP countries ap-
pear to be primarily social and political, rather
than technical.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
EROSION AND DOWNSTREAM SEDIMENT
POLLUTION AND FLOODING

Excessive silt and sediment are being
eroded in rainy seasons from carelessly, often
illegally, devegetated upland areas and carried
away by extremely rapid run-off. The silting-
up of dams and streams due to soil erosion in
catchment areas and the consequent loss of
water quality and storage capacity at water
production facilities is a growing problem in
CEP countries. Additionally, agricultural en-
croachment in cat."hment areas used for
drinking water intakes is causing increasing


concern about water contamination from agro-
chemical, automotive, animal, and human
wastes.

Devegetated areas also soak up less
water, and paved or cleared areas permit more
direct sheet run-off of rainwater. This results
in less water infiltrating the soil to under-
ground storage and instead produces immedi-
ate, more rapid run-off downslope. As a re-
sult, areas normally immune from floods are
increasingly subject to inundation and damage
to roads and bridges following heavy rains.

Recommendation. Nearly all land
use activities are potentially harmful tu potable
water supplies within steep-slope water catch-
ment areas, while illegal clearing, road build-
ing, and farming continue to place vital catch-
ments at risk. It is therefore important that the
public authority responsible for water distribu-
tion in each CEP country adopt a more aggres-
sive program of identifying and protecting the
most productive water resource areas. Gov-
ernment foresters, planners, and decision-
makers must then incorporate this information
into national planning, land use zoning, and
development permitting policies in order to en-
sure that future water supply demands and
potable water quality requirements are met.

Recommendation. In many CEP
countries, a significant amount of the water-
shed catchment area needed for the longer.
term maintenance and expansion of water sys-
tems does not fall within the boundaries of cur-
rently designated "protected areas" under the
control of government authorities. In fact, in
some, a large proportion of water catchments
falls under private ownership, protected mostly
by present day inaccessibility. Inevitably, it will
become imperative for use-limiting restrictions
and incentives to be introduced to limit the de-
velopment of private lands within all catchment
areas. Ideally, these lands should be acquired
by governments for protection. Either alter-
native will be expensive, although steps to limit
the type of development activity in catchments
will cost less than fee simple acquisition or
condemnation and adjudication. Nevertheless,


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


.4.


MANN'
DIFFICULT
WATER
ISSUES
REQUIRE
SOCIAL AND
POLITICAL
(NOT ONLY
TECHNICAL)
SOLUTIONS


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION














securing the funds or other resources necessary
for limiting development or for compensation
to private landowners should be actively pur-
sued. Over the long term, doini, so will most
likely prove to be the most cost-effective ap-
proach for ensuring a safe and reliable water
supply for CEP island residents.



ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
MINIMIZING LEAKAGE AND WASTE
IN THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

CEP countries report varying degrees
of water loss through leaks in the distribution
network. Often projections for future water
supply needs are made on the assumption that
these losses will be traced and that conserva-
tion measures will be implemented. If this is
not dene, then there is a real possibility of se-
rious shortfalls in water supplies in CEP coun-
tries.

Recommendation. Accelerated
programs of leak detection and repair are
needed in CEP countries. Continuing repair
work needs to be treated as :' ongoing main-
tenance requirement since leaks are a re-
curring phenomenon. Donor assistance may
be necessary to carry out this recommendation.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION

There is a growing interest in and re-
liance on groundwater in some CEP countries,
for example, in St. Kitts and Nevis. Con-
siderable attention to the development of
groundwater resources has gone forward in
that country in the absence of an overall mas-
ter plan for water or even an economic analysis
to determine the optimal ratio of surface to
groundwater exploitation. Such planning con-
siderations are particularly important in view
of the higher overall costs of groundwater de-
velopment -- i.e., both capital and recurring
pumping costs are involved while, because of
gravity flow, surface water use primarily in-
volves only capital expenditure.

Recommendation. In order to make
more informed decisions about allocations of
surface and groundwater resources, base line
hydrological data need to be collected and an-
alyzed. Additionally, in light of groundwater
contamination concerns, attention must be di-
rected to analyzing and correcting existing
potable water quality problems and to ensuring
that future supplies (i.e., the aquifers) remain
safe. A master plan for future water (and
sewage) management is advisable, with a firm
schedule for routing updates and revisions re-
flecting previously unanticipated development
activity.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATiON ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


I'm


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION






















KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES RELATED TO
WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND
PROTECTION OF THE WATER SUPPLY


* INCREASED DEMAND FOR A RELIABLE SOURCE OF SAFE DRINKING WATER, PARTICULARLY
NEAR URBANIZED AREAS AND CLUSTERED TOURISM FACILITIES, AT THE SAME TIME THAT
PRESSURES TO EXPAND NON-COMPATIBLE LAND USES TO CRITICAL WATER CATCHMENT
AREAS HAVE ALSO INCREASED.

* THE FAILURE OF LEGISLATIVE RESTRAINTS AND EXISTING LAND USE CONTROL MEAS-
URES TO FULLY PROTECT UPPER WATER CATCHMENTS AND FOREST RESERVES AGAINST
DEFORESTATION AND ENCROACHMENT.

* LIMITED EXPANSION OF PROTECT rED WATERSHEDS BY PLANNED PROGRAMS OF LAND
ACQUISITION.

* THE RELATIVE INEFFECTIVENESS OF LAND USE CONTROLS IN PLACING RESTRICTIONS
ON THE USE OF PRIVATE LANDS WITHIN CATCHMENT AREAS, A PARTICULARLY CRIT-
ICAL ISSUE SINCE A SIGNIFICANT PROPORTION OF THE CATCHMENT AREA NEEDED
FOR THE MAINTENANCE OF WATER SYSTEMS IS UNDER PRIVATE OWNERSHIP.

* THE DIFFICU! TY OF FINDING SOLUTIONS TO WATER-RELATED PROBLEMS WHEN THE
ISSUES INVOLVED ARE POLITICAL AND SOCIAL AS WELL AS TECHNICAL.

* FAILURE TO TIE METERED WATER INCOME TO REVENUE REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER-
SHED MANAGEMENT AND ACREAGE EXPANSION.

* THE NEED FOR MORE COMPREHENSIVE WATER POLICIES AND THE INTEGRATION OF
WATER SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS INTO NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING AND
DECISION-MAKING.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


































[4,



. .. ,.. ** *,-







Bringing in the nets, Pinneys Beach, Nevis.















'1






-~ ~15 -~ ~


ENVIRONMENTAL AGENDA
FOR THE 1990's


A SYNTHESIS
Of The Eastern Caribbean
Country Environmental Profile Series


ANTIGUA and BAR3UDA
DOMINICA
GRENADA
ST. KITTS and NEVIS
ST. LUCIA
ST. VINCENT and THE GRENADINES










A PUBLICATION OF
THE CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION
TWE ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


September 1991


MI









CONTENTS


Page


Acronyms Iii

Foreword: Caribbean Conservation Assoclation v

Foreword: Island Resources Foundation vil

Introduction 1

The Genius of the Place 3

Sector Summaries

1. FORESTS AND FORESTRY 7

2. WILDLIFE, HABITATS, AND BIODIVERSITY 13

3. FRESHWATER RESOURCES AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT 17

4. COASTAL AND MARINE ENVIRONMENTS 23

5. AGRICULTURE 29

6. TOURISM 35

7. POLLUTION 41

8. PARKS AND OTHER PROTECTED AREAS 47

9. INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK 53

Recommendations For Action: An Agenda For The 1990's 61


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

















Agriculture, forestry, fishing and
tourism have traditionally been the main in-
come-generating activities on which Caribbean
countries depend for their economic viability.
The natural resource base upon which these
activities rely has over time been subjected to
over-exploitation, mis-use, and mis-manage-
ment as people have continuously taken more
from the natural environment than they have
given in return.

The resulting decline in the state of
the Caribbean environment has been ac-
companied by population increases and a dete-
rioration in the standard of living in several
countries of the region, and indications are that
this trend is likely to worsen before it gets
better.

In an attempt to arrest this situation
and put in place mitigative measures to ag-
gressively tackle and rectify the deterioration in
our natural resource base, a series of six
Country Environmental Profiles has been pre-
pared for Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica,
Grenada, St. Lucia, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St.
Vincent and the Grenadines.

These documents are intended to fa-
cilitate environmentally-sound development
planning and pave the way for a new devel-
opment thrust into the twenty-first century and
beyond. Funding for the Environmental Pro-
file Project was provided by the United States
Agency for International Development.

This summary document attempts to
synthesize the principal elements of the six
profile reports and present the main issues and
recommendations in an easily assimilated for-
mat. It is our hope that the approaches and
recommendations offered in the document will
help in ihe creation of policy shifts that will
bring to the region the type of development
which is indeed sustainable.


The Caribbean Conservation Associ-
ation is very pleased to have had this op-
portunity to contribute in a tangible way to the
on-going environment/development debate
and to the research collection and data analysis
so vital to sound management of the Caribbean
environment.


Calvin A. Howel!, Executive Director
Caribbean Conservation Association


CAF1I88EAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION
















In early 1987 when the Caribbean
Conservation Association and the Island Re-
sources Foundation took on the task of
preparing Country Environmental Profiles for
six Eastern Caribbean countries, we knew it
would be a formidable assignment. What we
did not ful!y realize was the magnitude of that
effort, which would not be completed until four
years later.

Before the Profile Project ended, an
unprecedented assemblage of institutions, gov-
ernment agencies, non-governmental organi-
zations, and individuals would become involved
in a first-of-its-kind effort to examine and as-
sess priority environmental issues in six East-
ern Caribbean countries.

CCA and IRF were told at the begin-
ning of this process by our in-country partners
that there would be considerable value in tak-
ing a retrospective look at and reporting on en-
vironmental change as it has taken place in se-
lected OECS countries in the last several
decades. It was long overdue.

But in addition to looking back, the
CEP reports look to the future. To implement
even a portion of the policy recommendations
presented will require inter-disciplinary coop-
eration and coordination by both government
and private sector entities, working together
more or less as partners. Indeed, one of the
purposes of the Country Environmeatal Profile
Project was to improve, channels of dialogue in
the search for workable solutions .

We believe that this synthesis report -
the final document in the current series, of
'Environmental Profiles -- will be a particularly
important contribution to this ongoing dia-
logue. It was designed to provide easy access
to Profile findings and recommendations and
therefore to increase their visibility to a wider
audience of Caribbean leaders -- both political
and environmental.

Island Resources Foundation is proud
to have been associated with this project and to


have contributed not only to the production of
the Profile reports but to the ongoing process
of assembling data, assessing priorities, and
identifying solutions for sustainable -- and
achievable -- resource management policies
and programs in the Eastern Caribbean.


Edward L. Towle
CEP Project Team Leader
and
Judith A. Towle
CEP Report Series Editor
Island Resources Foundation


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION














r ANEGADA


VIRGIN d
ISLANDS ST. MARTIN
o
ST EUSTATIUS


.9


:'ANGUILLA
09 ST. BARTHELEMY


SABA


0 50 100
Miles


JA BARBUDA


SST. CHRISTOPHER

NEVIS *AN


TIGUA


SMONTSERRAT


GUADELOUPE

'" 0MARIE
V GAANTE


DOMINICA


A
IV
11
A

0 C

O


CARIBBEAN


SEA


Q MARTINIOUE%


ST. LUCIA


ST VINCENT $


;GRENADINES


A GRENADA


ISLA LA
BLANOUILLA


TOBAGO ^
ISLA LA TOAG
MARGARITA

TRINIDAD

VENEZUELA

64* 620


General map of the Eastern Caribbean, showing the location of the six CEP countries.


BARBADOSQ


1-
0
lp








4. COASTAL AND MARINE ENVIRONMENTS


COASTAL
ECOSYSTEMS
ARE THE
FRAGILE
INTERFACE
BETWEEN
THE LAND
AND SEA


SYSTEM PRODUCTIVITY AND
CRITICAL. HABITATS


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


Three habitats -- mangroves, coral
reefs, and seagrass meadows -- are of critical
importance in nearshore tropical marine envi-
ronments. There are many direct links be-
tween the extent and health of these habitats
and the productivity of inshore fisheries. The
majority of bottom-dwelling fish species in the
shallow nearshore waters of the Eastern
Caribbean (more than 300 species, of which an
estimated 180 species are landed for human
consumption) are associated with coral iccfs as
adults.

Many of these reef fishes, including
species important in local fisheries, also utilize
mangrove swamps ard/or seagrass beds as
"nursery" habitats for post-larval juvenile stages
of growth. Commercially important inverte-
brates such as conch and lobster also are found
in these habitats as juveniles and in some cases
as adults.

Seagrass beds provide significant en-
ergy inputs to the reef system by serving as
feeding grounds for adult reef fishes. Man-
groves and seagrass beds also serve important
functions in protecting coral reefs by filtering
out sediments from land run-off, and reefs in
turn protect mangroves, grass beds and
beaches from the destructive effects of storm-
driven waves.

For the most part, only a generalized
distribution of these primary marine habitat
tyles could be identified for the six target
countries. In general, there is a lack of de-
tailed information on marine bottom commu-
nities, while comprehensive marine benthic
surveys and mapping have been carried out in
only a few locations. Much of the coastline
and shelf area of the CEP countries is unsur-
veyed and generally unevaluated.

Additionally, the complex -- and
therefore easily disturbed -- nature of the ma-
rine environment is not well understood, de-


spite the fact that marine and coastal habitats
are areas of:

high -nergy,
high risk, and
intense resource use conflict.

They are also the least known and probably the
most poorly managed of insular ecosystems in
the Eastern Caribbean. Additionally, perhaps
as high as 80 to 85 percent of the problems af-
fecting the marine environment and its associ-
ated ecosystems originate from land-based
sources.


HISTORIC USE OF
THE COASTAL ENVIRONMENT

Major marine-based industries -- e.g.,
fisheries, sea transportation (upon which the
agricultural sector has always been dependent),
sand mining for construction aggregate, and,
more recently, tourism -- have played an im-
portant role in the development of the CEP
countries. Major population centers in all six
nations have been located in coastal areas, a
settlement pattern reflecting their more rugged
interior terrain (with the exception of Antigua)
and their collective dependence on marine
transportation. Along selected coastlines in
each country, mangroves and coralline struc-
tures have been important (although too often
unrecognized) controls of shoreline erosion.
Fisheries have provided the major source of
local animal protein for West Indian popula-
tions, and the use of mangrove wood for fuel is
a well-established practice.

But neither this tradition, nor in-
digenous fisheries, nor even the importance of
natural harbors has stimulated national com-
mitments for improved understanding and
management of coastal resources. Historically,
the importance of these resources has not been
widely appreciated, perhaps because traditional
uses have been partitioned among different re-
source users in different sectors. More re-
cently, however, with the emergence of tourism
as a k, y economic sector and with its heavy re-


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION














liance on the coastal environment (especially
beaches), there 's a new incentive for develop-
ing a brJder, more holistic management ap-
proach for this important resource sector.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES

The paucity of accurate information
on landings, fishing effort, exploited stock and
the multi-species nature of reef fisheries makes
it difficult to estimate yields for Caribbean
nearshore fisheries and to develop appropriate
resource management programs using such es-
timates. Recommendations in fishery devel-
opment proposals are often based on guess-
work by experts or rely on abundance or yield
estimates determined by extrapolating results
of experimental fishing or visua: censuses of
known smaller areas to larger oceanic areas.
These procedures may provide a useful starting
point, but there are many uncertainties and
difficulties of interpretation inherent in such
methods. The wide range in published esti-
mates of maximum sustainable yields for
nearshore fisheries in the Eastern Caribbean
illustrates the inadequacy of available informa-
tion.

It often appears that more attention is
devoted by OECS governments to the devel-
opment of the fishing industry than to the
management of the resources upon which the
industry is based. Nevertheless, a current em-
phasis on improving harvest capabilities for
offshore resources may be an effective short-
term means of reducing pressure on nearshore
stocks that have been identified as over-ex-
ploited. At the same time, the need for effec-
tive management of deepwater resources and
shared stocks cannot be ignored, but this can
only be accomplished at a regional (and in
some cases hemispheric) level.

Recommendation. The working
principle for fishery managers should be that
most fisheries, even those that are artisanal
and relatively low-technology, tend towards
over-exploitation and excessive fishing effort if


not regulated. Fishery management plans
should be oriented toward conserving the re-
source and attempting to optimize its long-
term returns, rather than toward the classical
objective of maximizing long-term catches.
Management efforts need to focus on stabiliz-
ing the trend of declining landings and opti-
mizing the harvest of species important to local
nutrition and tourism.

Recommendation. Given the
scarcity of economic resources and the gener-
ally poor performance in the tropics of tradi-
tional stock assessment procedures, CEP
counties should consider a strategy of adaptive
management of fisheries, i.e., implementation
of common sense, trial and error management
measures while simultaneously emphasizing
monitoring of the fishery to evaluate the im-
pact of those measures.

Recommendation. At the same
time, a priority consideration for improving
fish -ies management programs in the Eastern
Caribbean should be the expansion of existing
data collection systems, e.g., by implementing
sampling routines for minor landing sites; pur-
chase slips for middlemen, hotels and restau-
rants; enforcement of export licenses; logbooks
for large offshore boats; and monitoring
strategies for foreign fishing.

Recommendation. Where appro-
priate, levels of fishing effort should be regu-
lated by control measures such as gear restric-
tions, closed areas, closed seasons, and limited
entry and economic limitations such as user
fees. Provision for such measures has been
made in the harmonized fisheries legislation of
all OECS countries, but improved imple-
mentation and monitoring are required.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT

The coastal zone is the most heavily
populated area in all CEP countries and fig-
ures prominently in the recreational pursuits of
citizens and visitors alike. Almost all industrial


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


THE COASTAL
ZONE IS THE
MOST
HEAVILY
POPULATED
AND HEAVILY
UTILIZED
AREA IN ALL
CEP TARGET
COUNTRIES


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION














activities are sited in the coastal zone, while the
emerging tourism sector is dependent upon the
natural features and built infrastructure lo-
cated within the coastal environment.

Significant environmental problems
affecting the coastal zone were identified in the
course of preparing the Environmental Pro-
files, including:

Accelerated "piecemeal" develop-
ment of ti,' coastal zone, with mini-
mum consideration of the cumulative
effects of coastal development pro-
jects and activities;

Unregulated removal of sand and
vegetation in the coastal zone re-
sulting in increased rates of coastal
erosion and elevated risks of storm
damage;

Increasing threats to marine life and
marine ecosystems as a result of un-
regulated development activities not
only in the coastal zone but in up-
land watershed areas;

Failure of artificial barriers to with-
stand the erosive force of sea swells
during periods of high wave activity;

In the absence of enforced coastal
set-back requirements, increased
risk of coastal flooding and destruc-
tion of structures in the coastal zone
during periods of high tide and
heavy sea swells;

Significant habitat loss in coastal en-
vironments, including indiscriminate
cutting of mangroves for con-
struction of shore facilities (even
though these systems are known to
control erosion and provide nurs-
eries for commercially important
fisheries) and modification or de-
struction of salt ponds (even though
their function of controlling sedi-


ment loading to reefs and seagrass
habitat is well established);

Increased water quality degradation,
in the absence of effective coastal re-
source management policies com-
bined with accelerated urbanization
and development of tourist facilities
in coastal areas.

Adverse impacts associated with ad
hoc, unregulated development in the coastal
zone of all CEP countries have been docu-
mented. While the tendency has been to focus
on such problems selectively, their increasing
cumulative visibility reflects the absence of
comprehensive devel'oment control guidelines
and policies committed to maintaining the
quality of coastal resources. This, in turn, re-
confirms the need for a full-fledged coast
zone resource assessment and management
planning strategy.

Recommendation. An evaluation
and design project for a coastal zone manage-
ment program for all CEP target countries
should be implemented to provide overall
guidance for the eventual development of a
CZM program. A useful island model with
over a decade and a half of adaptive testing is
provided by the U.S. Virgin Islands, a neigh-
boring insular area which has had to face sim-
ilar coastal-intensive development issues.

Oversight authority for CZM pro-
grams should reside in one agency, although
responsibility for specific components almost
certainly would have to be an interministerial
undertaking. Procedures for better coordina-
tion of multi-agency responsibilities for coastal
resources and wetlands must also be provided.

The issue focus of country-specific
CZM programs might include the following:

procedures to ensure water quality
for multiple uses, e.g., fisheries
habitat, human contact, and waste
disposal;


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION














port development and improved port
management;

construction and maintenance of sea
defenses;

implementation of impact assess-
ment procedures for development
projects in the coastal zone;

a policy on oil spills and dumping of
hazardous wastes;

management of protected marine
areas;

waterfront renewal; and

increased recreational opportunities,
including marine tourism.

Consideration needs to be given to de-
signing a permit system targeted at coastal de-
velopments, legislation to support a CZM pro-
gram, monitoring and enforcement procedures
to regulate development in the coastal zone,
training and other assistance for appropriate
government staff, and a public education cam-
paign focused specifically on coastal envi-
ronments and their importance to national de-
velopment. Emphasis should not be on regu-
lation alone, as experience suggests that a pro-
gram emphasizing education, incentives, tech-
nical assistance, cost-sharing, and cooperation
will be more effective than a proliferation of
rules and penalties.

Recommendation. Control of up-
land erosion and sediment discharges and ap-
propriate treatment of sewage and other dis-
charges with high nutrient loads is vital to
protect coastal water quality, public health and
the integrity of coral reefs. Steps need to be
taken to curb upland erosion and sources of
sediment loading (such as construction sites)
which impact on the marine environment. The
extent of non-point source pollution, particu-


larly from agricultural run-off, needs to be as-
sessed and steps taken to protect water quality.

Recommendation. A program to
monitor marine sand resources and commer-
cial exploitation of these resources needs to be
put in place in all CEP countries. Up-to-date
assessments of the overall impact of sand
mining on the rate of beach loss, particularly at
critical sites, should be available to government
resource managers, who need to make periodic
judgments as to where continued sand removal
will have the least detrimental impact and is
most compatible with current site utilization.
Priority, erosion-prone areas where sand re-
moval will be absolutely prohibited should also
be designated and then monitored, along with
areas of lesser concern where regulated sand
removal can be carried out at a pre-determined
and managed level. Fees for removal need to
be set, pegged to actual volumes extracted.

Recommendation. An environ-
mental impact assessment should be required
for all large coastal development projects,
whether public or private sector-derived. The
cumulative effects of such projects needs to be
assessed rather than a case-by-case analysis of
each project in isolation. A formal evaluation
process should be established whereby appro-
priate government agencies have an opportu-
nity for input into review procedures.

Recommendation. Where funding is
available from donor agencies, CEP countries
should consider development of a marine re-
source assessment and development plan, in
tbhe same way that such documents have been
developed for other sectors such as forestry or
agriculture. Primary focus should be on the
growth potentials represented by the nation's
marine resources, with identification of activi-
ties -- including traditional uses -- that will
contribute to the sustainable development of
thlse resources. A national focus is preferred
to the present site-by-site development ap-
proach currently dominant in the CEP coun-
tries.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


EMPHASIS
SHOULD NOT
BE ON
REGULATION
ALONE...
A CZM PRO-
GRAM WHICH
INCLUDES
EDUCATION,
INCENTIVES,
TECHNICAL
ASSISTANCE,
COST-SHARING,
AND RESOURCE
USER
COOPERATION
WILL BE MORE
EFFECTIVE
THAN ISOLATED
RULES AND
PENALTIES


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION






















KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN THE
COASTAL/MARINE SECTOR


* LACK OF DETAILED INFORMATION ON CRITICAL MARINE HABITATS FOR USE IN
DECISION-MAKING.

* THE NEED FOR A BETTER BALANCE BETWEEN THE PRESSURE TO DEVELOP THE
FISHING INDUSTRY AND THE NECESSITY FOR IMPROVED MANAGEMENT OF THE
RESOURCES UPON WHICH THE INDUSTRY IS BASED.

* ACCELERATED "PIECEMEAL" DEVELOPMENT OF THE COASTAL ZONE WITH MINIMAL
CONSIDERATION OF THE CUMULATIVE IMPACTS OF DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES AND
PROJECTS.

* SIGNIFICANT LOSS OF CRITICAL COASTAL HABITATS SUCH AS MANGROVES AND
CORALLINE STRUCTURES THAT SERVE AS IMPORTANT CONTROLS OF SHORELINE
EROSION.

* INCREASED WATER QUALITY DEGRADATION, ASSOCIATED WITH ACCELERATED
URBANIZATION AND TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE COASTAL ZONE.

* UNREGULATED REMOVAL OF SAND AND VEGETATION IN THE COASTAL ZONE, RE-
SULTING IN INCREASED RATES OF COASTAL EROSION.

* INCREASED RISK OF COASTAL FLOODING IN THE ABSENCE OF ENFORCED COASTAL
SET-BACK REQUIREMENTS.

* ABSENCE OF A STANDARDIZED REQUIREMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESS-
MENTS OF ALL LARGE COASTAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS.

* LACK OF COMPREHENSIVE DEVELOPMENT CONTROL GUIDELINES AND POLICIES
COMMITTED TO MAINTAINING THE QUALITY OF COASTAL RESOURCES.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


































Bananas or "green gold" are the mainstay of agricultural output in the
Windward Islands of Dominica, Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent.


0








S5. AGRICULTURE


PROFILE OF
THE AGRARIAN SECTOR

Agriculture has long been the main-
stay of the economies in CEP countries. Only
in Antigua-Barbuda has tourism replaced agri-
culture as the lead economic sector. In that
country, the previously dominant sugar indus-
try collapsed in 1967; although a revival was
attempted in 1972, it was abandoned after two
years of low rainfall and poor sugar prices.
Today tourism accounts for approximately half
of Antigua's Gross Domestic Product and em-
ployment. In only one other CEP country -- St.
Lucia -- is tourism seen as a rival to agriculture
in economic importance.

Historically, in the Eastern Caribbean,
agriculture has been the most productive sec-
tor of the economy since the first settlers
cleared small patches of land for subsistence
crops. In the colonial period, early export
crops included cotton, tobacco, cocoa, coffee,
and gir:ger, followed by the emergence of sugar
cane -- grown for the production of both sugar
and rum -- as the dominant plantation crop.
The sugar industry has since failed in all the
CEP islands with the exception of St. Kitts,
where sugar cane has been grown continuously
since the second half of the seventeenth cen-
tury and where cane fields continue to monop-
olize the landscape.

In the Windward Islands of Dominica,
Grenada, St. Lucia and St. Vincent, bananas
have replaced sugar as the major export crop.
Dominica, for one, had experimented for a
time with other crops (for example, in the
1920's, Dominica was the world's largest pro-
ducer of limes), and Grenada's continued ex-
port of nutmeg and mace has earned it its rep-
utation as the "Isle of Spice". Nevertheless, by
the second half of the twentieth century, ba-
nanas had surpassed all other export crops in
influence in the Windwards, particularly as
large fertile valleys, formerly under cane culti-
vation, were released for new agricultural pur-
suits.


However, the modern era of banana
growing is at serious risk in the Eastern
Caribbean. This export crop is bought exclu-
sively in the Windwards by Geest Industries,
which guarantees purchase on a fixed price
basis. This transnational corporation in turn
sells its produce almost entirely in the United
Kingdom, where it enjoys preferential market
treatment. Without such market protection, it
is quite likely that the Windward Islands would
lose much of their share of the international
market to other banana-exporting countries
that produce cheaper bananas of a consistently
higher quality. Forthcoming agreements
among the member countries of the European
Economic Community may remove existing
tariff and non-tariff barriers, a step which
could devastate the banana industry in
Dominica, Grenada, St. Lucia and St. Vincent
unless new preferential arrangements are
made with the United Kingdom.

Agricultural production in the Eastern
Caribbean has historically comprised two dis-
tinct farming systems: (1) the export-oriented
plantation system, characterized chiefly by
monocultures on large estates, and (2) the
small farmer agricultural system, often subsis-
tence-based and developed on the more
marginal agricultural lands.

Many of the difficulties facing the
agricultural sector in the CEP countries have
their roots in the legacy of the colonial past
and, in particular, in its plantation-based eco-
nomic structure. Under colonial rule, invest-
ment in agricultural production, infrastructure,
technology, and marketing focused almost ex-
clusively on the traditional export crops. Small
farming, on the other hand, functioned as a
secondary activity (at least in the view of the
colonial authorities) on marginal lands at the
fringes of commercial plantations. This sec-
ondary system lacked an adequate support
structure to assist farmers in significantly in-
creasing productivity.

However, the large estate system has
declined since the end of World War Two, and
it has become increasingly evident that the now


C/ RIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ENTRENCHED
FEATURES OF
THE COLONIAL
AGRICULTURAL
SYSTEM
CONTINUE TO
CONTRIBUTE
TO THE
DECLINE OF
THE NATURAL
RESOURCE
BASE


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION














dominant small farm system (and thus the
broader national economy) has suffered and
will continue to suffer from this history of ne-
glect. Poor cultivation practices, low produc-
tivity, soil losses, and a continuing conversion
of good agricultural land to other uses remain
entrenched features of the existing system.

On a more positive note, the small
farm and other rural resource systems that
have emerged in the last 40 years are charac-
terized by a considerable degree of crop diver-
sity, occupational multiplicity, and self-reliance.
These features remain largely intact to the pre-
sent and will contribute to efforts to develop a
productive and thriving rural sector.

With the growing importance of the
small farm system, the challenge ahead will be
to improve the institutional structures, man-
agerial performances, and technical expertise
necessary to promote and support agricultural
productivity and expansion. Concurrently, it is
important to reverse existing patterns of re-
source degradation, now evident in the agri-
cultural sector in all CEP countries.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF
BANANA CULTIVATION

Despite its dominant role in the over-
all economic development of the Windward Is-
lands, banana cultivation comes with an envi-
ronmental price tag which should not be over-
looked.

In the first place, most of the marginal
agricultural areas now supporting banana pro-
duction have steep slopes which, if cropped at
all, should be planted only with tree crops to
ensure against soil erosion. The banana, an
herbaceous semi-perennial species, has a very
shallow rooting system and no tap root; there-
fore, erosion can be significant as the roots do
little to stabilize the soil.

This is less of a problem where ground
provisions or other crops are interplanted with


bananas, for example, on many small family
farms. But, in too many instances, steep slopes
are the focus of commercial banana growers
seeking short-term profits with little regard for
long-range impacts.

Furthermore, the ongoing destruction
of forest cover as more profitable banana culti-
vation has expanded onto forested lands is
slowly altering the hydrological regime of af-
fected islands. Without forest cover to slow
the downslope overland run-off of water, less
water is infiltrating the ground, more water is
running off, and less is stored within the natu-
re water system or aquifer. One result is a
lowered base flow in streams during dry peri-
ods, a development which reduces water flow
from some catchments and produces high
sedimentation rates from accelerated erosion
in unprotected upland areas.

Finally, single crop farming, as in the
case of bananas, exhausts the natural nutrients
in the soil; these are only marginally replaced
by the use of artificial fertilizers because in the
wetter climates of the Windward Islands much
of the fertilizer input is lost through leaching.
Monocrop agriculture also is vulnerable to pest
infestation and requires more pesticide use to
control disease. Single crops also tend to lead
to reduced biodiversity and increased domi-
nance by a few species.

Recommendation. Present CEP
governmental policies calling for diversification
to a broader agricultural base need to be en-
couraged. Agricultural diversification not only
protects the country economically, but it can
help to address some of the environmental
problems associated with banana cultivation,
particularly in hillside areas. Agroforestry
programs also need to be encouraged as they
can provide a variety of products (e.g., cash
crops, tree crops, food crops, fuelwood, fod-
der), thus making them well suited for national
programs of agricultural diversification and soil
conservation.

In general, one important long-term
goal for the banana-producing CEP countries


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


THE
IMPORTANCE
OF BANANAS
TO THE
ECONOMIES OF
THE WINDWARD
ISLANDS
DISGUISES THE
FACT THAT THE
NATURAL AND
PHYSICAL
ENVIRONMENT
TO SUPPORT
CROP PRO-
DUCTION IS
BECOMING
INCREASINGLY
MARGINAL


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION
















THE
ENTERPRISING
SPIRIT WHICH
PROMOTED
THE DEVELOP-
MENT OF
SMALL FARMS
SHOULD BE
SUPPORTED BY
HELPING
FARMERS TO
IMPROVE THEIR
RESOURCE
MANAGEMENT
METHODS


should be the promotion of policies which di-
versify the mix of crops being cultivated by
small farmers, moving from L.ie current em-
phasis on annual subsistence and semi-peren-
nial export crops to a pattern incorporating
tree crops capable of providing more perma-
nent cover of land areas on steep, erosion-
prone slopes. To make such cropping patterns
profitable, appropriate input pricing, extension
services, soil conservation investment subsidies,
and marketing assistance have been suggested
as desirable modes of government and NGO
intervention.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
EROSION RELATED TO OVERGRAZING

Soil erosion and general land degra-
dation resulting from overgrazing of livestock
have been significant problems in selected
areas of CEP islands -- for example, Carriacou
in Grenada, the Vieux Fort area of St. Lucia,
the southern portion of Nevis, and throughout
Antigua and Barbuda. The difficulty of im-
plementing more effective livestock manage-
ment policies in these areas is illustrated by a
long-standing tradition in Carriacou known as
the "let go" season. When gardens are being
cultivated from June to December, animals
remain fenced or tethered. But after the har-
vest, when vegetation on the island generally
becomes drier, animals are permitted to roam
and browse without restriction. Such grazing
practices over time accelerate land deteriora-
tion, deforestation, erosion, and general de-
nudation of the resource base.

Recommendation. A renewed focus
on the small farmer as an active participant in
the resource management system could help to
improve environmental management practices
in the agricultural sector. It is important that
the entrepreneurial spirit that has led to the
establishment of small farms, many of which
combine cultivation with livestock raising, be
supported and that farmers receive the help
required to improve their resource manage-
ment methods.


CARI88EAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


In this context, the introduction and
application of agroforestry systems for small
farmers is being promoted as one strategy for
more effectively controlling erosion problems
in CEP countries. Locally-based research is
needed to identify agroforestry systems most
applicable to each country and specific erosion-
control requirements. Such systems might in-
clude forage banks, windbreaks, living fences,
and intercropping with fruit trees.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
LAND TENURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT

Many small farmers in CEP countries
question the relevance of incorporating soil
and water conservation practices as part of
their cultivation methods since so many lack
clear title to the acreage they farm or their
long-term land tenure may not be guaranteed.
Furthermore, the long-established tradition of
jointly held "family lands" is a systemic problem
which continues to perpetuate patterns of inse-
cure land tenure and over-exploitation of small
farms under temporal control. The uncertain-
ties associated with land tenure therefore act
as a subtle barrier to restrict commitment by
small farmers to overall land conservation,
since the benefits of doing so are expensive and
may not accrue to the farmer in the future.

The problem is intensified by national
government policies which -- within the sur-
viving colonial framework of emphasis on
large, export-oriented, estate agriculture --
have tended to overlook the small farm sector.
The consequences of small farm underdevel-
opment are important not only economically
but environmentally. Without adequate con-
trol, support and management from central
government agencies, combined with the im-
plications of land tenure insecurity, the small
farm system has developed with a high degree
of autonomy and without a proper regard for
national concerns or goals regarding erosion
control, deforestation, or soil conservation.

Finally, in a related issue, it is ironic
that while land hunger is a widespread regional


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION













problem, many CEP countries are experiencing
periodic shortages of agricultural labor. Many
residents, particularly young persons, are in-
creasingly drawn to the urbanized areas -- usu-
ally the capital city -- where they hope to earn
a more secure income with better working
conditions.

Recommendation. CE? govern-
ments need to expand agricultural extension
services to small farmers, emphasizing both
productivity and education and training pro-
grams in soil and water conservation tech-
niques.

Recommendation. CEP govern-
ments should consider more innovative and
near-term rewards, incentives, and subsidies to
encourage the practice of environmentally-
scund land management by small farmers,
wiany of whom will continue to lack a long-
term claim to their land. Also needed are low-
cost loans for farmers or even public sector
grant and project funds for the construction of
bench terraces, grass and stone barriers, con-
tour drains, stepped waterways, windbreaks,
and other soil conservation techniques which
are often very labor intensive.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
THE USE OF AGROCHEMICALS

At present, the CEP countries lack
good, consistent data on the types and quanti-
ties of agrochemicals imported and applied in
the field. There are no (or very limited) in-
country capabilities for sampling and analyzing
pesticide residues and for on-going monitoring
of the levels of these chemicals in drinking
water, crops, soils, wildlife, or human tissues.
Decision-makers therefore have little quanti-
tative data on which to base decisions.

Pesticide Control Boards, where they
are functional, lack pesticide inspectors, and all
CEP countries lack adequate numbers of
trained personnel and equipment to implement
systematic pesticide monitoring programs.
Farm workers, for example, are generally not


monitored with any regularity for the effects of
pesticide exposure -- even though there is a
relatively high level of misuse with farmers,
using backpack sprayers, often seen wearing
inadequate clothing for skin protection and no
face masks.

CEP countries have enacted pesticide
control legislation (often as long ago as ten
years or more). Too often, however, such
legislation has not been aggressively or effi-
ciently implemented or lacks regulations which
reflect new chemicals introduced, levels of safe
tolerance, and modern application methods.
Pesticide Control Boards in many CEP coun-
tries arc inactive as operational bodies or do
not exercise sufficient authority for monitoring
and regulating the importation, sale, and dis-
tribution of agrochemicals.

Recommendation. CEP govern-
ments need to establish procedures for the
regular testing of potable water and food stuffs
for pesticide residue (with special attention to
groundwater). Laboratory and personnel ca-
pabilities for water quality monitoring will have
to be upgraded, and consideration should be
given to creating a central environmental labo-
ratory facility in each country serving various
ministries and functions (including pesticide
monitoring).

Foi more specialized kinds of testing
procedures, especially in the case of pesticides,
other toxic chemicals, and dangerous
pathogens, an expanded regime ef analytical
services needs to be developed by the
Caribbean Environmental Health Institute
(CEHI) in St. Lucia, to accommodate the
needs of the region.

