Jamaica

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Jamaica country environmental profile
Uncontrolled:
Country environmental profile
Physical Description:
xii, 361 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Jamaica -- Ministry of Agriculture. -- Natural Resources Conservation Division
Ralph M. Field Associates
International Institute for Environment and Development
Publisher:
The Ministry?
Place of Publication:
Kingston, Jamaica
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Environmental protection -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Environmental policy -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Natural resources -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 351-361).
Statement of Responsibility:
prepared by Government of Jamaica, Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Division and Ralph M. Field Associates, Inc., on behalf of International Institute for Environment and Development.
General Note:
"September, 1987."
General Note:
"Document no. PN-ABC-274"--Cover.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 25065398
System ID:
AA00001400:00001


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COUNTRY
ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE






COUNTRY


ENVIRONMENTAL


PROFILE


A


M


On Behalf Of:
International Institute For Environment And Development


KINGSTON, JAMAICA


September, 1987


Prepared By:
Government of Jamaica, Ministry of Agriculture,
Natural Resources Conservation Division
And
Ralph M. Field Associates, Inc.









PREFACE


This Country Environmental Profile (CEP) of Jamaica is one of a series of environmental
profiles funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). Financial support
was received both from the USAID mission to Jamaica, and the Bureau for Latin America and
the Caribbean (LAC), Office of Development Resources (DR). The Scope of Work for this
CEP was jointly prepared by Dennis McCaffrey of the International Institute for Environment
and Development (IIED) in Washington, D.C., and Ralph M. Field, President of Ralph M. Field
Associates (RMFA) of Westport, Connecticut. The views and opinions expressed in this
document are those of the authors, and not necessarily those of the U.S. Agency for
International Development.

Preparation of the various sections comprising this document is entirely the work of Jamaican
governmental agencies, consulting firms and individual consultants retained by the Natural
Resources Conservation Division (NRCD). In the evolution of the Country Environmental
Profile, sector drafts prepared by various contributors went through a* iterative, and
unavoidably time-consuming process in order to involve a broad spettrum of reviewers in
critiquing the work. The role of RMFA during this process has been to cc-ordinate the work
with NRCD, edit the successive drafts, offer constructive criticism where appropriate, and
organize the many individual contributions into a single cohesive document.

It would be presumptuous to claim that this Profile incorporates a definitive set of policy
recommendations with respect to Jamaica's environment, or that it is encyclopedic in its
coverage of the individual sectors. This is not that type of document. It is, however, an
important milestone in assembling a broad information 'ase on Jamaica's environment and
natural resources, thus providing s further basis for making policy and program determinations.
Hopefully, this Profile will contribute to the on-going dialogue of how best to reconcile the
protection and enhancement of Jamaica's natural environment with the country's pressing
need for sustained economic growth and development.




ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Technical guidance in preparation of the CEP was the responsibility of Ralph M. Field
Associates, Inc., working under a subcontract from ]IED. Coordination of local consultants
and review of sector reports was the responsibility of the Natural Resources Coiservation
Division.

Co-team leaders in this effort were successive directors or NRCD and Ralph M. Field, who
was assisted throughout this two-year effort by Julie E. Troy, Senior Analyst at RMFA.

Jaime Correa of USAID was instrumental in laying the groundwork for initiation of the CEP,
together with Beverly Miller, former Director of NRCD. Dr. S.C. Sinha, current Director of
NRCD, deserves credit for helping with the many tasks that arose during the final phase of
the project, as does Dr. Marcel Anderson, who coordinated many of the agency reviews of
the individual sector reports.

Numerous other individuals and organizations provided valuable ai-d much appreciated assistance
during the course of this project. Particular recognition is du to those cited below.










Science, Technology and Research Department, Ministry of Agriculture


Dr. H.I.C. Lowe
Dr. Marcel Anderson
Ms. Vilma McClenan
Mrs. Joyce Annakie


- Executive Director
- Director, Technical Coordinator
- Director
- Secretary


The Natural Resources Conservation Division is indebted to Dr. Lloyd Rankine, Head,
Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, University of the West Indies,
St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad for his assistance in the preparation and editing of various
sections of the document.


Natural Resources Conservation Division (NRCD) Staff


Mr. Philemon Hoilett
Miss Claire Forrester
Mr. Paul Carroll
Dr. C. Sinha
Mrs. Elizabeth Ross
Miss Ann Haynes
Miss Karen Harvey
Mr. Learie MiLer
Miss N. Plunkett
Mr. L. Gardner
Mr. Fitzroy Gregory
Mr. Lancelot Anderson
Miss L. Clato-Day
Miss G. Clarke


Acting Principal Director
Acting Frincipal Director
Acting Principal Director
Principal Director
Acting Director, Aquatic Resources
Ecology and Wildlife
Peace Corp Volunteer National Parks
Beach Control Division
Technical Assistant
Technical Assistant
Draughtsman
Draughtsman
Secretary Stenographer
Secretary Stenographer


Consultants


Project Management
International Institute for
Environment and
Development
Ralph M. Field Associates

Sector Contributors
Charles V. Carnegie
Lloyd A. Donaldson
Conrad Douglas & Associates
Fred Hanley
Franklin McDonald
Beverly Miller


- Prime Contractor
S Principal Consultant


- African-Caribbean Institute, ISER, UWI
- Underground Water Authority, Ministry of Agriculture
- 14 Carvalho Ave., Kingston 10
- Master Ble.d Feeds Ltd.
- Office of Disaster Preparedness, Ministry of Construction
- Imeru Environmental Consultants


Interagency Advisory Committee

The CEP team was assisted by an Interagency Advisory Committee which provided input on
policy and project recommendations. Members of the Committee are listed in Appendix A.
Many other individuals provided valuable information through interviews.










U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)


The JCEP has benefited greatly from the participation of Jim Talbot, Caribbean Regional
Environmental Specialist for the USAID, and Leland Voth and Mark Nolan of the Agriculture
and Rural Development Office and Charles Matthews of the Office of Engineering, Energy
and the Environment of the USAID mission to Jamaica. These individuals carefully reviewed
drafts, attended numerous meetings, provided input, and generally helped to facilitate the
production of this CEP.


















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v Plate 1 Fern Gully, St. Ann.


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CONTENTS

Page


Preface i
Acknowledgements i
List of Figures vii
List of Tables ix


INTRODUCTION 1
Purposes of a Country Environmental Profile
Process of CEP Preparation for Jamaica 1
Objectives of the CEP for Jamaica 2
Organization of the Report 2


PART L- CONTEXT 3
Physical, Demographic and Economic Context 5
Institutional Overview 21


PART IL ISSUES, POLICIES AND RECOMMENDATIONS 31
Problems and Issues 33
Framework for Environmental Management 37
Policy and Project Recommendations 41


PART III SECTOR ANALYSES 47
The People 49
Human Resources and Culture 49
Environmental Education 69


The Resource Base 83
Co-r.tal Resources 83
Water Resources 113
Wildlife 133
National Parks and Protected Ayeas 161









Page


Environment and the Economy 173
Fisheries Resources 173
Forestry 197
Tourism and Recreation 211
Minerals and Mining 229
Energy Resources 243
Agricultural Resources 259


The Built Environment 291
Urban and Rural Infrastructure 291
Industry and Industrial Pollution 307
Environmental Hazards 329



APPENDICES 349
A. Interagency Advisory Committee Members 350
B. Bibliography 351










LIST OF FIGURES

Page

Physical & Cultural Context
1: Regional Context 6
2: Island of Jamaica 7
3: Topography 8
4: Climate 10
5: Geology 11
6: Soils 12
7: Land Use 15
8: Bauxite and Alumina Exports 19
9: GOJ Agencies with Functions Related to Environmental Management 25

Human Resources 4 Culture
10: Population Densities and Distribution by Parish 52
11: Growth of the KMA 55
12: Total Fertility Rate, Jamaica 57
13: Settlement Strategy 61

Coastal Resources
14: Coastal Area Boundaries and Management Units 84
15: Shoreline Configuration 86
16: Kingston Harbour and Environs 92
17: Distribution of Stranded Tar 103
18: Areas of Critical Beach Erosion 105

Water Resources
19: Jamaica Mean Thirty Year Rainfall (1931-1960) 114
20: Jamaica Location of Main Surface Water Features 116
21: Jamaica Location of Significant Groundwater Features 117
22: Jamaica Hydrologic Basins and Watersheds 119
23: Jamaica Location of Water Supply Systems 120

Wildlife
24: Vegetation Map of Jamaica Showing the Distribution of
Forests and Flantation Crops 135
25: Comparison of the Number of Species of Flowering Plants and
Ferns in Jamaica, Sri Lanka and the British Isles 138

National Parks
26: Existing and Proposed Parks and Protected Areas 163

Fisheries
27: Schematic Outline of Jamaican Fishery Resources 174
28: Inshore and Offshore Fishing Areas 175
29: Potential Shrimp Trawling Areas on the South Coast 176
30: Coastal Areas Under Development Pressure 179
31: Aquaculture Development Plan Location of Fish Farms 181
32: National Aquaculture Devlopment Plan 186

Forestry
33: Forest Vegetation 198
34: Areas Suitable for Pine Development in Eastern Region 202
35: Forest Administrative Units and Infrastructure 205
36: -Prbposed' Formal Institutional Organization Structure 207










Page

Tourism
37: Total Visitor Arrivals to Jamaica, 1971-1985 212
38: Jamaica Hotel Beds Sold by Region (1985) 213
39: Offshore Islands and Cays, Mineral Springs, Waterfalls
and Botanical Gardens 218

Minerals and Mining
40: Jamaican Bauxite Resources 230
41: Metallic Minerals 233
42: Petroleum Exploration Stat.s 235
43: Non-Metallic Minerals 236

Energy
44: Major and Minor Peat Deposits 246
45: Jamaica Public Service Power Stations 248
46: Jamaica Public Service Co. Major Transmission Lines-
Distribution 249
47: Small-Scale Hydropower Sites 254

Agriculture
48: Land Use Map of Jamaica 265
49: Agricultural Land Capability 266
50: Contaminated Groundwater Aquifers of Jamaica 287

Infrastructure
51: Areas Classified as Urban 292
52: J.P.S. Rural Distribution 293
53: Kingston Harbour, Showing Major Freshwater and Waste
Discharges 294
54: Post-Primary Schools 295
55: Health Services 296
56: Clinics 297
57: Public Housing Distribution 298
58: Public Housing Projects in Pipeline 304

Industry & Industrial Pollution
59: Sugar Production in Jamaica 310
60: Bauxite and Alumina Operations in Jamaica 311
61: Section Across Red Mud Pond 312
62: Simplified Geological Map of Jamaica showing Red Mud
Disposal Sites 313
63: Essex Valley Location of Wells and Contaminated Areas 315
64: Distribution of Manufacturing Establishments 316
65: Location of Treatment Plants 321

Environmental Hazards
66: Preliminary Map of High Risk Areas Jamaica 331
67: Projected Surge & Wave Heights, Kingston Harbour 332
68: Major Hurricanes Affecting Jamaica 1880-1970 333
69: Fault Zones in the Caribbean 334
70: Number of Earthquakes of Intensity VI, 1874-1978 335
71: Modified Mercali Intensity Map of 1907 Earthquake 335
72: Geology of the Kingston Waterfront 337
73: Geology of Portmore 338
74: Areas Having Priority for Mitigation in the KMR 341










LIST OF TABLES

Page

Physical and Cultural Context
1: Interpreted Land Cover/Use Category Totals 14
2: Population Change in Jamaica, 1975-1983 16
3: Gross Domestic Product, 1984/85, 1985/86 18

Human Resources and Culture
4: Population Density in Selected Countries of the Circum-Caribbean 51
5: Estimates of Net Migration, 1960-1984 53
6: Distribution of Emigrants to North America,1970-80 53
7: Population by Age Group and Number of Parishes lived in
Between June 1969 and June 1974 54
8: Degree of Dependency of Communities in the KMR on KMA 56
9: Level of Housing Construction, 1974-1984 57
10: Percentage Employed Labour Force by Industry Group 58
11: Percentage Employed Labour Force by Occupation 59
12: Unemployment Rate, Jamaica 59
13: Adjusted School Enrollment Ratio 59
14: A Profile of Community Based Organizations and
Institutions in Jamaica 66
15: PVO's Concerned with Environmental Conservation 67

Environmental Education
16: Major Events in the Development of Environmental Education
in Jamaica 71
17: CAST's Extra Curricular Involvement in Environmental
Education 75
18: Tertia:y Institutions Offering Environmentally Related
Courses and Programmes 78
19: Major Public Sector and Non-Governmental Organizations in
Jamaica which Provide Aspects of Environmental Education 79

Coastal Resources
20: Dominant Plant Species in Jamaican Wetlands 88
21: Number of Species in Plant Communities, Negril Morass 90
22: Number of Species in Plant Communities, Black River Lower Morass 91
23: Summary of Coastal Zone Management Recommendations for the
Kingston Region 98

Water Resources
24: Average Annual Distribution of Water Types 115
25: Distribution of Demand and Supply 121
26: Distribution of Irrigated and Irrigable Land and Unit Demands 122
27: Hydropower Facilities 123
28: Government Institutions and Agencies in the Water Resources Sector 124
29: Data on Main Water Supply Systems 126
30- Problems Related to Inadequate Source Evaluation 127
31: Programs Required to Improve Management of the Water Sector 129
32: Recommended Projects 130

Wildlife Resources
33: Some Examples of Levels of Endemism in Various Groups of
Plants and Animals 134
34: Some Proposed Sites of Scientific InteLest for Wildlife 137










Page

35: Critically Endangered/Extinct Species of Wildlife 139
36: Endangered Species of Wildlife 140
37: Some Threatened Species 141
38: Some Examples of Rare Species 143
39: Endangered, Threatened & Rare Plants 144
40: Summary of Institutional Responsibilities for Wildlife Resources 148

National Parks and Protected Areas
41: Description of Proposed Reserve Categories and Some Proposed
Jamaica Areas 164
42:Institutions Related to National Parks and Protected Areas 167

Fisheries
43: Species of Fish Comprising More than 80% by Weight of Those
Caught by Traps in Demersal Fishery 176
44: Estimates of Fish Production from Jamaican Insular Shelf
Only, 1945-1981 177
45: Artisanal Fishery: Estimated Annual Catch by Type of Fish
and Fishing Ground 178
46: Major Projects Undergoing Expansion in the Aquaculture Industry 185
47: Development Pressures Affecting Fisheries Resources 187
48: Fishery Resources of Jamaican Waters 194

Forestry
49: Distribution of Forest Resources in Government and
Private Hands, by Parish 199
50: Climatic Characteristics of Jamaica's Natural Habitats 199
51: Jamaica's Life Zones 200
52: Extent and Ownership of Forest 201
53: Estimated Forest Plantations on Forest Reserves by Species 202
54: Pine Lumber Imports and Local Production to Satisfy Local
Demand 203
55: New Scheme of Land Capability Classification for Jamaica 208

Tourism and Recreation
56: Jamaica, Spatial Distribution of Hotel Rooms 213
57: Jamaica, Hotel Bed-Nights Sold 214
58: Commercial and Recreational Usage of Jamaica's Coastline 215
59: Schedule of Public Bathing Beaches 216
60: Mineral Springs in Jamaica 219

Minerals and Mining
61: Jamaica's Bauxite Production, 1972-1985 231
62: Gypsum Production, 1980-1985 232
63: Estimate of Marble Reserves 232
64: Silica Sand Production 234

EnerLy
65: Petroleum Consumption by Product, 1985 244
66: Petroleum Consumption by Sector, 1935 245
67: Electric Generating Capacity, 1981-1984 247
68: Location, Type and Rating of JPSCo. Generating Facilities 248
69: Jamaica's Petroleum Demand Forecast, 1985-1989 250
70: Proposed Hydropower Projects 253










Page

Agriculture
71: Agricultural Employment (as of Oct. 1982) 260
72: GDP at Current and Constant Prices (Annual Percentage Change) 261
73: Change in GDP at Constant Prices (Annual Percentage Change) 261
74: Land Use Distribution, 1978-79 262
75: Jamaica's Agricultural Capability Classes 263
76: Number of Farms by Income-Earning Activity 263
77: Number and Acreage of Farms by Size Groups 267
78: Value of Selected Agricultural Exports, 1980-1984 267
79: Volume of Major Agricultural Commodities Produced, 1980-1985 268
80: Total Number of Farms by Size and Acreage, By Legal Status Holder 269
81: Acreage of Farms by Tenure of Land, By Size Group 270
82: Total Number of Farms by Major Income Earning Agricultural Acitvity,
By Size Group of Farm by Legal Status Holder 271
83: Total Acreage of Farms by Major Income Earning Agricultural Activity
by Size Group of Farm by Legal Status Holder 272
84: Total Number of Farms with Farm Machinery and Equipement
Available by Size Group of the Farm 273
85: Number of Farms with Specified Crops and Size Utilizing
Fertilizer and Pesticides 274
86: Domestic Food and Livestock Production, 1981-1985 276
87: Total Meat and Fish Consumed, Meat Production and Imports of
All Types of Meat, 1975-1985 278
88: Imports of Main Milk Products 279
89: Imports of Selected Foodstuffs, 1981-1985 279
90: Selected Traditional Export Crops, 1981-1985 280

Industry and Industrial Pollution
91: Sugar Production, 1963-1985 308
92: Jamaica: Gross Foreign Exchange Earnings 1981-85 309
93: Composition of Red Mud 314
94: Cement Production in Jamaica, 1981-1985 317

Environmental Hazards
95: Recorded Instances of Coastal Flooding due to Storm Surge 330
96: Return Periods for Modified Mercali Intensities and
Anticipated Effects 336
97: Major Risk Areas Vulnerable to Multiple Hazards 340
98: Key Government Agencies and Private Organizations with Programs
and Activities Affecting Natural Hazards Management 342















































'I


Plate 2 Dunn's River Falls, St. Ann.




























INTRODUCTION


Purposes of a Country Environmental Profile

Preparation of a Country Environmental Profile
(CEP) is intended to serve multiple purposes.
For the U.S. Agency for International Develop-
ment (AID), the CEP offers an opportunity to
systematically review the environmental and
natural resource base of a particular country
or region. This information provides a context
for identifying and ranking environmental prob-
lems and opportunities, thereby strengthening
programming capabilities and providing a frame-
work for project implementation.

For the host country, the CEP can become an
effective instrument for establishing a consen-
sus on national environmental policy. It does
this by gathering together the relevant informa-
tion on key resource sectors, and by reviewing
the findings with public agencies, private volun-
tary organizations, and interested citizen
groups. The aim is co establish a consensus
on key resource problems and how the country
may proceed to resolve these prochems within
the constraints of budget, manpov.er, technolo-
gy, and jurisdictional authority.

Thus far, full Environmental Profiles have been
prepared for 15 countries, principally in Latin
America and the Caribbean. Desk-type pro-
files, based almost entirely on library research,
have been prepared for an additional 23 coun-
tries.


These profiles have been used widely by AID,
host countries, development banks, and other
bilateral agencies for briefing and reference.
Profiles have helped set the stage for major
investments in natural resource management and
have served an institution-building function.
Typically, they have provided a compendium of
useful information on the natural resource base
of each country and have identified major
existing and potential problems associated with
environmental and natural resource manage-
ment.


Process of CEP Preparation for Jamaica

In 1981, a "desk-type" Environmental Profile
for Jamaica was prepared under a contract be-
tween U.S. AID, Office of Forestry, Environ-
ment, and Natural Resources and the U.S. Man
and the Biosphere Program.* A full CEP
project was initiated in 1985 through a contract
between AID and the International Institute for
Environment and Development (IIED). Ralph M.
Field Associates, Inc. (RMFA) wss retained by
lIED as principal consultant for the CEP, to
work with the Jamaica Natural Resources
Conservation Division (NRCD), the counterpart
agency for the Government of Jamaica (GOJ).


Susan Braatz. Draft Environmental Profile on
Jamaica. 1981.


_







It was jointly agreed that 16 environmental and
resource sectors would be examined. These
included: Agriculture, Coastal Resources, En-
ergy Resources, Fisheries, Forestry, Human
Resources and Culture, Industry and Industrial
Pollution, Mining and Minerals, National Pnrks,
Natural Hazards, Private Voluntary Organiza-
tions, Recreation and Tourism, Training, Urban
and Rural Infrastructure, Water and Hydrology,
and Wildlife. U3ing NRCD staff, a short
Reconnaissance Phase was initiated to compile
and summarize readily available information on
each of the sectors.

After an intensive staff effort in searching
files and conducting interviews, initial recon-
naissance reports were prepared according to
a uniform format. A decision was then made
as to which sectors required additional consult-
ing assistance. Once the consultants were
selected, the reconnaissance reports became
the starting point for further in-depth research
by experts in the particular fields. Throughout
the effort, emphasis was on insuring factual
accuracy, highlighting the key issues in each
sector, and formulating recommendations for
policy and future programming.

Synopses of the Sector Reports were later
reviewed by a specially-appointed Advisory
Group in an attempt to reach broad consensus
on policy recommendations to be submitted to
Government. The recommendations in this CEP
Report are based on the results of the Advisory
Group's review and deliberations, supported by
the findings of the sectoral studies.


Objectives of the CEP for Jamaica

The goal of the Jamaica Country Environmental
Profile (CEP) is to contribute to sustained
economic development. The approach has been
to develop a national overview of Jamaica's
environment, with the aim of identifying oppor-
tunities for significantly improving resource-
conservation and environmer.tal management.

The specific terms of reference of the Jamaica
CEP were as follows:

1. To prepare a report that documents Jamaica's
natural resource base and the condition of
the natural environment.

2. To describe and analyze the existing institu-
tional framework as it affects resource sec-
tors and areas of environmental concern.


3. To identify key governmental policies, pro-
grammes, and investment priorities affecting
resource and environmental management.

4. To identify the areas of congruity and
conflict between economic development and
environmental protection in key sectors and
activities.

5. To prepare a draft environmental policy
statement for Jamaica.

6. To identify programmes and projects that
further both environmental and development
objectives that could be financed by the
Government of Jamaica and/or the private
sector with financial and technical assistance
from AID and other donors.


Organization of the Report

This CEP for Jamaica includes three parts:

o Part I describes the physical and cultural
context and provides an institutional over-
view.

o Part IL identifies key issues and problems
facing Jamaica in attempts to balance an
overwhelming need for economic development
and the essential need to manage and con-
serve the resource base on which this
development depends, and makes policy and
project recommendations to further the ob-
jectives of the CEP.

o Part lIL includes, for each of the individual
sectors, a summary of existing conditions and
institutional responsibilities, identifies plans
and programmes affecting the sector, identi-
fies major issues and problems within each
sector, and discusses directions for future
work.












PART I: CONTEXT


Plate 3 Pine Trees on the Slopes of the Blue Mountains.






























Plate 4 House at Irish Town.


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Plate 5 Section'of Road along Negril Beach (1967).

























PHYSICAL, DEMOGRAPHIC, AND

ECONOMIC CONTEXT


GEOGRAPHY

Jamaica is located in the Greater Antilles,
approximately 90 miles (145 km.) south of Cuba
and 100 miles (161 km.) west of Haiti, (See
Figure 1.) It is the third largest island in the
Caribbean with a total land area of 4,411 square
miles (10,939.7 sq. km.). Jamaica is 146 miles
(236 km.) long and between 22 and 51 miles
(35 and 82 km.) wide. (See Figure 2.)


Topography

The island's topography consists of a highland
interior, formed by a backbone of peaks and
plateaux running the length of the island, sur-
rounded by flat coastal plains. (See Figure 3.)
Over half the island lies more than 1,000 ft.
(1,609 km.) above sea level. The highlands,
consisting of two major land forms mountain
ranges, and limestone plateaux and hills are
varied and, in some places, extremely rugged.
The topographic features include steep-sided
mountains, highly karsted land, high plateaux,
roiling hills and the coastal plains with large
interior valleys.

InLerior Mountain Ranges. The highest peaks
are the Blue Mountains in the east. The crest
of these mountains is formed by a 10-mile (16
km.) long NW-SE oriented range of peaks ex-
ceeding 6,000 ft. (1,829 m.) and reaching a


maximum height of 7,402 ft. (2,256 m.) at Blue
Mountain Peak. Long spurs run north and south
from the central ridge to the coastal plain, in
some areas only 10 miles (16 km.) away, forming
a series of steep-sided, often severely eroded
valleys. To the south, the Port Royal Moun-
tains, foothills lying between the Blue Moun-
tains and Kingston, form a chain of peaks over
4,000 ft. (1,219 m.) high, known as the Queens-
bury Ridge.

Limestone Plateaux and Hills. Flanking the
interior mountain ranges are hills and plateaux,
which occupy the central and western two-
thirds of the island. Within this region, the
highest areas the Dry Harbour, Santa Cruz
and May Day Mountains lie between 2,000-
3,000 ft. (1,610 914 km.), while the majority
of the plateaux lies between 1,000-2,000 ft.
(305 610 m.). The plateaux are dissected by
faults and have been karsted to varying degrees.
The mott developed karst topography is in the
Cockpit Country and, to a lesser extent, in the
Dry Harbour and John Crow Mountains. The
predominant landforms in these areas are cock-
pits, which are rounded or conical hummocks
with intervening circular depressions and steep,
irregular sides. Elsewhere, the karst is less
developed so that the terrain takes the form
of rolling hills, shallow sinkholes, ridges and
open knob-and-valley country. Caves are com-
mon features of the limestone region; 380 caves
have been located and registered.
5


__ I _

















































Coastal Plains. The coastal plain is less than
two miles (3.2 km.) wide along most of the
north coast and areas of the south coast. In
some other places, the plain widens to form
broad embayments, the most extensive of which
are located at the eastern and western ends
of the island and the Clarendon and St. Cathe-
rine Plains on the south coast. Queen of Spain
Valley in the north and Horse Savannah in the
south form partially enclosed embayments. In
addition to coastal lowlands, there are three
major interior valleys St. Thomas in Ye Vale,
the Queen of Spain Valley and the Nassau
Valley. The coastal plains and interior valleys
are the prime agricultural lands.

Some areas of the coastal plain are swampland.
The major swamps are the Upper Morass and
the Great Morass in the southwest, and the
Westmoreland Plain north of Savanna-la-mar
and the Great Morass, both on the western end
of the island.
6


Coastline. Jamaica's 550-mile (885 km.) long
coastline is varied. The south shoreline is
edged by long, straight cliffs, mangrove swamps
and black sand beaches. The north coast is
very rugged, with several white sand beaches,
the finest of which stretches for four miles
(6.4 km.) along the west coast at NegriL Around
the entire island the coastline is irregular,
indented with bays and extended by sand pits
and bars. Sixteen of the bays are utilized as
commercial harbours. Kingston Harbour, shel-
tered by the eight-mile long Palisadoes sand
spit, has 8 square miles (20 km.2) of navigable
water and is one of the largest and most well
protected ports in the Caribbean.

Between Kingston Harbour and Black River Bay,
a shelf less thpn 120 feet (36.6 m.) deep extends
offshore for 5 to 20 miles (8-32 km.). The
south coast has some barrier reefs and numerous
sand cays, the most well-known being just off
Kingston. Much further offshore lie the larger







FIGURE: 2 ISLAND OF JAMAICA: PARISHES & MAIN TOWNS





Monteg Falmouth St. Ann's
Lucea Bay Bay
SST. I Oc --o Ris
SHANQVER JAMES /TRELNNY ort Maria
._,~ ..... _.i ./ / ST. ANN \ST. MARY N
WESTMORELAND i \N.-I
S.i t ort
S/ Antonio
Sav-la / ST. L / *
mar ) ELIZABETH \MANCHE T CATHERNE PORTLAND
/ \ STER \CLARENDON / IkNGSTONI 8.
/ \ \ T.ANDREW -
Black \ ) f .ST THOMAS
River \ (
S\ Kingston
Morant Bay
Mandeville Spanish
Town

May Pen


















FIGURE: 3


SOURCE: National Atlas of Jamaica (1971)


.o1.oo"


TOPOGRAPHY







Morant Cays (33 mi. SE of Morant Point) and
the Pedro Cays (on Pedro Bank about 40 mi.
S-SW of Portland Point). Unlike the south
coast, the north shore has no shallow marine
flats or shelves; the sea-bottom plunges steeply
to depths of 5,000-30,000 ft. (1,500-9,000 m) in
the Bartlett Trough. Fringing reefs have devel-
oped in places along the north and northeast
shorelines. The south coast has relatively few
reefs.

Volcanoes and Seismicity. Lava cones in the
Blue Mountains and hot springs on the east and
south coasts are vestiges of volcanic activity.
Earthquakes are experienced in Jamaica due to
the proximity of the plate boundary sepaating
the small Caribbean Plate from the North Amer-
ican Plate. The two largest earthquakes to
impact Jamaica in historic times were those of
1692 (the Port Royal Event) and 1907 (the
Kingston Event). Because it is built on uncon-
solidated alluvial sands and gravels (the Ligua-
nea Plain), Kingston is more susceptible to
tremors than other areas of the island.


Climate

Jamaica's tropical maritime climate is modified
by north or northeast trade winds and land-sea
breezes. Rainfall and temperature patterns
vary locally according to location and altitude.
Figure 4 shows islandwide climate patterns.

Temperature. Temperatures in the coastal low-
land are fairly uniform. The average tempera-
ture is 80' F (270 C), ranging from 74-79 F
in the coldest months (January and February)
to 82-830 F in the warmest (July and August).
Temperature varies with altitude; there is a
3.5 F temperature drop per 1000 foot increase
in elevation. The mean annual average tem-
perature for Blue Mountain Peak is 560 F (130
C), with a 10-year recorded low of 380 F (3
C). Diurnal fluctuations are often considerable
(15-20 F on the coast, 20-25 F in the interior),
while variation in mean annual temperature is
small (60 F).

Humidity. Humidity also varies with elevation.
Usually the humidity is above 60%, and is gen-
erally highest in the morning (85%), dropping
by mid-afternoon.

Rainfall. Rainfall in Jamaica is marked by
monthly, annual, and spatial variability. The
average annual rainfall for the entire island is
77.1 inches (195.8 cm). The Blue Mountains
and northeast coast lying in the path of the
tradewinds receive the highest annual rainfall,


over 130 in. (330 cm). Kingston, in the lee
of the range, receives less than 50 in. (127
cm.) annually. Water shortages are characteris-
tic of the southern coastal lowlands, making
irrigation necessary for agriculture. The is-
land's rainfall is bimodal, with peaks in May
and October and minima in March and June.
Damaging rains are associated with hurricanes
and "uorthers", cold winter air waves which
mainly affect Jamaica's northern side.

Droughts. Since 1870, Jamaica has experienced
island-wide droughts in 1871-77, 1880-85, 1920,
1922-23, 1946-47, and 1975-76. Droughts in
the late 1960's and mid 1970's resulted in
domestic water shortages and serious agricul-
tural losses.

Hurricanes. Jamaica is under considerable
threat from hurricanes, especially during the
hurricane season which extends from July to
November. Between 1886 and 1967, 19 hurri-
canes and tropical storms directly hit Jamaica,
and 98 (48 of which were hurricane force) had
centres within 150 miles of the island. Approxi-
mately one-third of these storms caused flood-
ing and damage resulting from the forces of
intense rains, extremely high winds and high
waves.




Geology and Soils

The geological history of Jamaica consists ba-
sically of alternating periods of igneous and
metamorphic activity and submergence beneath
the sea. In general terms, Jamaica has an
igneous and metamorphic core, covered to a
great extent by limestone deposited during
periods of marine submergence. About two-
thirds of the island is covered by limestone,
concentrated in the central and western parts
of the island, and the other third by igneous
and metamorphic rocks, shales and alluvium.
(See Figure 5.)

Jamaica's soils may be classified into several
categories which reflect differences in geology.
The soils of the upland plateaux, formed from
weathered limestone, constitute approximately
64% of the island's soils, while alluvial soils
located on flood plains, river terraces, inland
valleys and coastal plains constitute approxi-
mately 14%. The highland soils (covering the
shale areas of the Blue, John Crow and Port
Royal Mountains in the east and the Dry Har-
bour Mountains in the central region) constitute
11% of the island's total soils. The remainder
of the island's soils are formed from calcareous












FIGURE: 4
CLIMATE


Li .4OC,*.
11 5co.000


Sorce: National Atlas 0? Jamrio ,1971















FIGURE:5 JAMAICA GEOLOGY


SALLUVIM- uafernry 8 Recenf N 1-
SCOASTAL FMNS.-M.M:ocaen Plioc ne /
- WHITE LIMESTONE-MEocanM- LMiocne
F YELLOW UM.ESTONE- Alddle Cocene
RICHMOND FORMATION-LOawr Focens
SWAGWATER FORMATION-Lower Ecreia
W SEDIMENTS 8 METAMORPHCS --U. Cretaceous
UNDIFFERENTATED


m] HALBERSTADT VOLCANIC Eocene
-I[ r IFXASTLE PORPHYRY Eocene
SANDESC VOLCAI U.Cre a SOURCE: GEOLOGICAL SURVEY DIPSiON
APOESmTIC VOLCANCS U.Cretacelou
GRANODORITE U. Crtaceous
SERPENTINITE Cretoceou




























FIGURE: 6


EXPLORATORY SOIL MAP OF JAMAICA


(KEY TO MAP ON PAGE 348)""'


CARI B B E AN SEA






S,PRI




PRI

.1PRI


A-monmo


block


TRI


ocuME I ooti


FOlmalth


* 5


TRI























a iCCIC


-"r~l~sr?"-~c4-yllP-~----- C-'


rll~l r~. r,.l
Yl ~~~ rl ~~11
L(~l I~0







shale or weathered from igneous and metamor-
phic rock, limestone and shale. (See Figure 6.)

Upland Plateaux Soils. The soils of the upland
limestone plateaux are more erosion resistant,
have a higher pH (ranging from slightly to
strongly alkaline), and in general are more fer-
tile than the highland soils. Limitations for
agricultural use in certain areas are due to
shallow soil depth, stoniness, low availability
of water, or iron and aluminum toxicity. The
soils are of two main types: terra rossa (red
limestone) soils and rendzina (black marl) soils.
The rendzinas, which are clay soils developed
over yellow limestone and marls, have a scat-
tered distribution. Although low in potassium,
these soils have good agricultural potential.
The terra rossa, or residual bauxite soils, are
widespread over tie upland plateaux, mainly at
elevations of 2,000-3,000 feet (610-915 m) in
Manc-fester and St. Ann. These soils are low
in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, so have
poor agricultural potential. They may by used
for pasture, or, in some areas with fertilization,
for production of citrus, pimento, bananas and
vegetable crops.

Alluvial Soils. Alluvial soils are located on
the coastal plains in southern Jamica, the nar-
rower plains along the north coast, on inland
valleys, and floodplains. These soils, comprised
of loam, sand and gravel are among the most
productive for agriculture. The coastal plains
and interior valleys are used for plantation
crops, mainly sugarcane and bananas. Also
included as alluvial soils are the heavy, 3-4
feet deep clays of marine origin and swamp
soils on the southern plains.

Highland Soils. The soils of the highlands are
derived mainly from shales, conglomerates and
volcanics, and are exposed to medium or high
rainfall. The soils in the Blue Mountain area
are highly porous and subject to heavy leaching,
resulting in low nutrient content and low pH.
Since soils in this area are generally highly
susceptible to erosion and poor in nutrients,
they are best kept under forest cover. The
lower slopes, which are not as susceptible to
erosion, are being used by subsistence farmers
for mixed cropping of cacao, root crops and
bananas. With increased population pressure
and need for more land, farmers have been
clearing steeper land at higher elevations, thus
exposing erosion-prone soils. Lower rainfall
and more seasonal climate in the central range,
or Dry Harbour Mountains, allows the soils to
dry for a few months a year, so they are less
highly leached than those of the eastern ranges.
This area is used mainly for mixed cropping.


The main islandwide soil surveys for Jamaica
are:

- Jamaica volume of the Studies in West Indian
Soils (the Imperial College of Tropical Agri-
culture (LC.T.A.), Trinidad (1922-1949) by
Hardy and Croucher (1933);

- Jamaica Resource Assessment, CRIES, 1982;

- Parish soil and land use surveys done by the
Regional Research Centre of the British
Caribbean, University of West Indies, Trinidad
(1958-1971); and

- FAO/UNESCO Soil Map of the World, Mexico
and Central America, 1975.


Land Use and Capability

Land Use. Forestry and agriculture are the
predominant forms of land use in Jamaica. (See
Table 1 and Figure 7.) Forestry and other
woodlands cover approximately 45 percent of
the country, mostly areas of rugged terrain
such as the Blue Mountains and the Cockpit
Country and dry, hilly uplands of poor soils in
the southern, western and northwestern parts
of Jamaica. Few large areas of virgin forest
exist in Jamaica, and most of the forest or
other woodlands are comprised of ruinate or
second growth.

Agriculture in Jamaica extends over almost one-
half of the land area (42%). The three principal
types of agricultural use are plantation crops
grown mostly for export, mixed farming of food
crops for domestic consumption and export, and
pasture for beef and dairy cattle for local
consumption. Other land use includes urban
areas and mining (mostly bauxite).


Land Capability. Historically, the land capabili-
ty classification system used in Jamaica was
based on physical factors such as soil type,
rainfall and drainage. The present land suitabil-
ity classification system is based on parallel
physical and socio-economic surveys and in-
cludes considerations of infrastructure, mar-
kets, and labour force characteristics. The up-
dated land suitability classification system pre-
sently being used gives suitability ratings for
specific crops.











Table 1:
Interpreted Land Cover/Use Category Totals In Jamaica



Percent of
Total


Urban Residential
Rural Residential
Industrial, Commercial, and
Institutional
Resort Development
Sugar Cane
Bananas
Coconuts
Mixed Bananas/Coconuts
Orchards
Tobacco
Mixed Coconuts/Forest
Mixed Bananas/Forest
Intensive Mixed
Extensive Mixed
Improved Pasture
Unimproved Pasture
Unimproved Pasture Limited by Slope
Coniferous
Deciduous
Brush
Lakes
Rivers
Wetlands Coastal
Wetlands Noncoastal
Surface Mining
Bare Sand or Rock


1.70
3.33
.39

.10
8.11
.94
1.43
.09
.14
.06
1.99
.05
3.77
2.37
11.31
11.33
1.99
.33
45.90
2.13
.19
.25
1.27
.16
.44
.12


Source: Jamaica Resource Assessment, CRIES (1982)


DEMOGRAPHY


Population Size and Density

Jamaica's population at the 1982 census was
2,190,357. Slightly less than half of the popula-
tion was classified as urban, while 52.2 percent
were rural dwellers. Geographical features
significantly affect settlement patterns: settle-
ment is considerably restricted in those areas
of steep and rugged terrain in the centre of
the island and in regions of swamp around
certain sections of the coast. Based on the
provisional count of the 1982 census, Jamaica's
population density was 205 per sq. km. (as
compared to 130 per sq. km. for the Caribbean
region as a whole, 40 per sq. km. in Central
America and 12 per sq. km. in North America).


Population Distribution

Between the 1920's and the 1960's, the Kingston
Metropolitan Area (KMA) experienced a very
high rate of population growth, both through
natural increase and by net migration from rural
areas. The population in the metropolitan area
almost doubled from 238,300 to 419,400 between
1943 and 1960. Between 1960 and 1980 this
growth in population led to the development of
large settlements around the3 perimeter of the
old metropolitan area. The population of the
Portmore region, for example, grew from just
over 2,000 in 1970 to over 66,000 in :982.
However, the spread of the urban population
in spatial terms has not been matched by the
growth of municipal services and infra-struc-






JAMAICA LANDUSE 1985/86


SCALE m- OWNf1 M


77 45


7715


7700


LEGEND


E URBAN

P WETLANDS

PASTURE


FOREST


0 SUGAR CANE


A PERMANENT CROPS


--7 MIXED CROPPING

Z OTHER USES


RUPAU PH'tIC PLA).NUC DIVION
MMI,-(STRY OF AGRICULTUPE
HOPE GARDEN'.
EASTETI V 7N KINGSTOM B JIMICA
.i


rr


FIGURE: 7







ture. Also, the Urban Growth and Management
Study, conducted in the mid-1970's, found that
residents in outlying 'suburbs' were dependent
to a very high degree on jobs and services
within the Kingston Metropolitan Area (KMA).



Population Projections

Jamaica's annual rate of population increase,
1.4%, places it among those countries which
have reduced their rate of population growth
to a relatively moderate level.

Population trends for the island as a whole
have looked promising since the decline in the
fertility rate and the rate of population in-
crease which began in the early 1970's. Projec-
tions made in the early 1980's suggest that the
fertility rate will continue to decline to re-
placement level by 1995-2000 under the moder-
ate projection (as of 1984 the number of child-
ren per woman had fallen to 3.3). It is antici-
pated that the island's population will be ap-
proximately 3 million in the year 2000.


Ethnic Groups

Although a multi-ethnic society, ethnic groups,
other than those of African origin, comprise a
very small minority of the population. Accor-
ding to the Statistical Yearbook of Jamaica
(1980), the total of those classified as East
Indian, White, and Chinese comprised 3.1% of
the total population; blacks accounted for
90.9%; 5.9% were listed as of "other races";
and no race was given for 0.1%. Yet the
impact of minorities cannot be gauged solely
by their numbers. Jamaica was a slave society
for over 150 years and a colony for over 300.
During this lengthy period, the society was
controlled by a small minority of European
origin. The powerful position of this minority
has exerted considerable influence on culture,
values and the local evaluation of phenotypic
features. (Jamaica's population patterns and
cultural features are discussed more fully in
the Human Resources and Culture Sector in
Part IIL)


Table 2: Population Change In Jamaica, 1975-1983


Population at
Year 31st Dec.


1975 2,060,300

1976 2,084,400

1977 2,109,400

1978 2,140,500

1979 2,164,500

1980 2,186,100

1981 2,226,400

1982 2,265,400

1983 2,309,900


X Crude
Population Birth
Rate


2,042,700 30.1

2,072,300 29.3

2,096,800 28.9

2,124,900 27.4

2,152,500 27.5

2,175,700 26.9

2,206,300 26.9

2,245,900 27.3

2,287,700 26.8


Source: Department of Statistics, 1982


Crude
Death
Rate
Per 1.000


Rate of
Natural
Increase


Infant
Mortality
Per 1,000


23.5

20.3

15.1

14.9

12.4


23.2

22.2

22.1

21.7

21.3

21.1

20.9

21.1

21.3







ECONOMY


Overview of Trends


Historically, agriculture has provided employ-
ment fo: tbhe largest number of people in Jamai-
ca, although production has not kept pace with
population growth. Major export crops are
sugarcane, bananas, citrus, cocoa and coffee.

Sugarcane, the first commercial crop grown in
the country and the basis of its economy, con-
tinues to be grown on large sugar plantations
as well as by suall farmers. Banana, the second
leading export crop, is grown mainly by small
farmers. Many food crops are grown by small
hillside farmers primarily for domestic consump-
tion.

In the last several decades, bauxite mining,
manufacturing and tourism have become domi-
nant sectors in the economy. Between 1952,
when bauxite was first mined, and the 1970's,
Jamaica had become the world's second leading
producer of bauxite ore, and mining had become
the leading source of revenue of the Jamaica
government. Several types of manufacturing
are well established in Jamaica. These include
food processing (vegetable, cocoa, spice, etc),
textiles and leather products, furniture, ceram-
ics and glassware, and electronics. Tourism is
currently the most important source of foreign
exchange earnings and a stimulant to other
domestic industries (e.g., construction).

During the 1970's, the country experienced ser-
ious fiscal problems, with seven consecutive
years of economic decline resulting from a rapid
rise in the price of oil and stagnating producti-
vity in most sectors. Unemployment increased
from 22.5% in 1972 to 26.8% in 1980.

With the change of administration in October
1980, measures were taken to stimulate the
private sector and encourage foreign invest-
ment. At the same time austere fiscal manage-
ment measures were adopted by Government.
Negotiations with the International Monetary
Fund were renewed. Loans from several Wes-
tern countries as well as from international
banks were pursued to provide capital for im-
ports needed in the manufacturing and agricul-
tural sectors.

In 1981, the GOJ initiated the Structural Ad-
justment Programme, which was geared toward
achieving sustainable economic growth. The
Programme's objective was to transform the
economy through the correction of structural


defects and the promotion of export-oriented
development.

The policies designed to achieve these goals
were:

o Promoting the private sector as the main
engine of growth, and creating the appropri-
ate economic structure and climate to en-
hance increased private sector investment
and output in key sectors of the economy; and

o Rationalising the operations and management
of all public enterprises to establish their
viability, generating profits, and thus, elimi-
nate their dependence on the fiscal budget.

At present, the programme for the Jamaica
ecotaomy is f-cused on five broad areas: bal-
ance of payments management; industrial policy
rationalisation; agricultural policy rationali-
sation; public sector savings and investment;
end public sector administration. Within this
framework, pinners have developed a pro-
gramme of research and planning activities de-
signed to provide a scientific basis for the
formulation of policy measures to achieve the
objectives of structural adjustment. Aspects
of the Programme which have already been
implemented include:

- devaluation of the Jamaican dollar to enhance
export competitiveness;

- implementation of a crop diversification pro-
gramme and adjustment of prices of export
crops;

- provision of export development funds and
technical assistance funds;

- preparation of a Comparative Advantage and
Incentives Study (C AIS) focused on four criti-
cal policy areas: trade policy, industrial
growth policy, credit and foreign exchange
policy, and employment and distribution poli-
cy.

The overall purpose of the C AIS is to redesign
Jamaica's trade and industrial policies in order
to foster a more rational use of resources,
accelerate economic growth and a higher em-
ployment level Special attention has been
given to the industrial incentive system, partic-
ularly as it affects export industries, and as it
operates within the broader CARICOM incen-
tive structure.

According to preliminary indications, real Gross
Domestic Product (GDP) is estimated to have







declined by approximately 0.7% in fiscal year
1984/85. (See Table 3.) The outlook for FY
1985/86 is for further contraction in output, a
consequence of the crisis in the domestic baux-
ite/alumina sector (see below), which has neces-
sitated additional fiscal measures to extract
$239 million from the domestic economy to
make up for the fall in the bauxite levy.


Sectoral Performance

Agriculture. The major domestic crops include
legumes, vegetables, condiments, fruits, cereals
and butter. The major livestock production in
Jamaica includes cattle, hogs, goaLs, sheep, fish
and dairy products. The major export crops
produced by Jamaica are sugar cane, bananas,
citrus, coffee and cocoa. Major non-traditional
exports include vegetables, fruits, tubers and
horticulture.

Under t-he Structural Adjustment Programme,
an agricultural modernization programme is de-
signed to increase the potential of the sector
as a net earner of foreign exchange. The
programme involves all categories of farmers
and provides for the restructuring of institu-
tional arrangements for production and market-


ing. One of the major mechanisms for achieving
these objectives is the AGRO 21 Programme,
which is targeted to generate employment for
approximately 109,000 persons and to generate
foreign exchange. Thus far, it is estimated to
have provided employment for over 6,000 per-
sons and foreign exchange earnings/ savings of
approximai-ely US$5.3ri.

Mining. The bauxite/alumina industry represents
over 90 percent of the total product value of
the mining sector, while the non-metallic mine-
ral industries comprise the balance. Between
1952 when bauxite was first mined and the
1970's, Jamaica had become the world's second
leading producer of bauxite ore and mining was
the major source of revenue of the Jamaica
Government.

During 1983, Jamaica's bauxite output fell to
7.7 million tonnes, the lowest level since the
1930's. Of this amount, 25% was exported as
alumina. A 13.7% increase in total bauxite
exports in 1984 resulted from increases in the
export of the crude ore. However, the situation
reversed itself rapidly in 1985, when total bau-
xite exports fell to 6 million tonnes, of which
approximately 60% was crude bauxite.


Table 3:
Gross Domestic Product, 1984/85, 1985/86
(J$Milions)


1984/85 1985/06

Gross Domestic Product
(current prices) 9,460.9 11,123.8

Private Consumption 6,163.3 7,357.5

Public Consumption 1,635.3 1,910.0

Investment 2,089.8 2,488.0
Central Government 453.0 750.0

Net Exports -427.5 -631.7
Exports of goods 3,148.1 3,914.7
Imports of goods -5,328.1 -6,883.8
Net NFS* 1,752.6 2,337.4

GDP at 1974 (constant) prices 1,927.6 1,850/1,860

Real growth rate -0.7 -4/-3


*Net factor services

Source: PIOJ Staff Estimates. Planning Institute of Jamaica. Quarterly
Economic Report. Vol.1, No.4. June 1985.


_ ~~~_ _







The decline in the Jamaican industry, in spite
of recovery in the world primary aluminium
industry, was due to several factors: an over-
supply on the world market resulting in a sup-
ply/demand imbalance; decline in prices; high
local energy costs; and net reduction in opera-
Ling capacities. This situation forced the clo-
sure of Alcoa, Alpart (a conglomerate of Kaiser,
Reynolds and Arco) and Reynolds Jamaica
Mines. Kaiser and Alcan are presently opera-
ting in the island. The Alcoa Plant has since
been reopened as the Clarendon Alumina Pro-
duction Ltd. and is operating under the owner-
ship of the Jamaican Government.

Jamaica's bauxite industry faces continuing pro-
blems of increased competition from areas such
as Guinea and Brazil, high local energy costs,
the disadvantage of small-scale operations, and
the use of "take or pay" contracts by some
competitors. In response, a number of measures


to stabilize the industry are being considered,
including: energy conversion from oil to coal;
utilization of idle capacity created by the clo-
sures of Reynolds and Alcoa; introduction of
new marketing strategies; and restructuring the
bauxite levy with incentives for improving plant
efficiency and output.

In 1984, the industrial minerals subsector
showed increases in the output of gypsum and
marble, which totalled 180,200 tonnes and 370
tonnes respectively. Other commercially-mined
minerals include silica sand, industrial lime,
marl and sand and gravel.

Manufacturing. The performance of the manu-
facturing sector has been mixed over the past
few years. In 1983, half of 62 selected commod-
ities registered increased production, while the
other half showed decreased production. In
1984, apparel and sewn products, processed food


Figure 8:

Bauxite and Alumina Exports by Quarters
1983/84, 1984/85



Export Volumes
('000 tonnes)
1600
1500S
1400-
1300-
1200
1100
1000
900
800
700 / \ Bauxite
600-
503 -
400- Alnin
300-

Q1 Q3 Q4 Q Q2 Q3 Q4
---- 1983/84 -- 1984/85-----



Source: Planning Institute of Jamaica. Quarterly Economic
Report. Vol.1, No.4. June 1985. Based on Data from
the Jamaica Bauxite Institute.







and chemicals and chemical products experi-
enced strong growth, while beverages, tobacco,
sugar, rum, molasses, shoe and leather products
and non-metallic minerals and metallic products
registered declines. Generally, declines in pro-
duction were caused by difficulties and delays
in obtaining raw material due to the
unavailability of foreign exchange and of credit
lines.

Capital investment grew in three subsectors in
the period 1982-1984 food processing (324%),
textiles and clothing (1794%), chemical and
chemical products (770%). Of the total
employed labour force, 12.8 percent was em-
ployed in the manufacturing sector in 1984.

The GOJ has taken several steps to combat
problems in the manufacturing sector:

- deregulation of imports of raw materials and
capital goods;

- changes in the parity rate of the Jamaican
dollar to increase competitiveness of Jamai-
can goods;

- allocation of foreign exchange for the pur-
chase of raw materials and spare parts for
certain manufacturing enterprises; and

- expanded production drives through the JNEC
and JETC.

Tourism. The tourism industry has continued
its positive growth trend, with visitor arrivals
reaching a level of 846,716 in 1985. Over 67%
were stop-over guests; the remainder were
cruise ship passengers and armed forces person-
nel. Gross visitor expenditure amounted to
US$4G6.8 million in 1985. Direct employment
in the tourism sector was 13,619 in the same
year.




























NSTrTUTIONAL OVERVIEW


GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION

Jamaica gained independence from Great Bri-
tain on August 6, 1962, and is a member of
the British Commonwealth of Nations. The
form of government is constitutional monarchy,
in which the Queen is titular sovereign and is
represented on the island by a Governor-Gen-
eral. The executive branch is made up of the
Governor-General, the Prime Minister and the
Cabinet. The Governor-General appoints the
Prime Minister, and on the latter's recommenda-
tion, other Ministers who, along with the Prime
Minister, make up the Cabinet. The Ministers
are generally named from the members of the
House, but may be appointed a Senator, then
designated a Minister. Each Minister has a
permanent secretary, who is a civil servant in
charge of the general administration of the
Ministry. In 1986 there were 15 ministers with
responsibilities for 16 ministries. The legisla-
tive branch consists of the Senate of 21
members (appointed by the government) and the
House of Representatives of 60 members (elec-
ted by the people). The judicial branch of the
government is represented by the Court of
Appeals.

Jamaica is divided into three counties (Corn-
wall, Middlesex, Surrey), which are in turn
divided into 14 parishes for purposes of local
government. The parishes of Kingston and St.


Andrew are linked together for administrative
purposes as the Kingston and St. Andrew
Corporation. The local affairs of each of the
other 12 parishes are administered by the Parish
Councils. The parishes are divided into elec-
toral constituencies (60 total), from each of
which one House Representative is elected.
Representatives are elected for five years by
universal suffrage, the voting age being 18.



HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRON-
MENTAL MANAGEMENT

Xaymaca, the Awarak name for Jamaica, means
the land of wood and water and indeed, this
was an apt description of the island prior to
the advent of European domination. Large
rivers roared through the island's countryside,
and numerous wildlife species were supported
by the island's unique topography and micro-
climates. The advent of "development" has
changed this picture markedly, exerting severe
stress on the carrying capacity of the environ-
ment.

The Jamaican legislature has exhibited concern
for environmental management since 1874, when
the Harbours Act, which prohibits the pollution
of selected marine waters by solid and liquid
wastes, was passed. However, an examination


I I-- I -I







of the historical situation reveals that the
institutional capabilities to administer this and
other related laws have beei slow in evolving
in Jamaica.

Historically, the protection and management of
resources was vested in the Crown, and oper-
ated through various government and statutory
organizations. Forestry, which remains the
largest resource sector of the island, was the
responsibility of the Conservator of Forests,
while mineable resources were the responsibility
of the Commissioner of Mines. Up to the period
immediately preceding independence, environ-
mental management in Jamaica was geared
towards resource exploitation. During this
period, several pieces of environmental legisla-
tion were put in place, including the Public
Health Act (1926); the Forestry Act (1937); the
Country Fires Act (1942); the Mining Act
(1944); the Wildlife Protection Act (1945); the
Irrigation Act (1949); the Beach Control Act
(1956); the Quarries Control Act (1958); and
the Water Supply Act (1958). As the consequen-
ces of environmental degradation in Jamaica
became more widely felt, the legislature re-
sponded by enacting the Town and Country
Planning Act, in 1958, and the Clean Air Act,
in 1961.

Following independence in 1962, the pattern of
management of resources, which had been aimed
specifically at resource exploitation, began to
change. During the 1960's, the movement
towards resource enhancement was strength-
ened. In January 1969, the Ministry of Agricul-
ture and Lands was divided into two separate
ministries the Ministry of Agriculture and
Fisheries, and the Ministry of Rural Land
Development.

Coupled with the changing institutional ar-
rangements, was the enactment of new legisla-
rion, such as the Underground Water Control
Act, (1962) and the Watershed Protection Act
(1963). Major additions to the legislative
framework since 1970 include: the Ports
Authority Act (1972); the Revised Public Health
Act (1974); the Fishing Industry Act (1976); and
the Litter Act (1985).

However, despite the passage of this legislation,
a review of the institutional framework that
existed during the 1960's to early 1970's reveals
a fragmented approach to environmental man-
agement, with numerous agencies and commit-
tees sharing responsibility for the administra-
tion of various environmental laws. These
included:
- The Beach Control Authority


- Watershed Protection Commission
- Wildlife Protection Committee
- Natural Resource Planning Unit (Ministry of
Mining)
Marine Advisory Committee
Kingston Harbour Quality Monitoring Commit-
tee
- Public Health Division, Ministry of Health

The major weakness of this network was the
lack of coordination between the various com-
ponents and the chronic shortage of technical
staff.

During the 1970's, three major events sparked
a concerted effort toward the development of
a coordinated approach to environmental man-
agement. These were: the Stockholm Confer-
ence on the Environment, 1972; the establish-
merit of the Ministry of Mining and Natural
Resources; and the proposal to site a major
petrochemical complex in Jamaica.

At the Stockholm Conference on the Environ-
ment, Jamaica played a major role in establish-
ing a worldwide mandate for environmental
management through His Excellency Keith John-
son, who was elected Rapporteur General of
the meeting. During this conference, Jamaica
also voiced its commitment to the development
of a sound institutional base for environmental
management. The country's active participation
in the conference placed it in the forefront of
the international environmental management
movement. As a result of its stated commitment
to environmental protection, Jamaica was elect-
ed to sit on the First Governing Council of
the United Nations Environment Programme, in
1975.

The second major step leading to a more
coordinated approach to environmental manage-
ment was the creation of the Ministry of Mining
and Natural Resources in 1974. The Ministry
had responsibility for:
- Mineral resources mining, including bauxite;
- Geological mapping and mineral resource ex-
ploration;
- Development and conservation of water re-
sources (Watershed Protection Commission,
Water Resources Surveys and Planning, and
Underground Water Authority);
- Distribution of water (Mid-Clarendon Irriga-
tion Authority, St. Dorothy Plains Irrigation
Authority, Black River Drainage and Irriga-
tion Board, and Hounslow Irrigation Author-
ity);
- Land planning, development and registration
(Town Planning, Negril Area Land Authority,
and Land Valuation);







- Beach Control Authority
- Kingston Harbour Monitoring Committee
- Scientific Research Council
- Seismographic Research Unit
- Development of Public Recreational Facilities
- National Parks and Wildlife Committee.

As can be seen from this list of the Ministry's
responsibilities, a concerted effort was being
made to coordinate the management of natural
resources.

In 1973, the Ministry of Public Services initi-
ated a Management Development Programme,
which involved a comprehensive management
training exercise for middle and senior level
management personnel within Government.
Candidates from the Ministry of Mining and
Natural Resources were exposed to several
areas of management, including organizational
development. As part of the exercise, a
concept for the development of an environmen-
tal management agency was conceived and
partially developed.

At the same time as the institutional frame-
work for environmental management was evolv-
ing the country's economy was rapidly expand-
ing. In 1974, the Government was approached
by a major U.S. developer to use the island as
the site for a large pedro-chemical complex.
The components of this proposed development
were a refinery (25,000B.C.D.), a marine termi-
nal and transshipment port, a dry cargo pier,
power station (380 MW), caustic/chlorine plant
(300,000 tons per annum of caustic), ethylene
storage, and a water treatment plant. This
project, with its potentially deleterious
environmental effects, underlined the need for
a coordinated institutional approach to environ-
mental management. The proposal for industrial
development, coupled with the commitments
from the Stockholm Conference and the man-
agement development exercises, were the cata-
lysts for the formation of the Natural Resources
Conservation Department (NRCD) and the En-
vironmental Control Division (ECD) in 1975.



ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT MACHINERY

Environmental management in Jamaica is cur-
rently dependent on the coordinated actions of
several agencies. These include resource man-
agement institutions, such as the Town and
Country Planning Department (TPD), the Town
and Country Planning Authority (TPA), the
Natural Resources Conservation Division
(NRCD), and the Environmental Control Division


(ECD); as well as development agencies, such
as the Ministries of Agriculture (including
Fisheries and Forestry), Construction (Housing
and Works), Public Utilities, Local Government
and others.

The creation of the Natural Resources Conser-
vation Department (NRCD) and the Environmen-
tal Control Division (ECD) was the most signifi-
cant legacy of the post-Stockholm environmen-
tal movement in Jamaica. In 1975, the Natural
Resources Conservation Authority (NRCA), a
nine-member board of overseers, was formed to
direct the workings of the NRCD. The new
entity was intended to unite existing bodies
- the Beach Control Authority, Watersheds
Protection Commission, Wildlife Protection
Committee, Natural Resource Planning Unit,
Marine Authority Committee and Kingston Har-
bour Quality Monitoring Committee. In addi-
tion, new functions pertaining to ecological
research and natural areas management were
assigned to the NRCD.

In the past year, the NRCD has been reorgan-
ized, and reduced to Divisional status. The
NRCA is no longer functioning, while the Beach
Control Authority and Watershed Protection
Commission continue to operate.

The NRCD is expected to perform in four areas:
policy and law, information and public educa-
tion, ecological research and monitoring, and
environmental management. Specific objectives
include:

- To increase public understanding of the is-
land's ecological systems and promote meth-
ods for the conservation and development of
its natural resources;

- To raise the quality of life by increasing
public awareness ot the natural beauty of
the island, and the availability and acces-
sibility of outdoor recreational facilities;

- To determine policy to be followed and
standards to be maintained in the management
of the island's resources of land, water, air,
flora and fauna in the interest of the present
and future generations of Jamaica;

- To promote and ensure the wise use of the
nation's natural resources by the establish-
ment of an ecological review procedure for
all relevant development proposals;

- To implement programmes for the conserva-
tion and development of natural resources;
and,







- To collect, store and distribute data and
information on the development and conserva-
tion of the island's natural resources.

The Environmental Control Division (ECD) is
responsible for the development and application
of environmental standards and appropriate
technology geared towards the protection of
public health, livestock, crops and natural
resources. ECD is also mandated to carry out
monitoring and assessments with regard to the
control of water quality, sewage, industrial
waste water, solid waste, industrial working
environments, air pollution and noise.

The Town and Country Planning Department
(TPD) is the agency which deals with physical
planning, and serves as the secretariat of the
Town and Country Planning Authority. This
Authority administers the Town and Country
Planning Act, which regulates all development
activities. The Authority, by virtue of its
membership, also serves as the principal coordi-
nating body for environmental management. It
is chaired by the Government Town Planner,
and has representation from the NRCD, the
ECD and the Planning Institute of Jamaica
(PIOJ), as well as t'e development agencies,
all of whose projects must receive the Auth-
ority's approval. In addition, the NRCD and
the ECD have independent refusal authority
over projects by virtue of their respective
authorizing legislation.

Physical plans produced by the Town and
Country Planning Department are intended to
integrate policies of the N R CD and the develop-
ment agencies as welL These physical plans
provide a basis for development plans produced
by the Planning Institute of Jamaica. Following
is a list of the agencies involved:

Development Control and Coordination

- Town and Country Planning Authority
- Town and Country Planning Department2
(Physical Planning Secretariat of the Author-
ity)

Natural Resources Conservation

- Natural Resources Conservation Depart-
ment3,4(Resource Management, Ecological
Research, and Information Secretariat of the
Authority)

1 Administers the Town and Country Planning
Act.
2 Denotes membership on the Town and Country
Planning Authority.


Environmental Control


- Environmental Control Division2,4 (Research
and Regulation in Matters related to Public
Health

Resource Development

Ministry of Agriculture2
Ministry of Construction2
Ministry of Public Utilities and Transport2
Ministry of Local Government2
Ministry of Mining, Energy and Tourism2
Ministry of Education2
Urban Development Corporation2

Economic Planning

Planning Institute of Jamaica2


The broad titles of the NRCD and ECD suggest
an overlapping of functions which, in reality,
are quite separate. The ECD, in the Ministry
of Health, serves the Ministry's own legislation,
notably the Public Health Act. Consequently,
the ECD is concerned with pollution sources,
standards, and controls. By contrast, the NRCD
is concerned with ambient levels of pollution,
rather than with point source emissions.



FUNCTIONS OF MAJOR GOJ INSTITUTIONS

As noted above, numerous GOJ ministries and/or
their affiliated public corporations play some
role in environmental regulation or natural
resource management. (See Figure 9.) Other
institutions are significant to environmental
management due to their development promotion
functions.

Brief functional descriptions of all the agencies
that conduct some environmentally-related acti-
vities are included below. Specific agency
activities are described, as appropriate, in the
individual sector analyses in Part IIL Institu-
tional barriers to effective environmental man-
agement are included in the discussion of issues
and problems in Part II.





3 Administers the Beach Control Act, Water-
sheds Protection Act, and Wildlife Protec-
tion Act.
Administers the Public Health Act.











Figure 9: List of GOJ Agencies with Functions
Related to Environmental Management



Key Regulatory & Management Key Economic Planning
Agencies & Investment Agencies

Natural Resources Conservation Division Planning Institute of Jamaica
(M. of Agriculture)
Urban Development Corporation

Environmental Control Division Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica
(M. of Health)

Town Planning Department /Town Jamaica National Investments
Planning Authority Promotion/Jamaica National
(M. of Finance & Planning) Investments Co.

Jamaica Industrial Development
Corporation


Supporting Resource Management and Protection Agencies

Fisheries Division (M. of Agriculture)
Inland Fisheries Unit (M. of Agriculture)
Port Authority of Jamaica
Mines & Quarries Division (M. of Mining, Energy & Tourism)
Office of Disaster Preparedness (M. of Construction)
Water Resources Division (M. of Local Government)
Underground Water Authority
Watershed Engineering Division (NRCD, M. of Agriculture)
Meteorological Office (M. of Public Utilities & Transport)
Survey Department (M. of Agriculture)
Forest Department(M. of Agriculture)
Metropolitan Parks & Markets Co. (UDC affiliate)
Bureau of Standards


Supporting Investment & Development Agencies

Energy Division (M. Mining, Energy & Tourism)
Jamaica Public Service Co.
M. of Construction (Works)
National Water Commi:ssion
Jamaica Bauxite Institute
AGRO-21 Corp. Ltd.
Agricultural Development Corp.
Forest Industry Development Co.
Coffee Industry Development Co.
Jamaica National Export Corp.
M. Mining, Energy & Tourism
Jamaica Tourist 3oard







Key Regulatory and Management Agencies

Natural Resources Conservation Division
(NRCD). NRCD, in the M. of Agriculture, is
Jamaica's chief resource management and con-
servation agency. NRCD administers several
pieces of key environmental legislation, includ-
ing the Beach Control Act (1955), the Wildlife
Protection Act (1945), and the Watershed Pro-
tection Act (1963). NRCD's functions include:

- Resource management and policy formulation
for wildlife species, watersheds and coastal
zone management;

- Research and monitoring of inland and
nearshore aquatic resources, including sur-
veys and investigations on water quality,
aquatic ecology and nearshore physical dy-
namics;

- Planning and development of national parks,
both marine and terrestrial, as well as the
conservation and protection of unique natural
areas;

- Development control, including the perform-
ances of environmental impact assessment;
and

- Execution of a Public Education Programme
aimed at increasing public awareness for all
areas of environmental management.

Environmental Control Division (ECD). The
ECD, in the M. of Health, seeks to develop and
ensure the application of environmental stand-
ards and appropriate technology geared towards
the protection of public health, livestock, crops,
and natural resources. It also carries out
monitoring and assessments with regard to the
control of water quality, sewage, industrial
wastewater, solid waste, industrial working
environments, air pollution and noise.

Town Planning Department (TPD). The role of
TPD, which is within the M. of Finance and
Planning, is to carry out comprehensive and
balanced development of land throughout the
island along the national/regional and urban
development policy guidelines of the Govern-
ment. Inherent in these functions is the vital
role of development control with respect to
the orderly and progressive development of
cities, towns and their necessary amenities, as
well as education of the public regarding the
role of the planning process as a critical aspect
of community life. The Town Planning Depart-
ment is represented on the Town and Country
Planning Authority. The TPD is responsible


for: preparation of the National Physical Plan;
recommendations for public policies on land use
and development; preparation of land use stud-
ies, p'ins, and regulations; preparation of
Development Orders; coordination of interagen-
cy review of subdivision applications; and the
preparation of development suitability maps and
studies.


Key Economic Planning and Investment Agen-
cies

Planning Institute of Jamaica (PIOJ). The PIOJ
initiates and coordinates planning for the eco-
nomic, financial, social, cultural and physical
development of the country, monitors the imple-
mentation of these plans, and manages technical
cooperation: agreements and programmes. In
addition, tne PIOJ carries out research, training
and provides consultant services to government
ministries, agencies and statutory bodies.

Urban Development Corporation (UDC). The
UDC, a statutory corporation reporting to the
M. of Finance and Planning, is legally empow-
ered, within designated UDC areas, to act as
its own planning authority and to design and
construct development projects and tc imple-
ment conservation elements of its projects.
UDC also prepares physical plans for designated
areas, and supervises and coordinates implemen-
tation of the Comprehensive Rural Townships
Development Plan.

Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica (PCJ). The
PCJ, a statutory body established under the
Petroleum Act (1979), reports to the M. of
Mining, Energy and Tourism. PCJ is empowered
to conduct a broad range of activities for the
development of the country's energy resources.
PCJ's operations include petroleum exploration,
operation of the Petrojam Refinery, and investi-
gation of the potential uses of Jamaica's peat
resources.

Jamaica National Investment Promotion, Ltd.
(JNIP). The JNIP, along with the Jamaica
National Investment Co. Ltd. (JNIC), is a
statutory corporation reporting to the M. of
Finance and Planning. JNIP and JNIC provide
local or foreign private investors with advice,
information and assistance regarding investment
opportunities.

Jamaica Industrial Development Corporation
(JIDC). JIDC, a statutory body under the M.
of industry and Commerce, is the principal
agency charged with ensuring that the GOJ's
industrial development objectives are fulfilled.







JIDC plans for and implements public sector
industrial projects, promotes both public and
private industrial development projects, and
operates industrial estates throughout the is-
land. Recently merged with the National Indus-
trial Development Company, the "new" JIDC is
responsible for the development and implemen-
tation of a Comprehensive National Industrial
Plan and is specifically responsible for upgrad-
ing the performance of the manufacturing
sector.


Supporting R"source Management and Protec-
tion Agencies

Fisheries Division. The Fisheries Division of
the M. of Agriculture is responsible for promot-
ing fisheries development through research,
administration of fisheries laws, training and
credit services to fishermen, and monitoring of
offshore fishery reserves.

Inland Fisheries Unit (IFU). The IFU, within
the M. of Agriculture, is responsible for main-
taining an islandwide programme to encourage
small farmers to take up fish farming. IFU's
programme concentrates on extension, produc-
tion, training, research, and marketing coordi-
nation.

Port Authority of Jamaica. The Port Authority
regulates coastal structures on or over water,
provides aids to navigation, monitors oil spills,
provides information on ship traffic, and is
responsible for the review, approval, construc-
tion and leasing of buildings on the foreshore
in areas under its jurisdiction.

Mines and Quarries Division (MQD). The MQD,
within the M. of Mining, Energy, and Tourism,
collects and disseminates information on the
geological resource base of the country, for
example, geological mapping to identify mineral
deposits, potential geological hazards, assess-
ment of slope stability, drainage and other
physical factors in reviewing development and
subdivision applications. The M QD also pro-
vides technical assistance in matters relating
to prospecting, mining and quarrying.

Office of Disaster Preparedness (ODP). ODP,
within the M. of Construction, coordinates
disaster response and post-disaster recovery
activities, makes recommendations on public
policies for the avoidance of risk areas,
maintains a system for monitoring and forecast-
ing environmental events, and reviews develop-
ment and subdivision proposals in high risk
areas.


Water Resources Division (WRD). The W RD of
the M. of Local Government collects data and
provides technical information and support to
other G OJ agencies on water resources (e.g.,
stream flow and tidal data, critical water levels,
etc.)

Underground Water Authority (U W A). The U W A
is a statutory body which was established under
the Underground Water Authority Act (1962) to
provide for the conservation and proper use of
underground water resources and to control the
exploitation of such resources. To this end,
the UWA is empowered to issue licences for
groundwater extraction.

Watershed Engineering Division (WED). The
WED, part of NRCD, is involved in water
conservation through che implementation of
various watershed management projects (e.g.,
for the reduction cf soil erosion, river bank
stabilization, etc.).

Meteorological Office. The Met Office of the
M. of Public Utilities and Transport provides
technical support to other agencies through the
collection of data on weather (rainfall, winds,
etc.) and issues warnings of severe weather
conditions.

Survey Department. The Survey Dept. of the
M. of Agriculture prepares, updates, and main-
tains a central depository of islandwide maps
(including topographic maps) and aerial photos.

Forest Department. The Forest Department of
the M. of Agriculture is responsible for non-
commercial forestry activities, extension, plan-
ning and research, training, and administration.
The Forest Department leases forest reserve
lands to FIDCO for commercial forestry opera-
tions.

Metropolitan ParkE. and Market Company
(MPMCo.). MPMCo., an affiliate of the UDC,
is responsible for administration of metropolitan
parks and refuse collection in the Kingston
Metropolitan Area.

Bureau of Standards. The Bureau of Standards
administers legislation and regulations related
to the establishment and enforcement of uni-
form standards: the Standards Act (1968); the
Processed Food Act (1959); and the Weights
and Measures Act (1976). The Bureau makes
recommendations with respect to the formula-
tion and application of standards and specifica-
tions and provides for the examination and
testing of commodities and processes.







Supporting Investment and Development Agen-
cies

Energy Division. The Energy Division, within
the M. of Mining, Energy and Tourism, is
responsible for the development and monitoring
of a National Energy Policy and the gathering
and analysis of information in regard to petro-
leum products and energy conservation.

Jamaica Public Service Co. (JPSCo.). JPSCo
is responsible for developing and maintaining
the country's public electricity distribution
network.

Ministry of Construction (Works) The Works
Division of the M. Construction has a principal
role in constructing and repairing flood and
erosion control facilities and other public facili-
ties and infrastructure (e.g., roads and bridges).
The Works Division also reviews large private
development proposals for conformance with
construction standards.

National Water Commission (NWC). The NWC
is responsible for water supply and most of the
sewerage works in the Kingston/St. Andrew
corporate area.

Jamaica Bauxite Institute (JBI). The JBI, a
limited liability company, is involved in the
research and development of bauxite reserves
and bauxite conversion processes, allocation of
mining sites, establishment of bauxite levies,
and monitoring the safety of mining operations,
alumina production, and reclamation of mined
lands.

AGRO-21 Corp. Ltd. Agro-21 is a statutory
body, jointly funded by the Government of
Jamaica and USAID. Its primary objective is
to restructure the country's agriculture by
employing improved technology and a program-
me of crop diversification. Under this program-
me, private investors have been encouraged to
become involved in development of non-tradi-
tional export crops.

Agricultural Development Corp. (ADC). The
ADC is a statutory body under the M. of
Agriculture whose purpose is to improve and/or
maintain the quality of Jamica's produce, par-
ticularly livestock production.

Forest Industry Development Co. (FIDCO).
FIDCO is responsible for all commercial forestry
activities, establishment and maintenance of
forestry plantations, and logging, transport and
processing of harvested timber. FIDCO is
accountable to both the Ministry of Finance


and the Ministry ot Agriculture.


Coffee Industry Development Co. (CIDCO).
CIDCO is responsible for establishment and
maintenance of major coffee plantations.

Jamaica National Export Corporation (JNEC).
The JNEC is responsible for development, pro-
motion and expansion of Jamaica's non-tradi-
tional export products.

Ministry of Mining, Energy & Tourism (MMET).
The MMET is responsible for the formulation
and implementation of Government policies
relating to mineral resource development and
mining and energy management and for the
overall development of tourism, including policy
formulation, promotion, marketing and all other
aspects of the tourism industry.

Jamaica Tourist Board. The Jamaica Tourist
Board, a statutory organization, is responsible
for promoting tourism locally and overseas and
for developing and maintaining tourism industry
standards. Two subdivisions of the Jamaica
Board are the Jamaica Attractions Development
Co. (JADCo), which is charged with developing
new sites and attractions for tourism and
enhancing existing sites, and the Rafting Auth-
ority which is responsible for the development
and regulation of river rafting.



OTHER INSTITUTIONS

A number of private voluntary organizations
(PVO's) and research institutions also play a
role in environmental management. These
include:

Institute of Jamaica. The Institute of Jamaica
was establihed to encourage and develop know-
ledge in the areas of literature, science, arts,
culture and history, and the conservation of
monuments for the public benefit. This is
accomplished via the delivery of lectures, the
compilation and publication of literature of
historical, scientific or artistic interest and the
establishment and maintenance of schools, mu-
seums, galleries, halls and other places reserved
for the dissemination and development of litera-
ture, science and the arts.

Scientific Research Council (SRC). The SRC,
a statutory body within the M. of Agriculture,
was established in 1960. Its role is to foster
and coordinate scientific research and to en-
courage the application of such research to the
exploitation and development of the island's







resources. The Food Technology Institute,
which has responsibility for technical assist-
ance, product development and training in the
area of food research and development has been
a part of the SRC since 1968.

Sugar Industry Research Institute. The Sugar
Industry Research Institute is responsible for
the research and development of sugar produc-
tion techniques and improved sugar cane varie-
ties.

University of the West Indies (UWI). The UWI
is a tertiary institution providing certificate,
diploma, degree, and graduate courses in the
arts, natural sciences, social sciences and
medicine to students, mainly from the Caribbean
region. In addition, it carries out research in
social and human development, and the econom-
ic, scientific and medical aspects of environ-
mental management through the Faculties of
Education, Social Studies, Natural Sciences and
Medicine.

Caribbean Agricultural Research and Develop-
ment Institute (C A RDI). Financed and directed
by CARICOMG member countries, this organiza-
tion responds to Caribbean needs for agricultur-
al research and development. Particular areas
of interest include pesticides and pest control,
species research and development and research-
ing of agricultural equipment suitable for small
farms.

Hope Zoo Trust. The Hope Zoo Trust is a non-
profit organization, whose activities are geared
toward upgrading che facilities of the Hope Zoo.

Natural History Society of Jamaica. The
Natural History Society of Jamaica is a non-
profit organization, whose objectives include
the study and conservation of the Jamaican
environment and the promotion of public envir-
onmental education.

Jamaica Junior Naturalists. The Jamaica Junior
Naturalists, a non-profit organization for young
people between the ages of 6 and 18 years,
provides opportunities for the study of the
flora, fauna and other natural resources of the
island, and encourages an appreciation of the
need for conservation of the Jamaican environ-
ment.

Jamaica Agricultural Society. This organization
assists Jamaica's small-scale farmers by provid-
ing marketing, agricultural credit, education
and training services. Several federations have
been formed under its auspices, including the
Jamaica Coffee Growers Cooperative Federa-


tion, the Cocoa Growers Cooperative Federa-
tion, and the JAS Cattle Insurance Cooperative
Society.

All-Island Jamaica Banana Farmers Association.
FudiJpd by the M. of Agriculture, the responsi-
bilities of the Association include public educa-
tion and the distribution of pesticides, fertili-
zers and sleeves to farmers at subsidized rates.
Since 1983, materials have been available to
farmers on credit.

The All-Island Cane Farmers Association. The
largest commodity association in the island, this
Association is involved in the replanting of
sugar cane where sugar cane production has
been abandoned.

Coconut Industry Board. The Coconut Industry
Board carries out the production and distribu-
tion of seedlings, the provision of reinsurance
funds against crop losses, research and develop-
ment of species varieties, and provides advice
to farmers on methods and techniques.

Jamaica Livestock Association Ltd. The Jamai-
ca Livestock Association is a limited liability
company involved in the production of cattle
and small livestock.
















































Plate 6 Beach Erosion (Trelawny) resulting from illegal removal of sand.











PART II: ISSUES, POLICIES AND
RECOMMENDATIONS


Plate 7 Crowd Demonstration.




















Plate 8 Garbage in Kingston Harbour.


Plate 9 Cement Company, Kingston.


7' T~




























PROBLEMS AND ISSUES


A principal reason for preparing the Country
Environmental Profile is to identify the major
environmental problems and issues that confront
Jamaica. The approach that was used called
for an examination of 15 subject areas that
include Jamaica's major resource sectors. Each
of the 15 component areas was examined in
considerable detail, and resulting "sectoral
needs" were identified. The detailed sectoral
reports are included in Part III of this document.
However, before turning to the individual sec-
tors, it may be useful to summarize some of
the principal findings and conclusions that
emerged from this two-year effort.



MAJOR PROBLEMS RELATED TO QUALITY
OF TEE ENVIRONMENT

Jamaica faces major environmental problems
with respect to air pollution, surface and ground
water pollution, deforestation, soil and shore-
line erosion, destruction of wildlife and wildlife
habit.c, and serious deficiencies in urban infra-
structure. Each of these is discussed briefly
below.


Air Pollution

Although the island is blessed with a constant
sea breeze that acts to disperse airborne pollu-
tants, poor air quality is a persistent problem


in areas of high population concentration,
particularly in the dense urban settlements of
Kingston, Spanish Town, and at scattered cen-
tres elsewhere on the island. The primary
causes of air pollution are industrial effluents
from oil refineries and power stations in the
urban areas, and bauxite plants, sugar factories
and processing plants in scattered rural loca-
tions. In urban areas, the burning of garbage
at municipal dumps, and vehicle exhaust fumes
aggravate the problem. At pre.3ent, the known
impacts of air pollution are visual and aesthetic
- impaired visibility and offensive odors due
to high levels of particulate matter and hydro-
carbons. In some cases, however, airborne tox-
ins, such as lead, have had discernable effects
or, those living in close proximity to the
emitting industrial sources.


Water Pollution

Jamaica's interior and coastal water bodies are
being adversely affected by the discharge of
sewage and industrial effluents. Kingston
Harbour is subject to pollution from at least
ten documented point sources. The restricted
water circulation within the Harbour, coupled
with the high nutrient load of the effluents,
has resulted in a drastic reduction of dissolved
oxygen, and the almost total destruction of
benthic life. In addition, plumes of nutrient-
rich water emanating from the Harbour have
encouraged the proliferation of algae, smother-


LJ1 =I IL~- I --







ing corals for miles along the south coast of
the island. In the rural areas, much of the
surface water pollution can be attributed to
the release of untreated effluents from food
processing plants. Particularly acute examples
include the pollution of the Cabarita River by
sugar cane underer, and of the Rio Cobre by
effluent from beverage and citrus processing
plants at Bog Walk.

Ground water pollution occurs as a result of
sewage infiltration, saline intrusion and the
leakage of caustic residues from red mud
disposal sites. In Kingston and St. Andrew,
there has been extensive aquifer contamination
by sewage, while much of the south coast
suffers from salt water intrusion, a consequence
of over-abstraction of ground water. This has
resulted in the closure of many wells. Caustic
pollution from the Mt. Rosser red pond at
Schwallenburg has led to the contamination of
five square miles of the aquifer in the Linstead
and Moneague sub-basins. Ground water in the
Kingston Metropolitan Area is subject to infil-
tration from thousands of individual household
sewage units. The long-awaited plan for
centralized treatment of Kingston's sewage, and
transport of the treated effluent to agricultural
areas west of the city for irrigation and aquifer
recharge, is the only remedy to this problem,
but the plan remains to be implemented.


Deforestation

Jamaica's natural forests, which account for
24.3% of the total land area, are being diminish-
ed for subsistence crop cultivation and pasture,
for charcoal production, and for thi establish-
ment of timber plantations of exotic pine and
coffee. Soil erosion is one of the many
consequences of deforestation, and Jamaica
loses approximately 80 million tons of soil per
annum. Deforestation also contributes to the
loss of valuable nutrients from the remaining
soil, and to the reduced moisture retention
properties of the land. As a result, dry season
surface flow in streams is reduced or elimi-
nated, flash flood hazards are increased, river
channels are blocked by debris, and nearshore
marine life is smothered by higher stream
sediment loads.


Beach Erosion

The illegal removal of beach sand, particularly
along the north central and northwest coasts,
has resulted in the erosion of the remaining
sandy shoreline, impacting recreational


opportunities and contributing to the
vulnerability of inland areas to coastal flooding.


Solid W aste Disposal

Solid waste is a pervasive problem in and around
major settlements. At present, its impacts are
mainly aesthetic although leachate is probably
contaminating ground aind surface water sour-
ces. There has been an unfortunate tendency,
especially around urban areas such as Kingston,
to use wetlands as repositories for large-scale
dumping. Such sites become harbouring grounds
for mosquitoes, creating potential health haz-
ards.


Destruction of Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat

Habitat destruction is the single biggest contri-
butor to the continuing decline of Jamaica's
unique plant and animal communities. Hunting
has also had a major impact, resulting in the
extinction of the Caribbean Monk Seal (Man-
achus tropicalis) and the reduction in numbers
of the West Indian Manatee (Trichechus
manatus). Among the most endangered species
in the island today are the American Crocodile
(Crocodylus acutus), snakes, marine turtles, and
several species of birds.


Urban Over-crowding

The drift from rural to urban settlement over
the past two decades has led to over-crowded
urban areas, resulting in high demand-supply
ratios for basic amenities. Frequently, urban
development has occurred on potentially
productive agricultural lands or wetland areas.
This is particularly true of urban growth that
has taken place in the general area of Kingston
Harbour. The disruption in the Harbour's
aquatic food chain as a result of wetlands
filling has resulted in sharp declines in this
formerly prolific fishing area.



KEY ISSUES AND CONSTRAINTS TO ENVIRON-
MENTAL MANAGEMENT

Jamaica is an island ecosystem. Activities in
any one sector often have far-reaching conse-
quences on other sectors. In attempting to
minimize adverse impacts, there will inevitably
be conflicts between development and conserva-
tion. Jamaica's need for economic development
is overwhelming, and the resource base on which







this development depends is limited. If Jamai-
ca's economic development is to be sustained,
it is essential to devise strategies that will
promote the type of growth that incorporates
long-term conservation objectives and promotes
the wise use of natural resources.

If environmental r-ianagement is to be effective,
four essential elements are needed:

o A firm and unambiguous commitment by
Government to pursue environmental goals
which, in turn, should be reflected in formal
national policy and priorities;

o An institutional structure designed to imple-
ment environmental programs, and which
clearly assigns responsibility to specific
governmental agencies.

o Sufficient monetary and technical resources
to carry out the activities mandated by
legislation and formulated bK" the agencies;
and

o An informed and aware constituency to pro-
vide input and political support to implement
governmental policy and action programs.

Despite the plethora of environmental legisla-
tion and the institutional arrangements for
environmental management in Jamaica, there is
continued abuse and misuse of the environment
and of Jamaica's resource base. The major
factors contributing to this situation are: an
apparent lack of government commitment to,
and the relatively low priority accorded envi-
ronmental programs; serious weaknesses in the
present operating capabilities of environmental
agencies; shortage of financial resources; and
the low level of public awareness and support
for resolving environmental issues.


Lack of Clear National Policy on the Environ-
ment

In contrast to the absence of national environ-
mental policy, Government is clearly committed
to a policy of national economic development.
This is apparent from both clearly stated and
publicized goals and objectives, and the infusion
of financial resources to attain these goals.
Current governmental priorities are clearly
focused on promoting those sectors and sub-
sectors which i.ill earn foreign exchange in
order to repay national debt. Accordingly,
governmental priorities have focused on the
following:

- Transformation of agriculture, including crop


substitution to emphasize the production of
export crops;
- Promotion of tourism as a major earner of
foreign exchange;
- Support of industrial development, particular-
ly labor-intensive manufacturing;
- Reducing dependence of the economy on
bauxite mining.

These are commendable objectives, deserving
of support. However, by comparison, there is
no clear governmental policy commitment to
environmental protection, and sound resource
management. In addition, not even an enuncia-
tion of national policy exists in some key
sectors. For example, there is no islandwide
coastal management policy to guide shorefront
development, nor is there a national policy for
designating protected areas and national parks.
National policy on environmental education is
also lacking, although the development of a
policy on science and technology is in the
process of formulation. Lack of government
commitment is also reflected in the relatively
low status afforded the agencies responsible
for environmental management, and the very
small percentage of the national budget that
is allocated to these agencies to carry out their
programs.

The commitment to environmental protection
should be as great as the commitment to
economic development. Without adequate at-
tention to safeguarding Jamaica's environment,
the cumulative impacts (e.g., extensive soil
erosion, ground water contamination, etc.) will
damage or destroy the resource base on which
sustained, long-term development depends.
Adoption by Government of a National Policy
on the Environment would signal a meaningful
commitment to addressing the need for more
effective environmental management.


Deficiencies in the Institutional Structure for
Environmental Management

As a result of the research conducted during
the course of the sector studies, it has become
clear that the institutional structure for effec-
tive environmental management is deficient in
terms of both the legislative mandate and the
organization of environmental agencies.

Absence of a Ministry of the Environment. As
noted previously, environmental management is
afforded a low priority by Government. Al-
though NRCD has principal responsibility for
many aspects of environmental management, it
has little influence on the actions of other
agencies whose activities have major environ-
35







mental impacts. Furthermore, NRCD's position
within Government has been downgraded from
a department to a division, and it has been
shifted between ministries several times in
recent years, hindering its ability to establish
a firm leadership role in resource management.

The NRCD and ECD, the pri -ipal environmental
management agencies, have been given division-
al status within the organizational structures
of their respective ministries, thus reducing
their ability to control both financial and human
resources from the agency level. Additionally,
not ad ministries and agencies fall within the
regulatory control of the environmental man-
agement machinery. Some significant develop-
ment plans (e.g., those of the Urban Develop-
ment Corporation and the Ministry of Agricul-
ture) are approved by Ministerial Order.

In reviewing the legislative and administrative
basis for environmental management, jurisdic-
tional overlaps, duplication of effort, and lack
of coordination between the various agencies
responsible for resource management is preva-
lent and widespread. For example, four agen-
cies have responsibility for some aspect of
water exploitation or conservation, yet there
is little or no coordination at the planning level
for this resource.

Establishment of a Ministry of the Environment,
operating within the guidelines of a National
Environmental Policy, would go far toward suc-
cessfully addressing these weaknesses.

Legislative Problems. Despite numerous laws,
there is no comprehensive environmental legis-
lation in Jamaica. While many statutes contain
environmentally-related provisions (e.g., protec-
tion of wildlife species, pollution of harbours,
etc.), specific guidelines are often lacking or
there are major gaps in coverage.

Ineffective and fragmented environmental legis-
lation, coupled with the absence of regulations
or with regulations that are simply not en-
forced, has reduced the effectiveness of envi-
ronmental management in Jamaica. Fines for
breaches of the various conservation laws
represent little deterrent to continued environ-
mental abuse. Breaches of the Wildlife Protec-
tion Act, for example, are subject to fines of
J$100.00. In terms cf fragmentation oi manage-
rial authority, several pieces of legislation
often relate to the same resource. For example,
the Underground Water Control Act and the
Water Act address aspects of water resource
management, but there is no comprehensive
National Water Act.


Enforcement Problems. The inability to enforce
existing legislation results, in part, from an
acute staff shortage at the agency level. At
the NRCD, for example, there are only two
persons with part-time responsibility for
enforcement of the Wildlife Protection Act,
Beach Control Act and the Watershed Protec-
tion Act. The environmental personnel em-
ployed at the Petroleum Corporation of Jamai-
ca, a statutory organization within the Ministry
of Mining, Energy and Tourism, is now larger
than the combined technical staffs of both the
NRCD and the ECD.


Shortage of Financial and Technical Resources

Economic stagnation or recession international-
ly has had a significant impact on developing
countries such as Jamaica. Budgetary shortfalls
have severely constrained the ability of Govern-
ment to effectively manage the country's natur-
al resources. The resource management agen-
cies are plagued by lack of adequate finances
and difficulties in recruiting and retaining
trained personnel. While the basic institutional
framework needed for environmental manage-
ment has been in place for some time, the funds
to adequately staff and administer the relevant
agencies, and enforce the existing environ-
mental legislation are lacking. An examination
of the Estimates of Expenditure show that the
combined budget allocated to the two major
environmental agencies (NRCD and ECD) for
the financial year 1986/87 was $5.7 million
- approximately or --tenth of one percent
(0.1%) of the total budget for the Government
of Jamaica.


Low Level of Public Awareness

Finally and ironically, perhaps the most impor-
tant of all the impediments to effective envi-
ronmental actions is the low level of public
awareness. Until a greater proportion of the
population is aware of the benefits to be gained
from environmental management, action by Gov-
ernment will be slow in coming. An environmen-
tally aware constituency is needed to provide
the impetus to governmental commitment and
to support the activities of responsible agen-
cies, and is thus an essential element in ensuring
a better quality of life for all Jamaicans.

























FRAMEWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL
MANAGEMENT


- -- -I l- -- --m


INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK

In the pursuit of national economic develop-
ment, alteration of the natural environment is
inevitable if the needs of a growing urban
industrial population are to be satisfied. Prior
to the 1970's, development was often pursued
without any consciousness of the adverse impact
it might have on the natural environment. Some
of the resulting problems have been summarized
in the preceding section. The groundswell of
international concern with the environment
heralded by the 1972 Stockholm Conference,
has influenced events in Jamaica, as it has in
many other countries. New legislation was
adopted, new agencies created, and a growing
consciousness was generated regarding the need
to directly confront the negative aspects of
urban, industrial and agricultural development.
The Institutional Overview in Part I describes
the history of Jamaica's legislative and organi-
zational efforts to deal with specific environ-
mental issues.

One major initiative which could be taken to
achieve integration in environment matters,
would be to establish a Ministry responsible for
environmental matters, aided by a National
Advisory Council on the Environment. The
constitution of the Council should reflect the
range of environmental interests affecting
national development activities. The Council
could advise the "Minister" on priority areas
and policies, and on environmental programmes


to be pursued to achieve national objectives.
The Council could also monitor ongoing environ-
mental programmes and offer guidance for
future activities and projects. The composition
of the Advisory Council should be multidiscipli-
nary in character, with at least seven but not
more than eleven members with expertise in
various areas. The Council could create sub-
committees to examine particular problems be-
ing considered.



GOALS AND STRATEGIES

Goals

The general goal of environmental policy is to
preserve the quality of life while achieving
sustained socio-economic progress. The envi-
ronmental objectives of a newly-established
Ministry might be as follows:

o Promote and ensure the wise use of the
nation's natural resources in the interests of
present and future generations. Minimize
any adverse impacts that development may
have by establishing an environmental review
process for major development proposals.

o Establish, make operational, and periodically
update standards and guidelines for managing
the nation's land, water, air, and flora and
fauna.










DEFINITIONS


Environment means the physical factors of the
surroundings of the human beings including land,
water, [atmosphere, climate, sound, odour,
taste], the biological factors of animals and
plants and the social factor of aesthetics.

Pollution means any direct or indirect alteration
of the physical, thermal, chemical, or biological
properties of any part of the environment by
discharging, emitting, or depositing wastes so
as to affect any beneficial use adversely, to
cause a condition which is hazardous or poten-
tially hazardous to public health, safety or
welfare, or to animals, birds, wildlife, fish or
aquatic life or to plants.

Environmental pollution refers to any situation
of air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution,
noise pollution, and offensive odours, arising
from industrial or human activities in which
human health and the living environment are
adversely affected.

Pollutant means any substance whether liquid,
solid, or gaseous which directly or indirectly
(a) alters the quality of any segment or element
of the receiving environment so as to affect
any beneficial use adversely, or (b) is hazardous
or potentially hazardous to health.

Element in relation to environment means any
of the principal constituent parts of the envir-
onment including water, atmosphere, soil, vege-
tation, climate, sound, odour, aesthetics, fish
and wildlife.


Air pollution is a condition in which undesirable
effects on human health and the living environ-
ment are likely to be brought about by the
various pollutants existing in the atmosphere.
These pollutants include, among others, sulphur
oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon oxides,
particulate matter, photochemical oxidants.

Water pollution refers to the condition in which
the quality of water in a lake, river, stream,
sea, or underground aquifer has deteriorated,
or in which pollutants are found in such amounts
that would have undesirable effects on human
health and the living environment.

Wastes includes any matter, whether liquid,
solid or gaseous, which is discharged, emitted,
or deposited in the environment in such volume,
composition or manner as to cause an alteration
of the environment.

Offensive odour is a form of sensory pollution
caused by pollutants '-hich impact on the
olfactory organ. (Examples are ammonia, hydro-
gen sulphide.)

Soil pollution is the condition in which cadmium,
copper, arsenic, and other metals are accumu-
lated in farmlands through air or water pollu-
tion, thereby resulting in agricultural crops and
products being contaminated with pollutants or
being prevented from growing.


Noise pollution is a form of sensory pollution
related to sound volumes being beyond accept-
role levels so as to cause harm or be harmful
to the living environment.


o Increase public understanding of the island's
ecology, promote methods for the conserva-
tion and development of its natural resources,
and instill environmental consciousness among
all sectors of the population.

o Establish risk criteria and undertake risk
assessments of various man-made or natural
activities which could affect public safety.


Strategies

To achieve these goals the "Ministry" could
pursue a multi-faceted approach involving insti-
tutional collaboration, promulgation of legisla-
tion, and information dissemination.

Inter-Governmental Collaboration. Environmen-
tal protection touches upon many fields of







governmental activity. Thus cooperation and
collaboration between and among various agen-
cies of government is needed and, in certain
cases, should be institutionalized. In particular,
collaboration with those agencies whose activi-
ties most directly impinge on the environment
should be obtained with respect to the follow-
ing:

- Establishing ambient environmental quality
guidelines, criteria and standards for the
control of all forms of pollution and establish-
ing the appropriate mechanisms to ensure
their compliance.

- Investigating problems of pollution and waste
management as well as occurrences of unusual
natural or man-made phenomena which may
pose risks to the public health and safety.

- Conducting research related to pollutants and
wastes.

- Conducting studies on environmental planning
and design related to the wise use of
resources.

- Investigating the quality of the natural envi-
ronment and reviewing environmental
monitoring programmes.

- Gathering, publishing and disseminating infor-
mation relating to pollutants and wastes and
the available technological options for effec-
tively dealing with them.

- Reviewing and continually updating disaster
preparedness and contingency plans and ap-
propriately communicating these to the con-
cerned public.

Regional Cooperation. Regional cooperation
and collaboration should be pursued, either
directly with counterpart organizations and
government entities in other countries of the
region or indirectly through international or
regional organizations in order to:

Undertake projects of common concern to
participating countries in the region.

Review existing plans, relative to environ-
mental aspects having regional implications.

- Plan for contingencies with respect to natural
or man-made occurrences which have regional
impacts, such as major oil spills, sea mining
operations, etc.


- Exchange of information, experts, equipment
or other resources to assist or facilitate the
solution of environmental problems in specific
countries.

Legislation. Comprehensive national legislation
needs to be established which will:

- Rationalize the body of environmental legis-
lation, to make the existing laws more
effective and enforceable.

- Institute a process which will include environ-
mental reviews/assessments of major develop-
mental projects.

Public Information. To promote environmental
consciousness among various industrial and busi-
ness groups, and the general public, the appro-
priate Ministry should seek to:

- Provide the general public with information
regarding environmental protection and con-
servation of natural resources.

