Dominica

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Dominica country environmental profile
Uncontrolled:
Country environmental profile
Physical Description:
xiv, 239 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Dominica -- Forestry and Wildlife Division
USAID Regional Development Office for the Caribbean
Caribbean Conservation Association
Island Resources Foundation (Virgin Islands of the United States)
Dominica YES Committee
Publisher:
s.n.
Place of Publication:
S.l
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Conservation of natural resources -- Dominica   ( lcsh )
Environmental policy -- Dominica   ( lcsh )
Environmental protection -- Dominica   ( lcsh )
Economic development -- Environmental aspects -- Dominica   ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 213-239).
Statement of Responsibility:
prepared under the aegis of the Caribbean Conservation Association on behalf of the government of the Commonwealth of Domininca, Forestry and Wildlife Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Lands, Fisheries, Trade, Industry and Tourism with the technical support of the Island Resources Foundation, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands and the Dominica YES Committee (Years of Environment and Shelter, 1989-1990) ; funding provided by the U.S. Agency for International Development, Regional Office/Caribbean.
General Note:
"Draft prepared 1990."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 24917598
System ID:
AA00001402:00001


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Environmental Profile













FOREWORD


One of the most serious threats to sustainable economic growth in the Caribbean is the increasing
degradation of the region's natural ecosystems and a concurrent deterioration in the quality of life for
Caribbean people. The task of reversing this unfortunate trend requires better knowledge and un-
derstanding of the region's unique environmental problems and the development of appropriate
technologies and public policies to lessen and even prevent negative impacts on our fragile resource
base.

In an attempt to provide such a framework, the Caribbean Conservation Association, with funding
provided by the United States Agency for International Development and with the technical assis-
tance of the Island Resources Foundation, has produced a series of Country Environmental Profiles
for six Eastern Caribbean countries Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, SL Kitts and Nevis,
St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines.

Even though these documents do not claim to be encyclopedic in their treatment of individual sectors
and issues, each Profile represents the most current and comprehensive information base assembled
to date on environmental and conservation issues that affect, and are affected by, the development
process in the Profile countries.

Each document addresses key environmental problems, constraints, and policy directions as these
were identified and fleshed out by a team of researchers and writers, in collaboration with a local co-
ordinating committee. Each Profile also identifies and examines a variety of opportunities and plan-
ning tools which may prove useful in meeting environment/development goals in the future. All of
this information should play a significant role in informing and inftuencing ecologically-sound
development planning in the region, and should provide a basis for improved decision-making both
immediate as well as long-term. This may best be accomplished by using the data to define priorities
(in view of related benefits and costs), to pursue in-depth analysis of issues, and to undertake neces-
sary follow-on activities in such a way that they arc mutually reinforcing. In short, action emaating
from the recommendations contained in the Profile might best be undertaken within a comprehensive
environmental management framework, rather than from a piecemeal, project-oricated perspective.

The Caribbean Conservation Association is very pleased to be able to make this contribution to de-
velopment planning in the region.


Calvin A. Howell
Executive Director
Caribbean Conservation Association


(April 1991)








ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Overall project management for the Dominica Country Environmental Profile Project was provided by
the Caribbean Conservation Association (CCA) under the direction of Acting Executive Director Mr.
Calvin Howell. Technical guidance in preparation of the Profile was the responsibility of the Island Re-
sources Foundation (IRF). Dr. Edward L. Towle, President of the Foundation, is the Team Leader for
the Profile Project in the Eastern Caribbean; Ms. Judith A. Towle, IRF Vice President, is the Editor of
the CEP Report Series; and Mr. Avrum J. Shriar served as Coordinator for the Dominica CEP.

Dominica Government liaison for the CEP effort was the Division of Forestry and Wildlife of the Min-
istry of Agriculture, Lands, Fisheries, Trade, Industry and Tourism. Additionally, the Core Committee
for the Government's YES (Years of Environment and Shelter) program was designated as the CEP
National Committee with overall responsibilities for in-country coordination, review and support activi-
ties. The YES Committee is comprised of representatives from both the public and private sectors.
Professional counterpart assistance to the CEP project team was provided in Dominica by Mrs. Roma
Douglas, who with competence and resourcefulness supported the technical team and became a key
member of the project's working group.

Special recognition is due to Mr. Felix Gregoire, who wore two hats for the CEP project -- as head of the
Forestry and Wildife Division and as chairman of the YES Committee, a dual assignment he executed
with considerable skill and good cheer. Appreciation is also expressed to the technical and support staff
of the Forestry and Wildlife Division and to the Executive members and support staff of the Dominica
Conservation Association. The technical review of the Profile provided by Dr. Peter G.H. Evans of Ox-
ford University was extremely helpful.

Staff at the U.S. Agency for International Development, Caribbean Regional Development Office in
Barbados facilitated implementation of the Dominica Profile Project, in particular, Mission Envi-
ronmental Officer Rebecca Niec, whose support has been appreciated throughout this effort by both
CCA and IRF.

Many persons in Dominica gave willingly of their time and expertise in providing interviews and infor-
mation for the CEP writing team and in the report review process (these contributions are discussed in
more detail in the Introduction section to the Profilel. The list of names which follows (in alphabetical
order) is by no means an inclusive one, but we wish to take this opportunity to thank those whose input
was particularly useful in writing the Profilc report: Isaac Baptiste (Physical Planning Division), Claudia
Bellot (Agriculture), Deo Bhagowtee (Legal Affairs), R. Bruncy (DOMLEC), Anthony Burnette-
Biscombe (Communications/Works), Adolphus Christian (Forestry), Michael Didier (DBMC),
Eisenhower Douglas (EDU), Marie-Jose Edwards (National Development Corportation/Tourism),
John Fabien (Health), S. Govindaraj (UNDP/DOMLEC), F. Adler Hamlet (DOMLEC), Errol Harris
(Agriculture), R.C.M. Harris (Law Review Office), Arlington James (Forestry), Edward Lambert
(Dominica Agro Industries, Ltd.), Randall LaRonde (Small Lumber Producers Group), Nigel Lawrence
(Fisheries), Jon Mann (CICP), C. "Bud" Meckling (CIDA/DOWASCO), Jean-Rene Noiseux
(CIDA/DOWASCO), Greg Robin (CARDI), Phillipe Ross (CICP), Christopher Sorhaindo
(DOWASCO), Sylvester Vital (Communications/Works), Allan White (FAO/Forestry), David Williams
(Forestry), and Jeff Williams (Forestry). Many other organizations, agencies, and individuals in
Dominica gave valuable assistance during the course of the project. To each we extend our gratitude,
along with the hope that the Environmental Profile will assist the country in defining and achieving its
goals for sustainable development in the decade ahead.

For further information, contact any one of the implementing institutions:

Caribbean Conservation Association Island Resources Foundation YES Committee
Savannah Lodge, The Garrison Red Hook Box 33 c/o The Forestry Division
St. Michael St. Thomas Botanical Gardens
Barbados U.S. Virgin Islands 00802 Roseau, Dominica

(June 1990)











Year of ith Environment and Shelter Core Crmimt Is ,a1


Mr. Felix Gregoire, Chairman
M Ir. Ol hr ._.ri. Deputy hC m rn
Mrs. Gennette Seraphin-Ellik, Executive Secrctary


Mr. Gerry Aird
Mr. Isaac Bapriste
Mr. Michael Ii 1,.n.
Mr. Adolphus Christian
Mr, Sobers Esprit
Mr. John Fabien
Mr. Charles James


Mr. Evander Joseph
Mr. HuJ Pinard
Mr. 3B ,.... Robinson
Mr. Ar jd. i *n ,
Mr. M. t .. Thomnas
Nr. Murphy Wallace


ISLAND RFk 4tl R(S Ht 'S D)11'ATON IT CHNIt( LTL"F ,1
For The Country Enviroamental Proftte Project


CEP PROJECT TEAM LEADER
CEP COORDINATOR FOR DOMINICA
DOMINICA PROJECT OFFICER
EDrrOR, CEP REPORT SERIES
GRAPHICS AND DESTION
IBIBIJOGORAPHY


Edward L. Towk
Avrim J.V iri ,
F. 'Pt D .LI., -
Judith A. Towkc
Jean-Pierre Bade
Ian Joknes
.M.ar'.iic{ kI.ir.. '"_ :


Dominica Envirownental Profile Writing Team
.Prnmar> Auth. .r,


INTRODUCTION


F1f R- .Si S AND WILRDUItF
AGRICULTURE
" RI-.SI( A.\ R RESOURClS
COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES.
ENERGY
INDUSTRY, TOURISM AND TlRANSPOR'A'1TON


POILLLTON .'. PUBLIC HE-AITH
PHYSICAL PLANNING AND LANDSCAPE
PROTECTION OF HITSORICAL REiSOURCES
INKSTMTTIONAL FRAMTVWORK
SUMMARY


A vrum 6rI b '
Judith A. Towke,
B-u G Potter
Awrum J. Shriar
Peter Gi.H. L ..-
Avrum J. Shriar
MeMnvin H. : .-.".n,
Avrum J. Shriar
A.rTum 1J Shriar,
Bruce G. Potter
Edward L. Towle
Roma I,.,-g!a,
Avrum J. hr j
Judith A, Towic
J u..h A. Towle
'' .' Team


DOM)l\ 4X CO1\TRY ENVIR0)'1i- Mi T. (ROFILE NATIO \L COMMITTEE























































Typical luxuriant rain forest habitat in Dominica. featuring a mature, heavily
buttressed Chataignki (S'opnea spp.; -.. f:ou:r in association with
Carapite (Amtanoa caribaea), which has n:xjerat buttresses, and with
Gommier (Dacryodes cisas,










INTRODUCTION


Preparation of Country Environmental Profiles
(CEPs) has proven to be an effective means to
help ensure that environmental issues are ad-
dressed in the development process. Since 1979,
the U.S. Agency for International Development
(USAID) has supported Environmental Profiles
in USAID-assisted countries. Those completed
to date have provided:

(1) a description of each country's
natural resource base, including a re-
view of the extent and economic
importance of natural resources and
changes in the quality or productivity
of those resources;

(2) a review of the institutions,
legislation, policies and programs for
environmental planning, economic de-
velopment and natural resource man-
agement;

(3) identification of the major is-
sues, conflicts or problems in natural
resource management and oppor-
tunities for effective responses.

Profiles have highlighted gaps in the existing in-
formation base, suggested new guidelines for the
design and funding of development programs,
pinpointed weaknesses in regulatory or planning
mechanisms, and illustrated the need for
changes in policies. Most importantly, the pro-
cess of carrying out a profile project has in many
cases helped establish new working relationships
and even consensus among government and non-
government bodies concerned with environ-
mental issues and has also served to strengthen
local institutions and improved their capacity for
incorporating environmental information into
development planning.


PROFILES FOR THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN

Country Environmental Profiles have been pre-
pared for several countries in the Wider
Caribbean Region, including Panama, Belize,
the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Jamaica.
The potential utility of CEPs in the Eastern
Caribbean sub-region (essentially the OECS


countries) has been a subject of discussion since
the early 1980's. The need for the profiling pro-
cess to begin in those countries was reaffirmed
during a seminar on Industry, Environment and
Development sponsored by the Caribbean
Conservation Association (CCA) and the Uni-
versity of the West Indies in August 1986.

Shortly thereafter, USAID entered into a Co-
operative Agreement with CCA for preparation
of a series of CEPs for the Eastern Caribbean.
It was decided to begin the profile process in the
country of St. Lucia as a pilot project, to be fol-
lowed by profiles for Grenada, Antigua-
Barbuda, Dominica, St. Kitts-Nevis, and St.
Vincent and the Grenadines.

Early in 1987, CCA and the Island Resources
Foundation (IRF), of St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin
Islands, entered into an agreement whereby it
was determined that IRF would provide techni-
cal assistance and support to CCA in the execu-
tion of the profile project in the Eastern
Caribbean. The Executive Director of the
Caribbean Conservation Association is the CEP
Project Director, while the President of the Is-
land Resources Foundation serves as CEP Pro-
ject Manager/Team Leader.


THE DOMINICA COUNTRY
ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE

Early in 1990 a Memorandum of Understanding
was signed by CCA and the Government of the
Commonwealth of Dominica (GOCD) for the
purpose of executing a Country Environmental
Profile, with the Forestry and Wildlife Division
of the Ministry of Agriculture serving as the
designated counterpart agency for the Govern-
ment. At the same time, the Committee for the
Government's on-going program called YES
(for Years of Environment and Shelter, 1989-
1910)) was designated by CCA and GOCD as the
local implementing and coordinating organi-
zation for the CEP project, and the members of
the YES Core Committee served as members of
the CEP National Committee for Dominica. In
effect, implementation of the Country Environ-
ment Profile Project was accepted by the YES
Committee as one of its primary objectives for










1990 (for additional information on YES, see
Chapter 11 of the Profile).

The Profile effort in Dominica has received con-
siderable support from the country's Prime
Minister, The Honourable Eugenia Charles, who
early on met with the project director, Mr.
Calvin Howell of the Caribbean Conservation
Association, and with the leader of the project's
technical team, Dr. Edward Towlk of the Island
Resources Foundation, to discuss program goals.
In Dominica, coordination of CEP activities has
also been facilitated by the Prime Minister's
designation of the Forestry and Wildlife Division
as the lead Government agency, for that unit of
Government is ably headed by Mr. Felix
Gregoire, who also serves as chairman of the
YES Committee. Professional counterpart sup-
port for the IRF technical team was provided by
Mrs. Roma Douglas, who assisted with inter-
views, research, and writing tasks.

The CEP National Committee (i.e., the YES
Core Committee) was called on to support the
project in a variety of ways, most importantly in
helping to identify critical environmental issues,
obtaining reference materials, and coordinating
and assisting with the in-country review of mate-
rials prepared by the CEP technical team. A
broad spectrum of individuals, selected locally by
the YES Committee, participated in the review
of the Profile, on a chapter-by-chapter basis.

The draft Profile Report was prepared during a
five month period, February June, 1990, with
draft chapters circulated to in-country reviewers
for comments and input as each was readied by
the CEP technical team. The full CEP docu-
ment, in 'draft finar format, was completed in
July and disseminated for final review both in
Dominica and to other reviewers in the
Caribbean region.


ORGANIZATION OF THE DOMINICA CEP
REPORT

As determined by the Dominica CEP National
Committee and the IRF technical writing team,
the Dominica Country Environmental Profile


has been organized in twek-e primary s.ecions
Each sector-specific chapter provides the reader
with an overview summary of the se-tor. reviews
key environmental prob-'ms and issCe.s 'irhin
the sector, and concludes with recommend ions
specific to that sector,

SECTION ONE provides bfJl cr.m c information
on the general environmental setting of the
country and also briefly reviews historical. eco-
nomic and demographic features.

SECTnoN Two begins a review of the countr- s
resource base, induding a discussion of primary
environmental issues within each key resource
sector. SEc-O.N T'wo focuses on F.,,r,,;- and
Wildlife, SEC.TION THREE on Akri:i.uiJr.- SEC-
TION FOUR reviews the country's Freshwater
Resources, while SECION 1v1E specif.::.'. deals
with Coastal and Marine Resources.

The Profile moves away from an examination of
the physical environment to cc'nsider Energy is-
sues in SECrIno SIX and Industry and Tourism
issues in sE'tCION Sf -.N. F'P'111 ,n and Public
Health is the subject of SECTiON E ,On.

The topic of land use and physical planning is
examined in SECnON NI., while SECION "'N
focuses specifically on the management of his-
torical and cultural resources.

The subject of SEC,.ON ELEVEN is the institu-
ti>nal framework for environmental manage-
ment in Dominica, ircludin: an overview of key
agencies and organizations with resource man-
agement and development responsibilities. Th:e
final chapter, SECnosN TW't-iuvE, pro-ides a
summary and synthesis of critical environmental
issues, conclusions, and recommendations.

A comprehensive bibliogr;ph> of source ma-
terials dealing with natural resource develop-
ment and environmental management is found
at the end of the Profile. Most references cited
deal specifically with Dominica or with the Fast-
ern Caribbean sub-region. It is the most
thorough assemblage of such reference material
on Doninica to be published to date.




















Looking north to the Cabrits. seen tn tne distance. across Prince Rupetas Bay


The Layou Rtver, Dominica's largest river


!f
F ------ ,,, ',, ,, -- ------ ...,,-- ------









SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND


1.1 COUNTRY OVERVIEW


The most northerly and largest of the
Eastern Caribbean's Windward Islands
(Figure (1.1(1)), the country of Dominica has,
with justification, been heralded as the re-
gion's premier nature island. With its very
rugged terrain, perennial streams, rivers and
waterfalls, and its great diversity of flora and
fauna, Dominica's mostly unspoiled landscape
is considered by island aficionados to be
among the most dramatically beautiful and
pristine in the world. The country's undis-
turbed vegetation is more extensive than on
any other island in the Lesser Antilles, a chain
of Caribbean islands which descends in a
graceful arc from the Virgin Islands in the
north to Trinidad in the south. Its forests
have been extolled as undoubtedly the finest
in the Caribbean, even comparing favorably
with those of Central and South America.

In promotional literature designed to
lure visitors and tourists, Dominica is de-
scribed as an island of rainbows, a place
where mists rise gently from lush green valleys
and fall softly over blue green peaks, where
trees sprout orchids, and where rivers framed
by banks of giant ferns rush and tumble to the
sea. Along mountain slopes, fields of broad-
leafed bananas contrast with cocoa and citrus
trees, and cattle graze in the feathery shade of
coconut palms. The island's uniqueness can
be explained in varying ways it is home to
the region's surviving Carib Indians (who gave
the Caribbean its name and who still reside on
the island's windward coast); it is also the site
of a fascinating boiling lake and within its
borders is located one of the most diverse and
luxuriant rain forests in the Americas.

Dominica's rugged and mountainous
landscape contributes greatly to its dramatic
beauty, in part because the topography has
made it difficult to clear the lush vegetation.
However, this and other physiographic fea-
tures have also hampered development ef-
forts, particularly those which were instigated
within a colonial or neo-colonial framework
or were based on imported strategies often ill-


suited to Dominica's mountainous, humid,
tropical and insular environment. Like virto-
ally all Caribbean islands, Dominica found
few opportunities in the past to pursue an in-
digenous program of development, while ex-
ternal influences still heavily dominate growth
and development patterns. At the same time,
more recent development strategies have
placed ever-increasing pressures on natural
and cultural resources. While largely ben-
eficial, development has also had a variety of
adverse, undesirable and often unintended im-
pacts on the environment, which will be dis-
cussed in more detail in this Environmental
Profile. The risk for future generations of
Dominicans lies in under-valuing the country's
remarkable, common resource base and, by
doing so, inadvertently allowing it to deterio-
rate and devolve into a diminished habitat for
Dominicans in the future.



1.2 THE BIOPHYSICAL
ENVIRONMENT


1.2.1 Topography

Dominica is characterized by very
rugged and steep terrain. The cone of Morne
Diablotin dominates the topography of the
northern half of the island, along with Morne
Au Diable on the northern peninsula, while a
chain of mountains, including Morne Trois
Pitons, Morne Micotrin, Morne Anglais, and
Morne Plat Pays, extends through the south of
the island (see Figures 1.2(1) and 1.2(2)). The
peaks of all of these mountains are less than
seven km from the sea, an indication of the
island's high relief which, in turn, has had and
will continue to have an important orographic
influence on climate, on land use and on the
general physical development of the island.

Flatter areas are restricted primarily
to river valleys, the coastal areas of the north-
east, and an area in the center of the island












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Figure 1.1(1). General map of the Eastern Caribbean, showing the location of Dominica.


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Figure 1.2(1). General location map for the Iland of Dominica.


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known as Bell's Wet Area. The main river
valleys are also found in the center of the is-
land. These include the Roseau and Layou
Valleys on the leeward side of the island and,
on the windward side, the Clyde, Pagua,
Castle Bruce, and Rosalie River Valleys.

Most flat or moderately sloped land
occurs near the coasts, and thus most urban
and agricultural development has occurred in
these areas. Some 90 percent of the popula-
tion lives along the coast, primarily (70 per-
cent) on the leeward side. The latter offers
more protection from the wind and other cli-
matic extremes as well as providing relatively
calm seas suited to fishing and navigation.
The country's two main centers, the city of
Roseau (the capital) and the town of
Portsmouth, and all port facilities are located
along the leeward coast.

The rugged topography manifests a
major constraint to the development of
human settlements and agriculture. As
described further in Section 9 on Physical
Planning and Landscape, most existing
communities have no room for expansion
except through hillside residential
development or density increases in already
built up areas. Portsmouth is the only major
settlement with a substantial amount of
reasonably flat land available for expansion
(GOCD, 1985).



1.2.2 Geology

Dominica's geology is similar to that
of other volcanic islands in the Lesser
Antillean Archipelago. The islands are the
summits of a submerged mountain range
which forms the eastern boundary of what is
known as the Caribbean Tectonic Plate.
Tectonic plates are mobile; they behave like
rafts of solid crust floating atop less dense,
relatively fluid materials in the earth's under-
lying mantle. Movement of the plates is be-
lieved to result from the presence of convec-
tion currents in the mantle.

The Caribbean Plate is bounded to
the north and east by the North American


Plate, to the south by the South American
Plate, and to the west and southwest by the
Cocos Plate (Figure 1.2(3)). The North
American Plate is moving westward relative to
the Caribbean Plate, while the Cocos Plate is
moving in a northeast direction. Little relative
displacement is presently occurring between
the Caribbean Plate and the South American
Plate.

The North American and Cocos
Plates are "subducting" below the Caribbean
Plate, down into the mantle where they pro-
ceed to melt (Figure 1.2(3)). This melted
material forms magma which is extruded to
the earth's surface as lava by volcanos. The
island of Dominica and the rest of the
Antillean Archipelago were formed by such
lavas forced through the volcanoes that
formed alongside the subduction zone of the
North American and Caribbean Plates.

The entire island archipelago is
geologically young, having begun to form
probably less than 50 million years ago, during
the Miocene period of the Cenozoic era.
Dominica has since undergone numerous and
considerable changes in elevation but is now
relatively stable. Evidence of previous
submergence can be seen on the face of
Morne Bruce above the city of Roseau and
elsewhere to the south, as an association of
aqueous and igneous rock formations.

The volcanic rocks are mainly an-
desites with subordinate dacites and basalts.
The discovery in the Roseau Basin of welded
tufts reveals that Morne Macaque (Micotrin)
has had a long history of activity that may not
yet have completely subsided. Volcanism is
active at present in the Sulphur Springs region
and the area of the Boiling Lake and Valley of
Desolation. On January 4, 1980, a minor
eruption occurred. The most recent lava flow
took place in the Grande Savanne area
(GOCD, 1985).

Ongoing seismic activity on the island
has been recorded since 1953 and has
revealed that a number of earthquakes may be
volcanically related, associated with shallow
processes taking place beneath Dominican
volcanoes.











DOMINICA/PHYSICAL FEATURES


- Land over 3000 ft
mm Land between 2000,
L iLand between 1000&
[- Land between 500-
Land between 0.


Figure 1.2(2).


Physical features of the Island of Dominica (source: Shanidand Cox and
Associates, 1971).











































DOMINICA


KSIT


Figure 1.2(3).


Above: Geological features of the active boundary zone of the
Caribbean Plate (source: Dillon, eta/., 1987).


Below: The eastern margin of the Caribbean Plate at the location of
Barbados and Dominica Cross section showing the
Caribbean Plate being underthrust by the South American
Plate. Figure adapted from Dillon, eta/., 1987.


CAPT










1.2.3 ClImnte


Dominica's climate is classified as
humid tropical marine, characterized by little
seasonal or diurnal variation and strong and
steady trade winds. These winds blow in a
westward direction between the Atlantic-
Azores subtropical high pressure zone and the
intertropical convergence zone. They contact
the island from the northeast throughout most
of the year, but a southeasterly pattern
develops during the summer when the sun's
declination to the equator shifts northward
and, in turn, alters their positions.

Wind speeds are generally moderate,
averaging 6.4 km (4 miles) per hour at sea
level and about 14.4 km (9 miles) at an eleva-
tion of 1,450 feet above sea level (at the
Brantridge Meteorological Station).

The island's rugged topography con-
tributes strongly to micro-climatic variability
within very short distances as depicted in Fig-
ure 1.2(4), and serves to "capture" a great deal


of the moisture contained within the air
masses that enter the region from the Atlantic
ocean.

The island is among the wettest in the
Caribbean, a factor which gives rise to its lush
vegetation. Rainfall increases from the lee-
ward side eastward toward the central pats of
the island where it reaches over 10,000 mm
(almost 400 inches) annually. On the leeward
(or western) side of the island in the sheer
of the steep mountains, rainfall drops off sub-
stantially, to as little as 1,200 mm (less than 50
inches) per year (e.g. in the areas of Batalie
and Picard). Statistically, there is a dry (or
drier) season between February and June and
a wetter period from July to December, but in
some parts of the island (e.g., on the east
coast and in the interior), and in some years,
this distinction is much less pronounced.
Rainfall is generally heavy but of short dura-
tion. In 1942, for example, some nine inches
were recorded within a single 24-hour period,
and in 1972 five inches fell within six hours
(GOCD, 1985).


Table 1.2(1). Temperature data for Dominica at two locations (degrees Fahrenhelt).



STATON ELEV. JAN FEB MAR APFRL MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC
FEET


Mvill Ha* M230
Maximum
Minimum
Average


Station 1,000
Maximum
Minimum
Averso


83 83 84 86 86 87 88 88 89 88 87 86
64 84 86 67 70 71 72 72 71 70 69 67
75.9 76.4 76.8 77.5 79.0 80.8 81.1 80.4 79.2 79.6 78.8 77.3



77 78 78 79 81 81 82 82 83 82 81 79
67 66 86 66 68 70 70 71 71 71 0o a6
72.0 71.7 72.0 72.1 74.4 75.6 76.1 76.3 77.1 76.4 75.1 72.5


*Ym of Roord: 5; **Yars of cord: 4

Source: Atkins Land and Water Management, 1963.










DOMINICA/RAINFALL


Castle Bruce


Laudat


Pointe Mulatre


Figure 1.2(4).


Rainfall data for Dominica: (1) recorded as average monthly rainfall for specific
sites and (2) shown at various elevations (e.g., numbers record Inches of rain)
(source: adapted from Lang, 1967, as reprinted In Shanktand Cox and
Associates, 1971).










In a pattern opposite that of rainfall,
temperature decreases with altitude. Average
values range from 27 degrees Celsius on the
coast to approximately 21 degrees at the high-
est elevations. There is little seasonal fluctua-
tion, generally less than two degrees Celsius
(Lang 1967; Fehr, 1989). Temperature data
for two locations (at low and high elevations)
are presented in Table 1.2(1); the difference
in temperature can be seen although the aver-
age minimum temperatures between the two
stations are not greatly different.

Relative humidity is high on the is-
land, usually in the region of 95 percent and
seldom falling below 85 percent in the
interior. On the leeward coast, which is less
humid throughout the year than the wind-
ward, relative humidity ranges between 58 and
86 percent. At night, relative humidity levels


rise, particularly in the interior where temper-
atore drops off markedly.



1.2.4 Sot

The soils of Dominica have bca
studied and described in detail by Lang
(1967). Edaphk conditions have bee= greatly
influenced by the island's volcanic origins.
Soils of a given type are in most cases a prod-
uct of the eCient to which a given volcanic
parent material has weathered. Lang (1967)
mapped 75 soil types in Dominca which can
be divided into five main groups as shows in
Table 1.2(2). The distribution of soil types is
shown in Figure 12(5).


Table 1.2(2). The five primary sol groups for Dominica as ldentilfed by Lang (1967),
with percentage distribution (see also Figure 1.2(5)).


SOIL TYPE


Shallow sols over volcanic material

Deep, strongly weathered allophanic and
kaolinitic clay sols with good physical
properties

Deep, weakly weathered sandy sols from
volcanic pyrociastics

Montrmorontifc clay sols, usually
shallow and with a silca pen (Shoel Sols)

Alluvial sols

Other sols


Source: Atkins Land and Water Managemernt. 193.


PERCENTAGE


32 percent

51 percent



6 percent

9 percent


9 __________












DOMINICA/SOILS


1 DEEP, ALLOPHANIC CLAY
3 DEEP, KAOLINITIC CLAY
4 DEEP, COARSE-TEXTURED
5 COMPLEX OF SHALLOW &
DEEP SOILS
6 SHALLOW
7 MONTMORI-LONITIC CLAY
WITH SILICA PAN


Figure 1.2(5). Distribution of sol types In Dominica (source Atkins Land and Water
Management, 1983).












TERMS USED IN SOIL CLASSIFICATION


During the soil survey Lang (1967)
made a subjective assessment of soil loss from
each of the soil mapping units. This informa-
tion was simplified by a British consulting
team (Atkins Land and Water Mngmt., 1983)
and is presented in Figure 1.2(6). Soil loss
from the forested central part of the island is
slight; elsewhere it is slight or moderate, al-
though it is worse on the leeward side of the
island on the monmorilonitic day soils
(Atkins Land and Water Mngmt-, 1983).
Approximately 53,000 ha or 70 percent of the
island's total land base of 70,000 ha is unsuit-
able for agriculture as a result primarily of
erosion risks, waterlogging, or poor soil qual-
ity (GOCD, 1985).

The soils of Dominica are, in general,
readily erodible since they tend to be uncon-


solidated and friable where cementation of
the subsoil occurs it is only incipient and the
cemented layers readily decompose when ca-
posed at the surface. The risk of erosion de-
pends on many factors, including the type
and properties of the soil; the intensity, dura-
tion and amount of rainfall; the slope of the
land; the extent and nature of the vegetation;
and the agricultural or silvicultural practices
used.

On steep slopes denuded of their tree
cover by clearing, the soi surface is direcdy
exposed to the erosive force of rain, and soil
erosion is greatly accelerated. Alterations in
the pathways and rates of water flow due to
clearing of vegetation can cause changes in
the timing of peak flows and greater flood dis-
charges downstream. Erosion transports soil


Various terms are frequently encountered In descriptions of Dominica's aso

Textre refers to the relative amounts of dillfrert-szed sol parties (Le., sand, sat and
clay) preset. Clay sols have a predominance of very fine particles ( > 40 percent), sand
sols have a predominance of sand-sized particles ( > 80 percent) and loam sols are in be-
tween. These classes can be subdivided further to cover Irtenediate sol composltons, e.g.,
sandy loams or clay loams. Sandy sols are sometimes called "lig~t and day sols are called
'heavy" these terms refer not to weight but to the ease of working the sol.

Shoal is a term used to describe a special type of sol found in the relatively dry areas
of aN volcanic Islands. Actuay "shoef is a kind of parent rock which Is made up of cemented
volcanic lava material; the cementation process Is thought to have taken place under water
during a period of submergence. Shoal day sols are fine-textured, dark brown to gray, and
have a poor physical structure, In the dry season they shrink and develop large cracks; hi the
wet season they become very plastic and sticky.

Allvial soils are derived from river-transported sediments; coiuvial soils are derived
from materials brought down from neighboring hillsides by gravity.

Latosols are a very broad grouping that Includes most of the red, yelkw and brown
sols of the Caribbean region. These are generally mature sols of molet or wet areas with free
or only slightly Impeded drainage. They vary from slightly acid to acid in reaction and are
usually leached of bases.

LUthsols are very shallow, rocky sols found in steep, hiy areas wth stony, rocky or
shaly parent materials.













DOMINICA/SOIL LOSS


0 NIL
1 SLIGHT;
up to 50% topsoil lost
2 MODERATE;
more than 50% topsoil lost
3 SEVERE;
all topsoil lost


MiUS 1 0 2 3 4 S M1i,4
-k m 0Ii t 2p
d-u 0 1 2 1 4 5 S T S kuns


Figure 1.2(6). Son loss In Dominica (source: Atkins Land and Water Management, 1983).











downslope and causes the loss of plant nutri-
ents from the uplands. When topsoil is lost,
the formation of replacement soils is an ex-
tremely slow process; it may take hundreds of
years just to form one inch of top soil.

When trees are clear-cut, there is a
permanent loss of nutrients from the soil if
the felled vegetation is removed as in logging
and an even greater loss if the slash is burned.
If the area is replanted in crops or timber
plantation, plant diversity is sharply reduced.
If herbicides are used to keep planted areas
free from weeds, the soil is then much more
exposed than it would be under natural condi-
tions, and erosion is thereby increased.


1.2.5 Vegetation

Dominica's undisturbed forests have
been identified as the most extensive in the
Lesser Antilles, while its rain forest is consid-
ered the finest in the Caribbean (see, for ex-
ample, ICBP, 1990; Evans, 1986b and 1989).
The vegetation, which comprises over one
thousand species of flowering plants with
about sixty woody plant and tree species per
hectare, supports, among other wildlife, over
50 species of resident birds, including two en-
demic parrots (ICBP, 1990).

The following is a brief description of
each vegetation zone on the island, drawing in
part on a report prepared by Earth Satellite
Corporation (EARTHSAT), 1986, which was
based on OAS's vegetation map of the island
(prepared at 1:50,000 scale). The descriptions
have been modified by Evans, 1986b, and P.
Evans, pers. comm., 1990. Information on the
spatial extent of each zone is found in Section
2.1.

Mature Rain Forest. Vegetation
type occurring toward the interior of the is-
land, generally not below 1,000 feet and hav-
ing few periods without precipitation cus-
tomarily only a few weeks between April and
June. The canopy is dominated by Decryodes
excelsa, Sloanea spp., and Amanoa caribaea.
Undercanopy species include Licania
tematensis and Tapura antillana and numer-
ous epiphytes and lianas.


Moatane Thicket ad EMu Wood-
land. Vegetation type occurring at high ele-
vations, approximately 3,500 feet. The tree
stratum is severely reduced at these elevations
as a result of wind exposure. Characteristic
species are RichCia gwadi, Byrsnima
manicnmsis and Podoapus coriacer with
Heiconia bihal, the tree ferns Cyathea
imayana and Hemitefa spp, and razor grass
Seleria amfoia forming the understory.
Montane Thicket includes Elfin Woodland
which occurs at higher elevations, where expo-
sure to wind is high, and is characterized by
Chwsia v and Lobehia awffia.

Uttoral Woodland. Community oc-
curring along the eastern and northeastern
coast line. The tree canopy is subjected to
nearly constant onshore winds yielding asym-
metrical tree crown development shaped by
pressure from sea breezes. The species of this
community, which are salt spray tolerant, are
characterized by Coccooba vimferm,
Chyrobalanus icaco, TerminaMi cadapa and
Tabebuia palhda. Calophyhum andflaunm is
conspicuous.

Scrub Woodland. Vegetation type
occurring at lower elevations on the west
coast. Community is dominated by a shrub
layer and represents the most xeric conditions
on the island. Characteristic species are
Lochocarps pentaphyius, Pisnia fras,
Haemaroxyton cwnpechinum Myrsia atfoiha.
OuysophythUm agenteum, and Eym*ryktm
ovatum.

Grassland and Savamma Sb-types.
These are restricted in area and most likely
the result of anthropogenic influences. Grand
Savanne exemplifies the most extensive area
of the savanna sub-type, characterized by
Sporbohis uindicus, Andropogo ccmdensatus,
and the grass Ctinelta.

Secondary Rain Forest. Areas previ-
ously occupied by mature rain forest that have
experienced disturbance, primarily logging
and shifting agriculture. Characterized by
Miconia species (Miconia mirabilis in partic-
ular), Cecropia schreberiana, and, in the
smaller gaps, Simarnba amara. Canopy cfi-










max forest trees such as Sloanea exist but are
not dominant.

Semi-Evergreen Forest Really a
transition vegetation zone with species char-
acteristic of dry and rain forest. In many
Lesser Antillean islands, it occupies a moder-
ate area. In Dominica (because of its steep
slopes leading quickly into high rainfall areas),
it is very narrow in extent, with indistinct
boundaries; therefore, it is not useful to clas-
sify this as a separate vegetation type.

Fuamarole Vegetation. Plant commu-
nity restricted to areas of geothermal activity,
primarily Valley of Desolation and parts of
Morne an Diable. Characteristic species are
various melastomes, particularly Tibouchina
omata. There are also some endemics which
are prominent, notably Pitcaimia
micotrinensis.

Swamp and Wetlands. Restricted to
an area immediately east of the Cabrits
Peninsula in the northwest of the island, an
area experiencing a seasonal supply of fresh
water. Characteristic species are Pterocarpus
officinalis (which also occurs in narrow strips
along stream banks, particularly between
Blenheim and Calibishie), Laguncularia
racemosa and Avicennia germinans. In the
larger swamps such as Cabrits and Glanvillea,
the semi-aquatic vegetation is dominated by
the fern Acrostichum aureum and various
sedges, particularly Cyperus spp., Eleocharis
mutata and E. interstincta.

The classic description of the vegeta-
tion of the Windward and Leeward Islands,
including Dominica, was provided by J.S.
Beard, a member of the Colonial Forest Ser-
vice in Trinidad and Tobago who carried out a
forest resource assessment in 1942. When he
started his decade of work in the Lesser An-
tilles, Beard found that the systems of veg-
etation classification then in use lacked any
real ecological basis. He therefore proposed a
new classification of vegetation which led to
publication of his classic monograph, The
Natural Vegetation of the Windward and Lee-
ward Islands, in 1949. This is still widely used
as a basic reference over forty years later.


Beard characterized existing vegeta-
tion during the 1940's as primarily resulting
from human use of the land during historic
times, although he identified large areas of
primary forest in Dominica still in a relatively
unmodified natural state. He provided a
small-scale sketch map (Figure 1.2(7)) show-
ing the major areas of natural vegetation at
the time of his survey, and, like the mono-
graph of which it is a part, it remains a useful
reference point for researchers and resource
planners.



1.2.6 Natural Hazards

The Caribbean -- one of the most
disaster-prone areas of the world -- is exposed
to hurricanes and their associated storm
surges and wave action, earthquakes and
earthquake-generated ocean waves
(tsunamis), volcanic eruptions, landslides and
rockslides, flooding and droughts. Natural
hazards, as the term is used here, include all
these occasional short-term natural phenom-
ena which have the potential for negative im-
pacts on the physical, economic and social en-
vironment of an area. The islands of the
Eastern Caribbean are particularly vulnerable
to natural hazards because of their small size
and their dependence on foreign revenues
earned from agriculture and tourism.
Dominica has suffered a number of such oc-
currences and is well acquainted with the ef-
fects of all types of natural disasters.

The primary natural hazards affecting
the island are hurricanes and other storms
and their related impacts, landslides, and
coastal erosion. Financial constraints make it
almost impossible to ensure that all infras-
tructure is designed and built to withstand
hurricanes, while the rugged terrain makes it
particularly difficult and expensive, perhaps
even impossible, to ensure that road building,
for example, does not lead to landslides. Sim-
ilarly, a shortage of flat land has resulted in
considerable development in areas immedi-
ately adjacent to the shoreline and thus in a
vulnerable position relative to coastal hazards.
Recurring incidents of coastal road damage,
for example, can be seen to the north and












DOMINICA/VEGETATION








Si 0 2 3
is ltItt f it n
MilitSof Iva*134
Pal l fll i ll l M it 1 1 11111 1 MI i
i f t1 I I I t IIt Itt I Ib I I t i to
littiti ~ ~ fll Iiit Il t II sti A
11 11 13J1illi||1

I lilt


Itoe

11111 1ill
il it I tili
11 till oil
It I lilt)
Ii oll fi llilt
I f4t illt

::I,. 1 1fi al I t 11141
$5 ti it< i fi




sti I tC tilli I I fill*
1i
t,,4l, ll, t ....


10 0 00 11" 41,9mir wend ol f
.""-ym ROSEAUif
assw s& 9 imt-


mm"In.. "- Rollie




11111t l>~ tlt
|jjj{~mTd
p -^/^fi,..


Figure 1.2(7). Natural vegetation In Dominica, circa mid-1940's (source: Beard, 1949).











south of Roseau, in the directions of Canefield
and Pointe Michel, respectively.

Hurricanes of varying intensity occur
in Dominica on average every 15 years. The
first recorded hurricane hit the island in 1780,
but the most destructive hurricane, called
David, did not occur until almost two hundred
years later in the summer of 1979 (see
sidebar, page 17). Only twice previously had
such destructive storms struck the island. In
the 1806 hurricane, 131 people died primarily
as a result of the Roseau River shifting its
course and flooding the capital; and in the
"Great Hurricane" of September 10, 1834,
over 200 lives were lost (Honychurch, 1984).

Although high winds are the most
distinctive feature of hurricanes, usually the
most damaging winds affect a very small ra-
dius (as small as 20 miles) of the entire storm
system. On the other hand, torrential rains
can be experienced from one edge to the
other of a 300 mile diameter storm, and ten
inch rains from well-developed tropical storms
are not unusual. Therefore, unless a storm
has very strong winds and the center passes
directly over an island, much of the damage
will be from the direct and indirect effects of
flooding. In order of decreasing impact, the
major causes of damage from most hurricanes
can be ranked as follows: flooding from
rainfall, coastal flooding and damage from
storm waves, landslides, and -- lastly -- winds.

Floods may cause property damage,
severe erosion and even the loss of life during
natural events such as rainstorms and hurri-
canes. Floods can be the result of downslope
rainwater run-off, especially over paved or
deforested areas, and/or seawater driven in-
land by above-normal tides and surges. Storm
surges caused by reduced atmospheric pres-
sure during hurricanes can be augmented by
wind-driven waves, swells, and spray.

The extent of the problem associated
with inland flooding in a particular area is de-
pendent on the amount of rainfall, the slope
of the land, the porosity of the soils, and the
size and shape of the river basin through
which the water will eventually flow. Dam-
ages from inland flooding include: water


damage to normally dry property; physical
damages from the force of the waters and as-
sociated mud, silts and rocks; biochemical and
physiological damage due to the introduction
of large volumes of freshwater to the
nearshore marine ecosystems; and destruction
of sea life from overloading with silt and nu-
trients washed from the land.

The most common landslide type in
Dominica is debris flows, but the country also
experiences rockfalls, rockslides, and debris
slides. The volcanic origin of the island has
led to a steep topography and a lithology
which are conducive to landslide occurrence,
particularly in the presence of abundant
moisture and rainfall. Some two percent of
the island's land area is disturbed by existing
landslides. Losses attributable to landslides
include structural damage, crop destruction,
and loss of human life. An average of
EC$316,000 per year is spent on clearing and
repairing roads affected by landslides. Agri-
cultural losses appear to amount to thousands
of dollars per year, but this is difficult to
assess. Twenty-five Dominicans were killed in
landslides between 1924 and 1986 (DeGraff,
1987). A particularly destructive landslide
event occurred during the hurricane season of
1977 when days of torrential rain loosened the
rocky hillside above the southern village of
Bagatelle, sweeping tons of soil and debris
through a section of the village, smashing and
covering houses and killing eight villagers
(Honychurch, 1984).

Generally, landslides are localized
events and depend on the type of soil, the an-
gle of repose and the steepness of the slope at
the site. Landslides occur when the forces of
gravity exceed the strength of the forces
holding soil material together, resulting in a
mass of soil being pulled downward. A sec-
ondary effect of flooding on steep slopes cov-
ered with clay-rich soils is the increased ten-
dency for landslides to occur. Water in soils
contributes to increased landslide risk because
the weight of the water is an added stress on
the soil mass that is also being lubricated by
the water molecules.

Although no volcano-related disasters
have occurred in Dominica, at least in historic











THE IMPACT AND AFTERMATH OF HURRICANE DAVID *


At first expected to ht Barbados, the hurricane named David shot across the southern section
of Dominica on August 29, 1979. There was little local radio warning and no operational sys-
tems for disaster preparedness. With swirling 150 mle-an-hour winds. David pounded
Dominica for approximately six hours. Thirty-seven people were kIed and an estimated 5.000
Injured. Over three-quarters of the population was left homeless, with many temporaity
sleeping under rough cover In the open or huddled Into the homes of more fortunate friends
for weeks and months after the storm.

The Dominican economy was almost totally destroyed resulting in substantial social and eco-
nomic dislocation. Roads and bridges were blocked and swept away. The hurricane de-
stroyed most of the island's electricity transmission system and severely damaged its com-
munication network. All eight telephone exchanges were damaged along with the Cable and
Wireless building, telephone poles and transmission lines. Agricultural crops were devas-
tated, but many (e.g., bananas) would have been severely damaged even by much more
moderate wind speeds. In the southern hal of the island, where damage was heaviest, some
50 percent of the trees were damaged In forested areas. Researchers estimated that it wi
take over fifty years for the climax forest to re-establish itself. The commander of a Royal
Navy frigate arriving the day after the storm likened the island to a bombed-out batlefleld.

The plight of Dominicans received immediate attention from regional and international agen-
cles, and relief aid was quick in arriving. Unfortunately, little pre-planning for dealing with dis-
aster relief had been executed by the newly-independent country pre-David and, given a lack
of adequate control for distribution of relief supplies post-David, measures adopted foBowing
the storm were mostly ad hoc and short-term. They were designed to minimize the nmmedi-
ate plight of those affected and often became politicalized In anticipation of a pending general
election. At present, there is a National Emergency Planning Organization, chaired by the
Honorable Prime Minister, which is credited with better preparing the nation for Hurricane
Hugo In 1989. But, as In most Eastern Caribbean countries, additional steps need to betaken
to better facilitate long-term, inter-agency planning and coordination policies to mitigate the
consequences of catastrophic natural disasters in the future.

* Info~naton taken from Honychurch (1984); GOCO, 1985;. Lugo,ta ., 1983; and Warty, 1964.


times, the capital city of Roseau is virtually
"looking into the gun barrel of a set of active
and dangerous volcanoes," according to Dr.
John Shephard, the Director of UWI's
Seismic Unit. He notes that at least four live
volcanoes are present and that Dominica is
"perhaps the most complicated volcanic island
in the whole of the eastern Caribbean"
(Caribbean Disaster News, June 1988).

As pointed out by Watty (1984), nat-
urally occurring phenomena only become nat-
ural disasters when man is placed in the way
of such phenomena without sufficient regard


to the probable effects of such a relationship.
In the Dominican context, however, it is ex-
tremely difficult to avoid placing people "in
the way' of such risks due to the physical
characteristics of the island, its location in the
hurricane belt, and its limited economic ca-
pacity to deal both with natural hazard pre-
paredness and with the aftermath of natural
disaster events.

In light of these factors which limit
Dominica's ability to optimally manage natu-
ral hazard risks, perhaps the most feasible
strategy would be, first, to minimize the need









for additional facilities and infrastructure
which require development in high-risk areas
and, second, to ensure that preparedness
plans for managing the effects of natural dis-
asters are well developed, particularly at the
local community level.

Relative to the first recommendation,
the upgrading of existing arteries that have
proven to be reasonably stable would mini-
mize the overall need for new roads in more
high-risk areas. Additionally, improved land
use planning could guide future development
into areas which are best suited for particular
kinds and densities of land use.

Concerning disaster preparedness
efforts, Watty (1984) notes that much remains
to be done to strengthen institutional struc-
tures, improve facilities, train personnel, and
define inter-agency relationships in order to
significantly improve natural hazard planning
in Dominica. Such steps must be established
at the village as well as national level, along
with implementing procedures for storm
warning mechanisms, shut-down techniques,
the designation of refuge centers, the creation
of emergency food and medical stations, and
the observation of community drills. Addi-
tionally, school curricula should cover disaster
prevention and avoidance, and greater public
participation is required in disaster-related
planning and decision-making (Watty, 1984).
In light of these recommendations and the
country's vulnerability relative to natural dis-
asters, it is unfortunate that no funds were set
aside in the GOCD Fiscal Year 1989/90
(Budget) Estimates for these purposes, al-
though approximately EC$28,000 had been
allocated the prior fiscal year.



1.2.7 Climatic Change

Geological and other studies of the
earth reveal that climatic change has been the
norm throughout its history. Since the middle
of the last century, the planet has generally
been undergoing a warming trend, but the
present warming pattern is believed to be due
in part to the anthropogenic (i.e., human-in-
duced) buildup in the atmosphere of carbon
dioxide and other so-called "greenhouse


gases." Since the industrial revolution of the
1800's, the carbon dioxide content of the at-
mosphere has increased by almost 25 percent
and, in the past 30 years, by nine percent
(Gable, Gentile, and Aubrey, 1989).

It is unlikely that future temperature
changes resulting from these phenomena will
be uniformly distributed over the globe; for
example, during the warmest decade on
record, the 1980's, some of the most pro-
nounced warming occurred in the lower lati-
tudes, which includes the wider Caribbean re-
gion (Gable, Gentile and Aubrey, 1989).
Changes in meteorological and oceanographic
conditions (e.g., storm and precipitation pat-
terns, sea-level rises, circulation patterns) will
coincide with this warming.

Unfortunately, Dominica and most
other Caribbean islands will be faced with
these changes despite the fact that their
contribution to the alleged causes of such
change (e.g., industrial activity) has been
minor, except perhaps through deforestation.

A fairly detailed examination of the
effects on the Caribbean of global environ-
mental change and related sea level rise is
provided by Gable, Gentile, and Aubrey
(1989). These investigators note that within
the wider Caribbean relative sea levels have
risen at an estimated rate of 2.5 mm/year.
Meteorological changes already are apparent
with the occurrence of more severe storms
and hurricanes. The rising sea levels, in con-
junction with the meteorological changes,
generate potential for increased coastal ero-
sion and the loss of mangroves and other
wetlands, as well as other habitats such as
coral reefs. These effects in turn might have a
significant impact on future land use and
development practices and on general eco-
nomic well-being, in large part through the
curtailment of tourism (e.g., resulting from
beach degradation or destruction).

Reliable and abundant regional data
(e.g., tide-gauge data) useful in forecasting
these impacts more specifically are generally
absent in the region. Even with such data,
forecasting in relation to the impacts of global
warming is fraught with many difficult prob-
lems. It is generally agreed, however, that sea









levels in the region will continue to rise and
that the frequency and intensity of tropical
storms and hurricanes will increase. Thus,
there is a need to develop local and regional
policies and programs which will minimi the
impact of these climatic changes and, in gen-
eral, a need to address the many issues that
will be raised in the process. Some of these
issues are discussed in a report prepared as
part of the work program of the Economic
Commission for Latin America and the
Caribbean/Caribbean Development and Co-
operation Committee (ECLAC, 1989).

In the face of uncertainty about the
magnitude of warming trends and their effects
on sea level, most experts recommend that
governments should adopt a flexible, adaptive
strategy for coping with the expected effects of
climate changes. This is easiest to implement
in planning for the construction or renovation
of infrastructure such as roads, buildings, and
coastal facilities.

In the case of older infrastructure
(which would have to be replaced in any
event), the best and cheapest response may be
to do nothing and accept the loss of the
structures, provided that they can be rebuilt in
an alternative location. Where existing, eco-
nomically vital infrastructure is threatened
and no alternative location exists, such as
certain sections of the coastal road and some
coastal villages, an immediate defensive re-
sponse would be justified provided it is cost-
effective and environmentally sound.

In other cases, especially where in-
frastructure has not yet been built, measures
to adapt to the warming trend should be taken
only if such steps have good prospects of
yielding benefits even without a climate
change. If the predicted climate changes do
occur, then the measures taken, of course, will
yield a much greater benefit.

A rigorously-enforced coastal set-
back policy would be a good example of the
latter type of response because it also offers
protection from storm surges and tsunamis,
maintains the aesthetic qualities of the coast-
line, and precludes monopolization of what
should be a public resource by private inter-
ests. Other opportunities for this type of


multiple-benfit measure exist in the areas of
coastal zne management, energy conserva-
tion and alternative energy sources, water re-
source conservation, natural hazard disaster
planning and building code revisions.





1.3 SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONTEXT


1.3.1 Historical Oveview


AFTER GOD, THE EARTH: A HISTORY
SHAPED BY THE LAND.

'After God. tie Eark,' the unembel-
lished motto of the Commonwealth of
Dominica, conveys with simplicity the in-
trinsic, underlying spirit of the country the
deeply religious values of its people, the agri-
cultural, rural foundation of its society, and
the dominating influence of natural features
on its development (Van de Velde, 1986a).

This country, which pays homage to
both God and earth in its national crest, is the
most northerly, the largest, the most tropical,
the most mountainous (and therefore the
wettest) of the AntiDllan island chain that sep-
arates the Atlantic Ocean from the southern
Caribbean Sea. Situated anomalously be-
tween the French overseas departments of
Guadeloupe to the north and Martinique to
the south, much of the island's history has
been dominated equally by topography, land-
scape and location.

The French influence on Dominica is
not inconsiderable. English is the official lan-
guage of the country, but a form of pakar
(Kwcyoel) is also spoken by most of the pop-
ulation. The country abounds with French
place-names and family-names. Indeed, En-
glish domination for 200 years has not erased
most of these names, perhaps because, as sug-
gested by local historian Lennox Honychurch
(1984, 1988), Dominicans felt more comfort-
able with the French words which described
natural features (.g., La Grande Baye, Petit
Savanne), in contrast to English place-names











DOMINICA: "VITAL STATISTICS"


The country of Dominica Is the most northerly and largest of the Windward Islands in the
Eastern Caribbean. It lies between the French islands of Guadeloupe to the north and
Martinique to the south.

Location Latitude: 15 degrees 20 minutes North
Longitude: 61 degrees 22 minutes West

Area 751 sq km (289.5 sq mi) approximately 50 km (30 miles) long,
22 km (14 miles) wide


Population




Language

Economy


Primary Crops


Tourism


Ports


Airports



Roads

Rainfall


Physical Features


Last census (1981): 73,795
Estimated by GOCD (1988): 81,335
Largely concentrated around the capital of Roseau in the south and
Portsmouth in the north, both on the leeward coast

English; a local French Patois is also spoken

Predominantly agricultural; a growing tourism sector, largely nature
tourism-oriented; small but lively manufacturing sector

Bananas are the major crop, exported mostly to the UK; citrus crops
(oranges, grapefruit and limes) also important; coconut crop consumed
primarily for production of soap and cooking oil; other agricultural efforts:
coffee and cocoa crops, pilot aquaculture projects, and cultivation of
ornamental flowers for export.

Tourism geared to nature holidays with facilities for hiking, dMng,
fishing and river bathing. Earnings from tourism becoming a more visible
part of GDP, notwithstanding the lack of direct international air links.

Two minor ports (Roseau and Portsmouth); Roseau maintains a deep
water harbor at Woodbridge Bay north of the capital; Prince Rupert's Bay
at Portsmouth provides a smaller harbor which is less deep but more
sheltered than Roseau.

Main airport is at Melville Hall on the windward coast, some 40 miles from
the capital; a secondary, smaller airport is located at Canefield, three
miles from Roseau.

750 km (467 miles) of roadway, of which 500 km (312 miles) are paved

Interior: 250-300 inches/year; coastal lowlands: 50-70 inches/year; over
80 percent of the island has 2,500 mm (100 inches) or more of rainfall a
year

High volcanic peaks rising in the south (Morne Trois Pitons) to 1,424 m
(4,670 feet) and in the north (Mome Diablotin) to 1,730 m (4,747 feet);
deep forests, lakes, waterfalls and numerous rivers; little flat land apart
from the Portsmouth area which has two swamps.









which favored personalities or military vie-
tories. In any event, the influence of English
colonists was confined to small areas of the
island in contrast to French settlers.

The influence of topography and
landscape is even more dominant in under-
standing the island's development. Steep,
tree-covered mountainsides afforded protec-
tion against invading forces in centuries past -
as well as shelter and refuge for the region's
surviving Amerindian population and for run-
away slaves in the eighteenth century. Those
same landscape features, however, repre-
sented and continue to represent formidable
constraints to development, whether because
of the shortage of flat arable land, the diffi-
culty of road communications, or the
inaccessibility of exploitable resources. (Some
have noted that the present level of develop-
ment of the various Windward Islands seems
to be reflected, in inverse proportion, by the
ruggedness of their terrain, with St. Lucia, the
most developed, having the most flat land and
Dominica, the least developed, having the
least amount of flat land [(Trench, 1982]).
More recently, Dominicans have promoted
and marketed their natural features in build-
ing a small resource-based tourism industry,
luring travelers and visitors with the country's
many attractions as The Nature Island.'

Nature's place (some might say
God's place) in the life of Dominicans was
most dramatically demonstrated when, during
a short 12 month period from August 1979 to
August 1980, the island was lashed by three
hurricanes, the most devastating of which left
three-quarters of the population homeless and
almost completely destroyed the existing
Dominican economy. These natural occur-
rences, coming one year after independence,
were followed by a period of political up-
heaval and internal crises which for a moment
captured not only local but regional and
worldwide headlines and compelled the
young nation, during its earliest years as an in-
dependent country, to face unprecedented
disasters of both natural and man-made
derivation.


EARLY HISTORY

Christopher Colunuhs ,sted
Dominica on a Sunday in November of 1493
and hence called it Dominica after the day of
the week. Although the Admiral and his feet
approached the island, they could find no safe
anchorage along the island's jagged windward
coast, and the party moved on to Maric
Galantc and Guadeloupe to the north without
landing. A member of the party did record,
however, that 'Dominica is remarkable for
fits] beauty ... and must be seen to be be-
lieved' (Honychurch, 1984).

At the time, Dominica, like other is-
lands in the West Indies, was occupied by
Carib Indians who had earlier displaced the
more peaceful Arawak Indians by killing off
the males and enslaving and interbreeding
with the women. The Caribs, who called the
island Waiukubuli, proved determined de-
fenders of their territory and successfully re-
sisted European colonization for some time,
using the country's formidable terrain as one
form of protection against would-be invaders.
In fact, at the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in
1748 both Britain and Prance declared that
the islands of Dominica and St Vincent were
'neutral', existing for the sole benefit of their
Carib populations.

Dominica's status as a neutral terri-
tory did not last long, however, and was soon
violated first by French settlers and then by
the British, who obtained possession by the
Treaty of Versailles in 1783, after driving the
Caribs from the more hospitable Caribbean
coast to the mountains and more exposed,
more rugged Atlantic coastal cvironment.

Portsmouth in the north of the island
on the leeward coast was intended by the
British to be the capital, given its better har-
bor surrounded by flat land facing Prince
Ruperts Bay. It never became the capital,
however, for early settlers perceived the site,
which had been set out near a large swamp, to
be unhealthy, and eventually Portsmouth was
replaced by Roseau as the choice for the seat
of government despite the latter's inferiority
as a harbor and anchorage. Portsmouth saw
little further development and survived pri-
marily as a fishing village and center for the









construction of inter-island boats. In the mid-
nineteenth century, the town was used by
American whalers as a depot and later be-
came a market center for villages at the
northern end of the colony. By the time island
commerce and government were firmly con-
centrated at Roseau, a polarization had also
been created, i.e., north versus south, Roseau
versus Portsmouth, an attitude which contin-
ues to the present (Honychurch, 1983 and
1984).

Since its earliest colonial days
Dominica has been an exporter, supplying
first coffee and sugar for European house-
holds, later limes for the British Navy, and
more recently bananas and citrus fruits for
world markets. The French planters first in-
troduced coffee cultivation to the island, and
their estates became the most flourishing.
Sugar cane was only introduced after the
British took control of the island, which meant
that sugar cultivation came to Dominica later
than other islands of the West Indies. Cocoa
production, as well as lime production, gained
prominence as export crops at the end of the
nineteenth century, following a decline in the
sugar industry. Coffee continued to be ex-
ported, but most estates were gradually turned
over to cocoa and limes.

Like other plantation-based colonial
societies, Dominica was initially dependent on
the importation of inexpensive African labor
to sustain its development, creating a socio-
economic system which did not end until 1834
when the former slaves were granted their
freedom. During the years of slave labor,
runaway slaves, known as Maroons, often
used the luxuriantly forested, mountainous
terrain of the island's interior for concealment
from authorities seeking out escapees. Run-
aways were also given refuge by the Caribs,
who survived in Dominica on a remote 200
acre site on the Atlantic coast. This began a
process of interbreeding and intermarriage
which continues to the present time.


THE CARIBS OF DOMINICA

Dominica is unique in the region as
the primary homeland of the last survivors of
the once-powerful Carib Indians (a much


smaller population can be found in St. Vin-
cent). The Carib Reserve (now called the
Carib Territory), perched on a mountainside
on the northeast shoulder of Dominica (see
Figure 1.2(1)), is the only such reservation in
the region and was officially established in
1903 when the 232 acres over which the
Caribs then had jurisdiction were increased to
3,700 acres. At that time, the British Gov-
ernment recognized the authority of the Carib
chief, but official title to Carib lands was not
granted until 1978 with passage of the Carib
Reserve Act, whereby the newly-independent
Dominican Government vested land title for
the reserve in the Carib Council.

From its inception, the Carib Reserve
maintained a system of communal land tenure
which had existed since pre-Columbian times;
it is probably the only substantial remnant of
communal land in the region today. While
much of the Carib culture has not survived the
500 years since the first European occupation
(e.g., the Carib language, religion and most of
its rituals have been lost), the last 15 years
have witnessed a growing ethnic consciousness
among Dominica's Caribs. The relationship
between the Caribs and Government has been
strained in recent years, particularly over
proposals to change the Carib's communal
land tenure system to one based on private
property, an approach which some feel would
render the Caribs landless within a short pe-
riod of time (Gregoire and Kanem, 1989).


CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY

In 1898, Crown Colony rule was introduced in
Dominica, thus eliminating the locally elected
House of Assembly and placing government
control for the next 70 years in London.
Movement for constitutional reform gained
momentum twenty-five years later when, in
1924, a new constitution restored semi-
representation, under a limited franchise.
During this period, Dominica emerged as a
regional leader for constitutional change; in
1932 the Dominica Federation Conference
put forward strong demands for full repre-
sentative government. As a result of these
agitations, a new constitution was granted in
1936 which, while increasing the number of
elected representatives in the Legislative









Council, still did not remove the Crown
Colony system. At the end of the 1930's
Dominica was separated from the Leeward
Island grouping, where the island had been
placed since 1871, and became a colony within
the Windward group. In 1951, universal adult
suffrage was introduced, and provisions for an
elected majority in the Legislature were ap-
proved, with the ministerial form of govern-
ment proclaimed just five years later in 1956.
Finally, in 1%967, Dominica became a State in
Association with Great Britain, with complete
internal self-government.

Full independence was achieved on
November 3, 1978, the 485th anniversary of
the sighting of Dominica by Christopher
Columbus. Under its new constitution, the
executive authority of the State is vested in a
President, not the British Monarch as is the
case in neighboring, former British colonies in
the Eastern Caribbean. Furthermore, to
avoid confusion over the similarity of names
with the Spanish-speaking Dominican
Republic, the new country assumed the formal
nomenclature of The Commonwealth of
Dominica (Honychurch, 1984).


RECENT EVENTS

Dominica was the second of the
Windward Islands to achieve independence,
an event which was followed shortly by both
natural disasters and political strife of ex-
traordinary dimensions. The Government
which brought the country to independence
quickly ran into problems in 1979, with a ma-
jor scandal breaking out over a proposed
scheme to lease a fifth of the island to an
American businessman, the land to be taken
from small farmers to set up a free port which
would have constituted a virtual mini-state
within a state. Although plans for the free
port were dropped, attempts by the Govern-
ment to curtail the press and trade unions
were followed by a period of heated civil dis-
obedience that ended only with the resigna-
tion of the Government.

An even more devastating blow befell
the island in August of 1979 when Hurricane
David, one of the most destructive storms to
ever strike the region, passed over Dominica,


followed shortly thereafter by Frederick and
then Allen the following year. While the
country was struggling to recovr from these
natural catastrophes, an invasion plot to
topple the Government was revealed in 1981.
White racist mercenaries from Canada and
the United States had been involved in a
bizarre plan to invade the island, overthrow
the Government with the support of disgrun-
tied members of the disbanded Dominica de-
fense force, and restore the ex-Prime Minister
to power. The invasion plot was halted before
it could be successfully executed, bringing to
an end the more unsettling events of the 1979-
1981 period.


DOMINICAN ROOTS

Colonial domination, with its planta-
tion-based social and economic systems, nevr
took hold in Dominica in quite the way it did
on other islands of the Eastern Caribbean.
The terrain and a climate influenced by heavy
rains made effective colonization by the
British more difficult; in fact, when the British
took control of the colony in the late eigh-
teenth century, their jurisdiction was limited
to Roseau, the capital, and Portsmouth in the
north. Elsewhere were rival French timber-
men and farmers who lived with African
Maroons and Caribs in mountain villages.
Under these conditions, it is not difficult to
understand why Dominica was the last island
of the region to be colonized (CARICOM,
1984).

A strong tradition of peasant farming
took hold early and spared the island much of
the political and labor strife which character-
ized more developed Caribbean islands in the
twentieth century. The terrain made large-
scale, plantation-style agriculture more diffi-
cult, and the islanders therefore have long
tended to live as small farmers in villages near
their land. The village link is important in
Dominica, reflected in the fact that, caept for
those long established in Roseau, there are
few families in urban areas who cannot trace
their immediate connections to a village
(Honychurch, 1988; Trench, 1982). The sig-
nificance of the village in the development of
Dominican social and cultural patterns is un-
derscored by the relative newness of modern









transportation links; before 1956 and the
completion of the Transinsular Road, the
principal link between Portsmouth and
Roseau was by boat, and prior to 1958 and
completion of an airstrip at Melville Hall, air
transport was limited to sea planes whose
landing was often prevented by inclement
weather.

The country's cultural roots are var-
ied, steeped in the lifestyle influences of the
Caribs, the Africans and the colonizers (more
the French than the English). It is a society
richly imbued with colorful contributions from
a multicultural past, from the base of
Amerindian craft and botanical lore through
African social elements and eighteenth cen-
tury French patterns to more modern western
influences (Honychurch, 1988). As one local
historian wrote, Dominica is an island of natu-
ral splendor upon which man has been a
passing visitor in many forms: the Carib war-
rior, the European settler, the Africans. The
French influence is everywhere in the domi-
nant Afro-Creole culture and the local patois,
while the British left their primary mark on
the island's system of government
(Honychurch, 1984).

Yet, above all, are the values of a
deeply religious and overwhelmingly agrarian


society. In the end, the islanders of Dominica
look to God for their spiritual sustenance and
to the resources of the land for material sup-
port. In the original Creole, "Apres Bondie,
c'est la Ter" -- After God, The Earth.



1.3.2 Demographics and Population
Trends

[The following discussion on demographic features in
Dominica has been derived from Bouvier (1984) except
where otherwise indicated ]

In 1844 the first census following
emancipation enumerated over 22,000 people
in Dominica. The period between 1844 and
1871, the year of the next census, is believed
to have been characterized by extremely high
crude birth and death rates and thus by
minimal natural increase.

Between 1871 and 1921 six censuses
were conducted (see Table 1.3(1)) which re-
vealed another period of low growth, an aver-
age of 0.7 percent. Mortality probably de-
clined somewhat during this period while fer-
tility remained high, a pattern that was com-
mon throughout the developing world at the
turn of the century. Natural increases were


Table 1.3(1). The population of Dominica, 1844 1990.

Year Number Year Number

1844 (0) 22,200 193 (2) 39,500
1871 (1) 27,178 1946 (1) 47,630
1881 ) 28,211 1960 (1) 59,920
1891 (1) 26,841 1970 () 69,549
1901 () 28,894 1981 (1) 73,795
1911 () 33,863 1988 (2) 81,335
1921 (1) 37,059 1990 (2) 85,000


1 Census figures
2 Estimated figures

Source: All figures from Bouvier (1984), except 1988 (GOCD, 1985) and
1990 (Population Reference Bureau, 1990).









thus undoubtedly higher than ever before, but
were offset by emigration which also in-
creased during this period, probably to
Panama where the canal was under construc-
tion and to the larger islands of the
Caribbean.

It is estimated that in the early twen-
tieth century crude birth rates averaged 45 per
1,000 population, while death rates hovered
around 30 per 1,000. If correct, net migration
would have stood at about 7 per 1,000.

Between 1921 and 1946, the popula-
tion grew by almost 10,600 persons, with a net
emigration of 5,637 persons. The level of nat-
ural increase was 1.5 percent annually during
this 25-year period, but due to high emigra-
tion, the island population actually grew much
more slowly, at around one percent annually.
The entire first half of this century was char-
acterized by substantial declines in both fertil-
ity and mortality, but also by increased net
emigration.

The early post-World War Two pe-
riod featured a significant increase in the pop-
ulation growth rate, to 1.6 percent. Between
1946 and 1960 the number of people on the
island jumped from 47,630 to 59,920. This
was caused by a dramatic rise in the rate of
natural increase, from 1.5 to 32 percent, and
by a rare (for a developing country) drop in
the mortality rate relative to the birth rate.
Dominican women averaged five or six chil-
dren during this period. Net emigration over
the 14 years totaled 6,190, but because of the
very high natural increases, total population
was affected less than previously.

In the 1960's, the rate of natural in-
crease grew even more substantially, and only
because of massive emigration did annual
growth remain at 1.5 percent. Since 1946
most emigrants from Dominica have gone to
Martinique, Guadeloupe, Canada, the United
Kingdom and the United States. Migration to
the British Isles almost stopped completely
with passage of the 1962 Commonwealth
Immigration Act, which served to make the
United States and Canada more attractive to
migrants. The importance of emigration to
Dominica's demographic character, particu-
larly during the post-war period, is such that


in the absence of it the island's population re-
portedly "would have easily surpassed the
100,000 mark by 1970 (Bouvier, 1964). The
actual population in 1970 was 69,549, follow-
ing slower growth rates of 0.5 percent in the
1970's. These slower growth rates resulted
from a drop in fertility as acceptance of family
planning among Dominican couples increased
during the decade. In 1979, it is interesting to
note, Hurricane David compelled hundreds of
Dominican women to move to Guadeloupe
where many of them gave birth, thus lowering
Dominica's fertility rate.

The 1970's also witnessed a further
drop in mortality rates (to 6 per 1,000 popular.
tion by 1980). In fact, the nation's mortality
levels are among the lowest in the Third
World, but in part this is due to the young age
composition of the overall population. Infant
mortality has fallen sharply from 119.6 per
1,000 births in the 1950's to 27.0 in 1977.
Emigration remained high in the 197Ws, par-
ticularly among women. In fact, some 4,000
Dominican entered the United States alone
during the decade.

The composition of Dominica's pop-
ulation (see Figure 13(1)) has changed sig-
nificantly due to fertility declines and persis-
tent emigration patterns. Between 1970 and
1980 the median age rose from 15.4 to 185.
While this is still a young population, the three
year increase is substantiaL In 1970 half of aa
Dominicans were under 15 while 5.9 percent
were 65 or older. The dependency ratio (i.e,
the number of dependentn persons those
under 15 or 65 and over per 100 persons in
the population age 15 to 65) was 122. In 1980
this ratio fell to 89, with 40 percent of the
population under 15 and 72 percent 65 years
of age or older. A dependency ratio of 89 is
still relatively high and reflects the high level
of emigration among those of 'non-depen-
denta age status.

The last census was taken in 1981 and
reported a total population of 73,795. Popu-
lation figures for years since then can only be
estimated. The island's total 1988 population
(at year-end) has been estimated at 81,335
(GOCD, 1988b). If this estimate is accurate,
the growth rate since 1981 has been about 1.5
percent annually, substantially higher than the











MALES FEMALES


75+
70-74
65-69
60-64
55-59
50-54
45-49
40-44
35-39
30-34
25-29
20-24
15-19
10-14
5-9
0-4


z7;F.~ *-~#~ ~ I
~ v


123456789



1980


Figure 1.3(1). Dominica national population age-sex structure as a percentage of national
population (source: Bouvier, 1984).


during the previous


To study Dominica's future demo-
graphic character, a series of projections were
outlined by Bouvier (1984) based on various
postulates regarding fertility and migration.
The following scenarios were considered (see
Table 1.3(2) and Figure 1.3(2) for projected
population size under the four hypotheses):

Scenario A: current (i.e., 1984) fertility
(3.4) and current (i.e., 1984) net emigra-
tion (800 per year);

Scenario B: declining fertility (2.6) and
declining net emigration (to 400 per year);

Scenario C: replacement level fertility
(2.1) and net migration of zero.


Scenario D: current fertility (3.4) and
declining net emigration (to 400 per year).

In Bouvier's report, Scenario A is
viewed as an encouraging one, but given its
dependency on continued high rates of net
emigration, it is predicated on external factors
(e.g., immigration policies in receiving coun-
tries) over which Dominica has no control,
and the country could witness increases in
return migration generated in part by restric-
tions in other countries.

Scenario D reflects the outcome if
immigration restrictions were imposed, i.e.,
current fertility and half the emigration. This
outcome would be problematic as a popula-
tion of almost 150,000 would be reached by
2030 whereas a level of 100,000 to 110,000 was
considered by Bouvier to be "quite reason-
able."


? 87654321 0



1970


KJ~272I


rate which prevailed
decade.


21


L -


I E1_-11'.'1111*_'1O11__1 1111_J


























































1990


2000


AM TMHo3A netronaon13O
ft 1FIaf12AMtwnsdteeno 400


2010


2020


0 FRoaf 2tn3afatoneXeo


Figure 1.3(2). Dominica population projections, 1980-2030, under four growth scenarios
(source: Bouvmer, 1984). N.B. TFR = total fertlity rate.


Table 1.3(2). Dominica population projections 190-2030, under four growth scenarios.



Scenario 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030


A 72,311 78,899 86,387 91,166 94,485 96,767
B 72,311 82,521 91,710 100.129 104,792 110.980
C 72,311 86.682 98,431 110,794 121,242 128,789
D 72,311 83.880 98,937 114,032 131,143 149,622


A: TFR of 3.4, net mrniration of 800
B: TFR of 2.. not gron of 400
C: TFR of 2.1, not migration of
D: TFR of 3.4, nt miraon of 400
TFR Totl Fertility Rat savagee numb of rth per woman)

Source: Bouvier. 1984.


154000






100,000






mowoo


1980


1A


2030










Scenarios B and C reflect possibilities
falling between the two extremes. Scenario C
assumes a fertility rate of 2.1, the level which
would replace the population over the long
run in the absence of migration. However, it
takes an average of 60-70 years after first
reaching replacement level fertility for a
country to obtain zero population growth
without migration.

Bouvier concluded that the country
was in a favorable demographic situation, but
such conclusions about the demographically
"healthy' status of Dominica were tentative at
best -- and remain valid only if fertility does


not rise and net emigration does not fall, thus
assuring Dominica of a slow rate of growth
into the twenty-first century. However, if
emigration decreases, substantial declines in
fertility will be necessary to ensure the
achievement of a stable population with man-
ageable growth rates. Furthermore, a large
number of additions to the labor force will
soon be a problem (as the youthful population
ages); the large size of the elderly population
(within 30-40 years) also has implications for
social policy planners. (See Figure 1.3(3) for
various labor force projections to the year
2030 under Bouvier's hypothetical scenarios.)


LABOR
FORCE
60,000






40,000





20,000


1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030


A:TRF of 3.4, net emigration of 800 C:TRF of 2.1, net emigration of 0

B:I TRF of 2.6, net emigration of 400 D:TRF of 3.4, net emigration of 400



Figure 1.3(3). Dominica national labor force projections, 1980-2030, under four growth
scenarios (source: Bouvier, 1984). N.B. TRF = total fertility rate.










More current statistics from the Pop-
ulation Reference Bureau (1990), which spon-
sored Bouvier's 1984 work, show a population
of 85,000 by mid-1990, while Bouvier's "best
case scenario projected the population would
not reach that level until the year 2000 (i.e,
86,387; sec Table 1.3(2)). The Population
Reference Bureau's 1990 statistics estimate a
population of 101,000 by the turn of the cen-
tury and 134,000 two decades later, a pattern
more closely approximating Bouvier's "worst
case" scenario (Table 13(2)). Although the
Population Reference Bureau's 1990 demo-
graphic estimates do not provide complete
information on how these projections were ar-
rived at, they are somewhat disturbing in the


case of Dominica and point to the need for
GOCD policymakers to be aware of the bult-
in momentum implicit in even slight shifts in
fertility and/or migration behavior.

With respect to spatial distribution of
the national population it is evident from the
figures in Table 13(3) that Dominicans are
concentrated primarily along the west coast,
especially its southern portion (Figure 1.2(1)
provides the location of the parishes referred
to in the table). As discussed in more detail in
Chapter 9 of the Profile, most residential and
other construction continues to focus in this
sector of the country.


Table 1.3(3). Non-Institutional population of Dominica classifed by Parish. rural and
urban districts: 1981 census. For location of parishes, see Figure 1.2(1).



PARISH MALES FEMALES TOTAL DISTRICT MALES FEMALES TOTAL


St George
St John
St. Peter
St. Joseph
St Paul
St. Luke
St. Mark
St Andrew
St. Patrick
St. David


9,826
2,744
803
3,356
3,120
712
935
6,519
4,902
3,862


10,675

798
3,251
3,268
791
906
6.229
4.878
3.475


20,501
5,412
1.01
6.,06
6,386
1,503
1.921
12,748
9.780
7.337


Urban
Sub Urbanl
Saf'l Urtmtf
Rural


4,970
4,070
125.447
15,447


5,513
4.543
12.213
14.772


10.483
8.613
24.480
30,219


T36,778 37.017


73.795


36.754


37.041 73.795


Source: GOCO, 1968b. N.B. The total number of males ad h total number of male oas enumnerad by
parish and by district are not consistent, aiHough th. total population flgua by parlh and by
district are consistent.










1.3.3 National Economy and Development Trends


OVERVIEW

The economy of Dominica is similar to
its sister OECS states, where the primary char-
acteristics are openness and dependency on out-
side influences. The country's economy is still
small; however, despite its size, it has shown
steady growth over the past decade, as measured
by the increase in Gross Domestic Product il-
lustrated for the decade 1978 through 1987 by
Figure 1.3(4).


140.0
130.0-

I 120.0-
S110.0-0

100.0-

90.0-

80.0-


70.09 "' .1 1 1 1, 1- ,
78 79 80 81 82 3 84 85 86 87 88
YEAR

Figure 1.3(4). Growth of gross domestic product, 197
through 1987 in constant 1977 EC$
(GOCD, 1988b).


This figure, as most others in this sec-
tion, shows a remarkable drop in production
(i.e., GDP) in 1979 -- representing the devas-
tating effects of events during the final year of
that decade, one marked by civil unrest, political
turmoil and devastating natural disaster. In spite
of the widespread destruction wrought by Hurri-
canes David and Frederick in 1979 (followed by
Allen in 1980), the economy in general, and agri-
cultural production specifically, recovered
rapidly. But the events of the late seventies and
early eighties, which saw such a sharp down-turn
in the economy, are a dear demonstration of the
fragility of Eastern Caribbean economies in gen-
eral In Dominica, in particular, the economy is
still primarily dependent on agricultural produc-


tion -- which, in turn, remains just as vulnerable
to the vicissitudes of natural phenomena today as
it was in 1979.

In the Eastern Caribbean context, the
economy of Dominica is "pre-modern" (McElroy
and deAlbuquerque, 1989), that is, the process of
diversifying the economy away from a monocrop
base and of rapid urbanization and suburbaniza-
tion has only just begun in Dominica, which is
still a predominantly agricultural country, with a
relatively low rate of net population growth, a
small tourism sector, and no other "modernizing"
sector, such as insurance or banking. The pre-
modern designation, however, is potentially a
very positive factor for Dominica because it
means that many of the crucial choices about
future development paths have not already been
foreclosed, as they have been in the U.S. Virgin
Islands, for example.

Other characteristics of the Dominican
economy include:

a dominant agricultural sector with
export markets in European, North
American and Caribbean countries;

expensive energy systems given small
scale, high capital costs for hydro-
power, high costs for diesel fuel, and
the need to maintain, at present,
both power systems;

high costs for transportation on and
off the island;

growth of foreign-held debt which is
high in relation to other OECS
states;

abundant natural resources which
represent potential growth sectors,
e.g., forest products and nature-
based tourism;

a small manufacturing/industrial
sector, although Government devel-
opment plans include an emphasis
on expanding light manufacturing









industries concentrating principally
on agro-pocessing.

Finally, although cash incomes are rela-
tively low in the country, they have been ad-
vancing steadily over the last decade, as shown in
Figure 13(5). Although population growth rates
during this period appear higher than the
previous decade (see Section 13.2), they are still
relatively modest, averaging a little over one per-
cent per year for the 1980's. This factor has
contributed to substantial per capital income
growth as illustrated in Figure 1.3(5). In fact,
average per capital income has advanced more
quickly than the overall economy, especially in
recent years (see Figures 13(4) and 1.3(5)). It
should also be noted that the use of constant
(1977) dollars in Figure 13(5) considerably un-
derstates the current per capital figure, which was
about ECS3,400 in 1988.


Figure 1.3(5). Growth in pe capital Income in Domrninica,
1981 1988 based on 1981 conus
count and using constant 1977 EC$
(~ourne: GO=O, 9I8b).


THE DOMINANCE OF AGRICULTURE

Figure 1.3(6) provides an overview of
growth in the major sectors of the Dominican
economy as recorded by GOCD in the decade


from 1978 to 1988 (GOCD, 1988b). Table 1.3(4)
summarizes similar data for the five year period
1984-1988. These data clearly show that the
foremost sector of the economy, and the most
dynamic over the past decade, has been agricul-
ture.

Bananas are still the dominant crop, but
there have been strong attempts recently at crop
diversification. Citrus is important with oranges
and grapefruit grown primarily on estates,
packed by the Citrus Growers Association, and
exported to the UK and US. Grapefruit is also
canned and exported. Limes are grown princi-
pally in the southwest of the island, and the bulk
of the crop is converted into lime juice and lime
oil. Most of the country's coconut crop is used
in the production of soap and cooking oil, and
special attention has been given to this crop in
recent years through a Coconut Rehabilitation
Project. Other efforts in agriculture include the
development of coffee and cocoa crops, pilot
projects in aquacuture, the introduction of ex-
otic vegetables and rice, expansion of the
acreage used for cultivation of ornamental flow-
ers for export, and the distillation of essential
oils (patchouli) for export (Taylor, 1989).