Recommendation. Extant pesticide
legislation needs to be more effectively imple-
mented, and up-to-date regulations need to be
put in place and conscientiously enforced.
Pesticide Control Boards need to be reacti-
vated where necessary, and a'l such boards
need to be given sufficient authority and per-
sonnel to enable them to actively monitor and


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


INSECURE
LAND TENURE
RESTRICTS
COMMITMENT
BY SMALL
FARMERS TO
LAND CON-
SERVATION
SINCE
BENEFITS
MAY NOT
ACCRUE TO
THE FARMER
JN THE
FUTURE


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION














AN IMPROVED
MONITORING
AND
CONTROL
SYSTEM FOR
REGULATING
THE IMPORTA-
TION AND USE
OF PESTI-
CIDES IN CEP
COUNTRIES IS
URGENTLY
REQUIRED


regulate agrochemical importation, distribution
and utilization.

Recommendation. Agricultural ex-
tension agents and representatives of farmers'
organizations should be trained to certify
farmers and other users in the safe use and ap-
plication of agrochemicals. A pesticide appli-
cation certification process for small farmers
should be set up in CEP countries, using some
combination of the extension agent system and
local farmers' associations.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
LAND USE AND LAND MANAGEMENT

Remaining prime lands in CEP coun-
tries must satisfy national needs for food,
housing, recreation, waste disposal and many
other human activities. And they must provide
these things on a continuing basis for expand-
ing populations of residents and visitors if
these countries are to remain both ecologically
and economically viable and competitive. In
small islands with limited physical space, plan-
ning for the allocation and use of available land
for various national purposes is particularly
critical to orderly, efficient and truly sustain-
able development.

In the last two decades, prime, highly
productive agricultural land in many CEF
countries has been placed at risk in the face of
alternative usages which tend to produce a
greater economic return. In St. Lucia, for ex-
ample, OAS estimates that slightly over 1,000
acres of good agricultural land have been taken
out of production to a, mmodate road con-
struction, urban activi. s, and village expan-
sion. At the same time, many areas unsuitable


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


for cultivation in CEP countries are being
farmed, while more suitable agricultural lands
are underutilized, often due to the prevalence
of traditionally constraining patterns of land
use and ownership.

In light of these developments, more
integrative kinds of agricultural land use plan-
ning cannot be postponed much longer without
greatly increasing the risk of reduced produc-
tivity, lower farm income, and declining export
earnings in the agricultural sector.

Recommendation. National Land
Use Plans need to be prepared in each of the
CEP countries, incorporating and updating
some or all of the many sectoral plans which
have already been written in each country.
Land Use Plans should focus on the best
means of achieving sustainable development
over the long-term and should attempt to guide
future development into areas which are best
suited for part .ular kinds and densities of land
use, based on physical and ecological con-
straints.

Recommendation. Zoning restric-
tions for various forms of agricultural land de-
velopment need to be considered by CEP gov-
ernments. Furthermore, a plan for island-wide
zoning, which classifies and protects certain
categories of land (e.g, for agriculture, recre-
ation, forestry, water catchment, and wildlife)
is becoming increasingly important throughout
the Eastern Caribbean. It is particularly criti-
cal in the rural sector to prevent further dis-
placement of small farmers to urban areas and
to ensure the availability of suitable lands for
environmentally-sound and profitable agricul-
tural production.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION






















KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR


* ECONOMIC PRESSURES TO EXPAND BANANA PRODUCTION ACREAGES AND INPUTS
WITHOUT SUFFICIENT REGAR_ "OR THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF
UNREGULATED BANANA CULTIVAlION ON i HE NATURAL RESOURCE BASE.

* THE NEED TO IMPROVE THE INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURES, MANAGERIAL PERFORM-
ANCES, AND TECHNICAL EXPERTISE OF THE SMALL FARM SECTOR, FOLLOWING
THE DECLINE OF THE PREVIOUSLY DOMINANT LARGE ESTATE SYSTEM.

* THE LACK OF SUFFICIENT INCENTIVES, EXTENSION SERVICES, SOIL CONSER-
VATION INVESTMENT SUBSIDIES, AND MARKETING ASSISTANCE TO FURTHER
DIVERSIFY THE AGRICULTURAL BASE AWAY FROM ITS CURRENT EMPHASIS Ofr
ANNUAL SUBSISTENCE AND SEMI-PERENNIAL EXPORT CROPS.

* THE PREVALENCE OF LAND TENURE INSECURITY AMONG SMALL FARMERS WHO -
IN THE ABSENCE OF OTHER INCENTIVES -- ARE UNWILLING TO PURSUE COSTLY
LAND CONSERVATION STRATEGIES, THE BENEFITS OF WHICH MIGHT NOT ACCRUE
TO THEM IN THE FUTURE.

* THE INADEQUACY OF QUANTITATIVE DATA ON AGROCHEMICALS (IMPORTATION, USE,
IMPACTS) UPON WHICH TO BASE INFORMED DECISIONS.

* THE GENERAL FAILURE OF CEP COUNTRIES TO EFFECTIVELY IMPLEMENT EXTANT
PESTICIDE LEGISLATION OR TO PROVIDE UP-TO-DATE PESTICIDE CONTROL
REGULATIONS AND MONITORING PROCEDURES.

* THE LACK OF ADEQUATE LAND USE PLANNING OR ZONING RESTRICTIONS IN THE AGRI-
CULTURAL SECTOR TO ENSURE THE CONTINUED AVAILABILITY OF ENVIRONMENTALLY-
SUITABLE AND ECONOMICALLY-PRODUCTIVE LANDS FOR CULTIVATION.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

































ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Technical preparation of this synthesis report was the responsibility of Judith A. Towle, vice
president of Island Resources Foundation. She was assisted by Edward L. Towle, president of
the Foundation, whu helped in the final editing; Jean-Pierre Bacle, who coordinated report pro-
duction; and N,,va Carlson, who provided additional technical review.

The report reflects the priorities and recommendations of the six National Committees estab-
lished in each Profile Country. This Information was first published in June of 1991 by the
Caribbean Conservation Association and Island Resources Foundation as part of a six volume
Environmental Profile series for Antigua-Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts-Novis, St. Lucia,
and St. Vincent and the Grenadines.

Funding for the Eastern Caribbean Country Environmental Profile Project, including publication
of this report and the preceding Environmental Profiles, was provided by the U.S. Agency for
International Development, Regional Development Office for the Caribbean in Bridgetown,
Barbados.






















BOD BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND
CANARI CARIBBEAN NATURAL RESOURCES INSTITUTE
CARICOM CARIBBEAN COMMUNITY
CCA CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION
CEHI CARIBBEAN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH INSTITUTE
CEP COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE
CIDA CANADIAN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AGENCY
CITES CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE OF ENDANGERED
SPECIES OF WILD FLORA AND FAUNA
CZM COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT
EIA ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
FAO FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
GDP GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT
GIS GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM
IRF ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION
IUCN WORLD CONSERVATION UNION
MOU MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING
NGO NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION
OAS ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES
OECS ORGANIZATION OF EASTERN CARIBBEAN STATES
PAHO PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION
ULK UNITED KINGDOM
UNDP UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
UNEP UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAM
SAID UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION














Tourism has been a strong growth
sector of the economics of the CEP countries
in recent years, but the development of the in-
dustry has not been without problems -- some
of which are clearly linked to environmental
planning and growth management issues.


OVERVIEW

In Antigua-Barbuda, tourism has re-
placed sugar production as the lead economic
sector and has rapidly grown to dominate th,
economy in the post-World War Two era.
During the last 30 to 40 years, the Government
has pursued a policy of heavy tourism invest-
ment, especially in air and sea port infrastruc..
ture during the 1960's which facilitated jet air-
line and cruise ship services to the country at a
time when sugar was going into full decline.
With the growth of the industry, concerns
about its potential impacts were inevitable.
Scarce land, particularly in the coastal zone,
lost to the construction of tourism in-
frastructure is one such concern; others include
environmental change as a result of yachting,
scuba diving, and other tourist-oriented recre-
atioaal pursuits.

In St. Lucia, tourism has emerged as
the leading growth sector of the economy. The
country's scenic and recreational assets and its
strategic central location, with two airportss and
an excellent harbor providing access to major
North American, European and Caribbean
markets, have contributed to the successful de-
velopment of the industry since the early
1960's. Generally speaking, its tourism base
reflects two contrasting styles. On the one
hand, the industry is characteristic of a style
dominant in relatively new, emerging tourism
destinations in the region -- e.g., lov density,
selectivity, long-staying and high-spending visi-
t, -s, diversification. On the other iiand, the
country also demonstrates such features as low
seasonality, relatively high proportion of large
hotels, and tour charters, which are more
common to the high density, mass market,
short-staying style of more mature tourism


destinations like Barbados, Bermuda, the
Bahamas, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

Tourism in Grenada has developed
more slowly in comparison to many other
Eastern Caribbean destinations. The smaller
size of the sector, however, is a potential ad-
vantage in planning future development -- i.e.,
the country is not yet overly-dependent on
tourism and by balancing future development
between improvements in agricultural exports,
a modest increase in industrialization, and
tourism, the country may well succeed in hav-
ing a truly diversified economy. Additionally,
the small size of the typical hotel or resort in
Grenada has meant that many local business
people have been able to finance the acquisi-
tion and operation of these facilities. Grenada
also has a history as a yachting center in the
southeastern Caribbean although it lacks a
strong foundation for expanding its current
base.

In St. Vincent and the Grenadines, the
main island of St. Vincent has had to optimize
tourism development opportunities within the
context of what is primarily an agricultural is-
land, where tourism is confined to a narrow
coastal rim of land and where the industry
must compete with other major coastal activi-
ties and settlement patterns. Given these re-
strictions, St. Vincent tourism relies almost
entirely on one main enclave in the southwest
of the island.

The second tourism focal point is the
Grenadines, a group of off-shore satellite is-
lands considerably smaller than St. Vincent
proper but experiencing recent and substantial
tourism expansion which is causing, in turn,
concern about the lack of adequate in-
frastructure and support services for main-
taining current levels of growth. One common
denominator shared by the two "nodes" of
Vincentian tourism is development of the
yachting industry.

The government of St. Kitts-Nevis has
made r.ajor commitments to the development
of tourism in the state in recent years, ac-


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION














knowledging in 1990 that tourism had sur-
passed sugar as the primary foreign exchange
earner. In the 1960's and into the 1970's
tourism in St. Kitts primarily revolved around
small, locally-owned hotels and guest houses.
This pattern changed in ir 72 with the estab-
lishment of the Frigate Bay Development Cor-
poration, a major tourism project which was
owned and managed by the Government and
which set the stage for the transformation of
the tourism sector in St. Killts. Seventeen
years later, an access road to the undeveloped
Southeast Peninsula was completed with pri-
mary financial assistance provided by USAID.
This highway opened up for tourism develop-
ment an area roughly one-fifth the size of St.
Kitts; it includes the most attractive beach
areas with the highest tourism potential on the
island.

In Nevis, until the recent (1991)
opening of the first major resort hotel, tourism
development was traditionally small-scale. A
distinguishing characteristic has been the
dominance of an "up-scale" clientele which, de-
spite the limited number of rooms available
(prior to 1991), has nevertheless generated sig-
nificant tourism revenues for the island. In
Nevis, and to a certain extent in St. Kitts, there
are still a number of historic inns in operation
which seek to attract guests by offering low-
key, high-quality, personalized service within
historic settings.

Dominica's tourism product is not
typical of most other Caribbean destinations,
most significantly because of the limited avail-
ability of white sandy beaches which North
American and European visitors generally
prefer. On the other hand, the island does of-
fer a variety of unique attractions (for example,
spectacular scenery, rain forest hikes, hot
springs, good diving, and national parks)
which, when marketed as a package have
earned Dominica its reputation as the region's
"nature island".


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
PLANNING, DEVELOPMENT CONTROL,
AND TOURISM STYLE

In the absence of clearly articulated
land use policies and environmental controls,
the tourism development goals of the govern-
ments in CEP countries can have far-reaching
consequences foi the environment. Rapid ex-
pansion of the industry has already exacerbated
existing problems with basic services and in-
frastructure in many CEP countries, e.g.,
water, electricity and roads. Until there is a
strategic physical development plan to match
economic growth targets, basic infrastructure is
likely to lag behind demand. Physical devel-
opment planning is also necessary for the effi-
cient use of beach and shoreline lands (which
are becoming increasingly scarce in most CEP
countries) and for a cost-effective distribution
of infrastructure services.

Planning studies on the adequacy of
water and electrical power resources to sup-
port tourism are a special requirement for
areas highly impacted by tourism development.
Many such planning decisions are related to
the scale of tourism which a given country de-
sires to promote and the costs that the country
expects tourism investors to assume. For ex-
ample, is it appropriate for the national gov-
ernment to pay for all water and power needs
to support tourism, or should major investors
be expected to bear a significant portion of
these ccsts?

Major social impacts from current
tourism development thrusts in the Eastern
Caribbean can also be expected. For example,
in St. Kitts-Nevis, development of the South-
east Peninsula, the completion of expansion
phases for the Frigate Bay Development Pro-
ject, and substantially enlarged tourism devel-
opment in Nevis will carry St. Kitts-Nevis well
past the stage of full employment of its labor
force. Since the country's labor base is small,
shortages are inevitable. Given the experi-
ences of other Caribbean islands with strong
tourism economies, imported labor will then
be needed to complement the local labor


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


EMERGING
TOURISM
"STYLES" IN
CEP COUN-
TRIES OCCUR
OFTEN BY
CHANCE
RATHER THAN
AS A RESULT
OF STRATEGIC
PLANNING
WHICH WEIGHS
THE SOCIAL
AND ENVIRON-
MENTAL
IMPLICATIONS
OF EACH
APPROACH


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION




















MANY OF THE
AMENITIES OR
ATTRACTIONS
WHICH FORM
THE BASIS OF
THE TOURISM
INDUSTRY
REQUIRE
SPECIAL
MANAGEMENT
STRATEGIES
BECAUSE
THEY OFTEN
HAVE SPECIAL
CARRYING
CAPACITY
LIMITS


supply, with equivalent demands on infras-
tructure, schools, and other social services.

The question o01 tourism "style" is
another planning issue confronting all CEP
countries. Development projects or develop-
ment approaches catering to the mass tourism
market can significantly impact on many as-
pects of island life (physical, biological, socio-
cultural). As has been well documented in de-
velopment literature, often the economic ben-
efits of mass tourism are illusory, the result of
a failure to account for the social costs to the
community and the environmental costs to the
natural resource base.

Recommendation. CEP govern-
ments need to give more serious attention to
an integration of economic planning and physi-
cal/land use planning so that tourism devel-
opment is more clearly linked to carrying ca-
pacity considerations, to enhancement of the
country's natural resource base, and to an ap-
propriate and achievable level of infrastruc-
tural development.

Recommendation. As CEP coun-
tries continue to expand in the tourism sector,
it will be more difficult to maintain current lev-
els of local resource utilization unless proper
planning considerations are focused on this
specific issue. In other words, as the number
of tourists increases, there is a tendency to in-
crease the marginal purchase of imported
goods and services to support them Resource
managers from both the private and public
sectors need to identify those specific goods
and services which should be "abandoned" to
imports and those where better planning can
actually increase the local content of the
tourism product.

Recommendation. Large-scale
tourism projects, particularly those sited in the
coastal zone, need to be more carefully re-
viewed by CEP governments, preferably via
formal environmental impact assessment pro-
cedures. Impacts on infrastructure can be
minimized by policies requiring large tourism
developments to be energy and potable water


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


self-sufficient and to have self-contained
sewage treatment plants. Tippage fees should
be charged for all solid waste generated by
tourism facilities, and yardage extraction fees
charged for construction sand.

Additionally, the geographic distribu-
tion of infrastructure and large-scale tourism
facilities needs to be carefully evaluated and
consideration given to "agglomeration versus
dispersal" policy alternatives. Recent
Caribbean experience with urban sprawl --
with attendant health, social, and quality-of-life
problems -- suggests that, in general, a spread
or dispersed approach is less intrusive and
dislocating.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
TOURISM'S ALTERATION OF COASTAL
AND MARINE HABITATS

Impacts on coastal and marine habi-
tats, including beaches and mangrove forests,
during the construction phase of tourism in-
frastructure in CEP countries are a major
tourism/environment issue. The location and
siting of structures as well as dredge and fill ac-
tivities now occur in the absence of effectively
enforced development control procedures (see
also Section 4). Too often, the comoounded
effect of degrading or altering coastal envi-
ronments for tourism development is a decline
in coastal water quality which, in turn, can be
detrimental to the well-being of the tourist in-
dustry as well as the health of local popula-
tions. Construction and visitor impacts could
be minimized through the application of
coastal planning guidelines and the introduc-
tion of impact mitigation procedures, which are
now generally absent in CEP countries.

Recommendation. Immediate con-
sideration needs to be given by each CEP
country to the development of a national
coastal zone management policy. To help en-
sure the long-term sustainability of coastal-de-
pendent tourism, national CZM policies must:














ensure coastal resources are de-
voted to water-dependent uses ex-
clusively;

institutionalize a permitting pro-
cess for development activities in
the coastal zone; and

devise a protection and manage-
ment control strategy for common
property resources and amenities
in the coastal zone.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM AMENITIES

A destination becomes inherently
more marketable and sustainable when the
landscape is properly looked after and tourists
and residents alike are provided with a wide
choice of natural and cultural/historical at-
tractions. The conservation, proper develop-
ment, and utilization of such attractions is of-
ten unplanned and unmanaged in CEP coun-
tries. Failure to develop attractions results in
potential loss of tourism revenues, and the ab-
sence of proper management results in degra-
dation of resources that are part of the national
patrimony.

Recommendation. CEP govern-
ments should work with NGOs and the private
sector to design a comprehensive program for
the development, use and management of at-
tractions as a vital element of tourism market-
ing and as a means of increasing tourist rev-
enues. Such a comprehensive plan for the
development of natural and historical at-
tractions and the general enhancement of the
landscape should perhaps be the responsibility
of an inter-ministerial task force with private
sector representation, including NGOs.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
NATURE TOURISM

Nature travel, also called ecotourism,
is a booming industry worldwide. Clearly -- in


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


varying degrees -- all CEP countries could ex-
pand their tourism base by development of a
more comprehensive nature-based tourism ex-
perience. In Dominica, in particular, that
country's touristic future would appear to lie in
its development as an ecotourism destination.
Competing in this market, which remains
largely undifferentiated to all but the most
knowledgeable traveler, requires the formula-
tion of very specialized, targeted mer-
chandizing tactics as well as cooperative public
and private sector support for promotional
strategies. It is also important that other de-
velopment activities do not conflict with at-
tempts to expand nature tourism and will not
degrade or diminish the value of the very
amenities and natural areas which are part of
an ecotourism promotion strategy.

The potential for developing "natural
history tourism" (tourism catering to a very
special clientele of research scientists and nat-
ural history enthusiasts) also needs to be ex-
plored by tourism planners in CEP countries.

In general, any national tourism de-
velopment strategy should not place too heavy
a reliance on a narrowly-defined tourism in-
dustry. The principle of customized diversifi-
cation is important to the tourism sector as
well as to the general economy of CEP coun-
tries, and there is room in each for a risk-
spreading mix of touristic enterprises -- in-
cluding ecotourism. Any overall increase in
nature tourism will presumably reflect an in-
creasing interest by CEP governments in the
well-being of these natural assets.

Recommendation. Ecotourism
amenities in CEP countries need to be more
fully addressed in tourism marketing plans and
promotional literature. In the development
planning process, specific areas need to be
granted special status and provided with a
management framework as nature tourism
amenities or sites; certain types of alternative
tourism activities will need to be excluded from
these areas. Governments need to recognize
the potential of nature-based tourism in diver-
sifying the nation's tourism market and in im-


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION














proving opportunities for extending the length
of stay and expenditure level of tourists.

At the same time, CEP governments
need to be aware that excessive demands by
ecotourists on delicate natural systems might


over the long term destroy the very attractions
that first drew visitors -- unless site manage-
ment plans and visitor impact management
plans have been developed for such amenities
and sufficient resources are available for plan
implementation and site monitoring.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION






















KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
IN THE TOURISM SECTOR


* UNQUANTIFIED AND UNRESOLVED LINKAGES BETWEEN GROWTH IN THE SECTOR AND
ASSOCIATED ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL ISSUES.

* INADEQUATE STRATEGIC PLANNING IN THE SECTOR, RESULTING !, THE EMERGENCE
OF TOURISM "STYLES" MORE OFTEN BY CHANCE THAN BY DELIBERATE CHOICE
AS PART OF A PLANNING PROCESS WHICH HAS ASSESSED THE SOCIAL AND ENVIRON-
MENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF EACH ALTERNATIVE APPROACH.

* FAILURE OF CEP GOVERNMENTS TO GIVE SUFFICIENT ATTENTION TO AN INTEGRA-
TION OF ECONOMIC PLANNING AND LAND USE PLANNING SO THAT TOURISM DE-
VELOPMENT REFLECTS CAREFULLY ANALYZED CARRYING CAPACITY CONSIDERATIONS.

* TENDENCY TO INCREASE THE IMPORTATION OF GOODS AND SERVICES TO SUPPORT
TOURISM AS THE INDUSTRY EXPANDS.

* THE LACK OF COMPREHENSIVE COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS TO Rt:-
DUCE THE NEGATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM INFRASTRUCTURE
AND ACTMTIES IN COASTAL AREAS.

* EXISTING PROBLEMS WITH BASIC SERVICES AND INFRASTRUCTURE EXACERBATED
BY RAPID EXPANSION OF TOURISM.

* THE NEED FOR VISITOR IMPACT MITIGATION AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES.

* THE NEED FOR BETTER PUBLIC/PRIVATE SECTOR COORDINATION IN THE IDENTIFI-
CATION, DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL AND HISTORICAL ATTRAC-
TIONS AND AMENITIES.

* THE NEED TO DIVERSIFY THE TOURISM BASE BY MORE AGGRESSIVE MARKETING OF
NATURE-BASED TOURISM, ALONG WITH A CONCURRENT DEVELOPMENT OF SITE
MANAGEMENT PLANS FOR TARGETED NATURAL AREAS AND THE IDENTIFICATION OF
SUFFICIENT RESOURCES TO MANAGE EACH SITE.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION IS LAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION








7. POLLUTION


OVERVIEW

Primary pollution control and envi-
ronmental health problems facing the
Caribbean have been identified by regional and
international agencies such as CARICOM,
UNEP, and PAHO. Each set of issues has a
counterpart in the CEP countries, with critical
areas of immediate concern being:

solid waste management;

sewage and industrial waste col-
lection, treatment and disposal;

monitoring of chemical pollution
of ground and surface water
sources;

marine and coastal pollution
monitoring; and

drinking water quality monitoring
and control.

These problems have potentially inju-
rious environmental implications both for
public health and for the natural environment.
There is also a risk of adverse economic im-
pacts in neglecting pollution issues, particularly
as the economies of CEP countries rely heavily
on selling the Eastern Caribbean as a pristine,
well-managed tropical environment.

Waste disposal is a difficult problem
for most small island societies, and the CEP
countries are no exception. Their urban areas
lack adequate treatment facilities for domestic
sewage and waste water. Ocean outfalls for
effluents unsuitable as gray water are more
often than not conspicuous by their absence.
The waters of major harbors, and to a degree
other smaller embayments and inshore coastal
areas, are receiving effluents from a variety of
land-based sources of pollution, including
agrochemicals, sullage, processing residues,
sediments, and other waste materials from up-
land areas delivered to coastal waters by rivers,
streams, and underground seepage. Many
package sewage treatment plants serving


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


shoreline hotels are badly maintained, inade-
quately supervised, and too often function im.
properly, which further adds to coastal nutrient
loads.

At the same time, the management of
solid waste remains a problem for most rural
communities and all urban areas in CEP
countries. An even more serious problem ex.
ists as a consequence of the increasing risks
posed by various toxic materials such as many
industrial wastes, biocides used in agriculture,
cleaning solvents, and hospital wastes, and by
the ever present threat of oil spills in the
coastal zone. Management planning and spill
contingency planning have not kept up with the
potential threats to expanding communities
and tourism facilities, particularly those in the
coastal zone.

Finally, each CEP country must ad-
dress the probability that near-site impacts on
land of pollutants will be extended and am-
plified because most pollutants from residen-
tial, agricultural, and industrial sources are
transported to the coast via streams and water-
courses, by leaching and infiltration through
the soil, by direct (piped) discharges into the
sea, and from non-point sources along coast-
lines.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Solid waste disposal is a serious envi-
ronmental issue in all CEP countries. Official
and unofficial means of disposing of refuse
continue to have undesirable impacts on the
natural environment and the citizens of each
island.

Present waste disposal sites, some
formally operated and others informally toler-
ated by CEP governments, are of concern for
several reasons. They are often a public nui-
sance and a health hazard because of fly,
mosquito and rodent breeding, noxious odors,
possible contamination of ground and surface
waters, and exposure to toxic and hazardous


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


POLLUTION
PROBLEMS IN
THE EASTERN
CARIBBEAN
ADVERSELY
AFFECT PUBLIC
HEALTH,
THE NATURAL
ENVIRONMENT,
AND THE
MARKETING
POTENTIAL OF
TOURISM-
BASED
ECONOMIES













wastes. Additionally, there are negative im-
pacts on the tourism and investment sectors of
the economy due to aesthetic concerns (e.g.,
litter, overflowing garbage collection contain-
ers, disagreeable odors, and unsightly dumps).
Open burning is done regularly, with visibility
decreased by wind-driven air pollution from
smoke. Many disposal sites are located in wet-
lands close to coastlines, where they destroy
productive plant communities, displace wildlife
and reduce marine water quality via surface
run-off and toxic leachates with a high bio-
chemical oxygen demand (BOD).

Away from the urban population cen-
ters, the number of officially designated areas
for solid waste disposal is inadequate to meet
rural demands, with disposal taking place at ad
hoc "unofficial" dumps or in watercourses,
beaches and the sea.

The generally poor management of
solid waste disposal sites is due in part to a lack
of funds for proper equipment and mainte-
nance. The lack of an adequate number of
suitable vehicles for the collection and trans-
portation of solid waste to disposal sites, fenc-
ing to contain refuse, and heavy equipment to
bury it are severe limitations throughout all
CEP nations.

Although studies have been done on
solid waste management in several CEP coun-
tries, such reports for the most part have not
addressed the problem in a comprehensive or
financially realistic manner, seldom providing
either implementation schedules or funding
strategies. Most OECS states, including the
CEP target countries, still lack environmental
protection criteria for the siting and operation
of disposal sites, an inventory of suitable alter-
native sites which meet these criteria, and a
schedule for closing presently used sites which
are overfilled or which constitute an environ-
mental hazard.

Recommendation. National solid
waste management plans, covering at least a
ten and preferably a twenty year period, should
be prepared for each CEP country. Plans need


to focus on the different waste flows and par-
ticular waste-handling needs of urban versus
rural areas and of industrial and commercial
operations. Enactment of up-dated solid waste
management legislation is also needed, to de-
fine national and local government responsi-
bilities, to establish standards for waste dis-
posal, and to regulate waste collection. Legis-
lation should include a prohibition against all
refuse disposal in the sea or adjacent to
streams and rivers. Assistance to local gov-
ernment units, now charged with solid waste
collection responsibilities throughout the CEP
countries, is needed to allow locJl governments
to upgrade the services presently provided.

Recommendation. The identifica-
tion of financing for upgraded solid waste
management programs is critical. The devel-
opment of innovative means of raising rev-
enues is necessary to reduce the burden on
public treasuries. Possible options include:
imposition of a levy on hotels for waste collec-
tion and treatment services; sale of franchises
to private waste collectors for designated col-
lection areas; and charging industrial and
commercial businesses for waste collection and
disposal services.

Consideration should be given to
turning garbage collection over to private com-
panies which could charge a fee for services,
something which is not presently done. Public
health ministries could be given responsibility
for licensing such companies and should have
the power to rescind franchises if collectors do
not perform satisfactorily.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
TREATMENTAND DISPOSAL
OF LIQUID WASTES

The continued disposal of raw sewage
into freshwater and marine environments
threatens the public health of CEP countries,
where water-borne diseases such as gastroen-
teritis are considered important environmental
health problems.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


INSUFFICIENT
BUDGETARY
SUPPORT
HAS BEEN
ALLOCATED
FOR
POLLUTION
CONTROL
EFFORTS
IN CEP
COUNTRIES


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION














Central sewer systems are found only
in the urban areas; these are out-dated and
overloaded, and discharge raw sewage without
treatment via outfalls. Generally, septic tanks
are the standard method of domestic and
commercial sewage disposal in suburban areas,
and septic tanks and pit privies are the com-
mon disposal methods used in rural areas. In
some areas, hard volcanic soils limit perco-
lation and therefore present problems for
waste water disposal by septic tanks and soak-
aways. At other locations, high groundwater
tables limit the absorption capacity of the soil,
creating the risk of pollution by sewage.

No comprehensive or recent inventory
has been carried out in CEP countries to mea-
sure or estimate the quantities of industrial
pollutants received by various watershed
.';ainage systems. This lack of data is becom-
ing a more important environmental issue as
the volume of industrial activity increases in
the Eastern Caribbean. In the 1960's, there
were only a few simple industries engaged pri-
marily in the processing of local raw materials
in CEP countries. Today, as a result of con-
scious public policy initiatives to encourage in-
dustrial production, this sector includes an ex-
panding range of small-scale industries pro-
ducing both for the local market and export.
While such manufacturing is still generally in
an early stage of development, its potential for
employment creation and export expansion is
highly rated by Caribbean economic planners.

Therefore, industrial wastes will con-
tinue to contribute to the pollution load of
harbors and other coastal waters in CEP coun-
tries. Although there is little evidence of sig-
nifica:nt levels of toxic effluents being dis-
charged from industrial plants, localized dis-
coloration and high turbidity levels have been
observed in inshore waters receiviiig discharges
from such industries as breweries, distilleries
and food processing plants. While not neces-
sarily toxic, these pollutants contribute to the
reduction of dissolved oxygen in localized
areas, stressing corals, fishes and other ani-
mals, and in extreme cases resulting in fish-
kills, particularly when industrial discharges


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


are compounded by waste oil from power
plants and household waste water run-off.

Only minimal levels of monitoring of
coastal waters have been carried out on a rou-
tine basis in CEP countries. Nevertheless, de-
spite the lack of consistent data, there is a
growing concern that improved methods need
to be identified to ensure that domestic and
industrial effluents receive proper treatment
and disposal. Systems currently in place to
handle sewage, gray water, and liquid industrial
wastes may be permitting largee amounts of
bacteria and viruses, nutrients, chemicals, and
particulate organic matter to enter the coastal
waters of CEP islands on a fairly consistent
basis.

Recommendation. The most cost-
effective and ecologically-sound sewage dis-
posal and treatment method needs to be iden-
tified for the major population centers of CEP
countries. Taking into consideration existing
technological and financial constraints, the
most feasible option is likely to be preliminary
treatment combined with a long outfall which
discharges into deep water in an area of strong
currents. Disposal systems should be designed
to be easily upgraded to a higher level of
treatment should this prove to be necessary
later.

Recommendation. Government
policies should be directed toward attracting
industries which are relatively non-polluting.
Environmental impact assessments should be
required of all proposed industrial projects
before they are granted construction and oper-
ating permits. Existing industries already dis-
charging toxic or high-BOD wastes into the en-
vironment should be required to treat such
wastes and cleanup already polluted areas.

Recommendation. A long-term
water quality and marine biological monitoring
program should be implemented by CEP gov-
ernments to gather base line data and identify
areas requiring remedial action. Laboratory
and personnel capabilities will have to be up-


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION














graded, probably with CARICOM, UNEP
and/or other donor assistance.

Recommendation. An appropriate
government agency should undertake the de-
velopment of improved regulations and oper-
ating standards for privately-owned and oper-
ated sewage treatment plants, which, because
of generally poor maintenance and operating
procedures, are adding to pollution loading in
CEP countries.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
POLLUTION FROM OIL AND
OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
[see Section 5 for a discussion
of agrochemicals]

Oil and other petroleum products are
brought to the Eastern Caribbean by tankers to
off-loading terminals. The companies engaged
in the transshipment of such products to CEP
islands have identified varying levels of pollu-
tion control capability and clean-up equipment
availability for deployment in emergency situa-
tions. CEP governments have only limited in-
house response capabilities in the event of oil
spills or other toxic material accidents. In
many cases, equipment and assistance would
have to be sought from other countries in the
Caribbean. Disaster/spill contingency plan-
ning is also inadequate, particularly given the
Caribbean's central location in heavily-traf-
ficked oil transshipment lanes.

At present, there is no system for the
collection and proper disposal of waste oil in
CEP countries. Waste oil and grease from
garages is simply dumped into storm drains
and on the ground and, together with oil from
street surface run-off, is then washed into
rivers and coastal waters during rains.

Recommendation. A contingency
plan for oil and other toxic spills should be
developed, exercised, and maintained in each
CEP country. Planning and emergency re-
sponse capabilities should be assigned to a sin-
gle government agency. Contingency planning


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


at a national level needs to incorporate all toxic
and hazardous materials and should include an
impact reduction and mitigation plan (i.e., risk
reduction action plan), along with a spill re-
sponse plan.

Recommendation. Legislation is
needed to require proper disposal of waste
automotive oil and hazardous materials, and
facilities to accomplish this must be provided.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
INSTITUTIONAL CONSIDERATIONS

Recommendation. The quantitative
and systemic dimensions of environmental
pollution in the CEP countries are not suffi-
ciently well documented to permit easy devel-
opment of remedial or regulatory measures. It
would therefore be appropriate to identify
funding and/or assistance to carry out a na-
tional pollution assessment in each CEP coun-
try. Such an effort should establish the basic
dimensions of waste streams, identifying and
quantifying sources and causative agents, vol-
umes, flow rates, destinations, impacts, and
projections.

Recommendation. Pollution control
and waste management are customarily seen as
a drain on the public treasury. However, given
the high costs of modern technology and the
high volumes of waste generated in consumer-
oriented economics, pollution control and
waste management can be turned into revenue-
generating activities by the simple procedure of
establishing prices for many facets of waste
disposal (for example, charging a fee for waste
collection and water treatment services or
billing polluters for clean-up and restoration
costs). Once this is done, segments of the pro-
cess could be privatized.

Recommendation. Throughout the
OECS countries, public health legislation is se-
riously outdated and based on legal concepts
which are inadequate to deal with modern
pollution control problems. Such legislation
needs to be updated and strengthened in all


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


POLLUTION
CONTROL
AND WASTE
MANAGEMENT
CAN BE
TURNED INTO
REVENUE-
GENERATING
ACTIVITIES,
THUS
REDUCING
THE BURDEN
ON THE
PUBLIC
TREASURY














CEP countries to include national standards
adud criteria for water quality, pollution control,
and waste management. Consideration must
be given to each country's existing institutional


capabilities and technical/fiscal resources in
designating pollution control standards and
oversight/regulatory responsibilities.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


m


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION























KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
RELATED TO POLLUTION CONTROL


* LOW LEVEL OF AWARENESS AMONG DECISION-MAKERS, BUSINESSES, AND THE
GENERAL POPULATION ABOUT POLLUTION ISSUES AND THEIR COSTS TO THE
COMMUNITY AND THE ECONOMY OVER TIME.

* LACK OF STRATEGIC PLANNING TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE NATIONAL PLANS
FOR LIMITING WASTE GENERATION AND FOR PUTTING IN PLACE POLICIES FOR
WASTE MANAGEMENT, POLLUTION CONTROL AND RECYCLING.

t SEEMINGLY COSTLY SOLUTIONS TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION PROBLEMS WITH-
OUT PROPER ASSESSMENT OF INNOVATIVE MEANS FOR RAISING NEEDED REVENUES
BY ESTABLISHING LICENSING AND DISCHARGE PERI !T FEES AND USER FEES FOR
WASTE DISPOSAL SERVICES.

* FAILURE TO PROVIDE FOR CONTINGENCY PLANNING AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL FOR
OIL AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIAL SPILLS ON LAND, IN PORTS, HARBORS AND
MARINAS, AND IN COASTAL WATERS.

* INSUFFICIENT DOCUMENTATION ON THE QUANTITATIVE AND SYSTEMIC ASPECTS OF
ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION TO PERMIT EASY DEVELOPMENT OF REMEDIAL OR
REGULATORY MEASURES.

* OUT-DATED PUBLIC HEALTH AND WATER LEGISLATION, LACKING REGULATIONS,
NATIONAL STANDARDS AND MODERN CRITERIA FOR WATER QUALITY, POLLUTION
CONTROL, AND WASTE MANAGEMENT.


CAIBAIOSR~INASC~IO SADRSUCSFUDrO


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


















In the developing CEP countries --
still engaged in the difficult art of nation
building and the day-to-day politics of trans-
forming what was a dependent colonial society
into viable nation-states -- the trade-offs be-
tween the long-term benefits of conservation
and resource protection and the more immedi-
ate, short-term benefits of resource exploita-
tion are not always easily understood. The role
of conservation and preservation institutions
(such as parks, reserves, sanctuaries, muse-
ums) is to help balance the equation between
the need to preserve resources for the future
and the need to use resources to meet today's
demands. What should constitute appropriate
resource conservation and heritage protection
policies and programs has been defined in dif-
fering ways in each CEP country.

The Dominica Parks Service, headed
by a Superintendent of Parks, is a separate unit
within Government's Forestry and Wildlife Di-
vision; it is charged with responsibility for de-
veloping and managing the country's parks
system. The Morne Trois Pitons National
Park, Dominica's first, was established in 1975
and contains almost 17,000 acres of legally
protected forest in the south central part of the
island. A second national park, the Cabrits
National Park, was established in 1986 in the
north of the island near Portsmouth. The 260
acres of land comprising this park incorporate
important historic ruins as well as a represen-
tative sample of dry forest lands. The adjacent
marine area encompasses another 1,000 acres
of underwater park surrounding the Cabrits
Peninsula.