- Apprise business and industry of the latest
technological developments in pollution a-
batement and control.

- Continue to link with regional and interna-
tional agencies regarding information transfer
and exchange.

- Establish an environmental inforrr non sys-
tem which will include informant on rele-
vant legislation, projects/programmes, and
institutions doing work on the environment,
both in the public and private sector,
including educational institutions, as well as
providing information on the availability of
environmental services.

- Generate, assess and disseminate data con-
cerning the country's environmental resources
and/or the results of various environmental
investigations.

Policy and Program Oversight. Provision must
be made within the overall institutional frame-
work for continuous review and modification of
policy as development proceeds. The inputs of
affected government entities and various public
and private organizations, must be solicited in
the review process.
















t I

BIT TiL1
, Ti,^ l''


Plate 10 Meeting in Mandeville.




























POLICY AND PROJECT RECOMMENDATIONS


RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES FOR THE
DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL ENVIRON-
MENTAL POLICY

With more than two million people dependent
on the limited resource base of an island
environment, the Government of Jamaica must
accept 'he challenge of planning for long-term,
suritainable development. Major components of
Jamaica's economy (such as mining, tourism,
and agriculture) are directly linked to that
resource base. If quality of life is to be
enhanced over the long-term, it is essential
that Jamaica's limited resource base be man-
aged by policies that are environmentally sound.
If such policies are to be more than pious, but
ineffectual expressions of faith, certain con-
crete actions need to be taken. These include
establishing an effective institutional structure
for environmental protection, promoting public
information and encouraging public debate on
environmental issues and, above all, promulgat-
ing a clear mandate from the highest level of
government to incorporate environmental objec-
tives into the development planning process.

Environmental programs and standards for Ja-
maica cannot simply be adapted from overseas
examples. They must be devised within the
context of the socio-economic realities of the
society. A large segment of Jamaica's popula-
tion is poor, and poverty is both a cause and
an effect of environmental degradation. Pol-
icies, programmes and standards, as well as


enforcement practices, muse be realistic, prac-
tical, and supported by an informed public.

The objectives of environmental policy are to
enhance the well-being of Jamaicans and to
preserve the quality of life for present and
future generations. The development and imple-
mentation of national policy guidelines on the
environment is a complex, and controversial
exercise. If pursued diligently, it is likely to
result in some disruption to existing social,
economic, cultural and political relationships.
For that reason, the issues to be addressed call
for considerable debate and discussion by a
wide cross section of interests. Once adopted,
every agency, ministry, statutory body and
private interest group should be bound by the
terms and conditions of pertinent environmental
guidelines and standards.

In an attempt to initiate the process of policy
formulation, some precepts to be kept in mind
in delising environmental policies are enunci-
ated below.


o respect for the intrinsic value of all forms
of life

o vigilance in protecting the integrity of the
ecosystem

o recognition of the importance of preservation
of species diversity and continuity


_ _s --- -- -- I-I A







o appreciation of socio-cultural factors in de-
veloping governmental policies and pro-
grammes

o support for measures resulting in an environ-
mentally aware public


o forging a partnership between
private sectors in support of
source management goals.


the public and
long-term re-


The material presented in this section, derived
from careful analyses of the sector profiles,as
well as from previous efforts at developing
environmental policy guidelines in Jamaica, is
intended to carry the debate forward by provid-
ing a framework for the formulation of a
national policy on the environment. Where
appropriate, sectoral projects conducive to
immediate implementation are also identified.



SECTOR GUIDELINES

Environmental policies, objectives, and projects
are suggested for each of the following sectors.


Fisheries Resources

Policy
It shall be the policy to ensure the conservation
and enhancement of fisheries resources such
that the continued existence and viability of
all species are guaranteed.

Objectives
o To conserve known fishery habitats so that
there is no net loss of habitats, nursery areas
or feeding grounds.

o To ensure population enhancement, particu-
larly in overfished nearshore locations.

o To develop and implement catch methods
which preclude the taking of juveniles.

Projects
o The development of enhancement programmes
for various economically important fisheries
species.

o The development of a comparative fishery
resources conservation programme including
habitat management.

o Initiation of a project to establish optimum
net sizes to protect the resource and benefit
the fisherman.


o Strengthening the institutional base required
to conserve fishery resources, including the
development of fisheries stock assessment
capacity.


Energy Resources

Policy
It shall be the policy to develop, as far as
possible, indigenous energy resources while
maintaining good environmental quality.

Objectives
o To develop a co-ordinated approach toward
the sustainable exploitation of indigenous
energy resources.

o To ensure that the siting and operation of
power/energy generating facilities is carried
out such that acceptable environmental cri-
teria are met.

o To evaluate the use of non-indigenous energy
resources, bearing in mind the multi-use
potential of these resources.

Projects
o The development of effluent guidelines and
provision of the necessary legal and institu-
tional arrangements to ensure their enforce-
ment.

o Research and development of fast-growing
trees and grasse: with a high biomass content
that can be used for fuel.

o Development of public education programmes
aimed at increasing the understanding of the
relationship between energy, natural resour-
ces and the ecosystem.


Human Resources and Culture

Policy
It shall be the policy to ensure the development
of the human resources of the country to such
a level so as to allow for the participation of
the wider public in the environmental manage-
ment process. An essential element of environ-
mental policy should be the training, develop-
ment and effective utilization of all technical
personnel involved in environmentally related
programs.

Objectives
o To safeguard the quality of all human envi-
ronments with particular reference to
environmental health and aesthetic values.







o To develop public awareness of environmental
issues so that the population can participate
in the decision making processes which will
ultimately affect their quality of life.

Projects
o The establishment of public educational pro-
grammes aimed specifically at promoting the
understanding of interactions between econo-
mic development, the natural environment and
national well-being.

o The development of an effective legal and
institutional framework which will safeguard
the quality of the human environment.

o Promotion of environmental activities within
the educational system, including extra-curri-
cular activities.


Tourism and Recreation

Policy
It shall be the policy to preserve and enhance
Jamaica's aesthetic and environmental attri-
butes, and to broaden the range of recreational
opportunities available to local and overseas
tourists.

Objectives
o To identify the recreational potential of
particular features of the natural resource
base.

o To ensure the effective management of rec-
reational facilities so as to maintain accept-
able levels of environmental and aesthetic
quality.

o To encourage and develop public awareness
of the reciprocal relationships between good
environmental quality and sustainable tourism
development.

Projects
o The identification and evaluation of alterna-
tive features of the resource base which have
recreational potential, with a view to reliev-
ing pressure on existing over-used areas (e.g.,
beaches).

o The development of a legal and institutional
framework which will ensure effective man-
agement of recreational resources and facili-
ties.

o The monitoring and assessment of impacts of
the tourist industry on the island's natural


resources; Le. beaches, water quality, wild-
life and culture.

o Enforcement of the Beach Control Act with
particular reference to the protection of
reefs, seagrases, and beach sand.


Mining and Minerals

Policy
It shall be the policy to ensure that mining
proceeds in an environmentally sound manner
and that the activities involved do not perma-
nently foreclose other development options.

Objectives
o To ensure continued productivity of mined-
out areas by means of effective rehabilitation
programmes.

o To ensure the conservation of Eocio-cultural
values where relocation of individuals is
inevitable.

o To increase the understanding and apprecia-
tion of mineable resources and the social,
economic and environmental impacts of
mining.

Projects
o The comprehensive and quantitative evalua-
tion of minerals especially the base metals.

o The development of other mineral commodi-
ties particularly limestone and silica sand.

o The development of land use policy which
will seek to protect economically significant
mining areas, thus arresting the loss of
potentially important mining areas to urban
sprawl and agriculture.


Environmental Education

Policy
It shall be the policy to provide environmental
education both at the formal and informal levels
to the population at large.

Objectives
o To incorporate socio-cultural approaches and
the reciprocal exchange method in the envi-
ronmental education process.

o To ensure functional co-ordination between
the various components of the environmental
education system.







o To develop comprehensive programmes for
the acquisition, storage and dissemin.tion of
environmental information.

o To establish an effective institutional and
legal framework for environmental informa-
tion and education.

Projects
o The establishment of effective legal and
institutional frameworks to facilitate the
promotion of environmental information and
education.

o The production of environmental education
tools for use at both the informal and formal
levels.


Forestry Resources

Policy
It shall be the policy to ensure the integrity
of forest resources with respect to the benefits
that such resources confer in soil and water
conservation, in economic development, as wild-
life habitats, and in the aesthetic and recrea-
tional values which they provide.

Objectives
o To continue the evaluation of forest resour-
ces bearing in mind their importance in
conservation and economic development.

o To maintain the existence of indigenous
stands on steep slopes vulnerable to erosion.

o To develop and encourage the understanding
of the role of our forests, particularly with
regard to soil and water conservation.

Projects
o The development of both effective legal and
institutional frameworks designed to oversee
a comprehensive Forest Management Plan
which, in the short-term, will address immedi-
ate issues of rehabilitation, replanting denud-
ed slopes and, in the long-term, provide forest
resource enhancement through the establish-
ment of economically beneficial stands.

o Research and development of uses of local
forest by-products (pharmaceuticals, veneer-
ing products for furniture, etc.).

o The development of schemes involving the
planting of fast growing trees specifically
for use as fuel.


o Provision of incentive schemes to encourage
timber farming by private farmers.

o The development of special techniques to
reduce soil erosion in timber harvesting and
road construction, particularly in areas of
stee, slopes.


Water Resources

Policy
It shall be the policy to ensure adequate
quantity and acceptable water quality to meet
the needs of industry, agriculture and the
general population who rely on water not only
for domestic use, but also for recreational and
industrial purposes.

Objectives
o To conserve water resources bearing in mind
the intrinsic environmental value of this
resource, its role as a habitat, and the
importance of maintaining a viable hydrologi-
cal regime.

o To ensure adequate supply and an acceptable
level of water quality for all sectors through-
out the island.

Projects
o The improvement of inter-connections be-
tween sources of water supply to reduce
waste and to ensure efficient distribution.

o The upgrading and construction of water
treatment facilities.

o The expansion of monitoring and assessment
programmes for both marine and fresh water
resources.

o The rehabilitation of catchment areas to
reduce the rate of surface run-off, thus
contributing to the supply of ground water.

o The rehabilitation of the irrigation infra-
structure.


Agriculture

Polic-
It shall be the policy to ensure that agriculture
development is based on sound principles of
resource management. Agricultural practices
should enhance soil fertility, prevent soil ero-
sion and maintain the productive capacity of
the resource base.







Objectives
o To develop and implement conservation o-
riented farming technologies specifically a-
dapted to local conditions.

o To promote the use of more productive
agricultural systems that assure the use of
all resources on a sustained basis.

o To ensure economic use of irrigation water
so as to maintain acceptable groundwater
conditions.

o To ensure that the utilization of agro-chemi-
cals does not impair environmental quality.

o To arrest the loss of productive agricultural
lands to other development options.

o To ensure that the introduction of new crop
species be carefully evaluated so as to
protect the ecological integrity of the envi-
ronment.

o To promote the use of land-use and land
capability data to assist in decision-making
with respect to the implementation of agri-
cultural development projects.

o To develop public education programmes
geared towards improving the appreciation of
the need for sound environmental management
principles as a means of ensuring sustainable
and productive agricultural development.

o To develop effective legal and institutional
frameworks so that the objectives outlined
above may be realized.



Projects
o Integrated planning of watershed management
in the badly eroded watersheds, especially
for the Kingston Metropolitan Region.

o Monitoring the impact of agri-chemicals on
soils, and surface and ground water resources.


o Monitoring and assessment of the
tal and social impacts of all
developments (e.g., AGRO 21,
FID C O).


environm en-
agricultural
CIDCO, and


o Development of a national land use policy
which provides guidelines for the most effi-
cient use of land.


National Parks aed Protected Areas


Policy
It shall be the policy to identify and designate
areas of aesthetic, recreational, scientific or
education value and to provide for the protec-
tion and management of such areas.

Objectives
o To provide the legal and institutional mecha-
nisms necessary to establish and conserve na-
tional parks and protected areas.

o To promote an understanding of the need to
conserve national parks and protected areas
for their aesthetic, recreational, educational
and scientific value.

o To allow for the existence of economic
activities within national parks and protected
areas while maintaining their uniqueness and
ecological diversity.

Projects
o The drafting of legislation aimed at providing
the legal framework for the establishment
and conservation of national parks and pro-
tected areas.

o The development of the Blue Mountain Na-
tional Park with special emphasis on the
identification of unique features and ecologi-
cal diversity.

o The development of the Canoe Valley Nation-
al Park while taking into account the need
to develop the economically viable opportuni-
ties of the park.


Industry and Industrial Pollution

Policy
It shall be the policy to ensure that industrial
activity proceeds in an ecologically sound
manner; that it does not impair environmental
quality or exert any adverse effects upon the
human resource.

Objectives
o To ensure that the siting of industry is
carried out so as to reduce adverse local
impacts.

o To ensure effective disposal of industrial
effluents bearing in mind the need to maintain
an acceptable environmental quality.







o To foster a reciprocal relationship between
government and industry in an effort to
achieve effective environmental management.

o To develop public educational programmes
geared toward increasing the understanding
of the relationship between industry and the
environment.

Projects
o Establishment of guidelines ',nd effluent dis-
charge standards for the various categories
of industrial waste.

o Tax incentives to encourage waste recycling
and reuse.
o The development of legal and institutional
mechanisms for effective environmental man-
agement in the industrial sector.


Coastal Resources

Policy
It shall be the policy to ensure the maintenance
of coastal integrity and the pursuit of non-
conrlicting and sustainable development options
such that the environmental quality of coastal
eco-systems is improved and maintained.

Objectives
o To ensure sustainable development of the
coastal zone of the island.

o To maintain and enhance ecological diversity
and productivity in the coastal zone.

o To encourage public awareness of the impor-
tance of coastal resources in enhancing both
economic well-being and the quality of life.

Projects
o Preparation of an island-wide coastal zone
management plan.

o Design of a comprehensive programme for the
rehabilitation of badly impacted coastal re-
sources such as seagrasses, mangroves and
beaches.

o Preparation of effluent discharge guidelines
for coastal water.

o Development of the legal, institutional and
administrative measures necessary for the
enforcement of the Beach Control Act.

o Design of incentive schemes that encourage
mariculture and aquaculture in the near-shore
environment.


o Public education programmes geared toward
demonstrating the relationship between the
conservation of coastal resources and the
integrity and productivity of the coastal
zone.


Wildlife Resources

Policy
It shall be the policy to conserve indigenous
wildlife species as part of the natural heritage
as well as for their scientific and educational
importance.

Objectives
o To ensure the protection of wildlife habitats.

o To ensure the preservation of all wildlife
species.

Projects
o Evaluation of wildlife resources and their
habitats.

o Development of conservation programmes for
wildlife species and their habitats.

o Development of programmes aimed at
strengthening institutional capabilities to ef-
fectively enforce the Wildlife Protection Act.

o Initiation of public awareness programmes
geared toward increasing the appreciation of
the island's wildlife resources.












PART III: SECTOR ANALYSES


Plate 11 Boy with reaped yams; Hillside farming





































.-;ydt..l.^BHasaoaiicTrgtaBBiyaiii IImI i 4
Plate 12 Peace and quiet reflection in the
St. Andrew Hills.


Plate 13 Blue Mountains coffee picker with
laden basket.











The People


HUMAN RESOURCES AND CULTURE


OVERVIEW OF HUMAN RESOURCES AND
CULTURE

Jamaica's population, slightly more than 2
million at the 1982 census, is characterized by
great diversity in ethnic, cultural, and socio-
economic backgrounds. Alternative periods of
conflict and accommodation between divergent
groups has shaped the country's economic and
cultural history, and has had a profound impact
on population growth, characteristics and distri-
bution.


Historic Population Growth

When Jamaica was discovered by Columbus on
his second voyage in 1494, it was inhabited by
an estimated 60,000 Arawak Indians who lived
near the coast. The Arawak's fell victim to
European diseases and harsh treatment, and
died out by the mid-seventeenth century. The
Spanish first settled in 1510, but did little to
develop or populate the island in the nearly
150 years before the British arrived in 1655.
The British developed plantation agriculture
based on the increasing demand for sugar in
Europe and the availability of slaves from
Africa. Jamaica became one of England's most
valuable agricultural colonies, as well as a
major port in the Caribbean.

In the first 150 years of British rule, the
population of the island grew largely as a result


of slave imports and white immigration. The
growth of the black population was almost
entirely a consequence of the slave trade.
Blacks and whites contributed to the formation
of a third group commonly referred to as the
coloured. By 1785, the population included an
estimated 30,000 whites, 10,000 free coloured,
and about 250,000 slaves living on the planta-
tions.

Since the days of slavery the population has
risen steadily, and in recent years has grown
rapidly, despite considerable emigration. The
first census of Jamaica, taken in 1844, put the
population of the island at 377,000. From 1844
to 1881, it increased to 581,000, spurred, in
part, by the opening of Jamaica to indentured
immigration of East Indians and Africans.
During this period, it is almost certain that the
death rate declined from the high levels which
prevailed during slavery. This growth occurred
despite the cholera epidemics of the 1850's.


From 1881 to 1921, population increased to
858,000. At the same time, there was consider-
able external migration, resulting mainly from
the opening up of new development prospect
abroad. The commencement of work on the
Panama Canal and the development of the
banana industry in Central America proved
great attractions to Jamaican workers, The
expansion of the Cuban sugar industry in the
opening years of the 20th century created a


_ I I I ___ __ __ ~I







demand for Jamaican workers on sugar platnta-
tions. The forging of an important link between
Jamaica and the U.S. resulting from the devel-
opment of the banana trade, coupled with the
latter's open door immigration policy, offered
yet another attraction for emigration. Adverse
conditions in Jamaica, resulting from a succes-
sion of disastrous hurricanes and stress in
agriculture also played an important part in
stimulating migration.

Between 1921 and 1947, a combination of
factors resulted in an entirely new pattern of
population growth. U.S. quota laws, first passed
in 1921, effectively curbed emigration from
Jamaica, as did restrictions on entry to Latin
American countries. The absence of large-
scale, labour-intensive development projects
within the region slowed emigration. The in-
migration of indentured labourers came to an
end in 1914; and external migration no longer
provided an escape hatch for population growth.
With improvements in public health, mortality
rates fell substantially. By 1943, the population
of the island reached 1.237 million.

A resurgence of external migration dominated
the post-World War II years. Movements to
the United Kingdom reached a peak in the years
1959-1961, and came to an end with the passing
of the Commonwealth Immigration Act of 1962.
Mortality rates continued to decline. The 1960
census reported a population of 1.6 million.
Although the rate of natural increase in the
post-war years was higher than in any other
period (23.4 per 1,000), because of high emigra-
tion rates, the annual rate of population growth
averaged 1.6% for the period 1921-1943.

From 1960 through the early 1970's, a new type
of emigration appeared. This involved profes-
sional and semi-professional personnel migrating
to the U.S. and Canada. The annual average
outflow of 28,000 in the decade 1960-70 was
by far the largest such movement ever exper-
ienced in the island, equivalent to 53% of the
natural increase for that decade.


Cultural Background

The population of Jamaica is almost entirely
derived from immigrant streams entering the
island since its capture by the British in 1655.
By far the largest number came from West
Africa during the slave period. At the time
of emancipation, blacks outnumbered the white
settlers by about ten to one; today about 96%
of the population is coloured or black. A small
number of indentured Indian labourers were


settled in Jamaica in the last half of the
n-neteenth century, and now comprise about 2%
of the total population. All other groups,
includir.; Europeans and Chinese, make up less
than 2% of the tothl.

Each of the ethnic groups that arrived in
Jamaica brought with them their own unique
cultural characteristics. From these various
population strains is emerging a cultural identi-
ty unique to Jamaica. The quest for a cultural
identity has been accelerated since the attain-
ment of nationhood 23 years ago. Although
some cultural exclusiveness has persisted, the
movement towards a national cultural identity
continues, characterized by the national motto
"Out Of Many One People".



POPULATION TRENDS

Population Size and Composition

Jamaica's population at the 1982 census was
2,190,357. Urban dwellers accounted for 47.8%
of the population, while 52.2% were classified
as rural. (The percentage of urban to rural
population increased by 6.6% between 1970 and
1982.) Geographical features significantly af-
fect settlement patterns: settlement is consid-
erably restricted in those areas of steep and
rugged terrain in the centre of the island, as
well as in regions of swamp along certain
sections of the coast. Figure 10 shows the
general density distribution of the population
by Parish.

The Caribbean, as a whole, has a far higher
ratio of people to land area than any other
sub-region of the Americas (130 per sq. km. as
compared to 40 per sq. km. in Central America
and 12 per sq. km. in North America. Based
on the provisional count of the 1982 census,
Jamaica's population density was 205 persons
per sq. km. (See Table 4.)

Jamaica's average annual rate of population
increase is 1.4%, placing it among that group
of countries which has reduced their rate of
population growth to a fairly moderate level.
This recent rate is the same as that which
prevailed during the decade 1960-1970, largely
because the level of migration was lower in
the 1970-80 period than it was during the 1960-
70 decade.

Although Jamaica is a multi-ethnic society,
ethnic groups other than those of African origin
comprise a very small minority of the popula-





























tion. Based on the 1970 census, the combined
total of those classified as East Indian, White,
and Chinese made up 3.1% of the total Jamaican
population; blacks accounted for 90.9%; 5.9%
were listed as of "other races"; and for 0.1%,
no race was stated (Statistical Yearbook of
Jamaica, 1980). However, the impact of these
minority groups cannot be gauged solely by
their numbers. Jamaica was a slave society
for over 150 years and a colony for over 300.
During this lengthy period of its modern history,
the society was controlled by a small minority
of European origin. The powerful position of
this minority has exerted considerable influence
on the culture, values and local evaluation of
phenotypic features. Many of these groups
- Jews, Lebanese, Chinese -with traditions of
activity in commerce and trade have carved
out viable niches for themselves in these fields
in the Jamaican society to which they came as
immigrants. Hence, they are minority groups
of considerable influence extending well beyond
their numerical strength.


Migration

Estimates of migration from Jamaica over the
period 1960-1984 show fluctuations which are
in some cases, quite striking and, in part,
reflect changes in immigration policy in the
countries to which Jamaicans have traditionally
migrated. (See Table 5.) These data, while
generally considered to underestimate the actu-
al level of emigration, nevertheless do give
some idea of the extent of movement, and of
the fluctuations that occurred from year to
year. For example, the large number of
migrants recorded between 1960 and 1962,
followed by a sharp fall-off in 1963, indicate


the frantic efforts to enter the United Kingdom
before the Commonwealth Immigration Act be-
came effective in 1962. North America both
the U.S.A. and Canada has become the
primary destination of Jamaican migrants since
the mid-1960's.

A study of the migration flow to the U.S.A.
and Canada, conducted by the National Planning
Agency (now the Planning Institute of Jamaica),
attempted to characterize the composition of
the migrating population and to estimate its
social cost to Jamaica. (See Table 6). (One
advantage of the study is that it substantiates
the alleged undercounting noted above in the
estimates prepared by the Immigration Depart-
ment). This study revealed that 46.2% of the
214,298 emigrants destined for the U.S.A. and
Canada between 1970 and 1980 were members
of the labour force. The majority, 53.8% of
the migrants, were housewives, children or
others with no occupation. Of the workers
who migrated, just under 19% were in the
categories of professional, technical,
administrative and managerial personneL For
the period 1977-1980 the percentage in this
highly skilled category was even higher, 26.6%.
Considering that professional, administrative
and related workers comprise consistently less
tnan 10% of Jamaica's labour force, the extent
of the loss of skilled manpower becomes more
apparent.

The highly mobile character of Jamaica's popu-
lation is further apparent in the level of
internal migration. (See Table 7.) Between
1969 and 1974, 28.4% of the population changed
their parish of residence. In the most mobile
age group (25-34), 45.9% changed parishes at
least once during the five year period.


Table 4:
Population Density in Selected Countries
of the Ci.'cum-Caribbean


Country Density per sq. km.


Barbados 584 (1980)
Dominican Republic 122 (1981)
Guadeloupe 179 (1982)
Trinidad and Tobago 224 (1980)
Jamaica 205 (1982)
Source: United Nations Demographic Yearbook, 1983












FIGURE: 10


POPULATION DENSITIES AND DISTRIBUTION BY PARISH


SOURCE: Statistical Yearbook of Joamca 1980.










Table 5:


Estimates of Net Migration 1960-1984


Net Migration

-30,300
-38,500
-28,700
7,300
-13,500
6,500
8,900
-20,000
-20,000
-29,000
-23,000
-31,500
-11,200


Year

1973
1974
1975
1976
1977**
1978***
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984


Net Migration

-10,200
-12,900
-12,100
-22,200
-21,100
-17,800
-21,400
-24,300
5,900
9,800
4,300
-10,500


Central Planning Unit Estimate
** Provisional Estimate from the Registrar General's Office
*** Department of Statistics Estimate


Source: Statistical Institute of Jamaica, Demographic Statistics, 1984.
Compiled from data collected by the Immigration Department.


Table 6:


Distribution of Emigrants to North America:


1970-80


Occupational Group

Professional and Technical
Administrative and Managerial
Farmers and Farm Managers
Clerical and Kindred
Sales Workers
Craftsmen, Foremen, Kindred
Operators and Kindred
Private Household Workers
Service Workers except Private
Labourers including Farm Labourers
Occupations not Stated

TOTAL WORKERS

Housewives, Children, Others
with No Occupation

TOTAL EMIGRATION


1970-80 % 1977-80 %


11,978
6,643
638
15,619
2,774
13,990
18,001
14,764
8,879
3,881
1,860


5,362
4,124
212
6,729
1,195
4,636
4,466
2,896
3,627
1,589
792


99,027 46.2 35,628 44.0

115,271 53.3 45,372 56.0


214,298 100% 81,000 100%


Source: National Planning Agency: Emigration to North America from
Jamaica 1970-80, A Special Report (1982).


Year

1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968*
1969
1970
1971
1972









Table 7:
Population by Age Group and Number of Parishes Lived in
Between June 1969 and June 1974


Population Projections and Some of Their Impli-
cations

Between the 1920's and the 1960's, the Kingston
Metropolitan Area (KM A) experienced a very
high rate of population growth, both through
natural increase and by net migration from rural
areas. The population in the metropolitan area
almost doubled between 1943 and 1960, growing
from 238,300 to 419,400. Between 1960 and
1980, this growth in population led to the
development of large settlements around the
perimeter of the old metropolitan area. (See
Figure 11.) The population of the Portmore
area, for example, grew from just over 2,000
in 1970 to over 66,000 in 1982. However, with
the limited exception of the Central Village/
Spanish Town area, the construction of new
housing adjacent to the old Kingston Metropoli-
tan Area has not been accompanied by the
growth of satellite industrial and commercial
zones to support the new population distribu-
tion. For example, the Urban Growth and
Management Study, conducted in cho mid 1970's
found that residents in outlying 'suburbs' were
dependent to a very high degree for jobs and
services located within the KM A. (See Table 8.)


Population trends for the island as a whole
have looked promising since the decline in the
fertility rate and the rate of population in-
crease which started in the early 1970's.*


* It should be noted that the alleged decline
in the fertility rate has not been definitively
established. Some experts notably Profes-
sor G.W. Roberts, the foremost authority on
Jamaican and Caribbean demographic pat-
terns question the reliability of the data
on which the decline is supposedly based.
Professor Roberts points to the deterioration
of the system for collecting vital statistics
at the local community level (the fee paid
to register births has remained the same for
60 years) and the demoralizing working condi-
tions at the Registrar General's Department
to support his skepticism. If the fertility
rate has indeed fallen it might be attributed
to a combination of factors: the effect of
the family planning programme, as well as
the increasing opportunity for schooling to
the secondary level and beyond that have
opened up for working class girls and boys
in the past two decades.


Total Never Number of other Parishes lived in Not
Age Group Popula- Moved__ Reported
tion 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Both Sexes
Under 5 268,885 248,388 15,884 908 5 3,700
5 4 617,896 534,306 66,651 5,584 79 22 11,254
15 24 304,500 236,649 81,613 14,246 1,202 404 42 52 6,292

25 34 195,153 79,572 69,032 17,678 2,189 489 67 76 94 7,956

35 44 168,449 86,896 55,813 16,241 1,564 386 95 90 67 7,297
45 54 154,141 81,266 48,135 12,999 599 261 261 133 234 8,216
55 64 131,436 74,060 38,460 10,623 1,098 148 425 22 211 6,389
,6 and cver 128,848 76,303 35,506 8,748 1,729 634 157 204 46 5,521

Total 2,005,308 1,435,440 411,094 87,027 10,164 2,682 .,047 525 704 56,625


Source: Statistical Institute of Jamaica Demographic Statistics, 1984














FIGURE; 11 GROWTH OF THE KINGSTON


J. METROPOLITAN AREA /943-1976






...........
















.01










BU/LT UP AREA /943


Eil URBAN EXPANSION /943 /960

URBAN EXPANSION /96/-1970 74*-- TO AIRPORT B PORT ROYAL

B4f EXPANSION /97/- /976 Source: Urban Growth a Monagement Study. Nov. 198.







Projections made in the early 1980's suggest
that the fertility rate will continue to decline
to replacement level by 1995-2000 under the
moderate projection. As of 1984, the number
of children per woman had fallen to 3.3. (See
Population and Jamaica's Future: A Statement
of National Population Policy, 1982, and Econo-
mic and Social Survey, 1984.) It is anticipated
that the island's population will be around or
slightly under 3 million in the year 2000. (See
figure 12.)


While this may be a welcome trend to those
responsible for providing education, housing,
jobs and other services, the overall decline does
mask certain problem areas which can already
be detected and require urgent attention. The
legacy of high rates of population growth in
the 1950's and 1960's is the unusually large
number of persons reaching their 20's in the
1980's. While in 1980, there were approximate-


ly 350,000 persons in the 20-29 age group, by
1990 there could be 550,000 persons in this age
group.

The large increase in the number of people in
their 20's comes at a time of dramatic decline
in housing construction. (See Table 9.) From
1983 to 1984, for example, there was a decline
of almost 52% in government-sponsored housing
starts and a 33.6% decline overall, when con-
struction activity in both the public and private
sectors is taken into account (See Economic
and Social Survey, 1984). Even without the
recent downturn, the rate of new housing
construction has consistently been well below
the estimated need, now said to be 12,500 units
per year (see Davies, 1984). Moreover, the
high rates of inflation and high interest rates
make the possibility of home ownership even
more remote, precisely at a time when the
number of young people starting new families
is at a peak.


Table 8:


Degree of Dependency of Communities in the
K.M.R. on the K.M.A.*


Communities in
the K.M.R.

Gordon Town

Golden Spring

Swain Spring

Spanish Town

Ensom City

Willowdene

St. Thomas
Coast


Work Place
in K.M.A.


Recreation
in K.M.A.


Out of Area
Doctor

37%

100%

100%

4%

99%

97%

99%


Out of Area
Shopping


100%


100%


*KMR: Kingston Metropolitan Region; KMA:


Kingston Metropolitan Area


Source: Urban Growth Management Study, 1978


Schools in
K.M.A.











FRrE:12


TOTAL FERTILITY RATE JAMAICA
Estimated 1960-'75; Asumed 1975-2010


HIGH
MEDIUM
LOW





Ns


190 1970 190 1990 2000 2010
e:Poplati and Jma Fute: A Statmen of NaonY Popt EAR Pol 1 .
Source: Population and Jomaico, Future: A Statement of National Population Poloy. 1982.


Table 9:

Level of Housing Construction 1974-1984


Public Sector Private
Year Agencies Sector Total

1974 1621 64 1685
1975 3598 614 4212
1976 4638 3214 7852
1977 4384 2453 6837
1978 4601 275 4876
1979 3653 1116 4769
1980 1959 1284 3143
1981 1838 466 2304
1982 5019* 1210 6229
1983 1560 1872 3432
1984 1173 1867 3040



*A large percentage of these were converted from previously
constructed Sites and Services Units.

Source: Davies, 1984 and Economic and Social Survey 1984.







The coincidence of these various trends sug-
gests that in the next decade or so, further
strain will continue to be placed on the existing
housing stock and infrastructure, particularly
in the KM A. There is likely to be an increasing
tendency for families to double-up, and for the
pressure of population on housing and public
services to increase. Thus, a municipal system
which had never really caught up with the
accelerating demand for services engendered
by the high rates of population growth in earlier
decades, will be taxed still further, especially
in view of the contraction of government
spending in the 1980's.


The Labour Force and Education

A quantitative profile of the labour force over
the period 1968-1984 indicates both a consisten-
cy of certain patterns, as well as incremental
shifts caused by changes in the political
economy. The percentage of workers in the


agricultural sector has fallen slightly since the
mid -and -late -1970's, reflecting the thrust
toward more capital-intensive farming under
the current administration. Similarly, the
expansion that occurred in the public sector in
the mid-to-late-1970's has been followed by
more recent cut-backs in this sector, also a
reflection of shifting governmental policy.

However, the distribution of occupations by
sectors, notwithstanding changes in policy and
in the level of economic activity, has shown
remarkable consistency. (See Table 10.) For
example, the percentage of the population
involved in agriculture has remained fairly
consistent over the period and seems to under-
score the apparent resilience of the island's
small farming peasantry. The high percentage
of self-employed workers as compared to other
occupations appears to indicate the vitality of
the "informal" sector in the Jamaican economy
and its tendency to gLuw precisely when the
formal economy is in decline. (See Table 11.)


Table 10:


Percentage Employed Labour Force by Industry Group


Industry Grouo


Agriculture,* Foresty
and Fishing

Mining and Quarrying

Manufacturing

Construction and
Installation

Transport Communica-
tion and Public
Utilities


1968 1972 1976 1980 1984


33.6 35.3


36.8 32.7


-1.2 1.2 0.9


10.9 12.8


7.0 6.6 5.4 3.6 4.4



4.2 4.1 4.8 4.7 4.6


Commerce


Public Administration


14.2

12.8


9.6 10.8


Other Services


Industry not specified


0.6 0.3


*For the years 1968 and 1972, Agriculture includes Mining.


Source: Statistical Institute of Jamaica: The Labour Force (calculated
from various issues).


__


*










Table 11:


Percentage Employed Labour Force by Occupation


Occupation 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984


Professional, Technical
Administrative,
Executive Managerial,
and Related
Occupations

Clerical and Sales

Self-Employed and
Independent


5.5 7.0 9.5 8.6 8.8


9.5 12.3 11.7 12.1


37.3 34.8 37.1


11.3


12.8 13.6 11.3 11.8 14.0


Craftsmen, Production
Process and Operating
Ocupations


Unskilled Manual

Occupation not
specified


17.0 13.9 11.7


20.0


-0.4


14.6 12.0


0.2


Source: Statistical Institute of Jamaica: The Labour Force (calculated
from various issues).


The unemployment rate for women has been
consistently more than twice that for men.
(See Table 12.) Moreover, young women have
been disproportionately affected. Even though
major increases in government spending are
unlikely, given present economic constraints,
the employment of women and young people in
conservation programmes would be appropriate
if spending levels increase.



Table 12:

Unemployment Rate Jamaica*


1968 1972 1976 1980 1984

Total 18.5 22.5 24.2 26.8 25.4

Male 12.0 13.6 14.7 16.0 15.7

Female 27.3 34.1 35.6 38.4 36.5

*With the exception of 1980, when the survey
was conducted in November, all rates are for
the survey month of October.

Source: Statistical Institute of Jamaica: The
Labour Force (various issues).


A general indication of the educational status
of the Jamaican population may be gleaned
from Table 13, which shows the ratio of
population enrolled in primary and secondary
schools to total population for those age groups.
The ratios should have increased significantly
by 1980.


Services


41.0 40.2


13.7







CULTURE

Lines of Differentiation*

While cultural ideas that cut across the entire
society can readily be identified, it is also
necessary to take note of significant variations
resulting from historical patterns in the devel-
opment of the society. Topography and the
requirements of the production regime have
been central factors in the internal
differentiation of the Jamaican population.
Large sugar estates occupied the most fertile
plains and alluvial valleys of the island since
the early eighteenth century, while much of
the remaining area of low slope with more
shallow soils or inadequate rainfall for sugar
cane cultivation, were taken up by cattle and
pimento estates. As a means of feeding the
slave labour force, plantations traditionally
allocated the more mountainous sections of
their holdings, in plots of an acre or so in size,
to slaves for cultivating food staples for home
consumption and for sale at the regular Sunday
in market.

It was from this well-practiced pattern of
cultivation and marketing that the Jamaican
peasantry emerged after Emancipation, gradual-
ly buying small plots of land (usually the hillside
land of ruined estates) with their accumulated
savings. Inequality of holdings, both as to
quality and relative size, has always character-
ized the rural population. This pattern has
never been significantly modified by govern-
ment-sponsored schemes of land settlement
which began in the 1890's.

The first general line of differentiation, then,
is between plantation and peasantry, plantation
worker and peasant farmer although even
here the situation is complicated by the fre-
quency with which one finds workers who divide
their time between own-account cultivation and
hired labour. Within the broad peasantry
category, one might find significant differences,
for example: between communities of fishermen
and communities of small farmers; between
church-settled and non-church-settled free vil-
lages; between areas where a profitable cash
crop grown for export has come to dominate,
such as bananas or coffee versus areas that
grow food crops for home use and local sale;
between land settlement (or more recently land-
lease) areas and their counterparts settled with-
out government assistance; or between areas

* As background to the discussion of this
section see: Higman, 1976; Mintz, 1974; Price,
1966; and Frucht, Comitas, 1973.


where the bauxite/aluminia industries have been
established, versus those areas more remote
from these operations.


Similarly, the profile of the traditional sugar
plantation areas and its neighboring villages
must embrace considerable variations having to
do, for example, with whether the estate is
owned by a family or local interests, or by a
foreign controlled multi-national corporation.
Again, the pattern of abandonment, or conver-
sion to other crops, of large holdings previously
in sugar cane, which has been occurring in
spurts since the mid-nineteenth century, is a
constant source of change making for different-
iation in the rural population. Large areas of
St,. James and St. Ann parishes, for example,
have been taken out of sugar cane, while, most
recently, large holdings in Clarendon have been
put into high-technology winter vegetable farm-
ing.

In addition, there are other variations which
characterize the Jamaican population and set-
tlement patterns, including the traditional
rural/urban difference and the presence of small
urban settlements around the coastline which
previously served as export and service-centres
for the plantations; the growth of centres
specializing in tourism such as Ocho Rios,
Negril, Runaway Bay, and the larger Montego
Bay; and the persisting uniqueness of the
island's Maroon communities, settled by run-
away slaves whose autonomous existence was
recognized by treaty from the late eighteenth
century. Thus, within a national environmental
programme, there is need for small-scale proj-
ects which not only address the objectives of
environmental management, but seek to accomo-
date the distinctive social characteristics of
the sub-region within which they are to be
im plemented.

Most of the interior towns and villages devel-
oped after the end of slavery in 1838, in
response to the growth of the small settler
population. Figure 13 illustrates the hierarchy
of present and projected central places around
the island. Several of today's important interior
towns (such as Browns Town, Linstead, Chapel-
ton, Christiana and Highgate) developed as
market centres, whose growth was stimulated
and manned largely by enterprising ex-slaves.
With their development, the island's network
of internal communication became more reticu-
lated, shifting from coastal boat traffic and a
few primary interior routes which predominated
before the nineteenth century, to a dense
system of interior roadways linking the new
settlements.













FIGURE: 13 !^. SETTLEMENT STRATEGY


MARIA


lotto aI
0 BBi


London


Tresmi


. REGIONAL CENTRES
SUB- REGIONAL CENTRES

o DISTRICT CENTRES


Moront


Source: Documnt Prepared for Eighth Seion,U.N. Commisson on
Human Settlement (!985)


L







Cultural Symbols and Environmental Policy

There are two main schools of thought regarding
the interpretation of Jamaican (and Caribbean)
culture. The two differ in their view of how
the society is constituted, how it holds togeth-
er, and consequently would suggest somewhat
different paths of action in an attempt to chart
an environmental policy direction consistent
with socio-cultural reality.

The first school of thought, known as the plural
society model, holds that the various ethnic
strands that make up Jamaican society have
persisted in their distinctiveness into the pre-
sent. The racially mixed intermediate group,
which came into being under slavery, is regard-
ed as a distinctive group under this model In
this view, the various strands which make up
the rope of the society are in constant danger
of coninrg unstrung: conflict, based on ethnic
and cultural differences, is an ever-present
possibility. Political force holds the various
strands together: colonial domination in the
first instance, and political parties run by the
intermediate ethnic group, but incorporating
other elements to mask their domination, in the
post-colonial setting (see M.G. Smith 1965,
1974).

The second mode of interpretation, which might
be described as the creole society view, empha-
sizes the integrative development of a cultural
system: interaction of the various ethnic
strains, under a common regime of production,
to form a creole language, world view, and
system of ideas that are distinctively Carib-
bean. (This view is represented in such studies
as Brathwaite, 1971 and Mintz, 1974.)

It is important to recognize that the socio-
cultural system is a dynamic one, in process of
formation, and subject to forces of change from
various directions.* However, there have been
few attempts to bridge the gap between
scholarly studies of society and culture in the
Caribbean, and the design of policies and pro-
grammes; in most instances the two activities
are carried out in isolation. Yet, the creole
society model suggests that there are shared
cultural ideas that can be built on to help
assure the success of policies and projects.
One such set of ideas that is relevant for
present purposes revolves around the conception
of the "yard" that portion of living space
which surrounds the house which Jamaicans,
urban and rural dwellers alike, from all classes,
recognize and treat as social significant.


The "Yard" as Cultural Symbol. The yard is
an extension of the living space of the house-
hold, where certain domestic activities, such
as laundering, might be carried out; where
children play games; and where men and women
carry on social activities with their peers. The
yard is usually circumscribed by a vegetative
or man-made fence. Within its boundaries, a
distinctive range of items is likely to be found
growing. Permanent fruit trees such as citrus,
mango, ackee, avocado, and breadfruit provide
snacks for the children and portions of the
family meal when in season, as well as readily
available items to be presented as gifts to
visitors. Vegetables and seasonings such as
tomatoes, thyme, escallion and peppers are also
grown there to furnish flavouring ingredients
for the family pot, while flowering plants and
ornamentals are carefully tended for their
decorative value. In times of surplus, the
products from the yard's kitchen garden may
be sold to higglers in the internal market
system.

The close association of the yard with the
domestic grouping its meals, the recreational
activities of its members and the like points
to the social significance or meaning of this
circumscribed space for Jamaicans. Its symbolic
significance is further underscored by the
circumspection with which it is approached by
non-household members who call from its peri-
meter to announce their presence; by its use
in many rural communities as the burial ground
for deceased family members and site for



* Man-, who accept the creole society model,
for instance, also argue that many aspects
of African culture were forced "under-
ground", and that part of the dynamic of
cultural process in present day Caribbean
society involves the coming to terms with
these undervalued aspects of the cultural
system (see, for example, the introductory
essay in Nettleford, 1978). Movements such
as that of Garvey or the rise of Rastafari
do not, in this view, represent forces that
seek to pull the society apart at its ethnic
seams, but rather forces that seek to enrich
it by having cultural elements which have
hitherto be-n surpressed, recognized. The
influence of the North American cultural
system through the constant circulation of
people, and that of the mass media, is yet
another force that impinges on the socio-
cultural system and makes for change.







burying the placenta of the newborn; and by
the ritualistic regularity with which it is swept
at early morning in town and country. The
physical care given to the communal yard in
the cities may be lacking by comparison with
the situation in village communities or middle
class and owner-occupied yards in the urban
area iLself. Nevertheless, working class urban
dwellers still recognize the yard's significance
as a social community, even though they may
be one of several tenants, and only there as
transients hoping to move on to better surround-
ings when they become more established in the
city (see Mintz, 1974, Ch.9 and Brodber, 1975).

The "yard" is, for the Jamaican peasantry,
traditionally set apart from the "ground": the
small plot or plots of land which the man of
the household (and sometimes the woman) farms.
As on the slave plantation, so too in the post-
Emancipation settlements, the ground was often
located some distance away from its propri-
etor's home. Still today, small farmers often
have to walk several miles to reach their farms
at early morning. There may be some social
activity at a man's ground as he stops at midday
to cook a pot of food to share with his co-
workers who are members of his reciprocal day-
labour group, but this has neither the scale,
grace, nor consistency of social activity in the
yard. The "ground" has rather the quality of
a man's makeshift encampment where he can
cook, rest, store his tools, or take shelter from
the rain, but from which he goes home to the
"yard" after working. The cropping pattern of
the ground is characterized by a mix of items
which bear at different times, grow at different
heights (permanent fruit trees give foliage cov-
er to crops planted beneath them which are
rotated from season to season) and so help to
give a range of options, and distribute the risk
of the enterprise.

Set apart from both "yard" and "ground" is the
"bush", that untamed uncultivated wilderness,
to which one holds no special attachments.
This is the province of non-domestic animals
and the refuge of fugitives. One may fell trees


in the bush for building purposes or hunt birds
there but, in general, people's relationship to
it is predatory and non-permanent.


The foregoing set of contrasts, though not
etched in the cultural consciousness with quite
the rigidity that this schematic presentation
might suggest, does point to a certain differ-
ence of attitudes and perceptions as one moves
from the near environment to the more distant
one.


This is a preliminary and incomplete formulation
that could possibly lead to identifying signifi-
cant culturally formed perceptions of the envi-
ronment held by Jamaicans. It suggests many
possibilities. One of these is the potential for
the core symbol, "yard", to be employed in
creating a positive perception and reflexive
relationship between people and their surround-
ings, at least some of which may be regarded
as place-distant, and with indifference, at
present. The idea would be to draw on the
positive associations of "yard" to increase the
level of commitment to more distant spheres.

The Theme of "Naturalness". Another underly-
ing cultural theme endowed with its own
symbols which might be drawn upon in an
environmental consciousness-raising programme,
is the theme of "naturalness". The theme is
explicit stated in Rastafari ideas, which cate-
gorize items as more or less wholesome accord-
ing to their relative degree of perceived
"natural" content. Items of food or clothing,
as well as modes of expression and occupations
and much else are ranked, so to speak, using
this criterion. The tendency may be part of
a larger cultural concern with the land and
people's connection with it. Thus, one often
observes animated and eager discussions, among
persons who might be meeting each other for
the first time, about this or that plant or tree
in the garden. Closer acquaintances readily
share remedies from the vast folk pharmacopia
or pass on slips of plants to be rooted in some


"Yard" "Ground" "Bush"

Women Men Fugitives and non-
domesticated animals

Meticulously arranged Cultivated, but not Disordered, "wild"
and cared for neatly ordered

Near Intermediate Distant







distant garden. Plants are often used matter-
of-factly to lubricate social relationships. Or,
to cite another very African example, libations
will be poured on the ground as offering to
the spiritual forces connecting man with nature
on any number of ceremonial social occasions.

It is evident that a consciousness about the
natural environment and man's relationship to
it is deeply embedded in the Jamaican cultural
system. But in practice this consciousness will
manifest itself in very different ways in re-
sponse to local and individual circumstances,
economic constraints and the like. Thus, the
most useful socio-cultural analyses (more useful
because more pointed) will emerge from the
consideration of particular environmental prob-
lem areas in relation to particular projects.

Still, it is possible to suggest one culturally-
induced response to worsening economic condi-
tions which are being experienced at present.
With respect to economic pursuits, Jamaicans
tend to engage in a number of actual or
potential income earning activities at any one
time, even those people who are employed in
a steady job. This tendency both to think and
act in terms of multiple options is equally
evident in social relations as it is in employ-
ment. In response to the loss of a job or the
contraction of a sector of the economy that
affects household income from a particular
source, individuals respond by emphasizing other
already existing options to a greater degree or
by developing new ones. The yard itself, for
instance, (as living space rather than as ab-
stract construct) may be converted into a multi-
family dwelling unit as a means of earning extra
income for the owner or supporting additional
family members, or it may be used as a base
for producing items for sale. Option-building
suggests the first line of response to growing
economic constraints. As conditions deteriorate
further, however, it becomes a less adequate
means of defence.

Jamaica's cultural tradition, therefore, often
regarded as diffuse and incoherent, does yield
to careful analysis and should be a primary
consideration in the processes of environmental
policy formulation and project implementation.



KEY ISSUES AND PROBLEMS

A number of important issues and problems
related to population trends and cultural char-
acteristics have been discussed in the previous
sections. These are summarized as follows:


1. Jamaica is among the most densely popula-
ted countries in the Americas. Very little
of its usable land area is uninhabited, al-
though the agricultural system is less inten-
sive than it is in other high density regions
such as South Asia.

2. Even though the percentage of people involv-
ed in agriculture has remained relatively con-
stant over the past 15 years or so, the ratio
of urban to rural population has been increas-
ing.

3. Self-employed persons and small business
enterprises make up a large percentage of
the employed work force. The implications
of this for environmental planning need to
be carefully considered.


4. Persistently high rates of
fect women and the young
extent than other segments


unemployment af-
to a much greater
of the population.


5. Jamaica has a highly mobile population.

6. The provision of urban jobs and services has
not matched the growth of the urban popula-
tion over the past several decades. In
addition, an increasingly large cohort of 20
year olds comes of age in the 1980's,
precisely at a time when housing construc-
tion has declined and interest rates increased,
making the shortage of housing and services,
particularly in urban areas, an increasingly
acute problem.

7. The differentiation of the Jamaican popula-
tion makes it important to consider the unique
conditions of those areas where environmen-
tal management projects are to be sited.

8. A cultural analysis can provide insights as
to the environmental consciousness of the
Jamaican population as well as suggest ways
of approaching issues such as environmental
education and project planning.





DIRECTIONS FOR THE FUTURE

1. The importance of the informal sector and
small business enterprises must be taken into
account in any programme of environmental
management. Small enterprises are perhaps
more difficult to monitor and have more
limited resources for pollution control and
waste treatment than is the case with larger
firms. On the other hand, there is great







potential for implementing low-budget envi-
ronmental management within specialized
sections of the informal sector. In the case
of sidewalk vendors, for example, designing
a low-cost, portable display stand which could
be built or purchased by vendors, or organiz-
ing systems of waste disposal which vendors
could carry out and monitor by themselves,
could make a significant difference aestheti-
cally, as well as in the cost of waste removal
services. Similar proposals could be made
for other segments in the informal sector to
meet environmental problems that are unique
to them.

2. Even though large amounts of government
spending are unlikely given present economic
constraints, the employment of women and
young people in conservation programmes
would be appropriate if spending were to
increase. It would seem prudent for the mix
of projects to be proposed under the national
environmental policy to include a few which
would be highly labour intensive and targeted
to train and employ persons in the groups
which experience highest unemployment. If
the projects are conceived and planned in
advance, they could more readily be imple-
mented, if government spending were to in-
crease.

3. Careful study of the socio-cultural back-
ground of the particular area where environ-
mental management projects are to be imple-
mented should be an integral part of project
planning, and communities should be involved
in implementation. Much of the study and
monitoring function might well be undertaken
at minimal cost through secondary schools in
or near the project site. With suitable
guidance from NRCD staff, the teachers of
history, social studies and the biological
sciences could construct research tasks for
students in the higher grades (fifth and sixth
forms), which might provide most of the
background material needed for the projects.


A case study from St. Lucia An Experi-
ment in Participatory Resource Management
might serve as a model for this approach.
The report describes the work which the
Eastern Caribbean Natural Area Management
Program has been carrying out in one section
of the east coast of St. Lucia. To cite one
feature of the project, high school students
did an investigation of the social history of
the area, tracing its transition through sugar
cane cultivation, its use as a U.S. base during
World War II, and as an industrial zone in


more recent times. The students also ob-
served and interviewed traditional charcoal
burners who make their living, in part, by
collecting and burning wood from an area of
mangrove within the project site. Based on
the ethnographic research, the environment-
alists on the project were able to assess the
level of collection that was taking place;
gain insight into the pattern of environmental
control which the charcoal burners them-
selves had initiated; and could better
continue dialogue with residents (including
charcoal burners) to coordinate further plans
for sound environmental management in the
area. The students themselves prepared a
spearate report on their research. This ap-
proach might readily be adopted in Jamaica.









Annex 1: Community Organizations and Private
Voluntary Organizations


Table 14 provides a preliminary overview of
organizations that exist at the local community
level, outlines some of their characteristics
relevant to environmental planning, and rates
their potential for providing local-level leader-


ship and institutional support for environmental
projects. A summary profile of private volun-
tary organizations already involved with envir-
onmental issues is provided in Table 15.


Table 14:
A Profile of Community Based Organixations
and Institution in Jamaica


Hembershin Base


Salient Features


Trade Union




Churches


Political Parties




Service Clubs





Schools


Farmer's
Organizations



Youth Clubs


Centered in the workplace with
national central structure



Local community and linked
with national parent body


Local groups and national
organization



Urban and larger rural
communities and national
networks



Local communities integrated
with national educational
structure


Local communities and national
parent bodies


Local communities


Do not often take up matters
other than relate to working
conditions
In many rural areas membership
low
Many denominations involved in
education historically
Small land base, no tradition
of involvement in agriculture
Undercurrent of competition
between the various churches
in a community but co-operation
takes place on projects from
time to time.
Tradition of providing leader-
ship especially in rural areas
Reach large numbers of people.
Groups often not active between
elections
Potentially divisive
Base of active Members not large
Membership tends to be middle and
upper middle class
Project oriented focus



Reach large numbers
Educational system does not
encourage student-initiated
extra-curricular activity
apart from sports, dependency
on teacher leadership
Environmental projects can be
integrated with existing
curriculum goals (see below)
Often have school garden projects
Teachers are often local community
leaders.
Crop-based except for JAS
Often weak or inactive
Tendency for larger farmers
to dominate


Poor




Fair/Good


Poor




Fair/Good
(depending
on the
area where
project to
be located
Good/Very
Good


Poor/Fair


Organization's life-span may be Fair/Good
limited Co a few years as
founding cohort matures
May welcome projects as a focus
for their activities


*This is a subjective rating of the organization's
potential for providing institutional support and
leadership for environmental projects based on the
salient features identified.


Organization


Ratinna







Table 15:
Private Voluntary Orgauizaaton Concerned
with Environmental Conservatio


Organization and contact person HMmbership

Jamaica Geographical Society 200
Dr. Alan Eyre
University of tihe West Indies
Hona
Kingston '7

Natural History Society of Jamaica 150 (app. 50
active)
Hiss Rena Boothe
Zoology Department
University of the West Indies
Hona
Kingston 7


Jamaica Junior Naturalists
Mr. Gerald Lemonious
Crocodile News
P.O. Box 156
Handeville
MANCIESTER

Jamaica Society of Scientists
and Technologists
Mrs. Marcia Creary
Petroleum Corporation of
P.O. Box 579
KINGSTON 10


Jamaica Agromedical Assocation
Mrs. Janice Reid
CARDI
University of the West Indies
Hona
KINGSTON 7


Geological Society of Jamaica
Mrs. Elsie Arons
P.O. Box 579
KINGSTON 10


Jamaica Camping and Hiking
Association
Hr. Peter Bently
P.O. Box 216
KINGSTON 40


Activities

Sponsors conferences, lectures and seminars
Publish newsletter three times per year
Published edited volume of articles Conserv
action in Jamaica, Brian Hudson, ed.,
based on papers presented at meetings
sponsored by the society in 1970-1971.
Sponsors lectures, slide and film present
nations.
Conducts field trips
Makes representations to government
authorities on conservation matter
Collaborates with other organizations for
study and preservation of the island's
environment
Publishes Nature News, one or two issues
per year


Publishes news letter, Crocodile News,
quarterly
Organizes JJN clubs in schools
Conducts field trips



200 app. Promotes annual "Science Week"
Makes representations to and collaborates
with governmental and statutory bodies
Organized 1984 seminar "The Foreats of
Jamaica"
the proceedings of which are to
be published as a book.
Publishes occasional newsletters
47 Spondors lectures and seminars and
disseminates
audio-visual materials on pesticide
safety
Advise on pesticide management and reinforce-
ment of pesticide control legislation
Assist with pesticide related accidents
Publishes newsletter, about three issues
per year

75 Organizes professional lectures and
sponsors and annual student essay
competition


Awards an annual scholarship to study
Geology at UWI
Publishes the Journal of the Geological
Society of Jamaica, a newsletter,
and scholarly monographs


Members run recreational camp Rites and
help maintain hiking trails
Alerts relevant authorities to environment-
ally harmful practices in forest reserve
areas
Assists with reforestation projects
Assisted with preparation of
The Special Interest and Naturalist Guide
to Jamaica
Linkages with private firms that promote
alternative tourism


21
(limited liability
Co)


Negril Association for the
Conservation of Nature
Hrs. S. A. Grizzle
P.O. Box 33
Negril
WESTMORELAND

Association of Science Teachers
of Jamaica
Mrs F. Cummissiong
School of Education
University of the West Indies
Mona
KINGSTON 7


Gosse Bird Club
Mrs. Audrey Downer
Point View
Oakridge
KINGSTON 8


35 Initiated preparation of an evaluation
report on the proposed peat mining
project in Negril
Aims at developing a national membership
of persons concerned with protection
of the natural environment from the
hazards of overdevelopment
200 Sponsors an annual conference on science
education which has a topical focus
that changes each year
Organizes an annual science exhibition
for schools
Offers an ecology course for 6th forms
with the assistance of NRCD


100 (app. much
fewer
numbers
active)


Puhliches Broadsheet newsletter twice
per year
Conducts Bird-banding field trips
Occasional film shows fro schools and
organizations





















































Plate 14 Cast students: Work-study group.



























ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION


OVERVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION


Historical Perspective

The major impetus for the development of
environmental education in Jamaica has come
from a national commitment to environmental
management influenced largely by the interna-
tional community. At the 1972 Stockholm
Conference on the Environment, Jamaica's rep-
resentative was Rapporteur General. The
conference placed great emphasis on the role
of environmental education in improving the
quality of life. Following this conference, the
major international environmental agencies
were established and public environmental edu-
cation was included in their mandate.

The Intergovernmental Conference on Environ-
mental Education (October 14-26, 1977, Tbilisi,
USSR), organized by United Nations Educational
Social and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in
cooperation with United Nations Environmental
Programme (UNEP), reinforced the initiatives
that had been adopted by governments following
the Stockholm Conference. The Tbilisi confer-
ence made recommendations for action by
member states and international organizations
to promote and develop environmental educa-
tion. Out of this grew a number of Caribbean
regional training activities under the auspices
of the UNESCO-UNEP International Environmen-
tal Educational Programme. These activities
emphasized curriculum development and teacher


training in environmental education. Workshops
organized under this programme received sup-
port from educators in Jamaica. It is a result
of these international initiatives that the formal
environmental education programme existing in
Jamaica today has evolved.


Functions of Environmental Education

Environmental education promotes an awareness
and understanding of ecological principles and
their relationship to human activities. The
majority of Jamaicans have a "natural environ-
mental consciousness". This stems from an
awareness of the role that resource exploitation
plays in the economic development of the
country (e.g., agriculture, industry bauxite/
alumina, and tourism beaches, forests, wild-
life). Environmental education in Jamaica grew
out of the need to protect a resource base
that was rapidly deteriorating largely as a
result of uninformed development decisions.


Components of Environmental Education

Environmental education consists of both a
formal and an informal system. The formal
system is comprised of a network that includes
the school system at the primary and secondary
levels, and the tertiary institutions of higher
education. Education within this system begins
with the development of a general awareness
of the physical world, followed by the introduc-


- -C -"1 1 4 -1







tion of environmental principles and their rela-
tionship to man. It culminates at the tertiary
level with the acquisition of professional quali-
fications in various environmentally-related dis-
ciplines.

The informal component of environmental edu-
cation consists of a network that spans both
the private and public sectors, and includes
environmentally-oriented interest groups, ele-
ments of the institutionalized education system,
service clubs, government agencies, some indus-
tries and the church. These varied groups have
used such instruments as exhibitions, workshops,
posters, pamphlets, talk shows, articles and
television programmes to promote environmental
themes.

Unfortunately, the mass media (newspaper, radio
and television) has been less concerned with
promoting environmental awareness. Environ-
mental education is not included as part of the
programming policy of the media houses. Where
presentation of environmental issues has occur-
red, it has been as a result of the personal
interest of reporters and journalists rather than
from a commitment to the environment emanat-
ing from the media houses.

The impediments to environmental education
are mainly financial. Funding is urgently
needed to finance the tools for the educational
process, compensate the resource personnel
required, and provide for the dissemination of
information. Additionally, coordination is
needed between government, industry, and non-
governmental organizations if the sector is to
be effective in contributing to sustained eco-
nomic development in Jamaica.



Coordination and Programmes for Environmental
Education in Jamaica

At the national level, attempts have been made
to coordinate environmental education following
the challenge by the governments of Latin
America and the Caribbean at the Regional
Intergovernmental Meeting held in Mexico in
March 1982. This challenge called for the
establishment of a national environmental train-
ing network with linkages to a regional network.

Jamaica took the first step required for the
establishment of such a network in 1983, when
a brief meeting was convened by the Natural
Resources Conservation Division (NRCD) with
representatives from the Office of Disaster
Preparedness (ODP), the Forestry Department,


the Ministry of Education, and the University
of the West Indies (UWI). The group met to
exchange ideas on environmental education and
to hold preliminary discussions for the develop-
ment of a network. It was agreed to prepare
a list of all organizations and individuals
relevant to environmental education, and to
invite them to describe their aims, achievements
and resources for furthering environmental edu-
cation in the country. This exercise would
result in:

o mutually reinforcing and enriching the indivi-
dual educational efforts of all participants;

o defining national priorities for environmental
education; and

o obtaining full participation of Jamaica at the
international level in regional cooperative
programmes in environmental education.

In May 1984, a meeting convened by the U.W.I.
School of Education produced the following
recommendations:

o that an educational institution should be
involved in coordinating environmental educa-
tion activities;

o that steps should be taken to gather pertinent
information in a single location;

o that the School of Education at the University
of the West Indies be the clearing house for
information on local environmental education
activities;

o that a directory of resource persons, papers,
reports, and on-going activities in environ-
mental education should be prepared and
circulated.


Subsequent to this meeting in June 1985, the
Faculty of Education coordinated the develop-
ment of a "Preliminary Directory of Some
Environmental Education Activities in Jamaica".
The Directory is still incomplete as the informa-
tion presented represents the synthesis of
eleven replies to a request to 47 individuals
and agencies. The Faculty of Education (UWI)
has made the following statement with regard
to the Directory: "From such a small pool, the
information must be totally unrepresentative of
the true situation with regards to such activi-
ties". Nevertheless, the information contained
in the Directory is useful and represents the
most comprehensive source of information pres-
ently existing on environmental education activ-







ities in Jamaica. The Directory is divided as
follows:

- Coastline Studies and Marine Ecology
- Environmental Chemistry
- Freshwater Ecology
- Mining and Industry
- Natural Disasters
- Plant Ecology/Vegetation Su-veys
- Papers/Publications,

The UNESCO/UNEP International Environment
Fducation Programme is the regional programme
mainly responsible for the development of
e-,vironmental education in Jamaica. The main
thrust of this programme has been the training
of qualified personnel including teachers, organ-
izers of informal activities for young people
and adults, administrative personnel, educa-
tional planners and researchers of environmen-
tally relevant subject matter, and the develop-
ment of educational and methodological guide-
lines.


In this context, the following national and
regional activities have been organized:

o Subregional Training Workshop on Environ-
mental Education for the Caribbean, Antigua,
June 9-20, 1980.

o National Training Workshop on Environmental
Education, Kingston, Jamaica, March 3-5,
1981.

o Subregional Workshop on Teacher Training in
Environmental Education for the Caribbean,
Mona, Jamaica, July 18-29, 1983.

Table 16 summarizes the major events in the
development of environmental education in Ja-
maica.


Table 16:
Major Events in the Development of Environmental Education in Jamaica


YEAR EVENTS

1975 Launching of the Internatio'al Environmental Education Programme,
UNESCO in cooperation with UNEP.

1977 First Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education, UNESCO-
JNEP, October 14-16, Tbilisi.

1980 Subregional Training Workshop on Environmental Education for the Carib-
bean, Antigua, June 7-20, UNESCO.

1981 National Training Workshop on Environmental Education, Ministry of
Education (Government of Jamaica and UNESCO, March 3-5.

1983 Subreg!onal Workshop on Teacher Training in Environmental Education for
the Caribbean, School of Education, UWI, in cooperation with UNESCO-
UNEP IEEP, July 18-29.

1983 Introductory Meeting Toward the Development of an Environmental
Education Network for Jamaica, convened by Natural Resources Conserva-
tion Department, Ministry of Mining and Natural Resources, Government
of Jamaica, October 19.

1984 Meeting to develop an Environmental Education Network in Jamaica, May
18.

1985 Preparation of Preliminary Directory of Sone Environmental Education
Activities in Jamaica, Faculty of Education, UWI, Mona.








STATUS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION IN
JAMAICA

Environmental education is presently being car-
ried out in Jamaica at both the formal and
informal levels. Initially, there was a heavy
emphasis on the informal system operated main-
ly by government resource management agen-
cies. This approach was in keeping with the
need to reach the wider public within a very
short time period, as it was recognized that
without an informed public, the efforts of
environmental management would be fruitless.
However, financial constraints have restricted
the Government's initiative in recent years.

The influence of both the formal and informal
comFn-nents have been of great value in influ-
enricg development decisions related to re-
source .Aploitation and conservation. As a
result, i growing segment of the society is
being prepared to play an ac, '2 role in the
decision-making process. The evlcidtion of this
movement is outlined in the following discussion
of tie formal and informal environmental educa-
tion system in Jamaica.


Formal Environmental Education

Formal environmental education is seen here as
the promotion of an awareness and understand-
ing of ecological principles and their relation-
ship to human activities within the institution-
alized education system. This system is com-
prised of learning institutions at the primary,
secondary, and tertiary levels.

Primary Level. At this level, students are
exposed to a general awareness of the _nviron-
ment, the relationships between living and non-
living components, and the development of
desirable attitudes towards their surroundings.
The approach generally employed is the "infu-
sion" method whereby environmentally relevant
consent is "infused" within subjects already
being taught as part of the general curriculum.
This approach is quite effective since it relates
concepts to standard educational topics. It
involves minimal additional work by the teacher
and requires no extra financing. The principles
learned at this level form the basis upon which
the more specific aspects of ecology will be
superimposed at the secondary level.

Secondary Level. In recent years, curriculum
development at the secondary level has reflec-
ted the significant influence of environmental
issues affecting the society. The syllabuses
for Grades 7-9 include general science, agricul-


tural science, and social studies ell of which
introduce a variety of environmental principles
into the curriculum. In addition, the release
in 1983 of the Caribbean Examination Council
(CXC) (Grade 11) science syllabus for general
use has had tremendous impact at the secondary
level, and has positively influenced syllabus
development at both the lower and higher levels
of the educational system.

In the development of the CXC syllabuses, a
stance was taken on the integration of environ-
mental information into the school curriculum.
This concern is expressed in the development
of the syllabuses for biology, chemistry, physics
and integrated science. An examination of the
biology syllabus revealed a commitment to
imparting environmental information as evi-
denced in the following statement:

"Biology, by its very nature is of immediate
relevance to every individual since it deals
with life processes, the knowledge and under-
standing of which can serve to improve at a
very personal level the quality of man's life.
This understanding should generate a concern
for the care of the total environment which
supports life."*

The biology syllabus suggests to teachers that
"every opportunity be taken to relate biological
studies to the environment and to use an
ecological approach wherever pertinent." The
teachers are encouraged to use local and
regional examples to illustrate biological princi-
ples and to make the course as relevant as
possible in order to heighten the student's
awareness of the effect of science on society.

The aim of the CXC is to expose each student
to the environmental experiences suggested
within the varying syllabuses if the student is
to perform creditably in the examinations. The
C XC with its emphasis on subjects of regional
(Caribbean) relevance, is an excellent vehicle
to educate and, therefore, heighten the environ-
mental awareness of the upcoming generation.

Tertiary Level. At the tertiary level, there
are five major institutions which presently carry
out aspects of environmental education, the
University of the West Indies (UWI), the West
Indies School of Public Health (WISPH), the
College of Arts, Science and Technology



* Correspondence Re: Environmental Educa-
tion in Jamaica, Joyce Glasgow, School of
Education, UWI, July 1984.







(CAST), Teachers' Colleges, and the College of
Agriculture. (See Table 18.) The students of
Teachers Colleges are exposed to environmental
themes through informal talks and seminars
organized by the Association of Science Teach-
ers of Jamaica (ASTJ) in conjunction with
resource agencies such as L'e Natural Resources
Conservation Division (NRCD).

o University of the West Indies (UWI): At the
University, the Faculties of Natural Sciences,
Social Sciences, Medicine, and Arts and
General Studies all offer courses which in-
clude environmental concepts and themes.
Within the Faculty of Natural Sciences, the
Departments of Geography, Zoology, Chemis-
try, Botany and Physics, offer aspects of
environmental science including environment-
al chemistry and pollution control, resource
management; i.e., of terrestrial, aquatic,
plant and animal resources, waste manage
ment and recycling. In total, an estimated'
600 lecture hours per academic year are
devoted to environmentally related topics.

The applied courses offered by the Depart-
ments of Chemistry, Zoology and Botany in
particular, cover a significant range of en-
vironmenLally related topics. However, stu-
dents can graduate from the Faculty without
being exposed to any of these applied courses.
These graduates will form part of the pool
of "pure scientists" (geologists, chemists,
taxonomists, etc.), whose skills are vital to
the problem-solving aspects of environmental
management.


Thus, the teaching of the pure sciences plays
an essential part in the education of the
country's environmental management person-
nel and as such constitutes a vital but not
immediately visible component of environmen-
tal education.

A significant amount of environmental re-
search is presently being carried out at the
UWI, notably in the Departments of Chemis-
try, Zoology, Botany, Physics and Geology.
This reflects the high priority the subject is
being allotted in the formal education system.
Here, the groundwork necessary for the
solution of some of the island's major environ-
mental problems is being laid.

The Faculty of Social Sciences offers courses
in agricultural development, economics, rural
sociology, urban studies, and health and social
organization as part of their degree programs.
These courses cover environmentally relevant


topics. In addition, the Faculty also offers
a one-year diploma course in Health Manage-
ment to B.Sc. graduates or candidates with
other technical/professional qualifications or
experience.

The Department of Social and Preventative
Medicine within the Faculty of Medicine
addresses environmental health issues through
its 13-week Certificate in Community Health,
and its 12-month diploma in Public Health.
The Certificate Course is offered to holders
of a Bachelors Degree or other relevant pro-
fessional qualification with practical exper-
ience, while the Diploma Course is specifical-
ly for qualified medical practitioners with at
least two years of practical experience.

The Department of Mass Communications
within the Faculty of Arts ind General
Sciences offers a core course entitled "Mass
Communication and Society". This course is
offered during the first year of the Mass
Communication Degree Programme. Its objec-
tives include the analysis of the role and
function of the mass media in their social-
izing, conservation and national transforma-
tion process. Because of the particular
interest in environmental matters of the
director/lecturer of this course, a strong
environmental bias runs throughout the course
as "society" in this context is taken to mean
the total environment.


In addition to the structured courses offered
at the UWI, there is the recent formation of
the Environmental Studies Group, an inter-
faculty group with the intention to:

- promote inter-faculty studies in environ-
mental studies;

- assist Faculty ESGs in their activities;

- publish an annual bulletin of UWI environ-
mental related activities through an edi-
torial committee;

- organize seminars to promote public aware-
ness; and

- identify funding sources for environmental
research and education at UWT.

The goal of the group is to introduce
environmental content in the inter-discipli-
nary and multi-disciplinary teaching and re-
search programmes at the UWL The group
has suggested that environmental principles







be taught to the wider university community
through a compulsory university core course
as, for example the History of the Caribbean,
which is one of three university courses
presently offered.

o West Indies School of Public Health (WISPH).
This institution falls under the administration
of the Ministry of Health and trains public
health nurses and inspectors (Environmental
Health Officers) who monitor the community's
environment for the detection and abatement
of nuisances associated with disease.

The syllabus used during the three-year
diploma course includes principles of epidemi-
ology, waste management, pollution control,
occupational health, recreational sanitation,
and vector control, amc ig others. The course
work covers a two year period while the
third year is a period of internship under the
guidance of supervisors selected from the
host community and trained by the WISPH.
The students are expected to function as
Public Health In.pectors during this period.

o College of Arts, Science and Technology
(CAST). At present, CAST offers a six-week
summer course entitled "Water Works and
Sewage Plant Operations". This course in-
cludes such topics as water chemistry, water
and sewage treatment and bacteriology and
is specially geared toward the needs of the
National Water Commission and other similar
private and public sector agencies throughout
the region.

At the end of the six weeks there is an
examination and the successful candidates
are awarded a Certificate of Successful
C' mpletion. Those candidates with an aver-
age of more than sixty percent are invited
back the following year for a one week period
of fu::ther study, and upon successful comple-
tion of this segment, candidates are awarded
a "Water Works and Sewage Operators
Certificate" (equivalent to a Grade "D"
Operator within the United States Sanitation
Works System).

In addition, CAST offers a course in Environ-
mental Chemistry, which introduces students
to the causes and effects of and the solutions
to the different types of pollution. The
course involves thirty lecture hours per
academic year and requires the completion
of a research paper.

At CAST, the three year Diploma in Physical
Planning Technology produced its first gradu-


ates in 1981. In this course, the students
are exposed to subjects such as ecological
principles in planning, resource management,
environmental pollution, waste management
and environmental impact assessment. As
such, they are given a sound understanding
of Jamaica's biophysical environment and
taught the skills necessary to help plan and
oversee the sustainable development of the
island.

At the present time, CAST is moving towards
the introduction of a diploma programme in
Environmental Technology which would retain
certain basic features of the current two
year Certificate in Chemical Technology
course, while introducing additional environ-
mentally relevant subject matter. The course
was to be introduced in phases, commencing
September 1985, beginning with the chemical
technology core course and a few elective
courses. The themes will become more
specialized in the third year (September 1987-
88). The graduates from this course would
be expected to function at the technologist
level, having a grasp of fundamental princi-
ples of environmental science and technology,
sanitary science and engineering as they
relate to the improvement of the biological,
chemical and physical environment. The full
implementation of this diploma course, how-
ever, depends on the potential for job place-
ment of graduates.

A summary of CAST's extra curricula involve-
ment in Environmental Education is presented
in Table 17.

o Teachers Colleges. With the introduction in
1981 of the new Diploma Programme for
students of teachers' colleges, the opportun-
ity was taken to emphasize environmental
themes, enabling the students to introduce
the relevant components in primary and
secondary school curricula. Topics such as
the use and development of resources, disas-
ter preparedness, industrialization and u'-
banization are included in some units of the
social studies syllabus. In addition, the
student teachers are exposed to the more
practical aspects of ecology through informal
talks and seminars organized by the
Association of Science Teachers of Jamaica
(ASTJ), in conjunction with resource manage-
ment agencies such as the Natural Resources
Conservation Division (NRCD).

o College of Agriculture, During their course
of study culminating in the award of the
Associate Degree in Agriculture, students are












Table 17:
CAST's Extra Curricula Involvement in Environmental Education


* CAST organised a one-day seminar on June
5, 1984 "Man versus the Environment" to
discuss the status of environmental pollution,
total pollution load, mode of disposal, role
of environmental regulatory agencies in Ja-
maica and views of industries about legisla-
tive requirements for the disposal of
industrial waste. This was sponsored by the
Ministry of Science, Technology &
Environment, the Natural Resources
Conservation Division and the Pan American
Health Organization.

*Organised a 5-day certificate course on
"Jamaica and its Environment" during March
11-15, 1985, in association with UNESCO to
mark the National Science Week organised
by Jamaica Society for Scientists and Tech-
nologists (JSST). The following topics were
discussed:

Jamaica's Environment
Marshland Utilization
Marine Environment
Hellshire Development
Health and Environment
Water Pollution
Air Pollution
Tourism and Environment
Agriculture and Environment

The theme of this course was public aware-
ness. Ninety-nine participants from schools/
colleges, the ministry, and senior citizen
groups attended.
* Organised a panel discussion on "Needs of
Environmental Technology Education in Ja-
maica" on June 5, 1985. This activity was
in keeping% with plans by the institution for
the introduction of a three year diploma
programme in Environmental Technology.


The agencies that participated were:

National Water Commission
Environmental Control Division, Ministry
of Health
Natural Resources Conservation Division,
Ministry of Agriculture
Urban Development Corporation
Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica
Hellshire Bay Development Company
Pan American Health Organization
United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization
United Nations Industrial Devel.opment Or-
ganization
Jamaica Bauxite Institute
Jamaica Tourist Board
University of the West Indies
College of Arts, Science and Technology
Many environmentally conscious people of
Jamaica
NGO representatives

* Or- inised a Project Work Competition on
"Jamaica's Environment and Pollution" to
mark World Environment Day, June 5, 1986.
The deadline for submission was November
30, 1986. Prizes were awarded to successful
candidates. This project stressed the need
to prevent pollution, role of students/ and
the role of individuals in environmental
pollution control.

* CAST recently completed a survey to find
out the status of Technology in Jamaica;
mainly the needs in the fields of chemical
technology and environmental technology
graduates in terms of jobs, to arrive at a
conclusion before finalization of the
curriculum.


introduced to environmentally relevant top-
ics such as soil conservation techniques, and
fertilizer and pesticide application.


Informal Environmental Education

Informal environmental education in Jamaica is
defined as the promotion of an awareness and
understanding of ecological principles and their


relevance to human activities outside of the
institutionalized education system. Informal
environmental education in Jamaica consists of
two major components: the public education
activities carried out. by the public sector
resource management agencies; and the efforts
of the non-governmental organizations (NGOs),
including the business community and service
clubs. (See Table 17.)


_







Public environmental education had its begin-
nings in the educated and professional circles
of Jamaica. However, as the negative
consequences of ill-advised decision-making re-
sulted in the deterioration in the quality of
life, the general public was forced to become
involved with environmental issues. Although
the majority of the population is not well
enough informed or organized to influence
development decisions, the voice of small sec-
tors of the population is being heard, in respect
to resource exploitation and conservation.

The major thrust of the informal environmental
education system in Jamaica is to foster the
appropriate attitudes which are vital to sustain-
able development. The economic realities in
Jamaica are such that continued exploitation
of the resource base is necessary for national
d. elopment. Educational efforts have there-
fore been geared towards informing society of
the resource Limitations, and the development
options available within our fragile island eco-
system. The method employed in this public
awareness effort is the presentation of complex
environmental principles in simple terms easily
assimilated by the wider public. The major
vehicles for the dissemination of this informa-
tion has been through the mass media, public
exhibitions, posters and informal lectures and
se m inars.

To date, public education efforts have resulted
in only marginal attitudinal changes. Inappro-
priate watershed management practices contin-
ue to result in soil erosion, diminished aquifer
recharge, reduced surface flow and heavy
siltation downstream; beach sand continues to
be illegally mined with increasing incidences of
coastal erosion; endangered wildlife species
continue to be exploited; and the daily degrada-
tion of air, land and water resources by
industrial waste continues. The attitudinal
changes required to reverse this trend must
come from a concerted effort by both the public
and private sectors to inform and educate the
public.

At the present stage in Jamaica's development,
a change in national attitude that endorses the
conservation and wise use of the resource base
is urgently needed. The achievement of this
goal will require a well coordinated public
environmental education programme, as Jamaica
cannot afford to repeat the development mis-
takes of its northern neighbours.

The following is a description of the major
elements involved in the informal environmental
education system in Jamaica.


Public Sector Agencies. These agencies include
the Natural Resources Conservation Division
(NRCD), the Fisheries Division, the Office of
Disaster Preparedness (ODP), the Forestry De-
partment, the Environmental Control Division
(ECD), the Energy Division, and the Town
Planning Department. The majority of these
agencies have some public education pro-
grammes. In addition, these agencies carry out
extensive on-the-job training, bolstering the
capability of their technical staffs which form
the core of the country's environmental re-
source personnel.

The major components of the public education
programme of these agencies are:

o Publications. Pamphlets, posters and leaflets
are produced on a regular basis. Additionally,
technical staff members contribute a-ticles
for publication in journals and magazines
outside of the agencies.

o Media. From time to time, the agencies
prepare programmes on the environment and
specific conservation issues in collaboration
with Jamaica Broadcasting Corporation
(JBC), Radio Jamaica Ltd. (RJR) and Jamaica
Information Service (JIS). Articles are also
periodically developed for publication in the
"Daily Gleaner".

o Exhibitions. The agencies take advantage of
the Annual Denbigh Agricultural Show to
mount extensive exhibits depicting various
aspects of resource management and conser-
vation including disaster management. In
recent years, on World Environment Day,
several of the agencies, in particular those
with direct involvement with environmental
management, have mounted exhibitions de-
picting various aspects o2 Jamaican ecology.
Exhibitions are also mounted for schools and
other institutions during the year.

o Lectures, Seminars, Workshops. Occasional
seminars ai,- workshops are organized by the
resource management agencies. In addition,
members of the technical staff are used as
resource personnel by outside organizations
and institutions.

o Community Outreach. The most effective
informal environmental educational strategy
is organized along the lines of the traditional
extension services. Several of the resource
management agencies have educational pro-
grammes at the community level The Min-
istry of Agriculture has a well-developed
Agricultural Extension Programme, aspects of







which are geared towards soil conservation
and pesticide application and controL There
are four regional offices, 13 executive offices
(one for each parish), 65 parish divisions (4-
6 per parish) and 401 extension areas distribu-
ted around the island. Communication, and
therefore education is done al-iost exclu-
sively by personal contact using demonstra-
tion plots. This on-the-spot approach has
been very successful in demonstrating soil
conservation techniques around the island.

Of the recent informal or public environmental
education efforts by Government agencies,
probably the most successful has been that of
the ODP, which was established in 1980. At
the ODP, physical planning with particular
reference to natural (earthquakes, hurricanes,
etc.) and man-made catastrophes (oil spills,
hazardous substances, etc.) are the agency's
major concern. Discussing the virtues of
preparedness, the ODP conducts its public
educational campaign on a broad front. The
success of these efforts can be attributed to
the heavy economic implications of most natural
disasters. As a result of this, it was not
difficult to encourage the assistance of the
private sector in public education programmes
on disaster management.

Despite some notable accomplishments, the ef-
forts of governmentt with regard to environmen-
tal education are indeed inadequate. This is
due mainly to the fact that the public environ-
mental education programmes of these agencieJ
are not institutionalized or structured. Addi-
tionally, the economic constraints affecting the
country have caused agencies to reduce their
involvement in this activity.


Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)

The participation of non-governmental interest
groups concerned with environmental manage-
ment has been a part of national life for a
number of years. The original focus of these
organizations was directed towards resource
conservation (emphasis on wildlife) and outdoor
recreation. Presently, a wider cross-section uf
the general population have begun taking an
active interest in issues associated with re-
source exploitation. In response to the escala-
tion of environmental problems, the scope of
the NGOs has expanded considerably to include
all aspects of environmental management. The
role of NGOs, therefore, continues to be vital
to the education of the public at large.. The
major non-governmental organizations presently
carrying out environmental education are:


- The Natural History Society of Jamaica;
- The Jamaica Society of Scientists and Tech-
nologists;
- The Jamaica Geographical Society;
- The Jamaica Geological Society; and
- Association of Science Teachers of Jamaica.

(See Tables 18 and 19.)

Some recent activities in public environmental
education carried out by NGOs include:

o Seminars on natural resources, such as the
one on water organized by the Jamaica
Society of Scientists and Technologists in
1983;

o Annual observance of National Wood and
Water Day, jointly organized by the Jamaica
Geographical Society and the Natural History
Society;

o Public discussions such as the one on peat
mining organized by the Negril Chamber of
Commerce in 1984; and,

o Annual Bauxite Symposium organized by the
Jamaica Geological Society.

In addition, exhibitions such as the Annual
Schools Science Exhibition promoted by the
ASTJ has been instrumental in exposing the
public to a variety of environmental themes.

Significant work in environmental education is
being done by the Natural History Society of
Jamaica, a non-profit organization whose origi-
nal purpose was to provide a source of indige-
nous information to teachers and others by
publishing its Natural History Notes and organiz-
ing lectures and field trips. The present
objectives of this organization now include the
study and conservation of the Jamaican
environment, as well as the promotion of public
environmental education.

Other environmentally oriented NGOs include
the Jamaica Camping and Hiking Association
which promotes the publication of information
on outdoor recreation, and has compiled a
booklet for those who wish to explore the
island's natural attractions other than the
beaches. Additionally, the Jam&ica Junior
Naturalists is a non-profit conservation-oriented
organization for young people between the ages
of six and eighteen years. This group provides
opportunity for study of the flora, fauna and
other natural resources of the island, and
encourages an appreciation of the need for
conservation of the Jamaican environment.













Table 18:
Tertiary Institutions Offering Environmentally Related Course and Programmes


Certification


University of the West
Indies

Faculty of Natural
Sciences










Faculty of Social
Sciences



Faculty of Medicine


College of Arts Science
and Technology


West Indies School
of Public Health


College of Agriculture


Animal Ecology
Plant Ecology
Applied Chemistry
Applied Zoology
Applied Ecology
Physical Planning
Agricultural Geography
General Geography
Advanced Urban Geography
Geography of Developing and
Developed Areas

Agricultural Development and Policy
Agricultural Economics
Rural Sociology and Urban Studies
Health and Social Organization


Part of the requirements for
B.Sc. General










Part of the requirements for
B.Sc. Social Sciences

Health Management


Community Health
Public Health


Water Works and Sewage Treatment
Plant Operators Course
Environmental Chemistry

Environmental Hygiene, Ecology,
Water & Waste Water Management,
Food Hygiene

Agricultural Engineering, Soil &
Water Conservation, Soil Fertility
Management


Planning Technology
On-the-Job Training
Certificate in Chemistry
Technology

Public Health Inspection
Basic

Part requirement for Associate
Degree in Agriculture


B.Sc.











B.Sc.


Diploma


Certificate
Diploma


Diploma
Certificate
Certificate


Diploma


ASc. Agriculture


Institution


Course


Programme


Institution



















Table 19: Major Public Sector and Non-Governmental Organizations

in Jamaica which Provide Aspects of Environmental Education


ACTIVITIES












Forest Department 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
i rie ivion 0 0








Inlnd Fi herie Ui 0 0 0I
AGENCIES 0 1 I...4


















Town Plnning Deportment 0 0 0 0
Natural Reources Co nation DiviDiviion ion 0 0 0 0 0

Office of Disaster Preparedness 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 0





























Aro-21 0 0
Forest Departmentvlo 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

nvironduental Control Divinor 0 0 0 0 portion

Bureau of HSiencealth Educationher f J ic 0 0 0 6 0 0

Fiheloric Divicion 0 0 0 0 _

Inland FiSochrie.it 0 0 0 0

Ton Pic uning Depauraltment 0 0 0 _



Instituca ricu of Juric Societ 0 0 0 0






















Hope Zoo T a













Me dia H o u se s (G le an e r, R J 0C) 0 0J )
SEniy 0a i

rarst Industris Developmnt Co. 0 0 0 *




Jamaica Indutrial Dvlopnt Corporation 0

Aocition of Scinc Teacher o Jamaica 0 0 Hod__te 0
Natural History Society of Jamaica 0 0 J 0 0 0
Geological Socielty 1 0 0 ______ ___ 0 0
Geographical Society 0 0 9
Jamaica Junior Naturalists _____ 0 0 0
Jamaica Society of Scientists and 0
Tachoologista _________

School of Education, UWI 0 ________ ______ ___0 _____ __
Jamaica Agricultural Society _____ 0 0 1 0 0 0
Hegril Association for the Conaervation 0a
of Nature
Hope Zoo Trues t_______ 0
Media Housaa (Gleaner, IJR, JC) 0 _0 __
Entity 0 0

UT: Major activity
0 Moderate activity







To date, the contribution of the business
community to environmental education efforts
has been minimal. The contributions made by
Shell, sponsors of the Jamaica Junior Natura-
lists, are commendable. Bata Company has
financed the printing of environmental teaching
materials and sponsored a national essay compe-
tition on trees.

The service clubs, whose membership is largely
from the business community, have also made
modest contributions to the informal environ-
mental process by sponsoring talks and seminars
on the environment. The shooting and fishing
clubs have shown little interest in protecting
the habitat (forest, wetland and reef) upon
which their sport depends.

Although small in scale, the efforts of the
NGOs have been noteworthy. The membership
of these groups usually includes professionals,
students, teachers, and middle-management civil
servants. The total number of persons who
actively participate is estimated to be less than
two thousand persons.


that remain in the system are overworked and
demoralized by the poor working conditions.
This is particularly true at the primary level
where there is currently a one-to-forty teacher/
pupil ratio.

The lack of funding also reduces the ability of
the teaching institutions to purchase equipment
and teaching aids necessary for practical dem-
onstrations of environmentally related scientific
principles at all levels of the system. Addition-
ally, there is little, if any, funding for transpor-
tation to facilitate field study. Where funding
is provided, the level is often inadequate.


Shortage of Environmental Educators/Resource
Personnel

The training of teachers in various aspects of
environmental management requires resource
personnel. Within the Jamaican context, these
personnel would largely be drawn from two
sources: the resource management agencies of
government, and the university community.
Presently, both groups are shrinking due to lack
of institutional support.


KEY ISSUES AND PROBLEMS


Lack of Adequate Media Involvement


Lack of Financial Resuo.._.es

Government's public environmental education
efforts have been scaled down in recent years
due to financial constraints. An examination
of the "Estimates of Expenditure for 1984-85"
for the resource management agencies revealed
that very little has been allocated to environ-
mental education.

In the absence of an institutionalized public
environmental education programme, the stra-
tegy adopted by the NRCD in recent years has
been to include public education as part of the
Capital Development Budget for conservation.
In the Capital Development Budget for the
financial year 1983/84, $50,000 was earmarked
for public education. This budget and pro-
gramme was managed by an Information Officer
under the direct supervision of the Principal
Director.

Inadequate remunera.ion to teaching staff has
resulted in high staff turnovers. This trend
has affected the pace at which environmental
education advances in the formal education
system, as some of the teachers that are lost
have had environmental training. The teachers


Presently the media houses do not include
environmental issues as part of their regular
programming policy. This results from the
exclusion of environmental issues from national
media coverage.


Absence of an Environmental Education Policy

The individual efforts of a few professionals
within the resource management agencies, non-
governmental agencies, and the formal educa-
tion system are limited as they are operating
in the absence of a national environmental
education policy. Such a policy would both
strengthen and put into perspective the various
activities and programmes related to environ-
mental education. The policy would also
provide added justification for funding from the
private sector as well as from the international
community.


Lack of Coordinated Arrangements for Environ-
mental Education

In 1983, the resource management agencies,
along with representatives of the formal educa-







tion system, initiated discussions aimed at
developing a coordinated approach to environ-
mental education. The organizer of the meet-
ing, the NRCD, was already serving as the
national focal point for the referral of environ-
mental information. The NRCD was therefore
urged by UNEP to establish a national network
for environmental education as part of the
project objectives of the Regional Environ-
mental Programme for Latin America and the
Caribbean. These efforts were strengthened
during a follow-up meeting held in 1984, at
which UNESCO was represented. This meeting
has led to the preparation of a "Preliminary
Directory of some Environmental Education
Activities in Jamaica". Efforts at national
coordination need to be reinforced and carried
forward until there is a National Environmental
Education Network.


Lack of Socio-Cultural Approaches in Environ-
mental Education

The environmental education strategy has not
adequately considered the social and cultural
factors operating within the Jamaican society.
For example, the planting of the navel string
(umbilical cord) of infants with a tree is a
cultural practice that is responsible for some
amount of afforestation, albeit minimal. To
date, such a tradition has been largely over-
looked as a means by which to involve a large
segment of the population in everyday environ-
mental management. As part of this approach,
the society could be encouraged to plant trees
for any number of significant occasions, e.g.,
birthdays.

Lack of Reciprocal Approach to Environmental
Education

The solution to environmental problems fre-
quently requires historical data. Examination
of the Jamaican environment has clearly re-
vealed that the public at large (the peasant,
the fisherman, wayside vendor) has a vital part
to play in providing information not recorded
elsewhere. The importance of informal informa-
tion sources needs to be recognized, particu-
larly if we wish to ensure the involvement of
the community in environmental education. In
addition, mechanisms need to be established to
pass on information gained at the community
level. Just as the community needs to under-
stand the role of government in providing some
of the solutions to local environmental prob-
lems, so does government need to be made
awar" of the role of the community in making
a contribution to environmental management.


Inadequate Involvement of Private Sector in
Public Environmental Education

Only a relatively small number of NGOs are
actively involved in public environmental educa-
tion. Recognition must be given to these
organizations. There should be public recogni-
tion and appreciation extended to those citi-
zens, whether they are industrialists, trade
unionists, developers, professionals, or simply
interested citizens, who participate in efforts
to improve Jamaica's environment.

Community groups and service clubs, such as
the Boy Scouts, 4-H Clubs, Lions Club, Jaycees,
etc., have a potentially significant role to play
in the dissemination of environmental informa-
tion due to the nature of their far-reaching
community efforts.


DIRECTIONS FOR THE FUTURE


1. The development and implementation of a
National Policy on Environmental Education
is urgently needed.

2. The development and funding of Public
Environmental Educatio; Programmes with-
in Government's resource management
agencies is needed.

3. Incentive schemes within the Public Sector
should be provided to attract and retain
staff needed for environmental education.

4. The level of private sector involvement in
and funding for environmental education
should be increased.

5. Socio-cultural approaches to environmental
education should be utilized.

6. The fostering of a reciprocal approach to
environmental education between the com-
munity and researchers is needed.

7. Means should be devised for increasing
mass media involvement in environmental
education as part of National Media Policy.

8. Provision should be made for fellowship/
scholarships to facilitate specialized train-
ing in various aspects of environmental
education.







9. The development of a generalized environ-
mental studies core course is needed as
part of the requirements for certification
from all tertiary institutions.

10. Institutionalized environmental education
programmes are needed at the principal
government agencies dealing with environ-
mental management.

11. Development of a National Environmental
Education Network should be pursued.


Xt






S\7 A

Plt 1 Scio f oslie- eri eah(16)


'' c


Plate 16 Section of Coastline Kingston (1975).


g 4











The Resource Base


COASTAL RESOURCES


OVERVIEW OF COASTAL RESOURCES

Jamaica's coast is between 495-550 miles in
length, punctuated by numerous inlets and bays.
Its varied and irregular coastline gives rise to
a unique ecosystem formed by the integration
of coastal features that include harbours, bays,
beaches, rocky shores, estuaries, mangrove
swamps, cays and coral reefs. These natural
features provide a coastal resource base that
contributes significantly to the economic well-
being of the country. Relative to tourism, the
worldwide image of Jamaica is based largely
on the beauty of the island's beaches, coastal
waters, and shoreline environment. These
coastal resources, however, are especially sen-
sitive to the effects of over-use and mismanage-
ment, and many areas exhibit some degree of
degradation. The island's principal com mercial
and population centres are also located on the
coast, and urban development pressures on
coastal resources are intense and persistent.


Delineation of Coastal Area

For purposes of describing and analyzing Jamai-
ca's coastal resources, as well as for discussing
resource management issues, inland and seaward
coastal area boundaries have been established,
and coastal management unite have been deline-
ated. (See Figure 14.)


Inland Boundary. The inland boundary is the
100-ft contour, chosen in order to encompass
all nearshore lands with the potential to signifi-
cantly impact coastal waters. Included within
the 100-foot contour are the major wetlands
of Jamaica, rocky shore areas with sharp
increases in land elevation, and coastal plains.
The coastal plain is less than two miles wide
along most of the north coast and areas of the
south coast. In other locations, the plain
widens, notably in the eastern and western ends
of the island, and in the Clarendon and the St.
Catherine plains on the south coast.

Seaward Boundary. The seaward boundary is
marked by the furthest extension of the island's
shelf. The edge of the shelf delineates the
extent of the neretic zone. On the north coast,
this shelf is relatively narrow, and the sea floor
drops quickly to depths ranging from 5,000 to
30,000 feet. On the south coast, however,
between Kingston and Black River, the shelf
extends offshore for a distance of approxi-
mately 20 miles and is 80 miles long. This
neretic zone supports the major portion of the
island's fishery and is a major recreational area,
particularly on the north coast.

The outer limit of Jamaica's territorial waters
is 12 miles from the island. Pursuant to the
International Convention on Law of the Sea,
Jamaica is presently drafting a bill for the


,, __
















COASTAL AREA BOUNDARIES AND MANAGEMENT UNITS


SMANAGEMENT UNITS (Partsh boundaries)
*,,, OUTER JOUNDARY (Continental shelf


SOURCE: NATURAL RESOURCES & CONSERWTION
DEPT.


FIGURE: 14







establishment of a 200-mile Exclusive Economic
Zone (EEZ), which would include the existing
12-mile territorial sea plus an additional eco-
nomic zone of 188 nautical miles. Work on
this bill is being done through an inter-agoti ec
drafting committee within the Ministry or
Foreign Affairs. The establishment of such a
zone would allow Jamaica to secure all cays,
shoals, and banks of long usage that are
presently beyond the territorial sea. This would
enable Jamaica to enforce its fishing laws and
regulations within a larger area, thus restricting
foreign fishing to the surplus of Jamaica's
allowable catch.

Although considerably off-shore, the Morant
and Pedro Cays are also included in the
description of coastal area resources. The
Morant Cays are located 33 miles SE of Morant
Point and the Pedro Cays are on the Pediro
Bank about 40 miles S-SW of Portland Point.
Although there are other banks within : the
territorial waters, these are the only offshore
cays big enough to act as a senipermanent or
permanent base for offshore fishermen.

Coastal Management Units. Within the codstaL
region, 13 smaller geographical areas, or coastall
management units have been delineated accord-
ing to parish boundaries. (An overview of land
and water useF in each coastal management
jnit is include d in Annex 1.)


Colstal Area Resources

The coastline of Jamaica has been classified
according to four shoreline types: sandy or
gravely beach; rocky shore, cliff or elevated
reef; mangrove forest or swamp; and coral reef.
(See Figure IT.) In general, the south shoreline
is edged by long, straight cliffs, mangrove
swamps, herbaceous wetlands and black scnad
beaches. White sand beaches are found on the
north coast: the northeast coast is very rugged.
Fringing reefs have developed in places along
the north and northeast coasts. Around the
entire island, the coastline is very irregular,
indented with bays and extended by sand spits
and bars.