The continuing dominance of
Dominica's agricultural sector is at variance with
the experience of many other Eastern Caribbean
islands where agriculture has been assuming a
smaller role in recent years with the exception
of the 'green gold" phenomenon which has en-
couraged accelerated banana production
throughout the Windward Islands in response to
the special protection afforded this crop in UK
markets, at least until 1992. The results of re-
cent attempts at greater agricultural diversifica-
tion in Dominica can be seen in Figure 1.3(7),
where the percent of agricultural production for
both bananas and root crops in 1987 is shown as
just over 30 percent for each; during the period
1978 to 1987 the percent of agricultural
production for bananas rose from 27 percent to
31 percent while the percentage for ground pro.
visions stayed constant at 34 percent. In 1987,
the production of the most popular root crops -
dasheen, tannia, yams and sweet potato was
about ECS30.5 million (production value), nearly
equal to the production value of total banana
production at EC$30.9 million (GOCD, 1988b).
While root crop production has always been an
important high-volume, domestic food source,











250.0


200.0
0
I-

150.0-
-).


c 100.0-
4-
0
0 50.0-



0.0


78798081


Other


Manu/Const


Whisl/Reti


Agric


Govt


8283848586 8788
YEAR


Figure 1.3(6). Gross domestic product by major sector, 1978 1987 (source: GOOD, 1988b).


more recently a portion of domestically-
produced ground provisions has found its way
into the export markets, primarily to near-by
islands in the Caribbean. Production figures
over the last decade indicate production of most
root crops doubled during the period 1978-1988
(GOCD, 1988b), and some of this added
production is contributing to the export earnings
of the state. Proportionately, however, export
earnings for root crops remains small; for
example, while 29,305 tons of bananas were
exported in 1983 with a value of US$11.2 million,
in that year Dominica exported only 863 tons of
vegetables, which included root crops, valued at
US$600,000 (World Bank, 1985).


It is obvious that, despite diversification,
bananas remain the big export earner. Income
from banana exports accounted for more than
one-half of the increase in Dominican exports in
1988, rising by 17 percent to just under EC$1X00
million. This growth was derived almost entirely
from an increase in the volume of fruit exported.

Soap products, the second largest con-
tributor to export earnings, realized EC$24.3
million in 1988, an increase of 18.8 percent or
EC$4 million over 1987 receipts. The average
unit price for these products declined during the
year, but a 19 percent growth in volume compen-
sated for the reduction. Other domestic exports
in 1988 yielded EC$22.3 million, an increase of











Table 1.3(4). Sectoral distribution of GDP at current factor cost. 1984-1988.


GDP (EC$ Millon)
Agriculture
Mining/Quarrying
Manufacturing
Utlities
Construction
Transport and
Communications
Wholesale/Retal
Hotels/Restaurants
Banking/Insurance
Government Services
Other Services

GDP (%)
Agriculture
Mining/Quarrying
Manufacturing
Utiities
Construction
Transport/Commun.
Wholesale/Retall
Hotels/Restaurants
Banking/Insurance
Government Services
Other Services


1884

202.7
56.8
1.5
12.4
5.9
17.17

26.5
14.7
2.2
16.7
47.1
1.8


28.0
0.7
6.1
2.9
8.5
13.1
7.2
1.1
8.2
23.2
0.9


N.B. 1988 = Estimated Figures
Source: CDB, 1988.


46.7 percent (EC$7 million) over the 1987 figure.
The main contributors to this increase were
exports of plantain and citrus fruit from the
agricultural sector and garments, gloves, paints,
and varnishes from the manufacturing sector
(Eastern Can'bbean Central Bank, 1989).

Dominican exports to CARICOM
countries yielded EC$29.8 million in 1988,
ECS4_5 million more than the previous year but
accounting for a smaller proportion of total
exports. As Figure 1.3(8) depicts, the last
decade has seen an expansion of Dominican
exports to other Caribbean countries, including
its CARICOM partners, with Jamaica becoming


a major importer of Dominican exports in the
region.


DIVERSIFICATION

Dominica stili faces the difficult issue of
how to further diversify its economy. Yet within
the last two to four years, the country has taken
a variety of steps in the direction of broad diver-
sification within both agriculture and other sec-
tors. Some of these steps are summarized be-
low. (N.B. The reader is cautioned that some of
these efforts, while enhancing diversification, do
have associated environmental costs which are
discussed elsewhere in this Profile.)


1985

223.3
62.4
1.5
14.4
6.2
15.0


19886

253.3
76.6
1.4
16.9
6.7
11.8

34.4
25.8
3.1
19,8
54.4
2.5


30.3
0.5
6.7
2.6
4.7
13.6
10.2
1.2
7.8
21.5
1.0


1987


82.6
1.8
18.3
7.4
14.4

41.8
30.2
3.8
22.1
57.6
1.8


29.3
0.6
6.5
2.6
5.1
14.8
10.7
1.4
7.8
20.5
0.7


29.3
21.1
2.6
28.3
50.1
2.3


27.9
0.7
6.4
2.8
6.7
13.1
9.4
1.2
8.2
22.4
1.0


302
95.4
2.1
19.6
8.1
16.8

45.3
32.3
4.8
23.8
59.5
1.5


30.9
0.7
6.4
2.6
5.4
14.6
10.4
1.5
7.7
19.2
0.5










100% r-


90%-
80%-
70%-
60%-
50%-
40%-
30%-
20%-
10%-
0%-


78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87


M Bananas =II Root Cro M Citrus


= Other


Figure 1.3(7). Dominican crop production, 1978 1987 (source: GOCD, 1988b).


(1) In 1989, Government announced
proposals for new port facilities at Portsmouth
and Roseau at a cost of EC$24 million. Plans
call for building a 300 foot cruise ship berth at
Cabrits north of Portsmouth; additionally, the
existing port at Woodbridge Bay north of
Roseau will be extended by 300 feet, (also for
cruise ship use), and a new container park for
containerized cargo to accommodate increased
volumes of import and export goods is also
being built at the Roseau facility.

(2) A marina is planned for the In-
dian River area adjacent to Portsmouth. This
would be the island's first small boat harbor
suitable for attracting yacht traffic which has
traditionally by-passed Dominica because of its
lack of an adequate harbor and marina facili-
ties.


(3) An unusual feature of the Cabrits
cruise ship dock is a US$600,000 five mile fresh
water pipeline which will link the Picard River
with Portsmouth and provide cruise ships with
200,000 gallons of water within five hours.
Water is projected to cost US$8.00 per 1,000
gallons.

(4) In late 1989 the Minister of Agri-
culture announced a major program of agri-
cultural diversification to include the growing
and processing of passion fruit, soursop, man-
goes, avocados, and hot peppers. Additionally,
he noted that the 200 acres of coffee then in
production would be expanded by another 200
acres by 1992.
(5) Current hydro projects, which for
the first time provide for the use of impounded










160.0


140.0

,120.0

100.0

80.0

60.0

40.0

20.0

0.0
78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88

Caribbeaw [Z] No. Amer. EEC


Figure 1.3(8). Dominican export markets, 1978 1988 (source: GOCOD, 1988b).


water, will assure that the island's electric power
supply will soon (i.e., projected for 1992) be just
under two-thirds water-supplied, substantially
decreasing the current need for importing diesel
oil for power systems.

(6) In January of 1990 Dominica
AgrolIdustries Ltd., the island's only citrus
processing plant, successfully marketed its entire
output of grapefruit juice concentrate to an
American firm. This is linked to a major pro-
gram to double the acreage and increase the
productivity of grapefruit orchards in the
country.
(7) During 1989 Dominica Coconut
Products increased its prior year sales by 16.5
percent to a new record of EC$29.7 million.
This is due in part to implementation of new li-


ceasing arrangements with major U.S soap and
cosmetic firms.

(8) Although the size of Dominica's
tourism sector remains small, there are indica-
tions that it is definitely growing. Between 1984
and 1988, total hotel arrivals roee 43 percent
from 22,207 to 31,784 (CTO, 1989). Between
1984 and 1987, the number of cruise ship visitors
rose over 250 percent from 3,216 to 12,080.
Plans call for expansion of hotel rooms from
1989 levels (approximately 400 rooms) to 575 by
1992, a 44 percent increase (CTO, 1990).
(9) Formal studies are underway for a
new jet airport at Woodford Hill in the north-
eastern part of the state, which would give
Dominica for the first time direct international
links for jet aircraft, thereby enhancing the










marketability of the country as a tourist attrac-
tion.


TRADE AND FOREIGN DEBT

Even under the relatively improved
commodity conditions enjoyed in recent years,
Dominica's economy is unable to produce a
surplus, or even a balance, in visible trade.
Figure 1.3(9) illustrates the long-term persis-
tence of the negative trade balances which have
affected the country.


140
120
S100


100%

BOX"




40%



7 70 80 81 82 83 84 8 86 87
tEAR


Figure 1.3(10).




55X ---


Dominica trade deficit as a percent
of GDP, 1978 1987 (GOCD, 1988b).


801 501

50 45X

0 a 4
S7 779 80 81 8 8 84 85 86 87
355'

Figure 1.3(9) Dominica balance of trade, 1978 30x-
1987 (GOOD, 1988b).

78 70 80 81 82 83 84 65 88 87


More important than the absolute
amount of the trade deficit, however, is the
deficit in relation to the overall productive ca-
pacity of the economy. As Figure 13(10) il-
lustrates, after a catastrophic period in the early
1980's, the balance of trade to GDP ratio has
improved considerably, averaging around 30 per-
cent or 40 percent for the last four years for
which data are available. The extremely high
deficit to GDP ratios of the early 1980's reflect
the combined effects of low productive capacity
because of hurricane damages and the need for
massive new investments to replace housing and
basic infrastructure following the hurricanes of
the 1979-80 period.


Figure 1.3(11). Total debt to GDP in Dominica,
1978-1987 (source: MoBroy
and deAlbuquerque, 1990).

In spite of the resiliency of the Domini-
can economy, the ratio of total debt outstanding
to GNP is still increasing (see Figure 1.3(11)).
Among the OECS states (in 1985, the latest year
for which comparative data are uniformly avail-
able), only Grenada has a higher debt to GNP
ratio. Among Third World countries, a debt to
GNP ratio of 50 percent is not necessarily disas-
trous, but, as McElroy and deAlbuquerque
(1990) point out, conditions among the smaller
countries of the Eastern Caribbean seem to lead
to payment difficulties at relatively low debt lev-









els. Basically, the authors suggest that the ex- creasing the foreign exc.han-ge earning (i.e. the
treme openness of their economies, plus poor or efficiency) of investments, This will undoultediy
inelastic revenue collection mechanisms, make result in increased pressure for higher returns
OECS states much more prone to defaulting on from expoir agriculture, more tourism de',elo.p-
foreign debt than has been assumed in the past. ment and more Cexports from small industry de-
velopment, particularly after the current pro-
The implications of these trends in gram of air and shipping facilities impro'-ement?
Dominica is that future economic policy must is completed. All three options tend to increase.
devote considerable attention to reducing the risks to the environment.
rate of growth of foreign-held debt and in in-



THE "GREENING' OF ECONOMICS

In the area of environmental management, the role of economics traditionally has been d-agrost:|
scene-setting, and related to the identification of dollars to pay for expensive infrastructure pro-
grams. Most of the prescriptive elements of environmental policies are usually deait with w'ihin
natural resource sectors such as agriculture or forestry. But that's now changing As the
Economist magazine (5 May, 1990) noted, Environment policies that take no heed of economics
will backfire; but so wit economic policies that ignore the environment This statement is just as
valid for the islands of the Eastern Caribbean as it is elsewhere in the world.

Progressive environmental policies are most l e.y to achieve their goals in a cost! -e.t,. e manne |
if they use economic mechanisms such as taxes and control of pricing for non-market goods (e.g..
in Dominica: water, electricity and other utilities). Regula';ions and direct subsidies are demon-
strably less effective than economic tools which control prices to consumers.

It is important for governments to eliminate subsidies for the exploitation of scarce natural re-
sources. Although this is easy to say. it sometimes clashes strongly with fundamental ~3 t. :.a s-
sues, such as government-financed housing schemes where a subsidy is used to support the con-
version of prime agricultural land into housing tracts. Another traditional subsidy with usually ne-g-
atlive environmental consequences is the construction of farm-to-market roads In contrast how-
ever, taxes on scarce natural resources and energy can serve the dual goals of revenue generation
while ensuring that the prices of such goods more fully reflect the full costs to society.

There are many opportunities for GOCD to explore the elimination of er-',rrc enta ly harmlfu "'sub-
sidies" or the adoption of creative fiscal disincentives to protect the environment. For example:

Are timber tax and depletion policies designed to encourage wise cujriatin and harvesting
of exotic varieties and sustainable sliviculture practices for utility grades of lumber?

Do agricultural support programs encourage and/or enforce environmentally sound farming
and soil conservation practices?

Are water exports being subsidized?

Are sand exports being subsidized because the Governmment is not reimbursed for the loss
of a non-renewable (or very-slow-to-renew) resource?

It is important for Dominica and other Eastern Caribbean governments to explore more ways for
economics and the environment to work together creatively,










































Rain forest landscapes in Dominica, such as the one depicted, offer new
prospects for attracting the attention of eco-tourists who find inspiration and
enjoyment in visiting and experiencing new and complex ecosystems.









FORESTS AND WILDUFE


Over two-thirds of the land surface of
Dominica is covered by forests. Indeed, in the
Eastern Caribbean, the words 'rain forest" are
almost synonymous with the name Dominica.
One observer, writing some sixty years ago,
exclaimed upon seeing the island "I had not
believed that anything could be so green"
(Waugh, 1949). Forests dominate the island's
landscape; they have been a key geographic
determinant in shaping its history and devel-
opment and continue to inspire images of true
tropical splendor. Dominica's forests modify
its weather and seriously limit agricultural op-
port unity at the same time, the country's lush
forested areas provide a home for exotic
tropical flora and fauna and are critical to re-
taining the island's light tropical soils on steep
mountainous hillsides.

There is a general consensus that the
forests of Dominica are the finest in the
Caribbean. They cover between 60-75 percent
of the island and contain a rich assemblage of
plant and animal species. Over 1,000 species
of flowering plants are represented, with up to
sixty tree species per hectare. Over fifty
species of resident birds have been recorded,
including two endemic parrots, both of which
are endangered.

Since the time of the first French set-
tlements at the beginning of the eighteenth
century, the island has been favored for its
forest resources (Honychurch, 1984). Ex-
ploitation continued into the twentieth century
until, by 1971, an article in American Forests
warned that these forests, the only large ex-
panse of undisturbed flora remaining in the
Lesser Antilles, were 'doomed,' about to fall
victim to the latest commercial venture to win
rights to cut them down (Weber, 1971). That
venture, spearheaded by a Canadian firm
called Dom-Can Timbers Ltd., had, in 1967,
been granted a 21-year logging agreement by
the Government of Dominica. However, in
1971, the same year that the warning in
American Forests appeared, the company
failed as a result of the high costs associated
with timber extraction and other operations in
the island's difficult topographic and climatic
environment (Prins, 1987). Other assessments


held the firm itself accountable, claiming the
operation was "under-capitalized' and
"mismanaged' (May, 1981). Yet another at-
tempt at large-scale forestry on Dominica's
rugged terrain began operation six years later
in 1977, but this too had failed by the end of
the decade.

The collapse of previous attempts at
large-scale timber harvesting has not elimi-
nated risks to Dominica's magnificent
ecosystems from multinational corporations
looking for new offshore sites. As outlined
below, at present these include two relatively
large timber operations which receive a vari-
ety of subsidies from international organi-
zations.




2.1 FORESTS

2.1.1 Overvkew


THE FOREST RESOURCE BASE

Dominica contains some 52,000 ha of
natural forest, woodland and bush. Steep to-
pography, high relief, and considerable micro-
climatic variability have a strong influence on
the distribution of vegetation types. Littoral
woodlands occur within the immediate coastal
zone of the windswept east side of the island.
Scrub and savanna vegetation are found along
the leeward coast which comprises the driest
part of the country. Mature forest, montane
thicket, and elfin woodlands occur only in the
high rainfall interior, while rain forests, both
mature and secondary, are found in well-
drained areas of intermediate elevation and
moderate rainfall. Freshwater swamps and
mangroves are rare. The former occur mainly
along stream outlets in the northeast and
northwest, while small stands of mangrove are
present along the northwest and northeast
coasts. In addition, fumarole vegetation can
be found in selected areas, primarily in the
Valley of Desolation just south of the Boiling
Lake in the south central part of the island.


SECTION 2









A more detailed description of the
island's vegetation zones is provided in
EARTHSAT (1986), which is based on an
OAS classification. Table 2.1(1) contains 1984
data on the spatial extent of each vegetation
zone and is drawn from OAS figures.

Several words of caution are war-
ranted regarding the figures in Table 2.1(1).
First, they differ significantly from those ob-
tained from an earlier map compiled by
Shanks and Putney (1979). In some cases, the
difference is too substantial to reflect actual
changes in land use or vegetative cover. For
example, the OAS map indicates a total area
of secondary rain forest of 9,090 ha (as pre-
sented in Table 2.1(1)), while the Shanks and
Putney (1979) map, obviously produced from
earlier aerial photographs, reveals a much
larger total area of over 20,000 ha (Prins,
1987).

One researcher (Dr. P. Evans, Ox-
ford University-based Director of the
Dominica Multiple Land Use Project) urges


additional caution in using the OAS map and
figures. Some areas on the map are attributed
to the wrong vegetation type; boundaries are
in some cases incorrect; and some vegetation
categories are not appropriate. For example,
differentiation between mature and secondary
rain forest is not well defined (there is an el-
ement of secondary growth throughout the
rain forest areas); also, montanee rain forest"
may prove difficult to distinguish in some lo-
cations from "mature rain forest'". Similarly,
"semi-evergreen forest" is a category that
could be omitted. It is a transitional zone
containing species characteristic of rain forest
and dry forest, but the boundaries of the zone
and its area extent appear to have been
drawn arbitrarily.

The photography on which the OAS
maps was based is far from perfect, as ad-
mitted by EARTHSAT (1986). However, a
new air photo project for the Windward and
Leeward islands has recently been initiated by
CIDA. A related project by ULNDP will uti-
lize the CIDA photography to develop a


Table 2.1 (1). Spatial extent of Dominica vegetation zones.


VEGETATION TYPE


1984 AREA (ha)


% OF TOTAL
LAND AREA *


Mature Rain Forest 24,490
Montane Rain Forest 3,640
Montane Thicket 800
Elfin Woodland 170
Littoral Woodland 140
Scrub Woodland 6,240
Secondary Rain Forest 9,090
Semi-evergreen Forest 7,170
Swamp 30


TOTAL 51,770


* Total land area of Dominica = 79,000 hectares.

Source: McKenzie, 1987b, cited in Prins, 1987.


31.0
4.6
1.0
0.3
0.2
7.9
11.5
9.1
0.1


65.7%









computer-based agricultural land information
system. This will initially focus on Barbados
but will offer training for personnel from
other Windward and Leeward Islands to en-
able application of the technology elsewhere,
including Dominica.

Between 1986 and 1987 an inventory
of Dominica's major commercial forests was
conducted by the Division of Forestry and
Wildlife with assistance from FAO (DeMilde,
1987). A review of the inventory results indi-
cated that Dominican forests were relatively
rich in timber and uniform in composition,
and had a large total utilization volume (FAO,
1989). Timber richness was found to be 200
cubic meters/ha on an estimated 12,500 ha
and 600 cubic meters/ha on an estimated
3,500 ha. In terms of composition, three
species gommier (Dacrvyodes celsa),
carapite (Amanoa caibaea), and bois cote


(Tapwa laIfroi) made up 50 percent of all
trees enumerated (Table 2.1(2)). Tea species
comprised over 90 percent of the total
volume. This uniformity is viewed as advanta-
geous for timber extraction and ntilizaski and
for forest management. Estimated total uti-
lization volume (all species) was 4.9 million
cubic meters, enough to "cover the needs of
the existing (small) timber industries and of
those which are expected to be established in
the near future' (FAO, 1989).

As part of a current FAO/UNDP
Project, entitled Implementation of Forest
Management in Dominica, the volume avail-
able for maintenance of a sustained yield from
Government-owned land without depletion of
the resource is being examined to determine
long-term management objectives. For this
exercise, only currently marketable species
have been considered to avoid overcutting and


Table 2.1(2). Species composition, al forest strata*, 1987 FAO forest inventory
of Dominica.


SPECIES


PERCENTAGE


Gommier (Decryodes excelsa)
Carapite (4manoa caribaea)
Bols cote (Tapura latifoHa)


Chataignier (Sboanea spp.)
Mahot cochon (Stercua cardbea)
Bois diable (Licania tematensls)


Bois rtviere (Chimnrris oynosa)
Mauricif (Byraonle marinicensls)
Balat (PouteWa p#allka)
Orange blanc (Swartzia caribea)
Others and Unknown


22.3
13.9
13.8


12.2
9.9
22


3.8
2.7
1.4
1,3
J.2


50.0




79.2






100.0


* Trees with a diameter equal to or exceeding 30 cm d.b.h. (diameter breast height .

Source: DeMide, 1987, cited In Prins, 1967.
_____________________________________!










downgrading of the remaining resource.
Whereas DeMilde (1987) derived an estimate
of available growing stock within the assess-
ment area amounting to 4.9 million cubic
meters, adjustment for marketable species re-
duces this figure to 3.7 million cubic meters
(pers. commun., A. White, 1990). Of this, ap-
proximately three million cubic meters are lo-
cated on Government lands, as estimated by
DeMilde. This figure is likely to be reduced
further as the management planning process
proceeds and the actual extent of Govern-
ment-controlled land which can be utilized
without constraint is identified.

This revised resource figure and that
of the inventory are both significantly less than
the figure derived by Brown (1962) in his sur-
vey, which indicated a total resource on the
order of seven million cubic meters over an
area of 29,000 hectares. This included private
land and land subsequently allocated to Na-
tional Park use and therefore unavailable for
utilization. It also included areas damaged by
Hurricane David in 1979, which further con-
tributed to the reduction in available resource.

The major factor which emerges
from the continuing decline in estimates of
available volume is the need for the early in-
troduction of management practices for the
remaining resource in order to ensure that
this decline does not continue.



PRODUCTION

The island's primary producers to-
gether generate about 75 percent of the raw
material for furniture makers, carpentry
shops, building contractors, and a manu-
facturer of prefabricated housing (Prins,
1987). The producers include two relatively
mechanized companies, Dominica Timbers
Limited (DTL) and Northeastern Timber Co-
operative Ltd. (NET), as well as 114 small-
scale "pitsawyers" (Zamore, 1988), almost all
of whom now use chainsaws and portable
"Alaskan mills" rather than pitsaws (a decade
ago, in 1979, some 80 percent of the small
sawyers used pitsaws [GOCD, 1988a]).


The annual output of the small
sawyers is estimated at 1-2 million board-feet,
while that of DTL and NET is 2.8 million
board-feet and 1.2 million board-feet, respec-
tively (GOCD, 1988a). Prins (1987) claims,
however, that the small sawyers actually pro-
duce up to 65 percent of all domestic primary
production, a great deal more than would be
implied by the above figures.

DTL is the island's main supplier of
kiln-dried lumber. Since 1982, when it was
established, the company has had only two
profitable years, this record reportedly due to
mismanagement and to the difficult environ-
mental conditions which have also led, in part,
to the failure of larger scale harvesting
schemes. The operation lacks a proper road
network and thus must contend with exces-
sively long skidding distances. This leads to
low productivity and heavy wear-and-tear on
the firm's only skidder (Prins, 1987), not to
mention considerable disturbance of the state-
owned forest land on which the firm presently
operates (see Section 2.1.2).

NET has benefited the rural commu-
nities of northeastern Dominica by providing
inexpensive lumber, low cost prefabricated
homes, agricultural feeder roads, wood-based
fuels, employment and training. The company
nevertheless is plagued by equipment inade-
quacies and financial difficulties, the latter
largely due to high extraction costs and to so-
cial obligations stemming from its association
with the Catholic Mission in Dominica (Prins,
1987). The environmental effects of NET's
operations are outlined in Section 2.1.2. The
company operates primarily on private land
and unallocated state land, but it has also cut
within a 20 ac area of the Northern Forest
Reserve.

Small sawyers may generate up to 65
percent of all production. They can work in
areas that are inaccessible to mechanized op-
erators and with minimal damage to the re-
source because they essentially bring their
sawmills into the forest rather than drag out
huge logs. However, in some locations they
may be contributing to the clearing of impor-
tant windbreak areas on private lands as
sawyers have reportedly approached farmers
with requests to fell trees within the wind-









breaks (pers. common., P. Evans, Dominica
Multiple Land Use Proj, 1990). Traditionally,
the small sawyers have yielded a low quality
product in terms of dimensional consistency,
surfacing, and a lack of seasoning or finishing
(Prins, 1987). However, an ongoing
CANARI-supported (formerly ECNAMP)
project, with funding from WWF-US,
Rockefeller Brothers Fund, and Weyerhauser
Corporation, is aimed at improving product
quality and marketing through a Small
Lumber Producers Group. According to the
Group's Manager (pers. common., R.
LaRoude, 1990), membership is currently
limited to about 35, but more cannot be ac-
commodated until a larger facility is de-
veloped for finishing, drying, storing, and
marketing lumber. A site for such a facility
will soon be leased from Government on the
west coast, but an estimated US$90,000 is
needed and is being sought to set up and
equip the facility (see also Section 10.4 of the
Profile).

According to Butler (1982), produc-
tion of wood-based fuels (firewood and char-
coal) consumes an estimated 10,000 tons
(15,000 cubic meters) of timber per year, but
others provide a figure of 32,000 tons just for
charcoal production (Bellman, et at, 1967).
Butler's survey found there were a total of 210
charcoal producers on the island, most of
whom employ the traditional, but marginally
efficient earth pit (kiln) method of production
(see also Section 6 of the Profile).



FOREST RESERVES AND PARKS

Dominica has two Forest Reserves -
the Northern, at 8,800 ha (21,745 ac), and the
Central, at 410 ha (1,013 ac) in size (see Fg-
ure 2.1(1)). Under the Forests Ordinance of
1958, restrictions or prohibitions were placed
on activities within the reserves, e.g., forest
product extraction, land clearing and hunting
Wood harvesting has primarily been stopped
in the forest reserves although NET recently
received a concession for harvesting an eight
ha (20 ac) area on the east side of the North-
ern Reserve (pers. common., D. Williams,
Forest Officer, 1990). In the late 1960's and
early 1970's, Dom-Can harvested in the Cen-


tral Reserve at D'leau Gommier in an area of
approximately 60 ha (Bell, 1976) that was
partly reforested in 1982 as part of an
ILO/Forestry Division Reforestation Pro-
gram. This effort sought primarily to address
the ravages caused by Hurricane David in
1979 (pers. common., A. Christian, Forest
Officer, 1990).

On all state lands a minimum girth
limit ranging from three to six feet is required
for harvesting; in the case of the NET conces-
sion area, reforestation was also required
NET has replanted about half of the area in
which it harvested in the Northern Reserve,
and a recent inspection shows survival has
been relatively good in the 10 acre area re-
planted, vn though little care was given.
DTL has not replanted at all in the unre-
served, state land areas (More Plaisance)
where it continues to harvest.

NET has planted exotic species
(mostly mahogany) from stock provided by
Forestry. The choice of mahogany was based
on the difficulty of germinating and raising
gomm (Dacryde eesa) seedlings out-
side of natural habitat, the growth rate of ma-
hogany, which is faster than gomnmier, and the
wide use of mahogany in surrounding islands,
making it a high value species. Most refor-
estation programs to date in Dominica have
incorporated the use of exotic species. Miller,
at al. (1988) claim that although reforestation
is "well meaning", the use of emotics is inap-
propriate for the forest type (see also Section
2.L2 below). Instead they recommend a cat-
ting prescription and a management system
aimed at natural regeneration of indigenous
spaces.

The Morne Trois Pitons National
Park, Dominica's first, was established in 1975
and contains an additional 6,872 ha (16,980
ac) of legally protected forest in the south
central part of the island. Some 380 ha (940
ac) of the Park formerly comprised the Arch-
bold Preserve, an extensive area of rain forest.
These lands were donated to Dominica by the
American owner of Springfield Plantations,
Mr. John Archbold, after first being held from
1974 to 1982 by a US-based NGO, The Na-
ture Conservancy.












DOMINICA/PARKS, RESERVES, TRAILS & NATURAL ATTRACTIONS


Lta Pln*


Coral Reaf Areas
A Mountains
Waterfalls
Sulphur Springs
Tralls / Seondary Roads G Cand Ba
FALLS:
1-MkddlIahan 2-T~riser, 3-Skt -Sadr, 4-VictoScos H d r-
Scolts c He 1 2 3
SULPHUR SPRINGS: I
A-Wotetn Wai. a.-Valley of Dteltiofn, C.-oGra Soulrere MILES


Figure 2.1(1). The parks, reserves, trails and natural attractions of Dominica (source:
Division of Forestry and Wildlife, GOCD).









Morne Trois Pitons National Park is
rich in natural resources and phenomena. It
encompasses some of the outstanding physical
features of the island, including: five major
mountains (Morne Trois Pitons, Morne
Macaque, Morne Nicholls, Morne Watt, and
Morne Anglais), Boeri and Fresh Water
Lakes, the Boiling Lake and a unique thermal
area, at least two waterfalls, and large tracts of
undisturbed rain forest and tropical montane
forest vegetation (Christian, 1989) (see also
Figure 2.1(1)). No logging per se is permitted
in National Parks.

According to Miller, et al. (1988), the
Park forms the largest stand of protected,
undisturbed forest in the Caribbean, but this
assertion is not correct. The Northern Forest
Reserve is in fact the largest such area, and
the protection afforded it is similar to that for
the National Park. At least one researcher
maintains that the Northern Forest Reserve
has a higher biodiversity than the Park and
contains richer and better forests (pers.
common., P. Evans, Dominica Multiple Land
Use Proj. 1990). Furthermore, as discussed
in more detail in Section 2.1.2, the National
Park is the site of ongoing and intensifying
human disturbances.

A ten year management plan was re-
cently drafted for the Morne Trois Pitons Na-
tional Park by Scheele (1989a) under the
sponsorship of the OAS. It includes a zoning
plan which identifies Special Use Zones, In-
tensive Use Zones, Extensive Use Zones, En-
vironmental Study Zones, Research Zones,
and a Wildland Management Zone which
covers all remaining areas of the Park that re-
quire no human interference. Details on each
of these designations and on program plan-
ning priorities are outlined in Scheele (1989a).

The reader is also referred to Wright
(1985) for an excellent account of the devel-
opment of Dominica's parks legislation and of
More Trois Pitons, the country's first na-
tional park. Dominica has a second, much
smaller, national park, the Cabrits National
Park, which was legally established in 1986.
This park includes the ruins of an extensive
British fortification nestled in dry woodlands
adjacent to a wetland area. It is located on
the northwest coast of the country, and the


reader is referred to Sections 10 and 5 of the
Profile for additional information on this Na-
tional Park.

The island's present, legally defined
forest reserves and national parks together in-
corporate 20 percent of the country's forest
base. A proposal for a third national park was
recently prepared by the Forestry Division
with support from ICBP and the RARE
Center for Tropical Bird Conservation (ICBP,
1990). The proposed park would encompass
the forested area along the western slopes of
Morne Diablotin, the island's highest peak,
and would consist of 2,497 ha (6,171 ac) of the
very rich Northern Forest Reserve (roughly 28
percent of its total area), as well as 82.5 ha
(204 ac) of land at Dyer Estate which has
been proposed (but not yet legally estab-
lished) as a parrot reserve (see Butler, 1989;
ICBP, 1990). The estimated total cost of all
park development requirements (e.g., bound-
aries, visitor center, parrot viewing platform,
trail work, roads, interpretation) for the pro-
posed park is EC2.16 million (ICBP, 1990).



2.1.2 Problems and Hssu

The recent inventory of Dominica's
major forested areas pointed to a "slow, but
definite, degradation" of the resource (FAO,
1989). The most important species from an
economic standpoint, gommier (Dacryode
exelsa), was said to be on the decline. Some
of the larger trees were found to be hollow or
rotten and thus would provide a lower timber
output. Additionally, it was stated that
gommier was not regenerating well and was
being replaced by a variety of other species in
early stages of regeneration. Reportedly,
good quality goammier trees were being har-
vested in areas not leased for such purposes,
with subsequent implications for the forest's
long-term production potential and economic
exploitability (FAO, 1989).










DEFORESTATION

Figure 2.1(2) provides an illustration
of the extent to which the island has been de-
forested over the years, particularly since
1945. Deforestation is considered one of the
"most crucial" issues confronting Dominica
according to a recent document prepared by a
Government-sponsored environmental aware-
ness committee (YES, 1990a). Agricultural
expansion and timber harvesting is causing
rapid removal of vegetation on both private
and public lands. Forested state land is being
sold, largely as a means to relieve agricultural
land hunger, but this commonly has been
done haphazardly and with inadequate con-
trols to protect against soil erosion and other
forms of land degradation. In many areas, es-
pecially on steep slopes, lands being cleared
for agriculture are unsuitable for such uses,
particularly in the absence of specialized con-
trols to protect against soil erosion (see also
Section 3.2 of the Profile).

State lands affected by illegal en-
croachment and intensive cultivation include
lands in the Brandy area (OAS Vegetation
Map, 1984), an area which is now being
allocated to settlers, and the area along the
south boundary of the Morne Trois Pitons
National Park (Shanks and Putney, 1979), e.g.
near Petit Savane.

Prins (1987) estimates, on the basis of
preliminary interpretations of the 1984 OAS
vegetation map, that 1,980 ha (4,891 ac) and
70 ha (173 ac), respectively, have been en-
croached upon in Morne Trois Pitons Na-
tional Park and in the Forest Reserves. Sev-
eral officials of the Forestry Division (pers.
common., A. Christian and A. James, 1990),
contest this estimate in relation to the Park.
For example, one Forest Officer estimates
that only about 20 ha (50 ac) of park land are
being squatted upon and primarily by cultiva-
tors from the Village of Petit Savane, which
was established in the area long before park
boundaries were drawn. It is likely that Prins
(1987) mistakenly reversed his figures when
he wrote them into his report; i.e. he may
have meant to write that there are about 1,980
ha of encroachment in reserve areas, but only
about 70 ha in the Park, a situation which is


closer to the figures cited by Forestry Division
personnel.

In any event, interpretation of the
OAS map by Prins (1987) reveals that the
area under cultivation on the island is already
greater than that projected by Government
for the year 2001 in its National Structural
Plan (GOCD, 1985) -- 26,390 ha vs. 23,700 ha.
Construction of agricultural feeder roads, a
major effort of the present Government, and
the current high price for bananas are accel-
erating the deforestation process, frequently
in areas that should be kept under natural
forest to protect steeply-sloping lands against
erosion.

The conversion to agriculture is also
generating localized shortages of fuelwood,
charcoal, poles, posts, and other utility tim-
bers, e.g. along the west coast (Prins, 1987),
while many felled trees are left unused. In
fact, even prime timbers, in substantial quan-
tities, are left to rot under recently planted
banana trees. This wastage seems to stem
from a lack of effective coordination between
farmers and the wood products industry, even
though the latter is struggling with raw mate-
rial costs.

It is believed by some observers that
limber-growing stocks on privately-owned
lands will be depleted in the near future, and
thus the reserve areas will be increasingly
relied upon by the forest industry (Prins,
1987). This is one of the primary reasons why
a management plan for the efficient, yet
sustainable use of the forest is so critical at
this time. The intensification of agricultural
land use, in conjunction with a greater focus
on agroforestry and plantation forestry, will
also be critical to relieve pressure on
remaining areas of natural, undisturbed forest.



INDUSTRIAL FORESTRY

Both of the relatively large-scale or
"industrial forestry" operations presently func-
tional on the island -- Dominica Timbers Ltd.
(DTL) and Northeastern Timber Cooperative
Ltd. (NET) -- appear unable to sustain prof-
itable ventures. An evaluation by Kehr














4-


i-







c1
2




C






>-


8


QI
2
3a


0





I-
IL













.-
w

*J


'.


LL












CROWN LAND SALES


(1987), an FAO consultant, led him to con-
clude that both urgently require capital in-
vestment -- for survival and rehabilitation in
the case of DTL and for diversification and
expansion in the case of NET. He cautioned,
however, that since their wood supply is inse-
cure because of "government's indecision re-
garding logging agreements and concessions
on Crown Land," a logging concession of ap-
proximately 700 ha should be a prerequisite to
any capital investment.

Even with such concessions, as well
as additional capital investment, there is no
guarantee these firms will be transformed into
self-sustaining operations. Both producers
have been operating for about ten years. They
already have received substantial financial and
technical assistance and have had access to


some of the best logging opportunities in the
country (Prins, 1987). Putney (1989) claims
that both companies probably would have
failed if not for the subsidies they receive.

Such analyses have primarily focused
on narrow, micro-economic parameters. The
additional environmental costs of the two op-
erations have not yet been fully accounted for.
It is quite likely that if these environmental
costs, now externalized and borne by the
community, were internalized as a cost of
production, the companies' economic position
would show an even more substantial loss.

Logging practices of both firms have
been questioned by various consultants. DTL
uses a skidder over long distances because its
road network is insufficient. This creates wide


According to Lausche (1986a), it Is Government policy to transfer to private ownership
all crown (i.e., state) land that is not reserved in national park or forest reserve status or
(under the Crown Lands Ordinance) not located within five chains (330 ft) of a stream at its
headwaters. The Director of Forestry and Wildlife (pers. commun., F. Gregoire, 1990) indi-
cates that this is not in fact a stated policy, but, in any case, a substantial amount of state-
owned land has been sold off since independence in 1978.

Unfortunately, much of this land has been sold without effective consultation with the
Forestry Division or with other agencies in a position to contribute to decision-making about
optimum land use. Lands have been redistributed on slopes too steep or Infertile for cultiva-
tion, in locations with great park and tourism potential (like Soufriere Estate), and even in do-
mestic water catchment areas immediately along river banks. There also have been Instances
in which the Forestry Division has actively initiated action against suspected offenders, un-
aware that the latter had legally purchased their land from Government (Prins, 1987).

There is no formal or required mechanism by which Forestry staff communicate on an
ongoing basis with other ministries on matters of land use planning and development
(Lausche, 1986a). Decisions relating to these concerns have therefore often been neither well
coordinated nor reflective of an integrated approach to resource planning and management --
exceptions are the development of Melville Hall, Geneva, Castle Bruce and Soufriere Estates
(pers. commun., F. Gregoire, 1990) However, since the mid-1980's, an increasing effort
reportedly has been made by the Division of Forestry and Wildlife and the Division of Lands
and Surveys to improve this situation by better coordination of agricultural land allocation
decisions, better subdivision designs, use of community studies for planning purposes, and
similar measures. An example of this improved approach can be found in the Gommier Ellick
area where a community-wide problem of land hunger previously existed (pers. commun., A.
Christian, Forest Officer, 1990).









and lengthy furrows (i.e, skidder tracks) with
great propensity for gully erosion. Some skid-
der trails have been cut through excessively
steep terrain, only to be abandoned after
minimal use. A land management and logging
plan was prepared by Sage (1983) for DTL
activities in the Morne Plaisance Estate.
There is no evidence, however, that the firm
utilized the plan.

NET also generates substantial envi-
ronmental costs through its operations which
include clear felling on steep slopes and log
extraction with a D6 Caterpillar. Even where
selective cutting is being practiced by both
firms, there often is considerable damage to
remaining trees and to saplings, seedlings and
other ground cover.



REPLANTING AND NATURAL
REGENERATION

Reforestation programs conducted to
date in Dominica have relied heavily upon ex-
otic tree species. As noted elsewhere in this
chapter, some observers believe that re-
planting with exotics is undesirable, given the
forest type which prevails in Dominica. How-
ever, such observations may not have taken
into account the fact that some reforestation
with exotics occurred as an attempt to
rehabilitate damaged areas following Hurri-
cane David in 1979. At the time, it was critical
to provide needed coverage for the soil, and
only exotic seedlings were readily available
(pers. commune, F. Gregoire, Director of
Forestry and Wildlife, 1990).

Nevertheless, in harvested areas, it
may now (ten years after David) be more ap-
propriate for the Forestry Division to establish
a cutting prescription which would ensure
proper site preparation and the availability of
quality seed trees for the natural regeneration
of desirable species (e.g, gommier) as has
been suggested by Miller, et al. (1988). Sev-
eral representatives of the Forestry Division
counter that gommier and other high quality
native timber species simply grow too slowly,
by comparison, and thus are unsuitable for
maintaining a viable timber industry.


Clearly this is an issue of consider-
able importance that will be addressed, in
part, through the present GOCD/FAO-as-
sisted program to formulate a forest manage-
ment plan. It is likely that plantations of ex-
otic species (e.g., high value furniture species)
will have some role in relieving pressure on
the primary forest in the reserves. Further-
more, there appears to be some potential for
supporting marketable native species given
that the French are collecting white cedar in
Dominica for use on the adjacent islands of
Martinique and Guadeloupe.

Some foresters argue that if harvest-
ing practices were conducted more sensitively,
then natural regeneration would keep pace
and thereby eliminate the high cost of artifi-
cial regeneration (which requires the removal
of "climber" vines from the young trees, an ex-
pensive operation). Research conducted by
Bell (1976) suggests that this is in fact the
case. At present, some of these issues are
being addressed through the Dominica Multi-
ple Land Use Project which includes, among
other studies, the monitoring of permanent
vegetation plots for regeneration, seedling
survival, and the like.



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES
IN THE LONGER TERM

Approximately 20 percent of
Dominica's forest lands consist of legally de-
fined forest reserve or national park. As
noted by McHenry and Gane (1988), this con-
stitutes an inadequate basis for resource man-
agement purposes, e.g, for the protection of
watersheds or wildlife habitat.

Most of the lands within present
water catchments are privately owned. But
even the limited areas within catchments that
are state-owned have not been declared forest
reserves, while private catchment areas, which
could be better managed as legally-declared
"protected forests", have not (with a single ex-
ception) been so designated (see also Section
4 of the Profile). The country's water author-
ity, DOWASCO, plans to upgrade the water
system and, at the same time, avoid compen-
sation and/or land acquisition expense by es-










tablishing new water intakes higher up into
state-owned lands wherever possible. Prins
(1987) claims that even if DOWASCO's pro-
posed scheme for a multi-village consolidated
water system is successful, some 40 percent of
the watershed areas will still not fall within
park or reserve boundaries. The present day
figure is closer to 60 percent (pers. commun.,
A. Christian, Forest Officer, 1990), which
should be a cause of some concern for re-
source managers charged with maintaining
water quality.

A similar lack of legal protection pre-
vails for sites of cultural, scientific, or historic
importance (see also Section 10). But until
these areas and sites have a more secure pro-
tected status, forests, as well as wildlife, water
and other resources, will remain at risk. De-
ferred decisions and postponed action will in-
evitably result in some ecological system loss,
as well as increased land acquisition costs and
reduced water production in the not too dis-
tant future.



NON-CONFORMING USES OF NATIONAL
PARK RESOURCES

Several existing and proposed activi-
ties within the Morne Trois Pitons National
Park clearly are incompatible with the area's
stated wildland and tourism objectives. The
first of these are the agricultural practices of
squatters in the Park, whose actions -- al-
though illegal -- are tolerated because of the
country's need for agricultural land.

Other non-conforming activities in
the Park are nonetheless legal under ministe-
rial authority provided in enabling legislation
(i.e., National Parks and Protected Areas Act
of 1975). For example, many would consider
ongoing hydropower development in the Park
(which includes transformation of the Fresh-
water Lake -- one of the Park's main attrac-
tions -- into a reservoir to expand generating
capacity) to be a non-conforming use of the
resource. (See also Section 6 of the Profile.)

One of the objectives for the Morne
Trois Pitons National Park as stated in the
Forestry Division's Management Plan for the


site is to gradually eliminate or control dam-
aging or incompatible uses (Scheele, 1989a).
With respect to the cultivators, reportedly a
healthy and cooperative working relationship
has been developed between them and the
Forestry Division (pers. common., F.
Gregoire, Director of Forestry and Wildlife,
1990), thus, presumably, limiting the damag-
ing effects of their activities. However, with
regard to the Hydroelectric Expansion Pro-
ject, the Division had little control over or in-
put to decisions made by other GOCD agen-
cies in the Project's planning and design
stages. even though such decisions would im-
pact on the Park. As discussed in detail in
Section 6, the sustainability and economic
benefits of the hydro project, particularly after
all costs -- both external and internal are
considered, remain unknown. Certainly the
scale and nature of such projects, and their
cumulative impacts within the context of a
small island such as Dominica, have implica-
tions for the country's emerging tourist image
as "the nature island" destination of the
Caribbean.

Several other developments are
under consideration which could threaten the
environment around the Morne Trois Pitons
National Park and present difficult challenges
for Park staff. These include a road access
across the southern portion of the Park (i.e.,
transforming the Grand Fond track into a
road), geothermal energy development, and
shortening the hiking distance to Boiling Lake
by building a road from Morne Prosper to a
point closer to the Lake. The Director of
Forestry and Wildlife (pers. commun., F.
Gregoire, 1990) is probably correct when he
argues that the road is defensible given that
the hike to the lake is presently long and
strenuous and that only about 1.6 km (1 mile)
of the road would fall within Park boundaries.



2.1.3 Policy Recommendations


MORE EFFICIENT, APPROPRIATE AND
INTENSIVE LAND USE

Perhaps the most fundamental prob-
lem facing the managers of Dominica's forests









is the rapidly expanding pressure on this re-
source as a source of timber, fuelwood and
charcoal and as an area increasingly utilized
for crop cultivation. Much of this pressure on
the resource could be reduced, however,
inasmuch as most of the country's require-
ments for forest resources or for land now
under natural forest could be met (1) in areas
that already have been cleared or otherwise
disturbed and (2) through more efficient uti-
lization of the resource base.

Given this general observation, the
following specific policies are recommended.

(1) Steps need to be taken by
GOCD to ensure the protection of those areas
which are appropriate only for wildlife conser-
vation, watershed protection, recreation, na-
ture tourism and biological diversity. Exam-
ples include lands too steep for sustainable
cultivation, commercial forestry or other hu-
man activities; areas of montane and elfin for-
est (due to soil type, poor quality or stunted
timber, or inaccessibility); and other areas
which are unique by virtue of their scenic, flo-
ral or faunal characteristics or their overall
contribution to the natural heritage of the
country.

The specific recommendations of
Shanks and Putney (1979) for the allocation of
state lands and some privately-owned lands to
protected area status should be reviewed and
updated by Forest and Park Service staff.
This action has been suggested by numerous
investigators since the Forest and Park System
Plan, contained in the Shanks and Putney re-
port, was first formulated. Although many of
the parcels targeted in 1979 (both those that
have long been private and those more re-
cently 'privatized-) have already been cleared
for cultivation or other purposes, substantial
amounts of land remain undisturbed which
could be considered for allocation along the
lines of the Shanks and Putney recommenda-
tions. Priorities need to be established which
assess high risk as opposed to less threatened
areas.

As already noted in this chapter,
since the mid-1980's the program of state land
sales to private farmers has been improved
through a coordinated approach by the


Forestry Division and the Lands and Surveys
Division. The question which now needs to be
addressed is whether there in fact remains any
state land which is suitable for cultivation on a
sustainable, long-term basis. In 1979, Shanks
and Putney suggested that of 10,526 ha of un-
allocated Government land (see Table 3.2(5)),
only 530 ha were suitable for release to pri-
vate ownership. Presumably, all or most of
this land has already been privatized in the
interim eleven year period.

It is possible that Shanks and Putney
(1979) underestimated the extent of state land
that is suitable for agriculture, but if in fact no
more land of this classification remains, or
only very little, it will be necessary for future
programs of land reform to focus primarily, or
solely, on privately-owned estates that are
under-utilized. There may be some remaining
state land with potential for sustainable land
use, but only if conditions which promote en-
vironmentally-sound agricultural practices are
imposed on such use.

(2) Recommendations for land
use control for specific zones widtin the forest
reserve are now being developed by GOCD
with the assistance of FAO. A Forest
Management Plan will be prepared which
gives balanced consideration to land capability
restrictions and to the socio-econonic as well
as conservation choices confronting the
nation. GOCD should adopt a Forest Man-
agement Plan after appropriate vetting of the
document now in preparation and should be
prepared to take steps to ensure its enforce-
ment once it has been put in place.

(3) Given that a fuB "zoning'
program for agricultural land is likely to be
prohibitively expensive (see also Section 3.3),
a limited program should be considered with
the objective of identifying Protected Forest'
zones in which special management practices
are required, eg., agroforestry, contour
planting, tree cropping, and terracing. Con-
current with such a policy is the need for pub-
lic sector commitment to enforcing land use
restrictions on private lands. Given the dismal
history of such controls within the country's
largest water catchment area (also its only
Protected Forest), the prospects are not en-
couraging (see also Section 4).











PRECEPTS ON SOCIAL FORESTRY *


The term social forestry has been used to distinguish a new approach to the management of
trees, which is different from the technically and commercially directed development that pre-
viously prevailed in the field. Commercial forestry deals with trees on a large scale, in mono-
crop operations, and without involvement of the people who live in and around the forests.
Conventional approaches often appear to regard people as enemies rather than as partners in
forest management and include no more local institutional development than assigning a few
technicians and many forest guards.

Social forestry recognizes the need for associating local people closely with any forest man-
agement effort. In social forestry, trees are managed in association with other plants and
animals, often in small or fragmented areas. Multiple uses not necessarily for market sales
are emphasized, and management is done largely by the people living nearby and primarily
for their benefit.

Users of forest resources are an ambiguous group even when the resources themselves are
readily identifiable and delimitable. Not only do persons in the immediate area utilize the re-
sources, but outsiders may use them as well. Therefore, voluntary user groups cannot be re-
lied upon as a management institution. More authoritative institutions, such as local govern-
ments, are usually required to regulate outside as well as local resource use and to mobilize
people's time and funds for improving the resource base.

Successful forestry management depends on the cooperation of the poorer strata in rural
areas as well as the richer ones. Although local governments are often dominated by the
more substantial elements of the community, they are more likely than central government
agencies to produce a consensus on a resource management regime that is broadly per-
ceived as fair and binding.

With appropriate technical guidance, locally elected bodies at the village level can provide ef-
fective institutional support for small social forestry schemes. However, simply assigning
certain responsibilities to local government within administratively conceived and imple-
mented social forestry programs is not the answer. Since the benefits from planting and pro-
tecting trees are relatively long-term, before local people will commit their time and effort to
forest management, they will usually require unambiguous control over use rights and bene-
fits.

The local government should therefore be given clear responsibility for the resources, and all
or most of the immediate benefits from improved management should accrue to the commu-
nity. If by doing this forests are preserved, soil erosion reduced, and the water cycle pro-
tected, there are obvious gains at the national level as well.

Source: Uphoff, 1986.



(4) More efficient land use Section 3, many farmers could increase yields,
practices need to be encouraged, for example, and thus their incomes, through employment
through extension efforts and land reform of more efficient cultivation techniques on
programs, as one means to minimize pressure lands already cleared. An expanded
on remaining natural areas. As discussed in commitment to farmer education and exten-









sion is required, particularly if land use regu-
lations for protected forests, or other pro-
tected 'zones," were implemented and en-
forced.

(5) Substantial amounts of
timber are wasted as a result of land clearing
for agriculture and for timber harvesting as
currently carried out by the island's mechani-
cal logging operations (DTL and NET). Rec-
ommendations for the logging operations are
discussed in the following sub-section; with re-
spect to timber waste as a result of land
clearing, a primary problem appears to be
lack of coordination between those clearing
the land and those who could utilize the felled
trees, e.g., for lumber products, fuelwood, or
charcoal. The Forestry Division and/or the
Small Lumber Producers Group should take a
lead in improving information exchange within
this network of resource users (e.g., sawyers,
charcoal producers and farmers).

(6) More emphasis should be
placed on promoting agroforestry and planta-
tion forestry on private land. A study of agro-
forestry in the Marigot/Melville Hall area
(Pehr, 1989) revealed that agroforestry was
seldom practiced and its potential benefits
rarely exploited to their full extent. A similar
situation undoubtedly exists in many other
parts of the country and could be improved by
expansion of cooperative programs between
the Divisions of Forestry and Agriculture,
both housed within the Ministry of Agricul-
ture (see also sidebar on Social Forestry).

At present, there is virtually no plan-
tation forestry being practiced on private land
despite the probable economic benefits of
doing so in many areas (e.g., the west coast).
An incentive program for plantation forestry
on private land was developed by the Forestry
Division, but approval for the program has not
been sought (Prins, 1987).


IMPROVEMENT OF FOREST
HARVESTING PRACTICES

As discussed elsewhere in this chap-
ter, it is important that the operations of the
country's two relatively large-scale and mech-


anized timber harvesters be better controlled.
The Forest Management Plan, currently in
formulation, will outline cutting and manage-
meat prescriptions designed for sustainable
forestry on forest reserves and unallocated
state lands. Such regulations should be
adopted by Government, and if, when imple-
mented, they are not followed by commercial
logging firms, such ventures should be termi-
nated. In the interim, given that GOCD owns
some 50 percent of the shares of Dominica
Timbers Limited (DTL), one approach to im-
proving harvesting and other forest manage-
ment practices would be establishment of an
independent board to monitor and regulate
the operations of the country's industrial log-
gers (at present, DTL and NET).

On private lands, the provisions in
existing legislation regulating the establish-
ment of Protected Forests and control of land
use practices in such areas, including timber
harvesting, should be more widely employed
by GOCD (see also recommendation number
three in the preceding sub-section).

Finally, any forest management policy
for Dominica should provide assistance for
improving the output, efficiency and economic
contribution of the country's small sawyers.
They may account for as much as 65 percent
of production (Prins, 1987); the logging sys-
tems they employ are generally more appro-
priate and sustainable than those of the
industrialr loggers; and, at least within the
context of the Small Lumber Producers
Group, the small sawyers have attempted to
integrate forest resource conservation tech-
niques with broader economic objectives. It is
possible that equal or even greater economic
as well as social benefits could be derived
through a forestry policy which placed more
emphasis on small-scale logging operations.



COMMITMENT ON PARK OBJECTIVES

In Morne Trots Pitons National Park,
Dominica's only large and terrestrial national
park site, competing demands for use of the
resource base have intensified in recent years,
e.g., for hydropower development, geothermal
power development, power transmission, road









development, and, in some locations, cultiva-
tion. Such demands are often in direct con-
flict with the more traditional objectives of
park land use, namely, conservation of
wildlife, enhancement of biodiversity, and pas-
sive '"wilderness" recreation.

At present, no policy directive or con-
sensus appears to have been developed on
what is an appropriate balance between these
competing interests. The larger issue of
defining the kind of park system desired by
the majority of Dominicans has not been ad-
dressed at the policy-making levels of Gov-
ernment. For example, should additional
large-scale energy projects or other major de-
velopments be permitted within park bound-
aries? If such activities are approved, should
environmental impact studies be required as a
condition of approval, as well as the submis-
sion of a plan for environmental impact
mitigation measures? Alternatively. should
such activities be prohibited in order to
maintain national parks in an environmentally
pristine condition?

In light of the not-so-gradual chip-
ping away at park resources that has occurred
in recent years and the variety of projects cur-
rently under consideration, such an attempt to
arrive at a consensus on prioritizing park ob-
jectives is particularly important. There is no
indication that the recently formulated Park
Management Plan for the Morne Trois Pitons
National Park, which covers the years 1990-
2000 (Scheele, 1989a), included an opportu-
nity for public or community input, particu-
larly on the subject of defining long-term park
objectives. In any event, the objectives de-
scribed for the plan are those of the Division
of Forestry and Wildlife, which, in turn, ad-
vises Government on policy. They do not
necessarily reflect any clear consensual com-
mitment on the part of GOCD on priority
objectives for park development in Dominica
or on the ultimate direction for future devel-
opment of the Morne Trois Pitons National
Park, in particular.


2.2 WILDLIFE

2.2.1 Overview

Dominica is host to the most diverse
assemblage of wildlife remaining in the
smaller Eastern Caribbean islands, with birds
and bats particularly well represented. Al-
though no one document covers all the major
invertebrate and vertebrate groups, there is a
substantial body of literature which resulted in
part from the Bredin-Archbold biological sur-
veys conducted in the 1960's (e.g., Chace and
Hobbs, 1969; Jones and Schwartz, 1967;
Schwartz and Jones, 1967), plus several more
recent reviews (Evans, 1986a, 1988, 1989;
Faaborg and Arendt, 1985; Swank and Julien,
1975). For this section of the Profile, com-
mon usage has been employed, and the term
"wildlife" includes vertebrates and terrestrial
and aquatic decapod crustaceans -- the larger,
more familiar animals in the island's ecosys-
tems. A brief discussion of each group fol-
lows, stressing diversity within the group,
species currently recognized as unique to
Dominica, and human utilization.


DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS

The decapod fauna of Dominica in-
cludes eleven species of freshwater shrimp
and twenty species of freshwater or terrestrial
to semi-terrestrial crabs (Swank and Julien,
1975). There are no species endemic to
Dominica, and most are widely distributed in
the Caribbean (Chace and Hobbs, 1969). Ex-
cept for one crab, the larvae of these animals
require some salinity to complete devel-
opment (varying from estuarine conditions to
full-strength seawater).

Some of the most remarkable West
Indian biological phenomena are a result of
the seasonal mass migrations of several land
crab species, from dispersed, inland popula-
tions to dense aggregations at the shore where
they release their larvae en masse. For these
species, in particular, recruitment of larvae
(and therefore genetic exchange) from other
islands is likely, so Dominican populations are
probably not genetically distinct. If catas-
trophic destruction of shrimp or crab popula-
tions in Dominica occurred, those species with









abundant marine larvae would likely recover
most rapidly. For species whose link to the
sea is weaker or broken i.e, larval devel-
opment is completed in fresh or low-salinity
water local adaptation is possible but recov-
ery from extirpation would be slower.

The twenty crab species are ecologi-
cally diverse but most occur in coastal habi-
tats. Six are typically found in or near the
wave-splash zone on marine shores, three
occur in reduced-salinity waters of partially
blocked river mouths, and six more occupy
low-elevation swamps and mud flats. Two
occur in wet areas further into the interior, in-
cluding stream margins and seepage sites, and
three occur away from surface water, but
avoid desiccation by taking refuge under
stones or in damp soil (Chace and Hobbs,
1969). Three of the larger crabs are com-
monly sought as food: the freshwater crab
("Ciriques"), Guiniw a dentat, the white crab
('Corbo'), CWadisomra Sanhumi, and the
black crab, Gecarcius noicola (Zamore,
ind.).

Shrimp are common in Dominican
streams, distributed from cascading mountain
reaches to slowly flowing river mouths. Sev-
eral of the larger species are used as food;
three species Atya inocous, A. scabra, and
Macbramchium cacinus are preferred
(Zamore, n.d.).


FISH

The freshwater fish fauna of the
Lesser Antilles is not well studied, but appar-
ently includes no species which occur exclu-
sively in freshwater (Bauchot, 1959). All the
known families Poecliidae, Anguillidae,
Gobiidae, Eleotridae, Mugilidae, Gerrida,
Centropomidae, and Carangidac can move
between fresh and salt water, and some spawn
at sea. Although the CEP team could identify
no published species list for Dominica, a re-
cent collection made by a team from the Uni-
versity of Bielefeld is housed at the Forestry
Division in Roseau. Freshwater fish, particu-
larly the mountain mullet (Agonastous


mondcola), are a traditional food resource
(Brown, 1945).


AMPHIBIANS

All Antillean amphibians are frogs,
and two Lesser Antilan eademics a small
tree frog, Eleuahodadctyas mW Wensis, and
the large "mountain chicken" or "crapad
Leptodactqyis futlar occur on Dominica.
The tree frog is widespread and abundant in
moist habitats (Bullock and Evans, 1990).
Populations of the crapaud support a season-
ally restricted, partly commercial harvest for
food. In its natural range, the crapaud now
appears confined to Dominica and Montserrat
as some combination of over-harvesting, moan-
goose predation and habitat modification is
likely to be responsible for eliminating it in
Guadeloupe, St. Kitts and St. Lucia in historic
time. The main populations remain om
Dominica (Rainey, et al, 1987).


REPTILES

The reptile fauna is more diverse -
consistlng of nine or ten lizards
(Sphaerodacqys microeps has been
recorded although only on the basis of one
specimen collected over 25 years ago), five
snakes and one tortoise (Bullock and Evans,
1990; Rainey. et al, 1987 ). Included is
Gymnophtwfamus sp., a small lizard
(previously unrecorded) which was observed
but not collected in February 1986 (Raincy, et
a., 1987) and has not beea observed since
(probably an introduction). Of the nine or ten
lizard species, two are endemic. Four of the
snakes are recognized as Lesser Antilean en-
demics. The iguana, Ipguwa defcajna is a
Lesser Antillean endemic, limited to a few is-
lands and much reduced in numbers on all of
them. The tortoise (Gecheoke cabowwi),
presumed to be an aboriginal introduction on
several islands in the region (Corke, 1990),
has been observed in the wild in Dominica
(pers. common., P. Evans, Dominica Multiple
Land Use Proi, 1990).











Table 2.2(1). Terrestrial reptiles and amphibians recorded in Dominica.


REPTILES
Tetudines (Turtles)
Geochelone carbonarla

Sauria (Lizards)
Sphaerodactylus vincenti
Sphaerodactylus microlepis
Sphaerodactylus fantasticus
Thecadactylus rapicauda


Hemidactyfus maboula
Iguana delicatlssima
Anolis oculalus
Mabuya mabouya


Ameiva fuscata
Gymnophthalmus pleel


Serpentes (Snakes)
Typhlops dominicana
Boa constrictor
Alsophis antillensis
Liophis ju/lae
Clella clella



AMPHIBIA (Frogs)
Eleutherodactylus martinicensis
Leptodactylus fallax


Introduced by man


Native and endemic of West Indies
Native and endemic of West Indies
Native and endemic of West Indies
Native but also native in Trinidad/
Tobago and/or the South/Central
American mainland
introduced by man
Native and endemic of West Indies
Dominican endemic
Native but also native In Trinidad/
Tobago and/or the South/Central
American mainland
Dominican endemic
Native and endemic of West Indies
Probably introduced by man


Lesser Antillean endemic
Lesser Antillean endemic
Lesser Antillean endemic
Lesser Antillean endemic
Native but also native in Trinidad/
Tobago and/or the South/Central
American mainland


Native and endemic of West Indies
Lesser Antillean endemic


Source: Bullock and Evans, 1990; Rainey, etal., 1987.


BIRDS

Dominica's bird fauna is the most di-
verse in the Lesser Antilles, and there are sev-
eral recent studies of habitat, distribution and
conservation status (Evans, 1986a, 1989;
Faaborg and Arendt, 1985; Swank and Julien,
1975). Evans (pers. commun., 1990) presently
reports 166 species, many of which are mi-
gratory. Fifty-nine species breed on the is-
land. The best known are the two endemic


parrots, the imperial ('Sisserou"), Amazona
impcrialis, and the red-necked ("Jacquot"),
Amazona arausiaca. Based on field work
between 1982 and 1987, Evans (1988) esti-
mated that the total populations for these en-
dangered species reached levels as low as
about 60 imperials and 200 red-necks. How-
ever, both have shown signs of recovery; esti-
mates for 1990 stand at about 80 imperials
and 300-400 red-necks, but the analysis is not
yet complete (pers. commun., P. Evans, 1990;









see also Butler, 1989). Figures 2.2(1) and
2.2(2) illustrate the decline in the distribution
of the two parrots since 1950.

Other species of limited distribution
(Dominica and other Antfllean islands) are
the endangered black-capped petrel
(Pterodroma hasitats), once thought extinct on
Dominica but recently captured offshore and
observed flying inland at dusk (Evans, 1986a,
1989), the blue-headed hummingbird (Cyano-
phaja bicolor), the plumbeous warbler
(Dendmica plumbea), the scaly-breasted
thrasher (Margaops fuscus), the trembler
(Gclocerhia ruicauda), and the forest
thrush (Ochlhenwinia seminen). As on
other Eastern Caribbean islands, there is a
hunting season (from the beginning of
September to the end of February) for pi-
geons, doves and a number of other birds.


MAMMALS

There are twelve species of native
mammals on Dominica, all bats, the highest
diversity in the Lesser Antilles (Baker and
Genoways, 1978; Evans, 1986a Rainey, et at.,
1987) (see Table 22(2)). One of these,
Epteicu fuscw, was discovered in 1982 (Hill
and Evans, 1985). With the exception of the
agouti, the wild terrestrial mammals (six
speces, also including opossum, ship and
Norway rats, house mouse, and pig) were in-
troduced in historic time. The agoui is gen-
erally considered to be an introduction by
Amerindians in early historic times. The
opossum, agouti, and pig are all hunted for
food. The bats include one endemic species,
Myods dominikensis, and three genera
endemic to the Antilles, Monophyus, Andops,
and BrchyphyBa. Nectar- and fruit-eating
bats pollinate and disperse the seeds of a
significant number of tropical trees and
shrubs, including several economically
important crops.


Table 2.2(2). Bats recorded from Dominica (1906).


SPECIES


REFERENCE


ZOOGEOGAPHICAL STATUS


Noctulio lepoidnus 1.2
Pteronotus davyl 1,2
Monophyflus plethodon 1,2
Sturnia Itllum 1,3
Aribeuis famacensis 1,3
Ardops nichollsi 1,3
Brachyphyfla cavemartan 1,3
Natalus stramineus 11,3
Myods dominicensis 1,3
Eptesicus fuscus 2,3
Tadarida brasiliernis 1,3
Molossus mo/ossus 1,3

Sources:
1 = Baker and Genoways, 1978
2 = Hil and Evans, 1985
3 = Evans, 1985


Caribbean and mainland So./Central America
eser Artes and mainland So. America
Arideen endemic (now confined to Leaser Arnties)
Lesser Artiles and mainland So. America
Caribbean and mainland So./Centrral America
Lesser Artdean endemic
Antieen endemic
Caribbean and mainland So.Certral America
Dominican endemic
Caribbean and mainland America
Caribbean and mainland America
Caribbean and mainland So.Central America











DOMINICA/DISTRUBiUTION OF THE IMPERIAL PARROT


1950


1975/78


Distribution of the imperial parrot ("Sisserou'), Amazona imperialis (source: Evans, 1988).


1982-87


Figure 2.2(1).









WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AND
INSTITUTIONS

The Division of Forestry and Wildlife
is responsible for wildlife management and
protection in the country (see also Section 11).
A key responsibility is enforcement of the
Forestry and Wildlife Act and its provisions
for a closed bunting season, which extends
from March 1 through August 31 of each year.

In light of their endangered status,
the conservation of the country's two endemic
parrot species is one of the Division's priority
concerns. A parrot lookout has been erected
in the Syndicate Estate area, and some at-
tempts have been made to acquire private
lands, comprising prime parrot habitat, for
protection of the species. With support from
the International Council for Bird Preserva-
tion (ICBP) and the RARE Center for Tropi-
cal Bird Preservation, approximately 200 ac in
the Dominica Fruit Syndicate/Dyer Estate
area have been acquired for a parrot reserve.
This particular program, known locally as
Project Sisserou, was finalized in August 1989
(pers. common., F. Gregoire, Director,
Forestry and Wildlife Division, 1990), al-
though it is recognized by Forestry officials
that continued efforts aimed at parrot protec-
tion and wikllife education must be strength-
ened (Christian, A, 1989).

The legislation which pertains most
directly to wildlife management is the Forestry
and Wildlife Act of 1976, as amended (see
also Section 11). It focuses on the protection
of wild fauna and on management of forests
and forest reserves for the protection of
wildlife. Maximum penalties for violation of
the Act presently stand at EC$5,000 and three
years imprisonment for offenses related to
parrots and ECS400 and/or three months in
jail for violations pertaining to other species.
The Act also authorizes the creation of
wildlife reserves.

Dominica has not yet become party
to the Convention on International Trade in
Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
(CITES). Since it came into force in 1975,
CITES has maintained a global system of im-
port and export controls to ensure that inter-
national trade does not threaten the world's


wild plants and animals. It should be noted
that a nation's membership in CITES does
not limit domestic use of CITES-listed
species. For species which play a significant
role in local subsistence and commercial mar-
kets, a CITES member country is obligated
only to ensure that products from such species
do not enter international trade. Although it
offers imperfect protection to endangered
species, the treaty does contribute to the goal
of bringing wildlife exploitation down to levels
that wild populations may be able to sustain.
Of the OECS countries, only St. Lucia and St.
Vincent and the Grenadines have joined
CITES; in view of the endangered status of its
two endemic parrots, Dominica should be a
member of CITES, and preliminary ar-
rangements should be given necessary follow-
up.



2.2.2 Problems and lase


HABITAT REDUCTION AND
ALTERATION

Wildlife habitat reduction, closely as-
sociated with deforestation issues, has resulted
primarily from the expansion of agricultre
(especially banana cultivation) into forest
lands (see Section 2.12 above).

At present, information about home
range requirements and minimum viable
population sizes for rain forest species is
limited. Nevertheless, it seems likely that
gazetted forest reserves and parks, if
maintained largey as na ti forest, include
sufficient area to prevent the extinction of
smaller species. Other species, however, may
require larger areas for survival. A recent
research report (Raincy, et al, 197) noted
that in light of their reduced numbers, low
productive potential, and probable large range
requirements, it is difficult to be sanguine
about the survival potential of the large
endangered parrots, particularly the imperial
parrot, if reduction of native forest area
continues.

However, Dominica's remaining for-
est reserves are not presently managed to










DOMINICA/DISTRIBUTION OF THE RED-NECKED PARROT


1950


1975/78


Distribuiton of the red-necked parrot ('Jacquot"), Amazona arausiaca (source: Evans, 1988).


1982-87


Figure 2.2(2).











THE DOMINICA MULTIPLE LAND USE PROJECT


A healthy ecosystem is comprised of a variety of sustainable plart and animal commu-
nities. Since 1982, a long-term research effort, the Dominica Multiple Land Use Project, has
been seeking to identify information which wil help Dominica maintain such diversity and
richness by specifically studying the effects on flora and fauna of different forms of land and
resource use. Under the direction of Dr. Peter G.H. Evans, an Oxford University-based popu-
lation geneticist with a particular Interest in conservation biology, the project has conducted
some of the most Intensive field research on the island In recent years. The fact that this re-
search Is being undertaken over a relatively long period increases its value to the country.

In each natural habitat selected as a study site, the project has determined the diversity
of species, their densities, and the species composition for birds, mammals, reptles, btter-
flies, and woody plants. The same data were then collected from adjacent areas that have
been modified through logging, agriculture, or by natural disturbance (e.g., hurricanes).
Some of the study's main conclusions as of 1989 Include (Evans, 1989):

The Intercropping of banana and citrus Is compatible with conserving native ani-
mals If certain rules are observed. Conservation Interests are best served I the two crops are
grown together at not too high densities and In relatively long, narrow plantations. This cre-
ates a high ratio of edge to center and thereby benefits a wider array of animal species. Addi-
tionally. the great majority of native species of mammals and forest birds could be conserved
through the maintenance of forested corridors of at least 10 m width between plantations A
few species, however, namely those that occur at low densities (e.g., the two parrots and the
forest thrush), do require large areas of Intact forest for survival.

Coconuts, coffee, and cocoa can also be grown without great harm to wklle as
long as these tree crops are In mixed plantings with other species such as mango, citrus, and
pawpaw and have undisturbed forest tracts nearby. Root crops and shrubs such as guava
and bay leaf support little wildlife; thus, they are best cultivated beneath or alongside trees.

Only a few species favor tree crops such as banana, citrus, and coconut when
cultivated by themselves. However, in seasonally dry areas an accumulation of leaf liter in
plantations (particularly coconut) wi support a reasonable biomass of replies and a variety
of butterfly species. Plantations with fruit crops attract bats which cause some damage, but
this can be reduced by mbdng the stands with nonfood plants.


preserve only native plant species; exotics
have been and are being planted, while stands
of native species, notably gommier, may be
degrading, at least in some locations (see Sec-
tion 2.1.2 above). Even-aged plantations of
exotic timber trees typically are almost free of
native wildlife; even mixed tree crops consti-
tute better habitat. For smaller endemic rain
forest species, the island's existing forest re-
serves or parks likely assure species survival,
so long as substantial tracts of native forest
are retained. But to the extent that native
forest within the reserves is replaced by exotic


trees, this projection becomes more tennomus
On the basis of current reforestation patterns,
some of the smaller faunal species, in addition
to the parrots, are under threat.

Rain forest areas are not the only
important natural habitat requiring protec-
tion. Coastal woodlands and swamp are now
represented by only isolated patches. The
more important of the island's wetlands (eg.,
Cabrits Swamp, Indian River Flats, Canefield
Pool, and North Coast Swamps) form feeding
grounds for numerous species of migrating










birds including waders, egrets, herons, water-
fowl, and North American passerines. The
coastal woodlands are the most important
habitat for reptiles. They also support most of
the island's 53 butterflies and many birds and
bats (Evans, 1989).

The ongoing investigations of the
Dominica Multiple Land Use Project will help
determine habitat requirements for various
species, both on agricultural lands and for
various kinds of natural areas. For example,
the project's ecological studies have revealed
that mixed plantations of bananas and citrus
as widely practiced in the country are proba-
bly the best form of land use for animal and
plant communities as long as there are corri-
dors of forest between plantations and a suffi-
ciently large area of forest to preserve partic-
ular species (Evans. 196b).

A significant expansion of cultivation
and/or environmentally-harmful forestry
practices within a given watershed also have
an adverse effect on stream habitat through
soil erosion, stream bed scour, sedimentation,
and increases in water flow variability. Low
flow periods will be lower and peaks higher.
Increased peak discharges will carry more
sediment, and stream beds will be more heav-
ily scoured. Increased amounts of fine sedi-
ment released from eroding slopes may fill the
interstices among pebbles, cobbles, and boul-
ders and create a habitat less favorable to
animals which rely on these spaces as a pri-
mary refuge under difficult conditions.

During periods of low flow, as in the
dry season when aquatic animals may con-
centrate in small pond areas, removing the
forest canopy and exposing pools to sunlight
can significantly warm the water and reduce
available oxygen. Sunlight and additional nu-
trients (from soil erosion and fertilizer) also
enhance algal growth, which can deplete oxy-
gen at night in small pools with low-flow rates.
Decomposing organic matter in the water also
consumes oxygen. Reductions in available
oxygen can either stress or kill sensitive or-
ganisms and contribute to changing the
species composition of aquatic communities.
These concerns, however, do not apply in
those parts of Dominica where elevated dis-
solved oxygen levels are maintained as a con-


sequence of the freely-flowing, rapid move-
ment of water in streams.


AGROCHEMICAL POLLUTION

Oualitative and quantitative observa-
tions in and around banana cultivation reveal
no marked population declines in common
terrestrial vertebrates (birds, bats and one
amphibian) that might be attributable to pes-
ticide contamination (see Rainey, et al., 1987).
However, isolated instances of bird mortality
associated with agrochemicals applied during
planting have been reported. Furadan, a ne-
maticide used in bananas, has caused many
bird kills in the U.S. and may present a similar
risk in Dominica.

Water pollutants, including pesti-
cides, have caused fish kills in local streams
and rivers, but information is available on only
isolated events. While there is cause for con-
cern, if only from a human water quality per-
spective, the scale of the problem is unclear.
Native shrimp spanning a range of ages are
present in small streams running through ba-
nana cultivation. Since these species are
thought to be fairly sensitive to several of the
pesticides used, their presence suggests con-
tamination, at least in these upland areas, is
episodic rather than continuous.

Fish kills also provide a warning that
expansion of aquaculture may be restricted by
pesticides in run-off. More closely monitored
and controlled agricultural practices (e.g.,
maintenance of buffer strips of native vegeta-
tion along stream courses) would benefit
aquaculture, water quality for human use, and
native fauna.


ILLEGAL HUNTING AND LIVE CAPTURE
OF WILDLIFE

Despite legal protection and a maxi-
mum penalty of EC$5,000 and three years im-
prisonment, the hunting and capture of par-
rots continues to pose a threat due to prob-
lems associated with enforcement. However.
only one to three birds per year are estimated
to be hunted or captured (Johnson, 1988).









Two native reptiles, the mountain
chicken, or crapaud, and the edible iguana are
under pressure as preferred food sources.
Iguana hunting has been illegal since 1976 but
is still practiced, while crapaud hunting is re-
stricted to the open season. Neither species is
threatened with extinction, but the iguana is
uncommon and vulnerable (Evans, 1989).



2.2.3 Policy Recommndatons


HABITAT REDUCTION AND
ALTERATION

Habitat reduction and alteration are
the direct result of problems associated with
agricultural expansion and deforestation, is-
sues which are discussed in some detail else-
where in the Profile. Specific recommenda-
tions pertaining to these issues are provided in
Sections 2.13 and 3.3.

On the basis of studies for the
Dominica Multiple Land Use Project, Evans
(1989) recommends that specific areas of im-
portance to wildlife should be protected as
native forest habitat including the slopes of
Morne Diablotin both reserved and non-re-
served sections and various wetland and
coastal woodland areas (some wetlands might
be designated as protected areas under the
RAMSAR convention). Similar recommen-
dations have been made in proposals for the
establishment of a national park at Morne
Diablotin (ICBP, 1990), and GOCD is en-
couraged to explore the feasibility of these
recommendations, or some subset which in-
cludes the most critical areas for the preser-
vation of wildlife and biodiversity.

Additional research (c.g., distribution
and habitat studies) needs to be undertaken
for wildlife, with priority given to those that
are endemic, locally or internationally endan-
gered or threatened, migratory species, or
those species that are legally hunted. Popula-
tion monitoring should be undertaken for
critical species.

Consideration should be given to the
planting of tree species that are particularly


important to wilife in selectively harvested
areas (pers. common., A. Christian, Forest
Officer, 1990). The findings of the Dominica
Multiple Land Use Project should be commu-
nicated to extension agents, farmers, and land
use planners in order to emphasize the im-
portance of wildlife and biodiversity objec-
tives.


CHEMICAL POrLUTION

In addition to recommendations re-
garding integrated pest management as found
in Section 3 of the Profile, it is increasingly
important that the Forestry and Wildlifc Divi-
sion develop a capacity to monitor wildlife
pollutant impacts. The United States Euvi-
ronmental Protection Agency forms for
recording fish kills could be adapted for simi-
lar purposes on Dominica and distributed to
appropriate GOCD personnel. Since the
public media (particularly radio) have dis-
seminated information about fish kills in the
past, similar cooperation could be sought and
coordinated with official Government record-
keeping efforts. Descriptive information, even
if unconfirmed by site visits, would provide a
perspective on the frequency and distribution
of events.


HUNTING AND TRAPPING

According to the Forest Officer re-
sponsible for wildlife protection in the
Forestry Division, the problem of illegal
hunting and live capture requires further in-
creases in penalties (pers. common., A.
Christian, 1990). Only for parrots have
penalties wbeen sufficiently raisl.

Several Division staff feel that addi-
tional manpower, particularly for weekend
and night-time patrols, as well as equipment
(e.g., radios) would help improve enforcement
capability. They also suggest that efforts be
made to organize the country's hunters into a
formal association. In fact, a meeting with this
objective in mind was held in May of 1990.
Such an organization could assist in efforts to
monitor illegal hunting and could thereby con-
tribute to enforcement efforts.










Additionally, this group of resource
users could provide useful information on
breeding and other behavioral patterns re-
quired for better wildlife management. At
present, for example, only one open season
exists for all hunted species, and there is no
limit on the number of animals that can be
taken during this period. In some cases this
season corresponds with a particular animal's
breeding period. The Director of Forestry
and Wildlife (pers. commun., F. Gregoire,
1990) has pointed out that little is known
about the carrying capacity of certain species
for hunting; but more data, as well as greater


enforcement capability, are required before
different hunting seasons, bag limits, and
other management systems could be
practically established and subsequently
enforced. A hunters association might
provide assistance to Forestry personnel in all
of these efforts.

Finally, a proposal for Dominica to
join CITES has been supported by the
Forestry Division since 1980, an initiative also
endorsed more recently by several consultants
and researchers (Butler, 1989; Johnson, 1988;
Evans, 1988, 1989, 1990; and Lausche, 1986).









AGRICULTURE


3.1 OVERVIEW


Dominica, more than most other
countries in the Eastern Caribbean, depends
heavily upon agriculture. In 1978, it ac-
counted for 42 percent of the total gross do-
mestic product (GDP), forming the single
most important sector of Dominica's econ-
omy. This percentage declined immediately
after the hurricanes David and Allen in 1979
and 1980, which destroyed crops and badly
damaged houses, factories, roads and natural
vegetation. By mid-decade agriculture had
recovered from its temporary decline and ac-
counted for 30 percent of GDP and 55 percent
of export earnings, and occupied 60 percent of
the labor force. Agriculture's contribution to
GDP has remained stable at about 30 percent
in more recent years, 293 percent in 1987
(GOCD, 1988b) and 30.9 percent in 1988
(CDB, 1988).