The institutional framework for a
parks and protected areas system in Antigua-
Barbuda emerged with passage of national
parks legislation in 1984 that created the
Antigua and Barbuda National Parks Author-
ity. Only one park -- Nelson's Dockyard Na-
tional Park -- has been establiFhed to date.
That park comprises about eight percent of the


RESOURCE CONSERVATION
and
HERITAGE PROTECTION


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


country's land mass, ham both marine and ter-
restrial components, and incorporates whole
villages, public roads and other major
"inholdings" within its boundaries. In this re-
gard, it is unusual in the region and more like
the English "park" model than the American
prototype. The Park's most celebrated attrac-
tion is Nelson's Deckyard at English Harbor,
built in 1725 as regional headquarters for the
English naval force in the Caribbean. Today
the Dockyard remains one of the key historic
landmarks in the Eastern Caribbean; it is also
an important tourist attraction and a center of
yachting -- all of which have been incorporated
within the framework of the national park.

Although St. Lucia does not yet have a
formal national parks system, it does have a
well-established National Trust; enabling Trust
legislation has provided the legal framework
for the vesting of certain important areas in the
Trust for protection and management, includ-
ing the Pigeon Island National Park and the
Maria Islands Nature Reserve. Other pro-
tected areas in the country fall under the juris-
diction of the Forestry Department (the parrot
sanctuary and forest reserves) and the Fish-
eries Management Unit (marine reserves).
The St. Lucia National Trust, under a grant
from USAID, is working on the development
of a national parks and protected areas plan to
define and consolidate protected areas plan-
ning for the country.

In St. Kitts-Nevis, the National Con-
servation and Environment Protection Act of
1987 provides a new legal framework for the
country, one which accepts both the principle
behind and the idea of a system of national
parks and protected areas. This important
legislation includes provisions for the estab-
lishment and protection of both natural and
cultural areas, sites and features. However,
only one national park (the Brimstone Hill
Fortress National Park) was designated when
the law was enacted, and no new sites have
been added. The Brimstone Hill Park has as
its focus one of the region's most important
historic sites; this fortification is managed for
the Government (as it has been for over 20


RESOURCE
CONSERVATION
PROGRAMS
ADDRESS THE
NATION'S
LONG-TERM
NEED TO
PRESERVE
RESOURCES
FOR THE
FUTURE


8. PARKS and OTHER PROTECTED AREAS


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION














years) by a private sector NGO. Brimstope's
restoration as a scenic and educational attrac-
tion for both residents and tourists began in
the mid-1960's and stands today as an excellent
example of how historic resources can con-
tribute to the economic and cultural develop-
ment of CEP countries.

In 1988, the Government of Grenada
and the Organization of American States pub-
lished a Plan and Policy for A System of Parks
and Protected Areas in Grenada. The purpose
of the plan was to identify and provide a course
of action for the protection and wise use of the
country's natural and cultural heritage. How-
ever, at present, there is no formal government
policy on the establishment or management of
a system of protected areas. No existing legis-
lation provides adequate authority to both es-
tablish and manage such a system or to protect
adequately the natural and historical resource
base. The National Trust Ordinance legally
establishes a basis for protecting areas with
both natural and cultural features; however,
this legislation has not been used for such pur-
poses and is in need of revision and update.

There is some interest within the Gov-
ernment of St. Vincent and the Grenadines to
create a system of national parks and protected
areas. Accordingly, a national parks bill has
been drafted with assistance from an OAS
legal consultant, but no official action has been
taken. The Tobago Cays are designated a na-
tional marine park, but management plans
have not been put in place. The OAS has pre-
pared a feasibility study for the area, including
an economic analysis and management rec-
ommendations.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
PROTECTION AND DEVELOPMENT
OF HISTORICAL RESOURCES

The growing population base and ex-
panding economic development of CEP coun-
tries are placing increasing pressures on the
region's surviving historic landmarks and in-


digenous architectural features. Identifiable
problems include:

accelerating loss of archaeological
sites and artifacts particularly in
the coastal zone, associated with
the expansion of tourism, housing,
industry and roads into formerly
undeveloped areas without prior
cultural resource assessments;

deterioration and dismantling of
plantation settlements, fortifica-
tions, and other rural historic sites
in the absence of regulatory con-
trols;

intensifying destruction or modifi-
cation of historic and vernacular
buildings in urban areas, to the
extent that some communities are
losing their traditional architec-
tural character and charm;

lack of holistic national planning
for the incorporation of cultural
patrimony and living culture into
the national development process;

deficiencies in existing resource
planning and management mecha-
nisms to protect historical re-
sources.

The economic and social benefits to
be derived from the protection of historic sites,
architectural features, cultural landmarks, or
archaeological resources have not been fully
appreciated in CEP countries. The result has
generally been the pursuit of government poli-
cies which very often promote either benign
neglect or in some cases deliberate destruction
of these resources.

Lack of public concern is due in part
to the fact that the original initiative for his-
toric preservation in the region came from ex-
patriates with much of the emphasis of early
conservation efforts focused on the colonial
past. In more recent years, tourism has had a


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


A SENSE OF
NATIONAL
PRIDE HAS NOT
YET LED TO
WIDESPREAD
RECOGNITION
OF THE
INHERENT
QUALITIES OF
INDIGENOUS
NATURAL,
HISTORICAL
AND CULTURAL
RESOURCES OR
PRODUCED A
UNIFIED PRO-
GRAM FOR
THEIR PRESER-
VATION AND
MANAGEMENT


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION














positive effect in awakening local appreciation
of this piece of the national heritage because
many historic sites can be d,;eloped as tourist
attractions and are therefore of economic value
to the country (e.g., i' Antigua and Brimstone Hill in St. Kitts).

The Lck of well-defined protection
and management strategies for historical re-
sources is a problem throughout the CEP
countries. In countries with national trusts
(Grenada, St. Lucia, St. Vincent), provisions in
enabling legislation authorize these quasi-
governmental bodies to exercise varying de-
grees of control over those sites and areas offi-
cially vested in the organization for manage-
ment. Sites not so vested generally are not
protected. In countries which did not pursue
the national trust model (Antigua-Barbuda,
Dominica, St. Kitts-Nevis), only historical re-
sources located within the boundaries of an of-
ficially designated national park or protected
area are fully protected; at present, this limits
the most aggressive government-sponsored
preservation/restoration efforts to Nelson's
Dockyard National Park in Antigua, the
Cabrits Nationa! Park in Dominica, and the
Brimstone Hill Fortress National Park in St.
Kitts. In the case of Antigua-Barbuda and St.
Kitts-Nevis, historical resources have recently
come under the official pur.iew of newly es-
tablished "environmental commissions," but the
degree of protection remains undefincce.

In general, CEP countries lack the
following critical components for effective his-
torical resource management:


- a comprehensive national policy to
bring together issues related to
heritage protection under one op-
erational program;

- clear lines of authority or respon-
sibility for the management of
historical resources;

- adequate legislation to protect
historical resources;


effective procedures to control the
use and development of historical
resources.

Recommendation. In CEP coun-
tries with antiquities legislation, such laws need
to be revit wed and in most cases updated and
strengthened. In countries lacking such a legal
framework, antiquities legislation is needed to
provide for both protection and restoration of
historical and cultural resources, including un-
derwater archaeological sites. Legislation
might include the establishment ot a Registry
of Historic Places, requiring a comprehensive
inventory and evaluation of historical/cultural
resources and affording some protection to
national landmarks, historic sites, or architec-
tural features not presently included under ex-
isting preservation laws. Criteria need to be
set for the selection and certification of
"Registry" sites, and standards for further de-
velopment of such sites need to be established.

Recommendation. The responsibil-
ities and authority of the various institutions
and organizations now involved in some aspect
of historical resource managemct in CEP
countries need to be clarified, perhaps through
adoption of a "national heritage protection
policy and program plan".

Recommendation. Prior to any
major development, particularly in the coastal
zone, a cultural resource survey should be car-
ried out by professional archaeologists, with
developers required to pay for such surveys.
Development control procedures should pro-
vide adequate time for the excavation of ar-
chaeological sites prior to commencement of
construction activities.

Recommendation. The integrity of
many of the architectural and historical fea-
tures of most Caribbean towns has been di-
minished by a proliferation of ill-maintained
and poorly designed buildings quite out of
context within architecturally or historically
important areas. Nevertheless, CEP govern-
ments should consider implementation of
"historic district" policies for designated areas.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION














THE PRESENT
GENERATION
WOULD BE
DERELICT IN
ITS RESPONSI-
BILITIES TO
FUTURE GEN-
ERATIONS IF
IT DEPRIVED
THEM OF THE
OPPORTUNITY
TO VIEW, TO
LEARN, AND TO
BENEFIT FROM
A HEALTHY
ENVIRONMENT
AS REFLECTED
IN ALL ITS
PRESENT
RICHNESS,
DIVERSITY,
BEAUTY AND
SUBTLETY


Further consideration should be given to the
development of government policies which en-
courage adaptive use and restoration strategies
by the employment of economic and othei in-
centives and to the adoption of design controls
for new construction in urban areas.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
PARKS AND PROTECTED AREAS PLANNING
-- INSTITUTIONAL CONSIDERATIONS

The development of national 'systems"
for park and protected area management in
CEP countries has generally been fragmented,
often single-site focused, and lacking in a
strong visionary approach. Only Dominica of
the CEP countries has a parks 'system" in
place. Within that system, however, park plan-
ning and site management issues are still not
fully resolved. For example, competing de-
mands for use of the resource bise within the
Morne Trois Pitons National Park have inten-
sified in recent yeis, e.g., for hydropower
development, geothermal power development,
power transmission, road building, and, in
some locations, cultivation. Such demands are
often in conflict with the more traditional ob-
jectives of park land use, namely, conservation
of wildlife, enhancement of biodiversity, and
passive wilderness recreation.

In St. Kitts-Nevis, despite the fact that
recent, well-conceived legislation is in place,
the development of a comprehensive and well-
managed parks and protected areas system is
still at risk because the parallel requirement
for appropriate institutional strengthening is
not being addressed. The fact that the country
can point to the presence of one national park
does not diminish this risk because the national
park at Brimstone Hill had been operational as
an NGO-managed national monument for 20
years prior to its designation as the country's
first (and only) national park.

Antigua-Barbuda. !ik,; St. Kitts-Nevis,
has enacted national park legislation and has
also created a National Parks Authority. Yet
the authorizing legislation does not provide a



CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


definition for what constitutes a "national park"
and leaves many resources unprotected. Per-
sonnel at the Parks Authority are primarily in-
vlIved with the management of business con-
cessions, yachting operations, maintenance,
and service activities at the Nel,on's Dockyard
National Park. None of the permanent staff
have adequate training in resource manage-
rnent, and neither effective land use nor devel-
opment control measures are practiced within
the Park.

Each Environmental Profile describes
in considerable detail areas which have been
proposed for protected area status in CEP
countries. However, the process of incorpo-
rating such sites and areas within truly national
park systems has not been officially defined at
the decision-making levels of government, even
in a country like Grenada with a recent, well-
documented and attractively published report
on parks and protected areas planning.

Recommendation. In all CEP
countries, a plan for a "parks and protected
areas system" (or similar management frame-
work) is needed to ensure that all critical natu-
ral and cultural resources receive adequate
protection in an integrated fashion. The system
should ensure coverage of the biological diver-
sity within each country and should seek to op-
timize the use of outstanding natural and his-
torical resources and scenic areas for recre-
ation and tourism.

Protected areas program planning
should be placed within an orderly and well-
planned "resource assessment" framework
which reflects overall national requirements for
development priorities, recreational needs, en-
vironmental diversity, and the preservation of
natural and cultural assets. Resource allo-
cation choices should be predicated on a full
appraisal of available site and resource man-
agement options.

Recommendation. Park planners in
CEP countries, in cooperation with tourism
planners, should also give attention to prepar-














ing national guidelines which accomplish the
following:

establish priorities for "protected
area" designation;

develop a process for selection and
acquisition of protected area sites;

determine a phasing-in schedule to
bring new sites within the system;

establish management controls for
each protected area class or cate-
gory, including identification of
non-compatible uses which will not
be permitted within designated
protected areas;

provide for enforcement proce-
dures;

designate a central management
authority to oversee the system;


allocate manpower resources for
enforcement and management ac-
tivities on the basis of priorities
established for the system;

determine mechanisms for inter-
ministerial and inter-departmental
cooperation and define the work-
ing relationships with and inputs to
other development sectors -- espe-
cially tourism, water supply, recre-
ation, education, and fisheries;

define a role for national NGOs.

Recommendation. Individual man-
agement plans for each unit within the estab-
lished system should be prepared.

Recommendation. The need for a
recruitment, training and incentive program,
aimed at eliminating the critical shortage of
trained staff for park management in CEP
countries, should be addressed.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION























KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
RELATED TO PARKS AND OTHER PROTECTED AREAS


e RELATIVE LACK OF UNDERSTANDING AND APPRECIATION FOR THE ECONOMIC AND
SOCIAL BENEFITS TO BE DERIVED FROM THE PROTECTION OF INDIGENOUS
NATURAL AND CULTURAL RESOURCES, OFTEN RESULTING IN GOVERNMENT POL-
ICIES OF BENIGN NEGLECT.

* LACK OF EFFECTIVE PROTECTION FOR SCARCE OR THREATENED RESOURCES
UNLESS THEY ARE PLACED UNDER THE MANAGEMENT CONTROL OF A SPECIFIC
AUTHORITY OR HAPPEN TO FALL WITHIN THE BOUNDARIES OF A DESIGNATED
PROTECTED AREA.

* FRAGMENTED INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES FOR THE PROTECTION, DEVEL-
OPMENT, AND MANAGEMENT OF CRITICAL NATURAL AREAS AND HISTORICAL RE-
SOURCES, INCLUDING SHIPWRECKS AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES.

* THE ABSENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR MAJOR
DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, INCLUDING AN EVALUATION OF NATURAL AND CULTURAL
RESOURCES PRIOR TO PROJECT APPROVAL OR COMMENCEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION.

* FAILURE TO PROVIDE AN INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK FOR THE DEVELOP-
MENT AND USE OF OUTSTANDING NATURAL AND HISTORICAL RESOURCES AND SCENIC
AREAS.

* FAILURE TO PROVIDE A NATIONAL SYSTEM FOR ESTABLISHING PRIORITIES AND
CRITERIA FOR PROTECTED AREA DESIGNATION, FOR PHASING DESIGNATED AREAS
INTO THE SYSTEM, AND FOR MANAGING CLASSES OR CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED
AREAS WITHIN THE SYSTEM.

* THE NEED FOR BETTER LINKAGES BETWEEN PARK PLANNING AND OTHER DEVELOP-
MENT SECTORS, ESPECIALLY TOURISM, WATER SUPPLY, RECREATION, EDUCATION,
AND FISHERIES.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

















WHO'S IN
CHARGE? ...
RESPONSIBILITY
FOR
ENVIRONMENTAL
FUNCTIONS
WITHIN CEP
GOVERNMENTS
IS GENERALLY
FRAGMENTED
AND POORLY
COORDINATED


OVERVIEW


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


Responsibility for environmental man-
agement in CEP governments is dispersed
among a number of departments and divisions
within several ministries of the central gov-
ernment. Resource planning, management,
development, and protection functions are
therefore currently dependent on the coordi-
rnated action of many agencies with varying de-
grees of responsibility for key resource sectors.
However, because CEP governments have a
limited capacity for inter-agency coordination,
accountability for the environment at the na-
tional level is generally fragmented. Thus,
such key governmental functions as planning.
development control, resource protection, reg
ulafory oversight, quality control, and resource
development. as these pertain to the environ-
ment, are too often implemented on an ad hoc
basis (particularly in the absence of an ap-
proved framework for planning and de-
velopment control) and focus primarily on
short-term or interim rather than long-term
policy objectives for !he environment.

Diffusion of responsibility and lack of
sufficient coordination have also meant that
the various units of CEP governments with en-
vironmental functions are unable to signifi-
cantly influence policies and programs or act
collectively on critical environmental policy is-
sues. It has also meant that resource man-
agement responsibilities are not always clear-
cut, and several units of government, as well as
several quasi-governmental bodies like public
corporations, may have overlapping authority.

Although environmental responsibili-
ties are not the exclusive concern of any single
government agency, in each CEP country one
or two entities can be identified as having the
widest responsibilities and clearest mandate for
management of the environment.

In St. Kitts-Nevis, it is the Ministry of
Agriculture, Lands, Housing and Develop-
ment. Although a Ministry of Natural Re-
sources and the Environment was established
in 1984, it remains non-functional due to the


lack of an administrative structure and imple-
mentation resources. Of necessity, therefore,
the Ministry of Agriculture has the de facto
primary responsibility for environmental man-
agement since it includes within its mandate
agriculture (the largest user of land), housing
(the second largest), physical planning and de-
velopment, fisheries, forestry and wildlife. The
Southeast Peninsula Land Development and
Conservation Board was created in 1986 as a
semi-autonomous government authority with
power to monitor and regulate development
activities and to maintain environmental qual-
ity for the 4,000 acre Peninsula, an area sched-
uled for major tourism development in the
1990's.

In St. Lucia, "the environment" was
added to the portfolio of the Minister of
Health in 1988, but it is still unclear what im-
pact this action will have on the execution of
environmental policy in the country. The
Central Planning Unit, by virtue of its key role
in coordinating project design and project re-
view functions within the government, contin-
ues to exercise considerable influence over the
direction of land use development in the coun-
try. Several units of the St. Lucia Government,
in cooperation with NGOs like CANARI and
resource-user groups like fishermen, farmers,
and charcoal producers, have experimented
with comnmunity-based resource management
strategies which could serve as a model for the
region. Historically, the Department of Forest
and Lands (formerly the Forestry Division) has
been the key government voice for resource
protection and conservation programs in the
country, while the quasi-governmental St.
Lucia National Trust is the best organized and
most effective of the national trusts in CEP
countries.

An equally effective voice for envi-
ronmental issues has yet to emerge within the
Government of Antigua-Barbuda. Govern-
ment has established an advisory body -- the
Historical, Conservation and Environmental
Commission -- to provide input and guidance
in the management of the nation's natural and
historical resources. However, the Commis-


9. INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION















sion's long-term potential for providing direc-
tion and influencing policy is diminished by the
fact that it lacks officially-mandated terms of
reference or statutory powers.

A similar situation prevails in
Grenada, where such coordination that does
exist within Government for resource man-
agement functions occurs through the physical
planning process and Cabinet deliberations. In
1986, the Prime Minister specifically named
the National Science and Technology Council,
a statutory body, as :he focal point for envi-
ronmental concerns within Government but
did not spell out specific responsibilities rela-
tive to that mandate. To date, this role has
generally been an advisory one.

In Dominica, "the environment" was
only recently added to the portfolio of the
Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries, Lands,
Forestry and Wildlife, and the Environment,
following elections in 1990. Within that Min-
istry, the Forestry and Wildlife Division has
historically been the lead government agency
for carrying out resource development, man-
agement, and conservation responsibilities. Its
central role in the environmental sector is per-
haps best exemplified by the fact that all of the
country's legally designated protected areas are
under the management control of this one divi-
sion.

In St. Vincent, no single agency has
emerged as a leader for environmental issues
within Government. Likewise, no single
agency is charged with lead responsibility for
the environment, although the newly created
(1989) Ministry of Health and the En-
vironment has begun to assume broader re-
sponsibilities. At present, however, the Min-
istry essentially comprises the public health
services transferred from the former Ministry
of Health; the environmental functions of the
newly-constituted Ministry have not yet been
defined. At the time the new Ministry was cre-
ated, an Environmental Protection Task Force
was also set up as an interdepartmental coor-
dinating body, with some private sector repre-
sentation, to advise and assist the Minister in



CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


defining directions and programs for the en-
vironmental portfolio. Its non-statutory, tem-
porary status and lack of focus remain a prob-
lem.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
THE ROLE OF GROWTH MANAGEMENT,
LAND USE PLANNING
AND DEVELOPMENT CONTROL

Physical planning functions within
CEP governments generally date to the period
just after World War Two when many Eastern
Caribbean islands first enacted Town and
Country Planning Ordinances and were intro-
duced to urban and land use planning con-
cepts. A UNDP-sponsoied Physical Planning
Project in the 1970's further exposed Eastern
Caribbean governments to physical planning.
While many experimented with national land
use planning and "draft" plans were subse-
quently prepared, such early attempts at com-
prehensive planning (and those that followed)
were never formally accepted by CEP govern-
ments as a legally-mandated framework for
development control and growth management.
Accordingly, decisions about changes in land
use and approval of new development activities
tend to be based on short-term considerations
and executed on a case-by-case basis, often at
the Cabinet level.

Within this context, development
planning and control functions are being un-
dermined, a systemic weakness which repre-
sents one o' the more pernicious institutional
threats to the natural environments of CEP
countries, for unsound land use decisions al-
most inevitably have adverse environmental
consequences.

Furthermore, physical planning as an
integrative process is not well established
within CEP governments, and there is gener-
ally only limited opportunity for systematic co-
ordination across ministerial or departmental
lines in the physical planning and development
control process. Too often, physical planning
units have been vested with only limited, gen-


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


ENVIRONMENTAL
MANAGEMENT
RESPONSIBILITIES
WHEREVER THEY
ARE PLACED
WITHIN
GOVERNMENT
MUST BE LINKED
TO THE
DEVELOPMENT
PLANNING AND
CONTROL
PROCESS














rally advisory control over the broader plain-
ning/regulatory aspects of major development
projects. They customarily are relegated to re-
viewing subdivision plans or performing site-
level planning functions, while decisions on
major development strategies and projects are
made with little or no input from the profes-
sional staffs of physical planning units. This is
unfortunate, for most of these larger projects
will have significant impacts on physical, natu-
ral and human environments.

Generally, weak inter-agency and in-
ter-sectoral coordination is not limited to
physical planning but is symptomatic of the
larger resource management sector. Respon-
sibility for each of several key functions -- in-
cluding development control, land use alloca-
tions, water management, and utilization of
marine resources -- is generally dispersed
among several ministries and departments of
government with limited formal mechanisms to
improve coordination in dealing with these re-
sponsibilities across departmental lines.

In the near-term, land use planning
and development control weaknesses are not
easy to deal with because required legal,
structural and institutional changes may take
years to put in place. In the meantime, tradi-
tional environmental controls and accepted
limits to growth are being increasingly over-
whelmed by the pace and nature of contempo-
rary change in the Eastern Caribbean. In fact,
it could be argued that the importance of plan-
ning is inversely related to a country's size and
GDP, i.e., in the smaller, less wealthy CEP
countries, there is little margin for error as few
funds are available to remedy the mistakes of
ill-planned schemes and strategies. Like most
small places, the CEP countries cannot afford
the consequences and costs associated with
poor planning decisions and the failure to as-
sert sound development control.

Recommendation. The lack of a
comprehensive land use planning framework in
CEP countries will continue to reduce the ek-
fectiveness of the development control process.
Land use planning provides a structure for as-


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


sessing the pLysical and natural features of an
area and for suggesting its long-term sustain-
able uses. The preparation (or updating) of a
comprehensive physical development plan, to
guide and inform decision-making about future
developmentt activities in each CEP country,
should be a priority for the decade of the
nineties. Formal approval at the Cabinet level
is important to lend the force of law to the
zoning and land use allocations incorporated
within each national plan.

Recommendation. Perhaps the
most important condition for sustainable de-
velopment is that environmental and economic
concerns are merged in the decision-making
process, as ihey are in the real world. To this
end, the coordination linkages between the
economic planning units and the physical plan-
ning units of CEP governments need to be im-
proved.

In general, physical planning units in
CEP countries need to be strengthened and
their role in the planning process upgraded.
The latter might include the assumption of
more formalized development review and de-
velopment control responsibilities, preparation
of expanded and improved land use maps and
natural resource data bases, and implementa-
tion of formal zoning restrictions and subdivi-
sion regulations.

Consideration should also be given to
the establishment of environmental technical
expertise within physical planning units. How-
ever, if these units are to be given more sub-
stantive planning responsibilities, including en-
vironmental control functions, the size and ca-
pabilities of planning staffs will need to be up-
graded. Assistance from international agencies
should be considered.

Recommendation. Legislation is
needed in CEP countries to require the formal
preparation of environmental impact assess-
ments (EIAs) for all major development pro-
jects (public or private sector), especially for
those within the coastal zone, within the
boundaries of designated protected areas, or


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


ENVIRONMENTAL
IMPACT
ASSESSMENTS
ALLOW
IMPORTANT
INFORMATION TO
BE COLLECTED
AND ASSESSED
IN AN ORDERLY,
LOGICAL
MANNER AND
THEN MADE
AVAILABLE TO
DECISION-
MAKERS














affecting other critical areas. From an institu-
tional perspective, EIAs are useful because
they force a more holistic integration of techni-
cal data and environmental expertise across
departmental lines while, at the same time,
guaranteeing more systematic input of envi-
ronmental and social considerations -- reflect-
ing resource user perspectives -- at an early
stage in the planning process. This can be
particularly important in CEP countries where
resource management functions are spread
among many government departments and
quasi-government institutions -- each of which
tends to view "the environment" from its own
perspective or area of interest.

Recommendation. Improved coor-
dination is one of the most critical institutional
issues confronting CEP countries in the re-
source management sector. Governments
need to take steps to initiate procedures for
more effective and regular coordination by
government agencies with resource manage-
ment responsibilities which cut across sector
and ministerial lines, e.g., pollution control,
land use planning, and development control. It
is important that governments attempt to
identify ways to harmonize environmental
management functions, especially since these
functions have not been isolated within a single
agency in CEP countries.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
LEGISLATION AND
INSTITUTIONAL S fRENGTHENING

Critical to improving the resource
management capabilities of CEP governments
is the need to clarify institutional roles and
authority, as these have been defined by statute
or regulatory procedure. Several areas of in-
stitutional overlap or conflict have been identi-
fied in the resource management sector, in-
cluding: development control and planning
approval, allocation and use of public lands,
conservation and protection of watersheds and
the water supply, pollution control and the
maintenance of water quality. The objective
should not be to eliminate overlap or re-


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


duadancy per se but to eliminate jurisdictional
gaps, identify common goals, capitalize on op-
portunities for shared monitoring, and pursue
reinforcing strategies for improved oversight
and enforcement.

Much of the legislation pertaining to
environmental management in CEP countries
is outdated, lacks regulations, is ignored, or is
generally unenforceable. A key area requiring
legislative review in all CEP states is that of
public health; existing legislation is seriously
outdated, lacks standards, and is based on
colonial legal concepts which are inadequate to
deal with modern pollution control problems.

CEP countries have received assis-
tance from a variety of donor groups in the last
decade to review, update and revise legislation
related to environmental resources. In St.
Vincent, for example, an ambitious body of
prop3oed legislation is currently under consid-
eration by Government, including legislation
for forests, water resources, national parks,
planning, public health, pesticide control, and
litter control.

At the same time, each Environmental
Profile identified extant environmental legisla-
tion or laws with environmental implications
which have not been effectively enforced in
CEP countries. The lack of adequate technical
personnel for monitoring and enforcement is
often cited for the inability of CEP goven-
ments to fully enforce existing legislation.
These staffing problems will be exacerbated if
proposed new environmental laws are enacted.

St. Kitts-Nevis is a case in point. The
country's new National Conservation and Envi-
ronment Protection Act (1987) is potentially
one of the strongest and most comprehensive
environmental laws in the Caribbean, with
broad definitions, rules and penalties covering
both the natural and built environment. How-
ever, if the resource management and conser-
vation concerns articulated by ihe Act are to be
reflected in new policies and regulations, con-
siderable institutional strengthening of those
departments and agencies responsible for re-


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


LAWS PROVIDE
THE
INSTITUTIONAL
FRAMEWORK
FOR
GOVERNMENT
ACTION BUT,
BY THEMSELVES,
THEY ARE NOT
THE FINAL
SOLUTION














source management and resource protection in
the state will be required.

Recommendation. An update to the
1986 OECS-sponsored analysis of natural re-
source management legislation in the Eastern
Caribbean should be carried out by a donor
organization. What is required is a more
tightly defined assessment which builds on the
1986 review by more specifically identifying
those areas of (1) existing or potential conflict
in institutional responsibilities and (2) shared
or overlapping legislated or assumed authority.
All CEP countries would benefit from such an
analysis. Recommendations for modification
of existing legislation would need to be in-
cluded as well as guidelines for improved coor-
dination procedures.

Recommendation. Probably with
the assistance of donor agencies, CEP govern-
ments need to carefully examine the technical
and regulatory implications of the full spec-
trum of extant and proposed environmental
and resource management legislation in each
country and take appropriate steps to improve
the quantity and quality of staff required for
implementation, particularly middle-level
management and technical staff. Governmen-
tal institutional strengthening has been given
high priority in the national development plans
of several CEP countries.

Recommendation. The difficulty of
enforcing the pollution control provisions of
existing public health laws in the CEP coun-
tries has been noted by both in-country ob-
servers and external consultants. Not only are
the provisions of public health laws seriously
outdated, but the extremely low penalties pre-
scribed trivialize the best of efforts aimed at
pollution control and regulation. In some
cases, regulations to support legislation were
never enacted, further limiting the substantive
authority of public health laws.

Revised and modernized public health
legislation, with appropriately strengthened na-
tional standards for water quality, pollution
control, and waste management, is needed in


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


all CEP countries. Standards should be devel-
oped which take into consideration institu-
tional capacities and resources for monitoring
and enforcement. Tactics to coordinate the
pollution control response of accountable
agencies and departments and to develop and
set workable standards need to be explored.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
THE ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL
EDUCATION

The people of the Caribbean need to
participate meaningfully in the development
process since they are ultimately the beneficia-
ries of that process. Since the majority of the
citizens of the region earn their livelihood from
agriculture and tourism, it is particularly im-
portant that educational/training activities re-
lated to these fields include an emphocis on
expanding awareness about the environmental
implications of these key economic sectors and
reinforce an understanding of the inter-con-
nectedness of human action and the impact on
natural systems.

Recommendation. Public education
about the environment must be linked to ap-
propriate institutional initiatives at the national
level, and CEP governments need to ensure
that, as a matter of ongoing public policy, edu-
cation about the environment will be incorpo-
rated into the formal educational system at all
levels.

Recommendation. CEP govern-
ments need to recognize the consideration ex-
pertise and experience of NGOs in building
community-focused programs of envi-
ronmental awareness and to draw upon these
initiatives to support and complement their
own programs. NGO activities are often less
formal, less traditional but more experimental
and more experientially-based than environ-
mental education programs in the public
sector.


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION














ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
THE ROLE OF NGOs

A number of non-governmental orga-
nizations in CEP countries have played an im-
portant role in influencing the level of envi-
ronmental awareness. However, environmen-
tal NGOs in the region do not generally func-
tion as "pressure groups" per se. Rather,
through alternative education, research, train-
ing, and outreach programs, they seek to
heighten public awareness about envi-
ronmental issues and to provide private sector
input for the achievement of environmental
goals.

Nevertheless, Eastern Caribbean gov-
ernments still appear somewhat skeptical, if
not suspicious, about the role of NGOs in the
definition of public policy. While efforts to fa-
cilitate or accommodate NGO participation
can make the task of the government planner
or resource manager more complex and time
consuming, such efforts are important because
they will also:

facilitate government access to a
larger inft --nation base;

provide an opportunity for govern-
ments to build coalitions or support
on behalf of their projects or deci-
sions; and

allow for discussion and possible
conflict resolution prior to an exten-
sive commitment of public resources
to a potentially controversial activity
or project.

As environmental NGOs in the East-
ern Caribbean mature and expand their pro-
gram agendas, they will have an increasingly
important role to play as agents for sustainable
development and planned growth strategies, as
"quality control" vehicles for monitoring devel-
opment impacts, and as institutional forums for
consensus-building about national develop-
ment goals.


Recommendation. CEP govern-
ments and environmental NGOs need to ag-
gressively seek opportunities for promoting
joint initiatives and partnerships in the pursuit
of shared resource management objectives.

For example, a critical role in natural
resource management is the monitoring, col-
lecting and archiving of information about en-
vironmental impacts. Eastern Caribbean
NGOs are well-positioned to help with this im-
portant task by linking their ongoing (and his-
torically important) information collecting
focus (e.g., most have libraries, many operate
museums) with emerging citizen-based envi-
ronmental monitoring capabilities. What
needs to be explored is the degree to which
these NGO facilities and services can be linked
to identifiable needs in public sector programs.


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE:
CEP FOLLOW-UP

The notion that the "environment,"
broadly speaking, is government business is not
new in the Eastern Caribbean. The people of
these islands have generally welcomed gov-
ernment control of Crown Lands, public
health, ports, harbors and some aspects of
forestry and fishing, among other activities.
But while the idea of government as guardian
of selected environmental resources is not new,
what is new and still in experimental stages is
the idea of trying to choreograph various min-
istries, government units and even statutory
bodies into a coordinated resource manage-
ment system -- one designed to improve effi-
ciencies, reduce risks, and minimize adverse
impacts on the environment.

What is also new is the steady growth
and acceptance of the citizen-based environ-
mental movement in the region, where in
country after country community groups, civic
organizations, and NGOs are attempting to in-
fluence the public sector to take action when
environmental abuses become obvious, to
protect communities from environmental haz-


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


IN GENERAL, THE
CONSIDERABLE
RESOURCES AND
EXPERTISE OF
NGOs ARE
OVERLOOKED BY
GOVERNMENTS
WHEN DE-
SIGNING AND
IMPLEMENTING
NATURAL
RESOURCE
MANAGEMENT
PROGRAMS


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION














ards, and to guarantee the conservation and
survival of certain environmental amenities.

The days of passive conservation for
many natural resources in the CEP countries
are fast disappearing. Any new national con-
se'/ation program for these countries in the
decade of the nineties will inevitably require
expanding levels of more direct kinds of gov-
ernmental intervention. In turn, this presumes
an antecedent national strategy and plan for
ecosystem restoration and management.

As the four-year Country Environ-
mental Profile Project for the Eastern
Caribbean draws to a close, it is apparent that
environmental planners, resource managers,
and the political leadership of the CEP coun-
tries are being pulled in seemingly conflicting
directions as they confront the almost over-
whelming number of recommendations and
policy guidelines provided in each Environ-
mental Profile.

On the one hand, some protagonists
maintain CEP governrn.ents should move
ahead quickly with direct action programs of
remediation and intervention. The emphasis
should be on defensive, "fire-fighting," protec-
tive kinds of action, given the environmental
stress now observable in many sectors of island
life.

For example, if the impact of pesticide
use on public health is of critical concern, as
articulated by government resource managers,
health officials and community leaders, then
what might be required is a program of im-
proved data collection and analysis. Credible
and reliable information is necessary to con-
vince the political leadership of the urgency of
the problem, thereby bringing it to the fore-
front as a priority policy question. The
"environmental issue" is narrowly defined; the
approach is a problem-solving one, i.e., to seek
a technically-based solution; the strategy is to
identify the necessary resources.


On the other hand, there are those
who are anxious to approach the environmen-
tal issues identified in the Profiles strategically,
i.e., to use the Profiles as a comprehensive
planning tool and as a first step in the design
and implementation of a broadly-based na-
tional conservation strategy. What is needed,
according to this argument, is something al-
most like an structural readjustment for the
environment in each CEP country. The strate-
gic approach has a longer time frame, and be-
cause it is more visionary, it is more difficult.
It builds on creating consensus and a mutuality
of interests; hence, it is mor'. political and less
technical.

The problem is that sound environ-
mental policy is a blend of politics and people's
needs with technology and the natural system's
needs -- in a sustainable equilibrium. In fact,
follow-up to the CEP Project can be pursued
on a variety of levels. The ratio of direct action
to strategic planning solutions is really a func-
tion of where each CEP country is at present.
Therefore, what is most needed now is the
early development of a policy framework
within which change can occur along with a
schedule of implementation which reflects each
country's assessment and prioritizing of the full
spectrum of environmental issues identified in
its own Environmental Profile.

Finally, it needs to be said that
"solutions" are seldom as neat and orderly as
their presentation in written form in the Envi-
ronmental Profiles might make them appear.
In most cases, they will require inter-disci-
plinary and cross-ministerial cooperation and
coordination. Furthermore, a complex prob-
lem will appear, and in fact will prove to be,
intractable until it is attacked creatively, ag-
gressively, and simultaneously by both govern-
ment and private sector entities working to-
gether. One of the purposes of the Country
Environmental Profile Project in the Eastern
Caribbean has been to open such channels for
dialogue in the search for workable solutions.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION























KEY INSTITUTIONAL ISSUES
RELATED TO ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT


ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION-MAKING ON AN AD HOC BASIS, FOCUSING ON SHORT-
TERM OR INTERIM RATHER THAN LONG-TERM POLICY OBJECTIVES FOR THE
ENVIRONMENT.

* FRAGMENTATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS WITHIN CEP GOV-
ERNMENTS DUE TO THE DIFFUSION OF THESE RESPONSIBILITIES AMONG A
NUMBER OF DEPARTMENTS REPRESENTING SEVERAL MINISTRIES AND STATUTORY
BODIES.

* ILL-DEFINED LINES OF INSTITUTIONAL AUTHORITY WITH REGARD TO THE MANAGE-
MENT OF LAND, WATER AND CULTURAL RESOURCES.

* GENERALLY WEAK COORDINATION AMONG GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND STATUTORY
BODIES WITH RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES.

* LACK OF AN OFFICIALLY APPROVED, UP-TO-DATE LAND USE PLANNING FRAMEWORK
IN ALL CEP COUNTRIES, THEREBY REDUCING THE OVERALL EFFECTIVENESS OF
DEVELOPMENT CONTROL PROCEDURES.

* THE NEED TO STRENGTHEN THE PLANNING PROCESS AND TO UPGRADE THE RESPONSI-
BILITIES AND CAPABILITIES OF PHYSICAL PLANNING UNITS, INCLUDING THE ENVIRON-
MENTAL EXPERTISE OF PLANNING STAFFS.

* THE NEED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENTS, AS ONE MEANS OF FORCING
A SYSTEMATIC EXAMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL ISSUES AT AN EARLY
STAGE IN THE PLANNING PROCESS.

* SHORTAGE OF TRAINED AND EXPERIENCED TECHNICAL PERSONNEL FOR FNVIRON-
MENTAL PLANNING, MONITORING AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITIES.