The coastline is also characterized by a number
of salt water lagoons, such as the Yallahs Ponds
in St. Thomas and the Great Salt Pond in St.
Catherine. Other major enclosed water bodies
that occur in coastal areas are largely
freshwater, and include &uch sites as Mystery
Lake and Green Grotto in St. Ann, and the
Wallywash Pond in St. Elizabeth.


Offshore Islands, Cays, and Reefs. Jamaica's
nearshore cays are found mainly off the south
coast with the exception of Booby Cay, which
is off the west coast near Negril The majority
of these cays are small (less than 2 acres),
accessible only by private boat and lack suitable
infrastructure for their development es recre-
ational centres. Two of the larger cays,
however, Lime Cay, south of Kingston, and
Booby Cay, west of Negril, have been developed
inco significant recreational sites.

Lime Cay is approximately two acres in size
and is the largest of many cayo scattered a
few wiles south and east of the entrance to
Kingston Harbour. It ia mainly used by private
boat owners from Kingston as a picnic and
swimming/snorkeling area. Day trips to the
area are also organized periodically from some
of the Kingston hoteLs.

Booby Cay is approximately 1,000 feet from
the promontories of Rutland Point on the west
coast of the island: and has been developed by
Hedonism II, one of the hotels in the Negril
area, as a picnic and snorkeling area,

The offshore cays Pre the Morant and Pedro
Cays situated off the south coast of Jamaica.
The Morant Cays consist of four small limestone
ca s located about 40 miles southeast of Morant
Point. They are separated fror. the mainland
by deep water and not continuous with the rest
of the continental shelf surrounding Jamaica.
The cays are surrounded by the shallow water
of the Morant Bank, which is a productive
fishing area.

The Pedro Cays are a group of four coraline
islands i-Luated on the southeastern edge of
the Pedro Bank, about 58 miles souta! of Great
Pedro Bluff and about 100 miles from Kingston.
Like the Morant Cays, they are the base for
fishing on the surrounding bank.

On the north coast, fringing coral reefs extend
almost continuously along the edge of the shelf
from Negril to Morant Point. On the south
coast, the greater part of the shelf is devoid
of coral reefs, except c:, the eastern portion
between Kingston and Portland Bight, where
larger reefs and numerous coral cays exist. On
the western section of this coast, the reefs
tend to he small, patchy and not as well
developed (Goreau, 1958). These reefs provide
habitat for numerous species of flora and fauna
and are important for both fishing and recre-
ational use.














SHORELINE CONFIGURATION


VERY WELL DEVELOPED REEFS
.^ i*^ ^ ^-- ^


STEEP ROCKY CUFFS
FEW POCKET BEACHES


ANNCTTO BAY


BUFF BAY


SAND/GRAVEL BEACHES
FEW REEFS


LARGE Wf/ES
ROCKY CLFFS
FEW POCKHE
'SSS~.tX^ BEACHES


BLACK RIVER


ALLIGATOR POND


SANDY OR GRAVEL BEACH
ROCKY SHORE CLIFF/ELEVATED REEF
MANGROVE FOREST/ SWAMP
CORAL REEF


SOURCE: INTRADAY 7/82.


FIGURE : 15


MAR


JAMAICA


YALLAHS




Full Text

PAGE 1

I ... ,. ,,'. :A(I. 4 .. .. I COUNTRY ENVIRONiV1EN1"AL PROFILE

PAGE 2

COUNTRY ENVIRONMENT AL IPROFILE Prepared By: Government of Jamaica, Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Division And Ralph M. Field Associates, Inc. On Behalf Of: International Institute For Environment And Development KINGSTON, JAMAICA September, 1987

PAGE 3

P:aEFACE This Country Environmental Profile (CEP) of Jamaica is one of a series of environmental profiles funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). Financial support was received both from the USAID mission to Jamaica, and the Bureau for Latin A merica and the Caribbean (LAC), Office of Development Resources (DR). The Scope of Work for this C EP was jointly prepared by Dennis M c Caffrey of the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIE D) in Washington, D. C., alld Ralph H. Field, Presiden.t of Ralph H. Field Associates (RMFA) of Connecticut. The views and opinions expressed in this document are those of the authors, and not n1ecessarily those of the U.S. Agency for International Development. PreparatiCln of the various sections comprl'nng this document is entirely the work of Jamaican governmental consulting firms and individual consultants ret4Uled by the Natural Resources Conservation Division (NRCD). In the evolution of the COuotcy Environmental Profib, sector drafts prep.sred by various contributors went tbrGllP ail iterati"e, ane! unavoidably time-consuming process .in order to involve a broad spectrull of reviewers in critiquing the work. The role of R MFA during this process has been to cer-ordinate the work with NRC D, edit the successive drafts, offer constructive criticism where appropriate, and organlze the many individual contributions into a single cohesive document. It would be presumptuous to claim that this Profile irlcorpoTlltes a definitive set of policy recom mendations with respect to Jamaica1s e .. vironment, or that it is encyclopedic in its coverage of the individual sectors. This is not that of It is, however, an important milestone in assemhling a broad informaLion "ase on Jatrlaica's environment and natural resources, thus further basis for: making policy and program determinaticms. Hopefully, this Profile will contribute to the on-going d;alogue of he,w best to reconcile the prot
PAGE 4

ii Science, TecbnolDBY aDd Reaearch Depart ... nt, HinUny of Apieu1ture Dr. H.LC. Lowe Dr. Marcel Anderson Ms. Vilma McClenan Mrs. Joyce Annakie Executive Director Director, Technical Coordinator Director Secretary The Natur&l. Resources Conservation Division is indebted to Dr. Lloyd Rankine, Head, Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad for his assistance in the preparation and editing of various sections of the document. Natural Re80urCE:8 Conservation Division (NRCD) Staff Mr. Philemon Hoilett Miss Claire Forrester Mr. Paul Carroll Dr. C. Sinha Mrs. Elizabeth Ross Miss Ann Haynes Miss Karen Harvey Mr. Learle M llier Miss N. Plunkett Mr. 1. Gardner Mr. Fitzroy Gregory Mr. Lancelot Anderson Miss 1. Clato-Day Miss G. Clarke C o1.lsultanto Project Management 11aternational Institute for Environment and Development Ralph M. Field Associates Sector Contributors Charles V. C amegie Lloyd A. Donaldson Conrad Douglas & Associates -Fred Hanley Franklin McDonald Beverly Miller Adrioory Co ittee Acting Principal Director Acting Frincipal Director Acting Principal Director Principal Director Acting Director, Aquatic Resou!t'ces Ecology and Wildlife Peace Corp Volunteer -National Parks Beach Control Division Technical Assistant Technical Assistant Draughtsman Draughtsm an Stenographer Secretary Stenographer Prime Contractor Principal Consultant African-C aribbean Institute, ISE R, U WI Underground Water Authority, Ministry of Agriculture 14 Carvalho Ave., Kingston 10 Master Ble'.ld Feeds Ltd. Office of Disaster Preparedness, Ministry of Construction Imeru Environmental Consultants The CEP team was assisted by an Interagency Advisory Committee which provided input on policy and project recommendations. Members of the Committee are listed in Appendix A. Many other individuals provided valuable information through interviews.

PAGE 5

u.s. Agency for International Develop.ent (US Am) The JCEP has benefited greatly from the participation of Jim Talbot, Caribbean Regional Environmental Specialist for the USAID, and Leland Voth and Mark Nolan of the Agriculture and Rural Development Office and Charles Matthews of the Office of Engineering, Energy cnd the Environment of the USAID mission to Jamaica. These individuals carefully reviewed drafts, attended numerous meetings, provided input, and generally helped to facilitate the prod uc tion of this C E P. iii

PAGE 6

iv Plate 1 Fern Gully, St. Ann.

PAGE 7

Preface Acknowledgements List of figures List of Tables IlfTRODUCTION C ONTRNTS Purposes of a Country Environ.ental Profile Process of CEP Preparation for Ja.aica Objectives of the' for Ja.aica Orgarili:ation of the Report PART I: CONTEXT PhysicaJ., De.ographic and ECODO'llic Context Institutional Overview PART IT: ISSUES, POLICIES AND r.ECOMMENDATIONS Proble.s and Issues Framevork for Environmental Management Policy and Project Reco endatiou PART m: SECTOR ANA!.YSIl:S The PC!ople RUillan Resources and Culture Enviramental Education The Resource Base Cooa::tal Resources Water R.esources Wildlife National ParIts and Protected i i vii ix 1 1 2 2 3 5 21 31 33 37 Lll 47 49 49 69 83 83 113 133 161 v

PAGE 8

vi Environment and the Econo1llY Fisheries Resources Forestry Tourism and Recreation Hinerals and Mining Energy Resources Agricultural Resources The Built KnvUnoment Urban and Rural Infrastructure Industry and Industrial Pollution Environmental Hazards APPENDICES A. Interagency Advisory Committee Members B. Bibliography 173 173 197 211 229 243 259 291 291 307 329 349 350 351

PAGE 9

LIST OF FIGURES Physical & C ultm'al Context 1: Regional Context 2: Island of Jam aica 3: Topography 4: Climate 5: Geology 6: Soils 7: Land Use 8: Bauxite and Alumina Exports 9: G OJ Agf>'1cies with Functions Related to Environmental M anagem ent Human Resources &. Culture 10: Population Den'1i::ies and Distribution by Parish 11: Growth of the K M A 12: Total Fertility Rate, Jam aica 13: Settlement Strategy Co,uta! Resources 14: Coastal Area Boundaries ann Management Units 15: Shoreline Confi.guration 16: Kingston Harbour and Ellvirons 17: Distribution of Stranded Tar 18: Areas of Critical Beach Erosion Water Resources 19: Jamaica -Mean Thit-ty Year Rainfall (1931-1960) 20: Jamaica -Location of Main Surface Water Features 21: Jamaica -Location of Significant Groundwater Features 22: Jamaica -Hydrologic Basins and Watersheds 23: Jamaica -Location of Water Supply Systems Wildlife 24: Vegetation Map of Jam3ica Showing the Distribu::ion of Forests and Flantation Crops 25: Comparison of the Number of Species of Flowering Plants Ferns in Jamaica, Sri Lanka and the British Isles Nntional Parks 26: Existing and Proposed Parks and Protected Area,> Fisheries 27: Schematic Outline of Jamaican Fishery kesources 28: Inshore and 0 ffshorc Fishing Areas 29: Potential Shrimp Trawling Areas on the South Coast 30: Coastal Areas Undet" Development Pressure 31: Aquaculture Development Plan of Fish Farms 32: National Aquaculture Devbpment Plan Forestry 33: Forest Vegetation 34: Areas Suitable for Pine Development in Eastern Region 35: Forest Administrative Units and Infrastructure "36: Formal Institutionsl Organizati6n Structure and 6 7 8 10 11 12 15 19 25 52 55 57 61 84 86 92 103 105 114 116 117 119 120 135 138 163 174 175 176 179 181 186 198 202 205 2Cr7 vii

PAGE 10

viii Tourism 37: Total Visitor Arrivals to Jamaica, 1971-1985 38: Jamaica -Hotel Beds Sold by Region (1985) 39: Offshore Islands and Cays, Mineral Springs, Waterfalls and Botanical Gardens Minerals and Mining 40: Jamaican Bauxite Resources 41: Metallic Minerals 42: Petroleum Exploration StatJS 43: Non-Metallic Minerals Energy 44: Major and Minor Peat Deposits 45: Jamaica Public ServiC'e Power Stati.ons 46: Jamaica Public Service Co. Major Transmission LinesDistribution 47: S'TIall-Scale Hydropower Sitel; Agriculture Land Use Map of Jamaica 49: Agricultural Land Capability 50: Contaminated Groundwater Aquifers of Jamaica Infrastruc ture 51: Areas Classified as Urban 52: J.P.S. Rural Distribution 53: Kingston Harbour, Showing Major Fresh water and Waste Discharges 54: Post-Primat"y Schools 55: Health Services 56: Clinics 57: Public Housing Distribl1tion 58: Public Housing Projects in Pipeline Industry & Industrial. Pollution 59: Sugar Production in Jamaica 60: Bauxite and Alumina 0 perations 10 Jamaica 61: Section Across Red Mud Pond 62: Simplified Geological Map of Jamaica showing Red Mud Disposal Sites 63: Essex Valley Location of Wells and Contaminated Areas 64: Distribution of Manufacturing Establishments 65: Location of Treatment Plants 66: Preliminary Ml1p of High Risk Areas -Jamaica 67: Projected Surge & Wave Heights, Kingston Harbour 68: Major Hurricanes Affecting Jamaica 1880-1970 69: Fault Zones in the Caribbean 70: Number of Eilrthquakes of Intensity VI, 1874-1978 71: Modified Mercali Intensity Map of 1907 Earthquake 72: Geology of the Kingston Waterfront 73: Geology of Portmore 74: Areas Having Priority for Mitigation 1n the KMR 212 213 218 230 233 235 236 246 248 254 26) 266 2f:.17 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 304 310 311 31.2 313 315 316 321 331 332 333 334 335 335 337 338 341

PAGE 11

LIS T 0 F TAB L E S Physical and Cultural Context 1: Interpreted Land Cover/Use Category Totals 2: Population Change in Jamaica, 1975-1983 3: Gross Domestic Product, 1984/85, 1985/86 Human Resources and Culture 4: Population Density in Selected Countries of the Circum-Caribbean 5: Estimates of Net Migration, 1960-1984 6: Distribution of Emigrants to North America,1970-80 7: Population by Age Group and Number of Parishes lived 10 Between June 1969 and June 1974 8:' Degn:>p of Dependency of Communities in the KMR on KMA 9: Level of Housing Construction, 1974-1984 10: Percentage Employed Labour Force by Industry Group 11: Percentage Employed Latour Force by Occupation 12: Unemploympnt RatE-, Jamaica 13: Adjusted School Enrollment Ratio 14: A Profile of Community Based Organizations and Institutions in Jamaica 15: PVO's Concerned with Environmental Conservation Environmental Education 16: Major Events in the Development of Environmental Education in Jamaica 17: CAST's Extra Curricular Involvement in Environm ental Education 18: Institutions Offering Environmentally Related Courses and Programmes 19: Major Public Sector and Non-Governmental Organizations in Jamaica which Provide Aspects of Environmental Education C01Jstal Resourc.:!s 20: Dominant Plant Species in Jamaican Wetlands 21: Number of Species in Plant Negril MOlass 22: Number of Species in Plant Communities, Bla.ck River Lower Morass 23: Sum mary of C oadtal Zone M ani.'ge ment Recom mendation.; for the Kingston Region Water Resources 24: Average A nnual Distribution of Water Types 25: Distribution of Demand and Supply 26: Distribution of Irrigated and Irrigable Land and Unit Demands 27: Hydropo w er Facilities 28: Government Institutions and Agencies in the Water Resources Sector 29: Data on Main Water Supply Systems 30 Problems to Inadequate Source Evaluation 31: Programs Required to Improve Management of the Water Sector 32: Recommended Projects Wildlife Resources 33: SomE' Examples of Levels of Endemism in Varioua Groups of Plants and Animals 34: Some Proposed Sites 0f Scientific for Wildlife 14 16 18 51 53 53 54 56 57 58 59 59 59 66 67 71 75 78 79 88 90 91 98 115 121 122 123 124 126 12i' 129 130 134 137 ix

PAGE 12

x 35: Critically Endangered/Extinct Species of Wildlife 36: Endangered Species of Wildlife 37: Some Threatened Species 38: Some Examples of Rare Species 39: Endangered, Threatened & Rare Plants 40: Summary of Institutional Responsibilities for Wildlife Resources National Parks and Protected Areas 41: Description of Proposed Reserve Categories and Some Proposed Jamaica Areas 42:Institutions Related to N.lJtional Parks and Protected Are:as Fisheries 43: Species of Fish Comprising More than 80% by Weight of Those Caught by Traps in Demersal Fishery 44: Estimates of Fish Production from Jamaican Insular Shelf Only, 1945-1981 45: Artisanal Fishery: Estimated Annual Catch by Type of Fish and Fishing Ground 46: Major Projects Undergoing Expansion in the Aquaculture Industry 47: Development Pressures Affecting Fisheries Resources 48: Fishery Resources of Jamaican Waters 49: Distribution of Forest Resources in Government and Private Hands, by Parish 50: Climatic Characteristics of Jamaica's Natural Habitats 51: Jamaica's Life Zones 52: Extent and 0 wnership of Forest 53: Estimated Forest Plantations on Forest Reserves by Species 54: Pine Lumber Imports and Local Production to Satisfy Local Demand 55: New Scheme of Land Capability Classification for Jaml:!ica Touris. and Recreation 56: Jamaica, Spatial Distribution of Hotel Rooms 57: Jamaica, Hotel Bed-Nights Sold 58: Commercial and Recreational Usage of Jamaica's Coastline 59: Schedule of Public Bathing Beaches 60: Mineral Springs in Jama:'ca Kinerals and Hining 61: Jamaica's Bauxite Production, 1972-1985 62: Gypsum Production, 1980-1985 63: Lstimate of Marble Reserves 64: Silica Sand Production Ener,y 65: Petroleum Consumption by Product, 1985 66: Petroleum Consumption by Sector, 1935 67: Electric Generating Capacity, 1981-1984 68: Location, Type and Rating of JPSCo. Generating Facilities 69: Jamaica's Petroleum Demand Forecast, 1985-1989 70: Proposed Hydropower Projects 139 140 141 143 144 148 164 167 176 177 178 185 187 194 199 199 200 201 202 203 208 213 214 215 216 219 231 232 232 234 244 245 24"' 248 250 253

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Agriculture 71: Agricultural Employment (as of Oct. 1982) 260 72: GOP at Current and Constant Prices (Annual Percentage Change) 261 73: Change in GOP at Constant Prices (Annual Percentage Change) 261 74: Land Use Distribution, 1978-79 262 75: Jamaica's Agricultural Capability Classes 263 76: of Farms by Income-Earning Activity 263 77: Number and Acreage of Farms by Size Groups 267 78: Value of Selected Agricult'.Jral Exports, J.980-1984 267 79: Volume of Major Agricultural Commodities Produced, 1980-1985 268 80: Total Number of Farms by Size and Acrea:se, By Legal Status Holder 269 81: Acreage of Farms by Tenure of Land, By Size Group 270 82: Total Number of Farms by Major Income Earning Agricultural Acitvity, By Size Group oi Farm by Legal Status Holder 271 83: Total Acreage of Farms by Major Income Earning Agricultural Activity by Size Group of Farm by Legal Ststus Holder 272 84: Total Number of Farms with Farm Machinery and Equipement Available by Size Group of the Farm 273 85: Number of Farms with Specified Crops and Size Utilizing Fertilizer and Pesticides 274 86: Domestic Food and Livestock Production, 1981-1985 276 87: Total Meat and Fish Consumed, Meat Production and Imports of AU Types of Meat, 1975-1985 278 88: Imports of Main Milk Products 279 89: Imports of Selected Foodstuffs, 1981-1985 279 90: Selec ted Traditional Export Crops, 1981-1985 280 Industry and Industrial ?Illlution 91: Sugar Production, 1963-1985 308 92: Jam aica: G ross Foreign Exchange Earnings 1981-85 309 93: Composition of Red Mud 314 94: Cement Prodl!ction in Jamaica, 1981-1985 317 Knvironmental Hazards 95: Recorded Instances of Coastal Flooding due to Storm Surge 330 96: Return Periods for ModiEed Mercali Intensities and Anticipated Effects 97: Major Risk Areas Vulnerable to H ultiple Hazards 98: Key Government Agencies and Private Organizations with Programs and Activities Affecting Natural Hazards Management 336 340 342 xi

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...... Plate 2 Dunn's River Fulls, St. Ann. xii

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Purposes of a Cauntry Environmental Profile Preparation of a Country Environmental Profile (C E p) is in tended to serve multiple purposes. For the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID), the C E P offers an opportunity to systematically review the environmental and natural resourc e base of a particular country or region. Th is in form ation provides a con text for identitying and ranking environm ental prob lems ,1nd opportunities, thereby strengthening programming capabilities and providing a framework for project implementation. For the host country, the C E P can become an effective instrument for establishing a consensus on national environmental policy. It does this by gathering together the relevant information on key resource sectors, and by reviewing the findings wi.th public agencies, private voluntary organizations, and interested citizen groups. The aim is co establish a consensus on key resourc e problems and ho w the country may proceed to resolve these within the constraints of budget, manp:n. technology, and jurisdictional authority. Thus far, full Environm ental Profiles have been prepared for 15 c cun tries, principally in Latin A mer-ica and the Caribbean. Desk-type pro files, based almost entirely on library research, have been prepared for an additional 23 countries. INTRODUCTION These profiles have been used widely by AID, host countries, development banks, and other bilateral agencies for briefing and reference. Profiles have helped set the stage for major. investments in natural management and have served an institution-building function. Typically, they have provided a compendium of useful information on the natural resource base of each country and have identified major existing and potential problems associated with environm ental and natural resource management. Process of eEP Preparation for Japtaica In 1981, a "desk-type" Environmental Profile for Jamaica was prepared under a (;ontract between U.S. AID, a ffice of Forestry, Environment, and Natural Resources and the U.S. Man and the Biosphere Program.* A full CEP project was initiated in 1985 through a contract between AID and the International Institute for Environment and Development (ITED). Ralph M. Field Associates, Inc. (R MFA) wcs retained by ITE D as principal consultant for the C E P, to work with the Jamaica Natural Resources Conservation Division (N R C D), the counterpart agency for the Government of Jamaica (G a.I). Susa!l 3raatz. Draft Environmental Profile on Ja maica. 1981.

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2 It was jointly agreed that 16 E'nvironmental and resource sectors would be exami.ned. These included: Agriculture, Coastal Resources, Energy Resources, Fisheries, Forestry, Human Resources and Culture, Indust':"y and Industrial Pollution, Mining and Minerals, National PMks, Natural Hazards, Private Voluntary Organizations, RE'creation and Tourism, Trai.1ing, DrbEl'1 and Rural Infrastructure, Water and Rydrology, and Wildlife. IT'Jing NRC D staf.f, a short Reconnaissance Phase was initiated to com pile and sum marize readily available information on E'ach of the SE'ctors. A fter an intensive staff effort in searching files and conducting interviews. initial reconnaissance reports were prepared according to a uniform format. A decision was then I:lade as to which sectors required additi.onaL consult ing assistance. 0 nce the consaltants were selected, the reconnaissance reports be:::ame the starting point for further in-depth research by experts in the particular fields. Throughout th8 effort, emphasis was on insuring factual accuracy, highlighting the key issues in each sector, and form ulnting ':"ecom mendations for policy and future prograr.J mingo Synopses of the Sector Reports were later reviewed by a specially-appointed Advisory Group in an attem pt to reach broad consensus on policy recom mendations to be submittt!d to Governnent. The l"ecom mendations in this C E P Report are based on the results of the Advisory G roup's review and deliberations, supported by the findings of the sectoral studies. Objectives of the CKP for Jaaaica The goal of the Jamaica Country Environmental Prome (C E p) is to contribute to sustained economic development. The approach haG been to develop a national overview of Jamaica's environment, with the aim o identifying oppor tunities for significan tly im proving resourc econservation and environmer.tal management. The specific terms of reference of the Jamaica CEP were as follows: 1. To prepare a report that documents Jamaica's natural resource base and the condition of the natural environment. 2. To tlescribe and analyze the existing institutional framework as it affects resource sectors and areas of environmental concern. 3. To .L:ientify key governmental policies, pro grammes, arid invest;y:ent priorities affecting resource and environmental management. 4. To identify the areas of congruity and conflict between economic development and environmental protection in key sectors and activities. 5. To prepare a draft environmental policy statement for Jamaica. 6. To identify programmes and projects that further both environmental and development objectives that could be financed by the Government of Jamaica and/or the private sector with financial and technical assistance from AID and other donors. Organization of the Report This Clt:P for Jamaica includes three parts: o Part 1: describes the physical and cultural context and provides an institutional over vlew. o Part n: identifies key issues and problems facing Jamaica in attem pts to balance an overwhelming need for economic development and the essential need to manage and conserve the resource base on which this development depends, and makes policy and project recom mendations to further the ob-jectives of the CEP. o Part III; includes, for each of the individual seetol."S, a sum mary of existing conditions and institutional responsibilities, identifies plans and program mes affecting the sector, identifies major issues and problems within each sector, and discusses directions for future work.

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PART I: CONTEXT Plate 3 Pine Trees on the Slopes of lhe Blue Mountains. 3

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Plate 4 .. House at Irish Town. ,o-r ; .... .: .", .. -l-' "'* ... .. 0 Plate 5 Section 'of Road along Negril Beach (1967). 4

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GEOGRAPHY Jamaica is located in the Greater Antilles, approximately 90 miles (145 km.) south of Cuba and 100 miles (161 km.) west Haiti. (See Figure 1.) It i., the third largest island in the Caribbean with a total land area of 4,411 square miles (10,939.7 sq. km.). Jamaica is 146 miles (236 km.) long and between 22 and 51 miles (35 lind 82 krn.) w ide. (See Figure 2.) Topography The islandls topography consists of a highland interior, formed by a backbone of peaks and plateaux running the length of the island, surrounded by flat coastal plains. (See Figure 3.) Over half the island lies more than 1,000 ft. 0,609 km.) above sea level. The consisting of two major land forms -mountaln ranges, and lim estone plateaux and hills -are varied and, in some places, extremely rugged. The topographic features include steep-sided mountains, highly karsted land, high plateaux, rol.ling hills and the coastal plains with interior valleys. lnLl'l lor Mountain Ranges. The highest peaks are the Blue Mountains in the east. The crest of these mountains is formed by a 10-mile (16 krn.) long NW-SE oriented range of peaks ex eceding 6,000 ft. (1,829 m.) and reaching a PHYSICAL, DEMOGRAPHIC, AND ECONOMIC CONTEXT maximum height of 7,402 ft. (2,256 m.) at Blu.' Mountain Peak. Long spurs run north and south from the central ridge to the coastal plain, in some areas only 10 miles (16 km.) away, forming a series of steep-sided, often severely eroded valleys. To the the Port Royal M ountains, foothills lying between the Blue M ountains and Kingston, form a chain of peaks over 4,000 ft. (1,219 m.) high, kno w n as the Q ueensbury Ridge. Limestone Plateaux and Hills. Flanking the interior mountain ranges are. hills and plateaux, which occupy the central and western twothirds of the island. Within this region, the highest areas -the Dry Harbour, Santa Cruz and May Day Mountains -lie bet ween 2,000-3,000 ft. (1,610 -914 km.), while the majority of the plateaux lies between 1,000-2,000 ft. (305 610 m.). The plateaux are dissected by faults and have been karsted to varying degrees. The mot;t developed karst topography is in the Cockpit Country and, to a lesser extent, in the Dry Harbour and John Cr.ow Mountains. The predominant landforms in these areas are cockpits, which are rounded or conical hum mocks with intervening circular depressions and steep, irregnlar sides. Elsewhere, the karst is less developed so that the terrain takes the form of rolling hills, shallow !Jinkholes, ridges and open knob-and-valley country. C aves are common features of the limestone region; 380 caves have been located and registered. 5

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FIGlJR[ 1 REGIONAL CONTEXT !E)IICO GU.F OF MEXICO ATl.ANT1C OCEAN t N I MARTIPlQU(';l Sf. BARBADOS ST. V"CEHTi1 PACIFIC OC.AN Sc ... 1,10,000.000 VENEZUELA SOUIc[: KATIONAL ATLAS OF JAMAICA (19l'1, Coastal Plains. The coastal plain is less than two miles (3.2 km.) wide along most of the north coast and areas of the south coast. In som e other places, the plain to form broad embayments, the most eKtensive of which are located at the eastern and western ends of the island and the Clarendon and St. C atherine Plains on the south coast. Queen of Spain Valley in the north and Horse Savannah in the south form partially enclosed em bay m ents. In addition to coastal lowlands, there are three major interior valleys -St. T.homas in Ye Vale, the Queen of Spain Valley and tile Nassau Valley. The coastal plains and interior valleys are the prime agricultural lands. Some areas of the coastal plain are swampland. The major swamps are the Upper Morass and the Great Morass in t-he southwest, and the Westmoreland Plain north of Savanna-la-mar and the Great Morass, both on the western end of the island. 6 Coastline. Jamaica's 550-mile (885 km.) long coastline is varied. The south shoreline is edged by long, straight cliffs, mangrove gwamps 3nd black sand beaches. The north coast is very rugged, with several white sand beaches, the finest of which stretches tor four miles (6.4 km.) along thli! west coast at NegriL Around the entire island the coastline is irregular, l'ldented with bays and extended by sand pits and bars. Sixteen of the bays are utilized IlS com mercial harbours. Kingston Harbour, sheltered by the eight-mile long Palisadoes sand spit, has 8 square miles (20 km. 2 ) of navigable water and is one of the largest and most well protected (Jorts in the Caribbean. Between Kingston Harbour lnd Black River Bay, a shelf less thpn 120 feet 06.6 m.) deep extends offshore for 5 to 20 miles (8-32 km.). The south coast has some barrier reefs and numerous sand cays, the most well-known being just off Kingston. Much further offshore lie the larger

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FIGURE: 2 ISLAND OF JAMAICA: PARISHES & MAIN TOWNS

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or.; II """. >..DOO 18 R LDOO J.ooo -r..COO-Z.cOD -500-1,000 o 0-'00 HtT THE COCKPIT ORY FIGURE: 3 TOPOGRAPHY + N OF THE RIDGE SOLFlCE: Nafional A!1as of Jamaica (1971)

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Morant Cays (33 mt. SE of Point) and the Pedro Cays ton Pedro Bank about 40 mi. S-S W of Portland Point). Unlike the south coast, the north shore has no shallow marine flats or shelves; the sea-bottom plunges steeply to depths of 5,000-30,000 ft. (1,500-9,000 m) in the Bartlett Trough. Fringing reefs have developed in places along the north and northeast shorelines. The 30uth coast has relatively few reefs. Volcanoes and Seismicity. Lava cones in the Blue Mountains and hot springs on the east and south coasts are vestiges of volcanic activity. Earthquakes are experienced in Jamaica due to the proximity of the plate boundary the small Caribbean Plate from the North American Plate. The two largest earthquakes to impact Jamaica in historic times were those of l692 (the Port Royal Event) and 1907 (the Kingston Event). Because it is built on unconsolidated alluvial sands and gravels (the Liguanea Plain), Kingston is more susceptible to tremors than other Areas of the island. Climate Jamaica's tropical maritime climate is modified by north or northeast trade winds and land-sea breezes. Rainfall and temperature patterns vary locally according to location and altitude. Figure 4 sho ws island wide climate patterns. Temperature. Temperatures in the coastal lowland are Lirly uniform. The average temperature is 80" F (2r C), ranging from 74-79 F in the coldest months (January and February) to 82-83 F in the warmest (July and Augus:.:). Temperature varies wiLh altitude; there is a 3.5 F tem perature drop per 1000 foot increase in elevation. The 'nean annual average temperature for Blue Mountain Peak is 56 F (13 C), with a 10-year recorded low of 38 F (30 C). Diurnal flucuations are often considerable (l5-20 F on the coast, 20-25 F in the interior), while variation in mean annual temperature is sm all (6 F). Humidity. Humidity also varies with elevation. Usually the humidity is above 60%, and is general.ly highest in the morning (85 %), dropping by mid-afternoon. Rainfall. Rainfall in Jamaica is marked by monthly, annual, and spatial variability. The average annual rainfall for the entire islar.d is 77.1 inches (195.8 em). The Blue Mountains and northeast coast lying in the path of the trade winds receive the highest annual rainfall, over 130 in. (330 em). Kingston, in the lee of the range, receives less than 50 in. (127 em.) annually. Water shortages are characteristic of the southern coastal lowlands, making irrigation necessary for agticulture. The island's rainfall i.s bimodal, with peaks in May and October and minima in M arch and June. rains are associated with hurricanes and "lIorthers", cold winter air waves which mainly affect Jamaica's northern side. Droughts. Since 1870, Jamaica has experienced island-wide droughts in 1871-77,1880-85,1920, 1922-23,1946-47, and 1975-76. Droughts in the late 1960's and mid 1970's resulted in do m esti.e water shortages a nd serious agric ul tlpal losses. Hunicanes. Jamaica is under considerable 'threat from hurricaner., especially during the hurricane season which extends from .1uly to November. Between 1886 and 1967, 19 hurricanes and tropical storms directly hit Jamaica, and 98 (48 of which were hurricane force) had centres within 150 miles of the island. Approximately one-third of these storms caused flooding and damage resulting from the forces of intense rains, extrem.-..ly high winds and hl/1h waves. Geology and Solls The geological history of Jamaica consists basic ally of alternating periods of ign eous and metamorphic activity and submergence beneath the sea. In general terms, Jam aica has an igneous and metamorphic core, coveted to a extent by lim estone deposited during per.iods of marine submergence. About twothirds of the island is covered by limestone, concentrated in the central and western parts of the island, and the other third by igneous and metamorphic rocks, shales and alluvium. (See Figure 5.) Jamaica's soils may be classified into several categories \olhich reflect differences in geology. The soils of the upland plateaux, formed from weathered limestone, constitute approximately 64% of the island's soils, while alluvial soils located on flood plains, river terraces, inland valleys and coastal plains constitute approximately 14%. The highland soils (covering the shale areas of the Blue, John Crow and Port Royal Mountains in the east and the Dry Harbour Mountains in the central region) constitute 11 % of the island's total soils. The remainder of the island's soils are formed from calcareous 9

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-o A"lIagl Annual R(lInlall c=J """" ",. ED '0-'. E::::rJ 10-100 [11m 000-.00 !:!:!l:i'!$iJ 1>0-'00 0.." .co I .", ,.,1 .. ,_, 1_ U -"'':'"'''' o 10.,_ ........... .....L.-....... FIGURE: 4 CLIMATE ", ...... .... U ... 'If .e ..... ce ......... It ... 1.1 t ...... "u"" SOll"ca: National Alios of Jorncico ,1971

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.... .... o Al..LUVIUM-:;uate,ncry a Rec .. t FMNS.-Al.M:oc",e Plioc.". E1 WrilTE !...IMESTONE-M.coc;",.-YELlC7N UME5T!JNE-MIddle eocene !II RICHMOND .C:OCQtIIJ WAGWlrrER FORMAnON-Lo .. r,c .. .. 1:::::::::::1 SEDIMENTS a NETAMOR?HICS -U. CretoceOll' LMlFFERENTlA'TED l1li HALBERS'mOT VOLCANICS Eocet:e f.';:CASTLE PORPHYRY Eoce,. lifiJ AfoI>ESlTJC VOLCANICS GRANOOORITE -U. CretoceOUl .. SERPENTINITE Cretoceou FIGURE: 5 JAMAICA GEOLOGY SOURCE: GEOLOGICAL SURVEY DlV!5K>N

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N FIGur.E: EXPLORATORY .. .. ..... .... t .... a'" .L ....... "1II.t c.._" '" ... tOII SOIL MAP OF .JAMAICA 6 .. h-c-. (KEY TO HAP ON PAGE 348),001 CARIBBEAN 5 E A S':CI" ., t '" ...... .... -_,..-7.--..,....,.,....,"'r:r ........... _.--..... ..... -._ -.:----.............

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shale or weathered from igneous and metamorphic rock, limestone and shale. (See Figure 6.) Upland Plateaux Soils. The soils of the upland limestone plateaux are more erosion resistant, have a higher pH (ranging from slightly to strongly alkaline), and in general are more fer tile than the highland soils. Limitations for agricultural use in certain areas are due to shallow soil depth, stoniness, low availability of water, or iron and aluminum toxicity. The soils are of two main types: terra rossa (red limestone) soils and rendzina (black marl) soils. The rendzinas, which are clay soils developed over yellow limestone and marls, have a scattered distribution. Although low in potassium, these soils have good agricultural potential. The terra rossa, or residual bauxite soils, are widespread ov('r the upland plateaux, mainly at elevations of 2,00U-3,000 feet (610-915 m) in M ancl1ester and St. Ann. These soils are low in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, so have poor agricultural potential. They may by used for pasture, or, in some areas with fertilization, for production of citrus, pimento, bananas and vegetable crops. Alluvial SoUs. Alluvial soils are located on thE-coastal plains in southern Jamica, the nar rower plains along the north coast, on inland valleys, and floodplains. These soils, com prised of loam, sand and gravel are among the most productive for agriculture. The coastal plains and interior valleys are used for plantation crops, mainly sugarcane and bananas. Also included as alluvial soils are the heavy, 3-4 feet deep days of marine origin and swamp soils on the southern plains. Highland Soils. The soils of the highlands are derived mainly from shales, conglomerates and volcanics, and are exposed to medium or high rain fall. The soils in the Blue Mountain area are highly porous and subject to heavy leaching, resulting in low nutrient content and low pH. Since soils in this tirea are generally highly susceptible to erosion and poor in nutrients, they are best kept under forest cover. The lower slopes, which are not as susceptible to erosion, are being uS/:!d by subsistence farmers for mixed cropping of cacao, root crops and bananas. With increased population pressure and need for nlore land, farm ers have been clearing steeper land at higher elevations, thus exposing erosion-p':one soils. Lower rainfall and more seasonal dim ate in the central range, or Dry Harbour Mountains, allows the soils to dry for a fe w months a year, so they are less highly leached them those of the eastern ranges. This area is used ruainly for mixed cropping. The main island wide soil surveys for Jamaica are: -Jamaica volume of the Studies in West Indian Soils (the Imperial College of Tropicai Agriculture (LC.T.A.), Trinidad (1922-1949) by Hardy and Croucher (1933); -Jamaica Resource Assessment, CRIES, 1982; Parish soil and land use surveys done by the Regional Research Centre of the British Caribbean, Univernity of West Indies, Trinidad (1958-1971); and FAa/UNESCO Soil Map of the World, Mexico and Central America, 1975. Land Use and Land Use. Forestry and agriculture are the predominant forms of land use in Jamaica. (See Table 1 and Figure 7.) Forestry arid other woodlands cOver approximately 45 percent of the country, mostly area3 of rugged terrain such as the Blue Mountains and the Cockpit Country and dry, hilly uplands of poor soils in the southern, western and north western parts of Jam aica. FE;w large areas of virgin forest exist in Jamaica, and most of the forest or other woodlands are com prised of ruinate or second growth. Agriculture in Jamaica extends over almost onehalf of the land area (42 %). The three principal types of agricultural use are plantation crops grown mostly for export, mixed farming of food crops for domestic consumption and export, and pasture for beef and dairy cattle for local consumption. Other land includes urball areas and mining (mostly bauxite). Land Capability. Historically, the land capability classification system used in Jamaica was based on physical factors such as soil type, rainfall and drainage. The present land suitability classification system is based on parallel physical and socia-economic surveys and includes considerations of infrastructure, mar kets, and labour force characteristics. The up liated land suitability classification system presently being used gives suitability ratings for specific crops. 13

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Table 1: Interpreted Land Cover/Use Category Totals In Jam&ica Urban Residential Rural Residential Industrial, Cornmel'cial, and Institutional Resort Development Sugar Cane BanAnas Coconuts Mixed Bananas/Coconuts Orchards Tobacco Mixed Coconuts/Forest Mixed Bananas/Forest Intensive Mixed Extensive Mixed Improved Pasture Unimproved Past ure Unimpro'Jcd Pasture Limited by Slope Coniferous Oc:ciduous Brush Lakes Rivers Wetlands Coastal Wetlands Noncoastal Surface Mining Bare Sand or Rock Percent of Total 1.70 3.33 .39 .10 8.11 .94 1.43 .09 .14 .06 1.99 .05 3.77 2.37 11.31 11.33 1.99 .33 45.90 2.13 .19 .25 1.27 .16 .44 .12 Source: Jamaica Resource Assessment, CRIES (1982) DEMOGRAPHY Population Size and Density Jamaica's population at the 1982 census was 2,190,357. Slightly less than half of the population was classified as urban, while 52.2 percent were rural dwellers. Geographical features significantly affect settlement patterns: settlement is considerably restricted in those areas of steep and rugged terrain in the centre of the island and in regions of swamp around certain secd'lns of the coast. Based on the provisional count of the 1982 census, Jamaica's population density was 205 per sq. km. (as com pared to 130 per sq. km. for the Caribbean region as a whole, 40 per sq. km. in Central America and 12 per sq. km. in North America). 14 Population Distribution Between the 1920's and the 1960's, the Kingston Metropolitan A rea (K M A) experienced a very high rate of population growth, both through natural increase and by net migration from rural areas. The population in the metropolitan area almost doubled from 238,300 to 419,400 between 1943 anJ 1960. Between 1960 and 1980 this growth in population led to the development of large settlements around perimeter of the old metropolitan area. The population of the Portmore region, for example, grew from just over 2,000 in 1970 to over 66,000 in : 982. However, the spread of the urban population in spatial terms has not been matched by the growth of municipal services and infra-struc-

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FIGURE: 7 JAMAICA LANDUSE 1985/86 7BJO 18 15 7800 77 45 77lO 77 15 76'lO 78 15 7700 78 45 .. LEGEND URBAN m FORESJ' IlIXED CROPPING 1m ilUP JJ PHI'llrJJ PI..AloIl1llC DIVNOII JfETI.ANDS CANE 0 OTHER Klt(:sTRY or AGRlCULTl11!E HOPE GARDEI!!' ASTEIWI m:tCN KNG'iTO!f e I ""leA -... VI PASTURE PERMANENT CROPS

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ture. Also, Urban Growth and Management Study, conducted in the mid-1970's, found that residents in outlying 'suburbs' were dependent to a very high degree on jobs and services within the Kingston Metropolitan Area (K M A). Population Projections Jatnaica!s annual rate of populatlon increase, 1.4 %, places it among those countr..es which have reduced their rate of populatilJn growth to a relatively moderate level. Population trends for the island as a whole have looked promising since the decline in the fertility rate and the rate of population increase which began in the early 1970's. Projec tions made in the early suggest that the fertility rate will continue to decline to replacement level by 1995-2000 under the moderate projection (as of 1984 the number of children per woman had fallen to 3.3). It is anticipated that the island's popuhtion will be approximately 3 million in the year 2000. Ethnic Groupe Although a multi-ethnic society, ethnic groups, other than those of African origin, comprise a very small miuority of the population. According to the Statistical Yearbook of Jamaica (l98C" the total of those classified a8 East Indian, White, and Chinese comprised 3.1% of the total population; blacks accounted for 90.9%; 5.9% were listed as of "other races"; and no race was given for 0.1 %. Yet the im pact of minorities cannot be gauged solely by their numbers. Jamaica was a slave society for over 150 years and a colony for over 300. During this lengthy period, the society was controlled by a small minority of European origin. The powerful position of this minodty has exert::!d considerable influence on culture, values and the local evaluation of phenotypic features. (Jamaica's population patterns lind cultural features are discu88ed more fully in the Human Resources and Culture Sector in Part IlL) Table 2: Population Chante In "aaalea. 1975-1983 Population at X Crude Crude Rate oC InCant Year 31st Dee. PopulAtion Birth Death Natural Mortality Rate Rate Increase Per 1,000 Per 1.000 2,060,300 2,042,700 30.1 6.9 23.2 23.5 1976 2,084,400 2,072,300 29.3 7.1 22.2 20.3 19'17 2,109,400 2,096,800 28.9 6.8 22.1 15.1 19'18 2,140,500 2,124,900 27.4 5.7 21.7 14.9 1979 2,164,500 2,152,500 27.5 6.2 2].3 12.4 1980 2,186,100 2,175,700 26.9 5.8 21.1 1981 2,226,400 2,206,300 26.9 6.0 20.9 1982 2,265,401) 2,245,tlOO 27.3 5.6 21.1 1983 2,309,900 2,287,700 26.8 5.5 21.3 Source: Department oC Statistics, 1982 16

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EeOROMY Overview of Tunela Historically, agriculture has provided employment fm the num ber of people in Jamai ca, although :kJl."()duction has not kept pace with population growth. Major export crope are sugarcane, bananas, citrus, cocoa and coffee. Sugarcane, the first com mercial crop gra wn in the country and the basis of its econo!llY, continues to be gro wn on large eugar plantations as well as by Sid all farm ers. Banana, the second leading export crop, is grown mainly by small farmers. M any food crops are grown by small hillside farmers primarily for domestic consumption. In the se\l eral decades, bauxite mlDlng, manufacturing and touriam have become dominant sectors in the economy. Between 1952, when bauxite was first mined, and the 1970's, Jamaica had become the world's second leading producer of bauxite ore, and mining had become the leading s')urce of revenue of the Jamaica government. Several types of manufactoJring are well eetablished in Jamaica. These include food processing (vegetable, cocoa, spic<;!, etC>, textiles and leather products, furniture, ceramics and glassware, and electronics. Tourism is currently the most important source of foreign exchange earnings and a stimulant to other dOIJ.estic industries (e.g., construction). During the 1970's, the country experienced serious fiscal problems, with seven consecutive years of economic decline resulting from a rapid rise in the price of oil and stagnating productivity in most sectors. Unemployment increased from 22.5% in 1972 to 26.8% in 1980. With the change of administration in October 1980, measures were taken to stimulate the private sector and encourage foreign invest ment. At the same time austere fiscal manage ment measures were adopted by Government. Negotiations with the International Monetary Fund were renewed. Loans from several Western countries as well as from international banks were pursued to provide capital for imports neeJed in the manufacturing and agricultural sectors. In 1981, the GOJ initiated the Structural Ad juatment Programme, which was geared tuward sustainable economic grow(oh. The Programme's objective vas to transform tht! econotay through the of structurlll defects and the promotion of export-oriented development. The policies designed to achieve these goals were: o Promoting the private sector as the main engine of growth, and c:rt'!Bting the appropriate economic structure: and climate to enhance increased private sector investment and output in key sectors of the economy; and o Rlitionalisiog the operations and management of all public ent
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18 declined by approximately 0.7% in fiscal year 1984/85. (See Table 3.) The outlook for FY 1985/86 is for further contraction in output, a consequence of the crisis in the domestic bauxite/alumina sector (see below), whi.ch has necessitated additional fiscal measures to extract $239 million from th2 domestic economy to make up for the fall in the bauxite levy. Sectoral Performance Agriculture. The major domestic crops include legum es, vegetables, condim ents, fruits, cereals and butter. The major livestock production in Jamaica includes cattle, hogs, goaLs, sheep, fish and dairy products. The major export crops produced by Ja m aica are sugar cane, bananas, citrus, coffee and cocoa. Major non-traditional exports include vegetables, fruits, tubers and '1ortic ulture. Under the Structural Adjustment Programme, an agl'icultural modernization program me is designed to increase the potential of the sector as a net: earner of foreign exchenge. The programme involves aU categories of farmers and provides for the restructuring of ins;::itu tional arrangements for production and market-ing. One of the major mechanisms for achieving these objectives is the A G R 0 21 Program me, which is targeted to generate employment for approximately persons and to generate foreign exchange. Thus far, it is estimated to have provided em ployment for over 6,000 persons and foreign exchange earnings/ savings of approxima(-f.'!.y U8$5.3r1. Mining. The bauxite/alumina industry repesents over 90 percent of the total product value of the mining sector, while the non-metallic mineral industl'ies com prise the balance. Between 1952 when bau1l.ite was first mined and the 1970's, Jamaica had become the world's second leading producer of bauxite ore and mining was the major qource of revenue of the Jamaica Government. During 1983, Jamaica's bauxite output fell to 7.7 million tonnes, the lowest level since the 1930's. Of this amount, 25 % was exported as alumina. A 13.7% increase in total bauxite exports in 1984 resulted from increases in the export of the crude ore. However, the situation reversed itself rspidly in 1985, when total bauxite exports fell to 6 million tonnes, of which approximately 60 % was crude bauxite. Table 3: Gross Domestic Product, 1984/85, 1985/86 (J$Millions) Gross Domestic Product (current prices) Private Consumption Public Consumption Investment Central Government Net Exports Exports of goods Imports of goods Net NFS* GOP at Ul74 (constant) prices Real growth rate *Net factor services 1984/85 9,460.9 6,163.3 1,635.3 2,089.8 453.0 -427.5 3,148.1 -5,328.1 1,752.6 1,927.6 -0.7 1985/36 11,123.8 7,357.5 1,910.0 2,488.0 750.0 -631.7 3,914.7 -6,883.8 2,337.4 1,850/1,860 -4/-3 Source: PIOJ Staff Estimates. Planning Institute of Jamaica. Quartel'ly Economic Report. Vol.I, No.4. June 19&5.

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The decline in the Jamaican industry, in spite of recovery in the \It orld primary eluminium industry, was due to several factors: an oversupply on the world market resulting in a supply/demand imbalance; decline in prices; high local energy costs; and net reduction in operaLing capacities. This situation forced the closure of Alcoa, Alpart (a conglom erate of Kaiser, Reynolds and Arca) and Reynolds Jamaica Mines. Kaiser and Alcan are presently operating in th(; inland. The Alcoa Plant has since been reopened as the Clarendon Alumina Pro duction Ltd. and is operating under the ownership of the Jamaican Guvernment. Jamaica's bauxite industry faces continuing problems of increased com petition from areas such as Guinea and Bra
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Rnd chemicals and chemical products experienced strong growth, while beverages, tobacco, sugar, rum, molasses, shoe and leather products and non-metallic minerals and metallic products regiAtered declines. Generally, declines in production were caused by diffculties and delays in obtaining raw material due to the unavailability of foreign exchange and of credit lines. Capital investment grew in three subaectors in the period 1982-1984 food processing (324%), textiles and clothing (1794 % J, chemical chemical products (770%). Of the total employed labour force, 12.8 percent was employed in the manufacturing sector in 1984. The G OJ has taken several steps to com bat problems in the manufacturing -deregulation of imports of raw materials and capital goodsj -changes in the parity rate of the Jamaican dollar to increase com petitiveness of Jam aican goodsj cll.ocation of foreign exchange for the purchase of raw materials and spare palts for certain manufacturing enterprisesj and -expanded production drives through the JNE C and JET C. Tourism. The tcurism industry has continued its positive growth trend, wi::h visitor arrivals reaching a level of 846,716 in 1985. Over 67% were stop-over guestsj the remainder were cruise ship passengers and armed forces personnel. Gross visitor expenditure amounted to US$4G6.8 million in 1985. Direct employment in the tourism sector was 13,619 in the same year. 20

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GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION Jamaica gained independence from Great Britain on August 6, 1962, and is a member of the British Commonwealth of Nations. The form of government is constitutional monarchy, in which the Queen is titular sovereign and is represented on the island by a Governor-Gen eral. The executive branch is made up of the G overnor-G eneral, the Prim e Minister and the Cabinet. The Governor-General appoints the Prime Minister, and on the latter's recommendation, oth er Minis ters who, along with the Prim e Minister, make up the Cabinet. The Ministers are generally named from the members of the House, but may be appointed a Senator, then designated a Minister. Each Minister has a permanent secretary, who is a civil servant in charge of the general administration of the Ministry. In 1986 there were 15 ministers with responsibilities for 16 ministries. The legislative branc h consists of the Senate of 21 members (appointed by government) and the House of Represenr::'ltives of 60 mem ber!: (elected by the people). The judicial branch of the government is represented by the Court of Appeals. Jamaica u; divided into three counties (Cornwall, Middlesex, Surrey), which are in turn divided into 14 parishes for purposes of local government. The parishes of Kingston and St. I'JSTITUTIONAL OVERVEW Andrew are linked together for administrative purposes as the Kingston and St. And::ew Corporution. The local affairs of each of the other 12 parishes are administered hy the Parish Councils. The parishes are divided into electoral constituencies (60 tota!), from each of which one House Representative is elected. Representatives are elected for five years by universal suffrage, the voting age being 18. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRON MENTAL MANAGEMENT X aymaca, the A warak name for Jamaica, means the land of ... and watel.' and indeed, this was an apt description of th2 island prior to tlrt! advent of European domination. Large rivers roared through the island's countryside, and num erous wildlife species were supported by the island's unique topography and microclimates. The advent of "development" has changed this picture markedly, exerting severe stress on the carrying capacity of the environment. The Jamaican legislature has exhibited concern for environmental management since 1874, when the Harbours Act, which prohibits the pollution of selected marine waters by solid and liquid wastes, was passed. However, an examination 21

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of the historical situation reveals that the institutional capabilities to ad minister this and other related la ws have bee'l slow in evolving in Jamaica. Historically, the protection and management of resources was vested in the Crown, and operated through various government and statutory organizations. Forestry, which rem ains the largest resource sector of the island, was the responsibility of the Conservator of Forests, while mineable resources were the responsibility of the Commissioner of Mines. Up to the period im mediatdy preceJing independence. mental management in Jamaica was geared to wards resource exploitation. During this period, several pie.:es of envircnmental legislation were put in place, including the Public Health Act (1926); the Forestry Act (1937); the Country Fires Act (942); the Mining Act (1944); the Wildlife Protection Act (1945); the Irrigation Act (1949); the Beach Control Act (1956); the Quarries Control Act (1958); and the Water Supply Act (1958). As the consequences of environmental degradation in Jamaica became morE widely felt-, the legislature responded by enacting the Town and Country Planning Act, in 1958, and the Clean Air Act, in 1961. Following independence ;n 1962, the pattern of management of resources, ... hich had been aimed specifically at resource exploitation, began to change. During the 1960's, the movement towards resource enhancement was strengthened. In January 1969, the Ministry of Agriculture and Lands was divided into two separate ministries -the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, and the Ministry of Rural Land Developm ent. Coupled with the changing institutional ar rangements, was the enactment of new legisla r:ion, such as the Underground Water Control Act, (1962) and the Watershed Protection Act (1963). Major additions to the legislative framework since 1970 include: the Ports Authority Act (1972); the Revised Public Health Act (1974); the Fishing Industry Act (1976); and the Litter Act (1985). However, despite the passnge of this legislation, a review of the institutional framework that existed during the 1960's to early 1970's reveals a fragmented approach to environmental management, uith numerous agencies and c:ommittees sharing responsibility for. the administration oE various environ m en tal la w s. These included: -The Beach Control Authority 22 Watershed Protection Com mission Wildlife Protection Committee -Natural Resource Planning Unit (Ministry of Mining) -Marine Advisory Com mittee Kingston Harbour Quality Monitoring Committee -Public Health Division, Ministry of Health The major weakness of this network was the lack of coordination between the various components and the chronk shortage of technical staff. During the 1970's, three major events sparked a concerted effort toward the development of a coordinated approach to environmental management. These were: the Stockholm Conference on the Environment, 1972; the establishment of the Ministry of Mining and Natural Resources; and the prOi)Osal to site a major petrochemical complex in Jamaica. At the Stockholm Conference on the Environment, Jamaica played a major role in establishing a worldwide mandate for environmental management througr. His Keith John-son, who was Rapporteur General of the meeting. During this conference, Jamaica also voiced its com mitment to the development of a sound institutional base for environmental management. The country's active participation in the con ference pla;::ed it in the forefront of the international en"ironmental management movement. As a result of its stated commitment to environmental protection, Jamaica was elected to sit on the First Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Program me, in 1975. The second major step leading to a more coordinated approach to environmental management was the creation of the Ministry of Mining and Natural Resources in 1974. The Ministry had responsibility for: -Mineral resources mining, including bauxite; -Geological mapping and mineral resource ex-ploration; -Development and conservation of water resources (Watershed Protection Com mission, W uter Resources Surveys and Planning, and Underground Water Authority); -Distribution of water (Mid-Clarendon Irriga tion Authority, St. Dorothy Plains Irrigation Authority, Black River Drainage and Irriga tion Board, and Hounslow Irrigation Authority); -Land planning, development and registration (Town Planning, Negril Area Land Authority, and Land Valuation);

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-Beach Control Authority -Kingston Harbour Monitoring Com mittee -Scientific Research Council ... Seismographic Research Unit -Development of Public Recreational Facilities -National Parks and Wildlife Com mittee. As can be seen from this list of the Ministry's responsibilities, a concerted effort was being made to coordinate the management of natural resources. In 1973, the Ministry of Public Services initiated a Management Development !'rogram me, which involved a comprehensive management training exercise for middle and senior level management personnel within Government. Candidates from the Ministry of Mining and Natural Resources were exp0l:ed to several areas of management, including organizational development. As part of the exercise, a concept for the development of an enviror.mental managel;Jent agency was conceived and partially developed. At the same time as the institutional framework for environmental managemenc was evolvi.ng the country's economy rapidly expanding. In 1974, the Government was approached by a major U.S. developer to use the island as the site for a large peuo-chemical com plex. The components of this proposed develop:nent were a refinery (25,OOOB.C.D.), a marine ter.minal and transshipment port, a dry cargo pier, power station (380 M W), plant (300,000 tons per annum of caustic), ethylene storage, and a water treatment plant. This project, with its potentially deleterious environ mental effects, underlined the need for a coordinated institutional approach to environmental management. The proposal for industrial development, coupled with the commitments from the Stockholm Conference and the management development exercises, were the catalysts for the formation of the Natural Resources Conservation Department (N R C D) and the vironmental Control Division (ECD) in 1975. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT MACBIHERY Environmental management in Jamaica is cur rently dependent on the coordinated actions of several agencies. These include resource management institutions, such as the Town and Country Planning Department (TPD), the Town and Country Planning Authority (TPA), the Natural Resources Conservation Division (N R C D), and the Environmental Control Division (E C D); as well as development agencies, such as the Ministries of Agriculture (including Fisheries and Forestry), Construction (Housing and Works), Public Utilities, Local Government and others. The creation of the Natural Resources Conser vation Depart fOl::nt (N R C D) and the Environmental Control Division (ECD) was the most significant legacy of the post-Stockholm environmental movement in Jamaica. In 1975, the Natural Resources Conservation Authority (N RCA), a nine-member board of overseers, W.lS formed to direct the workings of the NRC D. The ne w entity was intended to unite existing bodies -the Beach Control Authority, Watersheds Protection Commission, Wildlife Protection Committee, Natural Resource Planning Unit, Marine Authority Com mittee and Kingston Har bour Quality Monitoring Committee. In addition, ne w func tions pertaining to ecologic al research and natural areas management were assigned to the NRC D. In the past the NRC D has been reorganized, and reduced to Divisional status. The NRC A .:.s no longer functioning, while the Beach 80ntrol Authority and Watershed Protection Com mission conti.. .. 1ue to operate. The NRC D is expec ted to perform in four areas: policy and la w, information and public education, ecological research and monitoring, and environmental management. Specific objectives include: To increase public understanding of the island's ecological systems and promote methods for the conservation and development of its natural resources; To raise the quality of life by increasing public awareness ot the natural beauty of the island, and the availability and accessibility of outdoor recreational facilities; To determine policy to be followed and standards to be maintained in the management of the island's resources of land, water, air, flora and fauna in the interest of the present and future generations of Jamaica; To promote and ensure the wise use of the nation's natural resources by the establishment of an ecological review procedure for all relevant development proposals; To implement programmes for the conservation and development of natural resources; and, 23

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To collect, store and distribute data and information on the development and c.:>nserva tion of the island's natural resources. The Environmental Control Division (E C D) is responsible for the developm ent and application of environmental standards and appropriate technology geared towards the protection of public health, livestock, crops and natural resources. E C D is also mandated to carry out monitoring ap,d assessments with regard tn the control of water quality, se wage, industrial waste water, solid waste, industrial working environ m ents, air pollution and noise. The Town and Country Planning De;:>artment (TPD) is the agency which rleals with physical planning, and serves as the secretariat of the To wn and Country Planning A ut:hority. This Authority administers the Town and Country Planning Act:, "'hich regulates all development ac tlvltles. The Authority, by virtue of its membership, also serves as principal nating body for environmental management. It is chaired by the Government Town Planner, and has representation from the NRC D, the E CD and the Pl.9.mling Institute of Jamaica (PIOJ), as well as t'"e development agencies, all of whose projects must receive the Authority's approval. In addition, the NRC D and the E C D have independent refusal authority over projects by virtue of their respective authorizing legislation. Physical plans produced by the Town and Country Planning Department are intended to integrate policies of the NRC D and the develop ment agencies as well. These physical plans provide a basis for development plans produced by the Planning Institute of Jamaica. Following is a list of the agencies involved: Development Control and Coordination -Town and Country Planning Authorityl -Town lind Country Planning Department2 (Physical Planning Secretariat of the A ity) Natural Resources Conservation -Natural Resources Conservation Department3,4(Resource Management, Ecological Research, and Information Secretariat of the Authority) 1 Administers the Town and Country Planning Act. 2 Denotes membership on the Town and Country Planning Authority. 24 Enviro>.1Iuental Control -Environmental Control Division2;4 (Research and Regulation in Matters related to Public Health R esourc e D evelopm en t -Ministry of Agriculture2 -Ministry of Construction2 -Ministry of Public Utilities and Transport2 -Ministry of Local Government2 -Ministry of Mining, Energy and Tourism2 -Ministry of Educ&tion2 Urban Development Corporation2 Economic Planning -Planning Institute of Jamaica2 The broad titles of the NRC D Elnd E C D suggest an overlapping of functions which, in reality, are quite separate. The ECD, in the Mini.stry of Health, serves the Ministry's own legislation, notably the Public Health Act. Consequently, the E C D is concerned pollution sources, standards, and controls. By contrast, the NRC D is concerned with ambient levels of pollution, rather than with point source emissions. FUNCTIONS UF M AJO R G OJ INSTITUTIONS As noted above, numerous G OJ ministries and/or their affiliated pUblic corporations play some role in environmental regulation or naturRl resource management. (See Figure 9.) Other institutions are significant to environmental management due to their development promotion functions. Brief functional descriptions of aU the agencies that conduct some environmentally-related activities nre included below. Specific agency activities are described, as appropriate, in the individual sector analyses in Part ill. Institutional barriers to effective environmental management are included in the discussion of issues and problems in Part IT. 3 Administers the Beach Control Act, sheds Protection Act, and Wildlife Protection Act. 4 Administers the Public Health Act.

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Figure 9: List of GOJ Agencies with Functions Reiated to Environmental Management Key Regulatory &: Management Agencies Natural Resources Conservation Division (M. of Agriculture) Environmental Control Diviskm (M. of Health) Town Planning Department /Town Planning Authority (M. of Finance & Planning) Key Economic Planning &: Investment Agencies Planning Institute of Jamaica Urban Development Corporation Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica Jamaica National Investments Promotion/Jamaica National Investments Co. Jamaica Industl'ial Development Corporation Supporting Resource Management anu Protection Agencies Fisheries Division (M. of Agriculture) Inland Fisheries Unit (M. of Agriculture) Port Authol'ity of Jamaica Mines & Quarr:es Division (M. of' Mining, Energy & Tourism) Office of Disaster' Preparedness (M. of Construction) Water Resources Division (M. of Local Government) Underground h"ater Authority Watershed Engineerillg Division (NRC!), M. of Agriculture) Meteorological Office (M. of Public Utilities & Transport) Survey Department (M., of Agriculture) Forest Department(M. of Agriculture) Metropolitan Parks & Markets Co. (UDC affiliate) Bureau of Standards Supportillf Investment &: Development Agencies Energy Divisicn (M. Mining, Enei'gy & Tourism) Jamaica Public Servicf Co. M. of Construction (Works) National Water Commh;sion Jamaica Bauxite Institute AGRO-21 Corp. Ltd. Agricultural Development Corp. Forest Industrj' Development Co. Coffee Industry Development Co. Jamaica National Export Corp. M. Mining, Energy & Tourism Jamaica Tourist 30ard 25

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Key Regulatory and M anage.ent Agencies Natural R esourc es Conservation Division (N R CD). NRC D, in the M. of Agriculture, is Jamaica's chief resource management and conservation agency. NRC D administers several pieces of key legislation, including the Beach Control Act (1955), the Wildlife Protection Act (1945), and the Watershed Protection Act (1963). NRC D's functions include: -Resource management and policy formula60n for wildlife species, watersheds and coastal zone management; -Research and monitoring of inland and nearshore aquatic resources, including surveys and investigations on water quality, aquatic ecology and nearshore physical dy namlCS; Planning and development of national parks, both marine and terrestrial, as well as the conservation and protection of unique natural areas; -Development including the performances of environmental impact assessment; and -Execution of a Public Education Programme aimed at increasing pUblic awareness for all areas of environmental management. Environmental Control Division (E C D). The E C D, in the M. of Health, seeks to develop and ensure the application of environmental standards and appropriate technology geared towards the of pUblic health, livestock, crops, and natura] resources. It also carries out monitoring cl\1d assessments with regard to the control of water quality, sewage, industrial wastewater, solid waste, industrial working environments, air pollution and noise. Town Planning (TPD). The role of TPD, which is within thE. M. of Finance and Planning, is to carry out comprehensive and balanced development of lc:nd throughout the Lc;land along the national/regional and 'Irban development policy guidelines of the Government. Inherent in these functiolls is the vital role of development control with respect to the orderly and progressive development of cities, tow ns and their necessary amenities, as well as education of the public regarding the role of the planning process as a critical aspect of com m unity life. The Town Planning Department is represented on the Town and Country Planning Authority. The TPD is responsible 26 for: preparation of the National Physical Plan; recom mendations for public policies on land use and development; preparation of land use studies, p'l'1S, and regulations; preparation of Developrr.ent Orders; coordination of interagen-cy review of subdivision applications; and the preparation of development suitability maps and studies. Key Economic Planning and Investment Agen CIeS Planning Institute of Jamaica (PIOJ). The PIOJ initiates and coordinates planning for the economic, finane :al, social, cultural and physical development of the country, monitors the implementation of these plans, and manages technical cooperation: agreements and program meso In addition, tne PIOJ carries out research, training and provides consultant services to government ministries, agencies and bodies. Urban Development Corporation (UDC). The UD C, a statutory corporation reporting to the M. of Finance and Planning, is legally empowered, within designated UD C areas, to act as its own planning authority and to design and construct development projects and tc implement conservation elements of its projects. UD C also prepares physical plans for designated areas, and supervises and coordinates implementation of the Comprehensive Rural Townships Development Plan. Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica (p CJ). The P CJ, a statutory body established under the Petroleum Act (1979), reports to the M. of Mining, Energy and Tourism. PCJ is empowered to conduct a broad range of activities for the development of the country's energy resources. P CJ's operations include petroleum exploration, operation of tht! Petrojam Refinery, and investigation of the potential uses of Jamaica's peat resources. Jamaica National Investment Promotion, Ltd. (JNIP). The JNIP, along with the Jamaica National Investment Co. Ltd. (JNIC), is a statutory c0rporation reporting to the M. of Finance and Planning. JNIP and JNIC provide local or foreign private investors with advice, information and assistance regarding investment opportunities. Jamaica Industl'ial Development Corporation (JID C). JID C, a statutory body under the M. of lndustry and Com merce, is the principal agency charged with ensuring that the G OJ's industrial development objectives are fulfilled.

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JlO C pla.ns for and im plements public sector industriELl projects, promotes both pUblic and private industrial development projects, and operates industrial estates throughout the is land. Recently merged with the National Industrial Development Company, the "new" JlOC is responsible for the development and implementation of a Com prehensive National Industrinl Plan and is specifically responsible for upgrad-109 the performance of the manufacturing sect.or. Supporting R :>lIource M aoage. eot aod Protec ricm Ageoo:ies Fisheries Division. The Fisheries Division of the M. of A griculture is responsible for prom oting fisheries development through research, ad ministration of fisheries la w s, training and credit services to fishermen, and monitoring of offshore fishery reserves. Inland Fi.'lheries Unit (IFU). The IF U, within the M. of Agriculture, is responsible for maintaining an islandwide programme to encourage small farmers to take up fish farming. IFU's program m e concentrates on extension, production, training, research, and marketing coordination. J?ort Authority of Jamaica. The Port Authority n:gulates coastal structures on or over water, provides aids to navigation, monitors oil spills, provides in form ation on ship traffic, and is responsible for the review, approval, construction and leasing of buildings on the foreshore in areas Jnder its jurisdiction. Mines and Quarries Division (MQD). The MQD, within the M. of Mining, Energy, and Tourism, collects and disseminates information on the geological resource base of the country, for example, geological mapping to identify mineral deposits, potential geological hazardS, assessment of slope stability, drainage and other pr.ysical factors in revie wing development and subdivision applications. The M Q D also provides technical assistance in matters Leiating to prospecting, mining and quarrying. Office of Disaster Preparednos (ODP). ODP, within the M. of Construction, coordinates disaster response and post-disa9ter recovery activities, makes recom mendations on pUblic policies for the avoidance of risk areas, maintains a system for monitoring and forecasting environmental events, and reviews developm ent and subdivision proposals in high risk areas. Water Resources DivL'3ion (W RD). The W RD of the 1-1. of Local Government collects data and provides technical information and support to other G OJ agencies on water resources (e.g., stream flow and tidal data, critical water levels, etc.) Underground'Water Authority (U W A). The U W A is a statutory body which was established under the Underground Water A uthority Act (1962) to provide for the conservation and proper use of underground water resourt:es and to control the exploitation of such resources. To this end, the U W A is em powered to issue licences for ground water extraction. Watershed Engineering Division (W E D). The WED, part of NRCD, is involved in water conservation through che implementation of variouR watershed management projects (e.g., for the reduction cf soil erosion, river bank stabilization, etc.). Meteorological 0 ffice. The Met 0 ffice of the M. of Public Utilities and Transp:lrt provides technical support to other agencies through the collection of data on weather (rainfall, winds, etc.) and issues wan:ings of severe weather conditions. Survey Department. The Slxvey Dept. of the M. of Agriculture prepares, updates, and maintains a central depository of island wide maps (including topographic maps) and aerial photos. Forest Department. The Forest Department of the M. of A griculture is responsible for noncom mercial forestry activities, extension, planning and researc h, training, and ad m inist .... ation. The Forest Department leases forest reserve lands to FlO CO for com m ercial foreRtry operations. Metropolitan Parkf. al'd Market Company (MPMCoJ. MPMC0., an affiliate of the UDC, is responsible for administration of metropolitan parks llnd refuse collection in the .. Metropolitan Area. Bureau of Standards. The Bureau of Standards ad ministers legislation and regulations related to the establishment and enforcement of uniform standards: the Standards Act (1968); the Processed Food Act (I959); and the Weights llnd Measures Act (1976). The Bureau makes recom mendations with respect to the formulation and application of standardR and specifications and provides for the examination and testing of com modities and processes. 27

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Supporting Invest.ent and Developaent Agencies Energy Division. The Energy Division, within the M. of Mining, Energy and Tourism, is responsible for the development and monitoring of a National Energy Policy and the gathering and analysis of in form ation in regard to petroleum products and energy conservation. Jamaica Public Service Co. (JPSCo.). .IPSCo is responsible for developing and maintaining the cou:1try's pllblic electricity distribution network. Ministry of Construction (Works) The Works Division of the M. Construction has a principal role in constructing and repairing flood and erosion control facilities and other public facili ties anu infrastructure (e.g., roads and bridges). The Works Division also reviews large private development proposals for conformance with construction standards. National Water Commission (NWC). The NWC is responsible for water supply and most of the sewerage works in the Kingston/St. Andrew corporate area. Jamaic.a Bauxite Institute (JBI). The JBI, a limited liability com pany, is involved in the research and development of bauxite reserves and bauxite conversion processes, allocation of mining sites, establishment of bauxite levies, and monitoring the safety of mining operations, alumina production, and reclamation of mined lands. A G R 0-21 C orr. Ltd. Agro-2l is a statutory body, jointly funded by the Government of Jam aica and US AID. Its primary objective is to restructure the country's agriculture by employing improved technology "nd a programme of crop diversification. Under this programme, private investors have been encouraged to become involved in developm ent of non-traditional export crops. Agricultural Development Corp. (A D Cl. The AD C is a statutory body und er the M. of Agriculture whose purpose is to improve and/or maintain the quality of Jamica's produce, particularly livest0ck production. Forest Industry Development Co. (FID CO). FID C 0 is responsible for all com mercial forestry activities, establishment and maintenance of forestry plantations, and logging, transport and processillg of harvested timber. FID C 0 LC; accountable to both the Ministry of Finance 28 and the Ministry of Agriculture. Coffee Industry Development Co. (CIDCO). CID C 0 is responsible for establishment and maintenance of major coffee Jamaica National Export Corporation (JNEC). The J N E C is responsible for develop m en t, promotion and expansion of Jamaica's non-traditional export" products. MinL'ltry of Mining, Energy & Tourism (M MET). The H MET is responsible for the form ulation and implementation of Government policies relating to mineral resource development and mllHng and energy and for the overall development of tourism, including policy formulation, promotion, m.1rketing and all other aspects of the tourism industry. Jamaica Tourist Board. The Jamaica Tourist Board, a statutory organization, is responsible for promoting tourism locally and overseas and for developing and maintaining tourism industry standards. Two subdivisions of tile Jamaica Board are the Jamaica Attractions Development Co. (JADCo), which is charged with Jeveloping ne w sites and attractions for tourism lnd enhancing existing sites, and the Authority which .is responsible for the development and regulation of river rafting. OTHER INSTITUTIONS Anum ber of private volunta'rY organizations (p V O's) and research institutions also play a role ill environmental management. include: These Institute of Jamaica. '!'he Institute of Jamaica was to encourage and develop knowledge in the areas of literature, science, arts, culture and history, and the conservation of monuments for the public benefit. This is accomplished via the delivery of lectures, the compilation and !)Ublication of literature of historical, scientific or artistic interest and the establishment and maintenance of schools, museums, galleries, halls and other places reserved for the dissemination and developm ent of literature, science and the arts. Scientific Resea>:"ch Council (SRC). The SRC, a statutory body within the M. of AgricultUl-e, was established in 1960. Its role is to foster and coorciinate scientific research and to encourage the application of such research to the exploitation and development of the island's

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resources. The Food Technology Institute, which has responsibility for technical assistance, product development and training in the area of food research and development has been a part of the SRC since 1968. Sugar Industry Research Institute. The Sugar 1Iidustry Research Institute is responsible for the research and development of sugar production techniques and im proved sugar cane varieties. University of the West Indies (U WI). The U WI is a tertiary institution providing certificate, dipioma, degree, and graduate courses in the arts, natural sciences, social sciences and medicine to students, mainly from the Caribbean region. In addition, it carries out research in social and human development, and the economic, scientific and medical aspects of environmental management through the Faculties of Education, Social Studies, Natural Sciences and Medicine. Agricultural Research and Development Institute (C A RDI). Financed and directed by C A RIC 0 11 member countries, this organization responds to Caribbean needs for agricultural research and development. Particular areas of interest include pesticides and pest control, species research and development and researching of agricultural equipment suitable for small farms. Hope Zoo Trust. The Hope Zoo Trust is a nonprofit organiEl1tion, ,"'hose activities are geared to ward upgrading [he facilities of the Hope Zoo. Natural History Society of Jamaica. The Natural History Society of Jamaica is a nonprofit organization, \It"hose objectives include the st'Jdy and conservation of the Jamaican environment and the promotion of public environmental education. Jamaica Junior Naturalists. The Jamaica Junior Naturalists, a non-profit organization for young people bE:.t ween the ages of 6 and 18 years, provides opportunities for the study of the flora, fauna and other natural resources ')f the and encourages an appreciation of the need for conservation of the Jamaican environment. Jemaica Agricultural Society. This organization assists Jamaica's small-scale farmers by pl"ovid ing marketing, agricultural credit, education and training services. Several federations have been formed under its auspices, including the Jamaica Coffee Growers Cooperative Federa-tion, the Cocoa Growers Cooperative Federation, and the J AS Cattle Insurance Cooperative Society. All-Island Jamaica Banana Farmers Association. FUlIJp.d by the M. ,)f Agriculture, the responsibilities of the Association include pUblic education and the distribution of pesticides, fertilizers and sleeves to farmers at subsidized rates. Since 1983, materials have been available to farmers on credit. The All-Island Cane Farmers Association. The largest com modity association in the island, this Association is involved in the replanting of sugar cane where sugar cane production has been abandoned. Coconut Industry Board. The Coconut Industry Board carries out the production and distriiJll tion of seedlings, the provision of reinsurance funds against crop losses, research and development of species varieties, and provides advice to farmers 0n methods and techniques. Jamaica Livestock Association Ltd. The Jamaica Livestock Association is a limited liability company involved in the produ.:tion of cattle and sm all livestock. 29

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.... ,.. ,' ," ..... ..." PI3te 6 Beach Erosion (Trelawny) resulting from illegal removal of sand. 30 ., ., I

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PART II: ISSUES, POLICIES AND RECOMMENDA TIONS 31

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Plate S -Garbage in Kingston Harbour. Plate 9 -Cement Company, Kingston. 32

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=-A principal reason for preparing the Country Environmental Profile is to identify the major environmental problems and issues that confront Jamaica. The approach that was used called for an examination of IS subject areas that include Jamaica's major resource sectors. Each of the 15 component areas was examined in considerable detail, and resulting "sectoral needs" were identified. The detailed sectoral reports are included in Part III of this document. However, before turning to the individual sectors, it may be useful to sum marize some of the principal findings and conclusions that emerged from this t ..... o-year effort. MAJOR PROBLEMS RELATED TO QUALITY OF TKE ENVIRONMEWT Jamaica faces major environmental problems with respect to air pollution, surface and ground water pollution, deforestation, soil and shoreline erosion, destruction of wildlife and wildlife ha bit::. t, and serious deficienc ies in urban in frastructure. Each of these is discussed below. Air Pollution Although the island is blessed with a constant sea breeze that acts to disperse airborne pollutants, poor air quality is a persistent problem PROBLEMS AND ISSlES -in areas of high population concentration, particularly in the dense urban settlements of Kingston, Spanish T"'wn, and at scattered centres else where on the island. The primary causes of air pollution al'e industrial effluents from oil refineries and power stations in the urban areas, and bauxite plants, sugar factories and processing plants in '>cattered rural locations. In urban areas, the burning of garbage at municipal dumps, and vehicle exhaust fumes aggravate the problem. At pre.:;ent, the known im pacts of air pollution are visual and aesthetic -im paired visibility and offensive odors due to high levels of particulate matter and hydrocarbons. In some cases, however, airborne tox i:rts, sur.h as lead, have had discernable effects or. those living in close proximity to the emitting industrial sources. Water Pollution Jamaica's interior and coastal water bodies are being adversely affected by the discharge of se wage and industrial effluen ts. Kingston Harbour is subject to pollution from at least ten documented point sources. The restricted water circulation within the Harbour, coupled with the high nutrient load of thE effluents, has resulted in a drastic reduction of dissolved oxygen, and the almost total destruction of benthic life. In addition, plumes of nutrientrich water emanating from the Harbour have encournged the proliferation of algae, smotheI'33

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1I1g corals for miles along the south coast of the island. In the rural areas, much of the surface water pollution can be attributed to the release of untreated effluents from food processing plants. Particularly acute examples include the pollution of the r, ilbRrita River by sugar cane "dunder", and of the Rio C obre by effluent from beveraglO! and citrus processing plants at Bog Walk. Ground water pollution occ urs as a result of sewage infiltration, saline intrusion and the leakage of caustic residues from red mud disposal sites. In Kingston and St. Andrew, there has been extensive aquifer contamination by sewage, while much of the south coast suffers from salt water intrusion, a consequence of over-abstraction of ground water. This has resulted in the closure of many wells. Caustic pollution from the M t. Rosser red pond at Schwilllenburg has led to the contamination of five square miles of the aquifer in the Linstead and M oneague sub-bilsins. Ground w ilter in the Kingston Metropolitan A rea is subject to in filtration from thousands of individual household se wage uOlts. The long-a waited plan for centralized treatment of Kingston's sewage, and transport of the treated effluent to agricultural areas west of the city for irrigation and aquifer recharge, is thl! only remedy to this problem, but the plan remains to be implemented. Deforestation Jamaica's natural forests, which account for 24.3 % of the total land area, are being diminished for subsistence crop cultivation and pasture, for charcoal production, and for the, establish ment of timber plantations of exotic pine and coffee. Soil erOSlOn 15 one of the many consequences of deforestation, and Jamaica loses approximately 80 million tons of soil per annum. Deforestation also contributes to the loss of valuable nutrients from the remaining soil, and to the re,lu.:ed moisture retention properties of the land. A.s A resLllt, dry season surface flow in streams is reduced or elimi nated, flash flood hazards are increased, river channels are blocked by debris, and nearshore marine life 15 sm othered by higher strea m sediment loads. Beach Erosion The illegal removal of beach sand, particularly along the north central and north west coaf.ts, has resulted in the erosion of the remaining sandy shoreline, impacting recreational 34 opportuOltles and contributiug to the vulnerability of inland areas ::0 coastal flooding. Solid Waste Dinpc.sal Solid waste is a pervasive problem in and around major settlements. At present, its impacts are mainly aesthetic although leachate is probably contaminating ground al,d surface water sour ces. There has been an unfortunate tendency, especially around urban areas such as Kingston, to use wetlands as repositories for large-scale dumping. Surh !';ites become harbouring grounds for mosquitoes, creating potential health hazards. Destruction of Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Habitat destruction is the single biggest contri butor to the continuing decline of Jamaica's unique plant and animal com munities. Hunting has also had a major impact, resulting in the extinction of the Caribbean Monk Seal (Man tropicalis) and the reduction in num bers of the West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus). A mong the most endangered species in the island today are the A merican Crocodile (C rocodylus acutus), snakes, marine turtles, and several species of birds. Urban Over-crovding The drift from rural to urban settlement over the past two decades has led to over-crowded urban areas, resulting in high demand-supply ratios for basic amenities. Freq uently, urban developm ent has occurred on potentially productive agricultural lands or wetland areas. This is particularly true of urban growth that has taken place in the general area of Kingston HlIrbour. The disruption in the Harbour's aqu2tic food chain as a result of wetlands filling has resulted in sharp declines in this formerly prolific fishing area. KEY ISSUES AND CONSTRAINTS TO ENVIRONMENTAL KANAGEMENT Jamaica is an island ecosystem. Activities in anyone sector often have far-reaching consequences on other sectors. In attem pting to minimize adverse impacts, there will inevitably be conflicts between development and conservation. Jamaica's need for economic development is overwhelming, and the resource base on which

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this development depends is limited. If Jamaica's ecunomic development is to be sustained, it is essential to devise strategies that will promote the type of growth that incorporates long-term conservation objecti.es and promotes the wise use of natural resoun:es. If environmental r,lanagement is to be effective, four essential elements are needed: o A firm and una II! biguous com mitme,t by Government to pursue environmental goals which, in turn, should be reflected in formal national policy and priorities; o An institutional structure designed to implement environmental programs, and which clearly assigns responsibility to specific governmental agencies. o Sufficient monetary and technical resources to carry out the activities mandated by legislation ar.d form ulated the agencies; and o An inf0rmed and aware constituency to provide input and political support to im plement governmental policy and action programs. Despite the plethora of environ m ental legislation and the institutional arrangements for environmental management in Jamaica, there is continued abuse and misuse of the environment and of Jamaica's reS0urce base. The major factors contributing to this situation are: an Hpparent lack of government commitment to, Clnd the relatively low priority accorded environmental programs; serious weaknesses in the present operating capabilities of environmental agencies; shortage of financial resources; and the 10\1 level of public awareness and support far resolving environmental issues. Lack of Clear National Policy on the Environ ment In cOl'trast to the absence of national environmental policy, Government is clearly committed to a policy of national economic development. This is apparent from both clearly stated and publicized goals and objectives, and the infusion of financial resources to attain these goals. Current governmClltal priorItles are clearly focused on prom ocing those sectors and subsectors which earn foreign excLange in order to repay national debt. Accordingly, governmental pr:orities have focused on the following: -Transformation of agriculture, including crop substitution to em phasize the production of export crops; -Promotion of tourism as a major earner of foreign exchange; -Support of industrial development, particularly labor-intensive manufacturing; -Reducing dependence of the economy on bauxite mining. These are com mendable objectives, deserving of support. However, by comparison, there is no clear governmental policy commitment to environmental protection, and sound management. In addition, not even an enunciation of national policy exists in some key sectors. For exa m pIe, there is no island wide coastal management policy to guide shorefront developm ent, nor is there a national policy for designating ted areas and national parks. National policy on environmental education is also lacking, although the development of a policy on science and technology is in the process of form ulation. Lack of government com mitment is also reflected in the relatively low afforded the agencies responsible for environmental management, and the very small percentage of the national budget that is allocated to these agencies to carry out their programs. The com mitment to environmental protection should be as great as the com mitment to economic development. Without adequate attention to safeguarding Jamaica's environment, the cum ulative im pacts (e.g., extensive soil erosion, ground water contamination, etc.) will damage or destroy the resource ba-3e on which sustained, long-term development depends. Adoption by Government of a National Policy on the Environment would signal a meaningful com mitment to addressing the need for more effective environmental management. Deficiencies in the Institutional Structure for EnvironDlp.ntDl Managelllent As a result of the research conducted during the course of the sector studies, it has become clear that the institutional structur.e for effective environmental management is deficient in terms of both the legislative mandate and the organization of environmental agencies. Absence of a Ministry of the Environment. As noted previously, environmental management is afforded a low priority by Government. Although NRC D has principal responsibility for many aspects of environmental management, it has little influence on the actions of other agencies whose activities have major enVlron-35

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mental impacts. Furthermore, NRC D's POSltlOll within Government has been downgraded from a department to a division, and it has been shifted between mInIStries several times in recent years, hindering its ability to establish a firm leadership role in resource management. The NRC 0 and E C 0, the pri ,.ipal environmental management agencies, have been given dlVisional status within the organizational stl'ucture,:j of their respective ministries, thus reducing their ability to control both financial and hum an resCJurces from the agency level. Additionally, not ail ministnes and agencies fall within the regulatory control of the environmental management machinery. Some significant developm ent plans (e.g., those of the Urban Developm ent Corporation and the Ministry of Agriculture) are approved by Ministerial Order. In revie wing the legislative and ad ministrative basis for environmental management, jurisdictional overlaps, of efforl, and lack of coordination bet ween the various agencies responsible for resource management is prevalent and widespread. For example, four agencies have responsibility for some aspect of water exploitation or conservation, yet there is little or no coordination at the planning level for th is resourc e. Establishment of a Ministry of the Environment, operating within the guidelines of a National Envi!'"onmental Policy, would go far toward suc cessfully addressing these weaknesses. Legislative Problems. Despite numerous laws, there is no comprehensive environmental legis lation in Jamaica. While many statutes contain environmentally-related provisions (e.g., protection of wildlife species, pollution of harbours, etc.), specific are often lacking or there are major gaps in coverage. Ineffective and fragmented environmental legislation, c0upled with the absence of regulations or with regulations that are simply not enforced, has reduced the effecLiveness of environmental management in Jamaica. Fines for breaches of the various conservacion laws represent littl.:: deterrt!nt to continued environmental abuse. Breaches of the Wildlife Protec tion Act, for example, are subject tr fines of J$lOO.OO. In terms cf fragmentation CJi managerial authority, several pieces of legislation often relate to the same resource. For example, the Underground Hater' Control Act and the Water Act address aspects of water resource management, but there is no comprehensive National Water Act. 36 Enforcement Problems. The inability to enforce existing legislation results, in part, from an acute staff shortage at the agency level. At the NRCD, for example, are only two persons with part-time responsibility for enforcement of the Protection Act, Beach Control Act and the Watershed Protec tion Act. The environmental personnel employed at the Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica, a statutory organization within the Ministry of Mining, Energy and Touri.'lm, is now larger than the com bined technical strlffs of both the NRCD nnd the ECO. ShortlJge of Financial .mod Technical Resources Economic stagnation or recession internationally has had a significant impact on developing countries such as Jamaica. Budgetary shortfalls have severely constrained the ability of Government to effectively manage the country's natural resources. The resource management agen-' cies are plagued by lack of adequate finances and difficulties in recrUlt!ng and retalOlOg trained personnel. While the basic institutional framework needed for environmental management been in place for some time, the Lmds to adequately staff and adminiscer the relevant agencies, and en force the existing envi.ronmental legislation are lacking. An examination of the: Estimates of Expenditure show that the com budget allocated to the t,.,.o major' environmental agencies (NRCD and ECD) for the Eindncial year 1986/87 was $5.7 million approximately 01" >-tenth of one percent (0.1 of the total budget for the Govern m en t of Jamaica. LOli' Level of Public A vareness Finally and ironically, pl;!rhaps the most important of all the im pediments to effective environ m en tal ac tions is the 10 w level of public awareness. Until a greater proportion of the population is a ware nf the benefits to be gained from environmental management, action by Government will be slow in coming. An environmentally aware constituency is needed to pt"ovide the i.mpetus to governmental commitment and to support the activities of responsible agencies, and is thus an essential element in ensuring a better quality of life for all Jamaicans.

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FRAMEWORK FOR ENVRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK In the pursuit of national economic development, alteration of the natural environment is inevitable if the needs of a growing urban Industrial population are to be satisfied. Prior to the 1970's, development was often pursued without any consciousness of the adversE' impact it might have on the natural environment. Some of the l'esulting problems have been SU!!1 in the preceding section. The groundswell of international concern with the environment heralded by the 1972 Stockholm Conference, has influenced events in Jamaica, as it has in many other countries. New legislation was adopted, new agencies created, and a growing consciousness T,Jas generated regarding the need to directly confront the negative aspects of urban, industrial and agricultural development. The Institutional Overvi.ew in Part I describes the history of Jamaica's legislative and organizational efforts to deal with specific environmental issues. One major initiative which could be taken to achieve integration in environment matters, would be to establish a Ministry responsible for environmental matters, aided by a National Advis')ry Council on the Environment. The constitution of the Council should reflect the range of environmental interests affecting national development activities. The Council could advise the "M :i.nister" on priority areas and policies, Clnd on environmental programmes to be pursued to achieve national objectives. The Council could also monitor ongoing environmental program m es and offer guidance for future activities and projects. The com position of the Advisory Council should be multidisciplinary in character, with at least seven but not more than eleven members with expertise in various areas. The C ouneil could create subcom mittees to particular problems being considered. GOALS AND STRATEGIES Goals The general goal of environmental policy is to preserve the qllality of life while achieving sustained socio-economic progress. The environmental objectives of a newly-established Ministry might be as follows: c Promote and ensure the Wlse use of the nation's natural resources in the interests of present and future generations. Minimize any adverse im pacts that development may have by establishing an environmental review process for major development proposals. o Establish, make operational, and periodically update standards and guidelines for managing the nation's land, water, air) and flora and fauna. 37

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DE lI'DflTIOHS means the physical factors of the surroundings of the human beings including land, water, [atmosphere, climate, sound, odour, taste]' the biological factors of animals and plants and the social factor of aesthetics. Pollution means any direct or indin!ct alteration the physic aI, th erm aI, c he m ic aI, or biologic al properties of any part of the environment by discharging, emitting, or depositing wastes so as to affect any beneficial use adversely, to cause a condition which is hazardous or potentially hazardous tc health, safety or welfare, or to linimals, birds, wildlife, fish or aqllatic life or ro plants. Environmental pollution refers to any situation of air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, noise pollution, and offensive odours, arising froID industrial or human activities in which human health and the living environment are adversely affected. Pollutant means any substance whether liquid, solid, or gaseous which directly or indirectly (a) alters the quality of any segment or element of the receiving environment so as to affect any beneficial use adversely, or (b) is ha..:ardous or potentially hazardous to health. Elelllent in relation to environment means any of the principal constituent p.1rts of the envir onment including water, atmosphere, soil, vegetation, climate, sound, odour, fish and wildlife. Air pollution is a condition in which undesirable effects on human health and the living environment are likely to be brought about by the various pollutants existing in the atmosphere. These pollutants include, among others, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon oxides, particulate matter, photochemical oxidants. Water pollution refers to the I::ondition in which the quality of water in a lake, river, streal:l, sea, or underground aquifer has deteriorated, or in which pollutants are found in such amounts that would have undesirable effects on human health and the living environment. Waates includ es any matter, whether liquid, solid or gaseous, which is discharged, emitted, or deposited in the environment in such volume, com position or mann er as to cause an alteration of the environment. Offensive odour is a form of sensory pollution caused by pollutants ','hich impact on the olfactory organ. (Examples are ammonia, hydrogen sulphide.) Soil pollution is the condition in which cadmium, copper, arsenic, and other metals are accumulated in farmlllnds through air or water pollution, thereby resulting in agricultural crops and products being contaminated with pollutants or being prevented from growing. Noise pollution is a form of sensory pollution related to sound volumes being beyond acceptrole levels so as to cause harm or be harm ful to the living environment. o Increase public understanding of the island's ecology, promote methods for the conservation and development of its natural resources, and instill environmental consciousness among all sectors of the population. o Establish risk criteria and undertake risk assessments of various man-made or natural activities which could affect public safety. 38 Strategies To achieve these goals the "Ministry" could pursue a multi-faceted approach involving institutional collaboration, prom ulgation of legislation, and information dissemination. Inter-Governmental Collaboration. Environmental protection touches upon many fields of

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governmental activity. Thus cooperation and collaboration between and among various agencies of government is needed and, in certain cases, should be institutionalized. In particular, collaboration with those agencies whose activi ties most directly impinge on the environment should be obtained with respect to the following: Establishing ambient environmental quality guidelines, criteria and standards for the control of all forms of pollution and establishing the appropriate mechanisms to ensure their compliance. -Investigating problems of pollution and waste management as well as occurrences of unusual natural or man-made phenomena which may pose risks to the public health and' safety. -Conducting research related to pollutants and wastes. -Conducting en environmental planning and design related to the wise use of resources. -Investigating the quality of the natural enVl-ronment and reviewing environmental monitoring program meso -Gathering, publishing and disseminating infOl mation relating to pollutants and wastes and the available technological options for effectively dealing with them. -Revie wing and continually updating disaster preparedness and contingency plans and appropriately com municating these to the concerned public. Regional Cooperation. Region,al cooperation and collaboration should be pursued, either directly with counterpart organizations and government entities in other countries of the region or indirectly through international or regional organizations 10 order to: Undertake projects of com mon concern to participating countries in the region. -Review existing plans, relatiye to environmental aspects having regional implications. Plan for contingencies with respect to natural or man-made occurrences which have regional impacts, such as major oil spills, sea mining operations, etc. Exchange of information, experts, equipment or other resources to assist or facilitate the solution of environmental problems in specific countries. Legislation. Com prehensive national legislation needs to be established which will: -Rationalize the body of environmental legislation, to make the existing la ws more effective and enferceable. -Institute a process which will include environmental reviews/assessments of major developmental projects. Public Information. To promote environmental consciousness a mong various industrial and business groups, and the general public, the appropria te Ministry sho uld seek to: Provide the gener!!l public with information regarding environ m ental protection and conservation of natural resources. -A pprise business and industry of the latest technological developments in pollution abatement and contrd. Continue to link with regional and international agencies regarding information transfer and exchange. -Establish an environmental inforrr .on system which will include in formatl" on relevant legislation, projects/program mes, and institutions doing work on the envircnment, both in the public and private sector, including educational institutions, as well as providing information on the availability of environmental services. -Generate, assess and dissem;.nate data concerning the country's environmental resources and/or the results of various environmental investigations. Policy and Program Oversight. Provision must be made within the overall institutional framework for continuous review and modification of policy as development proceeds. The inputs of affected government entities and various public and private organizations, must be solicited in the review process. 39

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Plate 10 Meeting in Mandeville. 40

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POLICY AND PROJECT RECOMMENDATIONS RECOMMEN1;'ED GUIDELINES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIOUAL ENVIRON MENTAL POLICY With more than two million people dependent on the limited resource base of an island environment, the Government of Jamaica must '-he challenge of planning long-term, sUfJtainable development. Major components of Jamaica's economy (such as mining, tourism, and agriculturE:) are directly linked to that resource base. If quality of life is to be enhanced over the long-term, it is essential that Jamaica's limited resource base be managed by policies that are environmentally sound. If such policies are to be more than pious, but ineffectual expressions of faith, certain con actions need to be taken. These include establishing an effective institutional structure for environmental protection, promoting public informatio71 and encouraging public debate on environmental issues and, above all, promulgating a clear mandate from the highest level of government to incorporate environmental objectives into the development planning process. Environmental programs and standards for Jamaica cannot simply be adapted from overseas examples. They must be devised within the context of the socio-economic realities of the society. A large segment of Jamaica's population is poor, and poverty is both a cause and an effect of environmental degradation. Pol icies, program mes and standards, as well as enforcement practices, muse be realistic, practical, and supported by an informed public. The objectives of environmental policy are to enhance the well-being of Jamaicans and to preserve the quality of life for present and future generations. The development and implementation of national policy guidelines on the environment is a complex, nnd controversial exercise. If pursued diligently, it is likely to result in some disruption to existing social, economic, cultural and political relationships. For that reason, the issues to be addressed call for considerable debate and discussion by a wide cross section of interests. Once adopted, every agency, ministry, statutory body and private interest group should be bound by the terms and conditions of pertinent environmental guidelines and standards. In an attem pt to initiate the process of policy formulation, ome precepts to be kept in mind in dnising environmental policies are enunciated helow. o respect for the intrinsic value of all forms of life o vigilance in protecting the integrity of the ecosystem o recognition of the importance of preservation of species diversity and continuity 41

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o appreciation of socio-cultural factors in developing governmental policies and program mes o support for measures resulting 10 an enVlI"on mentally aware public o forging a partnership bet \01 een the public and private secrors in support of long-term re ource management goals. The material in this nection, derived from careful analyses of the sector profiles,as well as from previous efforts at developing environmental policy guidelines in Jamaica, is in tended to carry the debate forward by providing a framework for the formulation of a national policy on the environment. Where appropriate, sectoral projects to im mediate implementation are also identified. SECTOR GUIDELINP,S Environmental policies, objectives, and projects are suggested for each of the following sectors. Fisheries Resources Policy It shall be the policy to ensure the conservation and enhancement of fisheries resources such that the continued existence and viability of aU species are guaranteed. Objectives o To conserve knO\'ln fishery habitats so that there is no net loss of habitats, nursery areas or feeding grounds. o To ensure population enhancement, particularly in overfished nearshore locations. o To develop and implement catch methods which preclude the taking of juveniles. Projects o The development of enhancement programmes for various economically important fisheries species. o The developm ent of a com parative fishery resources conservation program \T,e including habitat management. o Initiation of a project to establish optimum net sizes to protect the resource and benefit the fisherman. 42 o Strengthening the institutional base required to conserve fishery resources, including the development of fisheries stock assessment capacity. Energy Resources Policy It shall be the policy to develop, as far as possible, indigenous energy resources while maintaining good environmental quality. Objec6ves o To develop a co-ordinated approach toward the sustainable exploitation of indigenous energy resources. o To ensut'e that the siting and operation of power/energy generating is carried out such that acceptable environmental criteria are met. o To evaluate the use of non-indigetlous energy resources, bearing in mind the multi-use potential of these resources. Projects o The development of effluent guidelines and provision of the necessary legal and institutional arrangements to ensure their enforcement. o Research and development of fast-growing trees and grasse: with a high biomass content that can be used for fuel. o Development of public education programmes aimed at increasing the understanding of the relationship between energy, natural resources and the ecosystem. Human Resources and Culture Policy It shall be the policy to ensure the development of the human resources of the country to such a level so as to allow for the participation of the wider public in the environmental mantige ment process. An essential element of environmental policy should be the training, development and effective utilization of all technical personnel involved in environmentally related programs. Objectives o To safeguard the quality of all human environments with particular reference to environmental health and aesthetic values.