The history of Dominica's agriculture
has been very much one of reliance upon sin-
gle crops. The first was coffee, grown by the
French followed by English settlers during the
late seventeenth and early eighteenth cen-
turies. Sugar increased in prominence toward
the end of the eighteenth century and through
the nineteenth century whenever coffee suf-
fered disease outbreaks. However, with the
decline of cheap labor after the abolition of
slavery near the end of the nineteenth century
- upon which sugar estates were then depen-
dent agricultural production shifted to
cocoa followed by limes. By 1920, Dominica
was the world's largest producer of limes, but
disease combined with changing market forces
caused a slump in the industry. There fol-
lowed a period of stagnation for agriculture
which lasted until about 1960, despite a short-
lived boom in vanilla growing during the
Second World War when supplies to the UK
from the Far East were cut off. Over this pe-
riod, bananas were increasingly grown and
were exported to Great Britain as early as the
1930's. During the mid-1950's, a contractual
arrangement with Geest Industries guaran-
teed purchase of bananas on a fixed price
basis, and the modern era of banana growing
began.


Many of the environmental problems
that Dominica faces today are related to this
historic emphasis on one or two crops.
Dominica's natural vegetation is disappearing
at an accelerating rate as land-hungry farmers
dear forests for agriculture, at present pri-
marily for bananas. Yet much of this land is
quite unsuitable for such uses, while at the
same time there are large areas of cultivatable
land elsewhere that are under-utilized. One
result has been increasing pressures on
wildlife, particularly species which require
large areas of primary forest to survive such as
the nation's two endemic parrots. Farming on
steep slopes and the clearance of trees adja-
cent to watercourses or which form wind-
breaks have also increased soil erosion and
nutrient loss through run-off during heavy
rains. Although many of these problems
might be addressed through improved soil
conservation education programs for small
farmers, many are also the result of socio-
economic factors beyond the control of indi-
vidual farmers. An economic review of the
agricultural sector is therefore pertinent to
any discussion of the environmental problems
facing Dominica.



3.1.1 Prinary Crops

As also discussed in Section 13.3,
attempts are being made by Government to
diversify the Dominican agricultural sector
(see Table 3.1(1)). The following discussion
focuses on the principal crops currently culti-
vated in Dominica.


BANANAS

The dominant agricultural crop in
Dominica is bananas, accounting for 70
percent of total exports and 40 percent of the
total acreage under cultivation (see Figures
3.1(1) 3.1(3)). In 1988 bananas accounted
for just under ECS100 million in export


SECTION 3











Table 3.1(1). Dominica agricultural production, 1987.


earnings, far ahead of the second export
earner (soap products) with just over EC$24
million in export income (see Section 1.3.3).

About 12,000 of the 22,000 people
employed in the agricultural sector grow ba-
nanas. Banana growing has been popular with
farmers for three main reasons: (1) the as-
surance of a steady income since banana
plants bear fruit year round; (2) existence of a
guaranteed market to the United Kingdom
through Geest Industries, which visits the
Windward Islands every week to collect for
shipment all bananas of an acceptable stan-
dard; and (3) assistance provided to the grow-
ers by the Dominica Banana Marketing
Corporation, e.g., provision of fertilizers and
pesticides, coordination of packaging, and
negotiation of banana marketing agreements.

During the 1970's, Dominican GDP
declined due to a general worldwide economic
recession and high energy prices. This decline
particularly occurred within the agricultural


and manufacturing sectors, with a steady fall
in the production of export crops such as ba-
nanas. However, the 1980's has seen a recov-
ery in the banana industry due to a combina-
tion of factors:

improved banana prices
helped by better arrangements
provided by the Dominica Ba-
nana Marketing Corporation;

more favorable exchange
rates;

and improved production and
quality of bananas resulting
from better husbandry and
packaging.

Despite these improvements, the
banana industry is not without its problems.
There have been uncertainties regarding the
loss of preferential market arrangements with
the UK after the Unitary European Market


Crop Tonnage % Total Value EC$'000 % Total


Banana 67,725 49.31 30,897 30.84
Root crops 29,597 21.55 33,637 32.82
Citrus 25,105 18.28 12,779 12.76
Vegetables 4,507 3.28 10,058 10.04
Mango 3,821 2.78 5,234 5.22
Coconut 2,820 205 1,975 1.97
Plantain 2,122 1.55 841 0.84
Cocoa 474 0.35 1,292 1.29
Coffee 434 0.32 1,456 1.45
Avocado 263 0.19 229 0.23
Ginger 203 0.15 418 0.42
Breadfruit 191 0.14 157 0.16
Cut flowers 44 0.03 197 0.20
Bay leaf 30 0.02 820 0.82
Spices 16 0.01 179 0.20

Source: GOCD, 1988b.











80000


comes into being in 1992. Although assur-
ances have been made that some protection
will be offered (in 1989 the Windward Islands
had a 52 percent market share), this is likely
to depend upon whether the countries can
produce fruit of a more stable high quality.
Fruit of variable quality has been a continued
problem for Dominica, and production fell in
1989 by 10 percent, resulting in Dominica
dropping to third place, below St. Lucia and
St. Vincent, with a 20 percent share (DBMC,
1990a). In September 1989, Hurricane Hugo
devastated the banana industry, resulting in a
76 percent loss of production for the month.
The damages sustained were as high as 100
percent in some areas, particularly in the
north, northeast and eastern districts. The
hurricane reduced annual production by 30
percent compared with 1988 (DBMC, 1990a).


COCONUTS

Coconuts and derived products such
as soaps, edible oils and coconut meal are an
important agricultural crop. Although com-
prising only two percent of the total agricul-
tural output, together with their products, co-
conuts account for about 19 per cent by value


of total domestic exports (GOCD, 1988b). In
L982, before bananas assumed their recent
importance, coconut products accounted for
44 percent of domestic expots (Meadelssohn,
1983; Evans, 1986b). Today coconut products,
primarily soap, are still the second largest
contributor to export earnings. At prescul,
Dominica Coconut Products Ltd, in accor-
dance with the CARICOM Oils and Fats
Agreement, ensures the purchase of quantities
of coconuts from the grower at a guaranteed
price.

CrrRUS FRUIT AND OTHER TREE
CROPS

Grapefruits, limes and oranges are
important in domestic production, accounting
for a combined 18 percent by weight and 13
percent by value of agricultural output (see
Figures 1.3(2) and 1.3(3)). The cultivation of
grapefruits and orange has increased since
World War Two, although production has
more recently come into competition with
fruit grown by South Africa and Israel
Dominica was once the largest lime producer
in the world, but in the first half of the present
century it was struck by disease and never re-


60000


40000


20000


0
75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89
Year

Figure 3.1(1). Domlnica banana production, 1975 -1989 (source: Dominica Banana
Marketing Board, Roseau).













Spices
Bay leaf
Cut flowers
Breadfruit
Ginger
Avocado
e Coffee
2 Cocoa
U Planta.n
Coconut
Mango
Vegetables
Citrus
Root crops
Banana


---------I
0I0 IIII I00 800


40000
Production


Crop production expressed as total annual production in tonnes of
major agricultural crops (source: GOCD, 1988b)


Figure 3.1 (2).


Others
Breadfruit
Spices
Cut flowers
Avocado
Bay leaf
Plantain
Cocoa
2 Coffee
U Coconut
Mango
Vegetables
Citrus
Banana
Root Crops


Figure 3.1(3). Various Dominican crops expressed as percentage of total value of
agricultural production (at producer's price, not export earnings)
(source: GOCD, 1988b).


20000


6')000


80000









covered, its place being taken by synthetic
juices. Since 1984, the European Develop-
ment Fund has sponsored a rehabilitation
program in an attempt to increase the amount
of land planted with limes. Other high quality
tree crops selected include other citrus such as
oranges and tangerines, mangoes, and avoca-
dos. Although these account for less than ten
percent of the total value of agricultural out-
put (GOCD, 1988b), they are becoming of in-
creasing importance as export crops, both
within and outside the region.


COFFEE

Coffee was introduced to Dominica
by French settlers in the eighteenth century
and was grown on a large scale until toward
the end of the nineteenth century. Since then
it has declined steadily, particularly on the
large estates, due to a combination of bad
agricultural practices, low prices and the cof-
fee leaf miner pest (Honychurch, 1984). In
the early 1950's and again in the mid-1970's,
production increased temporarily as a result
of generally high world-market prices. How-
ever, production fell drastically after the hur-
ricanes of 1979-80, and until very recently
virtually all coffee consumed locally was im-
ported from the United Kingdom (see also
Figures 13(2) and 13(3)). A two-phase cof-
fee development project has been funded by
BDD (phase two now in operation), with four
hundred acres of land scheduled for coffee
production. As a result, Bello Products has
started to sell local coffee, and this could help
meet the existing demand.


COCOA

Cocoa production became important
at the end of the nineteenth century. Al-
though higher yield varieties of cocoa have
been planted since the Second World War,
the low price obtained for cocoa kept devel-
opment down, and the poor processing of the
crop kept prices low. Production increased in
the 1960's and again in the 1970's, but also
suffered from the hurricanes of 1979-80. A
few reasonably large stands (averaging 70
acres) of cocoa are grown on private estates,
and numerous smaller holders produce cocoa.


In total, about 400 acres of land are devoted
to the crop, but recently USAID's HIAMP
program has provided support for 150 acres of
land with the aim of producing 1,000 pounds
of cocoa per acre and another 150 acres to
yield 1,200 pounds per acre (USAID, 1986).
Plans call for cooperatives and grower associ-
ations to later take over the management of
this crop. Dominica last exported cocoa in
any significant amount in 1983. However, in
1990, the Chicago-based firm, World's Finest
Chocolate, Inc., proposed a guaranteed price
of US$1.25 more than the current world-mar-
ket price (i.e., 64 cents [USS] per pound) and
gave a commitment to buy all cocoa produced
in Dominica. Cocoa from the Caribbean (in
comparison with that of Africa and Brazil) is
said to be of better quality and has a natural
flavor that is an asset in the production of high
quality chocolates.

Intercropping cocoa with banana
plants is seen as a useful way to provide
temporary shade needed by cocoa crops -
while permanent shade tree plantings develop.
Cocoa provides a basis for permanent tree
crop-based agriculture utilizing more steeply
sloping lands which otherwise would suffer
problems of soil erosion and water loss with
traditional root crop agriculture. Bananas
must be removed after four years if farmers
are to avoid a constant struggle against etio-
lated cocoa trees (i.e., trees whose leaves have
lost their chlorophyll and become pale
through lack of sunlight) (USAID, 1986).


ROOT CROPS AND VEGETABLES

Root crops and vegetables, although
not exported extra-regionally to any extent,
are very important for domestic consumption
and export within the region (see Figures
13(2) and 13(3)). Root crops provide an in-
creasing contribution to GDP and to exports
(see Section 133). Dasheen is the most im-
portant root crop; it is grown by 80 percent of
Dominican farmers and accounts for a little
over ten percent of total agricultural produc-
tion. Other root crops grown on a large scale
include tannia, sweet potato, cassava (for pro-
cessing into farine) and toloma (for
processing into baby foods). Vegetables are
also popular with farmers, grown either for










domestic consumption or for export to other
islands in the region via the huckster trade.
Crops grown are cucumbers, tomatoes, cab-
bages, carrots, peppers, aubergines and pi-
geon peas, while in the Carib territory, farm-
ers often grow soy beans which are not
presently exported.


LIVESTOCK

Livestock forms only one to two per-
cent of GDP. Although cattle, sheep, goats,
pigs and chickens are all reared on the island,
increasing quantities of meat are imported. In
1982, meat and meat products accounted for
43 percent of total imports, and butter, milk
and cheese 3.5 percent. Forty-six percent of
farms own poultry, and yet 30 percent of im-
ported meat is chicken, mainly because of its
low price (Mendelssohn, 1983; Evans, 1986b).
There are no local hatcheries so chicks are
imported as is feed. On the other hand, the
country is self-sufficient in eggs.

Sheep may be one area of livestock
production that could be developed since they
require lower capital outlays than cattle and
can subsist on relatively poor grazing without
the need for costly supplement feeds. How-
ever, at present, sheep breeding in Dominica
is characterized as a subsistence activity with a
high mortality rate, minimal growth, poor
herd reproduction, and inadequate husbandry
practices. In this context, the Inter-American
Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture
(IICA) has been supporting small-scale sheep
production in collaboration with the Ministry
of Agriculture and CARDL Eight farms have
been monitored weekly to assess feeding
regimes, flock size, health factors and breed-
ing performance in terms of overall profit-
generating potential. Emphasis has been
placed on developing crop/livestock compati-
ble systems, and farmers have been encour-
aged to adopt new recommendations. It is
projected that self-sufficiency in sheep pro-
duction could be achieved by 1992.


OTHER VENTURES

Aloe vert is a recent specialty crop
which has been grown since 1984 at Petit


Coulibri Estate, near Soufriere, for export to
the United States. One hundred acres are
now under cultivation on the Estate, and
plants are provided to about fifty farmers
elsewhere on the island.

USAID, through its HIAMP pro-
gram, provided a grant for the establishment
of carambola (star fruit) nurseries. Addition-
ally, research and development on cardamon
production in Dominica has shown that it can
be grown successfully and has commercial
potential in export markets to the Middle
East, trans-shipping through the United King-
dom and using the services of Central Ameri-
can spice brokers (USAID, 1986).

In recent years there has been an in-
creasingly important market in ornamental
plants and cut flowers, particularly anthuriums
and ginger lilies. These are exported mainly
within the region via the huckster trade, but
some are also sent to the United States and
the United Kingdom. The Forestry Division
has been investigating the possibility of grow-
ing orchids on a commercial basis and has
established an experimental orchid nursery in
the Botanical Gardens. There is probably
scope to expand this occupation further, in-
volving other showy ornamentals as well as
orchids whose growth is favored by a combi-
nation of tropical climate and high rainfall
which Dominica, in particular, can offer.



3.1.2 Agro-processing and Marketing

Several products are now being made
from agricultural tree crops which can then be
sold abroad. Bello produces a variety of fruit
juices as well as hot pepper sauce and coffee
for export around the Caribbean, and recently
Dominica Agro Industries (DAI) on Bath
Estate has begun receiving grapefruit from
local farmers for processing. In January 1990,
DAI successfully marketed its entire output of
grapefruit juice concentrate to an American
firm. The Government has also provided
grant aid through DEXIA (Dominica Export
Import Agency) to Dominica Agro Industries
for lime processing and for direct payment to
growe rs for the sale of limes.









The regional market is of consider-
able and growing importance to Dominica for
fresh produce. By 1984, intra-regional trade
accounted for 86 percent of the country's non-
banana fresh produce exports (USAID, 1986).
The most significant crops are grapefruit,
oranges, plantain and dasheen, although there
are plans to develop other fruit crops such as
passionfruit. At present, Guadeloupe is the
single most important regional market for
such produce, followed by Antigua and
Trinidad.

As part of the Ministry of Agricul-
ture's Tropical Fruit and Spices Project, there
are plans to establish 100 acres of passionfruit
throughout the island for export within the
Caribbean region. USAID's HIAMP project
has approximately 200 acres already estab-
lished in passionfruit Under this project,
farmers who qualify are given free plants,
wire, and other inputs as required. All fruits
produced under the project will be purchased
by Corona Development, a local processing
company.

By regional standards, Dominica's
coconut production 2,820 tonnes in 1987
(GOCD, 1988b) is also significant. These
are processed locally by Dominica Coconut
Products Ltd. at the Belfast Estate and largely
exported as soap products to Jamaica
(HIAMP, 1986). Soap products contributed
EC$25.25 million to export earnings in 1988,
second in value only to bananas (GOCD,
1988b).



3.2 PROBLEMS AND ISSUES


3.2.1 The Benana Industry

With banana plantations accounting
for approximately 5,061 hectares (12,500
acres) under cultivation (pers. common, M.
Didier, DBMC, 1990), the environmental and
economic implications of current land use
practices center in large measure on the ba-
nana industry. The country's significant de-
pendency on one particular crop in this


case, bananas puts it in an economically
vulnerable position should a natural catastro-
phe befall the crop or market forces suddenly
change. Bananas are easily blown down by
high winds and are therefore particularly ex-
posed to hurricane and other storm damage.
Furthermore, by 1992 Dominica will have to
be more competitive in the production of high
quality fruit if the industry is to survive
changes in the protected UK export market.

Agriculture in Dominica has tradi-
tionally been characterized by 'boom and
bust" patterns of development, with emphasis
upon a single crop until a natural disaster, dis-
ease, or a change in the export market have
compelled farmers to switch to another crop.
At present the major crop is bananas, but
there are justifiable fears that over-reliance on
this crop exposes the country's economy to
great risk. With 1992 approaching and the
likelihood of a more competitive European
market for Eastern Caribbean countries such
as Dominica, the need both to streamline the
banana industry, with improvements in quality
and yields, and to further diversify into other
agricultural products is becoming more im-
portant.

The bulk of banana production is car-
ried out by a small number of growers. In
1989, less than 15 percent of all growers pro-
duced about fifty percent of the total banana
crop (DBMC, 1989). Although some of these
are large landowners, there is also great vari-
ation in production levels for small farmers
with similar-sized plantations (pers. common ,
G. Stedman, Financial Controller, DBMC,
1990). This is caused by a variety of factors,
the most important being the percentage of
time spent working the farm, distance of farm
from home, availability and quality of access,
soil fertility and topographic situation, and
planting and management practices. Many
farmers are converting unsuitable land into
agricultural land, particularly on steep slopes
where run-off of water and nutrients is high,
and are planting bananas too dose together
(or, alternatively, letting the bananas produce
second shoots alongside the original plants) so
that plants compete with one another for nu-
trients.











THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF BANANA CULTIVATION


Despite its dominant role In the overall economic development of Dominica, banana cultiva-
tion comes with an environmental price tag which should not be overlooked.

In the first place, most of the "marginal" agricultural areas now supporting banana production
have steep slopes which, if cropped at all, should be planted only with tree crops to ensure
against soil erosion. The banana, however, is an herbaceous perennial species which, unlike
a true tree crop, has a very shallow rooting system and no tap root. Therefore, while the
plant's large leaves afford protection against rainfall damage where cropping patterns are
dense, erosion can be significant as the roots do little to stabilize the soil.

This is less of a problem where ground provisions or other crops are interplanted with
bananas, for example, on many small family farms. But in many Instances, steep slopes are
the focus of commercial banana growers seeking short-term profits with little regard for long-
range Impacts.

The ongoing destruction of forest cover, which has coincided with expansion of more prof-
Itable banana cultivation onto forested lands, Is slowly altering the Island's hydrological
regime. Without forest cover to slow the downslope overland run-off of water, less water is
Infiltrating the ground, more water is running off, and less is stored within the natural water
system or aquifer. One result of this is a lowered base flow in streams during dry periods, a
development which is reducing water flow from some catchments and producing high sedi-
mentation rates from accelerated erosion in unprotected upland areas.

Single crop farming, as In the case of bananas, exhausts the natural nutrients in the soil; these
are only marginally replaced by using artificial fertilizers because in wetter climates like
Dominica's much of the fertilizer input Is lost through leaching. Monocrop agriculture also is
vulnerable to pest Infestation and requires more pesticide use to control disease. This may
have detrimental effects upon other wildlife, while single crops tend to lead to reduced blodi-
versity and increased dominance by a few species

The Importance of this "green gold" crop to Dominica's economy has often disguised the fact
that the natural and physical environment to support banana production is becoming Increas-
ingly marginal a situation in no small measure resulting from the very impacts which banana
cultivation has created.


Bananas are particularly susceptible
to wind damage. Every year between July and
October, a proportion of the potential banana
crop is lost through damage by high winds.
During September 1989, despite the fact that
Hurricane Hugo passed over only a small
portion of Dominica causing little damage to
forest trees, bananas were destroyed over a
large part of the island, resulting in a substan-
tial loss of production (76 percent) for that
month (DBMC, 1989).


In the northwest of the island, the
practice of leaving corridors of forest between
bananas plantations to act as windbreaks has
in times past served not only to give banana
plants some protection but also to enrich the
soil with nutrients provided by the deeper-
rooting systems of the neighboring forest
trees. In recent years, however, with more
land being turned into banana plantations,
farmers have tended to cut into the wind-
breaks so that forest corridors, which once









were 10-20 meters broad, are now often no
more than five meters wide or even reduced
to scattered isolated trees. This not only has a
detrimental effect upon banana *ields, it also
has wider environmental implications, ie., re-
duction of biodiversity, of particular animals
important for pollination, seed dispersal and
regulation of insect pests (Evans, 1986b,
1989).

One reason for intensified deforesta-
tion by shifting cultivation has been the easier
access afforded to once remote areas by the
construction of feeder roads. New roads have
been built, and many existing tracks surfaced.
While such roads have had an indirect envi-
ronmental impact by enhancing access to
lands often unsuitable for agriculture, they
have improved the proportion of acceptable
fruit reaching exporters since reduced levels
of fruit are bruised and transport to boxing
plants is easier. The boxing of fruit has also
reduced fruit damage. In 1988, a container
cardboard plant (ABC Containers) was estab-
lished at Gimmit to supply cardboard boxes
for the banana industry and other local needs.
Many farmers have now built small huts to
house these boxes on site for ease of collec-
tion.



3.2.2 Crop DIwverfication

Dominica's recognition of the risks
associated with over-dependence on a
monocrop agricultural base has led to the
country's experimentation with a variety of
crops. Diversification has been predicated on
a number of factors, the more important
being

(1) Emphasis upon a single crop leaves
the country's agricultural sector
vulnerable to natural disasters;
bananas are at particular risk from
hurricane and other storm damage
which may not have as severe an
impact on other crops.

(2) Monocrops usually develop serious
pest and disease problems.


(3) Demand on the international mar-
ket for certain types of fruits and
vegetables can vary so that a
product commanding a high price
one season may lose its value the
next; this is particularly true when
eating habits change often for
dietary reasons.

However, there are also problems as-
sociated with developing a broad-based agri-
cultural system. The first relates to
economies of scale. There is only a limited
amount of land (or, at least, suitable land)
available for agriculture. Secondly, the prac-
tice of intercropping two or more crops makes
it more difficult to apply pesticides or fertiliz-
ers specific to a particular crop. To some ex-
tent this will be counterbalanced by the ia-
creased chance of infection with monocrops.
Finally, despite the advantages of intercrop-
ping, management of a small farm may be
complicated by the presence of a variety of
crops, particularly if the requirements of one
crop conflict with those of another.

Despite these disadvantages, crop di-
versification is generally considered to be a
positive move (Demas, 1987), and at present
approximately 5,000 acres, over different parts
of the island, are under exotic fruit cultivation,
mainly citrus, pasionfruit soursop, mangoes,
sugar apples and avocados for export to inter-
national markets, particularly Europe. The
total acreage for coconuts stands at just over
16,800, as of the end of 1989 (pers. commu .
D. Francis, Agriculture Statistics Division,
1990). Tables 3.2(1), 3.2(2) and 3.2(3) provide
a review of crop characteristics.

Crop diversification has one addi-
tional benefit in that it may promote species
diversity of native wildlife. Studies carried out
by the Oxford University/ICBP Multiple Land
Use Project in Dominica have highlighted
how single crop plantation increase the
dominance of bird communities by particular
species (bananaquits, bullfinches, and hum-
minghirds) at the expeme of other species
(for example, parrots, thrshes and thrashers)
(Evans, 1986a, 1986b, 1989).












Table 3.2(1). Present and proposed fruit crop production in Dominica.




Crop Type Area (acres) Production (tons/annum)
1985 1995 1985 1995


Grapefruit 2,065 2,159 5,198 9,020
Oranges 1,217 1,417 580 2,800
Limes 1,235 1,305 1,220 3,175
Other citrus 50 80 75 200
Mango 598 712 600 1,740
Avocado 238 288 163 640


Source: BBD/Tropical Development and Reserach Institute, 1986.







Table 3.2(2). Environmental profiles for different crops.




Chemical Erosion Wind Wildlife Habitat
Crop Type Usage Control Sensitivity Value


Source: Oxford University/ICBP Dominica Multiple Land Use Project (unpublished data).


Banana
Coconut
Citrus
Avocado
Guava
Cocoa
Coffee
Bay leaf
Aloe
Root Crops


Moderate
Moderate
Good
Good
Poor
Moderate
Moderate
Poor
Moderate-Poor
Very Poor


High
Low
Low
Low
Low
Moderate
Moderate
Low
High
Low


Poor
Poor
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Good
Moderate
Good
Poor
Moderate


High
Moderate
Low
Low
Low
Low
Moderate
Low
Low
Low












Table 3.2(3). Agricutural profiles for particular tree crops.



Crop Type Season Main Age (y) Conditon Yield Rld Price
Curles (tone/*e) (ents/lb)


Banana AM yewr tabuat NA 24 6.00 3040
Grapefruft Aug-Mar Marh FRuby 1-25 2-5 2.2 11-25
Orange Au-FbM W. Novel 1-30 2-4 0M48 3s
Valenia
Urne Apr-uly W.L 1-0 34 099 50-40
(Now*s)
Tageriwne July-Doc 1-20 2-4 1.50 5040
Mandarin
Mango rafted) Apr-Spt Jule 1-40 2-4 1.00 5545
Avocado Jun-Dec Various 1-5 2-3 0.68 5045
Guava AANyr Local pink 1-20 3.6 ? 20-50


Notes: Condi ln of Ute@ Ntirnaed on a cale of 1 (vwywel manned) to 5 (abanldoed orchm').
An eeimated 75-85% of total yield may be suitale for orrcT u e., loc
export, processing.
Yield etlmate per are i only approximate since Mwee under wiain for a
pe icular crop do not include Interoppkig.
Data for bananas is for year 19080; data for a other crop is for Iw 18U.
NA Not Appicable.

Surowes BBD/TropcaI Developnment and ewerac hietiltue. 196; Dominica Ganaa --Matrign
Corporaion, 1900.


3.2.3 Increasd Donmtc and RioMIl
Agro-production

Dowinica has potential for greater
agricultural self-sufficiency and increased cx-
port of its produce within the regionL At the
same time, many agricultural products (for
example, coffee, cocoa, cheese, butter, beef,
pork and chicken) are imported in substantial
quantities. In view of the high and increasing
costs of imported meat and dairy products as
well as animal feed, it would seem to be ad-
vantageous to increase local production.

Trade of Dominican agricultural pro-
duce within the Eastern Caribbean region has
increased during the last decade. This has
been carried out to a large extent through a


network of local hucksters mainly women
who move around nearby islands buying and
selling from one to the next. Dominica has
been particularly successful at sing fruits
(grapefrit, orange, lime, mango and avo-
cado), root crops (dasheem tania, and sweet
potato), and cut flowers (anthurium and gin-
ger hy).

Various local organizations have
been involved in improving trading arrange-
mcots For example, the Dominica Export
Import Agency (DEXIA) was set up in 186
by the Goverment with responsibility for the
development of more export markets, im-
provement of food self-sufficiency, and do-
mestic market development through the ad-
ministration of the Roseau market. Coordi-










nation of information exchange between
farmer and exporter is another important
function of DEXIA. Such information in-
cludes updates on prices, market demand,
boat schedules, freight rates, and financing ar-
rangements. By improving the marketing of a
range of crops, DEXIA aims to provide grow-
ers of such produce with more regular in-
comes, such as that currently enjoyed by
banana farmers.

Other areas where development is
taking place towards greater local or regional
self-sufficiency are livestock production
(particularly bhcep), the growing of various
herbs and spices for flavoring of foods, and
floriculture. The Forestry Division has been
investigating the possibility of growing orchids
on a commercial basis and has established an
experimental orchid nursery in the Botanical
Garden.

Improved local self-sufficiency in
agricultural products as well as expansion of
the regional export market for agro-products
depend on continued development of a mul-
tiple land-use policy, which in turn could have
several important ecological benefits for the
country. First, it offers an opportunity for ap-
propriately linking land use with land capa-
bility -- the latter based on the differing char-
acteristics of a given land area such as climate,
soil type, and steepness of slope. A mosaic of
habitats promotes biodiversity particularly if
plant communities cultivated include herbs,
shrubs and trees forming a number of vertical
strata. From a wildlife conservation perspec-
tive, extensive areas of pasture for livestock or
grassland with sugar or cereal crops are not to
be recommended, but in a mosaic with
patches of forest, biodiversity is encouraged
by limited disturbance of the vegetation
(Evans, 1986a,b; 1989). This gives rise to an
"edge" effect where a relatively high propor-
tion of the habitat is sufficiently open for col-
onizing species to flourish, bearing flowers
and fruits that are important food for a variety
of wildlife. Were these plants to dominate, on
the other hand, as in herb meadows or scrub,
the diversity of animal species that use forest
trees would not occur; thus, a balance be-
tween the two is the best compromise.


3.2.4 Land Ownership and Land Use

In the past, a high proportion of
Dominica's land was owned by a few people,
In a census carried out in 1961, the wealthier
1.4 percent of farmers occupied 56.4 percent
of the land. SLiry-ninc percent of all holdings
were less than two hectares and accounted for
3,135 hectares, whereas nine percent of hold-
ings were more than 80 hectares and occupied
14,416 hectares (Weir's Agricultural Consult-
ing Sen., 1980). The situation was little im-
proved by 1975 (see Figures 3.2(1) and
3.2(2)).

Since independence in 1978, the large
estates have declined in importance and have
been either divided and sold or, in some cases,
left to lie idle due to absentee landlords and a
shortage of cheap labor to work the land
(Narendran, 1980). Many of these estates are
on the most fertile soils and so remain greatly
under-utilized. Elsewhere, demand for land
has resulted in Government distribution of
crown land to farmers, usually in lots of less
than four hectares. Table 3.2(4) summarizes
available information on Government distri-
bution of land prior to 1975, and Table. 3.2(5)'
shows the proportion of Government lands
(allocated and unallocated) in comparison to
privately-held lands in 1978. Since then,
feeder road construction following hurricanes
David and Allen has opened up new areas and
encouraged further sale of Government lands,
despite the presence of under-utilized tracts of
estate lands with reasonable access
(McQuillan, 1984; UNDP, 1986; DeGeorges,
1988).

Through GOCD's Integrated Rural
Development Program and other land reform
projects, several estates have been divided
into small plots and distributed among local
tenant farmers, e.g, Carholm in the center of
the island; Melville Hall, Castle Bruce and
Newfoundland in the east; Geneva, Bagatelle
and Petite Savane in the southeast; and
Soufriere in the south. Nevertheless, such
distribution has not always prevented further
encroachment into neighboring forested
areas. For example, in the area around Gov-
ernor Estate west of Melville Hall and Crown
and Gregg to the south, farmers are clearing
both mature and secondary rain forest (Fehr,













2.10%


8.70%


Size of farm unit
less than 5.0 acres
5.0 -9.97
10.0-49.9



74550.0+






Figure 3.2(1). Distribution of land as percentage of holdings of different sized
units as reported in the 1975 Agric~tural Census (source:
GOCOD, 1975).


Size of farm unit

* less than 5.0 acres
* 5.0-9.9
* 10.0-49.9
Sso0.0+


60.90q


12.60%



11





%0


0.20%





16.30%


"Land distribution"


Figure 3.2(2).


Distribution of land as percentage of acreage held in dflerert sized
units as reported In the 1975 Agricultural Census (source:
GOCD, 1975).











Table 3.2(4). Government distribution of land In Dominica, 1950 1975.



Lot Size 1-5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20+
(acres)


No. of lots 435 949 278 84 63
Acreage 1,522 6,800 3,315 1,431 1,855


Source: Mendelssohn, 1983.





Table 3.2(5). Dominica land ownership, 1978.



No. of hectares


1989; P. Evans, pers. observ.). At the same
time, the division of old estates has not neces-
sarily been successful in terms of crop pro-
duction, for example on the Castle Bruce and
Geneva Estates (Weir's Agricultural Con-
sulting Serv. Ltd., 1980).


In a review of land use in Dominica,
Shanks and Pulney (1979) estimated that only
30 percent of the 79,000 hectares of total land
area was suitable for agriculture. Of this, 35
percent was occupied by farmers, but only 24
percent of the total suitable land was under


Allocated Government Lands:
Mome Trots Pitons National Park
Central Forest Reserve
Northern Forest Reserve


Subtotal Total Allocated Government Lands
Unallocated Government Lands


Total Estimated Government Lands
Total Privately Owned/Claimed Land


Total Dominica Land Area


Source: Shanks and Putney, 1979.


6,349
410
8,814


15,573
10,526


26,099
52,901


79,000











permanent cultivation, large estates and pri-
vate small holdings each occupying about half
of this land. Since 1978, a sizeable portion of
forest has been turned into agricultural land
so these figures are now considerably out of
date. Unfortunately, a more recent prelimi-
nary map on vegetation and land use in
Dominica prepared by the Organization of
American States (McKcnzie, 1987) contains a
number of important errors in the drawing of
boundaries and misinterpretations in classifi-
cation of vegetation types. The result is that it


is not comparable with estimates provided by
Shanks and Putney (1979).

The Oxford University/ICBP Multi-
ple Land Use Project in Dominica is currently
working on a new detailed vegetation map
along with its botanical studies on the ground,
but this effort is hindered by lack of compre-
hensive air photo coverage of the island In
Dominica's National Structure Plan (GOCD,
1985), an estimated 19,844 hectares (i.e., 143
percent of land area) of unutilizedd' land is


Table 3.2(6). Existing and proposed land use areas, Dominica (areas in hectares).



Land Uss Existing Ar % of Lnd Proposed Ar % of Land Chang
1978 Area 2001 Ama in A


Agriculture

-Forest Rservas
-National Park Units
-Wate Catchmernts


Subtotal

Settlements
-Maor
:Ftural


Subtotal

Unutlzed Land
-Forests nd ki
Agricultural Land
-Scrub
-Othw


Subtotal

TOTAL


22,000

9,224
6,475
2.134


17.833


1,133



31.134
2.100
4.800


79,000


100.0


23.700

14,456
16,002
5,202


35,08


5SO
900


1,450



11z20
2,100
4,800


18.190

79,000


+ 1,700


+9,527
+3.068


+ 17,827


+22D
+97


1.8 +317


-19,844
0
0


-19.844


100.0


Source: National Structure Plan, 196.










expected to be transferred to more intensive
use (mainly conservation but also agriculture
and to a small extent settlement) by the year
2001 (Table 3.2(6)). Of this total, 17,827
hectares are proposed for conservation and
only 1,700 hectares for agriculture (the re-
mainder for human settlement). However, it
should be noted that between 1978 and the
present time, a much greater area than this
has almost certainly already been converted to
agriculture, mainly utilizing unsuitable land.

Despite land distribution and road
building efforts, land hunger continues to be a
problem along the west coast, in the Upper
Layou Valley (Wet Area), the Melville Hall
area, and the Carib Territory. Along the west
coast, the land around many of the communi-
ties is unsuitable for agriculture. Many of the
people in the area practice some fishing, but
marine resources are probably not sufficient
to support entire communities. Three villages
facing such problems are Glanvillia, Dublanc
and Bioche (Sutphen, 19~6) Because of the
unavailability of suitable agricultural land in
the proximity of their homes, many farmers
have acquired land some distance away and
travel daily to their plantations. Those farm-
ers working the land on Syndicate Estate, for
example, come from the villages of Colihaut,
Coulibistri and even Salisbury, involving daily
round-trip journeys of up to 30 kilometers.

Land tenure is another concern which
encompasses a number of sub-issues, e.g.,
many private parcels are leased to small farm-
ers who have yet to make rental payments; in
other cases land ownership or title is unclear
or uncertain, while some small farmers are
squatting on land belonging either to the Gov-
ernment or to absentee landlords.

The fragmentation of land into sepa-
rate small farms or parcels has been encour-
aged by the traditional division of a single
holding among the children of a given family
unit. Children are offered portions of land
owned or leased by the parent, but thcee are
often some distance from one another.
Furthermore, family members (or other
growers without secure title) are usually less
ready to make improvements and undertake
investment projects on their farms.
Narendran (1980) recorded, in a sample of 57


parcels, 21 parcels of family land, 21 freehold,
7 annual rent, 5 private lease, and 3 share
cropping. There appeared to be no significant
difference between the way freehold and fam-
ily farms were run, but the latter were more
prone to disruption due to family disputes.
Rented farms had a noticeably different crop-
ping pattern with much stronger emphasis on
short-term crops. CARDI survey data quoted
in Chemonics (1988) showed the following
distribution of land holdings, with the 52 per-
cent category ("other farms," denoting lease-
holds or squatting) not only the largest in the
Dominica but also the highest reported in the
OECS countries surveyed:


Freehold
Rent
Other Farms*


33%
15%
52%


* leasehold or squatting on public or private land


Table 3.2(7), taken from Chemonics
(1988), updates the information found in Fig-
ure 3.2(1), but shows approximately the same
size distribution of farms as found in the 1975
Agricultural Census, with almost 90 percent of
all farms being less than ten acres in size.
Even these small sizes obscure the fact that
many farms are comprised of two, three or
even more micro-parcels (see Table 3.2(8)),
the others often some distance from the first.
This complicates farming for the small
grower, lowers efficiency, and increases com-
muting; on the other hand, it diversifies pro-
duction risk (Chemonics, 1988).

Although some cooperation exists
between farmers (for example, help with
transport), such efforts have never developed
very effectively, probably because of the diffi-
culty farmers have in breaking away from the
traditional system of family-held land tenure.
Even relatives may operate independently of
one another. Despite a number of deficien-
cies of the traditional large estates, they often
operated with relative efficiency, benefiting
from economies of scale. The latter has been
accommodated in part by the development of
cooperatives which coordinate such activities
as produce packaging and the application of
fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides.











Table 3.2(7). Number and size distribution of all farms, Dominica.


DISTRIBUTION
1 10 acres 10- 50 acres


63%


Source: ChewmoN 198, using data from CIDAs RSview of Agdufltural Diversaication In the OECS (198).


Table 3.2(8). Farm size and fragmentation in Dominica (one to five acre farms).


SIZE CLASS (acres)
2-<3 3-<4


15%


24%


PARCELS (#)
2


4-<5


19%


38%


Source: CAO aunry taken rowm C oniv*, t198


As noted above, in recent years the
Ministry of Agriculture has been addressing
the problem of land hunger through land re-
form programs. For example, 1,200 acres at
Castle Bruce have been subdivided, 730 acres
at Geneva and 685 at Mclville Hall. Social
studies on the communities/households have
been carried out to better determine their
needs, and funds have been provided for in-
vestments. These projects have received aid
from OAS, IFAD and CDB.

Although land hunger is a wide-
spread, albeit regional problem, ironically the
country is also experiencing a shortage of agri-
cultural labor. Many Dominicans, particularly
young persons, are increasingly drawn to the
capital, Roseau, where they can earn a more
secure income with better working conditions.


Some of these could remain within the
broader agricultural sector by entering agro-
industries, such as the processing of fruit
juices and jams, production of plantain chips,
etc. However, this does not solve the need for
more field labor. To do this, the profession
needs to be made more attractive, and sys-
tems of land sharing encouraged. The need
for greater security of land tenure should also
be addressed, e.g., too often farmers have en-
tered into lease arrangements without ade-
quate capital, further ecouragin land-hungry
farmers to squat on lands they cannot afford
to purchase or lease.


NUMBER
OF FARMS


1,921


< acre


26%


> o acres


1-<2


42%


24%










3.2.5 The Use of Agrochemicals

Although this subject is also dis-
cussed in Section 8, some general comments
may usefully be made as they pertain to
agricultural development.

Agriculture generally and banana
growing in particular have become increas-
ingly dependent on "inputs" not only of chemi-
cal fertilizers but also large amounts of a
broad spectrum of pesticides. Most chemicals
are sprayed by small farmers using back pack
sprayers. Airplanes spray a combination of oil
plus small amounts of fungicide in the control
of leaf spot, but this is not island-wide. The
DBMC employs a significant number of
ground crew teams for leaf spot control (pers.
commun., C. James, Ministry of Agriculture,
1990).

The need for agrochemicals could be
reduced if monocrops occupied smaller areas
and were interspersed with forest corridors
and with plots containing other crops. Other
recommendations to control the use of agro-
chemicals include: improved extension ser-
vices to farmers on alternatives to pesticide
control, broader use of field sanitation and
quarantine practices, use of crop varieties re-
sistant to insect pests, and employment of
crop rotation strategies, in both space and
time.

At present, paraquat (mainly sold as
gramoxone in the Eastern Caribbean) is the
main product used for the control of weeds
(Rainey, et al., 1987). Although it is ineffec-
tive against many vines and perennial herbs, it
is easily the most cost-effeclive and attractive
herbicide for most small farmers. Advantages
include its "rain-fastness" and its rapid and
visible action. In a survey of weed control on
small farms in various countries in the Eastern
Caribbean, Hammerton (1985) estimated that
about 30 percent of total crop labor was spent
on land preparation and another 30 percent
on post-planting weed control depending upon
the cropping system. Methods rely mainly on
hand labor, using cutlasses, hoes, forks and
hand pulling of weeds, with either hand
spraying or, in some areas, aerial spraying
from a plane.


Mocap (ethoprop) is a commonly
used pesticide, functioning effectively as a ne-
maticide in the soil and around root systems
(Rainey, et al., 1987).

The problem with agrochemicals like
gramoxone and mocap is that they have high
toxicity and are non-specific. Gramoxone in
particular also has a very long persistence. As
a consequence, these chemicals are a threat to
wildlife (and to humans where they enter
drinking water), Mocap, when applied to
fields of aloe infected with nematodes, killed
numbers of ground doves, hummingbirds and
yellow warblers (pers. comm., M. Barnard,
Mngr., Windward Island Aloe Products,
1990). Although Rainey, et al. (1987) were
unable to demonstrate direct effects of
gramoxone on wildlife populations (since
population changes were most influenced by
habitat loss), they did express concern about
widespread and unregulated use. Since that
study, there have been several reports of
mortality of freshwater life (crayfish, crabs
and freshwater fishes) and of opossums along
paths close to recently sprayed banana plan-
tations.

In recent years there have been sev-
eral moves to try to regularize the application
of agrochemicals. For example, organophos
phates or chlorinated hydrocarbons are no
longer legally used in the agricultural sector.
Furthermore, the Pesticides Control Act was
amended and updated to provide legal re-
quirements for protective clothing and annual
medical checkups for the sprayers, paid for by
their employers (pers. comm., E. Harris, Ag.
CTO, Div. of Ag., MOA, 1990). Nevertheless,
some sprayers continue to be lax in using
protective clothing properly, often spraying
without face masks, and there is little atten-
tion paid to whether bystanders are in the
vicinity of spraying. Some farmers increase
the dose levels of the chemicals they apply in
anticipation of improved effectiveness, while
packaging is often inadequate with containers
lacking labels and directions.

Chemicals used on bananas are often
also applied to other crops. However, the
Agricullurv Division now has more appropri-
ate chemicals pyrethroidss) available for veg-
etable farmers which will be repackaged and









sold to them (pers. comm., E. Harris, CTO,
Div. of Ag, MOA, 1990).

At present, there is still very little re-
search on the environmental effects of the use
of various agrochemicals in Dominica, partic-
ularly where they enter watercourses and can
impact upon water quality and aquatic life
(see also Section 8).


3.2.6 Soll and Water Conervaton

Approximately 70 percent of the
country's land area is classified by the Gov-
ernment as unsuitable for agriculture (see
Table 3.2(9)), primarily because of erosion
risks, water saturation due to heavy rainfall, or
poor soils. These lands have been summa-
rized as follows (GOCD, 1985):

(1) Land with vm7y high er le
risk (about 29,000 hectares or 37 per-
cent of the total land area) lands with
steep slopes found mainly in the inte-
rior and windward side of the island.
They are unsuitable for cultivation be-
cause of the steepness of the terrain
and high erosion risk. Most such lands
are forested and located in the Morne
Trois Pitons National Park or in Forest
Reserves.

(2) Lad with madwste Nigh
ereolem risk (about 16,000 hectares or
20 percent of the total land area) -
lands found mainly in the vicinity of the
Northern Forest Reserve and the south
of the country. Tree crops and
silviculture are the most suitable use
for this type of land, but there are
many parcels under cultivation with
root crops and bananas being the prin-
cipal crops grown.

(3) Poor agricaral hlJ (about
11,000 hectares or 13 percent of total
land) lands found mainly on the
southern edge of the Central Forest
Reserve and northwest of the Morne
Trois Pitons National Park. Because of
excessive rainfall and generally nutrient
poor podsols, the soils in these areas


are waterlogged, and crops cannot
grow or grow poorly.

As shown in Table 3.2(9), only about
23,000 hectares or 30 percent of the island's
land area are considered suitable for cultiva-
tion; these lands are located in river valleys
primarily in the northeast and northwest parts
of the island. While some of these agricul-
tural lands are under-utilized (as are lands in
the Layou and Roseau Valleys and neighbor-
ing valleys on the central west and east
coasts), some less suitable areas are inten-
sively cultivated. Settlement growth, espe-
cially in the northeast, is encroaching on the
scarce agriculturally suitable land, while less
suitable areas are being increasingly cultivated
(GOCD, 1985).

The drive to dear steeper land of
forest growth for conversion to agriculture has
had important environmental effects, not least
of which has been soil erosion and landslides
on the steeper slopes (Evans, 1986 Rainey,
et al, 1987; DeGeorges, 1988). Hurricanes
David and Allen initiated much erosion
around Morne Trois Pitons and neighboring
mountains in the Upper Layou and Roseau
Valleys (Walsh, 1982; P. Evans, pers.
observes) However, since then, erosion has
been exacerbated by the clearance of sec-
ondary growth for planting of bananas, root
crops and various vegetables. During periods
of dry weather, farmers have been burning
vegetation to dear land particularly in coastal
regions and along the main river valeys.
These fires are often uncontrolled and can
cause much wider damage, while the effects of
this typeof clearance can also be sen in land-
slides adjacent to roads.

In many areas erosion is caused by
the planting of inappropriate tree crops such
as bananas as well as the utilization of poor
cultivation practices with little attention to
methods which ensure soil stability. These
activities continue at a time when existing
agricultural land is under-utilized, and present
yields could be greatly improved by better
management practices.

A recent report by Atkins Land and
Water Management (1983) states that achni-
calOy there is a moderately severe or severe








































erosion risk of 84 percent in Dominica (higher
than the figures in GOCD's Forest and Park
System Plan, 1982, and cited in Table 3.2(9)).
However, the Atkins report also states the risk
of accelerated erosion is small because so
much of the country is under natural vegeta-
tion. The authors find that only 12 percent of
the country has moderately severe or severe
erosion, with the worst-affected areas in the
west at Salisbury and Colihaut and an area
between Marigot and Castle Bruce in the east
(other studies have identified other areas with
severe erosion, e.g., in the upper Layou Val-
ley; see Walsh, 1980). The Atkins study
stresses the particular need for good soil con-
servation techniques in these areas. Such data
point to the importance of maintaining veg-
etative cover in order to keep erosion within
manageable proportions.


3.3 POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS


AGRICULTURAL DIVERSIFICATION

The present Government policy for
diversifying to a broader-based agricultural
base needs to be encouraged, although in a
regulated manner. The following fresh pro-
duce has been identified as having strong
market potential (modified from USAID,
1986):

traditional export commodities
such as bananas, cocoa and spices
(only the first is grown presently
in any quantity);

traditionally grown produce for
which there is strong demand
from Caribbean emigrants to the
United Kingdom and North
America, for example, yams and
other root crops, breadfruit, etc.;


Table. 3.2(9). Dominica land type according to suitability for agriculture.



AREA IN
AREA NATIONAL PARK PERCENT OF
(Hectares) OR FOREST RESERVES TOTAL LAND
(Hectares) AREA



Very high erosion risk 28,957 9,858 37%

Moderate erosion risk 16,098 3,810 20%

Waterlogged 10,734 1,760 13%

Good agricultural land 23,211 145 30%



TOTALS 79,000 15,573 100%


Source: GOCD, 1985. taken from Dominica Forest and Park System Plan, Forestry Division (1982).









fresh produce items focused at
non-Caribbean, ethnic market
sectors, for example to the Asian
and Oriental communities in de-
veloped country markets;

a rapidly expanding market for
exotic, tropical fruits and vegeta-
bles demanded by indigenous Eu-
ropean and North American con-
sumers, for example, carambola,
mangosteens, soursop, red ba-
nanas;

tropical and warm temperate
fruits that already have wide con-
sumer acceptance in developed
countries, e.g., mangoes and avo-
cados;

off-season (or "winter") vegetables
that exploit market "windows' in
the winter months, e.g., bell pep-
pers, eggplant (aubergine), and
okra;

tropical cut-flowers and orna-
mentals, e.g., anthuriums, ginger
lilies, bird of paradise, orchids;

processed products that already
are domestically produced, e.g.,
passionfruit, lime and grapefruit
juices, dried sorrel, pepper sauce,
bay rum; and

agriculture products such as
prawns, crayfish, and algae.


Agricultural diversification not only
protects Dominica economically, it also pro-
motes biodiversity. Monocrops of banana, co-
conut and grapefruit have animal communities
with lower species diversity than those planta-
tions with two or more crops grown alongside
one another (Evans, 1986a,b; 1989).


GREATER DOMESTIC SELF-
SUFFICIENCY

At present, a large proportion of the
protein consumed by Dominicans comes from


imported produce such as frozen chicken, beef
and pork. To help reduce the balance of
payments deficit, suitable areas could be used
for livestock rearing particularly sheep.
Damaged bananas and other fruits could be
used as feed, supplemented with some im-
ported feeds. There are no local chicken
hatcheries so that chicks are imported at a
relatively high cost, as is the feed used to sup-
plement their local diet. The establishment of
one or two hatcheries could begin to address
this problem.

Other sources of protein commonly
eaten in rural areas include agouti and wild
pig. There may be scope for either farming
agouti or the increased stocking of rain forests
with agouti. Along the coasts, iguaas and
crabs are hunted regularly; the pressure on
the former probably accounts in part for their
relative scarcity (Evans, 1986b). Both of these
have potential to be farmed as does mountain
chicken (lepodacrylus falar), a large frog
which is considered a delicacy and is caught
for sale to local restaurants. The utilization of
wildlife such as agouti, iguana and mountain
chicken through a system of farming could
begin to take pressure off the hunting of
wildlife in rain forest and coastal woodland
areas.

In the past, Dominica grew crops
such as cocoa, coffee and sugar in much
greater amounts. Now bananas, coconuts and
citrus dominate, and the country imports
quantities of coffee and sugar. This situation
could be redressed by increasing the acreage
devoted to those crops, where suitable land
exists. Cocoa and coffee can usefully be inter-
cropped with other tree crops such as coconut
and citrus. Although sugar plantations offer
little for wildlife, cocoa and coffee can support
reasonably diverse animal communities, par-
ticularly when intercropped with other tree
species and with belts of forest nearby (see
Table 3.2(2)).


IMPROVED INTRA-REGIONAL
TRADE

Already great progress in expanding
intra-regional trading has been made through
the Dominica Hucksters Association and or-










ganizations such as DEXIA, with a variety of
produce being sold to other islands in the
Caribbean. This trade could be enlarged with
vigorous marketing in other countries in the
region and better inter-island transport facili-
ties.

A big problem that has frequently
faced Dominica has been its inability to sus-
tain markets with sufficient quantities of pro-
duce once markets have been identified. This
has occurred recently with attempts to
develop the growing and marketing of pas-
sionfruit. A market clearly exists, but insuffi-
cient quantities of passionfruit are being pro-
duced. Although provided with seedlings,
farmers were not planting them until the
damage caused to the banana crop by Hurri-
cane Hugo in September 1989 encouraged
them to do so. Likewise, the development of
root crops is another area where significant
gains could be made since hucksters are fre-
quently short of produce to ship to other
countries in the region.

In the past, farmers frequently were
encouraged to plant a particular crop but then
found they were unable to sell such produce
because there was no market for it. This has
resulted in farmers shifting from one crop to
another. Marketing agreements need to be
established which protect both the local
grower and the off-island importer. The for-
mation of DEXIA and the success of the
Dominica Hucksters Association should sub-
stantially advance achievement of this goal. In
the long run, despite problems associated with
market uncertainties, there are economic and
environmental advantages to be gained from
accelerated growing of a variety of crops in a
sustainable manner.


NEED FOR AGRICULTURAL LAND
ZONING

Zoning restrictions for various forms
of agricultural land development need to be
considered by Government. As stated
throughout this section, at the present time
many unsuitable areas are being farmed, while
more suitable agricultural lands are under-
utilized. This situation is partly due to the
prevalence of traditional patterns of land


ownership and is partially being addressed by
the sale of unallocated parcels of Govern-
ment-owned lands. Nevertheless, encroach-
ment into forested areas by landless farmers
continues to be a persistent problem.

If forests become too fragmented, not
only will this result in reduced biodiversity, it
will also have detrimental effects upon soil
fertility, will increase the land's vulnerability
to wind damage and pest outbreaks, and will
diminish watershed protection efforts. These
problems could be addressed by the estab-
lishment and expansion of forest corridors
(windbreaks) as part of a land zoning pro-
gram. In many cases, the corridors could
serve multiple purposes.

At present, only state lands within
forest reserves and national parks enjoy any
degree of protection or land use restrictions,
and the only protected water catchment on
private land (Stewart Hall Water Catchment)
has not been well-managed under existing
regulations (see also Sections 2 and 11). Al-
though private landowners or tenants are en-
couraged to protect watersheds and to main-
tain good husbandry practices (formalized in
the Agricultural Small Tenancies Ordinance
of 1953), such standards are rarely enforced.
Furthermore, where farmers have been pre-
vented from clearing forest adjacent to water-
courses, promised compensation has fre-
quently not been paid. Better zoning regula-
tions and enforcement procedures for agri-
cultural lands are therefore required, together
with a policy to provide adequate incentives or
compensation to farmers to encourage better
land use practices.


IMPROVED PUBLIC INFORMATION AND
EXTENSION SERVICES

Farming practices which do not pro-
mote environmentally-sound agricultural sys-
tems are often the result of inadequate infor-
mation about good husbandry procedures
reaching the small farmer or, if available, such
information may be ignored by the farmers.
Attempts to tackle this problem in Dominica
have involved the development of a regional
network of extension officers within the Agri-
culture Division, a regular column called









'Around The Farms' in the weekly newspaper
The New Chrmicle and regular broadcasts on
local radio. However, there is still much that
needs to be done to both inform farmers and
better persuade them to adopt improved, in-
tegrated pest management, crop rotation, and
multiple land use practices such as agro-
forestry. In general, promotion of agro-
forestry techniques should be a critical com-
ponent of all extension efforts, while consider-
ation should also be given to reintroducing
soil conservation instruction programs for
small farmers which were once operational in
the country. Such efforts will require extra
staff to expand current levels in the exten-
sion/education sector of the MOA.

The Dominica Banana Marketing
Corporation has recently adopted a new
three-tier price structure according to fruit
quality intended to provide additional incen-
tives for better growers in the banana indus-
try. This is being carried out by the DBMC
through its 1990 Banana Replanting Program
which aims to encourage rotational planting,
increase yields per acre, and achieve peak
production in the summer months when ex-
port prices are highest. To participate in the
program, a farmer must have at least two
acres of bananas in an agriculturally suitable
growing area and must be willing to adopt
recommended farming practices. Incentives
for participating growers include half price for
all inputs (pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers)
and the opportunity to learn new methods of
growing bananas and proper approaches to
farm development and management (DBMC,
1990b).

Similar incentives may be appropriate
for other fruit crops or land use practices in
general. For example, it might be possible to
extend incentives for the maintenance of
forest corridors between plantations, for re-
strictions on the use of steeply sloping land for
agriculture, or for more rational use of inputs
with greater consideration of environmental
hazards. These could be monitored and re-
ported on at regular intervals by extension of-
ficers, and on the basis of such reports indi-
vidual levels of grant aid through discounts or
loans could be established.


RESEARCH ACTIVrfIES

In Dominica most agriculturally re-
lated research is carried out by CARDI or
ICA (see, for example, James, 1986), with
additional outside studies carried out by visit-
ing scientists (for example, Evans, 198ib,
199; Rainey, et a., 1987; Genthon, 1965) and
university-student expeditions (for example,
Fehr, 1989). However, there is dearly a need
for greater research efforts to tackle issues
such as the environmental effects of agro-
chemical use, ways to improve fruit produc-
tivity for a variety of crops, and development
of livestock rearing or new crops. Too often,
funds are spent by aid agencies on short-term
surveys implemented by visiting consultants
who inevitably produce literature reviews of
what other people have done. Original re-
search, with input from local experts, is ur-
gently needed in many subject areas within the
agricultural sector.


CONCLUSION

Dominica has great potential for
agricultural development without substantial
inroads into forest lands which are more suit-
able for other purposes such as watershed and
wildlife protection, nature tourism, or sustain-
able small-scale forestry. Yields of existing
fruit crops could be greatly improved by better
cultivation practices, greater utilization of fruit
harvests, and attention to improved fruit
quality. Dominican banana crop yields re-
main relatively low. In Central America yields
average 25 tonnes per acre per year compared
with eight tones per acre per year in the
Windward Islands. In Dominica, yields aver-
age around six tomics per acre per year, al-
though some farmers obtain significantly
greater yields (Didier, 1990). Clearly there is
great scope for improvement in productivity
levels without recourse to clearing more hill-
side land.

With 1992 approaching and fears that
countries like the Dominican Republic may
force down the price of bananas by flooding
the market, Dominica needs to streamline its
banana industry. Although farmers could
continue to grow bananas for consumption by
farm families or for sale in local markets, the









industry in general could operate effectively
with a smaller proportion of the present labor
force. Those remaining within the export in-
dustry should be the most efficient and pro-
ductive farmers. Others could be encouraged
to grow a variety of alternative agricultural
crops or pursue other activities within the
agricultural sector such as livestock rearing or
agro-processing.

However, for this to occur, substan-
tial incentives will be required in the form of
grants, loans or other stimuli, and guaranteed
markets will need to be ensured for produce,
at least initially. Organizations like DEXIA
could play an important role, with support
from Government and external aid agencies.


Some growers may need to be prepared to
move outside of agriculture into areas such as
tourism and tourist-related industries such as
local furniture and craft making. Although
tourism at present is a small sector in the
economy, there are indications that it may
develop significantly in coming years.

Finally, Dominica is unlikely to be
able to compete internationally in the export
of many of its more traditional crops. How-
ever, the country's heavy rainfall and the soil
protection and fertility afforded by its exten-
sive forests would promote the growth of
valuable specialty crops including exotic fruits,
ornamental flowers, and orchids.









TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

Foreword I
Acknowledgements I
Domindnkica CEP National Commte l
Island Resources Foundation Technical Team I
List of Tables vi
List of Fgures x
Acronyms x1
Abbreviations xv
Conversion Coefficients: Imperial Measures and Weights/Metric System xv
Introduction xvl


SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND

1.1 Country Overview 1

1.2 The Blophysical Environm t 1
1.2.1 Topography 1
1.2.2 Geology 4
1.2.3 Climate 7
1.2.4 Sols 9
1.2.5 Vegetation 13
1.2.6 Natural Hazards 14
1.2.7 Climatic Change 18

1.3 Soclo-Economic Contet 19
1.3.1 Historical Overview 19
1.3.2 Demographics and Population Trends 24
1.3.3 National Economy and Development Trends 30


SECTION 2 FORESTS AND WILDLIFE 39

2.1 Formet 39
2.1.1 Overview 39
2.1.2 Problems and Issues 45
2.1.3 Policy Recommendations 51

2.2 WIudie 54
2.2.1 Overview 54
2.2.2 Problems and Issues 60
2.2.3 Policy Recommendations 63


SECTION 3 AGRICULTURE 65

3.1 Overview 65
3.2 Problems and Issues 71
3.3 Policy Recommendations 84











FRESHWATER RESOURCES


4.1 Overview 89
4.2 Problems and Issues 92
4.3 Policy Recommendations 96


SECTION 5 COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES 99

5.1 Overview 99
5.2 Problems and Issues 105
5.3 Policy Recommendations 109


SECTION 6 ENERGY 111

6.1 Overview 111
,6.2 Problems and issues 120
6.3 Policy Recommendations 125


SECTION 7 INDUSTRY, TOURISM, AND TRANSPORTATION 129

7.1 Manufacturing and Agro-lndustry 129
7.1.1 Overview 129
7.1.2 Issues and Recommendations 132

7.2 Tourism 134
7.2.1 Overview 134
7.2.2 Issues and Recommendations 136

7.3 Transportation 137
7:3.1 Overview 137
7.3.2 Issues and Recommendations 138


SECTION 8 POLLUTION AND PUBLIC HEALTH 141

8.1 Overview 141
8.2 Problems and Issues 156
8.3 Policy Recommendations 161


SECTION 9 PHYSICAL PLANNING AND LANDSCAPE 165

9.1 Overview 165
9.2 Problems and Issues 167
9.3 Policy Recommendations 169


SECTION 4









PROTECTION OF HISTORICAL HERITAGE


10.1 Overview 173
10.2 Problems and Issues 179
10.3 Policy Recommendations 180


SECTION 11 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 181

11.1 Governmert Organization 181
11.2 Historical Deveopment of An Administratve Framework
for Environmental Management 182
11.3 Government Institutions Concerned with Environmental Managemernt 183
11.4 The Non-Govenrment Sector in Environmental Management 197
11.5 Donor-supported Resource Management Programs 199
11.6 Policy Recommendations 201


SECTION 12 KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND 205
POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS


BIBLIOGRAPHY 213


SECTION 10










LIST OF TABLES


Table No. Page

1.2(1) Temperature data for Dominica at two locations. 7
1.2(2) The five primary soil groups for Dominica as identified
by Lang (1967) with percentage distribution. 9
1.3(1) The population of Dominica, 1844 1990. 24
1.3(2) Dominica population projections, 1980-2030,
under four growth scenarios. 27
1.3(3) Non-institutional population of Dominica classified by
Parish, rural and urban districts: 1981 census, 29
1.3(4) Sectoral distribution of GDP at current factor cost, 1984-1988. 33

2.1(1) Spatial extent of Dominica vegetation zones. 40
2.1(2) Species composition, all forest strata, 1987 FAO
forest Inventory of Dominica. 41
2.2(1) Distribution on Dominica of reptile and terrestrial amphibian species. 56
2.2(2) Bats recorded from Dominica (1986). 57

3.1(1) Dominica agricultural production, 1987. 66
3.2(1) Present and proposed fruit crop production in Dominica. 74
3.2(2) Environmental profiles for different tree crops. 74
3.2(3) Agricultural profiles for particular tree crops. 75
3.2(4) Government distribution of land in Dominica, 1950-1975. 78
3.2(5) Dominica land ownership, 1978. 78
3.2(6) Existing and proposed land use areas, Dominica. 79
3.2(7) Number and size distribution of all farms, Dominica. 81
3.2(8) Farm size and fragmentation in Dominica (one to
five acre farms). 81
3.2(9) Dominrca land type according to suitability for agriculture. 84

4.2(1) Principal water catchment areas and their land use activities. 94
4.2(2) Comparison of stream discharge for selected rivers In
Dominica, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia. 95

6.1(1) Dominica Electric Services Urnited, operating statistics for
the years 1985 1989. 112-113
6.1(2) Capacity and components of existing electrical generation
system, Dominica. 116
6.1(3) Funding sources for the Hydroelectric Expansion Project. 120

7.1(1) Composition of domestic exports for manufactured products, 1988. 130
7.1(2) Dominican companies assisted by the National Development
Corporation, 1990. 131
7.1(3) Dominica industrial waste disposal and Its Impact on
the coast and sea. 133
7.2(1) Total visitor arrivals in Dominica by category, 1984-1989. 135
7.3(1) Dominica Port Authority cargo volume, 1978-1989 138




Full Text

PAGE 2

COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE THE CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION St. Miehul, Bubdos THE GOVERNMENT OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF DOMINICA Fnsstry md wildlife Divisioa With the Tcc4mial Support Of: ME ISLAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION st. Thonm. U.S. virgin 1Sl.nds THE DOMINICA YES COMMrrEE (Yam of Envimmmt md Sbcltp. 1989-1990) THE U.S. AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Regid Dexdopmmt Oftice/CPibbea Brideecrrwn,DnftPN~1990 Edited and PuMiied 1991

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Ooeofthemostsui~l~~tbrcatstoslgtainabkcaaomic~~tbcCaribbunirtheiacnrPig degradation of the region's natural ceosystems and a eoacum~t detcmnb;oa m the qdity d life for Cani people. The task of reycrJi.g this unfortunate bend quires bcnu kdedgc ad imderstanding of the region's unique envimnmental probkms and the dmlopment d .pproprtte technologies and public polides to lesen and even prevent negatk impacts on om ha& resource base. In an attempt to provide such a fnmcw~~k, the C.ribbcan CcmerWb provided by the United States Agency for InterrmtMnsl *. DcvchpmcatandaiPbtbc~~ tame of the Island Resouras Fomdaticm, has produad a series d CoPntry ~artrl~ for&EasternCaniconntrics-~andB.rbndqDominiq~st.KitYs~Ncvis. St. Lucia, and St. Vicent and tbc Grenadhs Each document addresses key edonmental pmbkms cmshhq .ad policy dkuimu .s tbcsc were identified and &shed out by a team of meadnxs and writers, m cdbbodm aitb a bd ooordiaatingfommittee. EachRofilcalsoi~andernmiDesavarietyd~.adpl.p ning tooh which may prow we13 m mating environment/developmcnt g& m the futmr~ An d this information should play a sigaifiant mk m iafcemiug and idhmkg development planning m the rcgioq and sbonld pmvidc a baris fa improd dd&mdiq bod^ immediate as well as longterm. ThLr may best be acumplisbcd by osiqg tk data to dchc priaitits (ii view of related ben& and &), to pmae kkptb mdy& of irstla, ad to nodutak ~ccek sary follow-01~ a&%& in such a way that they are mutuatly reinforciqk in short, .Qoo aaaaahg from the lc~ommeadabions wnkained in the Pro& mi$ bcst be undertlLm within a compdatk environmental management hework, rather than from a picam4 pcicct-orirmcd perqdm~ Calvin A Hd ExeaheDkta CaniCoDservatiollAYoaatm

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Overall project management for the Dominica Country Environmental Profie Projed was provided by the Caribbean Conservation Association (CCA) under the direction of Acting Executive Director Mr. Calvin Howell. Technical guidance in preparation of the Profile was the responsibility of the Island Resources Foundation (IRF). Dr. Edward L. Towle, President of the Foundation, is the Team Leader for the Profile Project in the Eastern Caribbean; Ms. Judith A. Towle, IRF Vice President, is the Editor of the CEP Report Series; and Mr. Avrum J. Shriar sewed as Coordinator for the Dominica CEP. Dominica Government liaison for the CEP effort was the Division of Forestry and Wildlife of the Miistry of Agriculture, Lands, Fisheries, Trade, Industry and Tourism. Additionally, the Core Committee for the Government's YES (Years of Environment and Shelter) program was designated as the CEP National Committee with overall responsibilities for in-country coordination, review and support aetivities. The YES Committee is comprised of representatives from both the public and private sectors. Professional counterpart assistance to the CEP project team was provided in Dominica by Mrs. Roma Douglas, who with competence and resourcefulness supported the technical team and became a key member of the project's working group. Speaal reccgnition is due to Mr. Felix Gregoire, who wore two hats for the CEP projeet -as head of the Forestry and Wildlife Division and as chairman of the YES Committee, a dual assignment he executed with considerable skill and good cheer. Appreciation is also expressed to the technical and support staff of the Forestry and Wildlife Division and to the Executive members and support staff of the Dominica Conservation Association. The technical review of the Profie provided by Dr. Peter G.H. Evans of Oxford University was extremely helpful. Staff at the U.S. Agency for International Development, Caribbean Regional Development Office in Barbados facilitated implementation of the Dominica Profie Project, in particular, Mission Environmental Officer Rebecca Niec, whose support has been appreciated throughout this effort by both CCA and IRF. Many persons in Dominica gave wiUingly of their time and expertise in providing interviews and information for the CEP writing team and in the report review process (these contributions are discussed in more detail in the Introduction section to the Protile). The list of names which follows (in alphabetical order) is by no means an inclusive one, but we wish to take this opportunity to thank those whose input was particularly useful in writing the Profde report: Isaac Baptiste (Physical Planning Division), Claudia Bellot (Agriculture), Deo Bhagowtee (Legal Allairs), R. Bruney (DOMLEC), Anthony BurnetteBiicombe (Communication~~Works), Adolphus Christian (Forestry), Michael Didier (DBMC), Eisenhower Douglas (EDU), MarieJose Edwards (National Development Corportation/Tourism), John Fabien (Health), S. Govindaraj (UNDPJDOMLEC), F. Adler Hamlet (DOMLEC), Errol Harris (Agriculture), R.C.M. Harris (Law Review Office), Arlington James (Forestry), Edward Lambert (Dominica Agro Industries, Ltd.), Randall LaRonde (Small Lumber Producers Group), Nigel Lawrence (F~heries), Jon Mann (CICP), C. "Bud" Medding (CIDAJDOWASCO), Jean-Rene Noiseux (CIDA/DOWASCO), Greg Robin (CARDI), Phillipe Ross (CICP), Christopher Sorhaindo (DOWASCO), Sylvester Vital (Communicati~ns~Works), Man White (FAOIForestry), David Williams (Forestry), and Jeff Williams (Forestry). Many other organizations, agencies, and individuals in Dominica gave valuable assistance during the course of the project. To each we extend our gratitude, along with the hope that the Environmental Profde will assist the country in defining and achieving its goals for sustainable development in the decade ahead. For further information, contact any one of the implementing institutions: Caribbean Conservation Associatioo Island Rcswrces Foundation YES Cornmiltee Savannah Lodge, The Garrison Red Hook Box 33 c/o The Forestry Division St. Michael St. Thomas Botanical Gardens Barbados U.S. Virgin Islands 00802 Roseau, Dominica (June 1990) 11

PAGE 5

Mr. Gcrry Aird M.r. Isaac Bapi-isre Mr. Michael Bruney Mr. Adolphus Ckrisiian Mr. khcrs Esprit :Mr. juhn Fahicn Mr. Charles James E_dw.ard I;. T.::r& AVTU~ J Sh.riar Eonla Dou&is Judith A. Tndc Jean-Pierre Back Ian fwk 1Rr:tma Diwgtas Awum J. Shriar Judith A. Tv;i.!c Judirh A. 'Ttwlc Pr.?jccr lcam

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TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION 1 1.1 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5 1.2.6 1.2.7 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 SECTION 2 21 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 22 2.2.1 22.2 2.2.3 SECTION 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 INTROWCTK))( AND BACKGROUND Pdicy RV Overview Problems and Issues Pdicy Recommendatbns

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SECTION 4 FRESHWATER RESOURCES 4.1 Overview 4.2 Problems and Issues 4.3 Pollcy Recommendations SECTION 5 COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES 5.1 Overview 5.2 ProMems and Issues 5.3 Pdlcy Recommendations SECTION 8 ENERGY 6.1 Overview 6.2 Problems and Issues 6.3 Pdicy Recommendations SECTION 7 INDUSTRY, TOURISM, AND TRANSPORTATION 7.1 Manufacturing md Agro-Industry 7.1.1 Overview 7.1.2 lssues and Recommendations 7.2 Tourism 7.2.1 Overview 7.2.2 lssues and Recommendations 7.3 Transportation 7.3.1 OV~N~W 7.3.2 lssues and Recommendations SECTION 8 POLLUTION AND PUBLIC HEALTH 8.1 Ove~lew 8.2 Problems and issues 8.3 Policy Recommendations SECTION 9 PHYSICAL PLANNING AND LANDSCAPE 9.1 Overview 9.2 Problems and Issues 9.3 Pdicy Recommendations

PAGE 9

SECTION 10 10.1 10.2 10.3 SECTION 11 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 SECTION 12 PROTECTION OF HWmRtCIU HERITAGE 173 Ovenriew PIoblems and Issues Pdlcy Recommendabns KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND PWCY RECoMMENDAnONS

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LIST OF TABLES Table No. 1.2(1) 1.2(2) 1.3(l) 1.3(2) 1.3(3) 1.3(4) 2.1(1) 2.1 (2) 2.2(1) 2.2(2) 3.1(1) 3.2(1) 3.2(2) 3.2(3) 3.2(4) 3.2(5) 3.2(6) 3.2(7) 3.2(8) 3.2(9) 4.2(1) 4.2(2) 6.1 (1) 6.1 (2) 6.1 (3) 7.1(1) 7.1 (2) 7.1 (3) 7.2(1) 7.3(1) Temperature data for Dominica at two locations. The five primary soil groups for Dominica as identified by Lang (1967) with percentage distribution. The population of Dominica, 1844 1990. Dominica population projections, 1980-2030, under four growth scenarios. Non-institutional population of Dominica classified by Parish. rural and urban districts: 1981 census. Sectoral distribution of GDP at current factor cost, 1984-1988. Spatial extent of Dominica vegetation zones. Specles composition, ail forest strata, 1987 FA0 forest Inventory of Dominica. Distribution on Dominica of reptile and terrestrial amphibian species. Bats recorded from Dominica (1986). Dominica agricultural production, 1987. Present and proposed fruit crop production in Dominica. Environmental profiles for different tree crops. Agricuttural profUes for particular tree crops. Government dlstribution of land in Dominica, 1950-1975. Dominica land ownership. 1978. Existing and proposed land use areas, Dominica. Number and size distribution of all farms, Dominica. Farm slze and fragmentation in Dominica (one to fie acre farms). Dominica land type according to suitabllhy for agriculture. Principal water catchment areas and their land use activities. Comparison of stream discharge for selected rivers in Dominica, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia. Page Dominica Electrlc Servlces Umited, operating statistics for the years 1985 1989. 112-113 Capachy and components of existing electrical generation system, Dominica. 116 Funding sources for the Hydroelectric Expansion Prolect. 120 Composition of domestic exports for manufactured products, 1988. 130 Dominican companies assisted by the National Development Corporation, 1990. 131 Dominica industrial waste disposal and its impact on the coast and sea. 1 33 Total vlsltor arrivals in Dominica by category, 1984-1989. 135 Dominica Port Authority cargo vdume, 1978-1989. 138

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Figure No. 1.1(1) 1.2(1) 1.2(2) 1.2(3) 1.2(4) 1.2(5) 1.2(6) 1.20 1.3(1) 1.3(2) 1.3(3) 1.3(4) 1.3(5) 1.3(6) 1.3(7) 1.3(8) 1.3(9) 1.3(10) l.a(ll) 2.1(1) 2.1 (2) 2.2(1) 2.2(2) 3.1 (1) 3.1 (2) 3.1 (3) 3.2(1) 3.2(2) 4.1(1) 4.2(1) 5.1(1) 5.1 (2) 5.1 (3) LIST OF FIGURES Page General map of Eastem Caribbean showing the location of Dominica. General location map for the island of Dominica. Physical features of the island of Dominica. Carlbbean Plate boundaries. Rainfall data for Dominica. Distrlbution of soil types In Dominica. Soil loss in Dominica. Natural vegetation in Dominica, circa mu-1940's. Domlnica national population age-sex structure. Dominica population projections, 1980-2030, under four growth scenarios. Dominica national labor force projections, 1980-2030. under four growth scenarios. Growth of gross domestic product, 1978 through 1987 in constant 1977 Em. Growth in per capita inme in Dominica, 1981 -1988, based on 1981 census count and using constant 1977 ECt Gross domestic product by major sector, 1978-1987. Dominican crop production, 1978-1987. Dominican export markets. 1978-1988. Dominica balance of trade, 1978-1987 Dominica trade deficit as a percent of GDP, 1978-1987. Total debt to GDP in Dominica. 1978-1987. The parks, reserves, trails and natural attractions of Dominica. The vegetation of Dominica. Dlstrlbution of the imperhl parrot CSlsserw'), Amazona impenhiis. Distribution of the red-necked parrot CJacquot"), Amazone arauslaca. Dominlca banana production, 1975-1989. Crop production expressed as tolai annual production in tonnes of major agrlcultural crops. Various Dominican crops expressed as percentage of total value of agrlcultural production (at producer's price, not export earnings). Distribution of land as percentage of holdings of different sized units as reported in the 1975 Agricultural Census. Distribution of land as percentage of acreage held in different sbed units es reported in the 1975 Agricultural Census. Important watersheds of Dominica. Run-off/rainfall relationship at the Layou River basin, Dominica, durlng October and November, 1984. Dominica's coastal shelf. Major coastai and marine habitats of Dominica. Domlnican flsh landing shes.