* OUTDATED ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION OR LACK OF SUPPORTING REGULATIONS
TO MUCH OF THE EXTANT BODY OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAW, THUS DIMINISHING THE
OVERALL EFFECTIVENESS OF THE LEGAL BASE FOR RESOURCE PROTECTION.

* FAILURE OF CEP GOVERNMENTS TO TAKE FULL ADVANTAGE OF THE CREATIVE ENERGIES,
RESOURCES AND EXPERTISE OF NGOs WITH ENVIRONMENTAL INTERESTS AND AGENDAS.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION
















FORESTS


* To defend designated water catchment
areas against encroachment and to phase
out land clearing activities on very steep
upland slopes, in critical water catch-
ments, and in designated forest reserves,

CEP governments should pro-
mulgate and implement more
effective upland watershed
land use regulations, mon-
itoring programs, and protec-
tion procedures, including
enforcement.


* To increase the practice of private forestry
and to present positive alternatives to ille-
gal squatting or land clearing activities in
critical water catchments,

CEP governments should, in a
deliberately-designed strategy,
identify and establish appro-
priate incentives, including
economic incentives, which
promote t..ese objectives.


* To fund protective land and water
conservation measures, including upland
watershed land acquisition or easement
control,

CEP governments, perhaps in
cooperation with donor agen-
cics, should review metering
systems, water rate schedules
and user fee charges, and
should thereafter establish
financing schemes sufficient to
earmark such monies for land
and water conservation pro-
Lrams.


* To improve the economic viability of small
farmers while conserving the natural re-
source base,

donor agencies, in cooperation
with CEP governments and
NGOs, should provide finan-
cial and technical assistance
in support of agroforestry
programs.


* To ensure the availability of an adequate
data base on the composition, condition,
area and resources of forested regions and
to provide for the long-term development
of forests,

CEP governments, with donor
assistance, should prepare or
update (1) forest resource in-
ventories and assessments and
(2) comprehensive forest re-
source management plans.


* To confirm the extent of environmental
risk associated with fuelwood production
and harvesting,

CEP governments should es-
tablish more effective methods
for systematically evaluating
fuelwood extraction rates, par-
ticularly for areas where con-
tinued harvesting for this
purpose poses a substantial
environmental risk.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND PESOURC~S FOUNDATION


RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ACTION: ANAGENDA FOR THE 1990's


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION
















WILDLIFE, HABITATS, AND BIODiVERSITY


* To provide for a more systematic and for-
mal integration of biodiversity issues into
improved land use planning procedures,

CEP governments should de-
velop guidelines to (1) restrict
the clearing of native forests
in designated areas and habi-
tat types and (2) provide for a
recurring quantitative review
of land use practices and
trends and their effects on
wildlife and biodiversity,
viewed as a national resource.


* To ensure access to data required for bio-
logical diversity assessment and decision-
making,

CEP governments, perhaps
initially with the assistance of
donor agency funding and
NGO technical support,
should upgrade natural re-
source mapping and data col-
lection systems, moving to-
ward development of a work-
able geographic information
system (GIS).


* To implement cooperative research, data
collection, education and monitoring ini-
tiatives related to wildlife protection and
the preservation of biodiversity,

CEP governments and NGOs
should establish working part-
nerships for the promotion of
wildlife conservation, re-
search, and educational pro-
grams and, to this end, should
consider joint applications for
funding support to appropri-
ate donor agencies.



CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


* To improve access to information needed
by decision-makers on the impacts of
pollutants cn wildlife and on marine and
terrestrial ecosystems,

CEP governments, assisted by
NGOs, should develop long-
term record-keeping proce-
dures regarding pollution
events and habitat damage or
loss, such information to be
centrally housed within one
appropriate government a-
gency.


* To more effectively carry out wildlife man-
agement programs,

CEP governments, with donor
assistance, should identify re-
sources for upgrading those
units of government responsi-
ble for wIldlife management,
including resources for staff
training, technical support,
and equiptiient acquisition.


* To improve global efforts to regulate
wildlife trade and to gain access to mate-
rials, training, and expertise on species
conservation and wildlife trade regula-
tions,

the Governments of Antigua-
Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada,
ard St. Kitts-Nevis should ap-
prove the Convention on
International Trade in
Endangered Species of Wild
Fauna and Flora (CITES).


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION
















FRESHWATER RESOURCES and WATERSHED MANAGEMENT


* To protect key water catchments and
maintain adequate water supplies for do-
mestic consumption and other uses,

CEP governments should de-
velop comprehensive national
water policies anr, develop-
ment plans fe; water re-
sources an! watershed man-
agement, including a phase-in
program for land acquisition
for % atershed protection and a
careful analysis of the optimal
ratio of surface water to
groundwater exploitation.


* To more effectively exercise authority in
limiting development in critical water
catchment areas,

CEP governments should
adopt a more aggressive pro-
gram of identifying and pro-
tecting the moE. productive
water resource areas and in-
corporating this information
into national planning, land
use zoning, and development
permitting policies.


* To maintain public control over water
catchment areas which are needed for the
longer-term maintenance of water systems
but which do not fall within the bound-
aries of legally-desigiated "protected
areas,"

CEP governments should
establish use-limiting restr;c-
tions and incentives and
should negotiate easements to
limit the development of such
private lands; alternatively,
CEP governments, perhaps
with donor assistance, should
take steps to acquire critical
lands for incorporation into a
"protected areas" system
under the control of appropri-
ate authorities.


* To minimize leakage and waste in the
water distribution system, a recurring phe-
nomenon in CEP countries,

CEP governments, with donor
assistance, should accelerate
programs of leak detection
and repair as an ongoing
maintenance requirement.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RE-OURCES FOUNDATION
















COASTAL AND MARINE ENVIRONMENTS


* To better regulate local fisheries and bal-
ance tendencies toward over-exploitation
and excessive fishing,

CEP fisheries management
plans should be oriented to-
ward conserving the resource
and attempting to enhance its
long-term returns, including
efforts to stabilize declining
landings and to optimize the
harvest of species important
to local nutrition and tourism.


* To improve fisheries management pro-
grams,

CEP fisheries managers
should give priority attention
to expansion of existing data
collection systems and to im-
proved implementation and
monitoring of extant fisheries
control measures and re-
strictions.


* To more effectively manage development
activities in the coastal zone and to pro-
vide more comprehensive development
guidelines and policies committed to
maintaining the quality of coastal re-
sources in the face of accelerating
"piecemeal" development,

CEP governments, in coopera-
tion with donor agencies,
should take immediate steps
to begin development of com-
prehensive Coastal Zone
Management programs, in-
cluding environmental impact
assessments for coastal pro-
jects, permitting procedures,
community education, techni-



CAAIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


cal assistance services, and re-
source user involvement In
planning and monitoring.


* To improve enforcement of regulations
controlling the removal of beach sand
with its associated risks of coastal erosion
and storm damage,

CEP governments should
establish formal programs to
monitor marine sand re-
sources and to regulate com-
mercial exploitation of these
resources, including the des-
ignation of (1) areas where
controlled sand removal will
have the least detrimental im-
pact and is most compatible
with current site utilization
and (2) priority, erosion-prone
areas where sand removal will
be absolutely prohibited.


* To address the increasing environmental
problems affecting the coastal zone,

CEP governments, with fund-
Ing from donor agencies,
should devdop marine re-
source assessment, devel-
opment, and management
plans, in much the same way
that such plans have been
prepared for the forestry and
agriculture sectors; marine re-
source plans should include
an evaluation of coastal and
marine resources (coral reefs,
seagrass beds, beaches, man-
groves), current extractive
uses, and needed conservation
programs.


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION
















AGRICULTURE


* To address some of the environmental
problems associated with banana cultiva-
tion, particularly in hillside areas,

CEP governments should de-
velop appropriate input pric-
ing, extension services, soil
conservation investment sub-
sidies, and marketing assis-
tance programs which encour-
age a diversification of the
agricultural base, including an
emphasis on tree crops capa-
ble of providing more perma-
nent cover of land areas on
steep, erosion-prone slopes.


* To reduce soil erosion and general land
degradation associated with overgrazing of
livestock by small farmnners,

CEP governments, in coopera-
tion with regional organiza-
tions and local NGOs, should
pursue research programs to
identify agroforestry methods
and erosion-control tech-
niques best suited to each
country and to local soil types
and terrain.


* To address the problem of insecure land
tenure, which serves as a barrier to ex-
panded commitment to land conservation
practices by small farmers,

CEP governments should ex-
pand agricultural extension
services to small farmers (em-
phasizing education and
training programs in soil and
water conservation tech-
niques), and should identify
more innovative and near-


term rewards, Incentives, and
subsidies to encourage the
practice of environmentally-
sound land management by
small farmers.


* To improve in-country capabilities for
sampling and analyzing pesticide residues,

CEP governments, with donor
assistance, should establish
procedures for the regular
testing of potable water and
food stuffs for pesticide
residues, and should upgrade
laboratory and personnel ca-
pabilities for water quality
monitoring.


* To improve implementation of extant pes-
ticide control legislation,

CEP governments should pro-
vide up-to-date regulations,
reactivate and energize Pesti-
cide Control Boards, and pro-
vide such boards with suffi-
clent authority and personnel
to actively monitor and regu-
late agrochemical importation,
storage, distribution and use.


* To improve safety procedures in the use
and application of agrochemicals,

agricultural extension agents
and representatives of farm-
ers' organization should be
trained to certify farmers and
other users in the safe use and
application of agrochermicals.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION
















TOURISM


* To more clearly link tourism development
to canying capacity considerations, to en-
hancement of the natural environment,
and to an appropriate and achievable level
of infrastructure development,

CEP governments should give
more serious attention to an
integration of economic plan-
ning and physical/land use
planning.


* To limit the tendency to increase the pur-
chase of imported goods and services to
support an expanding tourism industry,

resource managers from both
the private and public sectors
should identify those specific
goods and services to be
"abandoned" to imports and
those where better planning
can actually increase the local
content of the tourism prod-
uct.


* To limit the environmental and social im-
pacts of large tourism projects, particularly
those sited in the coastal zo.:e,

CEP governments should
more carefully review large-
scale tourism projects, using
formal environmental impact
assessment procedures, and
should require such develop-
ments to be energy and
potable water self-sufficient
and have self-contained sew-


age treatment plants; addi-
tionally, tippage fees should be
charged for solid waste gener-
ated by tourism facilities, and
yardage extraction fees charg-
ed for construction sand.


* To increase the marketability of CEP
countries as tourist destinations,

CEP governments, working
with the private sector and
NGOs, should design a com-
prehensive tourism amenities
program for the development,
use, and management of natu-
ral and historical landmarks
as important features in
tourism marketing plans.


* To expand the tourism base in CEP coun-
tries,

CEP governments, in coopera-
tion with the private sector,
should (1) more fully address
nature or ecotourism in mar-
keting plans and promotional
literature, (2) develop site
management plans for those
amenities which support na-
ture tourism, and (3) identify
sufficient resources to imple-
ment such management plans,
including training programs
which address the special
staffing requirements of eco-
tourism activities.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION
















POLLUTION


* To address the need for more comprehen-
sive and financially realistic solid waste
management planning, including imple-
mentation schedules and funding strate-
gies,

CEP governments, with donor
assistance, should prepare na-
tional solid waste management
plans, covering at least a ten
and preferably a twenty year
period, and should consider
enactment of up-dated solid
waste management legislation
to define local and national
government responsibilities, to
establish standards for waste
disposal, and to regulate waste
collection; identification of fi-
nancing for upgraded solid
waste management programs
should be a part of the plan-
ning process and should in-
clude identification of means
for raising needed revenues by
establishment of user fees for
waste disposal services.


* To reduce the pollution load in freshwater
and marine environments from the contin-
ued disposal of raw sewage,

CEP governments, with donor
assistance, should upgrade
present disposal methods by
using prelimip.dry treatment
procedures combined with a
long outfall for discharges
into deep water in areas of
strong currents; disposal
systems should be designed to
be easily upgraded to a higher
level of treatment should this
prove to be necessary later.


O To reduce the pollution load of industrial
wastes in harbors and other coastal waters,

CEP governments should
adopt public policies designed
to attract relatively non-pol-
luting industries; environmen-
tal impact assessments should
be required of all proposed in-
dustrial projects, and existing
industries already discharging
toxic or high-BOD wastes into
the environment should be re-
quired to treat such wastes
and clean-up already polluted
areas.


* To have access to base line data and to
identify marine/coastal areas requiring
remedial action from environmental pol-
lution impacts,

CEP governments, with donor
assistance, should establish
long-term water quality and
marine biological monitoring
programs, including upgrad-
ing of laboratory facilities and
personnel capabilities.


* To reduce the risk from oil and other haz-
ardous material spills,

CEP governments, in coopera-
tion with donor agencies and
regional organizations, should
develop contingency plans and
emergency response capabili-
ties.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION















* As an antecedent to the development of
remedial or regulatory pollution control
measures,

CEP governments, in coopera-
tion with donor agencies and
regional organizations, should
carry out national pollution
assessments that identify the
basic dimensions of waste
streams and quantify sources
and causative agents, flow
rates, destinations, impacts,
and projections.


* To reduce the burden on the public trea-
sury for pollution control and waste man-
agement programs,


* To address the need for updated environ-
mental health legislation, based on mod-
em pollution control problems and con-
cepts,

CEP governments, with do':or
assistance, should update and
strengthen all such legislation
and should provide national
standards and criteria for
water quality, pollution con-
trol, and waste management,
keeping in mind each coun-
try's institutional capabilities
and resources for carrying out
oversight, monitoring, and
regulatory responsibilities.


CEP governments, with donor
assistance, should examine the
feasibility of turning such pro-
grams into revenue-generating
activities by the simple proce-
dure of establishing prices for
many facets of waste disposal
and privatizing some services.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION
















PARKS and OTHER PROTECTED AREAS


* To improve efforts to protect and manage
historical resources,

CEP governments should (1)
review, update, and strengthen
antiquities legislation; (2)
provide for the establishment
of a "registry of historic
places" with protection pro-
vided for national landmarks,
historic sites, or architectural
features included on the reg-
istry; and (3) consider the
designation of "historic dis-
tricts," including the develop-
ment of policies which encour-
age adaptive use and restora-
tion in such districts and the
adoption of design controls
for new construction.


* To improve the existing, generally frag-
mented institutional framework for pro-
tecting, developing and managing critical
natural areas and historical resources, with
responsibilities spread among several au-
thorities and institutions,

CEP governments, in consul-
tation with NGOs, should
adopt a national policy and
program plan for "heritage
protection" which, among
other issues, addresses the
question of divided institu-
tional responsibilities for pro-
tected areas management.


* To ensure that all critical natural and cul-
tural resources receive adequate protection
in an integrated fashion,

each CEP government, with
assistance from donor agen-
cies and in cooperation with
NGOs, should prepare and
formally adopt a plan for a
"parks and protected areas
system," which includes na-
tional guidelines for (1) desig-
nating protected areas, (2)
selecting and acquiring sites,
(3) establishing site manage-
ment plans, (4) providing
enforcement procedures, (5)
designating a central man-
agement authority, and (6)
defining public/private sector
cooperation and inter-gov-
ernmental coordination; a
funding strategy for land ac-
quisition also needs to be ap-
proved and put in place.


* To address the critical shortage of trained
staff for park management,

CEP governments and NGOs,
with donor assistance, should
identify appropriate training
programs for personnel in
natural resource management
and in park and protected
areas management.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION
















INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK


* To improve the effectiveness of land use
planning, growth management policies,
and the development control process,

each CEP government should
prepare (or update) a com-
prehensive physical develop-
ment plan to guide and inform
decision-making about future
growth; the process should in-
clude development of island-
wide zoning which classifies
and protects certain categories
of land for specific uses, e.g.,
agriculture, recreation, water
catchment, forestry, and
wildlife.


* To improve generally weak development
planning and control functions, identified
as a systemic institutional problem in all
CEP countries,

CEP governments should
strengthen the role of their
physical planning units, in-
cluding allocation of responsi-
bility for (1) more formalized
development review and devel-
opment control functions, (2)
preparation of land use maps
and natural resource data
bases, and (3) implementation
of formal zoning restrictions
and subdivision regulations;
with assistance from donor
agencies, the size and capabili-
ties of planning staffs should
be upgraded, perhaps to in-
clude environmental technical
expertise.


* To force a more holistic integration of
technical data and environmental expertise
across departmental lines and to guarantee
more systematic input of environmental
and social considerations at an early stage
in the planning process,

legislation is needed to man-
date the formal preparation of
environmental impact assess-
ments for all major develop-
ment projects, especially for
those within the coastal zone,
within the boundaries of des-
ignated protected areas, or af-
fecting other critical areas.


* To improve generally inadequate inter-
agency and inter-sectoral coordination
among the various units of government
with environmental protection and re-
source management responsibilities,

CEP governments should take
steps to initiate procedures for
more formal, regular, and ef-
fective coordination of gov-
ernment units with resource
management functions, in par-
ticular those government de-
partments and quasi-govern-
mental statutory bodies with
responsibilities for pollution
control, land use planning, de-
velopment control, allocation
and use of public lands, and
protection of watersheds and
the water supply.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


IRI AJln In:tl ancr.1 Iml IKlrArinkI















* To address jurisdictional gaps or redun-
dancy in exatant environmental legislation
and institutional overlap or conflict in re-
source management responsibilities,

CEP governments, with the
assistance of donor agencies,
should implement an up-dated
assessment of environmental
legislation, specifically identi-
fying areas of conflict in insti-
tutional responsibilities and
areas of shared or overlapping
legislated or assumed author-
ity; recommendations for
modification of existing legis-
lation should be provided as
well as guidelines for im-
proved coordination proce-
dures.


* To address the need for adequate technical
personnel for monitoring and enforcement
functions as identified in extant environ-
mental Icgislation,


* To strengthen the ability of citizens to par-
ticipate over the long-term in the ongoing
public policy debate about environ-
ment/development issues,

CEP governments should en-
sure that, as a matter of con-
tinuing public policy, educa-
tion about the environment is
Incorporated into the formal
educational system at all
levels.


* To facilitate government access to a
broader base of information, expertise,
public opinion and potential support,

CEP governments and envi-
ronmental NGOs should ag-
gressively seek opportunities
for promoting Joint initiatives
and partnerships in the pur-
suit of shared resource man-
agement objectives.


CEP governments, probably
with the assistance of donor
agencies, should review the
technical and regulatory im-
plications of the full spectrum
of existing and proposed envi-
ronmental and resource man-
agement legislation and
should f.dke steps to improve
the quantity and quality of
staff required for implementa-
tion, particularly middle-level
management and technical
staff.


CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION


ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION









COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE (CEP) SERIES
FOR THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN


A collaborative effort (1987-1991) of the U.S. Agency for International Devel-
opment; the Caribbean Conservation Association; the Island Resources
Foundation; the Governments of Antigua-Barbuda, Grenada, Dominica, St.
Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines; and the non-gov-
ernmental organizations listed below.


The following Environmental Profiles were published by the Caribbean Conservation Association
and the Island Resources Foundation in 1991:


ANTiGUA-BARBUDA COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE

DOMINICA COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE

GRENADA COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE

ST. KITTS-NEVIS COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE

ST. LUCIA COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE

ST. VINCENT and THE GRENADINES COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE


Requests for Profiles may be sent either to CCA or IRF as follows:


Executive Director
Caribbean Conservation Associbtion
Savannah Lodge, The Garrison
St. Michael, Barbados


Publications Office
Island Resources Foundation
1718 P Street Northwest, #T4
Washington, D.C. 20036


In-country copies of individual Profiles may be requested from the following non-governmental
organizations, each of which served as a local CEP partner/coordinator:


Antigua Environmental Awareness Group
P.O. Box 103
St. John's, Antigua

Grenada National Trust and Historical Society
c/o National Museum
St. George's, Grenada

YES Committee
c/o The Forestry Division
Botanical Gardens
Roseau, Dominica


St. Christopher Heritage Society
P.O. Box 338
Basseterre, St. Kitts

Nevis Historical and Conservation Society
Alexander Hamilton House
Charlestown, Nevis

National Research and Development Foundation
P.O. Box 1097
Castries, St. Lucia

St. Vincent National Trust
P.O. Box 1538
Kingstown, St. Vincent




Full Text

PAGE 1

=n -Environmental Agenda for the 1990's A SYNTHESIS OF THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE SERIES CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAN'J RESOURCES FOUNDATION u.S. AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPh1ENT

PAGE 2

CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION The Can!lbean Conservation Association (CCA) Is a regional, non-profit organlzatie n dedicated to promoting policies and practices which contribute to the conservation, protection and wise use of natural and cultural resources in order to enhance the quality of life for present and future generations. In fulfilling its missioll, the Assoc:ation establishes partnerships with organizations and groups which share common objectives; it focu'>e& attention on activities designed to anticipate and prevent, rather than react and cure. Established in 1967, CCA's membership comprises Governments (currently 19), Caribbean-based non-governmental organizations, and non-Caribbean institutions, as well as Associate (individual), Sponsoring and Student members. CCA's activities span five major program areJs: (1) the for mulation and promotion of environmental policies ar.d strategies; (2) Information collection and dissemination services; (3) promotion of public awareness through ervironmental education activi ties; (4) research about, support for, and implementation of natural resOurce management projects to foster sustainable development; and (5) assistance for cultural patrimony pr'lgrams. CCA's support is derived from Caribbean Governments, 'I1embership contributions, donor agencies, piivate corporations and concerned individuals. It is managed by a Board of Di rectors, while its day-to-day activities are supervised by a Secretariat comprising a small core of dedicated staff. For more information, write: Caribbean Conservation Association, Savannah Lodge, The Garrison, St. Michael, Barbados. Telephone: (809) 426-9635/5373; Fax: (d09) 4298483. ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION The Island Resources Foundation (fRF) Is a non-governmental, non-profit research and technical assistance organization dedicated to the improvement of resource management in offshore oceanic islands. Established in 1970, its programs focus on providing workable development strategies appropriate for small island resource utilization through the application of ecological and systems management approaches that preserve the special qualities of Island life. Key program implementation areas Include coastal and marine resource utilization, land use plan ning, environmental Impact assessment, national park and tourism planning, cultural resource development, and resource sector policy studies. In 1986 the Foundation launched a prograM of assistance to non-governmental organizations in the Eastern Caribbean designed to ImprovL the capabilities of such groups to provide private sector leadership for achieving environmental goals In the region. Foundation funding Is derived from private foundations, government agencies, International organizations, and through donacions and contributions. IRF publishes research and technical re ports and maintains a publications office for distribution of these documents. Its reference libraries in the Virgin Isla'lds and Washington, D.C. are widely recognized as a un!que collection of over 10,000 document,. 011 insular systems and resource management, with a primary emphasis on the Carlbb:lan. The Foundation is based in the U.S. Virgin Islands, with a branch office in Washington, D.C. an'j :l program office in Antigua. For additional information, write: Island Resources Founda tion, Red Hook Center Box 33, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands 00802. Tp':phone: (809) 775-6225; Fax: (W9) 779-2022.

PAGE 3

s ENVIRONMENTAL AGENDA FOR THE 1990's EM liL .... *&MAAG pi '.'&'5* eME A SYNTHESIS Of The Eastern Caribbean Country Environmental Profile Series ANTIGUA and BARdUDA DOMINICA GRENADA ST. KITTS and NEVIS ST. LUCIA ST. VINCENT and THE GRENADINES A PUBLICATION OF THE CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION TPE ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION September 1991 d

PAGE 4

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Technical preparation of this synthesis report was the of Judith A. Towle, vice of Island Resources Foundation. She was assisted by Edward L. Towle, president of the Foundation, whu In the final editing; Jean-Pierre Bacle, who coordinated report pro duction; and Nt-va Carlson, who provided additional technical review. The report reflects tht! priorities and recommendations of tho six National Committees estab lished In each Profile Country. This information was first published In June of 1991 by the Caribbean Conservation Association and Island Resources Foundation as part of a six volume Environmental Profile series for Antigua-Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts-Novis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Funding for the Eastern Caribbean Country Environmental Profile Project, including publication of this report and the preceding Environmental Profiles, was provided by the U.S. Agency for International Development, D6"vt:iopment Office for the Caribbean In Bridgetown, Barbados.

PAGE 5

CONTENTS Acronyms Foreword: Caribbean Conservation ;:;'sBoclation Foreword: Island Resources Foundation Introduction The Genius of the Place Sector Summaries Page iii v vII 3 1. FORESTS AND FORESTRY 7 WILDLIFE, HABITATS, AND BIODIVERSITY 13 3. FRESHWATER RESOURCES AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT 17 4. COASTAL AND MARINE ENVIRONMENTS 23 5. AGRICULTURE 29 6. TOURISM 35 7. POLLUTION 41 8. PARKS AND OTHER PROTECTED AREAS 47 9. INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK 53 Recommendations For Action: An Agenda For The 1990's 61 CARIBBElIN CONSE'RVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

PAGE 6

iii BOD CANARI CARICOM CCA CEHI CEP CIDA CITES CZM EIA FAO GDP GIS IRF IUCN MOU NGO OAS OECS PAHO U .\ UND? UNEP USAID J'CRONYMS a BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND CARIBBEAN NATURAL RESOlJRCES INSTITUTE CARIBBEAN COMMuNrrv CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION CARIBBEAN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH INSTITUTE COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE CANADIAN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AGENCY ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE OF ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FLCI'lA AND FAUNA COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION WORLD CONSERVATION UNION MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES ORGANIZATION OF EASTERN CARIBBEAN STATES PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION UNITED KINGDOM UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMEtH PROGRAM NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAM UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOClATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

PAGE 7

E v _________ F._O_R_E_W_O_RD _________ A gricuhure, forestry, fishing and tourism ha ... e traditionally been the main in come-generating activities on which Caribbean countries depend for their economic viability. The natural resource base upon which these activities rely has over time been subjected to over-exploitation, mis-usc, and mis-manage ment as people have continuously taken more from the llatural environment than they have given in ret urn. The resulting decline in the state of the Caribbean environment has been ac companied by population increases and a dete rioration in the standard of living in sevl;ral countries of the region, and ind:cations are that this trend is likely to worsen bcfcre it gets beller. In an allempt to arrest this situation and put in plac.:. mitigative measures to ag gressively tackle and rectify the deterioration in our natural resource base, a series of six Country Environmental Profiles has been pre pared for Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, SI. Lucia, SI. Kills al1d Nevis, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. These documents are intended to fa cilitate environmentally-sound development planning and pave the way for a new devcl opmentthrust into the twenty first century and beyond. Funding for the Environmental Pro file Project was provided by the United States Agency for Intem:uional Development. This summary document attempts to synthesize the principal elements of the six pro!ile reports and present the main isslles and recommendations in an easily assimilated for mal. It is our hope that the approaches and recommendations offered in the document will help in the creation of policy shifts that will bring to the region the type of development which is indeed sustainable. CAR!BBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIMION llt... The Caribbean Conservation Associ ation is very pkascd 10 have had this op portunity to contribute in a tangible way to the on-going l:nvironment/development debate and to the research collection and data analysis so vi!al to sound management of the Caribbean environmenl. CaMII A. Howell, Executive Director Caribbean Conservation Association ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

PAGE 8

F vii FOREWOflD ,www. es of the Country Environmeatal Prolile Project was to channels (If dialogue :n the search for workable :;olutions. We believe that this synthesis report .. tl:.: final document in the currenl of '3nvirulllllental Profiles --will be a particularly important contribution to this ungoing dia logue. It was designed to provide easy access to Profile findings and and therefore to increase their visibility to a wider audience of Caribbean leaders --both political and environmental. Island Resources FoundatilJn is proud to have been associated with this project and to CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION have contributed not only to the production of the Profile reports but to the ongoing proCtSS of assembling data, assessing priorities, and identifying solutions for sustainable --and achievable --resource management policies and program:; in the Eastern Caribbean. Edward L. Towle CEP Project Team Leader and Ju(iillJ A. Towle CEP Report Seri!!:; Editor Island Resources Faundation ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

PAGE 9

64" ANEGADA "Jr- VIRGIN ISLANDS ST. MARTIN ffJ ST. BARTHELEMY a I I) SABA 14 BARBUDA ST. EUSTATIUS ,ST. CHRISTOPHER NEVIS' .. ANTIGUA -s:. 6 MONTSERRAT 'V 1) ... GUADELOUPE \!: t? 1.(1 < 6 MARIE 'V 1.-" U' DOMINICA' CARIBBEAN (/) 0 SEA q' ....J ST. LUCIA CI) 50 100 I Miles ST. VINCENT IJ ISLA LA BLANQUILLA ..../\. ,/\ ISLA LA MARGARITA J GRENADINES J GRENADA 2JTRINIOAD VENEZUELA 62 General map of the Eastern Caribbean, showing the location of the six CEP countries.