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o To develop public awareness of environmental issues so that the population can participate in the decision making processes which will ultimately affect their quality of life. Projects o The establishment of public educational program m es aimed specifically at prom oting the understanding of interactions between economic development, the natural environment and national well-being. o The developm ent of an effective legal and institutional framework which will st::.feguard the quality of the human environment. o Promotion of environmental activiti2s within the educational system, including extra-curric ular ac tivities. Tourism and Recreation Pulicy It shall be the policy to preserve and enhance Jamaica's aesthetic and environmental attributes, and to broaden the range of recreational opportunities available to local and overseas to u rists. Objectives o To the recreational potentlal of partic ular features of the natural resource base. o To ensure the effective management of recreational facilities so as to maintain acceptable levels of environmental and aesthetic quality. o To encourage and develop public awareness of the reciprocal relationships between good environmental quality and sustainable tourism development. Projects o The identification and evaluation of alternative features of the reaource base which have recreational potential, with a view to relieving pressure on existing over-used areas (e.g., beaches). o The development of a legal and institutional framework which will ensure effective management of recreational resources and facilities. o The monitoring and assessment of impacts of the tourist industry on the island's natural resources; i.e. bea.ches, water quality, wildlife and culture. o Enforcement of the Beach Control Act with particular reference to the protection of reefs, seagrases, and beach sand. Mining 8nd K inerals Policy It sh3ll b'E! the policy to ensure that mlnlng proceeds in an environmentally sound manner and that the activities involved do not pel'manently foreclose other developm ent options. Objectives o To ensure continued productivity of mineclout areas by means of effective rehabilitation program meso o To ensure the conservation of values where relocation of individuals is inevitable. o To increase the understanding and appreciation of mineable resources and the social, economic and environmental impacts of mlTung. Projects o The comprehensive and quantitative evaluation of minerals especially the base metals. o The development of other mineral com modi des particularly limestone and silica sand. o The development of land use policy which will seek to protect economically significant mining areas, thus arresting the loss of potentially im portant mining areas to urban sprawl and agriculture. Education Policy It shall be the policy to provide environmental education both at the formal and informal levels to the population at large. o bjectives_ o To incorporate socio-cultural approaches and the reciprocal exc hange method in the environmental education process. o To ensure functional co-ordination between the various components of the environmental education system. 43

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o To develop programmes for the acquisition, storage and dissemin'!!::::>n of environ m en tal in form a tion. o To establish an effective institutional and legal framework for environmental information and education. Projects o The establishment of effective legal and institutional frameworks to facilitate the promotion of environmental information and education. o The production of environmental education tools for use at both the informal and formal levels. Forestry Resources Polic..): It shall be the policy to ensure the integrity of forest resources with reapect to the benefits that such resources confer in soil and water conservation, in economic development, as wildlife habitats, and in the aesthetic and recreational values which they provide. o bjectives_ o To the evaluation of forest resourc es bearing in mind their im porta nce l.n conservation and economic development. o To maintain the existence of indigenous stands on steep slopes vulnerable to erosion. o To develop and encourage the understanding of the role of our forests, partic ularly with regard to soil and water conservation. Projects o The development of both effective legal and institutional fra mew orks designed to oversee a comprehensive Forest Management Plan which, in the short-term, will address im mediate isnues of rehabilitation, replanting denuded slopes and, in the long-term, provide forest resource enhancement through the establishment of economically beneficial stands. o Research and development of uses of local forest by-products (pharmaceuticals, veneering products for furniture, etc.). o The development of schemes involving the planting of fast growing trees specifically for use as fuel. 44 o Provision of incentive schemes to encourage timber farming by private farmers. o The development of special techniques to reduce soil erosion in tim ber harvesting and road construction, particu.larly in areas of slopes. Vater Resources Policy It shall be the policy to ensure adequ61te quantity and acceptable water to meet the needs of industry, agriculture and the general population who rely on water not only for domestic use, but also for recreational and incus trial purposes. Objectives o To conset've water resources bearing in mind the intrinsic environmental value of this resource, its role as a habitat, and the importance of maintaining a viable hydrological regime. o To ensure adequate supply and an acceptable level of water quality for all sectors throughout the island. Projects o The improvement of inter-connections between sources of water supply to reduce waste and to ensure efficient distribution. o The upgrading and construction of water treatm ent faciliti(-\s. o The expansion of monitoring and assessment programmes for both marine and fresh water re30urces. o The renabilitatiun of catchment areas to reduce the rate of surface run-off, thus contributing to the supply of ground WElter. o The rehabilitation of the irrigation infrastructure. Agriculture PolitI. It shall be the policy to ensure that agriculture development is based on sound principles of resource management. Agricultural practices should enhance soil fertility, prevent tloil erosion and maintain tIle productive capacity of the resource base.

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Objectives o To develop and implement conservation 0-riented farming technologies specifically adapted to local conditions. o To prom ote the use of more produc tive agricultural syste ms that assure the use of all resources on a sustained basis. o To ensure economic use of irrigation water so as to maintain acceptable groundwater conditions. o To ensure that the utilization of agro-chemicals does not impair environmental quality. o To arrest the loss of productive agricultural lands to other development options. o To ensure that the introduction of new crop species be carefully evaluated so as to protect the ecological integrity of the environment. o To promote the use of land-use and land capability data to assist in decision-mak.ing with respect to the implementation of agricultural development projects. o To develop public education program mes geared towards improving the appreciation of the need for sound environmental management principles as a means of ensuring sustainable and productive agricultural development. o To develop effective legal and institutional frameworks so that the objectives outlined above may be realized. Projects o Integrated planning of watershed management in the badly eroded watersheds, especially for the Kingston Metropolitan Region. o Monitoring the im pact of agr:i:-chemicals on soils, and surface and ground water resources. o Monitoring and assessment of (he environmental and social impacts of all agricultural developments (e.g., AGRO 21, ClOCO, and FlO CO). o Developm ent of a national land use policy which provides guidelines for the most efficient use of land. Rational Parka altd Protected Areas Policy It shall be the policy to identify and designate areas of aesthetic, recreational, scientific or education value and to provide for the protection al'lu management of such areas. Objectives o To provide the legal and institutional mechanisms necessary to establish and conserve national parks and protected areas. o To promote an understanding of the need to national pllrks and protected areas for their aesthetic, recreational, educational and scientific value. o To allow for t.he existence of economic activities within nationlll parks and protected areas while maintaining their uniqueness and ecological diversity. Projects o The drafting of lpgislation aimed at providing the legal framework for the estabiishment and conservation of national parks and protected areas. o The development of the Blue Mountain National Park with special emphasis on the identification of unique features and ecological diversity. o The development of the Canoe Valley National Park while taking into account the need to the economically viable opportunities of the park. Industry and Industrial Pollution Polic.y It shall be the policy to ensure that industrial activity proceeds in an ecologically sound manner; that it does not impair environmental quality or exert any adverse effects upon the human resource. Objectiv1'?s o To ensure that the siting of industry is carried out so as to reduce adverse local impactR. o To ensure effective disposal of industrial effluents bearing in mind the need to maintain an acceptable e:lVironmenta: quality. 45

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o To a reciprocal relationship between government and industry in an effort to achieve effective environmental management. o To develop public educational program mes geared toward increasing the understanding of the relationship between industry and the environ m ent. Projects (\ Establishment of guidelines '.nd effluent discharge standards for the categories of industrial waste. o Tax incentives to encourage waste recycling and reuse. o The development of legal and institutional mechanisms for effective environmental management in the industrial sector. Coastal Resources Policy It shall be the policy to ensure the maintenance of coastal integrity and the pursuit of nonconrlicting and susteinable development options such that the environmental quality of coastal eco-systems is im proved and maintained. Objectives o To ensure sustainable development of the coastal zone of the island. o To maintain and enhance ecological diversity and productivity in the coastal zl)ne. o 1'0 encourage public awareness of the im por tance of coastal resources in enhancing both economic and the quality of life. Projects o Preparation of an island-w ide coastal zone management plan. o Design of a comprehensive programme for the rehabilitation of badly im pac ted coastal resources such as seagrasses, mangroves and beaches. o Preparation of effluent discharge guidelines for coastal water. o Development of the legal, institutional and administrative measures necessary for the enforcement of the Beach Control Act. o Design of incentive schemes that encourage m ariculture and aquaculture in the near-shore environment. 46 o Public education programmes geared toward dE'monstrating the relationship between the conservation of coastal resources and the integrity and productivity of the coastal zone. Wildlife Resources Policy It shall be the policy to conserve indigenous wildlife species as part of the natural heritage as well as for their scientific and educational im portance. Objectives o To ensure the protection of wildlife habitats. o To ensure the preservation of all wildlife species. Projects o Evaluation of wildlife resources and their habitats. o Development of conservation program mes for w ildlife and their habitats. o Development of program mes aimed at strengthening institutional capabilities to effectively enforce the Wildlife Protection Act. o Initiation of public awareness programmes geared toward increasing the appreciation of the island's wildlife resources.

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PART III: SECTOR ANALYSES Plate 11 Boy with reaped yams; Hillside farming in frelawny. 47

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Plate 12 Peace and quiet reflection ill the St. Andrew Hills. 48 Plate 13 Blue Mountains coffee picker with laden basket.

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OVERVIEW OF HUKAN RESOURCES AND CULTURE Jamaica's population, slightly more than 2 rr,illion at the 1982 census, is characterized by great diversity in ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Alternative periods of conflict and accom modation between divergent groups has shaped the country's economic and cultural history, and has had a profound ir.!pact on popul.'1tion gro w th, c harac teristics and distribution. Histot.i.c Population Growth When Jamaica was discovered by Columbus on his sec:ond voyage in 1494, it was inhabited by an estimated 60,000 Arawak Indians who lived near the coast. The Araw.1k's fell victim to European diseases and harsh treatment, and died out by the mid-seventeenth century. The Spanish first settled in 1510, but did little to develop or populate the island in the nearly 150 years before the British arrived in 1655. The British developed plantation agriculture based on the increasing demand for sugar in Europe and the availability of slaves from Africa. Jamaica became one of England's most valuable agricultural colonies, as well as a major port in the Caribbean. In the first 150 years of British rule, the population of the island grew largely as a result The People I-UMAN RESOURCES AND CULTURE of slave imports and white im mignltion. The growth of the black population was almost entirely a consequence of the slave trade. Blacks and whites contributed to the formation of a third group com monly referred to as the coloured. By 1785, the population mcluded an estimated 30,000 whites, 10,000 free coloured, and about 250,000 slaves living on the plantations. Since the days of slavery the population has risen steadily, and in recent years has grown rapidly, despite considerable emigration. The first census of Jamaica, taken in 1844, put the population of the island at 377,000. From 1844 to 1881, it increased to 581,000, spurred, in part, by the opening of Jamaica to indentured immigration of East Indians and Africaus. During this period, it is almost certain that the death rate declined from the high levels which prevailed during slavery. This growth occurred despite the cholera epidemics of the 1850's. From 1881 to 1921, popolatifln increased to 858,000. At the same time, there was considerable external migration, resulting mainly from the opening up of new development prosp'2ct3 abroad. The com mencemenr of work the Panama C anal and the development of the banana industry in Central A merica proved great attractions to Jamaican workers. Thl' expansion of the Cuban sugar industry in the opening years of the 20th century created a 49

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demand for Jamaican workers on sugar plL!ota tions. The forging of an im portant link bet ween Ja maica and the U.S. resulting from the development of the banana trade, coupled with the latter's open door im migration policy, offered yet another attraction for emigration. Adverse conditions in Ja maica, resulting from a succession of disastrous hurricanes and stress in agriculture also played an im portant part in stirn ulating migration. Between 1921 lInd 1947, a ::orohination of factors resulted in an entirely cew pattern of population growth. U.S. quota laws, first passed in 1921, effectively curbed emigration from Jamaica, as did restrictions on entry to Latin American countries. The absence of largescale, labour-intensive {,rojects within the region slowed emigration. The inmigration of indentured la bourers ca m e to an end in 1914; and external migration no longer Ft'"ovided an escape hatch for population growth. With improvements in publis health, mortality rates fell substantially. By 1943, the population of the island reached 1.237 million. A resurgence of external mi.grat,\on dominated the post-World War IT years. Movements to the United Kingdom reached a peak in the years 1959-1961, and came to an end with the passing of the Commonwealth Immigration Act of 1962. Mortality rates continued to decline. The 1960 census reported a population of 1.6 million. Although the rate of natural increase in the post-war years was higher than in any other period (23.4 per 1,000), because of high emigration rates, the annual rate of population growth averaged 1.6% for the period 1921-1943. From 1960 through the early 1970's, a new type of emigration appeared. This involved professional and semi-professional personnel migrating to the U.S. and Canada. The annual average outflow of 28,000 in the decade 1960-70 was by far the largest such movement ever exper ienced in the island, equivalent to 53 % of the natural increase for that decade. Cultural Bacitground The population of Jamaica is almost entirely derived from im migrant streams entering the island since its capture by the British in 1655. By far the largest number came from West Africa during the slave period. At the time of emancipation, blacks outnumbered the white settlers by about ten to one; today about 96 % of the population is coloured or black. A sm all num ber of indentured Indian labourers were 50 settled in Jam aica in the last half of the century, and now comprise about 2 % of the total popull:'tion. All other groups, includir:; Europeans and Chinese, make up less than 2 % of the Each of the ethnic groups that arrived in Jamaica brought with them their own unique cultural characteristics. From these various popuiation strains is em erging a cultural identity unique to Jamaica. The quest for a cultural identity has been accelerated since the attainment of nationhood 23 years ago. Although some cultural exclusiveness has persisted, the movement towards a national cultural identity continues, characterized by the national moUo "0 ut 0 f M any One People". POPULATION TRENDS Population Size and COIllPosition Jamaica's population at the 1982 census was 2,190,357. Urban dwellers accounted for 47.8% of the population, while 52.2% were classified as rural. (The percentage of urban to rural population increased by 6.6 % bet ween 1970 and 1982.) Geographical features significantly affect settlement patterns: settlement is considerably restricted in those areas of steep and rugged terrain in the centre of the island, as well as in regions of swamp along certain sections of the coast. Figure 10 shows the general density distribution of the population t-y Parish. The Caribbean, as a whole, has a far :ugher ratio of people to land area than any other sub-region of the Americas (130 per sq. km. as compared to 40 per sq. km. in Central America and 12 per sq. km. in North America. Based on the provisional count of the 1982 census, Jamaica's population density was 205 persons per sq. km. (See Table 4.) Jamaica's average annual rate of population increase is 1.4 %, placing it among that group of countries which has reduced their rate of population growth to a fairly moderate level. This recent rate is the same as that which prevailed during the decade 1960-1970, largely because the level of migration was lower in the 1970-80 period than it was during the 1960-70 decade. Although Jamaica is a multi-ethnic society, ethnic groups other than those or African origin comprise a very small minority of the popula-

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Tab!e 4: Density in Sele\!ted Countries of the CI.'cum-Carlbbean Country Density per Sq. km. Barbados 584 (1980) Dominican Republic 122 (1981) Guadeloupe 179 (1982) Trinidad and Tobago 224 (I980) Jamaica 205 (1982) Source: United Nations Demographic Yearboc,k. 1983 tion. Based on the 1970 census, the combined total of those classified as East Indian, White, and Chinese made up 3.1 % of the total Jamaican population; blacks accounted for 90.9 %; 5.9 % were listed as of "other races"; and for 0.1 %, no race was stated (Statistical YEarbook of Jamaica, 1980). Howe\'er, the impact of these minority groups cannot be gauged solely by their numbers. Jamaica was a slave society for over 150 years and a colony for over 300. During this lengthy period of its modern history, the society was controlled by a small minority of origin. The powerful position of this minority l1<1s exerted considerable influence on the culture, values and local evaluation of phenotypic features. M any of these groups -Jews, Lebanese, Chinese -with traditions of activity in com merce and trade have carved out viable niches for themselves in these fields in the Jamaican society to which they came as im m igrclllts. Hence, they are minority groups of considerable influence extending well beyond their num erical strength. Estimates of migration from Jamaica over the period 1960-1984 show fluctuations which are in some cases, quite striking and, in part, reflect changes in im migration policy jn the countries to which Jamaicans have traditionally migrated. (See Table 5.) These data, while generally considered to unde;:-estimate the actual level of em igration, nevertheless do give som e idea of the extent of movement, and of the fluctuations that occurred from year to year. For example, the large number of migrants recorded between 1960 and 1962, followed by a sharp fall-off in 1963, indicate the frantic efforts to enter the United Kingdom before the Com mon wealth 1m migration Act became effective in 1962. North America -both the U.S.A. and Canada -has become the primary destination of Jamaican migrants since the mid-1960's. A study of the migration flow to the U.S.A. and Canada, conducted by the National Planning Agency (now the Planning Institute of Jamaica), attem pted to c harac terize the com position of the migrating population and to estimate its social cost to Jamaica. (See Table 6). (One advantage of the study is that it substantiates the alleged undercounting noted above in the estimates prepared by the 1m migration Department). This study l'evealed that 46.2 % of the 214,298 emigrants destined for the U.S.A. and Canada between 1970 and 1980 were members of the labour force. The majority, 53.8% of the migrants, were house wives, children or others with no occupation. Of the workers who migrated, just under 19 % were in the categories of professional, technical, administrative and managerial personneL For the period 1977-1980 the percentage in this highly skilled category was even higher, 26.6 %. Considering that professional, administrative and related workers comprise consistently less tnan 10 % of Jamaica's labour force, the extent of the loss of skilled manpower becomes more apparent. The highly mobile character of Jamaica's population is further apparent in the level of internal migration. (See Table 7.) Between 1969 and 1974, 28.4 i. of the population changed their parish of residence. In the most mobile age group (25-34), 45.9 % changed pArishes at least once during the five year period. 51

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AGURE: 10 POPULATION DENSITIES AND DISTRIBUTION BY PARISH PERSONS PER SQ. MILE 1970. Statistical Yecrbook of Jcmdca /980.

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Table 5: Estimates of Net Migration 19SD-198t Year Net Migration Year Net Migration 1960 -30,300 1973 -10,200 1961 -38,500 1974 -12,900 1962 -28,700 1975 -12,100 1963 7,300 1976 -22,200 1964 -13,500 1977 -21,100 1965 6,500 1978u -17,800 1966 8,900 1979 -21,400 1967 -20,000 1980 -24,300 1968 -20,000 1931 5,900 1969 -29,000 1982 9,800 1970 -23,000 1983 4,300 1971 -31,500 1984 -10,500 1972 -11,200 Central Planning Unit Estimate Provisional Estimate from the Registrar General's Office Department of Statistics Estimate Source: Statistical Institute of Jamaica, Demographic Statistics, 1984. Compiled from data collected by the Immigration Department. Table 6: Distribution of Pmigrants to North America: 197D-80 Occuen t ional Groue 1970-80 % 1977-80 % Professional and Technical 11,978 5.6 5,362 6.6 Administrative and Managerial 6,643 3.1 4,124 5.1 Farmers and Farm Managers 638 0.3 212 0.3 Clerical and Kindred 15,619 7.3 6,729 8.3 Sales Workers 2,774 1.3 1,195 1.5 Craftsmen, Foremen, Kindred 13,9PO 6.5 4,6:16 5.7 Operators Ilnd Kindred 18,001 8.4 4,4136 5.5 Private Household Workers 14,764 6.9 2,896 3.5 Service Workers excp.pt Private 8,8'19 4.1 3,627 4.5 Labourers including Farm Labourers 3,881 1.8 1,589 2.0 Occupations not Stated 1,860 0.9 792 1.0 TOTAL WORKERS 99,027 46.2 35,628 44.0 Housewives, Children, Others 115,271 53.3 45,372 56.0 with No Occupation TOTAL EMIGRATION 214,298 100% 81,000 100% Source: National Planning Agency: Emigration to North America from Jamaica 1970-80, A Special Report (lS82). 53

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Table 7: Population by Age Group and Number of Parishes Lived in Between 1969 and June 1974 Total Never Number of other Parishes lived in Not Age Group Popul3-Hoved Reported tion 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Both Sexes Under 5 268,885 248,388 15,884 908 5 3,700 5 4 617,896 534,306 66,651 5,584 79 22 -11,254 15 74 304,500 236,649 81,613 14,246 1,202 404 42 -52 6,292 25 -34 195,153 79,572 69,032 17,678 2,189 489 67 76 94 7,956 35 1,4 168,449 86,896 )5,813 16,241 1,564 386 95 90 67 7,297 45 -54 154,141 81,266 48,135 12,999 599 261 261 133 234 8,216 55 -64 131,436 7/, ,060 38,460 10,623 1,098 148 425 22 211 6,369 :}l) dllll c'vnr 128,848 76,303 35,506 8,748 1,729 634 157 204 46 5,521 Total 2,005,308 1,435,440 411,094 87,027 10,164 2,682 ,047 704 56,625 --Source: Statistical Institute of -Demographic Statistics, 1984 Population Projections and Some of Their Implications Bet ween the 1920's and the 19('o's, the Kingston Metropolitan Area (KM A) experienced a very high rate of population gro w th, both through natural increase and by net migration from rural areas. The popUlation in the metropolitan area almost doubled between 194 and 1960, growing from 238,300 to 419,400. Between 1960 and 1980, this gro w th in population led to the development of large settlements around the perimeter of the old metropolitan area. (See Figure 1l.) The population of the Portmore area, for example, grew from just over 2,000 in 1970 to over 66,000 in 1982. However, with the lim ited exception of the Central Village/ Spanish Town area, the construction of new housing adjacent to the old Kingston M etropolitan A rea has not been accom panied by the growth of satellite industrial and com mercial zones to support the new population distribution. For example, the Urban Growth and Manage.ment Study, conducted in ch\' mid 1970's found that residents in outlying 'suburbs' were df'pendent to a very high degree for jobs and services located within the K M A. (See Table 8.) 54 Population trends for the island as a whole have looked promising since the decline in the fertility rate and the rate of population m crease which started in the early 1970's. It should be noted that the alleged decline in rh(.' fertility rate has not been definitively established. Some experts -notably Profes sor G.!,oJ. Roberts, the forem ost authority on Jamaican and Caribbean demographic patterns -question the reliability of the data on I"hich the decline is suppusedly based. Professor Roberts points to the deterioration of the system for collecting vital statistics at the local com munity level (the fee paid to register births has remained the same for 60 'fears) and the demoralizing working condi tions at the Registral-Genf>ral's Department to support his skepticism. If the fertility rate has indeed fallen it might be attributed to a com binarion of factors: the effect of the family planning program me, as well as the increasing opportunity for sc hooling to the secondary level and beyond that have opened up for working class and boys in the past two decades.

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Ut Ut N FIGURE' 11 EEl III PJII GROWTH OF THE KINGSTON METROPOLITAN AREA 1943-1976 BUILT UP AREA 1943 URBAN EXPANSION 19'6-1960 URBAN EXPANSION 1961-/970 URBAN EXPANSION 1971-1976 Source : Urbal Growth a Management Stud',. NOY. 1978.

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Projections made in the early 1980's suggest that the fertility rate will continue to decline to replacement level by 1995-2000 under the moderate projection. As of 1984, the number of children per woman had fallen to 3.3. (See Population and Jamaica's Future: A Statement of National POi-olation Policy, 1982, Rnd Economic and Social Survey, 1984.) It is anticipated that the island's population will be around or slightly under 3 million in the year 2000. (See figure 12.) While this may be a welcome trend to those responsible for providing education, housing, jobs and other services, the overall decline does mask certain p!"oblem areas \olhich can already be detected and require urgent: attention. The legacy of high rates of population gro w th in the 1950's and 1960's is the unusually large number of persons reaching their 20's in the 1980's. While in 1980, there were approximate-Table 8: ly 350,000 persons in the 20-29 age group, by 1990 there could be 550,000 persons in this age group. The large increase in the num ber of people in their 20's comes at a time of dramatic decline in housing construction. (See Table 9.) From 1983 to 198/f, for exa m pIe, there was a decline of almost 52% in government-sponsored housing starts and a 33.6 % decline overall, when construction activity in both the public and private sectors is taken into account (See Economic and Sodal Survey, 1984). Even without the recent downturn, the rate of new housing construction has consistently been well below the estimated need, now said to be 12,500 units per year (see Davies, 1984). Moreover, the high rates of inflation and high interest rates make the possibility of h'Jme ownership even more remote, precisely at a time when the number of young people starting new families is at a peak. Degree of Dependency of Communities in the K.M.R. on the K.M.A. Communities in Work Place Recreation Out of Area Out of Area Schools in the K.M.R. in K.M.A. in K.M.A. Doctor Shol2l2ing K.M.A. Gordon Town 74% 40% 37% 50% 74% Golden Spring 60% 26% 100% 82% 62% Swain Spring 66% 66% 100% 67% 100% Spanish Town 14% 4% 4% 4% 12% Ensom City 64% 35% 99% 100% 36% Willowdene 42% 12% 97% 97% 18% St. Thomas 28% 2% 99% 89% 5% Coast KMR: Kingston Metropolitan Region; KMA: Kingston Metropolitan Area Source: Urban Growth Management Study. 1978 56

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F1GURE: 12 1_ 8 .. 4 '" ... 2 TOTAL FERTLITY R,uE JAMAICA '::'tinat.d 1960-'10; Alunld 19711-2010 \, ., ........ '.', ......... HIGH MEDIUM LOW 1960 1910 1990 ................ ........ ........ ....... 1i90 2000 2010 YENI 8.,.,.0: Populatial and J"""",,cS F"I"rt: A 91ertll1lonl of Nertlonol PopulcrllOll PoUQ)'. "Ia. Table 9: Level of Housing Construction 1974-1984 Public Sector Private Year Agencies Sector 1974 1621 64 1975 3598 614 1976 4638 3214 1977 4384 2453 1978 4601 275 1979 3653 1116 1980 1959 1284 1981 1838 466 1982 5019-1210 1983 1560 ]872 1984 1173 1867 A large perc en tage of these were converted from previously constructed Sites and Services Units. Source: Davies, 1984 and Economic and Social Survey 1984. Total 1685 4212 7852 6837 4876 4769 3143 2304 6229 3432 3040 57

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The coincidence of these vanous trends suggests that in the next decade or so, further strain will continue to be placed on the existing housing stock and infrastructure, particularly in the K M A. There is likely to be an increasing tendency for fa m ilies to double-up, and for the pressure of population on housing and public services to int;rease. Thus, a municipal system whiell had never really caught up with the accelerating demand for se:.-vices :lgendered by the high rates of population growth in earlier decades, w ill be taxed still further, especially lrl VIew of the contraction of government spending in the 1980's. The Labour Force and EducatiDn A quantitative p'.-ofil.e of the labour force over the period 1968-1984 indicates both a consisten cy of certain patterns, as well as incremental shifts caused by changes in the political ?conolOy. The percentage of workers in the agricultural sector has fallen slightly since the mid -and -late -1970's, reflecting the thrust more capital-intensive farming under the current administration. Similarly, the expansion that occurred b the public sector in the mid-to-late-1970's has been followed by more recent cut-backs in this sector, also a reflection of shifting governmental policy. However, the distribution of occupations by sectors, not withstanding changes in policy and in the level of economic activity, has shown remarkable consistency. (See Table 10.) For exa m pIe, the percentage of the population involved in agriculcure has remained fa;irly consistent over the period and seems to und.:!I' score the apparent resilience of the island's sm all farming peasantry. The high percentage of self-employed workers as compared to other occupations appears to indicate the vitality of the "informal" sector in the J3maican economy and its tendency to precisely when the formal economy is in aecline. (See Table 11.) Table 10: Percentage Employed Labour Porce t;y Industry Groop 58 Industry Group Agriculture, Foresty and Fishing Mining and Quarrying Manufacturing Construct ion and Installation Transport Communica tion and Pub!ic Utilities Commerce Public Administration Other Services Industry not specified 1968 38.0 10.7 7.0 4.2 11.9 9.6 18.6 1972 33.6 12.7 6.6 4.1 13.2 10.!! 19.0 1976 35.3 1.2 11.0 5.4 4.8 12.5 15.7 13.8 0.6 1980 36.8 1.2 10.9 3.6 4.7 12.6 15.0 14.9 0.3 1984 32.7 0.9 12.8 4.4 4.6 14.2 12.8 17.6 For the years 196& and 1972, Agriculture includes Mining. J' Soul'ce: Statistical Institute of Jamaica: The Labour Force (calculated from various issues).

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Table 11: Percentage Employed Labour Porce by Oecupation Occueation 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 Professional, Technical Administrative, Executive Managerial, and Helated Occupations 5.5 7.0 9.5 8.6 8.8 Clerical and Sales 9.5 12.3 11.7 12.1 11.3 Self-EmploYE'd and Independent 37.3 34.8 37.1 41.0 40.2 Service:; 12.8 13.6 11.3 11.8 14.0 Craftsmen, Production and Operating OC1'!upations 14.9 17.0 13.9 11.7 13.7 Unskilled Manual 20.0 15.3 16.2 14.6 12.0 Occupation not specified 0.4 0.2 Source: Statistical Institute of Jamaica: The Labour Force (calculated from various issues). The unem ployment rate for women has been consistently more than twice that for men. (See Table 12.) Moreover, young women have been disproportionately affected. Even though major jncreases in government spending are unlikely, given present economic constraints, the em ployment of women and young people in conservation program mes would be appropriate if spending levels increase. Total Male Female Table 12: Unemployment Rate Jamaica1968 1972 18.5 22.5 12.0 13.6 27.3 34.1 1976 24.2 14.7 35.6 ]980 26.8 16.0 38.4 1984 15.7 36.5 With the exception of 1980, when the survey was conducted in November, all rates are for the survey month of Octcbe!'. Source: Statistical Institute of Jamaica: Th.le I Labour Force (various issues). ---.J A general indication of the educational status of the Jamaican population may be gleaned from Table 13, which shows the ratio of population enrolled in primary and secondary school'! to total population for those age groups. The ratios should have increased significantly by 1980. Table 13: Adjusted School Enrollment Ratio Primary School Secondary School 1960 82.0 1970 85.0 1960 43.0 Source: World Bank World Tables, 1980. 1970 59.0 59

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CULTURE Lines of Differentiation* While cultural ideas that cut across the entire society can readily be identified, it is also necessary to take note of significant variations resulting from historir;al patterns in the development of thpsociety. Topography and the requirements of the production regime have been central factors in the internal differentiation of the Jam aican population. Large sugar estates occupied the most fertile plains and alluvial valleys of the island since the early eighteenth century, while much of the remaining area of low slope wit!"! more shallow soils or inadequate rain fan for sugar cane cultivation, were taken up by cattle and pimento estates. As a means of feeding the slave labour force, p]'lntations traditiunally allocated the more mountainous sections of their holdings, in plots of an acre or so in size, to slaves for cultivating food staples for home consum ption and for sale at the regular Sunday In arket. It was from this well-practiced pattern of cultivation and marketing that the Jamaican peasantry emerged after Emancipation, gradually buying small plots of land (usually the hillside land of ruined estates) with their accumulated savings. Inequality of holdings, both as to quality and relative size, has always character: ized the rural population. This pattern has never been significantly modified by govern ment-sponsored schemes of land settlement which began in the 1890's. The first general line of differentiation, then, is between plantation and peasCintry, plantation worker and rL'asant farm er -although even here the situation is com plicated by the ire quency with which one finds workers who divide their time between own-account cultivation and hired labour. Within the broad peasantry category, one might find signiticant differences, for exam pIe: between com munities of fishermen and commuOLtLes of small farmers; between church-settled and non-church-settled villages; bet ween areas where a profitable cash crop gro wn for export has come to dom inate, sllch as bananas or coffee versus areas that grow food crops for home use and local sale; between land settlement (or more recently landlease) areas and their counterparts settled w ithout government assistance; or between areas As background to the discussion of this section see: Higman, 1976; Mintz, 1974; Pl-ice, 1966; and Frucht, Comitas, 1973. 60 where the bauxite/ aluminia industries have been establi"hed, versus those areas more remote from these operations. Sim ilarly, the profile of the traditional sugar plantation areas and its must em brace considerable vanattOns havlOg to do, for exam pIe, with \.1hether the is owned by a family or. local interests, or by a foreign controlled multi-national corporatioll. Ag3in, the pattern of abandon m ent, or conver: sion to other CLOpS, of large holdings previously in sugar cane, which has been occurring in spurts since the mid-nineteen,th is a constant source of change maklOg for dIfferentiation in the rural population. Large areas of St" James and St. Ann parishes, for example, have been taken out of sugar cane, while, most recently, large holdings in Clarendon have been put into high-technology winter vegetable farming. In addition, there are other variations which characterize the Jamaican population and settlement patterns, including the traditional rural/urban difference and the presence of small urban settlements arOund the coastline which previously served as export and service-centres for the plantations; the growth of centres specializing in tourism such as Dcho Rios, Negril, Runaway Bay, and the larger Montego Ray; and the persisting uniqueness of the island's Maroon r:om muni':ies, settled by runaway slaves whose autonomous existence 'was recognized by treaty from the late eighteenth century. Thus, within a national environmental programme, there is need for small-scale projects which not only address the objectives of environmental management, but seek to accomodate the distinctive social c harac teristics of the sub-region within which they at."e to be im plemented. Most of the interior to w ns and villages develooed after the end of slavery in 1838, in to the gro w th of the sm all settler population. Figure 13 illustrates the hierarchy of IJresent and projected central places around the island. Several of today's im portant interior to wns (such as Bro wm: Town, Linstead, Chapelton Christiana and Highgate) developed as market centres, whose growth was stImulated and mannt=d largely by enterprising ex-slaves. With their development, the island's network of internal com munication became mOrf! reticulated, shifting from coastal boat traffic and a few primary interior routes which ;:redominated before the nineteenth century, to a dense system of interior roadways linking the new settlements.

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0\ ..... FIGURE: 13 STRATEGY MONTEGO i o !. ClorkesTown BAY k2,ovy MARIA mtie', "0113 IBrownsTown Bcifrboo <. -{... bm Abert Town / Q Alexoncm HI!I I 0 MhtfTCMn0 \. Plltenfield '. ',_ wait-a-BIt .! A to o Dcre'on a I "CoveValley MoneQue ./ 0 Ctris;tia1a/'\. fl'.,__ ._' ,B d Hq,. SAANUrLA-MAR 'k:> Riversda)e .I 0 Y SiIoah '\ 0 C? 'a 0 Glen e aUc;f9l"S OEirri. Mie 'frankfield ,. Q tiC REGIONAL CENTRES SU8-REGIONAL CENTRES Wlliamsfield' \ Mocha \. OFbrn HI! 0 \ 10 Porus 0 0'1 0 \. \MA VlLLE O RockRiV8t \BI"OWr15ti1 SRI o O 0 Old ,-:..---====---"'" PEN TO t I o DISTRICT CENTRES Source: Document Pnlparecl for EighthS ... lon, U.N. Cornnaliion on iUnan Settlements (!98!5)

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Cultural Symbols and Environmental Policy There are two main schoole; of thought regardi.ng the interpretation of Jamaican (and Carihbean) culture. The two differ in their view ryf how the society is constituted, how it holds together, and consequently would suggp.st somewhat different paths of action in an attem pt to chart an environm ental policy direction consistent with socio-cultural reality. The first school of thought, known as the plural society model, holds that the various ethnic strands that make up Jamaican society have persisted in their distinctiveness into the present. The racially mixed intermediate group, which came into being under slavery, is regarded as a distinctive group under this modE'l. In this view, the various strands which make up the rope of the society are in constant danger of conflict, based on ethnic and cultural diffel-ences, is an ever-present possibility. Political force holds the vanous strands together: colonial domination in the first instance, and political parties run by the intermediate ethnic group, but incorporating other elements to mask their domination, in the post-colonial setting (see M.G. Smith 1965, 1974). The second mode of interpretation, which might be described as the cl"ole society view, emphasizes the integrative development of a cultural system: interaction of the various strains, under a common regime of production, to form a creole language, world view, and system of ideas that are distinctively Caribbean. (This view is represented in such studies as Brathwaite, 1971 and Mintz, 1974.) It 1S im po rt;:\11t to t"ecognize that the sociocultural system is a dynamic one, in process of formation, and subject to forces of change from various directions.* However, there have been few attempts to bridge the gap between scholarly studies of society and culture in the Caribbean, and the design of policies and programmes; in most instances the two activities are carried out in isolation. Yet, the creole society model suggests that there are shared cultural ideas that can be built on to help assure the success of policies and projects. One such set of ideas that is relevant for present purposes revolves around the conception of the lIyardll -that portion of living space which surrounds the house which Jamaicans, urban and rural dwellers alike, from all classes, recognize and treat as sigr.ificant. The "Yardll as Cultural Symbol. The yard is an extension of the living space of the household, w herE' certain dom estic ac tivities, such as laundering, might be carried out; where children play g.:!mes; and where men and women carryon soc-ial activities with their peers. The yard is usually circumscribed by a vegetative or fence. Within its boundaries, a distinctive range of items is likely to be found growing. Permanent fruit trees such as citrus, mango, ackeE', avocado, and breadfruit provide snacks for the children and pJrtions of the family meal whE'n in season, as well as readily available items to be presented as gifts to visitors. Vegetablf, and seasonings such as tomatoes, thyme, escallion and peppers are also grown there to furnish flavouring ingredients for the family pot, while flowering plants and ornamentals are carefully tended for their decorative value. In times of surplus, the products from the yard's kitchen garden may be sold to higglers in the internal market system. The close association of the yard Hith the domestic grouping -its meals, the recreational activities of i.ts members and the like -points to the social significance or meaning of this circumscribed space for Jamaicans. Its symbolic significance is further underscored by the circumspection wi.th which it is approached by non-household members who call from its perimeter to announce their presence; by its use in many rural communities as the burial ground for deceased family members and site for M ani who accept the creole society model, for instance, also argue that many aspects of A frican \<.'ere forced lIundergroundll, and that part of the dynamic of cultural process in present day Caribbean society involves the coming to terms with these undervalued aspects of the cultural system (see, for exam pIe, the introductory essay in Nettleford, 1978). Movements such as that of Garvey or the rise of Rastafari do not, in this view J represent forces that seek to pull the society apart at its ethnic seams, bUI: rather forces that seek to enrich it by having cultural elements which have hitherto be:;.n surpressed, recognized. The influence of the North American cultural system through the constant circulation of people, and that of the mass media, is yet another force that im pinges on the sociocultural system and makes for change.

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burying the placenta of the newborn; and by the ritualistic regularity with which it is swept at early morning in town and country. The physical care given to the com munal yard in the cities may be lacking by com parison with the situation in village com m unities or middle class and owner-occupied yards in the urban area lLself. Nevertheless, working class urban dwellers still reC'
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distant garden. Plants are often used matterof-factly to lubricate social relationships. Or, to cite another very African example, libations will be poured on the ground as offering to the spiritual forces connecting man with nature on any number of ceremonial social oct.:aSlOns. It is evident that II consciousness about the natural environment and man's relationship to it is deeply em bedded in the Jam aican cultural system. But in practice this consciousness will manifest itself in very different ways in response to local and individual circumstances, econom ic constraints and the like. Thus, the most useful socio-cultural analyses (more useful because more pointed) will emerge from the consideration of particular environmental problem areas in relation to particular projects. Still, it is possible to suggest one culturallyinduced response to worsening economic conditions which are being experienced at present. With respect to economic pursuits, Jamaicans tend to engage 10 anum ber of actual or potential income earning actlvltles at anyone time, even those people who are employed in a steady job. This tendency both to think and act in terms of multiple options is equally evident in social relations as it is in employment. In response to the loss of a job or the contraction of a sector of the economy that affects household income from a particular source, individuals respond by emphasizing other already existing options to a greater degree or by developing ne w ones. The yard itself, for instance, (as living space rather than as abstract construct) may be converted into a multifamily dwelling unit as a means of earning extra income for the owner or supporting additional family members, or it may be used as a base for producing items for sale. Option-building suggests the first line of response to growir:g economic constraints. As conditions deteriorate further, however, it hecomes a less adequate means of defence. Jamaica's cultural tradition, therefore, often regarded as diffuse and incoherent, does yield to careful Rnalysj.:; and should be a primary consideration in the processes of environmental policy formulation and project implement.ation. KEY ISSU'!.:S AND PROBLEMS A number of important issues and problems related to population trends and cultural charac teristics have been discussed in the previous sections. These are sum mamed as follows: 1. Jamaica is among the most densely popula ted countries in the Americas. Very little of its usable land area is uninhabited, although the agricultural system is less intensive than it is in other high density regions such as South Asia. 2. Even though the percentage of people involved in agriculture has remained relatively constant over the past 15 years or so, thE:. ratio of urban to rural population has been increas mg. 3. Self-e m ployed persons and sm all business enterprises make up a large percentage of the emplovp.d work force. The implications of this for environmental planning need to be carefully considered. 4. Persistently high rates of unem ployment affect women and the young to a much greater extent than other segments of the population. 5. Jamaica has a highly mobile population. 6. The provision of urban jobs and services has not matched the growth of the urban population over the past several decades. In addition, an increasingly large cohort of 20 year olds comes of age in the 1980's, precisely at a time when housing construction has declined and interest rates increased, making the shortage of housing and services, particularly in urban areas, an increasingly acute problem. 7. The differentiation of the Jamaican population makes it important to consider the unique conditions of those areas where environmental management projects are to be sited. 8. A cultural analysis can provide insights as to the environmental consciousness of the Jamaican population as well as suggest ways of approaching issues such as environmental education and project planning. DIRECTIONS FOR THE FUTURE 1. The importance of the informal sector and small business enterprises must be taken into account in any program me of environmental management. Small enterprises are perhaps more difficult to monitor and have more limited resources for pollution control and waste treatment than is the case with larger firms. On the other hand, there is great

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potential for implementing low-budget environmental management within specialized sec tions of the in form al sec tor. In the case of side walk vendors, for exa m pIe, designing a portable display stand which could be built or purchased by vendors, or organizing systems of waste disposal which vendors could carry out and monitor by themselves, could make a significant difference aesthetically, as well as in the cost of waste removal services. Similar proposals could be made for other segments in the informal sector to meet environmental problems that .are unique to them. 2. Even though large amounts of government spending are unlikely given present economic constraints, the employmep.:: of women and young people in consen'ation program mes would be appropriate if spending were to increase. It would seem prudent for the mix of projects to be proposed under the national environmental policy to include a few which would be highly labour intensive and targeted to train and employ (.iersons in the groups which f'xperience highest unemployment. If the projects are conceived and planned in advance, they could more readily be im plemented, if government spending were to in crease. 3. Careful study of the socio-cultural background of the particular area where environmental management projects are to be implemented should be an integral part of project planning, and communities should be involved in implementation. Much of the study and monitoring function might well be undertaken at minimal cost through secondary schools in or near the project site. With suitable guidance from NRC D staff, the teachers of history, social studies ann the biological SClences could construct research tasks for students in the higher grades (fifth and sixth forms), which might provide mose of the background material needed for the projects. A case study from St. Lucia An Experiment in Participatory Resource Management -might serve as a model for this approach. The report describes the work which the Eastern Caribbean Natural Area Management Program has been carrying out in one section of the east coast of St. To cite one feature of the project, high school students did an investigation of the social history of the area, tracing its transition through sugar cane cultivation, its use as a u.S. base during World War II, and as an industrial zone in more recent times. The students also observed and interviewed traditional charcoal burners who make their living, in part, by collecting and burning wood from an area of mangrove within the project site. Based on the ethnographic research, the environmentalists on the project were able to assess the level of collection that was taking place; gain insight into the pattern of environmental control which the charcoal burners themselves had initiated; and could better continue dialogue with residents (including charcoal burners) to coordinate further plc:lOs for sound environ.nental management in the area. The students themselves prepared a spearate report on their research. This approach might readily be adopted in Jamaica. 65

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Annex 1: Co unity Organizatio116 and Private Voluntary Orga.w:ationa Table 14 providc:.s a preliminary overview of organizations that exist at the local com munity level, outlines some of their characteristics relevant to environmental planning, and r.9tes the;_r potential for providing local-level ship and institutional support for environmental projects. A sum mary profile of private voluntary organizations already involvprJ. with environmental issues is provided in Table 15. 66 Table 14: A Profile of Co ualty Bued Oraam.atiou aDd Iutitutiou ill Ja.aica Organization Membership Basc Sslient Festures Rating* Trade Union Churches Political Parties Service Clubs Schools Fsrmer's Orgsnizstions Youth Clubs Centered in the workplace with national central structure Local community and linked with national parent body Locsl group a snd nstional organization Urbsn snd lsrger rural communities snd nstional networks Local communities integrated with nstionsl educstionsl structure Locsl communities snd nstionsl psrent bodies Lor.sl communities *This is a eubjective rsting of the orgsnizstion's potentisl for providing institutionsl support snd lesdership for environmentsl projects bssed on the sslient festures identified. Do not often tske up matters Poor other than relate to working conditions In many rural areas membership low Many denominations involved in education historically Smsll lsnd bsse, no trsdition of involvement in agriculture Undercurrent of competition between the various churches in a community but co-operation takes place on projects from time to time. Tradition of providing leadership especislly in rural areas Resch large numbers of people. Groups often not active between elections Potent!slly divisive Bsse of sctive Members not large Membership tenda to be and upper middle cless Project oriented Reach large numbera Educational system doea not encourage student-initiated extra-curricular activity apart from sports, dependency on teacher lesdership Environmentsl projects can be integrated with existing curriculum goals (see below) Often have school garden projecta Teachers are often local community leaders. Crop-based except for JAS Often wesk or insctive Tendency for larger farmers to dominate Organization's life-span may be limited to a few years as founding cohort matures May welcome projects as a focus for their activities Fair/Good Poor Fair/Good (dependiD8 on the area where project to be located Good/Very Good Poor/Fair Fair/Good

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T.ble 15: Pri Ce VoluDtary O .... l:Iia.tiou Coae.rued with lariroa.eatal Co ..... n.tioa and contact person MLmbership Activitiea Jamaica Geographical Society Dr. Alan Eyre UniversIty of the West Indies Mona Kingston '7 200 Sponsors conferences, lectures and seminars Publish newsletter three times per year Published edited volume of articles Conserv ation in Jamaica, Brian Hudson, ed. ,---based on papers presented at meetings sponsered by the society in 1970-1971. Natural History Society of Jamaica 150 (app. 50 active) Sponnors lectures, slide and film present ations. Miss Rena Boothe Zoology Department University of the West Indies Mona Kir,gston 7 Jamaica Junior Naturalists Mr. Gerald Lemonious Crocodile New," P.O. Box 156 Mandeville HANCIIESTER Jamaica Society of Scientista and Technologists Mrs, Marcia Creary Petroleum Corporation of P.O, Box 579 KINGSTON 10 Jamaica Agromedical AHsocation Mrs. Janlce Reid CAROl University of the Went Indies Mona KINGSTON Geological Society of Jamaica Mrs. Elsie Arons P.O. Box 579 KINGSTON 10 Jamaica Camping and Hiking Association Mr. Peter Bently P.O. Box 216 KINGSTON 40 Negril ASSOCiation for the Conservation of Nature Mrs. S. A. Grizzle P.O. Box 33 Negril WESTMORELAND Association of Science Teachers of Jamaica Mrs F. CummiHsiong School of Education University of the West Indies Mona KINGSTON 7 Gosse Bird Club Mrs. Audrey Downer Point View Oakridge KINGSTON 8 Conducts field trips Makes repre5entations to,government authorities on conservation mattera Collaborates with uther organizations for study and preservation of the island'a environment Publishes Nature News, one or issues per year Publishes news letter, Crocodile News, quarterly Organizes JJN clubs in schools Conducts field trips 200 app. Promotes annual "Science Week" Makes representations to and collaborates with governmental and ststutory bodies Organized 1984 seminar "The Foreats of Jamaica" the proceedings of which are to be published as a book. Publishes occasional newsletters 47 Spondors lectures and seminars and disseminates 75 21 (limited liability Co) 35 200 100 (app. much fewer number!) active) audio-visual materials on pesticide safety Advise on wanagement and roinforce ment of pesticide control legialation Assist with pesticide related accidents Publishes newsletter, about three issues per year Organizes professional lectures snd sponsors and annual student essay competition Awards an annual scholarship to study Geology at UWI Publishes the Journal of the Geological Society of Jamaica, a newsletter, and scholarly monographs Members run recreational camp Rites and help maintain hiking trails Alerts relevant authorities to environmentally harmful in forest reserve areas Assists with reforestation projects Assisted with preparstion of The Special Interest and Naturalist Guido to Jamsica Linkages with private firms that promote alternative tourism InitIated preparation of an evalustion repurt on the proposed pest mining project in Negril Aims at developing a national membership of persons concerned with protection of the natural environment the hlzards of Sponsorn an annual r.onference on science education which has a topical focus that changes each year Organizes an annual science exhibition for schools Offers an ecology course for 6th forms with the assIstance of NRCD PubIJches Broadsheet newsletter twice per year Conducts Bird-banding field trips Occasional film shows fro schools and organ1za tions 67

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Plate 14 Cast students: Work-study group. 68

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OVERVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATIOfi Historical Perspective The major impetus for the development of environmental education in Jamaica has come from a national commitment 1:0 environmental management influenced largely by the intemational community. At the 1972 Stockholm Conference on the Environment, Jamaica's representative was Rapporteur General. The con ference placed great em phasis on the role of environmental education in improving the quality of life. Following this conference, the major international environmental agencies were established and public environmental education was included in their mandate. The Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education (October 14-26, 1977, Tbilisi, USS R), organized by United Nations Educational Social and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in cooperation with United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), reinforced the initiatives that had been adopted by governments following the Stockholm Conference. The Tbilisi conference made recom mendations for action by mem ber states and international organizations to promote and df!velop environmental education. Out of this gre w anum ber of Caribbean regional training activities under the auspices of the UNESC O-UNEP International Environmental Educational Programme. These activities emphasized curriculum development and teacher ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION trammg in environmental education. \0] orkshops organized under this program me received support from educators in Jamaica. It is a result of these international initiatives that the formal environmental education program me existing in Jamaica today has evolved. Functiooa of Environ.ental Education Envimnmental education promotes an awareneas and understanding of ecological principletl and their relationship to human activities. The majority of Jam aicans have a "natural environmental consciousness". This stems from an awareness of the role that resource exploitation plays in the economic development of the country (e.g., agriculture, industry -bauxite/ alumina, and tourism -beaches, forests, wildlife). Environmental education in Jamaica grew out of the need to protect a resource base that was rapidly deteriorating largely as a result of uninformed development decisions. Components of Environ.ental Education Environmental education consists of both a formal and an informal system. The formal system is comprised of a network that includes the school system at the primary and secondary levels, and the tertiary institutions of higher education. Education within this system begins with the development of a general awareness of the physical world, followed by the introduc-69

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tion of environmental principles and their relationship to man. It culminates at the tertiary level with the acquisition of professional qualifications in vario'.ls environmentally-related disciplines. The informal component of environmental education consists of a network that spans both the private and public sectors, and includp.s environmentally-oriented interest groups, elements of the in&titutionalized education system, service clubs, government agencies, some industries and the church. These varied groups have used such instruments as exhibitions, workshops, posters, pa m phlets, talk sho WS, articles and television programmes to promote environmental the meso Unfortunately, the mass meJia (newspaper, radio anJ television) has been less concerned with promoting environmental awareness. Environm ental education is not included as part of the program ming policy of the media houses. Where presentation of environmental issues has occur red, it has been as a result of the personal interest of reporters and journaLists rather than from a com mitment to the environment emanating from the media houses. The impediments to environmental education an? mainly financial. Funding is urgently needed to finance the tools for the educational process, com pensate the resource personnel required, anJ provide for the dissemination of information. Additionally, coordination is needed between government, industry, and nongovernmental organizations if the sector is to be effective in contributing to sustained econom ic developmt:'nt in Ja m aica. Coordination and Programmes for Environmental Education in Jamaica At the national level, attempts have been made to coordinate environmental education following the challenge by the governments of Latin America and the Caribbean at the Regional L'ltergovernmental Meeting held in Mexico in March 1982. This challenge called for the establishment of a nati.onal environmental training network with linkages to a regional network. Jamai.ca took the first step required for the establishment of such a network in 1983, when a brief meeting was convened by the Natural Resources Conservation Division (NRCD) with representatives from the Office of Disaster Preparedness (ODP), the Forestry Department, 70 the Ministry of Education, and the University the West Indies (U WI). The group met to exchange ideas on environmental education and to holi preliminary discussions for the development of a network. It was agreed to pr'epare a list of nll organizations and individuals relevar.t to ev,vironmental education, and to invite them to describe their aims, achievements and resources for furthering environmental edu-cation ill the country. This exercise would r-esult in: o mutually reinforcing and enriching the individual educational efforts of all participant!J; o defining n3tiollal priorities for environmental education; and o obtaining full participation of Jam aic a at the international level in regional cooperative program mes in environmental education. In May 1984, a meeting convened by the U.W.I. School of Education produced the following recom mendations: o that an educational institution should be involved in coordinating environmentaL education a c ti vities; o that steps should be taken to gather pertinent information in a single location; o that the School of Education at the Universi.ty of the West Indies be the clearing house for information on local environmental education activities; o that a directory of resource persons, papers, reports, and on-going activities in environmental education should be prepared and eire ula ted. Subsequent to this meeting in June 1985, the F acuIty of f.:ducation coordinated the development of a "Preliminary Directory of Some Environmental Education Activities in Jamaica". The Directory is still incom plete as the information presenteci represents the synthesis of eleven replies to a request to 47 individuals and agencies. The Faculty of Education (U wI) has made the following statement with regard to the Directory: "From such a small pool, the information must be totally unrepresentative of the true situation with regards to such activities". Nevertheless, the in form ation contained in the Directory is useful and represents the most com prehensive source of information presently existing on environmental education activ-

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ities in Jamaicl:. The Directory 15 divided as follows: In this context, the following national and regional activities have been organized: -Coastline Studies and Marine Ecology -Environmental Chemistry -Freshwater Ecology o Subregional Training Workshop on i.!:nviron mental Education for the Caribbean, Antigua, June 9-20, 1980. -Mining and Industry -Natural Disasters -Plant Ecology/Vegetation Su-veys -Papers/Publications. o National Training Workshop on Environmental Education, Kingston, Jamaica, March 3-5, 1981. The UNESCO/UNEP International Environment Fducation Program me is the regional program me mG'inly responsible for the development of e:.vironmental education in Jamaica. The mair. thrust of this programme has been the training of qualified personnel including teachers, organiz ers of in form al ac tivities for young peo pIe and adults, administrative personnel, educational planners and researchers of environmentally r.?levant subject matter, and the development of educational and methodological guidelines. o Subregional Workshop on Teacher Training in Environmental Education for the Caribbean, Mona, Jamaica, July 18-29, 1983. YEAR 1975 1977 1980 1981 1983 1983 1984 1985 Table 16 summarizes the major events in the development of environmental education in .Ja malca. Table 16: Major Events in the Development of Environmental Education In J.:lD8ica EVENTS Launching of the Internatio"'al Environmental Education Programme, UNESCO in cooperation with UNEP. First Intergovernmental Conferen'!e on Environmental Education, UNESCOIJNEP, October 14-16, Tbilisi. Subregional Training Workshop on Environmental Education for the Caribbean, Antigua, June 7-20, UNESCO. National Training Workshop cn Environmental Education, Ministry of Education (Government of Jamaica and UNESCO, March 3-5. Subreg!onal Workshop on Teacher Training in Environmental Education for the Cari0bean, School of Education, UWI, in cooperation with UNESCOUNEP IEEP, July 18-29. Introductoi"Y Meeting Toward the Development of an Environmental Education Network for Jamaica, convened by Natural Resources Conserva tion Department, Ministry .)f Mining and Natural Resources, Government of Jamaica, October 19. Meeting to develop an Environmental Education Network in Jamaica, May 18. Preparation of Preliminary Directory of So,ne Environmental Education Activities in Jarnltica, Faculty of Education, UWI, Mona. 71

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STATUS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION IN JAMAICA Fnvironmental education is presently bf:'ing car-ried out in Jamaica at borh the formal and in form al levels. Initially, there was a heavy emphasis on the informal system operated mainly by t"esource management agencies. This approach was in keeping with the need to reach the wider public within a very short time period, as it was recognized that without an in form ed public, the efforts of environmental management would be fruitless. However, financial constraints have restricted the Government's initiative in rl!cent years. The influence of both the formal ;md informal have been of gre.:Jt value in i"flu decisions related to re source ,--,..ploitation and consrJrv3tion. As a result, a growing segment of the society is beinr prepared to play an ac, :.:;? role in the decision-making process. The eV'_'lt.1tion of this movement is outlined in th'" following discussion of tile formc:l and informal environmental education system in Jamaica. Formal Environmental Education Formal environmental education is seen here as the promotion of an awareness and understanding of ecologic al principles Clnd their relationship to hu fit an ae tivities within institutionalized education system. This system is comprised of learning institutions at the primary, Sl'C ondary, and tertiary levels. Primary Level. At this level, students are exposed to a general awareness of the :.;nviron ment, th'" relationships between living and nonliving com ponents, and the development of desirable attit"des towards their surroundings. The approach generally employed is the "infusion" r;lethou whereby environmentally relevant conrent is "infused" within subjects already being taught [IS part of the general curriculum. ThLe; approach is quite effective since it relates concepts to standard education'll topics. It involves minim al additional work by the teacher and requires no extra financing. The principles learned at this level form the basis upon which the more specific aspects of ecology will be superim posed at the secondary level. Secondary LeveL In recent years, cl'rriculum development at the secondary level has reflected the significant influence of environmental issues affecting the society. The syllabuses for Grades 7-9 include general science, agricul-72 tural SCIence, and social studies '.11 of which introduce a variety of environmental principles into the In addition, the release in 1983 of the Caribbean Examination Council (CXC) (GradE' 11) sdence r.;yllabus for general use has had trerr,endous im pact at the secondary level, and has podtively influenced syllabus development at both the lower and higher levels of the educational system. In the development of the C X C syllabJses, a stance was taken on the llltegratioll of environ mental information into the school curriculum. This concern is expressed i,l the development of the syllabuses for biology, chemistry, physics and integrated science. An examination of the biology syllabus revealed a com mitment to im parting environmental information as eVldenced in the follo wing statement: "Biology, by its very nature is of im mediate relevance to every individual since it deale; with life processes, the knowledge and understanding of which can serve to im prove at a very personal level the quality of man's life. This understanding should generate a concern for the cace of the total environment which su pports life."* The biology syllabus suggests to teachers that "eve;::y opportunity be taken to relate biological studies to the environment and to use an ecological approach wherever pertinent." The teachers are encouraged to use local and regional examples to illustrate biological principles and to make the course as relevant as possible in order to heighten the student's of the effect of science on society. The aim of the C X C is to expose each student to the environfll ental experiences suggested within the varyi.ng syLlabuses if the student is to perform creditably in the examinations. The ex C with its emphasis on subjects of regional (Caribbean) relevance, is an excellent vehicle to educate and, therefore, heighten the environmental a wareness of the upcoming generation. Tertiary Level. At the tertiary level, there are five major institutions which presently carry out aspects of environmental educatioh. the University of the West Indies (U WI), the West Indies School of Public Health (WISPH), the of Arts, Science and Technology Correspondence Re: Environmental Educa-tion in Jamaica, Joyce Glasgow, School of Education, U WI, July 1984.

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(C AST), Teachers' Colleges, and the College of Agriculture. (See Table 18.) The students of Teachers Colleges are exposed to environmental themes through informal talks and seminars organized by the Association of Science Teachers of Jamaica (ASTJ) in conjunction with resource agencies such as l 'e Natural Resources Conservation Division (N R CD). o University of the West Indies (UWI): At the University, the F of Natural Sciences, Sciences, Medicine, and Arts and General Studies all offer courses which in clude environmental concepts and themes. Within the F ac ulty of Natural Sciences, the Departments of Geography, Zoology, Chemistry, Botany and Physics, offer aspects of environmental science including environment al chern istry and pollution control, resource management; i.e., of terrestrial, aquatic, plant and animal resources, waste manage ment and recycling. In totai, an estimater' 600 lecture hours per academic year are devoted to environmentally related topics. The appLied courses offered by the Departments of Chemistry, Zoology and Botany in particulr. cover a significant range of environmenlally related topics. However, students can graduate from the Faculty without being exposed to any of these appli::-d courses. These graduates will form part of the pool of "pure scientists" (geologists, chemists, taxonomists, etc.), skills are vital to the problem-solving aspects of environmental management. Thus, the teaching of the pure sciences plays an esspnt-ial. part in the education of the country's environmental management personnel and such constitutes a vital but not immediately visible component of environmental education. A signifioant amount of environmental research is presently being carried out at the U WI, liotably in the Departments of Chemistry, Zoology, Botany, Physics and Geology. This reflects the high priority the subject is being allotted in the formal education system. Here, the ground work necessary for the solution of some of the island's major environmental problems is being laid. Th.:? Faculty of Social Sciences offers courses in agricultural developm ent, economics, rural sociology, urban studies, and health and social organization as part of their degree programs. These courses cover environm entally relevant topics. In addition, the Faculty also offers a one-year diplom a course in Health M anagement to B.Sc. graduates or candidates with other tec hnic a1/ pro fession al q ualific ations or expenence. The Departl:\ent of Socil:fl and preventative Medicine within the ac ulty of Medicine addresses environmental health issues through its 13-week Certificate in Community Health; and its l2-month diploma in Public Health. The Certificate Course is offered to holders of a Bachelors Degree or other relevant pro fessional qualification with practical exper ience, while the Diplom a Course is specifically for qualified medical practitioners with at least two years of practical experience. The Department of M ass Com munications ,,,ithin the Faculty of Arts lOd General offers a core course entitled "Mass Com m unication and Society". This course is offered during the first year of the Mass Communication Degree Programme. Its objectives in dude the analysis of the role and function of the mass media in their socializing, conservation and national transforma tion process. Because of the particular interest in environmental matters of the director/lecturer of this course, a strong environmental bias runs throughout the course as "society" in this context is taken to mean the total environment. In addition to the structured courses offered at the U WI, there is the recent formation of the Environmental Studies Group, an inter faculty group with the intention to: promote inter-faculty lI1 enV1ron m tal studies; assist Faculty ESGs 1n their activities; -publish an annual bulletin of U WI environmental related activities through an editorial committee; -organize seminars to promote public a ware ness; and -identify funding sources for environ mental, research and education at U WI. The goal of the group lS to introduce environmental content in the inter-disciplinary and multi-disciplinary teaching and re" search programmes at the UWL The group has suggested that environ m ental principles 73

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be taught to the wider university community through a com pulsory university core course as, for example the History of the Caribbean, which is one of three university courses presently offered. o West Indies Scht)ol of Public Health (WISPH). This institution falls under the administration of the Ministry of Health and trains public health nurses and inspectors (Environmental Health Officers) who monitor the com munity's environment for the detection 3nd abatement of nuisances associated ".lith disease. The syllabus used during the three-year diploma course includes principles of epidemiology, waste management, pollution control, occupational health, recreational sanitation, and vector control, arne 19 others. The course work covers a two year period while the third year is a period of internship under the guidance of supervisors selected from the host com m unity and trained by the WISPH. The students ar.e expected to function as Public Health In:'pecton; during this period. o _College of Arts, Science and Technology (CAST). At present, CAST offers a six-week summer course entitled "W:Jtet' Works and Sewage Plant Operations". This course includes such topics as water chemistry, water and sewage treatment and bacteriology and is specially geared toward the needs of the National Water C om mission and other similar private and public sector agencies throughout the reglOn. 74 At the end of the six wp.eks there is an examination and the successful candidates an: awarded a Certificate of Successful C' m pletion. Those candidates with an aver ::.ge of more than sixty percent are invited back the following year for a one week period of study, and upon successful completion of this segment, candidates are awarded a II Water Works and Se wage 0 perators C ertificate" (equivalent to a Grade "D" Operator within the United States Sanitation Works System). In addition, CAST offers a course in Environmental Chemistry, which introduces students to the causes and effects of and the solutions to the different types of pollution. The course involves thirty lecture hours per academic year and requires the completion of a research paper. At CAST, the three year Diploma in Physical Planning Technology produced its first gradu-ates in 1981. In this course, the students are exposed to subjects such as ecological principles in planning, resource management, environmental pollution, waste management and environmental impact assessment. As such) they are given a sound understanding of Jamaica's biophysical environment and taught the skills necessary to help plan and oversee the sustainable development of the island. At the present time, CAST is moving towards the introduction of a diploma program me in Environmental Technology which would retain certain basic features of the current two year Certificate in Chemical Technology course, while introducing additional environ mentAlly relevant subject matter. The course was to be introduced jn phases, com mencing September 1985, beginning with the chemical technology core course and a few elective courses. The themes will become more specialized in the third year (SeptelLl her 1987-88). The graduates from this course would be expected to function at the technologist level, having a gra9p of fundamental principles of envirunmental 3cience and technology, sanitary sciencE" and as th,=y relate to the im provement of the bi.ological, chemical and physical environment. The full implementation of this diploma course, however, depends on the potential for job placement of graduates. A sum mary of CAST's extra curricula involvement in Environmental Education is presented in Table 17. o Teachers Colleges. Wjth the introduction in 1981 of the new Diploma Programme for students of teachers' colleges, the opportunity was taken to em phasize environmental themes, enabling the students to introduce the relevant components 10 pdmary and secondary school curricula. Topics such as the use and development of resources, disaster preparedness, industrialization and u ..... banization are included in some units of the social studies syllabus. In addition, the student teachers are exposed to the more practical aspects of ecology through informal talks and seminars organized by the Association of Science Tcachprs of Jamaica (ASTJ), in conjunction with resource management agencies such as the Natural Resources Conservation Division (N ReD). o College of Agriculture. During their course of study culminating b the a ward of the Associate Degree in Agriculture, students are

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Table 17: CAST's Extra Curricula Involvement in Environmental Ech'cation CAST organised a one-day seminar on June 5, 1984 "Man versus the Environment" to discuss thc statu;; of environmental pollution, total pollution load, mode of disposal, role of environmental regulatory agencbs in Jamaica 91ld views oi industries about legislative requirements for the disposal of industrial wllste. This was sponsored by the Ministry of Science, Technology &: Environment, the Natural Resources Conservution Division and Lhc Pan American Health Organization. Organised a 5-day certificate course on "Jamaica and it5 Environment" during March 11-15, 1985, in a5suciation with UNESCO to mark the Natiol1fiI Science Week organised by JamaICa Society for Scientists and Tech nologists (JSST). The following t.opics were diseussed: Jamaica's Environment Marshland UtilizaLion -Marinc Environment HeIlshire Development Health and Environment Water Pollution -Air Pollution Tourism and Environmcnt -Agriculture and Environment The theme of this course was public awarencss. Ninety-nine participants from schools/ coIleges, the ministry, and senior citizen groups attended. Organised a panel discussion on "Needs of Environmental Technology Education in Jamaica" on Junc 5, 1985. This activity was in with plans by the institutio'l for the introduction of II three year diploma programme in Environmental Technology. introduced to environmentally relevant topics such as soil conservation techniques, and fertilizer and pesticide application. Informal Environmental Education Informal environmental education in Jamaica is defined as the prom otion of an awareness and understanding of ecological and their The agencies that participated were: National Water Commission Environmental Control Division, Ministry of Health -Natural Resources Conservation Division, Ministry of Agriculture Urban Development Corpol'ation Petroleum Corporation oC Jamaica Hellshire Bay Development Company Pan American Health Organization United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural United Nations Industrial Devel:)pment Or ganization Jamaica Bauxite Institute Jamaica Tourist Board University of the West Indies College of Arts, Science and Technology MallY environmentally conscious people of Jamaica NG0 representatives Or' 1nised a Project Work Competition on "Jdmaica's Environment and Pollution" tCl mark World Environment Day, June 5, 1986. The deadline COi' submission was November 3D, 1986. Prizes were awarded to successful candidates. This project stressed the need to prevent pollution, role of students/ and the role cf individuals in environmental pollution control. e CAST recently completed a survey to find out thp. status of Technology in Jamaica; mainly the needs in the fields of chemical techno!ogy and environmental technology graduates in terms of jobs, to arrive at a conclusion before finalization of the curriculum. relevance to human actlvltles outside of the institutionalized education system. Informal environmental education in Jamaica consists of two major components: the public educatil)n activities carried out. by the public sector resource management agencies; and the efforts of the non-governmental organizations (N G Os), including the business com m unity and service clubs. (See Table 17.) 75

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Puhlic environmental education had its beginnings in the educated and professional circles of Jamaica. However, as the negative consequences of ill-advised decision-making resulted in the deterioration in the quality of life, the general public \:as forced to become involved with environmental issues. Although the rrajority uf the population is not well enough informed or organizer! to influence development decisions, the voice of small sectors of the population is be:og heard, in respect to resource exploitation and conservation. The major thrust of the informal environmental education system in Jamaica is to foster the appropriate attitudes which are vital to sustainable development. The economic realities in Jamaica are such that continued exploitation of the resource base is necessary for national d. dopment. Educational efforts have therefore been geared towards informing society of the resource lim itations, and the development options availilble within our fragile island eco system. The method employed in this public awareness effort is the preseotation of complex ellvironmental principles in simple terms easily aspects of resource management and vation including disaster management. In recent years, on World Environm ent Day, several of the agencies, in particular those with direct involvement with environmental management, have mounted exhibitions depicting various aspects 02 Jamaican ecology. Exhibitions are also mounted for schools and other institutions dueing the year. o Lectures, Seminars, Workshops. 0 (;casional semlllars workshops are organized by the resource management agencies. In addition, members of the technical staff are used as resource personnel by outside organiz.:tions and institurions. o Com m unity 0 utreach. The most effective informal environmental educational strategy is organized along the lines of the traditional extension services. Several of the resourc e m anagem ent agencies have educational programmes at the community level. The Min istI"'j of Agriculture has a well-developed Agricultural Extension Progr.'lmme, aspects of

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which are geared towards soil conservation and pesticide application and control. There are four regional offices, 13 executive offices (one for each parish), 65 parish divisions (4-6 per parish) and 401 extenl>ion areas distributed around the island. Com munication, and therefc;:oe educ"ltion is done al','lost exclusively by personal contact using jemonstration plots. This on-the-spot approach has been very successful in demonstrating soil conservation techniques around the island. Of the recent informal or public environmental education efforts by Government agencies, probably the most successful has been that of the ODP, which was established in 1980. At the ODP, physical planning with particular reference to natural (earthquakes, hurricanes, etc.) and man-made catastrophel:> (oil spills, hazardous substances, etc.) are the agency's major concern. Discussing the virtues of preparedness, the aD P conducts its public educational campaign on a. broad front. The success of these efforts can be attributed to the heavy economic implications of most rlatural disesters. As a result of this, it was not difficult to encourage the assistance Df the private sector in public education program mes on disaster management. Despite some notable accomplishments, the efforts of :;overnment with regard to enviromnental education are indeed inadequate. This is due mainly to the fact that the public environmental education program mes of these agencieJ are not institutionalized or structured. Additionally, the economic constraints affecting the country have caused agencies to reduce their involvement in this activity. Non-Govern.ental Organizations (If G Os) The participation of non-governmental interest groups concerned with environmental management has been a part of national life for a number of years. The original focus of these organization!; was directed towards resource conservation (emphasis on wildlife) and outdoor recreation. Presently, a wider cross-section uf the general population have begun taking an active interest in issues associated with resource exploitation. In response to the escalation of environmental problems, the scope of the N G as has expanded considerably to include all aspects of environmental management. The role of N G as, therefore, continues to be vital to the -r\ucation of the public at large. The major non-governmental organizations presently carrying out environmental education aLe: The Natural History Society of Jamaica; -The Jamaica Society of Scientists and Tech-nologists; -The Jamaica Geographical Society; -The Jamaica Geological Society; and -Association of Science Teachers of Jamaica. (See Tables 18 and 19.) Some recent activities in public environmental education carried out by N G Os include: o Seminars on natural ret:lources, such a8 the one on water organized by the Jamaica Society of Scientists and Technologists in 1983; o Annual observance of National Wood and h' ater Day, jointly organized by the Jamaica Geographical Society and the Natural History Society; o Public discussions such as the one on peat mining organized by the Negri! Chamber of Commerce in 1984; and, o Annual Bauxite Symposium organized by the Jamaica Geological Society. In addition, exhibitions such as the Annual Schools Science Exhibition promoted by the ASTJ has been instrumental in exposing the public to a variety of environmental themes. Significant work in environmental education is being done by the Natural History Society of Jamaica, a non-profit organization whose origi nal purpose waG to provide a source of indige nous information to teachers and others by publishing its Natural Notes and organizing lectures and field trips. The present objectives of this organiz ation now include the study and conservation of the Jamaican environment, as well as the promotion of public environmental education. Other environmentally oriented N G Os include the Jamaica Camping and Hiking Association which promotes the publication of information on outdoor recreation, and has compiled a booklet for those who wish to explore the island's natural attractions other than the beaches. Additionally, the Jamtoica Junior Naturalists is a non-profit conservation-oriented organization for young people between the ages of six and eighteen years. This group provides opportunity for study of the flora, fauna and other natural resources of the island, .,md encourages an appreciation of the need for conservation of the Jamaican environment. 77

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Table 18: Tertiary Institutions Offering Environmentally Related Course and Programmes Institution University of the West Indies Faculty of Natural Sciences F acuIty of Social Sciences Faculty of Medicine College of Arts Science and Technology West Indies School of public Health College of Agricul ture Course Animal Ecology Plant Ecoi.::r:y Applied Chemistry Applied Zoology Ai?plied Ecology Physical Planning Agricultural Geography General Geography Advanced Urban Geography Geography of Developing and Devehped Areas Agricultural Development and Policy Agricultural Economics Rural Sociology and Urban Studies Health and Social Organization Water Wo,ks and Sewage Treatment Plant Operators Course Environmental Chemistry Environmental Hygie!le, Ecology, Water c5c Waste Water Management, Food Hygiene Agricultural Engineering, Soil &: Water Conservation, Soil Fer tiliiy Management Programme Part of the requirements for B.Sc. General Part of the requirements for B.Sc. Social Sciences Health Management Community Health Public Health Planning Technology On-the-Job Training Certificate in Chemistry Technology Public Health Inspection Basic Part requirement for Associate Degree in Agriculture Certification B.Sc. B.Sc. Diploma Certificate Diploma Diploma Certificate Certificate Diploma ASc. Agriculture

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Table 19: Major Publie Seetor and NorHlovemmental OrganizatiOlL'l in .lamalea whieh Provide A.speets of Environmental Bdueation ACTIVITlES 1 II ....... A oI-I ..... 0 0 .. .. .. .-.:: j "1 l B .. j .. .. ACDlCIE5 .. "h. L .. -.:l A .... --; ... : j .. 0" .... ... u-; .. AS ...... !C ... :1 0: .!l:s .. ...... Nft,lUral Iaurel. CO;\lIltn'ltioD 01v1.10n 0 n 0 0 Off leo ot Dlllner Preparldn 0 0 0 0 0 0 r"rl.t Oaplrt nt 0 0 0 0 0 0 !nvlronaontal Control Dlvldor; 0 0 0 0 0 8urllu of Hlilth !ducoUon 0 0 0 0 Filherl .. Dhillon 0 0 Inlond Floherlll Unlt 0 0 0 II Town Plcnnln& DopertINnt 0 0 0 0 In.tllul. of J ..... lc. 0 0 0 0 Vatlr Il ourc Dlv1110n 0 0 0 0 0 ACTIVITIES 1 u ....... .. it .. o 0 .. A o g..... .. 0 AGDIGIES .... -" .. .. .. .... .. u .... :O!l .. j ... ... ....... go. ... .:l ..... A .. .... .. A .... 'Ell"!:; .... .... 3 0 ..... .. s .... I ..... ... u .. .. "! 8t: .. ,!u .. 0< ... .e:s ... 0 I .. .... ... n .... Alro-21 0 0 Forllt Indultrlll DoyolOp""Dt Ca. 0 0 0 Joadc. lndultrlal Olvalopunt Corporation 0 A.alociatlon at Sci_ncI TI.ch.rl of J .... lc. 0 0 0 Motur.l Hbtory Sochty ot Joadc. 0 0 0 Clologlcal Sochty 0 0 0 Coosraphlcol Socloty 0 0 J ... lci Junior ".cur.lil.t. 0 0 0 J ... le. 50cloty ot Sclonthtl T.cho.010811t. .nd 0 School at !ducnlon, WI 0 0 J .... lc. A&rlculturol Sochty 0 0 0 0 0 M1srll Alloclatlon for thl Con rvltlon 0 0 nf Nature Hop. Zoo Tru. t_ O H,di. Houl" (Clolnlr, UR. JaG) 0 0 Entlty 0 0 !!II KaJor I.tlvlty o Ho4lrlU I.tblty 79

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To date, the contribution of the business com m unity to environmental education efforts has been minimal. The contributions made by Shell, sponsors of the Jamaica Junior Naturalists, are commendable. Bata Company has financed the printing of environmental teaching materials and sponsored a national essay competition on trees. The service clubs, whose mem bership is largely from the business com munity, have also made modest contributions to the informal environm ental process by sponsoring talks and sem inars on the environm ent. The shooting and fishing clubs have shown little interest in protecting the habitat (forest, wetland and reef) upon which their sport depends. Although small in scale, the efforts of the N G Os have been :lOte worthy. The membership of these groups usually includes professionals, students, teachers, and middle-management civil servants. The total num ber of persons who actively participate is estimated to be less than two thousand persons. KEY ISSUES AND PROBLEMS Lack of Financial Reso, .. _,. es Government's public environmental education efforts have been scaled down in recent years due to financial constraints. An examination of the "Estimates of Expenditure for 1984-85" for the resource management agencies revealed that very little has been allocated to enVlronmental education. In the absence of an institutionalized public environmental education program me, the strategy adopted by the NRC D in recent years has been to include public education as part of the Capital Development Budget for conservation. In the Capital Development Budget for the financial year 1983/84, $50,000 was earmarked for public education. This budget and progl-amme was managed by an Information Officer under the direct supervision of the Principal Director. Inadequate to teaching staff has resulted in high staff turnovers. This trend has affected the pace at whi.ch environmental education advances in the formal education system, as some of the teachers that are lost have had environmental training. The teachers 80 that remain in the system are overworked and demoralized by the poor working conditions. This is particularly true at the primary level where there is currently a one-to-forty teacher/ pupil ratio. The lack of funding also reduces the ability of the teeching institutions to purchase equipment and teaching aids necessary for practical demonstrations of environmentally related scientific principles at all levels of the system. Additionally, there is little, if any, funding for transportation to facilitate field study. Where funding is provided, the level is often inadequate. Shortage of Environmental Educators/Resource Personnel The training of teachers in vanous aspects of environmental management requires resource personnel. Within the Jamaican context, these personnel would largely be drawn from two sources: the resource management agencies of govern m ent, and the un iversity co m m unity. Presently, both groups are shrinking due to lack of institutional support. Lack of Adequate Media Involvement Pr(:sently the media houses do not include environmental issues as part of their regular program ming policy. This results from the exclusion of environmental issues from national media coverage. Absence of an Environmental Education Policy The individual efforts of a few professionals within the resource management agencies, nongovernmental agencies, and the formal education system are limited as they are operating in the absence of a national environmental education policy. Such a policy would both strengthen and put into perspective the various activities and program ,nes related to environmental education. The policy would also provide added justi.fication for funding from the private sector as well as from the international com munity. Lack of Coordinated Arrange.ents for Environ.ental Education In 1983, the resource mdnagement agencies, along with representatives of the formal educa-

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tion system, initiated discussions aimed at developing a coordinated approach to environmental education. The organizer of the meeting, the NRC D, was already serving as the national focal point for the referral of environmental information. The NRC D was therefore urged by UNEP to establish a national network for environmental education as part of the project objectives of the Regional Environmental Programme for Latin America and the Caribbean. These efforts were strengthened during a follow-up meeting held in 1984, at which UNESCO was represented. This meeting has led to the preparation of a "Preliminary Directory of some Environmental Education Activities in Jam aica". Efforts at national coordination need to be reinforced and carried forward until there is a National Environmental Education Network. Lack of Socio-Cultural Approachea in Environmental Education The environm ental f'ducation strategy has not adequately considered the social and cultural factors operating within the Jamaican society. For example, the planting of the navel string (umbilical cord) of infants with a tree is a cultural practice that is responsible for some amount of afforestation, albeit m{nimal. To date, such a tradition has been largely over looked as a means by which to involve a large segment of the population in everyday environmental management. As part of this approach, the society could be encouraged to plant trees for any number of significant occaSlOns, e.g., birthdays. Lack of Reciprocal Approach to Environmental ducation The solution to environm ental problems frequently requires historical data. Examination of the Jamaican environment has clearly revealed that the public at large (the peasant, the Eisherm an, wayside vendor) has a vital part to play in providing information not recorded elsewhere. The importance of informal information sources needs to be recognized, particularly if we wish to ensure the involvement of the com m unity in environm ental education. In addition, mechanisms need t:o be established to pass on information gained at the community level. Just as the com munity needs to under stand the role of government in providing some of the solutions to local environmental problems, so does government need to be made a war"! of the role of the com m unity in making a contribution to environmental management. Inadequate Involvement of Private Sector m Public Environmental Educatioil Only a relatively small number of NGOs are actively involved in public environmental education. Recognition m us!': be given to these organizations. There should be puhlic recognition and appreciatio'! extended to those citi zens, whether they are industrialists, trade unionists, developers, professionals, or simply interested citizens, who participate ill eforts to improve Jamaica's environment. Com m unity groups and service clubs, such !S the Boy Scouts, 4-H Clubs, Lions Club, Jaycees, etc., have a potentially significant role to play in the dissemination of environmental information due to the nature of their far-reaching com m unity efforts. DIRECTIONS FOR THE FUTURE 1. The development and implementation of a National Policy on Environmental Education is urgently needed. 2. The development and funding of Public Environmental Educatioa Program m es within Government's resource management agencies is needed. 3. Incentive schemes within the Public Sector should be provided to attract and retain staff needed for environmental education. 4. The level of private sector involvement in and funding for environm ental education should be increased. 5. Socio-cultural approaches to environmental education should be utilized. 6. The fostering of a reciprocal approach to environmental education between the comm unity and researchers is needed. 7. Means should be devised for increasing mass media involvement in environmental education as part of National Media Policy. 8. Provision should be made f(lr fellowship/ scholarships to facilitate specialized training in various aspectb of environmental education. 81

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9. The development of a generalized environmental studies core course is needed as part of the requirements for certification from all tertiary institutions. 10. Institutionalized environmental education program mes are needed at the principal government agencies dealing with environmental management. 11. Development of a National Environmental Education Network should be pursued. -, \ \ \ IH ,AI '" Plate 15 Section of Coastline Negril Beach (1967). Plate 16 Section of Coastline Kingston (1975). 82

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OVER'!lEW OF COASTAL RESOURCES Jamaica's coast is between 495-550 miles in length, punctuated by numerous inlets and bays. Its varied and irregular coastline gives rise to a unique ecosystem formed by the integration of coastal features that include harbours, bays, beaches, rocky shores, estuaries, mangrove swamps, cays and coral reefs. These natural features provide a coastal resource base that contributes significantly to the economic wellbeing of the country. Relative to tourism, the worldwide image of Jamaica is based largely on the beauty of the island's beaches, coastal waters, and shoreline environment. These coastal resources, however, are especially sensitive to the effects of over-use and mismanagement, and many areas exhibit some degree of degradation. The island's principal com mercial and population centres are also located on the coast, and urban development pressures on coastal resources are intense and persistent. Delineation of Coastal Area For purposes of describing and analyzing Jamaica's coastal resources, as well as for discussing resource management issues, inland and seaward coastal area boundaries have been established, and coastal management units have been delineated. (See Figure 14.) The Resource Base CO.-\STAL RESOURCES Inland Boundary. The inland boundary is the 100-ft contour, chosen in order to encompass all nearshore lands with the potential to significantly impact coastal wetera. Included within the 100-foot contour are the major wetlands of Jamaica, rocky shore areas with sharp increases in land elevation, and coastal plains. The coastal plain is less than two miles wide along most of the north coast and areas of the south coast. In other locations, the plain widens, notably in the eastern and WE!stern ends of the island, and in the Clarendon and the St. Catherine plains on the south coast. Seaward Boundary. The seaward boundary is marked by the furthest extension of the island's shelf. The edge of the shelf delineates the extent of the neretic zone. On the north coast, this shelf is relatively narro w, and the sea floor drops quickly to depths ranging from 5,000 to 30,000 feet. On the south coast, however, bet ween Kingston and Black River, the shelf extends offshore for a distance of approximately 20 miles and is 80 miles long. This neretic zone supports the major portion of the island's fishery and is a major recreational area, particularly on the north coast. The outer limit of Jamaica's tenitorial waters is 12 miles from the island. Pursuant to the International Convention on Law of the Sea, Jamaica is presently drafting a bill for the 83

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FIGURE: 14 COASTAL AREA BOUNDARIES AND MANAGEMENT ll-lITS N I HANOVER ',ST JAMES I TRELAWNY -. I / -'-,. -_0 ._.-\ I I 'I \ STMARY .>-.\ / .I \ --.,-----". """'\. ST ELIZABETH 'iNCl61ER \ CI.ARENlON \ ST CATHERINE ) .(. :RTl.ANO .\ ; ST THOMAS '- I _._._ MANAGEMENT UNITS Parish boundaries) UOUNDARY (';ontlnentol slmlf SOURCE: NATlfiAL RESOlfiCES a COHSEFnaTUt DEPT.

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establishment of a 200-mile Exclusive Economic Zone (E E Z), which wO'Jld include the existing l2-mile territorial sea plus an additional economic zone of l88 nauti':al miles. Work on this bill \s being done through an inter-aglll':. com mittee within the Ministry or Foreigi' Affairs. The establishment of slJch a zone would allow Jam lica to secur2 all cays, shoals, and banks of long usage tho.t al'e presently beyond the territorial sea. This would enable Jamaica to enforce its fishing la'ws and regulations within a larger area, thus restricting foreign fishing to the surplus ot Jam aic a '5 allowable catch. Although considerably off-shore, the Morant and Pedro Cays dre also inc'lUded ill the description of coastal ared reS0urces. The Morant Cays dre located 33 mue.3 SE of Morant Point and the Pedro Cays are on the Bank about 40 miles S'-SW of Porlb.nd Point. Although there are other banks witlu:l the territorLal lIal.en" the3e are the only offsh0re cays big (:nollgh to act as a se 11 iperm anent or penn anent base for offshore fishermen. Coastal M a:1ilgcment Units. Within the cOdstal regi.on, 13 smal.!.er geographical areas, or :oastal management units have been delineated according to parish boundaries. (An overview of land and I>later usrs in each coa5tal management Jnit lb includr d in Annex 1.) COlstal Area coastline of Jamaica has been classified 3ccording to four shoreline types: sandy or gravely beach; rocky shore, cliff or elevated reef; mangrove forest or swamp; and coral reef. (See Figure l In general, the south shoreline is edged long, straight: cliffs, mangrove swamps, herbacE.ous wetlaads and black So;l1C beaches. White sand beaches a['e found on the north coast; the northeast coast is very rugged. Fringing reefs have uevelored in places along the north and no,-theast coasts. Around the entire island, the is very irregular, indented with bays and extended by and spits and bars. The coastline is .sls0 characterized by a nu m ber of'salt water such as the Yallahs Ponus in St. Thorn as and the Great SaLt Pond in St. Catherine. Other major enclosed water bodies that occur in coastal areas are largely and include wch sites as Mystery Lake and Green Gcotto in St. Ann, and the Wallywash Pond in St. Elizabeth. Offshore Islands, Cays, and Reefs. Jamaica's ne8rshore c.ays are found mainly off the south coaot with the exception of Booby Cay, which is off the west coast near Negril. The majorit.y of lhp.sp, cays are sm all (less than 2 acres), accessible only by private boat and lack suitable infrastructure [or their development es recreational centres. Two of the larger cays, however, Lime Cay, south of Kingston, and B C'oby ClAY, weat of N egru, have b
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00 0\ F!GURE: 15 LUCEA SANDY OR GRAVEL BEACH ROCKY SHORE CLIFF / ELEVATED REEF MANGROVE FOREST/SWAMP CORAL REEF SHORELINE CONAGURAT!ON VERY WELL DEVELOPED REEFS = ANNOTTO JAMAICA ALLIGATOR POND STEEP ROCKY CUFFS FEW POCKET BEACHES t N SAND/GRAVEL BEACHES FEW REEFS I BAY HOPE BAY SOURCE:INTRADAM 7/82. LARGE W/.YES ROQ(Y CLFFS __" / FEW POCKET BEACHES

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Beaches. The beaches of Jamaica are of international renown, and are perhaps the greatest factor contributing to the growth and success of the island's tourist industry. Vast stretches of white sand beaches are found along the north coast and provide the location for the principal resort areas, including Ne6ril, Montego Bay, and Ocho Rios. These white sand beaches originate from the offshore coral reefs as a result of erosion of the offshore corals and calcareous algae. The eroded material is deposited in the lagoon area behind the reefs as white sand. M any of the south coast beaches are nourished by river sediments (as the offshore coral reefs are not as extensive), and are typically of black sand. 'yegetation. The coastline :>f Jamaica consists, for the most part, of limestone rock or low fringing coral shelves. High sea cliffs and headlands are infrequent. Variation is provided by the occurrence of bays with sandy spits, beaches (including cays and banks), al: d by alluvial 0'1: peat deposits at river estuaries. The larger bays and sheltered estuaries are mainly on the south coast. Consequently, coastal pl.ant com munities are characteristic of three types of substratum. (Detailed descriptions of the plant com munities associated with the three types of substratum are given in Asprey and Robbins, 1953 0 However, these descriptions need to be revised and updated to accurately re flec t curren t conditions of ce.: 'I:al vegetation.) Mangrove and herbaceous swamps, characteristic of peat or alluvial deposits, have been extensively studied by the NRC n and the PC J. These areas cover over 30% of the coastline of Jamaica and are mainly found on the south coast. They are characterized by salt tolerant mangrovE' species, such as Rhizophora mangle (red maflgrove), racemosa (white mangrove), Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) and Conocarpus erectu.,;, and the swamp fern (Acrostichum aureum). At the upper reaches of some of these wetlands, where there is a greater influx of freshwater, the vegetation is dominatp.d by freshwater macrophytes such as C1adium domingensis (Builrush). (See Table 20.) The two largest wetlands in Jamaica are the Negril Morass (5,657 acres) and the Black River Lo wer Morass (15,000 acres). The vegetation in these wetlands is well documented. (See NRCD/TGI, 1982; Coke, 1983; see also Tables 21 and 22; Proctor-Grondmij Report, 1964.) Three species of sea grasses oceur in the shallow and sheltered bays of the r.eal"Shore marine habicat: turtle grass (Thaulssia testudinum); manatee grass fiJiforme); and shoal grass (Halodulk Wrightill. A rare species is Halophilia decipene. Fish and Wildlife. Marine wildlife consists of marine mammals, including manatees (Trichechus manatus) and bottlenose porpoises (Tusiops tIUnestus), and several transient species of whales. There is also a gmat variety of corals and reefs associated with fish and invertebrates. These have been adversely affecterl by overfisring and marine pollution. Turtle populations have significan.tly declined in recent years, but since 1982 have been protected under the Wildlife Protection A(;t. Marine birds breed mainly on the cays. The species which are exploited include Stern,a fuscata and Anous stolidus, whose eggs are collected com mercially. Coastal marine areas also support numerous species of fish, which are categ(lrized as bottomdwelling (demersal) or (pelagic). Generally, the shallow coastal areas on the south coast the most productive areao, and aq uatic wildlife (except for c oral reefs) tends to be concentrated on the south coast. l,f angroves and coastal lagoons are of particular im portance as breeding and feeding areas for many species ojwildlife including crocodiles and birds. Water Quality. '1'lost rivers are polllltion free at their sources, but a significant nUh1 ber of these, especially the major waterways, receive polluting materials, such as industrial wastes, garbage and ggricultural chemicals. These pollutants redUCe stream oxygen values and increase nutrient conditions which have led to a reduction in fish and shrimp life and the proliferation of aquatic vegetation. Although there is no com prehensive com pilstion 0" water quality data for the coastal waters of Jamaica, NRCD has conducted water quality monitoring in thp following areas known to be affected by pollution: Alligator Pond/Port Kaiser; Black River Lower Morass; Bay; Swamp Safari in Trelawny; Gunboat and Buc caneer Beaches; Ocho Rios Bay; and other majolo public recreational beach sites along the north coast as far west as N egril. NRC D has also continued work initially undertaken by the Kingston Harhour Q ulllity Monitoring Com mittee, mainly through the Division's Ecological Conservation Project. Throunh this project, the major pollution sources in Kingston Harbour have been identified and c harac terized (N ReD, Kingston Harbour Pollution Monitoring, File No. 2/4/16; Wade, 1976). 87

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Managem';!nt Unit Saint Ann Portland Saint Thomas Kingston Kingston/Saint Catherine Saint Catherinc Clarcndon 88 Table 20: Dominant Plant Species In Jamaican Wetlands (-Most (:oIDOIon) Wetland Pear Tree Bot tom Turtlc Crawle Srlamr Saint Margaret's Bay Orange Bay Windsor Castle Swamp Cow Bay Swamp Albion Swamp Great Morass Palisadoes and Port Hunt's Bay -Dawkins Pond lIellshire, Cabarita Swamp Amity Hall Swamp G rea t Salt Pond Dominant Plant Species .!lP.!!!. domingensis, Conocarpus erectus, Acrostichum aureum, Phragmites A vicennia germinads, Rhizophora mangle (Dog zone, grasses, sedges, herbs). Alpinia allughas, domingensis (Fully covered by freshwater vegetation). A. allu,;has. L domlngensis, ..!!.. mangle, L domingensis, Cladium jamaicense. .!!.. mangle, f.. erectus, !-anguncularia racemosa, germinaas (Mangrove dominated). Same as above. Same as abovc Mangrove forest. .!!.. mangle, f.. erect us, racemosa, A. &!!:,minaas (Mangroves) ..!!.. mangle, L domingensis. Cockpit Salt River Swamp Mangroves, L domingensis, Nasturtium officinale

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T_le 20: eontinued Management Unit Wetland Macarry Bay Swamp West Harbour Swamp Jackson Bay Swamp M'lnchester Canoe Valley Saint Elizabeth Luana Point Swamp Lower Black River Morass Westmoreland Cabarita Swamp Wes.;no.p,lflild/Hanover Negril Swamp Trelawny Bush Cay/Plorida Lands Hague Swamps Source: Natural Resources Conservation Division, 1982. Dominant Plant Speeles Mangroves, 1: domlniIensls, !.. aUl'eum, Acacl:a tortuosa. Mangroves, Batls maritima. L. racemosa, A. nltida, !!= maritima. erestus, !!.. mangle, b racemose, aureum, Sabal jamalcensl!l, paragrass, 'Crab thatch. sawgrass, typhli, phragmltes Mangroves, jamalcensls, Dalbergla sp., !.. tortosa. ---C. l!malcense, T. domlngensls, jamlcensll, Roystone
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Table 21: Number of Species in Plant Communities. Negril Morass .;;.P-",la::;;n.;,.;t;,......,;:C;,.:o:..;,;m.;..;m,;,;.u::;;n..:.,:i"",t y"-_____ ...:.N;.;:o:..:... -,o:..:.f Spec ies Dominant Species Cladium -Sagittaria Association Hummocky Swamp Roystonea Forest Conocarpus Forest Sabal Forest Mixed Swamp-Margin Forest Scleria Association Cypreus giganteus Association Concarpus shrub/ Acrostichum Association 12 22 14 23 5 8 6 11 Cladium jamaicense Sagittaria langei folia sagitata f" jamaicense Conocarpus erectus C. Saba I, jamaicensis C. erectus Rhizophora mangle Avicennia nitida Languncularia racemosa Sclel'ia ,eggersiana Cypreus giganteus Dalbergia ecastaphyllum Acrostichum aureum Compiled from Coke, et al., 1982. In addition, there has been some limited mapping and analysis of water circ ulation patterns at selected coastal sites, for example, Ocho Rios Bay, Montego Bay, Johnson Town, Negril, Black River, and Alligator Pond (N ReD Files, NRC Dj TGI,1982; JAVEMEX unpublished data). Harbours. Thet'e al."e 15 active ports along the Jamaican coast. Kingston Harbour, one of the 90 finest harbours in the world, b protected from the open sea by the Palisadoes Peninsula. (See Figure 16.) 0 ther active ports and harbours are Port Morant, Port Esquivel, Salt River, Rocky Point, Port Kaiser, Black River, Sa vanna-Ia-mar, Lucea, Montego Bay, Falmouth, Port Rhodes, Ocho Rios, Oracabessa, and Port Antonio. These harbour area.s represent the major coastal economic centres of Jamaica.