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6.1(1) aedrical power trend& DanHce. 114 6.1 (2) Ejdslfngbansmiosknsystemandpawer~bcetbnaDomHar. 115 6.1 (3) schematic layout d hydro expnsbn pro)ed h DomhiaL 119 6.2(1) Natural and cornmerdel energy fiaw h Carlbbeen bJanda 124 9.3(1) Proposed dlsbfds for sh-tWbd Psmhg 171 lO.l(l) PlacesdhtstorlcdandalhlrdhterestinDomhiaL 10.1 (2) Locatbn map d the Cabrits Natkmal Park. DomHca

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ACRONYUSUSEDIN THE DOMlNlCA COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROnLE mu Eric Ea EDF EHO EIA EIS FAD FA0 FDD GATE GDP kuunJGeneralMeatlnO Agfuhal, Indushial, and rnDevelopnwrtDMskn Caribbean NeMal Resources Institute (fmmiy ECNAMP) Carbbean Research and DmdopmI lnsthte Caribbeen Communky Caribbeen~kssodat&l CaMe Centrale CoMnwdale (Fnulce) CarlbbeenDevelopmentBank CarlWeanEmrlmvnental~lnetlhlte &umy Emrironmental Pldle Commonweelth Fund for Technic4 Cooperstbn ConmrUum tor lntematbnal CKQ Protedfon Canadian IDevelopment Agency Center for lntematbnal Development and Envkormenl ConverCbn on lntematknd Trade d Mangered Species d WM Flora and Fauna CanadlanNatureFedenrtkn Cerlba*vlToulsmOganhatkneonnertyCaribbeanTou$m Research and Development Cecrter) ~TedwrlcalOlRcer Coastal Zone Managemetd Oomwce Agrdndustrles L!ed Domlnlca Banana Gnwrem AssxWon CJomhlce Banana Marketing Corpaatbn Development-DomlntcaCocondProduds -~lmportAOency DomMcaConseMdbnAasodidkn --c-mnY oomhlce Water and Sewerage Campeny Oomwce Tmbers Limged E~IUI Satellke Corporatbn EaromicComnissbnformAmerlcaandtheCarbbeen (Urn-) EastemCar(WeenNenrslkea~RoOram (renamed 1989 as Caribbean Nenrsl Reswces IEcor0mic-W EuopeanEconomlcExdtdve Economic zone hiwean-Fund EnvlronmntelmORicer EnvimmedlmpadEnvirorvnental Impad Statement WAOgegetlngM Food and Agriculture Organbatbn d the United Natbns FisheriesDevelopmentDMslon Gemrvl AppmpMe Techndogy Exchange Gross Domestic Product

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GOCD GTZ HIAMP iCBP ICOD IDA IFAD ilCA 110 LPG IRF iUCN LAC MOA NET Ncc NDC NGO OAS ODA OECS OECS-NRMP PAHO PHC PPD RAMSAR REMS SPAT TFR UK UNDP UNEP US USAlD USAID/RDO/C UWI WHO WlAEC WINBAN WWF YES Government d the Commonwealth of Dominica German Agency for Technical Co-operation (Deutsches Gessellschafl fur Technische Zusammenarbeit) High impact Agricultural Marketing and Production (USAID) International Council for Bird Preservation lnternatlonal Center for Ocean Development (Canada) lnternatlonal Development Association (World Bank) lntematlonal Fund for Agricultural Development Inter-American institute for Cooperation on Agriculture lnternational Labor Organlzatlon Uquld Propane Gas Island Resources Foundation international Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Latin Amerlca and the Caribbean Ministry of Agriculture Nottheastern Timber Cooperative Limited National Cutture Council Natlonal Development Corporation Non-Government Organization Organization of American States Overseas Development Administration (UK) Organizatlon of Eastern Caribbean States Organlzatlon d Eastern Caribbean States-Natural Resources Management Project Pan American Health Organization Primary Health Care Physical Planning Dhrislon Convention on Wetlands of lnternational Importance Especially as WatM Habitat Regional Environmental Management Specialist (USAID) Small Projects Assistance Team Total Fertility Rate Unled Kingdom United Nations Development Program United Nations Environment Program Unlted States U.S. Agency for lnternational Development US. Agency for lnternational Development/ Regional Development Office/Caribbean Unhrersity of the West lndies World Health Organization West lndles Agro-Economlc Conference Windward Islands Banana Growers Association World Wildlife Fund Years of Environment and Shelter

PAGE 16

LENGTH

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Preparation of Country Environmental Profiles (CEPs) has proven to be an effective means to help ensure that environmental issues are addressed in the development process. Since 1979, the US. Agency for International Development (USAID) has supported Environmental Profiles in USAID-assisted countries. Those completed to date have provided: (1) a dkption of each country's natural resource base, including a review of the extent and economic importance of natural resources and changes in the quality or productivity of those resources; (2) a review of the institutions, legislation, policies and programs for environmental planning, economic development and natural resource management; (3) identification of the major issues, contlicts or problems in natural resource management and opportunities for effective responses. Profiles have highlighted gaps in the existing information base, suggested new guidelines for the design and funding of development programs, pinpointed weaknesses in regulatory or planning mechanisms, and illustrated the need for changes in policies. Most importantly, the process of carrying out a profile projeet has in many cases helped establish new working relationships and even consensus among government and nongovernment bodies concerned with environmental issues and has also served to strengthen local institutions and improved their capacity for incorporating environmental information into development planning. PROFILES FOR THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN Country Environmental Profiles have been prepared for several countries in the Wider Caribbean Region, including Panama, Belize, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Jamaica. The potential utility of CEPs in the Eastern Caribbean sub-region (essentially the OECS countries) has been a subject of discussion since the early 1980's. The need for the profiling process to begin in those countries was reaffirmed during a seminar on Industry, Environment and Development sponsored by the Caribbean Conservation Association (CCA) and the University of the West Indies in August 1986. Shortly thereafter, USAID entered into a Cooperative Agreement with CCA for preparation of a series of CEPs for the Eastern Caribbean. It was decided to begin the profde process in the country of St. Luua as a pilot project, to be followed by profiles for Grenada, AntiguaBarbuda, Dominica, St. Kitts-Nevis, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Early in 1987, CCA and the Island Resources Foundation (IRF), of St. Thomas, US. Vi Islands, entered into an agreement whereby it was determined that IRF would provide technical assistance and support to CCA in the execution of the profile project in the Eastern Caribbean. The Executive Diector of the Caribbean Conservation Association is the CEP Project Director, while the President of the Island Resources Foundation serves as CEP Project Manager /Team Leader. THE DOMINICA COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE Early in 1990 a Memorandum of Understanding was signed by CCA and the Government of the Commonwealth of Dominica (GOCD) for the purpose of executing a Country Environmental Profde, with the Forestry and Wildlife Division of the Mitry of Agriculture serving as the designated counterpart agency for the Govemment. At the same time, the Committee for the Government's on-going program called YES (for Years of Environment and Shelter, 19891990) was designated by CCA and GOCD as the local implementing and coordinating organization for the CEP project, and the members of the YES Core Committee served as members of the CEP National Committee for Dominica. In effect, implementation of the Country Environment Profile Project was aecepted by the YES Committee as one of its primary objectives for

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1W (for additional informarion on YES, st:: Chapter 11 of the Profile). Tttc Profde effort in Dominica has recciwi considerable support from the country's Prime Minister, The Hoxrourahlz Eugenia Charlcs, who early on mct 4th the. pr~3ji.d director, Mr. Calvin f-hiwell of the Caribkan Conservation As~wiciation. and with the Icade~ of the projed's technical team, Dr. Edward Towl.. uf rhe lslsnd Resnurces Foundation, to discuss progranl goals. In Dominica, ccmrdination of CE.P actiLitie.3 h~ also been facilitated by thr Prime Minister's designation of thr Forestry and Wii-d,dtife Division 3s the lead Ciwcrnment agniy, for that unif of C'iosernmi.nt is ably he-adrd hy Mr. Felix Greguire. who also serves as chairman of the Y.E3 Committee. Pri?fession;rl counterpar: support for [he IRF techn.ical team was provided by .Mrs. Roma Duugias, who ssxined with intcrviews, research, and writing mks. The CEP National Committee (LC., the YES Core Committee) was called on ro suppmt the project in a variety uf wd_c, na~xt importantly in helping to identify critical environmental issues, obtaining reference m~terials, and cmsdinating and assisting with the in-country review of materids p~eparcd hy the CEf technical team. A broad spectrum sf indi\irtuals, wleded locally b! the YES Committee, p.rticipted in the review of the Profile, on a chapter-try-chpter bask The draft ProFrle Report wss prepared during a five month period, February June, PB3, with &aft chapters circutated to in-c~untry reviewers for comments and input as each was readied by the CEP te-chnicai &em. The full CEP dmument, in "draft finalp furmirt, was campietd in July and rfissernina~ed for find reticw kth in Dominica aod ro ether reskwrs in the Oaribkan regha. As determined by thc Dominica CEP Nationat Committee and the IRF techkal writing tern, thc Dominica Country Environmental Frofile

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The Layou R&w, Dorni~ica's largest river

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1.1 COUNTRY OVEMEW The most northerly and largest d the Eastern Canis Wmdrvard lslandr (Fw (1.1(1)), the country of Dominica hag with justification, been heralded as the region's premier nature island. W~th its very rugged terrain, perennial stream, rivers and waterfalls, and its great diversity of flora and fauna, Dominica's mastly unspoiled landscape is considered by island &cionados to be among the most dramatieally beautiful and pr;St;ne in the. world The country's undisturbed vegetation is more exten& than on any other island in the Lcsser Antilles, a chain of Caribbean islands which deseends in a graceful arc hm the Vi Islands in the north to Trinidad in the soutb. Its forests have been extolled as undoubtedly the finest in the Carii even comparing favorably with those of Central and South America. In promotional literature designed to lure visitors and tour&, Dominica is demi as an island of rainbows, a place where mists rise gently from lush green valleys and fall softly over blue green peak, where trees sprout orchids, and where rivers framed by banks of giant ferns rush and tumble to the sea. Along mountain slopes, fields of broadleafed bananas contrast with cocoa and ciuus trees, and cattle graze in the feathery shade of OOeOnut palms. The island's uniqueness can be explained in varying ways -it is home lo the region's surviving Carii Indians (who gave the Carii its name and who still reside on the island's windward coast); it is also the site of a fascinating boii lake and within its borders is located one of the most diverse and luxuriant rain forests in the Americas. Dominica's rugged and mountainous landsfape contniutes greatly to its dramatic beauty, in part befause the topography has made it difiicult to dear the lush vegetation. However, this and other physiographic features have also hampered development efforts, particularly those which were instigated within a colonial or nec-mlonial framework or were based on imported strategies ohen illsuited to Dominica's mountainom, brimid. tIopicrlandiasularcm.iNmment Litcvirmany au Carii iJandf Dommlca rooad few opportollitics in the past to pmsoc an indigenous program of development, whi* aternal influences still heavily dominate gmWb and development patterns At the same time, more recent development shatcgies have placed mr-imnasing prasmcs oa aatanl and cultud reSOUTces. Whik largely beneficial, development has also had a wiety of adverse, md&able and Onen unintended impadsonthe~nme~l,whichdbedisarsscd in more detail in this EmrirmmeDlai We. The risk for fDhlrc genefariom d ~~POS lies in ~dcr-vahriag the aXllUlf~ remarkable, common resource base ad, by doing so, inadvertently allowing it to dcteriorate and devdvc into a dhidd habitat for Dominicans in the future. 1.2 THE BlOPClYSiCAL ENVIRONMENT Dominica is ebaraderizcd by rugged and steep terrain. Thc ume of Ma Diablotin dominates the topcgraphy of the northern half of the idand, along with Ma Au Diable on the northern peninsub. arhJe a chain of mounLainf induding Mm Tr& Pitons, Mwae Mi* Monte An&&, and Morne Plat Pays, extends through the south d &e island (see Flgures 141) and 122)). Thc peaks of all of tbesc mountains are kss than seven km from the sea, m ididon of thc island'shighreliefwhi&intorqbzrhadand will continue to have an importam ompphie influence on dimate, on land use and on the general physical development of the he. Flatter areas are restricted primarily to river valleys, the coastal areas of the node&, and an area in tbc center of the he

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6k' 62' 4 ANEGADA a 0 50 100 %;Ap' I Miles VIRGIN O~ANGUILLA ISLANDS ST. MARTIN@ ST. D o SABA BARBUDA ST. EUSTATIUS a QST. ,HRISTOPHER '+& NEVlS 0 % ANTIGUA 4 4 MONTSERRAT < V 5 A -16. 160 C RkTE C b (" 5 DOMINICA 9 2 5 CARIBBEAN 2 7 SEA 73 MARTlNlOUE -I2' 0 ISLA LA BLANOUILLA 0 GRENADA TRINIDAD VENEZUELA 64. 62. Figure 1.1(1). General map of the Eastern Caribbean, showing the locatlon of Dominica.

PAGE 22

CARIBBEAN SEA

PAGE 23

known as Bell's Wet Area. The main river valleys are also found in the center of the island. These in'clude the Roseau and Layou Valleys on the leeward side of the island and, on the windward side, the Clyde, Pagua, Castle Bruce, and Rosalie River Valleys. Most flat or moderately sloped land occurs near the coasts, and thus most urban and agricultural development has occurred in these areas. Some 90 percent of the population lives along the coast, primarily (70 percent) on the leeward side. The latter offers more protection from the wind and other climatic extremes as well as providing relatively calm seas suited to fishing and navigation. The country's two main centers, the city of Roseau (the capital) and the town of Portsmouth, and all port facilities are located along the leeward coast. The rugged topography manifests a major constraint to the development of human settlements and agriculture. As described further in Section 9 on Physical Planning and Landscape, most existing communities have no room for expansion except through hillside residential development or density increases in already built up areas. Portsmouth is the only major settlement with a substantial amount of reasonably flat land available for expansion (GOCD, 1985). 1.2.2 Geology Dominica's geology is similar to that of other volcanic islands in the Lesser AntiUean Archipelago. The islands are the summits of a submerged mountain range which forms the eastern boundary of what is known as the Caribbean Tectonic Plate. Tectonic plates are mobile; they behave like rafts of solid crust floating atop less dense, relatively fluid materials in the earth's underlying mantle. Movement of the plates is believed to result from the presence of convection currents in the mantle. The Caribbean Plate is bounded to the north and east by the North American Plate, to the south by the South American Plate, and to the west and southwest by the Cocos Plate (Figure 1.2(3)). The North American Plate is moving westward relative to the Caribbean Plate, while the Cocos Plate is moving in a northeast direction. Little relative displacement is presently occurring between the Caribbean Plate and the South American Plate. The North American and Cocos Plates are "subducting" below the Cariibean Plate, down into the mantle where they proceed to melt (Figure 1.2(3)). This melted material forms magma which is extruded to the earth's surface as lava by volcanos. The island of Dominica and the rest of the Antillean Archipelago were formed by such lams forced through the volcanoes that formed alongside the subduction zone of the North American and Caribbean Plates. The entire island archipelago is geologically young, having begun to form probably less than 50 million years ago, during the Miocene period of the Cenozoic era. Dominica has since undergone numerous and considerable changes in elevation but is now relatively stable. Evidence of previous submergence can be seen on the face of Morne Bruce above the city of Roseau and elsewhere to the south, as an assodation of aqueous and igneous rock formations. The volcanic rocks are mainly andesites with subordinate dadtes and basalts. The discovery in the Roseau Basin of welded tufts reveals that Morne Macaque (Micotrin) has had a long history of activity that may not yet have completely subsided. Volcanism is active at present in the Sulphur Springs region and the area of the Boiling Lake and Valley of Desolation. On January 4, 1980, a minor eruption occurred. The most recent lava flow took place in the Grande Savame area (GOCD, 1985). Ongoing seismic activity on the island has been recorded since 1953 and has revealed that a number of earthquakes may be volcanically related, associated with shallow processes taking place beneath Dominican volcanoes.

PAGE 24

Land Land Land [ Land a Land Figure 1.2(2). Physical features d the island d Dominica (source: ShankMd CoDt and Associates, 1971). 5

PAGE 25

WnlNlCA 111 (Active Island Arc) -60 vmry cxuurm 2.1 0 300 400 Figure 1.2(3). Above: Geological features of the acthre boundary zone of the Caribbean Plate (source: Dillon, et el., 1987). Below: The eastern margin of the Caribbean Plate at the location of Barbados and Dominica. Cross section showlng the Caribbean Plate being underthrust by the South American Plate. Figure adapted from Dillon. et a/.. 1987.

PAGE 26

Dominica's dimate is dassified as humid tropical marine. charact& by little scaconalordiurnalvariationandstrongand steady trade winds. Tk winds blow in a westward dircLtion bclwecn the AtlanticAzoressubtropiealhigh~zcmcaadthe intertropical mn~nce zcmc. They amtad the idand from the northeast throughout most of the pr, but a southeasterly pattern develops during the wmmer when the sun's dedination to the equator shifts northward an4intursalteastbeirpositioK Wmd speeds are generally moderate, a* 6.4 km (4 miles) per hour at sea level and about 14.4 km (9 miles) at an elmtion of 1450 feet above sea lml (at the Branhidge Meteorological Station). The idand's ruggcd topqgnpby contributes strongly to mia&atic variability within very short distances as depicted m Fsure 1.2(4), and serves to *capture' a great deal Tbc~is.mongtbcwcacstintbc C.ribbcan, a factor which gives rise to its losb vcgmion. Rainfalliweascs~tbcke wardsidec&wardtdtheaatnlputsd theislandwhcreitrucbesoverlO$lODmm (almost 4M inck) annually. On the kwad (or wcstwm) side d the irLnd in tbc sbclta Table 1.2(1). TemperenKe data for Dominica at two lodons (degrees Fahrenhet). !BmELb Satbn" 1,m Muimum TI78 78 79 81 81 W. W. 83 W. 81 79 Minimum ~mmwwmn17i7i~iwm 72071.7 no ni 74.4 m6 mi 76.3 77.1 m4 mi RS

PAGE 27

Woodford Hill Castle Bruce Flgure 1.2(4). Rainfall data for Dominica: (1) recorded as average monthly rainfall for specific sites and (2) shown at various elevations (e.g., numbers record inches of rain) (source: adapted from Lang, 1967, as reprinted in Shankland Cox and Associates, 1971).

PAGE 28

Relative humidity is high on the island, usually m the regim of % percent and seldom falling below 85 percent in the interior. On the leeward coast, which is lcar humid throughout the year than the windwar4 relative humidity ranges bttarccn 58 and 86 percent. At night, relative humidity Id 'IbcdsofDommrr bncbea! Mdiedmddcseribcdiadcllil~L.g (l967). Edrpbicmrditimsh.Rb& idutnad by tbe iJmd's mk&c ai&m Soitdaghntypcarcmmost~g~sapmdIrrofthe~toabicb8gpmvokuliC parent material bas nrutbcrcd hog (1967) rmppcd75soiltgpcsin~ahicb~ bc divided into five main lpoaps 8s shown in T.bleU(2). l'bedisibmiondsoiltypcsis in Figme W5). Table 1.2(2). The fhre primary sd gmups for Dominka as identiRed by Lang (1967). with pmcentage d~strlbutbn (see also Figure 1.20). SOIL TYPE Alluvial sols Other sols Source: AMm Land and Wate, Management. 1963.

PAGE 29

Figure 1.2(5). Distribution of SOY types in Dominica (source: Atkins Land and Water Management, 1983).

PAGE 30

TERMS USED IN SOIL CUSSlFlCATK]W I Lamsots are a wy broad gmuphg that Indudes d the red. yekw end solsdtheCarWmnregion. ThesamgeneraBynmturesdsdmdstorw@~wllhtree or only sWghtly impeded dmhge. They vary from slight)y csdd to add h macW~ and are usually leached d tmses. sumy w (1967) made a subjective ascsment d roil loss bwn each of the soil mapping units. This infamalion was simptilied by a British comnltiDg tcam (AtLins hd and Watcr Mngm~ WX.3) and is pmeated in Fi 12(6). Soil loss frcan the foruted central part d the isl~d is dig& elsewbere it is sligbt a moderate, dthoughitisaromonthektwardsideofthe island ocl the montmorillonib;e day soik (Atkins Land and Water MqmL, 1983). AppmximatcIy 53,000 ha or 70 puant d the island's total laad base of 70,aX, ha is lars\ritabk for agrieolhue as a nsult primarily d erosion ride, waterlogging, or poor soil quality (m. 1985). The soils of Dominies are, m general, readily erodible since they tend to be uneonOn steep dopcs denuded d their tr& -by~tbcmilswfaandirodly crposadtotheaosivcforcednin,andsoil aosanisgr*.calcntcd. Ahrmiomio the pathways and rates of wata flow due to deariDgofvcgeUtioclesmcausechangcsin thctimiagofpcaLBowsand~~~Booddis~daamstnam.~tramports~

PAGE 31

DOMINICA/SOIL LOSS Flgure 1.2(6). SOW loss In Dominlca (source: Atkins Land and Water Management, 1983). 12

PAGE 32

downrlope and causcr the Im of plant nutrients from the uplands. When topsoil is lost, the formation of replacement soils is an utmely dow proceq it may take hondrrds of yearsjusttoformoneinchoftops0iL When tncs arc dear-cut, there K a permanent loss of nutricntr from tbt sod if the felled vegetation is removed as in logging andan~great~~iftheshhisburned. If the area is replanted in crops or timber plantation, plant diversity is sharply reduced. If hcrbiades are used to keep planted areas free from weeds, the soil is then much more exposed than it would be under natural dtiom, and erosion is thereby iod Dominica's tmdistlnbcd forcsta haw been identified as the most wdeasivc in the Lesm Antilkq while its ram forest is 4ered the hest in the Caribbean (see, for uample, lCBP, 195Q Evans, 1986b and 1989). The vegetation, which aomprises over one thotl~lnd species of flowing plants with about shdy woody plant and tree species per heetare, supports among other wildlife, over 50 spedw of resident birds, including two endemic parrots (ICBP, 1990). The following is a Wf Mpkio~ of eacbvegetationancontheislnn4drawingin part on a report prepared by EMh Satellite Corporation (EARTHSAT), 1936, which was based on OAS's vegetation map of the island @rcpucd at 150,000 scale). The dcJeriptiom haw been mded by Evans, 1986b, arid P. Evans, pels. comm, 1990. Information on the spatial extent of each wne is found io Section 21. M.tarr Rdm FomA Vwtion type ommhg toward the interior of the island, generally not below &OOO feet and having few periods witbout pwipitation arstomarily only a few weeks between April and June. The campy is dominated by Doayoda aeeka, Slwnea spp, and Amrmm cm'boca. Undercanopy species indude Licania tanmurris and Tapu adUana and numerous epiphytes and tianas. LlttonIw0adh.d Commonityocamingabagtheeastcrnandwrtbust~ mastline. 'Ibctreecanopyissnbjactcdto nearly constant onshore WiDdS yicldiag asymmetrical tree crown developmd shaped by prcrrure~subrccocs. Tbcspsciesofthis commnnay,whicharesalsprytoknnlare characterized by Gxaldm m., avysiww, T crmincrlicrwaapaand Trrbebuio pau&. CSllo~ onmmum is eoarpi%nab w0odL.d. vegelaho tgpe ocarrringatlowcrelcvatiOmoatbc~ mast. Commnnity is dominated by r ~~TBII layer and reprcscnt~ the most xaic conditioas on the island. Charadcrisa sDeeia arc SeaNayRdmP~ ArUgpnsioudy oocopicd by mature rain fansr chat have apcricd d&ublw" phnarily kJ@$g and shiftise apidhm. alaradai2ad by Mi species (Mi mimbilir in particular), Cmoph schwbeho, an4 in the smaller gap%, Simmubo m~m. Canopy 13

PAGE 33

max forest trees such as Slwnea exist but are not dominant. Semi-Evergreen Forest. Really a transition vegetation zone with speaes characteristic of dry and rain forest. In many Lesser Antillean islands, it mupies a moderate area. In Dominica (because of its steep slopes leading quickly into high rainfall areas), it is very narrow in extent, with indistinct boundaries; therefore, it is not useful to dassify this as a separate vegetatioo type. Fnmarole Vegetation. Plant community restricted to areas of geothermal activity, primarily Valley of Desolation and parts of Morne au Diable. Characteristic species are various melastomes, particularly Tibouchina omam. There are also some endemies which are prominent, notably Pitcaimia micobinensis. Swamp and Wetlands. Restricted to an area immediately east of the Cabrits Peninsula in the northwest of the island, an area experiencing a seasonal supply of fresh water. Characteristic species are Remarpus officinalis (which also occurs in narrow strips along stream banks, partieuiarly between Blenheim and Calib'ishie), Laguncu1m.a mcemosa and Avicennia germinam. In the larger swamps such as Cabrits and Glanvillea, the semi-aquatic vegetation is dominated by the fern Acrostichum mrreum and various sedges, particularly CSlperus spp., E1eochari.s rnutata and I?. interstincta. The dassic description of the vegetation of the Wmdward and Leeward Islands, including Dominica, was provided by J.S. Beard, a member of the Colonial Forest Service in Trinidad and Tobago who carried out a forest resource assessment in 1942. When he started his decade of work in the Lesser Antilles, Beard found that the systems of vegetation chsitication then in use lacked any real ecological basis. He therefore proposed a new cladication of vegetation which led to publication of his dassic monograph, The Natuml Vegetclh'on of the Wndward and Leeward Islands, in 1949. This is still widely used as a basic reference over forty years later. Beard characterized existing vegetation during the 1940's as primarily resulting from human use of the land during historic times, although he identitied large areas of primary forest in Dominica still in a relatively unmodified natural state. He provided a small-scale sketch map (Fie 1.20) showing the major areas of natural vegetation at the time of his survey, and, like the monograph of which it is a part, it remains a useful reference point for researchers and resource planners. 1.2.6 Natural Hazards The Caribbean -one of the most disaster-prone areas of the world -is exposed to humcanes and their assodated stom surges and wave action, earthquakes and earthquake-generated ocean waves (tsunamis), volcanic eruptions, landslides and rockslides, flooding and droughts. Natural hazards, as the term is used here, include all these occasional short-term natural phenomena which have the potential for negative impacts on the physical, economic and sodal environment of an area. The islands of the Eastern Caribbean are particularly vulnerable to natural hazards because of their small size and their dependence on foreign revenues earned from agriculture and tourism. Dominica has suffered a number of such occurrences and is well aquainted with the eff-s of all tpes of natural disasters. The primary natural haza~ds affecting the island are hurricanes and other stoms and their related impacts, landslides, and coastal erosion. Financial constraints make it almost impossible to ensure that all inf~astruehlre is designed and built to withstand hurricanes, while the rugged terrain makes it particularly diffcult and expensive, perhaps even impossible, to ensure that road building, for example, does not lead to landslides. Similarly, a shortage of flat land has resulted in wosiderable development in areas immediately adjacent to the shoreline and thus in a vulnerable position relative to coastal haulrds. Recurring incidents of coastal road damage, for example, can be seen to the north and

PAGE 35

south of Roseau, in the directions of Canefield and Pointe Michel, respectively. Hurricanes of varying intensity occur in Dominica on average every 15 years. The fist recorded hurricane hit the island in 1780, but the most destructive hurricane, called David, did not occur until almost two hundred years later in the summer of 1979 (see sidebar, page 17). Only twice previously had such destructive storms struck the island. In the 1806 hurricane, 131 people died primarily as a result of the Roseau River shifting its course and flooding the capital; and in the "Great Hurricane" of September 10, 1834, over uM lives were lost (Honychurch, 1984). Although high winds are the most distinctive feature of hurricanes, usually the most damaging winds affect a very small radius (as small as 20 miles) of the entire storm system. On the other hand, torrential rains can be experienced from one edge to the other of a 300 mile diameter storm, and ten inch rains from well-developed tropical storms are not unusual. Therefore, unless a storm has very strong winds and the center passes directly over an island, much of the damage will be from the direct and indirect effects of flooding. In order of decreasing impact, the major causes of damage from most hurricanes can be ranked as follows: flooding from rainfall, coastal flooding and damage from storm waves, landslides, and -lastly --winds. Floods may cause property damage, severe erosion and even the loss of lie during natural events such as rainstorms and hurricanes. Floods can be the result of downslope rainwater run-off, especially over paved or deforested areas, and/or seawater driven inland by above-normal tides and surges. Storm surges caused by reduced atmospheric pressure during hurricanes can be augmented by wind-driven waves, swells, and spray. The extent of the problem assodated with inland flooding in a particular area is dependent on the amount of rainfall, the slope of the land, the porosity of the soils, and the size and shape of the river basin through which the water will eventually flow. Damages from inland flooding include: water damage to normally dry property; physical damages from the force of the waters and associated mud, silts and rocks; biochemical and physiological damage due to the introduction of large volumes of freshwater to the nearshore marine ecosystems; and destruction of sea life from overloading with silt and nutrients washed from the land. The most common landslide type in Dominica is debris flows, but the country also experiences rockfalls, rockslides, and debris slides. The volcanic origin of the island has led to a steep topography and a lithology which are conducive to landslide occurrence, particularly in the presence of abundant moisture and rainfall. Some two percent of the island's land area is disturbed by existing landslides. Losses attributable to landslides include structural damage, crop destruction, and loss of human life. An average of ECS316,OOO per year is spent on clearing and repairing roads affected by landslides. Agricultural losses appear to amount to thousands of dollars per year, but this is difficult to assess. Twenty-five Dominicans were killed in landslides between 1924 and 1986 @eGraff, 1987). A particularly destructive landslide event occurred during the hurricane season of 1977 when days of torrential rain loosened the rocky hillside above the southern village of Bagatelle, sweeping tons of soil and debris through a section of the village, smashing and covering houses and killing eight villagers (Honychurch, 1984). Generally, landslides are localized events and depend on the type of soil, the angle of repose and the steepness of the slope at the site. Landslides occur when the forces of gravity exceed the strength of the forces holding soil material together, resulting in a mass of soil being pulled downward. A secondary effect of flooding on steep slopes mvered with clay-rich soils is the increased tendency for landslides to occur. Water in soils contributes to increased landslide risk because the weight of the water is an added stress on the soil mass that is also being lubricated by the water molecules. Although no volcano-related disasters have occurred in Dominica, at least in historic

PAGE 36

THE IMPACT AND AFERMATH OF HURRICANE DAVID At Rrst expected to hiI Barbados, the hunicane named aevid shat aaoss the souhem seclion d Domb.lka on August 29,1979. There was lime lod radio wemlng and m openmonal sye tems for dlsaster preparedness With Wing 150 mlearrhou winds. Revld pouded Danlnka for approximately sk hours. Th!iIy-seven people were kSed and an esttnated 5.000 Injured. Over threequsrttm d the pop&km was left homeless, with many tempomty sleeping under rough cover in the open or huddled Into the homeg d more famnete friends for weeks and months &er the storm. The Daninlcan economy was almost totelly desfmyed resulthg h wbsmnM sodal and economic dislocation. Roads and Wges were blocked and swept away. The hmkane destroyed mogt d the island's electrldty tfansmlsskn system and sewrely damaged its cammunication nMvmfk. All eight telephone exdmges were damaged along wlh the Cable and Wireless bullding, telephone poles and transmission lines. Agrlcrltual crops were devastated, but many (e.g.. bananas) would have been my damaged wen by much more moderate wind speeda In the swihw~ half of the Island, where damage was heaviest. sane 50 percent d the trees were damaged in forested areas. Researchers esthmtd that k wl take wer RRy years fw the dimax fwest to re-&ablish It&. The commander d a Royal Navy Mgate anlving the day after the storm likened the island to a bemeRtJd. The plight d Domlnkans recetved Immediate ettentkn ftum regbnd and htm agem cies, and relief aid was quick In anlvlng. Unfommateely, lltlle pre-@anning for dealing wlh db aster relief had been executed by the nmlyindependent couQy preasvid and, glven a tack d adequate contrd for disb?butbn d relief supplies post-[)svid, messurn adopted Mawhg the storm were mostly ad hoe and short-term. They were deslgned to mlnknize the MIate plight of those affected and dten became polltk&tzed h antldpatbn d a pending general election. At present, there is a NatW Emergency Flannlng Organkalion, chaired by the Honorable Prime Minister, which is credited with batter pmparhg the nation for Hunkarm Hugo in 1989. But as In most Eastem Caribbean cwntrkp. addkknal steps need to be taken to better fadlitate long-term, Intw-agency planning and coordlrmfbn pdides to mltigate the consequences d catastrophic natural dlsasttm In the Mure. times, the capital city of Roseau is virtually looking into the gun barrel of a set of a& and dangerous volcanoes,' acauding to Dr. John Shephard, the Director of UWI's Seiirmic Unit. He notes that at least four live volcanoes are present and that Dominica is 'perhaps the maFt complicated volcanic island in the whole of the eastern Caribbean' (Guibbem Disaster Novs, June. 1988). As pointed out by Watty (I*), naturaUy occurring phenomena only become natural disasters when man is placed in the way of such phenomena without suf6aent regard to the probabk effects of such a rehimuhip. In the Dominican context, ha, it is extremely difficult to avoid placing pee 'im thewafofsucbrisLsdaeto~pbyskal charaderistieroftheislaad,its~inthe hurricane bctt, and its limited acmomie capacity to deal both witb natural hazard pnparcdrtesrandwilhtheahdofnahlral disaster events. In light of these fadm which limit Dominica's abii to optimally manage natural hazard risls. perhaps the most feasible strategy would be, first, to minimize tbc need

PAGE 37

for additional facilities and infrastructure which require development in high-risk areas and, second, to ensure that preparedness plans for managing the effects of natural disasters are well developed, particularly at the local community level. Relative to the first recornmendation, the upgrading of existing arteries that have proven to be reasonably stable would minimize the overall need for new roads in more high-risk areas. Additionally, improved land use planning could guide future development into areas which are best suited for particular kinds and densities of land use. Concerning disaster preparedness efforts, Watty (1984) notes that much remains to be done to strengthen institutional structures, improve facilities, train personnel, and dehe inter-agency relationships in order to significantly improve natural hazard planning in Dominica. Such steps must be established at the village as well as national level, along with implementing procedures for storm warning mechanisms, shut-down techniques, the designation of refuge centers, the creation of emergency food and medical stations, and the 0bSe~ation of community drills. Additionally, school cwricula should cover disaster prevention and avoidance, and greater public participation is required in disaster-related planning and decision-making (Watty, 1984). In light of these recommendations and the country's vulnerabity relative to natural disasters, it is unfortunate that no fimds were set aside in the GOCD Fi Year 1989/90 (Budget) Estimates for these purposes, although approximately ECS28,000 had been allocated the prior fiscal year. 1.2.7 Climatlc Change Geological and other studies of the earth reveal that elimatic change has been the norm throughout its history. Since the middle of the last century, the planet has generally been undergoing a warming trend, but the present warming pattern is believed to be due in part to the anthropogenic (i.e., human-indud) buildup in the atmosphere of carbon dioxide and other so-called "greenhouse gases." Since the industrial revolution of the 1800's, the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere has increased by almost 25 percent and, in the past 30 years, by nine percent (Gable, Gentile, and Aubrey, 1989). It is unlikely that future temperature changes resulting from these phenomena will he uniformly distributed over the globe, for example, during the warmest decade on record, the 1980rs, some of the most pronounced warming occurred in the lower latitudes, which includes the wider Caribbean region (Gable, Gentile and Aubrey, 1989). Changes in meteorological and oceanographic conditions (e.g., storm and precipitation patterns, sea-level rises, circulation patterns) will coincide with this warming. Unfortunately, Dominica and most other Caribbean islands will be faced with these changes despite the fact that their contribution to the alleged causes of such change (e.g., industrial activity) has been minor, except perhaps through deforestation. A fairly detailed examination of the effects on the Caribbean of global environmental change and related sea level rise is provided by Gable, Gentile, and Aubrey (1989). These investigators note that within the wider Caribbean relative sea levels have risen at an estimated rate of 25 mm/year. Meteorological changes already are apparent with the occurrence of more severe storms and hurricanes. The rising sea levels, in conjunction with the meteorological changes, generate potential for increased coastal erosion and the loss of mangroves and other wetlands, as well as other habitats such as coral reefs. These effects in turn might have a signiscant impact on future land use and development practices and on general economic well-bein& in large part through the curtailment of tourism (e.g., resulting from beach degradation or destruction). Reliable and abundant regional data (eg., tide-gauge data) useful in forecasting these impacts more specifically are generally absent in the region. Even with such data, forecasting in relation to the impacts of global warming is fraught with many difficult problems. It is generally agreed, however, that sea

PAGE 38

lcvtlsmthercgiomwincontiauetorbcand that the fmpency and intensity of tropical storms and hMiwiU inpcare. Thua, there is a need to &lop local and regional poticiesandprognmsplhichwinminimizcthe impact of these efimatic changes and, ingenera4 a need to address the many issues that willberaiscdintheproagi Someofthese issues are discusd in a report prepared as putofthework~0ftheEmwmic cbmmslm for Latia Am& and the Carii/Caribbean Dmlopment and Cooperation Committee (ECLAC, 1989). Intbcfaaoftmee~abootlbe mof warming trends and their effects on sea level, mart expe~ts ruxnnmend that gownmeats should adopt a tlexiile, adaptive strategy for cnping with the wed effeds of dimate rh.lrgeJ. 'Ibis is e. to implement in planning for the wnrtruction or rcndon of infrastnrctute sncb as roads, bnildinp, and eosstal facilities IntheuLseofoldcr~ (which would haw to be replaad in any event), the bcst and cbeapcst response may be to do nothing and wapt the loss of the sbuehrregprovidedthat theycanberebuilt in an alternative location Where exidng, nomicaUy vital infrastrudnrc is threatened and no akernative locatioa exists, sucb as certain seetioar of the coastal road and some mastat villages, an immediate defensive responsewwldbejusti6edpmvidcditiscosteffeetivc and environmentaUy sound Inotbtrcases,cspeianywhereinfraseudure has not yet been built, measures to adapt to the warming trend should be then only if such steps have pod prospects of yielding benetits even arithoot a climate rhaogc. Ifthepredideddimatechangesdo occur, then the measures taken, of anuse, win yield a mu& greater benefit. A rigoroostycnfd coastal suback policy wodd be a good example of the latter type of reJpoPrt because it ibo &as protection fmm storm surges and tsunamiS maintains the aesthetic qualities of the coastline, and predudes monopohtion of wbat should be a public resource by private intercstr. Other opportnnities for this type of 'Apcr~ahrEmh,'thermcmbtl1isb.d mmo d lbe CommcmR.Lb d m~veys with simptidry the inhiDd~,&lyingsphadtheraoatry-the dccplyr~val~ditspooplc,tbcagti~ntnlfolmbbimdit6~,.d thedominatimg~dnatnnlf~ on it6 dcvclopnent (Van & Veldt. 1986.). 'IbcFrcoabineocacccm~is wtirmdkdk.EqgtbbislbeaLP guage of the country, bat a form of pPoir (X~isibospcAenbymostdthepopobtion. TkcoPntrylbormdsritb~ ~namcs and fadylumca Indcbd, Engtirb dominaticn for 200 yurs ba mt aacd mostdtbtsenamcqpPhrpsbecapst.mr~ggestedbylocatbictori.nLcrmcnH~mtb (1% 1=9, felt more comfortable with the Fd words which descrii naturalfeahocs(e&bGrandeBayc,P& Same), in fontnst to Eqgtirh place-names

PAGE 39

DOMINICA: 'VITAL STATISTICS" The country of Dominica is the most northerly and largest of the Windward Islands in the Eastern Caribbean. It lies between the French islands of Guadeloupe to the north and Martinique to the south. Location Area Language Economy Primary Crops Tourism Airports Rainfall Latitude: 15 degrees 20 minutes North Longitude: 61 degrees 22 minutes West 751 sq km (289.5 sq mi) -approximately 50 km (30 miles) long, 22 km (14 miles) wide Last census (1981): 73,795 Estimated by GOCD (1988): 81,335 Largely concentrated around the capital of Roseau in the south and Portsmouth in the north, both on the leeward coast English; a local French Patois is also spoken Predominantly agricultural; a growing tourlsm sector, largely nature tourism-oriented; small but lively manufacturing sector Bananas are the major crop, exported mostly to the UK; citrus crops (oranges, grapefruit and limes) also important; coconut crop consumed primarily for production of soap and cooking oil; other agricultural efforts: coffee and cocoa crops, pilot aquaculture projects, and cultivation of ornamental flowers for export. Tourism geared to nature hdidays with facilities for hiking, dMng, fishing and river bathing. Earnings from tourism becoming a more visible part of GDP, notwithstanding the lack of direct international air links. Two minor ports (Roseau and Portsmouth); Roseau maintains a deep water harbor at Woodbridge Bay north of the capital; Prince Rupert's Bay at Portsmouth provides a smaller harbor which is less deep but more sheltered than Roseau. Main airport is at Melville Hall on the windward coast, some 40 miles from the capital; a secondary, smaller airport is located at Canefield, three miles from Roseau. 750 km (467 miles) of roadway, of which 500 km (312 miles) are paved Interior: 250-300 incheslyear; coastal lowlands: 50-70 inches/year; over 80 percent of the island has 2,500 mm (100 inches) or more of rainfall a Year Physical Feature8 High vdcanic peaks rising in the south (MorneTrois Pitons) to 1,424 m (4,670 feet) and in the north (Mome Diiblotin) to 1,730 m (4.747 feet); deep forests, lakes, wateltails and numerous rivers; IMe flat land apart from the Portsmouth area which has two swamps.

PAGE 40

which favored penonalities or miliPlry nctories. In any event, the influence of EqW colonists was amfined to small arw of the island in contrast to French settles. The influence of topography and landscape is even more dominant in understanding the irland's dmlopment. Steep, meearnred mountainsides Pfforded protectionagainstinvadingformincenturicspastas well as shelter and refor the region's sUTViViDg Amerindian population and for runaway slaves in the eighteenth century. Those same landscape feature^, hawmr, represented and eorrtinue to represent formidab constraints to development, whether because of the shortage of flat arable land, the di& eulty of road eommnniations, or the ins-ity of eaploitable -aa (Some have noted that the present level of dewlop ment of the various Wmdward Islands seems to be retlcded, in inverse proportion, by the ruggeQe5~ of their terrain, d~ St. Lucia, the most developed, having the mart flat land and Dominica, the least developed having the least amount of flat land (Trench, I=]). More recently, Dominicans ham promoted and marketed their natural features in building a small resource-based tourism industry, 11uing travelers and visitors with the munhy's many attractions as Tbe Nature Island' Nature's plaa (some might say God's place) in the life of Dominicam was most dramatically demonstrated when, during a short l2 month period from August 1979 to August1980,theWwaskrbedbythrcc hurricanes, the mart devastahg of which kR tbreeguaners of the population bomeles and almost completely destroyed tbc existing Dominican U*)nomy. These natural ormrrenees, coming one year atler independence, wtre followed by a period of political up head and internal aises which for a moment captured not only local but regional and worldwide headlines and compelled the young nation, during its earliest years as an independent country, to face unprecedented disasters of both natural and man-made derivation. EARLY may P~ltsmolltbintbe~dthchlmd mthekwmdfoatwasiDtcoQd~tbe Britishtobetbeeapital.ghaitrbcbtahrborsurroandedbyBarLod~PriDa Rupcrtr Bay. It became tbe apasl. hver, for early set&n paaivad tbc site, arhichhad~setootnearalpFgCswamp,to Lleunbcaltby,andevcntlunyPartsmollthwrc replaadbyR0su)uatbecboiafatbescst of government despite the lafier's infcxkdy as a harbor and adwrage. Portsmouth saw little further dmlopmcnt and scrrvivbd pimarily as a tishiog village and center for tbc

PAGE 41

construction of inter-island boats. In the midnineteenth century, the town was used by American whalers as a depot and later became a market center for villages at the northern end of the colony. By the time island commerce and government were firmly concentrated at Roseau, a polarization had also been created, i.e., north versus south, Roseau versus Portsmouth, an attitude which continues to the present (Honychurch, 1983 and 1984). Since its earliest colonial days Dominica has been an exporter, supplying first coffee and sugar for European households, later limes for the British Navy, and more recently bananas and citrus fruits for world markets. Tbe French planters first introduced coffee cultivation to the island, and their estates became the most flourishing. Sugar cane was only introduced after the British took control of the island, which meant that sugar cultivation came to Dominica later than other islands of the We& Indies. Cocoa production, as weU as lime production, gained prominence as export crops at the end of the nineteenth century, following a decline in the sugar industry. Coffee continued to be exported, but most estates were gradually turned over to cocoa and limes. Like other plantation-based colonial societies, Dominica was initially dependent on the importation of inexpensive African labor to sustain its development, creating a socioeu,nomic system which did not end until 1834 when the former slaves were granted their Freedom. During the yew of slave labor, runaway slaves, known as Maroons, often used the luxuriantly forested, mountainous terrain of the island's interior for concealment from authorities seeking out escapees. Runaways were also given refuge by the Caribs, who swived in Dominica on a remote 200 acre site on the Atlantic coast. This began a process of interbreeding and intermarriage which continues to the present time. THE CARIBS OF DOMINICA Dominica k unique in the region as the primary homeland of the last survivors of the once-powem Mi Indians (a much smaller population can be found in St. Vincent). The Carib Reserve (now ded the Carib Territory), perched on a mountainside on the northeast shoulder of Dominica (see Fie 1.2(1)), is the only such reservation in the region and was officially established in 1903 when the 232 acres over which the Caribs then had jurisdiction were increased to 3,700 acres. At that time, the British Government recognized the authority of the Carii chief, but official title to Carib lands was not granted until 1978 with passage of the Carib Rese~e Act, whereby the newly-independent Dominican Government vested land title for the reserve in the Carib Council. From its inception, the Carib Reserve maintained a system of communal land tenure which had existed since pre-Columbian times; it is probably the only substantial remnant of communal land in the region today. While much of the Carib culture has not survived the 500 years since the first European occupation (e.g.. the Carib language, religion and most of its rituals have been lost), the last 15 years have witnessed a growing ethnic eonsciousoess among Dominica's Caribs. The relationship between the Caribs and Government has been strained in recent years, particularly over proposals to change the Carib's communal land tenure system to one based on private property, an approach which some feel would render the Caribs landless within a short period of time (Gregoire and Kanem, 1989). CONSTlTUTIONAL HISTORY In 1898, Crown Colony rule was introduced in Dominica, thus eliminating the locally elected House of Assembly and placing government control for the next 70 years in London. Movement for constitutional reform gained momentum lwenty-five years later when, in 1924, a new constitution restored semirepresentation, under a limited franchise. During this period, Dominica emerged as a regional leader for constitutional change; in 1932 the Dominica Federation Conference put forward strong demands for full representative government. As a result of these agitations, a new comtitution was granted in 1936 which, while inaeasing the number of eleded representatives in the Legislative

PAGE 42

Coud, Jtill did not remove the Cm Colony system. At the end of the 1mO's Dominica was separated bom the Leeward Island grwpine, where the island had been placed sinee 1871, and became a mlony arithin the Wmdward group. In Wl, unived adult suffrage was introduced, and pmvisiom for an elcded majority in the Le@ahue were approved, with the ministerial form d government prodaimed just tk years later in l956. Fmally, in 11967, Dominica became a State in with Great Britain, with awpktc internal self-govcmment. Full independence was acbieved on November 3, 1978, the 48Rh anniversary of the sighting of Dominica by chistopaer Cohrmbus. Undcr its new colubitutio~~, the executk authority of the State is wed m a Resident, not the British Moaarcb as is the case in neighboring, former British colonies in the Eastern Carii. Furtbennore, to avoid confusion over the similarity of names with the Spanish-speakkg Domucan Republic, the new money wumed the formal nomenclature of The Commd of Dominica (Honyehurch, 1984). RECENT EVENTS Dominica was the scud of the Wmdward Islands to aehicve indepenk, an event which was foUd shortly by botb natural disasten and political strife d extraordinary dimcnrions. The Gcwernment which brought the country to independence quickly ran into problem in 1979, with a major seandal breaking out over a pro@ scheme to lwe a MII of the island to an American businessnaa, the land to be taken born small farmers to set up a free port which would have constituted a virmal mini-state within a state. Although plans for the free port were dropped, attempts by the Government to eurtail the press and trade unions were foUd by a period of heated civil disobedience that ended only with the rcsigoation of the Gmemment. An even more devastating blow befell the island in August of 1979 when Humcane David, one of the most destructive storms 10 ever strike the region, passed over Dominica, DOMINICAN ROOTS cololli.l~aritb%s* tioa-bescddadcaraomic~cmqacscr todrbddinDaminiamquitethewqitdid onotberLrlsndsdtheEastemC.ribbun. The td and a elhate ineocncad raim ma& effbctivc mbPeatm bym b tbc British more difhult; m bd, when tbc Britiab took omtd of the colony in tk Lte cigh teenth century, tbcir jmhdictiaD rraa limited toRosuu,theapiLlSadPortsmoothmtbc north. ~wererinlFrcacbtimbcrmen lad farmus wbo liRd witb Afriuo MuoomandC.ribsinmolmt.invinsca. underthac~itirnotdif6mlkto ~WIlyDominia~theLrtidmd olthercgiontobeoolmizcd(CARlCoM, 1984).

PAGE 43

transportation links, before 1956 and the completion of the Transinsular Road, the principal link between Portsmouth and Roseau was by boat, and prior to 1958 and completion of an airstrip at Melville Hall, air transport was limited to sea planes whose landing was often prevented by inclement weather. The country's cultural roots are varied, steeped in the lifestyle iduences of the Caribs, the Africans and the colonizers (more the French than the English). It is a society richly imbued with colorful contributions from a multicultural past, hom the base of Amerindian craft and botanical lore through African social elements and eighteenth century French patterns to more modem western influences (Honychurch, 1988). As one local historian wrote, Dominica is an island of natural splendor upon which man has been a passing visitor in many forms: the Carib warrior, the European settler, the Africans. The French intluence is everywhere in the dominant Afro-Creole culture and the local patois, while the British left their primary mark on the island's system of government (Honychweh, 1984). Yet, above all, are the values of a deeply religious and overwhelmingly agrarian society. In the end, the islanders of Dominica lwk to God for their spiritual sustenance and to the resources of the land for material support. In the original Creole, "Apres Bondie, c'est la Ter" --After God, The E&h. 1.3.2 Demographlcs and Population Trends me following discusion on demographic fcahtm in Dominica has been derived from Bowier (1984) except where othewise indicated.] In 1844 the first census following emancipation enumerated over 22,000 people in Dominica. The period between 1844 and 1871, the year of the next census, is believed to have been characterized by extremely high crude biih and death rates and thus by minimal natural iocrease. Between 1871 and 1921 six censuses were conducted (see Table 1.3(1)) which revealed another period of low growth, an average of 0.7 percent. Mortality probabiy dedined somewhat during this period while fertility remained high, a pattern that was common throughout the developing world at the turn of the century. Natural increases were Table 1.3(1). The population of Dominica, 1844 1990. Year Number Year Number Source: All flguregfrom Bouvier (1984), except 1988 (GOCD, 1985) and 1990 (Population Reference Bureau, 1990).

PAGE 44

thurundoabtedlybighathanmrbcforc,bot were off& by emigration which also ilk d during this period, probably to Panama &re the canal was under anmoetion and to the larger islands of thc CariWean. It k &mated that m thc early mentieth century crude birth rates awrapl45 pa lpoo population, wbik death rates hovered amd 30 per 1.000. If correU, net migration mdd haw stood at about 7 pa 1000. Between 1921 aad l946, the popoL tion grew by almost 10.600 persons, with a nd emigration of 5,637 persom. Tbc iml of natlrralinereaSewas15paemtannuaUy~ this25-ycarpcriod,butductohigbcmigntion, the island population &udy grew maeh more slowly, at around cmc percent anndy. Theentirembalfofthiscenturywaseharaderized by substantial dcdiDes m both fertility and mortality, but also by increased nct emigration. The early post-World War 'hu pcriod featured a @&cant maease m the pop ulation growth rate, to 1.6 percent. &twccn l946andl960thenumbcrofpcopleonthe island jumped from 47,630 to 49,920. This was caused by a dramatic rise in the rate of natural increase, from l5 to 32 pacent, and by a rare (for a dmloping a,*) drop m the mortality rate relrtive to the birth rate. Dominiwomen averaged fire or six childrenduringthisperiod. Nctemigdonovu thel4ycars totaled6,lW. butbccanscofthc very higb natural iacrcasg total popdatim wasatfededissthan~. Inthel%O's,theratcofnaturalmcrease grew cmm more subsfanbny, and only befause of massive emigration did annual growth remain at 13 percent Sii I946 most emigrants from Dominica have gone to Martinique, Guadeloopt, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States Migration to the British Isles almosi stoppcd completely with parsage of the 1962 CommImmigration Act, whifb served to make the United States and Canada more attractive to migrants. The importance of emigmtion to Dominica's demographic eharader, particularly during the post-war period, is such that mtbe~dittbcidmd'spop&hra ~'wonld~usilgrmp.ecd~ lOa,000 mark by m (eowia, mu). Tbc achul popokbjon m 1910 was CBp. Idbaingshcrpmthfllt6dO5~~e~~thtk WWn 'Ibgcshcrgmmhntn~ fromrdropiahtilityas.cfcptmadhmily PLSmniagamosgr '' co~pks~w;.rod dmkgthedaedc. hl979,itisintacstiqgto note,HmrierPcD.vidcompscdhrmdrcdsd Dammrcaa women to moR to Gmdcbopc whcn many of than ip~ birth, thps bRliqe Dominicl's fatility rate. Th+rmnpositimdr -' 'spop (= Fkm 131)) signihraattydoctofadity&?dkmd~ tcntemigrntionp.nm &tmenmad 15180 thc median w gc fmm lS.4 to lS5. While thip is still a poqg popnl.bioq tbc three yurincreascis. hmtdfdall wgemderlSssbilc59~ wge65oroldcr. Tbcdqdalcyrrtio(ii thennmbaof'dcqa&arpsms-tbosc pndcrlSw65aod0~1-paUr)psmsi thepopuLtioD~lSt065)-lp InlW this ratio fen to 89, witb 40 ptrcmt d tk ~underlSand72paant65gurs of~wokb. AdcpcDdcDyntiod89is stiJlrektivclyhighmdre&cEshhighlcscl of emigration amtbosc d *&nt-sgeaallu

PAGE 45

MALES FEMALES Rgum 1.3(1). Domlnlce national population ageaex structure as a percentage of national population (source: Bowier, 1984). rate which prevailed during the previous decade. To study Dominica's future demographic character, a series of projections were outlined by Bouvier (1984) based on various postulates regarding fertility and migration. The following scenarios were considered (see Table 1.3(2) and Fie 1.3(2) for projected population size under the four hypotheses): Scenario A: current (i.e., 1984) fertility (3.4) and current (i.e., 1984) net emigration (830 per year); Scenario B: dediniag fertility (2.6) and declining net emigration (to 400 per year); Scenario C: replacement level fertility (2.1) and net migration of zero. Scenario D: current fertility (3.4) and declining net emigration (to 400 per year). In Bouvier's report, Scenario A is viewed as an encouraging one, but given its dependency on continued high rates of net emigration, it is predicated on external factors (e.g., immigration policies in receiving countries) over which Dominica has no control, and the country could witness increases in return migration generated in part by restrictions in other countries. Scenario D reflects the outwme if immiigration restrictions were imposed, i.e., current fertility and half the emigration. This outwme would be problematic as a population of almost 150,000 would be reached by 2030 whereas a level of 1W,000 to 110,000 was considered by Bouvier to be "quite reasonable."

PAGE 46

Table 1.3(2). Domhica papuhtkn pm)edbn9 1980-2030. under fourscenarka

PAGE 47

Scenarios B and C reflect possibiities falling between the two extremes. Scenario C assumes a fertility rate of 2.1, the level which would replace the population over the long run in the absence of migration. However, it takes an average of 60-70 years after fist reaching replacement level fertility for a country to obtain zero population growth without migration. Bouner concluded that the country was in a favorable demographic situation, but such conclusions about the demographically "healthy status of Dominica were tentative at best -and remain valid only if fertility does not rise and net emigration does not fall, thus assuring Dominica of a slow rate of growth into the twenty-first century. However, if emigration decreases, substantial declines in fertility will be necessary to ensure the achievement of a stable population with manageable growth rates. Furthermore, a large number of additions to the labor force will soon be a problem (as the youthful population ages); the large size of the elderly population (within 3-40 years) also has implications for social policy planners. (See Fie 1.3(3) for various labor force projections to the year 2030 under Bouvier's hypothetical scenarios.) LABOR FORCE 50,000 ~0,000 !O,OOO @A:TRF of 3.4, net emigration of 800 C:TRF of 2.1, net emigration of 0 UB:TRF of 2.6, net emigration of 400 D:TRF of 3.4, net emigration of 4O( Figure 1.3(3). Dominica national labor force projections, 1980-2030, under four growth scenarios (source: Bowier, 1984). N.B. TRF = total fertility rate.

PAGE 48

Morc aurent statistics from the Pop ulation Reference Buruu (1990). which sponsored Bowicr's 1984 wMf, show a population of 85,000 by mid-1990, while Bouvier's 'best case' saaglio projtded tbc population dd notrcachthatimluntiltheycar20a)(ie, w, sec Table 142)). Thc Population Referena Bureau's 1990 statislics &ate a populahion of 10l.000 by the turn of tbc antlny and W.000 two d& later, a pattun more doscly appmximating Bowier's krst caseeaJe ~znario (Table 132)). Althougf~ the Population Referenee Bureau's 1990 demographic estimates do not provide complete information on how tbesc projections were arrivedat,theyarescrmcwbatdishvbiaginthe case d Dominia and point to the 4 fa GOCD pdieymaLcrs to bc aware dthe bdtin momentnm implicit in men slight shifks in fertility and/or mipth bcb.vior. Table 1.3(3). NorrinstiMional d Domlnlca cladfkd by Parish, nral and urban disMds: 1881 census For locatbn d parishes see F~QUNI 1.2(1). PAmH MWS FEMMES TOTAL DlSTRCT LMS RLWS TOTK

PAGE 49

1.3.3 National Economy and Development Trends OVERVIEW tion -which, in turn, remains just as vulnerable to the vicissitudes of natural phenomena today as The economy of Dominica is similar to it was in 1979. its sister OECS states, where the primary characteristics are openness and dependency on outIn the Eastern Caribbean context, the side iduences. The country's economy is still economy of Dominica is "pre-modem" (McElroy small, however, despite its size, it has shown and deAlbuquerque, 1989), that is, the proeess of steady growth over the past decade, as measured diversifying the economy away from a monocrop by the inaease in Gross Domestic Product ilbase and of rapid urbanization and suburbanizalustrated for the decade 1978 through 1987 by tion has only just begun in Dominica, which is Fie 1.3(4). still a predominantly agricultural country, with a relatively low rate of net population growth, a small tourism sector, and no other "modernizing" 140.0 sector, such as insurance or banking. The premodem designation, however, is potentially a very positive factor for Dominica because it means that many of the crucial choices about future development paths have not already been foreclosed, as they have been in the US. Virgin Islands, for example. 100.0 Other characteristics of the Dominican economy include: expensive energy systems given small Figum 1.3(4). Growih oi gmss domestic product. 1978 scale, high capital costs for hydrothrough 1987 in constant 1977 ECS power, high costs for diesel fuel, and (GOCD, 1BBBb). the need to maintain, at present, both power systems; 80.0 v This figure, as most others in this see tion, shows a remarkable drop in production (i.e., GDP) in 1979 -representing the devastating effects of events during the hal year of that decade, one marked by civil west, political turmoil and devastating natural disaster. In spite of the widespread destruction wrought by Hurricanes David and Frederick in 1979 (followed by Men in 1980), the economy in general, and agricultural production specific@, recovered rapidly. But the events of the late seventies and early eighties, which saw such a sharp down-turn in the cconomy, are a clear demonstration of the fragility of Eastern Caribbean ewnomies in general In Dominica, in particular, the economy is still primarily dependent on agricultural produca dominant agricultural sector with high costs for transportation on and off the island; 70.0........... export markets in European, North 78 78 10 81 82 83 84 81 86 87 88 American and Canibean countries; ma growth of foreign-held debt which is high in relation to other OECS states; abundant natural resources which represent potential growth sectors, e.g., forest products and naturebased tourism; a small man~fachuing~ndustrial sector, although Government development plans include an emphasii on expanding light manufacturing

PAGE 50

F-, ,Pltbwgh eazh hes am retaIhty low in the country, they haw becn advaacingstcadilyowthekrtdtcdc,ashin Fw 135). Althougb population grcrwth rates during this period appear higher than the previous dmde (see Semen 132), they am still nlaIhty modest, averaging a Linlc ova me perant pcr ycu for the 1980'5. Tbis factor has mnbibuted to Jubstanbial per caplta income growth as illustrated m Fi 139. In fad, avurgt per capita income has advanced more quieLlythaotheovWanuawmy,csp.ciallyin recent prs ((see Fm 134) and 135)). It sbond also be noted that the use of amstant (1977) doh in Fw 13% muriderably up derstates the current per capita @we, which was about ECS3,400,400 1988. THE DOMINANCE OF AGRICUL'WRE Frgurc 136) pravides an ovwvicar of growth in the major scdors of the Dominican eeonomy as rccorded by GOCD in the decade ~arestinthcdominratuop,bot thcrcbmkstmql.ttemps~.tcrop ... Qwsmahon. CCtrmkimpat.ntwahand~~gmwn*mcs(.teq pacLedb~--Aatocubaq -. ad UpOrtedtotheUKdUS. Glapcidkako ddaported. Limcsare-@K5~intheswtbmstofthe~andthebnn of the cmp is cmvuted into lime juice aad lime oil. Mostofthecmnby'scar~mcropislncd inthe~dsoap.odcookiqail,and special an& hrs been ginm to this crop in recent yean tbroogb Cooonnt Rehab&&m Rqaet. Otbcr&atsmqgricohtniadodcthe development d coffce and axlor pibt ptojcasin~the~daotic~dria,upaMiaQof~ acreagelncdfaadthhndornamrptalOow en for expo* and thc dictillrtioD d mmtid oils (patchouli) for uport (Taylor, 1989).

PAGE 51

Other Agric n Govt 0.0 $ I 78798081 8283848586 8788 YEAR Figure 1.3(6). Gross domestic product by major sector, 1978 1987 (source: GOCD. 1988b). more recently a portion of domestidyproduced ground provisions has found its way into the export markets, primarily to near-by islands in the Caribbean. Production figures over the last decade indicate production of most root aops doubled during the period 1978-1988 (GOCD, 1988b), and some of this added production is contributing to the export earnings of the state. Proportionately, however, export earnings for root aops remains small, for example, while 29,305 tons of bananas were exported in 1983 with a value of USS11.2 million, in that year Dominica exported only 863 tons of vegetables, which induded root crops, valued at USS600,OOO (World Bank, 1985). It is obvious that, despite diversification, bananas remain the big export earner. Income from banana exports acwunted for more than one-half of the increase in Dominican exports in 1988, rising by 17 percent to just under ECSlOO million. This growth was derived almost entirely from an increase in the volume of fruit exported. Soap products, the second largest wntributor to export earnings, realized ECS24.3 million in 1988, an increase of 18.8 percent or EW million over 1987 receipts. The average unit price for these products declined during the year, but a 19 percent growth in volume compensated for the reduction. Other domestic exports in 1988 yielded ECS22.3 million, an increase of

PAGE 52

Table 1.3(4). Sectmi dk#buUrm d GDP at cwrent fa1201 cost. 1984-1988. POP ECS Million) a7 -re 56.8 M~IW/QUWWJ 1.5 M-Mng 12.4 mities 5.9 Constnrdion 17.17 Tmnsport and Communications 26.5 Whdesale/Retal 14.7 Hotels/Restaurants 2.2 Banking/lnswance 16.7 Go~emment Servicss 47.1 OtherSenrices 1.8 N.B. 1988 = Estimated Figures Source: CDB. 1988. 46.7 percent (EW million) over the lW @we. The main contriitors to this increase were exports of plantain and citrus fruit from the agricultural seetor and garments, glows, paints, and varnishes from the manufaduring seetor (Eastern bi Ceneal Bank, 1989). Dominican exports to CARICOM countries yielded ECX29.8 million in 1988, -5 million more. than the previous year bnt accounting for a smaller propoltion of total exports. As Ftgure 13(8) depicts, the last decade has seen an expansion of Dominican exports to other bi countrie.~, including its CARICOM partners, with Jamaica becoming a major importer of Ik exportsinthe region Dominica still faces the difkult iswe d bow to hrrtbu divusily its eaaomy. Yet within the last two to four yurq tbc country has taken a variety of steps in the direction d broad dimsificationwithinbolh4gricohrreacdotkrsccton. Some d these steps are XI below. (N.B. The reader is cautioned that some of these efforts, while enhancing divers&ation, do have associated environmental costs arhicb are discussed elsewhere in this Protile.)

PAGE 53

Bananas 0 Root Cro Citrus Other Figure 1.3(7). Dominican crop production, 1978 1987 (source: GOCD, 1988b). (1) In 1989, Government announced proposals for new port facilities at Portsmouth and Roseau at a cost of ECS24 million. Plans call for building a 300 foot cruise ship berth at Cabrits north of Portsmouth; additionally, the existing port at Woodbridge Bay north of Roseau will be extended by 300 feet, (also for cruise ship use), and a new container park for containerized cargo to accommodate inaeased volumes of import and export goods is also beii built at the Roseau facility. (2) A marina is planned for the Indian River area adjacent to Portsmouth. This would be the island's &st small boat harbor suitable for attracting yacht trafic which has traditionally bypassed Dominica because of its lack of an adequate harbor and marina facilities. (3) An unusual feature of the Cabrits &e ship dock is a USS600,000 five mile fresh water pipeline which will link the Picard River with Portsmouth and provide cruise ships with 200,000 gallons of water within five hours. Water is projected to cost USS8.00 per 1,000 gallons. (4) In late 1989 the Minister of Agriculture announced a major program of agricultural diversification to include the growing and processing of passion fruit, soursop, mangoes., avocados, and hot peppers. Additionally, he noted that the 200 acres of coffee then in production would be expanded by another 200 acres by 1992. (5) Current hydro projects, which for the fust time provide for the use of impounded

PAGE 54

(6) In January d 1990 Dommca ApIndnstrieJ Ud., thc irlaad's oaly citrus pxe&g pknt. sacaddy marketed its & output of p-t juice conccn~e to an American firm. This is tioked to a major p grsmtodoublethcacrwgcandinueasethc produaivity of gqlefd aehuds h thc =oum. (7) During rn Dominica Coewut Prodods increased its prior ycer salw by 165 pereeat to a new record of ECS29.7 million. This is due m psrt to implementation of new li(9) Pod studies are uduway far a new jet airport at Woodford W m the northeastern pari d the stale, which arwld give Domuuca for the first time dim internstiooal Liatr for jet airmat?, hereby enhancing the

PAGE 55

marketabiity of the country as a tourist attraction. TRADE AND FOREIGN DEBT Even under the relatively improved commodity conditions enjoyed in recent years, Dominica's economy is unable to produce a surplus, or even a balance, in visible trade. Figure 1.3(9) illustrates the long-term persistence of the negative trade balances which have affected the country. Figure 1.3(9). Dominica balance of trade, 1978. 1987 (GOCD, 1988b). More important than the absolute amount of the trade deficit, however, is the deficit in relation to the overall productive capacity of the economy. As Figure 13(10) illustrates, after a catastrophic period in the early 1980's, the balance of trade to GDP ratio has improved considerably, averaging around 30 percent or 40 percent for the last four years for which data are available. The extremely high defiat to GDP ratios of the early 1980's reflect the combined effects of low productive capacity because of hurricane damages and the need for massive new investments to replace housing and basic infrastructure following the hurricanes of the 1979-80 period. ngure 1.3(10). Dominica trade dMcM as a percent of GDP, 1978 1987 (GOCD, 1988b). Figure 1.3(11). Total debt to GDP in Dominica. 1978 1987 (mum: McElmy and deblbuquerque, 19QO). b bf a 8 "'" SOX In spite of the resiliency of the Dominican economy, the ratio of total debt outstanding to GNF' is still increasing (see Figure 1.3(11)). Among the OECS states (in 1985, the latest year for which wmparative data are uniformly available), only Grenada has a higher debt to GNF' ratio. Among Third World countries, a debt to GNP ratio of 50 percent is not necessarily disastrous, but, as McElroy and deAlbuquerque (1990) point out, wnditions among the smaller countries of the Eastern Caribbean seem to lead to payment diiculties at relatively low debt lev::T

PAGE 56

dcvote cltnslderatrlc attcnrion to rcdrtucing thc raie of gr5wth of foreign-held debt and i;l inIn the area of environmental management, the rde of ec~nomics trad8iordly Pas en dhgnos?k scene-setting, and related to the identification of dollars to pay for expenske i&ras?wc?u:e programs. Mast of the prescriptive dements of env..konrnental pdicks are uwafly cfea?r wRh w2xin natural resource sectors such as agriculture or fvfe-stry. Bu: thafs now changing As the Economist magazine (5 May, 1990) noted, E~r~~irarlmenf j30/ici~r$ that take no heed of econm:cs will backfire; bur so w?l economic policies fha: ignore the entfirunment, This statement !s jw as valid far the islands of the Eastern Garibhgan as i! is d~~h~8 in the wodd It Is important fur guvemments to eliminate subsitfies far the ex@oitation nf scarce mtnrd resources. Althuug h this is easy to say. it sometimes dash= strongly vAh fvnetamenbi pditic-13; Esues, such as gavernment-financed housing schemes &here a s;rbs#fy is used to support the m~version of prime agricutturaf land into hausing frads Another traditbmI suhrikiy with us~&y negatbe envbnmental consequences is the const~ut?tion d Jam-to-market ~wds In contrast, hwever, taxes on scarce natural resources and energy rAn serve the dual goab d revenm g.enm?br? whife ensudng that the pricas of such gOOds mom fully r~fiml th~ fuiI casts to smiMy. There are many opportunities for GQCD to explore the dirninatbn d ev~~ironmen&ily.Pam.S-~l "subsidies" or the adoptbn af creative fiscal disincentives lo protect the environment. For ercampk: Are timber tax and de@Ertion pdicks designed ta encourage wis c$tkatian tnd bwestjng of exdk variatles and sustair?aMe s&&xAturo practices for utitrty grades d lumtw? Do agrkuitural support programs encwrage arwf;'or enfva orr$iranmen?aly mund farming and soil ~ansewatbn practices? /I Are water expaas being s~bsidh~'? It is important for Dominica aM atother Eastern Car;bt>oan gwernments to exgklare mare wzp for economics and the envircnment to work togsther creative$.

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SECTION 2 FORESTS AND WlLDUFE Over twwtbirds of the land surface of DominicaiseovcredbyforcJts. Indetd,inthc EastmCaribbun,the~~~ds'lainfdare almw synonpws with the name Domhka. One observer, writing some siPy )rcers ago, e.x&meduponseeingtbcirknd: 1hadnot believed that anytbiq could be so grccn' (Waugh, W). Forests Qminatc tbe island's landscape; they have been a Lcy whit dctcrmiDaptmshapingitshistoryanddcvclopmcnt and ~~U~IIC to inspire imm of truc rropieal splcador. Dominica's forests modify its weather and seriously limit agiahral op at the same time, thc country's iarh forested arurs provide a home for emtic bopid nora and fanna and are aitid to rctaining tbc island's l#~t bopical soik on steep mountainous hillsides. Thereisagmrslcomcpsluth.1 tbc facstsofDomiaicaarethcfincJtintbc c.riWeae Thy amr betwaen a75 perm oftbeislandandamtainarichasscmblqged plant and animal species. Over l,OOO spceics of flowering plants are represented, with up to sixty trec spedcs per hedare. Over my species of resident birds have been rccordtd, including two endemic parrots, botb of wbich are endangered. ~somc~h.d naturalfona,woodlodand~ scqbtopoenphy,high~and 'LCdimaticva&mityhR.~inaomacm tbc distributioa d Rgctatim tgpcs Littaal aroodl.ndsoccmvithinthebcd zxmeoftbc~uusidtdtbcidmd ~and~Rgctrtim.nfd~ tbclceanrdcnnt~mm~tbcdliat putoftheaxtotry. Mamcfforrst.mcmEmc tbiclret,andcttmwmdLDdsarmonlginthc higbniafaUintaia.ahiieniofacsts,botb rrmtllndsLxamby,arefdinRndniDcduusdietcrmcdiatc*d moderate ninhn. Fnshnrtcr swampa .ad nusgrowarenre. IRefamaoccmmrinlg ahgsbtrmootlctsintkmrtbustd ~arbJcsmJIstaadsd~.~t pnsentahgthe-aDlImrtbust corsts. h~fomarde&m befoundinsclectedareas,primarilyintbc Valley of Dmktion just sonth of tbc Boiling L&eiatbcrwtbfcatralputoftbeirl.nd

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A more detailed description of the island's vegetation zones is provided in EARTHSAT (I%), which is based on an OAS classiication. Table 2.1(1) contains 1984 data on the spatial extent of each vegetation zone and is drawn from OAS figures. Several words of caution are warranted regarding the figures in Table 2.1(1). First, they differ significantly from those obtained from an earlier map compiled by Shanks and Putney (1979). In some cases, the difference is too substantial to reflect actual changes in land use or vegetative cover. For example, the OAS map indicates a total area of secondary rain forest of 9,090 ha (as presented in Table 2.1(1)), while the Shanks and Putney (1979) map, obviously produced from earlier aerial photographs, reveals a much larger total area of over 20,000 ha (Prim, 1987). One researcher (Dr. P. Evans, Oxford University-based Director of the Dominica Multiple Land Use Project) urges additional caution in using the OAS map and figures. Some areas on the map are attributed to the wrong vegetation type; boundaries are in some cases incorrect; and some vegetation categories are not appropriate. For example, differentiation between mature and secondary rain forest is not well defined (there is an element of secondary growth throughout the rain forest areas); also, "montane rain forest" may prove diicult to distinguish in some locations from "mature rain forest". Similarly, "semi-evergreen forest' is a category that could be omitted. It is a transitional zone containing species characteristic of rain forest and dry forest, but the boundaries of the zone and its areal extent appear to have been drawn arbitrarily. The photography on which the OAS maps was based is far from perfect, as admitted by FARTHSAT (1986). However, a new air photo project for the Widward and Leeward islands has recently been initiated by CIDA. A related project by UNDP will utilize the CIDA photography to develop a Table 2.1 (1). Spatial extent of Dominica vegetation zones VEGETATION TYPE 1984 AREA (b) % OF TOTAL LAND AREA Mature Rain Forest Montane Rain Forest Montane Thicket Elfin Woodland Uttoral Woodland Scrub Woodland Secondary Rain Forest Semi-evergreen Forest Swamp TOTAL 51,770 65.7% Total land area of Dominica = 79.000 hectares. Source: McKenzie, 1987b, cited In Prins, 1987.

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computer-based agidhd land information system. lbiswilliniaianyfoeusonB.rbad0J but will offer training for ped horn other Windward and Leeward Islaads to enable application of the technology elsewhwc, indudiDg Dominica Ikhveen 1986 and 1487 an hmtory of Dominies's major commercial forwas conducted by the Division of Forestry and Wildlife with assLstance from FA0 (LkMilde, 1987). A &w of the inventory results idcatcd that Dominican fore& were datkly rich in timber and uniform m composition, and had a lugc total utilization volume (FAO, 1989). Timbcr ricbness was found to be 200 cubic meters/ha on an estimated 32,500 ha and 600 cubic meters/ha on an estimated 3,SW ha In terms of composition, three gommicf (Dcrcryodcs d), carapite (Amama cmibaco), and bois cote As put of a emrtnt FAO/lJNDP Project, entitled Impk.meat.tion d Fm ManagementinDominicqthevohme.vailaMcformaintemmxdasmtriDalgicldfrau Gmcmment-mmed iltldwitbmtdcplctiond thercsomaxbeing itodctamiDc long-term mmgemmt objcdnca Fa thir hsvcbccn tomidovcrcoth~g SPECIES PERCENTAGE Trees with a diameter equel to of exceeding 30 cm d.b.h. (dlamster bresst height). Source: DeMMe, 1987. dted in Prlns, 1987.

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downgrading of the remaining resource. Whereas DeMide (1981) derived an estimate of available growing stock within the assessment area amounting to 4.9 million cubic meters, adjustment for marketable species reduces this figure to 3.7 million cubic meters (pers. commun., A. White, 1990). Of this, ap proximately three million cubic meters are located on Government lands, as estimated by DeMilde. This figure is likely to be reduced further as the management planning process proceeds and the actual extent of Government-controlled land which can be utilized without constraint is identified. This revised resource figure and that of the inventory are both significantly less than the figure derived by Brown (1962) in his survey, which indicated a total resource on the order of seven million cubic meters over an area of 29,000 hectares. This included private land and land subsequently allocated to National Park use and therefore unavailable for utilization. It also included areas damaged by Hurricane David in 1979, which further contributed to the reduction in available resource. The major factor which emerges from the continuing decline in estimates of available volume is the need for the early introduction of management practices for the remaining resource in order to ensure that this decline does not continue. PRODUCTION The island's primary producers together generate about 75 percent of the raw material for furniture makers, carpentry shops, building contractors, and a manufacturer of prefabricated housing (Prins, 1987). The producers include two relatively mechanized companies, Dominica Timbers Limited (DTL) and Northeastern Tir Cooperative Ltd. (NET), as well as 114 smallscale "pitsawyers" (Zamore, 1988), almost all of whom now use chainsaws and portable "Alaskan mills" rather than pitsaws (a decade ago, in 1979, some 80 percent of the small sawyers used pitsaws [GOCD, 1988al). The annual output of the small sawyers is estimated at 1-2 million board-feet, while that of DTL and NET is 2.8 million board-feet and 1.2 million board-feet, respectively (GOCD, 1988a). Prins (1987) claims, however, that the small sawyers actually produce up to 65 percent of all domestic primary production, a great deal more than would be implied by the above figures. DTL is the island's main supplier of kiln-dried lumber. Since 1982, when it was established, the company has had only two profitable years, this record reportedly due to mismanagement and to the difficult environmental conditions which have also led, in part, to the failure of larger scale harvesting schemes. The operation lacks a proper road network and thus must contend with excessively long skidding distances. This leads to low productivity and heavy wear-and-tear on the fum's only skidder (Prins, 1987), not to mention considerable disturbance of the stateowned forest land on which the firm presently operates (see Section 2.1.2). NET has benefited the rural communities of northeastern Dominica by providing inexpensive lumber, low cost prefabricated homes, agricultural feeder roads, wood-based hels, employment and training. The company nevertheless is plagued by equipment inadequacies and financial difficulties, the latter largely due to high extraction costs and to social obligations stemming from its association with the Catholic Mission in Dominica (Prins, 1987). The environmental effects of NET'S operations are outlined in Section 2.1.2. The company operates primarily on private land and unallocated state land, but it has also cut within a 20 ac area of the Northern Forest Reserve. Small sawyers may generate up to 65 percent of all production. They can work in areas that are inaccessible to mechanized operators and with minimal damage to the resource because they essentially bring their sawmills into the forest rather than drag out huge logs. However, in some locations they may be contributing to the clearing of important windbreak areas on private lands as sawyers have reportedly approached farmers with requests to feu trees within the wind

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bnatr@crs.~um,P.EvaogDomrmar Mnltipk Land Usc Pmj, 1990). Traditionrlly, thc small sawyers have yielded a low quality produd in term of dimensid amdcney, s~andalackofscasoaiagor~ (PrhLs, 1987). Howmr, an onfpbg CANARI-supported (formerly ECNAMP) project, with fondiDg from WWF-US, Rockcfelkr Brothrrs Fund, and Wwycrhansu CorporPtion, is aimed at imprcnriag prodod quality and markctiog through a Small Lumber Roduars Grwp. Acuxdiag to the Gmup's Manager @crs. cornmum, R. LaRmde. 1990). membership is currently limited to about 35, but more cannot be acamunodated until a larger facility K developed for hkhb& dryink storing. and marketing hunk. A site for such a f.eility winsoonbc~from~cntonthe westeorst,brrtan&cdU~aY)is ntaQedrmdis~sougbttosctupand equip the facility (see also Seetioa 10.4 of the Rofiie). According to Botler (1982). pmhtionofwood-basedfmls(6rewoodandehucoal) amsumcs an estimated lO.000 tom (15,000 cubic meters) of timbu per p, but othusprovideafigmcofx&000tmrjmtfa rbaKoal prododion (BcIlmatI, u rrl, 1987). Botla's survey found thcrc were a total of 210 ehd prodmus on the idand, most of whom emplay the fdhd, but marghuny efficient earth pit (Mu) method of piudnch (s~ebStdiOIl6ofthcPfOfilC). Wm RESERVES AND PARKS On a0 state Ladr a minimum girtb mnqgiqgfromthrcctosi.f&tis~ forhuvrstin&intbccrrcoflbcrnamccssion art* rcforcst.tioa was rLso raqnircd NEThasreplantedabouthtldthcarum WhiebithamstedmthcNcrthanResavt, andanaDtiaspd0nsboRsmvinlb.s btcarclstivtlygoodmthelOaazmuraplaottd.cvcotllougblittlcanw~ DTLhaWt~~pLntodataninthcoma swad slate laod .reg (Moesc PhisMce) whcrritcoatinmtobama Tbc Moesc Tmia PitaDI Natbd Pd,Dominia'sfirst.wcst.blisbcdm 1975 adeoauinran -sgnh(l&=J ac)dk@lypmtcdcdfonstmtbcd dpartdtbcirlmd Samc380h(940 ac) d the Park focmdy comprircd tbc A& bold&save..n~.rudrainforra Tbestlandra~ndoDItcdt~r -' by& haicdn owaa d SpilIgtu r'hwhs, Mr. John Arehbd4 after first being held from 1974 to EX2 by a USbaud NGO, Tbc Na-Comuvmey.

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DOMINICA/PARKS, RESERVES, TRAILS & NATURAL ATTRACTIONS Coral R..(Amas A Mwnt8lns Waterfalls Sulphur Spdnga ..TraIIa 1 Secondary Roads FAUS: I-MlddlehuR ZdmIdw, 1Svl.8.d. 4-Wtoh SULPHUR SPRINOS O(21 A-Wonw Warn B.Vflay d Valdllm ~Gnm swlr*m Figure 2.1 (1). The parks, reserves, trails and natural attractions of Dominica (source: Division of Forestry and Wildlife, GOCD). 44

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Morne Trois Pitons National Park is rich in nahlral resouras and phenomena. It eneompasscs some of the outstanding physical features of the island, indudkg Iivc major mountaim (Morne Trois Pitons, Morne Macaque, Mom Nicholk, Mane Watt, and Mom Aaglais), Bocri and Fresh Water Lakes, the Boiling Lake and a unique thermal area, at least two waterfalls, and large trads of undisturbed rain forest and tropical montane forest vegetation (1989) (see also Frgurc Zl(1)). No IoggiDgpase is permitted in National Parks Aceording to Mir, el d. (M), the Park forms the largest stand of protcdcd, undisnubed forest in the Cani but tbis assertion is not conect. The Nortbern Forest Reserve is in fad the largest such area, and the protechon afTorded it is similar to that for the National Park. At least one wcher maintaicls that the Northern Forest Reserve bas a higher biodiversity than the Park and w& ricber and better forests (pers. commun, P. Evaus, Dominica Multiple Land use Roj, 1990). Furthermore, as disarssed in more detail in Scetion 213 the National Park is the site of ongoing and intedying human disturbances. A ten year management plan was reeently drafted for the Mom Trois Pitom National Park by Scbetle (198%) under the sponsodip of the OAS. It indudes a zoning pian which identifies Special Use Zwes, hte& Use Zoms. Exter&e Use Zony Envimmental Study Zones, Research Zonq and a W~ldlaod Management Zone wbirh umr~allremainingareasoftheParkthatrequire no human interfereua. Dct.ils on each ofthesedesignationsandonprcgramplaaniDg priorities are outlined in SfbaeIe (1985Ja). Tbe reader is also referred to Wright (l985) for an dnt account of the dmC opment of Domiaids parks kgisLtion and of Mm Tmis Pitons, the ownhy's 6nt national part Domiuica bas a second, much smaller, natioad park, the Clbrits Natioaal Park, which was legally cstabLished m 1986. This park includes the ruins of an exte& British fortitication nestled in dry woodlands adjacent to a wetland area it is located on the northwest coast of the oountry, and the reader is referred to Sdom 10 and 5 of the Pro& for additional information on tbis National Park. Thc island's pnsent, kgany forest resems and national parts together incorporate 20 pcrant of the amby's forest base. A proposal for a third natkd park m recently prepared by tbe Fonshy Dividon with support from lCBP and the RARE Center for Tropical Bud hrvatioD (lCBP, 1990). Tbe proposed park woold encompass the forested area along the western slopes of Morne Diablorin, the ishi's highest peak, and ~uld eoasirt of %497 ha (%in of the very rich Northern Forest R(roogb)y 28 perant of its total area), as wen as 825 ha (204ac)oflandatDycrEstatewhidlba LNXn propared @m not yct legally CJtabW) as a parrot resem (see Butkr. W, ICBP, 1990). Tbe cstimatcd total cost of all park development requirements (eg., boundaries, visitor center, panot viewing pbdorm, trail work, roads, interplctatim) for the pm posed park is ECn16 million (lCBP, 1990).