PAGE 10

Ell 1 [ ......... ... Preparation of Country Enviroumen tal Profiles (CEPs) has proven to be an effec tive means to help ensure that environmental issues are addressed in the development pro cess. Since 1979, the U.S. Agency for Interna tional Development (USAID) has supported Environmental Profiles in over one hundred USAID-assisted countries. Profiles have highlighted gaps in the existing information base, suggested new guidelines for the design and funding of devel opment programs, pinpointed weaknesses in regulatory or planning mechanisms, and illus trated the need for changes in policies. Most importantiy, the process of carrying out a pro file project has in many cases helped establish new working relationships and f ven consensus among governmental and non-governmental bodies concerned with environmental issues. It has also served to strengthen local institutions and improve their capacity for incorporating environmental information into development planning. PROFILES FOR THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN The potentio.l utility of CEPs in the Eastern Caribbean sub-region (essentially the OECS countries) has been a subject of discus sion since the early 1980's. The need for the profiling process to begin in those countries was reaffirmed during a seminar on Industry, Environment and Development sponsored by the Caribbean Conservation Association (CCA) and the University of the West Indies in August 1986. Shortly thereafter, USAID entered into a Cooperative Agreement with CCA for the preparation of a series of Profiles for the Eastern Caribbean. The project would begin in the country of St. Lucia as a ,i1ot effort, to be followed by Profiles for Grenada, Dominica, St. Vincent, Antigua-Barbuda, and St. Kitts-Nevis. CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION .1 H 'H WM Early in 1987, CCA and the Island Re sources Foundation (IRF), of St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) calling for IRF to pro vide technical assistance and support to CCA in the execution of the Profile Project for the Eastern Caribbean. The executive director of the Caribbean Conservation Association be came the CEP Project Director, while the president of Island Resources Foundation served as CEP Project Manager and Team Leader. An IRF staff person was assigned as a Project Ccoordinator in each CEP country. Eventually MOUs were signed by CCA and the governments of all six CEP countries --Antigua-Barbuda, Commonwealth of Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent a.nd the Grenadines. In each Profile country, a National CEP Com mittee was established as an addsory, t,:'.:hnical information, and review body for the CEP Project. Members of the National Committees represented both government agencies and private sector organizations concerned about development and environment issues. Additionally, a local non-governmen tal organization (NGO) was designated by CCA and the participating government as the in-country implementing and coordinating group for the CEP Project. (In Dominica, a committee, called YES for Year of the Environment and Shelter, provided the supporl functions for the CEP in that country. In St. Kitts-Nevis, one NGO was designated for st. Kitts and a second NGO for Nevis.) ORGANIZATION OF THE CEP REPORTS Although the format of each Envi ronmental Profile was determined by a local CEP Natimlal Committee. the documents --as a series --share a common approach. Each Profile is designed as a guide for future devel opment planning and resource management decision-making in the target country. A broad spectrum of sector-specific environment/de velopment topics are examined --for example. ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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2 marine and terrestrial systems, parks and protected areas, wildlife, land use planning, agriculture, industry, institutional capabilities. Each topic forms a chapter (or sub chapter) of the Profile. Each chapter, in turn, is sub-divided into three segments. First, a broad Overview is provided which constitutes an abbreviated "state of the environment" summary for each key resource sector. Sec ondly, an analysis of Priority Environmental Isslles or Pn;blems within each sector is pre sented, followed by Policy Recomme"dations and Guidelines which are also sector-specific. All of the Profiles include an intro ductory chapter that incorporates background information on the general environmental set ting for the country and reviews the historical, economic and social context within which envi ronmental decision-making must take place. A comprehensive bibliography of source materi als dealing with resource development and environmental management is found at the end of each Profile. Most references deal specifically with the target country or the Eastern Caribbean sub-region. The six bibliographies represent the most thorough assemblage of such information compiled to date. COMPLETION OF SIX PROFILES Work on the St. Lucia Environmental Profile began in mid-1987, and a final draft document was ready for review one year later in June of 1988. The St. Lucia report is a par ticularly comprehensive Profile, because it was the first CEP to be completed and because a larger volume of environmental data and liter ature is available on this Eastern Caribbean country. An MOU was signed in early 1989 between CCA and the Government of Grenada to commence work Oil the Profile in that nation. Hurricane Hugo in September of that year slowed the project as Island Re sources Foundation's headquarters in SL Thomas was hard hit by the storm, and the ofCARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION fice and home of IRFs coordinator for the Grenada Profile (based in St. Croix) were de stroyed by Hugo. The final draft of the Grenada CEP was rl;ady for circulation by early 1990. Thereafter, in fairly rapid succession, followed the completion of Profiles for Dominica (February-June), St. Vincent and the Grenadines (February-June), Antigua-Barbuda (June-August), and St. Kitts-Nevis (June September). All Profiles were finished in final draft form by September of 1990. A period for in-country review, fol lowed by final edit and re-write by the IRF technical team, constituted the final steps in the CEP process. The six Profiles were pub lished by June of 1991 and presented by USAID and CCA to government and NGO representatives at an official presentation cer emony in Barbados in July. SYNTHESIS REPORT Following com pletion of the six CEPs, a summary of the published reports was re quested by USAID and the target Proftle countries. This CEP Synthesis was prepared in response to that request. It provides an overview summary of the key environmental is sues and problems identified in the six Profiles and presents this information within an East ern Caribbean context. Indeed, many of the critical environmental issues confronting St. Lucia are similar to those faced by Grenada, and so forth. (For more detailed information on country-specific assessments and policy rec ommendations, the reader is referred to the six Environmental Profiles published earlier in 1991.) The Synthesis also highlights those recommendations and guidelines which are common to the Profile countries and, by so doing, provides an updated and organized framework for change in environmental poli cies and resource management programs in the targeted OECS countries. ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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3 THE GENIUS OF THE PLACE tEttttsm = rww "IN EVERYTHING, RESPECT THE GENIUS OF THE PLACE" Alexander Pope, Essays on Man (1733) The countries participating in the En vironmental Profile Project (Antigua-Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines) i1re but six of an extended archipelagic clustering of oceanic islands in the Eastern Caribbean Sea known collectively as the Lesser Antilles. This biogeographic grouping, which sweeps in a graceful curve from Puerto Rico in the north to Trinidad in the south, is notable among scholars and tourists alike for its cultural, environ mental and geomorphological diversity. The four-year environmental profiling exercise, of which this volume is the last in a series of seven, has helped define the extent to which the differences and commonalities among the islands in natural and physical resource en dowments have shaped and continue to affect human and institutional development. As part of the Lesser Antilles cluster, the CEP islands are truly "archipelagic," en joying the characteristic features of both oceanic and coastal islands. On the one hand, they share qualities of insular isolation --e.g., smallness, psychological independence, unam biguous national identities and generally pristine environments distant from more polluted continental areas. At the same time, they are situated within well-serviced sea and air trans port routes, and each is surrounded at a ncar distance by non-threatening small island neighbors. Beyond lie the continental edges and centers, attractive and threatening at the same time. The CEP islands are at once both compact and complex, coherent and vulnerable, with closely interlocked ecosystems. Perhaps their most obvious physical characteristic (and development constraint) is their size --they are all very small. The largest and most mountainous is Dominica Gust under 290 square miles}. St. Lucia --like Dominica, without significant satellite islands --follows with 238 square miles. The dual island nation St. Kitts-Nevis is the smallest of the six countries, with a total land mass of only 104 square miles. Antigua Barbuda, the other two-island state, is 170 square miles, with a physical and natural environment quite unlike its CEP neighbors. Grenada and its two larger satellite islands (Carriacou and Petit Martinique) comprise 133 square miles in total, while St. Vincent and its gem-like string of Grenadine Islands are spread over a land area totaling 150 squar! miles, with the main island encompassing 133 square miles. CONTRASTING While all Eastern Caribbean islands shar:: certain valuable natural amenities, such as a favorable climate, a rich cultural heritage, luxuriant coral reefs and a wide !'election of colorful and attractive people, flora and fauna, not everything is distributed evenly. Some islands, like Antigua-Barbuda, have insufficient rainfall and a surfeit of droughts. Others, like Dominica, experience an excess of rainfall with associated c1ol!dy weather, landslides and flooding. St. Lucia is volcanic and monolithic, comprising one main island with only a few miniscule nearshore satellite islets. St. Vincent and the Grenadines, by way of contrast, is an archipelagic state within its own right, composed of over 30 islands, islets and cays which extend from St. Vincent, the largest, southward for some 60 miles toward the neighboring country cf Grenada. = CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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4 The ollce densely foresteci landscapes of Grenada and St. Kitts-Nevis have been largely transformed to agricultural use. Along the way, due to its successful, specialized production of nutmeg and mace, Grenad::. ac quired a reputation as the region's "Spice Is land." In St. Kitts, the island's continuous cul tivation of cane has earned it a different r(;pu tation and landscape; here centuries of consci entious land husbandry on sugar estates have left an aesthetically pleasing, orderly, and wdl proportioned rural landscape, quite unlike the other CEP states which abandoned sugar in the past three decades. But d .... spite these differences in ap pearance, much of which is geomorphological, all Eastern Caribbean islands share one com mon characteristic --their landscapes are as much derived from cultural factors as natural forces, shaped by human needs and institutions and by historical events. These contemporary cultural landscapes often show the pernicious influence of careless exploitation, sometimes reveal the benign effects of good husbandry, and on occasion display artifactual evidence of earlier visionary policies, land use planning, landscape design, and sound nature conserva tion practices. ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING The normal climate of the oceanic re gion at the latitude of the Lesser Antillean is lands is a humid tropical marine type, with lit tle seasonal or diurnal variation and a fairly constant, strong wind out of the east. Rain is distributed roughly into a drier season from January to May and a wetter season from June to December. This island grouping is located within the belt of "trade winds" famous among seamen for their directional reliability and generally predictable scheduk. Disturbances can be induced by the passage of so-called "easterly waves" in the upper atmosphere and other low pressure systems during the "wet season." All the CEP islands have suffered the impacts of severe storms and hurricanes in the past, although Grenada lies just south of the CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION Wi path of most tropical storms and is only rarely affected by hurricanes. Within this climatic belt, moisture laden trade winds are commonly forced up wards when they confront the land mass of even small tropical islands with central peaks, like all of the CEP islands except Antigua and Barbuda. The cooled moisture in the air pre cipitates as rain, falling most consistently un the upper slopes. Therefore, island vegetation at higher elevations receives the highest rain fall, while the leeward side of such Hands customarily receives slightly more rain than the windward side because the air masses and clouds formed at '.he peak move in a westerly direction under the influence of the prevailing winds. An extraordinary variety of "micro climates" can exist in small island systems like the CEP cluster. Altitude, temperature, hu midity, saltiness of the air, the intensity and in cidence of sunshine, wind exposure, and soil type all interact and conspire to create numer ous site-specific variable "climates" within each island. These variations a:e mirrored by each island's mosaic-like overlay of diverse combi nations of natural vegetation which, in turn, are the very substance of the habitat side of biodi versity. Without them, the landscape would be less interesting, less colorful, and less produc tive. It would also be more uniform and therefore more at risk. The vegetation of the CEP is lands shows evidence of great disturbance by human activity. It also represents an inter mixture of high and low, wet and dry, volcanic and limestone islands. The extent of undis turbed vegetation in Dominica is more exten sive than on any other island in the Lesser Antilles, and its rain forest is considered the finest in the Caribbean. In other CEP islands, Antigua in particular, the natural vegetation has been altered more significantly by human manipulation. ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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5 PHYSICAL FEATURES The Antillean arc of islands is geologically young and predominantly volcanic in ori Some islands were formed primarily by subaqueous and subaerial lava flows and pyroclastics followed by seabed uplift (for example, St. Lucia, Dominica). Some of these acquired thick coral reef caps while still submerged and elnerged from the sea looking like limestone islands (for examp!L!, parts of Antigua). At the present time, the active tectonic or mountain fonring process has all tul ceased in the region except for St. Vincent's Soufriere, whir.h last erupted in 1979, and the rambunc tious underwater volcano north of Grenada known as Kick 'em Jenny. But within the arc, there are still eight active vulcauic sites on as many islands --some with gas vents, some sulfurous steam vents, vne real boiling lake (Dominica), and a few, like St. Lucia, with near-surface hydrothermal hot spots that have geothermal energy potential. The windward side of most Eastern Caribbean islands is exposed to the full impact of the Atlantic Ocean and its easterly and trade winds, waves, swells and storm systems. By of the Leeward coasts are more likely to have generally secure protection against heavy swells, abnormal tidal currents and contrary winds. The islands' capitals and most important harbors are located on the Leeward coasts -St. George's in Kingstown in St. Vincent, Castries in St. Lllcia, Basseterre in St. Kitts, Roseau in Dominica, and St. John's in Antigua. Of these, only two -and St. Lucia --have good, naturaliy-protectcd harbors. The so-called Windward islands of Dominica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Grenada all exhibit a mountainous interior of volcanic origin which dominates the topography, with sharply dissected ridges, isolated valleys and lush vegetation falling away to a narrow coastal plain of varying width and densely-populated land. The generally high relief has had an imCARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION port ant influence on climate, on land use, and on general physical development. Nowhere is this more evident than in Dominica where landscape features like tree-covered mountainsides, generally rugged and steep intermediate terrain, and relatively little flat arable land at lower elevations have been and continue to be considerable constraints to development. The absence of a mountainous land scape and lush green ,.:getation distinguishes Antigua-Barbuda from the other CEP islands. In Antigua, flat dry plains give rise to gently rolling hills in the north and to modest volcanic hills in the south. About a third of Antigua has be;:n classified as of limestone origin, while Barbuda to the northeast is entirely a low-lying coralline island. By way of contrast, St. Kitts and Nevis have only a little of the flatness and dryness of Antigua and Barbuda, and almost none of the rugged mountainous irregularity of the Windward Islands. Each island is dominated by a single, centrally-located volcanic peak sur rounded by fertile slopes, with the so-called hinterland open from coastline LO mountain top in one continuously graceful sweep. THE INSULA'A DILEMMA Whatever the physical attributes of his or her home island, the Antiguan, Barbudan, Dominican, Grenadian, !Gttitian, Nevisian, St. Lucian, and Vinc{:ntian resource planner in the 1990's confronts shared dilemma, as each tries to manage external development pres sures while also being responsh'e to local environmental imveratives. Fundamentally, all islands face the same combination of opportunity and risk, the ,arne marketing strategic,s for continentally-generated development pro grams, the same pressures of exogenous influences, the same influx of proposed "high-tech" quick fIXes for complex local problems, and the same siren song of growth and modernization and material progress. Balancing these is not easy. IS!.AND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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6 Some may eventually lose their sense of place, while others will find creative alt.:rna tives. Some may even lead the way because they appreciate that the difference between just growth n-:d real development is largely a question of ,lOW thl; environment is managed, and only sustainable development will ensure the viability of the supporting natural resource base upon which all development is dependent. The six Country Environmental Pro files for the Eastern Caribbean, and this sum mary or synthesis document, are about the state of the resource base at the beginning of the decade of the 1990's in each of six Caribbean nations. An important question, however, remains: What will it be like in the year 2000? As the twentieth century draws to a r .0se, the smaller island systems of the Lesser Antilles, formerly isolated -and to a degree buffered if not wholly protected by that isola tion -ue having to face up to an end to their quasi-isolation and to the influx of a variety of new pressures from the outside. Ease of ac cess by cruise ship and jet aircraft, telecommu nication by fibre-optic cable and telr.fax ma chine, an,l a proliferation of television signals from satellites overhead are now taken for granted. But the effect of these newer media and transport technologies on local consumer expectations and on the supply of affordable goods and services has changed political pri orities and made development projections a very difficult task. The new growth pressures from inside and outside have already generated island-wide disruptions of the self-regulating processes of nature --and, in the end, may very well CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCI4.TION threaten the viability of insular wildlife, of water supply systems, am! Jf the very shore lines of these islands with their associated coral reef, and seagrass buffering sys tems. island dilemma of limiting the im pacts of outside forces while seeking to be re sponsive to local needs is somewhat poignantly summed up by a poet best known for her ret rospective forecasting: "17,e tidal wave devours the shore 17Jere arc no islands anymore." (Edna SI. Vincent Millay) It is only briefly comforting to note that the poet was not necessarily referring to the Caribbean, for all islands face a similar problem --only the timing and leadership are different. Nevertheless, it is clear that island environments are at risk --of sinking, metaphorically speaking, under a sea of waste, poUution, and environmental damage. Perhaps 110t today, but soon if something is not done. Fortunately, in the same way that good planning and timely action can develop sea defenses --familiar to those who live in a hurricane zone --that will hold back or diminish the effeds of a tidal wave or its environ mental equivalent, then so can adroit, creative national and regionallcadership save the island ecosystem from inundation. The 1985 plea of the Trinidadian Calysonian is not irrelevant here: "Captai", the ship is sinking!" But, in truth, his words to the citizens 0,' .he Eastern Caribbean are a call to action --not a cry of despair. *iiMJ ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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THE MOST CRITICAL FUNCTION OF FORESTED AREAS IS TO ENSURE A RELIABLE SOURCE OF DOMESTIC WATER 7 1. FORESTS AND QVEhVIEW The forests of the Caribbean have been steadily exploited since the time of the first seulements -as wood for construc tion, as a source of food, fuel, and folk medicines, and as an expendable resouree in the clearing of land for roads, housing and agricultural development. Gradually, the natu ral forest has disappeared from the coastal areas, and today, in all of the target CEP countries (except Antigua-Barbuda), the fore;;t is largely confined to the more mountainous areas of the interior. Even in this montane, theoretically inaccessible region --in St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Grenada, and Dominica --illicit shifting cultivation practice,; have had a marked effect, and isolated patches of bananas, coconuts, citrus and dasheen arc not uncom mon throughout the forest. The forested core, and especially its peripheral edge, continue to provide downs lope in CEP countries with a wide variety of useful goods and services such as building materials, fuelwood, natural medicines, wild fn'if.s, and habitat for game species and other wildlife. By far, however, the most important service provided by the forest is as a reliable source of domestic water. In a most orderly sequence, the forest catches the rainfall, stores the water, arranges for its dis tribution islandwide and releases it over time at various locations. Of the six CEP countries, Dominica is Ihe most heavily fon.:sted, with over two-thirds of its land surfacc covcred by fort:sts. Indeed, in the Eastern Caribbean, the words "rain for est" arc almost synonymous with the Dame Dominica. Antigua is at the other end of the spectrum; in this country recurrent planting of sugar cane over several centuries, combined with the extensive area once under cane pro duction, has destroyed for all practical pur poses all evidence of the natural vegetation. Each CEP report provides extended docu mentation on the primary vegetation types of the target island, the extent of coverage of the CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION various forest classifications, and a description of reforestalion efforts. Principal forest management policies of the Eastern Caribbean sub-regiun date to the 1940's when, between 1942 and 1946, Dr. J.S. Beard, Assistant Conservator of Forests in Trinidad and Tobago, carried out a now well reconnaissance of forests in the Wind ward and Leeward Islands. His report and recommendations ultimately provided the legal basis for many of the forest management and conservation policies established in these islands. However, the first forest reserve in the Eastern Caribbean --the King's Hill Forest Reserve in st. Vincent --long pre-dates Beard, having been established in 1791. Recent effortS to update forest man agement policies and legislation have often been assisted by donor agencies working in the regio". For example, CIDA-funded forestry assistance programs in St. Lucia and St. Vincent have emphasized the development of long-term Forest Management Plans. Similar planning exercises in Grenada and Dominica have been supported by FAD. The forestry units of government in several CEP countries have generally been charged with a broad array of significant environmental duties ranging from watershed pro tection to environmental education to parks manap,crneni --in addition to more traditional responsibilities related to the economic devel opment of forests. In Dominica and St. Lucia, in particular, forestry personnel have played a central role in the conservation and manage ment of natural resources. In Dominica, all of the country's legally designated protected areas arc under the management cuntrol of the Forestry Division. In Grenada, the Forestry Department has been designated the appro priate administrative unit to manage a pro posed National Parks and Protected Areas System. In St. Vincent, the government's Forestry Division has assumed a principal role in the development of environmental education materials, and the St. Lucia Department of Forest and Lands is a regional leader in the ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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MUCH OF THE PRESSURE ON FORESTS COULD BE MET THROUGH MORE EFFICIENT UTILIZATION OF THE RESOURCE BASE IN AREAS ALREADY CLEARED OR OTHERWISE DISTURBED 8 development of interpretive programs for nat ural areas and in the design of conservation education materials for children and adults. THE VALUE OF FORESTS The forests of the CEP countries (with the exception of Antigua-Barbuda where cli mate and terrain arc substantially different) perform an essential function in regulating stream flow, protecting water supplies, pre venting ercsiun and landslides, and maintaining a well-distributed rainfall for the production of agricultural crops. The remaining natural for est owes its s!!rvival in large measure to the ruggedness of terrain, lack of access, and, to SOID'! degree, government protection. Unfor tunately, the constraints of the past may not afford adcquate protection in the future. In thcse coulltries --even in Dominica wherc there has bcen a viable timber industry in the recent past --the value of timber and wood products is a small proportion of the overall economic value of the forest resource base. To assess the importance of forests, equal consideration must bc givcn to the rc source's traditional energy value (for fuelwood), it:; community value (for agroforestry), its wildlife and biodiversity value (as habitat), its water catchment and storage value (to pro mote soil and water conservation), its recre ational and educational value (for residents and tourists alike), and the quality-of-Iand scape valuc afforded by access to undisturbed vegetation and green space. In these islands, it is important that the governments recognize the multi-dimcnsional value of thc forests and take appropriate steps to conserve and promote this important resource. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: DEFORESTATION AND HILLSIDE FARMING [with emphasis on St. Lucia, Dominica, St. Vincent, and Grenada] In St. Lucia, pressure to increase ba nana cultivation for export has necessitated the CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION clearing (often illegal) of more and more new land, which in turn has resulted in the estab lishment of agricultural plots on steeper slopes highly susceptible to er jsion. Soil erosion and excessive downstream siltation are the com mon result of such deforestation. While ero sion has seriol!s implications for reduced agricultural productivity, it can also raise the risk of and diminish the value of valley land by contributing to excessive flooding and sediment dCIH)sition. Deforestation is considered one lf the most crucial issues confronting Dominica ac cording to a 1990 document prepared by YES (for Year of Environment and Shelter), a Gov ernment-sponsored environmental awareness committee. Agricultural expansion timber harvesting are causing mpid removal of vegetation on both private and public lands. In many areas, espeCially on steep slopes, lands being cleared for agriculture are u'lsuitable for such uses, particularly in the absence of spe cialized controls to ?rotect against soil erosion. Similar patterns of deforestation can be identified in St. Vincent and Grenada. In 5t. Vincent, most of the area below 1,000 foot elevation is under permanent agriculture and has been deforested for centuries. More rapid upslope expansion of agriculture at the expense of the forested areas has been occur ring in recent years, especially for banana culti vation. In Grenada, deforestation and conse quent soil erosion due to agricultural clearing, production forestry, fuelwood cutting, road building, and construction activities on steep slopes and unsuitable soils is a prGolem which will become increasingly severe as the country continues to open up new lands for develop ment. In general, the most fundamental problem facing the manCtgers of forests in these CEP countries is the rapidly expanding pressure on the resource as a source of timber, fuelwood and charcoal and as an area increasingly utilized for crop cultivation. Much of this pressure, however, could be reduced, inasmuch as most of the requirements for forest reISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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GOVERNMENT POLICIES MUST RIGOROUSLY DEFEND CRITICAL WATER CATCHMENTS AGAINST ENCROACHMENTAND PERMIT ONLY CONTROLLED FORESTRY IN SUCH AREAS 9 sources or fur land now under natural forest could be met (1) in areas alread r cleared or otherwise disturbed and (2) through ;,ore effi cient utilization of the resource base. Recommendation. To reduce the loss of farest cover, government conservation and resource developlT,ent policies must focus on ways to reduce and phase out illegal banana production, land clearing, and farming in gen eral on very steep upland slopes, in critical water catchment areas, and in designated for est reserves. It is essential that government policies rigorously defend water catchments against encroachment and permit no extractive land use other than controlled forestry in such areas. This will require improved monitoring and regulatory control initiatives, as well as a variety of positive --even economic -in centives that present alternatives to illegal squatting or illegal land dearing. More specific recommendations to as sist in carrying out these general policy objec tives include: Implementation and enforcl':-uent of land lise regllla/iolls designed to pre vent agricultural and residential en croachment and the informal harvest ing of trees in designated "protected" forest areas; Greater emphasis on promoting agroforestry practices ar.1 plantation forestry on private land in all effort to improve the involvement of small farmers as part of the forestry re source management team; Assessment of incentives to increase the practice of private forestry (e.g., tax credits); Enactment of supporting legislation that will strengthen the ability of government:; to protect and manage criti calland areas, including private water sheds; CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION Identification of funds to finance pro tective measures, such as: 1) purchase of conservation easements; 2) purchase of development rights; 3) payment of a premium to landowners for improved lanuscape/forest manage ment practices (e.g., ter racing or reforestation); 4) payment for a long-term lease of watershed land needing protection; 5) compensat:"! to landown ers for down-zoning (re classifying) land as a re stricted or no development "protected area" that might allow certain uses but not others, by definition. Recommendation. The best use of the remaining mature or nearly mature forest stands may well derive from conserving a ma jor portion for their potential as a generic re serve, for wildlife habitat, for watershed pro tl!ction, for education, for scientific research, and for nature tourism development. Sec ondary forests and plantation forests are gen erally more suited for the production of forest products. Steps need to be taken by govern ments to ensure the protection of those areas which are appropriate ollly for wildlife conser vation, watershed protection, recreation, na ture tourism and biological diversity. Exam ples include lands too steep for sustainable cultivation, commercial forestry or other hu man activity and areas which are unique by virtue of their scenic, floral or faunal charac teristics or their overall contribution to the natural heritage of the country. ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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10 w FOREST MANAGEMENT ISSUES IN ST. KITTS-NEVIS Forests liOt as a matter of public policy figured largely in the history or devel opment c.I SI. Kitts and Nevis (unlike Dominica, for example, where forests domi nate the island's landscape and have been a key geographic determinant in shaping its history and development options). As il result the composition, condition, area and resources of the upland forest regions in SI. Kius-Nevis are poorly defined; furtht:rmore, the extent to which these areas are presently used, by whom and for what purposes has not been evaluated or documented on a consistent basis. One emerging forestry issue is the more recent availability of former cane pro duction acreage for alternative land use activi ties. Since much of this land should not have been cleared for agriculture in the first place, it is important that the Government recognize the need to protect and utilize some of this acreage in appropriate plantation and/or agroforestry programs. Recommendation. An updated for est resource Illventory and assessment should be launched as soon as possible for SI. Kitts Nevis. A comprehensive forest resources pol icy and plan needs to be prepared (ideally under the mandate of the newly established National Conservation Commission) and should include associated regulations covering: production forestry, agroforestry, watersheds, forest reserves, and fuelwood production and other plantation development on forested lands. Guidelines for the restoration/recovery of abandoned cane lands should be provided. FOREST MANAGEMENt ISSUES IN ANTIGUA-BARBUDA In the drier, less steep areas of CEP countries, uncontrolled livestock grazing ad versely affects vegetative land cover. Given its drier climate and flatter terrain, this is an espe cially important issue in Antigua-Barbuda. CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION -Here over-grazing ha3 to land deterioration (es!lecially during wet I-.!fiods), deforestation, erosion, and general denudation of the landsca.pe. Aecommendstion. Agroforestry techniques need to be encouragl'd to improve the economic viability of smdl farmers while conserving the natlJral resource base. live stock projects can incorporate forage trees into pasture improvement activities. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: FUEL WOOD PRODUCTION The continued demand of generally poor and margil1a1ized rural popUlations for charcoal and to a lesser extent firewood as a fuel sourc'e contributes to the overall exploita tion of forest resources in CEP countries. During the concern about the contrib utory role played by fuelwood production in deforestation has increased, but conclusive documentation is not presentiy available to confirm the extent of environmental risk asso ciated with this traditional practice. Rp.tomrnondation. A more system atic evaluation of fu;:;lwood extraction rates in CEP countries (particularly the Windward Is lands) is required in order to identify specific areas within each country where continued harvesting for this purpose poses a substantial environmental problem. Obvious areas of con cern arc the forest reserves as well as primary watersheds where removal of ground cover for any reason endangers key water supplies. It needs to be noted that the production issue" is as much a de velopment ir.sue as it is an environmental issue. As a by-product of larger land-clearing activi ties (e.g., for agriculture or infrastructure), the fuelwood issue is but one component of inten sifying land use pressures bdng felt throughout the CEP islands. Furthermore, as a traditional technology for rural communities, it cannoL be ignored as an important economic and social as well as environmental --issue. ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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11 KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES RELATED TO FORESTS ECONOMIC PRESSURES TO INCREASE EXPOR r CROP PRODUCTION WHICH HAVE RESULTEO IN ACCELERATED CLEARING, 'IF FORESTED LAND AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF AGRICULTURAL PLOTS ON EVER STEEPER HILLSIDES AREAS HIGHLY SUSCEPTIBLE TO EROSION. THE .iLSENCE OF CONTROLS TO PROTECT AGAINST SOIL EROSION, RESULTING IN AN INCREASED RISK OF LANDSLIDES, FLOODING, AND EXCESSIVE DOWNSTREAM SILTATION WHEN FORESTED LANDS ON STEEP SLOPES AND UNSUITABLE SOILS ARE CL EARED FOR AGRICULTURE, PRODUCTION FORESTlW, FUELWOOD, ROAD BUILDING AND OTHER CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES. THE FAILURE OF EASTERN CARIBBEAN GOVERNMENTS TO CONSISTENTLY DEFEND LRITICA:" WATER CATCHMENTS AGAINST NONFORESTED LAND USE ACTIVITIES, THUS PLACING AT RISK THE CONTINUED AVAILABILITY OF RELIABLE SOURCES OF DOMESTIC WATER. THE LACK OF LAND USE REGULATIONS DESIGNED TO PREVENT AGRICULTURAL AND RESIDENTIAL ENCROACHMENT IN DESIGNATED 'PROTECTED" FOREST ARF.AS. UNCONTROLLED LIVESTOCK GPAZING, CONTRIBUTING TO LAND DETERIORATION, DEFOREST ATlON, ER0310N, AND GENERAL nENUDATION OF THE LANDSCAPE THE ABSENCE OF INCENTIVES TO INCREASE AGROFORESTRY AND PLANTATION FORESTRY ON PRIVATE LANDS OR TO COMPENSATE LANDOWNERS FOR iMPROVED LANDSCAPE/FOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES SUCH AS TERRACING OR REFORESTATION. THE NEED TO IMPROVE THE UNDERSTAN[,)ING OF POLITICAL DECISIONMAKERS ABOUT THE VALUE OF FORESTS, PARTICULARLY WITH REGARD TO SOIL AND WATER CONSERVArION. CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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8t. Lucia Parrot, Amazona versicolor. 'V \

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& THE PRIMARY NEGATIVE IMPACT OF DEVELOPMENT ON WILDLIFE IS HABITAT REDUCTION THROUGH CONVeRSION OF FORESTED WILDLANDS TO OTHER LAND USES 13 2. WILDLIFE, HABITATS, AND BIODIVERSllY OVERVIEW From the earliest colonial period to modern times, export agriculture has domi nated the land use patterns of the CEP coun tries and produced major changes in terrestrial habitats and biodiversity in all the islands. Nearly three centuries of deforestation and land clearing for intensive agricultural use have resulted in the removal or degradation of much of the original vegetation and contributed to the loss of wildlife habitat and the subsequent reduction of species richness. To a lesser ex tent, urban development, new residential housing, and sporadic hurricanes have fmther modified natural habitats, while the in troduction of exotic (non-native) species such as food plants, domestic animals, "weeds" and animal "pests" --have, in more subtle ways, also altered natural biogeographic patterns. Uncontrolled livestock grazing, most notably in Antigua-Barbuda, continues to have a detrimental effect on native plant communi ties. More recently, accelerated tourism devel opment :n CEP countries, again most notably in Antigua, has resulted in major bio-physical alterations to the coastline and destruction of coastal and marine habitats (a specific discus sion of coastal and marine habitats is found in Section 4 of this report). The combined result of these impacts is that there now are endemic species in all CEP islands which are considered threatened or endangered. Some of these endemic species and sub-species (either regional endemics or island endemics) are of scientific interest. Many have also become symbols of national pride in their native country --for example, the endangered St. Lucia Parrot (Amazona versicolor); St. Vincent Parrot (Amazona gllildingii); and two parrots in Dominica, the Imperial Parrot (Amazona imperia/is) and the Red-Necked Parrot (Amazona arallsiaca). The six Environmental Profiles provide an overview of biodiversity and wildlife resources in the six CEP countries and assess the status of threatened and endangered CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION Ab.,. 6iWMQIMl species to the extent that such information is vailable. Furthermore, each Profile describes those areas which have been set aside for the protection of wildlife and makes detailed rec ommendations for additional sites. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: LOSS OF NATIVE WILDLIFE HABITAT In CEP countries, habitat reduction is the principal negative impact of development activities on wildlife. Habitat is reduced or de stroyed when forested wildlands are converted to other habitat types and land uses. Unfortunately, the home range re quirements and minimum viable popUlation sizes for mmt wildlife species in these islands are as yet poorly known. The limited land mass of individual CEP countries means that any systf;m of parks or other protected areas (e.g., wildlife reserves) will, of necessity, consist of small, probably isolated "pockets" of more or-less "natural" habitat surrounded by a matrix of more intensive land uses. If maintained largely as lIative vegetation, such reserves can include sufficient area to protect smaller species of wildlife requiring that particular type of habitat, but this is very much a matter of in dividual species characteristics. The importance of lIative forest for wildlife needs to be underscored. Regenera tion of forests which favor exotic or pioneering forms of vegetation will be of more limited value in promoting biodiversity. An active program of selective reforestation and natural avian dispersal of native plant species may be more beneficial to the recovery of biodiversity than passive regeneration of forests. Many so-called marginal lands or former agricultural lanas now reverting to scrub (particularly in Antigua-Barbuda and St. Kitts-Nevis) are often considered of minimal economic importance, primarily because they cannot be profitably developed for agricultural production. However, the value of such acreage extends beyond its potential economic -ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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.Al WILDLIFE PROTECTION AND THE PRESERVATION OF BIO DIVERSITY ARE TYPICALLY GIVEN LITTLE WEIGHT IN THE PLANNING PROCESS IN CARIBBEAN ISLANDS 14 productivity; most importantly, such lands can be developed as wildlife habitat and for water shed protection. From a biodiversity perspective, these "marginal lands" have considerable potential value and therefore require the de velopment of appropriate management strate gies. Recommendation. Any land use planning efforts in CEP countries should in clude consideration of biodiversity issues. Re strictions should be placed on the clearing of native forests from agriculturally marginal lands in designated areas and habitat types. Since wildlife :!r;; typically given little considerativn in planning efforts, one require ment shlJuld be the development of an ecologically sound, quantitative analysis of current land use practices and trends and their effects on wildlife. Recommendation. Additionally, CEP governments should carefully examine the recommendations contained in the individual Country Environmental Profiles which specify the most critical areas requiring "protected area" status for wildlife protection and the preservation of biodiversity. Recommendation. Natural resource data, including base line data, are limited in CEP countries, which makes assessment of bi ological diversity very difficult. To maintain biodiversity in the face of increasing demands on wildlife habitat for development requires at least a semi-quantitative knowledge of what is needed to maintain species or communities. Priority consideration should be gi"Jen to those species that are endemic, locally or interna tionally endangered or threatened, migratory species, or those species legally hunted. Pop ulation monitoring needs to be undertaken for critical species. Since government resources are limited, much of the required research could be carried out with the assistance of local non governmental organizations. NGOs could assist in collecting data and in providing support for already over-burdened forestry and CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION wildlife staffs. Building on local research efforts, educational programs for schools could be developed C00!lpra.tively by government agencies and NGOs to piC'mote interest in wildlife conservation. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: IMPACT OF BIOCIDES ON WILDLIFE The CEP countries are importers of significant amounts of pesticides and herbi cides t c'1!1ectively referred to as biocides). Water pollutants, including biocities, have re portedly caused fish-kills in many CEP coun tries, and there have been isolated instances of bird mortality associated with agrochemicals applied during planting seasons. However, the effects of biocides on wildlife and the terres trial and marine ecosystems of these islands remains mostly undocumented and therefore unknown. While there is cause for concern, if only from a human wat.!r quality perspective, the dimension of the problem is unclear. Even if standard toxicological data were routinely available in the Eastern Caribbean, such data by themselves are fre quently not sufficient to predict the conse quences of releasing toxic synthetic compounds in an ecosystem. Ouantitative evaluation of the effects of biocides requires a fairly detailed ecological picture which is rarely available for tropical vertebrates and which is exceedingly labor-intensive to acquire. Furthermore, the consequences for wildlife populations of expo sure to sublethal levels of one or more bio cides, often in combination with additional en vironmental stress such as habitat reduction or an unusually dry season, cannot yet b:.: pre dicted even at the single-species level. Nevertheless, some broad statements in reference to vertebrate wildlife can be made. Birds are generally more sensitive to biocides than mammals. Fish are frequently, but not consistently, more sensitive than warm-blooded vertebrates. There is also a general develop mental hierarchy of sensitivity within each species. Vertebrate embryos, eggs and larvae ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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w THE EFFECTS OF BIOCIDES ON WILDLIFE AND MARINE/ TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS IS MOSTLY UNDOCUMENT ED AND THEREFORE NOT KNOWN 15 are often more se nsllive to toxicants than adults uecause they are less protected from the surrounding environment, have limited means for detoxifying absorbed substances, and are less able to move away from noxious sub stances. Recommendation. A long-term record-keeping capability should be developed by an appropriate government agency in each CEP country for and docunll'nting pollutant impacts on wildlife by means of a simple database. Descriptive informatioll, even if unconfirmed by site visits, would provide a perspective on the frequency and distri bution of events. The members of environ mental NGOs or national trusts could be called upon to assist with monitoring and data collec tion. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: INSTITUTIONAL CONSIDERA TlONS Legislative oversight for the protection of wildlife differs among the CEP target coun tries. A new Wildlife Protection Act was en acted in ::il. Vincent in 1987 but is undergoing review to correct some oversights. The SI. Lucia Wildlife Protection Act of 1980 is comprehensive and effective in curtailing gross violations against threatened or endangered wildlife by :,unters and collectors; it could be strengthened by incorporating specific re quirements of appropriate international con ventions (e.g, CITES). The laws pertaining to wildlife in Antigua-Barbuda and in Grenada are outdated and not effectively enforced; these arc being updated in Antigua with the as sistance of FAO. A Forestry and Wildlife Act has been in effect in Dominica since 1976, but it lacks regulations. The new (1987) National Conservation and Environment Protection Act in SI. Kills-Nevis includes several sections per taining to wildlife and the maintenance of bio diversity; however, regulations which would make the provisions of the law fully opera tional have not been enacted. CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION Wildlife management is generally an adjunct responsibility of the forestry divisions in CEP governments. However, implementa tion of specific wildlife [.lOtection and educa tion programs, usually requiring specialized training or expertise, is often delegated to per sons provided through foreign assistance agen cies. Ideally, in each CEP country, an officially recognized, professionally trained wildlife unit should be established within an appropriate government agency (or perhaps two agencies to separate terrestrial from marine require ments), with designated responsibilities for ap plied research in wildlife management for se lected species, as well as long-term monitoring of wildlife populations and habitats. International trade is a major threat to the survival of many wildlife species in the Caribbean. Many Caribbean countries permit commercial export of wildlife including species listed as endangered by IUCN. The Com'elltiOIl 011 !I/(cnw :JIIal Trade ill EI/dal/gered Species of Wild Fauna al/d Flora (known as CITES) allempts to regulate wildlife trade through a worldwide system of import and ex port controls for listed spccies. Of the CEP unly the Government of SI. Lucia and the Government of SI. Vincent and the Grenadines have joined CITES. Recommendation. Each Profile in cludes a discussion of steps which should be taken to strengthen, update, or revise existing wildlife protection legislation. Additionally, forestry divisions should seek funding from ap propriate donor agencies for staff training, technical support and equipment for wildlife management and education programs. Staff training is needed in such areas as: basic vet erinary skills, wildlife management techniques, and natural area interpretation. Recommendation. The Governments of Antigua-Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, and SI. Kills-Nevis should become members of CITES, since membership offers access to a wealth of materials, training, and expertise on species conservation and wildlife trade regulation. -' ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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16 KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES RELATED TO BIODIVERSITY AND WILDLIFE SIGNIFICANT LOSS OF WILDLIFE HABITAT AND THE SUBSEQUENT REDUCTION OF SPECIES RICHNESS AS FORMERLY FORESTED WILDLANDS ARE CONVERTED TO OTHER LAND USES. LIMITED NATURAL RESOURCE DATA, INCL.UDING BASE LINE DATA, MAKING ASSESS MENT OF BIODIVERSITY REQUIREMENTS VERY DIFFICULT. FAILURE OF GOVERNMENTS TO CONSIDER BIODIVERSITY ISSUES IN THE PLAN NING PROCESS, RESULTING IN INEFFECTIVE RESTRICTIONS ON THE CLEAR ING OF NATIVE FORESTS AND LITTLE APPRECIATION OF THE VALUE OF AGRI CULTURALLY MARGINAL LANDS AS POTENTIAL WILDLIFE HABITAT. LACK OF DOCUMENTATION ON THE EFFECTS OF BIOCIDES ON WILDLIFE AND ON TERRESTRIAL AND MARINE ECOSYSTEMS. THE NEED FOR PROFESSIONAL EXPERTISE WITHIN CEP GOVERNMENTS AND NGOs FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A FULL SPECTRUM OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT /,CTlVITIES WHICH, AT PRESENT, ARE LARGELY DEPENDENT ON EXTERNAL TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS. LP.':K OF INVOLVEMENT OF LOCAL NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS IN MONITORING AND DATA COLLECTION TASKS RELATED TO WILDLIFE RESOURCES AND BIODIVERSITY. CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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RESOURCES and WATERSHED MANAGEMENT < ........ DEMAND FOR WATER IS INCREASING, PARTICULARLY NEAR URBAN AREASANO CLUSTERED TOURISM F;ICILITIES 17 OVERVIEW Rainfall distribution palterns differ significantly among the six CEP countries. D..:>minica is the recipient of the most rainfall, as much as 300 inches per year in some areas at high elevations. The island also has the highest ratio of forest cover as a proportion of total area and boasts a t0tal of 365 "rivers" (many of which are really small streams). The country has been exporting freshwater for at least ten years. Antigua-Barbuda, at the other ex treme, is characterized by low rainfall (anlll1al average in Antigua, 42-45 inches; in Barbuda, 30-39 inches), a situation made worse by the fact that the amount of precipitation varies sharply between the wet and dry seasons and is highly variable between years. There are no permanent natural lakes or perennial rivers in Antigua or Barbuda. Allhough much of the country's groundwater is saline, some estimates indicate that 25 percent of Antigua's water supply comes from this source. Approximately 500 ponds are distributed throughout Antigua; the majority are less than one acre-foot in storage capacity and are used primarily for agriculture. Reservoirs serve both agricultural and non-agricultural needs, while many individual residences have cisterns. The other CEP islands fall between these two extremes. Rainfall over the main elevated landmass of St. Kilts is relatively plentiful. The up lift effect of its central mountain range pro duces an annual average of 64 inches for the entire island; however, in the driest area, the Southeast Peninsula, precipitation ranges from only 34 to 39 inches per ye'U. Until the early 1970's, groundwater on St. Kitts was virtually a virgin resource as the island's needs were sat isfied entirely by surface water from springs and streams. Attention has turned increasingly to the island's groundwater resources as a potential source of supply, necessitated by a growing water deficit and because surface water resources are fully developed. NeverCARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION theless, surf"ce water --rather than ground water --continues to dominate the St. Kilts system. Nevis is somewhat drier than its sister island, St. Kilts; this is primarily a function of the lower elevation of its central mountain. Annual rainfall varies from approximately 35 inches in the drier, coastal regions of the southeast to a maximum of 100 inches at Nevis Peak, the highest point on the island. Nevis' water needs arc met by a combination of sur face water, rainwater (collected in cisterns for domestic consumption), and groundwater. The island is drawing increasingly on gruundwater (about 80 percent of the public piped supply) because no lakes or ponds and virtually no rivers (only intermittent streams) exist. Annual rainfall in Grenada varies from about 50 inches in dry coastal regions to 160 inches in the wet central mountains. Sur face water from streams, rivers and ponds is the major source of freshwater for both human consumption
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THECEP GOVERNMeNTS HAVE FOUND IT DIFFICULT TO EXERCISE ADEQUATE AUTHORITY TO LIMIT ILLICIT DE"ELOPMENT IN MANY LEGALLY PROTECTED WATER CATCHMENT AREAS 18 = tiO inches and are therefore the driest parts of the country. Rainfall is the primary source of freshwater in the country. However, due to the rugged topography and the absence of lakes and ponds to serve as storage reservoirs, most of this water flows quickly to the sea. Only a small proportion is stored naturally as ground \\
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MANY DIFFICULT WATER ISSUES REQUIRE SOCIAL AND POLITICAL (NOT ONLY TECHNICAL) SOLUTIONS 19 Recommendation. A comprehensive national water policy and development plan for water resources and w:ltershed man agement, including land acquisition programs to protect and maintain water supplies, needs to be developed by the government of each CEP country. Perhaps nowhere is the need for a national water policy more urgent than in Antigua-Barbuda where water is a very limited resource. In that country, most of the more recent improvements in the supply and delivery of municipal water were an offshoot of th" severe drought of 1983-84. It would be unfortu nate if another such crisis is required before the country's critical water situaticn is fully assessed and integrated as an essential part of national economic and development planning. Water policy planning in Antigua-Barbuda needs to include a serious assessment of the growing water demands of the country's lead economic sector --tourism --.in view of limita tions on the availability of water. Recommendation. The difficult political issues, such as a solution to Ine problem of illegal squatting and land clearing in key watersheds, need to be addressed b:' CEP governments. In fact, many of the difficulties in dealing with water issues in CEP countries ap pear to be primarily social and politic"l, rather than technical. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: EROSION AND DOWNSTREAM SEDIMENT POLLUTION AND FLOODING Excessive silt and sediment are being eroded in rainy seasons from carelessly, often illegally, devegetated upland areas and carried away by extremely rapid (un-off. The siltingup of dams and streams due to soil erosion in catchment areas and the consequent loss of water quality and storage capacity at water production fadlities is a growing ptoblem in CEP countries. Additionally, agricultural en croachment in areas used for drinking water intakes is causing increasing CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION concern about water contamination from agro chemical, automotive, animal, and human wastes. Devegetated areas also soak up less water, and paved or cleared areas permit more direct sheet run-off of rainwater. This results in less water infiltrating the soil to under ground storage and instead produces immedi ate, more rapid run-off downslope. As a result, areas normally immune from noods are increasingly subject to inundation and damage to roads and bridges following heavy rains. Recommendation. Nearly all land use activities are potentially hal mful tL potable water supplies within steep-slope water catch ment areas, while illegal clearing, roao building, and farming continue to place vital catch ments at risk. It is therefore important that the public authority responsible for water distribu tion in each CEP country adopt a more aggressive program of identifying and protecting the most productive water resource areas. GClV ernment foresters, planners, and dedsion makers must then incorporate this information into national planning, land use zoning, and development permitting policies in order to en sure that future water supply demands and potable water quality requirements are met. Becommendation. In many CEP countries, a significant amount of the water shed catchment area needed for the longer term maintenance and expansion of water systems does not fall within the boundaries of cur rently designated "prot:!cted areas" under the control of government authorities. In fact, in some, a large proportion of water catchments falls under private ownership, protected mostly by present day inaccessibility. Inevitably, it will become imperative for use-limiting restrictions and incentives to be introduced to limit the development of private lands within all catchment areas. Ideally, these lands should be acquired by governments for protection. Either alter native will be expensive, although steps to limit the type of development activity in catchments will cost less than fee simple acquisition or conJemnation and adjudication. Nevertheless, ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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20 securing the funds or other resources necessary for limiting development or for compensation to private landowners should be actively pur sued. Over the long term, doin;"., so will most likely prove to be the most cost-cfkctive ap proach for ensuring a safe and reliable water supply for CEP island residents. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: MINIMIZING LEAKAGE AND WASTE IN THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CEP coantries report varying degrees of water loss through leaks in the distribution network. Often projections for future water supply needs are made on the assumption th:!t these losses will be traced and that conserva tion measures will be implemented. If this is not dcne, then there is a real possibility of se riuus shortfalls in water supplies in CEP coun tries. Recommendation. Accelerated programs of leak detection and repair are needed in CEP countries. Continuing repair work needs to be treated :" -:l1going maintenance requirement since leaks are a re curring phel:omenon. Donor assistance may be nrcessary to carry out this recommendation. CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION There is a growing interest in and re liance on groundwater in some CEP countries, for example, in St. Kilts and Nevis. Con siderable attention to the development of groundwater resources has gone forward in that country in the absence of an overall mas ter plan for water or even an economic analysis to determ;,ne the optimal ratio of surface to groundwater exploitation. Such planning con siderations are particularly important in view of the higher overall costs of groundwater de velopment -Lr.., both capital and recurring pumping costs are involved while, because of gravity flow, surface water use primarily in volves only capital Recommendatioll. In order to make more informed decisions about allocations of surface and groundwater resources, base line hydrological data need to be collected and an alyzed. Additionally, in light of groundwater contamination concerns, attention must be di rected to analyzing and correcting existing potable water quality problems .1nd to ensuring that future supplies (Le., the aquifers) remain safe. A master plan for future water (and sewage) management is advisable, with a firm schedule for routing updates and revisions re flecting previously unanticipated development activity. ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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21 KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES RELATED TO WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF THE WATER SUPPLY DEMAND FOR A RELIABLE SOURCE OF SAFE DRINKING WATER, PARTICULARLY NEAR URBANIZED AREAS AND CLUSTERED TOURISM FACILITIES, AT THE SAME TIME THAT PRESSURES TO EXPAND NON-COMPATIBLE LAND USES TO CRITICAL WATER CATCHMENT AREAS HAVE ALSO INCREASED. THE FAILURE OF LEGISLATIVE RESTRAINTS AND EXISTING LAND USE CONTROL MEAS URES TO FULLY PROTECT UPPER WATER CATCHMENTS AND FOREST RESERVES AGAINST DEFORESTATION AND ENCROACHMENT. LIMITED EXPANSION OF PROTECTED WATERSHEDS BY PLANNED PROGRAMS OF LAND ACQUISITION. THE RELATIVE INEFFECTIVENESS OF LAND USE CONTROLS IN PLACING RESTRICTIONS ON THE USE OF PRIVATE LANDS WITHIN CATCHMENT AREAS, A PARTICULARLY CRITICAL ISSUE SINCE A SIGNIFICANT PROPORTION OF THE CATCHMENT AREA NEEDED FOR THE MAINTENANCE OF WATER SYSTEMS IS UNDER PRIVATE OWNERSHIP. THE DIFFICU1.TY OF FINDING SOLUTIONS TO WATER-RELATED PROBLEMS WHEN THE ISSUES INVOLVED ARE POLITICAL AND SOCIAL AS WELL AS TECHNICAL. FAILURE TO TIE METERED WATER INCOME TO REVENUE REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER. SHED MANAGEMENT AND ACREAGE EXPANSION. THE NEED FOR MORE COMPREHENSIVE WATER POLICIES AND THE INTEGRATION OF WATER SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS INTO NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING AND DECISIONMAKING. CARI9BEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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Bringing In the nets, Pinneys Beach, Nevis.