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Table 22: KUlDbe.!' of Species In Each Plant Com.unlty, Black River Lower Morus Plant Community Mangrove Forest Swamp Forest Crinum/Sagittaria Zone Sclrpus Olneyi Zone Hummocky Swamp Thick Cladium Zone Typha Hummocky Swamp Cladium/Sagi ttaria Association Cladium/Conocarpus Zone No. of Species 10 47 20 8 24 19 33 16 41 17 14 Dominant Species Rhlzophora mangle Conocarpus erectus Rostonea princeps Grias cauliflora Crlnum Sagittaria lanclfolla Scirpus Cladlum jamaicense Lippia nodiflora Cladlum jamalcense domlngensis Cyperus glganteus CI&dlum jamalcense Eleocharls cellulosa Cladlum jamall!ense Sagittarla lancifolla Typha domlngensis Thalia geniculata Conocarpus erectus Source: JICA (1983); After Coke et. al. (1982) and tiReD & TGI (1981). 91/

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o Kingston Harbour, situated on the south coast, is a semi-enclosed body of water which has a narro w channel (approx. 800 ft.) connecting it with the open sea. Three main regions are the Inner Harbour, the Outer Harbour and Hunts Bay. Nearly all imports to Jam aica are channeled through Kingston. The com mercial section of Kingston Harbour is provided with the following facilities: railmounted container gantry cranes; transported cranes; two cruise-ship piers; wharf facilities for lumber and corn; jetties at Petrojam; bunkering facilities at Esso; a dry cargo dock; two pleasure boat marinas; and terminal facilities for gypsum. KINGSTON CARIBBEAN SEA 92 o The M ontego Bay Freeport is situated on the north coast of Jamaica and is provided with the following: a tanker berth (600'); two other berths (588', 387'), which are also used for crui"e ships; and a manna for small craft. a Port AnLOnio Harbour is also situated on the north coast. It has a horseshoe shape and is used mainly for the export of bananas and some sugar. This harbour is provided with a deepwater wharf owned by the United Fruit Company. Sugar is also shipped over the same wharf. It also has a cruise ship pier and two pleasure boat marinas. K1NGSlON HARBOUR a ROCKRlRT SOURCE' NATlIIAL Rf.SOlIICES COHSIIYATIOH CEPT.

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AGENCIES AND IlfSTITUnORS There are several agencies in Jamaicb with roles and responsibilities affecting the 1I,le and protection of Jamaica's coastal resources. The lead agency j,.. the Natural Resources Conservation Divisiun (N R C D), which is specifically charged with the respondbility for coastal resources management. Other agencies are with coastal resources in the course of calTying out their primary functions which may not be specifically Lied to coastal resources management. These agencies include the Petroleum Corporation of Jamdica, the Urban Development Corporation, the Fisheries Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, the Town Planning Department, Ministry of Local Government, the Institute of Jamaica, the Port Authority of JarJaica, the Jamaica Industrial Development Corporation, the Jamaica National Investment Promotions Ltd., and the Mines and Geology Division of the M ir.istry of Mining, Energy, and Tourism. The Natural Resources Conservation Division (RR CD) The Natural Resources Conservation Division is the primary government f,gency responsible for conservation and management of the island's natural resources. Of NRC D's five divisions, the Recreation and Conservation Division and the Aquatic Resources Division are especially concerned with coastal resources management. The other three divisions -Resource M anagement Division, Technical Information Service, and Watershed Engineering Division -are also involved with coastal managem ent efforts, although to a lesser degree. Recreation and Conservation Division (R cn). The R C D is respo:1sible for developing and managing national parks, beaches and unique areas; preserving lands with ecologically im portant func tions; and establishing wildlife con!ier vation areas. The R C D is. currently involved in developing and managing marine as well as land-based parks for recreational and educa tional purposes. Coastal areas which have been recom mended for park designation and developmen t include the Hellshire Hills, a portion of the Palisadoes, Alligator Pond, Portland Bight and the 0 cho Rios and M ontego Bay III arine Parks. The ReD also carries out the provisions of the Beach Control Act, 1956, which established the Beach Control Authority (BCA). The BCA is empowered to declare public recreational rescind public bf!ach orders (i.e., revoke or cancel licenses for the use of the beach) in the interest of better development, and acquire beachlands in the public interest. (The R CD no w carries cut: the responsibilities of the Beach Control Authority.) The R CD also implements the Wildlife Protec tion Act (W LPA) and is given the authority to establish game sanctuaries under this Act. Game sanctuaries established under this Act and located in coastal areas include a forest reserve near the Gut River (M anchester coast) and ll. fish sanctuary at Montego Bay. Aquatic Resources Divis,ion (A RD). The A RO has no direct legislation and func tions as a technical asseSSlilent and advisory unit to the Beach Control A uthority as established by the Beach Control Act (1956). The Division carries out water quality monitoring of coastal and inland waters to detect the presence of pollutants with deleterious effects on aquatic life. The A RD Wetlands Branch carnes out surveys of wetlands pertainir..g to the conservation and development of these areas. The 0 ceanography Branch investigates and provides information on the dynamic processes occurring in coastal areas (e.g., currents, littoral drift) relative to er-:>e;ion control, and provides advice on the construction of coastal structures such as groynes, seawalls and jetties. The Petrol.eu. Corporation of Ja.ai.ca (PCJ) Although not specifically charged with coastal re:3ources management, the P CJ conducts several activities with significant actual or lJotential effects on coastal resources. These activities include offshore and onshore oil exploration; peat energy research and wetlands management (specifically in the Negril and Black River Morasses); 0 TE C research; and of the Petrojam Refinery. The Urb8:n Development CorporatWn (UDC) Most of the designated areas within which the U DC has sole authority for planning and im plementation of various development projects are located on or in close proximity to the coast. UDC projects in Montego Bay, Ocho Rios, Hellshire, Oracabessa and on the Kingston Waterfront are especially significant in terms of their relationship to the coastal environment and their actual and potential impacts on coastal resources. 93

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The Fisheries Division The Fisheries Division of the Ministry of Agriculture has not been actively involved in coastal resources management for several years, focusing instead on the issuing of fishing licenses, registering of boats, and selling of gas, boats and fishing equipment to fishermen at subsidizer! prices. The Division, however, is now in the process of divesting its gas and fishery equipment distribution operations and will become a more reseClrch-oriented agency, with emphasis on resource management. Town Planning Department (TPD) The T P 0, through its varioul> land use planning and development review functions, can guide coastal area development and address the potential negative im pacts of proposed develop ment on coastal resources. The TPD operates the Town and Country Planning Act of 1958 and the Local Improvements Act of 1914. Coastal areas have been the subject of special attention under these Acts, since most of Jamaica's population and urban development lS located along the coast. The T P 0 is the functi.onal arm which carries out policies established by the T CPA. The policies and the regulatior;r, under which the T P 0 operates are set out in the Manual for Developm ent prepared by the T P D. The M anunl provides guidelines to all those in the gOVErnment and private sectors involved in planning, development and project design. The Manual outlines beach and coastline prese:vation policies, including: a. Where areas of unique terrain, flora or fauna exist, such areas can be declared National Parks, and large-scale development or urbanization prohibited. b. A developer may be required to preserve, within a subdivision development, natural features such as large trees and groves, water courses, water falls and protected watersheds. The inclusion of parks in coastal developments may also be deemed nl!cessary there .1reas of scenic beauty, recreational 0'':-..'cohgical value of conservation. c. The plan f01' any coast .. ll d(>'1elopment should ensut'e that special areas :lre left for fishing beaches and for good bathing beaches with access from the public thoroughfare. 94 d. Advertisements should be avoided in conservation areas, and no building, structure, wall or fence approved which obscures the view of any area of scenic beauty. No continuous wall or building should be allowed which blocks views of tht> sea. Hotels should also blend in with surroundings, and have the mlOlmum effp.ct on the environment. e. Alteration of wetland areas for development purposes should not be undertaken as such changes destroy or significantly basic wetlands functions. If such development is allowed, however, a thorough ecological st,Jdy is required prior to any development. f. Development not specifically designated as a harbour or industrial site is to be set back from the high water m ark. The amount of setback required will be dependent on physiographic conditions and on any existing seaside parks. There are certain requirements for industries with potential for air, noise and surface water pollution. Developers should not discharge toxic waste in the water arbitrarily and should not viulate tilt? Wilcilife Protection Act. Certain agencies are consulted by the TPD in the review of particular development plar.s. The NRC 0 is usually asked to approve all developments impacting coastal areas (such as wetlands and beaches) and, along with the Ministry of Health, to approve of waste and sewage disposal facilities accompanying such development. HiIDstry of Local Government The Parish Council in each parish examlles all development plans in its respective parish, including those in the cO:lstal areas, and works in conjunction with the Town Planning Department in reviewing these plans. The Institute of Jamaica Two divisions in the Institute of Jam aica are involved in aspects of coastal resources use and conservation. The Natural History Division's (NHD) major role in coastal resource management is in public education. For exampIe, it displays collections of flora and fauna occurring in coastal areas, including coral, fish, manatees, turtles, etc., and displays and distributes posters prepared by the NRC D on endangered coastal area specie.;.

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The Jamaica National Heritage Trust (JNHT) is concerned with the conservation and preservation of several monuments .-historical build ings, forts, naval and military monuments and areas of unique natural beauty -including those in coastal areas. The posting of preservation notices in the listed areas precludes any development which may have adverse ecological effects on designated natural resources. Coastal areas of natural beauty designated by the JNHT and protected under the Natural Heritage Act include the Dunn's River Falls, the Blue Hole*, Glistening Waters (Oyster Bay) and GodswelL Three coastal areas with protected buildings are Port Royal, Fort Clarence and Seville Park. Port Authority of Jamaica The Port Authority of Jamaica has authority over the con!ltruction of piers, jetties, ware houses and wharves. In addition, the Port A uthority has several other func tions related to c[,astal resource management, including: regulation of coastal structures on or over water (Marine Division and Engineering Division); prevention of harbour pollution by boats; provision of aieis to navigation within the ports of Jamaica and the Pedro and Morant Cays (M arine Division); monitoring and control of oil spills (in cooperation with the Coast Guard); review, approval, _onstruction, B.nd leasing of buildings on the foreshore in areas under the Port Authority's jurisdiction; and provision of iII form ation on ship traffic (Stlitistics Dept.). The Harbours Department's role in resource management is to prevent pollution of the harbour by ves'3els which dispose of bilge or wastes of any form into harbour waters. The marine police aid the Harbours Departmen:. in enforcing regulations. Other Agencies The Jamaica Industrial Development Corporation (JID C) is not directly involved in coastal resource use or management, but several of the JID C's fac tories are located along the coast: in M ontego Freeport, Annotto Bay, Lucea, Morant Bay, Seafort, Falr..outh, Port Antonio, Seville and several sites in Kingston and Saint Catherine. The Jamaica National Investment Promotions Limited (JNIP) may act as intermediary for the implementation of development projects involving the use of coastal resources. The JNIP promotes manufacturing, tourism (development of spas and other attractions, watersports and marinas), and agricultural development (including fish and prawn farming). Investment proposals which may impact the coastal environment are referred to the NRC D for com ments 0n potential environmental effects. The Mines and Geology Division of the Ministry of Mining, Energy and 'I'ourism administers the Quarries Control Act of 1983, which provides for the licensing of extraction of quarry materi als, including rock, gravel, and sand found on the seabed, shoreline, or foreshore. LEGISLA TIOB ABD REGULA no liS The legislative basis for coastal area management is provided, both directly and indirectly, by several la ws, including: the Beach Control Act; the Wildlife Protection Act; the Petroleum Act; the Town and Country Planning Act; the Local Improvements Act; the Urban Development Act; the Fisheries Industry Act; the M or.1nt and Pedro Cays Act; the Natural Heritage Act; the Harbours Act; the Port Authority Act; and the Quarries Control Act. Beach Conaol Act The Beach Control Act established the Beach Control Authority (B C A) and vested ;n the Crown the foreshore, the floor of the sea and the overlying water, and prohibits the use of both in connection with any com mercial enterprise without a license obtained from the R CD. The R CD is also empowered to declare protected areas and prohibit activities auch as fishing, waste disposal, dredging and conI removal in such areas. Under the authority of the Beach The Blue Hole in Portland provides a good example of the implementation of JNHT conservation policieEl in the coastal area. The site was designated as an area of natural beauty by the Portland Coastal Development Order of 1963, but has also attracted development proposals for resort and private use. In conjunction with the Beach Control Authority, the Portlawi?arish Council and Town Planning Departmt!nt, the JNHT worked to protect and cor.serve the fragile ecosystem. Interim preservation notices were prepared for the area to ensure that its scenic beauty and the integrity of the lagoon remained unspoiled. 95

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Control Act, the RCD approves all plans for the development of beaches, inspects beaches to ensure adherence to B C A prescribed safety and cleanliness standards, and enforces regulations pertaining to declared protected areas. Several regulations and orders have been gazetted under the Beach Control Act. These include: the Beach Control Act Regu13tions of 1978, which address hotels, com mercial and public recreational beaches, regulate beach activities and the care of beaches, and outlin> the rights of license; and the Beach Contr::>l (Protected Area, Montego Bay) Order, and the Beach Control (Protected Area, Ocho Rios) Order, which deciare the M ontego Bay and Ocho Rios Marine Parks as protected areas. Wildlife Protection Act The Wildlife Peotection Act (vJ L?A) prohibLts the remov.:ll, sale or possession of turtle eggs and im mature or juvt>nile fLsh, ilnd the use of dynamite or any other explosive, pOLSon or noxious materLal to kill or injure fish. The Act also prohibits the discharge of trade effluent or industrLal waste from any factory Lnto harbours, lagoons, estuaries, and streams. Petroleum Act The Petroleum Act, 1979, giVES the PCJ exclusive right to explore and develop petroleum resources in an orderly and rational manner whLle t>nsuring that the exploration and develop mpnt process minimizes adverse effects on the l'nvironment. The inLster of Mining, Energy, and Tourism may make regulatLons for the preventLon of pollution and the undertaki.ng of rl:medial actLon in respect to any pollutLon which occurs, as well as the protection of fisbing, navigatLon and other activities Ln the area in which petroleum operations occur. In accor'iance with the Act, the Minister may extend the functions of the P CJ to include development of other energy sources in Jamaica, including coastal peat resources. Town and Country Planning Act and Local Improvements Act The Town and Country Planning Act established the Town and Country Planning Authority (T CPA), which has responsibility for ratifying Development Orders contalnlng broad-based land use plans and regulations. These Development Orders are prepared by the TPD to control the development of land in both rural and urban areas, secure proper sanitary conditions and conveniences, co-ordinate building of roads and public sel"vices, protect and exte nd amenities and conserve and develop resources. Development Orders have been prepared for the following coastal areas: St. Elizabeth, Montego Bay, St. James, Hanover, Negril.-Green Island, Trelawney, Westmoreland, St. Ann, Ocho Rios, St. Mary, St. Thomas, Portland and Kingston. The Local 1m provements Act requires that anyone wishing to subdivide land for building, lease, sale, or other purposes must provide the local planning authority with a plan for approval. The Subdivision Section of the T PD coordinates interagency review of subdivision applications and forwards recom mendations (approval, denial, approval with conditions) to local planning authorities. Urban Development Act The Urban Development Act, March 1968, provides the UDC with the authority to acquire, manage and dispose of land within or outside of designated U D C areas, and to act as the sole planning authority within the designated areas. Other Legislation and Regulations The Fisheries Division operates under the Fish eries Industry Act of 1976 and the Morant and Pedro Cays Act of 1907. Under the Fisheries Industry Act, the Fisheries Division is responsible for issuing fishing licenses and licensing and registering fishing boats. The Morant and Pedro Cays Act of 1907 prohibits fishing, slaying or capture of birds, capture of turtles, removal of eggs or the frightening of birds uSll1g firearms and noise-making devices, without a license. The Port Authority operates under the Harbours Act of 1874 and the Port Authority Act of 1972. The Harbours Act authorizes the Port A uthority to declare harbours and establish or alter the boundaries of harbours. The Marine Board, which is com prised 111 ainly of Port Authority employees, is empowered to make rules for the regulation and control of any of the island's harbours and the ship channels entering in::.) them. The Act prohibits the discharge of ;:,ubbish, earth, stone, ballast, mud, oil, miy.tures with oil or its residues, in any harbour or in ship cha.nnels. Re!f.f)val of stones and gravel fr')f'l I'crlfs, shoals or cays of Port

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Royal, and from other cays is also Under the Port Authority Act, the Marine Division of the Port A uthority regulates the constructinn of structures on or over water. Such stnlctures must be approved by the Marine Division, subsequent to structural approval (i.e., of detailed dra wings of the proposed structure) by the Engineering Department. l'LANS AND PROGRAM MKS Several plans and program mes c ... crently proposed by government and private developers will affect coastal areas. These proposals involve both developm ent and conser vation-oriented projects, and i.nclude the Kingston Coastal Management Study, the National Parks Program me, the Negril Morass Recreational Park, restoration of Half Moon Bay, development of tourist re80rts, peat mining for energy production, Agro 21 shrim p fa ... ming, and 11 factory building program me. These propcsed program mes are briefly described 10 the following sections; some are described 10 mon! detail under other sector headings. Ki'agston Region Coastal Mailage.ent Study A !"eport on coastal zone management needs in the Kingston Region has recently been prepared by the U.N. Centre for HUllian Settlements, in cooperation with the Town Planning Department and the UN Development Program me*. The report includes anum ber of recom mendations for legislation, research, education, and development projects. (See Table 23.) National Parlcs Progra e Recom mended policies for the establishment of National Parks are being prepared by the NRC D for submission to the Ministry of Agriculture. These recom mendations address a draft National Parks Act, priority park development areas, economic and other benefits to be gained from park establishment, and operational requirements. The priority park development areas located in, or including, coastal areas are Canoe Valley, Negril Swamp, Portland Bight and Ridge, Port Royal and Palisades, Black River Lower Morass, and Hellshire Hills. Marine parks are p:oposed for Ocho Rios, Montego Bay, and DiScovery Bay. Negri]. Royal Paba Reaene As part of P CJ's NegriJ. wetlands management and development program me, the P CJ Operations Division is planning a recreational park project to protect a threatened stand of Royal Palm in the southern portio., of the Negri! Morass. (p CJ is also planning to eSlablish a crocodile reserve at Fort Hill Property, in St. Elizabeth.) Restoration of Half H oon Bay The UD C is investigating the feasibility of restoring the severely eroded Half Moon Day Reach at Hellshire, and developing the beach into a recreational 3rea. of Tourist Resorta A mong the tourist-related development projects currently being planned throughout the island are UDC-planned projects in NegriJ. and Hellshire. Within the next five years, the UDC plans tc develop the Rutland Point area of Negril as a major resort centre. Several hotels will be built and pUblic beach facilities provided, along with camping grounds. Subse \luently, other hotels will be added along the NegriJ. coast, accompanied by a residential development at Orange Bay. The UDC's plans to develop the Hellshire area include construc tion of a shopping m all, expansion of residential areas, and construction of tourist accom modations. Peat Hining Large peat deposits in the Negri! lot orass and the Black River Lower Morass have the potential to be utilized for electricity generation. After several years of research, the P CJ has determined that peat mining could be under taken in these areas in an environmentally acceptable manner. The studies carried out also indicated that the project would be eeo feasible the oil prices that prevailed 10 1984. While the P CJ has projected E. Bruce Johnson. "CoHstal Zone Management: Kingston Region; From the Mouth of the Milk River, Clarendon Parish to the Y allahs Salt Ponds, St. Thomas Pllrish." January 18, 1985. 97

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98 Legislation Table 23: Summary of Coastal Zone Management Recommendations for the Kingston Region 1. To create a Jamair:an Coastal Zone Managt>ment Authority, under the chairmanship of the Deputy Prime Minister. 2. To make mandatory an Environmental Impact Statement for all major coastal developments (public or priva te). 3. To merge the TPD, N RCD, ODP and Rural Physical Plannina Division into a new Ministry of Planning and the Environment. 4. To formally establish Marine National Parks. 5. To formally establish the territorial sea boundaries of Jamaica. 6. To establish a deadline for water quality standards and use criteria for different classifications of marine waters lAnd to !und adtjitional staff for monitoring. 7. To create a coastal zone management planning pro!:,'am for all of Jamaica. Research and Education 1. Review of all environmental protection legislation to remove confusion and overlap and to strengthen penalties for violators. 2. Development of a broad-based CZM curriculum at UWI. 3. Research study of the flushing characteristics of Harbour. 4. Study of marine ecology and physical and chemical ch&racteristics of Great Salt Pond to determine the efiect of opening the pond to the sea. De'/elopment 1. Conslructbn of 11 marina along the waterfront of Kingston's new city centre to focus on marine recreation and tourist potential. 2. Give consideration to promoting the Green Bay area of Port Henderson Hill and/or parts of the Hellshire Development as !lites for high rise officcs for International companies. 3. Utilization of westward (landward) slope of Port Henderson Hill for middle and upper incorne residential development. 4. Conduct light tackle sport fishing surveys for the creation of a new tourist and sportsman-oriented industry at Milk River, Mahoe Gardens, and Port Royal Cays. 5. Investigete the Tarentum plain as a dollar-earning millionaire's reL .:-at or as the site for an incustrial estate for hazardous materials. 6. lnvestigate the development poten11al of the delta and the upland behind Yallahs Salt Pond for a new town, new industrial estates, and possible resort development and investigate the Salt Ponds as sites for brine shrimp aquaculture. Source: Coastal Zone Management: Kingston Region. W. Bruce Johnson. Jan. 18, 1985 (U.N. Project: Integrated Development Plans (Jam/82/010) Technical Report No.9)

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various environmntal 8S \ojell 3S focio-economic benefits stem ming from peat-to-energy development, others fo.resee adverse impacts on wetlands ecology and fisheries habitats. Shrimp Farming-AG RO 21 AG RO 21 has completed a feasibility analysis on the use of lands for \lith emphasis on marine and freshwater shrimp cultivation, primarily for export. Areas which have been studied include Duckenfil'!ld, Amity Hall, Rio Minho, West Harbour, M ilk River, the fringes of Mitchell Town and the Upper and Lower Black RivEr M orassee. Once these :Jreas have been studied in more det:ail, specific sites will be selected and JID C Factory Buil.ding Program 1Ile The JID C 's National Building Program me for 1985/86 includes several garment scheciuled to be located in coastal areas, including Hague, Montego Bay, Kingston and Sandy Bay. PROBLEMS AND ISSUES Jamaica's coastal resources are utilized for m any purposes. Although som e uses have little significant environmental impact, others cause significant adverse effects on the coastal environ'll ent. The major portion of Jamaica's development has occurred in coastal areas; most of its urban centres, industries, tourist resorts and population are located in the coastal region. Coastal resources arc also utilized as a source of building materials, for agriculture, recreation and waste dilution. The following sections highlight the various development pressures and associated problems affecting the islandls coastal resourceL Urban 1m pacts The majority of Jamaica's urb!lJ'l. centres are on the coast, and development" has tended to sprawl outward from these centres. Urban expansion, while provioing needed employment opportunities and contributing to improvements in living standar.ds can, and has, resulted in the degradation of coastal area resources. As urban expansion progresses, for exam pIe, housing schemes have been improperly sited, wastes and efflu:!nts discharged into the sea, and sensitive f'O,wironmental areas destroyed or degraded. Numerous otner environmental impactB have cJ..so arisen. The expansion of some urban centres has resulted in adverse on, and, in some cases, the of ecologically sensitive areas, such as mangrove swamps. The filling of mangrove swamps to create new land for urban development has in numerous environmental problems, including the loss of nUrlp.ry areas for fish and shrimp species and incr.eased vulnerability to coastal flooding_ o A prominent example is the filling of mangrove swamps adjacent to Hunt's B8.y and of Dawkins Pond, Saint Cati/erine, to establish the Portmore reddential area. The removal of the Hunt's Ba! and Dalildn's Pond man" groves resultod in the destruction of the habitat of the mangrove oystpr which '.as the basis of a moderate-scale I)yste: fishery. o Areas of the shore adjacent 1;0 Kingston Harbour have also been reclaimed in order to provide waterfront land for the construction of shipping facilit:ies, officeo and com m erdal enterprises, and several industries. Portmore is now considered to be especially vulnerable to flooding from the sea as a result of the removal of mangroves, which also provide an important sOllrc.e of detritus for reef fish and act aa protective buffers against coastal flooding. o In M ontego Bay, UD C housing and recreational development at Catherine Hall affects about 40 acres of mangrove swamps at the mouth of the Pye River. The un C'a 345-acre M ontego Bay FreeJ)ort area wao created by dredge and fill operationr. tihich destroyed much of the mangrove and associated fishery habitat of the Bogue Isiand ares. Dredge and fill operations at the H ontego Freeport area have also resulted in the destruction of the reef and beaches near the Hotel, and in coastal erosion problems. o At Hellshire, approximately 27,000 acres are currently slated for development to Ilccom me date the growing population of the Kingston Metropolitan A rea. The Hellshire Hills area contains a unique arid limestone forest, and several endemic species of plants and aniJr.8ls, some endangered. Expansion of the islnnd's urban centres hall also resulted in waste generation with the potential for polluting coastal waters. Sew_go.! disposal and storm run-off into Kingston Har99

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hour has resulted in eutrophication, high bacte rial levels and elimination of benthic life. Discharge of sewage from the New B'C'aeton housing scheme sewage plant hils polluted the Great Salt Pond. which has also been tJroposed for salt'" ater shrim p farming and recreational Agricultural Iapacts Agricultural development in Jamaica has re sulted in adverse impact!] on coastal wetlands resources. Some prominent examples are: o Hague Swamps: During agricultural reclama tion of the Hague Swamps in Trelawny in 1977 by the Agricultural Development Cor!,0cation, aU of the mangroves adjacent to and south of the main road between Dunr:ans and Falmouth were cut down, and 600 acres drained and put into rice production. The project lIIas later c.bandoned after 250 acres of the reclaimed land became too saline for rice cultivation. The project also ['esulted in the destruction of phosphorescence in OYRter Bay. o Black River H orass: The Black River M. orass has been under agricultural development pres ... <.Ire from as early as 1941, when the Black River (Upper M ocass) Reclamation Act cnacted. In 1955, 500 acres of rice were planted. Inc[eased outflow rates from drainage of porti.ons of the Upper M orans has l"esulte.d in increased siltation in the Lower Morass. In 1964, a comprehensive agr.icultur al study on reclamation of the Bldck River Morass for agricultural use concluded that the drained morass, with !Iroper management, would becom e a farming enterprise although initial large invest:m ents would be needed. (;urrently, the Upper Morass of the Black River is being utilized for rice production by BRUMDEC. To date, 1,000 acres have been planted, and a furth(;:r 2,000 acres are :..cheduled for cultivation. Through the BRUMDEC pr.oject, a joint venture between the Jar.laican Government and the Inter A merican Development Bank, a total of almost 3,600 hectares are ultimately scheduled for agricultural development. Other uses of the Upper Morass include cultivation of sugar cane and food crops and cattle rearing. o Negri! Morass: TtJe Negri! Morass has also been affec ted by draincge for agricultural use, with 500 acres reclaimed in an effort 100 to investigate agricultural potential; 250 of these acres are used for crop production. Drainage canals have been constructed, and partial drainage of this morass has resulted in the outflow of discolored and turbid water into the sea, and silt deposition on reefs and Jea grass. o M eylersfield: M ur;h of the land in M eylersfield, W estm oreland, has been drained and reclaimed to plant rice and vegetable crops. Approximately 1,750 acres will be put into production on completion of this project, which is being carried out with the of the Netherla.nds Government. o 0 ther areas: In the Great Morass of Saint Thomas, 50 acres is used for cultivation of rice, plantal.n, yams, and other crops, and a similar acreage is used for rice and sugar cane in Hurt Hill and Windsor Castle swamps. Orange Bay Swamp, Portland, is utilized for planting rice, while 100 acres in the Amity Hall swamp is being used for both rice cultivation and fish farming. Touris. Iapacts The tourism industry, Jamaica's second largest source of for.eign exchange, has directly and indirec.tly impacted Ja maica's coastal areas. Much emphasis has been placed by the govem ment on the continued development of tourism, which is based in large part on the quality of the island's coastal resources. There are roughly 115 hotels and guest houses in Jamaica, the majority of which are located in the coastal area. Pollution, boat traffic and increased water use associated with touriqm activities have adve!'se ly affected fragile coastal ecosystems. Many hote!.s have individual sewage treatment plants which discharge effluent into coastal waters. Coral r.eefs in close proximity to sewage outfillls have been stressed by the detergents, suspeoded organic matter and degreasing agents in the effluent. Some ot ::he treatment plants do not operate efficiently of im proper operations and load variations. Tourist centres have also experienced pollution problems caused by population growth and increased waste gen eration. For exa m pIe, in 0 c ho R ios, the Turtle River, a sewage plant and a drainage canal have all contriiluted to pollution of 0 cho Rios Harbour. Watersports and boat traffic create potential oil and noise pollution effects, and sometimes result in anchor damage to reefs. The aesthetic value of the famous Blue Hole

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in Portland, for example, has affected by oil pollution from watersports in the adjacent lagoon. Use of coastal organisms as souvenirs to supply the tourist industry has contributed to degradation of coastal resources. Although black coral is protected by the Beach Control (Protected Area, Black Coral) Order of 1976, it is still illegally extracted and used to make jewelry. Conch, starfish and other reef organisms are also reaped for souvenirs. Croco.!iles have been hunted for sport and for skins since the early 1960's. Land reclamation and beach construction activities associated with the development of the Seawind Beach Hotel in Montego Bay resulted in the death of the adjacent reef. The manmade beach is currently plagued with erosion :-.roblems, and sand bags are used as remedial measures. Land reclamation has also been carried out in areas, including a cho RioB, Kingston and M ontego Bay, to create beaches, resort areas and cruise ship piers. The attemptG of the New Falmouth Resorts, Ltd. to reclaim and develop mangrove lands adjacent to Oyster bay in 1968, resulted in changes in the eC0logy of the Bay and a drastic decline ill the bio1u m inescence. Industrial Impacts As industrialization has progressed in Jamaica, im proper planning and waste disposal, increased d,::,mand for developable land, increased shipping traffic, population growth around industrialized centres, and various other factors have resulted ill adven,e effects on coastal reSOl'.rces. \ol ater Pollution. Water pollution has resulted from several kinds of industrial activity: o Industries located on the coast have historically used coastal waters for waste dilution. Industries on the Kingston Waterfront, for example, such as the oil refinery, fish processing plant, detergent manufacturers, and canning and bottling establishmentfl, discharge wastes jntl) the Harbour. Slaughterhou$e waste \!ater is also an important contributor to coastal water pollution in some al'eas. In addition, the solid and liquid wastes dumped by some industries into nearby gullies may also find its way to harbour waters. o Industries located on inland sites can also contribute to tile pollution of coastal waters by discharging wastes into rivers which flow to bays, ponds or Sugar industry wastes, for example, have polluted the Black and Cabarrita Rivers, and drainage of waste from the Bernard Lodge sugar factory into the Great Salt Pond has re9ulted in fish kills. The death of shrimp, im mature reef and estuary fish at Rocky Point, Clarendon has been attributed to the discharge of dunder from the New Yarmouth and Monymusk sugar factories. Hunt's Bay re' aives wastes from a condensory and a dtrlls proceGsing factory in Bog Walk. o Bauxite industry activities have also polluted coastal environments, e.!lpecially at Port Kaiser, Port Esquivel, Port Rhodes, Rocky PlJint, and Reynolds Pier. At Reynold's Pier in Ocho Rios, bauxite ore spilled into the water during loading operations has drifted over reefs and smothered corals, and the death of the affected reef has been predicted. A large amount of dust is sometimes generated during loading operations, and suspended sediment has also led to a reduction of light and poor visibility in the water. At Port Esquivel and Port Kaiser, alumina spilled in the water has im pac ted seagrass beds. Due to increased shipping, refining, and the development of oil-using industries along Jamaica's coast, the occurrence of oil pollution in the coastal watem has increased significantly in the last thirty years. All of the ports in Jamaica with significant ship traffic have been affected by oil pollution. oil pollution hali reaulted in the degradation of recreational resourceR, and the loss of fauna and flora in valuable and productive ecosystems, and a major oil spill could have a serious im pact on the tourist industry. The NRC D has recently completed an island wide oil pollution m program me. o The Esso oil refinery (now Petrojam), was built on reclaimed land bordering Kingston Harbour in 1963. Since that time, the refinery has been a source of pollution to Kingston Harbour due to inadequate treatment and pipeline leakages. Shipe discharging oil into the islan.;'s harbours have also been found to be major sources of pollution in the water column and on the water surface. o Portland Bight, on the south coast, has ports Port Esquivel and Rocky Point, both of which handle bauxite, petroleum products and domestic cargo, Texaco has an oil storage facility at Port Esc;uivel which sup'plies the Jam aica Public Service (JPS) plant at Old Harbour. In 1974, significant oil 101

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pollution in the Bight was attributed to oil tankers cleaning out their tanks a short distance outside of the ship channel. The wind ward sides of the cays south and east of the Harbour entrance were heavily contaminated and mangroves severely damaged. A similar incident was reported near Port Esquivel where nearby cays and five acres of seagrass beds were damaged in 1984. The impacted cays continue to be susceptible to pollution from oil tanker bilge. Also in January, 1984, leaks in the Texaco oil storage pipeline dischat'ged around 500 barrels of oil into the sea affecting shallow bays, beaches, .::ays, seagrass, mangrove and the resident fauna. Tar balls were found on the cays, where recreational users frequently com plain of the level of oil in the sand. o Port P.hodes has also been the site of oil spills caused by the discharge of bilge from tankers. Port Kaiser at Alligator Pond was the site of a major oil spill in 19tH when the grounded tanker E RODONAS spilled some 600 tons of fuel oil. Several miles of the coastline were im pac ted and fishermen suffered economic losses both from damage to fishing gear and loss of fishing tim e. At Reynolds Pier in Ocho Rios, leakage in the oil pipeline in 1981 resulted in contanlination of ground water supplies. Fire at an inadequately protected ESSO Gtorage tank in Montego Bay resulted in oil entering the marine environment in 1981. The potential for a major oil spill is everpresent In Kingston Harbour due to the heavy ship traffic and the discharge of oil-contaminated ballast. The offshore disd.drge of ballast near the harbour has affected the Port Royal mangroves and sessile organisms such as oysters which are especially sensitive to oil. Pelagic tar is higher in the outer harbour than in the inner harbour. On the cays south of the Harbour, tar ball., with a maxim urn diameter of 6-feet have been recorded, and block tar up to one yard long and one foot thick has heen observed. Due to increased ship traffic, both rocky and sandy shores around the island are being affected by oil which has been spilled or discharged offsho .. e. Fresh tar balls have been collected from Hellshire and Portle-nd beaches, and north coast beaches are frequently raked to remove tar, a process which induces beach instability. distribution of stranded tar on the southern coast of Jamaica is shown in Figure 17.) Shipping accidents also have the potential to 102 pollute coastal environments. In 1974, for example, the MVC SANKATY, with 1,500 tons of sulphur aboard, ran aground at Bare Bush Cay, Portland Bight, and 170 tons of sulphur were dumped overboard in order to float the ship. The surplus deposit was spread over an area of approximately 6,000 square feet, and had fiJled the holes and crevices between the underlying coral. More recently, in May 1985, 1,200 tons of ferrosilicone ore were dumped onto the sea floor from a ship which ran aground in the Pedro 3nks area. Solid Waste Pollution. Solid waste pollution in the cOE:stal area also results from improper disposal of industrial wastes. In Yallahs, Saint Thomas, for example, a canning factory uses the nearby beach for dumping waste products, and the existing berm does not afford adequate protection from high seas. This dump was implicated in the poisoning of mal-me organisms in March, 1985. Failure to properly enforce strict dumping regulations is the m alll fac tor leading to contamination of the marine environment by solid and liquid waste. Because inshore coastal waters are by far the most productive and because they move predominantly alorig the coast, pollution of these waters leads to the ra.pid depletion of natural resources and the quick transmission of diseases associated with the pollutants. The almost fully-enclosed Hunts Bay is a prime example of an area affected by waste run-off from the city, compounded by artificial structures (i.e., the causeway), which impede proper marine circulation. This region, once the filtering area for Kingston Harbour, is now virtually stagnant and foul. Air Pollution. There is no available, documented data on air pollution in coastal. areas of Jamaica. Factories in industrial areas do, ho wever, produce a variety of gaseous emissions. In addition, the ce m ent fac tory at Rockfort has infilled the adjacent land with its waste products, and the finer particles blO\olO by wind over considerable distances. In 1979, corn dust from milling operations in Rio Bueno area was linked to the respiratory stress of nearby residents. Air pollution has now reached a critical level in the Kingston metropolitan area and associated coastal regions. Although automobile emissions are among the chief causes, other sources (e.g., the new J.r.s. Power Barge) emit highly toxic gases constantly. Like other point sources, there is no control over stack emissions from the J.P,S. il.lstallations. However, NRC D

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.o w FIGURE 17 TREASURE o AVERN?:. TAR" 50 gm/m 10 < MERAG TAR c: .50 gm,",. e I < AVERAGE TAR < 10 gm,4n. ()USUALLY UNAFFECTED DISTRIBUTION OF STRANDED TAR t N JAMAICA BAY LEITH HALL Sevce: N.R.C.D.

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has attempted to provide some guidelines on this stack emission based on U.S. EPA standards. (N R C J) File, J.P.S. Power Barge). Coecal Erosion Coastal erosion has resulted from normal processes involving wind currents, and waves and has also been accelerated by man-induced acti .... ities such as sand removal from beaches. (Areas of critical beach :rosion are shown in Figure 18.) The removal of sand from beaches around Jamaica for use as building material has caused several problems, most notably beach erosion affecting both bathing and fishing beaches. In western Jamaica, where river sand is scarce, it is prohibitively expensive to truck sand from other areas, and the Mines and Quarry Division is unable to recom mer: ,_' a suitable substitute (e.g., crushed limestone). Although the mining of beach sand also provides needed employment in several areas, the removal of sand from beaches for sale to the construction industry has affected coastal dynamics in several areas 'with potentially significant economic effects. The tourist industry has expressed concern over the removal of beach sand in several areas, including Florida Beach, Trelawny, when! the removal of quantities of sand by bulldozers has threatened the stability of the adjacent Trelawny Beach Hotel. In Saint Tho m as, concern has been expressed over the im pact of continued sand removal (and sale of this sand to government agencies) from beaches valuable for tourism purposes. illegal removal of sand and resulting beach erOSlOn have caused particularly serious problems in thE following areas: o Johnson Town, Hanover. Sand removal in this area has occurred both aloll[, and bt:lcw the high water mark. Sand is sold to both private contractors and government agencies, including the Hanover Parish Council and the Public Works Department. The removal of sand has resulted in the inland movement of the sea, with resulting loss of land, crops and houses. In 1980 da m ages caused by Hurricane Allen were ag6ravated by unstable shore conditions and the decreased beach area available for the dissipatioll of wave energy. By 1982, the coastline had receded to the road linking Lucea and M ontego Bay. Through 1983, the situation worsened and by January 1984, land was being reclaim ed by the sea and residents were being evacuated. 104 (\ Hope Wharf, Westmoreland. Removal of large quantities of sand from this area has contributed directly to coastal erosion alon& approximately 3,000 feet of coastline. Continued removal has also resulted in the formation of beach pools which provide breeding areas for mosquitoes. The erosion problem also affects a fishing beach and tile property of an adjacent coconut plantation, and poses a flooding threat to nearby residents. The village, once 200 feet from the shore, is now less than 50 feet away. o Crane River, St. Elizabeth. Over a period of 14 years, sand removal from the Crane River Bathing beach has caused extensive erosion; 25 feet of the former beach area has been eroded. o Mahoe Bay/r..ose Hall, St. James. Sand was being removed from these beaches as early as 1976 and the continued removal has caused severe damage to the Saint James c o al'l tlin e. Sand has been removed by contractors attached to the Donald Sangster International Airport drainage project, and has also been used in land reclamation projects. At M ahoe Bay, several acres of coastal land have been transformed into ponds. o Portland Coast. Removal of sand from the seashore between Saint Margaret's Bay and the Ken Junes airstrip in Portland has led to reduction of the shoreline by 20 feet over a 15 year period; the sea now reaches the road. The sand is used for local construction and by the Portland Parish C ounci!. Beach erosion is also caused by factors other than sand removaL The use of coastal areas for housing and tourism development and the erection of protective structures such as sea walls and groynes also contribute to coastal erosion and the narrowing of beaches. At Kent 1.7enue in Montego Bay, for example, a seawall was constructed to protect several hotels including the Sunset Beach, Lodge, and Chatham Hotels. High wave energy conditions, ho wever, eroded the wall 30 yards landward where it collapsed along with the road. A groyne constructed at the Rose Hall Intercontinental Hotel caused beach erosion by obstructing the natural movement of sand, and groyne construction has been im in the loss of 90 % of Sunset Beach in M ontego Bay.

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FIGURE: 18 AREAS $/tltI/l cliff lp .. c" /!.8i''1dfor;fllll}lfl rrlJi"!;-I miltl Wtlst of 9rt/Ot "ytlr bridgtl Rear of hospitol and mf,rmory bema rapldl)' undercuf by \ OF CRITICAL BEACH EROSION CARDIFF roktln oway (hurf/can \agtlJ CLl)' C.ARI B "ANsupportin wall a1d" cllb houstl broken away In Sect/OM Humcane Damage) TRELAWNY ST ANN Critical tlrrJsion afftlcting stlawall and main road, aggrayaftld by iran. AnnoI/o Boyrailway lintls undtlrcut and .washtld away in somtl stlctionz. an rood brQkM OW(lY in Stlcfions (I rrJcontl tlt1ma{Jtlsl ST ELIZABETH GALLEON MANCHESTER o e AREAS OF CRITICAL EROSION o PARISH CAPITALS PORT /EMJERSON-tlntirtl btlo:h btlin? criflcolly .rod.d, ret(1/f'1in(1 walls and houses btlmg l1fftlcttld. ROSELLE -..itJlfitlS or 'F..oynr. in or rtlcof1stnJctlan Of) s!abl7lzmg .fltlCt nominal, sand loss critical and cur"nl!y culling away mOJor rood tlmbonkmtJnt fELLSHIREcritical tlrosion dutl to factors ctNSing major loss of sand from btlacn ytlnding huls clostl 10 waltlr 9dgtl hOYtI to 'tlinforc.d by stontls 8iJLL 8IlY-s.mull $tlclian of mom rfx:id Dt/lng r;/If aa'U bJ WOYtl aclian anti pOSSilJ" siirfaCtf runoff 5CU"ce: NQturol Resou-ees ConservotionDivision.

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Other Pressures on Resources Along with the above-noted development pressures, other activities have contributed to degradation of coastal resources, including mangrove destruction for charcoal and bark, use ot explosives, removal of beach vegetation, and overfishing of reef fisheries. Destruction of Mangroves. In some areas mangroves are cut and used for charcoal production. In the Negri! area, for example, around 15 to 20 trees per month are confiscated from persons illegally removing mangrove trees from UDC land. At Seaview Gardens west of Kingston, the mangrove fringe separating the housing development from Hunt's Bay is being removed and used to make charcoal. The bark of the red mangrove can be used to manufacture dye, and this practice has also resulted in some mangrove destruction. Use of Explosives. Where dynamiting has been em ployed as a means of capturing fish (its use has been reported in Rockfort and other areas), habitats have been destroyed. Dynamiting has also been used hy illegal explorers searching shipwrecks off the Morant Cays, and the coral reef com m unities nearby have been da m aged. Removal of Beach Vegetation. Beach erosion presently occurrip.g at Half Moon Bay ill Hellshire has been attributed in part to the removal of dune vegetation, which has rioe-stabilized the sand and exposed the beach sand to direct wave action and inland migration. Fishermen's shacks once on land are n01 ... in the sea; stones have been placed in some areas to slow the rate of erosion. The removal of large trees from the Cove and Bruce Hill properties in W estm oreland has resulted in erosion of the beach west of this property. Overfishing of Reef Fisheries. Overfishing has resulted in significant depletion of fish stocks and adverse socioeconomic impacts to fisher men. As catches declint>, som.:! fishermen are using sm aUer mesh sizes in their nc:!ts and sm aller trap coverings, If'ading to further depletion of the fishery stocks. Foreign boats are also contributing to overfishing on the cays. Adding to the problem is the lack of restriction on the flU m ber of fishing licenses issued. Recently, as employment in other industries has declined sharply, many une m ployed persons have turned to fishing. 106 Absence of Policy for Coutu Resource H ao age.eDt Although various types of development m coastal areas have had, and continue to have, adverse effects on coastal resources, there is no overall coastal area management plan to guide development in coastal areas. Neither is there any legislation specific.ally toward the management of wetlands in Jamaica. There is no specific legislation supporting NRC D's ad hoc involvement in the Town Plan ning Department's existing development planning and review processes. Also, the conditional guidelines attached by NRC D to development proposals are not effectively monitored due to lack of staff and funding. Lack of Specific Legislation on Oil Spills Several drafts of a Clean Sea Act have been prepared, but there is still no indication as to this legislation will be approved by Parliament. It has not yet been rletermined which agency will implement the Act, but the initial recom mendation is that it should be attached to the Ministry of Pui.li.c Utilities. Pending adoption of this legislation, an oil spill contingency plan prepared by 0 D P is in force. In 1982, the G OJ received assistance from the Government of Norway for the development of an oil spill contingency plan. In 1985, this plan was superceded by a new contingency plan developed by 0 D P, with assistance from the U.S. AID. DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE WORK 1. In recognition of the im portance of the coastal zone for the Jamaican people, attempts have been made over the years to deve.lop legislation for the control of coastl1l resources. The formation of NRCD in 1975 has assisted in bringing coastal zone management to the forefront, and future plans call for the implementation of a Coastal Zone Management Project. Major issues relating to the utilization of coastal zone areas could be addressed through such a project. M oreover, such a project must be seen as a medium for the development of a needed Coastal Zone Management Plan. It is recom mended

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that im plementlltion of this project be undertaken with urgency. 2. The role of the Beach Control Authority in processing applications for development of beach areas needs to be elaborated, particularly with a view to ensuring that environmental impact assessment accompanies cer tain applications. 3. To im prove the effec tiveness of existing legishtion, the definition of "development" in the Town Planning Act needs to be revised, for example to apply to agricultural development. 4. Enforcement of the Beach Control Act is almost nonexistent. A ddition of more en-forcement officers is urgently needed, as is a well-developed public education program. 5. In order to conserve beach sand and, at the sa me tim e, im prove the level of sand resources available to the construction industry, it is recom mended that a com inventory of these sources be made with a view to identifying exploitable deposits. 6. To ensure the improved economic viability of fisheries in Jamaica, the areas vital to the propagation of this resource (i.e., se.'l grass beds, coastal mangrove swamps and coral reefs) should be identified for designa tion as protected areas. 7. To the awareness of the wider public with respect to manne life forms, it is recom mended that significant results could be achieved through the establishment of a permanent attraction in the form of a sea aquarium. Given thnt Jamaica has been selected as the headquarters of the Law of the Sea, an aquarium broadly represented by the marine resources of the Caribbean would be an appropriate symbol of Jamaica's leadership role in preserving and enhancing the marine environ m ent of the Caribbean. Plate 17 Peat Mining in Negri! Morass. 107

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Annex 1: Coastal Manage.ent Units The major land and 'tater uses in each of the 13 coastal manage m ent units are described be.i.ow*. These management units are described in counter-clock wise order, beginning with the Kingston 'lnd St. A ndrew Unit. Kingston and Saint Andrew The coastal area of the Kingston/St. Andrew unit stretches from the Fresh River on the west to the YaUahs River on the east, and includes the Kingston Waterfront and the Pali saooes peninsula on whi.::h the Norman Manley International Airport and Port Royal are fOIJOd. Existing development in the area a variety of com m ercial and industrial uses. Many of these uses, including the JPS main power plant, tile Petrojam Refinery, the .:ontainer port, the airport, government offkes and the Bank of Jamaica must be lcibelled critical facilities vital to the nation's well-Lei.1g. In addition, development alongside or close to the waters edge includes a variety of housing schemes with high concentrations of residential units. Kingston is the major metropolitan area of Jamaica and the nation's centre of industry and com merce. Kingston Harbour is the most port, offering several facilities for docking and berthing in addition to the container terminal for trans-shipnr'ent operations. Coastal industries include food processing, <.:e ment and flour production, oil refining and garment manufacturing, among others. The JID C has built 16 factoric:!s and 4 small industrial complexes in the coastal area, and the Port Authority has provided fdc;:ory space in All land use information, unless otherwise stated, was obtained from the Jamaica Resource Assessment Project of the Jamaican Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Physical Planning Unit, in cooperation with the CRIES Project (M ichigsn State University and the US Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service). Port statistics were provided by the Port Authority of Jamaica. In form ation on tourism and fishing beaches was derived from the Jamaica Tourist Board Information Service (JTB, 1985) and the National Physical Plan (TPD, 1978), respectively. 108 the Kingston free-trade zone for Kingston Harbour and Hunt's Bay to ';;est an: used for dilution of both industrial and domestic wastes. There are several fishing beachea in this unit and two public bathing beaches, one on the P alisadoes spit and the other near the border with Saint Thomas. Due to pollution effects from industry and sewage, however, there is very little recreational use. Samt Thomas The coastal area of Saint Thomas is located between the Y.'lllah's River and Hector's River. Large wetland areas, including the Cow Bay swamps and Great Morass, along with significant areas of deciduous forest are found along the coast. is the principal land uoe, and the crops cultivated are coconuts, sugar cane and bananas. Smaller areas are used for intensive mixed farming and cattle grazing. At Bowden, oystern are grown by both pL"ivate farmers and the i1inistry of Agriculture. Rural ht)using is found in several areas. The JID C has built three factories in the coastal area: at Morant Bay, Seaforth and YaUshs. The industries here involved ira manufacturing and food processing. Portland Parish The coastal area of Portland extends from Hector's River to Palmetto Point. Two prominent wetland areas are the Turtle Crawle and Windsor Castle swamps. Coastal vegetation also includes deciduous forest and shrub species. Agriculture is a major land use; the main crops are bananas and coconuts, with sm sller areas cultivated with sugar cane or used for intensive mixed farming. Cattle grazing also takes plact!. Residential development covers significa'"lt tracts of land, with urban residential development found in the capital town of Port Antonio. There are six hotels/guest houses located in the Port Antonio-Dragon's Bay area. Port Antonio is expected to grow as a tourist center in the future. Six public bathing beac :es and ten fishing beaches are in use. Surface mining takes place between West Harbour and Saint Margaret's Bay, and sand is extracted ft'om beaches at Saint Margaret's Bay to supply the construction industry. The Port of Port Antonio actively serves cruise ships and banana exporting vessels, and the eastern

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section of the East Harbour, Port Antonio, is used for the cultivation of oysl"ers by the Ministry of Agriculture. The JID C has leased factory space to short term users, but there are no other significant industrial uses. Saint Mary Pariah The coastal area of Saint Mary is located between Palmetto Bay and the White River. Coastal vegetation is primarily deciduous for est. Land-use is dominated by agriculture, with sugar cane the major crop, followed by bananas and coconuts. Smaller areas are utilized for orchards and intensive mu
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cargo and cruise ship business. A total of 59 ships used the pC/rt during the first quarter of 1985, 50 of which were cruise ships carrying 48,681 passengers. The Sangster International Airport is located on the coastline. Hanover Pamb The coastal area of Hanover extends from the Great River to Long Bay and includes a large portion of the Negril Morass. Deciduous forest vegetation is also found along the coast. Land use includes housing, agriculture, cattle rearing and tourism. Urban and rural residential use is si8llificant, especially in the towns of Lucea Harbour, Hopewell and Green Island Harbour. The main crop cultivated is sugar cane, with a relatively small amount of coconut planted near Great River Bay. There are four hotel'" along the Hanovf:'r Although there are only two public beaches, the entire portion ,)f the Negril beach can be used for recreatio_l. In Lucea, there are only two factories, built by the JIDC and rented out to manufacturers of garments and baseballs, plus a meat processing plant. The Port of Lucea is no longer in active use. The Ministry of "griculture lIses the Green Island Harbour as an oyster culture station. There are 14 fishing beaches in Hanover, and the fishing industry 15 quite active. Westmoreland Parish The Westmoreland unit extends from the mid point of the Negril Great Morass to Scott's Cove. Deciduous forest vegetation is also found in the coastal area along with agricultural activities and housing. The main ccop is sugar cane, but a small amount of extensive .!lnd intensive farming as well as rearing takes place. Urban housing is concentrated around the capital, Savannah-Ia-mar. Around half of Negril's seven miles of white sand beach is within Westmoreland's area and is used for local recreational as well as tourism purposes. Bet W'i!en South Negril Point and the border, there al:e six hot:els/guest houses, and expansion of tourism facilities is planned for the Negril area. The fishing industry is very active with 14 fishing beaches in use. 0 ther industrial use is limited. T.he JID C has built one factory in Paradise Cove. The Port of Savannah-la-mar handled no cargo between January and March 110 1985, but during the similar period 10 1984, sugar "I as shipped fro m this port. Saint Elizabeth Parish The coastal areC' of St. Elizabeth extends from Scott's Cove to Alligator Pond Bay. The largest portion of thi region is covered by the Black River Morass, a com bination of coastal and non-coastal wetlands. Large portions of the coastal area :]re also covered by deciduous forest and brush. The Black River, which drains the Morass and is the largest river in Jam aica, i..:; used for \o]aste dilution, (especially dunder fro m sugar fac tories), and su pports an im portant artisanal fishery, which produces an estimated J$3 million per year. Laq;e land aree.s are utilized for rice cultivation and sugar cultivation, and other tracts of land are covered with coconut!>, extensive and intensive mixed farming. Smaller areas are utilized for rUt-al housing and there is some tourism activity around Black River Bay. There are several recreational beaches, including Treasure Beach. Port Kaiser, near the border with Manchester, is an industrial area. Between January and March, 1985, 10 ohips called at the port, discharging general cargo and loading alumina. K anchester Parish The coastal area of Manchester 11) located between Alligator PC/nd Bay and the Milk River. There is little developrllent along the M anchester coast, and the area is covered with deciduous forest stands, brush and wetVinds. Near the border with Saint Elizabeth, there is some extensive mixed farming. Alligator Pond is a local fishing and recreational centre. Clarendon Parish The boundaries of the Clarendon coastal area are the Milk River on the west and Bower's River on the east. The area bet ween Carlisle Bay and M River Bay is heavily used for grow1Og sugar cane. Smaller areas are used for cultivating tobacco and intensive mixed farming. The Amity Hall swamp is used for rice cultivation, and at '1 itchell TO\o1O there is a station for the culture of fresh water fish. Recreational and tourism activities are limite':. Public beach facilities are provided only at Carlisle Bay, but other beach areas are also used. The Milk River Spa is Iocated near the border with Mandeville. There are small

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pockets of rural residential use. Two ports on the Clarendon coast are Salt River and Rocky Point. The former is not in active use. Rocky Point, however, is used for exporting bauxite and discharging general cargo. Saint C atberine P arisb This management unit is bounded by Bower's River and the Fresh River. Deciduous and wetland vegetation predominate, and the princi p81 land uses are agricultural and residential. The major crop is sugar cane, but some intensive mixed farming occurs in the more inland areas. The major residential area (with a population over 70,000) is Portmore, which is built largely on reclaimed wetlands, and is now the largest urban centre on the island. Hellshire Hills to the west of Portmore is gradually being developed hy the UD C, and both the Portmore and Hellshire developments are intended to accom modate the growing housing needs of the Kingston Metropolitan A'tea. This coastal area contains the largest fishing beach in Jamaica, Old Harbour Bay, which handles around 8 % of annual inshore landings. There are other fishing beaches, and Hunt's Bay is used for shrimp fishing. The Hellshire beaches have evolved as major recreational areas for the residents of Kingston and Saint Catherine, especiall.y with the development of Fort Clarence and access to Half Moon Bay and Engine Head. Port Esquivel, near the border with Clare :ldon, is a busy port handling the export of bauxite and the discharge of general cargo and fuel oil. Texaco operates an oil storage facility near the port. 111

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Plate IS Part of Rio Cobre showing Groynes to prevent soil erosion. '-7r:. ___ ./ .' ./ / ',', I \ Plate 19 Erection of Groynes along river. 112

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OF WATER RESOURCES Jamaica's watt" resources, inclusive of rainfall, are unevenly distributed throughout the island. However, on a national level, it is estimated that there is sufficient water to meet foreseeable demand, based on the following: o Reliable ground and surface water yield is about 4,260 M m 3/year (20 % of the mean annual rainfall of 21,100 M m 3/year); and o Frojecled year 2015 national demand is about 1,570 M m 3/year (including 80 % for agric u1-ture, 15% for domestic use and 5% for industry). However, for 1985, there 'was a developmental shortfall as indicated by the following: o 1985 total supply capacity is about 875 M m 3/year (including 65 % for agriculture, 27:' for domestic use and 8 % for industry); and o Estimated 1985 national water demand is about 1,030 M m 3/year (including 77 % for agriculture, 16% for domestic use and 7% for industry). "VATER RESOtJICES Rainfall The spatial distribution of rainfall varies from over 3,000 m m. in the northeast to less than 1,500 m m. in the south central coastal plains (see Figure 19). Seasonal variability is also high, with 35 % of the rainfall occurring from September to November, 21 % from May to June, and 56% ill the remaining seven months. Rainfall is an inadequate source of domestic water, unless rainwater storage facilities are provided. As a source for rain fed agricultural production, rainfall in the south and north central coastal plains is insufficient and too variable to satisfy the moisture requirements of most crops. However, for Illost of the rest of the island, rainfall is sufficicrtt to sustain production of such crops as pasture and coconuts anll, in the west and northeast, banana and sugar cane. Surface and Ground Gters The island has been divided into ten basins, based on hydrologic criteria, for which water resources assessments have been completed at 113

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-ISOtCYET IIA!It IOUMWn' INLMD *TER B:lC\' MU WITH HIQH WUEA TA8I..E IIIDI8NAT!) AUlM\III ALWVIAL AQUFEII IWISTIC '!WHITE UIIIEIITCNE LOW PEAIIAIIIUTY WHITE LI:ESTONE PRE WIfl'E LIIElITONE INPERMEAIILE CLASTIC FJQ.flE: 19 JAMAICA -MEAN THIRTY YEAR RAINFALL (1931 1960) N I SOURCE; WATER DIVlSCIH

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varying stages of accuracy (malOly at the desk study level.). The dominant surface and groundwater features 3l:e sho w n on Figures 20 and 21. There is a high 'stream density on the imper meable limestone rocks, and surface 'Mater these areas. On the white limestone outcrops, drainage systems are illdefined and groundwater don:inates in these areas. Variati::>ns bet'leen these two predominant patterns occur, for e}{ample in the Great River and Blue Mountain (South) Basins, as a result of differences in the transmissive characterisri.cs of the white limestone. Quantity. The annual mean and reliable ground and surface 'Jater potentials of the ten basins were assessed by the Underground Water Authority (U W A) in 1985. (See Table 24.) The data indicate that 56% of the total mean annual rainfall is lost to evapotranspiration, while 44 i. contributes to ground and surface waters (i.e., the average ann ual yield). A pproxim ately 45 % of this average annual yield to surface and ground waters (or 20% of annual rainfall.) is considered reliable, and can, therefore, be used as t!.le basis for designing water development projects. The north-draining basins contribute 56 % and 48 %, respectively, of the national annual aver age and reliable yields, .. ,ith the Blue Mountain (north) Basin alone contributing 29 % of the total annual average yield and 14 % of the annual reliable yield. Of the total reliabl' yield of 4260 M m 3/ycar, 79 % is contributed from the limestone aquifer, and 18% and 3% respectively from surface water runoff and the alluvial aquifer. A bout 15 % of the reliable yield of 3345 M ,n3/year from the limestone aquifer is developed through \ ... ellsnainly in the Rio Cohre clnd Rio Minho Basins. However, in the other basins, the water is generally available as base flow and is exploitable through run-of-river developments. Quality. The quality of ground and surface -;-ate;;throughout the island is normally suit Clale for agricultural purposes. With treatment like softening, sedimentation, and disinfection, water quality is generally suitable for industrial alld domestic put"poses (U W A, 1985). There are, however, exceptions which may be caused by natural or man-made activity. G round water originating from the White Limestone aquifer frequently sho ws high turbidity Table 24: Average Annual Dintribution of Water Types Rainfall Evapotrans-Av.g. BASINS Depth Volume piration yield rrrn (2) (3 ) Bl00 Mtn. (S) (4 2.5 lfOO 907 783 Kirgsr...m (4 1.4 310 179 131 Rio Cobre (4 1.6 ano 1369 641 Rio M.in!lo (4 1.4 242) 1602 818 Black Piver (4 1.7 25]) 1559 971 CC',baritta River (4 2.2 lffiJ 1073 817 Q:-ret River 2.1 168:) 858 822 l'Brth::i Brae River 1.7 ll.5O 668 48;! IXy H:utnr r-tn. 1.8 2 1302 1148 BIoo Mtn. (N) 3.2 :JJlJ 2348 2722 Total Amount 19.6 21203 11868 9335 % 100 56 44 % of Av. Yield 100 (1) Units except for Rainfall Depth, in Mm3/year. (2) Product of Depth (rrrn) x Area (km2). (3) Ground plus surfuce waters. (4) South Draining Basins. Others north draining. Rel1able s.w G.W. Run Off Ls. AI. 96 36 17 10 15 21 15 378 25 31 361 78 49 625 -451 -65 316 20 202 -154 691 334 270 -774 3345 141 18 79 I 3 Yleld Total Amt. % of (2) (3) 149 9 19 46 15 35 418 20 65 471 19 58 674 27 69 451 24 55 381 23 46 221 19 46 845 34 74 604 12 22 4260 ;J.O 46 lIS

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0\ BAs:.! tHlESICK. .--A NE CLASTIC LOW PER MESTONE IMPER PRE WHITE U ->--GAUGE'-lH>AGE:lNUM9ER BODY (Wellancll) IN-AND WATER WATER TABLE AREA WITH HIGH FIGURE 20 JAMAICALOCATiON WATER FEATURES OF MAIN SURFACE I R(SCk.RCES WATER

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.... .... -....J LEGEND UNlESIGNATED All!..".lJM (No AlUI\1Al AQUFEfl KARSTlC WHITE UMESTONE lJ:M PERMEABILITY WHITE UMESTOI.Z PRF. ':liTE LIMESTONE Illl'ERMEABLE CLASTIC AR WITH IiGH '.'lATER TABLE (Ioiorcal) I ......... WATER BODY LMSTO";: \':'ELL AlLUVIAL WELL BAUXITE AlUNtIA PROCESSIHG PLANT RED MUD DISPOSAL SITE AREAS AFFECTD BY CAUSTIC SOOA POLLUTIOH SUGAR CNE PROCESSING PLANT AREAS AFFECTEIi BY OONDER QCJEEN OF_ AREAS AFFEr.TED BY SEWlIE (NITRATE) BASIN BOUNDARY JAMAICA -LOCATION OF SIGNFlCANT GROl.JfONATER FEtmJRES t N I I SOURCE UNDERGROUP WATER AlJTHORITY

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due to the natural, hiJ;hly transmissive characteristic of the karstic limestone, which rapid movement of surface water to the ground water environment. This characteris tic creates the potential for several types of man-made contamination by: -Channelling of effluent from surface disposal sites to ground weter, for exam pIe, in the Queen of Spain Valley (Martha Brae River Basin) by a sugar cane processing plant; and in the Linstead Ewarton area (Upper Rio Cobre Sub-Basin) and Essex Valley (Black River Basin) by bauxite-alumina processing plants. -Salinisation of coastal aquifers resulting from localised over-pumping of water from these aquifers (as in the case of tb e Rio Cobrc and Rio Cobre Basins). There are also anom alous cases of im paired groundwater quality, for example, as reflected in higher than ex.pected chlorinity levels in the springs forming the Cockpit and Gut Rivers (Rio Minho Basin) and the Ferry River (Rio Cobre Basin). waters -especially those in rivers originating from the pre-white limestone out -generally exhibit high sediment load after rainfalls, due to the need for im proved watershed management in the upland catchment areas. In addition, pollution by industrial effluents has impaired surface water quality, for exam pIe in Rio Cobre, the P'.(lck River (Elm River tributory) and the Cabar-ita River. Watersheds. There are 33 declared watersheds. The boundaries for these are defined under the Watershed Protection Act of 1963. (See Figure 22 and Annex 1). The watersheds may be divided into two groups: -Those draining the white limestone areas, with rivers showing relatively small flow fluctuations. In interior valleys, these rivers are prone to flooding. -Those draining the im perm eable, pre-white limestone outcrops, "'ith rivers showing high flow fluctuations. These rivers are prone to washouts following high intensity rainfall events. Existing Water Supply Syste.a The locations of the major water supply systems for the urban dom estic, agricultural and indus-118 trial use sectors are shown in Figure 23. In addition to these major systems, there are many smaller systems, as well as over 500 rural systE'.ms supplied from spring or river sources. Many rurdl com m unities, mainly in upland karstic areas, are served by household or com munity rainwater collection systems, because there are no nearby surface sources or, jf present, gl"ound water is not easily accessible. Sctoral Water Supply and Demand The U W A has evaluateci the existing supply capacity, current demand, and projected year 2015 demand for the agricultural, domestic -urban, tourism and rural, and industrial use sectors. Other sectors, such as hydropower and recreation are not easily quantified since the potential for multi-purpose utilization exists. (Data on water requirements to support faunal and floral habitats, although quantifiable, are not available.) The estimated 1985 supply capacity and the estimated 2015 demands for the respective sectors are shown in Table 25 (after UW A 1985) and summarized below: '/ile south-draining basins use about 89 % of the present supply (77 5 M m 3/year, com prising 747 Mm3 from local sources and 28 Mm3 imported from the Blue Mountain North Basin); and account for 93% (959 Mm3/year) of the 1985 demand and 91% (1434 Mm3/year) of the year 2015 demand. P:.""inst these, the south contrH.utes 52 % (22U9 M m 3/year) of the total national reliable yield. -The Kingstml, Rio Cobre and Rio MinhoManchester Highland Basins use 76 % (590 H m 3/year) of the supply to the south, with the corresponding demand figures being 79 % for 1985 and 60% for year 2015. However, included in the supply is 40 M m 3 from Cockpit Springs in Rio Minho and potentially 60 from Ferry Springs in Rio Cobre, both of which have water usage limitations because of unsatisfactory quality. As lOt result, the resource availability-demand relationship is unlavo1Jrable. -Of the total supply capacity of 532 M m3/year to the Kingston, Rio Cobre and Rio M inho Basins, agriculture uses 70 %; the Kingston Metropolitan A rea uses 23 %; urban cen tres in the Rio Co bre Basin use 5 i.; and urban centres in the Rio M inho Basin use 2.6 %.

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...... ...... \0 JAMAICA HYDROLOGIC BASINS AND WATERS.-EDS SOURCE I ""TER RE:3QJJICS DMSION t N I

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...... tv o LEGEND IIASIj BC'JI''[)ARY IRRIGM10N CANAL DCIoSTlC PFEl.f fHlIt"ASLE AREA _VEIl HARVESTWG ID#I JEAWD l..HES7Ot WEllS Al.UJ'v:AL. WELLS DOMESTIC WELLS AIB:U. TURAI. WELLS NlUSTRIA;.. WEl..LS RIVER BAIJ)(JTE PLANT SUGAR PROCE:SSHi PlANT OOIR fO.STRES RVER RELFT IJlAIWiE SCIJE Fl(UI[, 23 JAMAICA -LOCATION OF WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS t N I

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Table 25: Distribution of Demand and Supply .., BASINS QI .., > c .. 4-1 ...... u I:G :E: ...... U) 4-1 ..t Z --QI .., ll: .., OJ --QI QI 0 ItJ > TOTAL USE c-c ...... .., ...... ..t 4-1 ..t III E 4-Ir-I Or-l 'or-I Il: ...... 4-1 ...... Il: :E: ..... 4-1 ..... 0 ..... ..t --r-I ..t r-I l! :E: SEGTORS CJ) u :E: 11 .... .., ..... 4-1 :I: QI 8' ItJ t! QI Amt. ::l 0 0 ttl QI M =' r-I ..t ..t ..t r-I LI ,..' III Il: III (' III 1985 DEMAND Rural (2) 1.7 0.9 3.3 5.7 3.1 2.3 2.5 1.2 3.1 3.2 27 3 Urban (3) 2.0 72.7 25.4 9.2 2.5 3.7 10.0 1.2 5.7 5.6 139 13 Industry 1.0 5.8 14.0 19.0 18.5 6.0 2.0 2.4 2.4 -73 7 Agriculture 11 2 2.0 197.3 400.3 134.9 16.5 2.2 5.0 9.3 12.0 790 77 TOTAL /:rot.. 15.9 81.4 240.0 434.2 159.0 28.5 16.7 11.6 20.5 20.8 1029 100 1.5 8.0 23.5 42.0 15.5 3.0 1.5 1.0 2.0 2.0 100 2015 DEMAND Rural (2) 4.3 2.4 8.6 13.0 6.5 4.9 6.0 3.1 6.9 6.7 62 4 Urban (3) 2.6 89.3 36.0 10.6 2.7 4.5 13.7 2.6 7.2 6.1 175 11 Industry 1.0 13.5 14.0 19.0 18.5 6.0 4.6 4.2 2.4 -83 5 Agriculture (4) 60. 2.0 280.5 372.5 355.6 107.5 2.2 26.0 12.2 30.7 1250 80 TOTAL I :rot. 68.4 107.2 339.1 415.1 383.3 122.9 26.5 35.9 28.7 43.5 1570 100 4.5 7.0 21.5 26.0 24.0 8.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 3.0 100 1985 SUPPLY Rural I.:LJ 1.0 1.9 5.8 4.8 1.3 1.9 1.3 0.9 2.7 23 3 Urban 2.7 23.2 29.0 9.3 3.5 4.7 10.5 1.7 6.1 8.9 100 11 Industry 1.0 5.8 14.0 19.0 18.5 6.0 2.0 4.2 2.4 -73 8 Agricul ture 11. 2.0 174.3 201.0 126.5 16.5 2.2 5.0 9.3 12.0 560 64 SUB-TOTAL 16.0 32.0 219.2 235.1 153.3 28.5 16.6 12.3 18.7 23.6 756 EXPORT 26.5 <. 0.1 32.5 8.3 8.3 3.9 0.2 10.3 1.8 28.1 120 14 TOTAL 42.5 32.0 251.7 2/B.4 161.6 32.4 16.8 22.5 20.5 51.7 875 100 Local I Amt. 16.0 119.0 227.6 235.8 154.5 29.5 29.2 12.5 19.1 24.7 675 100 Capacity % 2.0 13.5 26.0 28.0 18.0 3.0 3.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 100 1. South Draining Others north 2. Per Capita of 25 m /year (1985) and 50 Mm /year (2015) 3. Per capita of 100 m3/year except Kingston and Rio Cobre 120 4. Product of Unit Demand (m3/ha/yr. x 103 ) x Area (ha.) Agriculture. The agricultural sector utilizes about 64;C of the present supply capacity of 875 M m 3/year. Irrigation water supplied from publicly developed resources falls under the auspices of the Ministry of Agriculture, and is controlled through local Irrigation Authorities under the Irrigation Act of 1956. The Authorities presently in place are: Houndslow (Black River Basin); Mid-Clarendon (Rio Minho Basin); St. Dorothy and Charlemont (Rio C obre Basin); and Brae 0 (Dry Harbour Moun tain Basin). An A uthority hall not been established for the Rio C obre Irrigation Works. The amount of irrigable and irrigated lands, as well as unit water demands, in each basin were estimated by the U W A (1985) using data from the Comprehensive Resource Inventory and Evaluation Syste m (C RIES, 1983 and Hall, et. a1., 1984). (See Table 26.) Water demand in each basin was also estimated by UWA, which assumes the gross cropping pattern indicated in Table 26. (The category classified as "varied" includes sugar cane, for which water requirements it was assumed would suffice for most crops excluding those in the 121

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rice and fish farming categories.) The data indicate that the Rio Cobre and Rio Minho Basins together account for 80 % of the irrigated area of 41,940 hectares and 64% of the estimated total irrigable area of 76,010 hectares. However, inefficient use of irrigation water now occurs in the Rio Cobre and Rio Minho Basins, as indicated by the current high unit demand. With the potential for increase in irrigable area, priority should be given to improving the management of irrigation water. Domestic. Domestic water distribution is the responsibility of the National Water Com mission (N W C) of the Ministry of Public Utilities. The domestic sector uses about 27 % of the present supply capacity of 875 M m 3/year. The per capita consumption rate currently used for design purposes is about 100 m 3/year in urban areas outside of Ki.ngston and H ontego Bay. Although the criterion for rural designs is not known, Stanley, et. ale (980) indicated about 15 m 3/year, and the value for tourism is about 400 m3/year U W A estimated present demand using these design values. For the year 2015 projection, U W A assumed the same values for urban areas and tourism, and an increase to 50 m 3/year/person for the rural areas. Industrial. The industrial sector, including industries with pt-ivately neveloped water systems, uses about 8 % of the present capacity of 875 M m3/year. Small industries with low water requirements are supplied from the domestic water supply systems. The bulk of the industrial water is used by the bauxite mining and processing and sugar processing companies. Unquantified Water Demands Water is also used to generate hydropower and for recreation. (Water is also required for environmental reasons, e.g., to maintain wildlife habi.tats, but, as noted above, this demand requirement has not been quantified.) Table 26: 122 Distribution of Irrigated and Irrigable Land and Unit Demands A R E A (1) BASINS Irrigated Irrigable Varied Rice Fish Varied Rice Crops (4 ) (3) Crops (4 ) Blue Mtn. (5) 810 5600 Kingston 160 160 Rio Cobre 11600 (5) 400 20200 Rio Minho etc. 21160 100 27000 Black River 1810 2470 30 4550 6500 Cabaritta River 1200 1200 2100 Gr"eat River 200 200 Martha River 400 2400 Dry Harbour Mtn. 600 1000 Blue Mountain eN) 1000 2900 TOTAL Crops 38940 2470 530 65210 8600 Grand 41940 76010 l. 2. 3. Units for Area = hectares3(ha). Units for Unit Demand = m x 103 Unit demand taken as 45 x 10 m 3/ha/year Fish (3) 800 1000 400 2200 4. 5. Unit demand taken as 35 x 103 m 3/ha/year About 400 hectares are being put into rice. Not in demand. Unlt Demand (Varied Crops) (2) 1985 2015 13.75 10.80 12.35 12.35 15.80 12.50 18.75 12.50 12.50 10.80 13.75 13.75 10.80 10.80 12.50 12.50 15.40 12.50 12.35 11).80

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Table 27: Hydropower Facilities River Design Discharge (CFS) Roaring River 100 Upper White River 225 Lower White River 180 Rio Bueno 170 Black River 300 Hydropower Facilities. There are currently five hydropower facilities, the largest being located in the upper reaches of the Black River. Table 27 lists (hese facilities and the design discharge committed to power generation. Feasibility studies have been completed on lae hydropower generation capabilities of several other rivers: Great River (Great River Basin); Laughlands Great River (Dry Harbour Mountain Basin); Buff Bay, Sl,;ift and Spanish Rivers and Rio Grande (Blue Mountain-North Basin); Yallahs and Morant Rivers (Blue Mountain-South Basin); and Rio (Rio Cobre Basin). Recreation. Several waterfalls have been developed as inland tourist attractions. Among these are: Dunns River Falls (Ocho Rios area of Dry Harbour M Basin); Somerset and Reach Falls (both in the Blue Mountain-North Basin); and Y.S. River Falls (Black River Basin). Rafting is practised on tr.e lower reaches of the Rio Grande (Blue M ountain'-North Basin), Martha Brae River (Martha Brae River Basin) and the Great River (Great River Basin). The Black River is used for recreational purposes and has potential for sport fiBbing. There are also about 35 thermal and nonthermal mineral springs utilizer! for recreational, and reportedly therapeutic, purposes. A mong these are Bath (Blue Mountain-South) Basin; San Souci and vlinc!sor (Dry Harbour Moun tain Basin); B urton and Spring Garden (Great River Basin); Black River Spa (Black River BAsin); Milk River (Rio Minho -Manches-ter Highland Basin); and Rockfort (Kingston Basin). Design Capacity Basin Head Power (n. ) (MW) 500 4 Dry 230 3.2 Harbour 378 4.5 Mountains 295 2.4 290 6.0 Black River IHsnTUTIONS AND LEGISLATION Government Agencies Numerous government agencies are involved in the management and regulation of Jamaica's water resources, under the authority of several water-related la ws dating back to 1922. The major agencies, and their authorizing legislation, are listed in Table 28, categorized as regulatory, resource management or developmental. Private Sector Private involvement in the water resources sector is mainly concerned with design and construction Df water ..:.upply and other water works. InGustrial and agricultural enterprises develop and operate water supplies. C onsulting and contracting engineering services evalullte supply sources and design and construct water works under contract with the Government or private sector organizations. Non-Govem.ent Organizations Various non-governmental organizations provide assistance to the sec tor through funding and provision of equipment and personnel. Among Licences for the use of groundwater are obtained from the Underground Water Authorit" 123

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124 Table 28: Government Institutions and Involved in the Water ResourcEs Sector AGENCY Regulatory Underground Water Authority Natural Resources Conservation Division Environmental Control Division Ministry of Agriculture National Water Commission (No agency assigned) Mines and Quarries Division Resource Management Underground Water Authorityl Natural Resources Conservation Division Meteorological Division Developmental National Water Commission 2 Irrigation Authorities Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica Natura! Conservation Division Various Government Agencies Caribbean Engineering Company Urban Development Corporation PUNCTION Administers Underground Water Control Act of 1959, including licensing oi well abstraction. Administers Watershed Protcction Act of 1963 and Beach Protection Controls oevelopments in watersheds. Administers Public Health Act of 1974 (Revised). Provides stllndar'ds for domestic water consumption and waste disposal. Administers Irrigation Act of 1956 through local Irrigation AuthorIties. Administers Act of 1980. regulation. Includes resource Water Act of Hl22. Purpose is to control development and use of surface water resources. Scheduled for amalc'amation with UWA. Administers Mining Act of 19.17. Also controls water developments in areas under mining lease. Evaluates and manages water resources availability. General environmental management. Investigates climatic factors, including rainfall. and operates domestic water supply systems. Manage and operate local irrigation water supply syster,ls. Develops water resources as required for its operations. Develops waterSheds, beaches and National Parks. Develop and manage irrigation systems in areas where they are located (e.g. !lugar and banana cultivations). Constructs water supply systems for Government agencies (e.g., NatioOld Water Commission). Develops, manages and markets domestic water supplies (e.g., Runal':ay Bay Water Company. 1 Formerly Water Resources Division; amalgamated in April 1935. 2parish Councils formerly responsible for rural supplies; in late 1985.

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these are: United Nations Development Pro gram (UN D p); Food and Agricultural Organization (of United Nations) (F A 0); United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF); Inter-American Development Bank (IADB); World Bank (WB); Unit ed States Agency for International Development (USAID); Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA); Overseas Development Agency (England) (ODA); Japan International Development agency (JIDA); and Division for International Cooperation, Israel (DIC). PLANS AND PROGIU.l.HS Ocgoing and Proposed Projects Data on some of the major water supply systems for the urban dom estic, agricultural and industrial sectors are shown in Table 29, with some indication of their capability to meet the present and year 2015 demand. Major ongoing and proposed projects are described briefly below. Blue Mountain Multi-Purpose Project. Completed by S W E C 0 for the National Water C om mission in 1980, this project would involve diversion, storage and transmission of water from the Blue Mountain (North) Basin to the Kingston Metropolitan A rea. Hydropower and domestic water are potential products of the Project. Small Scale Hydro-Power Study. Under this study, is being done for the Corporation of Jamaica (p CJ) with support funding from CIDA, ten projects have been identified as feasible and are under consideration for construction. Clarendon Plains Irrigation Developmental Pro gram m e. The purpose of this U W A project is to improve irrigation and management in the Clarendon Plains on the south coast. Flow West Project. This was done for the National Water Com mission by Reid Crowther and Partners Limited and Joint Consultants in 1983. The objective is to collect and treat sewage from the Kingston Metropolitan Area and use the treated effluent for irrigation in the St. Catherine Plain (Rio Cobre Basin). National Water Resources Development Master Plan Project. Being undertaken by the Under ground Water Authority, the Governlaent of Israel and the United Nations Development Program me, this plan should provide a dynamic framework for the optimal utilization of the islands' water resources. ISSUES AND PROBLEMS Key issues and problems in the water resources sector are related to inadequate source investi gfltion, difficulty in satisfying water demands, variation in water quality, and institutional and legislative inadequacies. These problems and issues are discussed briefly below. Inadequate Source Investigation A nUID ber of existing and potential problems appear to be attributable to inadequate source evaluation prior tv im plem entation of developmental projects. Thes-e are sum marized in Table 30. Satisfying Water Demand Some problems in satisfying water demand are related to natural causes -in particular, the uneven distribution of ,,:ater resources caused by climatic, geological and physiographical factors. Additionally, geology, physiography and watershed condition restrict the siting of dams. Dams located in the karstic limestone arr:as would be subject to high leakage and corsequently low storage, and unfavourable slopes and high erosion adversely limit many other.wise favourable sites in the non-lim ostone areas. There are also man-made problems related to satisfying water demand: High diqtribution/transmission locses of up to 30%, especially in the urban centres like Kingston, Montego Bay and May Pen; Poor irrigation water management with consequent 101" irrigation efficiencies in the plains of Clarendon and St. Catherine; and -Inappropriate cropping patterns; for example, the cultivation of w ater-consum ptive crops s\lch as rice, in water-deficient areas such as the St. Catherine Plains, rather than concentration of such enterprises in sections of St. Elizabeth and Westmoreland where surface water is plentiful. -Improperly managed watersheds which tend to increase surface runoff and, consequently, reduces ground water recharge. 125

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126 Table 29: Data (lIn Main Woter Supply Systems Service Source and u, Quantity NAME >C Z o H 500 tl> Portmora 67 (2) I Hope River x 7 CapacitY,!1eem adequate for year 20iS Limestone (:B) Wells )( 10 demand of 105 ttn3/Yl'ar. Alluvial Wells x 6 Problems caused by high system losses, Yallahs R (6) :'12 Hmitecl capability for intra system Wag \later R/Hermitage (7) 2B transfers, and seasonal BQurca Up. Rio Cobre La. Wells(2) 12 fluctuations. Lr. "(2) TO'fAL lOB up. Rio Cobre Ls. Wells II 2 Expansion from pl'e.!lent sources for Alluvial x 4 year 2015 demand of 10Mffi3/year. TOTAL 6 Montago Reading Spring )( 2/ Solutions, to present inc:onsistent quantity Bay Limestone Wells x 7 and quali ty of import) and high system M.artha Brae Ls. 1'/eUe (8) 10 10:JIJesJ oeeded for. year 2015 demand 65 (3) Mandevilh' 40 (4) Clarendon (Clar.) Plains 21.3 (4) St. Catherine Plains 11.5 (2) Upper MoraM :J 1.7 f.:l (5) 0: I.-' TOTAL Porus Ls. Wells Pi!pper Ls. Wells TOTAL Alluvial Wells Limestone Wells Cock pi t River ::,'cycling TOTAL Alluvial Wells Limestone Wells Rio Cobre Canal Recycling erar. Plaio:.! Ls. Wells 'IOTAL Limestone wells Black River 'IOTAL x. (5) x x x x x x x x (3) It x of 14 I'tn::l,'year. 19 3 Commissioning of import in 1906 should B provide sufficiency (-:>r yeat' 2015 demand of 6 Mffi3/year. 11 38 Respective potential areas of 21; 000 105 hectares, requiring 370 and 2HO /yr 39 with cropping pattern dO at present 20 i.p. crope. 202 Both need: in'icJ',tion efficiency increase fran 27 about 30\ to say 60\: increased 36 conveyance facilities,.and less water 10<1 consumptive crops. 20 -optimal utilization of Bub-quality 8 water from cockpit and Gut Rivers (Clar. Plains) and Ferry River 195 (St, Catherina Plains). -possible storage facilities on Rio Minho and Rio Cobre. 20 potential areas of 6700 112 and 4750 hjctares requiring 210 and 145 MIn /year. 114 Present, also projectee cropping estimated as 45\, 57\ and 2\ respectively for varied crops, rice and fjsh Lower Morasa 2.6 (5) BJ (5) (7) Limestone Welln Y.S. Rivet' Kingllton Basin Great niver Basin Black River Sasin IDrAL !Hue Mountain (North) Basin xa Local Sources x x 6 6 12 Systems require improved, and expanded irrigation infrastructure. (2) Rio Cobre Basin (4) Rio Minho Manchester Highland Basin (6) Blue Mountain (South.) Basin (8) Marthil Brae Rivet' Basin Blank Imported

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Table 30: Problems Related to Incadequate So;;ree Evaluation __________ Port Antonio Water Supply Source Queen of Spain Valley Well Source (to Montego Bay) Ferry Spring Water Supply (potentially to Kingston) Yallahs River Diversion to Kingston Hog Hole diversion from Rio Cobre Irrigation Canal to Spanish effluent (Red Mud) Dispo:::al sHes Victoria Banana Farms at Paranassus in Clarendon Plains Proposed Draining Projects (Upper and Lower Morass St. Elizabeth) Under Utilised Treatment Project originally based Plant on the use of surface water Fluctuating turbidity and well output Increased water levels due to impoundment have caused reduc2d Anticipated separation of
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Vater Quality Natural water quality problems are reflected in: High turbidity in m any Lim estone aquifers (e.g., Queen of Spain Valley), because of high conduit velocities associated with l:round water movement in karstic aquifers. -Salinisation of coastal springs (e.g., Gut River, and Cockpit Spring!;), possibly because of the high transmissivity and 10 w storativity of the associated karstic aquifer. (An alternative hypothesis is that a low permeability barrier, formed by some coastal limestones fringing the coast, is absent in these areas.) High turbidity in nvers orginilating in nonkarstic lim estone areas like the Blue M ountain (North and South) Basins. M an-made water quality problems are generally associated with changes in the environment (some with deleterious effect) as a result: of development. There are many examples, includ109: -Salinisation of limestone aquifers cause2 by localised over-development in the Clarendon and Lower St. Catherine Plains; -Nitrate cor,tamination of the Liguanea Plains alluvial aquifer caused by the growth and urbanization of Kingston without planned sew2ge systems; -Increased erosion and resultant heavy sedimentation of rivers, caused by road construction and inappropriate agricultural practices in watersheds with a high proportion of prelimestone karstic (e.g., Yallahs and Hope Rivers); Potential dam age to the environment if control measurers are discontinued, as is possible in the Essex Valley area of the Black River Basin, consequent on the closure of the Alpart Plant; -Pollution of caused by lack of effluent disposal standards, as in the cases of Rio C obre at Bog W C abarrita and Black aiver,and the potential for contamination of the Hope and Yallahs Rivers by agrochemicals; and, -Potential nitrate contamination of the limestone aquifers of the Kingston Basin if high density urban developments of the limestone 128 wells is cfJntinued without appropriate waste disposal syslems. Legislative and Institutional Probleas The main legislative problems are: -The absence of a Nationlll Water Act incorporating the Underground Water Act and the Water Act. Because there if> no com prehensive water resou"C"ces it is not mandatory to conduct environmental mpact 3ssessments prior to implementation of projects. Those that are done are discretionary, for example, the feasibility studies on power generation from peat by the P CJ, or are requested by the Beach Control Authority and Town and Country Planning authocity; and, -Inclusion, within the National Water Com mission Act, of provisions for resource evaluation and control which appear to be conflicting with the principal role of the N W C as a developmental agency. The main institutional problems are: -The non-representation of the U IJ A on the Town and Country Planning Authority, which requires input on water resources for its proper functioning; -Insufficient financial .'md manpower resources to conduct appropriate evaluations of the ground and surface water resources; -The lack of resources to support adequate monitoring, documentation and record by the agencIes responsible for resource management; and, -The absence of a National Irrigation C om mission, which would provide functions for irrigation, similar to those provided by the NWC for domestic water. DIRECTIONS FOR THE FUTURE There is need for several types of im provements 10 the water resources sector: 1. Basin studies to accurately the resources available for development. This is especially required for the south-draining Basins, where the present and potential uemands are concentrated.

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2. Improvement of the and management capabililties in achieving efficiencies in water use; and, protectlOn and conservation of water quality and quantity in view of the present incidences of overdevelopment of aquifers and contamination of ground and surface waters by industrial effluen ts. 3. Farther rationalization of the legislation governing the water resources sector, since the present situation creates potential for conflict of interest within some agencies. 4. Provision of adequate financing. Programs Required to Improve Management of the W ater Table 31 lists programs that are recomlT'.ended to im prove the management of the water sector. Implementation should be possible by December, 1986, since work has started on most of the pr0grams and the financial requirements are eX:lected to be modest. Table 31: Additionally, the private sector could assist development in the sector by funding research programs at the University of the West Indies, providing scholarships for professional and technical training of personnel required in the sector, and developing public awareness of the need to protect and conserve water. The nongovernmental agencit:s should continue their traditional support of the sector and increase their support for professional training in order to reduce the sector's dependence on expatriate personnel. Reeo. mended Projects Table 32 lists the projects recom mended for development of the water resources sector. The projects, with the exception of item 3, are recom mended for im plementation in the short term (1 to 3 years); project No. 10 should extend to the long term (3 to 10 years) range. Estimated total financial resources required for implementation is J$223M, of which J$80.0M ",!ould be required in the short term and the balance annually up to 10 years. Programs Required to Improve Maruqtement of the Water Sector Regulatory Investigation National Water Act Amend Seet;on 29 (1) of National Water Commission Act Development Legislation Establish Rio Cobre Irrigation Authority Streamline Water Sector National Wdter Plan Repl esentation on Elnd Country Planning Authority Requirements Completion of draft, sector review, enactment of legislation, gazetting. Sectoral discussion on relevance of section, gazette ehange. Implement provisions oC the Irrigation Act. Project underway. Requires (!ontiaued input of manpower and financial resources Cor continued updating. Name Managing Director of UW A as member. Benefits Integrate fragmented water resources legislation. Provide for enforcement of updated legislation. Concentration of authority for water resources management in the National Water Act. Avoid duplication of function. Adequate management oC the Rio Cobre irrigativn system. Guidelines for administration of National Water Act. Rel>resentation by water resources age ncies on organization responsible for natUral planning. 129

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Table 32: Recommended Projects Projects Benefits Requirements Duratl.on (years) -' Extend continuous Improve data base J$4.S million. for expla:atay streamtJow, level for development Drilling(30 x 2oo'x 16 wells 1 and rainfall r.onitoring of supplies and 30 x 200' x 16 coreholes1 S2.5M, ContinlJous Recorders (10 x Rainfall, 10 x streamflow and 10 x water levels $0.6M Guaging Station,') (10 x Rainfall and 10 x StreClJnflow') $0.8M 3 2 Basin Studies of Accurate rosins J$3.0M for drilling (J$2.0M) Rio Cobre, Rio Minho, for planned water and Professionnl and Martha Br.ae and consumptive Technical support (6 months/ Aqualta Vale area of a'1ricultural Basin = J$l.OM) 2 Blue Mountain North deve:lopment 3 Other Basin Studies Provide information J$3.5M for drilling (J$2.0M) for future: and Professional and development Technical support (6 months/ Basin = J$1.5M) 3 Waste Disposal, and Alternati ve to J$2.0M for Evaluation Agricultural Water securing and (J$l.OM and preliminary Source, Potential of provision of design [J.$l.ooM] ) 4 Liguanea alluvial irrigation water 0.5 aquifer 5 Leak detection survey-Conserve \'later. J$2.0M for Professional and Kingston, Montego Bay Delay need for Ter.hnical Support and Hay Pen ne'.., sources 0.5 6 of Sources As for 5 As for 5 0.5 Kingston 7 Improve Irrigation As for 5 for Professional water use in and Technical support Clarendon and Lower St. Catherine 1 8 National Cropping As for 5 As for 6 0.5 Program 9 Extend National Inform on effect Item (J$2 .. 0M) Wa':er Quality of industrial Monitoring and agricultural development on water quali ty ;L 10 ,Implement recommenImprove rural dations of Jamaica water Rural Water Supply Study (Stanley et al 1980) 10 130

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Annex 1: Major Watersheds in J aic. (Source: UNDP/FAD Tech.Rep. 9; 1973) Watershed North west Coast Great River Reading M ontego Bay Brae St. Ann Moneague Rio Neuvo Oracabessa Fosters Cave Water Valley Wag Hater Buff Bay River Rio Grande North East Coast Plantain Garden Port Morant Morant River White River YallahR Town Yallahs Valley Cane River Hope River Liguanea Fresh River Rio Cobre Salt Island Creek C ole burn Gully Rio Minho Bull Savannah Black River C a baritta River New Savannah River Approx. Acreage 99,000 100,200 12,200 59,000 162,000 311,600 98,200 29,000 36,100 6,000 17,000 62,000 112,000 66,000 67,300 46,000 26,000 47,000 12,000 8,000 44,200 18,200 19,000 29,000 22,300 158,000 65,000 44,300 430,000 66,000 378,200 155,000 17,400 Plate 20 Dam. on Rio Cobre above old Power Station. 131

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Plate 21 Crocodile at Hope Zoo. Plate 22 Birds on Pedro Cays. 132

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OVERVIE W OF WILDLIFE A large proportion of Jamaica's widlife (indigenous animals and plants) are found nowhere else in the world, i.e., they are endemic. Groups have high ratios of endemic to total species include birds (27:256 breeding species); bats (4:23); lizards (20;24); frogs/toads (15:19) and orchids (46:200); ferns (82:579); flowering plants (784:3000). (See Table 33.) Jamaica's marine ecosystems are also among the most diverse in the Caribbean as are her forests, especially montane forests. There are many species of actual or potential economic use but the potential of wildlife resources is generally underestimated. At least eight species of vertebrates become extinct in the last 150 years and many more species of animals and plants are threatened or rare. The main threats are habitat destruction, particularly in coastal and forested areas, uncontrolled exploitation and predation by introduced species. There is an urgent need for effective habitat protection, support' for agencies working with the wildlife sectcJr, public education, investment, research, monitoring, revision of legislation, and increased law enforcement. If these problems are no'. addressed in the short term, a significant proportion of Jamaica's nat:ural heritage will be irretrievably lost. WILDLIFE RESOURCES -. --H ajor Ecosysteafl It is unwise to consider animals and plants in isolation from their habitats, and therefore these are also considered briefly here. All remaining areas of natural and seminatural vegetation are under threat. The lowland forests which once dominated the coastal plains have been totally cleared. Mid and upper level forests are under unprecedented pressure and are being cleared at rates in ex.t:t:bS of 3 % per annum (Eyre, 1986). Natural ecosystems such as wetlands and coral reefs are also under pressure. No satisfactory description and categorization of the major ecotypes of Jamaica has been written. Various systems have been designed (e.g., Lack, 1974; Asprey and Robbins, 1953; see Figure 24), but these are not ddequate. They need to be revised in the light of present knowledge and recent changes in the environment. Much research is required on the ecology of terrestrial eccsystems. All the natural ecosystems of Jamaica are currently under threat. Some, including the original lowland hardwood forests which covered the majority of the coastal plains, have been totally lost and others have been reduced to very small relic t are as (e.g., riverine forest and awamp forest). There has probably been a consequent loss of endemic species. 133

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Table 33: So.e Bumplea of Levels of BndeaiaJa In Various Groups of Plants and AnI ..... Total Endemic No. o( Species Species Ph;tlum Class Grou2 Present No. Plants Total plants c3,OOO 784 27 1. Angiosperms Orchids ole Bromeliads 267 82 31 (Flowering Plants) 2. Gymnosperms (Fern!!) 579 82 13 AnlIIl8l:J 1. Invertebrates a. Coelenterata Hard Corals (Sceractnia) 64 0 0 b. Porifera (Sponges) c. Onychophora 5 4 80 d. Arthropoda Crustacea Insecta Total Insects c6,1100 ? ? Mosquitoes 66 20 36 (Culicidae) Butterflies 16 17 15 (Lepidoptera) Jumping Spiders 26 20 77 (Salticidae) Hoverflies 56 15 27 (Syrphidae) Robber Flies 24 14 83 (Asllidae) Fireflies 48 45 94 (Lampyridae) Caddisfli.es 39 28 72 (Triehoptera) Dragon Flies (OdonatB) e. Molluscs J.and Snails c400 many ? Fresh ater Snails ? ? Marine Molludcs ? ? (. Echinoderms Brit tie Stars 22+ 0 0 Holothurlans 20+ 0 0 Ophluraids 30+ 0 0 2. Vertebrates Pi!'.c:e5 (Fish) Frl!Shwater 25 2 8 Marine c500 0 0 Amphibia Frogs and Toads 19 15 79 (Amphibians) Reptilia Snakes 6 5 83 (Reptilp.s) Lizards 24 20 83 Crocodiles 1 0 0 Freshwater 'Jurtles 1 1 100 Marine Turtles 5 0 0 Aves (B1: species only) 120 27 21 Mammalia 36 Bal9 (Chlroptera) 23 .f. 17 Rodents 52 40 Sirenia 1 0 0 .Includlng Introduced species. 134

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FIGURE: 24 VEGETATION MAP OF JAMAICA SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF FORESTS AND PLANTATION CROPS Negril LOWER FOREST MIST FOREST ELFIN YtOODLAND WET UMESTONE FOREST MOIST FASCIATION DRY LIMESTONE SCR.JB FOREST MANGROVE WOODLAND MARSH FORMATIONS CULTIVATED PASTURE a SECOND GRONTH SCR.JB Source/The VeQetation of Jamaica: Asprey a Robbt'lS,I953.