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DEFORESTATION Fpe 2.1(2) provides an illustration of the extent to which the island has been deforested over the years, particularly since 1945. Deforestation is considered one of the 'most mcial" issues confronting Dominica according to a recent document prepared by a Government-sponsored environmental awareness committee (YES, 1990a). Agricultural expansion and timber harvesting is causing rapid removal of vegetation on both private and public lands. Forested state land is being sold, largely as a means to relieve agricultural land hunger, but this commonly has been done haphazardly and with inadequate controls to protect against soil erosion and other forms of land degradation. In many areas, especially on steep slopes, lands beii cleared for agriculture are unsuitable for such uses, particularly in the absence of spedalized controls to proteet against soil erosion (see also Section 3.2 of the Profile). State lands affected by illegal encroachment and intensive cultivation indude lands in the Brandy area (OAS Vegetation Map, 1984), an area which is now beii allocated to settlers, and the area along the south boundary of the Morne Trois Pitons National Park (Shanks and Putney, 1979), e.g. near Petit Savane. Prim (1987) estimates, on the basis of preliminary interpretations of the 1984 OAS vegetation map, that 1,980 ha (4,891 ac) and 70 ha (173 ac), respectively, have been encroached upon in Morne Trois Pitons National Park and in the Forest Reserves. Several officials of the Forestry Division (pers. commun., A. Christian and A. James, 1990), contest this estimate in relation to the Park. For example, one Forest Officer estimates that only about 20 ha (50 ac) of park land are beii squatted upon and primarily by cultivators from the Village of Petit Savane, which was established in the area long before park boundaries were drawn. It is likely that Prim (1987) mistakenly reversed his figures when he mote them into his report; i.e. he may have meant to write that there are about 1,980 ha of encroachment in reserve areas, but only about 70 ha in the Park a situation which is doser to the figures cited by Forestry Diion personnel. In any event, interpretation of the OAS map by Prins (1987) reveals that the area under cultivation on the island is already greater than that projected by Government for the year XHll in its National Structural Plan (GOCD, 1985) -26,390 ha vs. 23,700 ha. Construction of agricultural feeder roads, a major effort of the present Government, and the current high price for bananas are accelerating the deforestation process, frequently in areas that should be kept under natural forest to protect steeply-sloping lands against erosion. The conversion to agriculture is also generating localized shortages of fuelwood, charcoal, poles, posts, and other utility timbers, e.g. along the west coast (Prins, 1987), while many felled trees are left unused. In fact, even prime timbers, in substantial quantities, are left to rot under recently planted banana trees. This wastage seems to stem from a lack of effective coordination behueen farmers and the wood products industry, even though the latter is struggting with raw material costs. It is believed by some observers that timber-growing stocks on privately-owned lands will be depleted in the near future, and thus the reserve areas will be increasingly relied upon by the forest industry (Prins, 1987). This is one of the primary reasons why a management plan for the efficient, yet sustainable use of the forest is so critical at this time. The intensification of agricultural land use, in conjunction with a greater focus on agroforestry and plantation forestry, will also be critical to relieve pressure on remaining areas of natural, undisturbed forest. INDUSTRIAL FORESTRY Both of the relatively large-scale or "industrial forestry" operations presently functional on the island -Dominica Tirs Ltd. (DTL) and Northeastern Timber Cooperative Ltd. (NET) -appear unable to sustain profitable ventures. An evaluation by Kehr

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CROWN LAND SALES According to Lausche (1986a), it is Government policy to transfer to private ownership all crown (i.e., state) land that is not resewed in rational park or forest resewe status or (under the Crown Lands Ordinance) not located within five chains (330 ft) of a stream at its headwaters. The Director of Forestry and Wildlife (pers. commun., F. Gregoire, 1990) indicates that this is not in fact a stated policy, but, in any case, a substantial amount of stateowned land has been sold off since independence in 1978. Unfortunately, much of this land has been sdd without effective consultatlon with the Forestry Dhrision or with other agencies in a position to contribute to decision-making about optimum land use. Lands have been redistributed on slopes too steep or infertile for cultivation, in locations with great park and tourism potential (like Soufriere Estate), and even in domestic water catchment areas immediately along fiver banks. There also have been instances in which the Forestry Division has actively initiated action against suspected offenders, unaware that the latter had legally purchased their land from Government (Prins, 1987). There is no formal or required mechanism by which Forestry staff communicate on an ongoing basis with other ministries on matters of land use planning and development (Lausche, 1986a). Decisions relating to these concerns have therefore often been neither well coordinated nor refiective of an integrated approach to resource planning and management -exceptions are the development of Melville Hail, Geneva, Castle Bruce and Soufriere Estates (pers. commun., F. Gregoire, 1990). However, since the mid-1980's, an increasing effort reportedly has been made by the Division of Forestry and Wildlife and the Division of Lands and Surveys to improve this situation by better coordination of agricultural land allocation decisions, better subdivision designs, use of community studies for planning purposes, and similar measures. An example of this improved approach can be found in the Gommier Ellick area where a community-wide problem of land hunger previously existed (pers. commun., A. Christian, Forest Officer, 1990). (1987), an FA0 consultant, led him to condude that both urgently require capital investment -for survival and rehabilitation in the case of DTL and for diversification and expansion in the case of NET. He cautioned, however, that since their wood supply is insecure because of #government's indecision regarding logging agreements and concessions on Crown Land," a logging concession of approximately 700 ha should be a prerequisite to any capital investment. Even with such concessions, as weU as additional capital investment, there is no guarantee these tirms will he transformed into self-sustaining operations. Both producers have been operating for about ten years. They already have received substantial fmancial and technical assistance and have had access to some of the best logging opportunities in the country (Prins, 1987). Putney (1989) dabs that both companies probably would have failed if not for the subsidies they receive. Such analyses have primarily focused on narrow, micro-economic parameters. The additional environmental costs of the two op erations have not yet been fully accounted for. It is quite likely that if these environmental costs, now externalized and borne by the community, were internalized as a cost of production, the companies' economic position would show an even more substantial loss. Logging practices of both firms have been questioned by various consultants. DTL uses a skidder over long distances because its road network is insufficient. This creates wide

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and lengthy furrows (LC, slriddcr tracks) with great propensity for gully erosion. Some skidder trails have been cut through exaxkly steep terrain, only to be abandoned after minimal use. A land management and lcgging plan was prepared by Sage (1983) for DTL activities in the Mome Plaisana Estate. There is no evidena, bowever, that the firm utilized the pka NET ako generates substantial environmental ccsts through its operations which indude dear felling on steep slopes and Icg extraction with a D6 Caterpillar. Even &ere selective cutting is beii pradiad by both firms there often is considerable damage to remaining trees and to saplings, seedhgs and other ground wwr. REPLANTING AND NAlURAL REGENERATION Reforestation programs conducted to date in Dominica have relied heavily upon exotic tree species. As noted elsewhere in this chapter, some observers belien that replanting with exotics is undesirable, given the forest type which prevails in Dominica. However, such observations may not have taken into account the fad that some reforestation With exotics oawred as an attempt to rehabilitate damaged areas foIlawing Hurricane David in 1979. At the time, it ans aitical to provide needed awerage for thc soil, and only exotic sedhgs were readily available (pers. wmmm, F. Giegoire, -or of Foreshy and 1990). Nevertheless, in harvested areas, it may now (ten years after David) be more ap propriate for the Forestry Division to establish a cutting presaiption which would ensure proper site preperation and the availability of quality seed trees for the natural regeneration of desirable spcdes (eg gommier) as has been sqpted by MiUer, cr d. (1988). Scvera1 representatives of the Forestry Divirioa counter that gommier and otber high quality nativc timber species simply grow too slowiy, by wmparison, and thus are unsuitable for .. mamtamq a viable timber industry. ClcarlythisismiDocdEonsidcrable importame that will be addrmed, in part, through the present GOCD/FAO-asshed program to formulate a forest management pka It is likely that pbmutioar d uociespeeics(e&highvahehrrniturrsptcics) wiuhavesomerolein~~an the primary forest in the reserves. Furlbermore, there appears to be some potcntLl for supportkg mark& native given thatthcFrencharewDcetingwhitcadar~ Dominicaforuseontbcadjaantirkadrof Martinique and Guadeloupe. Some foresters argue that if barnsting practks -re conduacd mon sedidy, then natural regermation 4 k&p pace and thereby eliminate the high cost d attilirial regeneration (wbicb requires the removal of*'dimbef -from theyoungtrcefmexpensive opcrarion). Research omducfed by Bell (1976) suggests &at this is in fact thc case. At present, some of these irsm are beii addd thtougb the Dominica Molh ple Land Use Project wbicb induds amother studies, the monitoring of permanent vegetation plois for regeneation, sadling survival and the like. RESOURCE MANAGEMEW MlFUllVFS M TAE LQNGER TERM Most of the lands within present water catchments are privately owned. But mnthelimitedareaswitbincatchmentsthat arestate-oamedhmmtbaendeclaredfonst reswvcq while private catchment ucrr, which could be better managed as lq&ddad *protected forests*, hm M (With a single. aaption) been m dc&mkd (see ako Swim 4 of the Prome). The country's water autbority, DOWASCO, plans to upgade the water system an4 at thc same time, mid ampsation and/or laud acquisition expense by es

PAGE 69

tablishing new water intakes higher up into state-owned lands wherever possible. Prim (1987) claims that even if DOWASCO1s proposed scheme for a multi-village consolidated water system is successful, some 40 percent of the watershed areas will still not fall within park or reserve boundaries. The present day figure is doser to 60 percent (pers. commun., A. Christian, Forest Officer, 1990), which should be a cause of some concern for resource managers charged with maintaining water quality. A simiiar lack of legal protection prevails for sites of cultural, scientific, or historic importance (see also Section 10). But until these areas and sites have a more secure protected status, forests, as well as wildlife, water and other resources, will remain at Ask. Deferred decisions and postponed action will inevitably result in some ecological system loss, as well as increased land acquisition costs and reduced water production in the not too distant future. NON-CONFORMING USES OF NATIONAL PARK RESOURCES Several existing and proposed activities within the Morne Trois Pitons National Park dearly are incompatible with the area's stated wildland and tourism objectives. The first of these are the agricultural practices of squatters in the Park, whose actions -although illegal -are tolerated because of the country's need for agricultural land. Other non-umfoming activities in the Park are nonetheless legal under ministerial authority provided in enabling legislation (i.e., National Parks and Protected Areas Act of 1975). For example, many would consider ongoing hydropower development in the Park (which includes transformation of the Freshwater Lake -one of the Park's main attractions -into a reservoir to expand generating capacity) to be a non-confoming use of the resource. (See also Section 6 of the Profile.) One of the objectives for the Morne Trois Pitons National Park as stated in the Forestry Division's Management Plan for the site is to gradually eliminate or control damaging or incompatible uses (Scheele, 1989a). With respect to the cultivators, reportedly a healthy and cooperative working relationship has been developed between them and the Forestry Division (pers. commun., F. Gregoire, Director of Forestry and Widlife, 1990), thus, presumably, limiting the damaging effects of their activities. However, with regard to the Hydroeledric Expansion Roject, the Division had tittle control over or input to decisions made by other GOCD agencies in the Project's planning and design stages, even though such decisions would impact on the Park. As discussed in detail in Section 6, the sustainabiity and economic benefits of the hydro project, particularly after all costs -both external and internal -are considered, remain unknown. Certainly the scale and nature of such projects, and their cumulative impads within the eontext of a small island such as Dominica, have implications for the country's emerging tourist image as "the nature island' destination of the Caribbean. Several other developments are under consideration which could threaten the environment around the Morne Trois Pitons National Park and present diff~cult challenges for Park staff. These include a road access across the southern portion of the Park (i.e., transforming the Grand Fond track into a road), geothermal energy development, and shortening the hiking distance to Boiling Lake by building a road from Morne Prosper to a point doser to the Lake. The Director of Forestry and Widlife @IS. commun., F. Gregoire, 1990) is probably mect when he argues that the road is defensible given that the hike to the lake is presently long and strenuous and that only about 1.6 km (1 mile) of the road would fall within Park boundaries. 2.1.3 Policy Remmmendatlonr MORE EFFICIENT, APPROPRIATE AND INTENSIVE LAND USE Perhaps the most fundamental problem facing the managers of Dominica's forests

PAGE 70

istherapidtycxpandhgpressureontbisresource as a source. of timber, fuelwwd and ehardandmaaareain~~ forcropcultivation. Muchofthispre~sureon the resource. could be red& howcvcr, inasmuch as most of the country's requirements for forest resources or for land now under natural forest could be met (1) in areas that already have been dcared or otherwise disturbed and (2) through more efficient utilization of the resource base. Gi tbis general observation, the following specific policies arc rcarmmended. (1) steps mcd to be taken by GOCDtoearuretheprotcctionofthoscareas which are appropriate only for wildlife -vation, watershed protection, don, nature tomism and biological diversity. Examples indude lands too steep for sustaiDsMc cuhath, commercial forestry a other human a&tieS; areas of montane and elfin forcst (due to d type, poor quality or stunted timber, or inam); and other arcas Whichareuniquebyvimteoftbeiusce~floral or fad charaderistia or their overall contributica to the natural heritage of the country. Tbc spcdfie ncommcnbtioas of shanlcsandPutncy(1979)fortheanocatiolrof state lands and sane privately-owncd lands to protcdedarea~shouldbemritwcdand updated by For& and Park Service. staff. ThisactionhasbcensugBcstcdbynmnerous invcstigStors sina the Forest and Park System Plan,eontaiaedintbcsbaatrandPotayrcpat, was first formllktcd Abo@ many of theparecLrtargctodin1979@oththoscthat have logg been private and thosc more reccntly'privab'ees3havtalreaaybccndured fucnitivatimorothcrpmposcq~ amounts of land remain nndistmbed which eMllabecoaaerdfor~lloqgthe line3 of the Shanks and Potay ncommcndations. PrioritiesmcdtobeestlblirbcdWhich assess high risk as opposed to lcss threatened areas. As already noted in this chapter, sina the mid-EWs the program of state land sales to private farmers has bccn impmvcd thrwghaeoordinated~bytbc ForestryDivisionandthcLadsadS~ Division Tbcqotstioawhichwwaccdrtobe addrcareduwbcthatbcnmfactrcmtimaay state land which is fa cnitivatim cm a sustainable, iaag-tcrm bask In 1979, Shanks andPotaysoggestedthatd1~hof1maIIoeated Govcrnmcnt laad (see Table 325)). odyS3Ohaweresuitabkfornluretoprivate omcdp. RmmwMy, all a most of tbislandbasalrcadybcenpivatiacdintbc interim elmn pr period (2) R~4)mmeabtims h Lnd laeeontrolforspcdfiezo~cswithintkfacst ~~aawbdqg~byGOcD with the rcsirt.Da of FAO. A Facst M-cnt PLn will be prepad which givcsbrlaaccdcolrddaaboa tolaodcapabay lcsmmomandtothe~asRn as emsantioa choice5 v-g the nation. GOCDabouldadoptaFarestlUfP rgcmcntpt.n&~.ppopri.tcRttiqeoftbc doarmeotwwinprepurtiollandsbooldbc pnpucdtotakestcpstoclgmcitscnforab mcntmaithasbcenpotinplrc

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PRECEPTS ON SOCIAL FORESTRY The term social forestry has been used to distinguish a new approach to the management d trees, which is dKferent from the technically and commercially directed development that previously prevailed in the field. Commercial forestry deals with trees on a large scale, in monocrop operations, and without involvement of the people who live in and around the forests. Conventional approaches often appear to regard people as enemies rather than as partners in forest management and include no more local institutional development than assigning a few technicians and many forest guards. Social forestry recognizes the need for associating local people closely with any forest management effort. In social forestry, trees are managed in association with other plants and animals, often in small or fragmented areas. Multiple uses not necessarily for market sales are emphasized, and management is done largely by the people living nearby and primarily for their benefit. Users of forest resources are an ambiguous group even when the resources themselves are readily identifiable and delimitable. Not only do persons in the immediate area utilize the resources, but outsiders may use them as well. Therefore, vduntary user groups cannot be relied upon as a management institution. More authoritative institutions, such as local governments, are usually required to regulate outside as well as local resource use and to mobilize people's time and funds for improving the resource base. Successful forestry management depends on the cooperation of the poorer strata in rural areas as well as the richer ones. Although local governments are often dominated by the more substantial dements of the community, they are more likely than central government agencies to produce a consensus on a resource management regime that is broadly perceived as fair and binding. Wth appropriate technical guidance, locally elected bodies at the village level can provlde effective institutional support for small social forestry schemes. However, simply assigning certain responsibilities to local government within administrat'wdy conceived and implemented social forestry programs is not the answer. Since the benefits from planting and protecting trees are relatively long-term, before local people will commit their time and Mort to forest management, they will usually require unambiguous control over use rights and benefits. The local government should therefore be given clear responsibility for the resources, and all 3r most of the immediate benefits from improved management should accrue to the community. If by doing this forests are preserved, soil erosion reduced, and the water cycle protected, there are obvious gains at the national level as well. 'Source: Uphoff, 1986. (4) More efficient land use Section 3, many farmers could increase yields, practices need to be encouraged, for example, and thus their incomes, through employment through extension efforts and land reform of more efficient cultivation techniques on programs, as one means to minimize pressure lands already cleared. An expanded on remaining natural areas. As discussed in commitment to farmer education and exten

PAGE 72

sionisrequired,particularlyiflandoserrgulaIions for protected forests, or other p tected 'zollej' were implemented and enforced (5) Substantial amounts of timbcrarewastedasaresult ofknddearhg for agriculture and for timber barvesting as currently carried out by the island's mcehanieal logging operations (DTL and m. Reeommendations for the logging operations are disawzd in the fonowiq sub-se'iion; with resped to timber waste as a nsuh of land clearing, a primary problem appears to be lack of coordination between those dearing the hd and those who dd utilize the felled trees, e& for lumber products, fuelwood, or chard The Foresby Division and/or the Small hber Producers Group should taLc a lead in improving information erchaDgc within this network of rwurce users (e& sawyers, chard producers, and farmers). (6) More emphasis should be placed on promoting agrofonstry and plantation forestry on private Land A study of agroforestry in the Marigot~ehrine Hall area (Fehr, 1W) revealed that .grofonstry was seldom pctiQd and its potential bedits rarefy exploited to their full extent. A similar situation undoubtedly exists m many other palisofthecouneyaudmuldbeimpravcdby expansion of cooperative programs bctwccn the Divisions of Forestry and Agrim both housed within the Ministry of Agricultllre (see also sidebar on Social Foreshy). Atprwent,theleisvimLany~)plantation forestry being practiced on private land despite the probable eCOllOmic benetits of doing so in many areas (e.& the west coast). An incentive program for plantation foreshy 0nprivatelandwasdevelopedbytheForaby Division, but approval for the program has not been 5onght (Prim, 1987). anizcd timber be bcaa cmbPIW. Tbe Fonst tbhapncnt PLq aurcdy in formularioswill~cuuiagand~ ment atseriptionr dcsigDcd for snstamaMc fonstry oa fonst mseTYe6 and umkated state lands. Such rcgrJltioas ahonld be adoptedbyGovcmment,andif,wbcoimpiG mented,theyrmnotfoUowcdbycaomadal hlgging~soehvcnhptsahonldbetcrminaked. In the interim, giKn that GOCD oam some M percent d the sbana d r Trh Limited (DTL), mc .ppmrh to im~lumsticlgandotbcrfmstmanagcmerd practices would be cstablbhment d aa independent board to moaitor and repiate the operations of the coantry's W bggers (at present, DTL and NEI-). On private laods, the in ~~rcgulatingthecslrblhbment of Protected Forcsts and control of land meprsetiadinsuch~~timba hamsting. should be more widely cmplapd byGOCD(seealsorcamunendathnumba three h tbe preceding sub-&). park site, aompehg demands fa use of the As discussed elsewhere in this chap resource base have intensilied in resent ycarg ter, it is important that the operations of the e& for hydropower development, gbotbcrmrl cows taro relatively large-scale and me&power development, power thanankh, road

PAGE 73

development, and, in some lcetions, cultivation. Such demands are often in dircd contlict with the more traditional objectives of park land use, namely, wnservation of wildlife, enhancement of biodiversity, and passive "wilderness" recreation. At prescnt, no policy directive or wnsensus appears to have been developed on what is an appropriate balance between these competing interests. The larger issue of defining the kind of park system desired by the majority of Dominim has not been addrd at the policy-malting levels of Government. For example, should additional large-scale energy projects or other major developments be permitted within park boundaries? If such activities are approved, should environmental impact studies be required as a condition of approval, as well as the submiision of a plan for environmental impact mitigation measures? Alternatively, should such activities be prohibited in order to maintain national parks in an environmentally pristine condition? In light of the not-so-gradual chipping away at park resowees that has occurred in rwnt years and the variety of projects currently under consideration, such an attempt to arrive at a wnsensus on pnontin'ng park objectives is particularly important. There is no indication that the recently formulated Park Management Plan for the Morne Trois Pitons National Park, which covers the years 19902000 (Scheele, 1989a), induded an opportunity for public or community input, particularly on the subject of definiog long-term park objectives. In any event, the objectives described for the plan are those of the Division of Forestry and Wildlife, which, in turn, advises Government on policy. They do not necessarily reflect any dear wnsensual wmmitment on the part of GOCD on priority objectives for park development in Dominica or on the ultimate direction for future development of the Morne Trois Pitons National Park, in particular. 2.2.1 Overview Dominica is host to the most diverse assemblage of wildlife remaining in the smaller Eastern Can'bbean islands, with buds and bats particularly well represented. Although no one doeument covers aU the major invertebrate and vertebrate groups, there is a substantial body of literature which resulted in part from the Bredin-Archbold biological surveys conducted in the 1960's (eg., Chace and Hobbs, 1969; Jones and Schwa 1%7; Schwartz and Jones, 1967). plus several more recent reviem (Evans, 1986a, 1988, 1989, Faaborg and Arendt, 1985, Swank and Julien, 1975). For this section of the Profile, wmmon usage has been employed, and the term "wildlife' includes vertebrates and terrestrial and aquatic decapod crustaceans -the larger, more familiar animals in the idand's ecaqstems. A brief discussion of each group follows, stressing diversity within the group, species currently recognized as unique to Dominica, and human utilizatioa DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS The decapod fauna of Dominica indudes eleven species of freshwater shrimp and twenty species of freshwater or terrestrial to semi-terrestrial aabs (Swank and Julien, 1975). There are no species endemic to Dominica, and most are widely distributed in the Caribbean (Chace and Hobbs, 1969). Except for one crab, the larvae of these animals require some salinity to complete development (varying from estuarine wnditions to full-strength seawater). Some of the most remarkable West Indian biological phenomena are a result of the seasonal mass migrations of several land crab species, from dispersed, inland populations to dense aggregations at the shore where they release their larvae en maw. For these spedes, in particular, recruitment of larvae (and therefore genetic exchange) from other islands is likely, so Dominican populations are probably not genetically distinct. If catastrophic destruction of shrimp or crab populations in Dominica occurred, those species with

PAGE 74

abundant marhe Lrvae would likely rcmvw most rapidly. For spcdcs whose link to the sea is weaker or broken i.e, larval development is completed in fresh or la*csatinity watu-ldadaptahnispossiblebutreawcry from extirpation arwld be slower. Tbctwc~tyaabspcdcs.retodogicallydivcrssbatmostormrineoastalbabitats. S~aretypicallyf~undinor~tbc wave-splash zone on marine Jhons, three ormr in reduced-salinity waters of partially blocked river mouths, and six more occupy low-eldon swamps and mod flats. Taro oceor in wet arcar foabcr into tk interior, induding~marginsandsccpagesitc5,and thrce ormr away from surfaa water, bat avoid desiccation by taking refuge ondcr stom or in damp soil (Cbace and H* 1969). Three of thc larger crabs are oommonly sought as food: the freshwater crab ('Ciripucs3. Guinobir &ntato, &c white crab ('Corbo3. canfka~ gurmhumi, and the black crab, Gscorcinrrr nuicdo (Zamore. ad). Tbefdwatmfisbfaunrofthe LeaserAntillesisnotwCnstudiad,butapparcntlyineludcsnospcfieswhichomvwdnkly in (Bauchot, l959). AU thc known famitier Poeriliidae, I\llguillidac, Gobiidee, Eleotridae. Mogilidac. Gc* Ctnbopomidae, and Carmgkhe can mmc betpRenbesbdsakwater,andsomcrprwn atsea AkhoogbtheCEPtcameooldideabify no pnbkhcd speck list fa Domini* a reantcokdonmadcbyateamhtheUni~~of~kLcfcldbhooscd~thC~~ Division m Roseau. Fda 6sh, partie0larly he mountain mullet (Agmactomu l%ercpli*hauismae~-0fkatCagmdr (Spkm&qh miadcpir hg bcca rtcadadakhoughadycathcbgisdm spccimu,mOcctcdavcr2syuralgDX~ ~andooetortoirc(B0lM;dEvanq 1990, Raioy, d ol, 1987 ). iDdpdCd b cFqmdm= sp, a rrmll 1(pmiomfyomtmrdad)*as~ butncAOtedmQebr~ry1986(R.iacy,d ol,1987/dhgmcbccaobraRdsina an^). Ofthenineaka LiPrdspeck,mare~ Fo~rdthc snakesare~as~ADti&.pc~ dealkTh~~dl?h&m% .. is a Ltssu Adkan adanic, limited to a fca isLsdsiladmmchrednadin~llmnbcrsrmalld tbcm. Tbetartoirc(Gsahdau-), ptspmadtobemrborighul~~ didaaaSinthengLa(Corrc.l990), hrrhobssRdinthcaildmP @ax.eommrm,P.EvanqP Moltiplc LaDd Use Roj, 1990).

PAGE 75

Table 2.2(1). Terrestrhl reptiles and amphibians recorded in Dominica. REPTILES Temtudines (Tultles) Gemhelone carbonaria Saurir (Uzards) Sphaerodactylus vincenti Sphaerodaciylus microlepis Spheerodactylus fantastlcus Thecadaclylus rapicaude Hemidaclyh mabouia Iguana delicatlssima Anolis oculatus Mabuya mabouya Serpentes (Snakes) Typhlops dminicana Boa constrictor Alsophis antillensis Liophis jullae Clelia clelia AMPHlBlA (Frogs) Eleutherodactylos martinicensis Leptodactylus fallax lntroduced by man Nathre and endemic of West lndies Native and endemic of West indies Native and endemic of West lndies Native but also native in Trinidad/ Tobago and/or the South/Central American mainland introduced by man Native and endemic of West lndies Dominican endemic Native but also native in Trinidad/ Tobago and/or the South/Centrai American mainland Dominican endemic Native and endemic of West indies Probably lntroduced by man Lesser Antiliean endemic Lesser Antillean endemic Lesser Antillean endemic Lesser Antiilean endemic Native but also native in Trinidad/ Tobago and/or the South/Central American mainland Natlve and endemic of West lndies Lesser Antiliean endemic Source: Bullock and Evans, 1990; Rainey, et a/.. 1987. BIRDS Dominica's bud fauna is the most diverse in the Lesser Antilles, and there are several recent studies of habitat, distribution and conservation status (Evans, 1986a, 1989; Faaborg and Arendt, 1985; Swank and Julien, 1975). Evans (pe.rs. commun., 1990) presently reports 166 speaes, many of which are migratory. Fi-nine species breed on the island. The best known are the two endemic parrots, the imperial ("Sisserou") Amozona imperialis, and the red-necked CJaquot"), Amozona arausiaca. Based on field work between 1982 and 1987, Evans (1988) estimated that the total populations for these endangered species reached levels as low as about 60 imperials and 200 red-necks. However, both have shown signs of recovery; estimates for 1990 stand at about 80 imperials and 300-4M) red-necks, but the analysis is not yet complete (pers. commun., P. Evans, 1990,

PAGE 76

see also Butler, 1W). Pi 241) and 242) illustrate the d&e in the distribution of the two parrm sina 1950. Other species d limited distribution @omiaica and other Antillcan irlaads) arc the endangered &&-capped petrel (Plerodromo hprirmo), once thought dnct on Domiaicabut~capturul*and obsmed flyiog inland at dust (Evanr, 1986a, 1989), the blueheaded hummingbird (+me phoicr bicdw), the phanbeoos warbler (Dmctmica pbunbea), the scaly-breasted thrasher (Mmgmopr ficus), the trembler (W ~JiuludU), and the fore~t thrush(-. .. kr on other Eastern Caribbean islands, there is a huntisg season (from the beginning of September to the end of February) for pigeons, doves and a number of other birds. MAMMALS ~arehRhh5perkSdD.tiR m.mmrl. on Dominica, all bats, tbc bighest dimsityintheLcsScrAnti&s~d G=~R m, Enm, mR.iney,d& 1981) (= T* 22(2)). oIIC d (bcsc, Epaiaufucarr,~wrsiOin~ and Evanr, 1985). With the Id tbc agouti,thepriMfarcSfrLlmlmm.k(sir spe&3,*iadndiqgopoawm,ahipd Norrvayrats,housemomc,adpig)nacib tmduccd m historie time. Tbe agaati is gemeraUy considered to be an hoddm bg Amm early histaic timts. Tbc opossm.4goutidpigmallhuutcdfor food TbebatsiudndeoaceademicspccLS + .. -j&tP=mer4Aiw,*4., and Bm+ph#h. Nuiarand fmitethg batspollinrteanddispcrscthesadsda sipihot number of bopial trees and shrubs, iadodiag scvcd b importpnt cmpa Table 2.2(2). Bats recorded hom Dominica (1986). CariweenandmahlandSo./CenWknerlce LeswrAmlkandmaintsndso.knerlce ~endemlC(nowconRnedt0~~) ~~andmaintsndsaknerlce cariweanandmaintsndSo./CenWAmerica LemerMleanendemlc meanendemic cariweanandmahlandsa/CenWknerlce DolMkanendemic cariweanandmahlandknrlce Caribbean and malnhnd knerlce ~andmakJandSo.CenbalAmerica Sources: 1 = Bake~andGenowa~1978 2 = Hill and Evans. 1985 3 =Evans, 1985

PAGE 77

DOMINICA/DISTRUBUTION OF THE IMPERIAL PARROT 'I' Figure 241). Distribution of the imperial parrot ("Sisserou'), Amazona imperialis (source: Evans, 1988).

PAGE 78

WlLDLlFE MANAGEMENT AND MSTTnmONS The Division of Forestry and Wildlife is rcspoasible for wildlife mqment and protection in the country (see also Won 11). A key responsibility is enforcement of the Forestry and WWe Ad and its provisiom for a closed hunting season, which extends from March 1 through Augurt 31 of each yar. In light of their endangered status, the amservation of the wunby's two endemic parrot s@ is one of the Won's priority amam A parrot lookout has been eneted in the Syndicate Estate area, and some attempts have been made to acquire private lands, comprising prime parrot habii for protdon of the spedes. With support from the International Comcil for Bud Reservation (ICBP) and the RARE Center for Tropical Bird Preservation, appmximatcly 200 ac in the Dominica Fruit Syndicate/Dyer Estate area have been acquired for a pmt -. This particular program, Lnm locally as Projed Ssseroy was finalid in August 1989 (pers. eommun, F. Grtgoire, Dircdor, Forestry and Wildlife Divisioq 1990), altho@ it is refognizcd by Forestry offidaL that continued CfTorts aimed at parrot protection and wildlife ducation must be smngtbend (Christian, A., 1W). The legislation wbieh pertains most directly to arildtile manageinent is the Foreshy and Wildlife Ad of 1976, as amended (ye also Seuion 11). It focuses on the pm~& of wi)d fauna and on management of form and forest resem for the pmtcetion of wildlife. Marhnum penalties for violat& of the Ad presently stand at ECSS,oOO mrd three years impisonmeat for offenses related to parrots and ECSIUX) and/or three months in jail for violations pertaining to other spedu The Ad also anthim the creation of wildlife rescrws Dominica has nd ye4 bme party to the Cooycntion on International Tnde in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Rora (CITES). Since it came into force in 1975, ClTES has maintained a global system of import and export controls to emure that international trade does not threaten the world's IlABlTAT REWCnON AND ALTeRAl'iON Wildlifchabitatreduaioq~associatedwith&f~issuqhrrCgpltCd prLnarilyhtheupnsiandgicoltmc (=pedaUy coltivatiaa) illlo facst lands (see ktica 212 above). However, Dormnrcl's rmuhbg forest TCSC~~ arc w( prcunUy m+ to

PAGE 79

DOMINICA/DISTRIBUTION OF THE RED-NECKED PARROT 'I" Figure 2.2(2). Distributton of the red-necked parrot CJacquot"). Amazona arausiaca (source: Evans, 1988).

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THE WUlNlCA MULTIPLE LAND USE PROJECT A healthy emsystem k? comprised d a varimy d sustainable plan and anid commct nkles. Since 1982, a kmg-tenn research elfort. the Domlnlca Multiple Land Use Projed, hss been seeking to idemtfy lnformaEbn wMch wll help Domlnlca maintain such dhrsby and richness by spedRcally szudying the elfeds on naa and fauna d dlfkrmt tonns d land and resource use. Under the dhedbn d Dr. Peter G.H. Evans, an Odord U~~ pop lation geneticist with a paMcular interest in camawka Mdogy, the pmject has conducted some d the most intenshre Reld research on the Wand in recent years. The fad Mat this re search is being undertaken over a relativsly long period hwwses Its value to UN cMry. I In mch natural bbbl rr*d as a study dte, the proled has determined the dm d spedes. thelr densities and the wecies comWion for Ms. mammels rePHeg bmerI #leg, and woody plsrrts. The same data were &an cdtected from adjacent aMat heve been modified through logglng, agrialture, or by natural dlsturbana, (e.0.. hmicams). Some d the study's main conduskns as d 1989 indude (Evans, 1989): I grown together at nc4 too high dmsilies and in relathrely Ion& namm plantatbns ll& ere ates a high tatlo d edge to canter and tlmreby beneRts a bvider army d anlmal spedea Add& tionally, the great majority d nathre species d mammals and forest birds corkl be anserved through the maintenance d forested conidors d at least 10 m width btllwaen pk&tbm A few species, however, namety those Mat occur at low dmsWs (e.g.. the two pands and the forest thrush), do require large areas d Intau forest for scavhral. Coconuts,cdfee,andcocoacanalsobe~wlthoutOreafhsrmtowldlles long as them tree crops are in mbmd plantings wgh other species such as mango, dauS and pewpew and have undisturbed forest tracts nearby. RcU cmps and shubs such as guava and bay leaf support little wWllfe; thus, they are best adhated beneath or dongside trees wafewspeciesfa~ctreecmpssudtasbanena.dbugandmconutwhsn aMwted by themselves However, in seasadly dry areas an emnwlehbn d led Ikter h plantatkns (particularly coconut) wll wpport a reasonable bbmess d reptles and a veriety d badly spedes. Plantatkm with fruit crops amad bats which cause some damaga but this can be reduced by mMng the stands with norrfood plants presme0nly~plantspceics;wrotiQ haw been and are being planted, while stands of native species, notably gommier, may be at least in some locations (see Section 212 above). Even-aged plantatioas of exotic timber trees typidy are almost free of 6 wildlife; even mixed tree constitute better habitat. For smaller endemic rain forest species, the Ws exi&g forest resem or parks likely assure species sunid, so long as substantial &ads of natk forest are ntaiocd But to the extent that nath forest within the resenres is replad by exotic Rain forest areas are mt tbe only important natorPl habitat nqPbiqe pottim Coaullarmdlandsad~pucmw reprrsentbd by 0nly pstebcs. more important of the idand's wahk (c& Cabrits Swamp, ldaa Rivw Flats Cadkld Pod, and North Coast Swamps) form feeding grounds for numerous spc&s d a@ntiq

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buds including waders, egrets, herons, waterfowl and North American passerines. The coastal woodlands are the most important habitat for reptiles. They also support most of the island's 53 butterflies and many buds and bats (Evans, 1989). The ongoing investigations of the Dominica Multiple Land Use Project will help determine habitat requirements for various species, both on agricultural lands and for various kinds of natural areas. For example, the project's ecological studies have revealed that mixed plantations of bananas and citrus as widely practiced in the country are probably the best fonn of land use for animal and plant communities as long as there are corridors of forest behveen plantations and a suftiuently large area of forest to preserve particular speaes (Evans, 1986b). A significant expansion of cultivation and/or environmentally-harmful forestry practices within a given watershed also have an adverse effect on stream habitat through soil erosion, stream bed scour, sedimentation, and increases in water flow variability. Low flow periods will be lower and peaks higher. Increased peak discharges will carry more sediment, and stream beds will be more heavily scoured. Increased amounts of be sediment released from eroding slopes may MI the interstices among pebbles, cobbles, and boulders and create a habitat less favorable to animals which rely on these spaces as a primary refuge under difficult conditions. Dwing periods of low flow, as in the dry season when aquatic animals may concentrate in small pond areas, removing the forest canopy and exposing pools to sunlight can significantly warm the water and reduce available oxygen. Sunlight and additional nutrients (from soil erosion and fertilizer) also enhance algal growth, which can deplete oxygen at night in small pools with low-flow rates. Decomposing organic matter in the water also consumes oxygen. Reductions in available oxygen can either stress or kill sensitive organisms and contribute to changing the species composition of aquatic communities. These concerns, however, do not apply in those parts of Dominica where elevated dissolved oxygen levels are maintained as a consequence of the freely-flowin& rapid movement of water in streams. AGROCHEMICAL POLLUTION Qualitative and quantitative observations in and around banana cultivations reveal no marked population declines in common terrestrial vertebrates @ids, bats and one amphibian) that might be attributable to pesticide contamination (see Rainey, et al., 1987). However, isolated instances of bud mortality associated with agroehemicals applied dwing planting have been reported. Furadan, a nematicide used in bananas, has caused many bud kills in the US. and may present a similar risk in Dominica. Water pollutants, including pesticides, have caused fish kills in local strcams and rivers, but information is available on only isolated events. While there is cause for coucern, if only from a human water quality perspective, the scale of the problem is unclear. Native shrimp spanning a range of ages are present in small streams running through banana cultivations. Since these species are thought to be fairly sensitive to several of the pesticides used, their presence suggests contamination, at least in these upland areas, is episodic rather than continuous. Fish kills also provide a warning that expansion of aquaculture may be restricted by pestiades in run-off. More closely monitored and controlled agricultural practices (e.g., maintenance of buffer strips of native vegetation along stream courses) would benefit aquaculture, water quality for human use, and native fauna. ILLEGAL HUNTING AND LIVE CAPIZTRE OF WnDLlFE Despite legal protection and a maximum penalty of ECS5,OOO and three years imprisonment, the hunting and capture of parrots continues to pose a threat due to problems associated with enforcement. However, only one to three buds per year are estimated to be hunted or captured (Johnson, 1988).

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h nstiR reptiles, tk mountain chiclren,orcrapaud,adtbccdiMciguanaare under pmsurc as preferred food souras. Jguana hunting has been iILegsl shKe 1976 but is still practiced, amik mud huuting is restricted to the open susoa Neither specits is threatened with extinction, bat the iguana is uncommon and Mllnerabk (Evans, 1989). EABlTAT REDUCTSON AND ALTeRATlON Ha reddon and ahcntion are the direct result of proMcm associated with agricoltnral expapsion and deforestation, issues which are diseusscd m some detail else where in the Pro&. Specific recommend.tions pertaining to these issues are pmvided in Worn 213 and 33. On thc basis d studies fa the ~M~kadUseRojod.Enns (1989) recommends that specific arcar d importance to wildbife should be pmtcded as 6 forest habitat indnding the dopes of Mom Diablotin both resend and non-rescmddons-andvariousscctlandand d woodland arurr (some wtbmk might be~edasprotccted~onderthe RAhfsAR ~)~~'velrtion). Si rcaommcndatiops have beem made in propods fa tbc eJtPMLhmentofa&p.rL.tMaac Diablotin (ICBP, 1990). and GOCD n cncowaged to explore thc fe~i of lbesc ruxrmmcndatioac, a some Wbyt indudesthcmostuitical-fatheprcsavationofwildlifeandbiodivrrsay. BUNTING AND mG

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Additionally, this group of resource users could provide useful information on breeding and other behavioral patterns required for better wildlife management. At present, for example, only one open season exists for all hunted species, and there is no limit on the number of animals that can be taken during this period. In some cases this season corresponds with a particular animal's breeding period. The Director of Forestry and Widlife (pers. commun., F. Gregoire, 1990) has pointed out that little is known about the carrying capacity of certain species for hunting, but more data, as well as greater enforcement capabiity, are required before different hunting seasons, bag limits, and other management systems could be practically established and subsequently enforced. A hunters assofiation might provide assistance to Forestry personnel in all of these efforts. Finally, a proposal for Dominica to join CITES has been supported by the Forestry Division since 1980, an initiative also endorsed more recently by several consultants and researchers (Butler, 1989; Johnson, 1988; Evans, 1988,1989,1990, and Lausche, 1986).

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Dominica, more thaa most other comtries in the Eastern car'lbbean, depends heavily upon agriculture. In 1978, it accounted for 42 percent of the total gross d* mestic produd (GDP), forming the single most important seetor of Dominica's canomy. This percentage de&d immediately after the hurricanes David and Allen in 1979 and 1980, which destroyed aops and badly damaged houses, factories, roads and natural vegetation. By middecade agriculture had rtamred from its temporary dedine and accounted for 30 perant of GDP and 55 perant of export eamhgs, and occupied 60 percent of the labor force. Agriculture's contribution to GDP has remained stable at about 30 percent in more reant years, 293 percent in 1987 (GOCD, l988b) and 30.9 percent in 1988 (CDB, 1988). The history of Dominica's agriculture has been very much one of reliana upon singleaops. Thetirstwaswffce,pwnbythe French fond by SCBJUS during th~ late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Sugar maeased in prominence toward the end of the eighteenth century and through the nineteenth century whenever coffee suffered disease outbreaks. However, with the dcdioe of cheap labor after the abolition of slavery ncar the end of the nineteenth century upon which sugar estates were tkn dependent agricultural prodoeti00 shiRed to aJmafoItcrwedbylimes. By1920,Dominiea was the world's largest producer of limes, but disease combined with &an& martea forcaused a slump in the industry. There folldapericdof~foragriculture which lasted until about 1964 despite a shortlived boom in vanilla growing during the Semnd World War when supplies to the UK from the Far East were cut off. Over this period, bananas wen inertasiogfy grovm and were exported to Great Britain as early as the 1930's. Duriug the mid-1950's.. a amhchd arrangement with Gtest Industries guaraateed purchase of bananas on a 6xed price basis, and the modern era of banana growing besae Many of the emironmental pmblems that Dominica faces today are related to this historic emphasis on one or two q Dominica's natural vcgecation is disappcariDg at an a&* rate as land-hungry furnus dear fonstr for Egricuthm, at present primady for banYea much d this land is quite unsuitable for such acq while at tbe sametimethcrearelargeareasdcoltintrMc land elsewhen that are under-ntikd. Oae result has been iwcadqg prnsmts on wildlife, partiatlarly species whicb require largearcasofprimaryfaes!tosurvivcslrbra the nation's two endemic parrots Fadq cm steepslopesandthedunwedbus* cent to waterawrscr or which form + brch have also increased soil erosicm and nutrient loss though m4 during buvy rains. Although many of tbese proMans might be addrcsscd thou& impruved soil conservation edncation pmgrams for small farmers, many are also the result d saiaeoowmic factors bcpld thc contml d in&vidd farmers. An ecowmic rcvicar d the zpiaihlal sector is therefore patiDcol to any discosrion of the environmental poMems facing Donuma AsalsodiseussbdmSuiicaW.3, attempts am king made by Gownmcnt to diversirytheDammcan +cukal sector (sce Table 3.1(1)). The fdlowisg diraasioD focusesontheprincipalcmpscumdyeoltiwed in Dominica BANANAS Tbcllmknt~rropin DOmmK.is~aaaoatiogfa70 pcrec~toftoulcrportrd4Opaccncdtbc total aaeage under euhivation (see Fw 3.1(1) 3.1(3)). In 1988 bgnanas accounted fa just under ECSlOO million in uport

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Table 3.1 (1). Dominlca agrlculturai production, 1987. Crop Tonnage %Total Value EC1'000 %Total Banana Root crops Citrus Vegetables Mango Coconut Plantain Cocoa Coffee Avocado Glnger Breadfruit Cut flowers Bay leaf Spices Source: GOCD. 1988b. earnings, far ahead of the second export earner (soap products) with just over ECS24 million in export inwme (see Section 1.3.3). About l2,000 of the 22,000 people employed in the agricultural sector grow bananas. Banana growing has been popular with farmers for three main reasons: (1) the assurance of a steady inwme since banana plants bear fruit year round; (2) existence of a guaranteed market to the United Kingdom through Gewt Industries, which visits the Windward Islands every week to collect for shipment all bananas of an acceptable standard; and (3) assistance provided to the growers by the Dominica Banana Marketing Corporation, e.g., provision of fertilizers and pesticides, mrdiition of packaging, and negotiation of banana marketing agreements. During the 197O1s, Dominican GDP declined due to a general worldwide economic recession and high energy prices. This decline particularly occurred within the agricultural and manufacturing sectors, with a steady fall in the production of export crops such as bananas. However, the 1980's has seen a recovery in the banana industry due to a wmbiination of factors: improved banana prices helped by better arrangements provided by the Dominica Banana Marketing Corporation; more favorable exchange rates; and improved production and quality of bananas resulting from better husbandry and packaging. Despite these improvements, the banana industry is not without its problems. There have been uncertainties regarding the loss of preferential market arrangements with the UK after the Unitary European Market

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Figum3.1(1). Dominica banana production. 1975 1989 (sar~e: DomHca Bam~8 Marketing Board. Roseau).

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Spices 1 Bay leaf Cut flowers Breadfruit Ginger Avocado Coffee F Cocoa U Plantain Coconut Mango Vegetables Citrus Root crops Banana Figure 3.1 (2). Crop production expressed as total annual production in tonnes of major agricultural crops (source: GOCD, 1988b). Others Breadfruit Spices Cut flowers Avocado Bay leaf Plantain Coma B Coffee 5 Coconut Mango Vegetables Citrus Banana Root Crops Figure 3.1(3). Various Dominican crops expressed as percentage of total value of agricultural production (at producer's price, not expolt earnings) (source: GOCD, 1~b)

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wvered, its place bcii taken by synthetic juices. Si 1984, the Eumpean Develop ment Fund has sponsored a rehabilitation program in an attempt to increase the amount of land planted with Limes. Other high quality trw oops selected indnde other citrus such as oranges and tangerines, mangoes, and avoeados. Although these account fn less than ten percent of the total due of a&dhval output (GOCD, l988b). they are bewming of inaeasing importance as export crops, both within and outside the region. COFFEE Coffee was ineodueed to DomiDica by French settlers in the eighteenth century and was grown on a krgc scale until towa~d the end of the nineteenth aahuy. Since then it has dedined steadily, particula~ly on the large estates, due to a wmbination of bad a&cultural practices, low priees and the wffee leaf miner pest (Honyehurcb, 1984). In the early 1950's and again in the mid-Ws, produdon inaeascd temporarily as a result of generally high world-market prim However, production fell drasticaUy ailer the hurricanes of l97!%80, and until very ready virmalty all wffee wnsnmed lo& wu imported from the United Kingdom (see ah Fies 13(2) and 13(3)). A two-phase wffee development project has been funded by BDD (phase taro now in operaticm), with four htmddae~soflandschedulcdformtTee production As a result, Bello Roduds hns med to sell local wffee, and this mdd help med the eaisthg demand COCOA Gnna pod& became important at the end of the nirrcteenth century. Although bigher yield mi& of wwa have been planted since the Sewnd World War, the low price obtained for cowa kept development down, and the poor prwxsbg of the cropkeptpriQslow. Rodudiouiweasedin thel%O'sandagaininthe197(Ys,butako sufiered from the hurricanes of 1979-80. A few -nably large stands (averaging 70 aaes) of mwa am grown on private estates, and numerous smaller holders pmduce camp Iot~lbwt400acrcsofLod.rc~ totheaop,butrcantIyUSAID'sHIAMP prqgnmhaspmidedsuppmtfu1M-d laodwithtbeihnofpoducisgl,ooopoaeQ ofwwaperaereandodlwtbcr-to Yield m m per (U-, 1986). Piansdformopcrativcsaudgowa~ ations to lata take over the managemcat d this Crop. Domtma brtuportedcoo~~in any si@cant amount in 1983. H-, in 1990, the -based tirm, WorM's Fi Choa,latc, inc, pmposcd a pamntccd pria of US125 more than the cmre~t arald-market price (i.e, 64 ants pm per pomtd) ad gawj a wmhent to buy an wcoa pmdnad inDominica. CaoahtbeCaribbun(im mmparis0nwiththatof~andBBrad)is said to be of better quality ad bas a matmd tlawrthatisanasetinthepnnhdondhigh qualitychomlatu ROOT CROPS AND VecBFMLPS

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domestic consumption or for export to other islands in thc region via the huckster trade. Crops grown are cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbages, carrots, peppers, aubergines and pigeon peas, while in the Carib territory, farmers often grow soy beans which are not presently exported. Livestock foms only one to two percent of GDP. Although cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and chickens are all reared on the island, increasing quantities of meat are imported. In 1982, meat and meat products acwunted for 43 percent of total imports, and butter, milk and cheese 35 percent. Forty-six percent of farms own poultry, and yet 30 percent of imported meat is chicken, mainly because of its low price (Mendelssohn, 1983; Evans, 1986b). There are no local hatcheries so chicks are imported as is feed. On the other hand, the country is self-sufficient in eggs. Sheep may be one area of livestock production that could be developed since they require lower capital outlays than cattle and can subsist on relatively poor grazing without the need for costly supplement feeds. However, at present, sheep breeding in Dominica is characterized as a subsistence activity with a high mortality rate, minimal growth, poor herd reproduction, and inadequate husbandry practices. In this context, the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture @CA) has been supporting small-scale sheep production in collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture and CARDI. Eight farms have been monitored weekly to assess feeding regimes, flock size, health factors and breeding performance in terms of overall profitgenerating potential. Emphasis has been placed on developing aop/livestock compatible systems, and farmers have been enwuraged to adopt new rewmmendations. It is projected that self-sufficiency in sheep production could be achieved by 1992. OTHER VENTURES Aloe vem is a recent specialty aop which has been grown since 1984 at Petit Coulibri Estate, near Soufriere, for export to the United States. One hundred acres are now under cultivation on the Estate, and plants are provided to about fifty farmers elsewhere on the island. USAID, though its HIAMP pr* gram, provided a grant for the establishment of carambola (star fruit) nurseries. Additionally, research and development on cardamon production in Dominica has shown that it can be grown successfully and has commercial potential in export markets to the Middle East, trans-shipping through the United Kingdom and using the services of Central American spice brokers (USAID, 1986). In recent years there has been an increasingly important market in ornamental plants and cut flowers, particularly anthuriums and ginger Lilies. These are exported mainly within the region via the huckster trade, but some are also sent to the United States and the United Kingdom. The Forestry Division has been investigating the possibility of growing orchids on a commercial basis and has established an experimental orchid nursery in the Botanical Gardens. There is probably scope to expand this occupation further, involving other showy ornamentals as well as orchids whose growth is favored by a combination of tropical climate and high rainfall which Dominica, in particular, can offer. 3.1.2 Agreprocerrsing and Marketing Several products are now beii made from agricultural tree crops which can then be sold abroad. BeUo produces a variety of hit juices as weU as hot pepper sauce and coffee for export around the Caribbean, and recently Dominica Agro Industries (DM) on Bath Estate has begun receiving grapefruit from local farmers for processing. In January 1990, DAI suoeessfully marketed its entire output of grapefruit juice concentrate to an American tirm. The Government bas also provided grant aid through DEXIA (Dominica Export Import Agency) to Dominica Agro Industries for lime processing and for direct payment to growen for the sale of limes.

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Tbe regional market is of considerabk and growing importanoc to Dominica for fresh produce. By I!%, intra-regional trade accounted for 86 percent of the awntry's nonbPDana fresb product exports (USAID, 1986). The most @&ant crops are grapehit, orsqgcs,plantainanddasksalthoughtherc are plans to dewlop other fruit aq&such as pasionfruit. At present. Guadeloupc is the &e most bnp&nt regbud mirtct for such produce, followed by Antigua and Trinidad AspartofthcMinirtryofAgriculhue's Tropical Fmit and Spias mad, there are plans to establish 100 acres of pa.uionfnJt throughout the island for aport within the mi rcgioe USAID'S HIAMP projed has apprmrimatefy 2CNI aaes already cstablished m pa&&& Under this projcd. farmers who qualify are given ree plants wire, and otber inputs as required. Au fruits produd under the pnjed win be parchased by Corona Development, a local pmas&g -PY. BY regionat standards, 's coconut produaion 2,820 tonnes in 1987 (GOCD,1988b)-kalso~. These are proecJscd locally by Dominica Coaaut RoductsLtdattheBetlastEjtateandlargely exported as soap prodoas to Jamaica (HIAMP, 1986). Soap prodods mbiicd ECS2525 million to export camings in 1988, second in doe oaly to banaDas (GOCD, 1988b). 3.2 PROBLEMS AND ISSUES 3.21 The Ramm lndurtry Wh banana pLntatiom accotmtiq for approximately 5,061 k&ucs (UMO am) uuder adtidon (pa6 cornam, M. Didier, DBMC, 1990), the envimnmcntal and ea,nomic implications of ermcnt land nu practiccsemterinlargcm~onthcbanana mdustry. The eounhy's significaot dcpendency on one particular crop in this case,banaDas-pntsitmm 5 dnemMepositionsbopldadcamfm pkbefalltheaopamartctfaas~ change. Blnanssarecasilybbvndownby high winds and uc therefon puhbdy apcsedtob~andother61orn1~ -on,bym. wilt hnc to be more ampetitin: in be pmdncrion d high quality fruit if the industry is to smviK ~intheprotededUKorportmsrtet Tbcbundbanana~isc~ricd out by a SIMU number d puus in 1989, less th l5 perantddlgowrsp dnadabwltiftypuctntdtbetotllbanatu aop (DBMC, 1989). AMw& some d Lbcse arelargeLndaamuqLbacis.kolputvariation in production levels fa smJt Eumtn with similar-siatd &nt&ns oommon, G. Stedmre, FI Cmbuk, DBMC, 1990). Tkisiscausadbyanrictydbdon. the most impormut being tbe paaeylg: d time spent wortiqs the farm, dist.ncc d farm hbome,.vrilpbilitymdqualityd~ df~dtopqp.phiesitodoqand phdag and m-mt padks Maq fummareiammkq3lmsDiuMeMiDto ~~puticaLrfy~rtocp~ whaerpwadwatcrdnmimEsish~ and~~~bnmrrloodosctogctbcr (a. deb, 1CttiDg the blPlDg prOdecc ~hbo0cS~tbc~~)m thrt~eompctewitboaeawthcrfornobienls.

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THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF BANANA CULTIVATION Despite its dominant role In the overall economic development of Dominica, banana culthation comes with an environmental price tag which should not be overlooked. In the flrst place, most of the 'marginal" agricultural areas now supporting banana production have steep slopes which, if cropped at all, should be planted only with tree crops to ensure against soil erosion. The banana, however, is an herbaceous perennial species which, unlike a true tree crop, has a very shallow rooting system and no tap root. Therefore, whHe the plant's large leaves afford protection against rainfall damage where cropping panerns are dense, eroslon can be significant as the roots do lmle to stabilize the soil. This is less of a problem where ground provisions or other crops are interplanted with bananas, for example, on many small family farms. But in many Instances, steep slopes are the focus of commercial banana growers seeking short-term profits with little regard for longrange impacts. The ongoing destruction of forest cover, which has coincided with expansion of more profitable banana cultivation onto forested lands, is slowly altering the island's hydrological reglme. Without forest cover to slow the downsiope overland run-on of water, iess water is Infiltrating the ground, more water is running off, and iess is stored within the natural water system or aqulfer. One result of this is a lowered base flow in streams during dry periods, a development which is reducing water flow from some catchments and producing high sedimentation rates from accelerated erosion in unprotected upland areas. Single crop farming, as in the case of bananas, exhausts the natural nutrients in the soil; these are only marginally replaced by using artificial fertilizers because in wetter dimates like Dominica's much of the fertilizer input is lost through leaching. Monocrop agriculture also is vulnerable to pest infestation and requires more pesticide use to control disease. This may have detrimental effects upon other wildlife, whlie single crops tend to lead to reduced blodiversky and increased dominance by a few species. The Importance of this 'green gdd" crop to Dominica's economy has often disguised the fact that the natural and physical environment to support banana production is becoming increaslngly marginal a situation in no small measure resulting from the very impacts which banana cultivation has created. Bananas are particularly susceptible to wind damage. Every year between July and October, a proportion of the potential banana crop is lost through damage by high winds. During September 1989, despite the fact that Hurricane Hugo passed over only a small portion of Dominica causing little damage to forest trees, baaanas were destroyed over a large part of the island, resulting in a substantial loss of production (76 percent) for that month (DBMC, 1989). In the northwest of the island, the practice of leaving comdors of forest between bananas plantations to act as windbreaks has in times past sewed not only to give banana plants some protection but also to enrich the soil with nutrients provided by the deeperrooting systems of the neighboring forest trees. In recent years, however, with more land being turned into banana plantations, farmers have tended to cut into the windbreaks so that forest comdors, which once

PAGE 92

were 10-20 meters broad, are mw often no more than Iiw meters wide or even reduced to scattered isolated trees This not only has a detrimeatal em up baaaxm yields, it also has wider environmental implications, ie, re dudon of biodivcnity, of particular animak important for polbation, seed disped and regulation of inseU pests (Evans, 1%. 1989)access afforded to once remote areas by the comouetion of feeder roads. New roads haw ken built, and many existiq trscln surfad. While such roads haw had an Lvlired enviroluncntal impact by enhancing acetss to lands often unsuitable for agricolnue, they have improvcd the proporticn of KaptaMe fruit leaching exporters sin= reduced lmk of fruit are bruised aad tranqmt to boxing plantsiscasier. Ihcboxingoffndthasalso red4 fruit damage. In 1988, a contaker cardboard plant (ABC Cantainers) was estab lished at amamit to supply eardboPrd hues for the banana mdustry and other local nctds. Many farmers have now built Sman huts to house these boxes on site for ease of dmtim Dominica's nmgnition of the risks assoriated with over-dcpcndence. on a monocrop sgricuhwl base has M to the comlxy's experimentation with a m&ty d sops. Diversification has ban predicated on a number of factors, lbe more important Ew (1) Emphasis upon a single aq leaves the cwotJy% agrhmd Wor vulnerable to nahnal disasterg bananasareatpadcuhrrisLfmm hurricane and other storm damage which may not have as scvac an impact on other crops. (2) Monocrops usualy develop serious pest and disase probkms. D=&=hdi=d-w-cmp& vsrsi6cationisgaarllyEoosidacdtobea posibivc move (~cmaq 1987). md r p.escot .ppOuim;.teig5,m.~nqo~1~prrrs oftheidatld,animdaemtkfroit~ rminly-~somm~~ sugarappks~.vwdoBfa~toidcr~markets,~Emopc 'Ik total~faar(~ots~.t*cm 16@0, as dtbc 4 d 1989 (par ammo^. D. Frau&, Agriahe st.tistics Disisim, 1990). Tables 321). 322) md 323) rmiewdaop

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Table 3.2(1). Present and proposed fruit crop production in Dominica. crop Type Area (acres) Production (tons/annum) 1 985 1 995 1 985 1 995 Grapefruit 2,065 2,159 5,198 9,020 Oranges 1.21 7 1,417 580 2,800 Lims 1,235 1,305 1,220 3,175 Other citrus 50 80 75 200 Mango 598 712 600 1,740 Avocado 238 288 1 63 640 Source: BBD/Tropical Dsvelopment and Reserach Institute. 1986 Table 3.2(2). Environmental profiles for dmerent crops. Chemical Erosion Wind Wildlife Habitat Crop Type Usage Control Sensitivity Value Banana Coconut Citrus Avocado Guava cocoa Coffee Bay leaf Aloe Root Crops High LOW Low Low LOW Moderate Moderate Low High Low Poor Poor Moderate Moderate Moderate Good Moderate Good Poor Moderate Hbh Moderate Low Low Low Low Moderate Low Low Low Moderate Moderate Good Good Poor Moderate Moderate Poor ModeratePoor Very Poor Source: Oxford Universiiy/lCBP Dominica Multiple Land Use Roject (unpublished data),

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Table 3.2(3). Agricrlturel pdles for pa-r bee crops inacascdd~thelastdceadc. Thisha6 been carried ont to a large extent throagb a ~d~hoctstm-mrinlg~lme~ rho move amad nurby islauds bogiqg and 8dIiqfmmmctothcnca Damom hs betnparticoLrfyssQssfol.t~frnits (gapcfrpit.~~e,~~=w,-aops(dsbbeqt.nni.,~potato), and ~~lt flowers ( '' and ginP W).

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nation of information exchange between farmer and exporter is another important function of DEXIA. Such information includes updates on prices, market demand, boat schedules, freight rates, and financing arrangements. By improving the marketing of a range of crops, DEXIA aims to provide growers of such produce with more regular inwmes, such as that currently enjoyed by banana farmers. Other areas where development is taking place towards greater local or regional self-sufficiency are livestock production (particularly sheep), the growing of various herbs and spices for flavoring of foods, and floriculture. The Forestry Division has been investigating the passibiity of growing orchids on a commercial basis and has established an experimental orchid nursery in the Botanical Garden. Improved local self-sufficiency in agricultural products as well as expansion of the regional export market for ago-products depend on continued development of a multiple land-use policy, which in turn could have several important ecological benefits for the wuntry. First, it offers an opportunity for ap propriately linking land use with hd capability -the latter based on the differing characteristics of a given land area such as climate, soil type, and steepness of slope. A mosaic of habitats promotes biodiversity particularly if plant communities cultivated include herbs, shrubs and trees forming a number of vertical strata. From a wildlife conservation perspective, extensive areas of pasture for livestock or grassland with sugar or cereal crops are not to be recommended, but in a mosaic with patches of forest, biodiversity is encouraged by limited disturbance of the vegetation (Evans, 1986a,b; 1989). This gives rise to an "edge" effect where a relatively high proportion of the habitat is sufficiently open for colonizing species to flourish, bearing flowers and fruits that are important food for a variety of wildlife. Were these plants to dominate, on the other hand, as in herb meadows or scrub, the diversity of animal species that use forest trees would not occur; thus, a balance between the two is the best compromise. 3.2.4 Land Ownership and knd Use In the past, a high proportion of Dominica's land was owned by a few people. In a census carried out in 1%1, the wealthier 1.4 percent of farmers occupied 56.4 percent of the land. Sixty-nine percent of all holdings were less than two hectares and accounted for 3,135 hectares, whereas nine percent of holdings were more than 80 hectares and occupied 14,416 hectares (Weir's Agricultural Consulting Serv., 1980). The situation was little improved by 1975 (see Figures 3.2(1) and 3.2(2)). Sice independence in 1978, the large estates have declined in importance and have been either divided and sold or, in some cases, left to lie idle due to absentee landlords and a shortage of &cap labor to work the land (Narendran, 1980). Many of these estates are on the most fertile soils and so remain greatly under-utilized. Elsewhere, demand for land has resulted in Government distribution of crown land to farmers, usually in lots of less than four hectares. Table 3.2(4) summarizes available information on Government distribution of land prior to 1975, and Table. 3.2(5) shows the proportion of Government lands (allocated and unallocated) in comparison to privately-held lands in 1978. Sice then, feeder road construction following hurricanes David and Allen has opened up new areas and encouraged further sale of Government lands, despite the presence of under-utilized tracts of estate lands with reasonable access (McQuillan, 1984, UNDP, 1986, DeGeorges, 1988). Through GOCD's Integrated Rural Developmcnt Program and other land reform projects, several estates have been divided into small plots and distributed among local tenant farmers, e.g, Carholm in the center of the island; Melville Hall, Castle Bruce and Newfoundland in the east; Geneva, Bagatelle and Petite Savane in the southeast; and Soufriere in the south. Nevertheless, such distribution has not always prevented further encroachment into neighboring forested areas. For example, in the area around Governor Estate west of Melville Hall and Crown and Greg to the south, farmers are clearing both mature and secondary rain forest (Fehr,

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Size of farm unit less than 5.0 acres W 5.0 -9.9 10.0-49.9 5o.m mure 3.2(1). D&dbuth d land as percentage d holdings d different sized ~nitsasrepoltedinthe1975AgdcMu&Census(source: GOCD, 1975). Size of farm unit lessman 5.0 acres 5.0.-9.9 10.0-49.9 0 5o.w "Land distribution' Figure 3.2(2). Dtstr&*bn d hnd as percentage d acreage held h dlllerenr sbed units as reported in the 1975 AgrMtural Census (souce: GOCD, 1975).

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TaMe3.2(4). Government distribution of land in Dominica, 1950 1975. Lot Size 1-5 5-10 10-1 5 15-20 20 + (acres) No. of lots 435 949 278 84 63 Acreage 1,522 6,800 3.315 1,431 1,855 Source: Mendelssohn. 1983. Table 3.2(5). Dominica land ownership. 1978. No. of hectares Allocated Government Lands: Mome Trois Pions National Park 6.349 Central Forest Reserve 410 Northern Forest Reserve 8.814 Subtotal Total Allocated Government Lands 15,573 Unailocated Government Lands 10,526 Total Estimated Government Lands Total Privately Owned/Claimed Land Total Dominica Land Area 1989, P. Evans, pers observ.). At the same In a review of land use in Dominica, time, the division of old estates has not necesShanks and Putney (1979) estimated that only sarily been successful in terms of crop pro30 percent of the 79,000 hectares of total land duction, for example on the Castle Bruce and area was suitable for agriculture. Of this, 35 Geneva Estates (Weir's Agricultural Conpercent was occupied by farmers, but only 24 sulting Sew. Ltd., 1980). percent of the total suitable land was under

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permanent cultivatiorq large estates and private small holdings each ooeupyiag about half of this land. Since 1978, a sizeable portion of forest has been turned into agricuttural land so these figures are now considerably out of date. Unfortunately, a more reant preliminary map on vegetation and land use in Dominica prepared by the Orpwakm of American States (Md(cniic, 1987) contains a number of impatant errors in the dm* of boundaries and misinterpretations in dassification of wgrhtion types The ruuh is that it Ibe Oxford Univcrsay/ICBP Moltipk Land Use Rojcd in Dominica k cmrratly working on a new detailed vcgct.tim map doagwithitsbotanicalshldicscmtbcgrwnd, butthiseffortis~bgLaclrdmmprehensiveairpboto~~~~ngcdibeisl.ld In Dominies's NaIkmd Snnium R.0 (GOCD, 1985). an &mated 19,844 bcdans (k, 143 percent of land area) d ~~ bod is Table 3.2(6). Edsting and proposed land use arees, Ikminice h-1. 46.1 tmo

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expected to be transferred to more intensive use (mainly conservation but also agriculture and to a small extent settlement) by the year 2001 (Table 3.2(6)). Of this total, 17,827 heztares are proposed for conservation and only 1,700 hectares for agriculture (the remainder for human settlement). However, it should be noted that between 1978 and the present time, a much greater area than this has almost certainly already been converted to agriculture, mainly utilizing unsuitable land. Despite land distribution and road building efforts, land hunger continues to be a problem along the west coast, in the Upper Layou Valley (Wet Area), the Melville Hall area, and the Carib Territory. Along the west coast, the land around many of the communities is unsuitable for agriculture. Many of the people in the area practice some fishing, but marine resources are probably not sufficient to support entire communities. Three villages facing such problems are Glanvillia, Dublanc and Bioche (Sutphen, 1986). Because of the unavailability of suitable agricultural land in the proximity of their homes, many farmers have acquired land some distance away and travel daily to their plantations. Those farmers working the land on Syndicate Estate, for example, come from the villages of Colihaut, Coulibiistri and even Salisbury, involving daily round-trip journeys of up to M kilometers. Land tenure is another concern which encompasses a number of sub-issues, e.g., many private parcels are leased to small farmers who have yet to make rental payments; in other cases land ownership or title is unclear or uncertain, while some small farmers are squatting on land belonging either to the Government or to absentee landlords. The fragmentation of land into separate small farms or parcels has been encouraged by the traditional division of a single holding among the children of a given family unit. Children are offered portions of land owned or leased by the parent, but these are often some distance from one another. Furthermore, family members (or other growers without secure title) are usually less ready to make improvements and undertake investment projects on their farms. Narendran (1980) recorded, in a sample of 57 parcels, 21 parcels of family land, 21 freehold, 7 annual rent, 5 private lease, and 3 share cropping. There appeared to be no significant difference between the way freehold and family fms were run, but the latter were more prone to disruption due to family disputes. Rented farms had a noticeably different crop ping pattern with much stronger emphasiis on short-term crops. CARD1 survey data quoted in Chemonics (1988) showed the following distribution of land holdings, with the 52 percent category ("other farms," denoting leaseholds or squatting) not only the largest in the Dominica but also the highest reported in the OECS countries surveyed: Freehold 33% Rent 15% Other Farms* 52% leasehold or squatting on public or privale land Table 3.2(7), taken from Chemonics (1988). updates the information found in Figure 3.2(1), but shows approximately the same size distribution of farms as found in the 1975 Agricultural Census, with almost 90 percent of all farms being less than ten acres in size. Even these small sizes obscure the fact that many farms are comprised of two, three or even more micro-parcels (see Table 3.2(8)), the others often some distance from the first. This complicates farming for the small grower, lowers effiaency, and increases wmmuting; on the other hand, it diversities production risk (Chemonics, 1988). Although some cooperation exists between farmers (for example, help with transport), such efforts have never developed very effectively, probably because of the difficulty farmers have in breaking away from the traditional system of family-held land tenure. Even relatives may operate independently of one another. Despite a number of deficiencies of the traditional large estates, they often operated with relative efficiency, benefiting from economies of scale. The latter has been acwmmodated in part by the development of cooperatives which coordinate such activities as produce packaging and the application of fertilizers, pesticides and herbiades.

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Table 3.2(7). Number and she dishibutbn d all farm Dominlca NUMBER DISTRIBUTION OF FARMS < 1a~. 1 10a10-000Cma >00~ -. ~unonicr. 1988. dn~ data fmm atw RHkw of ~griar~ mmamab k ttm h. ((1~). Table 3.2(8). Farm she and fragmentation in Dombdca (one to Rve acre fam). sm cw (8~) PARCELS (x) 142 243 344 Q
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3.2.5 The uw of Agrochemicals Although this subject is also discussed in Section 8, some general comments may usefully be made as they pertain to agricultural development. Agriculture generally and banana growing in particular have bewme inmeasingly dependent on "inputs" not only of chemical fertilizers but also large amounts of a broad spectrum of pesticides. Most chemicals are sprayed by small farmers using back pack sprayers. Airplanes spray a combination of oil plus small amounts of fungicide in the control of leaf spot, but this is not island-wide. The DBMC employs a significant number of ground new teams for leaf spot wntrol (pers. commun., C. James, Ministry of Agriculture, 1990). The need for agrochemicals could be reduced if monocrops occupied smaller areas and were interspersed with forest corridors and with plots wntaining other crops. Other recommendations to wntrol the use of agrochemicals include: improved extension services to farmers on alternatives to pesticide wntrol, broader use of field sanitation and quarantine practices, use of crop varieties resistant to insect pests, and employment of crop rotation strategies, in both space and time. At present, paraquat (mainly sold as gramoxone in the Eastern Caribbean) is the main product used for the wntrol of weeds (Rainey, et a/., 1987). Although it is ineffective against many vines and perennial herbs, it is easily the most cost-effective and attractive herbicide for most small farmers. Advantages indude its "rain-fastness" and its rapid and visible action. In a survey of weed control on small farms in various countries in the Eastern Caribbean, Hammerton (1985) estimated that about 30 percent of total crop labor was spent on land preparation and another 30 percent on post-planting weed control depending upon the cropping system. Methods rely mainly on hand labor, using cutlasses, hoes, forks and hand pulling of weeds, with either hand spraying or, in some areas, aerial spraying from a plane. Mocap (ethoprop) is a commonly used pesticide, functioning effectively as a nematicide in the soil and around root systems (Rainey, el al., 1987). The problem with agroehemicals like gramoxone and mocap is that they have high toxicity and are non-specif~c. Gramoxone in particular also bas a very long persistence. As a consequence, these chemicals are a threat to wildlife (and to humans where they enter drinking water). Mocap, when applied to fields of aloe infected with nematodes, killed numbers of ground doves, hummingbirds and yellow warblers (pers. comm., M. Barnard, Mngr., Windward Island Aloe Products, 1990). Although Rainey, et PI. (1987) were unable to demonstrate direct effects of gramoxone on wildlife populations (since population changes were most influenced by habitat loss), they did express wncern about widespread and unregulated use. Since that study, there have been several reports of mortality of freshwater life (aafi crabs and freshwater fishes) and of opossums along paths close to recently sprayed banana plantations. In recent years there have been several moves to try to regularize the application of agrochemicals. For example, orgmophosphates or chlorinated hydrocarbons are no longer legally used in the agricultural sector. Furthermore, the Pesticides Control Act was amended and updated to provide legal requirements for protective dothing and annual medical checkups for the sprayers, paid for by their employers (pers. comm., E. Harris, Ag. CTO, Div. of Ag., MOA, 1990). Nevertheless, some sprayers continue to be lax in using protective clothing properly, often spraying without face masks, and there is little attention paid to whether bystanders are in the vicinity of spraying. Some farmers increase the dose levels of the chemicals they apply in anticipation of improved effectiveness, while packaging is often inadequate with containers lacking labels and directions. Chemicals used on bananas are often also applied to other crops. However, the Agriculture Division now has more appropriate chemicals (pyrethroids) available for vegetable farmers which will be repackaged and

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sold to them @as. armm, E. Harris, ClD, are muloggbd. and QOPS canrmt Div. of Ag., MOA, EBO). Brnat~.PwPOabAtpresmt.ther~isJtillverylitttcrcsearch on the e&onmcntal effects of the usc ofvariousagrahcmicalrinDominia,particnlarly where they enter watercomes and can impact upon water quality and aquatic life (sac abo Sedion 8). Approximately 70 pcrant of the c5mttyslandamis~bytheGovenrment as unsuitable for agrkubc (see. Table 32(9)), primarily bccaw of crostoll risks, water saturation due to heavy raidail, or poor soils. Tbesc laads have been summarized as follows (GOO, 1985): (1) bd*rrrlWA lt3k(.bootw,m~or37puant of the total land am) lands rritb steep dopcs fond mainly in the intcrior and uiDdward side of thc island. Thcyarellmitabkfa~onb cause. of the stccpnes of the terrain andhigherosionrisk. Mostsmhlands are forested and located in the Mane Trois Pitons National Park or in Forest Rescms. Tbc & to dear steeper kad d fonatgowthfa~to~br h.dimpomltenvinmmd~mtlua ofwhiebbrbeellsoil~~Ladslides ~~~apudopcs(~nnq14B6b..R.iocy, rl al., 1987; DcGcorgcq 1988). Hmriclats David and Mm idiatcd much uosim around Morac Tmk Pitons ad acighbaiqg mountaim in tbc Upper Layon and Rasu~ Valleys Pal4 1982; P. Ennq pcrr obscm). H-, since thcq aosimhm beell-bytbcderrmocdscc mdtry+faplmtiqgdb.nmrsnrr aops=J-vc8d.Mc6.~paiods ofdrywutha,frrmashm~~ etodearMputieolnlgmd ~andJoqgthcmuhriscr~ ThgchircsarcdtmrmcmtmOcdmd~ aoscmuch~~~tbc~d thistgped~cmakobc~inLmdslidgadjaaattorods.

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Table. 3.2(9). Dominica land type according to suitabshy for agriculture. AREA IN AREA NATIONAL PARK PERCENT OF (Hectares) OR FOREST RESERMS TOTAL LAND (Hectares) AREA Very high erosion rlsk 28,957 9,858 37% Moderate erosion risk 16,098 3.810 20% Waterlogged 10,734 1,760 13% Good agricultural land 23,211 145 30% TOTALS 79,000 15,573 Sourcs: GOCD. 1985, taken from Dominica Forest and Park System Plan, Forestry Division (1982). erosion risk of 84 percent in Dominica (higher 3.3 POLICY RECOMMENDATlONS than the figures in GOCD's Forest and Park System Plan, 1982, and cited in Table 3.2(9)). However. the Atkins re~ort also states the risk AGRICULTURAL DIVERSIFICATION of accelerated erosion is small because so much of the wuntry is under natural vegetation. The authors find that only 12 percent of the wuntly has moderately severe or severe erosion, with the worst-affected areas in the west at Salisbury and Colihaut and an area between Marigot and Castle Bruce in the east (other studies have identified other areas with severe erosion, e.g., in the upper Layou Valley; see Walsh, 1980). The Atkins study stresses the particular need for good soil conservation techniques in these areas. Such data point to the importance of maintaining vegetative cover in order to keep erosion within manageable proportions. The present Government policy for diversifying to a broader-based agricultural base needs to be enwuragcd, although in a regulated manner. The following fresh produce has been identified as having strong market potential (modified from USAID, 1986): traditional export wmmodities such as bananas, cocoa and spices (only the fvst is grown presently in any quantity); traditionally grown produce for which there is strong demand from Caribbean emigrants to the United Kingdom and North America, for example, yams and other root crops, breadfruit, etc.;

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fresh produce items focused at non-Cani ethnic market scdorg for example to the Asian and Oriental communities in developed country markets; a rapidly expanding market for exotic, tropical fruits and wgetables demanded by indigenous European and North American consumers, for example, carambola, mangostecq soursop, red bananas; tropical and warm temperate fruits [bat already have wide consumer acceptance in developed amahk, e.g., msngoes and am cad-; off-season (or 'winter') vegetables that exploit market 'windows. in tbe winter months, e.& bell pep pers, eggplant (aubergine), and okra; tropical cut-flown and ornamentals, e& antburiums, ginger Ues, bird of paradise, orchids; proassed produets that already are domesticany produa4 e& passionfruit, lime and grapefruit juices, dried sorrel, pepper sauce, bay rum; and A@adtural divm&Am not only protedsDominica~*,italsop mots biodiversity. Monocrops of banana. aoumut and grapefruit ha= animal communities witb loaru spefieJ divcnity than tbose phtatim with two or more pops grown alongside me another (Evans, 1Wb; 1989). GREATER Dome SELFSUFFICIENCY At pmeol a large proportion of the protein amsumod by Dominieans comes from importedprodoasuebasbolmehicLcn,w and pork. To belp reduce tbe brLDa of payments deficit, suitable arurs d be used for Livestock Wviq? partieululy sbeq. Damaged bananas and other fruits cwM be used as feed, supplemented witb some imported fecds. Tbere are no local chicken batcheria so that chi& arc imported at a relatively high cost, as is tbe feed used to sup plement their local diet. The establkbmcnt of one or two hatcheries add bcgin toaddress tbis problem. Other swrres of protein commooly eaten in rural areas indndc rgooti and wild pig. Tbcre may be scope for either farmiq agouti 0 the iwused stocking of rain facstr witbagouti. Alongtbccoasts,~and ah are bunted rtgnlark tbe prcsnrn cm tbe former pmbaMy amnmh in part for lbeir rela& searcity (Evans, 1986b). Both of the have poiential to be farmed as does moumtab dkken (IrpodMyhu f*), a Laac fw which is musidered a delicacy and is ca* for sale to local restaurants. 'Ibe ntiliTltLn of wildlife such as agouti, iguana aod molmuin chicken through a system of fannhg begin to take poff tbe hmbg of wildlife in rain forest and coastal arwdlaDd areas. IMPROVED INFRA-REGIONAL TRADE

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ganizations such as DEXIA, with a variety of produce beiig sold to other islands in the Caribbean. This trade could be enlarged with vigorous marketing in other countries in the region and better inter-island transport fa& ties. A bii problem that has frequently faced Dominica has been its inability to sustain markets with sufficient quantities of produce once markets have been identified. This has occurred recently with attempts to develop the growing and marketing of passionfruit. A market dearly exists, but insufficient quantities of passionfruit are being produced. Although provided with see-, farmers were not planting them until the damage caused to the banana crop by Hunicane Hugo in September 1989 encouraged them to do so. Likewise, the development of root crops is another area where significant gains could be made since hucksters are frequently short of produce to ship to other countries in the region. In the past, fanners frequently were encouraged to plant a particular crop but then found they were unable to seU such produce because there was no market for it. This has resulted in farmers shifting from one crop to another. Marketing agreements need to be established which protect both the local grower and the off-island importer. The formation of Dm and the success of the Dominica Hucksters Association should sub stantially advance achievement of this goal. In the long run, despite problems associated with market uncertainties, there are economic and environmental advantages to be gained from accelerated growing of a variety of crops in a sustainable manner. NEED FOR AGRICULTURAL LAND ZONING Zoning restrictions for various forms of agricultural land development need to be considered by Government. As stated throughout this section, at the present time many unsuitable areas are being farmed, while more suitable agricultural lands are underutilized. This situation is partly due to the prevalence of traditional patterns of land ownership and is partially bei addressed by the sale of unallocated parcels of Government-owned lands. Nevertheless, encroachment into forested areas by landless farmers continues to be a persistent problem. If forests become too fragmented, not only will this result in reduced biodiversity, it will also have detrimental effects upon soil fertility, will increase the land's vulnerability to wind damage and pest outbreaks, and will diminish watershed protection efforts. These problems could be addressed by the establishment and expansion of forest corridors (windbreaks) as part of a land wning program. In many cases, the corridors could serve multiple purposes. At present, only state lands within forest reserves and national parks enjoy any degree of protection or land use restrictions, and the only protected water catchment on private land (Stewart Hall Water Catchment) has not been well-managed under existing regulations (see also Sections 2 and 11). Although private landowners or tenants are encouraged to protect watersheds and to maintain good husbandry practices (formalized in the Agricultural Small Tenancies Ordinance of 1953), such standards are rarely enforced. Furthermore, where farmers have been prevented from clearing forest adjacent to watercourses, promised compensation has hequently not been paid. Better wning regulations and enforcement procedures for agricultural lands are therefore required, together with a policy to provide adequate incentives or compensation to farmers to encourage better land use practices. IMPROVED PUBLIC INFORMATION AND EXTENSION SERVICES Farming practices which do not promote environmentally-sound agricultural systems are oken the result of inadequate information about good husbandry procedures reaching the small farmer or, if available, such information may be ignored by the farmers. Attempts to tackle this problem in Dominica have involved the development of a regional network of extension officers within the Agriculture Division, a regular column called

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mAround Tlte FarmsPrmJ in the wetly nmpapa 7lwNew~andrcgularbraadeaptsw heal radio. Hmver, there is stin much that needs to be done to both inform farmers and better persuade them to adopt improd, integrated pest management, aop rotation, and multiple land use practices such as agr* forestry. In gene4 promdon of agroforestry techniques should bc a critical mmpcment of all extension efforts, while um5ideration should also be gku to reinaodncing soil CouseNgtion instruction pmgrm for small farmers which were once. operational in the country. Such efforts will quire extra staff to expand current levels m the extenSi~n/ed~Gl~~n scdM of the. Mok The Dominica Banana MarCorporation has rcantly adopted a acw three-tier price struciure aanrding to fruit quality intended to pmvide additional in-tives for better groa~rs in the banana industry. This is Wing canied out by the DBMC through its 1990 Banana Replanting Rogram which aims to encourage rotational planting increase yields per acre, and achieve peak production in the summer months wbcn export prices are highest. To padape in tbe program, a farmer must have at least two aaes of bananas in an agricuhdy suitable growing area and must bc willing to adopt rewmmcnded farming @ots. lnccntives for pamcipating growers indude half price for all inputs @estiddeg herbiadeg fertilizers) and the opportuoity to Learn new methods of growing bananas and proper appropebes to farm development and management (DBMC. -)Similar incentives may be appropriate for other fruit aops or land use practias in general For example, it might be possii to exteed incentives for the maintenance of ford corridors berwecn plsntatiops for reshietiollJontheuseofstbeplydopjllglandfor agricnltme, or for more raW use of inputs with greata condention of environmental hazards. Thescdbemonitacddrtported on at regular intervals by extension officers, and on tbe basis d soeh reports idridual levels of grant aid through discolmts or loans dd bc established. RESEARCH ACnWlWS CONCLUSION Witb 1992 .pprolchisg ad Iurs that ConntriCstiLetbc Domisian Rqabtic my forcc~tbcpriad~by~ thc market, Dominica needs to smmbe its banana indnshy. Ahhougb farmers add continltetopwbaMna5for~1~~(rm*by farmfamilicsorforsalcinhealmutdgtbc

PAGE 107

industry in general could operate effectively with a smaller proportion of the present labor force. Those remaining within the export industry should be the most efficient and productive farmers. Others could be enwwaged to grow a variety of alternative agricultural crops or pursue othcr activities within the agricultural sector such as livestock rearing or Wo-processing. However, for this to occur, substantial incentives will be required in the form of grants, loans or other stimuli, and guaranteed markets will need to be ensured for produce, at least initially. Organizations like DEXM dd play an important role, with support from Government and external aid agencies. Some growers may need to be prepared to move outside of agriculture into areas such as tourism and tourist-related industries such as local furniture and craft making. Although tourism at present is a small sector in the economy, there are indications that it may develop signif~cantly in coming years. Fmally, Dominica is unlikely to be able to wmpete internationally in the export of many of its more traditional crops. However, the countty's heavy rainfall and the soil protection and fertility afforded by its extensive forests would promote the growth of valuable specialty crops induding exotic Fruits, ornamental flowers, and orchids.