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[ COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS ARE THE FRAGILE INTERFACE BETWEEN THE LAND AND SEA 23 4. COASTAL AND MARINE ENVIRONMENTS :rr SYSTEM PRODUCTIVITY AND CRITICAL. HJ\81l'ATS Three habitats --mangroves, coral reefs, and seagrass meadows --are of critical importance in nearshore tropical marine envi ronments. There are many direct links be tween the extent and health of these habitats and the productivity of inshore fisheries. The majority of bottom-dwelling fish species in the shallow nearshore waters of the Ea.'itern Caribbean (more than 300 species, of which an e5timated 180 species are landed for human consumption) are associated with coral I eefs as adults. Many of these reef fishes, including species important in local fisheries, also utilize mangrove swamps and/or seagrass beds as "nursery" habitats for post -larval juvenile stages of growth. Commercially important inverte brates such as conch and lobster also are found in these habitats as juveniles and in some cases as adults. Seagrass beds provide significant en ergy inputs to the reef system by serving as feeding grounds for adult reef fishes. Man groves and seagrass beds also serve important functions in protecting coral reefs by filtering out sediments from land run-off, and reefs in turn protect mangroves, grass beds and beaches from the destructive effects of storm driven waves. For the most part, only a generalized distribution of these primary ma!"ine habitat tYI es could be identilied for the six target countries. In general, there is a lack of de tailed information on marine bottom commu nities, while comprehensive marine benthic surveys and mapping have been carried out in enly a few locations. Much of the coastline and shelf area of the CEP countries is unsur veyed and generally unevaluated. Additionally, the complex --and tllerefore easily disturbed --nature of the ma rine environment is not well understood, deCARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION spite the fact that marine and coastal habitats are areas of: high!nergy, -high risk, and -illtellse rO!sollrce lise cOIlf/ict. They are also the least known and probably the most poorly managed of insular ecosystems in the Eastern Caribbean. Additionally, perhaps as high as 80 to 85 percent of the problems af fecting the marinE environment and its associ ated ecosystems originate from land-based sources. HISTORIC USE OF THE COASTAL ENVIRONMENT Major marine-based industries --e.g., fisheries, sea transportation (upon which the agricultural sector has always been dependent), sand mining for construction aggregate, and, more recently, tourism --have played an im portant role in the development of the CEP Major population centers in all six nations have been lorated in coastal areas, a settlement pattern reflecting their more rugged interior terrain (with the er.ception of Antigua) and their collective dependence 011 marine transportation. Along selected coastlines in each country, mangroves and coralline struc tures have been important (although too often unrecognized) controls of shoreline erosion. Fisheries have provided the major source of local animal protein for West Indian popula tions, and the use of mangrove wood for fuel is a well-established practice. But neither this tradition, nor in digenous fisheries, nor even the importance of natural harbors has stimulated national com mitments for impr.JVed understanding and management of c035(31 resources. Historically, the importance of these resources has not been widely appreciated, perhaps because traditional uses have been partitioned among different re source users in different sectors. More re cently, however, with the emergence of tourism as a k, y economic sector and with its heavy reISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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THE COASTAL ZONE IS THE MOST HEAVILY POPULATED AND HEAVILY UTILIZED AREA IN ALL CEPTARGET COUNTRIES 24 Iiance on the coastal environment (especially beaches), there ;'\ a new incentive for develop ing a brf' .:.Jer, more holistic management ap proach for this important resource sector. ENVHONMENTAL ISSUE: MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES The paucity of accurate information on landings, fishing effort, exploited stock and the multi-species nature of reef fisheries makes it difficult to estimate yields for Caribbean nearshore fisheries and to develop appropriate resource management programs using such es timates. Recommendations in fishery development proposals are often based on guess work by experts or rely on abundance or yield estimates determined by extrapolating results of experimental fishing or visua: censuses of known smaller areas to larger oceanic areas. These procedures may provide a useful starting point, but there are many uncertainties and difficulties of interpretation inherent in such methods. The wide range in published esti mates of maximum sustainable yields for nearshore fisheries in the Eastern Caribbean illustrates the inadequacy of available informa tion. It often tbl more attention is devoted by GECS governments to the development of the fishing industry than to the management of the resources upon whieh the industry is based. Nevertheless, a current em phasis on improving harvest capabilities for offshore resources may be an effective short term means of reducing pressure on nearshore stocks that have been identified as over-ex ploited. At the same time, the need for effec tive management of deepwater resources and shared stocks cannot be ignored, but this can only be accomplished at a regional (and in some cases hemispheric) level. Recommendation. The work:ng principle for fishery managers should be that most fisheries, even those that are artisanal and relatively low-technology, tend towards over-exploitation and excessive fishing effort if CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION -not regulated. Fishery management plans should be oriented toward conserving the re source and attempting to optimize its long term returns, rather than toward the classical objective of maximizing long-term catches. Management efforts need to focus on stabiliz ing the trend of declining landings and opti mizing the harvest of species important to local nutrition and tourism. Recommendation. Given the scarcity of economic resources and the gener ally poor performance in the tropics of tradi tional stock assessment pmcedures, CEP counl1 ies should consider a strategy of adaptive ';lallagemellt of fisheries, i.e., implementation of common sense, trial and error management measures while simultaneously emphasizing monitoring of the fishery to evaluate the im pact of those measures. Recommendation. ;1.t the same time, a prilJrity consideration for improving fishe 'ies managemc(lt programs in the Eastern Caribbe;}n should be the expansion of existing data collection systems, e.g., by implementing sampling routines for minor landing sites; pur chase slips for middlemen, hotels and restau rants; enforcement of export licenses; logbooks for large offshore boats; and monitoring strategies for foreign fishing. Recommendation. Where appropriate, levels of fishing effort should be regu lated by control measures such as gear restric tions, closed areas, closed seasons, and limited entry and economic limitations such as user fees. Provision for such measures has been made in the harmonized fisheries legislation of all OECS countries, but improved imp/e melltatioll alld mOllitorillg are required. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT The coastal zone is the most heavily popUlated area in all CEP countries and fig prominently in the recreational pur1>uits of citizens and visitors alike. Almost all industrial ISu\ND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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25 activities are sited in the coastal zone, while the emerging tourism sector is dependent upon the natural features and built infrastructure lo cated within the coastal environment. Significant environmental problems affecting the coastal zone were identified in the course of preparing the Environmental Pro files, including: Accelerated 'piecemeal" develop ment of ti. coastal zone, with mini mum consideration of the cumulative effects of coast al development pro jects and activities; Unregulated removal of sand and vegetation in the coastal zone suiting in increased rates of coastal erosion and elevated risks of storm damage; Increasing threats to marine life and marine ecosystems as a result of un regulated development activities not only in the coastal zoO(; but in up land watershed areas; Failure of artificial barriers to with stand the erosive force of sea swells during periods of high wave activity; -In the absence of enforced coastal set-back requirements, increased risk of coastal flooding and destruc tion of structures in the coastal zone during periods of high tide and heavy sea swells; Significant habitat loss in coastal en vironments, including indiscriminate cutting of mangroves for con struction of shore facilities (even though these systems are known to control erosion and provide nurs eries for commerdally important fisheries) and modification or de struction of salt ponds (even though their function of controlling sed i(;ARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ment loading to reefs and seagrass habitat is well established); Increased water quality degradation, in the absence of effective coastal re source management policies com bined with accelerated urbanization and development of tourist in coastal areas. Adverse impacts associated with ad "oc, unregulated development in the coastal zone of all CEP countries have been docu mented. While the tendency has been to focus on such problems selectively, their increasing cumulative visibility reflects the absence of comprehensive devek.,ment control guidelines and policies committed to maintaining the quality of coastal resources. This, in turn, re confirms the need for a full-fledged coastll zone resource assessment and management plann;ng strategy. Recommendation. An evaluation and design project for a coastal zone manage ment program for all CEP target countries should be implemented to provide ow'nll guidance for the eventual deVelopment of a CZM program. A useful island model with over a decade and a half of adaptive testing is provided by the U.S. Virgin Islands, a neigh boring area which has had to face sim ilar coastal-intensive development issues. Oversight authority for CZM programs should reside in one agency, although responsibility for specific components almost certainly would have to be an interministerial undertaking. Procedures for better coordina tion of multi-agency responsibilities for coastal resources and wetlands must also be provided. The issue focus of country-specific CZM programs might include the following: procedures to ensure water quality for multiple uses, e.g., fisheries habitat, human contact, and waste disposal; ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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EMPHASIS SHOULD NOT BEON REGULATION ALONE ... ACZM PROGRAM WHICH INCLUDES EDUCATION, INCENTIVES, TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE, COST-SHARING, AND RESOURCE USER COOPERATION WILL BE MORE EFFECTIVE THAN ISOLATED RULES AND PENALTIES 26 port developm;!nt and improved port management; construction and maintenance of sea defenses; implementation of impact assess ment procedures for development projects in the coastal zone; -a policy on oil spills and dumping of hazardous wastes; management of protected manne areas; waterfront renewal; and increased recreational opportunities, including marine tourism. Consideration needs to be given to de signing a permit system targeted at coastal de velopments, legislation to support a CZM pro gram, monitoring and enforcement procedures to regulate development in the coastal zone, training and other assistance for appropriate government staff, and a public education cam paign focused specifically on coastal envi ronments and their importance to national de velopment. Emphasis should not be on regu lation alone, as experience suggests that a pro gram emphasizing education, incentives, tech nical assistance, cost-sharing, and cooperation will be more effective than a proliferation of rules and penalties. Recommendation. Control of up land erosion and sediment discharges and ap propriate treatment of sewage and other dis charges with high nu!rient loads is vital to protect coastal water quality, public health and the integrity of coral reefs. Steps need to be taken to curb upland erosion and sources of sediment loading (such as construction sites) which impact on the marine environment. The extent of non-point source pollution, particuCARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION larly from agricultural run-off, needs to be as sessed and steps taken to protect water quality. Recommendation. A program to monitor marine sand resources and commer cial exploitation of these resources needs to be put in place in all CEP countries. Up-to-date assessments of the overall impact of sand mining on the rate of beach loss, particularly at critical sites, should be available to government resource managers, who need to make periodic judgments as to where continued sand removal will have the least detrimental impact and is most compatible with current site utilization. Priority, erosion-prone areas where sand re moval will be absolutely pr0hibited should also be designated and then monitored, along with areas of lesser concern where regulated sand removal can be carried out at a pre-determined and managed level. Fees for removal need to be set, pegged to actual volumes extracted. Recommendation. An environmental impact assessment should be required for all large coastal development projects, whether public or rrivate sector-derived. The cumulative effects of such projects needs tCl be assessed rather than a case-by-case analysis of each project in isolation. A formal evaluation process should be established whereby appro priate government agencies have an opportu nity for input into review procedures. Recommendation. Where funding is available from donor agencies, CEP countries should consider development of a marine re source assessment and development plan, in thl! same way that such documents have been developed for other !>ectors such as forestry or agriculture. Primary focus should be on the growth potentials represented by the nation's marine resources, with identification of activi ties --including traditional uses -that will contribute to the sustainable development of tl.;!se resources. A national focus is preferred to the present site-by-site development ap proach currently dominant in the CEP coun tries. ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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27 KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN THE COASTAL/MARINE SECTOR LACK OF DETAILED INFORMATION ON CRITICAL MARINE HABITATS FOR USE IN DECISION-MAKING. THE NEED FOR A BEITER BALANCE BETWEEN THE PRESSURE TO DEVELOP THE FISHING INDUSTRY AND THE NECESSITY FOR IMPROVED MANAGEMENT OF THE RESOURCES UPON WHICH THE INDUSTRY IS BASED. ACCELERATED "PIECEMEAL" DEVELOPMENT OFTHE COJ.STAL ZONE WITH MINIMAL CONSIDERATION OF THE CUMULATIVE IMPACTS OF DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES AND PROJECTS. SIGNIFICANT LOSS OF CRITICAL COASTAL HABITATS SUCH AS MANGROVES AND CORALLINE STRUCTURES THAT SERVE AS IMPORTANT CONTROLS OF SHORELINE EROSION. INCREASED WATER QUALITY DEGRADATION. ASSOCIATED WITH ACCELERATED URBANIZATION AND TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE COASTAL ZONE. UNREGULATED REMOVAL OF SAND AND VEGETATION IN THE COASTAL ZONE, RE SULTING IN INCREASED RATES OF COASTAL EROSION. INCREASED RISK OF COASTAL FLOODING IN THE ABSENCE OF ENFORCED COASTAL SET-BACK REQUIREMENTS. ABSENCE OF A STANDARDIZED REQUIREMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENTS OF ALL LARGE COASTAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS. LACK OF COMPREHENSIVE DEVELOPMENT CONTROL GUIDELINES AND POLICIES COMMITIED TO MAINTAINING THE QUALITY OF COASTAL RESOURCES. CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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Bananas or "green gold" are the mainstay of agricultural output In the Windward Islands of Dominica, Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent.

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ENTRENCHED FEATURES OF THE COLONIAL AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM CONTINUE TO CONTRIBUTE TO THE DECLINE OF THE NATURAL RESOURCE BASE 29 5. AGRICULTURE I PROFilE OF THE AGRARIAN SECTOR Agriculture has long been the main stay of the economies in CEP countries. Only in Antigua-Barbuda has tourism replace(l. agriculture as the lead economic sector. In that country, the previously dominant sugar indus try collapsed in 1967; although a revival was attempted in 1972, it was abanGoned arter two years of low rainfall and poor sugar prices. Today tourism accounts for approximately half of Antigua's Gross Domestic Product and employment. In only one other CEP country -St. Lucia --is tourism seen as a rival to agriculture in economic importance. Historically, in the Eastern Caribbean, agriculture has been the most productive sector of the economy since the first settlers cleared small patches of land for subsistence crops. In the colonial period, early export crops included cotton, tobacco, cocoa, coffee, and gil:ger, followed by the emergence of sugar cane --grown for the production of both sugar and rum --as the d0minant plantation crop. The sugar industry has since failed in all the CEP islands with the exception of St. Kitts, where sugar cane has been grown continuously since the second half of the seventeenth century and where cane fields continue (0 monop olize the landscape. In the Windward Islands of Dominica, Grenada, St. lucia and St. Vincent, bananas have replaced sugar as the major export crop. Dominica, for one, had experimented for a time with other crops (for example, in the 1920's, Dominica was the world's largest pro ducer of limes), and Grenada's continued export of nutmeg and mace has earned it its rep utation as the "Isle of Spice". Nevertheless, by the second half of the twentieth century, bananas had surpassed all other export crops in influence in the Windwards, particularly as large fertile valleys, formerly under cane culti vation, were released for new agricultural pursuits. C.lHIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ,. However, the modern era of banana growing is at serious risk in the Eastern Caribbean. This export crop is bought exclusively in the Windwards by Geest Industries, which guarantees purchase on a fIXed price basis. This transnational corporation in turn sells its produce almost entirely in the United Kingdom, where it enjoys preferential market treatment. Without such market protection, it is quite likely that the Windward Islands would lose much of their share of the international market to other banana-exporting countries that produce cheaper bananas of a consistently higher quality. Forthcoming agreements among the member countries of the European Economic Community may remove existing tariff and non-tariff barriers, a step which could devastate the banana industry in Dominica, Grenada, St. Lucia and St. Vincent unless new preferential arrangements are made with the United Kingdom. Agricultural production in the Eastern Caribbean has historically comprised two distinct farming systems: (1) the export-oriented plantation system, characterized chiefly by monocultures on large estates, and (2) the small farmer agricultural system, often s .. bsistence-based and developed on the more marginal agricultural lands. Many of the faring agricultural sector in the CEP countries have their roots in the legacy of the colonial past and, in particular, in its plantation-based economic structure. Under colonial rule, investment in agricultural production, infrastructure, technology, and marketing focused almost exclusively on the traditional export crops. Small farming, on the other hand, functioned as a secondary activity (at least in the view of the colonial authorities) on marginal lands at the fringes of commercial plantations. This secondary system lacked an adequate support structure to assist farmers in significantly increasing productivity. However, the large estate system has declined since the end of World War Two, and it has become increasingly evident that the now ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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THE IMPORTANCE OF BANANAS TO THE ECONOMIES OF THE WINDWARD ISLANDS DISGUISES THE FACT THAT THE NATURAL AND PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT TO SUPPORT CROP PRO DUCTION IS BECOMING INCREASINGLY MARGINAL 30 dominant small farm system (and thus the bro.lder national economy) has suffered and will continue to suffer from this history of ne glect. Poor cultivation practices, low produc tivity, soil losses, and a continuing conversion of good agricultural land to other uses remain entrenched features of the existing system. On a more positive note, the small farm and other rural resource !iystems that have emerged in the last 40 years are charac terized by a considerable degree of crop diver sity, occupational multiplicity, and self-reliance. These features remain largely intact to the pre sent dnd will contribute to efforts to develop a productive and thriving rural sector. With the growing importance of the small farm system, the challenge ahead will be to improve the institutional structures, man agerial performances, and technical expertise necessary to promote and support agricultural productivity and expansion. Concurrently, it is important to reverse existing pallerns of re source degradation, now evident in the agri cultural sector in all CEP countries. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF BANANA CULTIVATION Despite its dominant role in the over all economic development of the Windward Is lands, banana cultivation comes with an envi ronmental price tag which should not be over looked. In the first place, most of the marginal agricultural areas now supporting banana pro duction have steep slopes which, if cropped at all, should be planted only with tree crops to ensure against soil erosion. The banana, an herbaceous semi-perennial species, has a very shallow rooting system and no tap root; there fore, erosion can be significant as the roots do little to stabilize the soil. This is less of a problem where ground provisions or other crops are interplanted with CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION bananas, for example, on many small family farms. But, in too many instances, steep slopes are the focus of commercial banana growers seeking short-term profits with littIe regard for long-range impacts. Furthermore, the ollgoing destruction of forest cover as more profitable banana culti vation has expanded onto forested lands is slowly altering the hydrological regime of af fected islands. Without forest cover to slow the downslope overland run-off of water, less water is intiltrating the ground, more water is running off, and less is stored within the natur<:.: '.vater system or aquifer. One result is a lowered base flow in streams during dry peri ods, a development which reduces water flow from some catchments and produces high sedimentation rates from accelerated erosion in unprotected upland areas. Finally, single crop farming, as in the case of bananas, exhausts the natural nutrients in the soil; these are only marginally replaced by the usc of artificial fertilizers because in the weller climates of the Windward Islands much of the fertilizer input is lost through leaching. Monocrop agriculture also is vulnerable to pest infestation and requires more pesticide use to control disease. Single crops also tend to lead to reduced biodiversity and increased domi nance by a few species. Recommendation. Present CEP governmental policies calling for diversification to a broader agricultural loase need to be en couraged. Agricultural diversification not only protects the country economically, but it can help to some of the environmental problems associated with banana cultivation, particularly in hillside areas. Agroforestry programs also need to be encouraged as they can provide a variety of products (e.g., cash crops, tree crops, food crops, fuelwood, fod der), thus m;)king them well suited for national programs of agricultural diversification and soil conservation. In general, one important long-term goal for the banana-producing CEP countries ISLAND RESOURCES FOUI\DATION