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An effective National Parks and Protected Area system is now required. In order to provide for the survival of aG many endemic and indigenous species as possible, examples of all of Jama:ca's natural ecosystems should be included. The following are examples of major ecotypes: Wetlands and mangroves Dry lim pstone forest Wet limestone forest X eric coastal scrub Elfin forest Riverine forest Sf'amp forest Estuarine areas Montane forest Upper montane forest Coastal forest Offshore cays Inshore cays Thorn scrub Freshwater wetland Rivers Laker. Turtle grass beds C oral reefs Lagoons Salinas The above is not intended to be an exhaustive list. Neither are the categories mutually exclusive. These categories are intended to indicate the major ecos/stems protection must be considered in the creation :.' ltional park and protected area sY3tem, if wildlife conservation is to be meaningfully addressed in Jamaica. Sites of scientific interest are listed in Table 34. Ani.alB and Plants M am mals. Terrestrial mam cals are represented in Jamaica by the endemic Jamaican Hutia or Coney (Geocapromys brownii), and 23 species of bats. Hutias were once common but subsistence hunting and habitat destruction have reduced their range. Populations will continue to decline as habitat is destroyed. Bat populations may he suffering from disturbance result ip-g from the mmmg of their accum ulated droppings from caves. The droppings are used as fertilizer. The West Indian Manatee (or Sea Co..,) Trichechus manatus is the most frequently encountered aquatic mam mal. The population is in the order of 100 individuals. Despite protection under the Wild Life Protection Act, manatee 136 populations continue to decline as a result of hunting. Bottlenose Porpoises (Tursiops truncatus) are fairly abundant. Various species of whales are occasionally encountered in Jamaican waters. Trere have been several incidents of beaching of whales on the coast. Introduced mammals which are pests include mongoose, rats and mice. There are also feral populations of cats, dogs, goats: and pigs. Birds. The checklist of birds of Jamaica includes 256 species, 108 of which are known to breed in Jamaica, and 27 of are considered endemic. M any species are threatened by habitat destruction and hunting. Almost all species are protected under the Wild Life Protection Act. Hunting seasons for doves and pigeons are sometimes declared. Some Columbids are pests of rice and sorghum. Amphibians and Reptiles. Jamaica's amphibians and reptiles are very varied and interesting. There are high levels of endemism in all groups. Little is kno wn of their <:'tatus, ecology and distribution. There are no poisonous snakes. M turtle populations continue to decline despite protection. Crocodiles may be in danger in Jamaica but the status of their population requires research. Invertebrates. Jamaica has many umque and interesting invertebrates. Particularly high levels of endemism are found amongst insects and terrestrial molluscs and much work needs to be done on terrestrial species. Jemaica's coral reefs are the best studied ill the Caribbean. Plants. The number of flowering plants in Jam aica is estim ated to be about 2,800 species, this is roughly twice the number of species found in the British Isles (which is about 25 times bigger), and about the same as inhabit Sri Lanka (which is six times bigger). There are about 550 species of ferns in the island, whereas Sri Lanka and the British Isles have 250 and 66 species, respectively. Not only is the Jamaican flora rich, but there are more than 20% endemic species, or in other words these species are restricted to this island alone (whereas in Trinidad, Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico, the percentages of endemic species are 7%,12%, and 13%, respectively. (See Figure 25.) It has often been stated that Jamaica reprsented a centre of high endemism. M any plants may be expected to have horticultural, genetic, and pharmaceutical values which

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NAME OF AREA AND LOCATION Mason River FIf>ld Station Kellits Clarendon Middle Cay Morant Group South Cay Pedro Group Roselle St. Thomas Parottee Pond St. Elizabeth Pedro Pond St. Elizabeth Dolphin Head Mountain Fresh River St. Catherine Styx River St. Elizabeth Island Viewhill Cockpit Country WaterCall near Hardware Gap St. Claire Cave St. Catherine White Rocl' Hill St. James Roundhill Clarendon Peckham Woods Clarendon CroCt Mountain Clarendon Windsor E!ltate Trelawny West Harbour St. Catherine Ecclesdo\\'n (Prlestman's River) St. Elizabeth Cornpuss Gap Milloonk Morant Point St. Thomas Jackson Bay Coves All remaining natural and seminatural (orests Table 34: Some Ptoposed Sites of Scientific Interest for Wildlife REASONS FOR PROTECTION Only Inlanr1 wetland in Jamaica. Presence oC rare and endemic plants. Nesting si te Cor terns and turtles. Only known breeding location Cor Blue Swallowtail. Major area for waterCowl. Major area Cor waterCowl. Major area Cor nora. Firellies. Remnant Riverine Corest. Interesting swamp vegetation. Endemic species oC plants. Endemic species oC plants. Large bllt population. Endcmll! plant species. Endemic plant species and presence oC penn anent stuq,r areas. Endemic plant species. Endemic plant species. UniQue cave system. Fish nursery. Important area for Insects. ButterCly area homerus). Undisturbed swamp. Large caves including endemic species. Important Cor Indigenous oC birds, plants, etc. TYPE OF PROTECTION REQIflRED Site oC special sclentIClc interest (551). Ramsar site. SSI. Fish Sanctuary W!ldliCe Reserve 551. WildIiCe Reserve Forest Reserve 551. WildllCe Reserve S51 SSI. National Park SSI SSI SSI SSI SSI SSI SSI SSI SSI SSI Fish sanctuary (Included In Portland Bight National Park) Scientific reserve Included in John Crow Mountain National Park National Park Included in Portland Bight National Park See Proposed National Park sites 137

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Figure 25: Coapariaon of the Mu.ber of Speciea of Flovering Planta and Fems in Jaaaica. Sri Lanka and the BriWh Ialea JAMAICA SRI BRITlSH ISLES 0 ffi 4,411 Iq.mI. 25, 332 Iq.mI 94,214 IQ mI Q. eI Z i5 3eNM cHo 2,8001lPP 2,600Ipp IIPP &&&& &..I "-!5!W IPP 2!50 'PP are yet to be discovered. Orchids, ferns, bromeliads, gesneriads, and tree ferns are among the groups which have so far attracted attention but much work rem ains to be done. Endangered Plants and Ani.-als At least eight species of animal have probably become extinct in the past 150 years. The extinctions have been attributed to the introduction of species (e.g., mongoose, cats), habitat destruction and exploitation. (F arr 1984). About five species of animal and many species of plant are considered endangered according to international definitions although mGch work remains to be none on the status of most species. Many of Jamaica's endemic species are dependent on the forests and will be seriously affected if cun'ent rates of deforestation continue. (Oliver, 1986). Tables 35 to 39.) Continuing destruction of remaining natural coastal ecosystems is also a serious threat. Aniaals and Plants of Ecological and Econo.ic Value The value of the "free services" provided by wild species has not been evaluated. For example, the role of columbids in seeding forest trees; of trees in protecting watersheds; of wild species as sources of food; bush medicines; 138 6611PP craft materials, etc., as part of Jamaica's heritage, have not been investigated. Genetic values have not been assessed. No estimates have been made of the percentage of species which remain to be discovered and many areas are essentially undescribed. Jam aican wildlife has an unassessed importance to tourism, in the enhancement of the natural beauty of tourist tileas. L. tilia respect, the value of inland areas and sou.:h coast for tourism is largely untapped. The development of National Parks would undoubtedly be of im mense value to the tourism sector as well as of benefit to wildlife. There are also many species of potential for economic development. Activities in Papua, New Guinea have shoLln how wildlife resources may be developed in harmony with the natural environment. Crocodiles, butterflies, orchids, algae and many plants with potential horticultural value, could, with some ecological research and development, serve as adjuncts to the economy of rural areas. This is of great im portance because poverty 18 the single most serious threat to wildlife resources. If wildlife is to be saved, the people who are currently affecting the resources by their activities must be given more profitclble and ecologically acceptable forms of employment.

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Table 35: Critically Endangered/Extinct Species of Wildlife LEGAL COMMO/l SCIENTIFIC PROTECTION DESCRIPTION &. THREATS &. NAME __ ______ __________ ________ ________ ______ Caribbean Monk Seal Jamaican Iguana (Guana) Giant GaJliwasp Black Racer Jamaican Rice R"t Monachus tropicalis Cyclura collei Diploglossus (Celestis) occidus Alsophis alter Orysomys antillarum Jamaican Siphonorhis Paraugue americanus Jameican Ara gossei Macaw Blackcapped Petrel (Blue Mountain Duck) Pterodroma hasitata caribaea Probably extinct as a result of overhunting. Probably extinct as a result of habitat disturbance, hunt ing, and mongoose predation. Last specimen recorded 1969 (mumified). Probably extinct for about 100 years. Probably extinct. Extinct since 1900. Last recorded 1859. Existence not confirmed by specimens. Extinct. Extinct in Jamaica. Similar to Hawaiian Monk Sed I. Very abundant prior to C17 especiaJly on offshore cays. Southern plains and dry limestone forests. Once common. If any indi viduals are left, they Are in I!ellshire. Two foot long sl:ink. Last specimen taken from Black River area, may have been swamp dwelling. Black snake about Sf feet long. A brown and yellowish rat with whitish feet. It was probably a low land species as it was a pest in sugar canc. No data No data Has beer rediscovered in Domin 'can Republic. HeJlshire should be declared a National Park and core habitats protected and surveyed. No data Probably destroyed by mongoose. Disappearance corresponded with the introduction of the mon goose. It was vartic ularly vulnerable be \!ause of its diurnal habits. No data No data Mongoose, hunting, habitat destruction.

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-A o COMMON NAME Plain Pigeon (Blue Pigeon) Golden Swallow West Indian Manatee Giant Swa\1ow-tail Black Coral SCIENTIFIC NAME Columba inornata exigua Kalochelidon euchr:isea Trichechus manatus PapiIio homerus Antipathes spp. Table 36: Eradangered Species of Wildlife LEGAL ENDEMIC PROTECTION partial STATUS rare. Very rare and local. Rare and declining. Population probably fewer than 100. Occasional in a few locali ties. Rare and local. DESCRIPTION & DISTRIBUTION Confined to forested mountainous areas. Found in Cockpit Country high elevations. Large aquatic mammal valued for meat. They mainly occur on the south coastal shelf. Largest swaIlowtaiI in western hemisphere. Four.d i:1 John Crow Mountains and Cockpit Country. Found below depths of 60 ft. (20m). THREATS & SOLUTIONS Habitat Protection required in Hational Park system. Reason for decline not known. Subsistence hunting. Enforcement, monitor ing and public educ:a tion must be increased Threatened by collecting and habitat destruction. Forests in major population threatened by plantations of coffee and pine. Habitat protection urgently required. Threatened by col1ee tion for jewelry trade. Protected under Beach Control Act which prohibits col1ecting but nut sale or possession. Addition W.L.P.A. proposed. Habitat protection in Marine Hational Parks.

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Table 31: So .. 11 1breatened Species COMMON SCIENTIFIC DESCRIPTION THREATS NAME NAME ENDEMIC PROTECTION STATUS &. DISTRIBUTION &. SOLUTIONS Jamaican Geocal:!rom:z:s v 0/ Populat ion still Rodent about the size Rapid deforestation of Hutia iiownii healthy but declining. of small rabbit. Mainly habitat and increased (Oliver 1982, 1984) nooturnal. Inhabits intrusion by dogs could rock crevices and soon threaten this bushes in wooded species. Increased hilly areas. subsistence hunting and wasteful hunting practices lire also a threat. A .!ontrolled reintroduction project is being undertaken by Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust. Habitat protection urlfently required. American Crocod:z:lus Population healthy Found In most wet-Destruction of coastal Crocodile acutus but declining. lands, espec lally wetlands for housinlf, Numbers perhaps on the south coast. Industry and agricul2-5,000. ture Is the main threat. Expansion of fish farming toilS increased conflicts with this species. Research into control of crocodiles In fish farms, public educa-tion, and law enforce-ment are required. Hunting of crocodiles for sport, skin and meat must be controlled. A crocodile reserve at Luana/Font Hill, St. Elizabeth was proposed by NRCD and Is to be Implemented by PCJ. Marine Turtles HawksbiJI Eretomochel:z:s 0/ All popUlations declinOnly the Hawksbill Hunting for shells, Imbrlcata Inlf due to hunting and nest!: frequently on and eags continues at habitat disturbance. Jamaican beaches. o reduced rate gnce LeatherDermochel:z:s ./ 1982. back corlacea Jamaica may have Green ./ the largest nesting Chelonia population of HawksPublic eda:catlon, enbill In the Caribbean forcement, habitat (Bacon, et.a. 1982) protection and re-Kemps II Nesting takes place search are all Ridley keml:!ll all round the island. urlfently needed. LoggerCaretta \I helld caretta West DendroClvl[na v' Declining. Found In Bahamas, Cuba, Cause for decline Indian arborea Haiti, Dominican probably habitat Whistling Republic and Jamaica, destruction, di!lDuck Cayman Island, Puerto turbance and Rico, Virgin and huntlnlf. Rec;ulres 'I.. Leeward Island'!, habitat protection. 141

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Table 31: (contJ COMMON SCIENTIFIC DESCRIPTION THREATS NAME NAME ENDEMIC PROTECTION STATUS
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Table sa: &.e lWi_plei of Rare 8peelel COMMO" SCIENTIFIC LEGAL DESCRIPTION THREATS NAME ____ ____ ________ ____ Masked Duck Blue Swallowtail Pond TI riles Bromeliad Crab Ground Beelles St. Elizabeth Eurxtides marcellinus Pseudamxs jamaicensls Meta[!aulia depressa Carabidae Several Specie!: Cubaniclhx s 0/ Cyprinodon 0/ jamaicensis Eleotrls {>ernlger E. smaragdus Ptereleotris S[!. (undescribed) pXcnomma rosveltl .; Rare and local through-Restricted to small out range. Inland pools, rivers, and wetlands. Locally and seasonally abundant. Locally comll'on. Not known. Varies according to species. Not known. n n BulterrJy only known to breed In one orea In St. Thomas. Small turtle round in rresh and braek Ish water pools and rivers. The only clab in the world which completes its entire life cycle bromeliads. Some species large and attractive to collectors. St. Elizabeth Central south coast. LarKe rresh water rivers only. Drainage or pools, hunting. Hobitat protecti:m lind law enrorcement needed. Clearance or rorelt ror cl\&rcoal produe duction and agriculture. Habitat prolee t!on needed. Inrllling c! pools, wetlands, pollution or rivers. Habitat protection needed. Clearing or rorests. Habitat protection needed. Habitat destruction. Protecti:m needed. Changes to welle, rlvcr systems. Enrorcement or reau lations In thc WLPA concernlnK erOuents In rivers and use or traps required. 143

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...... t I Td>I. 21: 'TbroIteDed and Bare PlaJIts COI!ItJH KAME SCIDITIFIC HAll!: ENDEMIC LECAL STATUS DISnIBUTION THREAT POSSIBLE CO!iHON NA."!E SCIDITIFIC KAiiZ ENDEMIC I LECAL STATUS DISnI BtlTION TllREAT POSSIBLE PlOTECTION SOLUTION PlOTEcrI(lli SOLUTION 1 ORCHIDS I FErufS PolypodlU111 d.cu .... null Endang.r.d Linste.d. A cODc'd. .l!2!!d1adUIII bra St. Andrew, 1,2 A,B St. Catherln. St. Thoaa. Saccola.. e Ie sans Endangere Cgly RIver, 1 A St. Kary Epld.ndrv-Vory St. Andrew 1,2 A,B 8ub_guill bre Crath c.r.c Endang.rel Cap, 1 A Portland Cd.andra Vory St. Aan,Kanchoate, 1,2 A,B b.yriCh11 bra W t:morelaOld PolvpoJluliI Endangered Cap, 1 A Portlanc! Harris.Ha bre St. Andrew, 1,2 A,B porrecta Manchester. ?olystlchu. Endangered Arntully Cap, 1 A St. Thomas Trelavny Neoc.08!!lauxla I St. Andrew 1,2 A,B mcnophylla Portland BROKELlADS fal:ettl1 I Local St. Andrew, A (Wild Pines) Portland OctadeAli. V.ry St. Andrew, 1,2 A,B .!!!.E.!. Rar lleatmorel-snd. Ulland.La antl.llan. Rare Westaorelacd 1 A St. Elizaboth Treiavny Eu!l:8tXle Rare St. Andrev, 1,2 A,B T. .rsente. Raro St. Ellzab.th 1 A anaDaseocomoa Portland T. fawcctt11 Vory Rare Bluo Mountain I A Tetrall:!lcra Very Treiavay 1,2 A,B bre T. .chiedea:!a Rare St.Elizabeth, 1 A Hanchelter Trlchopllla Locally -1,2 A,B St. Andr.w cOllll:lOn Hohenbersla I Local Hanover, 1 A but deVeataorelacd Broushto\. ...... J Negrll H1U., -nesr11er.:sla We.moreland ORCHIDS Arpophyl!um I R.arl. St. Andrev, I, 2 A, B J Portland, EU r.thu. ---I St. Thomas ap_ (Dew epeeie.) !rachionldiUII RAre St. Andrev 1 A .herring11 Portland OTHER nOWERlNG BulbophZllua PUNTS .J Rare St. Andrew, I, 2 A, B Red Nickel Jam.alcenala .J V.ry Dolphin Head -A St. Thoma. local B. E:achlrachla Rare K&nover. I, 2 A, B u;danDolphin Head -A .it. EHzabeth Eugen!a Jeremlenals gared ComE_retti. Rara 2,500 ft I, 2 A, B declining 3,000 ft Rondeletia I Endan-Dolphln H .. d -A dolphinend. sered El!idondrwo Very Rare St. Andrew I, 2 A, B ansustl10btul I

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Table U Cecal.) I COIIHON NAH SCIEliTIFIC NAH ENDEKIC LECAL STATUS DISTRIBUTION TlIltUT POSSIBLE KAHE: SCIE.'fTIFlC liN'!: E. .. -:>EKIC LECAL STAnS ""IBUTIO.' THREAT POSSIBLE PROTECTION SOLUTION PROTECTIO SOLUTION Red lIickd Rondeletia I Dolphin Head A Hountain Bay puberula J Endangered Waterfall T 1 -[ A cont'd. eont'd. ne.ar Gap EnEatoriulI dolEhin J Dolphir. Head A [ueatorlum I Endangered Portland 1 A BUII811. J Dolphin Head A ap. (new .pecica) ap. (nev apeciee) Rondelet!.;,. J Endangered Arntully Gap, 1 A J Endanga-ed Peckham wood. 1 A .p. (ne ..... ?ecles) St. thO'ZA8 Jacquin!. I J Clarenaon 1 A OTHER ka2elerana Endangered 1 A ... e n.OIo/ERING J Clarendon, 1 A PUl."TS A...,thurlum Endangered Negril Hilla 1 A Randeletia clarendonensla St. Ann Coccoloba proctor11. Endaagered White rock hll 1 A EuE;atorlu. J -1 A Jamalcens18 I Endangered Ilhite rock hil 1 A bamma tocladUII J Crofts 1 A Vernonia Salvia species) J Endangered White rock hil 1 A cr&r'indonensla Mountain J 1 A Paneau Rose Endangered Pedro Ponda 1 A I.1sianthiua -op. (nev apeci .. ) J nd.sngered Near GInger H::lD 1 A J -1 A St.El1zabeth C1uo1a apecieo) Anchovy Pear f!.!.!.! caullflora J E.cdangered Black. River 1 A J -1 A Hora Mountain Qu11na Jamdcenob Bay Sapodilla I Kanllkara !!!!.! Endongered Cockpit country 1 A Pszchotria J 1 A I Endangered -1 A Ph1a1onthu. J Enda.red Hell.hin amplexicauli. revolutua Hilla, 1 A St. Catherine J Endongered -1 A Catesb ... parv1flor -1 A BernardI. Endaagered 1 A acutiseEalal Endanga-ed Worthy Park 1 A op. (nev 5?ec.Iea) ,l1lla, St. Savia Endangered -1 A Catherine ;p:-rnev apodeoj Turner. J t.ne JUver 1 A J ndacgered Island View 1 A ap. (nev apecies) GorC Hill St. Andrew J 1 A Ternlltroell.la J Endangered Trelavny 1 A Lisianth1ua -ca1Yl:1na cordifo11ua J -1 A Schefflera Endangered -1 A HeeE1ella troyan.. J St. Andrw, arsentea Endangered Hear Kandev1l1 1 A Vf'rbesina asper. St. Tboau 1 A Endangered Shooters Hill 1 A

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COKHOH !WI[ S.podill. conc'd. 146 S. (_tJ SC I EHTl FIC !WI[ EHDEHIC LEGAL DISTRIBUTION THREAT POSSIBLE PROTECTIO! SOl.UTIOH Podocareul J End.naored lIount Di.b10 1 2undlcinul !!l:!!! J End.naor.d N.ar Kalon RiVlr 1 St. ADIl .. J End.nalrod 1 .p. (now 'pecioa) .. ton,.. J Endaoaor.d 1 Laplltea J Endanaarld 1 .p. (UIV .peel ) Ocate. J Endns_rod 1 [useni. J Endanaar.d 1 1oliprophIll. J EDdeocard 1 cIa renC;or.enll. PaidiuD J Endansered -1 tarr1OIan ... Dendr0E;anu: J Endan,lred -1 srandi! 10ru. Thoae are on1, thl .plci .. whicb are kDown to bl end.olured. Hao, ..,n ara undoubted1, endln,ered .nd undbtDYuld. C.O. Ad&u "F1ouuiol P1.ot. of J .... ic nd C. Procter, "Flma of J ... ica cDllf\reh.na .... lin of J ... tca'. flovarina P1.nu .nd Fern ... w.ll .. thair .tUUl. + (1) Forolt duranca (2) Coll.ct1D& (3) Other + Solutiona: ;. -Muio ... 1 Parka and Protlcted Ar ... cr tloD. !I -lA,al Prot.ction A A A A A A A A A A

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AGENCIES AND INSTITUTIONS The agencies and iristitutions with programs and activities affecting Jamaica's wildlife and wildlife habitat management include government and quasi-government agencies, as well as private organizations. Thp key agency for wildlifl' management is the Natural Resources Conservation Di-v'ision, but several other agencies also contributt:' to wildlife> and habitat managpmt>nt efforts. Natural (N RCD) Resources Conservation Division Principal responsibility for the management of Jamaica's wildlife resources rests with the Ecology Branch of NRC D's Resource M anage ment Division. The work of tho<' Ecology Branch includes ad ministration of the Wild Life Protection Act (loJ L P A), ?ublic education, spe cies and ecosystems resparch and management, and habitat protection. One of the im portant functions of the Branch is the protec tion of rare, endemic and endangered species !lnd their habitats through administration of tht> W L P A. (See Legislation and Regulations.) The Ecology Branch prepares a variety of public information materials, conducts educational programmes on wildlife topics, and works closely with other organizations to bring wildlifp topics to the public. The Branch has .9.lso encouraged, sponsored, and carried out numt'r ous wildlife research projects. The Branch's development control .9.CtlVltl<'S include input to the conservation sections uf proposed Development Orders, to the National Physical Plan, and to the Town Planning Departm ent regarding proposed subdivision, building, and quarries developments and their potential effects on wildlife. With respect to develop ment proposals under review, the Ecology Branch recommends environmental impact m; sessments (including wildlife impact assessm ents) when appropriate. NRC D's National Parks Branch, Wetlands Br.ll1ch and Waterdhed Engineering Division work \>"ith the Ecology Branch to implement program mt:s and activities relating to wildlife managemt>nt. Local Agencies and Several other agencies are also involved in issues relating to wildlife management. They include: Government NRC D (Ecology Branch, Wetlands Branch, National Parks Branch, Watersheds Engineering Division) -Forest and Soils Conservation Department Fisheries Department -Veterinary Division -Phytosallitary Division Plant Plott>ction Division PubLic Gardens Division (cum prising 1I0pe Zoo and the Royal Botanical Gardtns) -R ural Physical Planning (Jnit -Natural History Division, Institute of Jamaica Tr:ILl,> Bnarci Nation.::!l Ht:'ritage Trust Petroli?um Corporation of Jamaica (PC,)) .Jamaica Attral,tions Developmpnt Company (JArJCO) Urban Dl'vllopment Corporation (UI)C) -Forest Industrit's Devi?lopml'nt Com pallY (FIf)CO) Coffee Industry Development Company (ClDC 0) Non-Government Organizations -Natural History Society of Jamaica (NHSJ) -Jamaica Junior Naturalists (JJN) -Gosse Bird Club -Jamaica Society of Scientists and Technol.')-gists -Jamaica Geographical Society -.Jamaica Geological Society -University of the West Indies (Zoology, Bota-ny Geology and Geography Departments) Hope Zoo Trust -Negril Soclety for Conservation of Nature -Entity Responsibilities of these agencies are summarized in Table 40. International Affiliations .J am aica has ratified seven international agreements whose provisions have implications for wildlife. Ratifications of several more has been proposed. Jarnllica is also a member of several international organizhtions. 147

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148 AGENCY Government NRCD Ecology Branch (RMD) National Parks Branch (RCD) Wetlands Branch (A RD) Watersheds Engineering Division Forest &. Soil Conservation Dept. Fisheries Division Veterinary Division Plant Protection Division Table 40: Summary or Institutional Responsibilities for Wildlire Resources AFFILIATION Department of Science &. Technology, Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of Agriculture RESPONSIBILITIES Administration of Wild Life Protection Act, including conservation of birds and other rare, endemic and endangered species; control of exploitation of indigenous plants and animals; administration of hunting season; wildlife reserves and sanctuaries. Habitat protection through liaison with National Parks Branch, other agencies and development control. Comments on environmental impact assessments, wildlife exploitation proposals. Design and implementation of projects for wiIdli fe conservation and research. Monitoring of statlJs of wildlife populations. 'Wildlife public education and materials development. Liaison with NGO's. Proposal of National Parks areas, including critical wildlife areas. Research and monitoring of wetland areas. Protection of wildlife habitats through watershed conservation. Development. research manallement and protection of forest resources. Jurisdiction over Forest Reserves which are also Wildlife Resel'ves. Some Forest Reserves have been leased to FIDCO and CIDCO for pine and coffee plantations. Administration, research and management of fisheries resources (including some species of wildlife). Issuance of sanitary permits for import and export of species. Issuance of phytosanitary permits for export of plants.

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AGENCY Hope Zoo Royal Botanical Gardens Rural Physical Planning Unit Na tural History Division, Insti tu te of Jamaica Trade Board Jamaica Defence Force Jamaica Constabulary Force Quasi Government National Heritage Trust Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica Jamaica Attrac tions Development Company Urban Development Corporation Forest Industries Development Co. Table 40 (cont.) AFFILIATION Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of Agriculture Office of the Prime Minister Ministry of National Security & Justice Office of the Prime Minister Ministry of Mining and Tourism Ministry of Tourism Ministry of Construction Ministry of Agriculture RESPONSIBILITIES Maintenance of displays of selected indigenous species. Captive breeding of indigenous and endemic species. Public education. Maintenance of botanical gardens at Hope, Cinchona, Castleton and Bath. Research into indigenous and introduced species. Public education. Production of soil capability and land use maps from remote sensing. Maintains important reference collection of West Indian plants, animals and Ii terature at museum. Administers Mason River and Green Hills field stations. Promotes conservation of nora and fauna, public education. Administers trade laws with responsibility for some wildlife products. Assists with law enforcement and specific projects. Assists with law enforcement. Administers National Heritage Trust Law makes provision for protection of natural areas and species habitats. Carries out environmental impact assessments for energy related projects. Manages selected areas in PCJ lands Including Royal Palm (Recreational) Reserve, proposed Luana Crocodile Reserve. Administers selected wildlife projects, including Jamaica Swamp safaris. Manages and implements selected projects, including proposed Hellshire National Park and parts of Negril. Substitution of Jamaica's imported lumber with home grown pine, in some cases. Forest resources are being planted and natural forest felled and replaced by pine plantations. 149

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150 Table 40 (eont.) AGENCY AFFILIATION RESPONSIBILITIES Coffee Industry Development Co. Ministry of Agriculture Development of coffee industry, some of which is on government owned forest lands and natural forests. Non-Government Organisa tions Natural History NGO Society of Jamaica Jamaica Junior Naturalists Gosse Bird Club Jamaica Geological Society of the West Indies Zoology Dept. Botany Dept. Geography Dept. Hope Zoo Trust Negri! Society for Conservation of Nature Entity NGO NGO NGO NGO NOO NGO NGO NGO NGO Promotes conservation of flora, fauna and habitats and areas of natural beauty mainly throuch field trips and talks. Public education and wildlife projects. Organises Nutional Wood and Water Day. Publishes "Natural History Notes". Promotes conservation of flora, fauna, habitats with young people in schools and youth groups with emphasis on Mandeville area. Publishes educational magazine for children "Crocodile News". Promotes bird conservation. Coopelates with NHSJ for national Wood and Water Day. Promotes knowledge of Jamaica's geology_ Promotes wildlife research. Promotes botanical research. Concern for deforestation. Upgrading and development of Hope Zoo. Promotes concern for all aspects of environment including flora, fauna, landscape. Informal group which promotes conservation of natural and built environment.

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International agencies which have assisted wildlife conservation in Jam aica include the C anadian International Development Agency (CID A), Organization of American States (OAS), Marine Action Centre, United States Agency for International Development (US AID), and the US Peace Corps. Since its inception, the NRC D has received assistancl' from the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and CIDA. In the case of UNEP, the emphasis has been on the creation of an effective institutional framework for resource management. Through CIDA, training program mes on resource management have been devised for NRC D staff. CIDA has also been instrumental in helping to establish guidelines for NRC D's Public Education Pro gramme. LEGISLATION AND REGULATIONS The most important law affectj'lg the management of wildlife resources in Jamaica is the wild Life Protection Act of 1973. In addition, an of the country's other environmental laws at least indirectly address wildlife or wildlife habitat management and protection. These other laws include the Beach Control Act, the W Iter shed Protection Act, the Forest Act, and the Town and Country Planning Act. The contents of some of the most important acts are summarized below. wild Life Protection Act (I 973) The Wild Life Protection Act is administered by NRC D. Protected Species. The W L P A provides for protected anim als and makes it an offense to have in one's possession "the w hole or any part of a protected animal living or dead". Protect ed animals include: -All birds except those listed in the first part of Schedule II (birds which may be hunted in season) and those which are ,listed in the second part of Schedule II (pest birds which may be hunted at any time). Protected animals listed In Schedule III. These are: Coney or Jamaican Hutia Geocapromys brownii A merican Crocodile Crocodylus acutus Jamaican Iguana Cylura collei West Indian Manatee Tricbechus manatus Pedro Seal M onachus tropicalis Hawksbill Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Leatherback Turtle Dermochelys coriacea Loggerhead Turtle Caretta caretta Green Turtle Chelonia mydas Kemps Ridley Turtle Lepidochelys Pcotected Areas. The Act provides for Game Sanctt.;aries and Reserves. No hunting or egg collecting or guns or weapons capable of being used to hUllt birds are allowed in Game Sanctuaries which include all areas specified in Schedule I of the Act. All Forest Reserves except the Peak Bay Reserve are Game Sanctu anes. There are no regulations governing land lise under this Act. Other Provisions. -Hunting. A hunting season may be declared for certain bird spe cies und er this Act. -Fishing in Rivers. The A.ct specifies the types of trap which may be used to fish in nvers. Pollution of Rivers. It is an offense to discharge any substance into rivers which may kill fish. -Dynamite. It 15 an offense to use dynamite to kill fiBh. Enforcement. The Act is enforced by the NRCD. Powers under the Act are conferred on Game Wardens who nominally have extensive powers of arrest, entry to lands, search and seizure of property. In prac tice these po w ers are not exercisable. The NRC D augments its enforcement by creating Honorary Game Wardens to assist with enforcement during the Hunting Season. This system has been completely ineifective in controlling bunt Ing. The NRC D has atte m pted to create a system of paid conservation wardens who would have primary responsibility for enforcement and education of environmental la ws. This system now needs financial support. Other Legislation Beacb Control Act. This Act, administered by NRC D, gives authority to control the exploitation of tbe floor of the sea and associated waters. Provisions which directly relate to wildlife are those which allow for the creation of Marine Protected Areas (these have been proposed and gaz etted in 0 c ho Rios and M on-151

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tego Bay) and for control of products from the floor of the sea. The collection of Black Coral is regulated under this act and other benthic marine organisms could be similarly protected. Developments up to 1 mile inland must also !Je approved by the Beach Control Authority. Watersheds Protection Act. The Watershed Protection Commission can make regulations to NRCA to control land use in protected watersheds. The entire island has been declared a protec ted watershed. Horant and Pedro Cays Act. Administered by the Fisheries Division, this controls access to, aJ1d exploitation of, the Morant and Pedro Cays and their resources, especially turtles and the eggs of the "Booby" terns. Fishing Industry Act. Administered by the Fisheries Divisio.l, this act control" exploitation of organisms defined as "fish" for the purposes of the A ct. Foresl Act. Administered by the Forestry and Soil Conservation Department, this Act provides for the creation of Forest Reserves. Bark of Trees Act. Administered by the Forestry and Soil Conservation Department, this Act controls removal and sale of the bark of certain trees. Town and Country Planning Act. This law administered by the Town Planning Department provir:les for the protection of selected trees under Tree Preservation Orders. National Heritage Trust Act. Areas of importance, e.g., as habitat for certain species, may be protected under this Act, \.Jhich is administered by the National Heri.tage Trust. Trade Laws. There is a provision under Trade Law 4 which prohibits export of all raw (unprocessed) turtle shells. The NRC D advises when application for exem ption are made. Other. Other legislation which pertains to the environment includes acts relating to the Urban Development Corporation, Petroleum Corporation, CIn CO, and Harbours. Control of Wildlife Exports and Imports Exports. There are no la ws regulating quantities of exports of flora and fauna from Jdmaica. Exporters generally require a phytosanitary certificate from the Plant Protection Division 152 (Ministrv of Agriculture) or a certificate of health from the Veterinary Division of the same Ministry. Where the country to which they are going has signed CIT ES, export of listed species will also require a CIT ES certificate. NRC D is the designated authority for CIT ES and issues permits on a discretionary basis. CITES certificates an' not issued for spE:'cies collected in contrave:1tion of the W L P A and quotas may be applied (e.g., for orchids). 1m ports. 1m ports of anim als and controlled under the la w relating to by the Ministry of Agriculture. PLANS AND PROGRAMMES plants are quarantinl" Most of the proposed plans for research and protection of wildlife and habitats originate with NRC D. Some of these projects are funded significantly by foreign agencies, e.g., a AS or USAlD. Recent and On-going Projects Recent and on-going projects include: Alligator Hole River Project. A wetland wildlife management project which stresses conservation of manatees, public education, and resource development. A display centre has been constructed and will feature a display on the ecology of the area. Other features will include semi-captive manatees, nature trails and picnic sites. This project was jointly funded by OAS and NRCD. Sea Turtle Population Assessment. The population of marine turtles in Jamaica has declined rapidly in the last 20 years due mainly to overfishing. Since 1982 all species have been protected under the IS F A. Marine turtles are also an international resource. A 1 y82 survey indicated that Jamaica had the highest population of Hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) in the Caribbean. An inter;lve programme of sea turtle conservation including public education, headstarting, regulation of trade and research was abandoned in 1982 because of staff shortage at NH.CD, but is still regarded as a priority. It IS hoped Jamaica's sea in 1986-1987, al:le. that a detailed evaluation of turtle stocks can be carried out if international funding is avail-

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Blue Swallowtail Research and Reserve Development. The Blue Swallowtail butterfly Eurytides marcellinus is endemic to Jamaica. It only breeds near Roselle in eastern Jamaica. A preliminary aSGessment of the ecology and distribution of this butterfly ana proposals for its conservation was carried out by a Peace Corps volunteer in 1980-1982. The U WI and Natural History Society of Jamaica have cooperated in this project. Further work which is required in the future includes the development of a reser.ve featuring facilities for visitors and public education. Fish Pond Predation Research. Jamaica has received assistance from USAID to develop fish farms as a protein source. Ponds in coastal areas suffer from predation by birds including brown pelicans, herons, and egrets. Crocodiles are also present in some ponds. Although all these species are protected, the main method of control is shooting. AnN R CD project, carried out by a Peace Corps Volunteer and funded by USAID, has evaluated the extent of avian predation and will produce recom mendations to reduce the effects in the form of a docull' ent which can be circulated to fish farm E rs. "Boob;" Tern Conservation and Research. "Booby" terns are exploited on the Morant and Pedro Cays for their eggs. Over--exploitation of eF,gs has caused the decline in the number of eggs collec ted from around 6,)0,000 per annum ill the 1920's to about 60,000 in the 1970's. In 1982, the NRCD with the assistance of the JDF, the Fisheries Division and the fishermen on the Cays set up a base camp on Middle Cay of the Morant Group. The Cay was protected from egging and research carried out. A strategy for management of the Cays has been developed, including the best way to protect the breeding population and to increase nesting habitat. It is hoped that the project will continue indefinitely. Luana Point Wildlife Reserve. Initially proposed by NRCD, the Luana Point Crocodile Reserve is to be developed by the P CJ. The aims of the project have not been publicized, but may include displays and breeding facilities for A merican crocodiles, interpretive displays, nature trails, boating and cam ping, as well as protection of natural areas. Manatee Population Assessment. From 1980 to 1982 NRC D carried out a series of aerial surveys of manatees. Information was collected un dolphins and turtles. As a result the ID ana tee population was estimated as not being more than 100. This survey needs to be repeated and updated at frequent intervals. Examples of Proposed Projects The follo wing serve as exa m pIes of the types of projects required. Generally what is required are active conservation projects, not research projects with no applied elements. In particular, prOJ.!cts which emphasize the development of wildlife as an economic resource should be stressed. Species Projr cts o Captive Rearing of Giant Swallowtail Butter-Qt. The Giant Swallowtail (Papilio homerus is the largest swallowtail in the weotern hemiqphere and has considerable value for collectors. Habitat destruction is the major threat for this species as forests in it main habitat areas are being rapidly r:elled for plantation agriculture. NRC D has proposed, and will seek funding for, a project to investigate corn mercial captive rearing of this species on a village level scale. U WI is currently proposing to implement this project. o Jamaican Iguana Hunt. Proposed project to investigate whether any individuals of this endemic species remain in the Hellshire area. Habitat Preservation Projects. The development of a system of National Parks and protected areas is essential for wildlife conser-vation. This should include large National Park sites which would be surrounded by buffer areas and zoned for various types of use. There would also be a need for other types of reserves including scientific reserves, and recreational reserves among others. A preliminary classification was included in the National Physical Plan 1974-1994. Two Marine National Parks (at M on tego Bay and Ocho Rios) have been gazetted but not enforced. The Marine Parks Action Com mittee has been ent: usted with the task of creating a Marine Park system. The development of comprehensive legislation, providing for establishment, management and fundraising of a system of National Parks and protected areas is urgently required (see National Parks sector report). 153

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PROBLEMS AND The main issue which affects the wildlife sector is habitat destruction caused by poorly sited development of all types. Other problems include over exploitation, for purposes of commerce, subsistence 'lnd sport. This stel!lS from a lack of em phasis at any level on sustainable use. There is a need for a rE'view of legislation to strengthen and updatE' existing la ws, and for the upgrading of the machinery for t'nforce m t'n t. It must be emphasized that the basic causes of problems in the wildlife sector are ignorance, fear, poverty and greed. I)ntil persons exploiting wildlife and wildlife habitats at subsistence level are provided with alternative more lucrative ways of making their living, and the country makes a commitment to sustainablE' use, as opposed to "mining" of rt'sources, there can be no meaningful strategy for use of wildlife. &\11 measures which fail to address these funua mental questions can only be regarded as stopgaps, \J ith no n>al probability of success in a democcatic country. There are many ways in which natural resources can be managed sustainably. 1 hese methods usually benefit the rural com m unities who are the main stewards of the resources. If Jamaica is to regain, beyond the next 15 years, any meaningful portion of her rich and valuable national heritage, it is essential that pdority be given to sustainable use at all stages of development. Attention must be given to implementation of the World Conservation Stra tegy and local environmental institutions must be rationalized, strengthened and supported. The examples of Ethopia, other African countries, and Haiti can be appreciated by all. Their acure political and social problems stem largely from a failure to use wisely their natural resources (especially fauna and flora). The problems listed below cannot be dealt with lI1 isolation. A holistic is essential if the natural environ m en t is tc. be saved. Habitat Destruclcion Agriculture. The clearance of hillsides, primary forests, mangroves and swamp forests for a variety of agricultur.al purposes is the single most serious threat to the environment and wildlife. Clearance patterns are the resuit of distribution of land ownership and the pressures of market forces, both national and international. Among the crops which are being produced 154 in areas which might have DPen more appropri .qtely designatE'd f0r conservation are coffee, pines, ganja, vegf'tablf's, fi..,h and shrim p. ThE' problem is not the production of these crops but the lack of environmental impact assessment for agricultural projects, the lack of coordination betwet'n the various user groups and the apparent absence of any enforcement of regulations pertaining to land use (from the use of agricultural chemicals to the control of the use of "reserves"). Urban Development. The expansion of towns into their hinterlands in an apP3rently uncontrollable way, the creation of large new housing estates and even new towns in thE' 1970's and 198Q's with very little concern for the environmental impacts as expressed by NRCD; the absence of machinery to ensure the enforcement of conditions anrl regulations, building and development which are dra wn up by NRC 0 and other agencies to safeguard wilrllife and other conservation interests, are serious local problems. The entire development of tl1' Portmore area near Kingston is an environmental disaster. It is developed on an infilled mangrove swamp. The bridge installed to im prove access to Kingston resulted in the destruction of one of the most productive fishing arees in the Kingston Harbour. Birds and crocodiles were also severely affected by the development. The development of neighbouring HeUshire New town has serious implications for the unique fauna and flora of the area which includes or included the Jam aic:an Iguana. Road construction in remote areas which is carried out to provide work; to provide access to agricultural or industrial sites or to open areas for settlement also has serious implications when it is implemented without considerCio tion of potential impacts on flora and fauna. Industry. The activities of certain industries also have serious effects on wildlife. Examples are: 1. Bauxite Mining and Alumina Product ion. The early bauxite plants had fairly severe environmental consequences. Mining destroys the terrestrial features of the area mined which can never be replaced, even though most companies now take pains to rehubilitate the land after mining. Several are .. :Is of importance for indigenous orchids have been destroyed by mining. The Bayer process results in quantities of highly caustic red mud. The first ponds which were constructed were not properly sealed and caused pollution of

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ground water. Transportation of bauxite, alumina and fumes from the processing plants are potential sources of air pollution which reduce plant production in certain areas. Loading operations at the various port and piers have resulted in aquatj.c pol.!.ution both from spillage of bauxite and alumina and oil. 2. Sugar Processing. The dunder which is the result of sugar processing seriously affects the rivers into which it is fr.equently dumped, on the south coast. 3. Coffee Processing. Coffee processing wastes are also frequently dum ped into mountain streams with serious consequences for the aquatic life. 4. Solar Salt Production. Solar Salt production is resulting in the unnecessary destruction of mangroves in Portland Bight. 5. Peat Mining. Peat mining which has been proposed for the Negril Morass can perhaps be done in an environmentally acceptable way. After much study the question of whether peat mining is the best use of a significant proportion of Jamaica's dwindling wetlands has 'lot yet been satisfactorily addressed. 6. Sand, Grave" Limestone and Mining. River sand mining as well as quarrying of limestone and related products appears to be increasing in an uncontrolled fashion. The implications for wildlife have not been assessed. 7. Infrastructure. The provision of services is sometim.:!s considered without full evaluation of the ecological consequences. Road construction is discussed above. Recently a pipeline was put in from the Yallahs River to the Mona Reservoir to increase the water supply for Kingston. This was constructed without any input from the environmentalists and has resulted in massive landslips which may affect marine and aquatic productivity and siltation in the dam which the pipeline is supplying. These serve to emphasize the urgent need for legislation making EIA compulsory for All projec ts above a certain size, and involving environmental agencies from the earliest stage in the planning process so that potential conflicts may be reduced. K][ploitation of Wildlife Hunting 1. Sport. Columbids are hunted in season. The season is regulated by the N R CD through the W LPA. Regulations concern the species which may be hunted, bag limits, season dates, licenses and shooting days. In recent years these provisions have been ignored and this has resulted in a decline of the bird populations (Momot 1985). This type of hunting is largely an elite activity. There are several Gun Clubs which attempt to encourage their mem bers to be more responsible in their attitude to the resources. Lack of enforcement capability and lack of support for enforcement init:'.atives are serious problems. 2. Subsistence. Small boys with catapults take many small birds in rural areas. The birds which are killed using catapults are usually eaten. It is not clear how far these birds are important as a dietary supplement for low protein diets. Country men also hunt wild pigs and coneys. How far this is done for sport and ho w im" ')rtant this is in diets is not known. 3. Pet Trade. Parrots popular pets in Jamaica and abroad. Despite attempts to control this trade there is still intense hunting in some parts of the country (Cook 1984). Egg Collection. The eggs of Sooty Sterna fuscata and Noddy Terns Anous stolidus are collected as luxury food items on the Morant and Pedro Cays. These birds have been the subject of a successful program me of research and management by NRC D in conjunction with the Fisheries Division, JDF Coastguard and U WI since 1982. Legislation and Enforcement. The legislation controlling the exploitatiolt of wildlife is much in need of revision and updating. There is an urgent need for legislation to provide for National Parks and Protected areas. Other areas which need attention include: The consolidation and rationalization of the number of laws dealing with wildlife and protected areas. This should be considered at 155

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the same time that the role of the vanous agencies is evaluated. If there is to be any meaningful wildlife conservation in Jamaica, there must be a strong NRCD or an equivalent powerful central government agency. must be given to the best way to achieve this. One possibility would be the creation of a Ministry of the Environment which would encompass the interests of <111 the environmentally oriented agencies. The Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, which was created in 1984, was a step in the right direction but did not go far enough. Its collapse put NRC D in an unfavourable position. In the short term the W L P A needs revision. 1m mediate steps which should be taken include the revision of the Schedules. In particular, the Giant Swallowtail and other invertebrates including Black C oral should be added to the list of protected species. Thought needs to be given to which of the other species listed here uhould be added. The fines need to be significantly increased. 0 ther changes have also been suggested in the text but tl:ese proposals were dra wn up in 1980 and require revision and fl!::-ther thoughts in the light of recent developments. The proposal puc forward by NRC D that Jamaica should adhere to the Convention on Trade in Endangered Species, and the Convention on Migratory Animals will necessitate some modifications to Jamaica's laws especially with respect to control of export and im port of wild anim als and plants. One problem area is the current lack of legislation concerning protection of indigenous plants. In the short term this could be most simply addressed by changing the WLPA so that "protected species" is substitutet\ for "protected animals" and "species" defined tel include plants. Then selected plant species could be protected '.Jnder the Act in the same way that animals are currently protected. Fines and penalties are :.n urgent need of revision. Enforcement is currently handled mainly by a group of three Conservation Wardens employed by NRC D. This ne w group of officers was intended to involved at com m unity level with conservation la w enforcement (mostly for wildlife), public education and data gathering. It was envisaged that there would be at least two officers per parish. The ConsP.rvation Warden system should be brought up to com plement as soon as possible. Officers should be provided with transportation, radios, public education 156 materials and equipment and the ,other equipment essential for them to function. The ongoing initiatives to increase support from the Jamaica Constabulary and members of N GO's and the public at large must be emphasized strongly. Development Control As mentioned above there is an urgent need to upgrade the processes of development control. Measures required include: Introduction of legislation which will make EIA compulsory for certain projects including agric ultural projec ts. -Strengthening of NRCD, TPD and the Parish Councils or equivalent regional institutions so the regulations concerning can be enforced and mo.'litored. This includes building regulations and Development Orders. Control of Introduction of Species In the past the introduction of species has apparently caused the extinction of many endemic species. Great care should be taken that new species are not accidentally introduced. Existing procedures need to be modified and NRC)) included in the process of approval for im portation Clf plal1ts or anim also Some species spread naturally. It is not known how the advent of the Egret affect Jamaican birds in the 1950's. The Glossy Cowbird benairensis is spreading through the Caribbean but is not thought to have reached Jamaica yet. In other countries its parasitic habit has meant that it has severely affected endemic species. Commercial Harvesting C orals. Several species of coral are affected by commercial harvesting. Black Coral Antipathes spp. is in great demand for the production of jewelry. Although collection is regulated under the Beach Control Act, there are no contr.ols on sale and possession, and stocks have been severely depleted by uncontrolled harvesting. It is proposed to protect Black Coral under the WLPA. Thought must also be &i.ven to the protection of other species of coral which are currently being harvested and sold

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on the north coast, often in a very wasteful fashion, with serious consequences for reef ecology. A recent request for a com mercial licence to exploit corals for export was rejected by the NRC D. Tropical Marine Fish. Some interest has been shown in the ha.-vest of trotlical marine fish for export. A license was granted for a trial period but there appear to be problems associ ated wi.th this trade. illegal operators using cyanide are potentially a serious problem and may already be damaging the reefs. Seashells. Interest has been shown in commet-cial harvesting of Donax shell,: for jewel=y. It idtially that such harvest can be sustained in certain areas (given appropriate safeguards). Care needs to be ta,ken to make sun' that commercial collecting is adequately regulated. There is a sm all industry based on indigenous orchids. Com mercial E-xploitation has been all0 w ed on the basis that a certain a mount of collecting would be needed to establish bench grown com mercial stocks. However, there is evidence that the situatior. is being abused and the question of orchid policy must be reviewed as a matter of urgency. The basic problem with permitting com Iuercial .:-xploitation of these and other species from the wild is that there is little knowledge about the ecology and population sizes and replacement rates of target species. Even more importantly, there is virtually no formal monitoring capacity. For these reasons many countries in the region have a complete ban on all exploitation and export (e.g., Belize). C sptiVI'! Breeding Interest has been sho wn in captive breeding of sevc;:'dl species including parrots and Geotr.ygon versicolor. 1 roposals have also been received for captive breeding of alligators. The last was discouraged because of the chance that escaped animals might become established in the wild. The Hope Zoo should be encouraged to develop its interest in captive breeding. Contalilllination of Wildlife Habitat Effluent discharges are another. problem. Dumping of sewage, garbage, chemicals industrial and agricultural wastes into streams, rivers, sinkholes, gullies and harbours affects the ecology of aquatic syste ms. There is some patchy r.lonitoring of water quality in certain areas by NRC 0 and the E CD but the lack of staff, analysis facilities and support of all kinds means that there are few prosecutions, pUblica tions or even publicity about water pollution problems as they affect w;_ldlife. There is an urgent need for the development of standards for water bodies. There is also a need for the development of a system of biologics! indicators of water quality. Th'se would greatly improve overall monitoring capabilities. oil pollution appears to be an increasing problem. "Tar balls" from the discharge of bilge water and tank cleaning at sea Ot" illegally carried out in harbours are com mono There are also regular problems with accidental spills resulting from damage to An oil spill contingency plun has been drawn up which includes a response team from all the involved. It is expected that this team will be able to deal with any major oil spills in the future. spills can uamage mangroves and result in the death of resident species of fish, shellfish, birds and benthic organisms especially tur.tle grass communities (B. Wade, 1980). The planned increase in coal burning facilities may be expected to cause the types of problems associated \.,ith acid rain. 'fhe uncontrolled use of pesti;:ides and fertili zers on crops may also contribute to the mortality of birds and aquatic species. No figures are available about the extent of this problem. Staffing and (!onstrainta The basic problems affecting wildlife management in Jamaica are lack of staff, funds and institutional support. Proper wildlife m anagement demands a complement of highly trained, well motivated staff. The current payment and career 3tructure of the wildlife section means that although excellent staff may be attracted to work in the section they are Imlikely to stay. Inadequate pey at the lower levels and poor job satisf:lction at the upper levels, com bined with impossibly frustrating working conditions, are the main problems. This applies not only in II? It C D but at the other institutions with responsibility and interest in wildlife; e.g., the Institute of Jamaica Natural History Division, the Hope Zoo, and the University of the West Indies. Consideration should be given to some amalgamation of the first three mentioned above, as 157

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well as the National Parks Branch, possibly under the a ffice of the Prime Minister or the Ministry of Tourism. M ore integration of function would im prove administratil)n of wildlife policy and help to ensure the best use of limited resources. The level of staffing required by the present Ecology Branch of the NRC D depends on the role which NRC D is to take in the future. However, the absolute minimum staff for this Sedion is One Branch Chief; one graduate to dedI with general wildlife enforcement and related public education program mes; one deal ing mainly ,,ith development assistance and policy; and a third dealing with specific PX"O jects. Major projects such as the Alligator Hole River Project requires ful! time graduate staff. There is also an urgent "eed for the provision of at 1.ea'3t two Conservation Wardens per pc>.rish. A 11 posts req uire upgrad lng. It is also essential that sufficient funds be provided to ensure that com m it,nents can be met. The implementation of all Ecology Branch projects has been drastically affected by cash flow problelils. An effort should be made to stress the crucial importance of wildlife for tourism and to make c;ure that funding is provided proportionally. Public A vareness There is a general lack of public a \0 areness of wildlife values. This is true at all levels of society, inside and outside the government. It has been shown in m any other countries that the np.tllral heritage is not valued until it is almost destroyed. There is an urgent need for the development and promulgation of public education materials including audio visuals, displays lncluding mobile museum and mass media events. There is also a crippling shortage of basic texts on wildlife subjects. The Institute of Jamaica, the NRCD and che various N GO' s all req uire vastly increased levels of support to enable them to work to increase the general level of knowledge about the environment. Support and Representation From being a self accounting Department, the NRC D has been downgraded to a Division of a Department in the large Ministry of Agriculture. 158 The lass of autonomy and fl('xibility have serious implications for policy and the strength of NRCD recommt>ndations. The role of the Division apFean; to be projected as primarily monitoring (largely through desk study) and research. Such a role cannot address the of the Wildlife Sector and appears to be short sighted and ill-con.:::eived. The reconstitution of the Beach Control A uthority and Watersheds Protection Commission is welcomed as the absence of this Authority from 1981-1984 undermined the NRC D's powers. Ho wever, there is also a need for the reconstitution of the Wild Life Protection Com mittee, as well as the need for more support from the Ministry. There is also a need for improved cooperation bet ween .111 agencies with the environ ment. The P CJ has takf'n on the Do\. for energy related projects. The situp.tilln w llt'rf' an agt'llcy is implementor and evaluator I.e; most unusual and would not appear to bE' cOllducivt> to unbiased evaluation of projects. The P CJ has also taken over a crocodile project" at Lu.1na Font Hill initially propo!Ied by NRC D. The U vH Zoology, Botany and Geography Departments have an essential role to play in stim ulating, directing and supporting research for wildlife. They are also essential to train staff. Any move to reduce the output of qualified graduates and postgraduates will drastically affect the scientific agencies of government. Low salaries for these jobs may mean that it is im possible for U WI gradua tes to work with these agencies aftet" graduation. The change in the fee structure at U WI must be deplored from this point of view. ideally, these departments should be preparIng to increase the contribution they make to training Branch staff and to relJearch on Wildlife Projects. FOR FUTURE WORK Terrestrial Ecology Research .and Development Little is known about the ecology of Jamaica's wildlife species. Habitat requirements, distribu tion, status and potential for sustainable use, all require research and developmf'llt. There is a need for long-term monitoring so th;lt a data base may be aCl:umulated to serVf:> as tlw b.1sis for informed decisions about the future>

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uses of wildlife species and their habitats. Both plants and animals need much further s':udy. The NRCD, UWI, Institute of Jamaica, Hope Zoo, and Botanical Gardl'ns all have important roles to play in this. Whl'rever possible it is im portant that local institutions be encouraged to carry out this work (with international funding whl'n available) and given precedence over foreign onl's. The University of West Indies Botany, Zoology and Geography Depart ml'nts should be encouraged to play a more active role in terrestial ecologi.cal research. National Parks and Protected Areas The df-vi:'lopmpnt and im pIe rr.entation of a National Park and protected area system is till' single most important requirement in the wildlife sector. It is essential that wildlife interests are fully considered in the development of this system. To ensure this, ecological studies will be required of the proposed areus so that appropriate recom mendations can be made. Development of Wildlife ResourceD Plant and animal resources of potential economic value should be identified and work done to develor the m. Plants of hortic ultural, agricultural, and pharmac.cutical value, animals which could be captive bred for export, and development of wildlife tourism are potential areas for expansion. Legisla tion The existing la ws req uire updating and revision. There is a need for new legislation for National Parks and protected areas. There is also a need for expansion of the capability for la w enforcement and public education concerning the laws. Public Education There is a need for public education. For example, a Mobilt! Exhibition, featuring audiovisuals and fixed and living exhibits could take the principles of conservation to rural areas, especially schools. Upgrading of the Institute of Jamaica's Natural History museum is currently being implemented with funds from 0 AS, but the capability of the Natural History Division needs to be expanded. Development of Zoological and Botanical Gar dens M ore em phasis must be placed on all gardens as centres for conRervation of endige oous plants of actual and potential economic value. Such projects could ultimately be self financing and help to support other habitat protection projects such as National Parks. The Hope Zoe should also be encouraged to expand and to concentrate on Jamaican and Caribbean peCles. 159

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Plate 23 Section of river in Canoe Valley Jamaica's first National Park.

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NATIONAL PARKS AND PROTECTED AREAS OVERVIE W OF RATIORAL PARK.S AMD PROTECTED AREAS One of Jamaica's greatest assets is her out standing scenic beauty; unique plant and animal species, and enormous variety of ecosystems (including wet and dry forests, rivers, caves, mineral springs, sandy beaches, rocky shores, mangroves, herbaceous swamps, swamp forests, salinas, In ountains and plains). Ho wever, natural areas being ciestroyed at an unprecedented rate. The difficulty of ;:om paring the longterm benefits of natural are.a protection with short-term economic benefits has been one of the primary impediments to the development of It syste m of national parks and protected areas. of representative areas of natural ecosystems and areas of natural beauty under a aystem of national parke and protected are&s would have many benefits: o To enhance and diversify local and foreign tourism through the provision of new amenities and to stimulate interest in outdoor activities such as nature tours, hiking, camping and bird watching. The economic and social benef.its for t".Jral com munities make national parks and protected areas especially important. o To preserve natural resources which could form the basis for new industrial and marketing ventures. These :.-esources could provide raw materials for the. production of craft items, new pharmaceuticals, and horticultural plants, and can provide new genetic materials for crop producti.on. o To aosure the quantity and quality of water supplies for domestic, industriJll, and agricultural use. o To reduce the magnitude of impacts from natural disasters such as floods, fire, drought and hurricanes. o To protect resources on which many people depend for their livelihood (for example, provide spring and river water for farm ers and spawning grounds for commercial varieties of fish). For the purpose of this report, only natural areas are considered. Recreational parks, parks, botanical gardens and zoological gardens, which are intensively managed by man, are excluded. 161

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The ecological values of conserving representative areas of natural ecosystems include: o Provision of refuge areas for endangert>d and rare wildlife; o Protection of critical habitat for animals and plants; o Provision of areas for research in undisturbed conditions; and o Preservation of representative areas of typical natural ecosystems. The psychological and sociological values of national parks and protected areas cannot be quantified, but are also im portant. These include recognition of the international significance of Jamaica's natural landscape, flora and fauna, as well as the enjoyment of Jamaica's na t ural heritage. History of National Parks Interest in national parks in Jamaica was first aroused in the 1930's when Hardware Gap and Clydesdale Forest Reserves were established. These Forest Reserves included overnight accom modations and trail systems for IJublic use. The principle of protection of natural areas was also addressed at an early date in various acts, including the Morant and Pedro Cays La w (1904); Forest Act (1942), the wild Life Protec tion Act (1945); Beach Control Act (1956); and the Watershed Protection Act (1963). Although many reserves have been designated under these acts, no co m prehensive national parks legislation has been introduced. The National Physical Plan (1970-1990) stated the need for: "An integrated regional system of a wide range of parks, recreational and conservation areas reflecting Jamaica's social needs and natural environ m ent". The subsequent National Physical Plan (1978-1998) recommended that national parks be legally designated and priority areas selected for im plementation. A Provisional National Parks Committee was established under the Forest Department in 1970 for further identification of areas suitable for National Parks and to initiate tbeir development. In 1972 the committee continued to operate under the then Ministry of Mining and Natural Resources and, from it, emerged the National !'arks Branch of the NRC D which was established in 1975. Since 1976, several policy documents and proposals for park development have been prepared: 162 the John Crow Mountains and Blue Mountains (1972); Portland Bight and Ridge (Cotterell et a!. 1983); Canoe Valley (Harvey, 1986); Black River Lower Morass (NRCD, 1984); Negril (1984); P alisadoes and Port Royal Gays (C otterell, 1980); and Cockpit Country (Cotterell, 1979). Two marine national parks were declared under the Beach Control Act Ocho Rios (1966) and Montego Bay (1973). The Natinn'll Heritage Trust Act (1985) provides for Lhe declaration of protected national heritage sites and national monuments and many sites have been designated under this act. Despite these init.i.atives, however, there are no national parks in Jam aic a, nor is there effective enforcement of the provisions which pertain to the protec ted areas listed above. Jamaica has also lagged behind other Caribbean countries in national park development. Definitions The National Physical Plan 1978-1998 includes the following definition of National Park: an ecosystem selected to conserve in perpetuity unique and/or representative areas of nationally and internationally significant geographic, geological and biological features or phenom ena. It provides opportunities for those recreational and educational activities which enhance man's understanding and appreciation of the natural environment without im pairing it.' The NRCD (Harvey, 1986) has recommended that the definition of the National Park System be revised and incorporated into a new legislative framework. The criteria which were suggested for the selection of the national parks were: Jamaican significance, ecological integrity, recreational diversity, public benefits, and re.lsibil ity. (The Plan also mentioned, but did not define, two other categories Large and Small Inland Conservation areas). The International Unio:1 for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) has produced a classification system which is nationRlly recognized (CNPPA, 1984). The NRC D has suggested that Jamaica adopt these definitions. This would have many advantages, including facilitating the search for international funds for national parks projects. The proposed categories are sum marized in Table 41.

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AGURE: 26 EXISTING AND PROPOSED PARKS AND PROTECTED AREAS Jt EXISTING PlARINE PARKS PROPOSED MARINE PARK PROPOSED NATIONAL PARK SCENTIFiC RESERVE PROPOSALS PROPOSED NATURE RESERVE PROPOSED NtmJRAL MONUMENT BOTANICAL GARDENS PLI3UC BEACHES --+-.a SCENIC ROUTES PROPOSED SCENIC ROUTES CAVES MINERAL SPRINGS LARGE INLAND CONSERVATION AREA SMALL M-AN:> CONSERVATION AREA WATERSHED MARINE REEF Source: National Physical Plan, JamaiCQ. (1978 -'98 ) t N I

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164 Table 41: Description of Proposed Reserve Categories and Some Proposed Jamaican Areas Definition (after CNPPA, McNeely 1984) I. SCIENTIFIC RESERVES/NATURE RESERVES Representing natural areas containing outstanding ecosystems, geological features or species of national or international importance. II. NATIONAL PARKS Relatively large areas, not materially affee ted by human exploita tion and occullation, containing special wildlife habitat and geomorphological sites of special scientific, educational and recreational interest or are landscapes of great beauty. Exploitation is limited to pre-existing uses which are not detrimental to the protection of the park. Public access for inspirational, educational, cultural or recreational purposes. Some Proposed Areas (Harvey, 1986) (List is not exhaustive) Mason River Field Station (Clarendon) Holland Swamp Forest (St. Elizabeth) Great Morass (St. Thomas) Blue Mountains and John Crow Mountains (St. Thomas, Portland) Palisadoes, Port Royal Cay S. (Kingston) Hellshire (St. Catherine) Canoe Valley (Clarendon, Manchester) Cockpit Country (St. James, St. Elizabeth, Trelawny, Manchester) Black River Lower Morass (St. Elizabeth) Dolphin Head (Westmoreland) Negri! (Hanover, Westmoreland) (Marine and Terrestrial) Ocho Rios Marine Park (St. James) Montego Bay Marine Park (St. James) Discovery Bay Marine Park (St. Ann) Marine Parks in St. Mary (Portland) III. NATURAL MONUMENTS/NATIONAL LANDMARK Areas containing features of outstanding natural significance such as wa terfalls, caves, species or pl'ln ts and animals. Management emphasis is on the protection of the inherent features. IV. NATURE CONSERVATION RESERVE/ WILDLIFE SANCTUARY Areas managed for the stability or survival of unique or important species of animal or plant and their habitats. Habitats may be modified in the interest of target species. Fern Gully (St. Ann) Blue Mountain Peak (Portland) Rio D'Oro Natural Arch (St. Catherine) Thatchfield Cave (St. Ann) Windsor Cave (Trela wny) Lovers Leap (St. Elizabeth) Ys River Falls (St. Elizabeth) Middle Cay (Morant Group) Secay (Pedro Group) Belvedere (St. Thomas) Portland Bight Fish Sanctuary Bogue Fish Sanctuary (St. James) San San Tree Preservation Area (Portland) Rocklands Bird Sanctuary (St. James) Luana/Font Hill (St. Elizabeth) See Footnote

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V. PROTECTED LANDSCAPE 01{ SEASCAPE Nationally significant natural landscRpes characteristic of the hllrmonious ipter action of man and which provide opportunities for recreation and tourism within the normal life style and economic activity of these areas. VI. MULTIPLE USE MANAGEMENT AREAS Large areas containing zones of biological and geological importance for education or recreation which are manuged for sustained production or renewable natural resourccs including timber, water, pasture and outdoor recreation. VII. BIOSPHERE RESERVE Areas large enough to function as con servation units and accommodate different activities without f!onflict approved by Man and Biosphere International Co-ordinating Council. Four zone:> will be included: natural or core zone, buffer zone, restorative zOlle and 'ltable cultural zone. VIII. WORLD HERITAGE SITE Areas of "outstanding universal value" designated by the International Work Heritage Committee under the International Convention concerning the protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (UNESCO 1972). Selection of Fish Sanctuaries (K. Aitken) East Coast scenic route (Morant Bay to Boston Bay) Buff Bay scenic Route (St. Peters to Buff Bay) Cockpit Country scenic I'oute (Troy to Windsor Great House) Jacks Hill (St. Andrew) Kingston & St. Andrew Game Reserve All Watershed areas All Forest Reserves Specific areas to be identified later Cockpit Country ) Almost every commercial fish species has well-defined nursery areas lind these generally are known to have the followi ng characteristics: Thes{;' areas are usually shallow, protected embayments which offer shelter and food for juveniles and spawning adults occasionally. It was for the preceding reasons that a number of coastal areas were chosen llS fish nurseries. It is vital that some such areas be set aside and protected in the form of fish sanctuaries as without them the constant human encroachment on mangrove areas and the development of coastal areas fOl' new housing, shipping facilities and other usage is resulting in the continuing loss of several important coastal zones known to function as nurseries. Without these areas, fish stocks, will under pl'esent conditions. steadily decline to a point beyond which they may be unable to recover. The following areas were identified: West Harboul' (West Portland Bight, Old Harbour Bay, Clarendon); Galleon Harbour (:':ortheastern Portland Bight, St. Catherine); Long Bay. Cuguar Bay, Manatee Bay. (St. Catherine); Falmouth Bay, Trelawny; Folly Bay in St. Thomas, ElIoody Bay (including Negri! Harbour). liunover; Portions of Discovery Bay, St. Ann; Portions of Port Royal Mangrove Forest, Kingston; Portions of the Port Royal Cays (incorporate all areas within a radius of one kilometer); Middle Cay on Morant Bay and South West Cay on Pedro Bank. 165

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AND INSTITUTI(J,NS Government Agencies The agencies which have responsibilities related to national and protected IJreas are sum marized in Table 42. NRCD's National Parks Branch has responsibility for national park and protected area development, but has not been in a position to fulfili this role effectively because of the constraints discussed below. Until 1984, the main thrust of the work of the National Parks Branch was the form ulation of proposals for national parks. Since then, more emphasis has been placed on the establishment of the Alligator Hole River Project, Clarendon/ Manchester, which is the nucleus of the proposed Canoe Valley National Park. As a result of cooperation with the Ecology Branch in this internationally funded project, significant progress has been made to\lards Jamaica's first national park. Facilities in the central area include an educationd display, wardens quarters, a picnic area and an access point on the river. The area will be opened to the public as scon as sufficient staff have been employed to run the project. In addition to specific national park and protected area projects, the National Parks Branch has been investigating the availability of international funds ano identifying international contacts. As part of this program me, a detailed analysis of Jamaica's position on national parks was produced (Thorsell, 1981), but none of the report's recommendations have been implemented. The lack of consensus on definitions, criteria and objecti.ves for national parks and protecteci areas has contributed to problems when other quasi-government agencies have started to develop natural areas. l'rojects in Fern Gully and Negru Royal Palm Forest were both initially presented to the public by the Urban Development Corporation (UD C) and the Petroleum C lrporation of Jamaica (p CJ), respectively, as "national parks", but failed to meet the criteria and objectives fUl parks. There is an urgent need to educate agencies in the proper definition of protected areas and their management. International Affiliations and Conventions Jamaica ratified the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural Heritage 166 (Paris 1972) in 1983. Jamaica has not yet proposed any sites for inclusion under this treaty, which provides for the protection of internationally important natural sites. Also in 1983, Jamaica ratified the Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean (Cartagena 1983), which includes provisions for protection of fragile marine ecosystems. No other conventions relating to protected areas have been ratified. The establishment in Jamaica in 1986 of the Regional Coordinating Unit (R C U) of the United Nations Environment L -')gramme (UNEP) Regional Seas Program me is an encouraging step towards Jamaica's commitment to conservation at an international leveL Jamaica is also a m em ber of the Caribbean Conservation Association, but has not played an active role in the activities of this group. PLANS AINL PROGRAM MRS Canoe Valley National Park In 1985, NRC D recognized that the Canoe Valley area (Clarendon/ Manchester) has the greatest potential for establishment as the first national park, under existing staffing and funding constraints. Besides the outstanding ecological, geological, and historical features of the area, the considerations which supported this priority determination were: -the economically depressed conditions of this region of Jamaica; -the tourism appeal that already exists because of Milk River Bath; -the proximity to l.f andeville and May Pen and the reasonable accessibility from Spanish Town and Kingston; and -the management infrastructure which already exists because of the Alligator Hole River Project. Since the com pletion of vlSltor facilities, the National Parks Branch in cooperation with the Ecology Branch has formulated a progressive program me which includes the following goals: -complete resource inventory; -determine land ownership status and evaluate acquisition and e:\sement options; -renovate headquarters building and construct sanitary facilities; -establish trail syste m and picnic areas;

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Institutions Ministry o( Agriculture I. Natural Resourccs Conservation Division (Watershed Protection Commission; Deaeh Control Authority) 2. Forest Department 3. Fisheries Division Ministry o( Finance and Planning I. Town Planning Department 2. Office o( the Prime Minister 3. Institute o( Jamaica Natural History Division o( Mining, Energy cit Tourism I. Marine Park Action Committee Petroleum Corporation o( Jamaica Ministry o( Finance and Planning Urban Development Corporation lion-Government Organizations I. Jamaica Orchid Society! Alpart 2. Gossc Bird Club 3. Jamaica Archaeological Society 4. Jamaica Society (or and Technologists 5. Natural History Society o( Jamaica Table 42: Institutions Related to National Parkli IlIId Proteeted Areu Laws Protected Areas Protection Act (1963) Protected Watershed Wild Li(e Protection Act (1974 Wild Li(e Resl!rves, Sanctuaries Beach r::ontrol Act (19'i8) Protected marine (marinc national parks) Forest Act (1937) Forest Reserves Fishing Industry Act (1975) Fish Sanctuaries Morant anti Pedro Cays (1904) Town cit Country Planning Act (1957) National Heritage Trust Act (1984) Institute o( Jamaica Act (1978) (updated) None None Urban Development Corporation Act (1968) Iione None None None Morant cit Pedro Cays Conser va tion areas designated in development orders Trf!e Preservation orders Protected Notional Heritage National Monument Field Stations None None Spur Tree Orchid Reserve River Cave None None Relevant Responsibilities Control lar,d usc in protected watersheds, public eduea tion, gully and river control. Control o( exploitation in designated areas, control o( ail development up to I mile in shore. Controls access to and exploitation o( Forest Reserves. fishing in designated areas. Controls access to and exploitation o( their resources. Matters relating to land use plannin" and providin" technical advice to government agencies, KSAC, the parish councils, and the Town and County Planning Authority, which administers the Town and County Planning Act. Management o( Mason River and Green Hills stations. Is to catalyse marIne park development, Has responsibility (or management o( Negri! Morass. Responsibility (or lands desiltnated under the Act Has advocated national park development in (orest areas. \las advocated national park development in Hellshire, (orested areas. 167

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-prepare user regulations, an enforcement system, an emergency contingency plan, a:ad plans for management, monitoring, and staff training; -develop a public awareness and environmental educat:on programme and a community involvement programme for local residents; -submit funding proposals to fully implement national parks; and -upgrade the logistical equipment and infra structure to effectively manage the park. Marine Parks Action Committee (MPAC) M PAC was established in 1986 by the Ministry of Tourism to act as a catalyst for marine park development. A proposal has been submitted to the Organization of A merican States (0 AS) for funding to evaluate and determine the management and ad ministrative needs for an operational marine national park in Jamaica. This proposal was to be funded before the end of 1986. As part of this project, a detailed funding assistance proposal will be prepared for marine parks implementation in Jamaica. The e om mittee has identified M ontego Bay as the best location for the first marine national park. It is expected that international assistance will be found for this projec t. PROBLEMS AND ffiSUES Development Pressures Development pressureD on sites suitable for designation as National Parks and Protected Areas stem from the lack of a formally constituted national park and protected area system; no legal requirement for environmental impact assessments; and ineffective implementation of environmental laws. o Urban growth and housing: The expansion of housing into the peripheral areas of towns (especially into mangroves, wetlands, foothills and gully banks) results ill the loss of economic resources, natural amenities and !=.otential park areas within easy range of urban com m unities. Natural resources of economic value are destroyed (e.g., fisheries, lum ber and wildlife) and the population is left vulnerable to natural disasters. The Portmore and Hellshire developments are examples of this type of problem. The 168 expansion of housing into rural, south coastal areas, such as the verges of Pedro Pond and Porottee Pond, also have serious im plications fo[, fUtl; reserve development and requires particularly careful control. o Agriculture: M any areas within potential future national parks, especially in the Blue Mountains, are being cleared of natural vegetation for coffee and e aribbean Pine (pinus caribbea) plantations. FID eo plans to c-mw;rt approximately 60,000 acres to pine in the next 20 years. Extensive areas are to be cleared on the north slope of the Blue Mountain for coffee. GanjC' cultivation 19 pushing further into the remote areas. In addition, the 2>..clusion of agric u1tural developlll ent from the planning process means that radical changes in land use Illay be implemented without any review of potential impacts to protected areas by concerned agencies. Access to inform ation regarding croe 0 and Agro 21 projects iiGd proposals is extremely difficult to obtain. "Agro 21" plans to place 200,000 acres of publicly owned land into agricultural production. Information on the behavioul'of private individuals with respect to land purchases from small farmers, and its impact on Lmregulated expansion into forest lands and areas required for conservation, is difficult to obtain. o Rural poverty: Poverty contributes to cultivation of marginal lands and poor land use practices by hillside farmers. It has also contributed to the increase in charcoal burning and fuel wood collection on hillsides. o Harvesting of natural resources: All proposed national park and protected areas are affected by illegal harvesting which their ecological value and their attractiveness to vi'3itors. Resources currently under serious preDsure from collectors and hunters include turtles, conbs, birds (especially colum bids and endemic species), butterflies, reef fish, black coral, hard corals, manatees, orchids, and cacti. Uncontrolled spear and pot fishing in rivers and the sea is another problem. o Road development: Extension of new roads into remote areas opens them to settlement and the intrusion of feral animals, with severe consequences for the natural fauna and flora. The Cockpit Country, John Crow Mountains and Hellshire Hills are proposed national parks areas which may be affected by ill-considered new road development.

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o Pollution: The natural environment in the proposed national parks and protecced areas is being degraded by various forms of pollution. These include industrial r i'fluents, agricultural chemicals, agricultural wastes, air pollution, and solid wastes. o Quarrying: Quarrying and mining of limestone, gypSU'.I, bauxite and sand from beaches and rivers can be visually intrusive and cause dust, aquatic pollution and coastal erosion. Quarry development in proposed ,1ational park and protec ted areas should be stric tly controlled. o Other: Solar salt mInIng (Portland Bight) and Peat Mining (proposed ill Negril and possibly Black River Morasses) are two current projects which are potentially detrimental to the establishmpnt of national parks 10 these areas. Polit:ical and Public Awareness and Support The economic and social b'nefits to be derived fro m the establishm t'nt of national parks and prott'c ted areas have not been generally appreciated at hi.gh'r administrative levels of government. These areas often seen as potential obstacles to development rather than as essential components of the national development plan. This low prioril:y given to the establish rdent and management of protected areas is reflected in low !>taffing levels, inadequate budgets and the lack of staff training opportunities for National Parks Branch. It also results in a low level of government involvement in international initiatives, oi."ganizations and conventions pertaining to protec ted areas. This lack :)f com mitment has been noted by the inter'.lational funding agencies, which are conse quencly reluctant to allocate funds to Jamaica. Policy Statement No further progrefls towards national park and protected area systems will be possible without hig!' level governrn <:>nl: support in the form of an authoritative policy statement for the proposed systerr.. Development Control All remaining natural and seminatural areas in Jamaica are under intense pressures; it has beell estimated that, without effective protection measures, most will be destroyed in the next 5 to 10 years. Conflicts between development and conservation of natural areas arise through poor planning and control, developments are placed in inappropriate areas or without mitigation measures to minimize impacts to natural areas. Legislation aod Enforcement As shown in Table 42, there is a considerable body of legislation concerning protected areas, little of which is enforcedu A ny new legislation must be accompanied by effective enforcement. However, the absence of com prehensive legislation should not be an obstacle to setting up national parks and protected areas, in the short term. Existing legislation confers some of the powers needed for interim development of protec ted areas. Institutional C apscity The National Parks initiative is weakr.med by the lack of a coordinated, multi-disciplinary approach, shortage of manpower and financial resources. There is a need for all interested parties and relevant government agencies to work much m ore closely, and for non-governmental agencies to become more involved, if the esteblishment of protected areas is to be realized in Jam Lica TJIRKCTIONS FOR THE FUTURE Legislation Short Term Measures a. Revision of the Town and Country l>lanning Act (1957): This act is currently under review and the following provisions are recom m ended for inclusion in the revised la w: -that the review process be extended to the public sector to ensure that activities such as m anufaeturing and agriculture are carefully a$sessed in terms of their effects on the environment. -that provisions be made for the declaration of national r-arks. In the in terir.: it is possible to utilize the provisions of the existing Town and Country Planning Act to preserve the propose" national parks and protec teti areas. The NRC 0 1m

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should map all areas and request that the Town Planning Department (TDP) include them in the appropriate development orders as Special Conservation Zones. It should also be suggested to the TDP that large scele agricultural and manufacturing activities of both pUblic and private sectors be sutjected to Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) reviews. With respect to small farmer agriculture, it is recom mended that the TDP collaborate with the Ministry of Agriculture which has rpsponsibility for the Watershed Protection Act. It is also recom mended that changes in the method of processing planning applications be considered with a view to minimizing the time taken to review a ppiicc'itions. b. Jam.};.(.; f\llitional Heritage 'fruqt Act: Known Arawak, archaeological and historical sites in prop .... sed protected areas shclJld be gazet t(d 35 llational Monuments. c. Be8ch Control Act: Revision of the Ocho Rios and Montego Bay marine parks should be gazetted and ne\01 areas in Negri! and Discovery Bay Po.dded. Regdations for management of these areas could be added. d. Wild life Protection Act: Gazetting of additional areas proposed under the Act. Revision of the act: to include updated powers and penalties is also urgently required. e. Fishing Industry Act. Additional areas proposed by the NRC D Fisheries Division should be gazetted. f. Advisory Com m ittee. An advisory com mittee (like M PAC) should be established to stirn ulate the development of terrestrial parks. Long Term Measures a. Development and Enactment of National Parks and Protected Area Legislation: Nell legisla tion should be developed with reference to legislation used in other Com monwealth Caribbean and other tropical countries. Given the current r:onstraints in the Jamaican civil services, it will probably be necessary to employ a consultant to carry out this task. 170 The following should be included m the proposed Ie gisla tion: -A System of National Parks and Protected Areas :Ihould be established. It should include::ategories based on the IU C N definitiont; (Table 41). Areas so declared should be permanently protected. -Institutional Framework and Responsibilities. responsibilities of agencies should be clearly defined and relAtionship of the ne w ac t to previous ac ts established. Provision for inter-agency agreements should be included. The mechanism for funding, staffing and support of protected areas develuplDcnt should Le defined and thlC! power to collect revenues and use them in protected area development established. -Selection of Protected Areas. Legislation should include t:he process of selection of protected areas. Public Participation in the Planning Pro cess. Legislation should cefine a process which will accom modate participation of government, non-government and public groups at an early stage in the planning and development of protected areas. -Right to Land and Associated Resources. Legislation should include authority to acquire property and rights to property. It should allow for tax incentives for land owners and various types of com ptnsation for all those displaced by protected area development. There should also be a process to accom modate new and existing land uses where these do not conflict with the objectives of protected areas. This will involve an environmental impact assessment procedure. -Enforcement. The act should provide for a body of enforcement agents who will be properly equipped and supported by strict penalities. -Management. The act should include a requirement for management plans for protected areas. A provisi.on for management zoning should also be included. Public involvement in the management of these areas is also important. Establishment of a Non-Govemaent National Parks Trust An independent, non-profit National Parks and Protected Area Trust is urgently needed to implement a protected areas system in Jamaica. The National Parks Branch (N R C D) would con-

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tinue to be the coordinating agency, working with the Trust on policy, coordination and the legal aspects of protected area development. An arrangement of this type would free national parks anci protected areas from the managerial and budgetary constraints which affect government agencies. A nm non-governmental organization would be better placed to attract international funding and to coordinate local and foreign support for the program. The functions of the Trust would include: -Financing through fund raising and interna donal grants and loans, park revenues and invest m en ts. -Scientifically investigating proposed protected areas, selecting protected areas; cieveloping management plans; proposing legislative measures; monitoring of the status of protected areas. On-site management of all protected areas, including enforcing of laws and native interpretation. Designing: l implementing a public education and awareness campaign to ensure pUblic support for the national parks and protected areas. International AffilU!tions If Jamaica expects to receive international suppor-t for environmentc,l projects, she must demonstrate her commitment by taking a more active part in the international conservation movement. _his will involve adherence to treaties and active partlclpation in organizations. The following t.reaties should be considered: -Convention on Wetlands portance especially as (Ramsar 1971). of International Imwaterfowl habitat -Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild A nim als (B onn 1979). -Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (Washington 1973). -Convention on Nature Protection and Wildlife Preservation in the Western Hemisphere (Washington 1940). Organizations for which membership should be considered include: the International Union for the Conservation of Nature anci Natural Resources; the International Council for Bird Preservation; and the International Waterfowl Research Jamaica should also play an active role tn the Caribbean Conservation Association. The First Parka Jamaica's first national parks are expected to be :::anoe Valley National Park and Montego Bay National Marine Park. In order that plans for these parks can be brought to fruition, international assistance (technical and financial) mus.t be obtained. Temporary legal expedients must be used to create the park? and work must begin on new legislation. The question of management authority for national parks and protected areas mu!;t be addressed (for ('xample, through the forllldtion of a Trust). An intense campaign of public education concerning the benefits of national parks must begin as soon as possible, so that there will be grass root su pport for these projec ts. Policy Document A policy paper should be prepared by NRC 0 in consultation with other relevant agencies and institutions (see Table 42) to outline the need for G OJ involvement in national parks and protected areas and to serve as a vehicle for obtaining the high level of support essential for this project. The document should address: the role of the Trust and of NRC D; management, monitoring and requirements for the esta'.ILishment of the first national parks; -the essential com ponents of legislation, proposals for the adoption of new protected area definitions; -economic feasibility analyses; -staffing and training requirements; the essentials for an effective public education and awareness program me; and -mechanisms for the operation and maintenance of national parks. Training Trained, qualified staff is essential for the success of a protected areas program me. 171

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Training of both field and professional staff should begin im mediately so that personnel will be available to carry out the above recom mendations. Wherever possible, training should be made relevant to Jamaican conditions and to developing country Out-of-country training opportunities should be sought in developing country settings, preferably in C countries or other countries with tropical and/ or island environments. At a minimum, the im mediate training emphasis for the existing Canoe Valley National Park staff should entail a four-to-six weeka, on-the-job training detail to work at the U.S. Virgin Island National Park and/or Dominica's Trois Marne Pitans National Park. Plate 24 Purt of the exhibition room at Canoe Valley. 172 \

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OVERVIEW OF FISHERIES RESOURCES The fisheries of Jam sica com prise marine and freshwater components. Within these major componenLs, the main resources exploited are finfish and shellfish, including some molluscs. (See Figure 27.) The Marine Capture Fishery The m.1rine capture fishery is primarily artisanal in nature; i.e., it is not highly technological and is conducted mainly by fishermen operating from canoes (Sahney, 1982). Approximately 95 % of these fishermen operate on the island's coastal shelf and its associated banks. Consequently, the mJ.lrine fishery is divided into two main regiuns: the Inshore Fishery and the D ffshore Fishery (see Figure 28): o The Inshore Fishery includes those operations carried out on the island's shelf areas* (the nearshore fishery) and in areas not eYceeding 64 km. (40 miles) from the mainland (the near banks fishe.ry). Historically, these regions (with a total area of 4,170 km2 ) have supported the bulk of fishery activity in terms of manpower and vessels. o The 0 ffshore Fishery includes those operations perform ed outside the zone of proxim a1 banks (i.e., in excess of 64 km. from the Environment and the EconorTlY = FISHERIES RESOURCES mainland). Thus, it encompasses operations on Jamaica's two largest offshore fishing at<:!as, the Morant and Pedro banks, as well as operations conducted in the territorial waters of other nations. Only fishermen operating mechanized canoes utilize the proximal banks and offshore areas. The Morant and Pedro banks are oceanic banks, rising abruptly from depths exceeding 500 m. to form submerge.d plateaus of average depth 30 to 40 m. The Morant Bank (259 km. 2 in area) contains three small cays supporting approximately 100 fishermen. The Pedro Bank (4,300 km.2 in area) supports .. substantial fishery carried out by at least 400 fishermen based on two of three small cays situated at the southeastern border of the bank. Fishermen occupying the bank." travel from mainland Jamaica to reside on the cays for most months of the year. In addition, the banks are fished on a daily basis by mainland-based south coast fishermen. The Jamaican shelf is approximately 1,853km2 in area. On the northern, western, and eastern costs, th shelf is narro w, not exceeding 1.6 km. (l mile) in width. On the south coast, the shelf is wider, attaining a maximum width of 24 km. (15 miles) due south of the par.sh of St. Catherine. 173

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Plgure 27: Sehematic Outline or Jamaican Pishery Re:IOUrees RESOURCE TYPE OF FISHERY INSHORE LOCATION NEARSHORE Shelf) "NEAP. BANKS TYPE OF RESOURCi DEMERSAL (Coral Reef Fishes: numerous Spp.) FINFISH t.:J :c FAR BANKS OFFSHORE<: INTERNATIONAL ( CaribbedIl) PELAGIC: Several Spp. Ul H '" t.:J MA.!UCULTURE INSHORE --LAGOON C. MOLLUSCS (Oysters) < __ INSHORE -(As aho'.re) Z i SHELLFISH CAPTuRE < --OFf'SHORE -(As above) } INCIDENTAL SHRIMP (Penaeids) LOBSTERS, CONCH, SOME CRABS INCIDENTAL ---RIVERINE ]-TILAPIA, MULLET FINfISH t.:J :c Ul H .. < (Wild C"oh".' AQUACULTURE -/PUBLIC FISH FARMS\ PRIVATE }TIIAPIA. CA>U' CAPTURE RIVERINE } SHRIMP (Several Spp.) SIlELLFISH < AQUACULTURE ---FISH FARMS (As aboO/e) } GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN (Macrobrachium Sp.) Fishing in extra-territorial waters previously included larger "base" vesseJs transporting fish ermen, mainly to the southwest of Jamaica, to areas within the territorial waters of Colombia, Nic.sragua and Hondurac.-ANegotiations, however, are being conducted by the in is try of Foreign Affairs and the Government of Guyana to establish treaties to allow vessels to operate to the southeast, in areas belonging to Guyana. Similar negotiations have been initiated with the Government of Belize. Commercial Species. harvested species com prise bottom-d welling (demersal) 174 coral reef specit!s, including finfish and shell fish, and free-swim ming (pelagic) spedes of finfish. For marketing purposes, commercid species of finfish are classified into four grades: quality (including snappers, groupers, large jacks, king fish, goatfish); com mon (including sm all jacks, bonito, and large parrotfish); grunts (including grunts and small parrotfish); and trash (including squirrelfish, doctorfish, triggerfish). These arrangements are no longer in force.

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o The Demersal Fishery: M ore than 200 species of coral reef fish are landed and marketed. Of this number, 70 species constitute over 90% of all landings, while 23 species comprise loore than 80 % by weight of fish caught in traps (Munro, 1974). (See Table 43.) These species include fish from groups suell as the groupers, snappers, grunts, goatfish ,'nd parrotfish. o The Pelagic Fishery: The pelagic fishery comprises far-ranging oceanic species such as the yello w fin tuna (Thunnus alba cares), blue marlin (M akaira nigricans), dolphin fish (C oryphaena hippuous) and various sharks; and coastal-dwelling, or inshore species such as the herrings (clupeids), anchovies (engraulids), half-beaks (hemi-ramphids). mullets (mugilids), FIGURE 28 and jacks (carangids). Oceanic speCIes are taken by line fishing, while coastal species are taken mainly by gill and seine nets. (Lists of species taken in the oceanic and coastal pelagic fisheries are tabulated in Table 48.) o Other Fishery Resources: Other fishery resources of commercial value include marine shrimp, conch, and lobsters. Approximately seven species of marine shrimp of the family Penaeidae are taken on a small scale from south coast fishing areas (M unro, 1968; Iversen and Munro, 1969; Reeson, 1971). (See Figure 29). Sanney (1982) reported that, in 1981, the total landings of marine shrimp amounted to 10 tons, with a market value of J$102,632. INSHORE AND OFFSHORE FISHING AREAS c:::{.ISTERIOSA BANK t3 IS. PACIFIC OC _______ ISLAND SHELF ____ TERRITORIAL WATERS OSWAN IS. BANK ... ROSALN> BANI< BAM< -\ Q ". PEalO BAN< 'C> Q C'. SERRANLLA BANK B OSERRANA BANK (] PROVrJENCIA CARIBBEAN SEA f::) f) SAN ANDRES COLOMBIA SOURCE: SHAM
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176 Table 43: Species of Fishe3 Comprising More Than By Weight Of Those Caught By Trapa In Demersal Fishery ACANTHU RiDA E (Surgeon fishes) Acanthurus coeruleus A. chirurgus BALISTIDAE (Triggerfishes) Balistes vetula CARANGIDAE (Jacks) Caranx ruber C. bartholomaei LUTJANiDAE (Snappers) Lutjanus apodus Ocyurus chrysurus MULLiDAE (Goatfishes) M ulloidichthys martlnlcus Pseudupenl..!us maculatus POMADASYiDAE (Grunts) Haemulon flavolineatum H. melanurum H. album H. plumieri H. sciurus H. aurolineatum SCA RID AE (Parrotfishes) Scarus taeniopterus 8parisoma chrysopterum S. aurofrenatum S. viride SERRANiDAE {Groupers) Cephalopholis fulva Epinephelus striatus E. guttatus Mycteroperca venenosn Source: Munro (1974) FIGURE: 2 9 MAP OF SHOWNG POTENTIAL SHRIMP TRNt'L.,N; AREAS 00 THE SOUTH COAST tGRL POINT <0.= o Ofi.:a' WlU.rCII lINt( 1 N L___________________ ______ __________________________________________

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There is little information on conch resources. There are five species, occurring in shallow seagrass beds, and to depths of 60 m. One species, the queen conch (Strom bus gigas) is large, and is fished by a loosely organised group of skin divers. Though there is no documentation of this effort, estimates suggest that this is in excess of 500. The efltimated annual yield for the north coast in 1979 was 250 tons total weight (Aiken, 1979). Approximately SlX specles of lobster are taken by hand or in traps, or with spearguns, of which the most com mon are the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) and the chicken lobster Sahney (1982) reported that in 1980, approximately 251 tons were harvested. (Lists of crustacean and other fishery resources from Jamaican waters have been compiled by Aiken (1984). (See Table 48.) Since 1983 a fe w large-scale operations have been started on the Pedro Banks, which have significantly influenced the production of lobster. Fishing Techniques. The most important fishing methods are: fish traps or pots (Antillean Z -trap) used to catch demersal species and accounting for 54 i. of all fish catches; gill and seine nets used m mnly to catch oceanic anti coastal pelagic species and accounting for 23 % of all catches; hand lines, long lines and troll lines, used to catch both demersal and pelagic species and accounting for 17% of the total catch; and other methods including throw nets, hand-collections and spearguns used for dem er sal and pelagic species, accounting for 4 % of the total catch. Fish traps result in the highest catch per landing (59 Ibs.), and the highest value of catch per landing ($132) of all gear used. (Sahney, 1982). Fishery Produc tion. Catch statistics are not available for all species. Sahney (1982) compiled information relating the annual catch by type of fish to the fishing ground for several dem ersal aI'd pelagic spedes, revealing a production figure of 15.9 milli.on Ibs. (7,227 tons) taken by canoe fishermen in 1981. Sahney (1982) also recorded catches of 1.2 million lbs. (500 tons) taken by carrier boat operators, for a total marine fishery production of 17.2 million lbs. (7,800 tons) in 1981. Production in the canoe-ba8ed fishery has re mained around the level recorded above since 1971. (See Tables 44 and 45). Potential Yields. Various estim ates of the potential yield from all Jamaican fishing areas have arrived at different estimates (M unro, 1974; USS R-Jamaica Survey, 1980; Nicholson and Hartsuijker, 1982). A com bination of the most conservative estimates (Hartsuijker 1982) noted that estimates of yield made for various fishing areas by the other studies mentioned abovp. may have been inflated. Organization and Economics of the Fishery. The most recent survey of the industry (Fisher ies Division, 1982) indicated that there were some 16,000 registered fishermen, of which 12,000 were engaged full-time in fishing as a source of livelihood. Including dependents and persons involved in vending and fisheries-related activities, the fishing induGtry is thought to support 150,000 persons (Aiken 1984). The incomes of fishermen are low, estimated to be an average of $9,183 per boat per year (Sahney 1982). Table 44: B.tia.tu of Fub Production Fro. J ai.ca lIlIular Shelf Only, Fro. 1945 to 1981 YEAR t:STIHATED PRODUCTION (tons) (million Ihs) 1945 1949 5,450 12.0 1950 1954 4,990 11.0 1955 6,580 14.5 1956 7,720 17.0 1958 10,260 22.6 1959 9,900 21.8 1960 10,300 .'22.7 1962 10,990 24.2 191j8 6,630 14.6 1970 6,620 D.8 1971 7,080 \5.6 1973 7,300 16.0 1975 1978 7,300 16.0 1981 7,220 15.9 Source: Harris (1963); Ch"ck (1963); Vidaeus () 9 70); Hunro (1974); Bodurtha (1975); FAO/IDB (1979); Sahney (1982); Aiken (1984). Compiled from various sources. 177

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'-l oc Table 45: Artu.mal Fishery: Estimated Annual Catch by Type or Fish and Fishing Ground FISHING GROUND Type of Fish North Shelf South Shelf Pedro Bank Other Banks Total (lb) % (lb) % (lb) % (lb) % (lb) % flapper (12.4) 479,145 24 1,151,951 59 197,077 10 142,414 7 1,970,587 100 Parrot (11.1) 270,771 15 954,6r 54 432,779 25 108,974 6 1,767,151 100 Tuna &: Bonito (2.3) 159,663 44 59,e" .i 16 19,416 5 129,124 35 367,882 100 Goat Fish (3.8) 85,929 14 291,462 49 193,906 32 30,170 5 601,467 100 Jack Fish (8.1) 370,401 29 380,008 30 413,404 32 118,292 9 1,282,105 100 Herring &: Sprat (14.7) 27,180 2 1,276,658 95 12,302 1 20,698 2 1,336,838 100 King &: Wahoo (1.6) 67,192 26 129,585 51 3,052 1 56,460 22 256,289 100 Mullet (l.0) 45,353 28 93,253 58 15,973 10 6,506 4 161,085 100 Grouper &. Hinds (5.7) 27.977 3 87,468 10 455,560 50 332,724 37 903,729 100 Dolphin (1.5) 34,857 15 2,578 1 602 .. 203,107 84 241,144 100 Goggle Eye (0.8) 66,934 52 42,651 33 0 0 18,366 15 127,951 100 Mackerel (0.5) 3,741 5 56,367 70 17,236 21 3,235 4 80,579 100 Trigger (2.9) 37,128 8 56,375 12 250,158 53 124,137 27 467,799 100 Grunt (7.5) 60,604 5 648,224 55 455,400 38 25,652 2 1,189,880 100 Lobster (3.3) 35,411 7 310,193 60 121,723 23 51,007 10 518,334 100 Shrimp (0.1) 85 .. 21,383 97 77 .. 508 2 22,053 100 Turtle (0.8) 54,300 43 62,228 50 5,322 4 3,802 3 125,652 100 Other (21.9) 618,791 18 1,344,672 39 917,391 26 604,027 17 3,484,881 100 TOTAL (l00.0) 2,445,462 15 7,969,363 5G 3,511,378 22 1,979,203 13 15,905,406 100 "Insignificant SOURCE: Sahney (1982)

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M ainlaud-based fishermen operate from 164 fishing beaches scattered island wide. A pproximately 55 of these beaches are large enough to accommodate 30 canoes or more. Of a total of approximately 4,500 canoes, some 54 % of these canoes are mechanized, utilizing outboard motors, while the rest are powered by oars or sails. These canoes range in length from 7 to 15 m. The 0 ffshore Fishery is serviced by approximately 12 fully-decked vessels of 15 to 30 m. length. These vessels, known as "Carrier" boats transport fish from the Morant and Pedro cays in contractual or informal arrangements with cay-based fishermen, landing these catches mainly at the Fisheries Complex in Kingston. In 1985 there were five other fully-decked vessels engaged solely in fishing (Houghton, F. 0 .). Distribution of thp. Catch. The bulk of the catch from mainland-based canoes is disposed of boatside at the fishing beaches, or distributed by vendors in nearby communities. Catches originating from the cays, and arriving at the Fisheries Com plex, may De distributed further inland by middlemen and vendors who purchase large quantities, and who may retail to hospitals, schools and hotels. M ariculture In 1977, the Oyster Culture (Jamaica) Project (OCJ) of the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) and the Department of Zoology, University of the West Indies (U Wr) was formed to study the culture of local mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae Guilding) in B')wden Bay, St. Thom as. Since then, the Project has expanded operations from Bowden to Davis Cove in Hanover; Port Antonio in Portland; and Bogue in St. James. (Sp.e Figure 3D.) Com mercial Species. Presently, the only commercial mariculture species is the mangrove oyster (C. rhizophorae), which derives its name fro m its habit of gro wing upon the stilt roots of the red mangrove (R hizophora mangle). A nother indigenous oyster, the "flat" oyster (Isognomon alatus Gmelin) occurs naturally at several locations, including 0 yster Bay near Falmouth, Trelawny, and Port Royal in Kingston. Although collected and sold fresh, it is not cultured. Production Techniques. The culture technique comprises a suspended rack system offering an artificial substrate (cultch) consisting of bits FIGURE: 30 COAS"mL AREAS UNDER DEVELOPMENT PRESSURE RESOURCE AREAS o OYSTER SAlTVIIQ'p StRJoIP (i) N.AIC) FISNES lHT SITES BRINE SHRIMP T PRAWN t I EJ COASTAL WETLANDS DEVELOPMENT PRESSUI'E SOl.IICE' AGRO 21 179

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of used Motor car tires suspended by nylon monofilament lines from bamboo or mangrove wood rafts. Naturally produced spat (young oysters) settle on the cultch during the spawning season (October-November) and are allowed to grow for 8 weeks. At the end of this period, pieces of cultch containing suitably-sized oysters (2 cm. diameter) are removed and transferred to rafts in deeper water for a grow-out period lasting 4-5 moriths. Production of Oysters. Precise figures for oyster production are lacking due to a proliferation of unmonitored small farmers (1-10 rafts each). however, the project manager of the o CJ estimated that, for the period April 1984March 1985, harvests of cultured oysters totalled 73,000 dozen. Prices for cultured oys ters vary depending on location. In Kingston, they may retail for as little as J$5/dozen, whereas on the island's north coast, they retail for J$ 7-12/dozen. Oysters are distributed for sale by the fs.rmers themselves or in small quantities by vendors to hotels, restaurants and individuals. Aquaculture Commercial fish farming is well established in Jamaica and has been growing since 1976, when a joint USAID/G OJ Inland Fisheries Development Program me 0976-1979) was started to investigate the feasibility of the culture/farming of tilapia. This was followed by the Fish Production System Project (1979-1985). Com mercial Sper.ies. Com m ercial species in clude finfish, consisting of several tila pia s (primarily the Nile i:ilapia or "silver perch" Oreochromis niloticus L.. and various red-strain hybrids of this genus) and the carps (grass carp, silver carp, big-head carp and the com mon carp) and shellfish consisting solely of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenoergii. Production and Economics. At the end of June 1986, total land area devoted to aquaculture amounted to 1,013 acres (400 ha.), with the Government, through the Inland Fisheries Unit (IF U) of the M 0 A, controlling 10 acres (3.95 ha.) of this total, and the rest in private hands. The location and extent of current and proposed acreages for aquaculture projects are sho wn in Figure 31. All production figures glVen below were derived from A G R 0 21 Corporation Ltd. (Agro 21). o Tilapia: The economics of farming tilapia have been rigorously studied and data are 180 available fm." the various stages of production (Agro-21, 1985). There are currently 200 farms totalling 1,043 acres engaged in tilapia farming. During fiscal year 1985-86, 1,108 tons were harvested. The fish retail for J$3-5/lb., depending on location and other factors (whether pondside, market, gutted, scaled, live, frozen, etc.). o Carp: There is no acreage devoted solely to the production of carp. Rather, these fish are cultured with tilapia, mainly to "sanitize" the ponds (they consume waste materials and regulate the growth of plants in the pond). The main producer of carp is Jamaica Aqua!apia Limited, Tollgate, Claren don. The yield for 1985 is estimated to be around 22 tons. Carp seed stock are produced by the IFU, Twickenham Park, St. Catherine, and at Tollgate in Clarendon. o Freshwater Prawn: There are presently five farms, totalling some 50 acres in area, engaged in the culture of Macrobrachium. One of these farms, Aquaculture Jamaica Limited, Barton's Isle, St. Elizabeth (approximately 18.6 hectares) produce seed stock. The rest are operated by small farmers. In fiscal year 1985-86, 21.5 tons were produced. Fish Imports. Exports and Consumption Even though finfish, shellfish and their derived products still comprise some 35% of the Jamaican diet (AG RO 21, 1985), per capita consumption of fish in jamaica is declining. In the 1960's this was 30 kg./capita/ annum, but had fallen to 10 kg./capita/annum in 1984. This decline was attributed to several factors: a stagnating marine fishery; a shortage of foreign exchange to pay for im ports; increased production of substitutes (poultry, pigs); and the previous lack of development of aquaculture (AG RO 21, 1985). In spite of decreasing per capita consum ption, im ports have assumed increasing im portance as local marine landings of fish have declined in recent years, and the deficit between imports and exports is large. In 1984, 15,000 tons of fish and fish products (chiefly canned) valued at J$102 million were imported (External Trade, 1984). In the same year, only 470 tons of finfish and valued at J$1.7 million were exported. It is likely that the growing aquaculture industry can offset some of this deficit through the export of fresh and processed finfish (smoked

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FIGURE,31 AQUACULTlfiE DEVELOPMENT PLAN -Location of fish farmt (Mar: 1986) 5 FARMS ST. ANN I FARM 0 ACRES fillets) and fresh frozen shellfish. To a certain extent this is already occurring, as locallygrown freshwater prawns are rerlacing supplies of imported frozen marine shrhp in the local tourism sector. (In 1984 impo-ts of shrimp totalled 17 tons at J$574,386, while there were no exports. In 1935, an unknown quantity of prawns has been exported, mainly for markettesting surveys.) It should be possible for Jamaica to take advantage of a rising consumer demand for "luxury" seafoods now prevalent in several countries. Fish Processing A limited amount of processing is carried out on locally produced fish by three companies. These are Jamaica Aqualapia Limited (fish fillets), Aquaculture JI3maica Limited (fish fi1bts), and Jamaica Frozen Foods Limited (fish fillets and smokec and pickled carp). In 1985, approximately 3,000 lbs. of cleaned and frozen tilapia were exported to the Bahamas, while some 10,000 lbs. of pickled carp valued at approximately J$16,OOO, were processed by Jamaica Frozen Foods Limited for local distribution by Grace Kennedy Limited. 5 FARMS ACRES SOURCE: AGRO 21 AGERemS ARD IBSTITUTIORS N I The key management agencies and institutions focusing on Jamaica's fisheries resources include uni.ts of the Ministry of Agriculture: the Fisheries Division, the Inland Fisheries Unit, the Oyster Culture (Jamaica) Project, the Natural Resources Conservation Division; the AG RO-21 Corporation Limited, and the Zoology Department, U.W .. L (Mona). Fisheries Division* Formed in 1950, the Fisheries Division of the Ministry of Agriculture is responsible for servicing, controlling, and developing marine fisheries through the administration of laws relating to fisheries, services to the industry, monitoring of inshore and offshore fisheries, and fisheries research. The Division's spheres of activity include: training 10 fishing techniques; introduction of new gear technology; administration of credit facilities for the purchase of small boats and engines; upgrading the facilities of fishing beaches; and pursuance of negotiations for the expansion of Jamaica's fishing into waters outside 181

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national boundaries. A significant function of the Division is also the sale of subsidised fuel to the fishermen. Inland Fisheries Unit (IFU)* Formed in 1977, the IFU was set up to foster and maintain an islandwide programme of smallscale fish farming. The Unit conducts program mes in the areas of: extension services to farmers including site evaluations, survey, project design, and pond construction. The production of fish is mllinly limited to carp fingerlings; training of hatchery and extension staff in fish culture techniques; research into fingerling production techniques ,and nutrition, polyculture systems and feed performance. Oyster Culture (Jamaica) Project The 0 CJ Project was established in 1982 to develop a self-sustaining local industry of oyster culture using local materials llnd skills. The Projects' policies are directed towards: developing the optimum production and processing system for cultivation; o'Jeloping technical support facilities for a 10\.:!l::' oyster culture industry; determining the economic viability of various scales of oyster farming; and training of local personnel for extension and farming activities. 0 CJ program mes include: extension services for on-site training of fa:."mers; lectures and demonstrations in construction technology (raft), production and management; research providing biological information necessary for farming operations; and market information. Batural Resources Conservation Division The NRC D administers the Beach Control Act (see beloy), which governs the use of the island's fishing beaches, conducts research and environmental impact studies relevant to the conservation of fisheries, and plays an active role in the assessment of damage to fishing gear resulting from environmental degradations such as oil spills. AGRO 21 Corporation Ltd. (Agro 21) The A G R 0 21 program me is intended to as a mechanism for the mobilisation of the manpower and organizational resources and activities of a wide range of public and private institutions in the interest of national economic recovery. A Steering Committee co-ordinates the activities of the participating agencies. The functions of the A G R 0 21 include: establishment of industry data banks relating to costs, transportation, marketing etc; i.westiga tion of investment opportunities for potential investors; assessment of development strategies for cultivated lands; development of strategies to improve yields, maximize agricultural returns; develop new markets for export crops; facilitate the development of secondary industries; and others. Uw.versity of the Weat Indies (U. W .I.) The Department of Zoology, U WI, is a major centre for training in marine sciences and aq uaculture in the Caribbean region. The Department at Mona, Jamaica, provides training at undergraduate and postgraduate levels in aquaculture, and maintains the Port Royal Marine Laboratory, which carried out the first comprehensive study of the biology, ecology, exploitation and man!lgement of tropical reef fishery resourc es (M unro et. al., 1973). The U WI also maintains one of the world's foremost tropical marine laboratories at Discovery Bay, where pioneering work in coral reef biology has been undertaken since the 1960's. Activities of the U W A and N W C affect aquacultural development in that these agencies issue licences and permits for the construction of wells and have responsibility over the supply of water for irrigation systems. Other Agencies and :Inatitutions The management of Jamaica's fisheries resources is also infiuen<'ed by the o,ctivities of the Underground Water Authority (U W A) and the National Water Commission (NW C). The present fields of activity of the Diviaion and the IFU have! been sevet-Jy restricted by large decreases in their budgetary allocations, and, in fact, the Inland Fisheries Project officially ended in 1984.