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SECTION 4 FRESHWATER RESOURCES DomiDicaistbcdpicntofSipilicant amounts of rainfall, as maeb as 762 cm (300inehcs)pcrprinsomeareasathighelexation& Theamtrya~oaananal basis, is appmhately 445 an (175 in) (Famum, 1987). The irknd also has the bigbesl ratio of forest cover as a popation of total area m the Can'bbcan and boasts a total 0F365~rivcrs'(rmnyofwhieharcnrIlyd streams). In tbc aggregate, these physial attributes ham aver time assured Domiaka an abundant supply of fnshwatcr for domestic ~)ll(mpti% m=Lcts bydmpomr and other uses. Moat of the ambfs major watershcdsareumecntntcdmtbcccntnlaruof theirkndonboththeltcwudsidc(L.yw River and Roseau River wat-) ad windward side (CLydt Rk, Pp.goa Rk, Castle Bruce k, and R& k watwshcds) (sec Pm 4.1(1)). The L.gw Riverwatershcdmtheltcwudsidcistk. largest, although most major watasbcda arc eonantratcd on the windwad sidc. Thcrc arealsoanumbcrofsmaDuwatenhcds,the largestofwbicharcbcatcdinthcdoftk. Lland: Indian Rivcr, Blcnhcim River ad Hampstead Rivcr (Fi 4.l(1)). +rosktcly 83 paaot d tbc popaktimhrraarsstop~~cr~ butadditionalfaciw%ncpnscntlybciag& vclopcdby~-Fi-company, DOWASCO, throqBb a CDAsponsod water sector progmm. In early 1990,itwsscstimatcdbyonc~thatdmostECS3millionwoddbespentancapaal works and rcbabilitstioa Hojcds in tk. water am. ~nothcr EcX,.n a rsls m be Minthclsttcrpmtd1990mrvter ~,~.odsta;l(lcprojem~ thc Porcrmo~uh/Glmsilth area (7hc New -9 9 pm. L994 RDomiaka). T&sc'Ibcscestirmtcs

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/DEYITRIE RIVER &% MINOR BASWS I 0 1 2 3 4 5 MLES I 0 12 34 56 78KM Figure 4.1 (1). lmporlant watersheds of Dominica (source: GOCD. 1976), showing the following MAJOR BASINS: (1) Layou River; (2) Roseau River; (3) Clyde River; (4) Pagua River; (5) Castle Bruce River; (6) Rosalie River and MINOR BASINS: Q) Indian River: (8) Blenheim River; and (9) Hampstead River.

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ThenortburtempartoftheUis the most poorly serviad (e& Atlrinson, Bataka,d~ofothcrscttlcmcntrinthe arcs). TheregionispLgocdbybotbio.dcquate water supplies and an inhmchm in suchpoorm*onthatitis~rmwoaby of rehabilitrtioa A new, mcd watersystemhasthereforebccnplanncdfor the area at an arpeded cost of ECSlO million @us. commuu., C. MeckIiu& DOWASCO Ged Mngr., m, 'Ihc New aumidc, 9 February, 1990, Roseau, Wea). Water from all catchment uea~ is trcatcd cmly with chlorine, as a means of kiiling baeterik As disassed finther in Scction 4a this mhimal levet of treatment may pravctobeinsufkht,inpartduetothehigh depx of private owncrsbip of catchment anas conpled with a lack of effd antrol over land use activities which may Ptlect water nuality. A( Ecrw) pu 439 liters (l,000 imperial gallons), the dome& pis d water inDclmmcafaboutthrcetimealoartrthPn thatpaidinSt.LndaaIIdpobaMythe~ priapaidinthecaribbcae Thereseemsto be some justification for a pia imearc whifhewldheIp~~and maintenance. costs. Such keascs arc expeetcd to be recommended by DOWASCO in the ncar fnture. DOminicahasbem~6rcsbwater for at least ten yurs. Rcgh ship men@ go to St. Maarten and arasbDaOy to other Carib islands (Antigoq for crampk,necivedwaterexportsforasborCperiod in the mid-1Ws). Splcs have bccn made on an ud hoc basis, on deman4 gcncdy one to four tima per m* but DOWASCO f aare14 gearing up to expand water erportb TheaurentpmchasepiaisECSSaOper 4,550 liters (1.000 imp. gal.), twiEc the amount charged to domestie consumers @cn. commuu., C. Mcdrling. DOWASCO General Mngr-9 1990). The water for bulk sales has traditionally been drawn from the watersbed syk ~,to~Dath~lo Pcdauoutb,a6vevcmJcbiram~topravidcerpiscsbipsaahbcsbWaterbomtbePicardRivcr. ~projtais ~~llJmmcon~*dcsclopllcntofaocwerpiscshipdockiugfdity near the CPbrits Natid Park and b dudulcd for eompktioa in 1995 at a eost of uSf600,0m.

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Station is presently out of operation during wnstruction for the hydropower project, but following the project's completion, it is projected that approximately 60 percent of the country's electricity needs will be met through hydropower, at least until the mid-1990's (see also Section 6). ADDITIONAL USES OF WATER RESOURCES Other uses of Dominica's streams and waterways by local communities include: fishing (allowed only during the open season, September through February), laundering, bathing, swimming, boating (on the Indian and Layou Rivers), aggregate mining, and for religious baptismal services. A review of water resources legislation and administration was carried out in 1988 by FA0 (Stack, 1988) which wncluded that there was an insficient legal base for ensuring the protection of Dominica's water resources. The study also made note of a variety of problems and limitations associated with extant water legislation at that time. Among these was the fact that Dominica's water resources were governed by Common Law riparianism, as it had been inherited from the English. Stack (1988) felt that this system was ill-suited to the needs of a developing wuntry and might "result eventually in unsound, haphazard water allocation decisions." In 1989 new legislation was enacted, the Water and Sewerage Act, which established a water rights permit system, as had previously been recommended by Stack (1988). and replaced the former system based on the riparian doctrine. The Act also establishes the Dominica Water and Sewerage Company, Limited (DOWASCO) to manage water and sewage operations in the country. The privately-owned wmpany and the enabling legislation, respectively, have replaced the National Water Semces and the Central Water Authority Act of 1986 (see also Section 11). As noted by the Chief Technical Officer of the Ministry of Communications and Works (pers. wmmun., A. BumetteBiscombe, 1990), there is a need for additional regulations regarding the removal of wnstmction material from river banks and beds. The provisions of the Beach Control Ordinance (1%) have not effectively been extended to rivers where the removal of sand, stones, and other aggregate has resulted in stream edge slumping, erosion and flooding in some areas, particularly after heavy storms. Such physical changes can have an adverse effect on water quality and the regularity of downstream flow rates. 4.2 PROBLEMS AND ISSUES WATER LEAKAGE AND WASTAGE In 1985 the Government's National Structure Plan reported that of the total amount of water produced by all water catchment systems (8.25 million gallons per day [MGD]), only about 40 percent was actually consumed, due to a high rate of leakage and consumer wastage. Island-wide, the per capita rate of water production was 137 gallons per day, but actual per capita wnsumption averaged only 60 gallons. GOCD also noted that if leakage could be reduced to approximately 25 percent in various supply areas, present quantities would probably be sufficient to increase supply levels and accommodate population increases for several more years (GOCD, 1985). As outlined in Section 4.3 below, these problems are in the process of being addressed. CONFLICTING LAND USES WITHIN WATER CATCHMENTS Virtually all of Dominica's water catchments are comprised primarily of private lands; some are located entirely on privatelyowned property (pers. wmmun., C. Meckling, DOWASCO General Mngr., 1990). Given the lack of effective controls on private land, many land use activities in catchments are inappropriate and potentially put potable water supplies at risk. Additionally, water shortages

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and supply dimpbm haw been reported in some areas (Christian, A., 1988); these might, in some cases, be a result of deforestation and the resultant increase in the ovcrland flow of water rather than its gradual release into Streams. In M, only eight of the catchments were free of eultivation and in at least fourteen of them, over 50 percent of the total area was mde~ cultivatioa Sir or more of the catchments were almost ampletely (ie, 90 percent or more) cultivated (James, 198Sb). Given the dominanet of the agricdhmal see tor in the Dominican momy (see Sec!jon 3), it is likely that this problem will conhue and become more smre than dcsaii in James' 1985 study. Table 4.2 (1) Vnts more dctaiEcd infomarion about the four key catchment areas, including current land use activities and 8SSOeiated impacts. Togelher these catchments provide water for about 36,000 people. almost half the island's population. DATA BASE PROBLEMS Dataonstreamflowsarelimittcdin Dominica, a aihlatioa which mates effcftirc planning and management of the nation's freshwater ICSOUTC~~ more difficult. Some records, atthough not always omtinuous, do exist, indu* OneyeaIddailydisehagel~~~k for the Stewart Hall River (June 1956 through May 1957); abont eight months d flow I;eeordrfortheRosc.uRiverata site near Trafalgar (August 1956 through Mad 1957); -dataonLhcDemitric, Raponstone. O'Hara, Riviere Blanche, Riviere Nyscm, and Malabuka Rivers, coUcded between 1983 and 1984 (pers. on-goiog~ddatamlbction for the Layw Rivw sins 1w @@err. aommug A Jamq Foreshy and wildlife Div, 1990). More recent strc~m floa eainwa are anilabk for sckrted wcst was Sacs (DOWASCO. May 115189 data): PieardRivw(atPortcmoolb): lu MGD; River Dance (at Rosun): 13 MGD, S~Rivcr(StJc6epbto Newtom &): 85 MGD; Snug Corm (Loabicreand Pointe Miebcr): 1.3 MGD.

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Table 4.2(1). Principal water catchment areas and their land use activkies. AREA SlZE(ha) INTAKE LOCATION LAND USE ACTMTIES AND IMPACT Water Ana 1 (Greater Wau Area) Grand Bay/ Pichelin Catchment Marigot Catchment Portsmouth Catchment 318 Stewart Hall Rver Several maln roads Deforestation Cultivation rheavily expanding'): bananas, citrus, mot crops, veguiables, pineapple, gum, coflse. flowers Housing, sheds, development Pesticide, fertilizer use Road improvements, improved access 236 Pichelin Rver 75 Martipot River (Crebiche) Umited encroachment due to dmicult awss and National Park status within much of the area But some livestock and riverside cultivation of dadhwn and watercress Extensive cultivation (at least 12 ha): cornnuts. citrus, vegetables, &be, snthuriums, root crops, use of herbicides Many landslides Significant soil erosion Canle grazing Human activity (0.g.. a garage) 215 South Branch Cuitivation on steep slopes: Rver vegetables, root crops, bananas Erosion LBndslides -Cattle Human settlement Footpaths Copra factories (small) Sourm: National Water Services Division (MMASCO), 1986 Water Catchment Repom.

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~.you RW, Dcnninio n.1 280.0 Buccament Rk. 8 Vincent 7.12 32.0 Tmmusee Ri, St Luch 5.44 20.0 1 I) 15 22 29 5 12 19 26 3 OCTOBER NOVEMBER Z Figure 4.2(1). Rurrolf/rainW relatbnship at lhe Layar Rhmr bash, Domhlca during Odobef and Navember, 1984 isource: Dbz. et d.,

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below a data collection program is now being organized. The lack of an adequate information base and the need to develop a data management system to provide continuous records over long periods of time have long been recognimd in Dominica. Several efforts havc been made in the past to establish water data collection programs, but all have had limited success in meeting their objectives (Clark, 1983). 4.3 POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS SUPPLY, LEAKAGE, AND WASTAGE OF FRESHWATER RESOURCES The main objective of the current phase of the CIDA-sponsored Dominica Water Sector Program is to rehabilitate the country's water supply systems and thereby reduce leakage (other primary objectives are institution building and personnel training). A specific program for leak detection is to begin in late 1990 (pers. commun., J. Noiseaux, DOWASCO Chief Engineer, 1990). As noted in the National Structure Plan (GOCD, 1989, a metering program also is planncd which will reduce wastage. At present, all new water eo~ections are set up with a meter and all existing ones are expected to be metered within 10 years. About one thousand water meters presently exist (pers. commun., C. Meckling, DOWASCO General Mngr., 1990). By 1995 it is hoped that the overall diffusion rate will be about 95 percent, made possible in part through the installation of new supply systems. The planned projections for potable water delivery for 1995 are as follows: Roseau and other urban areas: 60 gallons per capita/day Rural areas: 40 gallons per capita/day Hotels: 800 gallons per capita/day. MINIMIZING THE THREAT OF CONTAMINATION TO THE WATER SUPPLY The high level of private land ownership within catchment areas cmies with it signif~caat risks of water supply contamhation. At present, there are a variety of incompatible activities on these lands, occurring on a fairly widespread and expanding basis. The results of recent studies of agrochemical pollution by the Consortium for International Crop Protection (CICP) suggest that the effects of chemical fertilizers and pesticides are not yet a threat to human health through tbe water supply (pers. commun., J. Mam and P. Ross, CICP, 1990) (see also Section 8 of the Profile). However, further studies conducted at other times of the year and/or based on other sampling locations may find different, less positive results. In any case, it is difficult to be conf~dent that a contamhation problem can be avoided for much longer, given current land use trends. Authorities responsible for the management and protection of water resources have two basic options for avoiding the eventual degradation of the country's water supply. First, they can move water intakes to other (usually higher) locations that are free, at least for the time being, of human activities which pose a potential threat to the water supply. Alternatively, they can seek to control land use activity in existing domestic water catchment areas. It is the latter option which presently is being pursued by DOWASCO. As provided for under the 1989 Watcr and Sewerage Act, the Company recently recommended that all of the island's catchment areas be declared "Water Quality Control Areas;" this recommendation has yet to be acted upon by the Ministry of Communication and Works, thc agency to which DOWASCO is responsible (pers. commun., C. Meckling, DOWASCO General Mngr., 1990). However, even if this recommendation is accepted and the catchments are in fact declared "Water Quality Control Areas," this is

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THE STEWART HAU WATER CATCHMENT AREA A'RWOC~UJFW At present, the Stewart Hall Water CatchM consthrtes the countrfs cdy Proteded Forest zone, as pmvided for under the 1958 Forests Ordinance. Land use resMdkns for the area are established in the Stewart Hall Catchment Rules (1975) and are strengmened by bnpcsitb d slgnbnt pen* for vklatbns, ie.. a Rne up to ECS1O.M)O and/w imprisorr ment for a maximum done year. The rules prohibit cMvatb and other activitiag wNch may be detrimental to the water supply. Hwever, as WrrPtrated in Table 4.2(1). a variety d such actMtles are carried cut in the catchment area wghaa prosecution. In fad, not one violation has been cited since the regulatkns were enacted. One problem has been the faa that compensation was not pmvided to the owners d land wilhln the Prdeded Faresf as mss the original intention, and, furthemow. land ormers gmm&y have been unable to sell meL land. as pmspeahre buyers are aware d the restrictions which (at least on paper) cnist (pets mmun., F. Gregdre, Diredw d Forestry and Wife. 1990). Until Lssues d wmpm&km and enforcement are resolved, there Ls little incentive for Govennnent to establish other Protected Forests for resource management and proteaion puposes not a guarantee that they will in fact be pr* tected (for example, see sidebar on the Stewart Hall Water Catchment). Over the longer term, WWASCO intends to develop mdti-village 'rrmsolidated water systemsms in most parts of the island whicb would drain catchment areas located partly or largely within the better protected Forest Resem and/or National Park boundaria. Tbcse systems also would enable collected water to be treated in larger, more emeient hcatment plants. With refto these projected plans, two 0bservatioDs seem appropriate. Ft a&ticJ that are potentially harmful to potabk water supplies ean Iegally oapr witbin Forest Rcsrrvcs (e.& kg&) as well as National Parks (e& hydropower development, inten& remeation). It therefore would be very useful for WWASCO to ident@ as early as possi'ble the most promising water nsouraareaswithinthcsczonc3,forsochinformation will help ensure that hihue water supply demands and water quality considerations are included in GOCD dedsion-making for targeted sites. For uampk. the detailed const managemea plas prc~eDtty sing pnpuod for all of Dominica's stare forests odd be impd if more specific information m available abwt Forest Rcscm kcatims earmartred for water supply crploitatioa, eg., the Plan might indudc more spx& recornmendatim about timber hamhg as vd n other pnseriptim appmp&te for WWASCQdesigDIted mu cauhalt areas unforhmately, batioD-sptciSc infamationisprrJentlyunanikMc~ DOWASCO's pkns for Forest Rcsuvcr Rcsumably, tbL stems in part from the lack of available hy6ologicnl data, as dbaasbd ah.

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Government for protection. In either case, finanad or other compensation (e.g., land swaps) will probably be required. Securing the funds or other resources necessary for such compensation should be actively pursued at this time. Over the long term, doing so will most likely prove to be the most cost-effective approach for ensuring a safe and reliable water supply for island residents. I DATA COLLECTION As noted earlier in this section, the limited availahiity of hydrological data has jeopardized effective, long-term planning efforts for the country's water resources, a situation which has not been helped by the lack of a data collection unit within DOWASCO. However, DOWASCO is presently negotiating a contract with the Canibean Meteorological Institute for the installation of a dozen or so gauges to measure rainfall and stream now. The project will be fimded by CIDA (pers. commun., J. Noiseaux, DOWASCO Chief Engineer, 1990). Additionally, in 1991, DOWASCO intends to expand the data eollection system to approximately 50 locations (pers. commun., C. Meckling. DOWASCO General Mngr., 1990).

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SECTION 5 COASTAL AND MARINE RESOURCES 5.1 OVERVIEW PHYSICAL PEAlURES DommteahasaS3LmeoaJtlincthat adjoin5 a 715 sq ha coastal shelf. Most of thc arntcrnporti011ofthissltelfislt~sthsnoecLm wide bnt broadens to appmuimately fivc Lm along thc cast eaast in the vidnity of Marigot (PI 5.1(1)). The coastal plain is similarly narrow eracpt arouad Portsmooll, on thc west coast. Currents that sometimes cacod 1 m/sce (2 hl) Jet mstward off tbc north d d eossts during Qood tides. Alollg tk east coast, aurcnts divide in the vicinity of Pointe Giraud andflownathandJomhdtbcisLnd (Cam1985). Ebb and flood aurcnts m thc west a@ set somh to soothwcst and wrth to norhes, mpahly, ,with a flow geaerany lcar tbaa 0.4 m/scc (0.8 kn) (Goodwia, 1985). and reef habitatrarCnot~dnttotkstecpt* and rugged ternin dmndaistie of Dominica's coast (see Fi 5.1(2)). Guodwh (W npoas =w= beds be rcLtnclg atemkinthevidnityofBiiDoMrrr,and Mome Espsgaol and lcss so otl Conlibhi, Colihrut, and the CArk Four small mangrove stands and some larger .rus of Raacrrpu Whilctmccarlrc&.arCcmcm* limited or mnuistcnt. then are a number d

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DOMINICA/CRITICAL HABITATS Ca~uci n Woodford Hill Bay Indian River Pointe Round CRITICAL HABITATS .)(. Mangrove SC Seagrars eq Coral Reefs > Beaches SC Calihaut 'l Crande Savanne //St. David Bay Figure 5.1 (2). Coastal and marine habitats of Dominica (source: Goodwin, 1985; Johnson, 1988). 100

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mastal areas in which there is extensive Livc coral emcring rocks and boulders. The most signifrant sites indude Seotts Head, Soufriere, Pomte Guipwd, Men Grand Savanne, Pointe Rmd, Ponismouth, the Cabrits, Petite Baie, Toucari, Caliie, and Pointe Baptiste. Goodwin (1W) identifies the latter two sites as having some of the richest coral assemblages and provides qualitative descriptions of major community components of reefs located on the -ern mast of Dominica. Summers (1985) sumycd the coral me& of Smtts Head and provides an annotated species list from three reef communities in thicvicinity. These communities provide habitat for armmerciaUy important 6sh species typical of shallow me$ as well as spiny lobster and queen conch. The limited extent of these habitats, however, constrains the absolute size of such stocks and theii direet economic value. Much more &piticana has reecntly hen attached to the potential value of underwater habitats to the tourist industry which is targeted for uooomic dewlopment in the country. Good Goodvisibility, diverse Living vcneers eovcringsteeprod:wangcavcs,andpiMadeJ combine to make Dominica's wc-st coast one of the most sputa& diving experienas in the Eastern Can& Aside from the value to tomism, tbcse particular habitats are ccrtaialy unusual and possibly unique within the br Antilles; coosequentJy, they are an important part of the natural heritage of the region as well as of Dominica. Because eoartal waters become deep refatively dase to shore, they arc suited to a vari* of pelagic marine urtebratcs Observations over the past eight years have indicated the pcsena d sperm whak on both Gdwa~d and leeward masts (although more frequently off the leeward coast, particularly be(wcen the Layw Estuary and Pomte Ron&). These whales are part of a population that ranges through the entire Grenada Basin throughout the yea^. The inshore portion of this aage extends from the Grenadines to Guaddoupe and owore to an

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Tbe fisheries sector has been periodically reviewed in reports prepared by development assistance consultants (Vidaeus, 1971; Lintern, 1978; Michell and Gold, 1983; Anderson and Matthes. 1985; Goodwin, et 01.. 1985). A recent overview (OECS, 1989) and description of a fisheries data collection system for Dominica (Lawrence, el ul., 1988) provide the most recent perspedive. Current annual fish landings are estimated at around 950 metric tons per year, although only half this quantity was landed in 1988 @em wmun., N. Lawrence, Fisheries Development Division, 1990). Most substantial Iish landings are taken from migratory pelagic stocks to the east of the island or in the channels to the north and south. Traditiody, this has been a seasonal fishery based primarily upon trolling from keelboats and canoes, supplemented by drift fishing or surface gill netting. Recent exploratory efforts, however, have established the viability of longlining on a more extensive basis than previously supposed (pers. commun., N. Lawrence, Fderies Development Division, 1990). Demersal fishes are harvested by Antillean Ztraps, hand lines, gill nets, and occasionally trammel nets, although the use of the latter gear is prohibited by law and is decreasing (pers. wmmun., N. Lawrence, Fiieries Development Division, 1990). Traps are the most frequently used gear and are constructed of wire mesh on a wood frame, although traditional woven bamboo traps are also used on the west coast. Demersal fishing activities occur primarily on the east coast where the island shelf is most extensive. Seining is the most common fishing activity on the west coast, targeting small, schooling pelagic fishes such as gar, ballahoo, and jacks. Gear is worked from beaches or, most commonly, from small rowed canoes. Other harvested marine species indude spiny lobster (taken in the samo traps as demersal fishes), conch, turtles, searnos, and sea urchins (Lawrence, et ul., 1988). Whales are not hunted by the local fishing fleet, but dolphins and pilot whales are occasionally killed for their meat. The fishing fleet traditionally has been based almost entirely upon open canoes and keelboats propelled by oars or outboard engines Recently there has been increasing use of fiberglass, reinforced plastic vessels and traditional vessels strengthened wlth this material. Somewhat larger plywood boats are used in a few locations, but the Newtown fishing woperative was recently obliged to sell its 19.8 m (65 ft) steel vessel due to difficulties with maintenance. There are 42 landing sites distributed around the entire coast, most of which are identified in Fie 5.1(3). Swtts Head has the greatest concentration of fishing vessels, followed by Pottersville, Portsmouth, and Newtown. Foreign vessels from neighboring islands are frequently seen fishing in Dominican waters, but no systematic information has been colleeted on these activities. COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT Comprehensive planning for coastal resource development appears to have been largely wdied to the fisheries sector. In early 1979, Dominica's fishing fleet consisted of an estimated 500 boats and 2,500 fulland part-time fishermen. Later that year, Hurricane David destroyed approximately 90 percent of the fleet. In the past decade, various incentives (particularly a million-dollar credit facility) have stimulated recovery to the current estimate of 765 vessels operated by 1,850 tishemen (Lawrence, 1988). Current fisheries development strategy focuses on providing more fish for domestic consumption through the introduction of fiberglass "transition" fishing craft to enwage fishermen to move from traditional canoes to more versatile and seaworthy vessels. These efforts are coupled with a FAOsponsored project to improve ten landing sites that will provide efficient, community-based facilities to support the development program. FA0 has also provided a master fisherman to assist with training activities including the introduction of fish aggregating devices (FADS). Other foreign assistance with fisheries development includes a semi-commer

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DOMINICA/FISH LANDING AREAS C = Canoe K = Keel Boat P = Open Plywood S = Sloop 13. PEIYYILLE 14. VlElU CASE 12. PIRT~H 10. UlWL z 9. COLIW 8. a)(LIBISTRECe20 K=2 6. 51. JC6CFil ti18 u-2 Cd K.2 k. WJuUlc-12 K-5 3. c-6 2. ULE FlEW N 1. WTTERSVILLE C-23 25. PEllIE SAVNS 29. UYIFRIERE 26. RIO ST. JNl -13 28. YO~S IFAD27. ClM C-22 ".I

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aal, lougbhg vcssel provided by Taiwan that is used to train Dominican fishermen (55-60 annually) and for exploratory fishing operations. Taiwanese assistance has also been provided for development of prawn (Macrobrachiurn rosmbergii) aquaculture as a meam of generating supplemental revenue appropriate for low-income farmers. Additional aquaculture development plans d for introduction of hybrid talapia and possibly seam065 cultivation. ICOD has provided the services of a fisheries development adviser, while CIDA funds have been used for small grants to fishing cooperatives for icemakers, boat sheds, etc. The United States Coast Guard is providing some help in controlling illegal tishing, and OECS is providing help with surveillance airaaft on a limited basis. Superficially, it might appear that considerably more attention is devoted to the development of the fishing industry than to the management of the resources upon which this industry is based. But, in fact, the current emphasis upon developing better capability to hamst offshore resources may be the most effective short-term means of reducing pressure on nearshore stocks that have repeatee been identified as overexploited (e.g., CIDE, 1988). The need for effective management of deepwater resources and shared stocks, of wurse, cannot be ignored, but this must be accomplished at a regional (and in some cases hemispheric) level. An OM-sponsored fishery data wllection program was in operation from 1984 to February of 1986 and was reatablisbcd in June of 1987 with support from the OECS Fkheries Desk in St. Vincent. Other management activities related to coastal resources include the national parks program, which has a marine component at the Cabrits National Park, a coastal monitoring program to measure beaches and waves on a regular basis (Cambers, 1989). and an active Pesticide Control Board (see also Section 11 of the Profile). Civil service personnel charged with natural resource management are among the most experienced and personally motivated in the region. Their efforts, however, have tended in the past to be site and or theme specific, i.e., not guided by a synoptic strategy for the management and development of coastal and marine resources. The need for such a strategy is underscored by rent Government-sponsored plans for development of the coastal zone. Proposals for new port facilities for Portsmouth and Roseau at a cost of ECS24 million were announced in 1989. The existing port at Woodbridge Bay, north of Roseau, will be extended by 300 feet to accommodate cruise ship traffic, and a new container park for containerized cargo is also being built at the Roseau facility. In early 1990 ground-breaking ceremonies launched construction for an ECS7.1 million cruise ship dock, reception terminal, and dock facility at Prince Rupert's Bay, north of Portsmouth. This new port, the only one in the Eastern Caribbean where passengers will disembark directly into a national park (i.e, the Cabrits National Park), will include a 300 foot cruise ship berth for the northern end of the island. A new marina is also planaed for the Indian River area adjacent to Portsmouth, the island's first small boat harbor suitable for attracting yachting traffic. Despite the proximity of these projects to the Cabrits National Park, which includes substantial marine as well as terrestrial/historic components, no Environmental Impact Assessments were undertaken. In the case of the proposed marina, the environmental implications of this development are not inconsequential. One of the two most important wetlands in Dominica, Glanvillia swamp, will be affected by the projeet; this area of mixed Pterocqus swamp is important for a variety of shorebirds, crakes, herons, egrets and duck, as well as for high densities of various crab species and ground Lizards. There are additional indications that Dominica's marine resources will be subjected to increasing and varied demands in the near future. (For information on the ports of Dominica and the role of the Port Authority, see Section 7.3 of the Profie.) Recreational scuba diving, for example, appears to have substantial potential as an economically viable industry, and it is noteworthy that the country's combination of outstanding underwater and terrestrial sites is increasingly cited as one

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of its major attradions (e& GkaJoa, 1989). Dominica's proximity to sperm whale dhg areas provides additional potential for mariac tourism adivitics Among the most popular eommerdatdivesircsareSeottsHcad,annnderwater hot freshwater qning sooth of Pomte Michel, a cave at Pointe Goignard, and the Cabrits Smrd ship wrc& sites am. frequentlyvisited,indudhgatngandbargcaurr Canefield, an iron-hulled vcsscl at Toucari, and a World War One gunboat at Capucin Point. Rwredonal diving. howmr, has been widely msociated elsomac with degradation of popular sites (q., Rogcrq W, Tilmant, 1981). A dedicated manage ment effort will be needed to ad similar impacts in Dominies LEGISLATION The Territorial Sea, Contiguous Zone, Ed* Economic and Fw Zones Ad of FBI establishes 12,24, and 200 nautical mile boundaries for the fust three umg respeetivcly, and dehw a fi*rcrv moe bounded by thc seaward extent of the twit* rial sea and aclusive cumomic nac. In theory,tbiskgi&tionprovidestbebasisforrc50~ ~UTOC .noeation dispotes sneh as the controversy surroullcting the krgc and proauetivt iishg bank ('Macube') located 9l2mi from tbceoartwhicb isexttnrivclyosbd by French 6shennen as well as Do Jn practice, howwzr, such molotionr have not been easily lttaincd

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I SOME IMPACTS OF HUMAN ACTIVITY ON COASTAL RESOURCES ACTMTY IMPACT toxicity to many species from pesticides, fertilizers, and waste effluents carried by run-& Boating anchor damage to reefs and seagrass meadows sewage impacts in areas with llmited circulation mechanical damage to reefs and seagrass meadows from dredging smothering of bottom communities and iighl reduction due to sediment loading from dredging and inadequate run-off contrd on construction sites Fishing destruction of coral by fish traps depletion of important grazers by overfishing widespread coral damage where explosives are used Industry toxic effects and oxygen depletion by nutrients, heavy metals, and other chemicals in sewage death or stress in some species caused by elevated temperatures from heated effluent from power generators, factories, distilleries and agro-processing plants Residential and Hotel smothering of bottom communities by sediment from Development poor erosion contrd toxic effects from household chemicals in sewage oxygen depletion and overgrowth of some species caused by nutrients in sewage toxic and mechanical damage from solid waste disposal in coastal waters SCUBA Diving mechanical damage to corals through diver contact depletion of large fishes by speamshing toxic effects of petroleum and other chemical spills damage to corals and seagrasses from anchors and accidental groundings oxygen depletion from sewage disposal injury to some species through entanglement or ingestion of did waste dumped into the sea

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the Cabrits Natid Park where Govcramcnt had previously sold a pad of land for a planned rescut development which is now lhly to be dropped and the land repwched. AdverscimpaetrrsSod.tedwitbird hoe development in Dominica's coastal mae are described in numerous reports and studies. CIDE (1988) dseribes problems witb transportation, scwagc, and solid waste disposalincoastalfommunitics,~tahgforexample, it is atready. obvious that Roscau has far outgrown itself. Its mba. infrast~cturc has bccome badly strained.' Some coastai waters are heavily polluted by titter (dotb, battles, eardbosrd, pep-, Wc) and heavy silting (GOCD, 1990a). Si problems are de-scrii in Cambers (l985) and Fabien (1989). Thcre is a tcndency to foals upon thcsc pmbkms sclcmRly, but they all refleet the absence of annprehdevelopent untrol goidelines and poticics committed to maintaining the quality of coastal res0mce-s (see also Sortion 9 of tbc Rome). Possible rhrcm impacts notaritbstanding tourism development dm offer p tential for inlocal awareabout the value of natural and dtnral res0mce-s and WATER QUALIIY ~povidmforOrdis posal is pmbably tbc most saioac immediate thnat to Daminia's coastai rcxwms. An &mated 60 percent d booscbdQ in tbc ~arewilbolltsaIidMitoryhditicsfor disprml ofscargc and rehnc (F.bicq 1989). Thc Roscau scwa system har no bumrent fadity, and most scucr outfaUs arc bated adjsa~ttobcacbcsandpias0Scdby~men in the downtown area. P.rticolrrfg m tbcwcstcora,d~rmte~ trcabncnt fa&& imprrriaS and most bows in the small simply damp their liguidorastesintothe~asu(~4 1988). lnadqatcrchacco0oehicmandimb fiJlfa&&hRamcd~iodir. enrmnrtednmphg.tunaotboriasdbcrtims (aluwG#aDFarsolidOr~and dkpodsyatcmhasbaoimplcmcntcdlbqe the west coast). waste mn&gancnt problems amtinue to pose scrims risks to hnmre kahh as~nastbceosst.lcnvimmn~(sce~ scctioa 8).

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MANAGEMENT OF PHYSICAL RESOURCES Cambers (1989) reports "considerable" erosion of beaches on the north and east coasts following Hurricanes Gabrielle and Hugo in 1989. These natural impacts are exacerbated by sand mining, a practice which legally requires a permit under the Beach Control Ordinance of 1966. Because there is no regular surveillance or monitoring directed toward sand mining, however, there have been no prosecutions for unauthorized sand removal. Cambers (n.d.) reports that the Department of Public Works frequently engages in sand mining without requisite permits. The practice of locating hard structures (e.6, hotels) directly on beaches also contributes to coastal erosion. There is no uniform set-back policy, and steep terrain occurs dose to shore along much of the coast making set-backs diff~cult. The latter &cumstance does not apply to many embayments, particularly in the vicinity of Portsmouth where set-back guidelines are urgently needed to avoid accelerated erosion. Sand mining and nearshore construction can be expected to increase with intensified development of tourist facilities. Increased coastal erosion obviously will adversely dect the tourist industry itself, as well as fishermen who use beaches as landing sites. MANAGEMENT OF LMNG MARINE RESOURCES Although their status has not been rigorously assessed, nearshore fishery stocks are probably Wig exploited close to or beyond sustainable levels (Goodwin, et d., 1985). The Fisheries Development Division is concerned with the extensive capture of juveniles ia trap fisheries and particularly in nearshore seine fisheries. Wile the current fishery development strategy targeted toward offshore resources should help reduce pressure on nearshore stocks in general, some speaes (e.g., spiny lobster, sea turtles, and conch) will continue to be exploited and require implementation of management measures provided in the Fishery Regulations of 1989. The problem of managing offshore fish resources is complicated by the migratory nature of the stocks and the participation of foreign vessels in the fisheries, but the need to manage these stocks is well illustrated by the decline of Atlantic swordfish (Berkeley and Waugh, 1989). Fish landings throughout the Eastern Caribbean have fluctuated markedly in recent years, from a remarkable high in 1988 to a decline in 1989 that approached 40 percent in some cases (OECS, 1989). Both extremes may be influenced by increased exploitation from local and foreign fleets, as well as fluctuations in migratory patterns (possibly caused hy unusual weather conditions). Whatever the cause, these fluctuations underscore an element of uncertainty. Prudence should dictate caution in developing offshore fishing fleets targeted toward unpredictable resources, but the customary approach is to move quickly to secure some portion of the common property resource. The result is that fishery resources face a greater threat of overexploitation and the fishing industry faces increased vulnerability to economic disaster. The introduction of "transitional" vessels, coupled with low-cost means of increasing harvest efficiency (such as FADS) is a reasonable policy, but it needs to be coupled with vigorous efforts to secure regional management of shared pelagic stocks. At least equal attention should be directed to the potential overexploitation associated with increased tourism. Diver-related damage to reefs is discussed above in Section 5.1. Anchor damage to coral reefs and seagrass beds is a frequent accompaniment of coastal tourism, as is the collection of corals, live shells, and other organisms for curios. The potential for boat tours that indude whale and dolphin watching has been recognized, particularly between the Layou Estuary and Portsmouth, where sperm whales are often seen inshore, and in the vicinity of Scotts Head and Soufriere, where spinner dolphins are also frequently seen close to shore. But such activity also carries the potential for disturbiig the animals to such an extent that they abandon the area. Without specific provisions

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* Aoom*eoastalzm rmo.gcmcnt(CZM)prognmabooldbcimplrmcntcd to pwide d guida~a for @c dcvdopcnt d man4gcmcnt &ties. This pmgnm should indode. amothus, thc follorviag &meats: Emp6ssisshoold~1bcm~ Ibat,rz~sqgBcstrtb.18~ cm* Ntmlim.. n, te+bnierl rrsistana,cost-sherine,deoopaationwill bc more e&aivc than a proliferation of mh md penalties.

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peaally for new developments that place high demands on such services. Particular attention should be paid to development of public inFrastructure and facilities (e.g., docks, small boat harbors, dry storage facilities) in ways that are compatible with the overall goals of a coastal zone management program. Steps need to be taken to wntrol upland erosion and sources of sediment loading (such as wnstruction sites) which impact on the marine environment. The extent of non-point source pollution, particularly from agricultural run-off, needs to be assessed and steps taken to protect water quality. Current sand mining practices should be reviewed. If these practices are determined to have significant adverse impacts, alternative sources of construction aggregate should be evaluated. Measures to protect beach vegetation need to be established, and an appropriate coastal setback should be implemented and enforced. In view of the uncertain status and management difticulties associated with migratory pelagic st* fisheries development activities should continue to be directed toward providing multiple options, including aquaculture and habitat enhancement. In addition to supplementing food supplies, aquaculture might provide an opportunity to develop curio or ornamental fish trades without jeopardizing wild st&. Artiial reefs wuld provide additional alternative sites for nearshore fishing for recreational as well as artisanal fishermen. Fuhermen in Salisbury have traditionally fished on alternate days and in some cases haul their traps only once per week, suggesting that other voluntary management measures might be acceptable, such as a system of rotating closures based on artifiaal reefs that wuld allow heavily fished areas to repopulate. Goodwin (1985), in a report prepared for FAO, suggests that there may also be potential for enhanced spiny lobster production through the use of artificial shelters, an ap proach that has recently shown promise in Antigua. (See also Section 8.12 for a discussion of recent attempts by the Fuheries Development Division to use derelict vehicles for wnsbuction of artificial reefs, as one means of wmbating a growing solid waste problem in the country.) An environmental impact assessment, as part of the planning and land use optimiition process, should be required for all large coastal development projects. The cumulative effects of such projects need to be assessed rather than a case-by-case analysis of each project in isolation. One option might be to strengthen the Physical Planning Division (PPD) and designate it as the GOCD lead agency responsible for impact assessment in the wuntry. Alternatively, GOCD might choose to establish a CZM Development Advisory/Project Review Board to operate parallel to the PPD withii the framework of the Ewnomic Development Unit. In either case, a formal evaluation process should be established whereby other agencies have an op portunity for input into review procedures, perhaps including veto power over develop ment projects in critical areas.

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SECTION 6 ENERGY a1 OVERVIEW From an cDcrgy puspeetive, Dominica has the distinction of being &st in thercgiononscveralcoollts. Fka, Dominica's ~eeosystem prod(or ma~d~annuatprodmtionofbiamassby wim easystem typcs) is the highest in the OECS group at nearly fin: times that of Anbigua and thrre times that of Grenada (RohWm, 1985). Dominica's net avwage ecosystcmpmduetion~infad,95thourand BTU/sqnarc met-/-. Sccondty, the combiarticn d stccp, mgged terrain and the orqgcnic (rain-p dncing) efftd of hi& elevation in the interior prodnas snffiaent water flow from seledcd watersheds for DommlcS to haw taten the lead in the region in produciq eleclridy with water-driven units. The &st two hydro-lmbines arcre introduixd in 1952 to gtneratc elemiaty for Roseau. Thcsc two generators, located at Trafalgar, have a capacity of 320 kW each and replaced the dd Gommnentoperated dicscl generators. By the eoddtk 1970'4 tk poaru ~kwasgrad~~torraehvillagcs and cnnmunitiea m tk sootharcsf west, north and wnhcast of the idand. Hoarcva, h 1979, Hurricane Dad cad a mrrsrivc disn@onofDominia'spowcrsystcmd heavily damaged the trdm and distribution network By mid-EW, with a loan of ECSl.6 millim from the Csni Dcvclop ment Bank, the system was rtstored in size This~incruccba%~ prompcdbyrcceatcrpmsimsintbcdistribotioD~cm. Be&mhgin1WIS,mllkV ~liDcwaUtaKkdt0tk~ pdondtkisland~im~ ofthtEraCorrtRpnl JXkdkUk(p.m.whkhildoded.m~itsobpftivts con&wbdpSmiLzd~ tincsd60miladdhadmih3cs (JMmnudcrl,~. Todatc,virtPlnyall urstcoutcommoniticshlRbcmcoaacdcd to the DOMLU: grid (aec FigIlfc &l(2)).

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Table 6.1 (1). Dominica Electric Setvlces Umked, operating statistics for the years 1985 1989. IIlMIIed apncny Hydro M.ul TOTAL TOTAL Roduaion (kM x 1000) Grosa GeneratIan Hydro Mewl TOTAL bwl Fuel uwd In genemtlon (Imp. Gal.)

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1 n Installed Capacity Diesel Hydro Non-Technical Losses Technical Losses Flgure 6.1 (1). Electrical power trends, Dominica (source: DOMLEC, 1988; pers. cornrnun., R. Bruney, Engineering Mngr., DOMLEC, 1990). 114

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DOMINICA/TRANSMISSION SYSTEM ---EXISTING 11 kv Lines PO*ER STATIONS I Portsmouth 0 0 Castle Bruce I I I 4 I

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which are expeded to widen the gap between IMPORTED FUELS 'capacity and demand until 1995/1996 and Iprovide required room for maintenance As show in Table 6.1(1) and Figure 'and/or breakdowns in the system. 6.1(1), present electrical generating capacity is met primarily through diesel combustion SI ivi i '' Details on the existing generation rathe; than &dropow&, whereas in 1978 alrstem and its component capacity are promost 90 percent of total demand (17.358 ~ded in Table 6.1(2). Ah see the sidebar on GWh) was met through hydro (GOCD, age 118 on hydropower expansion. 1988b). Since 1984 the amount of fuel used annually in generation has more than tripled Table 6.1 (2). Capacity and components of existlng electrical generation system. Dominica. STATION INSTALLED CAPACITY EFFECTIVE (Dry ~eason)' CAPACITY Trafaigar Hydropower Station 3 generation unlts, each of 320 W maximum (this station is presently out of operation due to the Hydropower Expansion Project) Padu Hydropower Station 2 generation unlts, each of 940 kw maximum Melville Hall Diesel Station 3 existing generators new unk Fond Cole Diesel Station 6 generators TOTAL (existing) 1 Depending on water flow, conveyance efficiency, etc. for hydro and on ambient temperature, relative humidity, ageing for diesel. 2 To be Installed June 1990. Sources: pers. commun., F. Hamlet and R. Bruney, DOMLEC; S. Govindaraj, UNDP Project Manager, Hydroelectric Expansion Program/DOMLEC, 1990.

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(h 317,542 to l,OE&661 imperial gallons in 1989). In1989,27.6puecntof.DmoneydteetcdbyDoMLECwasspcntmimpnted diesel fuel (about EW.0 millioa), more tbsn foraayotbermmplngupensc. Tbiatigure, howmr, stin amounts to only a fnetion of Dominica's total imw (1.6 percent), valued at mom than million in 1988 (GOCD, 1-1. TbtllseofgrsdiDc(primarilyinthe trmcp0rtatim~a)akohasexpadcd~ nifieantty in reant years, due to a wbstantial muease in the number of registered vchidcs ontheislandEmm(4~to6,!loobctancen 1978 and 1988) and to an increase in the number of drivers on the Llaad (&a7 new Qivtrs between l984 and 1981). Gasoliac imports in 1987 were nlucd at ECSlP milLirm, wbin 1978 they amounted to ody ECS1.487 dkm (GOCD, 1988b). Liqoidpropancgas(LPG)kanimportlat~csticfUeS&enMedin~tim with other &Is such as cband a tire arwdasanenergyswrcefaeooljnk Based m a smvcyed sample population, some 67 percent of rural households and 85 pant of urban (Roseau) ids use LPG fa amking Itabonpredfa~ Tbc total amount of LPG imported to Dominica in 1986 was 829 tam (Beham, d al., 1987). BIOMASS IWEU BiipTOdl)Lti011bprowtobca Promisiag-dmcrg).(eg.s)m fumr tbat gcmatt a mfhimt .mormt d ~UfCorothcr~lMtaialtbr anbeMednamnutni.l AboutU farm~shmsctoplJada'biog48~aith rssisunechtheFlii-~ opMtcd by CARD4 tk Mmbhy d AgicPC ~c, and the Smd Rojcds Assist.acc Turn (SPAT). Tbt program k rrdstcd by tbt Appropi.tc TechDdoay Pnhnwr. (GATE) the B.ni(R.btsq1989). Faabopsodto pmducc end gas to cook fa a bwsebdd dsh,tbcmanm.ofat~>5cq10.p ~aZXl~mPstbeR3.ble(Th New avaidc, 1988). Other q8nic mate~bdudbgfood~a~fear,crm akobeoscd Tbcrlmr]rpromucd.ra+ podoctoftkbicgaspnitkoocfitctisektilizcr. Potcatid ad&iod lncr d liqas iaehdcelccrricitygcnmtimdfclrigrrtcr opcntim(tnrofalms~mebiogr~ pas. commmq G. Robin, -I lgw.

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Overall hydropower expansion will include two additional generating unlts at the Trafalgar generating site, each with a capacity of 1,760 kW, and a 1,320 kW station under con. struction at Laudat, a new site located at a higher elevation within the same watershed. It is hoped that these works, when completed, will reverse the present ratio of hydro to dlesel pm duction from about 40:60 to 60:40 (pers. commun., F. Hamlet, DOMLEC Generation Engineer, 1990). The project essentYly consists of these two major sections, Laudat and New Trafalgar, each with an assortment of hydraulic and civil works; a schematic layout is provided in Figure 6.1 (3). The main works of the Laudat section include the River dhrenion weir and plpeline which will divert water from Clarke's River Into Freshwater Lake (located in a differed watershed) via the existing Three Streams Canal. A dam and assochted cMI works are unda construction at the south end of Freshwater Lake. When complete, a woodstave pipeline will extend from the dam to a newly constructed surge tank above Laudat. Water from the tank will flow via a steel pipeline to the Laudat Power Station, the construction of which began In early January, 1990. 1' The New Trafaigar section Includes a balancing tank at Laudat to recehre flow from the Laudat station and (via a new pipeline) from the existing Titou intake which diverts flow fmm the Roseau River below its source at Freshwater Lake. From the new balancing tank, watel will be directed to the dd and new Trafalgar power stations. The new station Is being buH1 within the compound of Old Trafalgar Station, although a control tank will be sited partially outside. The existing steel pipeline from the Old Trafaigar Station to the Padu Power Statior will be redirected through the contrd tank with provision made for a second pipeline to the Padu Station in the event expansions are sought at a later date. A recent progress report on the project can be found in Dominica's New Chronicle newspaper (23 February, 1990). The werail project cost is currenlty estimated at US$23.33 million (pers. commun., F. Hamlet, DOMLEC Generatlon Engineer, 1990), but many authorities feel additional cost wer. runs are likely. Almost all project funds have been borrowed, as shown in Table 6.1 (3). The prolect is being undertaken through five main contracts, each of which is financed separately by the four external lending agencies and by CIDA. which suggests their use may gradually be taking hold in the country (pers. unnmun., R. Bruney, Engineering Mngr., DOMLEC, 1990). Future development of geothermal energy resources is now beii actively pursued as one alternative for the next phase of generation expansion. Analyses of geothermal potential suggest that five MW of elec~aty could be generated (GOCD, 1985) and, since this projection is well beyond the immediate needs of the countty, could be developed in units of one to two MW and added to the present system in phases as demand increases. Development of these resources might also be feasible in the immediate future if external markets for this power source (i.e., neighboring islands) can be secured. The latest National Structure Plan for Dominica (GOCD, 1985) reports that a low priority should be placed on geothermal development for the near Future. However, a more recent paper by DOMLEC (Jabbal, 1988) suggests otherwise. In fact, it outlines a

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LAWAT POWER STATION NEW WLANCINC TANK TO RIVER NEW TRAFALCMI OU) TRAFALCMI POWER STATION 960 kn mROL TANK 7F NNRE PIPELINE TO PMU TO Prn POWER STATION 1540 kn FiQure 6.1 (3). Schenmtk hywt d hydm cPcpendon project h Domh(ca (sauce: The New Chronicle. 23 Fekuary. 1990).

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Table 6.1 (3). Funding sources for the Hydroelectric Expansion Project. Funding Soum Tms Amount(mllllon US$) IDA (World Bank) loan CDB loan CCCE (France) loan European Investment Bank loan Local Bank loan ClDA grant DOMLEC (In-klnd) GOCD (In-kind) TOTAL 23.33 Source: pers. wmmun., F. Hamlet, DOMLEC Generation Engineer, 1990. ment Corporation. The latter then transferred its sham to the national Government which since has made shares available for public purchase (GOCD, 1985). Additional management of Dominica's electrical services (e.g., emrgy utilization in public facilities) is handled by the Ministry of Communication and Works thtough its Electrical Division. Apart from electricity generation and utilization, the Division of Agriculture (MOA) plays a role in the energy sector in the development of biogks energy sources (as discussed earlier in this section), and the Ministry of Trade deals with importation of diesel, gasoline, LPG and other petroleum products. According to Stack (1988). the following legislation pertains to energy in Dominica: the Public Utility Commission Act (No. 28 of 1972); the Geothermal Energy Act (No. 24 of 1974); and the Electricity Supply Act (No. 7 of 1976). Under the Electricity Supply Act, the Government maintains statutory authority to assign priority to hydropower generation over any other use of waters in designated stretches of the Roseau and Mural (a Roseau triiutary) River systems (iiuding all tributaries). In effect, no other uses of waters within these areas are permitted (Stack, 1988). 6.2 PROBLEMS AND ISSUES THE HYDROELECTRIC EXPANSION PROJECT The potential environmental impacts of the hydro expansion project have been neither extensively nor intensively studied. The anticipated and observed (in the case of construction) impacts are described in a series of brief reports and memoranda, all of which were prepared once project planning was completed or the project itself was well under way (e.g., Scheele, 1989b and 1989~ undated/anonymous report in the files of DOMLEC entitled Wydroelectric Expansion

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wEmmcrnmcatrl Cornideratioar of Major
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USSS0,WO will be spent on the work of the UNDP consultant (pers. commun., S. Govindaraj, UNDP Hydro Project Manager, 1990). While these more recent impact assessment efforts are useful the cost for preparing the Environmental Impact Statement is very small if viewed within the wntext of total project mts (even before the likely eost ovem) and is reflective of a low level of environmental considerations in the overall project scheme. Furthermore, the EIS will be wmpleted around the same time as projected completion of the construction phase, thus substantially diminishing the effectiveness of the EIS as a proactive project evaluation tool. Several other important issues relevant to the hydro expansion project should be noted. Fist, most of the impacts described will occur within the confines of the Morne Trois Pitons National Park, the location of many of the hydro project works. This raises questions about aesthetic impacts, particularly as these relate to concurrent GOCD tourism objectives for the expansion of nature tourism in the wuntry. This issue of non-wnfonning uses within the National Park is discussed in more detail in Section 2.1.2 of the Profile. Secondly, the degree to which the hydro expansion project was evaluated (i.e., in comparison to other energy alternatives and with specific reference to both demand management and national energy conservation goals) is an important issue for Dominican resource managers. In retrospect, there is little evidence that either conservation, demand management or the matter of energy alternatives was given much attention in early dicussions which led to development of the current hydro project. Fiy, a more signif~cant, although wntroversial issue, arises from the hydro project's economic feasibiity study, specifically as it related to the most obvious alternative, i.e., the expansion of diesel-generating capaaty. Some of the current criticism in this regard, of course, arises from the clarity of hindsight. Nevertheless, the problem is relatively simple. The feasibiity assessment by Shawinigan and Lavalin (1984) was conducted on the basis of an assumed oil price structure that has subsequently proven to be off the mark. At that time, the firm compared various hydro development configurations with a scheme involving diesel-fired generation units. This comparison assumed a diesel fuel price of US$52 per barrel and, at the time, the sensitivity analysis conducted reduced this price by only ten percent. In late 1985, however, just after the study was wmpleted, the price of oil fell by approximately 50 percent. By March 1990, the price paid by DOMLEC had increased slightly but was still only US$37.00/barrel. Theoretically, if the original assessment had foreseen the possibiity of diesel costs significantly below the USS52.00/barrel figure, it is argued by some that a decision against hydropower and for diesel generation might have been reached. However, since no impact assessment was undertaken at the time regarding the risks associated with greatly expanded imports of diesel fuel, there is some doubt about the validity of using only the market price of oil as reflecting the true net landed cost to Dominica. In 1986, a 'wst effectiveness review" was conducted by Shawinigan and Lavalin to determine whether oil price charges, as well as postponement of the "on-power" date for the Laudat section to 1989, would affect prw ject viability. This review (Shawinigan and Lavalin, 1986) reports that the project remains cost effective relative to an all-diesel expansion for discount rates up to 11.4 percent for the lowest load forecast considered and for the lowest oil cost scenario. It is beyond the scope of the Environmental Profile project to complete a detailed assessment of the Shawinigan and Lavalim wst effectiveness review (1986) or of the earlier feasibiity analyses (Shawinigan and Lavalin, 1984). Suffice it to note that an additional independent economic study might have been wonbwhile to conhm the feasibiiity of the project, including consideration of possible (or likely) cost overruns, lower load growth rates, and so forth. Construction work on the project is already substantidy off schedule relative to what was assumed in the feasibiity studies.

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Fmtbermon, as with most fekcibility shuiieJ, the Shawinigau and Lavatin .sstssme& (1984' 1986) were eoDductcd on the basisoffairlyoarrow,eeowmieait& Tk adclitional enviroamental msts of the projed have not ye4 been funy accounted for. At pra sent,environmentalcostsareextemaliz&Iand borne by tbe community and haw not been in any way internalized as a cost of tbc project. SrnABILrlY OF TAE COUNFRY'S PRESENT ENERGY PATR A more gened bui ~cvcrtbclcss importantiautconfroating~andothcr OECS COR&LS b the energy sector is the extent to which tbe auTent pattern of energy development is suited to small, insular cnvironmcnts and tothe pnrcss daaaining national dc self-reliance and resource sustainabiliry. A sigdhot amount of money and effort bas been earmarked for a vny kgcde pmjtd @y -), theHydroeketricExpansbRojcqwhicb wi4 as a side cffq inuease the amtry's fOnjgndebtaad,tosomccxtent,willakoiacrease the comlry's dcpcndcaa 00 imported bardware and exper& for system maintcnana. 'Ibc extent to wilich altRMtk and/ord-scale,& ifamsdce crgyh.vcbccn~ or promc(ed in Domuuea is oat dur, akb@~ there was a Mldy undertaken in the early t981Ys wilich looked .t tbc fc.~i d UMII-scale bydm elcetrieirmJLtiom(Wmm~ Ltd. 1982). HOVCYC~, socb e6orts do not appear to haw been substlati.S m hlR they beenapnrtdamm~maggdcvclopment policy fa the coantry. In many ItsP% isbctterdcdib.nany atbcrawmbybthercgioafatbedcdop mtntand~~~dsocbc~vgyfnms(s& Rob-=% 1985).

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Dominica. DOMLEC is responsible for the generation and transmission of electricity via the national grid system; the Mitry of Communication and Works has some responsiiity for electrical system utilization through its Electrical Division (eg., inspection and cemticatim of wiring and transmission installations and electrical maintenance in Government buildings); the Mitry of Trade deals with the regulation and pricing of petroleum imports such as diesel, gasoline, and LPG. None of these agenaes, however, has responsibiity for the broader aspects of energy policy formulation and evaluation. Reportedly, a three-person lnter-ministerial Energy Committee' was established in 1988 to satigfy requirements attached to a loan from IDA and to deal with policy matters. However, the committee has been for all practid purposes non-functional since its establishment. Therefore at presenl much of the wuntry's energy-related policy formulation and decision-making, at least as they pertain to the generation of electrical energy, is centralized in a single, large electrical utility, DOMLEC, which understandably has its own perspective or biases in determining what is feasible or optimal with regard to energy development. Unfortunately, in the absence of a Government Energy Office, this situation will probably mean that wnsideration of smaller scale, decentralized, renewable energy options -ie., those which comprise a "soft energy path' -will not receive as much attention as they deserve. NATURAL ENERGY FLOW COMMERCIAL ENERGY Barbados Antigua Grenada St.Vincent St. Kitts St. Lucia Dominica Figure 6.2(1). Natural and commercial energy Row In Caribbean Islands (source: Robertson, 1985).

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6.3 POUCY RECOUMENDATWMS MECHANlSM FOR ReVIEWMG ENERGY ALlERNATIVES AND ESTABLISBMG ENERGY POLlCY Improved inter-agrmcy coordrmbon for energy policy omeg., &,-term phumiq. more formalized rnosiduatioa d ahcrnative energy approleltcs, and fcadbility ~dics,migbtbeaehimdifGOCDuweto ddg esmbwuuent of an Eacrgy unit within the EDU or, &ernstivCly, an intersgcncy Epagy potiey .d DRclopamt Board/Comminct charged spedhny witb formulating long-term energy poliey goals and p=QP'= NEED FOR IMPROVED ~O~ALINPUT Itismt~toulpletbtcl+cfa ~DominL.'socrgg~m importcdrdbymcomriBiqe.*,d6'5eatwsedbcllocrggvlmoqapsd.llg d the rmAlblc Liad namelynrmcly biompa ~mdcbPeoPl~~-plqacworthpdfndu.ttcntioa.

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ties, there might even be a positive benefit since the cleared biomass, if burned on the site for its nuisance value, would be wasted. While the traditional earth kiln is not very effiaent, it is simple, and charcoal production by this method requires very little capital investment (eg., an axe, shovel, rake, and cutLass). A charcoal producer can live on the income from his/her efforts, which are admittedly labor-intensive but socially useful. Charwal is produced from wood because it has a bigher ealodic @eat) output per unit weight and is thus more valuable (also per unit weight) than fuelwood on the open market. Firewood (because it is much heavier) generally must be gathered dose to where it will be sold and/or used as it can rarely support transportation costs and remain competitive with other available fuels. However, for charcoal production, the type of wood used is important. Some cannot withstand the intense heat required to produce charcoal. Therefore, waste wood resulting from land clearing activities may be more effident if used as firewood rather than for the production of charcoal. When producing charcoal from wood, a great deal of the latter is wasted due primarily to kiln and process inefficiencies. But this is not an insoluble problem and could be dealt with even without substantially changing the systems currently employed. For example, Nelson in OAS (1987) reports that firewood is generally stacked for only a few days before it is put, iasuffiaently dry, into a charcoal kiln. Furthermore, in traditional earth kii, it is difEcult to restrict combustion to only that portion of the total wood supply required to generate sufficient heat to cha~ the remainder. Si the wnversion effiaency of charcoaling is primarily a function of the wood moisture content and of the technology employed for the pyrolpis process, there is room for considerable inaeases in efficiency and thus for less wastage of the country's wood (and other biomass) resources. Furthermore, for the traditional biomass fuels of firewood and charcoal, gains in effiaency could also be made through some combination of extension services, a licensing strategy, and a program for assisting charcoal producers in moving the more efficient metal kilns from place to place. At one time the Division of Forestry and Wildlife experimented with the. use of transportable metal kilns for more effiaent charwal production, but since. the mid-1980's the program has essentially been terminated and the kilns were sold off in 1989 (pen. commun., R. Charles, Forest Officer, 1990). There are those who believe that a program like this should be reestablished, but others express concern about the possib'ity of excessive wood harvesting and its implications for accelerated deforestation. The solution to this dilemma lies in improved monitoring and resource management strategies. It is worth repeating at this point that Dominica has the highest biomass productivity h the Eastern Caribbean. As part of his proposed forestry policy for Dominica, Prim (1987) has identified several objectives that pertain to biomass energy. These indude restoring fuelwood supplies in wood energy deficient parts of the island and developing wood-based energy systems for small industries in rural areas. Furthermore, as suggested earlier h this chapter, the use of biogas is proving to be an inexpensive source of cooking fuel and quality fertilizer on Dominican farms. As such, its use promotes introduction of waste management systems based on the internal recycling of domestic and agricultural waste within given farm units; reportedly, this has led to "considerable enhancement' of hygienic conditions (Biogas Team, 1986). GOCD should continue to work with CARD1 and others in securing necessary finand and technical suppot? for biogas production systems. A team of Dominicans already are trained in the construction of biogas plants. Xavier (1986) recommends that education on biogas technology be integrated with the Mitry of Agriculture's extension program. Since many alternative energy systems, in addition to biogas, will likely prove more feasible for the rural sector, the Mitry's extension staff should play a substantial role in, and be closely affiliated with, such experimentation. By virtue of its location, Dominica has great potential for solar energy use. The

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solar energy theoreticaily ~v&LifatTle rn a t)?piexceptions to t6i.5 rule, Nrvefl.he!css, this cal Caribkan isfand mounts to ahut si?F energy so~aix has putenrid for s wide vwicry kWh of energy per day for every square meter of applicatinns, md any baxriers ria t.hc of available Land (Ifeadlcy3 1986, in Bellmann cs~aaded use of solar encqp, such 3s impn t a. 9. Mountainous areas wi& tariffs on solar equipment, should be. excessive doud cover and all areas during removed. occasiond overcast conditions are, of ccmrse,

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SECTION 7 INDUSTRY, TOURISM, AND TRANSPORTATION l%kchapteroftheRofilcfoearcsm thrtcaspcc&ofDominica'sbusiDeJaandmdusty em, me, mmhchrriak qlgoiadusty and tourism, all of whicb have been targeted for up.nsiOn by Gorncmment m more nxcnt dcvclopment plPnnhrg schemes. These sectors are asociated with change, as theeoontryseelrJtodivcrsifymdexpandits dewlopent priorities beyond a more traditionalrmalandagrienlturalbase. Siallof thcscactivititsaredepclldcntonthesuand air transpoa infrastructure, a brief review of armnt development planning for these fadticJisalso~inpartsiDapassengw and cargo terminal faeitities often have sign%cant environmental impads m both the shorl and longer tenn. 7.1 MANUFACTURING AND AGROINDUSTRY ManufaetmiDg is atill a small but steadily growing sector in Dominicq rharacterized by enclave and assembly-type manufa(antering around export-oriented activities) and by age-based processing industrigfrmJcdonaxOnutandeitnrrpr0duds Thepnvcssiaed~ut(ass0apand oil goods) surpasses all other industrial developmcnt,arithsosppmd~alollcbeiithe dlargestmntribntortoexport~ Pfter bananas (see also Sedim 133). Because of the small size of the domestic market,industrislBpansionlelicshcPvityontbc development of export mark* it bas also reatricted the loeation of indllstries to the Roseau area, near to shippiag facilitia AeeordiDg to Government statistics (GOCD, W), manactivities accounted for 6.1 perof total gross domestic product (GDP) in 1978, by 1981 this proportion had iwtased to 8.0 perant Furthermore, betwcm 1978 and I!%', manufachuing's &are of GDP, valued at factor cost in prim increased from ECSS.85 million to EcS9.83 million. Employment in the wtorapandcdhl,359to&!nsbctwcm lSS3 ad 1989, a not kigdkmt inrrcrre alw~6gmes=F--~tb.npaatoftotllcmpbymentfortkyeamindid rkqliteitsdatidydovcnll fontribotioo to the earnmy, mannfaehrriDg is lecekiq inata&g altentim from GOCD. aioug with tourism and agriarltm;rl divers& cation,asonemcansofup.odingtbeaatiod~y. Emphasis has beaplrccd on attradirrg light manufutmiqe du&es for export produetiocl (ie, cadavc du&es) and on the promotion of natural msowxs, such as fatsu ad water (UNDP, l986). 'Ihir approrh was -mendedbytheWorklBankaseadyaslSS3 when Bank aoalysls suggested tbat Do. could further diversify its productive apeciry throYghcoatiauedrqbhthdthetr).'snsturnlrcsom~~~aadamactiollofkborintenrivc~,thethcer totakeof the unemployed and undcremplaycd, rdatively low& labor force (World Bank, m). For the immediate inhm, &pibut growth in the sector d dcpcnd on foreijy

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Table 7.1 (1). Composition of domestic expotts for manufactured products, 1988. ITEM QUANTITY F.O.B. VALUE PERCENT OF IN TONNES IN ECI TOTAL Toilet Soap 4,929 H011~9hold Soap 2,343 Garments (exclusive of gloves) 627 Gloves 162 Bay OH 22 Cownut (Copra) Oil Crude 1 .I 13 Paints and Varnishes 139 Grapefruit Juice Concentrate 128 Galvanized Sheets 246 Hot Sauces 234 Prefabricated Houses 255 Vegetable Saps and Extracts 56 Glycerols and Glycerols Lyes 260 Candles 47 SWPS 23 St~es 14 Spring Water 153 Footwear 4 Other Totals 10.755 38,273,784 100.0 Source: GOCD, 1988b. investment, although the expansion of an indigenous mannfachuing sector is wnsidered vital to the country's long-term development objectives (UNDP, 1986). Industrial promotion is handled principally by the National Development Corporation (NDC) and the Agricultural, Industrial, and Development Bank (AIDB), both of which are state institutions. Through the two agencies, Government has been engaged in a program of factory shell construction as an incentive for attrading investment. These facilities (currently totaling in emss of 110,000 square feet of space.) are subsequently subdivided and leased for industrial activities. The current objectives and programs of the NDC were outlined in a recent supplement in the local press (The New Chmnicle, 23 March, 1990), prepared in part to describe the activities of "Industry Week" 1990. It was reported that the NDC is presently focusing on small business with special attention being paid to handiaaft development and its promotion as a small business. The emphasis on handicrafts (e.g., the manufacture of rugs and other local products) is appropriate to overall GOCD sector plans to utilize local natural resources for the further development of indigenous industries.

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A List of manufacturing companies presently assisted by the NDC, along with their activities and employment levels, is provided in Table 7.1(2). Most industry currently is concentrated in Roseau and its environs, e.g., the Canefield Industrial Estate. The latter is one of six areas in Dominica identified for industrial development. The other areas are Melville Hall, Pimd (Portsmouth), Jiimit, Check Hall, and Geneva, but substantial development has only taken place at Canefield, Jiit, and Portsmouth. The most recent National Structure Plan (GOCD, 1985) proposes that Portsmouth be promoted and developed as the country's "major industrial center," a recommendation based in part on the fact that it is the only community on the island with a fairly substantial amount of undeveloped flat land Industrial pollution is not a major problem in Dominica at the present time, primarily because the industrial base remains small. However, the processing of coconuts into edible oils, soaps, animal feeds and 0th by-products does generate a high volume of waste products which are customarily discharged into the coastal environment. Archer (1984) points out that although waste (effluent) loads from the industrial processing of coconuts are comparatively low for COD, BOD, and suspended solids, they nevertheless pose a "serious threat" to the aquatic environment and to public health because, almost without exception, liquid industrial waste is discharged into rivers and streams within close proximity of the coasts and the sea. Areher's (1984) estimated quantities of industrial pollutants in Dominica (Table 7.1(3)) are seriously in need of an update, if only to reflect new industries and to adjust for the growth of outputs by those industries with more signilicant waste streams -some as effluents and some as solid waste. Unfortunately, other than Archer's (1984) prelimmary report prodneed for PAHO (which also includes useful volumetric estimates of domestic sewage and'solid waste streams), no more recent study has been done to determine waste generation by industries or to assess the effects of those wastes on both the rive~e and coastal environments of Dominica. Agro-processing industries generally have a less pernicious effect on the aquatic environment, i.e., oxygen depletion and solids input. Distillery wastes are among the most "offending" in this regard and are discharged into streams that already are polluted by domestic wastes. Perhaps a more signiticant problem associated with the agro-processing sector is the generation of solid organic byproducts which are dumped in streams and ravines, over precipices, and along roadsides and shorelines (see also Sedon 8). In the Roseau area this problem is particularly evident in relation to citrus rinds. Such organic waste, despite its solid nature, can atso have a eutrophic effect on streams. Of course, it also has a negative aesthetic impact, and in popnlated areas it poses a risk to public health by serving to attract disease vectors. Expanded efforts could be made to actually use organic industrial "waste" as a resource, by processing it into animal feed, compost, and/or biogas (see also Sections 6 and 8). The same is true for the massive quantities of rejected bananas which are left to rot throughout the island. In the Bahamas, for example, distillery waste from a brewery is beii used as a feed supplement for farm animals (Huls, 1989), while in St. Vincent bagasse from the sugar industry is utilized to produce biogas (Archer, 1984). In Dominica, there is great potential for expanding such waste exchanges, but this will require a moperative effort by farmers, industrialists, local communities, and the national government. The development of waste exchanges contributes not only to pollution redudion but also to better management of the agricultural and energy sectors. Toxic waste loads from Dominican industry do not appear to be high (Archer, 1984). The only companies which appear to handle toxic substances are the paint company and the oil companies, but these are not actually manufacturing or chemically processing these substances per se (pers. commun., J.

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64.U 804 m1 Bdllgdmnplrc COD 13 nujrrairjmb a 305 limcmaibuton Sdt D* IDS 1,336.0 Daacnisiwhe Oil 24.1 iri.gd+dtlmlrro ir' .i brm Trm ZosaO Sap Efiectivcnmaganentofnrtmrlm swrcea targcted for industri.l ddopmmt (%g.,wrtcrfuuport,timbtrforwoodprodudJ) win btcomc ioercariDgty impoltaal as thecormhy~cffortsto~sPehm somcea amlmwcianp.. GOCD ags%&s invohrDd in indd devcbpmcnt appr to be ~oftheaeedforsastainaMcresoma management in tbc expansion d momsbasbdindostriek Foroample,thcNDChas stated that:

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Fmally, the process of industrial development in targeted areas must remain sensitive to existing or projected activities which are potentially non-compatible or could result in resource user conflicts. For example, plans for tourism expansion in an area such as Portsmouth may be jeopardized by industrial development which is not properly planned and managed Pollution of swimming areas, uncontrolled waste disposal, accelerated noise and congastion, and the aesthetic quality of the area are among potential impacts which will need to be addressed 7.2 TOURISM Dominica's tourism product is not typical of most other Caribbean destinations, perhaps most significantly because of the limited availabiity of white sandy beaches which North American and European visitors generally prefer. On the other hand, the island does offer a variety of unique attractions (e.g., spectacular scenery, rain forest hikes, hot springs, good diving, and national parks) which, when marLeted as a "padrage," have earned Dominica its reputation as the region's "nature. island." Tourism development in Dominica has focused on the island's strengths: unspoiled environment, natural scenic attractions, adventure holidays, uniqueness of product. At the same time, growth in the sector has had to confront a number of significant constmink lack of adequate feeder services between major gateways and Dominica, no night aircraft landing facilities, inadequate services for cruise ships and yachts, undeveloped cultural and historical attractions, poor access to many sites (Dominica Tourist Board, ad). Despite these problems (many of which are currently beii addressed in Government development plans), tourism has been growing steadily over the past decade, as illustrated for the most recent six year period by Table 731). The Division of Tourism reports a continued increase in tourist arrivals for 1989, up 9.4 percent over 1988 and reaching a total just under 37,000 by year's end (although cruise ship arrivals were sharply down). The same source quotes a 50 percent increase in hotel rooms over the last three years, from 354 to 531 in 12 hotels, 14 guest houses and 13 apartments (News Release dated 7 May, 1990, Division of Tourism, NDC) While grow@, tourism is not yet a major component of the Dominican economy. Citing a 1986 Caribbean Tourism Research and Development Center study, a recent report from the World Wildlife Fund reports tourism's contribution to Dominica's gross national product at 25.6 percent, or just over US$10 million (ECS27 million) for 1986 (Boo, 1990). It is most likely that the reporter meant to refer to an estimate of tourism's contribution to foreign erchange earnings, since the Gross Domestic Product for Dominica in 1986 was approximately ECS?50 million. Such figures demonstrate that tourism is a powerful foreign exchange earner, roughly equivalent to 60 percent of recent foreign exchange eamings from bananas. Equally significant is the size of the "domestic value added" component of tourism expenditures. In this respect, Dominica fares better than other tourist destinations in the Eastern Caribbean with much larger tourism sectors. That is, the local "multiplier" for tourism in Dominica is higher than in most other Eastern Caribbean destinations. For example, a significant proportion of total tourist expenditures for food in Dominica is used to buy local produce, whereas in a more developed tourist island like St. Thomas most food is imported from other Caribbean islands or the continental U.S., meaning that tourist expenditures quickly leave the island to pay for imported food. A central objective, therefore, for future development of tourism in Dominica should be to maintain or increase the local-value-added Mmponent of tourist expenditures, as is emphasized in the Government's Tourism Policy" (GOCD, n.d). Many of the constraints which have been identified as limiting development of the tourism industry in Dominica (see above) are currently being addressed by Government. Upgraded facilities will be provided at Wood

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Table 7.2(1). Total *or enkds in Dominica by categay. 1984 1969. 2 News Re((7 May. 1990). Minlaay d Taaism and Trade and the WBkn d Toclrism. Natknal Development Corporatbn. Roseau. Dominica Sarrce: mccept as hdicated in fooblde 2, all Rgues are from CTO.1989. bridp Bay (north of Rosun) by cltcndiag the main do& to a total of 800 ftct in kagtb and by wide* it by 20 ftct to a total d 60 feet, in part to facilitate imprwcd Endse ship utilization Addi&maUy, a new 3(30 foot eruisc ship berth, with toud rtaptioll center, is now&eoaseuctioDatthcC.britsd of Portsmouth. This fadlity win .ommmodatc~shiptraflicinthedoftheik land and will improw aaas to thc natiod park at the Cabfits Fa, formal srudits are. rmderway for a new jet airport at Woodford W in tbc nalhcastern part of the country, which would provide Dominica with dircb international Linlrs for jet .ircrolt for the 6rst time in its history. Tourism sites are. abo bci up grad4 primarily with funds provided by the European Economic Community. A total grant of ECS1.6 million from the EEC is being used for the production of new promowithin Gownm~ tclmism -0ticm is the mqma&&y d tbc L%Gm d Tomism witbin tbe N&ad Dcvclopmcllt Cqnmth. 'IbcNDCwascrertcdasanm statutory body in 1988 by mcqhg thc forma IadnrtrialDcvcbpmatCarpontioD~tbe DomisiaTouristBorrd TbefarmaMof thc Td Boud is mu tbe Dirtda d Tomism. Gi thc @ number d toad ~whichuc~.rusuucrituatcd within the counfrfs two natioDal pub, tourism officials have tdihdiy wortcd dosclywithstaffattbeFacshyaadWildlife ~(sa.Iso~11).

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NATURE TOURISM In 1971, Shankland Cox and Associates -town planners of London and Jamaica -produced a tourism development strategy for Dominica. That study was the fist attempt by a professional mulling firm to assess the contemporary (i.e., modem day) tourism potential of Dominica. In that report, the authors emphasized the importance of nature tourism development to the country, stating: The most si@ifieant oltmclion of Dominica is the unspoilt quo1it.y of the ishnd as a whole, and more specific~, the forests, mountains and coastline. Pamdadcaliy, therefon, the most important action to be taken in developing the island's aaractim is nothing or mther, to pmtect the natural oltmctions fmm action which could be injurious (Shanldand Cox and Associates, 1971). Nature travel, also called emtourism, is a booming industry worldwide. Only more recently have attempts been made to examine the negative effects of nature tourism on host countries. One such attempt just published by the World Wildlife Fund-US and entitled Ecotowism: The Potentials and PirfalIs (Boo, 1990) uses Dominica as one of five case studies to report on this graving phenomenon. The study poses the question, "Can tourism be a means for consemtion?" -and looks at how an ccotourism approach can enhance local conacmation efforts by linking resource protection strategies to the generation of foreign exchange earnings. In some countries, a portion of tourism-generated revenues have even been spe&cally earmarked to support resource wnse~ation programs. At the same time, the study warns about the ohen -sive demands tourists can place on delicate ecosystems which over the long term might destroy the very attractions that fist drew visitors. In Dominica, the WWP report indicates that, although there are no valid scientific studies which assess the impact of tourism on natural areas, informal discussions with national park personael, tour operators and local residents in the vicinity of tourism sites indicate that some impacts are occurring, e.&, accumulation of litter. The report claims that many persons involved with the nature tourism industry in Dominica believe cruise ship passengers are less sensitive to the island's natural environment and therefore potentially represent the most destructive component of the country's tourism base. The author identifies four major obstacles to the growth of nature tourism in Dominica (Boo, 1990): inadequate hding for park main. teaance; lack of tourism infrastructure in the park; lack of trained guides; a lack of international promotion for tourism. In Dominica, Boo (1990) points out it is difficult to calculate the exact economic contribution of nature tourism, in part because statistics are not collected at any protected site. However, given that the majority of tourist attractions on the island are natureoriented, any overall increase in tourism can safely be said to reflect an increasing interest in (and impact upon) the country's natural areas. Clearly, Dominica's touristic future lies in the development of a more comprehensive, nature-based tourism experience. Nevertheless, the island does not enjoy an exclusive or totally unique comparative advantage over other OECS states such as St. Lucia or St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Competing in this market, which remains largely undifferentiated to all but the most knowledgeable traveler, will require formulation of very specialized, targeted merchandisii tactics as well as cooperative public and private sector sup port for promotional strategies. The development of new promotional literature is already underway, assisted in part with hding from the European Economic Community. It is also important that Dominica ensures that

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Dominica already rcmgnizes that thcse medics and attrachn linitd to ccafourismnctdtobeopgradcdormuelnny developed in order fm the coonby to rcmri. competitive. As indicated abwq hiking b3s toandfaeilitksatthemostpopukr~or sites are being impmvcd and appqiate intwpdve litcratmc prepared under ao EEC tomism kilik enhamemcat gtaut. 'Ibc colmeyalsomadstouplorcoptioasforthe dmbpment of appropriatety-sited and pm fessionaUy-maintained camppounds which offcr a lowcart nature tonrism cxpnicnce with a high Id-dueaddad wmpoacat as well as a high tourist-remm rate (ie, the pcrcent of tourists who come back in sucacding ycafi). OntheisIandofStJohnintbenearby us. vi Man& ~.mp~rounds havc bccn =easdoIly and Pfitw opaated witbin the Vi Islands National Park (at Cinnamon Bay) and as a private sector venture adjacent to the National Park (at Maho Bay). Thep0tcnrirlfor~'natunl history tourism' ie, totlrirm caten+ to a vcryspeeiatdienteleofresuKhscicntistsand nahlral history investigatm also needs to beaplortdbytomirmpbnnersin~ Dmlopment of a -ch/natnrc dcr SeNingDOminicaandtbcNatioDalParkSyk tern has been pmposed by both GOCD 05 cialsandinvartourstndiesforatlurta decade (see Towlc, 1979b; Evans, 198% l988 and lW, and ICBP, 1990). The cst.blbh ment of the Archbotd Center fa Tropical stodks at Spriegficld PlantatioD (see scuion 11) provides one oppommity for achieving thisobjcftive. ~dtkbasicpcrad ~iad.llrtirraatRouomlmdcrEltcD initLnybythcPortadH.rbaDividoDd the Ministry of CommpniatioDs ad Work but a forad, antommom w.? onit, tbtDominiclPortA~,ag~ inE??Zarithjmisdietimoserthrccportsd =m The enabbg kgidath (Act No. 18 ofm)gavcto*DcwtyearblisbsdPolt AnthaaytherdbaiqeAlthough blessed with a hmuiantty vegetated landscape and a more tban gcner

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Table 7.3(1). Dominica Port Authorii cargo volume, 1978-1989. YEAR CARGO DISCHARGED CARGO LOADED TOTAL TONS' Crons) (long) Metric tonnes after 1981 182 Source: Dominica Port Authority. To maintain, improve and regulate services and facilities at designated ports; and To provide pilotage services, beawns, buoys and other navigational services. Cargo throughput from 1978 to 1989 is displayed in Table 7.3(1) (note the visible effect of Hurricane David in 1979 and den in 1980). Container traffic (all at Woodbridge) had grown by 1989 to 64,000 tons (in 2,382 containers) and represented 39 percent of all cargo handled for the year. Despite the small area available to and occupied by Port Authority facilities at Woodbridge, the operation is remarkably efficient, and the Authority is rapidly reducing its previous start-up and hurricane damage repair deficit. Plans for immediate expansion of its facilities, both at Portsmouth for eruise ships and yachts and at Woodbridge for all shipping and container handling as well as cruise ships, are in train and discussed in the next section. 7.3.2 Issues and Recommendations FACILITIES EXPANSION The need for improved efficiencies and lower costs as well as better services for new levels of commodity export traffic (eg., bananas, citrus, and soap and other manufactured and processed products like rum, bottled water, paint and furniture) had increased pressure at all of Dominica's port facilities by the end of the 1980's. From a different direction, the country's tourism industry, came pressure to expand the frequency of cruise ship visits by improvement of docking and passenger handling facilities. Not everyone agrees that solving the "access" question is more important than the "improvement of amenities" issue. Some tourism experts argue that the nature tourist, which Dominica's tourism policy favors, is essentially udustered and not deterred by the slight inconveniences and delays in getting to Dominica via indirect routing.. This argu

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mcntmsiDtainstbatthceeaasburicrisrUny a net-like fib, keeping out thosc hoLiag for an easy, mmo commhd holiday upcrimu and~thronghadiffwcntdassoftomists OfDonumca more appnaatm 's cmironmental and cumual milieu. mtthodidy impmvtd pat infnrseuchm and enabled tbc Port Authority to opexate more eifikntlrntlr rebuilttheidand'sroad~k (with lssistana tom internti4 donors) at a cost of over E(;S6amillion. NEW PRCXPECFS AND PROBLEMS Current tFamportation facility cxpmsion projcets in& the fdloariag: ckdwN&m of a m foot entbe ship berth with naption ceotcr for tomists at tbe Cabrits, Portsmouth; Ed~oftbc~wbarf(II Woodbridge Bay by 300 fat to a totalOf8oOfeetdwidcningof tbcexte~by20feetto60ftet; cQnardonofancrpaDdcd amtaiacr park at woodbridge Bay which will provide some 25 acres of container storage spa and win extend 350 feet in a southerly dhdica Simibrmod -' ,.Itbopebcma mdmactlc,kproposcdbgm for.irportf.eilibict Ithrbccnarpdtht ocitbcrtbcMchillCH.llAbport.35milcs northeast of Rascan, a the marc modan but ~nmanyfsritidy~c.nchJd,hRsOfseicntbadfapoparppmvbcsorfarrlm wayudcarionand~crgmciollto pamittheigCdCVCDdjC(aimafL Thucroreasnit.blcsitchrbeen~ and Britirb armnlt.nts h.R prcpQcd a design~ll~~~tfaajCtpatatWoodfdWi tbccmtmcnortburtdtbeisiand.~ fourmiltsmrtboftheM~H.llAirporc. Moftht6C~~1sElCilitiCJb.Kp tentid for Bnrtly improved, scdar-spDs6c efikkmk in the movement d pew and goods-~Md~WIIbcclpsc thcybrolvcdcvc)opmcntvtAiticsahicbare ~insizeamdscmi-~~tinnaw.trtftLrscanq=d-=w-or crpaDdcd mpbplrm ma (a focsl) pdats,carcful~~kakp jcetedsoeiald~imprtsk~ quirtd ~itisnevcrtu,ktefarsrwh eval~itisonfort~llatctbrt~wcn aotdoncattbcvty~dtbc~ tual planning proass fa 10 of lhese ma& devclopme~t projtds.