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THE ENTERPRISING SPIRIT WHICH PROMOTED THE DEVELOP MENTOF SMALL FARMS SHOULD BE SUPPORTED BY HELPING FARMERS TO IMPROVE THEIR RESOURCE MANAGEMENT M'=THODS 31 a should be the promotion of polides which diversify the mix of crops being cultivated by small farmers, moving from l!le current emphasis on annual subsistence and semi-perennial export crops to a pattern incorporating tree crops capable of providing more perma nent cover of land areas on steep, erosion prone slopes. To make such cropping pattern!> profitable, appropl.ate input pricing, extension services, soil conservation investment subsidies, and marketing assistance have been suggested as desirable moJes of government and NGO intervention. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: EROSION RELATED TO OVERGRAZING Soil erosion and general land degra dation resulting from overgrazing of livestock have been significan( problems in selected areas of CEP islands --for example, Carriacou in Grenada, the Vieux Fort area of SI. Lucia, the southern portion of Nevis, and throughout Antigua and Barbuda. The difficulty of implementing more effective livestock manage ment policies in these areas is illustrated by a long-standing tradition in Carriacou known as the "let go" season. When gardens are being cultivated from June to December, animals remain fenced or tethered. But after the har vest, when vegetation on the island generally becomes drier, animals are permitted to roam and browse without restriction. Such grazing practices over time accelerate land deteriora tion, deforestation, erosion, and general de nudation of the resource base. Recommendation. A renewed focus on the small farmer as an active participant in the resource management system could help to improve environmental management practices in the agricultural sector. It is important that the spirit that has led to the establishment of small farms, many of which combine cultivation with livestock raising, be supported and that farmers receive the help required to improve their resource manage ment methods. CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION In this context, the introduction and application of agroforestry systems for small farmers is being promoted as one strategy for more effectively controlling erosion pr'lblems in CEP countries. Locally-based research is needed to identify agroforestry systems most applicable to each country and specific erosion control requirements. Such systems might include forage banks, windbreaks, living fences, and intercropping with fruit trees. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: lAND TENURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Many small farmers in CEP countries question the relevance of incorporating soil and water conservation practices as part of their cultivation methods since so many lack clear title to the acreage they farm or their long-term land tenure may not be guaranteed. Furthermore, the long-established tradition of jointly held "family lands" is a systemic problem whi.ch continues to perpetuate patterns of insecure land tenure and over-exploitation of small farms under temporal control. The unceitain ties associated with land tenure therefore act as a subtle barrier to restrict commitment by small farmers to overall land conservation, since the benefits of doing so are expensive and may not accrue to the farmer in the future. The problem is intensified by national government policies which --within the surviving colonial framework of emphasis on large, export-oriented, estate agriculture -have tended to overlook the small farm sector. The consequences of small farm underdevel opment are important not only economically but environmentally. Without adequate control, support and management from central government agencies, combined with the implications of land tem:re insecurity, the small farm system has developed with a high degree of autonomy and without a proper regard for national cOllcerns or goals regarding erosion control, deforestation, or soil conservation. Finally, in a related issue, it is ironic that while land hunger is a widespread regional ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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INSECURE LAND TENURE RESTRICTS COMMITMENT BY SMALL FARMERS TO LAND CON SERVATION SINCE BENEFITS MAY NOT ACCRUE TO THE FARMER JNTHE FUTURE 32 problem, many CEP countries are experiencing periodic shortages of agricultural labor. Many residents, rarticularly young persons, are in creasingly drawn to the urbanized areas -usu ally the capital city --where they hope to earn a more secure income with bettr,r working conditions. Recommendation. CEP governmems need to expJnd agricultural extension services to small farmers, emphasizing both productivity and education and training pro grams in soil and water conservation tech niques. Recommendation. CEP governments should consider more innovative and near-term rewards, incentives, and subsidies to encourage the practice of environmentallySf und land management by small farmers, lI'any of whom will continue to lat:k a long term claim to their land. Also r.eeded are low cost loans for farmers or even public sector grant and project funds for the construction of bench terraces, grass and stone barriers, con tour drains, stepped waterways, windbreaks, and other soil conservation techniques which are often very labor intensive. ENVIR:JNMENTAL ISSUE: THE USE OF AGROCHEMICALS At present, the CEP countries lack good, consistent data on the types and quanti ties of agrochemicals imported and applied in the field. There are no (or very limited) in country capabilities for sampling and analyzing pesticide residues and for on-going monitoring of the levels of chemicals in drinking water, crops, soils, wildlife, or human tissues. Decision-makers therefore have little quanti tative data on which to base decisions. Pesticide Control Boards, where they are functional, lack pesticide inspectors, and all CEP countries lack adequate numbers of trained personnel and equipment to implement systematic pesticide monitoring programs. Farm workers, for example, are generally not CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION monitored with any regularity for the effects of pesticide exposure --even though there is a relatively high level of misuse with farmers, using backpack sprayers, often seen wearing inadequate clothing for skin protection and no face masks. CEP countries have enacted pesticide control legislation (often as long (lgo as ten years or more). Too often, howe .::r, such legislation has not been aggressively or effi ciently implemented or lacks regulations which reflect new c'temicals introduced, levels of safe tolerance, and modern application methods. Pesticide Control Boards in many CEP coun tries arc.: inactive as operational bodies or do not exercise sufficient authority for monitoring and regulating the importation, sale, and dis tribution of agrochemicals. Recommendation. CEP governments need to establish procedures for the regular testing of potable water .and food stuffs for pesticide residue (with special attention to groundwater). Laboratory and personnel ca pabilities for water quality monitoring will have to be upgraded, and consideration should be given to creating a central environmental labo ratory facility in each country serving various ministries and functions (including pesticide monitoring). FOI more sp(;;:ialized kinds 'If testing procedures, especially in the case of pesticides, other toxic chemicals, and dangerous pathogens, an expanded regime cf analytical services needs to be developed by the Caribbean Environmental Health Institute (CEHI) in St. Lucia, to accommodate the needs of the region. Recommendation. Extant pesticide legislation needs to be more effectively imple mented, and up-to-date regulations need to be put in place and conscientiously enforced. Pesticide Control Boards need to be reacti vated where necessary, and such boards need to be given sufficient authority and per sonnel to enable them to actively monitor and ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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L AN IMPROVED MONITORING AND CONTROL SYSTEM FOR REGULATING THE IMPORTA TIONAND USE OF PEST( CIDES IN CEP COUNTRIES IS URGENTLY REQUIRED 33 regulate agrochcmical importation, distribution and utilization. Recomr,l'Iendation. Agricultural ex tension agents and representatives of farmers' organizations should be trained to certify farmers and other users in the safe use and ap plication of agrochemicals. A pesticide appli cation certification process for small farmers should be set up in CEP countries, using some combination of the extension agent and local farmers' associations. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: LAND USE AND LAND MANAGEMENT Remaining prime lands in CEP coun tries must satisfy national needs for food, housing, recreation, waste disposal and many other human activities. And they must provide these things on a continuing basis for expand ing populations of residents and visitors if these countries are to remain both ecologically and economically viable and competitive. In small islands with limited physical space, plan ning for the allocation and use of available land for various national purposes is particularly critical to orderly, efficient and truly sustain able development. In the last two decades, prime, highly productive agricultural land in many CEF countries has been placed at risk in the face of alternative usages which tend to produce ? greater economic return. In St. Lucia, for ex ample, OAS estimates that slightly over 1,000 acres of good agricultural land have been taken out of production to af mmodate road con struction, urban activi. s, and village expan sion. At the same time, many areas unsuitable CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION for cultivation in CEP countries are being farmed, while more suitable agricultural lands are underutilized, ofwn due to the prevalence of traditionally constraining patterns of land use and ownership. In light of these developments, more integrative kinds of agricultural land use plan ning cannot be postponed much longer without greatly increasing the risk of reduced produc tivity, lower farm income, and declining export earnings in the agricultural se(;tor. RecommendatIon. National Land Use Plans need to be prepared in each of the CEP countries, incorporating and updating some or all of the many sectoral plans which have already been written in each country. Land Use Plans should focus on the best means of achieving sustainable development over the long-term and should attempt to guide future development into areas which are best suited for part" .Illar kinds and densities of land use, based on physical and ecological con straints. Recommendation. Zoning restric tions for various forms of agricultural land de velopment need to be considered by CEP gov ernments. Furthermore, a plan for island-wide zoning, which classifies and protects certain categories of land (e.g, for agriculture, recre ation, forestry, water catchment, and wildlife) is becoming increasingly important throughout the Eastern Caribbean. It is particularly criti cal in the rural sector to prevent further dis placement of small farmers to urban areas and to ensure the availability of suitable lands for environmentally-sound and profitable agricul lllral production. ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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" 34 c' KEY ENVIFIONMENTAL ISSUES IN THE AGFIICUL TURAL SECTOR ECONOMIC PRESSURES TO EXPAND BANANA PRODUCTION ACREAGES AND INPUTS WITHOUT SUFFICIENT ,-OR THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF UNREGULATED BANANA CULTIVAllON ON iHE NATURAL RESOURCE BASE. THE NEED TO IMPROVE THE INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURES, MANAGERIAL PERFORMANCES, AND TECHNICAL EXPERTISE OF THE SMALL FARM SECTOR, FOLLOWING THE DECLINE OF THE DOMINANT LARGE ESTATE SYSTEM. THE LACK OF SUFFICIENT INCEI-ITIV[S, EXTENSION SERVICES, SOIL CONSER. VATION INVESTMENT SUBSIDIES, AND MARKETING ASSISTANCE TO FURTHER DIVERSIFY THE AGRICULTURAL BASE AWAY FROM ITS CURRENT EMPHASIS or, ANNUAL SUBSISTENCE AND SEMI-PERENNIAL EXPORT CROPS. THE PREIJALENCE OF LAND TENURE INSECURITY AMONG SMALL FARMERS WHO IN THE ABSENCE OF OTHER INCENTIVES --ARE UNWILLING TO PURSUE COSTLY LAND CONSERVATION STRATEGIES, THE BENEFITS OF WHICH t...1IGHT NOT ACCRUE TO THEM IN THE FUTURE. THE INADEQUACY OF QUANTITATIVE DATA ON AGROCHEMICALS (IMPORTATION, USE, IMPACTS) UPON WHICH TO BASE INFORMED DECISIONS. THE GENERAL FAILURE OF CEP COUNTRIES TO EFFECTIVELY IMPLEMENT EXTANT PESTICIDE LEGISLATION OR TO PROVIDE UP-TODATE PESTICIDE CONTROL REGULATIONS AND MONITORING PROCEDURES. THE LACK OF ADEQUATE LAND USE PLANNING OR ZONING RESTRICTIONS IN THE AGRI CUL SECTOR TO ENSURE THE CONTINUED AVAILABILITY OF ENVIRONMENTALL YSUITABLE AND ECONOMICALLYPRODUCTIVE LANDS FOR CULTIVATION. CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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_ 35 6. TOURISM ..... w fa MEW Tourism has been a strong growth sector of the economics of the CEP countries in recent years, but the development of the industry has ni)t been without problems --some of which arc clearly linked to environmental planning and growth management issues. OVERVIEW In Antigua-Barbuda, tourism has re placed sugar production as the lead economic sector and has rc.pidly grown to dominate economy in the post-World War Two erd. During the last 30 to 4D ycars, the Government has pursued a policy of heavy tourism inve:;t ment, especially in air and sea port infrastruc .. ture during the 1960's which facilitated jet air line and cruise ship services to the country at a time when sugar was going into full decline. With the growth of the industry, concerns about its potential impacts were inevitable. Scarce land, particularly in the coastal zone, IGst to the construction of tourism infrastructure is one such concern; others include environmental change as a result of yachting, scuba diving, and other tourist-oriented recre atiollaJ pursuits. In St. Lucia, tourism has emerged as the leading growth sector of the economy. The country's scenic and recreational assets and its strategic central location, with tWO airports and an excellent harbor pro'/iding access to major North American, European and Caribbean markets, have contributed to the successful development of the industry since the early 1960's. Generally speaking, its tourism base reflects two contrasting styles. On the one hand, the industry \s characteristic of a style dominant in relatively new, emerging tourism destinations in the region --e.g., 10'"' density, sekctivity, long-staying and high-sperlding visit. 's, diversification. On the other 'land, the country also demonstrates such features as low seasonality, relatively high proportion of large hotels, and tour charters, which arc more common to the high density, mass market, short-staying style of more mature tourism CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION destinations like Barbados, Bermuda, the Bahamas, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Tourism ir'l Grenada hds developed more slowly in comparison to many other Eastern Caribbean destinations. The smaller size of the sector, ho ... /ever, is a potential advantage in planning future development --i.e., the country is not yet overly-dependent on tourism and by balancing future development between improvements in agricultural exports, a modest increase in industrialization, and tourism, the country may well succeed in having a truly diversified economy. Additionally, the small size of the typical hotel or resort in Grenada has meant that many local business people have been able to finance the acquisi tion and operation of these facilities. Grenada also a history as a yachting center in the Caribbean although it lacks a strong foundation for expanding its current base. In St. Vincent and the Grenadines, the main island of St. Vincent has had to optimize tourism development opportunities within the context of what is primarily an agricultural island, wheie tourism is confined to a narrow coastal rim of land and where the industry must compete with other major coastal activities and settkment patterns. Given these re strictions, St. Vincent tourism relics almost entirely on one main enclave in the southwest of the island. The second tourism focal point is the Grenadines, a group of off-shore satellite islands considerably smaller than St. Vincent proper but experiencing recent and sJbstantial tourism expansion which is causing, in turn, concern about the lack of adequate infrastructure and support services for 'llain taining current levels of growth. One common denominator shared by the two "nodes" of Vincentian tourism is development of the yachting industry. Th,; 00vernment of St. Kitts-Nevis has made p.:djor commitments to the development of tourism in the state in recent years, acISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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EMERGING TOURISM STYLE5"IN CEPCOUN TRIES OCCUR OFTEN BY CHANCE RATHER THAN AS A RESULT OF STRATEGIC PLANNING WHICH WEIGHS THE SOCIAL AND ENVIRON MENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF EACH APPROACH 36 knowledging in 1990 that tourism had sur passed sugar as the primary foreign exchange earner. In the 1960's and into the 1970's tourism in St. Kitts primarily revolved around small, locally-owned hoteis and guest houses. This pattern changed in F 72 with the estab lishment of the Frigate Bay Development Cor poration, a major tourism project which was owned and managed by the Government and which set the stage for the transformation of the tourism sector in St. Kitts. Seventeen yc,ars later, an access road to the undeveloped Southr:ast Peninsula was completed with priiTIliry financial assistance provided by USAID. This highway opened UIJ for tourism develop ment an area roughly one-fifth the size nf St. Kitts; it includes the most attractive btach areas with the highest tourism potential on the island. In Nevis, until the recent (1991) opening of the first major resort hotel, tourism development was traditionally small-scale. A distinguishing characteristic has been the dominance of an "up-scale" clientele which, de spite the limited number of rooms available (prior to 1991), has nevertheless generated sig nificant tourism revenues for the island. In Nevis, and to a certain extent in St. Kitts, there arc still a number of historic inns in operation which seck to attract guests by offering low key, high-quality, personalized service within historic settings. Dominica's tourism product is not typical of most other Caribbean destinations, most significantly because of the limited avail ability of white sandy beaches which North American and European visitors generally prefer. On the other hand, the island docs of fer a variety of unique attractions (for example, spectacular scenery, rain forest hikes, hot springs, good diving, and national parks) which, when marketed as a package have earned Dominica its reputation as the region's "nature island". CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: PLANNING, DEVELOPMENT CONTROL, AND TOURISM STYLE In the absence of clearly articulated land use policies and environmental controls, the tourism development goals of the govern ments in CEP cOLntries can have far-reaching consequences fOI environment. Rapid ex pansion of the industry has already exacerbated r.osting problems with basic services and in frastructure in many CEP countries, e.g., water, c1;:ctricity and roads. Until there is a strategic physi(al development plan to match gro .... 1h targets, basic infrastructure is likely tp lag behind demand. Physical devel opmerlt planning is also necessary for the effi cient usc of and shoreline lands (which arc becoming increasingly !;carce in most CEP countries) and for a cost-effective distribution of infrastructure services. Planning studies on the adequacy of water and electrical power resources to sup port tourism are a special requirement for areas highly impacted by tourism development. Many such planning decisions arc related to the scale of tourism which a given country de sires to promote and the costs that the country expects tourism investors to assume. For ex ample, is it appropriate for the national gov ernment to pay for all water and power needs to support tourism, or should major investors be expected to bear a significant portion of these cr sts? Major social impacts from current tourism development thrusts in the Eastern Caribbean can also be expected. For example, in St. Kitts-Nevis, development of the South east Peninsula, the completion of expansion phases for the Frigate Bay Development Pro ject, and substantially enlarged tourism devel opment in Nevis will carry St. Kitts-Nevis well past the stage of full employment of its labor force. Since the country's labor base is small, shortages are inevitable. Given the experi ences of other Caribbean islands with strong tourism economics, imported labor will then be needed to complement the local labor ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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MANY OF THE AMENITIES OR ATTRACTIONS WHICH FORM THE BASIS OF THE TOURISM INDUSTRY REQUIRE SPECIAL MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES BECAUSE THEY OFTEN HAVE SPECIAL CARRYING CAPACITY LIMITS 37 supply, with equivalent demands on infras tructure, schools, and otllcr social services. The question 01 tourism "style" is another planning issue confronting all CEP countries. Development projects ur develop ment approaches catering to the mass tourism market can significantly impact on many as pects of island life (physical, biological, socio cultural). As has been well documcnted in de velopment literature, often the economic ben efits of mass tuurism are iIIllSory, the res\llt of a failure to account for the social costs to the community and the environmental costs to the natural resource base. Recommendation. CEP governments need to give more serious attention to an i1ltegratio1l of economic planning and physi cal/land use planning so that tourism devel opment is more clearly linked to carrying ca pacity considerations, to enhancement of the country's natural resource base, and to an ap propriate and achievable kvel of infrastruc tural development. Recommendation. As CEP coun tries continue to expand in the tourism sector, it will be more difficult to maintain current lev els of local resource utilization unless proper planning consir.k:ations are on this specific issue. In other words, as the number of tourists increases, there is a tendency to in crease the marginal purchase of imported goods and services to support them Resot!;.:e managers from both the private and public sectors need to identify those specific goods and services which should be "abandoned" to impl)rts and those where better planning can actually increase the local content of the tourism product. Recommendation. Large-scale tourism projects, particularly those sited in the coastal zone, need to be more carefully re viewed by CEP governments, preferably via formal environmental impact assessment pro cedures. Impacts on infrastructure can be minimized by policies requiring large tourism developments to be energy and potable water CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION self-sufficient and to have self-contained sewage treatment plants. Tippage fees should be charged for all solid waste generated by tourism facilities, and yardage extraction fees charged for construction sand. Additionally, the geographic distribu tion of infrastructure and large-scale tourism facilities needs to be carefully evaluated and consideration given to "agglomeration versus dispersal" policy alternatives. Recent Caribbean experience with urban sprawl with attendant heaith, social, and quality-of-Iife problems --suggests that, in general, a spread or dispersed approach is less intrusive and dislocating. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: TOURISM'S ALTERATION OF COASTAL AND MARINE HABITATS Impacts on coastal and marine habi tats, including beaches and mangrove forests, during the construction phase of tourism in frastructure in CEP countries are a major tourism/environment issue. The location and siting of structures as well as dredge and fill ac tivities now occur in the absence of effectively enforced development control procedures (see also 4). Too often, the cOrI1oounded effect of degrading or altering coastal envi ronments for tourism development is a decline in coastal water quality which, in turn, can be detrimental to the well-being of the tourist in dustry as well as the health of local popula tions. Construction and visitor impacts could be minimized through the application of coastal planning guidelines and the introduc tion of impact mitigation procedures, which are now generally absent in CEP countries. Recommendation. Immediate con sideration needs to be given by each C'EP country to the development of a national coastal zone management policy. To help en sure the long-term sustainability of coastal-de pendent tourism, national CZM policies must: ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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38 ensure coastal rl!sources are de voted to water-dependent uses ex clusively; institutionalize a permitting pro cess for development activities in the coastal zone; and devise a protection and manage ment control strategy for common property resources and amenities in the coastal zone. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM AMENITIES A destination becomes inherently more marketable and sustainable when the landscape is properly looked lifter and tourists and residents alike are provided with a wide choice of natural and cultural/historical at tractions. The conservatbn, proper develop ment, and utilization of such attractions is of ten unplanned and unmanaged in CEP coun tries. Failure to develop attractions results in potential loss of tourism revenues, and the ab sence of proper management rest.:lts in degra dation of resources that are part of the national patrimony. Recommendation. CEP governments should work with NGOs and the private sector to design a comprehensive program for the development, use and management of at tractions as a vital element of tourism market ing and as a means of increasing tOUI ist rev enues. Such a comprehensive plan for the development of natural and historical at tractions and the general of the landscape should perhaps be the responsibility of an inter-ministerial task force with private sector representation, including NGOs. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: NATURE TOURISM Nature travel, also called ecotourism, is a booming industry worldwide. Clearly --in CARIBBEAN ASSOCIATION varying degrees -all CEP countries could ex pand their tourism base by development of a more comprehensive nature-based tourism ex perience. In Dominica, in particular, that country's touristic future would appear to lie in its development as an ecotourism destination. Competing in this market, which remains largely undifferentiated to all but lhe mo:;t knowledgeable traveler, requires the formula tion of very specialized, targeted mer chandizing tactics as well as cooperative public and private sector support for promotional strategies. It is also important that other de velopment activities do not conflict with at tempts to expand nature tourism and will not degrade or diminish the value of the very amenities and natural areas which are part of an ecotourism promotion strategy. The potential for developing "natural history tourism" (tourism to a very special clientele of research scientists and nat ural history enthusiasts) also needs to be ex plored by tourism planners in CEP countries. In general, any national tourism de velopment strategy should not place too heavy a reliance on a narrowly-defined tourism in dustry. The principle of customized diversifi cation is important to the tourism sector as well as to the general economy of CEP coun tries, and there is room in each for a risk spreading mix of touristic enterprises -in cluding ecotourism. Any overall increase in nature tourism will presumably reflect an in creasing interest by CEP governments in the well-being of these natural assets. Recommendation. Ecotourism amenities in CEP countries need to be more fully addressed in tourism marketing plans and !lromotional literature. In the development planning process, specific areas need to be granted special status and provided with a management framework as nature tourism amenities or sites; certain types of alternative tourism activities will need to be excluded from these areas. Governments need to recognize the potential of nature-based tourism in diver sifying the nation's tourism market and in imISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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39 proving OPpu!tUllilit:s for extending the length of stay and expenditure level of tourists. At the same time, CEP governments need to be aware that excessive demands by ecotourists on delicate natural systems might CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION over the long term destroy the very attractions that first drew visitors --unless site manage ment plans and visitor impact management plans have been developed for such amenities and sufficient resources are available for plan implementation and site monitoring. ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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40 KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN THE TOURISM SECTOR UNQUANTIFIED AND UNRESOLVED LINKAGES BETWEEN GROWTH IN THE SECTOR AND ASSOCIATED ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL ISSUES. INADEQUATE STRATEGIC PLANNING IN THE SECTOR, RESULTING !,. THE EMERGENCE OF TOURISM STYLES MORE OFTEN BY CHANCE THAN BY DELIBERATE CHOICE AS PART OF A PLANNING PROCESS WHICH HAS ASSESSED THF. SOCIAL AND ENVIRON MENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF EACH ALTERNATIVE APPROACH. FAILURE OF CEP GOVERNMENTS TO GIVE SUFFICIENT ATIENTION TO AN INTEGRA TlON OF ECONOMIC PLANNING AND LAND USE SO THAT TOURISM DE VELOPMENT REFLECTS CAREFULLY ANALYZED CARRYING CAPACITY CONSIDERATIONS. TENDENCY TO INCREASE THE IMPORTATION OF GOODS AND SERVICES TO SUPPORT TOURISM AS THE INDUSTRY EXPANDS. THE LACK OF COMPREHENSIVE COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS TO Rt:DUCE THE NEGATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM INFRASTRUCTURE AND ACTMTIES IN COASTAL AREAS. EXISTING PROBLEMS WITH BASIC SERVICES AND INFRASTRUCTURE EXACERBATED BY RAPID EXPANSION OF TOURISM. THE NEED FOR VISITOR IMPACT MITIGATION AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES. THE NEED FOR BEITER PUBLIC/PRNATE SECTOR COORDINATION IN THE IDENTlFI CATION, DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL AND HISTORICAL ATIRACTlONS AND AMENITIES. THE NEED TO DIVERSIFY THE TOURISM BASE BY MORE AGGRESSNE MARKETING OF NATUREBASED TOURISM, ALONG WITH A CONCURRENT DI:VELOPMENT OF SITE MANAGEMENT PLANS FOR TARGETED NATURAL AREAS AND THE IDENTIFICATION OF SUFFICIENT RESOURCES TO MANAGE EACH SITE. CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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POLLUTION PROSLEMSIN THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN ADVERSELY AFFECT PUBLIC HEJ'LTH, THI: NATURAL ENVIRONMENT, AND THE MARKETING POTENTIAL OF TOURISMBASED ECONOMIES 41 _______ 7_. ___ P_O_LL_U_T_IO_N ____ OVERVIEW Primary pollution control and envi ronmental health problems facing the Caribbean have been identified by regional and internalional agencies such as CARICOM, UNEP, and PAHO. Each set of issues has a counterpart in the CEP countries, with critical areas of immediate concern being: solid waste manage.,ent; sewage and industrial waste col lection, treatment and disposal; monitoring of chemical pollution of ground and surface water sources; marine and coastal pollution monitoring; and drinking water quality monitoring and control. These problems have potentially inju rious environmental implications both for public health and for the natural environment. There is also a risk of adverse economic im pacts in neglecting pollution issues, particularly as the economies of CEP countries rely heavily on selling the Eastern Caribbean as a pristine, well-managed tropical environment. Waste disposal is a difficult problem for most small island societies, and the CEP countries are no exception. Their urban areas lack adequate treatment facilities for domestic sewage and waste water. Ocean out fa I \1: for effluents unsuitable as gray water are more often than not conspicuous by their absence. The wat(;rs of major harbors, and to a degree other smalk. embayments and inshore coastal areas, are receiving effluents from a variety of land-based sources of pollution, including agrochemicals, sullage, processing residues, sediments, and other waste materials from IIP land areas delivered to coastal waters by rivers, streams, and underground seepage. Many package sewage treatment plants serving CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION shoreline hotels are badly maintained, inade quately supervised, and too often function im properly, which further adds to coastal nutrient loads. At the same time, the management of solid waste remains a problem for most rural communities and all urban areas in CEP countries. An even more serious problem ex ists as a consequence of the increasing risks posed by various toxic materials such as many industrial wastes, biocides used in agriculture, cleaning solvents, and hospital wastes, and by the ever present threat of oil spills in the c:oastal zone. Management planning and spill contingency planning have not kept up with the potential threat!> to expanding communities and tourism facilities, particularly those in the coastal zone. Finally, each CEP country must ad dress the probability that near-site impacts on land of pollutants will be extended and am plified because most pollutants from residen agricultural, and industrial sources are transported to the coast via streams and water courses, by leaching and infiltration through the soil, by direct (piped) discharges into the sea, and from non-point sources along coast lines. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Solid waste disposal is a serious en>'i ronmental issue in all CEP countries. Official and unofficial means of disposing of refuse continue to have undesirable impacts on the natural environment and the citizens of each island. Present waste disposal sites, some formally operated and others informally toler ated by CEP governments, are of concern for several reasons. They are often a public nui sance and a health hazard because of fly, mosquito and rodent breeding, noxious odors, possible contamination of ground and surface waters, and exposure to toxic and hazardous ISlAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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INSUFFICIENT BUDGETARY SUPPORT HAS BEEN ALLOCATED FOR PO'_LUTION CONTROL EFFORTS INCEP COllNTRIES 42 wastes. Additionally, there are negative im pacts on the tourism and investment sectors of the economy due to aesthetic concerns (e.g., litter, overnowing garhage collection contain ers, disagreeable odors, and unsightly dumps). Open burning is done regularly, with visibility decreased by wind-driven air pollution from smoke. Many disposal sites are located in wet lands close to coastlines, where they destroy productive plant communities, displace wildlife and reduce marine water quality via surface run-off and toxic leachates with a high bio chemical oxygen dem;}nd (BOD). Away from the urban population cen ters, the number of officially designated arcas for solid wastc disposal inadcquate to mcet rural demands, with disposal taking placc at ad "oc "unofficial" dumps or in watercourscs, beaches and the sea. The gencrally poor managcment of solid waste disposal sitcs is due in part to a lack of funds for pl'oper equipment and mainte nance. The lack of an adequatc number of suitable vehicles for the collection and trans portation of solid waste to disposal sites, fenc ing to contain refuse, and heavy equipment to bury it are severe limitations throughout all CEP nations. Although studies havc been done on solid waste management in sevcral CEP coun tries, such reports for the most part have not addressed the problem in a comprehensive or financially rcalistic manner, seldom providing either implcmentation schedules or funding strategies. Most OECS states, including the CEP target countrics, still lack cnvironmental protection criteria for the siting and operation of disposal sites, an inventory of suitablc alter native sites which meet these criteria, and a schedule for closing presently used sites which are overfilled or which constitute an cnviron mental hazard. Recommendation. National solid waste management plans, covering at least a ten and preferably a twenty year pcriod, should be prepared for each CEP country. Plans need CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION to focus on the different waste nows and par ticular waste-handling needs of urban versus rural arcas and of industrial and commercial operations. Enactment of up-dated solid waste management legislation is also needed, to de fine national and local government responsi bilities, to establish standards for waste dis posal, and to regulate waste collection. Legis lation should include a prohibition against all refuse disposal in the sea or adjacent to streams and rivers. Assistance to local gov ernment units, now charged with solid waste collection responsibilities throughout the CEP countries, is needed to allow locd governments to upgrade the services presently provided. Recommendation. The identific.ation of financing for upgraded solid waste management programs is critical. The devel opment of innovative means of raising rev enues is necessary to reduce the burden on public treasuries. Possible options include: imposition of a levy on hotels for waste coUr-c tion and treatment services; sale of franchises to private waste collectors for designated col lection areas; and charging industrial and commercial businesses for waste collection and disposal services. Consideration should be given to turning garbage collection over to private companies which could charge a fee for services, something which is not presently done. Public health ministries could be given responsibility for licensing such companies and should have the power to rescind franchises if collectors do not pcrform satisfactorily. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF LIQUID WASTES The continued disposal of raw sewage into freshwater and marine environments threatens the public health of CEP countries, where water-borne diseases such as gastroen teritis are considered important environmental health problems. ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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43 Central sewer systems are found only in the urban areas; these are out-dated and overloaded, and discharge raw sewage without treatment via outfalls. Generally, septic tanks are the standard method of domestic and commercial sewage disposal in suburban arcas,
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POLLUTION CONTROL AND WASTE MANAGEMENT CAN BE TURNED INTO REVEtJUE GENERATING ACTIVITIES, THUS REDUCING THE BURDEN ON THE PUBLIC TREASURY 44 graded, probably with CARICOM, UNEP and/or other donor assistance. Recommendation. An appropriate government agency should undertake the de velopment of improved regulations and oper ating standards for privately-owned and oper ated sewage treatment plants, whkh, because of generally poor maintenance and operating procedures, are adding to pollution loading in CEP countries. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: POLLUTION FROM OIL AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS [see Section 5 for a discussion of agrochemicals] Oil and other petroleum products are brought to the Eastern Caribbean by tankers to off-loading terminals. The companies engaged in the transshipment of such products to CEP islands have identified varying levels of pollu tion control capability and clean-up equipment availability for deployment in emergency situa tions. CEP governments have only limited in house re.:;ponse capabilities in the event of oil spills or other toxic material accidents. In many cases, equipment and assistance would have to be :>cught from other in the Caribbean. Disaster/spill contingency plan ning is also inadequate, particularly given the Caribbean's central location in heavily-trafficked oil transshipment lanes. At present, there is no system for the collection and proper disposal of waste oil in CEP countries. Waste oil and grease from gar:Jges is simply dumped into storm drains and on the ground and, together with oil from street surface run-off, is then washed into rivers and coastal waters during rains. Recommendation. A contingency plan for oil and other toxic spills should be developed, exercised, and maintained in each CEP country. Planning and emergency re sponse capabilities should be assigned to a sin gle government agency. Contingency planning CARIBBEAN CONSEkVATION ASSOCIATION at a national level needs to incorporate all toxic and hazardous materials and should include an impact reduction a:td mitigation plan (i.e., risk reduction action plan), along with a spill re sponse plan. Recommendation. Legislation is needed to require proper disposal of waste automotive oil and hazardous materials, and facilities to accomplish this must be provided. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: INSTITUTIONAL CONSIDERA TlONS Recommendation. The quantitative and systemic dimensions of environmental pollution in the CEP countries are not suffi ciently well documented to permit easy devel opment of remedial or regulatory measures. It would therefore be appropriate to identify funding and/or assistance to carry out a na tional pollution assessment in each CEP coun try. Such an effort should establish the basic dimensions of waste streams, identifying and quantifying sources and causative agents, vol umes, flow rates, destinations, impacts, and projections. Recommendation. Pollution control and waste management are customarily seen as a drain on the public treasury. However, given the high costs of modern technology and the high volumes of waste generated in consumer oriented economies, pollution control and waste management can be turned into revenue generating activities by the simple procedure of establishing prices for many facets of waste disposal (for example, charging a fee for waste collection and water treatment services or billing polluters for clean-up and restoration costs). Once this is done, segments of the pro cess could be privatized. Recommendation. Throughout the OECS countries, public health legislation is se riously outdated and based on legal concepts which are inadequate to deal with modern pollution control problems. Such legislation needs to be updated and strengthened in all ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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....... ............ .......................................... .. 45 CEP countries to include national standards itud criteria for water quality, pollution control, and waste management. Consideration must be given to each country's existing institudonal CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION capabilities and technical/fiscal resources in designating pollution control standards and over:;ight/regulatory responsibilities. ISLAND RESOl)RCES FOUNDATION