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LEGISLATION ARiD ltEGULAl'lOM8 The most important laws relevant to Jamaican fisheries are descroed below. The Fishing Industry Act (1975) provides for: licensing of all fishermen and vessels in Jamaican waters; protection of t"he fishery by establishment of close.d seasons; creation of fish ,sanc tuanes; and penalties for the landiug and sale of illegally caught fish. Morant &nc.f Pedro Cays Act The M c.r.3nt and Pedro Cays Act (1907) 2stab lishes 1i censing conditions in the K orant anrl Pedro Cays, and prohibits unauthorized fish:..ng and the rcemoval of bjrds and turtJ.es. Wildlife Protectton Act The Wildlife Protection Act (1964) provides powers fOI' the conservation of wildlife, prohibits the dynamiting and poisoning of fish and the capture of im mature 6.sh and turtles (inc1ud i:lg ezgs). It l1lso provides for tr.e establishment of Game Sc:nctuarh'l and the appointment of Gam e Wardens. (See Wildlife Sp-c tor.) beac!!a Control Act The Conteol Act (1955) provides for the regulation of activities within 25 m. of lhe shore line, including control over the construction of sneds and huts on beaches, and prohibits the usc of public beaches for fishing activities. Other Legislation Other la ws of rl'levance to the fishing/ aquaculture industry are: the Underground Water Control Act (1954), providing control over the sinking of wells; the Town and Country Planning Act controlling the use of mangrove areas and wetlands; and the Land Development ,lnd Utilization Ace, providing for the regulation of idle lands, terms of leasing, and the dbposition of agricultural lands. PLABS ABD PIlOGRAM MES Marine Fiaberiea Apart from by the USA10 to provide fuuoing for the purchase of outboard engines for the artisanal fishery, there appears to be no assistance forthcoming for marine fisheries. W ithi..l the limitations of its bud get, the Fisher Div1.c;!on will carry out the following act.ivities: o In-house training at the junior terhnicallevel in the role of the division, of division personnel, baeic er.ology and fiahcries 1'1 anagemenl principles. o Investigation of new resourceJ, in particular, research into the ropulation dynamics and ecology of the Gogf,leye jack (Selar crumenopthalm us). o Strengthenir..g the capabilities of the division in the areas of manpower and equipment, in order to effect the divisionis responsibilities for training, assessment and monitoring of fish stocks ':':'ld assessment of loan applications. o Pursuanl:e of hi-lateral fishing trt!aties with other nations in order to supplement the dwindling island shelf fishery. Treaties are in effecc with ColulObia, and are being sought with Guyana and Belize. Karicuhure Expansion of Current Program meso The 0 CJ plans to increaoe the size of its gro.-out sites in Bowden ana Por:: Morant ill St. Thomas, Green Inland and Davis Cove in Hanover, and Bogue SOllnd in St. Ja m es, in or.fer to increase the output of cultured oysters. The cost of the expansion is projected to be J$400,000 and is to be financed by the G OJ and the 10 R C through the 0 CJ Project. Supplementation of Natural Seed Stock. This program rna! which com menced in May, 1985, will examine approaches to supplement natural supplies of seen, and investigate the high incidences of oyster mortality and biofouli.ng (overgrowth of spat by marine organisms) pres-183

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ently being experienced. The program me IS being implemented over a three-year pericc by the U WI, Dalhousie University (C aoade), in collaboration with the 0 CJ. The project is being funded by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada. Aquaculture Expansion of Current It is proposed to expand 1984 pond acreage fro'll approximately 162 hectares to over hectares of food fish production by 1989, for a projected yield of 9 million kg/annum (Agro 21,1986). Presently, 446 hectares are jn construction or production, with a projected yield of 1.8 million kg. for fiscal year 1986-87. With 203 farmers in t=xistence, precise data on projects undergoing expansion is not readily available, but some of the largest are listed in Table 46. Development of Ne \l Projects. Projects have been proposed to increase the production of freshwater fish by the expansion of private farms in the areas of: Hill Run/Hartlands, St. Catherine (142 hecteres) to yield 1.0 million kg/annum; M onymusk, Clarendon (132 to yield 600,000 kg/annum; and Amity Hall, St. Catherine (81 hectares) to yield 0.6 million kg/annum. Based on these projections, 10Cdl production of fresh water fish could reach 9.0 million kg/annum by 1999. This figure represents 60 % of the island's current [-i.nh ilaports, and could realize savings of U::;$24 million/annum. Other projects include: a proposal for the development of a f.allw.1ter shrimp farm (possibly at Moneymusk, Clarendon) as a private venture; and a I-year pilot Jamaica Broilers venture for the production of the brine shri.m p (Artemia) in the ponds of the Portland C C'tt:ege. Clarendon Solar Salt Plant, for use as a high quality protein ingredient in fish and shrimp feedl:l, (See Figure 32.) A ffi]iated R eoearcb Projects The Departments of Botany, Geology, Zoology, ancl the Discovery nay Marine Laboratory of the U WI are e=tgaged in research projer.:ts :in the areas of: the culture of marine algae (Irish moss) for food; restoration of sea grass beds; wetland reclamation; environmental impact of the development: of peat and wetlands; coral reef ecology; population dynamics of penaeid shrim ps and blue crabs; aquaculture potential 184 of Jamaican stream fishes; .,\quacu)ture of shrimp and tilapia; and a reef-fish management program me. PROBLEMS AND General Trends bapacting Fuberiea ituourcea General trends impacting Jamaica's fishery resources include: the destruction of coast&l mangrove zones and wetland areas, which are important as breeding and nursery grounds; the pollution of harbours and water bodies; and the siltation of lagoon areas. (See Table 47). Development preSS'Jres impact marine fisheries primarily due to their effects on breeding areRS which provide recruitment of fish stocks, but may also impact on natural supply of spat for the mariculture industry. At present, these pressures have little impact on aquaculture activities as these operations often utilize marginal lands. The aquaculture industry itself, which swamplands or drained lands in various l()'.:ations (e.g., St. Thomas, St. Elizabeth), may contribute to the destruction of breeding and nursery grounds for stocks of fish and shrimp. ProbleMS Affecting Marine Fisheries In general, declining catches in inshore areas are divided too many fishermen, resulting in continuing depleti00 of fi.sh stocks and very low individultl (per capita) incomes. Specific issues related to marine fisheTies include: 1. The artisa:1dl fishery has grown in size from appl'Oximately 2J500 canoes and 7,500 fishermen in 1962 to matel] 4,500 canoes and 12,000 fishermen in 1983 (Aiken 1984). These have resulted from a natural population increase in coastal fishing villages and frOID the lack of economic alternatives to fishing for a livelihood. 2. Declining Catches in the Inshore Declining catches appear to be related to increases in the num ber of fishermen and in the use of fine-m eshed gear, which removes fish before they have attained reproductive age. Total catr:h per canoe declined from 4,213 kg. in 1968 to 2,484 kg. in 1981. During the period, fishing intensity (no. canops /km2) increased from 0.45 in 1968 to 0.84

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Table 46: Major Projects Undergoing Expansion in the Aquaculture Industry DATE CF ACRF.!UE CAP I TAL EXPEND I TURE PROJB::1' IIW>LEMENTATION PROPOSED (J$mi 11.) SOOICE {F FUNDS 1985 1987 Aquaculture Jamaica Ltd., Brumdec, Saint Elizabeth (Freshwater prawn, ti lapia) 2/83 37 200 3.7 12.0 Jamaica Broilers/Brumdec Jamaica Aqualapia Ltd., I Tollgate, Clarendon (Freshwater prawn, tilapia) 1984 110 (?) 440 unknown unknown NIBJ/Worldwide Premo tors Limi ted Jamaica Aqua Farms Ltd. Wes troor l:md (Freshwater prawn hatchery) 18 50 2.0 4.0 Local Haughton Fisheries Jamaica Ltd., Saint Elizabeth 11/84 0-25 180 0.7(?) 9.0 Local &: Foreign (Caribbean Basi n Management Corp.) Inland Fisheries/Other Private Developments 117 1100 Owners' Equity/COmmercial Banks Agro Expo Farms, Portland 11/84 50 180 1.7 5.0 Foreign &: Local COmmercial Banks Sources: Planning Institute of Jamaica; AGRD 21 COrporation Ltd. -00 U\

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oc 01 FIGURE 32 NATIONAL AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT PLAN JAMAICA SANDY BAY 10 ACRES FINAL ACRES PROPOSED BARNETT -4".;v ACRES 200 ACRES CRAWFORD LEWIS TCJNN 300 ACRES PROP. BARTON ISLE -B RUM DEC 50 ACRES FINAL 160 ACRES CONARMED 600ACRES PROPOSED () o EB FINAL 840 ACRES CONFIRMED 2230 ACRES PROPOSED RESERVE 2000 ACRES FALMOUTH 10 ACRES FINAL 50 ACRES PROPOSED SPRING PLAINS 115 ACRES FINAL LONG POND GRAYS INN 180 ACRES CONFIRMED _---.r---..:::2=.0;;..0..;.:ACRES PROPOSED ST. MARGARET'S BAY 10 ACRES FINAL MlTCHELLE TO SO ACRES FINAL 300 ACRES PR OPOSED MONYMUSK 200 ACRES PROPOSED 360 ACRES CONFIRrl.ED 200 ACRES PROPOSEt. ...,5T. CATHERINE PT. MORANT HILLRUN, SALT ISLAND CREEK 300 ACS. PROPOSED AMITY HALL, HART LANDS a BUSHY PARK WHITE HORSES. 483 ACRES FINAL 10 ACRES FiNAL.. 700 ACRES PROPOSED 300 ACRES CONFIRMED VERNAMFIELD 30C ACRES CONFIRrt1ED 30 ACRES FINAL 100ACRES CONFIRMED SOURCE .. AGRO 21

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-00 -....J GENERAl. 'IRa"!) IMPACTING FISHERIES RESJlRCES l. Destruction of CDastal Ecosyst3IIS: a) Wetlands b) Mc..-,grove Forests IDCATION OF IMPACT Upper Morass, Black River, St. Elizabeth Negri! Morass, WestJIoreland Great Salt Pond, St. Catherine Great llirass, St. Thomas Cabarita Swaxrq>, WestJIoreland Hague Swaxrq>, Trelawny Turtle Crawle Swm!p, Portland K:ingston Harbour Oyster Bay, FalIrouth, Trelawny. !!ague Island Lagoon, St. Janes Table 47: Development Pressures Affecting Pisheries Resourees PJI.EA AREA OF IMPACT EFFECT /RESULT OF IMPACT 00CT.MENrATI0N AFFECTED 1,760 ha Agricultural Develq:m:nt Swan:p Drainage; pollution NRa:>, 1982 Sugar Factory Destruction of habitat Effluent (Appleton, Holland) 2,500 ha Pgricultural Develq:m:nt NRa:>, 1982 {l-DA; Private) Swamp drainage -as a'OOve 180 ha Urban & Recreational Dev. Destruction of breeding and NRa:>, 1982 (Hellshire, Fort Clarence) nursery grounds for fish and Sugar Factory effluent shrinp; eLimination of (Bernard Lodge) maricul ture potential. 1,600 ha Agricul tural DevelOJXOOI1t Swarrp drainage -as above NRCD, 1982 800 ha Agricul tural DevelOJXOOI1t As a'OOve NRCD, 1982 (K)A; IFU) 200 ha DevelOJXIleIlt Destruction of breeding and NRa:>, 1982 (AOC) nursery grounds; degradation of tourist attraction (the phosphorescent lagoon) 24 ha Urban Dev. (not kna.m if NRa:>, 1982 this was inplS!Elted) 52 l
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00 00 r 2. 3. c) Coral Reefs Degradation of Watersheds Pollution of Water BOdies: a) Coastal Areas b) River Systems North Coast, JCIIII11i;:::. N/E Port Royal,Kingston Yallahs Watershed N!E Southeastern coastline. 17,800 ha. Hope Watershed. N/E Southeastern coastline. 8,OOOha. Rio Cobre WatersheG N/E South Clarendon & St. Catherine shelf. 64,000 ha. I Kingston Harbour As above Portland Bight, 260 km2 Clarendon. (Not under constant: pressure) Phosphorescent N/E Lagoon,Trelawny Amity Hall Swarrp 490 ha St. Catherine Rio C..obre Basin, N!E St. Catherine Black River, N/E St.Elizabeth; Rio Minho, Clarendon; Cabarita River, Wes tr.nre].and. Table 47: Continued Dredging for harbours, Domestic Structural damage, Destruction WADE, 1981 sewage (hotels), R.emJval of of habitat of fish stocks; corals for souvenirs, jewellery, lowered species diversity. N:lNE etc. Boating damage. Agricultural Dev. resulting in Siltation, alteration of NR(l) (VAl'.lOUS) soil erosion. coastal ecosystems due to I increased nutrient load and suffocation of marine sessile organisms. Agriculture; Wild fires As above As above es above As above As above As above Agricultural run-off-fertilizer High bacterial levels, high Goodbody, 1970; pesticides; soil erosion via roo; loss of fauna and flora; Wade, 1971, 1976 Rio Cobre, Duhaney River, Sandy heal th hazard. Gully; Industrial effluents; Domestic sewage; oil pollution. Infrequent c:!.l pollution fran In 1974, a significant spill ECS, 1974 shipping (e.g. 1974) destroyed fish, crustacean, bird, and IMngrOve life. Sewage outfall, FalIrouth MarY.et; High roo, nutrient levels. lIRCD, 1982 Agricultural & Industrial Dev. Sugar Factory effluent High roo, nutrient load NRCD, 1982 Citrus processing waste; l.s above NRCD, 1980 Milk condensing waste. Sugar factory effluent As above NRCD, 1980

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..... 00 \0 4. Siltation 5. Coastal Erosion 6. Population Pressure on Fishery KE'i 10 TERMS: Table: 47: Continued Kingston Harbour. N/E Natural run-off; Urban and M:mtego Bay. Agricultural Dev. Ocho Rios Jolmson TOtVn Fishing N/E Natural processes and Beach ,Ran:lver; intrusions (groyne construction, lbuse Fishing sand stealing for construction Beach. St. Elizabeth; aggregate) Great !liver Fishing Beach, St. Jan-es. All Island L'1creased population density in coas tal COIIIllI.ll1i ties N/E Not estimated ADC roD !?RlMDEC= l-'DA Agricultural Development Corporation Biologi-:al Oxygen Demand IFU Black River Upper furass DevelQIXllE!nt Corporation Minist'"-'Y of Agriculture InlaI".d Unit I WADE. 1971; 1976 Destruction of beach; Storm NRm on-going damage potential study. I I Depletion of fishery resources. including non-ccmJlercial species.

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units in 1981. Maximum yields in the inshore fishery were probably attained around 1975-1976, but the fishery has since en tered a phase of (Aitken/Haughton, in press). This has resulted from a significant increase in fishing effort. 3. Lack of a Production/ Catch Monitoring Sys tem. Due to the lack of a permanent system for routine collection of fisheries data, changes in fish population and production go unnoticed, making forecasting and control diffic ul t. 4. Personnel and Financial Problems Experienced by the Fisheries Division. The lack of adequate finances results in the inability to attract suitably qualified personnel. (In the view of rhe Director of Fisheries, the Division need3 an additional 7 professional and 24 technical staff :':0 supplement the present complement of 29.) In 1984, the operating budget of the Division was J$1.6 million. 5. Increases in and Equipm ent Fuel Prices. Despite Government subsidies, fuel and equipment prices have increased dramatically since 1974. These Increases affect the costefficiency of long distance fishing trips, encouraging fishermen to remain inshore, thereby increasing fishing pressures in these areas. 6. Socio-Economic Problems. There are fe 101, if any, alternatives for the employment of small fishermen. The gfneral level of education in fishing comn:unities is low, thus redu:ing the skills, mobility and employment options of fishery families. 7. Regulation. The effective enforcement of the Fisheries Act is a major p("oblem. The diffit:ulty of achieving effective enforcement is related to: low rates; insuffici.:>nt enforcement personnel; and low h'vels of among fishermen and enforcement personnel In addition, the Jamaican Fisheries Industry 15 an one, and there is need to limit the entry of new fishermen. 8. Praedial Larceuy. Fishpot stealing is a" increasingly widespread problem because of the following: increase in price of materials; inexperience of new fishermen; declining catches; inadequate enforcement; and over crowding of fishing grounds. l'JO 9. Other Problems. Other problpms In ay be related to: non-functioning of many fishf'r men's co-operatives which would share labour and reduce costs, provide credit, provide duty-free fishing equipment, fix prices, market fish etc:.; deterioration of market access roads and transportation; and environ mental degradation of mangrove ar'i'as. However, there is no i.n form ation as to the e ffec ts of these factors on the fishery. These problems are further accentuated by the geogl"aphic (spatial) distribution of fishing beaches around the Island. Proble1lls Affecting the M ariculture Fishery 1. Inadequate Supplies and Protection of Seed Stock. Spat collection, although attem pted in s(>veral locations, has been successful only at BO''lden, St. Tr.omas. 2. Short.lge of M anp.) wer Funds. Because of inadequate financial resources, the 0 CJ Project experiencps difficulty in optim izing the effi.ciency of its program m es and in expanding them. There is a shortage of trained personnel for biological studies, culture operations, and extension activities. 3. Over-harvesting occurs primarily in Old Harbour Bay, St. Catherine, where stocks are hdrvested before adequate natural recruitllient of spat occ urs, depleting stocks for the follo\Jing season. 4. Praedial Larceny (poaching). The theft of cultch and indeed, whole rafts contalOlIlg and harvest size oysters, results in production declines loss of income to fishermen. (These losses have HOt been quantified.) Problems Affecting the Sub-Sector l C('sts and Prices. These problems are of several types: (a) a dependence on im feed ingredients has driven up production costs (feed III ay account for 30-50 of operating expenditurps); (b) increasing fuel costs have contributed to tlw elevation of other expenses (e.g., construction of ponds); and (c) high interest rates are forcing farm ers out of business or curtailing production, while commercial bank rates applied to Agricultural Credit Bank funds and production capital bor rowed by producers also stifle growth.

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2. Distribution and M appropriate distributor,:; and market outlets is restraining production. A lack of fish processing facilities also slows down or increases the difficulties of marketing fish. Inadequate cooperative efforts by small farmers to coordinate production, distribution, and quality control have reduced the sdle of fish from these farms. 3. Scaling-down of IFU Operations. Budget reauctions and layoffs of trained wc":"kers at the IF U have reduced the capabilitip.s of the Unit ill the areas of site survey, pond construc tion, projec t design and extension. The effects are felt most by sm8!ll farmers (tbe majority of farms and acreages). The IF U also produced fry and fingerlings for stocking. Although larger farms produce their own fingerlings, the curtailment of IFU production has resulted in short-falls 10 fingerling supply. 4. Praedial Larceny. Praedial larceny IS a problem to small and large farms. On large farms, security is a significant cost item. However, to small farmers who lack the resources to provide adequate security, the ac tion c an be crippling. 5. Predation. Predator removal of fish can be significiint where farms a::e located near s warn plands harbouring the crocodile (C roco acutus), whieh removes Idainly adult fish, or in coastal areas within the reach of brown pelican and other water birds (herons, egrets), which mainly prey on juve Several farms are affected, particularly those in southern Clarendon and St. Cathe rine, and in the Black River Morass. 6. Water Supplies. Water supplies in the parishes of Clarendon and St. Catherine are inadequate due to the deterioration of the Rio Cobre, St. Dorothy, and Mid-Clarendon irrigation systems. There is incom plete kno wledge of ground water resources for culture uSt', and the administration of existing water supplies is poor. DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE WORK: Marine Fisheries Sub-Sector In order to halt, or reverse, the various negative impacts on marine fisheries, some degree of rational fisheries managem ent IS necessary. Management schemes must consider methods to effect conservation of fish stocks and prevent I')verfishing, in theot:'y, to obtain a maximum sustainable yield from the fishery. Suggested management strategies include both socio-economic management and biological man&gement. Soclo-ECOllomic M anagem ent a. Strengthen institutions for decision-making in fisheries, and involve related sectors (including agric ultu re, industry, resource con servation, planning agencies, social de '?dlopment agencies, law agencies, educational institutions, com m unications media, aod fishermens' representatives). Representatives of these sectors could com prise a Fisheries Management Council, as suggested by Aiken and Haughton (1985). b. Establishment of a fishermen's information and educational program me to enlist assistance for management measures, as such measures can only be successful if they ar.e seen to be necessary. (Aiken and Haughton, 1985) suggest poster campaignB iind informal beach talks by Fisheries Divisi.on personnel.) c. Effective enforcement of existing legislation. This may req Ulre the in trodu c tion of a Fisheries Warden Program me drawn from Fisheries Division personnel and from the fishermen themselves. Notably, the Offshore Fishery is poorly policed, particularly with respect to intrusions by foreign vessels which exploit stocks of the spiny lobster. This will necessitate efficient monitoring by the Coast Guard and Fisheries Division. d. Delineation of the Exclusive Economic Zone. There is a need for an Exclusive Economic Zone, especially with regard to the larger offshore banks. This should :-esult in improved protection and control of the marine resources. e. Implementation of a program me for ru::-al development in fishing villages. This program m e might (i)encourage alternative farming activities, including small-scale agro-industry such as pig and goat farming; (ii)increase the employment of fishermen in aquaculture; (iii)set up fish processing facilities 111 traditional fishing areas for employment opportunities; (iv)increase fishery families education opportunities to afford them alterr.ative skills and mobility; and (v)set up cottage industry facilities, e g., craftwork in fishing villages. 191

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Biologic al M ana gem ent a. Resource enhancement. The creation of artificial reefs using worn automobile tyres an" hulks pro{ides increased resource space for fish and is known to increase the biomass of fish in bays, lagoons and reefs (Smith and Tyler, 1972). b. Regulations. of sE-veral types (gear limitations; imposition of taxes, licenses, price controls, quotas and size limits; and establishment of protectej areas or seasonal closures) produce a controlling effect on fishing effort. Regarding gear limitations, it is suggested that the size, or aperture of the wire mesh currently used in the industry (as little as 1.9 cm (3/1.") aperture) is too small, trapping fish before they have att.'lined maturity and reproductive potential. Munro (1974) recom mended that no trap fishing be allowed \lsing mesh 'wire of aperture less than 4.95 cm (1 t inches inter-knot aperture), predicting that this would result in increases of from 11 % to 16 i in the value of trap catches. The samE> principles apply to the use of gill and seine nets. With regard to the imposition of size! limits in the fishery, there appears to be the need to amend regulations to increase the current size limit for spiny lobsters from 76 m m carapace length. However, Aiken (1983) notes that the average length of the carapace in mature (berried) females IS 84 mm. Therefore, there seems to be a case for increasing the legal size limit beyond this point, and to introduce a closed season from April 1 to July 31 annually, as is done in many countrit:!s of the Caribbean. c. Implementation of a Coastal Zone Management Policy. Such a policy is needed to stabilize coastal stocks of fish, shrimp and turtles by ensuring that vital breeding and nursery areas are not destruyed or degradei by development pressures. Agencies whose activities affect coastal an'as should be coordinated. (See Johnson, 1985). d. Fishing Industry MO:litoring Programme. An ongoing programme to monitor catch data, fishing effort, and biological data, is necessary to provide information for management decisions, as well as check on the efficiency of management measures. In addition this would enable a determination of the economic status of the Fishing Industry. 192 K aricu1ture Sub-Sector Improvement of Existing Programmes. Pro grammes requiring improvement include: Lhe extension service and the evaluation of growout sites. a. Extension. The Project requires trained extension specialists who will transfer ideas and technology for the improvement of farm ing operations. b. Grow-out site evaluation. The Project is in the process of evaluating additional grow-out sites in order to implement prodl1ction in m ore locations. Continuing research ls required in the 8.t"eas of: mortality rates at grow-out sites; investigation of alternative seed sources (Le. hatchery systems); development of post-harvest operations (by-products and processing); and biological research geared to produce fastergrowing and larger oysters. AquacUkure Sub-Sector Issues requiring attention in the aq:Jaculture sub-sector include: development; training; extension actlvltles; research; and development of processing facilities and new markets for produce. ,Development, Training, and Extension. These needs have become more exacerbated with the scaling down of the IF U and consequent reduc tion in its serVices. a. Training and extension. There is need for the IFU to continue to provide training of a practical n3ture in the areas of: water management in ponds; application and determination of fertilizer and fertilization rates; determination of feeding rates; stocking; harvesting; sexing; and trouble-shooting. Extension services for the provisiun of onsite assistanee, including assistance in the development of detaiJ.ed project proposals to access credit, are needed. 1:,. Research. Some of the requirements of the aquaculture industry are peculiar to local conditions. Research is needed in the arE-as of: hatchery technology and diets; polyculture and integrated farming systems (livestock/poultry/pig/fish/Ghrim p/ fish); dietary and nutritional requirements including the use

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of indigenous ingredients in diets; disease pathology and treatment; stock im provement through genetic manipulations (development of superior strains, e.g., "red" tilapia); and investigations of alternative culture methods (e.g., cage culture, raceway culture and brackish-water culture). c. Development of processing facilities and new markets. Market demand often determines the type of processing to be performed and indeed even the species to be cultured. M llrkets must be investigated with respect to such factors as: the structure, conduct and performance of the market; the measurement of consumer preferences and characteristics, and estimates of the demand for various products. The various processing oper.ations (smoking, fillets) will also depend on the market demand. Markets exist in the Caribbean, North America, and in Europe. '. Plate 25 Fishermen on Pedro Cay. 1-' .. .... I' ;. .. .. Plate 26 Fishermen lIsing traditional type of net 193

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194 Table 48: Fishery Resources of Jamaican Waters Oceanic Pelscic Fish Resources CARANGIDAE: Elagatis bipinnulatus (Rainbow runner) Caranx ruber (Bar jack) CARCHA R.HlNIDAE: Galeocerdo cuvieri (Tiger shark) Carcharhinus leucas (Reef shark) C. obscurus (Dusky shark) C. maou (Oceanic whitetip shark) CORY PHAENIDAE: Coryphaena hippurus (Dolphin fish) ISTIOPHORIDAE: Makai ra nigl'icans (Blue marlin) 1st iophorus albicans (Atlant ic sailfish) Tetrapterus albidus (White marlin) SCOMBRIDAE: Thunnus atlanticus (Black fin tuna) T. albacares (Yellow fin tuna) T. alalunga (Albacore) T. obesus (Bigeye tuna) T. thynnus (Rluefish tuna) Euthynnus alletteratus (LHtle tuna) Katsuwonus pelamis (Skipjack tuna) Scomberomorus regalis (Cero mackerel) S. cavalla (Kingfish) Acanthocybium solandri (Wahoo) XIPIIIDAE: Xiphias gladius (Swordfish) GINGLY MOSTOMATIDAE: Ginglymostoma cirratum (Nurse shark) ALEPISAURIDAE: Aiepisaul us ferox (Longsnout lancetfish) GEMPLYIDAE: Gemp\ylus serpens (Snake mackerel) These species are rare deepwater fish of no commercial value locally. Coastal Pelagic Fishery Resoul'ces CLUPEIDAE: Opisthonema oglinum (Atlantic thread herring) Sardinella braziliensis (Brazilian sardinella) Harcngula jaguana (Scaled sardine) H. homerahs (Red-ear sardine) H. clupeola (False pilchard) Sardinella aurita (Round sardinella) Jenkinsia lamprotaenia (Dwarf herring) Chirocentrodon bleekerianus (Dogtooth herring) ENGRAULIDAE: Anchoa lyolepis (Dusky anchovy) A. hespetus (Striped anchovy) Ctengraulis edulentus (A tlan tic anclioveta) MUGILIDAE: Mugil cephalus (Striped mullet) M. curema (White mullet) M. liza (Liza) CARANGIDAE: Caranx ruber (Bar jack) C. crysos (Blue runner) C. la tus (Horse-eye jack) Selar crumenopthalmus (Bigeye/Goggleye scad) Decapterus punctatus (Round Sl!ad) Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Bumper) Trachinotus goode (Palometa) Oligoplites saurus (Leatherjack) Selene vomer (Atlantic lookdown) SCOMBRIDAE: Scoberomorus cavalla (KingCish) S. regalis (Cero macke!'el) HEMIRAMPIHDAE: Hemiramphus brasiliensis (Ballyhoo) H. balao (Balao) BELONIDAE: Strongylura notata (Redfin needlefish) S. timucu (Timucu) Tylosaurus crocodilus (Houndfish) SPHY RAENIDAE: Sphyraena barracuda (Great barracuda)

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Pishable Crustacean Species PALINURIDAE: Panulirus argus (Spiny lobster) P. guttatus (Chicken lobster) Justitia longimanus (long-armed spiny lobster) SCY LLA RlDAE: Scylla rides aequinoctialis (Spanish lobster) Parribacus antarcticus (Sculptured slipper lobster) SYNAXIDAE: Palinurellus gundlachi (Furry lobster) CALAPPIDAE: Calappa flam mea (Box crab) CANCRIDAE: Carpilius corallinus (Coral crab) MAJIDAE: Mithrax spinosissimus (Spider crab) PORTUNIDAE: Callinectes sapidus (Blue crab) C. ornatus (Shellig's crab) C. danae (Dana swimcrab) C. exasperatus (Rugose swimcrab) C. bocourti (Blunt-tooth swimcrab) C. marginatus (Masked swimcrab) Portunus ordwavi (Red swimcrab) P. sebae (Redspotted swimcrab) PENAEIDAE: Penaeus schmitti (Southern white shrimp) P. braziliensis (Redspotted shrimp) P. notialis (Southern pin shrimp) Trachypenaeus similis (Yellow roughneck shrimp) PANDALIDAE: (Unidentified spp.) (Deepwater caridean prawns) Other Fishable Resources GASTROPOD MOLLUSCS: Queen conch (Strombus gigas) Fighting conch (S. pugilis) Milk conch (S. costatus) Flame helmet (Cassis flam mea) Emperor helmet (C. madagascariensis) King helmet (C. tuberosus) C\)mmon whelk (Cittarium pica) BIVALVE MOLLUSCS: Mangrove oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) Flat oyster (Isognomon alatus) CEPHALOPOD MOLLUSCS: Reef squid (Sepioteuthis sepioidea) Arrow squid (Loligo pealei) Common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) White--spotted octopus (0. macropus) Reef octopus (0. bl'iareus) MARINE ALGAE: "Irish moss" (sea weed) (Gracilaria sp.) (Source: Aiken, 1984) 195

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27 Forestry Department: Crane lifting lumber.

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OVERVIEW OF FOREST RESOURCES Forests occupy over 660,000 acres or 24.3 % of Jamaica's total land mass. (See Figure 33). Most of the forested area i" very mountainous, except for a narrow coastal strip, which is subject to flooding and silting from soil erosion !"esulting from misuse of steep upland areas by many small and a few large-scale cultivations. The greater portion of the forested area is privately owned. (See Table 49.) Classification of Forest Resources Jamaica's natural forest areas contain a great diversity of species -over 2,800 flowering plants, 5,500 ferns, 300 mosses and many fungi. Indigenous vegetation exists only in the Blue and John Crow mountains of the northeast, Hellshire and Portland Ridge on tr.e south coast, and in small, scattered, areas which are inaccessible. Natural forests have been classified by four types, based on elevation, bio-temperature and annual rainfall (Asprey and Robbins, 1952; Sp.e Table 50): -dry limestone forest (e.g.: Hellshire, Portland Ridge); FORESTRY wer limestone forest (e.g., Cockpit Country, Mount Diablo); -lower montane mist forest (e.g., BIlle M ountain Range, elev"'ltion less than 4000 ft.); and -montane mist forest (e.g., Blue Mountain Range, elevution greater than 4000 ft.). Marsh forests and mangrove woodlands, which occur at low lying coastal areas, and are now recognized for their im portant im P:1Ct on the environment, have sincf\ been classilied. The predominant" vegetation species and soil characteristics of each of these forest types are discussed below: o Mangrove Woodlands: coastal; domJ..nated by red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle), white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa), black mangrove (Aricennia germinans), and button wood (C onocarpus erectus). o Dry Limestone Forest (Tropical Very Dry Zone): 0-1250 ft. elevat':on; in southern limestone hills from Hellshire and Portland Ridge, Morant Point, Don Figuero and Santa Cruz mountain, near Negril; dry limestone of stunted diverse species, mainly birl.h, cedar, cotton, sante. maria, breadnut witi) epiphytes, bromeliads and cedar at elevations above lUO feet. 197

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...... \0 00 FIGURE: 33 VEGETATION Ii!l GRASSl..Af) AREAS 0 Mil" 20 I N I GRASSLAND o MJes 20 I Sourc.: Clark. I and Hodgldll 1974. Jomok:o in Mape.

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Table 49: Distribution of Forest Resources in Government and Private Lands -By Parish (Acres) Government Forest Private Parish Reserve Woodlands Total St. Andrew 14,722 20,825 35,547 St. Thomas 32,514 16,837 49,351 Portland 74,394 45,538 119,932 St. Mary 3,666 8,975 12,641 St. Ann 10,920 36,800 47,7::0 Trelawny 55,837 59,834 115,471 St. James 5,866 30,117 35,983 Hanover 1,065 12,736 13,801 Westmoreland 2,123 26,800 28,923 St. EUzabeth 18,841 43,415 62,256 Manchester 26,590 27,210 53,800 Clarendon 19,545 21,112 40,657 St. Catherine 22,367 23,072 45,439 TOTAL 288,45", 373,071 661,52] Source: Jones, Roy; 198ri Workshop I)n Forestry Rnd the Environment; V.W.I.) Table 50: Climatic Characteristics of Jamaica's Natural Habitat Habitat Dry Limestone Wet Limestone Forest Lowel Mist Forest Montane Mist Height Above Sea Level (ft) o 1250 o 1250 1250 1250 Source: Asprey and Robbins; 1953. Mean Annual Mean Annual Bio-tempera-Rainfall ture (OF) (inches) 79.5 20 40 79.5 80 160 75.2 40 80 75.2 80 160 199

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o Wet Limestone Forest (Tropical Mist Life Zone): 0-1250 ft. elevation; tropical mist forests mainly Cockpit country. Mount Diablo and Dolphin Head Mountain; canopy dense up to 100 ft., usually of Broadleaf Terminalia latifolia, San ta Maria C alophyllu m brasiliense, with many large girth trees. o Lower Montane Mist Forest (Premontane): over 1250 ft. elevation and up to 4000 ft. on the North Blue Mountain slopes and John Crow mountain; similar to wet limestone area; com mon species: strati6.ed canopy 60'-80' Psidium montana, Symphonia globulifera and Ficus suffocans to 120' high with species of Santa Maria, slugwood, cedar and anum ber of very rare (mostly untouched) species on about 35,000 acres. o Higher Montane High Forest(Premontane Wet Forest): over 4000' evergreen zone; In the Blue Mountain area with no valuable 6mber due to the constant mist on the poor soils, with canopy less than 50 ft; profusely branched species, mainly Podocarplls urbanii and Cyrilla racemiflora, rare indigenous coni fers, barbadensis, little disturbed and of substantial scientific value. o Herbac eous s warn p and marsh forests: mainly in low lying coastal areas, Negril, Black River and Trelawny; vegetation mainly sedges and rushes. Table 51: Holgate (1967) suggested another classification of forests based on the concept of Life Zones, which are by both mean annual biotemperature and mean annual rainfall as well as altitude. (See Table 51.) Each zone defines the major climatic factors of the environment and determines the potential vege taticn types likely to exist before disturbance by man. Soils, which also inHuence vegetation types, are classified according to the geology of the three major landforms, namely: SoW; of Basement and Im:-usive Series occupying the interior mountain ranges, such as the Blue Mountain and the fiull Head regions of Clarendon, which are derived from shales, conglom erates and of variable fertility and prone to very SerL)US erosion. -The Upland Limestone Series in karst topography on over 60 % of the island. These are of var:.:.Ll fertility, and include the bauxitic and .. hallow rendzina soils on the coast, which are usually of low fertility. Soil of the Alluvial Series In the coastal plains, inland basins and clluvial valleys. These are mostly fertile soils, bl"t some can be low in nutrients and poorly drained. Another broad classification of forest -natural, ruinate and plantation -is shown in Table 52. Jamaica's Life Zones 200 Elevation M.A.n. o 1250 ASL 79.5 Over 1250 ASL MAB = Mean Annual Biotemperature MAR = Mean Annual Rainfall ASL = Above Sea Level M.A.R. 20 40" 40 80" 80 160" 160 320" 40 -80" 80 160" 160 320" Life Zones Tropical Very Dry Forest Tropical Dry Forest Trcpical Moist Forest Tropical Wet Forest Premontane Moist Forest Premontane Wet Forest Premontane Rain Forest Source: Symes, Guy A. 1971 D. Jamaica Journal. Vol.15, No .. 4. (Based 011 L.R. Holgate, 1967.)

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o Natural forest of approximately 190,000 acres could be the residual 7 % of the (.xisting natural, original land zone in very inaccessible locations. o Ruinate is that area which has been cleared at some time and then left to regenerate. An estimated 435,300 acres exist over the island and, where practic.Jble, offer the greatest opportunity for the establiflhment of new plantations in pines or hard wood for com met'cial exploitation at maturity in 20 to 30 years. Dominant species which still exist usually include large clu m ps of ba m boos and climber infested ground. Left on its own, over a very long time (hundreds of years), it could develop a high forest canopy. o Over 47,000 acres of ne w forest plantations exist, mainly Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea), in the eastern part of the island with small areas of hardwood in the central and western regions, mainly mahoe, with cedar, eucalyptus and mahogany in small quantities. There is also a small energy plantation of 45 acres of Ipil-Ipil Leucaena leucocephala and some _Albizzia fa1caria being observed for poles, fuel, timber, pulp and paper purposes. Table 5 shows estimated plantations on forest reserves by species. It is estimated that a total of 5,000 acres of plantations exist on private forest lands, the major acreage of which is owned by the bauxite companies. finus caribaea represents approximately 60 percent of the private forest plantations, with blue mahoe, West Indies cedar, and Honduras mahogany representing the major species of the remaining 40%. Assuming that the land was totally forested prior to Spanish settlement, centuries of deforestation caused by clearing of land for farming and settlement have reduced the original forest cover by approximately 70 percent. Of the island's 33 watersheds, nineteen are very badly eroded and losing top soil at the rate of about tons per acre per annum. Nearly one-third of the forest occurs in the east (217,471 acres) where most of the intensified forest rehabilitation programme of Caribbean pine plantation developm ent exists (See Figure 34). Table 52: Extent and Ownership of Forest Total GovernmE:llt Privately Type Acreage Owned Owned Natural 190.000 148,000 4',:,000 Ruinate 435,300 1 101,300 2 334,000 Plantation (1977) 247,000 24,700 5,000 3 TOTAL 650,000 274.000 381,000 SOURCE: lUSAID, 1973; 2IBRD, 19/9b, 3FSCD 1986. 201

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202 Species Pinus caribaea Blue Mal.oe Honduras mahogany Jamaica mahogany W.I. Cedar Teak Broadleaf Pinus patula Pinus massoniana Eucalyptus saligna Eucalyptus robusta Other Species TOTAl, I'IIC)J(CT AllA "HE lOLl 11_" I'OIIPT IIIIIIW'!I !"OUR!' 3" Table 53: Estimated Porest Plantations on Porest Reserves by Species Acres 34,500 73.9 4,593 9.8 5,616 12.0 CO 0.2 142 0.3 335 0.7 487 1.0 50 0.1 35 0.1 315 0.7 110 0.3 437 0.9 46,700 100.0 A1AS SUITA8I..E FOR PINE: DEVEl...OPtE.NT IN REGICW

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AGENCIES AND IBSTlTUnOtiS The three principal institutions concerned with forestry in Jamaica are: the Forest and Soil Conservation Department (FSC D), Ministry of Agriculture; the Forest lndustrie:s Development Com pa.ly, Ltd. (FID CO), a lIholly-owned Rub sid i.clry of the National Investm.ent Bank of Jamaica (NIBJ); and the Natural Resources Conservation Division (N ReD), Ministry Q1f Agriculture. Forest Industries Develop.ellt Co.pany, Ltd. (FmCO) FInCO, established in 1978, is now on a leasehold basis some 23,000 acres of Government-owned pine plantation in the eas tern section of the i.sland. It is responsible for the harvesting, transporting, and sawruilJing of timber from pine and for increasing these plantations to 50-60,000 acres. Development loans have been granted by the W orId Bank and the C Development Corporation (CDC) in order to harvest and utilize 500 acres (200 ha) of native pine tim ber annually to 1995. Table 54 records FIDC O's production of pine between 1981 to 1985, with imports through the Jamaica Commodity Trading Com pany (JCTC) a Government agency which has sole authority to import lUll. ber. It is expected that FIn CO's production to increase as more local tim her becomes available for reaping from government and private plantations. Table 54: In the area of conservation, FlO CO has responsibility to undertake activities to arrest soil erosion on its estate, working in collaboration with other agencies. Forest and Soil Conservation Depart.ent (FSCO) The FSCD was formed in 1985 by amalgamation of the former Forest Department and the Soil Conservation Units. FSCD's functions include: of plantations, especially hardwood; -Management of forest plal1tations and natural forests; -Research on fast-growing sped"'J for substi tutiun of im ported fuels and the production of fodder and nectar for honey, genetic improvement of Pinus caribaea and the utilization of bamboO;-Training of professional, technical and administrative staff for the foreptry sector, including FID CO; Soil conservation and watershed management, in with the Land Authorities and the Natut'al Resources Conservation Division (NRCD); -Forest extension and developm ent, including private forestry, production of craft materials in collaboration with the Ministry of Pin,!! Lumber ImpOli"ts and Local Production To Satisfy Local Demand Real Lumber Demand 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 (in Mill. Bd. Ft.) Imports by JCTC 26.0 30.9 24.7 22.1 19.5 rIDCO's Production 2.5 1.5 2.9 4.1 6.3 TOTAL 28.5 3?.5 27.6 26.2 25.8 SOURCE: Symes, Guy A. 1986. Workshop on Forestry and the Environmelit. U.W.I., MONA. 203

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Youth and Community Development, Social Development Commission (SDC); and -Forest recreation development and management, including recreational areas such as Blue Mountain Peak, Portland Hollywell, Clydesdale, Bull Head, Lovers Leap, Moneague, Gourie and Williamsfield, and Fellow ship. Ratural Resource Conservation Division (RR CD) The Watershed M ilnagement section of the Natural Resources and Conservation Division (N R C D) provides technical and management serVlces to implement remedial measures for forestry operations a'nd other activities within the watersheds. It shares responsibility with other members of the Watershed Protection Commission for the maintenance of proper land use in the watershed areas. NRC D also has responsibility for developing National Parks, monitoring forest ecology and manage ment. LEGISLATION AND REGULA nONS Forest Act of 1937 The Forest Act of 1937 made provision for the establishing of forest reserves and for regulat109 the use of and the activities of such reserves. W Protection Act The Watershed Protection Act of 1963 provides for the designation of watersheds for conservation purposes. NRC D has primary responsibility for administering the Act, which is intended to reduce soil erosion) ensure a regular flow in rivers and str.eams, maintai.n optimum levels of ground water, and encourage proper land ufle. All 33 watersheds have been designated protected areas under the Act. PLAHS AID PROGRAMMES Government and private enterprise are involved in developing and utilizing Jamaica's forest resources. As noted above, the Government's role is focused on: FS CD's progral!1 of hardwood/pine establishment and research; and 204 FIDC O's effJrts to sup!>ly industrial sawn wood and establish and develop the major pine plantations. In addition, the Government provides assistance to establish forest plantations on private lands. Also an estimated 145 sawmills throughout the country are exploiting available timber from private forests and woodlands. W atersbed H anagen eDt Two joint NRCD/FAO/GOJ projects (IFAD I and II) deal \iith the establishment and rationalization of the economic anti environ mental conditions of small hillside farmers in five specific watershed areas ;,11 the eastern region, involving 85,000 acres, and 2-3,000 farmers. A thi":'d program me for revegetation, protection and T11 anagem ent of the Hope River Watershed is scheduled for com pletion in March 1989. The project is being financed by UNDP, UNEP and GOJ, and is being implemented by the NRCO and {<'SC D. Review of Legislation A revie w of legisla tion for forestry and soil and water conservation (Reid) seeks to address the need for more appropriate soil conservation directives relating to both the Watershed Protection and Land AuthlJrities Act. With respect to forestry, thf> amendments seek to give the Minister of Agriculture greater control over present and future designated sites and for more direct i.,volvement in their development, to the benefit of en;.rironmental upgrading. A draft bill (Forestry Act 1984) has been preparp:! and awaits ratification as soon as Governmc!nt's policy has neen form ulated. PROBLEMS AND ISSUES Priority Proble The problems are: o Removal of the protective tree cover and lower ground vegetation from steep slopes of very erodable soil types, resulting in soil erosion ranging between 10 and 40 tons per acre per annum, with resultant low water conservation.

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FIGURE: 35 MAIN ROADS RlLWAY Fort!STRY REGIONS LIMIT REGION NlUSTRII.L. PLAH!lUJON ZONES LIIiIT o EXISTlt) PINE e POSSIILE PWE SAWMLL e EXI!TIJ t) IIOssaE fUTURE ru.P a PAPafMILL FOREST ADMNISTRATIVE UNITS a INFRASTRUCTlR: PR
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o Over-population of some watershed areas, reflulting in misuse of forest resource for aurvival of families. o Inappropriate land use as follows: caah crop farming on steep hillside erodable without soil conservation measures; -indiscriminate illicit burning resulting in degradation of the forest cover and environment; -lack of management in clear felling and extracting timber, particulnrly on hillsides; e.g., expansion of coffee production; -lack of adherence to road construction standards and specifications which increase degradation of the forest er..v:'ronment; and -continuing destruction of mangrove forest. o Clear cutting rather than partial removal of timber, especu.lly from areas where a slower process would be less harmful to the environment. o Inadequate farmer participation in reafforestation progra m m es. o Mining of bauxite in the northern and central hard wood forest regions. o Destruction of rare and as yet undetermined useful species of plants. J:ey Issues Prioritization of Soil and Water C unservation Programme. Soil and water conservation development program mes to arrest soil erosion and thus promote water by widespread and rea[forestation efforts are needed. All 33 watersheds must be replanted, beginning with the nineteen most seriously eroded, to arrest erosion of farm lands. Erosion of hillsides due to poor farming practices has resulted in blockages and silting of streams and rivers, such as the Yallahs and Black rivers, as well as damage to marine fisheries on both the north and south coasts. Improvement of land use practices must be included in all watersheds in the shortest possible time and encouraging adoption of agro-forestry. Unmanaged Exploitation of the Forest. Over exploitation of the forest results in abuse and misuse of erodable areas when the tree cover is removed for purposes of arable cultivation. The need exists to reduce population pressure to allow 181rger units for economic size holdings. 206 Further, continued use of the forest ror fuel and timber must be addressed by adequate replanting with quicker growing species. Care must be exercised to reduce the risk of losing many useful trees. Development of a Com prehensive Land Use there iq no com prehensive There is sn urgent need to of the use of the hillsides in Policy. Presently land use policy. address the issue such policy. Poor Harvesting and Road Construction Techniques. 1m provement in fore'st harvesting dnd road construction techniques are needed to reduce erosion resulting from the present system of roads ltnd verges, which ace often at too steep a slope. Cultivation of Ganja on Crown Lands. For several reasons, efforts are being made to eliminate illegal growing of ganja, among them the fact that its cultivation increases erosion. !iowever, attempts to find a remunerative substitute crop i'lre, to date, not very promising. 'J.'he Need for lolore Attractive Incentives fur Private Forest A c ti..,ities. Fina neinl incentil1es for participatuM of large privHte farmers in forest rehabilitatt.:-m program mes have not been attractive enough to date. Rehabilitation of Mined Out Bauxite Areas. Mining will have to com ply with requirements (0 restore mined out areas more quickly than lB now the case. Need for a Foredt Development Com mittee. Institutionalizing the Forest Development Com mittee, ,approved by the Ministry of Agriculture, could give a great boost to the reafforestation effort. Need for Ongoing Research. There is need for the results of intensive research to playa more vital part in facilitating the foregoing objectives. Funding is needed to provide for a continuing uevelopment strategy that addresses these urgent problems and needs. Need for an Ongoing Puhlic Education Pro gramme. Jamaican society needs to be made a ware of the need to maintain the forest environment and of the consequences that occur from its destruction. Sustained educational progra m m es are urgently needed. Enforcement. Provision of appropriate mechan-

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isms to enforce standards, regulations and other legal provisions under law,q affecting Forest Development in Jamaica. RECOM MEHDATIOHS FOIt FUTURE ACTIOB Organization A properly instituted goveming body of technically com petent and creative planners is needed to develop an achievablE' forestry program me, e.g., a 50-year program me to im prove the environment with substantial intermediate benefits available from fruit tree products, from intercropping or normal thinning of the foresttree population. This group should have executive authority, through a Chief Executive Offi cer, to oversee the efficient performance and coordination of the multidisciplinary team needed to operate this vast progre.m me. A proposed structure is given in Figure 36. with regard co development planning, agricultural acti-Jity must come under the scrutiny of the national planning process, i.e., the Town and Country Planning Authority in order to ensure that agricultural development plans are compatible and consistent with national physical plan and overall environmental policy. Figure 36: Land Policy There is a need to allocate land resources to satisfy national demands for forest product eelfsufficiency, as well B.S to developing tl. for locally produced by-products. Socia-economic data and studies indicate that agriculture can not profitably be undertaken on most of the slopes now used for hillside farming. There is a need for new land us' restrictions and the establishment of new codes and allocations for the short supply of arable land to sustain a rapidly increasing population. Relocation, possibly temporarily, of some populations in hillside enterprises, may be needed to restore the forest environment to a safe condition. If the time should come when land is a constraint to population growth in Jamaica, then proper information must direct that sound actions be taken in using the available land resources. In this spirit, it is recom mended that a pilot relocation project be undertaken within well defined parameters. The proposed new scheme of land classification (Table 55), which is not very different from previous ones, could form the basis for a relocation program me. Estimated cost is about J$3,OOO,OOO initially over a two-to-three year period. Proposed Formal institutional OrganlzaHon Strueture I FIDCO Minister or Agriculture 1 Permanent Sccreta:'y (MOA) 1 Forest Development Committee r Ch.km," 0' Spe"" "'"",,mm .. Forest and Watershed Programmes I FSCD I Watershed Engineering Division, NRCD 207

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208 Slope Soli Depth Deep (0) 36 In. Moderlltely Deep (/>I 20 36 In. Shill low (S) B 20 In. Very Shill low (VS) Bin Table 55: New 8ehe_e ot Land c.pebWty CluIification tOl' .lalQ.\ca (A Treat_ent-oriented Sebe_e Bllpeclally tOl' Billy Watersheds,l I. Gentle 2. Moderllte 3. Strongly I ... Very 5. Steep Sloping Sloping Sloping Strongly 7 0 7 0 150 I S60plng 250 )00 200 20 250 C I C 2 C,3 C 4 n C I C 2 C, C 4 FT P F C I C 2 C3 P F P p C I P P P F 6. Very Steop ) 300 F F F F I. Symbols C I for most Intensive ti IllIge or uses: C .J P FT F Cultlvllble IlInd I, up to 7 0 SIOPEI, requiring no, or few, Intensive conservation measures, ego confOLlr cultlviltlon, strip cropping, vegetlltvle bllrrler, root bllrrler lind In IlIrger fllrms. brolldbose tcrrac!.1s. Cultivllble land 2, on slopes betw.aen 7 0 and 150 with moderately deep sol Is needing more Intenslv6 conservation eg, bench terracing, hexagon, mini-convertible terracing for the convenienco 01 four wheel trllctor framing, The conser'vation treatments can be done by medium sized machines such as Bulldozer or 06. Cultivuble land 3, 150 to ZOo, n('eding b('nch terrllcln9, hex
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Education Prograaae Education program mes should be implemented through the media to bring about greater awareness of the need for a national forest strategy to the deterioration of the environment. Planting H aterial Expansion Progra. me Suitable sources of planting material should be identifierl, and seeds or seedlings made ready with directives from trained personnel to facilitate a program me of tree establishment. Staffing Suitably trained and motivated senior and junior staff, preferably residing in the areas, provided with half a million dollars over a two year period with adequate facilities to operate an appropriate research program me, will reduce the abuse of the forest. A phased development .... ould reduce costs. Forest froauctd Development Greater local use of forest products (e.g., as veneering for furniture, veneering gift items, etc.) with a good return to the forest investor, should givll a greater thrust to the development and proper use of the forest. Initial export opportunities are proving very in a market, which although always com petitive, is open to quality Jamaican material of sustainable quantities. Research New information derived from research program mes could lay the foundation for the strategies to be employeci in the rehabilitation exercises. A realistic land use strategy must be df'term ined for all soils and agro-furestry systems, which will have to be the norm for some time. An allocation of half a million dollars per year for three years should yield very worthwhile results in three years (total J$L.5M). Plate 28 A stand of Pirl(' trees in the Blue IVlollntains. 209

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Plate 29 Schoolboys playing Karate -t,.., .............. -Plate 30 Cricket match in progress. ,--,".'[', .. :, .' Plate 31 Rafting in Portland.

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OVERVIEW OF TOURISM AND RECRELATION In both 1984 and 1985, tourism earned over US$400 million for Jamaica. In 1985, the tourism industry was the largest source of Jamaica's foreign earnings, accounting for over 33 % of the country's hard currency receipts. This lucrative service indu3try de pends on the island's natural beauty -pure air, abundant sunshine, and clean sandy beaches. This industry, in particular, is testimony to the close relationship between economic well-being and the quality of the natural environment. Overview of Trends in the Tourism Industry In spite of fluctuations in the international travel market, there has been steady growth in visiter arrivals to Jamaica over the years. The number of tourists coming to Jamaica almost doubled over the years J.971-l985, even though dem and fell markedly at various points during the period. (See Figure 37.) 0 f the 846,71(. visitors to Jamaica in 1985, over 67 percent were "stopover" guests; the rem ainder were cruise ship passengers and armed forces personnel. Between 1979 and 1985, visitor expenditures increased from 194.3 to 406.8 million US dollars. In 1985, 13,619 persons were directly employed 111 the accom modation subsector of the tourist TOUR!SM AND RECREATION industry, an increase of 16 percent over the figure for J.979. The direct employment statistic does not indicate fully, ho",ever, the level of dependence on tourism earnings of entin' communities in Jamaica whose residents provide goods and servic es for visitors. Notwithstanding its economic primacy, the tourism industry is still relatively localized in spatial terms. Data compiled by the Ministry of Tourism list hotel rooms of'ly for the following areas: Kingston/St. Andre w, M ontego Bay, Ocho Rios, Port Antonio, Mandeville and Ne.gril. Tourist accom mod.1tions along most of the south coast and in the of the island are minim ale Table 56 indicates the changes in the number of hotel rooms in these varioas sub-regions of Jamaica from 1970 to 1985 (see also Figure 38). Although the island's hotel room capacity fluctup.tes, an increase in room capacity generally parallels the rise in visitor arrivals. The most spectacular increase has been at Negril, with other high, but relatively moderate increases in room capacity in Port Antonio, Montego Bay and Ocho Rios. Even more revealing of the density of visitor presence in each of the resort areas is the num ber of hotel bed-nights sold per year. In this regard, figures published by the Ministry of Tourism indicate that while Ocho Rios 211

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FIGURE. 37 TO'mL VlSITOO ARRIVALS TO JAMAICA 1971-800 750 ?OO 650 600 i I-450 400 3M 71 72 73 74 75 16 n 18 79 eo 81 82 B3 Ik 85 YEAR So,"" EcnnomiC and Sotlol JomaICo, experienced a 46 percent increase in hotel room capacity from 1970 to 1985, their increase L"1 bed-nights sold was 73 percent. Negril alsl) experienced an even greater increase in bednights sold than in room capacity; in the case of Montego Bay, the two indices increased at a more equal rate. Mandeville and Kingston both experienced a significant decline in the numbe. of bed-nights sold. (See Table 56.) The pattern of growth shown in these tablef. (most dramatic in the case of Negrin demonstrates that the aspect of Jamaican tourism most nttractive to visitors is still the com bination of sea/sand/sunshine. Shorefront resources are being used more intensively than ever 10 Dcho Rios, Montego Bay and Negril. In the case of Montego Bay and Dcho Rios, greater cruise pasoenger tr.!lffic has also contributed to the increased use of iocal facilities. What, if any, are the alternative natural resources that have been put to recreational use by the industry? A survey of brochures published by 11 major inland tour operators registered with the Jamaica Tourist Board reveals that the following natural sites were listed among the tours offered: the Rio Grande and Martha Brae rivers (rafting), Nonsuch and Green Grotto Caves, Hope Botanical Gardens, Dunn's River Falls, Fern Gully, Magotty Waterfalls and Navy Island. One tour operator offers a trip through the Cockpit Country, while a number ta:te passengers on scemc rides through the interior by train or coach. 212 A gr'owing trend is the opening up of a number of farms and plantations to tours, allowing visitors to observe the growing and processing of coffee, sugar cane and other crops. Horseback riding, hiking, pond fishing and other recreational activities are also available. Among the farms and plantations listed by the tour operators surveyed IN ere: Brim m er H all, Friendship Farm, Pine Grove, Prospect Plantation, Appleton EstatE:: and Chukka Cove Farm. EVE'n though this trend is promising, a survey of available recreational facilities suggests that relatively few of the available natural sites have been developed as recreational attractions. While more and more privately-owned plantations are developing a visitor component to their businesses, many of the publicly-owned points of interest and natural beauty remain undeveloped and underutilized. Recreation Patterns Although very little quantitative data exists on recreational patterns of local residents, it is apparent that, as with tOUlists, beaches are one of the most widely used natural resources. Public beaches, especially those that are wellequipped and maintained, have a steady number of users throughout the year and are heavily used on public holidays. The three developed mineral spas -Rockfort, M ilk River and Bath -also depend largely on a local clientele. The statistics for ll)cal guests staying in hotels in Jamaica shows that, apart from Kingston, the figures are for the beach resort to\olns

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TAble 56: Jamaica. Spatial DistribuUon of Betel RooID!I 1974 1985 Kingston & 8t Andrew 1149 1439 Montt!go Bay 2493 3586 Ocho Rios 1547 2256 Port Antonio l!i4 254 Mandeville 129 55 Negril 136 567 Jnforme.tion in Table 56 reflects the average number of rooms that were made available at any given tune dur!ng the yc!.rs under review. Source: Travel Stati!.Hcs 1974 and 1980; Ja:naica Tourist Boa.rd, Ministry of Mining. Enp.rgy. and Tourism. I'l0l.111:39 JAMAlCAHOTEL Se:OS SOlO BY REGION (1985) Change 31a t I oeKINGSlOH.a ST.AIIlREW (ltII,8OO) 213

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Table 57: Jamaica. Hotel Bed-Nichts Sold 1974* 1985 % Change Kingston &: St Andrew 278,675 191,600 -31% Montego Bay 751,940 1,239,990 65% Ocho Rios 500,680 866,866 73% Port Antonio 22,054 43,871 99% Mandeville 21,054 11,656 -45% Negril (1975) 17,954 254,893 1320% Revised estimates Source: Travel 1974 and 1985; Jamaica Tourist Board, Ministry of Mining, Energy, ar,d Tourism. ofOclio Rios and Montego Bay. In 1985, there were over 35,000 local visitors staying over at Ocho Rios hotels, just over 27,000 for Montego Bay, and over 30,UOO for Kingston. Port Antonio, with over 8,000 and Negril with more than 7,000, though increasingly attractive to local guests, are still less popular than 0 Rio!] or Montego Bay. The pattern of local usage of other recreational facilities is mixed, varying from overuse in some instances to underuse in others. Family and group excursion visits to the botanical gardens, particularly those at Hope and Castleton, are very popular. While there are no statistics Clvailable on visitor usage of these facilities, the Department of Public Gardens estimates that about 150,000 people visit the Hope Zoo each year and that the Hope Gardens are visited by an additional 100,000 persons annually. Hiking and cam?ing trips to Blue Mountain peak, Hollywell, Newcastle and other scer.ic locations are also popular. M any of these are day rat'her than overnjght trips, however. Figures obtained from Forestry Department, which operetes anum ber. of cabins for overnight stay in the protec ted forest a reas of the moun tains, suggest that the fe w units that they run are underutilized. For the year April 1985 to March 1986, 11 total of 316 people occupied the three rental cabins at Hollywell; 156 people rented the unit at Portland Gap; 686 stayed over at 2]4 Blue M ountliin; and 693 used the units at Clydesdale (a total of 1,851 paying stop-over visitors for all the units). Visits to museums run by the Institute of Jamaica also show consi.derable potential for increased usage. In 198!J-85, there was a total of 32,867 visitors to all six museums of the Institute. Only 24,704 of these were Jamaicans, and of these the vast majority (17,642) were children, most of whom tour the facilities as part of organized student groups. At>art from visits to the beaches and to the more popular botanical gardens, much of the recreational activity of local residents stul centres on the home and the local com mUllity. Sports such as cricket and soccer, the occasional bicycle or push cart race, domino playing, dances and social drinking, tend to be the more popular pastimes of most Jamaicans. This is not to say, however, that Jamaicans would not use, (lr would be indifferent to, othrx kinds of facilities if they were made available. On the contrary, existing patterns point m ore to the fact that attractive recreational sites have either not existed or have been inaccessible because of cost or location. In spite of the high cost, the number of Jamaican stopover guests at local hotels is quite im pressive. There 15 no reason to suppose that iocal residents would not respond positively to ne w recreational attractions.

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Iluourcea for Touriaa and Recreation Offshore IslaI\ds, Cays and Reefs. Jamaica has about 28 significant offshore i.slands and cays, most of theTil off the island's south coast. The fragile environment of the cays precludes their intensive development for recreational purposes. 0 nly Lim e Cay off the coast of Port Royal is used as a recreational sitt> for sunbathing and picnics. The long coru:! reef chains found off the north coast .Jnd along sections of the south coast provide habitat for numerous species of flora and fauna. They are excellent recreational sites for diving or for viewing from glass-botto m ed boats. Beaches. Wind and wave action, which grind down the offshore coral reefs, help develop and sustain the impressive white sand beaches of the island's north coast, where the principal resort areas are located. The beaches of the south coast sre built up More by river sand, are typically brown, and are less stable than those of the north coast. Only 26, miles of Jamaica's 490-mile coastline are used for recreational purposes. (See Tahle 58.) Table 59 lists the ieland's public bathing beaches and associated facilities. Mineral Springs. Of the eight noteworthy hot and cold mineral springs in the island, only three are exploited for public recreational use -at Milk River, Bath and Rockfort. The springs are shot"n on Figure 39 and their significant features are sum marized in Table 60. W Several of Jamaica's swift-flowing rivers have scenic waterfalls appropriate for development as recreational attractions. To date, only Dunn's River Falls has heen so developed. M all aged by the Urban Development Corporation (UDC), the falls form the central point of a landscaped park, with a well-developed pUblic bathing beach and craft shopping area. Visitors are encouraged to climb to the top of the waterfall with or without the assistance of park guides. C hanging facilities and a large car park are avaUable for guests. The falls are an important stop for many of the inland tour operator.s who transport cruise passengers and hotel guests about the island. Botani.:al Gardens. The development of Jamaica's botanical gardens dates back to the late eighteenth century. Currently, there are five major botanical gardens, four of which are publicly-owned (Hope, St. Andrew; Castleton, St. Mliry; Bath, St. Thomas; and Cinchona, Portland/St. Andrew), and one (Irvin, St. Thomas) is owned privately. The gardens are used both for recreational purposes and for botanical research. Hope Gardens is the main recreational park for the Kingston metropolitan area and is a major stop on guided tours of the ciLj'. A zoo and amusement park are located in the Hope Gardens complex. Of the four pUblicly-owned gardens) Hope and Castleton are perhaps overutilized, while Bath and Cinchona, for reasons of relative inaccessibility, are underutilized. Table 58: Commercial and Recreational UBage or Jamaieals CoasWne Type oC Use Number Length oC (miles) Hotels 54 4.50 Resort Cotttlges 180 4.75 Member &: Proprietory Clubs 11 1.25 Commercial Recreational Beaches 23 0.50 Public Bathing Beaches 65 7.00 Public Fishing Beaches 78 8.50 411 26.50 Source: NRCD. Tourism and Recreation Sector Reconnaissance Report. Jamaica CEP. 215

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Table 59: SeheGlle of PubUe Bathing Beaehes (NRCD) PARISH BA'I'HIl'{; BEACHES FACll..ITIES STAWS OR RESERV'ill Kingston Harbour Head A.B.C.E.F.G.I. Seaside 'Park Gunboat A.B.C.D.E.F.G.H.I. Bathing Beach Buccanea A.B.C.D.E.F.G.H.I. Bathing Beach Bemeds -Inactive Springfield A.B.C.D.E.F.G.H. Inactive St. Andrew Copacabana C.G. Seaside Park Ocean Lake -Seaside Park Caribbean Terrace -Seaside Park St. Thanas Mezzgar 's Run Bathirg Beach South Haven -Bathing Beach Rozelle -Bathing Bearn Lyssons A.B.C.D.E.F.G.1. Bathing Be.1.ch Retreat C.D. Ba Beach Prospect A.B.C.D.E.F.G.I Ba thing Beach Rocky Point A.B. Bathing Beach Portland Irnus Bay A.B.C.D.G. Bathing Beach Long Bay Bathing Beach Boston A.B.C.D.E.F.G.H.I Ba thing Beach WirmifreJ Rest Hane A.B.C. Bathing Beach Drapers A.B.C. Bathing Beach Blue lble .. Bathing Beach Bryrn's Bay A.B.C.D.E.F.G.H. Bathing Bead. St. Margaret's Bay -Bathing Beach Wydah or Little -Bathing Beach Spring Garden -Bathing Beach lbpe Bay A.C.D. Bathing Beach Orange Bay A.B.C.E.F. Bat."ti. ... .g Rodney Hall -Bathing Beach Hennitage -Bathing Beach Folly -Seaside Park & Bathing Navy Island -Bathing Beach Spring Garden D.F.G. Seaside Park St. Mar} AImotto Bay -Bat.hing Beach Pagee & Frontier A.B.C. Bathing Beach Murdock's Beach A.B.C. BaLhing Beach Rockroore -Seaside Park Ric Nuevo -Bathing Beach ---St. Arm Roxborough A.D.C.D.F.G.I BathiIlg Beach Priory A.B. Bathing Beach Sa Ian A.B.C.I. Bathing Beach Sailor's Hole -Bathing !!each Cardiff Hall A.B.C.D.E.F.I Bathing Beach Swallow Hole -Bathing Beach Discovery Bay A.B.C.I. Bathing Puerto Seco A.B.C.D.E.F.G.H.I. Bathing Beach Bengal Clot 17) Bathing Beaclt Turtle Beach (lIDC) A.B.C.D.E.F.G.H.I. Bathing Beach DUllll 's River A.B.C.D.E.F.G.H.I. Bclthing Beach Trelawny (Peskitt's Beach) Rio fueno -Bathing Beach Braco -Bathing Beach Silver Satlds A.B.C.I. Bathing Beach fur....uod A.B.C.I. Bathing Beach Victoria Park -Seaside Park Half llion Bay A.C. Bathing Beach Flamingo B2ach -Bathing Beach 216

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'table 59: eontlnued PARISH Bl\nIIN:; BFACHF.s FACll.ITIES SI'AnIS "j OR RESERVED St. J!!OOs GreerMJOd Bathing Beach Rose Hall -Bathing Beach Coral Gardens Bathi..;g Beam Ironsoore -Bathing Beach Mahoe Bay -Bathing Beach Part Providence Pen A.B.C.D.E.F.G.H.I. Bathing Beam Walter Fletcher A.B.C.D.E.F.G.H.I. Bathing Beach Doctor's Cave A.B.C.D.E.F.G.H.I. Bathing Beach CorrrNall Beach A.B.C.D.E.F.G.P..I. Ba thing Beam Mantego rreeport -Bathing Beam Spring Garden C.F.G. Seaside Park Great River -Bathing Beaci1 Orchard -Bathing Beach Tryall -Bathing Beach Watson-Taylor A.B.C.D.E.F.G Bathing Beach Lance's Bay A.B.C.D. Bathing Beach full's Bay A.B.C.D.E.F.G Bathing Beach Westrooreland Little Bay -Mli tchcUfW A. Bathing IJeach Fort A.B.C.D.E.F.G.H.I. Bathing Beach Negril (NATA) A.B.C.D.E.F.G.H. Ba,ching Beach Negril NAlA A.B.C.D.E.F. Bathing Beach Bluefield B.C. Bathing Beach Foothill (Luana) -Bathing Beam St. Elizabeth Galleon futhing. Beach Hodges Seaside Park Crane A.B.C.D.E.F.G Bathing Beach Fu1lerswood -Bathing Beach Parottee B.C. Bathing Beach Fort O1arles -Bathing Beach Billy's Bay -Bathing Beach Calabash Bay Bathing Beam Great Bay A. Bathing Beam Manchester Alligator Pond A.B.C.E.F.G. Bathing Beam Calabash Bay -Bathing Beach Hudson Bay Part Forest Gutt River B. Bathing Beach Clarendon Bamswell Dale Part of Forest lEse=-ratioo Jackson Bay A.B.C.E. Bath:'''..g Beach Rocky Point Bathing Beam Farquhar's A.B.C. Bathing Beach St. Catherine Port Henderson Bathing Beach Marine Tellninal A.B.C.D.l. Bathing Beach Hell shire A.B.C.D.E.F.G.H.I. Bathing Beach Fort Clarence A.B.C.D.E.F.G.H.I. Bathing Beach Key: A Olange Roan B I: Toilets C ,: Showers D ,. Shelter E -;; Car Park F .. Fencing and Landscaping G :1 Tables and Benmes H :1 Canteen I Lifeguard Stand 217

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N 00 FIGURE: 39 JAMAICA: OFFSHORE ISLANDS AND CAYS, M1NERALSFflINGS. WATe:RFALLS AND BOTANiCAL GARDENS Great Rnaer I \ i ....... \ST.JAMES I TRELAWNY Windsor \OYhliteRMlr .'--._':)\..! ST.ANN \,STMARY ) _L_._ r.! ..... j .-. _., ,. /...... /./ Castleton 1 / i ,.-.-1 .-.--._-, .-.-. \. / 1 .\...,../" ....... i ) Mogotty \ CBroe Head \ !. \ RMr AM> i \.\ 1 STCAllRWE r) 'MANCt"' ., DrhwI \ STER }CLARENDON \ FerryKt'@ ... ST.EUZABETH \ (\ \ \ ( MoIvI II WERAl.. SPRWGS 'tIATERFALLS BOTA::AL GARDENS 17 LOCATIONS OF ISLANDS AND CAYS FROM TABLES IN NRCD.,C.E.P. REparr. Note:Th .... IIIonQ/Coys cannot be IoccHed even though mentioned in teltt. 21 C.I \ 21 .... RNer No ISLAND OR CAY I Lime Cay 2 South E;mt Coy 3 Dnrltenmon Coy 4 Rockham! Cay 5 Sovtt". Cay 6 MdIden Cay 9 Big F8IicCl'1 Coy /0 Little Paicon Coy KINGSTON a ST. ANDREW 116 .2 03 No ISLAND OR CAY I i Island I 2 UttliS Half Moon Cay I 3 Big Half Moon Cay I 4 Little Portlend Coy I 5 Big Portland Cay I 6 BcrjJ Bush Cay I 7 Dolphin Island I 8 Salt Island No ISLAND OR CAY 9 Long Island 20 Short IIIond 2 I Careening Island 22 Great Goat lakrl>d 23 LtiYe Islent 24 GrHn"1and Morant Cays 26 Navy blanc:

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Table 60: Mineral Springs in J&maiea Bath, St Thomas Residential Spa held in Temperature of water is trust by Govecnrnent llSD 1300F Milk River-, Residential Spa TemperatuL-e of water is ClarelldLn Salt River Spring, Unexploited Clarendon -Rockfort Sprins, Fed to public St Andrew pool and some type baths Black River Spring, Unexploited St Elizabeth Ferry Hill Springs, Unexploited st Andrew Windsor, Unexploited 5t Ann Guava River, Unexploited Portland National Parks. As a result or a UN D P study com missioned in the late 1960's, the following areas were proposed to be designated as National Parks: Blue M ountainR and John Crow Mountains (St. Thomas and Portland) Great Morass (St. Thomas) Palisadoes (St. Andrew) Hellshire (St. Catherine) Portland Bight and Ridge (St. Catherine) Canoe Valley (Clarendon/Manchester) Cockpit Country (St. Jam es/St. Elizabeth/ Trela wny/ Manchester) Black River Lower Morass (St. Elizabeth) Dolphin Head (Westmoreland) Negri! (Westmoreland/Hanover) Dcho Rios Marine Park (St. Ann) Montego Bay Marine Park (St. James) Disc overy Bay Marine_ Park (St. Ann) 92F Temperature of water is 89F swinuning Admixture of sea and family-fresh-water and mildly sulphurated growth of sulphur-loving algae and its sulphur content makes it potentially valuable for the treatment of skin disorders -\-later is el:tremely mineralized and has a very high content of dissolved solids. Methane gas bubbles are given off regularly Very remote four hours walk from nearest driv-ing road. IssueD jets of hot water 132F. Chemical composition is unknown Marine Parks. Two Marine Parks have so far been designated at Dcho Rios and M ontego Bay. Eight other sites have also been proposed for designation as Marine Parks. Mountain Hiking and Camping. There are major hiking trails both across the Blue Mountain range and across the Cockpit Country, as weU as several other minor trails criss-crossing the peaks of the Blue l'f ountains. Some organized but limited camping facilities, maintained by the Forestry Department, are available in the Blue Mountains. The Jamaica Camping and Hiking Association has sought to develop these activities further, clOd offers guided hiking and cam ping trips for tourists and local residents. Caves. Approximalte1y 150 of the 952 known caves in Jamaica have been surveyed. Most 219

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of the caves are found in areas with large limestone formations in the northern parishes of St. Ann, Trelawny and St. A similar concentration occurs in the bordering southern parishes of Clarendon and Manchester. A number of caves have unique historical and archaeological value, for example, those which contain prehistoric Arawak art work. Experi e_nced cavers reportedly rate Jamaica's caves highly for exploration and research value. National Monuments, Historical and Archaeological Sites. Some 323 important sites, including monumentsJ forts, statues, buildings of historic and archit,ectural significance, churches and ruins, exist in Jamaica and full under the protection of the Hational Heritage Trust. Twenty of these, both restored and unrestored, are open to visitors and plans exist for developing several more of these sites. The National Heritage TrusL is convinced that, Of. their experience a few of the sites that have been developed so far, the potential exists to develop many of these sites into significant attractions. Rivers. 'fhe principal rivers 1Il Jamaica with recreational valu'; emanate from the mountain(JUs regions in the centre of the island, where m any of the proposed national parks are located, and where watershed protection activities are most active. Some of these rivers are not navigable but, nevertheless have recreational potential. The Black Riv,:-r, which is 44 miles long and is navigable for about 25 miles upstream, has the potential for accom modating increased boati.ng and fishing activitie5 and wildlife observo:tion. Development would have to be very ca:refully controlledJ possibly by instituting zoning regulations, for both of these recreational uses to be further developed. the Rio Grande in Portland, the Great River bordering Hanover and St. James, and the Martha Brae river in Trelawny are used for rafting and are major tourist attractions. Other rivers, such as the Swift and Spanish Rivers of Portland, the Rio Cobre of St. Catherine and the Milk River in Clarendon, have potential for canoeing, fishing, bathing and picnicking. Other Attractions. There are numerous scenic routes around the countryside that could be developed and maintained as special attractions. In addition, tours of sugar factories, bauxite/ alumina plants, and the like offers some potential for development as vjsitor attractions. 220 AGENCIES ABO IHSTITUTIOBS This section describes the functions of the various public sec tor agencies responsible for policy and organization of the tourist industry aud those responsible for planning and manage ment of outdoor recreation areas. The Ministry of Mining, Energy and Tourisa The Ministry of Tourism is the main coordinat Ing body for the activities of public sector agencies involVEd in the tourist industry. The Ministry's main tasks involve providing overall coordination and creating linkage.s between tourism and the wider economy and society. It is responsible for form ulating policy and for overall development of the industry, and ha:1 various agencies responcible for carrying out these policies. The Ministry works at increasing foreign exchange earnings from tourism. increasine employment within industry, creat ing linkages bet ween the agricultural and industrial sec tors of the economy and the touric;t industry, and ensuring that Jamaican culture, in its ril anifold ex pressions, is an in tegral part of the tourism product. In addition, it ad ministers various III w s and regulations governing the industry, incluJing it1vestor incentive legislation, and the regulation of travel agencies. The Ministry also conducts market analysis and research) and provides liaison with regional, and international tourism related agencies. (See Annex 1 for a fuller on the Ministry of Tourism.) Jamaica Tourist Buard The Jamaica Tourist Board (JTB) is primarily charged with prom oting the tourism industry and with setting, monitoring and im proving industry standards. Established under the Tourist Board Act, the JTB is responsible for promoting tourism through advertising and public relations activities, and by seeking to secure increased shipping and airline facilities for travel to Jam aica. The Jamaica Attractions Development Co.pany Ltd. (JADCo) JADCo, a subsidiary of the Tourist Board operating since the 1970's, is charged with

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im rroving existing sites and develo ping ne w ones as tourist attractions. JADeo opelates as a limited liability company, with powers to buy, sell and divest properties, as well as borro w, to undertake their developm ent. Som e of the attractions developed or upgraded by JADeo include the following: -Evening on the Great River -Cornwall Bathing Beach complex -Jamaica Swamp Safari and Crocodile Sanctuary -Martha Brae Rafting White River Evening -Lime Cay development -Rafting on the Ri.o Grande. Most of the .1ttractions developed have been divested to private investors. JADCo works closely with other agencies such as the UDC, the NRCD, and the Jamaica National Trust to preserve natural context and historic meaning of the sites and attractions it develops. J A D Co's work has been severely curtailed, however, for lack of funding. There are several projects for which plans exist, but which cannot be started due to lack of funds. The River Rsfting Authority (RRA) A subsidiaY'Y of the JT B, the R R A is responsible for rafting operations at the Rio Grande, the Great River, and the Martha Brae River. The Authority is governed by the River Rafting Act (1969). The Urban Developuent Corporation (UDe) The UDC is a major development arm of the government which undertakes projects, mostly lRrge-scale ones, >lhich private enterprise would find too risky or unprofitable, but which are vital to economic growth. The UDC, a statutory body created by the UDC Act of 1968, can acquire and dispose of land within (and sometimes outside) certain designated areas; undertake infrastructure development; and continue to manage projects which it has completed. A major subsidiary of the U DC, National Hotels and Properties, Ltd, has overall responsibility for the hotel properties 0 w ned by the U DC. In addition to the major development of the Kingston waterfront, the UDC has also undertaken large-scale development projects in M ontego Bay, Ocho Rios and Negril. These have served both to promote and to accommodate the growth that has occurred in the tourist industry during the lliSt two decades. In Montego Bay, about 57 acres of land were reclaimed on the waterfront, three white sand beaches were created, and roads and other infrastructure construct!d. In Ocho Rios, there was a thrust to upgrade the to wn as a regional centre by constructing lal:-ge buildings to accommodate the increased nUn! ber of visitors. Forty acres of land were reclaimed on the waterfront in the early 1970's, a new beach created and a cruise ship pier put in. Construction projects included the Ocho Rios Commercial Centre, the Turtle Beach Condominium, the Sheraton and Americana Hotels, and a l58-unit Craft Park. In Negril, a 280 room hotel, Hedonism II, \o,'as constructed, the public beach area improved and Bcoby Cay off the Negril coast developed as a picnic area. The next phase of the Negri! development will include completion of two more hotels and a condomlnium, as well as greater attention to housing construction for workers in the Negri! area. Training Institutions in the: Tourism Sector The University of the West Indies offers a three year degree program me in hotel management, the first year of which is completed in Jamaica and the remaining two years at the Bahamas campus. The College of Arts Science and Technology is about to initiate a diploma course in this field in collaboration with the University of South Carolina. Montego Bay Community College and the Brown's Towll Com munity College offer courses in food nnd beverage management and hospitality management respectively, geared toward the tourist industry. In addi.tion, the HE ART Academy operates a scllOol at Runaway Bay which specializes in providing skill training for the industry. The Housecraft Training Centre in Livingston and a couple of privately owned establishments also offer skill training for people wishing to en t2r the industr.y. Other Organizations Other public sector organizations involved in tourism include: National Hotels and Properties Ltd., which owns, operates, leases and markets hotels; Jamaica Vacations Ltd, responsible for the development of the air charter market; Jam!lica Reservation Service, which supplies information on the availability of tourist facilities, and makes reservations on behalf of the ae 'om mudation and ground transportation 221

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sectors; and National Hotel Supplies Ltd., which imports food and equipment for the industry. Private Sector Organizations The Jam aica Hotel and Tourist Association, (JHT A), an urn brella organization with about 170 members, actively assists in promoting and expanding the tourist industry. TONard this end the Associ ... works with government and 5.nternational agencies as well as undertaking resea-rch and promotional activitien on its own. is open to hotels of 10 rooms or more, as well as to allied members ltlho are i.nvolved in the tourism sector. The Jamaica Camping and Hiking Association has recently been formed and is active in helping to promote hiking and camping for tourists in the interior of the island. National (tlRCD) Resources Conservation Division The principal body charged with outdoor recreation planning in Jamaica is the Recreation and Conservation Division of the NRC D. It is responsible for the development and managem ent of beaches and national parks (both terrestrial and marine) and for the conservation of these natural assets. The Recreation and Conservation Division is further sub-divided into a National Parks Branch and a Beaches Branch. The National Branch is charged with establishing national parks in ap(Jropriate areas of the country. These parks are expected to halJe both a conservation and recreational fUllction and to help stimulate direct and indirect em ployment opportunities for people in the area. The Ecology Hranch of the RescurCf> Management Divisi.on (NRCD) assic;ts the National Parks Branch in identifying and developing projects with a tourism component; providing information about fauna and floral reSOUI'ces and their management and use for tourism projects, as well as com menting on development proposals. The Beaches Branch evolved out of the Beach Control A uthority, established in 19 S5 as a pioneering body in the conservation field in Jam aica. It works in conjunction \oo'ith the Oceanography Branch to develop public bathing and fishing beaches, preserve the scenic beauty of the coastal drive, and regulate the com m cia 1 use of the foreshore and seabed. The Division is also responsible for overall 222 mg and r.egulation of activities along the coastline 1:Ind offshore areas in the public interest -ensuring access, controlling pollution, providing for sea defense measures, and tlH !ike. All developments up to one mile inshore have to be by the Beach Control Authority. PLANS AND PROGRAMS M any public sector agenciE:s have detailed project pl"Oposals drawn up for developing several of the resources mentioned above. There hi.'.s been no lack of recognition of the potential that many of these facilities have for tourist development. Rather, the difficulty lies with the availability of funds for implementing these projects and with the actual mechanism!:' for realizing them. The follo wing ir a list of some of the existing project proposals that would, if implemented, have a significant impact on the tourism sector: o Restoration and reconstruction activities at Port Royal, Spanish Town and New Seville to deepen the cultural-historical base of Jamaica's tourism resource. The project has been evolving since the mid-1960's, and a feasibility study is no w being conduc ted with the assistance of the IDB and UNESCO as a preliminary step to seeking funding for this ambitious projec t. o Construction of performing arts cntres ill Ocho Rios and Montego Bay. o Creation of a 12-acre bird sanctuary on the outskirts of Ocho Rios. o Development of several areas as recreational parks or national parks: Cane River Falls, Ocho Rios Marine Park, '1 Royal Palm Forest National Park at Negril, the Hellshire National Park, anti the Portland Bight and Ridge National Park. o Development of a complex of craft workshops anti simulation Arawak village at Oracabessa. o D.:vplopment of proposed Marine Parks ill collaboration with the Ministry of Tourism. In addition to these new plans fol' upgrading and fa dlities, such as mineral dens and museums. projects, there are im proving existing spas, botanical gar-

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KEY ISSUES AND PROBLEMS Jamaica's visitor population has almost doubled in 15 years -to nearly half the size of its native, resident population. Although the im pact is rather different if the transient population increases at this r.!lte than if the permanent population does, an increase in the tourist population of this magnitude poses very similar challenges as any other kind of population increase. The preservation of the natural environm ent is one such factor that demands attention in both instances. This is particularly the case in Jamaica and most other Caribbean islands, since it is because of certain perceived environmental advantages that tourists come in the first place. It is this visitor population that in turn brings in a major portion of the income to help the country take care of the needs of its own population. We recognize the need to spend some of these earnings from tourism to improve the amenities in resort areas, such as roads, street cleaning services and so on. But when it comes to the more permanent environmental base -air and water quality, beach stability, preserving the forest cover, maintaining the native population of birds and other animal and plant species, etc. we have been far more negligent. This negligence demands attention on two fronts. First, there is a need to take measures to protect the sand/sea/sunshine resources that have been Jamaica's main selling point for tourism. In this regard, it needs to be reiterated that other Caribbean islands, as well as Hawaii and parts of southern Europe, offer comparable attractions and are emong Jamaica's direct competitors. Our losses from the neglect of these reSOl..rces will be their gain. Secondly, there is the need to develop other natural resources, both as part of the management strategy to relieve pressure on existing, over used scenic areas, and to provide alte,rnatives so as to vary and further enhance the range of recreational opportunities available both to tourists and residents. Institutional Dile .. mas In view of the high deo.sity o[ yi.;itor concentration in north coast resort areas (as mentioned above), as compared to the many natural attrac.tions in other parts of the island that could be developed for recreational purposes, the urgency of spreading recreational facilities over a wider area becomes more evident. It is far less expensive, in terms of time and initial capital outlay, to develop these alternative recreation,il amenities without accompanying hotel com plexes. Visitors could then be transported to and from their hotels to points of interest:, much as is done at present, except that there would be many more attractions to visit. Even though the imperative or such a strategy seems clear, the mechanisms for achieving it are not without their difficulties. The Jamaica Attractions Development COl!lpany (JADCo), which could serve as a key agency to spearhead such development:, is constrained by its dependence on government funding -funding which has been cut back considerably and forced JADCo to curtail plans on some 18 projects. The same has happened with the NRCD, the main agency with responsibility for the development of national parks and improvE"ment of facilities at public bathing beaches. In the 1985-86 fina :tcia) year, for instance, the Beaches Branc h of H R CD proposed a total capital estimate of $423,000, of which $50,000 was for a pUblic education camp,"\ign to reduce vandalism of beach facilities. Ody $90,000 of the total was granted, howeve:.. o As a result, instead of working to develop 13 beaches as originally planned, only four will be included. For some of the same reasons, Jamaica has been slow in developing national parks for conservation, watershed protection and recreational uses. There is still no enabling legi.,latic;} of a kind similar to the Watershed Protec tion Act (1963), the Wildlife Protection Act (1944), or the Beach Control Act (1955) to allow protected nation:!l park areas to be established. The issue has not been seen as Gufficiently important by the general public, and governments have been reluctant to release scarce resources for a project the value of which appears to bdllg benefit ollly in the long term. There are other institutional problems with the development and administration of recreational facilities. In the ca:,e of public beaches, these have normally been handed over to local Parish Councils for management after the:y have been developed by the Bea:ches Branch of N R CD (the former Bead. Control Authority). These local authorities have often been less than diligent in carrying out their responsibilities, and have been reluctant to impose user fees to provide revenue for beach maintenance. The issue of the control of beaches is a problem area that has not yet been resolved. In other instances, the disjuncture between 223

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vanous agencies of government is n10re fundamentaL In the case of the Hellshi::e area, the UD C and the NRC D had somewhat divergent views as to how the area Hhould be developed. The differences have now, happily, been resolved to accom modate both the interest in seeing the provision of mOI'e housing facilities and the provision of reserve ,greas for a national park to pl-eserve the area's unique ecological character. The divergent views as to the preservation of the Negri! Morass or its exploitation as an energy source provides another cas.e in point. One approach which might address some, though not all, of these issues that lead to bottlenecks in the rlevelopment of new resources might be for government agencies to make lease agreements with private concerns to develop and operate certain alternate recreational facilities \,1 the conte xt of National P ark development. The growing tendency for some private plantation owners to develop a recreational component to their estates suggests that investors In ay be willing to pursue this expanding opportunity. The cabins run by the Forestry Department, presently few in num ber and underutilized, could well be expanded in this way. The lease agreement would free government departments from the need to provide the necessary investment capital from their limited annual budgets. At the same time it would provide a source of revenue without the responsibility of m anagem ent and prom otion. The development of bird watching tours within proposed national parks might also be handled in this way. Environmental Problems High visitor density has also contributed to many, though not all, of the environmental problems being experienced in parts of Jamaica. Contamination of Swimming Waters. NRCD's water quality monitoring program me of north coast beaches, which started in 1975, has recorded higher than acceptable levels of fecal coliform for recreational swim ming beach areas. In the Oeho Rios Bay area, the sewage treatment plant, which treats waste from the UDC erected buildings in the
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84, there were at least eight documented oil spills in Jamaica, releasing at least 200,000 gallo.ls of oil. In addition, the NRC D has identified at least eight sites along the island's south coast that are regularly susceptible to oil pollution. The oil is \tJ ashed onto the beaches from ships traveling within or close to Jamaica's territorial waters. The spillage affects crabs and other marine life and creates a nuisance for recreational users. The Office of Disaster Preparedness has an oil-spill contingency plan which relies on the collaboration of NRCD, the Coast Guard, and international agencles. Degradation of Wildlife Habitat. The conflict between economic development goals and the need to preserve the natural habitat has arisen repeatedly in Jamaica. The Mont'<'go Freeport Scheme, for. example, was developed on the site of former mangrove swam ps and islands of coral and mud. Although a valuable contribution to the country's economic development, the project involved considerable dredging and landfilling, which all but destroyed the Bogue Islands and associated mangrove wetlands. Similarly, an attempt, later abnndoned, to develop a resort in Falmouth robbed the bioluminescent "Glistening Waters" lagoon of its umqueness. H angroves around the bay were re moved to make way for road and building construction. This changed the course of the river through the swamp. Increased drainage affected nutrient loads and turbiditJ, destroying the organisms in the bay which produced the unique glistening water phenom enon. Although there has been some recovery of these dinoflagellate organisms, the once permanent luminous night scene now occurs only intermittently. The c!'aft industry which produces items for sale to tourists has also caused some habitat degradation. The industry has reduced black coral formation, and coral reefs have been pillaged for souvenirs. Illicit Sand Removal. The removal of sand from beaches for the construction industry occurs in a wide area of the island's coast stretching from Savanr,a-la-mar to St. Ann's !say. In one instance in St. James, the Providence Pen Beach was created by the removal of mangrove vegetation and filling with sand dredged offshore. The artificially constructed beach frontage has not stabilized, however, because of sand re moval and the beach has therefore been abandoned. The Quarries Control Act (1983) was designed to curb this problem but it is yet too early to assess its effectiveness. The growth potential of the tourist industry offers the most persuasive economic argument for a com prehensive environmental policy. But in pursuing a strategy of sound environmental management, care must be taken that it not be justified solely in terms of its beneficial effects for tourism. The seething resentment against the industry that, from time to time, manifests itself in such issues as access to beaches, alleged racial discrimination by hotels, or high prices of hotel services, could well begin to influence public attitudes toward programmes of environmental management. Tourists are only te m porary benefic iaries of the recreational facilities of an environment-inbalance; the ultimate beneficiary is the nation as a whole. DIRECTIONS FO R THE FUTURE 1. Urgent action should be taken to develop a com prehensivt' program me to protect the sea/sand that form part of the package of services and product offered to visitors. 2. Identify and develop alternative locations as tourist attraction!> to relieve the pressure on current sites and widen the range of tional facilitiE!s available to both tourists and local residents. 3. Development of a mechanism to effectively coordinate and manage all national recreational hcilities that impact on the country's natur.al resource base. 225

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Annex 1: The Ministry of TourisM The Ministry of Tourism is responsible for the overall development of Tourism in Jamaica. This responsibility em braces policy form ulation as it relates to product development, promotion, marketing and all the other aspects of the industry. POLICY OBJECTIVES The broad policy objectives of the Ministry are: o to secure maximum benefits to the Jamaican economy from tourism, particularly in terms of foreign exchange generation and employment creation; o to ensure expansion of the Tourist Industry; o the creation of an integrated Indus:'"ry; o the co-ordination of the activities of public sector tourism agencies. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES The broad objectives listed above encompass: a. maximising gross and net foreign exchange earnings; b. increasing direct and indirect employment opportunities; c. forging greater inter-sectoral linkages with the economy especially in the area of domes tic agriculture and industry; d. development of policy relsling to import requirements of the Tourist Industry and ensuring the aVe/liability of foreign exchange to meet the import requirements of the Industry; e. formulating and monitoring the necessary promotion,11 and educational program mes aimed at t;reating, alaong the Jamaican people, a full appreciation of the rule of the Industry and its potential contribution to the country's economic development; f. development of Domestic Tourism; g. development of tourist attractions generally; h. development of the Cruise Shipping lndustry; 226 1. ensuring human resource development within the Tourist Industry: in this regard the aim is to accord Jamaicans the opportunity to parti.cipate! at all levelR of management and policy form ulation; J. ensuring that the Jamaica culture as refler. ted in our song, dance, arts and craftl. cuisine, architectur.e and general life-style is an integral part of the tourism k. development and monitoring of grounc] trans portation to service the Tourist Industry; 1. ensuring budget support for the development of the Industry and assessing the cost effectiveness of expenditure in relation to v:Gitor inflows and fureign exchange earnings; m. preparation, review and implementation of national tourism plans; n. undertaking market analysis and research; o. ensuring the processing, compilation and analysis of data relative to the Industry; p. assessment of investment proposals to determine the level of incentives to be granted under the Incentives and Resort Cottages Incentives Acts; q. revie wing Incentives Legisla:.:ion; r. licensing of tourist accom modation, tourism en terprises, etc.; s. co-ordinating regional and interr.ation.ll co" operation in terms of the Caribbean Tourism Association, Caribbean Tourism Research Centre, Organisation of American States (OAS), European Economic Community (EEC), the World Tourism Organisation (WTO), etc.; t. participating in joint com missions and developing technical assistance program m es with relevant international agencies; u. administration of the Travel Agencies Regulation Act, involving the registration and inspection of Travel Agencies; v. co-ordinating the activiti.:!s, monitoring and assessing the operations of the tourism agencies falling under the purview of the Ministry.