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Natural resource pollution within an island ecosystem can have severe negative impads on the health of the human, animal and plant organisms that inhabit the system. This section of the Profile focuses on the pollution of Dominica's terrestrial and aquatic (freshwater/marine) resources, on air pollution, and on the impacts of pollution real a potential on the health of the island's inhabitants. The poUution problems dirussed have been identified as the mast critical, but they are not necesady the only environmental health issues confronting the country. Indeed, the process of linking public heal01 problems to emrironmental causative agents is a difIicuit and complex one since a giwn Pness or disease may be linked to smral causes with no one polluting agent Wing catastrophic in *ring illness or diseare. However, the combined bio--dative effed of many pdtuting agents in su6iicnt quantities is nondy the sequence wbicb induces public health problems. Dnnrmea is a developing cowry with limited 6nanrial and human resources an4 as su& is not fully eqnipped to deal with certain kvek and types of pollutants. In tbe ahce of adequate fadlities or systems for the management d waste or fa the reguMon of chemical nse (e& pcstic;des), them is great potential for adverse pollution &c&r on the, health of Dominica's residents as well m on the country's natural fcsoura~. The status of heatth in a countrylikeDominicacanrcadilybed on the basis of several paramctcrs. (1, Popnlstiw gortb (see also Section 132 of the Rot& for an overview of dcmographir trends in Dominica). Thc annual rate of population inis regdated byhothbirthanddeath~ hniqgtbe post-World War Two period (1946-W), the natural rate of inucase in r rose from 1.5 percent to 32 perant prlmarity doc to a d& in the uude death nte fran ZOS/thousand in 1946 to 14.9/tboaraDd in 1960. This correlated aritb imporcm~ i mated/ehild hPlth care that resulted i a dramatic reduction in tbe infant mort.lity rate, from 119.4/tbouund to 6731tbomad. Thcderade~n1960to19Alsbowcda drop in the rate of natural humse to 15 percent, a trend whicb dued duriag the 1970'sandcanbeattributed toadropinihc fwtility rate as a result of Family Ptaoniqg Programs executed thro& tbe Heahb Department (Bouvier, 1984). Presently the popdahn me d natural iweare shows small decrusa behmxa 1984 and 1986 (see Tabk 8.1(1)). This is m part a amseqd imvcots in tbe health care system wilh tbe infant mortality rate reding a low of 15.1 in 1986 Fmtbamore, life upectancy has been projected to inaeasc from 68 to 74 yurs fa aroma and from 61 to 66 fa men (GOCD, 1989c). 'IbPs, the numbers ofand old havc arhichmcamthatifpopolatiollshciswtto s&&ntMy incrc~sc, fedlily rates mlgt be fdlerdeacased

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Table 8.1 (1). Dominica vital statistics, 1984 1990. Population Statistics 19901 1986 1985 1984 Midyear Population Fertility Rate Birth Rate (l/lW) Crude Death Rate (1/1000) Rate of Natural Increw (1/1000) Monatal Death Rate (l/l000) Infant Mortality (01 yr) (1/1000) Maternal Mortality Rate (1/1WO) Death Rsm Children (14 ys) Estimates bythe Population Rsference Bureau, Washington, D.C. 1 Source: GOCD, 19&9(d); Population Reference Bureau, 1990. I Table 8.1 (2). Sewage disposal or treatment facilities available to district hwsehdds, Health District Population %PL %ST %CL TOTAL Roseau* 23,402 38 37 12 87 St. Joseph* 6,026 10 26 7 43 Portsmouth* 10,267 36 12 6 54 Marigot 9,487 57 11 1 69 Castle Bruce 4,343 67 8 N/A 75 La Plaine 4.392 68 14 1 83 Grand Bay 6,068 63 13 2 78 Indicates communities along west coast. KM: (PL) pit latrlnes; (ST) septic tanks; (CL) communal latrines Source: GOCD, Environmental Health Department, 1987.

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Presently about half of Dominica's total population lives in wcst coast wmmunities, primarily in the two urban areas of Roseau and Portsmouth (see Table 8.1(2)). This conanIration of peopk and its potential for altering natural habitats have hapticarioar for both the natural resource planner and the pubtic health planner. (2) labnt/m matt8UQ dm. The infant mortality rate dcdined fmm 23.9 per thousand in 1W to 15.1 in 1986 but nac again to 185 in 1% (GOCD, 1981). Three percent of the l9@ admissions to the children's ward at the Rinass Margaret Hospital were for gastroenteritis and malnueitioq in 1985 this 6gure stood at 35 perant. Maternal mortality rates appear to have deud by M percent between PW-86, from 12 per thousand to 0.6 (see Table 8.1(1)). Q MaloabiIiom d cmbm. A Sehool Hcahh Program attempts to mcct the hcalthnetdsofschdagedrilhthmugh regularvisitationstoprimarysehooIsincMh of the seven health distrids A sumy of t&e health status of school cbildna of 22 primary schmk in the Roseau hcalth dbtrict rmakd that in terms of nutrition, 3 percent of beginners, ie, 4-5 year olds, had lmsatisfadory growth and physical development adicarivc of malnourishment/underweigbt or overwight. Among the sebod leaie, 1812 pr old& 3 perad also bad lmsatkfadory pbysieal grawtb and dmbpment patterm iadieativc d ove=4@/~duwcight probkm (GOCD, W). Prior to this report a survey was done inlwcSbytheNutritionUnitintheMinistry ofHcahhonchildnn85yeanininhealth distrids which identified malnutrition rates of6.4 percent or Lcss (St. Chire, 1987). (Q ~AffakdbCou~ .*lbleDLrrrs. lnercportiagandncording of communicabk dkasa of impdame topublichcahh a-arc twoofthe more impatant mpod%ta of Primary Health Can (PHC) stafi. The importance d SQeCDiDp/diagnosiDB and treatment Mties at PHC centus, mpkd with hcahh &ation and preventive care programs can be observed through a mrded general improvement in the health of Dominican atizens. Heheinthie infcstatioDs nauiD a duo& problem among ehiMrcn A random sample carried out on bctarccD 2-10 yearsoMnvtrlcdthatunoqg6Nc.rus Mdicd,SouhiereandScoasHud.ppurto have the highest rate d infestltim of mauy d thehcfmiDlhsimrcsOigatab ForenmpC,tbc ineidma d lscaris (rormdarorma) wss 77s perant and 72.7 pwcc~t in Sodrke and seotts Head, mpeddy, while in Mhut thirratewre.leythnlpur.eat(saTabk 8.1(5)). All three ammunitics are put of the Rnseau Hcahh Dirtri& Ha 61.tittiB fa 1966 rcvcrlcd thatan~d85~d~io ead~ dktric~ arcrc immunizul .grinst palmc-9 mbcrcobsis pdiom* diptbcrt/wbqing ooqgh/tttpnoq and mcg*r Sneb hi@ inoe&h fipm are due to mandatoryimm. for chiMrcP primmyseboolandtotbc~cacctiR cdoational efforts d PHC pasoPncL la 1982theimm~ntewasbetarccn35 m percent (GOCD, 198W).

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Table 8.1 (3). Diseases of public health importance in Dominica. YEAR NUMBER OF CASES REPORTED Pulm. Typhoid Dysentery Gastro bngua Hemorrhagic T.B. Fever Ent./Oiarrhea Conjunctivitis Table 8.1 (4). Notnicatlon of infectious diseases in the region: annual incMence rates per 100,000 for selected years. I Country Years Typhoid Leptospirosis Oastro hlmonary Fever Enteritis TB. Amigua/Bsrbuda 198011984 1.311.3 -/51.0 10.7113.8 earbad00 1W/l984 0.41039 21.0/12.0 7.8/7.1 25313.9 Dominica 1980/1984 21.3112.0 9.8121.0 25.0/6.0 Guyana 1980/1984 7.2122.0 2.4127.0130.0 14.0/19.0 Jamaica lWl1984 7.3/29.0 5.4/13.0 50.0159.0 6.416.4 St. Lucia lW/1984 5.8114.0 44.0/58.0 34.2143.0 Trinidad/Tobago 198011984 2.412.1 0.91p.S 75.01130.0 7.519.0 I Sour-: PAHO, 1986.

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Table 8.1 (5). Percamage d hdminth inf&atbn h 2 10 year dds h saleded vPlages d Dominica Type of Helmirah Soumere SCdtSHead GrendSay Mahocrt StJoseph (5) Mort.Utg lrta fwm ChnlmiC disasa. The mortality rate for adults from chronic diseases was 99.8 percent of the total number of deaths in W6. The main cause of deaths in that year was bcart disease/hypertension (24 percent), followed by malignant ocoplasms/canars (18 percent). Othercauxsofdeatbincludeddisusesofthe respiratory system, asthma, and diabetes. As thesc conditions are often stresr-induced, it muld be inferred that Dominican adults are now cqericncing a more stressful lifestyle. onc more 5ncraUy arsociated with more developed co1111hicq and that this is having an impad on general bcalth conditions in tbe -try. ThtmcranbcatthJoltosdtbeisland's population appears to be improviag in that most waditiom of public beahh -rn, ~yormgandoM,~showing~eelining rates of incidence. However, tbere are stin areas where forther improvements are needed. The incidence of bclmic infestations among children of school age needs to beaddrcJsc4forthishcahhproMcmcanincrease the morbidity kvek of affected ehildren by lowering theii resistaoa and predisposing them to more sdom health pmblcms. The high ineidewe hl of typhoid fcm also needs to be curtailed. The inadewe of various types of cancers and respiratory problems sueh as asthma also appears to be inaeasing (-9 1981). Tllehedthsavices~sgstan most closely asociated with the treatment d primary beatth cmum at the -unity Iml is the Primary H& Can (PHC) s)a tem. It encompasses tbe entire idad, has been divided into seven healtb dislhts Racean, St Joacpb P~oolll, Marieol, Cask Brua. LaPkiac, and Graad Bay. If utilhed efliciently, the PHC system is an uallentvehidcfordclivcryofhcahhcucto most nati0naI.x Adequate supply d safe water (Environmental Health);

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Basic sanitation (Environmental Health); Immunization against infectious diseases; Health education on the prevention and control of diseases; Appropriate treatment for communicable diseases and injuries; and Provision of essential drugs. These services are provided in a network of 'Qpe. I, 11, and I11 health centers situated throughout the seven health districts. Each Type III health care facility is usually staffed by health personnel such as a medical dobor, a nurse/midwife or both, a dietary assistant, an environmental health officer and a dispenser/pharma&t assistant. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH UNIT At the district level the environmental health officer, a staff member of the Environmental Health Unit, is part of the health team. The services provided by this Unit, an important component of the PHC system, are (GOCD, 1989d): Water supply, with reference to the provision of adequate quantities of safe water that are readily accessible; Solid waste management and liquid waste (sewage) disposal; Insect and vector control; Food hygiene; Occupational and institutional health, dealing in particular with physical, chemical and biological hazards, and Environmental health aspects of sea, air and land transport. In general, the primary health care system in Dominica is responsible for monitoring pollution levels in some areas of the physical environment (see also Section 11) and for preventing, diagnosing and treating ihesses/diseases resulting from pollutants -chemical or biological -in the environment. 8.1.2 Pollution Types and Thelr Management SOLID WASTE Dominica's topography, its high annual rainfall (particularly in the central and eastern communities), and rapid population increases in communities along the west coast have increased the dimculty of developing an effective solid waste management system for Dominica. Very little suitable space is available for safe and suitable sanitary landftlls. Additionally, some communities are not easily accessible by vehicles, thus increasing collection and disposal diff~culties. The Roseau Health District, estimated to have a population of over 23,000, generates about 15 tons of solid waste daily, both residential and commercial (Fabien, 1988). Historically, it was the responsibility of the Roseau City Council to collect and dispose of solid waste generated within the city and its immediate environs, e.g., Goodwill and Newtown. A truck collection system was used for earlying out these responsibilities, but the program was poorly managed with problems including inadequate vehicles, manpower and bds to effectively implement these services. Fundiig was obtained directly through taxes imposed on city residents. Presently, solid waste from Roseau town is collected from "skips" (large trash containers) and deposited at the Woodbridge Bay sanitary landfill. The health district of Portsmouth includes areas that are heavily dependent on agriculture. The town also has a central refuse collection system which is very inefficient and has no specitied landfi for the disposal of solid waste. Therefore, disposal oc

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R.ndomscdidwastc~i3espb eiany~inthedbcrlthdisbidsof Grand Bay, MarigoS Castlc Brua and La F'lainc. TbcS&JoscpbHcahhDistriet.LO har scrim disposal problem rcsulling 6mm OpmdompirrgonltePrbyonstdbuehes aadcmrelifIsiatotbcsu. Thweisaoaganizedsystunofnfascdisposalintbescdishids DumpiagofsolidmnkbsrtakenpLec ~.rvithinthcc.britsN.timrlP.t4ontbc ~dDonglasBaydCsbritr~p, whcrcitdch.&r~tbcuu'std~ and.LOprcsentsalualtbb.zrrd

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create breeding areas for disease-carrying vectors and are also used as disposal sites for trash. Unfortunately, they are also popular among children as informal play areas. The Fisheries Division has developed a project to use derelict vehicles to create artifidal reefs on the west coast. This effort involves the removal of all corrosive materials such as batteries, engines, oil containers and gas tanks from abandoned vehicles and then using the metal shells for artificial reef generation. In 1988 the shells of several derelict vehicles were deposited in the marine area north of Fond C~le~Woodbridge Bay. Monitoring of the site is ongoing and has revealed an increase in the proliferation of many species of reef fishes, resulting in increased fishing activities by fishermen. Therefore, plans are being made to declare the area restricted for fishing and to demarcate other locations where fuhermen from the area can fish (pers. commun., N. Lawrence, Advisor, Fisheries Development Division, 1990). SEWAGE Dominica has a centralized liquid waste collection system in the Roseau Health District only. Other areas around the island use either septic tanks, pit latrines, communal facilities/public conveniences, or no system at all (see Table 8.1(2)). According to Archer (1984), prior to 1983 approximately 40 percent of the population had no disposal facilities available to them or used communal latrines. The remaining 60 percent used private facilities: 2 percent bucket privies; 15 percent water dosets connected to sewer systems and septic tanks, 42 percent pit latrines (PAHO, 1986). Today these percentages have dropped, but systems still are not adequate to meet the demands of the population they serve, and therefore significant numbers of Dominicans still dispose of raw sewage in the sea and rivers and openly on land. AU along the west coast, it is very difficult to construct pit privies or install effective septic tank systems as the ground is very rocky. This naturally compounds sewage pollution and management problems in what is the most populated region of the country. The sewage collection system that serves Roseau, Goodwill, and some sections of Pottersville has ten outfalls that discharge untreated sewage into the immediate coastal/marine areas of the town; one of these outfalls originates from the Princess Margaret Hospital. These coastal areas are frequently used by local residents for fishing, bathing and other recreational activities. Domestic waste water from non-sewage sources is collected in open drains and also discharged into the marine environment. Other methods of excreta disposal used in the Roseau/Canefield/Goodwill area are septic tanks and latrines. However, many households have none of these methods of disposal available to them, with the result that additional raw sewage is deposited into the Roseau River and the sea. Archer (1984, Table 38) stated that 2,415 tons per year of pollutants are carried to the coastal and marine areas of the island as a result of discharges of excreta and septic tank effluent and sludge; this figure was based on the then assumed population base of approximately 75,000. This serious public health problem will be further discussed in Section 8.2 below. The existing centralized sewage collection system is more than M years old and inadequate to meet the demands of a growing population. Overloaded and backed up manholes with raw sewage discharging into the streets can frequently be observed in Roseau. Septic tanks are poorly maintained (i.e., rarely pumped or cleaned out), usually resulting in only partial treatment of the effluent and contamination of the immediate surrounding soil. Pit latrines are usually poorly erected and Iikely to be destroyed by high winds. At least one external expert observer considered sewage pollution the most serious problem affecting the idand's coastal zone (CIDE, 1988). WATER SUPPLY Water supply management islandwide is the responsibility of the Dominica

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Water and Sewerage Company (DOWASCO), a privately-owned company. Presently, DOWASCO is engaged in upgrading existing water supplies as wIl as expanding supplies to areas that are not serviced. Liquid waste disposal is also induded in the respotlsities of the newiyucated (1989) company, but the irsuance of a license from Government for this service is still pending therefore, sewage dispd remains the respotlsity of local governments in all the health distrids (see also Section 11). The Environmental Health Unit is rcspoosiile for monitoring potable water quality throughout the island. About 10 percent of the population in Dominica had no potable water supply in 1987, whether though direct piped connections or indiredy though easy acQss to stand pipes (see Table 8.1(6)). In most of the seven health districts, 90 percent of the population has adequate access to piped potable water. In the Marigot and Castle Bruce di&cts, however, only 51 perfent and 50 percent of the population, rcspeetively, have such access. On average, the couuhy's urban communities appear to have a more eatensive supply of piped water than the nual areas This. of mum+ is important to the maintenanfe of general levek of sanitation which will differ between urban and nual areas. Furthermore, it is dear that more attention has been paid to providing an adequate water supply for the population than to sewerage services, a situation which is typical of ~hird World countries. AGRICULTURAL WASIC As diseurred in more detail in S& 3, Dominica's emnomy is heavily dependent on agriculture phady banams, coconuts and Like many other mall islands that are heavily inwh-ed in agmproduction, hge amounts of waste are generated by these activities, and adequate disposal of such wastes is another critical resource, management problem for the munhy. The types of wastes/pollutants generated through agricultural activity can be classified as organic, solid and chemid. 0rg.nicwasttsindudcpkatm;lteriat fIom~andbrushduring.etiviticsand spoiled produce, hits, banana stalks, and ce cooutbusks,sbck,dc lbcscarcuudydbposcd of in a haphaznrd manm in tk fi The Chief Medical Officer indiated in bis 1987 annual report that bis department ICwived numerous mmpkintr about tk opcn dumping of surplus bananas all ovn the island OnthebanlcsoftheRaruoRivcrin Cnpt Hall heavy equipment had to be nscd to remove this nuisance, and bring tk shosaioa under mtIoL .. Solid waste generated by apimhd nctmhcs indudcs empty pesticide bottk. used ferlihr bags, empty buil boeg and plastic ba@ used to protect banana bmd~~ is ~nastharcusedtopset.gctbcm. '~bcsc aredumpcdopadyintheficlds,uudyiDdik uiminately, muiting in proW& d rodents and other discasesanyiqg vcdors. Discardedplrstifbagspavide6p.afatkcdI& of sagmnt Mter th.1 breed% mquitm; other types of solid wrste provide dart, warm plam fa rodcnbr to breed tbcir yo= ~~ralagrieottmJ=~cooveuient plaas for mdents, mosquitos and ttia tothrivcsinafood,waterandbrrtdiqgpLog are rtadily available. MostoftheaopsgmvninDomrma. arc idcsted by pcsts at one stage or amth

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Table 8.1 (6). Potable water supply by percentages for Dominica's seven health districts in 1987. % Direct % indirect District supfly* SUP@Y** TOTAL Roseau St. Joseph Portsmouth Marigot Castle Bruce La Plalne Grand Bay Water piped into houses ** Water cdiected from standpipes Source: GOCD, 1987. in their growth cycle; citrus is affected by fiddler beetles, slugs, fruit moths, and nematodes, to name a few; bananas and plantains by fungus (sigatoka) borers, nematodes and slugs; wwnuts by mites, borers and rats; vegetables by nematodes, rats and cutworms. Farm animals are affected too -cows, sheep and goats by ticks, sheep by mites, and poultry by lice.. Different groups of pesticides are used for controlling the above-mentioned pests (see Tables 8.1 (7) and 8.1(8)). These pose a substantial pollution and human health risk, both through the application process and through poor management of stored or leftover pesticide mixtures. Herbicides are also widely used to control weeds and unwanted vegetation. Tables 8.1(7) and 8.1(8) need to be used with great caution. Despite a concerted research effort launched by the CEP project team, including interviews with representatives of the Pesticides Control Board and the Dominica Banana Marketing Board, supplemented by interviews with CARD1 and CICP experts, there are no consistent import volume figures for several major biocides, and tabular data are greatly disordered. For example, data obtained by DeGeorges in 1989 from the same agencies regarding specitic chemicals for specific years differ significantly from data obtained by the CEP research staff in 1990. It is fair to say, however, that herbicide and pesticide imports have risen significantly in the past half decade, as is documented in Table 8.1(8), for example: 1985 approximately 140,000 lbs. (Rainey, et al., 1987) 1986 approximately 157,000 lbs. (DeGeorges, 1989) 1987 approximately 1,000,000 lbs. (DeGeorges, 1989) 1988 approximately 857,000 lbs. (DeGeorges, 1989) OR approximately 700,000 (DBMC, 1990) 1989 approximately 650,000 lbs (DBMC, 1990). Dominica has a Pesticides Control Board comprising a chairperson and four members. Its functions are regulated through

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TaMe8.10. Prknary pesiiddes used hthe Dominica banana Mustry, igeb Source: Ralney, eta/.. 1887. Table 8.1 (8). Dominican impoRs d selected pestiddea 1988 and 1989. 40,000 liters 41.01 0 liters 4.000 kloorams 7.m klosrerm (1) 10,950 liters (I) 6.157 liters I9.000 liters] (2) 37,100 liters 156.670 klogram 87.455 klogrems P9.m klogrs-1 (2) Source: Except as indicated in footmtes 1,2, and 3 el figures ware obtained from the OMIkrica Banana Marketing Corporatkn by the CEP teem.

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the Pesticides Control Act Po. 15, 1974) and Pesticides Control Regulations which deal with registration, licensing and labeling of pesticides. The Ministry of Agriculture also operates a small Produce Chemistry Laboratory which performs pestiade residue aualyses in addition to other responsiiities (see also section 11). Testing for pesticides in fresh and marine water as well as in plant/animal tissues and food products has been conducted on numerous dons with no detection of significant levels of pesticide residue (pers. commu, C. Bellot, Government Produce Chemisf Ministry of Agriculture, 1990). However, there are no formal, mandated monitoring procedures for the testing of pesticides and fertilizer residues. Recently (January 1990), a group of consultants from the Consortium for International Crop Protection (CICP) conducted an environmental assessment for USAID foeusing on fertilizer and pestiade residues in streams, estuaries and potable pipe-borne water. ThRse consultants reported that samples of water were tested to detect paraquat, glyphosphate, carbamates, orgauochlorides and organophosphates, with the result that no detectable levels were found (see Table l(9)) Similar tests were conducted by CIDA researchers in 1985, and similar results were obtained (DeGeorges, 1989). CICP investigators have expressed some confern, however, wer concentration levels in wildlife, particularly of organochlorides (pers. commm., J. Mann, CICP, 1990). Additional water samples were tested by CICP researchers for nutrient concentrations, i.e., nitrogen and phosphate levels. Eighteen samples were taken during a two-week period, with results showing only slightly detectable nutrient levels after heavy rainfall and therefore no cause for concern at the present time (pers. commun., P. Ross, CICP, 1990). See Table 8.1(10) and also Section 3.2.5 of the Profile. While the episodic information gathered from the above research is valuable and muring, it is far from bci a satisfactory baseline, and further and more regular monitoring of pestiade and fertilizer residues is necessary so that changes or fluctuations in concentrations over time (and reflecting seasonal changes in farming practices) can be recorded. Furthermore, pesticide residue in all agricultural products should be regularly monitored, as should both pestiade and nutrient levels in soils and in coastal aquatic systems. One of the side effects of Hurricane David of 1979 on agriculture was the inaease in pest infestation of crops (fruits and vegetables). Humcanes create air turbulence over large areas that results in the displacement of pests in places where they usually do not have natural predators. Over time natural predators may emerge, but crops can be severely damaged in the interim. In Dominica, the post-hurricane situation resulted in a greater use of pesticides (Clarendon and W, 1980). According to Clarendon and Hi (1980), few deaths have been reported due to improper handling of pesticides although some cases of over-exposure have been reported. Furthermore, while some deaths have occurred as a result of poor labeling and storage of pesticides, most of the reported deaths involving pesticides were the result of deliberate ingestion and the agent used was usually gramoxone. Misuse of pesticides appears to be quite common in Dominica, although many cases are not reported. Individuals working with companies that import pestiades are required by the Pesticides Control Board to visit a physician annually for a complete physical examination. However, the results/findh,p of these exams are not disclosed to the Board. INDUSTRIAL WASTE Dominica is not as highly industrialized as many other Caribbean islands such as Jamaica, Trinidad, and Barbados, although there is some industrial activity located primarily on the west coast (see Section 7.1). Furthermore, the presence of fastflowing streams (with higher than average levels of dissolved oxygen and generally modest levels of nutrient loading), along with the washing-down effect of higher than average run-off from frequent rainfall, all tend to

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Tab 8.1 (9). R~MS d freeh water ssmpled for pestlddeo by ae. Janusry 1990. Vague River (moUh and head) X X AnMmWaterCetchment X 'Mouth d Layou River X X Source: Personsl commuJadbR J. Menn end P. Ross, CICP, Isso. i

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reduce the aggregate effect of many point source and non-point source pollution 'inputs" to the system in Dominica. But this also means Dominica's upland pollutants reach the sea coast faster, spend less "treatment" time en route (underground or in stream and river systems), and, upon arrival, at least at the more pollution-stressed leeward coast, confront a classic case of nearshore impoundment due to the island wake effect. This results from recirculating current gyes on down-current, downwind, steep-to shorelines such as those between Portsmouth and Soufriere on the Caribbean coast, in the lee or "wind shadow" of the Morne Diablotin and Morne Trois Pitons ridges. Waste discharges in the leeward zone, therefore, have a tendency to occasionally remain in the area for longer periods of time than would normally be expected, given the steady, westerly flowing currents in the general region of the Windward Island group. This is why there is concern for all industrial discharges in the central west coast area of the island. The industries most likely to have an adverse effect on the environment and human health are those involved in the production or processing oE Distillery spirits Soft drinks (dyes used) Citrus juices Pepper sauce Jamsandjellies Soap/detergents Cookingoil Animal feed Gloves/garments Paint (dyes and solvents used). Other industrial activities of concern include: Mi operations (pumice) Construction operations Blockmaking Furniture making Body works (mechanical operations) Tobacco factory Boxmaking. Air pollution is of limited concern in Dominica due to its small industrial base, few vehicles, and the presence of strong and steady prevailing winds. However, some air pollution is emitted from industries which burn fossil fuels as an energy source for production, e.g., those producing citrus juices, jams, jellies, pepper sauce, cooking oil, animal feed, soap/detergent, and rum. The burning of fossil fuels results in emissions to the air of sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and -if leaded fuel is used -lead. In industries engaged in furniture making or in the production of other products from wood, particles are emitted into the air which may be inhaled into the lungs of workers. Aerosol painting in construction and auto body shops is also a source of potentially hazardous pollutants. Indoor air pollution ah occurs in factories, offices, print shops (where lead emission occws), and other commercial establishments that are not well ventilated. Such indoor pollutants occur in high concentrations where garments are manufactured. Ago-industries generate liquid and solid wastes in signif~eant amounts. For instance, Dominica Ago-Industries Limited (DAI), which processes limes and grapefruits, generates about 10,000 gallons of liquid waste during periods of processing which extend from the first week in January to the first week in April for grapefruits, five working days weekly, and from the first week in July to the first week in November, for two half-days weekly for limes. During the past year the amount of solid waste generated through grapefruit processing was 1,800 tons, while the figure for limes was 200 tons, all of which was used as animal (livestock) feed. The amount of grapefruit waste generated, however, poses a significant disposal problem. Initially DAI's waste was deposited at the sanitary landfill at Woodbridge Bay, but due to the inaccessibility of the landfill on wet days and other problems, another site was identified with the approval of environmental health officials and the Roseau City Council.

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ThisakemativcsitcisloeatedatSiLaLc, awayhtbcbaahoftheRosuoRiver, Wacrc lcarbing wonld be minimal, and away h the nearby resideutial area @ers. eommlm. E hbe* Geocral kgr, DAI, 1990). ThiswaJtcisdompedopcnhldkft to decompose. Liquid waste is diluted with rim water at a ratio of 1:10 pulp to wata aad disrhargeddowlyintothcRaseauRivcrdosc to thc factory. As a rcdt of this dilution p ~thepHofthcwasteisin~fmm between 3545 to 6-6.8. Aunrding to DAYS general manager (pus. mum, E Lamberf 1990),chcmkalsarcwtostdmthencutraIizatioll pr0&55. Oncareaofeonarm,lunmrw,istbc msposal of liquid pulp waste into the rivw wbieh,~dcaMposi~eanauscdcplction m dissolved ooygcn. RcJcdy, tbc am& dischagcd is oot enough to caw adverse impad HOWCVC~, with tbc factory's projedcdiweaJcmproaasiqgto~ mately 8,000 tom of grapehits m Wl, more Iiquidpulpwastewillbe~edaaddisebugcd into the Roscau River. Tbcn is undoubtedly some yet-tc+be-dctumincd upper limit m hov much the rivw can safely hradk. Some amstmh to dcvclopaent d any of thcse akernatks lies in tbc fad that large amounts of hit arc needed for processing in order to profitably madaetmc sucbpmduas. lnisd~tbcd foranioucasein~dthc~ tnral produds mw bting pracsed bcfon thcse dtemativc wmte msposal mctbods beawe more commcrci.ny fe. hotlmtypcdaartcdisdugadto rivaamdthcruistbc~06CdjDgaulau man-g paint nmdamhg and tbc ~d~pmsmpdbyABCChtakn Wasteoilsh~~~ pimators and similar, discmded pmdetrm produds#bYtbea*repririDdPrey .hom;rindhcetlyiDto.qrutic/muintovC rmmmta Oildsdrypesddemelsiom ean~tbcdbsdvcd~ccutentd ~arltaas~~OasjDerCgCBODmd COD levcia Fimtbcrmorh. tbey do not bioda gradcmdly. Fatberc~asacllm *tky.rehighlytodcto.qrutic~ d*

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Table 8.1 (1 1). Water pdlutlon and waste loads from industrial effluents in Dominica, 1982. Industry-Process Wast V lume BOD5 COD 8 S 10 m /yr kg/unit kg/unit Rum Soft Drinks Pepper Sauce Soap Detergents Cooking Oil I Source: Archer, 1984. I Caribbean mast (pers. wmmun., J. Scotland, EHO, Ministry of Health, 1990). This is indicative of sea-borne pollution sources rather than land-based sources. 8.2 PROBLEMS AND ISSUES 8.2.1 Effects of bnd and Water Pollution on Public Health LIQUID WASTE (SEWAGE) As noted in this chapter, much of the sewage/exaeta and solid waste generated by households in Dominica is disposed of untreated in rivers and the marine/coastal environment and on land. Raw sewage disposal into fresh water and marine areas threatens humans as well as animals by exposing them to water-borne diseases such as helminthic infestations, typhoid fever, viral hepatitis, gastroenteritis and dysentery. Infected individuals usually transmit infections to others and perpetuate the cycle of disease. In some cases animals serve as intermediate hosts. The population of urban areas is most likely to be affected by poor sewage disposal practices. In 1950 the incidence of typhoid fever was 21/100,WO -the highest in the Caribbean region for that year (see Table 8.1(4)). Other water-borne diseases, as discussed in Section 8.1.1, are common causes of morbidity and mortality, primarily among young children (GOCD, 1989d). Periodic outbreaks of "eye, ear, nose and throat" (EENT) infections may be attributable to sewage wntamination of fresh and marine water used for bathing and washing (WHO, 1973). For example, in 1986 there was an outbreak of hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (red eye disease) that affected large sections of the population (see Table 8.1(3)) Tests can be used to determine the contamination levels of water by sewage. E. ColilFecal Coliform is a bacterium which normally inhabits the large intestine of mammals and is invariably found in large numbers in fecal matter. It is not normally found in water, and, therefore, its presence indicates fecal (human or animal) contamination. Tests for fecal coiiform numbers can be used to indicate levels of water contamination.

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The Envirmmd Hcalth Unit of theMinirtyofHcalthandDOWASCObavc conducted snch tests to determine sewage and chemical levels in potable water from stand pipesindifl~psrtJoftbc~. Based on data obtained d rocordod in TaMc 82(1), it found that water-borne stand pipesatMsrigot,Concord.andAtl;iasonvb lated National and WHO JtaaW for safe drinking watex. For osunple, the Marigot district sample test results (Table 82(1)) for fecal streptococci (FS) and total mliforms (TC) are indicative d heavy conlambtihion from soil, animal and veguativc matter, smile fecal wliforms (PC) indicate contamination from human souras (similar commeats add be made for some d the samples taken in Roseau). It is not undated that 31 percent of households in the Marigot area havc no adequate sewage disposal faditics (see Table 8.1(2)). Monitoring of marine wPttr at Woodbridge Bay, where Roscau's sewage outfalls arc located, including the me which dirtds hqmd waste from the Princes Marpre~ Hospital nnalcd in most cas& fecalcolif~~~leoontsofbctwcenmand TNCC (too numwoos to count) mlonies per 100 ml (see Table 842)). This indiates high kvck of pollotion from sewage of human origininthebaywhi&,~somearea~isuscdfw ~byloealresidtatr. Raw~inwatcrways~posc~ a health risk when hsh sad ua@ from the shcama are hamgted for hnman cmsump tion. TheicrshondwaIa6andemba~ ments near Rosean, nbue tk. sewage wtf.lls arelocated,arefreq~lgtdfa~ Fhahcrmore, in the lormr rucbcs d most strcamsandrivaJwbaethcynarbthcsca and are atlccted bg tidal action, sane chcmiCalpotlutantsfromllpStruMor~by tidal flushing can acma~ulate in shcU&h whieh,~-cd,~produccsym~ tomsoftoricity. Otherebcmial'spiIls'havc redtedinfishLingmgeshgthatsomcthiug more toxic than domestic wask is being cam ldy disposed 0L In~m~scrmeb.siceanmunity health pmMcms persiaS sod^ as tbc anuinuatioo d poor sdid waste dirpoYl pnctiaswhiehanwakratctbcprolifrrr tioaofdisusccurying~ctwsslrhrrfficr whiehhurmritdiarrhr(e&g.sboeatcritisis ~uibyfliesasarcnunyotbcrcomm~micabk diseases), dyseDLery, Qpbd, cholera and mosqoitos whid~ -mrkrt,-plba-md mdmh which bsnsma leptand ~OmnOSir (see Table Ll(3)).

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Table 8.2(1). Results of potabie water quality monitoring in four health districts in Dominica (piped water). Sampling Date Health District FC/100 ml FS/100 ml TC/100 ml mt Concord #I Concord #2 Atkinson #I Atklnson #2 Potismouth/Bense (Simon S~rina) #l -ci!mu& Ravine Banane i?Qsw DOWASCO Lab Kennedy Ave. Customs Cnr. Shlp 8 Long Lane 1,400 1,300 1,300 3,200 2,900 500 540 40 204 TNTC TNTC 4 156 908 640 364 16 80 ABBRRllATlONS USED: FC Faecal Cdiforms FS Faecal Streptococci TC Total Cdiforms TNTC Too Numerous To Count Water Quaiitv Standards for Drinklna Water: National Faecal Coliform (FC): 1/100 ml on average DOWASCO Faecal Wiorm (FC): 50/100 ml on average WHO/UNEP Faecal Cdiform (FC): 0/100 mi on average Source: Dominica Environmental Health Office, 1990.

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Table 8.2(1). Results d coastal water quellty mwltorhg in Roseau 3o/Aq~./89 King George V St 40 300 1.500 Roseau Rhrer Mouth 240 260 1.800 Chahs Avenue 300 270 2.100 *I 1 /Jdy/89 Kennedy Avenue > 5.100 > 964 TNTC Princess Margaret Hosp. > 4,070 > 1,PO > 1200 KhGeorgeVSt >300 >2M) PaennRie TNTC TNTC TNTC TNTC = Toonwneroustocount FC = Faecel cdilomr, FS = Faecal streptococd TC=Totalcdllonns Califomlabeaches TC<1.0o0/100mlh809(dsemples NrmYotkbeaches FC<500/1Wmlin5mbdsamples EECbeaches(ideal) FC<100/1Wmlh80%dsamples Brazl beaches TC < 5,oOO/lW ml WHO/UNEP FC 100/100 ml in 50% d sampks Source: Domkdca Ermironmentsl Heelth OlRce, 1990. Lcad~cmiacd~the& from automobiles (aod any kind of lead in@ion M inhalation) pndispavJ adults to high blood pressore, wide children are Wdy to sufc.r 6om md ntardatioq kamiog

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the Dominica Grammar School located downwind from the factory. The school had to be dosed on several oeeasions. Complaints of ear, eye, nose and throat (EENT) irritations were voiced. Subsequently, overseas experts were called in to investigate the matter -an epidemiologist from Trinidad and a mechanical engineer. Both wnduded that nothing harmful was coming from the stack of the factory. In any case, mitigative measures have been taken, i.e., replacement of several burner parts and raising the stack 15 feet @em commun., E. Lambert, DAI General Mngr., 1990). These measures have reduced complaints of EENT irritation from persons at the school at least for the time beii nevertheless, further study is needed to assess the full extent of industrial air pollution in the country. NOISE POLLUTION Noise poUution is a new problem of increasing concern in Dominica. Noise as a result of building construdion and machinery noise in shops and places of manufacturing and/or repair activities is of primary concern, particularly if these activities are located dose to residential areas, commercial places, schools, the hospital, or hotels. Complaints about noise-generating activities from places of entertainment located in residential areas also are common. Frequent exposure to high levels of noise can affect individuals physiologically (by causing increases in blood presswe, heart rate, hearing loss, insomnia, speech distwbances and headaches) and psychologically @y promoting irritabiity, increased levels of anxiety and stress among affected persons). Many communities around the island are affected in this regard. A noise control act has been drafted to address this problem, but it is presently awaiting debate and review by Parliament. There is need for further study to identify the effects of noise pollution on public health in Dominica since preventive measures usually are more effective than curative ones. Public Health Act (I%@. The abatement or control of environmental pollution and other activities which may affect public health is regulated by the provisions of the Public Health Act, now over 20 years old. This Act makes provisions for the prosecution of offenses that are Likely to be injurious to health or expose the public to communicable diseases. Provision is made for prosecution of 'nuisances" committed under the act, but enforcement is difficult because the concepts are so outdated (see also Section 11). The Public Health Act needs to be updated either through amendments to the original legislation or through the formulation of new legislation that can adequately control existing and future pollution problems. As discussed in Section 11, present plans call for the repeal of the 1968 legislation and its replacement by a new act. Pesticides Control Act (1974). This act needs to be revised to mandate that all farmers and other persons who come into frequent contact with pesticides and other hazardous chemicals should have medical examinations at least annually and that the reports of these examinations be made available to the Pesticide Control Board for documentation of incidence rates and imposition of more effective control measures, if necessary. Regulations also should specify that the Pesticide Control Board certify appropriate aod safe areas for the storage of biocides and that adequate training for workers handling these materials be mandated. Water and kwqe Act (1989). This new legislation created the Dominica Water and Sewerage Company (DOWASCO), a state-owned private cornpany which is directed to provide potable water and sewerage semces for the country. Authority has been granted to DOWASCO for water management, including water conservation and the preservation and protection of water catchment areas. Additionally, the Act gives the Minister power to implement

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measures to cantrol pollution of frdwater resou~ocs *er sncb pollution is caused by waste discbarges and/or agricultural a&itk (see also Sections 4 and 11). Ut!w M (1990). This legislation was enacted spedkaUy to make pmvisions for the abatement of nuisances caused by the littering of public places. T%e Ad pmvides for the prosecution of persons who liner and makes specitic reference to such solid waste materials as mbbish, derelid vchiclg dead animals, and bonks. It is too early to bmw how rigoroosly the law wiU be enforced or how effective it win be in discouraging the in. .. dmnmmte disposal of solid waste by individuals and mmmereial enterprixs, as is now common thronghout the island. Muia/eolst.l Poahllio.. At pmsent, there is no kgklatiion to control the pollutionofmarineandooa~talarea~(seealS0 Section 5.1.6 of the Rae). Ody the pmvisim of the now-outdated Public Health Act offer a baris for pollntion abatement and eonh'd in these waters. Perhaps tbc provisions of the proposed ncw public healIII law win addrcsJ pnscnt-day concerns about coastal water quality and marine pollation Or, alteraatiwly, such isson d be addressed in a new coastal znne management program for Dominica, including legislation, as diSCUSSed in more detail m Section 53 of the Profile. GENERAL Fbadng. NoneoftheLsucsaddressedinthischapterhavcshnpk,low~ quick and cary dutiocls All the tasks outlined in the recommendation Scmoa for waste management, ptiutka matrd, emironmd protedion, and hatth maintenance (for the ceosystem's floral and fad u dl ss its human communities) add up to a monumental undertaking fa the stltc. If GOCD wre to be asked oaly to determine the be& course of action, lhis would be a kable task, but it must also make dodsim relative to the design, hding and implementa

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Pollution Utaacy Campaign. The public education programs of YES and the Ministry of Health should be expanded and should be directed at both children and adults regarding environmental pollution, proper waste storage and disposal and general cleanliness (for communities, roadways, landscape, and common property). These educational efforts could be but a piece of a larger campaign to mobii the citizens, industry, the agriculture wor, churches, and others in a "pollution literacy campaign". Specific programs could be prepared for implementation by the Dominica Banana Marketing Corporation, agricultural extension agents, =nice organizations, the Port Authority, shipping Lines, etr The most Urely coordinating vehicle for such outreach/public awareness/educational efforts is the YES Committee (see Section 11 for description of YES). The quantitative and systemic aspects of environmental pollution in Dominica are not sufficiently well documented to permit the proper development of either remedial or regulatory measures. It would, therefore, be appropriate to assemble an interdisciplinary team to conduct a national pollution assessment. Such an effort should establish the basic dimensions of each waste stream, identifying and quantifying sources and causative agents, volumes, flow rates, destinations, impacts, and projections covering: point (i.e., industry) and oonpoint (i.e., agriculture) sources; pesticides, herbicides, and agrochemical inputs; industrial chemicals (e.g., imports, storage, use, risk, disposal, impacts); interaction, i.e., aggregates and additive effects; bio-accumulation effects (over time). This national profile could use the workbook methodology laid out in WHO Publication No. 62, "Rapid Assessment of Sources of Air, Water and Land Pollution," as a preliminary framework (this manual was used by Archer, 1984). SOLID WASTE The Lines of responsibiity are not clear regarding the following: siting of dump sites, acquisition of necessary land, execution of feasibiity studies in source reduction and recycling initiatives, and exploration of alternative means of disposal. The new solid waste management plan, being put together under the aegis of the YES Committee (with implementation scheduled as a collaborative effort of the Enviroumental Health Unit, the Roseau City Council and the Public Works Department), needs to address these very important accountability and coordination issues. There is a need to identify the agency which is to be charged with specific responsibilities for all aspects of the operation of a disposal site and sanitary landfill, includi who has the authority to charge fees for waste disposal. If fees are collected, as is recommended above, they should be earmarked for a special account used for the operation and maintenance of equipment at landtill sites or for the purchase of new sites. Collection of garbage should be turned over to private companies which would charge a fee for the service, something which is not presently done. DOWASCO might be the appropriate agency to license such companies, with authority to rescind franchises if collectors do not perform satisfactorily. The solid waste management plan now under preparation should cover a preliminary period of five to ten years. From a financial viewpoint, in the short term, properly

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operatedsanitaryland6Usarelikelytobetk most athdh optiaa for solid waste dkpod Howmr, strategies to reduce the qmtity of solid waste and to promote a variety of recyding options also need to be uplored ideally as a milaboration betucca Gavemment, the red trade &or. and otha commercial and industrial waste eon, inordutoensmcthatsucbscbrmesareorgalli?xd on coonomicany defensible grouads. The most eost-cffcctive and eco1oeieauysocmd~disposalOpiollnecQ to be i&nri6ed and then impkmented for an lrrbanandvillageareaSofDominieaassoon aspc&bk. Gkthefadthatitiruucialto peventbothpublichcalthhazardsandnutrient enrichment ofaearsbonwataqand1.Leristinettehndogieat ing into am&xatm and financial amshhk, tha~ option ir likely to be pdhhy trutment combined witb a long outIall which didarp into dscp water inananaofslnmgcmrenta WHOfm snch~olldaltsforbLndarcrswbace0ergy costs to nm stdard m treatment plants are very high. Such waste disposal systcmssawldbe~tobe~upgndcd to a bigher level of treatment should this povc to be mxsary later. SeH--help pmgnms m rural ammuniticJ fa liquid aad solid waste maaaganmt need to be manma&. Whcn possibk. COmposliasd~systcmseooMbecnmnragad as an appmprhc ttchmlogy fa bhkgdabk solid waste and sewage. Dmninica's wemetwo& d self. help groups, ma1 development oqamakq andNGOs(secScetionlL4)ewldbeeallcd onforasktanam~rmalammunitics

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ments for the production of fruits and vegetables using acceptable biocides, ie., those that have residue levels which fall within internationally acceptable tolerances. Local pesticide application practices may need modification. The Ministry of Agriculture should explore ways to upgrade the existing analytical laboratory and train an additional technician in extraction of biocide residues from samples (produce, meat, fish, human blood/urine or environmental samples such as water and sediment). Extracted samples can be frozen and stored for weeks prior to analysis. Monitoring programs should start with sampling for biocide residues in produce and in drinking water. Analysis can then be conducted by the Caribbean Environmental Health Institute at its laboratories in St. Luaa. When an additional chemist is trained in biocide residue analysis, the biocide monitoring program could be expanded to include regular samplings from farm workers and the environment (including "iindicator' animal species). The environmental sampling capabilities of DOWASCO and the Ministry of Health also need to be strengthened with support for equipment and training. It is possible that one centralized laboratory might be more efficient and reliable for a country the size. of Dominica. GOCD should expand upon earlier local initiatives to examine options to reduce the amount of biocides used in agro-industries. The methods of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) may be preferable, whereby the objectives of pest wntrol are acwmplished by employing a wider spedrum of chemical agents and biological techniques as an alternative to the saturation of crops with toxic compounds. TRAINING Agricultural extension agents and representatives of local rural development NGOs and farmers organizations should be trained to certify farmers in the safe use of biocides. Training programs should emphasize the use of visual instructional methods (eg., videos rather than lectures) and should make a concerted effort to involve the children of farmers through schools and youth clubs. Pest control operators who spray buildings and the environment to control insects, as well as pesticide control inspectors, should also receive trainiag in the safe use of biocides.

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SECTION 9 PHYSICAL PLANNING AND LANDSCAPE 0.1 OVERVIEW InDominiea,phyhialplanningasiI relatestolandusc~anddcKIopmentis therespo~ofthePlIysidPlanningW vision (F'PD) of the Economic Development Unit (EDU), MiDistry of Fhnce and b nomic Development. While the EDU, as the "pent" agency, is tcehniully nspondble for par-idp~mostofthestaffdtbe EDUpasc perform hdo~~whieh are quite unrelated to physical pl.nnisk land use pb ning.ortmandcolmhyplanning-asthese tams are d elmost intercbangeaMy m the Eastern Can& Thus, dtkmgh the PhysidPlaMingDivisionisoneoftwounitsor scm(~~withintheEDU(theothcrunitamced with dc dcvclopncot plaMing). it operate8 in some wsys quite apart from the EDU and its primsly hmdons (Bomnc, 1989); see also SeUion 113 of the Rotik. The Physical PlaMing Divisim is nSpopsmle for the dmhkhtb of the Tm and Country PlaMing Ad, dcarment of land sobdivkion and bdding rcgolations, and adrmmstration of the Buch conrrol Ordinance. T6e Division ako provides advia to d and loul government anthoritics on matters of land use and building eolltrol, inchulhrg: pmtectim and enhancement d the environment, indudkg eorrtal 7mlCS. TheTrnandCountryPt.nningAd (No. 17 of197.5) is the sihstmk phniog and dmlopmeot legislation for tbc colmhy, botitis~edtobcrepealtddrcpl.ad by a new law @ers. commun., D. Bhagowtcc, UNDP Legal Ahrisor, 1990). The present kgishtion require3 preparation of National Ph (e.g., GOCD, 1976 and GOCD, 1985) It sbwld be Doted tbrt tbc N.tioerl seurcmcpknsfirstpnpandinmmd updated a dcadc Ltu in 1985, b.R not recdvedoff.icarppwrlAccordiqgtoBomae (1989). tBey .rc. oonetbcLq rrfcmd to dcrsabasisfor~jodgma@d dacision-Howmu, SOlQ (1988) dpimsLbutheN~StrprrmcPlmis hcitbauu&llasarc6ntDcciwrasabrrir for poky rec~mmRtsormblp, bofha~maybemrtet,aabtbcStmctpnPhbciugmedmorc~tedmialphuacrsarithinGoramncat~bypolihialduiaioa-rmLas.

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questions of slope, settlement patterns, population densities, space requirements for different uses (e.g., recreation, industry, institutions) and illfrast~chud n~ds. Detailed physical plans have been prepared and 6nalized for only selected areas within greater Roseau (e.g., the Pound area, Bath Estate, and exislhg squatter settlements) and for some of the industrial estate areas which are under development. There is no overall physical plan for the isisland or even for large sections of it. A master plan was prepared for the greater Roseau area in 1970, but since this document is so out of date, it can no longer be wnsidered particularly relevant. A plan was also prepared for the town of Portsmouth, considered a critical growth area, but it has not yet received tinal approval. In recent years Dominica has experienced what might be termed a "wmtruction boom", particularly in the growth of residential housing. In 1987, for example, almost 47 percent more building permits were issued than in the previous year (The New Chronicle, 25 March, 1988, Roseau, Dominica), with this growth phenomenon continuing into 1988. In 1989, development activities dropped off somewhat as the number and value of permits decreased by 12 percent and 6.7 percent, respectively, in comparison with 1988. The wnstruction industry remains sEron& but the recent bend "points to a possible decline in building stam during the coming months" (GOCD, 1990b). In 1989 a total of 561 permits were issued with a total estimated value of ECS63,726 million. New buildings accounted for 743 percent of all 1989 permits, with additions or alterations accounting for the remainder. Residential buildings afcounted for 873 percent of all permits issued for new buildings and 66.6 percent of their total value. Almost half (48 percent) of all permits and just under two-thirds (63 percent) of the total value of such wnstruction were for projects in the southwestern district, i.e., the area extending from Loubiere to Tarou and as far inland as Laudat. In terms of actual construction starts in 1989, 55.9 percent of those recorded occurred in this district. In comparison, only 7.9 percent of all starts occurred in the area covering the Carib Territory to Delices. It is estimated that the number of authorized and recorded building starts (which do not indude extensions to buildings) represent only 75 percent of all ad building starts. A considerable amount of unauthorized wnstruction is therefore occurrin& particularly of small buildings in rural areas (GOCD, 1990b). The island's rugged topography manifests a major constraint to the develop ment of human settlements and agriculture. Table 9.1(1) dramatically illustrates how little flat land for development is available in Dominica. Most existing communities have no room for expansion except through hillside residential development or density increases in already built-up areas. Using a gradient of less than 15 percent as the suitability criterion for vacant land available for industries or playing fields, an analysis of 51 settlements revealed the fouowing (GOCD, 1985): 41 percent (21 settlements) had less than 2 acres eaeh, 18 percent (9 settlements) had 24 acres each; 16 percent (8 settlements) had 4-6 acres each; 6 percent (3 settlements) had 6-8 acres each; 20 percent (10 settlements) had more than 8 acres each. Portsmouth is the only major settlement with a substantial amount of reasonably tlat land available for expansion. The Roseau area in particular is under strong development pressures, and problems leading to congestion and urban sprawl are increasingly assodated with the capital city. Because of the shortage of flat land, the sprawl is occurring primarily in a linear pattern along the coastline. Relatively

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Table 9.1 (1). Percentage d land by domhnl slope class, Dcmhka DEGREE OF SLOPE PERCENTAGE OF UND 2 degrees a less 3 10 degrees 11 -20dm 21 30 dm More than 31 degrees Source: AtMns Lend and Water Management. 1983. as smplW hum Lang. 1967. 9.2 PROBLEMS AND ISSUES NEED FOR MORE EFFECFlVE PHYSICAL PLANNMG ThcWysicalP~DivirioDbas been vested with ody limited amtrol wcr the broader plannieg/rtsnlatw aspoar of mspr dmlopment proicds aad proBrama As noted by Lsnsche (%), most Lrgc-scale proicdsarcmthepoblicstdor,andmpracticclittlcinEoena.k~edo~c~thcmbythe physical plamiag proass; for example, the pLnning pluses for the eoontry's hydroelectric wqwsion projed (see Seah 6) did wt provide for input from sentor physical planning&&& -,thkmeansthatthe PPDhasbccnrekgatedtomricwinganbdivis;oll plans and to pufmmiq site-level plan~hmcti~wchaE.prrpuiqganddnaring LaadmeplaosforspCciricareasthrtarcMder development. Bourne (1989) writes that 'major developments. tend 6rst to gct ap pmval at a higher level and then 6itu down to

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tivity within 28 days. Failing this, the matter can be reviewed in court, and if found guilty, the developer can be fined for each day unauthd activity continues after issuance of the court order. On average, less than one notice per week is issued (pers. commun., I. Baptiste, PPD, 1990). While some eases involving violations have gone to court, the mall size of PPD staff limits follow-up actions required to ensure that violations are corrected, Soler (1988) claims only one unauthorized building was demolished. QUALITY OF LANDSCAPE The importance of both natural and man-made landscapes in enhancing the quality of life is often overlooked in Thtd World countries, including those of the Caribbean (Hudson, 1986). Even less appreaated is the fact that an enhanced landscape is an important economic resource, despite the difficulties associated with assigning a monetary value to "quality of life" measures. Hudson (1986) notes that "landscape disfigurement and the spread of plaeelessness, by destroying scenery and regional character which give pleasure and inspiration, make these diminishing resources even more precious. This has important economic implications because the income-generating potential of the remaining attractive areas is enhanced by the depletion of the resource elsewhere." In other words, as attractive landscapes become sca~cer, people will increasingly pay higher prices for the privilege of enjoying fine landscapes. This has been an important factor in the growth of tourism in tropical insular environments such as the Caribbean. Climate, of course, has been a major attraction in drawing visitors to the region, but there is Little doubt that the renowned tropical beauty of the Caribbean, like the majestic grandeur of the Alps or the picturesque charm of the Mediterranean, has also been one of the region's marketable commodities. The need to ensure that such beauty is preserved, and even enhanced in built-up areas, should not be underemphasized. The landscape of many West Indian tourist destinations is becoming increasingly degraded, and, in fact, islands such as Barbados and Jamaica are now losing potential visitors who perceive them as "spoiled" (Hudson, 1986). Thus, Dominica's relatively pristine environment can only become of growing economic importance as an attraction to visitors -but only if developments are sensitive to aesthetics. Some local observers have already noted evidence of a growing lack of awareness and concern for landscape preservation in their country, particularly in built-up, more urbanized areas. Perhaps nowhere is this issue better illustrated than in the spirited controversy which presently surrounds the country's 1l)O-year old Botanical Garden. Occupying approximately 40 acres of "green space" in Roseau -the largest tract of semi-open land in the city -the "Gardens" as it is locally known is currently celebrating the centennial of its establishment. Over the years, encroachment onto Garden lands has taken place, including the erection of a number of buildings and storage areas primarily housing Government offices and services. In the 1960's and 1970's, the Gardens were a popular cricket ground known throughout the Cariibean, and it is a more recent proposal, to construct an improved facility and grounds for playing cricket in the Gardens, which has spearheaded a heated local debate over the preservation of this popular place of tranquility and beauty in the midst of Roseau's urbanized environment. Dominica's Botanical Garden is not unlike others in the Lesser Antilles, where the very existence of these sites has remained mostly a low key, behind the scenes, inherited historical fact. Their full potential has been underappreciated in national development schemes -except when, as in the case of Dominica, governments have cast an envious eye in the direction of their "unused" landscaped grounds and open spaces. More recently, many in the Caribbean, as in Dominica, have become more vocal in questioning the process which undervalues these green gardens and have begun to call for a revitalization of the botanic garden concept in the region -making the gardens, in the words of one believer, a kind of focusing device or environmental talisman to keep each island's

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memory green and to akbntc each islander's subtle pad with nature in the tropics vowle, 1W). AtpresentthereareaboutWmt squatter ho&ol& in the capital of Rarc~a. eoncentrated witbin three distriar (two primary ones), and about l5 in the CanelieId area These scttlcmcnts erne& mostly in the aftermath of Huhaw David when many people wcre left homeless. Generally, these shelters pmvide substandard housing for the inhabitants and lack basic b.sic fa&ies ie, for sewage disposal, which hmses public health risks. The Ministry of Commnnicatiooq Works, and Hwsing with PPD input in preparing squatter upgrading strakgk d development approaches is involved in 'regularizing' this situation by offering sccurc land title to squatters d pmvidiq other infmmchue improvements to the oommcmity, such actions, while important, defer the larger issue of how to imprwc the hcd quality of housing for lc4ie familicq in particular. Furthermore, to date, onty about 10-15 percent of the Roseau squatters bavc been duh with (pen. commua, I. Baptiste, PPD, 1990). The pre~ence of the Roseau squatter settlements and the gcmraUy aowded codtionsintheurbpnanadmwanentiontothe continuing need for upandcd program to meet the housing mq6remeut.s of Dominicans. An up-to-date snmmaq of the wunby's housing reqoLements is pmvidcd in a summary report (Thc Challof Ravidiag Sheltef) in a new publbtion, Ishnd hpaur, reantty released by the Public Awaleaca Sub-committee of the Govcmmcot's YES mCIES,l-). -rrportpmjtds a shortfall in Dominica's hoofing requirements in the ycar 2000 of om 7poO mi& The subject of '&Id is one of the two key comof GOCD's newlylaunched (1989), multi-year program cclllcd YES (for Years of Enbent and Shelter), aneffortwhichisdkusedinmcaedctailin Sccsion 113 of the Profile. AsisllsodiscusscdinSufionlL6d theF'fo6k,tbcplqswphmingstmdmc dproecssdtollestrrqghcnodia DommKI. Newphming~isrcpcrtedly~~~nhirba9ddFco milnyoftheiasnca~intbk~mdin Sertioa11~~ plannbganddcvclopmcatcontrdpmcdmta Tbcfrrct~tkP~~DisidaD pnscntlyisapwtdthelkmanic ~Unil~sqlBcstrGocDrce ognim the importance d add* ~~,& spae~~ -phgicrl pknningirr~~proasismc~ atabLisbcdwiulintheDl Gatemmcnt, d thcrt is Limital oppmmq fa systcmatie--deF---J liue3intheplqswphmingpoacs(occ.k0 ~113oftheRofJc).

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portunity for input by the Physical Planning Division in decisions concerning the siting of recreational facilities. Existing playing fields, for example, were reportedly poorly planned in most communities (pers. commun., H. Shillingford, Sports Division, 1990). Similarly, natural disaster planning efforts should include a major role for a strengthened Physical Planning Unit. PHYSICAL PLANNING APPROACHES AND PRIORITIES The most recent National Structure Plan (GOCD, 1985) proposes that the island's seven admiistrative districts (see Figure 9.3(1)) be utilized as the basic units for subnational planning. This approach differs from the earlier National Structure Plan compiled in 1976 with UNDP assistance which suggested that only three regions form the basis for planning efforts. The updated proposal appears to represent a more rational ap proach based on greater decentralization and thus a greater role for local community organizations. In fact, each district already has a District Development Ofticer and a District Development Assistant who deal with districtlevel development issues and problems. Recommendations made by the former Senior Physical Planner in a report entitled "Proposals for the Restructuring of Planning and Development Control Admiitration in Dominica" emphasize the need for Planning Advisory Committees at each planning level (regional, district, local). Such a structure, the author maintains, will ensure a role for local government bodies and private a&ns in the planning process (Baptiste, cited in Soler, 1988). Wit (1988) notes that local government bodies have a well established tradition in Dominica, providing a framework for sodoeconomic development which could serve as a model for other Caribbean states. Wit, an OAS consultant, maintains that Viage Councils can help in expeditiously improving conditions in settlements if they are given more training in project identification, budgeting, proposal preparation, and implementation of project activities. The substantial distances of many communities from the seat of national government in Roseau also justifies the strengthening of local governments for certain functions in order to improve administrative efficiency. According to Soler (1988), some development control functions already are beiig handled by local government authorities, in part because PPD control officers do not have adequate time for appraisal of development control applications received from outlying areas. He recommends that consideration be given to formalizing existing, informal relations between the PPD and local governments, including well-defined procedures for the assistance to be provided by local authorities. The National Structure Plan (GOCD, 1985) calls for the drafting of plans for districts and district centers as soon as possible, if necessary with technical assistance. As noted by Soler (1988), the district plans should be consistent with the National Structure Plan and "must reflect a certain level of comprehensiveness in order [for] complexities of territorial issues. "to be effectively addressed. Key priorities at the district level include the identification of potential production areas and routes for feeder roads, as well as the establishment of procedures to provide adequate wmmunity-level senices and fa&ties, given the dispersed settlement patterns characteristic of Dominica. With regard to district centers, it is stressed that Roseau and Portsmouth should receive top priority (GOCD, 1985). ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Very few environmental impact studies have been undertaken to date in Dominica. All of these have been or are beiig conducted by outside consultants, which is not unusual in developing countries, given the limited in-country experience with Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) procedures and the limited resources available for such investigations by local officials.

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DOMINICA/Proposed Districts ( )= Population I CA! 0 BRI St. Joseph \.-el (4,987) I I LA PLAINE (4,407 ROSEAU I \ (30,165) 1 4 La Plaine I Roseau I GRAND BAY

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Unfortunately, virtually all of the EIAs have been initiated only after a given project has proceeded well into, or even beyond, the planning stage. The Hydroelectric Expansion Project, for example, is currently the foeus of an environmental assessment, but construction of project works is almost wmplete (see Section 6). Environmental Impact Assessments are designed as a pmutive attempt to analyze the projected impacts of a development pre ject, and thus much of the effectiveness of this planning tool is defeated if it is initiated after the project design, or even the project conceptualization, stage. In general, the simplest and most cost-effective way of minimiig the environmental impacts of development activities is through the upfront development of a design that is sensitive to the environmental implications of proposed activities from the very beginning. Remedial measures, if applied after the event, often are prohibitively expensive. Legislation is needed in Dominica to require the preparation of EIAs for all major projects (public or private sector), espeaally those within the coastal zone, within the boundaries of designated protected areas, or affecting other critical areas identitied in this Profile. As pointed out by Ahmad and Sammy (1985), such an assessment does not have to be highly complex and comprehensive in order to be useful. The aim should be primarily to ensure that environmental concerns are in fact addressed when it is most feasible to do so, i.e., at a very early stage in project development. The institutional capacity for interpreting and later eanying out the technical aspects of environmental impact assessment needs to be created within an appropriate unit of Government; the most logical unit might be the Physical Planning Division, but the Forestry Division has historically taken the lead on environmental matters in the country. It may be that a legislative basis for EIAs as part of the planning process already exists. Soler (1988) writes that a planning application may involve "special requirements" from the prospective developer, including an evaluation of the "estimated impact [of the proposed development] on the nahral ecology. The National Structure Plan (GOCD, 198.5) recommended that an Environmental Protection Unit be established. Tbis recommendation has not yet been acted upon, but serious consideration should be given to its creation within a strengthened Physical Planning Division or, alternatively, within the Forestry and Widlife Division. In any event, the size and technical skills of the PPD staff would have to be upgraded if this division of Government were to undertake responsibities for environmental impact assessment. LAKAL RESOURCE MATERIALS FOR HOUSING CONSTRUCTION A study conducted by Ortega (1983) found that a variety of readily available raw products in Dominica have great potential as building materials. These include timber and clay, as well as lime, sulphur, pumice and bamboo. Timber traditionally has been used as a construction material, and, reportedly, the development of clay brick has been assisted by France. However, the other four materials have not yet received much attention for expanded use. Lie and sulphur are biding agents that wuld reduce the need for imported cement. Pumice is a lightweight aggregate with excellent heat insulation properties. Bamboo, which is very resistant to tension, has potential to replace reinforcement bars in housing construction. These materials should be considered for huzher development and use as a means of reducing imports while increasing Linkages between the local construction/building industry and resource production/management sectors. Ortega (1983) offers more specific suggestions on how development of these materials could proceed, but these may need to be to be brought up to date.

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SECTION 10 PROTECTION OF HISTORICAL HERITAGE UnIike its sister islands in the Wmd. ward pup. Domuuca did not pwsue the "national hst' model adoped in other Caribbean islands in the 1Ws and 1970's and therefore la& this CenCraliziag fora for resou~e pmt& and dcvelopent. What Domiaicadasbaveisaninfd~kof ~instituti(~~andindivid*both inside and external to Govunment, dedicated to the preservation and maoagaoent of the anmby's historical and enltunl kritagc. Althonghless~inits.pproaeh,this "networy has nonetheless socasrfulfy engineered the cstabltbment of a oatid park which indudcs within its boundaries the mws most speetaeular historic site. Millty 's pimary coastal fortifications we hid out by the British for the defense. of the inbmd. Of the ~stwoeoarts,thelecwardsidencedcd to be weU-defended, amik the more rugged Tlumost+kantdtbcaoost.l fortifieationrwarthe~complcral Dominica'~nortbRsteorctkmwn&tbc c.brits,an.ruwilicbmanmtinpmi5 sulacomprisiagtwostb~phillS~bya nanow nlby. Tbc Clbrits P* (formerly kmwn & RiDoc Ropat's Hud) is loatedjactwrthoftbc~ssd@ucipol town, Paumd Coprmvtim d the f~gsrrisoawasanicd~~ lmandl795,pimuilybytbcBritirhaithoogbadditims~ma&bytbcFrmcb during theii ocarpetim h 1TIB17S3. Together tbey d a g.rrism idndbg m fat (Fat Shiricy), scvcm gon b.ttaics, a+sm cbtaeqpoardcr--store~barrsetsand~qnutcrsto bcnrcc and provide for or 64lO men m ttgulard*. Tlubcslprcsemdandmort.a& sigronpd~ittbc~isFort Shirley, hcated it the sonthan ad d the EePtral nlby, Rioa Rupat'r Baywhiebitmcdcfmdcd

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Although the Cabrits dominates the list of historical monuments in Dominica, other military sites can also be identified. The most significant, after the Cahrits, is Fort Young in Roseau, now the site of a semicircular hotel of the same name. Although constructed (and reconstructed after Hurricane David) with disaetion and sensitivity, military historians Buisseret and Clark (1971) reported that it is now difficult to discern the original layout of this once important battery. Other military sites are Melville Battery, one of a series of defenses built to protect Roseau; Morne Bruce, built on a hill above Roseau for the defense of that town; and Fort Cashaaou, located on the Swtts Head peninsula and site of one of the old signal stations along the leeward coast. Fort Cashaaou was included within a proposed Government plan in the early 1980's to create a touristic and recreational area for the Soufriere/Scotts Head area in the southwest of the island. Plantation Sltes. The "golden age of sugar" did not affect Dominica as sigdicantly as elsewhere in the region, in part because the island's mountainous terrain limited sugar cultivation and in part because colonization came later in comparison to other places in the West Indies. Thus, the remains of colonial plantation estates in Dominica are not as extensive as in other West Indian islands. There are, for example, no grand estate houses as in Barbados or Jamaica; most British estates were run by managers and little money was spent on these dwellings (Honychureh, 1988). The country was once rich in water miUs used for crushing sugar cane, some of which were operational as recently as 20-30 years ago. Hurricane David (1979) caused extensive damage to old industrial works, and the best surviving examples of water mills can now be found at Castle Comfort, Hampstead, Layou, and River Estate (Honychurch, 1988). The mill at Canefield is one of the largest as well as the oldest surviving sugar mill on the island; it was the last used to produce sugar, although it continued in operation earlier in this century for the processing of lime juice. Today, the Old Miil houses a cultural center and museum under the auspices of the Government's Division of Culture. Architecture. Examples of vernacular architecture can still be found throughout the island; traditional Creole houses lend a distinctive atmosphere to the country's primary towns, Portsmouth and Roseau. Almost twenty years ago historians Buisseret and Clark (1971) remarked on the survival of vernacular architectural features in Roseau, a fact they attributed to the relative underdevelopment of the town in comparison to other island capitals in the Eastern Caribbean. They were particularly impressed with the deeply-projecting cantilevered balconies to be found in the town, often supported on remarkably little material except a diagonal brace. At about the same time, Shankland, Cox and Associates (1971), in its tourism development plan for Dominica, proposed that an historic district be established in Roseau to protect its unique architectural features. An historic building inventory of the town thirteen years later (Cloyd, 1984) found that some of the streets proposed for the historic district were totally devoid of any historic buildings. In hi swey, Cloyd identified, mapped and provided preliminary rewmmendations for the restoration/prese~vation of approximately 200 buildings largely centered in the "old town" area recommended by Shankland, Cox and Associates for historic district status. Cloyd also included some preliminary guidelines for preserving the historic character of the town. There has been little follow-up to Cloyd's general rewmmendations or to the recommendation to establish an historic district. Nevertheless, much of the uniqueness of Roseau's architectural heritage remains, principally because the town has not developed as rapidly as others in the Eastern Caribbean. .4whaeological Sites. Known archaeological sites have been informally identified by Honychurch in his publication on Dominican culture (Honychureh, 1988). Only two excavations have reportedly been carried out, one in 1977 at Soufriere and the most recent in 1989 at Capudne, with artifacts retained by the National Cultural Council, (pen. wmmun., L. Honychurch, The Dominica Institute, 1990).

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SarveysdEhtoticSitm Inaddition to arebaeo1ogicd sites, Honychurcb (1988) identi6es other places of historical and arlNral interest in Dominica (see Fw ll(1)) No official 'rrgishy. of historic placescxtts,~,~~sbonldbe~ tabLthed to assist planners and -a manTHE CABRlTS NATIONAL PARK For decades, succesk Dominicpn Governments haw deliberated over various development options for Or thcrtm of tbe Wts gamkm an4 mom particularly, Fort Shirley. The ate and its surrounding. gently slopingvalleyfandhavebeenusedatvarious times as an agricolhpal cent-, a quuamtine station, and an experimental teak fonstry projed, and it atmost became the island's leper home (Hmorch, 1983). Shce the 1960's several tomisll-orientd pro@ for the Cabrits/Pohrmwth area haw. anne under consideration by Government; by the late 1970's, tbe Forestry and Parks See had taken the lead in plaming for the development of the area rs a multi-use site, indudingits~asa~park and prprovLiw of re~eational, uh~catiooal, and visitor facilities. W&initiPL~~fFom the World Wildlife had-US and tbe support of the Dominica coU5ed ,4so&ioq the Natid Park See stepped up brushdcaringandrestorationu~~katthesitein D82,indodiagtk~dbaJsdcstablishment of a small museum at Fort Shirky. h 1984, with tbe assist.na d Ute Eastern Cuibbcan Nahnal Aru Mqma Rogram m), 8 =part entitkd Gdds2000wasrelcarcdwhiehmtIinul development concepts for the proposed CabritsNatioaalPut mreportwrrprepartdbyEcNAMPin. witha coordmahngand~amminee~op of government and mgpvernment membcn. The proposed development seenuio Bntd for adaptiK use. restoration of historic structurcJ within the park, eolrstrudim of a cruise ship dock and terminal to provide visitors fa park facilities, and creation of a Cabrits Foundstioq a wn-profit, wagoolcramatt entity to take tbe kad fa armmud dcKbpmatt and rtivitits within tbe park. Ahhot& m otfieial management plsn bs yet been devclopedfortbetbe~lbritrNatiodPlrftk19U Cobrirr~reportis~~n tbepdicydoarmafortbedcvlcbpmattd tbe site. A LLer shdy foagiDg an dcvtbp mentpropmkfartheC&rits(bythbtime d&patedaNatiooalPark)wasanicdootm l%9byArthnrYouaghtendadfathe cdlaxan-Agmuhm 'Ibc Cabfits 'prr-feaGbiMy studf was put of a krgcr rtgioaal effort funded by CDB to cxah the devclopmcnt potd d sclQcd historic sites in the Eastem Ca&bua Fdteenmaprprc+tsaraepropododfatbc Cabrihlchtriogtbepuiod151I19tolS98,iP dombg~&dameaily povisiomaswcllasepmmotim, intd rnaugamt vrivitica Some timdiq has been forti as a re6UgdtheArthwYooqgrcporSobtliDcd through CIDA'a small pjects Mi%ioo Administered Ponds Prognm in &brdos @cn. annmue,LHWmc4*T Instant~, W).

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PLACES OF HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL INTEREST KEY TO MAP ELI Fort we.Huic~ Siyd.lSUims 0 Llm~ Kiln P arwn ramp sik NduarCJ Ed& hbuur r% Anrhongr. --in> awhl ,oF*ay dta'cwl-~ fi him, ef ~rtnte UIYI~. ...e stt~.,~~~ mi, .... sknt temcirg uff~ + Qu''~sYw+& 4 de m chve -n, narrac-n Q Widmill -in O Pmcrirt" a&olaglul CC @ ImpPrdMkdll5 & cliff cmncs x l77a &MI ., d
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ThescaistanccofahngihtofngioDalandiut~tioDaloganizatiarrwasaclmowledged by thc Forestry and Parks Service at thc time of the Park's stsblisbmcat, including: ECNAMP, IRF', CCA, WWF-US, IUCN, the US. NPtiaoal Park Scrvicc, Pub Canada, Canadian Nature Ftdaabion, and CIDk TheereatiOnoftheCabritrNahional Park is viewed locally as an important step both as a ~)~~~~rvation/pmt~ atntcgy and a6 an added aMaetion fw the iskod's tourism base. The Park eontains withia its bo* remarkable &d, matiae and historic fcaturts. Its pznimhr abapc p videsdkm%~andpmt&whilcitsb cation adjacent to thc town of Patsmod and to a coastal area seleacd by Gcmrnment fatom;sm-prm;daoptioxfordiroctliakagesbothtothc~tonrist~ aadtotheaxmby%-dlaggtmben mmmuaity. In mid-Jannary 1!XO, gmcmdbreaking ammonk took plsa for eoashnctionofanEC+I.lmitlioaeroiscsbipbcrtb, rraptiontwminal,anddocLFacilityatRina Rqert's Bay, sehtdolod to be completed by theendoftheyear. Itwinbetheodyportin tbcE.stemCuibbcanwbcrt~disembark dkily into a natiollal park (im St. John, crnisc ship ptzrcqgrrs are fcnicd ashore to the Vi Islands National Park fmal anchored ships). MUSEUMS DommKlrcportedlybsdmest~ lished museum as early as 1911 wbeo a group ofprivateindividuakorganizcdwhatwasthcn LnoarnastheVidoMM~inabnildislg formwly oaeopicd by the Vmwia Memd Wlray@am.~Sor,~~Aspiaall, 1923). In a 1989 wwey d museum dewlop mmt in thc EagZizb-qdbg Caribbun, Cnmmim rqnwts that in El31 thc Dirodors of theLibrarywem~catllineatablishiqg aniascpelldcntlua,mnscmninthcddfibrarg boilding when hmds wcrt recrival from the fbmgie Corporation for coastmdiw of a new Liar). in the Vioria Memaial Gardens. That small museum nrmiacd in pbft dW3whentkboildingwrctrLcnovcr by Gownmeot for 0th plqmsu, and ahibits ucre stored in thc heot d the PuMic~. In En4 thc L-bhiU CULxmib ~(apedcasorto~prcsmt Dominica Conscrntim Assoruboa PparcdapLnwhkhoultiDodasgstemdmosemnsfathccolmtryedleetisclydarcdto as the Dominica Museum S.lo3g witb asetdspedcgoplsfarthe~dcadc An OAS mcopsolt.ot viritiqe thc mnatry alm& ten yurs Lter (Wbit& 1983) fd that while m rcb;oa hrd bcea tab m ibc l974poposrl,itwascdraiI4d~ 0utaddsliDbedbytLGoRlnmePt asanactiw~pkp Thcsrmemightberrkfb &y,somcsirgcarsaftuWhitiqg'ssirit

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Figure 10.1 (2). Location map of the Cabrns National Park. Dominica.