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46 KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES RELATED TO POLLUTION CONTROL LOW LEVEL OF AWARENESS AMONG DECISION MAKERS, BUSINESSES, AND THE GENERAL POPULATION ABOUT POLLUTION ISSUES AND THEIR COSTS TO THE COMMUNITY AND THE ECONOMY OVER TIME. LACK OF STRATEGIC PLANNING TO DEVEl.OP COMPREHENSIVE NATIONAL PLANS FOR LIMITING WASTE GENERATION AND FOR PUTTING IN PLACE POLICIES FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT, POLLUTION CONTROL AND RECYCLING. C' SEEMINGLY COSTLY SOLUTIONS TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION PROBLEMS WITH OUT PROPER ASSESSMENT OF INNOVATIVE MEANS FOR RAISING NEEDED REVENUES BY ESTABLISHING LICENSING AND DISCHARGE PERI "!T FEES AND USER FEES FOR WASTE DISPOSAL SERVICES. FAILURE TO PROVIDE FOR CONTINGENCY PLANNING AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL FOR OIL AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIAL SPILLS ON LAND, IN PORTS, HARBORS AND MARINAS, AND IN COASTAL WATERS. INSUFFICIENT DOCUMENTATION ON THE QUANTITATIVE AND SYSTEMIC ASPECTS OF ENVIROII/MENTAL POLLUTION TO PERMIT EASY DEVELOPMENT OF REMEDIAL OR REGULATORY MEASURES. OUT DATED PUBLIC HEALTH AND WATER LEGISLATION, LACKING REGULATIONS, NATiONAL STANDARDS AND MODERN CRITERIA FOR WATER QUALITY, POLL'JTION CONTROL, AND WASTE MANAGEMENT. CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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RESOURCE CONSERVATION PROGRAMS ADDRESS THE NATION'S LONG-TERM NEED TO PRESERVE RESOURCES FOR THE FUTURE 47 "" 8. PARKS and OTHER PROTECTED AREAS n RESOURCE CONSERVATION and HERITAGE PROTECTION In the developing CEP countries still engaged in the diLl cult art of nation building and the day-to-day politics of trans forming what was a dependent colonial society imo viable nation-states --the trade-offs be tween the long-term benefits of conservation and resource protection and the more immedi ate, short-term benefits of resource exploita tion are not always easily understood. The role of conservation and preservation institutions (such as parks, reserves, sanctuaries, muse ums) is to help balance the equation between the need to preserve resources for the future and the need to use resources to meet today's demands. What should constitute appropriatl! resource conservation and heritage protect!on policies and programs has been defined in dif fering ways in each CEP country. The Dominica Parks Service, headed by a Superintendent of Parks, is a separate unit within Government's Forestry and Wildlife Di vision; it is charged with responsibility for de veloping and managing the country's parks system. The Morne Trois Pitons National Park, Dominica's first, was established in 1975 and contains almost 17,000 acres of legally protected forest in the south central part of the island. A second national park, the Cabrits National Park, was established in 1986 in the north of the island near Portsmouth. The 260 acres of land comprising this park incorporate im purtant historic ruins as well as a represen tative sample of dry forest lands. The adjacent marine area encompasses another 1,000 acres of underwater park surrounding the Cabrits Peninsula. The institutional framework for a parks and protected areas system in Antigua Barbuda emerged with passage of national parks legislation in 1984 that created the Antigun and Barbuda National Parks Author ity. Only one park --Nelson's Dockyard Na tional Park --has been establifhed to date. That park comprises about eight percent of the CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION country's land mass, both marine and ter restrial components, and incorporates whole villages, public roads and other major "in holdings" within its boundaries. In this re gard, it is unusual in the region and more like the English "park" model than the American prototype. The Park's most celebrated attractior. is Nelson's Dockyard at English Harhor, built in 1725 as regional fe!' the English naval force in the Caribbean. Today the Dockyard remains one of the key historic landmarks in the Eastern Caribbean; it is also an important tourist attraction and a center of yachting --all of which have been incorporated within the framework of the national park. Although St. Lucia does not yet have a formal national parks system, it does have a well-established National Trust; enabling Trust legisl.ation has provided the legal framework for the vesting of certain important areas in the Trust for protection and management, includ ing the Pigeon Island National Park and the Maria Islands Nature Reserve. Other pro tected areas in the country fall under the juris diction of the Forestry Department (the parrot sanctuary and forest reserves) and the Fish eries Management Unit (marine reserves). The St. Lucia National Trust, under a grant from USAID, is working on the development of a national parks and protected areas plan to define and consolidate protected areas plan ning for the country. In St. Kitts-Nevis, the National Con servation and Environment Protection Act of 1987 provides a new legal framework for the country, one which accepts both the principle behind and the idea of a system of national par!(s and protected areas. This important legislation includes provisions for the estab lishment and protection of both natural and cultural areas, sites and features. However, only one national park (the Brimstone Hill Fortress National Park) was designated when the law was enacted, and no new sites have been added. The Brimstone Hill Park has as its focus one of the region's most important historic sites; this fortification is managed for the Government (as it has been for over 20 ISlAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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A SENSE OF NATIONAL PRIDE HAS NOT YET LED TO WIDESPREAD RECOGNITION OF THE INHERENT QUALITIES OF INDIGENOUS NATURAL, HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL RESOURCES OR PRODUCED A UNIFIED PROGRAM FOR THEIR PRESERVATIONAND MANAGEMENT 48 years) by a private sector NGO. BrimstoJ1e's restoration as a scenic and educational attrac tion for both residents and tourists began in the mid-1960's and stands tcday as an excellettt example of how historic resources can con tribute to the economic and cultural develop ment of CEP countries. In 1988, the Government of Grenada and the Organization of American States pub lished a Plall alld Policy for A System of Parks and Protected Areas ill Grellada. The purpose of the plan was to identify and provide a course of adion for the protection and wise use of the country's natural and cultural herilage. How ever, at present, there is no formal government policy on the establishment or management of a system of protecled areas. No existing legis lation provides adequate authority to both es tablish and manage such a system or to protect adequately the natural and historical resource base. The National Trust Ordinance legally establishes a basis for protecting areas with both natural and cultural features; however, this legislation has not been used for such pur poses and is in need of revision and update. There is some interest within the Gov ernment of St. Vincent and the Grenadines to create a system of national parks and protected areas. Accordingly, a national parks bill has been drafted with assistance from an OAS legal consultant, but no official action has been taken. The Tobago Cays are designated a na tional marine park, but management plans have not been put in place. The OAS has pre pared a feasibility study for the area, including an economic analysis and management rec ommendations. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: PROTECTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF HISTORICAL RESOURCES The gJ'Owing popUlation base and ex panding economic development. of CEP coun tries are phcing increasing pressures on the region's surviving historic landmarks and inCARIBBE'AN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION digenous architectural features. Identifiable problems include: accelerating loss of archaeological sites and artifacts particularly in the coastal zone, associated with the expansion of tourism, housing, industry and roads into formerly undeveloped areas without prior cultural resource assessments; deterioration and dismantling ot plantation settlements, fortifica tions, and other rural historic sites in the absence of regulatory con trols; intensifying destruction or modifi cation of historic and vernacular buildings in urban areas, to the extent that some communities are losing their traditional architec tural chalacter and charm; lack of holistic national planning for the incorporation of cultural patrimony and living culture into the national development process; deficiencies in existing resource planning and management mecha nisms to protect historical re sources. The economic and social benefits to be derived from the protection of historic sites, architectural features, cultural landmarks, or archaeological resources have not been fully appreciated in CEP countries. The result has generally been the pursuit of government poli cies which very often promote either benign neglect or in some cases destruction of these resources. Lack of public concern is due in part to the fact that the original initiative for his toric preservation in the region came from ex patriates with much of the emphasis of early conservation efforts focused on the colonial past. In more recent years, tourism has had a ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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49 positive effect in awakening local appreciation of this piece of the national heritage because many historic sites can be <.i",;doped as tourist attractions and are therefore of economic value to the country (e.g., i.e1son's Dockyard in Antigua and Brimstone Hill in St. Kilts). The I..:ck of well-defined protection and management strategies for historical re sources is a problem throughout the CEP countries. In countries with national trusts (Grenada, St. Lucia, St. Vincent), provisions in enabling legislation authorize these quasi governmental bodies to exercise varying de grees of control over those sites and areas offi cially vested in the organization for manage ment. Sites not so vested generally are not protected. In countries which did not pursue the national trust model (Antigua-Barbuda, Dominica, St. Kitts-Nevis), only historical re sources located within the boundaries of an of ficially designated national park or protected area are fully protected; at present, this limits the most aggressive government-sponsored preservation/restoration efforts to Nelson's Dockyard National Park in Antigua, the Cabrits Nationa! Park in Dominica, and the Brimstone Hill Fortress National Park in St. Kitts. In the case of Antigua-Barbuda and St. Kitts-Nevis, historical resollTces have recently come under the official pur"iew of newly es tablished "environmental commissions," but the degree of protection remains undefineL. In general, CEP countries lack the following critical components for effective his torical resource management: -a comprehensive national policy to bring together issues related to heritage protection under one op erational program; clear lines of authority or respon sibility for the management of historical resources; adequate legislation to protect historical resources; CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION -effective procedures to control the use and development of historical resources. Recommendation. In CEP coun tries with antiquities legislation, such laws need to be revil wed and in most cases updated and strengthened. In countries lacking such a legal framework, antiquities legislation is needed to provide for both protection and restoration of historical and cultural resources, including un derwater archaeological sites. Legislation might include the establishment ot' a Registry of Historic Places, requiring a comprehensive inventory and evaluation of historical/cultural resources and affording some protection to national landmarks, historic sites, or architec tural features not presently included under ex isting preservation laws. Criteria need to be set for the selection and certification of "Registry" sites, and standards for further de velopment of such sites need to be established. Recommendation. The responsibil ities and authority of the viuious institutions and organizations now involved in some aspect of historical resource managemc..,lt in CEP countries need to be clarified, perhaps through adoption of a "national heritage protection policy and program plan". Recommendation. Prior to any major development, particularly in the coastal zone, a cultural resource survey should be car ried out oy professional archaeologists, with developers required to pay for such surveys. Development control procedures should pro vide adequate time for the excavation of ar chaeological sites prior to commencement of construction activities. RecommendatIon. The integrity of many of the architectural and historical fea tures of most Caribbean towns has been di minished by a proliferation of iII-maintained and poorly designed buildings quite out of context within architecturally or historically important areas. Nevertheless, CEP govern ments should consider implementation of "historic district" policies for designated areas. ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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THE PRESENT GENERATION WOULD BE DERELICT IN ITS RESPONSIBILITIES TO rUTURE GENERATIONS IF IT DEPRIVED THEM OF THE OPPORTUNITY TO VIEW, TO LEARN, AND TO BENEFIT FROM A HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT AS REFLECTED IN ALL ITS PRESENT RICHNESS, DIVERSITY, BEAUTY AND SUBTLETY 50 Further consideration should be given to the development of government policies which en courage adaptive usc and restoration strategies by the employment of economic and othel in centives and to the adoption of design controls for new construction in urban areas. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: PARKS AND PROTECTED AREAS PLANNING -INSTITUTIONAL CONSIDERA TlelNS The development of national 'systems" for park and protected area management in CEP countries has generally been fr;,gmented, often single-site focuseu, and lacking in a strong visionary approach. Only Dominica of the CEP countries has a parks 'system" in place. Within that system, however, park plan ning and site management issues are still not fully resolved. For example, competing de mands for use of the resource blse within the Morne Trois Pitons National Park have inten sified in recent ye;,rs, e.g., for hydropower development, geothermal power development, power transmission, road building, and, in some locations, cultivation. Such demands arc often in conflict with the more traditional ob jectives of park land usc, namely, conservation of wildlife, enhancement of biodiversity, and passive wilderness recreation. In SI. Kitts-Nevis, despite the fact that recent, well-conceived legislation is ill place, the deVelopment of a comprehensive and well managed parks and protected areas system is still at risk because the parallel requirement for appropriate institutional strengthening is not being addressed. The fact that the country can point to the presence of one national park docs not diminish this risk because the national park at Brimstone Hill had been operational as an NGO-managed national monument for 20 years prior to its designation as the country's first (and only) national park. Antigua-Barbuda, E!:" SI. Kitts-Nevis, has enacted national park legislation and has also created a National Parks Authority. Yet the authorizing legislation does not provide a CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION definition for what constitutes a "ni1tional park" and leaves many resources unprotected. Per sonnel at the Parks Authority are primMily in1'::.lved with the management of con cessions, yachting operations. maintenance, and service activities at the NeLon's Dockyard National Park. None of the permanent staff have adequate training in resource manage ment, anu neither effective land use nor devel opment control measures are practiced within the Park. Each Environmental Profile describes in considerable detail areas which have been proposed for protected area status in CEP countries. However, the process of incorpo rating such sites and areas within truly national park systems has not been officially defined at the decision-making levels of government, even in il ::01l11try like Grenada with a recent, well documented ;:rtd attractively published report on parks and prot cd cd areas planning. Recommendation. In all CEP countries, a plan for a "parks and protected areas wstem" (or similar management frame work) is .leeded to ensure that all critical natu ral and cultural resources receive adequate protection in an integrated fashion. The system should ensure coverage of the biological diver sity within each country and should seek to op timize the usc of outstanding natural and his torical resources and scenic areas for recre ation and tourism. Protected areas program rlanning should be placed within an orderly and wellplanned "resource assessment" framework which reflects overailuilliunal requirements for development priorities, recreational needs, en vironmental diversity, and the preservation of natural and cultural assets. Resource allo cation choices should be predicated on a full appraisal of available site and resource man agement options. Recommendation. Park planners in CEP countries, in cooperation with tourism planners, should also give attention to preparISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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51 ing national guidelines which accomplish the following: establish priorities for "protected a(ea" designation; develop a process for selection and acquisition of protected area sites; determine a phasing-in schedule to bring new sites within the system; establish management controls for each protected area class or cate gory, including identification of non-compatible use1> which will not be permitted within designated protected areas; provide for enforcement proce dures; designate a central management authority to oversee the system; CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION allocate manpower resources for enforcemenl and management ac tivities on the basis of priorities established for the system; delermine mechanisms for inter ministerial and inter-departmental cooperation and define the work ing relationships with and inputs to other development sectors -espe cially tourism, water supply, recre ation, education, and fisheries; define a role for national NGOs. Recommendation. Individual man agement plans for each unit within the estab lished system should be prepared. Recommendation. The need for a recruitment, training and incentive program, aimed at eliminating the critical shortage of trained staff for park management in CEP countries, should be addressed. ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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52 KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES RELATED TO PARKS AND OTHER PROTECTED AREAS RELATIVE LACK OF UNDERSTANDING AND APPRECIATION FOR THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL BENEFITS TO BE DERIVED FROM THE PROTECTION OF INDIGENOUS NATURAL AND CULTURAL RESOURCES, OFTEN RESULTING IN GOVERNMENT POL ICIES OF BENIGN NEGLECT. LACK OF EFFECTIVE PROTECTION FOR SCARCE OR THREATENED RESOURCES UNLESS THEY ARE PLACED UNDER THE MANAGEMENT CONTROL OF A SPECIFIC AUTHORITY OR HAPPEN TO FALL WITHIN THE BOUNDARIES OF A DESIGNATED PROTECTED AREA. FRAGMENTED INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES FOR THE PROTECTION, DEVEL OPMENT, AND MANAGEMENT OF CRITICAL NATURAL AREAS AND HISTORICAL RE SOURCES, INCLUDING SHIPWRECKS AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES. THE ABSENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES FOR MAJOR DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, INCLUDING AN EVALUATION OF NATURAL AND CULTURAL RESOURCES PRIOR TO PROJECT APPROVAL OR COMMENCEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION. FAILURE TO PROVIDE AN INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK FOR THE DEVELOP MENT AND USE OF OUTSTANDING NATURAL AND HISTORICAL RESOURCES AND SCENIC AREAS. FAILURE TO PROVIDE A NATIONAL SYSTEM FOR ESTABLISHING PRIORITIES AND CRITERIA FOR PROTECTED AREA DESIGNATION, FOR PHASING DESIGNATED AREAS INTO THE SYSTEM, AND FOR MANAGING CLASSES OR CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREAS WITHIN THE SYSTEM. THE NEED FOR BETTER LINKAGES BETWEEN PARK PLANNING AND OTHER DEVELOP MENT SECTORS, ESPECIALLY TOURISM, WATER SUPPLY, RECREATION, EDUCATION, AND FISHERIES. CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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[. ___ 9_" __ IN_S_T_IT_U_TI_O_N_AL_F_R_A_M_E_W_O_R_K ___ --I WHO'S IN CHARGE? RESPONSIBILITY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL FUNCTIONS WITHIN CEP GOVERNMENTS IS GENERALLY FRAGMENTED AND POORLY COORDINATED 53 OVERVIEW Responsibility for environmental man agement in CEP governments is dispersed amlJng a number of departments and divisions within several ministries of the central gov ernment. Resource planning, management, development, and protection functions are therefore currently dependeill on the coordi rlated action of many agencies with varying de grees of responsibility for key resource sectors. However, because CEP governments have a limited capacity for inter-agency coordination, accountability for the environment at the na tional level is generally fragmented. Thus, such key governmental functions as planning. development control, resource protection, reI? ulalory oversight, quality control, and resource devdopment. as these pertain to the environ mellt, are too often implemented on an ad hoc basis (particularly in the absence of an ap proved framework for planning and de velopment control) and fncus primarily on short-term or interim rathl:r than long-term policy objectives for !he environment. Diffusion of responsibility and lack of sufficient coordination have also meant that the various units of CEP governments with en vironmental functions are unable to signifi cantly influence policies and program.; or act collectively on critical environmental policy is sues. It has also meant that resource man agement responsibilities are not always c1ear cut, and several units of government, as well as several quasi-governmental bodies like public corporations, may have overlapping authority. Although environmental responsibili ties are not the exclusive concern of any single government agency, in each CEP country one or two entities can be identified as having the widest responsibilities and clearest mandate for management of the environment. In St. Kilts-Nevis, it is the Ministry of Agriculture, Lands, Housing and Develop ment. Although a Ministry of Natural Re sources and the Environment was established in 1984, it remains non-functional due to the CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION lack of an administrative stiucture and imple mentation resources. Of necessity, therefore, the Ministry of Agriculture has the de facto primary responsibility for environmental man agement since it includes within its mandate agriculture (the largest user of land), housing (the second largest), physical planning and de velopment, fisheries, forestry and wildlife. The Southeast Peninsula Land Development and Conservation Board was created in 1986 as a semi-autonomous government authority with power to monitor and regulate development activities and to maintain environmental qual ity for the 4,000 acre Peninsula, an area sched uled for major tourism development in the 1990's. In SI. Lucia, "the environment" was added to the portfolio of the Minister of Health in 1988, but it is still unclear what im pact this action will have on the execution of environmental policy in the country. The Central Planning Unit, by virtue of its key role in coordinating project design and project re view functions within the government, contin ues to exercise considerable influence over the direction of land use development in the coun try. Several units of the St. Lucia Government, in cooperation with NGOs like CANARI and resource-user groups like fishermen, farmers, and charcoal producers, have exper;.mented with co.nmunity-based resource management strategies which c'Juld serve as a model for the region. Historically, the Department of Forest and !...ands (formerly the Forestry Division) has been the key government voice for resource protection and conservation programs in the country, while the quasi-governmental SI. Lucia National Trust is the best organized and most effective of the national trusts in CEP countries. An equally effective voice for envi ronmental issues has yet to emerge within the Government of Antigua-Barbuda. Govern ment has established an advisory body --the Historical, Conservation and Environmental Commission --to provide input and guidance in the management of the nation's natural and historical resources. However, the Commis ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES WHEREVER THEY ARE PLACED WITHIN GOVERNMENT MUST BE LINKED TO THE DEVELOPMENT PLANNING AND CONTROL PROCESS 54 sion's long-term potential for providing direc tion and influencing policy is diminished by the fact that it lacks officially-mandated terms of reference or statutory powers. A similar situation prevails in Grenada, where such coordination that does exist within Government for resource man agement functions occurs through the physical planning process and Cabinet deliberations. In 1986, the Prime Minister specifically named the National Science and Technology Council, a statutory body, as :he focal point for environmental concerns within Government but did not spell out specific responsibilities relative to that mandate. To date, this role has been an advisory one. In Dominica, "the environment" was only recently added to the portfolio of the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries, Lands, Forestry and Wildlife, and the Environment, following elections in 1990. Within that Ministry, the Forestry and Wildlife Division has historically been the lead government agency for carrying out resource development, man agement, and conservation responsibilities. Its central role in the environmental sector is per haps best exemplified by the fact that all of the country's legally designated protected areas ale under the management control of this one division. In St. Vincent, no single agency has emerged as a leader for environmental issues within Government. Likewise, no single agency is charged with lead responsibility for the environment, although the newly created (1989) Ministry of Health and the En vironment has begun to assume broader responsibilities. At present, however, the Ministry essentially the public health services transferred from the former Ministry of Health; the environmental functions of the newly-constituted Ministry have not yet been defined. At the time the new Ministry was cre ated, an Environmental Protection Task Force was also set up as an bterdepartmental coor dinating body, with some private sector repre sentation, to advise and assist the Minister in CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION defining directions and programs for the en vironmental portfolio. Its non-statutory, tem porary status and lack of focus remain a prob lem. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: THE ROLE OF GROWTH MANAGEMENT, LAND USE PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT CONTROL Physical planning functions within CEP governments generally date to the period just after World War Two when many Eastern Caribbean islands first enacted Town and Country Planning Ordinances and were intro duced to urban and land use planning con cepts. A UNDP-sponsOled Physical Planning Project in the 1970's further exposed Eastern Caribbean governments to physical pl;mning. While many experimented \..,jtll national land use planning and "draft" plans were subse quently prepared, such early attempts at comprehensive planning (and those that followed) were never formally accepted by CEP govern ments as a legally-mandated framework for development control and growth management. Accordingly, decisions about changes in land use and approval of new development activities tend to he based on short-term considerations and executed on a case-by-case basis, often at the Cabinet level. Within this context, deveh.lpment planning and control functions are being undermined, a systemic weakness which repre sents one the more pernicious institutional threats to the natural environments of CEP countries, for unsound land use decisior.s al most :nevitably have adverse environmental consequences. Furthermore, physical planning as an integrative process is not well established within CEP governments, and there is generally limited opportunity for systematic coordination across ministerial or departmental lines in the physical planning and development control process. Too often, physical planning units have been vested with only limited, genISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENTS ALLOW IMPORTANT INFORMATION TO BE COLLECTED AND ASSESSED IN AN ORDERLY, LOGICAL MANNER AND THEN MADE AVAILABLE TO DECISION MAKERS 55 erally advisory control over the broader plall ning/regulatory aspects of major development projects. They customarily are relegated to re viewing subdivision plans or performing site level planning functions, while decisions on major development strategies and projects are made with lillie or no input from the profes sional staffs of physical planning units. This is unfortunate, for most of these larger projects will have significant impacts on physical, natu ral and human environments. Generally, weak inter-agency and in ter-sectoral coordination is not limited to physical planning but is symptomatic of the larger resource management sector. Respon sibility for each of several key functions --in cluding development control, land use alloca tions, water management, ar.d utilization of marine resources --is generally dispersed among several ministries and departments of government with limited formal mechanisms to improve coordination in dealing with these re sponsibilities across departmental lines. In the near-term, land use planning and development control weaknesses are not easy to deal with because required legal, structural and institutional changes may take years to put in place. In the meantime, tradi tional environmental controls and accepted limits to growth are being increasingly over whelmed by the pace and nature of contempo rary change in the Eastern Caribbean. In fact, it could be argued that the importance of plan ning is inversely related to a wuntry's size and GDP, i.e., in the smaller, less wealthy CEP countries, there is lillie margin for error as few funds are available to remedy the mistakes of ill-planned schemes and strategies. Like most small places, the CEP countries cannot afford the consequences and costs associated with poor planning decisions and the failure to as sert sound development control. Recommendation. The lack of a comprehensive land use planning framework in CEP countries will continue to reduce the e' fectiveness of the development control process. Land use planning provides a structure for asCARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION sessing the l'!:ysical and natural features of an area and for suggesting its long-term sustain able uses. The preparation (or updating) of a comprehensive physical development plan, to guide and inform decision-making about future ;evelopment activities in each CEP country, should be a priority for the decade of the nineties. Formal approval at the Cabinet level is important to lend the force of law to the zoning and land use allocations incorporated within each national plan. Recommendation. Perhaps the most important condition for sustainable de velopment is that environmental and economic concerns are merged in the decision-making process, as they are in the real world. To this end, the coor<. ;nation linkages between the economic planning units and the physical plan ning units of CEP governments need to be im proved. In general, physical planning units in CEP countries need to be strengthened and their role in the planning process upgraded. The laller might include the assumption of more formalized development review and de velopment control responsibilities, preparation of expanded and improved land use .naps and natural resource data bases, and implementa tion of formal zoning restrictions and subdivi sion regulations. Considerat:on should also be given to the establishment of environmental technical expertise within physical planning units. How ever, if these units are to be given more sub stantive planning responsibilities, including en vironmental control functions, the size and ca pabilities of planning staffs will need to be up graded. Assistance from international agencies should be considered. Recommendation. Legislation is needed in CEP countries to require the formal preparation of environmental impact assess ments (ElAs) for all major development pro jects (public or private sector), especially for those within the coastal zone, within the boundaries of designated protected areas, or ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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LAWS PROVIDE THE INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR GOVERNMENT ACTION BUT, BY THEMSELVES, THEY ARE NOT THE FINAL SOLUTION 56 affecting other critical areas. From an institu tional perspective, EIAs are useful because they force a more holistic integration of technical data and environmental expertise across departmental lines while, at the same time, guar2.::\teeing more systematic input of environmental and social consiuerations --rrflecting resource user perspectives --at an early stage in the planning process. This can be particularly important :n CEP clJuntries where resource management functiolls are spread among many government departments and quasi-government institutions --each of which tends to view "the environment" from its own perspective or area of interest. Recommendation. Improved coordination is one of the most critical institutional issues confronting CEP countries in the resource management sector. Governments need to take steps to initiate procedures for more effective and regular coordination by government agencies with resource manage ment responsibilities which cut across sector and ministerial lines, e.g., pollution control, land use planning, and development control. It is important that governments attempt to identify to harmonize environmental managemcilt functions, especially since these functions have not been isolated within a single agency in CEP countries. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: LEGISLA TION AND INSTITUTIONAL S fRENGTHENING Critical to improving the resource management capabilities of CEP governments is the need to clarify institutional roles and authority, as these have been defined by statute or regulatory procedure. Several areas of institutional overlap or conflict have been identified in the resource management sector, including: development control and planning approval, allocation and use of public lands, conservation and protection of watersheds and the water supply, pollution control and the maintenance of water quality. The objective should not be to eliminate overlap or reCARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION dUlldancy per se but to eliminate jurisdictional gaps, identify common goals, capitalize on opportunities for shared monitoring, and pursue reinforcing strategies for improved oversight and enforcement. Much of the legislation pertaining to environmental management in CEP countries is outdated, lacks regulations, is ignored, or is generally unenforcelJble. A key area requiring legislative review in all CEP states is that of public health; existing legislation is seriously outdated, lacks standards, and is based on colonial legal concepts which are inadequate to deal with modern pollution control problems. CEP countries have received assistance from a vatiety of donor groups in the last decade to review, update and revise legislation related to environmental resources. In St. Vincent, for example, an ambitious body of propc3ed legislation is currently under consid eration by Government, including legislation for forests, water resources, national parks, planning, public health, pesticide control, and litter control. At the same time, each Environmental Profile identified extant environmental legisla tion (If laws with environmental implications which have not been effectively enforced in CEP countries. The lack of adequate technical personnel for monitoriJlg and enforcement is often cited for the inability of CEP govein ments to fully enforce existing legislation. These staffmg problems wiii be exacerbated if proposed new environmental laws are enacted. St. Kitts-Nevis is a case in point. The country's new National Conservation and Environment Protection Act (1987) is potentially one of the strongest and most comprehensive environmental laws in the Caribbean, with broad definitions, rules and penalties covering both the natural and built environment. However, if the resource management and conser vation concerns articulated by the Act are to be reflected in new policies and regulations, considerable institutional strengthening of those departments and agencies responsible for reISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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57 source management and resource protection in the state will be required. Recommendation. An update to the 1986 OECS-sponsored analysis of natural resource management legislation in the Eastern Caribbean should be carried out by a donor organization. What is required is a more tightly defined assessment which builds on thz 1986 review by more specifically identifying those areas of (1) existing or potential connict in institutional responsibilities and (2) shared or overlapping legislated or authority. All CEP countries would benefit from such an analysis. Recommendations for modification of existing legislation would need to be included as well as guidelines for improved coordination procedures. Recommendation. Probably with the assistance of donor agencies, CEP governments need to carefully examine the technical and regulatory implications of the full spectrum of extant and proposed environmental and resource management legislation in each country and take appropriate steps to improve the quantity and quality of staff required for implementation, particularly middle level management and technical staff. Governmen tal institutional strengthening has been givcn high priority in the national development plans of several CEP countries. Recommendation. The difficulty of enforcing the pollution control provisions of existing public health laws in the CEP countries has been noted by both in-country observers and external consultants. Not only are the provisions of public health laws seriously outdated, but the extremely low penalties prescribed trivialize the best of efforts aimed at pollution control and regulation. In some cases, regulations to support legislation were never enacted, further limiting the substantive authority of public health laws. Revised and modernized public health legislation, with appropriately strengthened national standards for water quality, pollution control, and waste management, is needed in CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION all CEP countries. Standards should be developed which take into consideration institu lional capacities and resources for monitoring and enforcement. Tactics to coordinate the pollution control r,!sponse of accountable agencies and departments and to develop and set workable standards need to be explored. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: THE ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION The people of the Caribbean need to participate meaningfully in the development process since they are ultimately the beneficia ries of that process. Since the majority of the citizens of the region earn their livelihood from agriculture and tourism, it is particularly important that educational/training activities related to these fields include an emph""is on expanding awareness about the environmental implications of these key economic sectors and reinforce an understanding of the inter-con nectedness of human action and the impact on natural systems. Recommendation. Public education about the environment must be linked to appropriate institutional initiatives at the national level, and CEP governments need to ensure that, as a mailer of ongoing public policy, edu cation about the environment will be incorpo rated into the formal educational system at all levels. Recommendailon. CEP govern-ments need to recognize the consideration expertise and experience of NGOs in building community-focused programs of environmental awareness and to draw upon these initiatives to support and complement their own programs. NGO activities are often less formal, less traditional but more experimental and more experientially-based than environ mental education programs in the public sector. ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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IN GENERAL, THE CONSIDERABLE RESOURCES AND EXPERTISE OF NGOsARE OVERLOOKED BY GOVERNMENTS WHEN DESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTING NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS 58 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: THE ROLE OF NGOs A number of non-governmental orga nizations in CEP countries have played an im portant role in influencing the level of envi ronmental awareness. However, environmental NGOs in the region do not generally func tion as "pressure groups" per se. Rather, through alternative education, research, train ing, and outreach programs, they seck to heighten public awareness about envi ronmental issues and to provide private sector input for the achievement of environmental goals. Nevertheless, Eastern Caribbean gov ernments still appear somewhat skeptical, if not suspicious, about the role of NGOs in the definition of public policy. While efforts to fa cilitate or accommodate NGO participation can make the task of the government planner or resource manager more complex and time consuming, such efforts are important because they will also: facilitate government access to a larger infL '-nation base; provide an opportunity for govern ments to build coalitions or support on behalf of their projf;cts or deci sions; and allow for discussion and possible conflict resolution prior to an exten sive commitment of public resources to a potentially controversial activity or project. As environmental NGOs in the East ern Caribbean mature and expand their pro gram agendas, they will have an increasingly important role to playas agents for sustainable development and planned growth strategies, as "quality control" vehicles for monitoring devel opment impacts, and as institutional forums for consensus-building about national develop ment goals. CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION Recommendation. CEP governments and environmental NGOs need to ag gressively seek opportunities for promoting joint initiatives and partnerships in the pursuit of shared resource management objectives. For example, a critical role in natural resource management is the monitoring, col lecting and archiving of information about en vironmental impacts. Eastern Caribbean NGOs are well-positioned to help with this im portant task by linking their ongoing (and his torically important) information collecting focus (e.g., most have libraries, many operate museums) with emerging citizen-based envi ronmental monitoring capabilities. What needs to be explored is the degree to which these NGO facilities and services can be linked to identifiable needs in public sector programs. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE: CEP FOLLOW-UP The notion that the "environment," broadly speaking, is government business is not new in the Eastern Caribbean. The people of these islands have generally welcomed gov ernment control of Crown Lands, public health, ports, harbors and some aspects of forestry and fishing, among other activities. But while the idea of government as guardian of selected environmental resources is not new, what is new and still in experimental stages is the idea of trying to choreograph various min istries, government units and even statutory bodies into a coordinated resource manage ment system -one designed to improve effi ciencies, reduce risks, and minimize adverse impacts on the environment. What is also new is the steady growth and acceptance of the citizen-based environ mental movement in the region, where in country after country community groups, civic organizations, and NGOs are attempting to influence the public sector to take action when environmental abuses become obvious, to protect communities from environmental hazISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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59 ards, and to guarantee the conservation and survival of certain environmental amenities. The days of passive conservation for many natural resources in the CEP countries are fast disappearing. Any new national con sel"/alion program for these countries in the decade of the nineties will inevitabiy require expanding levels of more kinds of governmental intervention. In turn, this presumes an national strategy and plan for ecosystem restoration and management. As the four-year Country Environ mental Profile Project for the Eastern Caribbean draws to a close, it is apparent that environmental planners, resource managers, and the political leadership of the CEP countries are being pulled in seemingly conflicting directions as they confront the almost overwhelming number of recommendations and policy guidelines provided in each Environ mental Profile. On the onl! hand, some protagonists maintain CEP governn:ents should move ahead quickly with direct action programs of remediation and intervention. The emphasis should be on defensive, "fire-fighting," protective kinds of action, given the environmental stress now observable in many sectors of island life. For example, if the impact of pesticide use on public health is of critical concern, as articulated by government resource managers, health officials and community leaders, then what might be required is a program of improved data collection and analysis. Credible and reliable information is necessary to convince the political leadership of the urgency 01 the problem, thereby bringing it to the for\! front as a priority policy question. The "environmental issue" is narrowly defined; the approach is a problem-solving one, i.e., to seek a technically-based solution; the strategy is to identify the necessary resources. GARI88EAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION On the other hand, there are those who are anxious to approach the emironmen tal issues identified in the Profiles strategically, i.e., to use the Profiles as a comprl!hensive planning tool and as a first step in the design and implementation of a 1Iatio1lal C01lsef1'atioll strategy. What is needed, according to this argument, is something almost like an structural readjustment for the environment in each CEP country. TlIe strategic approach has a longer time frame, and because it is more visionary, it is more difficult. It builds on creating consensu" and a mutuality of interests; hence, it is mor'.: political and less technical. The problem is that sound environ mental policy is a blend of politics and people's needs with technolo3}' and the natural system's needs --in a sustainable equilibrium. In fact, follow-up to the CEP Project can be pursued on a variety of levels. The ratio of direct action to strategic planning solutions is really a function of where each CEP country is at present. Therefore, what is most needed now is the early d-:velopment of a policy framework within which change can occur along with a schedule of implementation which reflects each country's assessment and prioritizing of the full spectrum of environmental issues identified in its own Environmental Profile. Finally, it needs to be said that "solutions" are seldom as neat and orderly as their presentation in written form in the Environmental Profiles might make them appear. In most cases, they will require inter-disci plinary and cross-ministerial cooperation and coordination. Furthermore, a complex problem will appear, and in fact will prove to be, intractable until it is attacked creatively, aggressively, and simultaneously by both govern ment and private sector entities working together. One of the purposes of the Country Environmental Profile Project in the Eastern Caribbean has been to open such channels for dialogue in the search for workable solutions. ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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, 60 KEY INSTITUTIONAL ISSUES RELATED TO ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION-MAKING ON AN AD HOC BASIS, FOCUSING ON SHORT TERM OR INTERIM RATHER THAN LONG-TERM POLICY OBJECTIVES FOR THE ENVIRONMENT. FRAGMENTATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS WITHIN CEP GOV ERNMENTS DUE TO THE DIFFUSION OF THESE RESPONSIBILITIES AMONG A NUMBER OF DEPARTMENTS REPRESENTING SEVERAL MINISTRIES AND STATUTORY BODIES. ILL-DEFINED LINES OF INSTITUTIONAL AUTHORITY WITH REGARD TO THE MANAGE MENT OF LAND, WATER AND CULTURAL RESOURCES. GENERALLY WEAK COOI'lDINATION AMONG GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND STATUTORY BODIES WITH RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES. LACK OF AN OFFICIALLY APPROVED, UP-TO-DATE LAND USE PLANNING FRAMEWORK IN ALL CEP COUNTRIES, THEREBY REDUCING THE OVERALL EFFECTIVENESS OF DEVELOPMENT CONTROL PROCEDURES. THE NEED TO S'fRENGTHEN THE PLANNING PROCESS AND TO UPGRADE THE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CAPABILITIES OF PHYSICAL PLANNING UNITS, INCLUDING THE ENViRON MENTAL EXPERTISE OF PLANNING STAFFS. THE NEED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENTS, AS ONE MEANS OF FORCING A SYSTEMATIC EXAMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL ISSUES AT AN EARLY STAGE IN THE PLANNING PROCESS. SHORTAGE OF TRAINED AND EXPERIENCED TECHNICAL PERSONNEL FOR !:'NVIRON MENTAL PLANNING, MONITORING AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITIES. OUTDATeD ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION OR LACK OF SUPPORTING REGULATIONS TO MUCH OF THE EXTANT BODY OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAW, THUS DIMINISHING THE OVERALL EFFECTIVENESS OF THE LEGAL BASE FOR RESOURCE PROTECTION. C\ FAILURE OF CEP GOVERNMENTS TO TAKE FULL ADVANTAGE OF THE CREATIVE ENERGIES, RESOURCES AND EXPERTISE OF NGOs WITH ENVIRONMENTAL INTERESTS AND AGENDAS. CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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61 1990's \'" .. ,l. ," ..' .' .,,:. ., .' m; FORESTS To defend desigttated water catchment areas against encroachment and to phase out land clearing activities on very steep upland slopes, in critical water catch ments, and in designated forest reserves, CEP governments should ilro mulgate and implement more effective upland watershed land use regulations, mon Itoring programs, and protec tion procedures, including enforcement. To increase the practice of private forestry and to present positive altematives to ille gal squatting or land clearing activities in critical water catchments, CEP governments should, in a deliberately-designed strategy, identify dnd establish appro priate incentives, including economir incentives, which promote t .. ese objectives. To fimd protective land and water conservation meaSllres, including IIpland watershed land acquisition or easement colltrol, CEP governments, perhaps In cooperation with donor agen cies, should review metering systems, water rate schedules and user fee charges, and should thereafter establish financing schemes sufficient to earmark such monies for land and water conservation provams CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION To improve the economic viability of small famlers while conserving the natllral re source base, donor agencies, in cooperation with CEP governments and NGOs, should provide finan cial and technical assistance in support of agroforestry pl'ogrnms. To ensure the availability of an adeqllate data base on the composition, condition, area and resources of forested regions and to provide for the long-teml development offorests, CEP governments, with donor assistance, should prepare or update (1) forest resource In ventories and assessments and (2) comprehensive forest re source management plans, To confiml the extent of environmelltal risk associated with fllelwood prodllction and harvesting, CEP governments should es tablish more effective methods for sys:ematlcally evaluatlng fuelwood extraction rates, par ticularly for areas where con tinued harvesting for this purpose poses a substantial environmental risk. ISLAND RESOURC::S FOUNDATION

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62 WILDLIFE, HABITATS, AND BIODIVERSITY To provide for a more systematic alld for mal integration of biodiversity issues illto improved lalld lise planlling procedures, CEP governments should de velop guidelines to (1.) restrict the clearing of nativl! forests In designated areas and habi tat types and (2) provide for a recurring quantitative review of land use practkes and trends and their eWects on wildlife and biodiversity, viewed as a national resource. To ellsure access to data required for bio logical diversity assessmellt alld decisioll makillg, CEP eovernments, perhaps Initially with the assistance of donor agency funding and NGO technical support, should upgrade natural re source mapping and data col lection systems, moving to ward development of a work able geographic Information system (GIS). To implemellt cooperative researeh, data collectioll, educatioll alld mOllitorillg illi tiatives related to wildlife protectioll alld the preservatioll ofbiodiyersity, CEP governments and NGOs should establish working part nerships for the promotioEI of wildlife conservation, re search, and educational pro grams and, to this end, should consider joint applications for funding support to appropri ate donor agencies. CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION To improve access to infomlOtion needed by decision-makers on the impacts of pollutants C'l wildlife and on marine and te"estrial ecosystems, CEP governments, assisted by should develop long term record-keeping proce dures regarding pollution events and habitat damage or loss, such information to be centrally housed within one appropriate government a gency. To more effectively carry out wildlife mallagemellt programs, CEP governments, with donor assistance, should Identify re sources for upgrading those units of government responsi ble for w.ldUfe management, Includll1g resources foJ' staff training, technical support, and equipl.:ent acquisition. To improve global efforts to regulate Wildlife trade alld to gain access to mate rials, traillillg, alld expertise 011 species cOllservation and Wildlife trade regulatiOIlS, the Governments of Antlgua Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, a,.d St. Kitts-Nevis should ap prove the Convention on International Trade In Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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s 63 q FRESHWATER RESOURCES and WATERSHED MANAGEMENT To protect key water catchmellts alld mailltaill adequate water supplies for do mestic cOllsumptioll alld other uses, CEP governments should de velop comprehenslvf national water policies anr. develop ment plans fl',' water re sources anI! watershed manIncluding a phase-In prOl ram for land acquisition for watershed protection and a careful analysis of the optimal ratio of surface water to groundwater exploitation. To more effectil1ely exercise authority ill limitillg development ill critical water catchmellt areas, CEP governments should adopt a more aggressh'e pro gram of Identifying and pro tecting the mofc. productive water resource areas and in corporating this Information Into national planning, land use zoning, and development permitting policies. CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION To mailltaill public colltrol over water catchment areas which are lIeeded for the 10llger-tenll mailltellallce of water systems but which do 1I0t fall w;thill the boulld aries of legally-desi;;,lated ''protected areas, CEP governments should establish use-limiting tlons and Incentives and should negotiate easements to limit the development of such private lands; alternatively, CEP governments, perhaps with donor assistance, should take steps to acquire critical lands for' Incorporation Into a areas system under the control of approprl. ate authorities. To mm/lmze leakage and waste in the water distribution system, a recurring phe nomenon in CEP countries, CEP governments, with donor assistance, should accelerate programs of leak detection and repair as an ongoing maintenance requirement ISLAND FOUNDATION

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64 COASTAL AND MARINE ENVIRONMENTS To better regulate local fisheries and bal ance tendencies toward over-exploitation and excessive fishing, CEP fisheries management plans should be oriented to ward conserving the resource and attempting to enhance its long-term returns, including efforts to stabilize declining landings and to optimize the harvest of species important to local nutrition and tourism. To improve fisheries managemetlt pro grams, CEP fisheries managers should give priority attention to expansion of existing data collection systems and to im proved implementation and monitoring of extant fisheries control measures and re strictions. To more effectively manage development activities in the coastal zone and to pro vide more comprehensive development guidelines and policies committed to maintaining the quality of coastal re sources ii' the face of accelerating ''piecemeal'' CEP governhlents, in coopera tion with donor agencies, should take immediate steps to begin development of com prehensive Coastal Zone Management programs, in cluding environmental impact assessments for coastal pro jects, permitting procedures, community education, techniC';.HIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION cal assistance services, and re source user involvement in planning and monitoring. To improve enforcement of regulations controlling the removal of beach sand, with its associated risks of coastal erosion and stonn damage, CEP governments should establish formal programs to monitor marine sand re sources and to regulate com mercial exploitation of these resources, including the des ignation of (1) areas where controlled sand removal will have the least detrimental im pact and is most compatible with current site utilization and (2) priority, erosion-prone areas where sand removal will be absolutely prohibited. To address the increasing environmelltal problems affecting the coastal zone, CEP governments, with fund ing from donor should devtlop marine re source assessment, deve; opment, and management plans, in much the same way that such plans have been prepared for the forestry and agriculture sectors; marine re source plans should include an evaluation of coastal and marine resources (coral reefs, seagrass beds, beaches, man groves), current extractive uses, and needed conservation programs. ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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. 65 AGRICULTURE To address some of the ellvironmelltal problems associated with ballalla cultivatiOll, particularly ill hillside areas, CEP governments should de velop appropriate input pric ing, extension services, soil conservation investment sub sidies, and marketing assis tance programs which encour age a diversirication of the agricultural base, including an emphasis on tree crops capa ble of providing more perma nent cover of land areas on steep, erosion-prone slopes. To reduce soil erosioll alld general lalld degradatioll associated with overgrazillg of livestock by small fanners, CEP governments, in coopera tion with regional organiza tions and local NGOs, should pursue research programs to Identify agroforestry methods and erosion-control tech niques best suited to each country and to local soil types and terrain. To address the problem of illsecure land tenure, which serves as a barrier to el' panded commitment to lalld cOllservation practices by small famlers, CEP governments should ex pand agricultural extension services to small farmers (em phasizing education and training programs In soil and water conservation tech niques), and should Identify more Innovative and nearCARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION tenn rewards, Incentives, and subsidies to encourage the practice of envlronmentally sound land management by small fanners. To improve ill-country capabilities for sampling alld analyzing pesticide residues, CEP governments, with donor assistance, should establish procedures for the regular testing of potable water and food stuffs for pesticide residues, and should upgrade laboratory and personnel ca pabilities for water quality monitoring. To improve implementation of extant pes ticide controllegislatioll, CEP governments should pro vide up-to-date regulations, reactivate and energize Pesti cide Control Boards, and pro vide such boards with suffi cient authority and personnel to actively monitor and regu late agrochemicallmportatlon, storage, distribution and use. To improve safety procedures in the use and applicatioll of agroc/,emicals, agricultural extension agents and representatives of fann ers' organization should be trained to certify fanners and other users In the safe use and application of agrocher:.tlcals. ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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66 TOURISM To more clearly link tourism del'elopmelll to canyillg capacity considerations, to enIIancement of tile natural environment, and to an appropriate and acllievable level of infrastnlcture development, CEP governments should give more serious attention to an integration of economic plan ning and physical/land use planning. To limit tile telldency to increase the purchase of imported goods and services to support an expallding tollrism industry, resource managers from both the private and public sectors should identify those specific goods and serviceI' to be "abandoned" to imports and those where better planning can actually increase the local content of the tourism prod uct. To limit tile elll'ironmental and social im pacts of large tOllrism projects, particularly tllose sited ill tile coastal zo:!e, CEP governments should more carefully review large scale tourism projects, using formal environmental impact assessment procedures, and should require such develop ments to be energy and potable water selfsufficient and have self-contained sewCARIBBEAN CO'-.lSEt'lVATION ASSOCIATION age treatment plants; addi tionally, tlppage fees should be charged for solid waste gener ated by tourism facUlties, and yardage extract! on fees charg ed for construction sand. To increase tile marketability of CEP countries as tourist destinations, CEP governments, working with the prlva'le sector and NGOs, should design a com prehensive tourism amenities program for thf development, use, and managt'ment of natu ral and historical landmarks as Important features In tourism marketill!g plans. To expand tile tourism base in CEP coun tries, CEP governments, in coopera tion with the pri'vate sector, should (1) more fully address nature or ecotourism in mar keting plans and promotional literature, (2) de'velop site management plans for those amenities which sulpport na ture tourism, and (3) identify sufficient resources 10 imple ment such management plans, Including training programs which address the special staffing requirements of eco tourism activities. ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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67 POLLUTION To address the need for more comprehen sive and financially realistic solid waste management planning, including implementation schedules and funding strategies, CEP governments, with donor assistance, should prepare na tional solid waste management plans, covering at least a ten and preferably a twenty year period, and should consider enactment of up-dated solid waste management legislation tl) define local and national government responsibilities, to establish standards for waste disposal, and to regulate waste collection; identification of fi nancing for upgraded solid waste management programs should be a part of the plan ning process and should in clude identification of means for raising needed revenues by establishment of user fees for waste disposal services. To reduce the pollution load in freshwater and marine elh'ironments from the continued disposal of raw sewage, CEP governments, with donor assistance, should upgrade present ,1isposal methods by using prelimir.dry treatment procedures combined with a long outfall for discharges into deep water in are .. s of strong currents; disposal systems should be designed to be t!asily upgraded to a higher level of treatment should this prove to be necessary later. CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION ct To reduce the pollution load of industrial wastes in harbors and other coastal waters, CEP governments should adopt public policies designed lo attract relatively non-pol luting industries; environmen tal Impact assessments should be required of all proposed in dustrial projects, and existing industries already discharging toxic or high-BOD waste'i into the environment should be re quired to treat such wastes und clean-up already polluted areas. To have access 10 base line data and to identify marine/coastal areas requiring remedial action from environmental pol lution impacts, CEP governments, with donor assistance, should establish long-term water quaiii)' and marine biological programs, including upgrdd ing of laboratory facilitie'i and personnel capabilities. To red/lce the risk from oil and other hazardous material rpills, CEP governments, in coopera tion with agencies and regional organii:ations, should develop contingency plans and emergency response capabili ties. ISLAND RESOUf1CES FOUNDATICN

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68 As all alltecedelll to the del'elopmellt of remedial or regulatory pollutioll cO/ltrol measures, CEP governments, in coopera tion with donor agencies and regional organizations, should carry out natlonal pollution assessments that identify the basic dimensions of waste streams and quantify sources and causative agents, flow rates, destinations, and projections. To reduce the burdell 011 the public treasury for pollutioll cOlltrol alld waste mall agemellt programs, CEP governments, with donor assistance, should examine the feasibility of turning such pro grams into revenue-generating activities by the simple proce dure of establishing prices for many facets of waste disposal and privatizing some services. CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION To address the lIeed for updated ellviroll melltal health legislatioll, based 011 mod em pollutioll cOlltrol problems alld COII cepts, CEP governments, with do';or assistance, should update and strengthen all such legislation and should provide national standards and criteria for water quality, pollution con trol, and waste management, keeping in mind each coun try's instituHonal capabilities and resources for carrying out oversight, monitoring, and regulatory responsibilities. ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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69 PARKS and OTHER PROTECTED AREAS To imprOl'e efforts to protect alld mallage historical resources. CEP governments should (I) review, update, and strengthen anthluities legislation; (2) provide for the establishment of a "registry of historic places" with protection pro vided for national landmarks, historic sites, or architectural features included on the regish"),; and (3) consider the of "historic dis tricts," including the develop ment of policies which encour age adaptive use and restora tion in such districts and the adoption of design controls for new construction. To imprOl'e the eXlstmg, gellerally fragmellted illstitutiollal framework for protectillg, developillg alld mallagillg critical IIatural areas alld historical resources, with respollsibilitics spread amollg scveral all tllOrities alld illstitutiollS, CEP in consul tation with NGOs, should adopt a national policy and program pilln for "heritage pr9tection" which, among other Issues, addresses the question of divided institu tional responsibilities for pro tected areas management. CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION To ellsure that all critical IIatural alld clIl tural resollrces receil'e adeqllate protectioll ill all illtegrated fashioll, each CEP government, with assistance from donor agen cies and in cooperation with NGOs, should prepare and formally adopt a plan for a "parks and protected areas which includes na tional guidelines for (I) desig nating protected areas, (2) selecting and acquiring sites, (3) establishing site manage ment plans, (4) providing enforcement procedures, (5) designating a central man agement authority, and (6) defining public/private sector cooperation and inter-gov ernmental coordination; a funding strategy for land ac quisition also needs to be ap proved and put in place. To address the critical shortage of trailled staff for park mallagemellt, CEP governments and NGOs, ",th donor assistance, should identify appropriate training programs for personnel in natural resource management and in park and protected areas management. ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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70 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK To improve the effectivelless of lalld lise plallllillg, growth mall agem ell t policies, and the development control process, each CEP government should prepare (or update) a com prehensive physical develop ment plan to guide and inform ci!ecision-making about future gro\orth; the process should in clude development of island wide zoning which classifies and protects certain categories of land for specific uses, e.g., agriculture, recreation, water catchment, forestry, and wildlife. To improve generally weak del'elopment planning and cOlltrol fllnctions, identified as a systemic institlltional problem in all CEP cOlin tries, CEP governments should strengthen the role of their physical planning units, in cluding allocation of responsi bility for (1) more formalized development review and devel opment control functions, (2) preparation of land use maps and natural resource data bases, and (3) implementation of formal zoning restrictions and subdivision regulations; with assistance from donor a!!encies, the size and capabili ties of planning staffs should be upgraded, perhaps to in clude environmental technical expertise. CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION To force a "lOre holistic illtegratioll of technical data alld environmental expertise across departmental lines and to guarantee more systematic inpllt of environmelltal and social consideratiol/s at an early stage il/ the plal/I/il/g process, legislation is needed to man date the formal preparation of environmental impact assess for all major develop ment projects, especially for those within the coastal zone, within the boundaries of des ignated protected areas, or af fecting other critical areas. To imprOl'e gel/erally iI/adequate il/ter agency al/d illter-sectoral coordillatioll amol/g the variolls /II/its of govemmel/t with envirol/mel/tal protectiol/ and resource mal/agemel/t responsibilities, CEP governments should take steps to initiate procedures for more formal, regular, and ef fective coordination of gov ernment units with resource management functions, in par ticular th(Jse government de partments and quasi-govern mental statutory bodies with responsibilities for pollution control, land use planning, de velopment control, allocation and use of public lands, and protection of watersheds and the water supply,

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71 ..................................................... To address jurisdictiollal gaps or reduII dallcy ill extalll CIlI'ir01l111elltal legislatioll alld illstillltiollal OIwlap or cOllf/ict ill resource mallagemellt respollsibilities, CEP governments, with the assistance of donor agencies, should implement an up-dated assessment of environmental legislation, specifically identi fying areas of connict in insti tutional responsibilities and areas of shared or overlapping legislated or assumed author ity; recommendations for modification of existing legis lation should be provided as well as guhielines for im proved coordination proce dures. To address the IIeed for adequate techllical persollnel for mOllitorillg alld ellforcemelll fUllctiolls as idelllified ill extalll ellviroll meniullegislatioll, CEP governments, probably with the assistance of donor agencies, should review the technical and regulatory im plications of the full spectrum of existing and envi ronmental and resource man agement legislation a!ld should 'Ake steps to improve the quantity and quality of stuff required for implementa tion, particularly middle-level management and technical stuff. CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION To strellgthell the ability of citizens to participate ol'er the 10llg-ten1l ill tile ongoing public policy debate about envirOIl issues, CEP governments should en sure that, as a matter of con tinuing public policy, educa tion about the environment Is Incorporated Into the formal educational system at all levels. To facilitate go vernmellt access to a broader base of illfomratioll, expertise, public Opillioll alld potential support, CEP governments and envi ronmental NGOs should ag gressively seek opportunities for promoting Joint Initiatives and partnerships in pur suit of shared resource man agement objectives. ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION

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COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE (CEP) SERIES FOR THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN A collaborative effort (1987-1991) of the U.S. Agency for International Devel opment; the Caribbean Conservation Association; the Island Resources Foundation; the Governments of Antigua-Barbuda, Grenada, Dominica, St. Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines; and the non-gov ernmental organiz:ltions listed below. The following Environmental Profiles were published by the Caribbean Conservation Association and the Island Resources Foundation in 1991: ANTIGUA-BARBUDA COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE DOMINICA COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE GRENADA COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE ST. KITTS-NEVIS COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE ST. LUCIA COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE ST. VINCENT and THE GRENADINES COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE Requests for Profiles may be sent either to CCA or IRF as follows: executive Director CAribbean Conservation Associbtion Savannah Lodge, The Garrison St. Michael, Barbados Publications Office Island Resources Foundation 1718 P Street Northwest, #T4 WUdhlngton, D.C. 20036 In-country copies of individual Profiles may be requested from the following non-governmental organizations, each of which served as a local CEP partner/coordinator: Antigua Environmental Awareness Group P.O. Box 103 SI. John's, Antigua Grenada National Trust and Historical Society c/o National Museum SI. George's, Grenada YES Committee c/o The Forestry Division Botanical Gardens Roseau, Dominica St. Christopher Heritage Society P.O. Box 338 Basseterre, St. Kitts Nevis Historical and Conservation Society Alexander Hamilton House Charlestown, Nevis National Research and Development Foundation P.O. Box 1097 Castries, SI. Lucia St. Vincent National Trust P.O. Box 1538 Kingstown, SI. Vincent