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Whiktbescmbitiwsplausha decade and a half ago never were hrlly realized, Dominica does support two small mumswhichwereestabhbshcethemuseum proparats of the 1970's. At the initiative of a local writerjlistorian. a museum was gtabiishedatFoItShirIcym19(n. Itwasopcncd in conjudcm with alebratiom marking the aonivcrsPIydthercgionrllyimpmiaat%attk of the Saints', fought between French and BTiLi6bfkctsmUApril,l78Lwithhlsigbtd therampartsdthecabritr. Futureplugcall for Fort Shirky to be dmas the mterpretive anter for the entire Cabrib National Part Tliefirstmuseum,whiIesmallinsiP, highlighted the natural and historical arpeds of the Park and was housed m a restored buildkg which formerly scmd rr a guardhouse during British occupation of the gartison The museum was her moved to the reStoredPowder~ A second mlrsccrm opened m 1988 at the Old Mill CultPrsl Center in Canc6eld just eorthofR0~c~a Themarcmnwhgtothe Colturalccnterishdmaformer~lgar ~housediadndcsasmdlmuseum shopinPdditionto&imthe~s aatoral history, fob history, cultunl iduenas, md historical dmlopmcnt 10.2 PROBLEMS AND ISSUES Whik the recent establishment d the Cabrits. National Park provides a unique op portnnity for the protection and aQptive use of the coumy's most important historical lAdlwk,DominiaWa~ mansgcmcot framewat fa its hist& cal/cdtud nscwcc base. Spedcdy WbmphnhgfallrccsUblirbmcnt dtheDomuua N.timJ Part Systcm wa lmdtrwrymtbcktc196(Ys8ad~ms, sn~aemiscpdf~byputpLP ncrrwasthatthepmposcdptrt~aonld hdnde~usd'historialw~ (Maximu, ed). EumuLcd fa possii indmion orcrc sites dcsig0.14 a National Military Parks (e& the Cab& Fort Cadmaou, and Morne Bruce). Other baild~siteqfcPtmqorareasarrrctofaUrmdcr

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an "historic area" dassif~cation within the proposed park system; areas suggested were: the Carib Reserve, the Portsmouth Town Center, Melville Battery, Fort Young, and water mius (as a generic category). In the intervening years, only the proposed "military park" at the Cabrits has received national park designation, and no alternative system for protecting, managing or developing other sites has yet been developed. 10.3 POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS Antiquities legislation is needed to provide for both restoration and protection of the nation's historical and cultural resources. Such legislation might include establishment of a Registry of Historic Places which could also require a comprehensive inventory and evaluation of historical/cultural resources and would afford some protection to national landmarks, historic sites, or architectural features not easily induded at the present time within the National Park System. Criteria would need to be set for selection and certiflcation of Registry sites and standards established for development of such sites. Authority would need to be vested in a designated agency to control development and use of protected sites. At the present time, such authority might be vested in the National Cultural Council or the National Parks Service within the Mitry of Agriculture. While informal cooperation between agencies of Government, often in accord with I& NGOs and individuals, has worked well in the past in establishing a national park system, supporting cultural adivities, and promoting some museum development, it needs to be recognized that: (1) redundancy of effort by various interest groups is less likely to occur in the presence of (i) a broader policy base for the protection of historical/cultural resources and @) centralization of contrd/management functions in one agency; and (2) while informal networks of cooperation often provide opportunity for flexible, innovative development, they are also more tenuous because they are frequently based on personal rather than institutionalized relationships. The need for better inter-agency coordination for policy development and planning has been pointed out by GOCD officials in the past (Whiting, 1983), but no action has been taken to provide more formal lines of communication, coordination and cooperation between relevant agencies (e.g., the National Parks Se~ce, the Division of Culture, the National Cultural Council, and the Public Library and Archives). In the absence of a National Trust, the recently revitalized Dominica Conservation Association (see Section 11) has the potential to become yet another concerned party with complementary program goals and objectives. It is not too late to consider an "historic district" policy for designated areas in Roseau and Portsmouth, and Government might review earlier recommendations for the establishment of such a district in Roseau (Cloyd, 1984). Further consideration should be given to development of a Government policy which encourages adaptive use and restoration strategies by the employment of economic incentives and to the adoption of design controls for new construction in the town areas, perhaps along the lines of the recently released OAS recommendations for St. John's, Antigua (OM, 1989).

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SECTION 11 INSrmmONAL FRAMEWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 11.1 GOVERNMENT ORGANaATlON The Commonwealth of Dominica is a sovereign demdc republic within the British Commonwealth of Nations. The Head of State is a non-Live Resident whois eleded for a he-year term by the House of Assembly on the joint nomination of the Rime Minister and the Leader d the Opposition The President appoints as Rime Minister the elected member of the How wfio commaads the support of the of its ekded members. The Resident also ap points other ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister. Exccotivc pmr is exercised by the Cabinet headed by the Rime Minister, legislative power is vwted in tbe Parliament. Thc unicameral House of Assembly comprises 31 members one reekctcd by onivcrsal ad& suffrage from each of the 21 eoartituencics, one exdicio member (the Attmey-Geacral), and nine senators ~aregcncraUyappointedbytheResidcnt ontheadviceoftheRimeMinista(fivcscnaton) and the Leader of the Oppositicm (four senators). If the Attorney General h an elected representalive from one of the 21 amstituencies (as bas been the case for avcr a decade), the membership d the Assembly drops to 30. The~)~skgalsystemisbaJed on En@ Connmon Law. Minishy of Legal Afhirs Information, and Public Relations Ministry of External Affairs and OECS Unity At~~Dis&ictAssod, tioprd~~~.n~ oftbcCentralGovcmmcat~ intoloealgmmmentnua ThcAPodt tiopa~rnsmodbtrids)domth.st.utlltory aothority,buttheyassktthe~comvilrin the perfomawe d their dntLs

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and is reflected in Government's attention to local planners, although it has not been ofthis sector. fiaally sanaioned. 11.2 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF AN ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT The institutional base of natural resource management in Dominica dates to the late 1940's with the establishment of a Forestry Department in 1949. The inception, during this period and into the 19501s, of a forest management program -including designation of forest reserves and establishment of a cops of forest guards and rangers -provided the basis for later forest conservation initiatives in the 19701s, ultimately culminating in the creation of the Morne Trois Pitons National Park in 1975, a protected area rich in natural resources and features. Today the Diion of Forestry and Wildlife is the primary resource conservation unit within the Government of Dominica, with responsibilities not only for the management of forests and wildlife but also of two National Parks as wU as an ambitious environmental education program. The Divisiop is re%nizcd thoughout the Eastern Caribbean as an effective professional unit which has, over time, assumed a leadership role for euvironmental concerns within Government. The foundation for land use and development control in the OECS countries is usually found within local planning legislation which, in hmq has the potential to influence national policies regarding resource management (Lausche, 1986a). In Dominica, as in neighboring Eastern Caribbean islands, the basis for planning and development control was laid in the late 1970's when, with the assistance of a UNDP-spomred, region-wide Physical Planning Project, new legislation -the Town and Country Planning Act -was drafted in 1975 and a National Structure Plan was prepared the following year in compliance with that legislation. The Plan was updated a decade later and is used as an overall guide by Additionally, during the early years of the 19801s, Government received assistance from the United Nations to evaluate and make recommendations on the structure and internal capacity of the Economic Development Unit (EDU), housed within the Ministry of Fice. The project was aimed at strengthening the EDU as the key development planning agency in Government responsible for project planning and evaluation, macro-economic analysis, and sectorial planning. The Physical Planning Sub-Unit is located within the EDU. More recently, with the designation of the years 1989-90 as the Yem of Envimnment and Shelter (YES) by the Prime Minister and the establishment of a broadty-based, public and private sector committee to provide institutional support for YES activities, Dominica has re-focused national attention on environmental concerns. This action, coming not long after the designation of Dominica's second National Park (the Cabrits National Park) in late 1986 and followed by the recent rejuvenation of the private sector Dominica Conservation Assodation in 1990, speaks well for the importance of conservation concerns in a country richly blessed with an extraordinary natural environment. Nevertheless, many institutional challenges still confront Dominica in the resource management sector. For example, a number of problems have been identified in the physical planning process which impede the advancement of effective development control procedures. Furthermore, interdepartmental coordination for resource management responsibilities is weak, particularly in view of the fact that Dominica lacks an integrative development control authority as found in many neighboring OECS countries. The environmental monitoring and enforcement capaaty of Government is also weak, in part exacerbated by the size of the island and the difficulty of the central administration in Roseau controlling development activities elsewhere in a country dominated by rugged topography and a road system which is extremely difficult to maintain.

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Ye4, given the example Dominica has already set in the region in such arus as parks management and resource conservation and giventhepromiseoftheYESCommineeas me example of a forarard-tooking approach to emrironmental morrhnah on,itisdearthatan instihltid foundation already exists upon which to b3d iaidativcs and pmgrams for system reform and for the strengthening of resource conservation and management practices in Dominica. 11.3 GOVERNMENT INSTlTUTlONS CONCERNED wrrn ENVIR~K MEWTAL MANAGEMENT No single Government agency in Dominica is charged with ~~5ponuity for the environment, although the Division of Foreshy and WUe has traditionally taken the lead for envLonmental affairs in the country. The 'environment' was only rcccntly added to the podolio of the Miuister of Agriadhm, Pine+ Lands, ForesEy and Wddlife, and the Eavironment, fdbwing the el6 in 1990. At present, resource management functions arc dispersed among a number of departments of Gmmment, arhieh arc identified in Table 1131) along with tcy institotid rqmdditics and enabling or relevant legislatim A recent study by OAS/OECS NRMP (BOU~~. 1989) idcntifie~ aad disthe sbnetore of GOCD departments dealing with natural r-a management. An earlier report by Laosehe (1986a). prepared for OECS-NRMP, provides an ovcrvicw of the kgiJativc framcmnk for dronmeatal management. The Lausche study is now somewhat ontbted due to changes which have ofcumd since her 1986 fad-finding trip-, the Bourne report, althougb more reantly publirhcd, is also outdated (the basic field work having been completed two years earlier) and furthermore, according to many inGownment,isnotahwyssrmnteintbe information it conveys. Under the Law Revision Ad (No. 8 of lX!6), a (hnmkion was established under the Ministry of Legal Affairs to esny out a revirion of the Laws of Dominica, and a revised ed&m of the winen laws is upaded to be puMisbedin1991. Ofpadadarrclevrnato the natural -a management sedor was pasage of the Court Fees and FAd (No. l3 of 1981) wbicl~ authorizes tbe Cr to incnasc %I& in natiolul Ltws enacted prior to this kgklatMn; a pmsukd salc is set wt in S& 3 d tbe Ad. bnscbe (1986a)~ootthat~dated~in environmental kgislatim is me d the most pmasivcpmMemsiamucbdthcCMbbean and scvcrely limits the effocbkocss of enforcement procedures. A discussioD of the key divisiom of Gmrnment with environmental rcspmrib*ticsandofimporlantenvironmcDtalkgislb tion follows. PUNNING AND DFXELQPMENF CONTROL Ptsnaing and dcvclopmmt coatrd ~inDomiiarcbwsedinibe~ made Dodopal Umlt (EDU) din tbe Ministry of Fm and F Development. The EDU is fmrbu subdividcdiototwo&units,meforeammnic development and a secoad for physicalptanning.

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Table 113(1). GOCD agencies with resource management hdions, with principal legislation and key responsibilities. AGENCY RESOURCE MANAGRESOURCE MANAGEMENT LEGISLAnON RESPONSIBnmES Eiommk Dmlopment Town and Covnny hnins Act uaitptpm nlnning (NO. 17,1915) Division Beach Control Ordinance (No. 21,1966) -Development and Development and Planning Corporation Act m (No. 19,lrn) Corpmtion WRY OF AGRICULTURE AND THE ENVIROResponsibility for dmlopnent mntrol and phyricsl planniry, administers sand removal permits Decision-making authority for planning and development mnmC Corporation haf delegated much of its authority to a Technical Committee Agriculhuc Pesticide Conhul Board Poraty and Wildlife DMon Agficultunl Small Tenancies Ordinance (Cap. 74,1953) Pesticides Contml Act (No. lS,1974). as amended (No. 4,1987), with Regulations on Lakling (1966) and Uccnriag and Regishation of Pesticides (1987) Cmsm Lands Ordinma (Cap. 169.1960) Csown Lands Regulations (SRO No. 49,1%0; No. 28,1%1; No. 13,1963) Forerts Orditunce, 1958 (Cap. SO) Porert Rulcf (SRO No. 17,1!372) Stma Hall Water Catchment Rules (SRO No. 11,19n) Forestry and Wildlife Act (No. 12,1916) Porrstsy and Wildlife (Amendment) Act (No. 35,1982) Botanic Gardens OrdiDsna (Cap. 166,1889) National Park6 and Protected Amas Act (No. 16,1975) Cabrits National Park (SRO No. 54,1966) Soil and water camemtion Enforoement of Pesticido Contml Act and Regulations Respon6ible for the survey and mapping of Oovsrnment lands, for ths adminirmtion of Gwcmment lands, and for carrying wt 6u1vsyr for other Ministries F'mtection and fttampment of the nation's forests and wildlife; watershed management; envimnmental education; management of national parks

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The legislative authority for PPD planning and development wntrol functions is found in the Town and Counby Planning Act (No. 17, 1975), which requires preparation of a national structure plan; authorizes regional, sector-specific, and local plam for land use control; and requires the submission of applications for approval of development activities defined under the law. This Act has been undergoing review and revision for several years (Lausche, 1986a) as Government seeks to identify poliaes and procedures to strengthen the physical planning process. New legislation which will repeal and replace the existing planning law is still reportedly "in the pipeline" (pers. wmm., D. Bhagowtee, UNDP Legal Advisor, Mi. of Legal Aff., 1990). The Development and Planning Corporation Act (No. 19 of 1972) created a statutory body, the Development and Planning Corporation, as the wuntry's planning authority, legislated to make decisions on planning applications and to enforce development wntrol. At present, the Corporation has effectively delegated the exercise of much of its authority to a Technical Committee chaired by the EDU (see below). The development planning and wutrol process in Dominica was described in a recent OAS study (Soler, 1988). For the purpose of processing applications for development approval, the country has been divided into 14 areas; each area has been assigned to one of the Development Control Ofticers (DCO), of which there are four in addition to the Chief Technical Officer (CTO). All applications arc reviewed by the relevant DCO, with general supervision and coordiiation provided by the CTO includii transmittal of fin* to either the Technical Staff Committee (comprised of in-house staff at the PPD) for minor applications or to the Technical Committee for decisions on major develop ment applications. The latter wmmittee is headed by the Senior Physical Planner with other membership slots fded by technical persons from within and external to the PPD. In addition to the review and processing of development applications, the PPD administers the granting of permits for the removal of sand and other materials from beaches and rivers in accordance with the Beach Control Ordinance (No. 21 of 1966). At this time, there is no effective mechanism for monitoring and enforcement once permits are issued. However, this matter is reportedly under review. A Dominica National Structure Plan, as called for under the Town and Country Planning Act of 1975, was first developed in 1976 and updated by the EDU in 1985. There is, however, no country-wide land use plan to accompany the National Structure Plan, although detailed physical development plans have been prepared for selected areas in and around the capital. The absence of an accepted physical planning framework makes the task of the PPD more difficult. It also produces a process which can appear discretionary and even arbitrary and thereby dimiiishes confidence in physical planning decisions both within Government and among the general public. The Physical Planning Division has prepared a guide for submitting planning applications which provides direction to potential developers about the application/approval process. A Building Code was also recently developed by the PPD. Most large-scale development projects are undertaken in the public sector, but Lausche (1986a), for one, reports that the physical planning process has little influence on such efforts. Furthermore, under existing legislation, Lausche (1986a) points out that subdivisions and agricultural land use and conversion are excluded from the development wntrol process. Soler (1988) notes that major developments are sometimes approved at a higher level in Government and then submitted to the PPD for minor technical evaluations. These studies and others (e.g., Baptiste, n.d., quoted in Soler, 1988) have suggested the need for revised planning and development control legislation, including regulations which provide more detailed guidelines for controlling development in the country. It has also been suggested that some decentralization of the planning system, with a possible sub-oftice in the north of the island,

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dd improve the poccss by (1) speeding up application nvicw proadmcs and (2) &ing the tispent by Dcvelopmmt Control OBtrars away from Roseau for cm-site monitolingandrcvio,visits. Atthepesentrimc, on periodic inspth visits, DCOs mea informally with Vi Chmcils coDcuning such matters as enfaamcnt d the Beach Control Ordinance or violations of the Tom and Chmtry Planning Ad A antral wein the pknning and devdopment control proass rs presently ~rmdorcd in Dominica is the limited opporhlaity for systematic cmdmtm acmes min. iJtries. Allhoogh apptieatiolls are mutidy refd to the Cbief Environmental Health 0fk.r within the Minictry of Health for ap prod and may additionally be rcfd on a case-by-east basis to other relevant dcpartmen&, there are no standardiztd a reqoired promduns for intwdcpartmental OJadination on devcbpmcnt appb&nu socb coordiDaticaasmayoccmisdoneatthelcvcl of the Technical Committee. Fmthermon. there are no automatic require.mcnts for an environmental impact asscssmcnt of oflop mcnt proposab a procedures which require thatsucbanvicwbccarricdootbythePPD in mnsdtatioa with those Gmment agencies in a position to provide technical input.

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business section (one of whom must be a bank official). This Board meets regularly. The Corporation maintains working relationships with the Pestieide Control Board, the National Development Corporation, and the Mitry of Agriculture. The Dominica Export Import Agency @EXJA) is a Government body which replaced the Dominica Agricultural Marketing Board when legislation for the latter was repealed. DEXIA's responsibilities extend beyond bananas to include the marketing of other fruits, vegetables, root crops and agricultural produce sold in both local and external markets. The Dominica Banana Grolwers Assmiation (DBGA) provides assistance to its members in the form of training, education, and implementation of good husbandry practices. LANDS AND SURVEYS DMSION The Crown Lands Ordinance (Cap. 169, 1%0; changed to State Lands Ordinance in 1967) and related regulations (see Table 11.3(1)) provide the legislative base for governing the sale or lease of state-owned land. Like other legislation, these laws are undergoing review as part of the Government's Law Revision Project. The Lands and Surveys Division (within the Mitry of Agriculture) is charged with responsibility for carrying out surveys and producing maps of Government lands and for administering such lands, including leases and sales. Additionally, the Division executes surveys on behalf of other Government ministries. The Director of the Division is the Commissioner of Lands. Dominica lacks a cadaseal survey which makes the work of this Division of Government more difficult. A further problem for the Division is the lack of legislative authority requiring private surveyors to submit their plans to a Government authority for review (Bourne, 1989). Under the existing legislation, Government may make additional regulations governing land use practices on the remaining state-held lands. Lausche (1986a) suggests that some of these lands may be unsuitable for agriculture or only capable of supporting cultivation if sound soil and water conservation practices are employed. Regulations wuld, therefore, be enacted which control land use when such lands are sold, leased or transferred; monitoring and enforcement would, however, be difficult. For example, at the present time, land allocation decisions are often made by the Commissioner of Lands based on pre-existing squatting or illegal settlement of Government lands, rather than on the basis of an accepted physical development plan for rural lands or a sound land use policy which incorporates environmental impact wnsiderations (Bourne, 1989). Prim (1987) points out that lack of adequate coordination between the Lands and Surveys Division and the Forestry and Wildlife Division has in the past limited input by Forestry in the land allocations decisions made by Lands and Surveys and has increased the number of cases of Government land being sold in environmentally sensitive areas. Reportedly, this situation is now improving. FORESTRY AND WILDLIFE DMSION As Table 11.3(1) dearly indicates, the resource dcvelopment, management, and conservation responsibilities of the Foreshy and Wildlife Division (within the Mitry of Agriculture) are substantial. Equally, its legislative mandate (Table 11.3(1)) gives to this unit of Government a broad array of environmental duties ranging from watershed protection to environmental education to parks management -in addition to more traditional, now 40 year-old responsibilities related to development of the nation's forests. The central role played by the Forestry and Wildlife Division in the conservation of Dominica's natural resources is perhaps best exemplified by the fact that all of the country's legally designated protected areas are under the management control of the Division (see Table 11.3(2)). In other Eastern Caribbean countries, these responsibilities are often shared by more than one government agency and/or a National Trust. Furthermore, the size of Government hold

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Table lW(2). Protected areas, Commonweakb d Daahka, & by the Division of Forestry and Wildtae. NAME OF AREA SIZE YEAR @a) ESTABLBHED OR PROPOSED Central Fonst Rcsem Northern Forest Rc~cm lb&mmmB Stewart Hall Wata Catcbmcnt M~TroisPitcmsNstionalPart 6.840 ** l975 (cstablisbod) Cabrits National Park 531 (WildtifcRaavg Parrot Rwem (PTOjbd Si) 81 (propgcd) Source: Adapted and updated h World GmmWka Mdorieg Chtu, 19BB, cuxpt as DOtCd bch. PrrbScctim,budcdbytbc* pcrintcDdcnt d Park, who is reSpmSiMcfatk~~

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management of natural and historical parks and protected areas; Natural Resources Management and Environmental Education, headed by a Forest Officer. Dominica has one of the best trained, mmt professional forestry divisions in the Eastern Caribbean. Its complement of professionals indudes two holders of Bachelor of Forestry Degrees and two holders of Bachelor of Natural Resource Management Degrees, all obtained at North American Universities (Prins, 1987). While Dominica is indeed fortunate to have such a highly competent forestry staff, one study (Prins, 1987) noted the significant gap in training and educational levels between headquarters staff, misting mainly of Forest Officers and Assistant Forest Officers, and field staff composed primarily of Forest Rangers and Forest Guards. Prins (1987), an OAS consultant, concluded that as Forest Rangers and Forest Guards spend less time on policing and patrolling and more time on forest management activities, the headquarters staff will need to provide better professional direction to the staff in the field. Given the central importance of the Forestry and Wildlife Division in coordinating the environmental management functions of Government, the lack of formal mechanisms for systematic and regular mardination with other departments of Government (as pointed out by Lausche, 1986a and Prim, 1987) is a serious institutional weakness which needs to be addressed. In particular, such linkages need to be strengthened in areas affecting land use planning, development control decision-makin& tourism and the allocation of state-owned lands. Prins (1987) and others have also noted that the Foreshy Division is seriously lacking in facilities and equipment, which makes implementation of its substantial resource management responsibilities more diificult. A more detailed discussion of the primary resource management responsibilities of the Forestry and Wildlife Division follows. (1) Forest Management. Legislative authority for the management of Dominica's forests is found in the Forests Ordinance (Cap 80) which provides for the declaration of forest reserves on Crown lands and the ddaration of protected forests on private land. Forest Rules (SRO No. 17, 1972) made pursuant to the Ordinance specify which actions are prohibited in forest reserves and provide details on licensing and permits for forest harvesting. The Ordinance authorizes the establishment of protected forests on private land in order to prevent soil erosion and flooding and to maintain water supplies. One water catchment area on private land has been declared a "protected forest" under the Ordinance, i.e., Stewart Hall Water Catchment (SRO No. 11, 1979, but it has not been wellmanaged (see Section 4.3 of the Profile). The Division of Forestry and Wildlife is charged with implementation of this body of legislation and with execution of the country's forestry policies. The Director states that the overall objective of the Division relative to forest management is twofold, namely, to guide the development of forest resources for maximum social and economic benefit while at the same time managing the resource base so as to protect it from adverse environmental impacts (pers. comm., F. Gregoire, Dir. of Forestry and Wildlife Div., 1990). The forest management work of the Division emphasizes the following: establishment and protection of forest reserves; controlling forest development to ensure the sustained use of forest resources; research on forest utilization practices and silviculture; extension work in conservation and silviculture (pers. wmm., F. Gregoire, 1990). (2) Wildlife Management. Responsibility for wildlife management and protection rests with the Forestry and Wildlife Division under the Forestry and Wildlife Act (No. 12 of 1976), which also established the Division as it is presently constituted. The Act focuses on protecting wild fauna and on managing

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forntbabi&atforthe~ofwildlife. Forestry and Wildlife pcnonncl are charged with enforocment rcqm&We~. A carefully monitored hunting -n was established by the I-00, and maximum penaltia for violation of the Act presently stand a~ ECSs,aoO and three ycars imprisonment for vidatiom relating to parrots and ECSllOO and/or thrcc months in jail for violations pertaining to other spcdes. This fegislatim ibo aothoriza thc dm of wildlife mwwx, and in 1989 ap prahately 200 acres in the Syndieoe/Dycr Estate area were ideoti6e.d and proposed for establishment as a parrot re~cm (see also Scetion 2.2 of the Protile). This action was part of a larger wildlife protedion and eduratim program implemented by the Forestry Division witb external asdance from the RARE Qnter for Tmpid Bird c~~~~rvatio. and the latIntwnatio COCouneil for Bird PrCSPntim (ICBP). Designated wed sirco~u, after thc natbd bird, the Siou Parrot, this program has focosed on public edncstioD about Dominica's endangered wildlife, re~and~raisingforthepmchaJed fortstkndsfortkparrotrcsem. La& (1986a) points out that no regulations have been cnaeted to the wildlife protection lcgidpbion and that, since the Ad alsomctUdcsprotcctiollforhtrtkgrtgulahiolls for turtle taking not only need to be implemented but also sboold be separated oat and res.po&'bility for enforamcnt &erred from Forestry. She also reamuacnds that Domuuca bwmc a party to the Conmuh on laternational Tradc in Species of Wild Fauna and Flon (CITES), a rcoommendation which hrr ibo bccn made by Johwm (1988). Evam (1988). and Butler (W) and is supported by the Forestry and WildlifeDivirim (3) Ndaed Mg MuL-1L in tbc1960's,internstioaafandimlaaaro over irc.rlti(vian a more cff& meam of ~Dominica'sniaforeYskdtodisacssioosbetwtcatkDominianGovcrnment and donor assistance agcncics ooaarning the fcadbility of establishing a natioaal park systcm. In 1969, a three-puson phmbg team 6om the Gn~~rvation Fwndation, a Nod TbcN.tb.lhrbudRaedd Areas M (No. 16, l975) provida tbc Lcg.l bpris for Dominica's f(IWUd-botisg parks andpotbcted-system. TbeMmIb rizesthcMinirtud~todcsignste GavcrnmrntWaspmtcctedareasforthe prcscmrioadnahual~fortheamscmticadhislaicsitcrad~d forthedcvcbpmentd~Two&icd~hvtbecaest.blirbsd. eachrcquiringadiffcrcntsctd~ aitetia.

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The second park, the Cabrits National Park on the northwest mast just outside of the town of Portsmouth, was established in 1986 (see also Section 10) and incorporates within its boundaries both marine and terrestrial areas, a representative sample of dry forest vegetation, one of the country's two most important wetlands, and the ruins of the nation's most significant historical monument. A cruise ship dock is beii constructed within the Park (scheduled for completion by the end of 1990), in order to facilitate visitor use of the area. Lausche in 1986 and McHenry and Gane in 1988 have pointed out the need for regulations to the National Parks Act to address critical issues such as prohibited and permitted activities within park boundaries. FA0 consultants (McHenry and Gane, 1988) drafted a proposed amendment to the Parks legislation, making only minor changes but adding a set of regulations. No action has yet been taken on this proposal. GOCD also has not implemented a provision in the original legislation calling for the establishment of a National Parks Advisory Council, although this is still reportedly under consideration. The 1975 Parks Act gives authority to the Director of National Parks to prepare park management plans for approval by the Minister. A ten year management plan for the Morne Trois Pitons National Park was recently drafted with assistance from the OAS (Scheele, 1989). No similar document edsts for the Cabrits National Park, although a 1984 development report, Cabrits 2000, prepared with the assistance of ECNAMP, a St. Croixbascd NGO, is generally recognized as the policy development document for the site. Administration of national parks is the responsibility of the Dominica Parks Service, a separate unit within the Forestry and Wildlife Division. The head of the unit se~es as the Superintendent of Parks. The responsibilities of the Park Service are varied, ranging from nature conservation in the Morne Trois Pitons Park to the restoration and maintenance of Fort Shirley in the Cabrits National Park. In addition, this section is responsible for the Botanical Gardens and other urban parks in Roseau. Because of these wide-ranging responsibiities, the unit employs the largest labor force of all the sections within the Forestry and Wildlife Division (Pk, 1987). The Botanical Gardens Ordinsnfe (Cap. 166, 1889) provided for the establishment of Dominica's Botanical Gardens. The centennial of the Gardens' creation is currently being celebrated, while at the same time the site bas become the subject of controversy concerning appropriate use of the area (see also Section 9.2 of the Protile). The Botanical Gardens are classified as state lands but have not been included, by designation, in the National Park System. The 100-year old Botanical Gardens Ordinance is not adequate to prevent encroachment, and therefore local debate continues over present and proposed use of the site. The Forestry and Wildlife Division as well as the Division of Agriculture and its supporting services are presently housed in buildings within the Botanical Gardens. Long-term plans call for the relocation of the Agriculture Division outside the Gardens and for establishment of an interpretive center within the Gardens (pers. commun., R. Charles, Forestry and Wildlife Div., 1990). (4) Environmental Education. The Forestry and Wildlife Division has spearheaded local efforts to introduce environmental education materials into Dominican schools. A dozen booklets on a variety of natural history subjects, some focused specifically on the National Parks, were tirst introduced in 1978 and wntinue to be used to the present time. The popular Forestry tabloid, Vwa Diablotin, was produced for two years (198384) and appealed to both a school-age and general public audience. Funding was provided by USAID, CIDA and local businesses. With more recent (1989) support from the RARE Center and again from local businesses, the monthly publication of Vwa Diablotin has been revived. Additionally, a special issue of the publication was produced in 1989, representing a reprinting of highlights from earlier issues (GOCD, 1989). Over the years, the Environmental Education section of the Forestry Division has initiated and provided leadership for a wide variety of public education programs, indud

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ing radio ncwsprpa artidg hld trips, audio-visual pnsentatiom, workshops and seminars, exh&&q and spolwrship of spcdat wats such as Forestry Week, Parrot Week, e~e planting ccremonics, d clean-np campaigns (Charles, M). Intuprctive mate& have also been developed for use at National Park fa& The FbLaia Mopat Dtv&ia (FDD) of the l&kby of Agrieultun is a dkly small but growiag unit with mponsibilities to mersce the optimal utilization d marine resouras. Tbc Dkish's mn staff (eight established positions) is trained to ezeate day-today operations and is suppcxted by additional penomel in the he of data wllecbion, aqe extemb scrviaq uplmtory flshin& 8nd research. Tbc Dkish is plesdy rmdergoieg org .. d rein order to en* it to b&er mcct increasing demands, 6% fathe -(EEz) and the coastal om. 'Ibc rcorg.111plhon, whichisiuLcepiogwithOECSsFi Admhkmhl and Imtitohional End mentRogr8m.willfoarroainercadngst.81 size and impthe profearionsl anopetcoccofpusonacl Thecreatimofapcdfic ~*tbeDivisiontoded~stoeLis SeSSm* WnSCnntion, etc is also .nticiwed. MuchofthewvrkoftheDividmis maedntedbythepmvisi~~~oftheFbLaia M(No.ll,1981). TbcAdpmvidesabrord framework for marine rcsomcc management and is supported by Fkbies Rcpldans cnactedmGctoberl989(see~5.1dthc Pro&). The Dominican kgislab is part d an FAO/OECS-snpporkd initiative which dates to 1984 and was dcsiped to cnhaoa 11istheintentioDddaircdtk Divirjon's stall to incruse its m environmcotllirrucsd~@cra commua, N. Lawrma. 1990). Tbc FDD is tbcdc&natedfb.irmaooftkamuby's~ aster RtpuedDcss chdttce for 03 SpSr 8ndCootiqBcDcrPLas.Pmthamarc.~ ~gircstheDisisimtbCa~t0 dull8reatePirhiqgPIiaityArt.smdR6b Nursery Arcas d to crt.blish nuriDc m Tod.te,aomariDc~hvc bccn~ed,.Itboqgh~c.britcN& tional Park, m+ by tk Portshy d WildtaeDisip;oa,hsa~~ eompoamt Tbc Fi Divisim is curredy~kiugmtkcst.blishmeatdam, rinc~inthe~/ScottsHdB.I 8lea.

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cant) plus six other public and private sector persons. No representative of the Forestry Division currently serves on the Board, despite the fad that this Division has generay functioned as the implementing arm for physical development projects on behalf of the old Tourist Board. The Director of the Forestry and Division formerly was a member of the now-defunct Tourist Board. Dominica is the only OECS country to have merged the tourism and the industrial development sectors. Lausche noted previously (1986a), when this consolidation was first suggested, that the merger could dimiih efforts by the Tourism Division to focus on natural resource protection as an important eonsideration in tourism promotion. She stressed the need for continued strong linkages with the Forestry Division which, at least at the present time, is feasible given the fact that the present Director of the NDC's Tourism Division formerly oceupied the post of Parks Interpreter within the Forestry Division and has received formal training in natural resource management. The Forestry and Wildlife Division is presently coordinating the improvement of facilities at twelve tourist sites around the island, five of which -Emerald Pool Middleham, Morne Trois Pitons, Cabrits, and Boiling Lake -are found within the National Park System. Futlding for this Site Upgrading Component of a larger Tourism Development Project is being provided by the European Development Fund (Christian, 1989). ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH The Public Health Act (No. 15, 1968), with Regulations, provide the basis for poUution control and waste management in Dominica. This Act follows the colonial pattern common to the region of using "nuisance" violations for pollution control, but enforcement is difficult because concepts are outdated. Lausche (1986a) reports that there is interest on the part of Ministry of Health officials in updating the public health legislation with a new law and standards more responsive to current environmental health problems. The 1968 Public Health Ad has been omitted from the Law Revision Projeb; present plans call for its repeal and replacement by a new act (pers. comm., D. Bhagowtee, UNDP Legal Advisor, Min. of Legal A&, 1990). In her 1986 review of environmental legislation, Lausche notes that, while new standards for poUution control and waste management are needed, consideration must also be given to existing institutional capaaty and available resources if such standards are to be effective. She reports that there has been some discussion within Government to set up an interdepartmental advisory council to help set standards for environmental quality, but no statutory powers for such a body have yet been defmed. Implementation of environmental health responsib'ities is divided between (1) the Chief Environmental Health Officer and staff of the Ministry of Health and (2) local government authorities (see also Local Government sub-seciion below). Environmental Health Officers are responsible for pollution control related to potable drinking water quality and waste disposal, including enforcement. The Health Mitry is also routinely consulted by the Physical Planning Division of the EDU in processing development applications. Lausche (1986a) recommends that consideration should be given to strengthening the authority of Environmental Health in the development control process by the estab lishment of environmental standards which development projects would have to meet before approval of planning applications could be issued. DOMINICA WATER AND SEWERAGE COMPANY, LTD. Until 1986, water supply management in Dominica was the respons~wity of the Central Water Authority, a statutory body established under the Central Water Authority Act of 1967. In 1986, under the Central Water Authority (Repeal and Vesting of Property) Act, the Authority was disbanded, and its functions and assets were transferred to Government. The management of water supply

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services was delegated to a pnblie watu mility, thc NItional Water Services, opustiog under the hfi&hy of Communications and Works This arr;rtlguoent krtul for mly a sbortbimc,andinWfBaoewprintitationof water supply manapneat was accomplished withthccstablishmentdthe~w.ta ud Compq, Ltd. (DOWASCO), a mgktered, prhtely-awncd company which will make shares available fa public sale at a future date. The. Wata ud Scmnge M (No. 17, l989) established the Company to provide water supply and -age suviecs for Dominica mdct liamcs issued by the Mhirta d Couohtiars, Wab Md He A liaerrcc bas ban graated for watcrserVicesfaapcriodd25yclncommcnchgwitb theenactmeat ofthe Wla~ a Liaast date for smmge swviccs is still pcndingbutexpe-ctedtobcissuedbythecnd of 1990. UgdcrtheWaterand~Act, watcr~cntaotborityforthcccunby bas becn granted to DOWASCO, which indudes among its hctions water conservstio. andthepnservPtiolradprot&datchment area% Relative to catcha~art onderthceonwldGovanmcnt(eitbcrstate Led or protsded fore&), thcsC rcIponsibiliticsmshprcdwitbtheFacshyad WildlifeDivirion;tkknais~on theWWASCOBoard.~rbwMfaCiliWe mmrmmiatim bttwccn the plblicaeda Divirioa and thc pivstbrcdor Company. DOWASCO ako h rrapomibility with tkMinisbyofH&for~* tionofwatwrcsoprcesandforemmisg d a safe water supply. It h mt rcadilydurarhat~ofcoardinrtionhavc bcencstaMirbedbttwccn Jbvimnmeatal HulthPndWWASCO,attboqBb~4 dtheauthoridsgtegiskdoapmuidcsforthc appointment d a W.ta and kmnge AdvisayCnmcil. Ibc.HaintmentdtkCooDEil hreoommcndcdasthisbodyconldgrutlyfaeititate eoordmaboD amwgthcwiousqpaes with water stdm respoaribihhca !sec&m 4 of the Ro6le disfnscs m mm detail thc ~anthorityandhrstitub;oDal~tbponsibitities of DOWASCO as wcU as its current 'Ibc~DiViriollroctrcbcdq aab~~~~~, est.blisaed~tkbcAuml1981(Na 22). AMwugb crutcd by m .d d P+rtt ~tkcooneillmrtianrin~mpiike amNG0. Itpmvidtapokydircftaomd~ ~fffthcprqg.msad~ -. d tka*mJDivip-oaandis~for tkqmathsdtk.OldM9CI*mJCmta. UDdatk~~tkNcC hambaitytor~~rmmdmt.smgfatk dmlopmartdodddm Dommrca and to rdcc and eda fads facoltmJ~TbtcooneilondatooL paMicPrioD d the most comphrsk

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ovemew of Dominican culture, Our Island Cullure by Lennox Honychurch, first pubhhed in 1982 and reissued in 1988. The NCC works with the private sector Dominica Institute to develop historic sites within the boundaries of the Cabrits National Park. These activities are carried out under the overall policy direction of the Forestry Division, which has jurisdiction over all of Dominica's national parks. Dominica does not have a National Trust and therefore relies on an informal network of institutions to support and promote the development of cultural and historical resources; chief among these are the Cultural Division, the National Culture Council, and the National Park Service. More information is provided in Se& 10 of the Profile. rnAL GOVERNMENTS The Central Government's coordinating agency for liaison with local communities is the Division of Local Government and Community Development, housed within the Mitry of Community Development and Social Affairs. The Division is headed by the Local Government Commissioner. This Division oversees development of a nation-wide system of local government and provides a Link between local communities and the Central Government. Its mandate includes disaster preparedness among those activities it coordinates with local government units. The present local government system comprises one City Council in Roseau, one Town Council in Portsmouth, and 34 Village Councils plus the one Carib Council. The Councils operate under by-laws which are ap proved by the Miter and may include measures to protect local water supplies and for the disposal of waste. Nuisance abatement (as defined under the Public Health Act) is delegated to local authorities who presumably work with Environmental Health officials when pollution threats to public health have been identified. The daily responsibility of cleaning privies and drains also is the responsibility of local authorities (Lausehe, 1986a). Local authorities are routinely consulted by Development Control Officers from the PhyJical Planning Division of the EDU regarding building plans in their respective areas and violations of the Beach Control Ordinance or the Town and Country Planning Act (Soler, 1988; Bourne, 1989). There are no formal mechanisms, however, which require that such consultations take place. YEARS OF ENVIRONMENT AND SHELTER (YES) COMMFlTEE The Government of the Commonwealth of Dominica declared 1989 and 1990 as Years of Environmenl and Shelter (YES), with the theme "Comfortable Lii in Clean Surroundings" providing direction for this two year, multi-faceted effort. Although YES was developed out of a concern about issues of public health and well-beii its activities have focused specifically on housing and environment concerns (Gregoire, 1989; YES, 1990a). The YES program theme was given institutional structure with the formation of the YES Core Committee, whose members were appointed by the Prime Minister and indude both public and private sector persons. A number of sub-committeas were formed in order to enable the Committee to carry out its primary functions, namely, the coordination of YES program activities, advising Government on policy matters related to YES themes, and encouraging the involvement of the public and private sectors in YES programs. The YES Committee is chaired by the Director of the Forestry and Wildlife Division, and the Deputy Chairman is the CTO for Housing within the Mitry of Communications, Works and Housing. An Executive Seaetary coordinates and manages the operational functions of the Committee., while Government provided ECS50,oOO for YES activities for the fiscal year ending June 30,1989 and an additional EC$382,000 for the period ending June 30, 1990 (YES, 1990b). In early 1990, the YES Committee was selected as the executing local organization for the Dominica

PAGE 215

Sina the absence d a formal dnation mccbaaism for cnviro~mental management witbin Govanment .ppcan to be a key iosthhd pmMem in Dominica (6ce below, Se&m 11.6), the eatensioa of the YES Committ~~'stenmcbcpQdlY90ddbcaa important step at this time. EquaIly imput.Ill (iiitstcnurewereutCndcd)dbetbc stmtgthenillg d the terms d nferena fa YES, in order to improve its coordmabm authority among those GOCD agmcics involved in rcsoura management, pollution amtrol, and envimnmental prot& a&tts. TbcprimuyamuwhNGOin theeolmtryistbcDolWa~b aoddoo (DCA). Formally oq@d in tbc early=&&. 's emat tbattimewas~arcvinldthc~ dormant Domrma Co wbiehwasfimt~iothcurty196(Ya Tk DCA hitidy recmergcd rc a Tortshy lasodatioalasodatioa but kta interest shi&cd to a brodu-bued aoasantioo Peak mcmbcrshipdid notd50,dtbepmp wcntiatoapcriodd~inthcmidPal's (Towic, CJ d" 1m. Morcnaotly,*~fPDdiqs lmdcragrrntfmmthcCuibbunCaasar, tionAssoastm throogb its MvArtbm

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Foundation-funded "Caribbean Heritage Rogram," the DCA has been formally reactivated. CCA funds will be used to support a DCA office/headquarters and employ a program coordinator for a period of three years. New officers have been elected, and the first AGM in many years was held in late 1989. Yet to be determined are DCA institutional priorities and program directions which it is in the process of developing through preparation of a one to three year institutional development plan. The DCA has an exciting challenge ahead of it in the next three years as it takes steps to identify its new role in the Dominican NGO seetor and as it strives to build a viable organization which can survive institutionally once the CCA funding has ended. One of the self-help groups to emerge in the aftermath of Hurricane Dand was the Domlnica Hucksters Assodation, launched in 1981 to represent the interests of inter-island traders engaged in the marketing of fruits and agricultural produce. Dominicn has a long tradition of exporting surplus agricultural products to neighboring islands, such exports primarily handled by individual operators (Finisterre and Renard, 1987). The Association has received generous support from Govenunent in the form of office and warehouse space as well as duty-free wnewsions. The group has also received significant external aid and technical assistance. In the area of resource management, the Association has implemented an experimental agricultural waste recycling project with funding provided by FA0 and Island Resources Fouadation. Small Projects Assistance Team (SPAT) is widely acknowledged as a non-government development agency with an excellent record in promoting participatory programs for mal communities (Fisterre and Renard, 1987). Like the Hucksters Association, it was formed following Hurricane David (registered in 1981) as a coordinating group to assist self-help groups to achieve economic self-sufficiency at the local level. It has received funding from both European and North American NGOs and operates an office, library and documentation center (iduding video taping capabilities) in Roseau. SPAT'S monthly publication, entitled Kouhen, has on occasion focused on environmental issues. It also ran an environment "camp" h the summer of 1989 for 8to 11year-old-children and has sponsored eommunity meetings and produced a video on the use of pesticides. SPAT recently set aside EC$10,000 for small environmental projects, but thus far the response level has not been significant (pers. comm., J. Peltier and R. Green, SPAT, 1990). The organization is part of a wllaborative network of NGOs in Dominica which also includes the National Development Foundation, Social Center, Movement for Cultural Awareness, Develop ment Alternatives International and others. SPAT is a formal member of the Dominica Conservation Assodation and has a representative on the Board of the Assodation, thus providing an important link between Dominica's leading non-governmental comervation organization and the island's strong mal development network. The Small Lumber Producers Group is an association of small-scale sawyers which has received external assistance in developing a not-for-profit lumber purchasing and marketing corporation. The objective of this program, funded primarily by the World Wildlife Fund-US through the Eastern Caribbean Natural Area Management Program (now known as CANARI), is to improve the application of forest resource conservation techniques within a small business context. No more than 40 sawyers are members, but further membership development is cumently limited due to lack of adequate facilities (pers. comm., R. LaRonde, Diedor, 1990). In April 1989, the group was incorporated as Cottage Forest Industries, with a Board of Directors ineluding among its members the Director of Forestry and Wildlife, the General Manager of the NDC and the President of the DCA (CANARI, 1990). Two business sector NGOs have demonstrated some interest in environmental issues in Dominica. The HOW Association, representing the wuntry's small hotels and guesthouses, has been engaged in promoting

PAGE 217

rmPnpoJd IF69 =pwd 3UJ-m pml"mq~Jo3nllno"pap!-J wmJ '=w-dlPmqru* m?* ==!dmn T-vvmmm'=!pqm mhm a(w(-Qmm --P='F!w'""wm3m='waaYrorl '==?~~WpoId -T@ qSn.m m sdnoB 'm-nas P hulls Palldw =?rya -==~~~l"q~ =-J Pa-+= !z F=m=P! (L86T) vn PQ= -I?=!! =wlapm vm (=?q== ~ragmn=F--Ji%=qP)~W='4!-Yd &OOJ %=?wwI 'hit 'P-a P@Q -w+c) 08 +pm -38 ww!'Q TI m=ax-lo]ramurlorr -m .19w a P"p (6861 amr '-1 3)0mfP3 ]e3J31 ?m, 01 =w.laaon mw P SL 4awm -!-= 'a?=!'d-Ll!e =! ~!"!=oa m m-= ayw'dom au

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through coordination of shipping and marketing for banana exports and the implementation of research activities on banana production. WINBAN operates a research center in St. Lucia, the largest agricultural research unit in the Eastern Caribbean; activities there benefit all participating islands, including Dominica. The Inter-Amerlcan Institute for Cooperation on AgFicnlturc @CA) is an intergovernmental agency comprised of member states in the Americas and the Caribbean; the Institute enjoys a specialized working relationship with OAS. Its mandate is to encourage, promote and support the efforts of member countries to improve agricultural development and to achieve rural well-being. In Dominica, IICA's recent programs have focused on: support of small-scale sheep production, strengthening of GOCD plant protection and quarantine capabiities, improving the production/marketing capabilities of farmer organizations, and support for technology generation and transfer systems. Oxford University and ICBP's Multiple Land Use Project was established in Dominica in 1982, funded by ICBP with support from other organizations, notably the Royal Society, British Ecological Society, Royal Geographical Society and National Geographic Society. Over the last nine years, about 70 persons (mainly mlogists, botanists and foresters but also agriculturalists and economists) have conducted applied environmental research under the auspices of the project. This work has been conducted in eonjunction with the Division of Forestry and Wildlife and involved liaison with the Divisions of Agriculture and Lands and Surveys. The long-term aims of the Project are (1) to determine the effects of different forms of land use upon animal and plant communities and (2) to encourage economic development in ways that are compatible with environmental interests (see also sidebar, page 61). The John D. Arrbbold Center for Tropical Studies was established in Dominica in 1989 at the site of the former Springtield Guesthouse. The 190-aae Springfield Plantation was a gift of American John Archbold, who has had a long interest in the island and in the preservation of its biological diversity. Mr. Archbold donated the property to Clemson University in South Carolina (USA) to be used for research activities by a wnsortium of US. universities and research institutions formed by Clemson University. The Center has the potential to make an important contribution to the country, particularly if its overall research objectives are linked to the research requirements of Dominicans. 11.5.2 International Donor Assistance In the area of agricultural and rural development, Dominica currently receives assistance from a variety of funders, including: British Development Division (BDD) for coffee, tropical fruits and spices, and tree mop development programs; from the Csnadisn international Development Agency (CIDA) for continuation of a coconut rehabilitation and development project; from the Wn American Development Foundation for a cwoa rehabilitation and development project; from the European Development Fund for fruit tree production; and from the Republic of Chlna (ROC) for a pilot vegetable and rice farm. GOCD's Integrated Rural Development Project is supported in part by the Organization of American States (OAS) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), while the Melville Hall Estate Development Project has received funding through the Caribbean Development Bank (CDB). The Republic of China is providing substantial support at the present time to the fisheries development efforts of GOCD, along with funds from the European Development Fund (EDF) (for prawn farming) and from the United Nations Food and Agricnlture Organization (FAO). Witbin the forestry, wildlife and national parks sector, support is being provided by FA0 and the United Nations Development Prqpam (UNDP) for implementation of a forest management plan. FA0 also sponsored a review of forestry, wildlife and national parks policy and legislation, while OAS funded

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a comprehensive study of forest poky and .. admmsmhon, as well as preparation of a ten ycar management plan for the Mome Trds Pitons National Park. Wildlife conservation efforts received -t timding from the htautiollal ColuIdI fw 'or Rtawwh (ICBP) and the RARE Cata for lkopld 'or cmtim through F?+d Sirw The US rar I~tavtioarl Dcvdop ncnt (USAID) provided funds for the &opment of fae*tin within the National Park at Boeri and Frshwater Lake (as a part of AID'S Rural Wemificaticm Projed); fndlitieJ development funding has also been forthcoming from EDF for tourist sites both within and extend to thc National Park System. The development of Dominica's National Park System has a history of over 20 ycarsofexternalsupport(iihcformofboth fnndiug and technical sssistana) by a variety of donor groups, prhdy North American NGOs. Some of this history k rcviearcd in Sdon 113, but a partial Lirt of tk extend NGOs and other age& which played a role in park deve1opment in Dominica wwld have to indude. CIDA, C.udLn Na* Fadartiom, Coltoantlam Fomrd.tioq US. Ndaaml p.rt SSrLq Euta cuib Natal Arra~tRqg.I,c.ribbCuCmM.mtiom Assod.tion, IdUd Rcsovm Found.tig lbe Nabre Consmnnq, RICK Wdd mme Fod-Us and 0s. The development of the Dominian National Park System was an utraordinary effort, facilitated in large meamre by the cmpuarioo of this diverse~rwpofspomonworlriqgdoselyarith Government to achieve mutnaUy-supported hthemsofwat~rcsouramanagement, CIDA is emFcntly snppodq a major Water Sector Rogram, whik other waterprojeashavcreceDtlybceafondedby USAID. BDD, and CDB. FA0 fuoded a reVieWand~catofwrrierrcsovraLcgishtionandadministratimin~ htbecn~=tor,m;ljor-soppath.6b= reocivcd Erom USAID (Rural Eld& Rojed for the East Coart), CDB, and OAS. Fundiug for the Hydroelectric Expan&m Rojtcthaseamcintheformdgrantsor loans 6om: the Wodd Bank CDB, CCCE hurbc (1986b) kkdkd thrrc Lgrlly-btsad~earsnhLbhitiuetbc lbilitydgo=maearstoirucg-~ mamgexnent considcntioPr into tk deeidollmatiqgF-=Thcy=

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the existing natural resource base in keeping with official economic and social goals. Establishment of an institutional structure across ministerial lines to coordinate and monitor proposed and approved development projeds in order to identify sector-specific as well as cumulative environmental change. Lausehe's general conclusions could be applied to all of the OECS countries and speeitically guide some of the recommendations and discussion which follow relative to the specific case of Dominica. (1) Improvement of the formal mechanisms within Government for inter-sectorial ond inter-agency coopemtion ond coordination. Improved coordination is one of the most critical issues confronting Dominica in the resource management sector. It is important because (1) resource management functions are spread among several departments of Government, only one of which has a strong, well-structured environmental focus and (2) there is no official Government body with clearly defined legal authority to institute procedures for inter-departmental, inter-sectorial collaboration in the planning and develop ment control process, for land use decisionmaking, and for carqing out pollution control responsibilities. In many OECS countries, a centralkd, coordinating mechanism for environmental concerns is found, in part, in a strong development control authority. Thii is not the case in Dominica, where much of the decision-making authority of the Development and Planning Corporation has been delegated to a Technical Committee chaired by the Economic Development Unit. This Committee has not put in place procedures which formalize inter-departmental/ioter-sectorial coordination in the review of development projects, particularly where such activities may have an impact on the natural environment. The Forestq and Wildlife Division has assumed a central role for the coordination of many environmental management functions within Government. However, the lack of formal mechanisms for systematic and regular communication with other departments has often meant that actions taken by other units of Government are detrimental to the resource management objdves pr* moted by Forestry and Parks staff (Lausche, 1986a; Prim, 1987). In some resource management sectors, more than one unit of Government has been charged with monitoring/enforcement responsibilities, eg, pollution control and maintenance of water quality are responsibilities of the Ministry of Health, local government authorities and DOWASCO. In this case, the problem of overlapping institutional roles is further exacerbated befause the existing legislation for pollution control and waste management (the Public Health Act of 1968) is outdated and lacks specific standards. The process for establishing more effective and regular coordiiation procedures needs to be addressed by GOCD, particularly in areas affecting pollution control, land use planning, and development control. The Government might consider institutionalizing the role of the YES Committee before expiration of its term at the end of 1990 and providing it with more substantive coordinating and policy setting responsibilities. At present, it represents the most active coordinating body within Government for issues related to the environment. (2) Strengthening the physicd planning process. Soler (1988), Lausche (1986a). and others have pointed to problems in the physi cal planning process as currently instituted in Dominica. The lack of an approved physical planning strategy or framework means that decisions on development applications are generally made on an ad hoe, case-by-case basis, a process which not only emphasizes short-term objectives rather than long-term planning goals but also gives the appearance of being subjective and even arbitrary. Input to the process of reviewing physical development plans is generally coordinated by the Technical Committee, acting under delegated authority of the Board of the Development and Planning Corporation;

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OthcrdcputmentsofGowamcntamarnsuited on an 'as need& brrir Membwship onthcTcehniealComminceisslLchthatit permits some intcr-agency rcvitar, idudiq muhe mput fnnn thc Chicf Envimmcntal Health Ofjkr. Hownu, cd daJses d development activity am ontside tbe aothority of thc Physical Plaaning DRirion (eg., agricultural land us), may be appovDd at a higher kvcl of Gcmrnment, or may be uodertaken by another departma of Govcmmceatwithtittlcorm,i~~putfromtbcPPD. Furthermore, at the pmmU time, formal amsideration of the potcDtial environmental impMisofdevclopmeatpr~iswtreqnLcd (See .Is0 sdon 9). While .n .... ~YESCommiaet(See above) sboald fimdim as m id p0liCy-d. bodywabinGowm mcat,tberdcdtbeE. 1 RourctimUnitdprimdybctbatdimpbmentiag and dating Cnrmmmental poky. (3) uphrtins 0fprblEc nbn. laammtmicwofnatmJnsomrr lcgislalion m Dominiq laucllc (l986a) poiatrouttbc~foraoopd.tiqgdpobtic acaahkgisktioq-tbedifholtydpdtntion~~oDdatbeuistiug law. ~wbacfusible,.rtDccdcdto strcngthcn~acaahicgidrioqbm be develop4 sqgggts kprchc, light of instaotioarl clpritics .ad

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formulation of the YES (Years of Environment and Shelter) program, a focused attempt to heighten community awareness about envi. ronmental problems and issues. This action builds on a two decade effort by Government, supported by a broad base of international donor groups, to establish and build one of the hest National Park and Forest Reserve systems in the Eastern Caribbean. However, more remains to be done to strengthen the institutional capacity of Government to implement and any out more effective resource management programs. In the last anal+, this will require, fust, public sector wasensus on general resource management goals; secondly, suftieient political will to support those goals; and, lastly, a sharing of responsibility for meeting those goals by both the public and private sectors.

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SECTION 12 KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND WUCY RECOMMENDATIONS ThcissocsideatificdinthcProfilc will not stquk tbosc who know Dominies but neither h then moln for compb ccoey. Thcnisinfactaustfororeanccrn which had bccn artienlatcd hog before thc Environmental Pro& Fmjmi was begun. Jhmioica's YES Commincc, for cpDlpk. wasalrtadymg.gcdina~ofoomme dy-bksed cn-cntal pmjccEs and rtioofoavaed initiativq linking both the public andprinte~orsinakindof~ d-hclp pmgram. Thuc.rclwOgroepcd~ddrcarcdwithinthcRofile. Thcfirstisduivtd from tbc scdor rwiew d ad@S which constitute the pnmiiugseetionr ofthe CEP. Porthtamvmicnadthcrcdcr,thescdu

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(1) W&er -the need to maintain and improve the island's capacity to collect and store water for domestic, industrial and agricultural use, and safeguard water quality by proper management of the watersheds and forest resources. (2) Soil -the prevention of soil loss from erosion and the maintenance and improvement of soil fertility by managing the natural woody vegetation and planting trees in accordance with sound land use practices. (3) Plants (Flora) -the safeguarding of vegetational heritage and biodiversity for present and future generations by preserving special landscapes, micro-ecosystems, plant communities, and endangered and threatened species. (4) Wildlife (Fauna) -the protedion of habitats, ranges, and food supplies and guarding against excessive hunting and harvesting of the full spectrum of domestic and migratory species, including the establishment of protected areas as necessary. Whether an issue at hand is deforestation, chemical pollution, siting of a landfill, protecting coral reefs or disease vector control, it is virtually impossible to avoid Linkages with most or all of the above mitical factors. In this sense, they are generic or universal issues. RECOMMENDATIONS RELATED TO THE MOST CRITICAL ISSUES IDENTIFIED IN ME COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE (I) POLLUTIONANDPUBLIC HEALTH It is estimated that only 40 percent of Dominican households have suitable excreta disposal fadlities. Almost all sewage generated, including that collected through a centralized system serving Roseau, is discharged untreated. Where treatment does exist, mostly in the form of septic systems, it is often ineffective, due to geologic, edaphic or topographic conditions, or to population densities that are too high. The management of solid waste is also a serious problem, with only an estimated 40 to 45 percent of households being served by satisfactory methods of refuse collection and disposal. Improvement of solid waste management has been targeted by Government as an area requiring immediate attention, and efforts are Wig made to centralize services, upgrade fadlities and expand public education efforts. Agricultural and agro-industrial waste products are prly managed. For the most part, such waste is simply dumped into ravines and streams although much of it could be recycled for other purposes (e.g., energy generation, fertilization). While manufacturing and other industrial development is not significant at the present time, the sector is growing (e.g., ago-processing industries), and there is some concern for all industrial discharges in the central west coast area of the island in particular. In some communities, diseases and other public health problems related to water supply, sewage disposal, and generally poor sanitation are significant, particularly among children. Agrochemical pollution does not ap pear to be a substantial problem as yet, but only limited, episodic studies have been carried out. At present, GOCD capabilities for local monitoring and evaluation of agrochemicaJ pollution is very limited, and the data on types and quantities of biwides imported and used are not consistent or well-ordered. Recommendation. The quantitative and systemic aspects of environmental pollution in Dominica are not sufficiently well documented at present to permit proper development of either remedial or regulatory measures. A national pollution assessment is needed to establish the basic dimensions of each waste stream, and for identification and quantification of sources, causative agents,

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vohes, flow rates, deshhm, impacts, and projections Addihdy, a long-tcrm water quality and marine bidogieal mollitorhg program should be designed and implemented by the Environmental Hcalth Unit, and asktanashouldbesoughtfromrcgioaallgcDdes (e& CEHL, CARD4 OECS, CICP) for op gradiq laborstory and pcmomcl apabilitics. Only thc pmvishs of the now-outdatcd Public Hcahb Ad providc any bask fa pollution abatement and control in the comtry's marine and coastal watexs. This legislation nccdc to be updated and strengthened by illch&m of 0.tiOaal stlnQrds and erituia for water quality, poUution control and waste mansgemat. Chderation needs to be given to the country's cxistjng *w eapabilitics and taebnical/fiscal murecs in desigdq both pohtim owtrol standards and oversigbt/tcgulatoryrespoasi Rscomaddmtiom The most costeffativcund~s~mdsewagcditpcsaIoptiomnccdtobeidcnli6edandthca implemented for 1 urban and viIl.gc anas of Dominica, partjcokrly in anas where there is a documented bigb +aa of water-bane diseasc and related bcalth probkms (e& Soufrim and Seotts Head). Forurbananas,thatoptionislikcly to be preliminary -cot combined aritb a long oaan d1 which disehugcs into deep wrtermanareaofstmag,mxmud-moving comnrs. Such waste disposll systems sbdd bedesigDcdtobecadtyupgrad&toabigbcr kvcl of trutment sbopld this be aeassary at a later date. Priority should be &n to rehabilhation of the ui&g centralized sewagc wllaction facjlitia m Roscau In d area3, self-bclp programs fa improd liquid and solid waste management need to be supported, including pro+ which eIlmnragc,fornampk,cnmpostingandarc of bb@ enngy systems. Domrma's wcnaevclopea nctwaf of self-help gronps, d dcvclopment 0rg.niZatioly and NGOs should be called on to assist local ~mment &dais in such efforts. 'Rsamd.tia 'Ibcnewmlid -~m.ntlprm-PkcmMtlywprtparcd,abwldamra~prchhq~paiodd fivetotcaps. aurlydcfiocdm.nrgcmcet nspoauinccdtobeoalincdinthe P*9idadiog~dtbc8gun!y cbargdaritbthesitisgandopeatkndLab msitc% claccIbdgubqptsbwldbe franebiscdaEOnmdedoottopinteoomp.aita,ngoLtedbya~4?=Y,=fJ fctssbouldbe~forwaste~ anddbod *~hJtum,-wi= tortdrrctbeqoantitrdsolidamu;dto pmmote a variety d raegdine optio~r Jro DCCdtObe~-idt.8yS8 colLbmtivccflatd~,tbcrct3tndt eor, and otba c~mmerellrhtdtdd rrrtc gcatraton, in order to cmmc (hrt hoeh schcmcsm~ao &f(pouods. At thc srmc lime, record-syst~usedbytbcDomiDiaP&Borrd andibcP BanunaMuLctiqgntioatortportmtbcimporutaqsJqad appliatioD d bioddts nccd to be npp&d andstaadardiaDb

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nually, and reports of these examinations should be made available to the Pesticide Control Board for documentation of incidence rates and imposition of more effective wnt~ol measures, if necessary. (2) LAND WABIW RURAL LAND USE, AND WATERSHED WAGEMENT Deforestation is considered one of the most aucial issues wnfronting Dominica at the present time. The problem has been exacerbated by agricultural expansion and timber harvesting, which have over time accelerated the removal of vegetation on both private and public lands. Forested state land is being sold, largely as a means to relieve agricultural land hunger, but this wmmonly has been done indiscriminately and with inadequate controls to protect against soil erosion and other forms of land degradation. Construction of agricultural feeder roads and the furrent high price for bananas are also accelerating the deforestation process, frequently in areas that should be kept under natural vegetation to proted steeply-sloping lands against erosion and soil loss. Some observers estimate that deforestation and depletion of timber-growing stocks on privately-owned lands will occur in the near future and that, as a consequence, the wuntry's Forest Reserves will wme under increasing pressure from the timber industry. Dominica's only "protected forest" on private land (within an important water catchment area) is not well-managed, as none of the designated land use restrictions has been enforced. Land clearing and other inappropriate land use activities in the island's water catchments are extensive (in 1985 only eight catchments were free of cultivation and in at least fourteen of them over M percent of the total area was under cultivation). Virtually all of Dominica's water catchments are wmprised primarily of private lands; some are located entirely on privately-owned property. Given the lack of effective controls on the use of private land and the acceleration of land clearing and other incompatible land use activities in privately-held water catchments, the island's potable water supplies are potentially at serious risk. In many areas, the forested lands beii deared for agriculture are unsuitable for cultivation, particularly in the absence of spedalized wntrols to proted against soil erosion. In other areas, land being cleared is in fact of sufficient capability to support sustainable cultivation, provided that appropriate wnservation practices are applied. In faet, Dominica has great potential for agricultural development without substantial inroads into forest lands which are more suitable for watershed and wildlife protection, nature tourism, and sustainable forestry. Yields of existing crops on lands already cleared or otherwise disturbed auld be substantially improved by better cultivation practices, more efkient use of mop harvests, and attention to improved crop quality. Recommendation. Steps need to be taken by GOCD to ensure the protection of areas that are inappropriate for land uses other thm wildlife wnservation, watershed protection, recreation, nature tourism and biological diversity. Examples include lands too steep for sustainable cultivation, wmmeraal forestry or other human activities; most water catchment areas, prime wildlife habitat; and other areas which are important by virtue of their scenic, floral or faunal characteristics or their overall wntribution to the natural heritage of the countly. Critical areas should be identified and delineated on land use maps for incorporation into the national park system, for selection as "Protected Forests,' or for designation of special land use control measures under the Forest Management Plan currently being developed by GOCD with the assistance of FAO. Recommendation. Given that a full "zoning program for agricultural land is likely to be prohibitively expensive, a more limited program for regulation of agricultural land development needs to be wnsidered by Government. At present, only state lands within the forest reserves and national parks enjoy any degree of protection or land use restrictions. Additional "Protected Forest' zones on

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private land need to bc dcsignatcd, nhwc spceiallandmanagcmcntpractiassbonMbc (e& agrofacstry, CO&W planting. tree cmppkg, and terracing). Furtbcrmore, although private landawncrs a tenants on agliallhopllandcarc~topmtcd watersheds and to maintain good hosbandry praCtiagsuchstandardsuenrc)yenforad. Be4te zuning reguktions and afaament proadurts for agrieuhural Ids arc therefore reSlrired, together with a policy to provide adequate inantivcJ or compensatioa to farmas to encourage better land use praetiets. Such '?&mi& Flmedum sbonld be ddered for the rem* lmallocated state lands bcfm theyaredistribntedfor~ases. dtbcluga-salc~opmtias;m4r least mithin the amteat d the Sd Lumber Rodoars Group, the small sayem hR aUemptcd to htepte fata rrsoma consee Icdmiqucs uab badcr camomkobjcctnca (3) COASTAL WNE MWACXMZNT lnecorrt.l7mcktbcmosthersily popol.mduud~mdfigam ~xomiamt.~mtbc~pmaritsd~ c$izclla. Atmostall~~intbc ~arc~iatbcdmoc,abilc fulthuanna;mdtbc~s~ toclrirmiMhmbyb~ppmdRbp mcntd~mtbcdzae (~&patdwio8bcilitics). mei&cactnc~dCWirsllcswithotbacritial -1dcvtbpmmt isrm tomkm and iadumid expamias\ pat dC5Japmtn5 environmental monitoring and pdlPtioo amml, to name a few means that maanddmlopmenIdthednac~

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be viewed in isolation by Dominican policy focused specifically on coastal environments planners. and their importance to national development. Adverse impacts associated with ad hoe development in Dominica's coastal zone have already bean documented. The tendency has been to focus upon coastal zone problems selectively, but their inmeasin& cnmulative visiity reflects the absence of comprehensive development control guidelines and policies committed to maintaining the quality of wastal resources. This is a situation which needs to be. addressed in the near future by the Dominican Government, given the heavy use, loading, density, traffic, and habitation levels in the coastal zone. Recommendation. A comprehensive coastal zone management program should be implemented to provide overall guidance for specific development and management activities. The CW program should indude, among others, the following elements: procedures to ensure water quality for multiple uses, e.g., fisheries habitat, human contact, and waste disposal; port development and improved port management; construction and maintenance of sea defenses; waterfront renewal; inereased recreational opportunities, including marine tourism; and coordinated and broad-based participation in wastal resources management. Consideration needs to be given to the following design of a permit system targeted at coastal development, legislation to support a CZM program, training and other assistance for GOCD staff to implement a CZM program, monitoring and enforcement procedures to regulate development in the coastal zone, and a public education campaign (4) GROUTHMANAGEMENT: PLANNING, DEEVELOPMENT CONTROL AND RESOURCE PROTErnON Physical planning as an integrative process is not well established within the Dominican Government, and there is limited opportunity for systematic coordination across departmental lines in the physical planning and development control process. The Physical Planning Division (PPD) has been vested with only limited control over the broader planning/regulatory aspects of major development projects. Essentially the PPD has been relegated to reviewing subdivision plans and to performing site-level planning functions, while decisions on major development projects are made with little or no input from the PPD. This is unfortunate, for most such projects have significant impacts on the physical, natural and human environments of Dominica. The planning process has also been undermined because of generally weak interagency and inter-sectorial coordination in the resource management sector, i.e., for development wntrol, land use decision-making, and carrying out pollution control responsibilities. In many OECS countries, a centralized coordinating mechanism for environmental concerns is found, in part, in a strong development control authority. This is not the case in Dominica, where much of the decision-making authority of the Development and Planning Corporation has been delegated to a Technical Committee chaired by the Economic Development Unit. The Forestry and Wildlife Division has assumed a central role for the coordination of many environmental management bctions, but it lacks sufficient authority for regulating the actions of other'govenmental departments which might be detrimental to the resource management objectives of the Division.

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very few emmonmental impad studits for dmlopmeat pojcds have btcn undertaken to date in Dominica, and thosc which have beca prepared wcn primarily initiatedonlyaftcragivcnprojcdhadpoccedtd wcUinto,ortve~bcpad,the~~. OwthcLsttwodccadcsDominica haseJtaMichcdoneofthcCiatstMtioMl &/forest rcscm systems in thc Carii However, wrapt for its two de~ignated national parks Mom Trois Pitons National Park and thc National Park -andtbeforestedlandsinchdcdinitstwo Forest Rescmg w other resourCC6 or critial sitcs enjoy tnytypc ofprottdedanastahu Furthcrmorc, the country lacks a policy for managcmcnt of its historical and arlhlral re~~(~tbesefanwithinthcbodof a national park), and there is no &eiPnydcsigartediastitutioa(likcanatiod trust) to -e custodial and management rqmmMih for thc counhy's historical and cultural heritage. WithiDthc~s~natiod park, eompetins demands for prc d the resourccbasehaveint~in~ycus. Someuscaofpark~havedtea~ in did dct witb tbc morc tnditioaai objcctivcs of park land osc, namely, pcscrvation of wildlife, enhancement of biodivwsity, adpkcsivc~mrccrtatioe *Pmlur.(.Hru.AD.tiOD.ltmd uscplrn~tobcprcp.rrd,foepaiqem ~cntdsust.inrbledmlopmcatmu tbcbagtcrm. Tbelanduscpl.llsbosld.1tempt to goidc fohPc dmbpcnt into uca whiehalebcstsoitedfmp.rtiatlr~d deasitiesdLadqbssbdoo~Md ccologial asdaso.timJmcLl adccommifpiorititaReppntioodtmd usc maps should be tbc initial step in tbc poassof~atmdmcMdpnMhm8ll~pLafortknrtioe l.egakais dtopovidcfortbcpmtcdimdtk natids bistaicll ad csltuni raomas ~alemtbclted*tk~d anatkidpark. Tbccountrynetdracompchcprivc,syst&aDdai&i8lhOq d erunt histaial/adam@d sites ad cuhunt landmarks orbicb drrrifies ad emb atcs thc potd value of these resomccr to thc d developmeat of thc country. AP thoritynccdstobevcstcdina~

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agency to provide oversight for the presemcompeting and often conflicting demands for tion and management of historid and culuse of park resources has resulted from the turd resources which are not protected within lack of a clear national policy on priority oba national park. jectives for park development. The larger issue of defining the kind of park system deRecommendation. Dominica needs sired by the country needs to be addressed at to arrive at a consensus concemiag long-term the policy-making levels of Government. national park objectives. The more recent

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DOMINICA COUNTRY ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE Ahmad, Y. and Sammy, G, 1985. Guidelines to environmental impad arscssment in dcRbpiqg cooneies. Hodder and Stoughton, London. Alie, F, 1968. Economic prospcds for the setting up of a coopentk to dul c&ddy and efficiently with the pomsitlg and marketing of bay oil Agrieohnal symposimn 1967, Govt. Printery, Roscag Dominica. Allen, J, 1970. Lime juice and lime oil prododon and markTropical Romwta Iastihtc, London Amcq G, d d, l97L Bay oil distillation in Domiah. %piuJ Sdmcc, U(l97l):SZ. Anderson, k and Matthg H, 1985. Report of the EEZ policy and pknniqe mkka to r PA0 report FI:GCP/INT/3%(NOR). Rome, Italy. Applefield, M, Pool, D, and Md)onald, R, 1979. An arscssmcnt ofthe by Hmrianc David to the forests of Dominick. a report and ~ec~mmendalicdu. Ina Tropial Poreshy, Rio Pitdraq PR. AKher,A,W. ReportonM-M~mmofpoltotimin~mariDcdkad-d CARICOM states. Pnparcd for UNEP/CARlCOM/PAHO project for the pmtcdia~ d theeaastalandmarincemmCame~ttofCaribbeaaidandr. Armitage, M, 1976. Banana suitability map of Dominia 1:122J04 with aplamtay mtca Ruj. reMI 16, DOMINM-216/76. Land RM Div., Ovascrr Dcvcbpmeat A8 AtthrsLandandWatrr~cnt.~. Soilandantcr~W~dLccmd rstands Phase 1 kamakma study. Vh 1: main repod (SepI., 1983); Volomc 2 appendices (Aug., 1%). Prepared for Caribbean Agricnhrml Rcscacb and DcRbpmcnt htihlte (CARDI). Cambridge, UK

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Baker, C., 1973. Some problems of the banana industry of Dominica. Univ. of Swansea, Swansea, Wales. Baker, C., 1975. Economic and social aspens of banana production in Dominica. Mimco., Univ. Swansea, Dept. Soc. Anthropology, Swansea, Wales. Baker, R. and Genoways, H., 1978. Zoogeography of Antillean bats. In: GdI, F. (ed.), Zoogeography of the Cariibeaq no. 1353-97. Publs. Acad. Nat. Su., Philadelphia, PA. Baptiste, I., n.d. Proposal for the restructuring of planning and development control administration in Dominica. Physical Planning Unit, Ecoaomic Development Unit, Roseau, Dominica. Bauchot, M., 1959. La fame ichtyologique des eaux douces antillaises. Compte Rendu Summaire des Seances de la Societe du Biogeographic, 36(311):1-26. Beard, J., 1949. The natural vegetation of the Windward and Leeward Islands. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Be& G, 1976. Notes on natural [forest] regeneration in Dominica, Windward Islands. Commonwealth Fore* Review, 55(March 1976):27-36. Behanu, H., Hilq C., and Schmidt, S., 1987. Energy and development. The pattern of energy wnsumption in a developing microstate: Dominica. Prepared for Caribbean Development Bank's REAP Rojcet (Regional Energy Action Plan) by the German Appropriate Technology Exchange (GATE). Berkeley, S. and Waugh, G., 1989. Consideration for regional swordfish management. Proc, Gulf and Caribbean Fderies Institute, vol. 39:171-180. Beyer, R., 1981. Botanic garden, Dominica, report by the deputy curator. Roseau, Dominica. Biogas Team, 1986. Documentation of the regional biogas extension program in Dominica. Canibean Development Bank, Barbados. Boo, E., 1990. Dominica (chapter three). In: Emtourism: the potentials and pitfalls. Volume 2 -country case studies. World Widlife Fund, Washington, DC. Borden, D., Blank, R., and Blank, L., 1978. Business plan, Wage Forest Industries Corporation, Dominica, West Indies (draft). Victoria International Corp., Boston. Bourne, C., 1980. Small farming in Dominica. In: Small farming in the less developed countries of the Commonwealth Caribbean. Caribbean Development Bank, Barbados. Bourne, L., 1989. Institutional analysis in the area of natural resources management: the case of Dominica. OAS and OECS-NRMP, Castries, St. Lucia. Bouvier, L., 1984. Dominica: yesterday, today and tomorrow. Population Reference Bureau, Inc., Washington, DC. Bop, D., 1976. The Dominica agricultural sector plan in the context of the regional food plan. Caribbean Development Bank, Barbados.

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British Dedopment Dkkb and Tropical Development and Rtsutch Institute, l9S6. Revim d fruit bee uop dmlopment in the Can(April-May, 1985). Rpt. ao. RUSl(R). BDD in the CanBridguawq Barbados and Tmp. Dev. and Rca Imt, Lcuba, UK Brown, H, 1WS. The &she& of the wi~dmd and lccarard islaads. DewAopmenI and aclfuc in the West ladies, Bdl. no. m1-97. BmwqW,l%2 AreportontheforestinvcntorydDominica,Wimhrdldrada Dcpd Forestry, Ottawa, Buisserct, D. and aut, B, 19n. A report on the ebitf monuments d Antipa, British V+ Is~Domiaica,Greaad.,Moatswat,S~Lurir,St.Vwcol,and~andC.ieosldrada l3mmisioaed on behalf of the Governments by the British Dcvelopmcnt Dhkh in thc Cani Bdoek, D. and Evans, P, 1990. Tbe di. dedty and bhms d rcptilcs in r Jaun Zod. (Loodon) (ii pnss). Bully, C, and Mado, A., WS. Tbe problems d mark* Dominica food cmps in ad wn-traditioaal markets. Pmedhgq WIAEC, 10~:102110. Butler, G, 1982 Sumy of charcoal prod& and uhluatm .. in the Canmd d Domiaicl. Division of Forestry and Wildlife, Roseau, Dominia Butler, P, l!W. The Imperial M Sirruou Panot and RtdateLcd Parrot, a new be@nhg. RARE Center, PhikdcIphi4 PA Cambers, G, l!XS. An mrvicw d coastal zone management in six taa irLDdr. Manuscrip1 report. UNESCO Rcg. Of. for Science and Tccb. fa Latin Amaka and thc CariWcaq Mootmideo, Uruguay. Cambers, G, lm. Report oa the setting-np of a corrtrl mcmitorkg program in -w on beach &bib aad coastal zone management in the Lasa Astillcs. UNESCOCOMAR Cambers, G, l!W. Evah&m d the UNESCO corrtrl mdariog prgmm in Dominicr, N&s and St. Kias Mannseript report UNESCO Reg. Of. for Sckmz and Tech fa LuiD America and the Caribbuq Mootcvidto, Uruguay. CamG, preliminuy draft, ad. (circa 1988). Regid somy d corrtrl amwm&m. Rw sca9gcdirposalandcorrtrlrrm~crv1ltiollJtudics.vdmUN/Ecuc Campbell, L., 1966. Tbe development d natural rcsomas in Dominia. Agrhhdsaicsao.3. UWl, Inst Sot Eeon. Rcs, Cave Hill, Barbados. Cannon, J, 1970. Mating panwas as emrirollmental adaptions in Dominia, British West hdk Univ. Calif, Los Angeles.

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Carii Ago-Economic Society, 1976. Proposals for the development of the Grand Bay area, Dominica. Proceedings, WJAEC, 11(1976):123-l37. Carib Center for Action R-ch, 1978. Action oriented research into the production and markehg of bananas in Dominica: a prelimiiary investigation. Mimeo. Carii Conservation Association and Island Resources Foundation, 1988. Draft country environmental profile for St. Luaa. Prepared for USAID/RDO/C, Barbados. Cariian Development Bank, 1972. The potential for coconut development in Dominica. Technical Series no. 5. Bridgetown, Barbados. Cariibean Development Bank, 1987. Annual economic report, 1986: Commonwealth of Dominica. Ewn. and Prog. Dept., Carib. Dev. Bank, Barbados. Cariibcan Development Bank, 1988. Annual economic report, 1988: Commonwealth of Dominica. Econ. and Prog. Dept., Carib. Dev. Bank, Barbados. Cmian Development Bank and Deutsche Forstinventur Service GmbH, 1983. Regional forestry sector study country report: Dominica. NCP 395, Feldhchen, Fed. Repub. Germany. Ccuibbem Dismter News, 1988. Pan Caribbean Disaster Preparedness and Prevention Project, No. 14 (June). St. John's, Antigua. Caribbean Natural Resoutees Institute, 1990. Annual report. St. Croix, VI. Caribbean Network for Integrated Rural Development, 1989. Developing the rural network: a directory of rural development resources in the Caribbean. St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago. Cmibean Tourism Organization, 1989. Caribbean tourism statistical report, 1988. Christ Church, Barbados. Caribbean Tourism Organization, 1990. Statistical News, March 1990. Caribbean U', 1989 (August). Dominica. Maplewood, New Jersey. &%bean Updare, 1990 (July). Dominica. Maplewood, New Jersey. Carii/Central American Action, 1981. Investing in Dominica. Washington, DC. CARICOM, 1984. The Commonwealth of Dominica. In: CARICOM Perspective. JanuaryFebruary, pp. 5-7. Case, J., 1978. Resource appraisal of Dominica, Lesser Antilles. U.S. Geological Survey, Open Fie Report 81-H57, Reston, VA. CatR., 1970. Report to the Government of Dominica on the development of agricultural cooperatives. Report no. TA-2789, FAO, Rome. Center for International Development and Environment (CIDE), 1988. Biological diversity and tropical forest assessment for the Eastern Caribbean. Report prepared for USAID,RDO/C (Contract no. 538-P000-C-8273-OO), Bridgetown, Barbados.

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Chace, I? and Hobks, H, 1969. Tbc frtdmatw aad tar&rhl decapod d tbc Wcst India with specid referena to Dominica Smithsoaian kt., Bull 292 W.rhiqpoq DC Charles, F, 1970. A program for agrieoltural dcvclopmcntthc case of r WIAEC, ym):~-z3. Cbemonics, 1988. Eastern Caribbean agriarhrral &or mntqy. Repcat prcpucd fa uSAID/RDO/c. Chrisb, 4 l!388. Water catchments. In: Thc New Fonstu, Vd 21-2 r Farrstryad ParksScrvia,MinirtydAgrieolhm,Rosuo,Dommrr Chrisb, A., 1989. Dominica's wildlife. In: Wildlife mmagemmt in thc Cuibbun idmdq pp 19 23. Pmxedhp of the fomth mcetisg of C.ribbun Fautem Ioshitotc d Tropial Fonstry, Rio Picdras. Pwto Rico. t&i&q C, 1989. Dominies's natioDal parks system. In: Tbc Ncw Pareatex, Vd 3l6-18 DominirrFaestryaadPhSuvia,Minisbyd~Ro6c.o,~ R, 1983. Rec~mmeadatioat for qgmding hydrolagicrl data .nd inf00 p -0partiOnalHydmloey~c. Cloyd, P, 1984. Hirtaie bnilding invcntary, Rosuq Dominia Reppad fa r tiooAsoaamn by a US. Puce Capa VdDntca.

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Yur of Emirmmcat and Shcttcr, 199ak IdaDd tmarc. A foam m issues h&g Ilu Cammmwdth of Dominia in tbc Years of Emkmmmt md Sbcftcr, 1969-1990. Rodmd by Ilu Public Awa~csr SaM;ommince of tbc Year d Emirmment and Shelter, Rmcaq Dominica Xaviu,B, PX9. RopasPlfortbcimptcmatatioDofasolid~~mtsgstclain~ Ewironmcntal Hcalth Unit, Mie of Hultb, Rmb Dmhh

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CARIBBEAN CONSERVATION ASSOCIATION W WAND RESOURCES FOUNDATION Keyprogramhrplementetknlueu,Mude~and~rerwuce~Wuw~ ning, envimnmentd hrpad acparnunenl natknJ psrk and ta*lsm pbn*IA a*ud mwuw dedopment. and resowee saclor pdlcy studlea In 1906 lhe Fm hnchd a poqan d asdstancetorongovemmentdorgnnkaUonshlhe~CulWean~to~the capabO~dsuchqoupstopmvide~sedor~for~~OoJs in the regkn.