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TOURtSM RELATED AGENCIES UNDER TRE PURVIEW OF THE MINISTRY OF TOURISM 1. The Jamaica Tourist Board -a Rtatutory organisation established under the Tourist Board Act. The Board is responsible for promoting and warketing the tourism product both locally and overseas; the development and main tenance of standards of the. produc t; licensing of tourist accom modation, tOllrism enterprise, operators, etc. 2. Jamaica '\ttractions Development Company This is a subsidiary of the Jamaica Tourist Board. It is responsible for the development and operftion of attractions. 3. The River Rafting Authori!l Thi.!: is a subsidiary of the Jamaican Tourist Board and is responflible for raftir.g operations on rivers; e.g., Rio Grande, Creat River, and Martha Brae River. 4. Vacations Limited A com pany responsible for the development of the air charter market. 5. Jamaica Reservation Service A cora pany which supplies information about the availability of tourism facilities -hotel accom m odation, ground transportation, air seats. ReRervations are made on behalf of the accom modation and ground transportation sub-sectors of the tourism industry. 6. Milk River Bath 7. Bath of St. Thomas the Apostle Goverr:lent-owned spas. RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER GOVERNMENT MINISTRIES, DEPARTMENTS AND ST:,TUTORY BO DIES The Ministry works in close collaboration with the other Ministries, Departments and Statutory Bodies to ensure inter alia: Security of visitors in resort mas;-Work Permits for expatriates; -Import Licences and availability of for.eign exchange; -Duty concessions as appropriate; -Availability of air seats: this requires close co-ordination with Air Jamaica and Trans Jamaica; -Adequate tourism infrastructure. LIAISON WITH PRIVATE SECTOR AGENCIES Ministry maintains a close liaison with the private sector organisations such &s the Jamaica Hotel and Tourist Association and Jamaica Association of Villas and Apartments on matters pertaining to the development of the Tourist Industry. [n the! ground transpc,rtation sector liaison is sim ilarly maintained with such organisations as the Jamaica U-Drive Association, the Jamaica Union of Travelers Association and the Jamaica Association of Tour 0 perators. In the area of aquatic sports, liaison is maintained with the Jamaica Association of Dive 0 perators. 227

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Plate 32 Mining: Drag-line being used to load bauxite reI" transportation to plant stockpill!.

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OVERVIE W OF MINIliG AND KINERALS For a relatively smliU island, Jamaica has a fail."' bounty of non-rene'o'able mineral resources. Although mining is a major source of foreign exchange eamings (togtfther with tourism and agriculture), care must be exercised in the exploitation of these resources because of the direct and indirect impacts which mineral extraction and processing may have on other sectors of the economy. Location and Extent of Resources Bauxite is Jamaica's main mineral resource. Until three years ago, it contributed 70 % of the foreign exchange earnings of the economy. Other mineral resources include gypsum, limestone, marble, silica sand, clay, peat, and to a lesser extent, lignite, black sands containing titanium, copper, lead, zinc and phosphates. Bauxite. Reserves of commercial quality bauxite in Jamaica have been estimated at approximately two billion tons, of which some 1.75 billion tons can be economically mined under i'resent conditions and technology. The mining of bauxite in Jamaica commenced in 1952, with an initial output of half a million tons per year Mf\JE:RAlS AND MNING -and i.ncreasing to a maximum output of 15 million tons by 1974. Given t.:,is capacity, Jamaica's bauxite can last well beyond a century. (See Figure 40.) At peak production (15 million tons per year), 48% of the bauxite was converted to alumina locally, in ave alumina plants producing 2.8 million tons of alumina, all of which was exported. The balance of 52 % of the bauxite produced was exported in the crude form to plants located in the U.S. Gulf Coast. Table 61 shows production levels of bauxite and alumina from 1972 to 1985. At one time Jamaica W:lS the premier producer of bauxite, accounting for approximately 25 % of world production. The discovery of bauxite and development of the industry in other parts of the world led to a gradu.al lessening in global importance of Jamaica's bauxite. While production has fallen as 10 w as 6 m illiDn tons in 1985, a recovery to even higher levels of production than previously reached is anticipated for the 1990's, based on national strategies now being put in place. Decreasing involvement of the transnationals (who have been the traditional operators) and increasing Governmental involvement, particularly in marketing, are foresee.n. 229

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IV u.l o FIGl.RE; 40 JAMAICAN BAUXITE RESOURCES PORT KAISER 1:::-: Ah.mha Portn.s of .:.;.:.: AREAS WITH hi NEABLE BAUXITE DEPOSITS Jamoica Lines In LEASE WD AREA o PLANT SITE t B BAUXITE EXPORT (Port of Departure) ? A AWM:NA EXPORT Ltd. (Port) t N SOl.J:E: National Atlas of Jamaica wm ) Informatlon Updat.d

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Table 61: Jalllaiea's Bauxita ProciIJction. 1912-1985 (Metric Tons) Bauxite Equivalent Total Bauxit.e of Bauxite Alumina Year Exportl'd Exported Disposed of Exported 1972 7,162,067 5,410,757 12,571.,824 2,136,818 1973 7,390,298 6,210,169 13,600,467 2,416,917 )074 7,999,839 7,166,230 15,166,069 2,806,095 1975 5,4.82,680 5,897,229 11,379,909 2,374,886 1976 6,284,012 4,011,996 10,296,008 1,622,559 1977 6,355,163 5,078,502 11,433,665 2,035,993 1978 6,447,746 5,288,040 11,735,786 1979 6,400,047 5,105,057 11,505,104 2,074,165 1980 6,059,798 5,918,506 11,978,304 2,395,082 1981 5,294,090 6,311,930 11,606,020 2,549,855 1982 4,033,209 4,301,183 8,334,392 1,757,612 1983 3,009,724 4,673,412 7,683,136 1,907,009 1984 4,559,039 4,175,831 8,734,870 1,712,872 1985 2,325,380 3,913,908 6,239,288 1,622,221 Source: Economics Division, Jamaica Bauxite Institute. March, 1966. Gypsum. Gypsum is Jamaica's second most significant mineral export. Deposits of gypsum are located in the southeastern part of the island. Mining operations commenced in 1948, and suppUed both a small local market (7%) and a major U.3.-based market (93%)*. The present production level is well below the 1958 peak level of ') 75,000 metric tons, while the rated annual production capacity is 250,000 metric tOl1s*. Actual production of gypsum in 1985 was 179,000 metric tons. (See Table 62.) In 1948, Belrock Caribbean mined and shipped gYFsum from Jamaica. This company was suceeded by U.S. Gypsum Company which began operations in 1954. The 1958 peak production of 575,000 metric tons rer.resents a special case. At that time the quarry was being "raped" to fill overseas demands caused by closure of a quarry in the U.S.A. Such a situation col'ld not be sustained so the figure referred to above is Local consumption 1.9 mainly by the cement industry and, to a lesser extent, by the 'manufacture of ceiling tiles tor interior use. The capacity of the cement factory is due to be doubled -increasing from 400,000 metric tons per year to 800,000 metric tons per yp.ar. not a true representation of a possible peak prodution using proper mIning techniques. Also, the quality of the material fell below specifications (93 % gypsum) and therefore was considered unsuitable for wallboard manufacture in the U.S. U.S. Gypsum ceased operations and was succeded by Jamaica Gypsum Sompany which is exporting material (82 % gypsum) and supplying the local market. 231

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Table 62: Gypsum Production, 1980-1985 Metric Tons Year 'ODD 1980 105 1981 180 1982 107 1983 108 1984 180 1985 179 Lir.lestone. Limestone covers approximately 75% of Jamaica's land area. The quslity varies from a hard angular stone, which finds application in the building and road construction industries, to a softer material suita ble for landfill. Few countries am better endowed with deposits of high quality limestone than Jamaica, a quality which finds ready acceptance in the chemical and metallurgical industries. The main source of supply comes from the white lim estone group, covering almost two-thirds of the island, and attaining a thickness in excess of 9,000 feet. Limestone is seen as replacing gypsum as Jamaica's second major mineral p.xport after bauxite. During the past three years, trial shipments have been made to the u.s. and Trinidad in 10-20,000 ton cargoes. Private entrepreneurs are keenly in developing a five million tons per year export industry, which would add substantially to the current 3.5 million tons per year local industry. Extensive core drilling and physical and chemical testing work are no',," 10 progress. Although the building and construction industry is the main user of limestone, ;t is the major constituent in the cement induL:y; serves as a flux in ceramics and metallurgical processes; filler in paints; for production in the manufacture of lime; for use in the alumina industry; tor sugar refining; as a soil conditioner and water treatment; and as an abrasive in domestic scounng cleaners. 232 Marble. The known deposits of marble occur in the southeastern part of the island. (See Table 63.) At present, only a small amount of Tharble is being mined from quarries in the Bath ares of St. Thomas. Annual production is estimated at 100 tons and the main application is in the terrazzo tile industry. Jamaican marble is of various colours -grey-green, pinkish grey, green and maroon types, and finds usage in internal building stones, table tops for general or ornamental use) specifically craft items. IndeedJ a whole series of cottage-type artisan industries producing a wide variety of ornamentals has developed in recent years. Marble em erged 8S a major industry in 1962 when Serge Island Jamaica Limited began m a king blocks, slabs and mosaic table tops. Mining operations ceased three years later, apparently because of the problems arising from insufficient knowledge of the geological aspect of the com bined with a lack of quarrying and processing technology for dimension stone. Experts from other marble producing areas have that Jamaica marbles compare fa vourably with those from Italy, Cuba and the USA with respect to richness of colour, attractive colour patterns and capacity tu t!1ke a high polish. Table 63: Estimate of Marble Reserves Location Serge Island Mount Hibernia Glirbrand Hall/Island Bath/Friendship Gap Reserves (m3 ) 206,550 98,194 106,000,000 N/A lIon and Ferroalloy Minerals. Thr.ee iron and ferroalloy minerals are found in Jamaica: iron, m anganese and nickel. (See Figure 41.) Iron occurs in the greatest quantities, in the vicinity of the Blue Mountains in the parishes of Portland and St. Andre tl. M anganese occurs at Marshalls Hall in Portland, but, thus far, the deposits are limited to small veins. Nickel deposits are located at New Castle in serpentine rock outcrops. However, the deposits are not considered of economic value.

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41 METALLIC MINERALS !J.>.lliIiMONY COBALT Queen of Spains Volley Bormody_____. Sue Mulberry H.Coffee PI6C8 ---., IRON Lwghkr.ds _________ \ Arntuiy-Ness Ccdle GOLD ... \ Mt.Elba G. Vinegar \\ X ---. ---..=--=-=::-=_===_ \ w\ \ \ MANGANESE --...... '.' -'\ Castleton-Geortu>s Sp. \ a ZINC Tfiomasfie!q \ NICKEL Golde Gr. V \ MOLYBDENUM E \ SILVER o ALU.MM-Quafrt>ay 8 RKw IBm COo\STAL Plioc_ ....... ,......B WHITE UMESTONE-A(E"_-gj YEU.DW LJMSTOHE fllltldI. Eoc_ RICHMOND FORM.(T)ON-I.OIIW E"oc_ WAGW.UER FORMATlON-Low .. Eoc_ (::}:::::) SEDIMENTS a METAMORPHICS U. c;,"oc.ou. \.HlIFFERemATEO = HALBERS1lIDT VO'..cAN1CS E"oc_ ..... .. NEWCASTLE PORI'HYJ;Y Eoc.". H
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Base Metals. Base metals include copper, lead and zinc. (See Figure 41.) Copper is the most com m on ba:3e m Mining was carried out on 8. small scale in the early part of the nineteenth century. Major outCI."OPS are located in Upper Clarendon, Portland and adjoining parts of St. Catherine, Portland and St. Andrew. Hope Mine in St. Andrew contains the only significant deposit of lead and zinc. The mine L; not in operJltion and recent investigations indicate low potentiaL Precious Metals and Minerals. Gold, silver and platinum comprise Jamaica's precious metals. Gold and silver occur in nssociation copper, but the amount has not been significant to warrant exploitation as A secondary feature of a major copper miniLig operation. Platinum has been recorded in alluvial deposits in eastern Jamaica, but no intensive surveys have been conducted. Energy Minerals. Oil, gas, peat and geotherl1lal energy resources are being explored. Oil exploration in Jamaica has been on-going since (See Figure 42.) The Petroleum C orporation of Jamaica (PCJ) has drilled several IN'elis, both on-shore and off-shore, but to date oil has not been found. M ethane gas seepages have been located in the Windsor area of St. A nn, but drilling in the area has so far failed to locate any major gas source. Two major peat reser.J'es have been located in the Black River Morass and the Great Morass. Rf:!serves are at 6.5 million tons (dry basis). According to Robinson (1980), these two sources represent enough material to fuel an 80 megawatt power plant for at least 30 years. Phosphates. Phosphate is the only fertilizer mineral mined in Jamaica and is derived from bat droppings that 9ccum ulate in caves. Many of the caves have been depleted from past mining activities. Present recovery is less than 500 tons pel' year. (See Figure '.3.) Silica Sand. Extensive silica sand deposits clre located in the Black river area of Hodges, St. Elizabeth. (See Figure 43.) The deposits support a glass making industry and an abrasive industry for the manufacture of cleaners. The glass industry is yet to penetrate the overseas market, with production steadily during the last six years from under 6,000 metric tons per year in 1980 to nearly 16,000 metric tons in 1985 (See Table 64). 234 Year 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 Table 64: Siliea Sand Production Metric Tons 7,600 8,000 9,800 14,700 14,040 15,950 Source: Mines and Quarries Division, Ministry of Mining, Energy &: Tourism. E.ployaent Opportunities in the Hining The mining and minerals sector was a significant source of employment, reaching an all time high of approximately 10,000 persons in 1974. With a decline in both local and world economies, employment in rhe mining sector fell to just over 7,000 persons by 1984. However, with improvement in the local and global economies, the adoption of different marketing strategies, the growing interest in Jamaica as a major source of limestone, it is to be expected that future em ployment in the sector will surpass the levels of prior years. AGENCIES AND IHSTITUnONS The Jaaaica Bauxite Institute (JBJ) JBI is a limited liability company established in 1976 to monitor and advise the Government on the bauxite industry. The mandate is m ultifold -exploration, research and development of technological im provements for the processing of bauxite; allocation of bauxite reserves; analYGis of the economics of the global aluminum industry; and provision of advise for the Government on fiscal policies affecting the industry.

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FIGURE: 42 PETROLEUM EX PLORATION 5 TATU 5 1984 New 80M Blossom Bank Q F/G Exploration Block. 0 Seiamle, Gravity and Magnetic Geophysical Programmes I Exploration Blocks ----1 Dry Holes 0 Selected TO'MI'S Kilometre s 0 20 40 60 eo 100 I I I I I I MUes 0 20 40 60 Sowce: Petroleum COl paratlon of Jamaica

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o AL.LlJVlJM-Quot.nay a Rec.", litt COASTlU. FMHS.-oW.MIcc ... Plioc_ B WHITE UMESTONE-.\(Eoc.,.-L.lrfiocer.G YEU.CTI UMESTONE 1>.WddJ. Eoc_ RICHMOND FORMATION-Lawr Eo;;"". WAGWATER FORMATION-Low., EOCM. 1:::::::::::1 SEDIMENTS a METAMORPHCS U. Cretaceous LMlIFFERENTlATEO BIll! HALBERSTADT VOl.CANICS Eoc.". .. NEWCASTLE PORPHYRY Eoce". ANJESITIC VOLCANCS U.Cretac/lOtls EIfH3 U. CretaceollS III SERPENTINITE NONMETALL!C MINERALS Litchf'ielcl'Mjf -a-bit Frenchman Cow Market Smdy Ground DOLOMITE UGNITE MARBLE MiNERAL PIGMENTS QUARTZ/AGATE Robins R.Island Hd. Volley '----!';;lIflllllslond Volley

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The Government of Jamaica has entered into a number of joint ventures and partnerships with trans-nationals within the bauxite industry, including Alcan, Alcoa, Kaiser and Reynolds. These investments are made through JB M, which manages such investments on Government's behalf. Clarendon Alumina Production Li.ited (CAP) Following the closure of their Jamaican operations by Alcoa, a new company, CAP, was established by Government, which leased the plant and restarted the bauxite mining and alumina production and exporting BauIite and Alumina Trading Company of Ja.a ica Limited (BATCO) Government trades actively in the bauxite/ alumina/aluminum market. This is accomplished through Batco, a trading com pany established for this purpose. The Com pany marketed over 30 % of the bauxite exported from Jamaica and over 40 % of the alumina produced. The Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica (PCJ) The P CJ is a statutory body empowered by the Petroleum Act (1979) to develop the country's petroleum, peat, and coal resources. The corporation has been financially self-sufficient since its inception in 1979. Its operations have been threefold: petroleum exploration, peat research and the operation of the Petrojam Refinery. The Mines and Quarries Division of the Ministry of Mining and Energy (M Q D) The MQD is funded by the Ministry of Mining and Energy, and is responsible for mining and quarrying operations in Jamaica. Its activities include; re:Jearching, processing and making recommendations to the Ministry on all the applications made ullder the Mining Act, and the Quarries Control Act; -preparing, regulating and issuing statutory instru m ents; -reviewing legislation on mining operations; -assessing and collecting royalties; -evaluating the work permits of foreign na-tionals involved in mining industries; -monitoring bauxite/alumina production and export; and -other monitoring Ilctivities such as mlfllOg techniques, health and safety of workers, rehabilitation of mined out aree<;, environmental impact of mlOlng and processing operations, and investigation of complaints related to mining or quarrying acti'Tities in Jamaica. Natural Resource (:onservatLDn Departlllent (NRCD) The NRC D was established for the purpose of: -increasing public underotanding of the Island's ecological systems and to promote methods for the conservation and development of its natural resources; -determining policy to be followed and stand ards to be maintained in the management of the Island's resources of land, water, fauna and flora; -promoting and ensuring the proper use of the nation's natural resources by the establishment of an ecological review procedure for all relevant development proposals. The Univemity of the West Indies (U wI) The University's four departments concerned with mining and minerals are the departments of geology, physics, chemistry and geography. The Geology Department is presently conducting, research on the black sand deposits in St .. Elizabeth, the geochemistry of Hope lead/zinc! deposits, and the geochemical survey of Jamai can soils. The Department is also conducting the Jamaica Radiogeologic Survey. The Geological Survey Department (GSD) The GSD, which falls functionally and administratively within the Ministry of Mining and Energy, is the national geological research and development organization. Its primary objecti.ve is to develop an integrated, com prehensive [lOd understanding of the geology of .la mai,:a as a basis for mineral exploration .and devdopment. The GSD is responsible for -all geological mapping of Jamaica; -assessment of all Jamaica's metallic (except bauxite) and non-metallic minerals; -investigation of potential geological hazards; and providing engineering geological serVIC'i!S. 237

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LEGlSLAUOB AND REGULAUORS There are sixteen Acts which regulate or influence mining activities in Jamaica. Acta Concerning Bauxite o The Bauxite and Alumina Industries Encour agement Act (1950/1967/1980) granted import conce9sions to recognized bauxite producers. These concessions include exemption from custom duties, as well as excise, tonnage and stamp duty. o The Bauxite and Alumina Special Provisions Act (1977/1982). This act made it possible to credit income tax against the production levy; the tax is payable in United States dollars. o The Bauxite Production Levy Act (1974) imposed a prf'riuction tax on all laterites (e.g., bauxite). Acts concerning o The Petroleum and Oil, Fuel, Landing and Storage Act established the mechanism for licensing petroleum and fuel oil dealers. o The Petroleum Filling Station Regulations Act (1956/1982) established the Petroleum Filling Stations Board and is primarily concerned with deciding whether a particular site is suitable for the establishment of a petroleum filling station, a private fueling facility or an additional fueling facility. o The Petroleum Refinery Industry Encouragement Act (1962) grants concessions in respect of custom duty, income tax, and assistance to recognized refiners of oil out of the "Estimates of the Island". o The Petroleum Act (1979) is of great impor tance to the mining and minerals sector as it established the Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica (p CJ), and vested this corporation with the sole right to develop and manage petroleum resources, either alone or with a contractor. The corporation is entitled to exem ptions from stamp and cUl;ltoms duties. Under the Compulsory Land Acquisition Act, the P CJ is authorized to .:lcquire lands for exploration purposes. A 1984 amendment to the Petroleum Act empowered the PCJ with the right to import coal and the sole right to exploit and extract peat. 238 o The Factories Act which is concerned with installations and works connected with hand ling storage and transportation of petroleum products. o The T:'-!lde Act which deals with petroleum price ordern as well as orders governing the opening hours of petroleu m filling stations. General Hining Acts o The Minerals Vesting Act (1947/1960) states &11 minerals being in, on or under any land or water, whether territorial waters, rivers, or inland sea are vested in and are subject to the control of the Crown. Mining is regulated by the C ro wn lind the payment of royalties goes to the C om mission of Mines (located within the Mines and Quarries Division of the Ministry of hining and Energy). o The Town aud CO'.lntry Planning Act (1957) is related to mining since it covers any change in land use which takes place on, in, under or over. the land. Permiss;on has to be granted for such changes. o The Clean Air Act (1964) applies to mineral extraction in that any discharge of fumes, smoke, dust or gases must be monitored by personnel designated by the Central BOtlrd of Health. The owners of each extraction operation can be subject to fines or prison terms if certain emlssi,)O restrictions are not met. o The Mining Act (1947) controls mineral prospecting in specific location& and the leasing of land for mining, depending on the minerals being mined. The Act provides extraction right to persons holding such leases and provides various royalty regimes, depending on the mineral being mined. It is associated with the Health and Safety Regulations (1977) which provides regulations and standards for ensuring safe operations within the mining industry. o The Quarries Control Act (1983) established quarry zones and controls the licensing of all quarries. The Act established the Quar ries Advisory Committee, a quarry tax, and quarry safety provisions. Additionally, it provides for the revocation of quarry licensing and the closing of oper ations in the event that certain environmental impacts are not controlled. Impacts include air pollution and effects on the character of the neighbourhood.

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Miscellaneous o The Calcium Carbide Sale and Storage Act (1901) provides for the safe storage of calcium carbide and the licensing of dealers and storage facilities. o The Cement Industry Encouragement and Control Act (1948) provides for the licensing of producers of cement, and for exemptions from customs duty, tonnage taxes, relief from income taxes, and exemptions from royalties on minerals. It also prohibits the im portation of cement. PROPOSED PLANS AND PROGRAMMES Public Sector Programmes Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica (PCJ). The use of peat resources for energy is under study by the PCJ. Emphasis continues to be placed on geophysical work to identify potential sources of oil and gas. Jamaica Bauxite Institute (jBI). JBI operates a pilot plant for the production of alumina from bauxite. This provides an excellent m?del for technological development in the treatment of some of the more complex bauxite ores as well as for training. Mines and Quarries Division. The Mines and Quarries Division is collaborating on the establishment of quarry zones under the Quarries Control Act of 1983. Private Sector Programmes Limestone. An extensive limestone exploration progra m m e, ; ... r:luding core drilling, is in progress w a vie w to developing a 3 to 4 million tonne/year limestone export operation from Ocho Rios. Limited shipments are already being made from deposite in eastern St. Andrew and central St. James via the deep water port at Harbour Head and the M ontego Free Zone respectively. The program mes call for major increases in export volumes from these loca-. tlOns. The programme is geared towards development of the lim estone industry. Further information can bE: obtained from the Mines and Quarries Division as well as the Geological Survey Department. Marble. Renewed interest has been shown in the marble deposits for the mining of dimensions stones. Private investors are examining the feasibility of developing the industry for export. Salt. Results of investigations into the production of com mon salt in the south Clarendon .:lreas have been very promising. PROBLEMS AMD ThEre are anum ber of key management lSsues within the mining and minerals sector which are receiving the attention of both the managers and the regulatory pL"OCeSSes within the sector. These are discussed below. D1egal Limestone Quarrying In the past there had been widespread quarrying of limestone in any location offering easy access to limestone material, and where th",re was a demand for its use in the building and construction industry -in particular the road construction industry. This created two major problems: the wanton scarring of the lush countryside, and unsafe operations. Through a strong regulatory process of zoning and sing, these problems have been substantially mitigated. Disposal of Red Mud W ute Jamaica has an alumina capacity of approximately three million tons per year. Each ton of alumina produced gives rise to approximately one ton of red mud waste or residue. Jamaica has a limited land mass for disposal of such volumes of waste material. This is further aggravated by the fact that the residue leaves the plant in association with large volumes of weak caustic soda solution. It is therefore a slurry containing about 20 % solids. The initial methods of red mud disposal were by pumping the material into mined-out orebodies and/or into dyked valleys. Both these methods created seepages of the weak caustic solution into the ground water system, thereby causing contamination of the aquifer. A later approach was to build sealed ponds in which the interior of the ponds was lined with 12-14-inch clay sealant. These ponds, which were 100-120 acres in area, created other problems. A significant problem was that they 239

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were constructed on highly arable lands. The ponds were designed to hold 5-7 years of mud storage. Furthermore, these ponds never dried out after they were full and consequently had to be abandoned. Furthermore, during the surface drying process, caustic dust particles formed and were wind-blown into neighbouring communities, creating a r.uisance. Persons in these com munities complaim:d of burning sensations to eyes and skin. The surface of the ponds had to he kept constantly wet as a consequence. A still later development in red mud disposal technology was a dry stacking approach, in which the mud is deposited in layers on specially constructed drying beds. Although referred to as dry stacking, the mud contains approximately 25-30 % solids. A series of beds are created, and the thickened mud is deposited on these beds In series, allowing a sufficient time interval fer solar drying. The final result is a blocky granular free-draining earth mediu m which is physically very similar to bauxite. The stacked mud is capable of supporting heavy weights and can be mechanically treated to increase its strength and stability. It is capable of being very easily loaded onto truckfl and transported else where for land fill or other desirable uses. Urban Spread Over Areas of Hineral Potential .snd Relocation of Population fro. HiJPng Sites Urban spread of the population over areas of bauxite deposits has sterilized substantial reserves. The to wn of Mandeville, for instance, is underlain by bauxite said to be valued at us $100 million. There is a continuing spread of the urban areas to the south of the town into areas of high grade bauxite. Although the subdivision of lands and development of major housing complexes are controlled by the Planning A uthorities, there is nothing to preven t the construction of individual residences on privately-owned bauY.:ite lands. Acquisition of such developed holdings usually proves uneconomic, resulting in i.e-ss of bauxite reserves. In addition, although major .'.and purchases were carried out in the 19 SOlS or. wards, there is still a very large number of S:'Il all settlers residing and carrying out subsistence-level farming on bauxite lands. These persons are often established over the years in very tightlyknit com munities and kinship groups. The process of acquiring their lands and relocating the m else where in ne wand strange surroundings often without com munity facilities is not with240 out a degree of trauma very often leading to the separation of family groups. M ore recently, attempts have been made to relocate larger numbers on larger subdivided holdings, in close proximity to established com munity facilities. The stage has not been reached in which small settlers are more willing to temporarily relocate while mining is heing carried out or. their lands, then return once the lands have been rehabilitated. Rehabilitation of Hined Landa Depending on the shape and depth of the ore body, a mined-out pit may end up with variations from a shalle w saucex-shaped basin to a wide, dee p hollo w with vertical walIs. The shallow basins are graded to a gentle slope ending at the approximate middlE" of the minedout area or terraced to that point. Deeper deposits are graded to the toe of the vertical walls and serve as collection :.onds for water. Although thesE" pits are som etim es fenced, the collection ponds are dangerous. A synthetic or other form of sealant should be on the bottoms and sides of these "holes" to form ponds that can be used and managed as water reservoirs. There is an agreement among all the mining companies operating in Jamaica on the techniques which should be employed in rehabilitating mines of different sizes and shapes. The actual mining process begins by taking into account the need for rehabilitdtion later on so that the first 18 inches of top soil is carefully removed and stored for replacement later on once the mine becomes exhausted. Jamaica probably has one of the best records for rehabilitation of mined lands in the wodd, although it has fallen behind over the past eight years. Some of the companies (Reynolds and Kaiser) have been able to establish forest on the mined out land, e.g., mahoe, and, in addition, have able to grow vegetables successfully as well as rear livestock, cattle and sheep. Exploitation of Peat Resources Exploitlltion of Jamaica's peat resources rehlains a contentious issue. While peat mining would enhance employment opportunities in thofle areas endowed with deposits of peat (and which currently have a high un,::mployment level), environmentalists are of the that alterations would occur in the water balance as a result of saline intrusion, which would in

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tum greatly alter the com position of mined wetlands. (Blackwood, 1984.) Based on the inadequacy of the previous reports on peat, it cannot be stated em pha tic ally that there will be environmental risk associated with the exploitation of this resource. Indeed, the need to explore I:"enewable alternatives as comprehensively as non-renewable options should be encouraged. Furtherm ore, t;'le extent and scale of the exploitation should be assessed. E.pbaais 00. Energy Conservation Over 95% of Jamaica's energy is generated by 1m ported oil. The mon thly oil bill, un til recently, averaged US $20 million per month. Through conservation measures, this has gl:"adu ally been reduced to approximately US $18 million per month. Althoueh the recent fall in oil prices has helped considerably in reducing the oil bill, Jamaica cannot rely on falling oil prices while the Middle-Eastern territories rem ain volatile. The potential for hydro to contribute any significant amount to the energy needs for Jamaica is, at best, minimal. It remains necessary, therefore, for Jamaica to investigate alternative source of energy. In this regard, coal (anthracite) has been given very high priority. DIR.E CnONS FO R THE FUTURE 1. Although considerable information on base metals occurrences exist, the data is very q ualita tive. A dditional field work, including extensive drilling and reserves estimation, are required. Sampling of base metals has been completed. Analysis is to com mence shortly. 2. The mineral sands along the south coast, between Gut River and Alligator Pond, offer tremendous potential for a light alloys manufacturing enterprise. However, th<.! reserves need to be proven and certain improvements made in technological processes. 3. Jamaica has for too long relied on a single major mineral commodity -bauxite. Appt'ox imately 75-80% of the island is comprised of limestone of varying qualities, and "aggressive" mal-keting initiatives are required, notwithstanding the high bulk, low cost nature of the com modity. 4. 1m prove ments have been made in the dispo'1al of red mud from at least one plant. This process should be developed in other plants on the island. Uses of red mud, for other than landfill, should be thorl).lghly researcheJ for eventual application on a commercial scale, such as in the building and construction industry. 5. Environmental studies should accompany the eXR\oitation and development of peat deposits. -: .. ..... '-." ,", ( Plate 33 Mining operations. 241

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Plate 34 Biogas Plant at Golden Spring. 242

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. OVERVIEW OF ENERGY RESOURCES Jam aic a, like all oth er oil-im porting developing countries, was adversely affect.,d by the dramatic increase in petroleum prices, particularly between 1973 and 1980. This created serious institutional, financial and social problems for the country. How the sharp reductions in the recent of crude oil will affect the Jamaica economy remains to be seen. At minimum it will affect the economic feasibility of turning to alternative fuels, such as peat, for energy produc tion. Jamaica is almost totally dependent on imported petroleum, and thus, continues to 'le directly influenced by factors affecting the international petroleum market. Jam aica relies on oil im ports for over 98 % of its com m ercial energy requirements, while hydropower provides most of the remaining de:mand. If non-commercial energy sources -bagasse and fuel wood/charcoal -are also taken intc, account, Jamaica i:still dependent on imported oU for over 90% of its energy require ments. These, and other indigenous energy resources, such as peat, may have the potential to contribute to Jamaica's energy supply, but their development will take time and high capital input. ENERGY RESOURCES Indigenous energy resources are not readily exploitable, and are limited in rallge and quality. Because of these limitations, future energy requirements will continue to be met largely through imported petroleum. Until the recent decline in crude oil prices, it was assumed that the .!ost of im ported energy would continue to pose severe constraints to economic growth, as well as posing a thre:a': to Jamaica's forests as a result of increasing fuel wood harvesting. Petroleum Petroleum Imports. Jamaica's petroleum demand has steadily declined from a high of 20.5 million barrels in 1973 to a low of 12.2 million barrel, in 1985, the lowest total since 1970. Under the San Jose Accord signed between Jam aica, Venezuela and Mexico in August 1980, Jamaica has imported most of its petroleum from Venezuela and Mexico, but: also purchases spot cargoes when economical. In 1982, the Government of Jamaica purchased the E$SO West Indies Kingston refinery and organized Petrojam Limited to operate the refinery. Limitations in refinery design mean that it is difficult to match crude yields 243

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precisely \"ith market demand and, therefore, the refinery generally has deficits and/or surpluses of various products. It, therefore, has to import LPG, kerosene and gasoline to augment refinery production, and eXpol-ts surplus fuel oil, diesel and asphalt. Figures released by the Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica (PCJ) indicate that 55 thousand barrels of lubricants and 16 thousand barrels of aviation fuel were im ported outside the San Jose Accord by the oil marketing companies in 1985. Additional imports of premium gasoline totallE'd 512 thousand barrels (34% of the 1985 gasoline demand). In addition, 283 thousand barrels of L.P.G. (75 % of the national demand), 262 thousand barrels of kerosene (76% of rhe national de mand), 25 thousand barrels of turbine kerosene, 1,015 thousand barrels of fuel oil (60 % of demand), and 56 thousand balTels of lubricant and asphalt (53% of demand) were im ported by the Petrojam refinery and the oil In arketing and bauxite companies in 1985. (See Table 65.) Petroleum Consumption by Product. According to P CJ, fuel oil demand in 1985 was 7.027 million barrels or 61.4% of the total petroleum d "mand. Gasoline demand was 1.554 million barrels or of the total petroleum demand. Automotive diesel oil (A.D.O.) and marine diesel oil (M.D.O.) demand was 1.308 million barrels or 11.4 % of He total petroleum demand. The demand for aviation gasoline, aviation turbo fuel, kerosene, L.P.G., lubricants and asphalt accounted for the remammg 15.9% of the total petroleum demand in 1985. Petroleum Consumption by Sector. The largest consumen; of petroleum (by sector) the bauxite/alumina industry, com mercial power generation, and road and rail transporration. (See Table 66.) Energy requirements in the bauxite/ alumina industry are dependent on production levels within the sector, which are influenced by global demand. As a result, future energy requirements are difficult to forecast. Past attempts by PCJ and the Ministry of Mining, Energy and Tourism (M MET) to project energy demand in the bauxite/alumina industry confirm this. In 1980, the bauxite/alumina industry accounted for 52 % (8.06 million barrels) of the ccuntry's total petroleum consumption of 15.5 million barrels. Lowered production levels over the following Table 65: Petroleum Consumption by Product. 1985 (Volume in Million Barrels) Kerosene, Turbo Fuel, L.P.G. Fuel A.D.O./ Lubricants, Sector Oil M.D.O. ASQhalt Gasolenes Total Aviation 0.986 0.012 0.998 Bunker .026 0.062 0.088 Road/Rail 0.617 0.034 1.504 2.155 Transporta tion J.P.S. 2.710 .112 2.822 Bauxi tel Alumina 3.741 0.136 0.006 3.883 Cement 0.239 0.056 0.295 Cooking & Lighting 0.721 721 Others 0.366 0.338 0.065 0.769 TOTAL 7.082 1.321 1.312 1.516 11.731 Sources: Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica; Ministry of Mining, Energy, and Tourism. 244

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Table 66: Petroleum Consumption by Sector. 1985 Seclor Bauxite/ Alumina Power generation (JPSCo.) Road/Rail Transportation Aviation Cooking & Lighting Cement Bunker Sugar Processing Others TOTAL Total Consumption (million barrels) 3.390 2.825 2.156 0.998 0.721 0.295 0.088 0.080 0.678 11.731 ot National Consumption 33.2 24.0 18.4 8.5 6.1 2.5 0.8 0.7 5.8 100.0 Sources: Petroleum Corporation ot Jamaica; Ministry of Mining, Energy, and Tourism. four years, however, reduced petroleum consu m ption by the industry to 3.890 million barrels, or 33 % of the total petroleum demand in 1985. The petroleum needs of the JPS for (:ommercial power generation consisted of 2.825 million barrels in 1985 (24.1 % of the total petroleum demand). Petroleum consumption for commercial po,,'er generation has remained relatively stable during 1973-1983, while consumption in most of the other sectors (except for aviation and cooking/lighting) declined. The improve ments in generating efficiency, following the rehabilitation of major generating units, reduced the JPS petroleum demand in 1984 by 8 % from the peak of 3 million barrels in 1983, despite the increased demand resulting from the steady growth in the number of customers. There was a further reduction of 8 % in 1985. Road and rail transport accounted for 2.156 million bf'.rrels ot petroleum consumed in 1985 (18.4% of: the total petroleum demand). Higher fuel prices, lower real incomes, and the decline in activity and vehide purchases have ali. cOlltributed to the reduced consum ption of transportation fuels since 1976. All other sectors combined accounted for close to 24% of demand. The aviation sector consumed 998,101 barrels of petroleum (8.5% of the total petroleum demand) in 1985, in contrast to 1.15 million barrels used in 1973. The reduction in the num ber of airlines operating in Jamaica, as well as the current trend tC'ward refuelling outside of Jamaica, has caused this decline. The cooking and lighting sector consumed 720,608 barrels of petroleum (6.1 % of total demand) in The ceme.1t sector consumed 294,991 barrels (2.5 % of the total demand). Bunkering and sugar processing each accounted for less than one percent, while other industries consumeri the remaining 679,000 barrels (5.8% of total petroleum demand in 1985). Hydroelectric Resources The first hydroplants in Jamaica were constructed in 1898. Additional plants were constructed during the mid-twentieth century, the latest in 1959. Today, installed hydroelectric capacity at five sites in Jamaica is 2l.3M W on a name plate capacity basis, but derated capacity totals lS.2MW. According to MMET, 245

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an additional 60 M W of hydropower potential has been identified for development. The M MET has attached first priority to the development of the country's hydropower resources, aAd has projected that approximately 96 M W cc;>uld be in place by the year 2000. The energy currently generated by hydro resources provides 5.7% of peak electricity demand. Hydro-power is one of the cheapest sources of energy. The best projects have generating costs (including capital costs) of less than Sc per KWH. Bagasse Resources Bagasse, the residue of sugar cane refining, is used as an energy resource only in the sugar refining inoustry. In the past, the use of b3gasse allowed the sugar industry to enjoy energy self-sufficiency, but a combination of outdated equipment and poor Quality sugar cane has led to the increased use of fuel oil and wood. Bagasse provided about 85 % of the sugar ir,dustry's energy requirements in 1984, rising from 79 percent in 1979. Over 6% of the nation's energy L'equirements was provided by bagasse in 1984. Peat Resources Peat is organic matter derived from partially decomposed vegetation in a water-logged envir onment. When dried, it may be burned like coal to provide energy. Peat is currently not used as an energy resource, but the potential of the country's peat reserves for fuel was identified by the G OJ in 1976. These resources cover 7,300 acres in Negril and 12,000 acres in Black River. Smaller deposits exist in St. Thomas, St. Mary, Trelawny and Westmoreland. (See Figure 44.) Electric Generating Capacity The combined electrical generating capacity of the JPS and private sector facilities "'as 613 M W in 1984, 74 % of which was contributed by the JPS. The bauxite/alumino')mpanies, the cement company, the sugar industry, Good Year Jamaica Limited, and other private companies and households contributed the remaining 26 %. Of the 160 M W generating capacity of the private sector, the bauxite/ alumina companies contribute 122 M W or 71 %. (See Table 67.) MAJOR AND MINOR PEAT DEPOSIT8 t N I ) TRELIWNY I ST.ANN \ST.MARY I Y', ........... ...--'-.._. -,,.,,.,' ., \. ...... ,_.-I' \ \ \ 1ST. OOtRlNE IMANCH. \ ESTER \ I \ i \ \ i\" .J ----...... 1.,1 PEAT [voSITS PORll.At() BIGHT 246

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At prt'sent the J PS operates solely on 50 Hertz (cycles/sec) wi1erE'as some privatE' plants operat!:' on 60 HE'rtz (cyclE's/sec). J PS 8E'nerating facilitiE's are shown in Figure 45 ::lnG Table 68. Figure 46 shows the location of J PS transmission linE'S and the location of thE' major private generating plants. Total system generating capacity (based on normal Continuous Maximum Rate (C M R)) is presently 481.0 M W. According to the J PS, however, actual electric generating capacity differs fTom the installed and usable capacity, because the system cannot be operated on C M R permanently, and units must regularly be taken out of service for m aintenance. According to the JPS, actual electric generating capacity was 265 W in 1981; 269 M W in 1 982; 3 5 8 M W in 1 983; and 337M W in 1984. Table 67: Electrie Generating Capacity. 1981-1984 Installed and Usable Capaeity. M W (based on normal C.M. R.) Electricity Generated, G. W.H. 1981 1982 1983 1984 1981 1982 1983 1984 J.P.S. Co. 454.0 454.0 455.0 453.8 1281 1336 1458 1439 Private -Bauxite/ A.lumina 167.7 168.0 146.0 122.0 782.2 N/A N/A N/A -Cement 14.0 14.0 15.0 17.0 22.6 -Sugar 30.2 30.2 21.7 20.1 23.4 -Others 0.45 0.45 0.49 0.49 0.02 TOTAL 666.35 666.65 638.19 613.49 2109.22" % of Total Capacity J.P.S. Co. 68.1 68.1 71.3 74.0 60.7 N/A N/A N/A Private -Bauxi tel Alumina 25.2 25.2 22.9 19.9 37.1 -Others 6.7 6.7 5.8 6.1 2.2 ,. % of Private Capacity -Bauxite/ Alumina 79.0 79.0 79.7 76.4 94.4 -Others 21.0 21.0 20.3 23.6 5.6 Source: Ministry of Mining, Energy. ar.d Tourism (1985). 247

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248 I STEAM STIIi10N o HYDRO STATICH o STAT!OH C GAS TIIIIliHES Location Old Hllrbour Hunts Bay A Hunts Bay B Bogue Bogue Ro(!kfort Magotty F1GlIlE: 45 JAMAICA PUBLIC SERVICE POWER STATIONS } ROARWO RIVER. TRELAWNY I I ST.ANN WHITE RIVER Table 68: Location. Type and Rating of JPSCo. Generating Facilities Rating Unit Type M.W. 1,2,3,4 Steam 213.5 1,2,3,5,136 Steam 119.5 GT 1,2,4,5 Gas 68.0 GT3 Gas 20.0 Diesel 0.5 Diesel 40.0 Hydro 6.3 Lower de Upper White Hydro 7.3 River Roaring River Hydro 4.0 Rio Bueno Hydro 2.5 TOTAL 481.6 Source: Jamaica Public Service Company Ltd. 1 I Ty:;.t! Total 333.0 88.0 40.5 20.1 481.6

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tv \0 FIGURE 46 JAMAICA PUBUC SERVICE MAJOR TRANSMISSION LINES r=3 B E3 E3 P-++I W CJ EXISTING UNDER CONSTRUCTlON PROPOSED EXIST1NG PROPOSED EXISTINl aESEL STATION HYDRO STAT10N STEAM Sle STATION '-___ -=::.. MAGOTTY , \ \ ( DISTRIBUTION ) SOURCE: NATDW.. PH'I'SICAl. PLAN /978JHe

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Projected Demand [or Energy Resources The PC J's forecast for 1985-1989 projec ts future petroleum demand based on two sets of assumptions. (See Table 69.) The first set (A 1) assumes a low growth rate in gross petroleum demand (G.P.D.) and bauxite/alumina production, and the use of coal as an alternative to petroleum by the cement company between 1987-1989. The second set (A2) assumes low growth rate in G.P.D., but a higher growth rate in bauxite/alumina production and the use of coal as an alternative to petroleum by the cement company and the JPS. No significant change is projected in the country's petroleum demand for 1985-1989, using assumptions A 1. Some demand fluctuation is expected, however, using assumptions A2. The Energy Division of the Ministry of Mining, Energy "lnd Tourism has projected that peak electricity demand will rise to 335 M W by the year 2000. At that time, it is expected that the development of peat resources will provide a net output of 60 M W, hydro-electricity 100-105 M W, and bagasse 45-50 M W. AGENCIES AND INSTITUTIONS Until 1979 institutional In the energy sector was very fragmented. Among the many steps taken since that time to improve management and development of energy resources are: the name change of the principal Ministry from "Mining and Natural Resources" to "Mining and Energy"; the establishment of an Energy Division, an Energy Conservation Advisory Council, and an Inter-Ministerial Committee on Energy; ane initiation of a major USAID/G OJ Project for energy development in J3maica. Table 69: ':'he Ministry of Mining, Energy and Tourism is the principal agency with responsibility for energy resources. Several other ministries have a significant im pact on im pIe m en tation of energy policies, and other institutions playa major role in energy research and development. Ministry of Mining, Energy and TourWm The Ministry of Mining, Energy and Tourism (M MET) has overall responsibility for energy policy and sets the objectives for energy conservation and the development of indigenous energy resources. M MET also monitors and regulates the petroleum sub-sector, inclusive of the Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica (PCJ). M MET's func tions include the evaluation of domestic energy potential, by conducting inventory studies and preliminary feasibility analyses. In recent years, the core of the institutional responsibilities for energy has rested with the Energy Division of M MET, which is headed by a Director who reports to the Pprmanent There are three Director posts below that of the Director of Energy -Alternative Energy, Conservation, and Economic Planning who play specific roles in the administration of the energy sector. An indirect relationship exists between thp Energy Division and the Economic Planning Unit of the Planning Institute of Jamaica (PIOJ), as well as with the National Advisory Com mittees on Energy. Recently, the staff and func tions of the Energy Division have been declining, and a relative scaling down of activities is evident. Until 1984, legal responsibilities for environmental control also resided with M MET. Since Jamaicats Petroleum Demand P'.':eeast. 1985-1989 (thousand barrels) 250 Total Petroleum Using Al Using A2 1985 12,435 12,975 1986 12,537 12,903 Average Annual 1987 1988 1989 % Change 12,192 12,197 12,512 0.04 13,140 11,969 12,486 0.11

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that time, the responsibility has been transfer red to the Natural Resources Conservation Division (N R C D) of the Ministry of Agriculture. NRC D is now responsible for monitoring the environmental effects of all energy activities.* Petroleum Corpm:ation of Jall1aica (p CJ) The P CJ is responsible for the research and development of energy resources, and has been playing an increasingly active role in both policy formulation and implementation. PCJ is also the sole importer of crude petroleum, implements medium to large scale energy projec ts, and has exclusive rights to explore and develop Jamaica's hydrocarbon resources. Jamaica Public Service Company (JPS Co.) The J PS Co. under the Ministry of Public Utilities and Transport, is a limited liability company owned by the G OJ. Although it does not receive continuous support from the public budget, the government provides equity injec.;tions from time to time. At present the com pany enjoys a monopoly in the country's Cvmmercial electric generating sub-sector, and is the sole licensee for the distribution of electricity to the public. Supporting Agencies and Institutions Three other ministries with policy-making and/ or monitoring and regulatory capabilities have significant impacts on energy policies as designed by Mr! E T: o The Ministry of Industry and Com merce is responsible for regulating im portation of goods and equipment, and for ad ministering Government's controls in respect to some petroleum by-products (e.g., cooking gas.) o The Ministry of Finance and Planning establishes overall taxation policy. o The Ministry of C onstrllc tion, through the The Ministry of Health also has an Environmental Control Division (E C D), responsible for ensuring the im plementation of environmental control programmes. The Office of Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Relief Co-ordination (ODP), the Island Traffic Authority is responsible for mote. ve hide inspec tions. In addition to these ministries, other institutions play roles in energy resea[,ch and dE!velopment. During the 1970's the G OJ began to expand its role 10 the development of bauxite -the country's most important reSourCf!. The Jamaica Bauxite Institute (JBI) was formed as the principal arm of the government in carrying out this policy. The JlH monitors activities of the bauxite/ alu mina industry, including the industr:"s energy consum ption. The Sugar Industry Research Institute (SIRI), a division of the Sugar Industry Authority (SIA), provides quality control, factory services and instrumentation, and research and development needed by the sugar industry. Through its factory service and instrumentation, the Institute e>l:ercises some control in the management of energy resources. Although individual factories manage their own resour.;:es, the SIRI recom mends energy efficient devices, monitors the energy efficiency of individual factories, and carries out research relative to energy resources, such as bagasse and energy cane. The Scie.ntific Research Council was established in June, 1960, under the Scientific Research Council La w, as a statutory body responsible to the Minister of Agriculture, Science Technology. The Renel"able Energy Division of the Scientific Research Council was established in the midst of the oil crisis to undertake, foster and co-ordinate research related to renewable energy resources and to apply such research to the exploitation and development of the country's energy resources. In particular, the Renewable Energy Division is directed to collect and revie\Ol information concerning energy research schemes, coordinate such research and (-!ncourage persons engaged in energy-related industries to enter into research with the Division. The Division maintains an energy information centre and is authorized to advise the Minister on matters relating to the renewable energy resources of the country. JDF Coast Guard and the Marine Police are responsible for investigating marine and coastal spills together with the NRC D which takes sa m pIes for testir.g. W here legal action is necessary, the Harbour M aster and the Attorney General are responsible. 251

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LEGISLATION AHD REGULATIOHS Two major areas of energy legislation are electricity and petroleum, while several acts relating to the environment have direct im plications for this sector. The Acts !'ehting to electricity are: -Electric Lighting Act, May 1890 -Emergency (Lighting Control) Act 1939 -Electricity (Survey) Act, May 1956 -Electricity (Frequency Conversion) Act, May 1957 -Electricity Development Act, October 1958 The Acts relating to petroleum are: -Petroleum and oil Fuel (Landing and Storage) Act 1925 (updated 1979) -Petroleum (Production) Act, May 1940 Petroleum Filling Stations Regulations Act (1956) -Petroleum Products Control (Prices) Order 1957 Petroleu.n Refining Industry (Encouragement) Act, March 1961 retroleum Act 1979 (establishment of P CJ) Relevant pieces of environmental legislation include the Harbours Act (18n); the \-] ater Act (1922); the Forest Act (1937); the Factories Act (1943); the Wild Life Protection Act (1945); the Town and Country Planning Act (1950); the Clean Air Acr.. (1964); the Public Health Act (1974); and the Litter Act (1986). PLAHS AHD PROGRAM MBS The major plans and program mes related to energy resources are concerned with energy conservation and supporting pricing mechanisms; reduction in electricity systems losses; and, the development and utilization of alternative energy resources. Upgrading of Faciliries In keeping with the Government's policy to the country's dependence on imported petroleum, the bauxite/alumina industry has embaIked on two programmes. The first is directed to ward increasing energy efficiency of mining operations. The second pro-252 gram me involves feasibility studies to t:onverl: the existing alumina plants from oil to coal. The JPS Co. has embarked on a program me for upgrarling and rehabilitating its facilities. The ;.Iore efficient units are being l.-ehabilitated, and use of the less t:fficient diesel units and gas turbines is being reduced. As a result of this programme, the company was able to reduce its petroleum consumption in 1984 by 8%, while the quality of its stack emissions im proved. (JPS has no formal system in place for monitoring pollutants.) Alternative Energy Resources The criteria for 1,electing indigenous of alternative energy for development was outlined by the Minister of M MET in 1985 and included the following: -The source shoulrl be cheaper than imported oil. -The reserves must be sufficient to have .:l significant im pact on im ported supplies. -The resources should have no superior alternative use. -The use of the resources should not impact negatively on the environment, but in fact should, where possible, im prove and preserve the natural environment. -The technology to be applied should be easily adaptable and transferable. Based on the above criteria, hydropower and peat energy resources were assigned finlt and second priority, respectively, for development. In addition, progra m m es for bagasse, coal, biogas and solar energy have been established. ;Iydropower. Several small-scale hydro projects are being studied and approximately fourteen of these are close to implementation. (Sef' Table 70 and Figure 47.) Studies for these projects are being funded principally through German, Italian and Canadian government agencies and are being monitored by the Energy Division of the M MET. The P CJ would be the implementing agency, with the JPS Co. operating the projects once they are completed. .Bagasse. In order for Jamaican sugar to remain competitive on international markets, the suear industry must reduce its production costs. If the industry relies on imported petroleum, it

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will not be able to rpmain competitive. As a result, increased use of bagasse is being pursued. The M MET, in collaboration with the Sugar Industry Authority (SIA), is investigating the feasibility of introducing a high-fibl-e variety of sugar cane -called energy cane -which will produce a higher quality bagasse. The project ",ill be initiated at three sugar estates Monymusk, Frome and Appleton in the parishes of Clarendon, Westmoreland and St. Elizabeth, respectively, involving 10,000 acres of cane land. Peat. Large peat deposits in the Negri! Morass and the Black River Lower Morass have the potential to be utilized for electricity generation. After several years of research, the Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica (p CJ) has determined that peat mining could be undertaken in these areas in an environmentall)t acceptable manner. The studies also indicated that the project would be economically feasible at the oil prices that prevailed in 1984. While the P CJ has projected various environmental and socio-economic benefits stem ming from peat-to-energy development, others foresee adverse impacts on wetlands ecology and fisheries habitat. Studies conductec;, by the PCJ indicate that Negril's resourc es havp. a 60 M W potential, whereas Black River's potential is about 30 M W. (See Figure 44.) A po 107 er station burning peat for fuel could be operating at South West Point, Green Negri! by 1995. This power station would provide in excess of 15 % of Table 70: Project German Supported Constant Spring Rio Bueno Laughlands Great River Rio Cobre Great River Italie.n Supported Ys River Canadian Supported Morant River Yallahs River Morgans Rivel' Negro River t; 1 Negro River #2 Back Rio Grande Wild Cane Green River TOTAL Proposed Hydropower Projects Capacity (M.W.> 1.4 1.1 5.0 1.0 8.0 2.3 2.3 3.6 3.5 1.4 1.3 28.0 2.9 1.4 63.2 Cost US$ (1 ,000,000) 3.43 1.39 3.90 1.91 12.94 3.97 1.30 4.82 3.94 1.66 1.98 50.00 3.63 1.87 96.74 Source: Ministry of Mining, Energy and Tourism. Status Completion 1987 Feasibility completed Final design 1987 Completion Dec. 1986 studies to be cl'mpleted by 1988 " 253

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FIGURE:47 SMALL SCALE HYDROPOWER SITES t N I i TRELAWNY i ,I ST. ANN I current peak electricity demand, and be operated by the JPS. Coal. Tl:.e Energy Divisi.on of the M MET recently conducted feasibility studies on replacing all substitut:able petroleum im ports with cOLlI. These studies have shown coal to be cheaper and, therefore, le3S of a burden on scarce foreign exchange earnings than petroleum im ports. The J PS is considering plans to begin using coal as an alternative to some petroleum imports. The Cement Company plans to use about 80,000 tons of coal in 1987, gradually increasing to 100,000 by 1990. Similarly, the bauxite/alum';na companies are presently conducting studies 'which should lead to some conversion from oil to coal. The coal will be imported, preferably from Columbia. Biogas. Small-scale plants have been established for perform anc e evaluation. The construction of nine household digesters in nine parishes was undertaken by the M MET with technical assistance from the Organisation for Latin A merican Development in Energy (OLADE), Food and Agriculture Organisation (F A 0), and United Nations University. Additional digesters have been built by the S R C. The programme is an ongoing one with local, Guatemalian, Chinese and Mexican designs being used. The methane gas produced is used mainly for lighting and cooking. 254 SOlIlCE : MNSTRY OF MINING ENERGY 8 RIVER (5t:KW) Solar Energy. Several applied solar projects (e.g., water heating, crop drying, etc.) have bpen undertaken by the M MET in hospitals, infirmaries and academic institutions. In addition, several private companies have been assembling or manufacturing domestic hot water (DH W) systems for residential applications. applications have been im plemented at the Negril Lighthouse and in oc'ean buoys for the Port Other applications, such as use in microwave transmitters and for clinics in remote areas, are being pursued. Demonstration projects at the College of Arts, Science, & Technology (C AST) and the Scientific Research Council are constantly being pursued. C harcoal/ W 0c;>d. Thirty-four kilns, desi.gned for t:he pre riuction of 1,056 tons of charcoal per year, have been constructed by the Forestry Department in cooperation with the M MET and SHoC. In 1983, 1032.4 tons of charcoal were produced. Of this, 393.2 tons were produced by the Forestry Department, e.nd 739.2 tons by private means. The objective is to develop a. charcoal program me for the country, including the introduction of suitable far.t growing trees for reforestation. Experimental tree plots have been established at the Gray':; Inn Estate in St. Mary.

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PROBLEMS AND M any adverse impacts are associated with the use of fossil fuels, including gaseous pollution, contributions to smog, and da m ages fro m oil spills. The use of im ported petroleum also creates a significant drain on thf' foreig,l f'xchange resources ot the country. Although it is vital for alternative enl!rgy sources -notably hydro, bagasse, coal and peat -to be developed and utilized, use of some of the indigenous energy resources may have f'nvironmental and social costs and, therefore, must be carefully evaluated and monitored. Other issues include the need for continued support of er.ergy conservation, and the need for greater cooperation and collaboration among the various institutions in lne energy sector. Impacts from the Use of Fossil Fuels Pollution from the use of fossil fuels results from emissions from stationary sources, motor vehicles, and from spills. JPSCo currently discharges cooling water into the sea at Its major plants in HU',lts Bay and 01<.1 Harbour. The principal gaseous pollutants are the oxides of nitrogen, sulphur and carbon. (To these may be added particulates with the introduction of coal.) M any types of fuel JUs have a high concentration of vanadium which is q biologically active element. Fuel oils with a high vanadium contp.nt may have long-term effects on agricultural productivity as a result of reduced mineralization rates in the soil. Partially burned hydrocarbons from motor vehicle exhausts are principal contributors to smog. The most perilous pollutant from this source, however, is carbon monoxide, which is not now being monitored in Jamaica. The third major pollutant: from automobiles is atmvspheric lead. Lead fL gasoline is not sold in Jamaica; hence, the levels of lead in the atmosphere may soon pose a proolem. Oil spills occur at sea from ships or on land from tanks or pipelines. The main effects at sea are coating of birds which dive for food, poisoning of fish, damage to nets, smothering of mangrove prop roots and turtle grass leaves as well as fish and shrimp living in coastal mangrove swamps. Coral reefs are also affected as their feeding mechanism is disrupt'<:d, resulting in erosion of the reef. The deposition of oil on beaches adversely affects crabs and other animals, and creates a nuisance to beach users. Fishing boats are a1;o :tffccted, needing to be beached, cleaned, scraped and repainted. The fishing and tourist may ther;:iore be directly affected by these spills. Spilb on land may contaminate ground water sources and create fire hazards. Potential Impal::ts froa Develop.ent of Altema ti"e Energy Resources Potential environmental impacts are associated principally with hydropower, peat; bagasse and coal utmzation. Hydropower. Preliminary environmental impact studies were carried out for :11 the hydropower projects being investigated. In the minor.' ones, negative environmental wC!re not noted. However, in the case of the Y s River project, then'! \,'ere some indicatiol"!; that the rerluced flow woulri affoct the wate["fRlls, with possible impact on ehe tourwt industry. In an effort to mitigate this impactl the M MET, Energy Division, is of the opinion that this facility could be operated principally at night with the flo\ls aHowed to return to normal levels during tee daytime. In the case of the Back Rio Grande Hydroelectric Development, however, a number of potential ecological and socio-economic impacts have been identified. The main ecological impact is the modification of the flow regimes of the area, resulting in considerable implications for the faunal (fish and shrim p) com m unities, as they migrate up and down the river during the coun.:e of their life cycle. With respect to the socio-economic impacts, the major concern which could result from the scheme would be the effect on the rafting activity on the Rio GnlOde, an activity whi..:h is currently a major contributor to the economic base of the area. Peat. Peat contains a significant sulphur content, most of which will be conve["ted to sulphur dioxide: upon burning in the power plant. Sulphur dioxide, above certain atmospheric concentrations, is harm ful to all oxygen breathing creatures.* According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), sulphur dioxide ground level concentration (GLC) should not f'xceed 365 pgm-3 over a 2/j-hour averaging period (one pgm equals 10-6 gra m m es). 255

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il' addition to the environr.lental impact studies by G. Rose and R. Anderson, several other environmental studies have addressed the Negri! and Black River peat p,ropC'sals and have resulted in several inconsistent conclusions. These include the Natural Resources Conservation Department/Tre.verse Group Inc. (T GI) study, the study condu(' ted by Bjork (1983) for the P CJ and the Maltby Report (1985) prepared for the In ternational Union for Conservation of Nature (IU C N). A major issue raised surrounds the investigation of only one basic technique for wetland manuge ment by the P CJ/Bjork team, i.e., the removal of peat to create a lacustrine ecosystem. Another issue is the assum ption made by ti-.e P CJ that the ecosystem resulting from peat mining will possess greatH ecologica1 viability than the preSEnt one. It been suggest('d that this assumptbn is made without sufficient information ::elating to the lower plants and other animal grours (e.g., insects, !nollusks, reptiles, amphibians, etc.). In addition, ,;)revious studies have not been successful in establishing the value of wetland fur.ctions to the marine ecosystem, and there are doubts as to the ability to effectively manage stack discharges and thermal effluent. Bagasse. The ash currently generated by bagasse-fired boilers is significant in quantity and most bagasse boilers in the sugar industry do not have ash collectors. This results in a dust hazard on and near factory sites, as at the Bernard Lodge in St. Catherine. Coal. The Cement Company has a coal fired plant under c.onstruction. Ashes, smoke and gases may contaminate the atmosphere, while slreams and wells may be polluted from the discharge of water used for cooling. The final disposal of residual products could also present serious problems. The burning of coal for fuel will result in the production of ash and dust. Ash collectors will be used, however, thereby minimizing atmospheric pollution. The systems of ash disposal considered will have to be carefully evaluated to assess potential environmental effectG. It must also be ensured that the necessary anti-pollution equipment is instal led to control stack emissions. Solar. Solar is abundant and there are no negative environmental issues connected with its collection and use. It is expected that its use for water heating will continue to be expanded especially 10 the com mercia1 and public sectors. 256 Bio-Energy. There are no negative environmental considerations in the utilization of biological material for the jJroduction of energy and orgdnic fertilizer. The use of animal waste to feed digesters for biogas production enhances the physic:il environment on farms and rural villages. Municipal Solid W S The use of garbage for steam prod---::tion would im prove environmental conditions in addition to creating employment. Since garbage is now being effp.ctively collected in most municipalities, it may prove worthwhile to reexamine the feasibility of MSW systems. Legislati.ve Needs Environmental legislation as it relates to the energy sector needs to be strengthened. The Wildlife Protection Act (Section II) for example, has regulations relating to noxious materials, but is non-specific. The Clean Air Act lists a number of prohibited pollutants and bans the emission of various materials from sources. There is, however, no system of monitoring the presence of pollutants on a continuous basis. In addition, the outright ban, rather than the setting of tolerable levels, would tend to make investigators reluctant to press action in view of the high costs of achieving zero or near-zero discharge. Institutional Needo The roles of the NnCD and the ECD need to be effectively coordinated to ensure proper environmental monitoring and controls. This is especially so in the areas relating to stack emissions from stationary power plants and the necessary control equipment to effectively reduce pollutants. H anpover snd Resource Reeds All the institutions involved in the monitoring and control of ell:: environmental resourceH are constrained by economic factors and insufficient manpower. The cost of proper monitoring and control may appear significant in the short term but pale in comparison to the disastrous long term effects that could result if controls are not put in place early.

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DU'LKcnORS FO R Tl!! FUTU2E 1. An environmental evaluating and monitoring system needs to be established for the energy sector, preferably within the NRC D. 2. A widespread public awareness programme for energy conservation is required to p.n hance public appreciation of energy conservation and its benefits, particularly the benefits of a well-tuned engine and the environmental hazards caused by negle:ct. 3. Institutions need to ensure that professional and technical staff is.. properly motivated; and administrators must pursue policy issues until they are implemented. 4. The JPS Co. should continue its preventi'Je maintenance progum me and develop monitoring systems for polllltants from its power stations. 5. The MMET should ensure that incentives are legislated to support its energy conservation programme. MMET should also encourage more rapid development by the private sector of non-poUuting sources of energy such as solar and biogas. Currently, tariffs act as a disincentive to the importation of the necessary materials for solar energy development. 6. Now that garbage collection systems are operating with remarkable efficiency in most towns, the feasibility of constructing managed solid waste systems should be re-examined. 7. Current legislation relating to the environment needs to be strengthened. 8. The charcoal program me should continue to be closely linked to the reforestation program me, while informal producers should be guided to adhere to the objectives of the progra.m me. J', Plate 35 Burning traditional method. Plate 36 Burning charcoal using a kiln. 257

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IV VI 00 '. C:':; Plate 37 Reaping Sweet PCPPCiS planted l!n rchabilitated land: Kaiser Bauxite Project. -

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OVERVIEW OF AGRICULTURE Sum mary of Recent Trends During the past two decades, agriculture has continued to be a mainstay of the Jamaican economy, employing between 20-35 % of the Vlbour force. (See Table 71.) The agricultural sector (including fisheries, forestry and pasture) also dominates the Jamaican landscape, occupying 1,489,188 of the island's 2,720,000 acres. Jamaica's agricultural sector can be divided into sub-sectors as follows: (a) export crops -sugar cane, bananas, coffee, cocoa, citrus, pim ento and tobacco; (b) crops for local consum ption -root crops, vegetables, fruits, and pulses; (c) livestock pr.oducts -meat, milk, eggs; (d) fish and sea food; and (e) commercial forestry. Between 1977 and 1986, agricultural perfor mance was adversely affected by high import custs, marketing problems, water supply short-AGRICUL ruRAL RESOlRCES ages affecting irrigation, rural emigration, inadequate technological inputs including agrochemicals, machinery and equipment (due to foreign exchange scarcity), as well as by a decline in the number and size of farms. These factors in lowered farm productivity, stagnatiug or falling farm income and, by the early 1980's, culminated in a iall-off in Jamaica's capacity to meet market demands for banana exports to the United Kingdom. The deterioration in the balance of trade in agricultural products from the mid-1970's well into the 1980's, and the resulting dependence on imported supplies of dairy products, fish, and especially cerealq such as corn and rice, were direct consequences of the foregoing factors. (Resulti.ng changes in GOP are given in Tables 72 and 73.) Despite these conditions, Jamaican agric'llture has continued to respond to overseas demands, with small farms supplying export markets with tuoers and plantains, and large farms exporting vegetables, condiments and fruits. 259

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Table 71: Agricultural Bmployment (as of October 1982) Number of Persons Total Employed Population 756,300 Agriculture. forestry, Fishing and Mining 268,100 Professional, Technical. Administration Executive Maintenance and related Occupations 1.700 Clerical and Sales Occupations 2,200 Service Occupations 1,600 Craftsmen, Production. Processing and Operations Occupations 4.900 Self Employed and Independent 201.300 Unskilled Manual and General Occupations 56.400 Occupied -not specified -STATIN 1983c Historical Background Although the original inhabitants of Jamaica -the Arawaks -were predominantly hunters, they did engage in limited cultivatbn of cassava, sweet potatoes, corn and cotton on the coastal slopes. The Spanish coloni2ts, who first arrived in 1494, initially used the island as a base for raids u;' the North A merican mainland ana had no interest in farming. At a later date, they introduced citrus, bananas, c()conuts, cocoa and swine which, in addition to satisfying local needs, produced a surplus for ships which called regularly for supplies. By 1655, the Arawaks had been decimated by the introduction of European diseases against which they had no immunity. As a result, African slaves were introduced to work the plantations when the British took control of the country from Spain. Plantation farming of sugar cane, citrus, banana, and cocoa began, as did the production of rum, which helped spread the fame and prosperity of L:he island. Indigo, dyewood, tobacco, ginger, cotton, annotto, and breadfruit were introduced during this period. Following the abolition of slavery in 1838, plantation syste m, unable to obtain cheap labour, began to decline, despite the introduction of indentured Indians and Chinese in 1865. 260 The island's physical configuration and social structure has significantly influenced cropping patterns and farming practices. These, in turn, affected seltlement patterns that can be traced as far back as emancipation in 1838. Smallscale farming of cash/mixed crops (mainly root crops, vegetable, plantains) developed on the boundaries of the large plantations. These farms required a good supply of water and dependable sources could be found in the hills of conglomerate and shRle. Hence, many small farmers and farming settlements were created, and are maintained to date, linked to towns and villages by an extensive road network. Since independence in 1962, cropping systems in Jamaica have been highly variable. They include traditional monoculture, such as sugar cane or cotton production; permanent intercropping, for example, pasture under coconut or pimento; mixed annuals and perennials, such as corn, peas or potato planted through citrus, or cocoyam through banana; mixed annuals, for examT)1.e, corn and dried beans planted together; and multiple tiered systems, such as breadfruit over coffee over ya m. Monoculture cropping systems usually occur on flat, prime agricultural lands. Since the intro duction of A G R 0-21 in 1983, agricultural development has focused on stirn ulating the produc-

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Table 72: aDP at Cun'ef\t and Constant Prices (Annual Percentqe ChAnce) 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1.980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 rnp at current prices 25.3 20.4 3.7 9.6 26.5 14.4 11.1 11.0 11.0 33.9 20.1 rnp at constant prices -3.9 -0.3 -6.5 -2.4 0.5 -1.8 -5.8 2.5 1.0 2.0 -0.4 -3.7 mp at constant prices per capita --1.9 -7.6 -3.4 -0.7 2.9 -6.7 1.3 -O.C: 0.5 -0.22 -6.3 Source: STAl'IN National Inccue ard Product (1985) Table 73: ChAnc" In aDP at Constant Prfees (AunuaI Peree!I.!ap CbaDp) I 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 I6rlculture. Forestry ard Fisheries 3.:! 9.6 -9.7 -6.3 2.3 -7.9 7.2 10.0 -3.4 Export Agriculture -17.9 12.7 -18.5 -12.1 1.2 -1.6 -3.7 3.8 -3.3 IbEstic Agriculture 11.8 19.9 -10.4 -5.5 3.6 -12.0 8.7 15.7 -1.3 rnp at constant prices -1. 7 -0.4 -1.5 -5.4 2.5 1.0 2.0 -0.4 -3.7 Source: Eoor:mic ard Social Survey Jaoaica. PIOJ 261

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tion of a nu m her of export crops including winter vegetables, horticultural crops, and animal enterprises with joint venture partners. The Ministry of Agriculture has placed increasing em phasis en livestock production as an integral part of Jamaica's farm economy. Agricultural Land Classification SyateIB8 Land use surveys and the development of a land capability classificetion are basic to development planning. (See Table 74). 0 nce the soils are identifiL!d, characterized and classified, their suitability for the cultivation of different crops has to be assessed. This is done by matching the crop requirements with soil characteristics. On this basis, the various land capability classes are derived. Land capability classification is the first step to wards proper use and conservation of the land. There is a major difference between land capability classification and land use planning, including conservation farm planning. Capabili ty classification of land depends mainly on the extent to which "permanent limitation:;" result in "safe use limits". Slope, for example, is a major limiting factor. Soil depth is another im portant one. In fac t, land capability classification rests mainly on physical properties of the land, whereas land use planning and conservation farm planning consider cropping systems, economics, costs and returns, management, and farmer pr-eferences. Jamaica has an islandwide soil sur vey. In the soil survey report of each parish, lands have been divided into seven capability classes and 16 sub-classes (Sheng and Stennett, 1975). (See Table 75.) This classification scheme is similar to that used in the United States. Lands are into two major categories, Suitable for Cultivation (I,ll, III); and, Not Suitable for Cultivation (V, VI, vII). Class IV land is marginal, suitable only for limited cultivation. Agro-Economic Patterns. Jamaican agriculture has also been mapped and analyzed by crop pattern and farm size as, for exam pIe, monoculture and mixed farming. Monocultures are further subdivided by crop -sugar cane, banana, citrus, cocoa, coffee and tobacco. This is probably the most com mon classification that has been used in the mapping of Jamaica's agricultural la nd. Another classification, discussed by Stone (1974), defines two principal farm groups: 1. Large-scale com mercial farms (usually over 5,000 acres). These represent approximately 0.1 % of all Jamaican farms and occupy 45 % of all agricultural lands; and Table 74: Land Use Distribution 1978/79 Type of Land Acres 96 Total 2,720,000 100.0 Forestry 660,000 24.3 Other Woodland 538,000 19.7 Agriculture (incl. Pasture) 1,258,000 46.4 Natural Range and Grassland 103,000 3.8 Swamp 50,000 1.8 Mining 7,000 0.4 Urban 100,000 3.7 Barren 4,000 0.1 Source: Statistical Institute of Jamaica, 1978/79 262

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Table 75: .Jamaica's Agricultural Capability Classes Capability Limitations or Risks Suitable Use Class I lb. OJltivation I! Moderate limitations due to erosion, wetness or soil. D..lltivation II! Strong limitations due to erosion, wetness, soil or climate. Cultivation rJ Extreme danger of erosion, or' M3rg:inal for cultivation extrerre limitation of soil. but for tree crops, or grasslands. V IXt:re!re danger of erosion, or Tree crops, foed or adverse soil factors. forest trees. VI Adverse factors of erosion, soil SOOuld never be cleared or climate. of its vegetation. VII Rock, ootcrops, ri verwash, etc. Wildlife. Table 76: Number of Parms by Ineome-Barning Activity No. of Farms % Acreage % Average Acreage -Export Crops 56,723 30.8 567,018 42.7 90.2 Domestic Crops 86,803 47.2 266,204 20.1 3.1 Mixed Crops 15,703 B.5 106,400 B.9 6.B LiveGtock and Poultry 10,699 5.B 307,150 23.1 28.7 Other 6,505 3.5 36,108 2.7 5.6 None 7,5B5 4.1 44,165 3.3 5.B TOTAL 183,988 100.0 1,327,045 100.0 7.2 Source: STATIN, 1978/79 Census, Vol.!. 263

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2. Small-scale subsistence farms which are fur ther subdivided into three groups: well-todo middle peasants who em ploy farm labour; small peasants with less than five acres who hire occasional labour; and displacerl peasants who are semi-employed or unemployed. The ST A TIN report (1978/79) has presented another classification which is used extensively in the Agricultural Census 1978-l979. ThiB organizes information on farms by major income earning actlvlty. Table 76, for example, shows that the traditional export crops (monocultures) occupy the largest acreage and represent the large;3t average farm size. On the other hand, domestic crops are cultivated on the largest num ber of farms. Agricultural Land Utilization The present pattern of agricultural land use in Jamaica still approximates the pattern shown in t.he 1971 Atlas of Jamaica, although urban s pra wI has increased.* (See Figure 48.) Although much of Jamaica's land area is suit able for some form of agriculture, productivity limitations are imposed by steep slopes, imperfect drainage and lack of water. (See Figure 49.) Jamaica's land surface consists of plains, plateaus and mountains, a topographical structure with serious constraints for agricultural activities because of steep slopes and resultant soil erosion problems. Ho\!ever, despite these physical constraints, Table 77 shows that about 1,5 milli.on of the island's 2.7 million acres uf land a:-e used agriculture. Table 77 also shows that almost 98 % of the farms are less than 25 acres, whereas 2 % are in the size group 25-500 acres or more. In terms of acreage, the two groups occupy about 37 % and 63 %, respectively, of all farm lands. Likewise, Table 78 shows that although attem pts have been made over the years to diversify cropping patterns, the patterns have not varied greatly. This '..:an be verified by the relatively constant of sugar to the value of total exports; with sugar accounting for 55.6-61.0% during the period 1980-191:::5. It is also indicative of the large work force associated with agriculture 'olhich would be displaced if cropping patterns were to change rapidly. In examining Table 78, it should be kept in mind that, although the value of some of the export crops increases progressively from 264 1980-1985, rising from $169,350,000 to $440,002,000, much of this increase is due to fluctuations in foreign exchange values, pariculady the devaluation of the Jamaican dollar. Adjusting foI' currency fluctuations, exports and production were fairly constant from 1980 through 1985. (See Tables 78 and 79). Although earnings increased largely due to devaluation, any net benefits were offset by increases in the cost of such inputs as pesticides and fertilizer almost all of which must be imported. Agricultural Lan": Tcnurf" There are 178,007 single holder farmers in Jamaica. (See Table 80.) Single holders occupy 99.1 % of the farms (compared to partnerships) and 66.25 % of the acreage. Table 81 indicates that 67% of all farmers operate 19% of Jamaica's farm land which is in holdings of five acres or less. Most of the farm land (69%) is owned by farmers operating farms greater than 50 aCt"es. Table 82 indicates that landless farmers are primarily active in livestock production rather than crop cultivation. Table 83 sho ws that farmers operating on acreages of 1 to 5 acres produce for both the export and domestic markets, primarily root crops, legumes and plantains. On the. larger acreages, 50 acres and above, the farm ers specialize in export crops, mainly winter vegetables, fruit crops and condiments, and produce very little for the domestic mari
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m G::ASSLAND m UllllAN m .. XED f"AIIIII COCONUT W BANANA [!] CITRUS OJ i:.4RSH I!I SWAMP [i] SCRUII WOODLAND IT] I'ORDT [JQJ SUQAII CAllE: D 11,400 Acrn or 10 Sq. M;1eo FIGURE: 48 LAND USE MAP OF JAMAICA y , ? ,,? MILES I: 500,000

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IV 0\ 0\ 1:::%:-:1 L .... ",III ...... ., ....... ........ ___ ..,c.nwlll 111M r:=::l s..t .... ,., C .......... .a ...... .. ......... f., ,.,.,,,. ... ,. .. ,.,) .. ....... .. 11 __ III -'-'WI_-" r=:1 s........ for CiA. ... _. "' ... L..!:.J ...... 0fII at ...... ( ..... ) r;;1 s...oa. for C'IIIt ............ .. .. ...... III ... C&fIbIIM, .. ., ..... f 1W3 c:...e...-., m ttl: .......... L...:!-.J CII' ....... ... ,. r::-l "'p.I '" ..... ,... to .,-L1!!..J .... ......... .... Ir.. ClINS I.",,' c.-. ...... III ...... :J' ... __ .. c ............ aae.AI .... L....:!.-.J .. ____ .... ___ D IQ .... It". t FIGURE: 49 AGRICULTURAL LANe CAPABILITY SOLI'CI : National Atlas of Jomcica. i97l .......

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Table 77: Humber and Aereage of Farms by Size GrouplS (1988) SIZE GROUP FARHERS LAND IN F>\RMS ACRES NUMBER PERCENT ASREAGE PERCENT TOTAL 967,577 100.00 l,',89,18!l 100.00 Landless 4,768 2.47 < 1 52,969 27,1,0 22,736 1.53 1 < 5 93,961 48.58 206,480 13.87 5 < 10 25,237 13.05 165,905 11.14 10 < 25 12,370 6.40 174,852 11. 74 25 < 50 2,280 1.18 74,718 5.01 50 < 100 775 0.40 52,490 3.52 100 < 200 379 0.20 51,116 3.44 200 < 500 320 0.17 96,S32 6.51 > SOD 293 0.15 643,959 43.24 1_Source: Production and Marketing of Milk in the Smallholder Sector of the Western Region! Jamaica, 1984. 78: Value of Selected Agricultural Exports, 1980-1984 1 1 (J$'OOO) 1 1 1 I'l'EM IS 80 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 I Sugar 97,447 82,776 87,400 103,190 226,220 245,489 Bananas 18,691 7,577 8,326 13,222 4,229 20,543 Citrus (Fresh Fruit) 3,015 1,746 1,671 1,592 4,247 7,932 Spices 7,759 8,469 8,904 17,489 27,688 33,253 Cocoa 8,015 8,977 5,203 10,737 15,909 22,136 Coffee 9,692 10,086 13,475 19,744 34,672 37,059 Rum 17,086 19,794 19,334 18,024 29,968 43,719 Molasses 1,295 7 320 2,144 1,339 15 Root Crops 6,350 9,4)0 9,820 15,707 21,327 29,856 Total 169,350 148,862 154,392 201,849 365,669 440,002 1 -Revised J$l. 78 = US$1. 00 .. -J$4.93 = US$1. 00 Source: Economic and Social Survey, Jamaica PIOJ 1985 I 267

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N Q\. 00 I I Table 79: Volume Major AgrieulturaI Commodities Produeed, 1980-1985 ITEM UNIT OF MEASURE 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984+ .... Sugar Cane ('000 2,726 2,414 2,482 2,286 2,384 Sugar (Corrunercial) ('000 lung tons) 242 198 196 193 190 Eanana'" ('000 tons) 33 19 22 23.1 Citrus** ('1)00 boxes) 1,117 883 933 676 570 Spices (long tons)/' 1,255 3,490 2,188 2,666 3,691 Cocoa' (lonrtons) 1,369 1,814 1,426 2,738 2,710 Coffee** ('000 boxes) 288 300 359 298 326 Molasses ('000 tons) lUI 91 190 93 93 Copra (short tons) 1,738 887 1,429 2,373 1,487 Meat (million lbs.) 109 108 102 119 114 Fish (million 1bs.) 36 32 18 18 19 Eggs (million) 102 55 84 100 106 Milk (million quart:s) n.d. n.a. 4l'1 42 42 Domestic Food Crops ('DUO short tons) 319 395 351 419 515 ,.. Export + Preliminary .. Deliveries to packaging and processing plants Revised Note: Production figures for cocoa, bananas, spices, sugar and coffee are for the crop year. SOURCE: Ministry of Agriculture and the Corrunodity Organizations. Planning Institute of Jamaica (PIOJ) 1983 1985 203 13 754 3,216 2,604 222 80 2,689 93 19 78 n.a. 492

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-. Table 80: Total Number of Par .. by Size and Aereage. By Legal Slatus Bolder Legal Status Total Single Holder Partnership Corporation Cooperative Government Other Source: STATIN Vol. 1, 1978/79 DO'Aestic Marketing Small (1-5 acres, see Table 83), constitute the most im portant group of producers of domestically consumed foods. These small producers are located on the hills; cultivate lands that are highly erodible and inherently infertile; practice low technology agriculture; and depend entirely on rainfall for crop productio"-Most of the agricultural produce coming from these farms is marketed through the higglering system. The higgler. trade has expanded from the urban centers to the rural tOl'lnships and is strongly supported by the consuming public. The system consists of a group of about 20,000 partially organized indi\1iduals acting as intermediary agricultural marketing agents who operate bet ween the farmer and the consumer. To facilitate the marketing of agricultural products, several market depots have established by the Government of Jamaica as well as by private concerns (supermarkets), and producer organizations. Number of Farms Acreage 179,702 ..L1.!..9 12 178,007 825,089 -1,229 9!1,515 79 129,746 110 102,348 136 122,079 141 40,236 Agricultural Technology The data (see Tables 82-85) indicates that the application anci ,;se of farm machinery, irrigation, and agro-ch(!micals varies in .... ersely with the size of the farm. Farms of less than five acres have access to approximately 8 % of the farm machinery and 71 % of the mechanically and hand-operated equipment such as forks. hand pumps, (!tc. Furthermore, less than Cine haJf of the small farms have mC!chinery available to them. This is partly due to their location on h:nsides and rough terrain, and the traditional use of family labour. On the other hand, farms of 550 acres and more, have access to 62 % of the tractors used on agricultural lands, and account for only 2 % of the mechanically or hand operatE!d equipment. These large farms do not use mechanical or hand operated equipment to any extent, but rely on energy powered machinery and equipment. The 1978/79 Agricultural Census indicates that 22.68 % of all farms use farm machinery. (See Table 84.) 269

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N -.l o Tenure Total of Land Owned 1,108,207 Rented in 50,424 Leased un-der 5 years 30,358 Leased 5 years or more 93,429 Rent Free 71,297 Squatt:ed 9,414 Other 8,242 Total Owned and/ or opera-ted 1,371,371 Land Rented Out 52,297 Acreage Operated 1,319,074 Source: STAT IN Under 1 Acre 11,229 2,800 578 957 4,420 1,033 238 21,255 571 20,684 1978/79 Census, Table 81: Acreage or Panas by 1 enure or Land. By Size Group 1 Acre 5 Acres 10 Acres 25 Acres to under to to under to under 5 acres 10 acres 25 acres 50 acres 110,965 89,150 90,461 41,135 21,024 9,123 5,536 1,234 8,509 4,870 3,256 1,55B I 18,317 16,734 9,881 6,043 23,607 13,787 11,606 4,767 5,307 1,886 931 137 1,673 1,271 1,458 693 189,402 136,82l 123,129 55,567 2,380 4,198 2,831 3,022 187,022 132,623 120,:.298 52,545 Vol. 1 50 Acres 100 Acres 200 Acres 500 Acres to under t:o under to under and over 100 acres 200 acres 500 acres 50,371 58,542 99,617 556,737 358 294 I 885 9,170 1,132 1,498 3,016 5,941 4,296 3,533 3,96B 29,700 3,440 2,959 1,310 5,401 120 ---717 615 993 584 60,434 67,441 109,789 607,533 4,077 4,063 9,263 21,892 1 I 56,357 63,378 100,526 J

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N -.J MaJor Income Earning ;.gricul tural Activity TOTAL Exports Domestic Crops Mixed Crops !Pig Rearing Dair'.l Cattle Beef Cattle Poultry Ot.'ler None Source: STATIN --Total Landless 179,699 7,621 56,212 -83,387 16,083 -2,377 1,085 933 256 I 3,239 634 3,924 2,044 6,433 2,880 7,109 722 Vol. 1, 1978/79 T.ble 82: Total Hullber of FarM by Ibjor Ineoae EarnIng AcrbdturaI Aethity. By SiR Group ol Para. By Lepl Status "('!dc-Under 1 Acre 5 Acres 10 Acres 25 AC:;:Cfl 50 Acres 100 hcres Acres 500 1 to under to under to under to l!...T'lQer to un<:1er to under to under Acres Acre 10 Acres 10 Acres 25 Acres 50 Acres 100 Acres 200 500 Acres and over I I NUMBER OF FARMS 50,130 88,490 21,217 8,695 1,589 851 474 337 295 )1,008 31,107 9,072 3,696 610 285 169 130 135 28,813 42,685 8,061 3,074 460 191 62 31 10 3,683 8,696 2,557 864 171 47 32 .. 4 19 483 565 131 74 14 17 3 5 -77\ 162 95 143 80 34 34 32 I 20 257 745 ';92 490 180 177 108 75 81 785 725 193 115 27 19 10 4 2 1,324 1,603 356 162 I 29 36 16 21 6 3,700 2,202 260 77 18 ';5 38 25 22 i I -

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I Table 83: Total aereage of Parms by Major Income Eamine Agrieultural Activity. by Size Group of Parm, by Legal Status older I 50 Acres 100 200 500 Major Under 1 Acre 5 Acres 10 Acres 25 Acres to Under Acres Acres Acres to under to under to undeJ: to un1eJ: 100 tCl undeI to under and Income Earning Total 5 Acres 10 Acres 25 Acres 50 Acres Acres 200 500 over Agricultural 1 Acre Acres Acres Activity ACREAGE OF FARMS I I TOTAL 1,319,014 20,684 187,022 132,623 120,353 52,491 56,407 63,278 100,526 585,630 Exports 570,940 -4,971 70,006 58,204 50,749 20,683 18,858 22,347 38,068 287,054 Domestic Crops 247,673 -11,631 86,308 51,069 42,528 15,085 U,384 8,136 9,045 11,487 Mixed Crops 108,241 -1,616 18,622 13,119 10,820 3,847 2,640 4,192 3,670 49,715 Pig Rearing 6,651 -181 1,132 888 1,131 562 l,U5 496 1,135 -Dairy Cattle :'4,998 30 399 661 2,269 2,818 2,383 4,705 9,552 62,181 Beef Cattle 196,337 110 1,776 3,353 7,459 6,459 12,248 14,304 23,493 U7,099 Poultry 14,895 -262 1,455 1,305 1,914 1,120 1,098 1,381 1,369 4,991 Oth",r 29,045 504 3,308 2,286 2,394 1,152 2,641 2,541 6,721 7,498 None 60,234 -1,379 4,016 :!..,736 1,069 731 3,030 5,176 7,472 35,605 Source: STATIN Vol. 1, 1978/79

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Table 14: Number of FarlllS with Far_ llaehlnery and EquIp_ent Available, by aiR Group of the Far_ Machinery and Equipment Total Tractor Drawn Ploughs Other Ploughs Tractors Trailers Trucks, Vans, Station Wa",ons Animal Drawn Vehicles Mechanical Spray pumps Hand Operated Pumps Mechanical Reapers Mechanical Loaders Other Machinery and Equipment Tcta1 Farms 42,833 7,088 1,985 4,609 1,046 9,103 1,152 5,668 9,451 208 382 1,841 .. 1 Acre to under 5 Acres 29,893 4,653 1,386 2,468 736 7,071 927 4,092 6,769 114 229 1,159 FARM SIZE 5 Acres to under 50 A(;res 11,371 2,127 .511 1,46'1 290 2,461 276 1,458 2,168 90 174 349 ')0 Acres to under 1QO Acres 458 117 24 95 17 74 9 37 60 5 9 11 Greater than 100 Acres 1,062 185 62 208 90 156 21 93 96 26 49 72 A farm is counted for each item of muchinery and/or equipment is being utilized by that farm. As a result, there is an element of double-counting in the total number of Source: STATIN Vol. 1, 1978/79 The contribution of pesticides in increasin3 the world's food production cannot be questioned. In recent years, the use of pesticides in the developing countries has increased at a faster rate than in the more developed countries (Furtick, 1973). The increase in the use of pesticides in Jamaica in the 1970's is reflected in the folio wing data from Gooding (198 n, Year 1972 1976 Pesticides Insecticide/Nem a tocide Fungicide Herhick:", Insec ticide/N e m a tocid e Fungicide Herbicide Amount Imported (Kg.) 846,838 207,826 557,685 895,664 4,667,759 188,840 In thp. Caribbean, JamRica ranks fourth in the use of pesticides (701 kg/km2/year) following Barbados, Grenada and St. Vincent. The application of these chemicals usually follows the manufacturer's recom mendations, but without any significant local research on their suitability, desirability and environmental impacts (M ansingh, 1985). Table 85 reveals that pesticide use is widespread, including on farms of from 1-5 acres. However, the greater volume is applied on farms of 500 acres or more, particularly on sugar cane and citrlls hrms. Since dieldin's com m ercial availability in the 1950'8, it has been used extensively in Jamaica to com bat the citrLls root weevil and other soil pests, but without any field or laboratory analysis of its efficacy. The presence of residues of the organochlorine insecticides in the soil, food, potable waters, rivers, coastal waters, aqllatic and soil fauna vf Jamaica is now "Jell docum ented (Singh, 1985; Anderson, 1986; Miyata, et.al., 19:")7). 273

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Table 85: Number or Farms with Specified Crops and Size Utilizing Fertilizer and pesticides Crop !2!!! Under 1 Acre 5 Acres 10 Acrn 25 Acrel 50 Acres 100 Acres 200 AcreB 500 Acrel 1 Acre to under to to under to under to under to under to under and over 5 acres 10 Bcrn Z5 BcrP,1 50 Bcres 100 acres 200 Bcres 500 acres -Sugar Can I 1202 99 518 241 164 Citrul 615 74 229 121 97 BanlUII 1798 389 903 286 132 Coffel 479 25 257 112 50 Cocoa 299 19 150 67 36 Coconutl 496 66 226 86 53 Pimlnto 176 15 73 35 18 Food Forest 818 156 406 132 77 Root Crop 2499 654 1290 317 154 Vegetables 164(j 488 777 204 99 Legumes 141)3 367 715 171 84 Ginger 31 6 18 5 1 Turmeric 90 17 S4 10 6 NB: Farms for vhich there vaB no indication of excluded. SOURCE: STATIN 1978/9 Farming Establishment of a Cropping Site. Small farmers practice land clearing with cutlass or burning .... the larger farmers may use a bush cutter attached to a tractor or ap[,lication of herbicides such as gramalCone. The practice employed, however, will depend on factors such as slope and existing vegetatiun. Planting. On smsll farms planting 15 done manually, using tunIs such as the machete, fork and hoe. Tne m ore experienced and better trained sm all farlilrrs (especially those under the influence of the technical officers of the Extension Services) ruay construct terraces, mounds, or ridges, dei,e:lding upon the type of crc ,lope category or the method of irrigation to be used. Farm ers .. ich less tn:.ining may lise individual mounds cn the t. ',('Ipes, or ridges not necessarily parallel to th' contour of the land. Crop M aintenanc e. Weeding is usua!ly done manually with the machete, with the frequency 274 48 34 27 16 55 25 16 15 19 19 26 14 13 21 14 11 6 2 9 7 6 9 3 7 2 14 '11 8 16 16 7 6 5 10 7 16 S 6 i4 6 26 18 15 17 8 22 10 22 14 10 15 11 16 12 10 1 ---1 -the use of fertilizer and pesticides are .. _, depending on the number of plots which the small farmer overBees, and their distance from the house site. Dunkley (1985), reporting 011 farmers in the Frankfield area of Clarendon and in southern St. Elizabeth, indicated that mulching with dried guinea grass is a very important technique used in retaining soil moisture. On the larger estates, crop maintenance is also done manually, though it may vary with the crop involved. *Some small farmers in the Constitutior. Hill area of St. Andrews regard burning as unproductive, as it removes humus and dries out the soil. These farmers use the machete instead. Other small farmers reported that they use fire as it was quick and left rich ashes on the ground. Some farmers cut a fire break around the arE'as to be cleared as a measure, while others, usually squatters, do not take such cat'e; and, in several instances the fires get of control.

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SOlO' manual mair.tenance is also done on large estates. This includes hand weeding and back pnck spraying for insect and disease control. Howt'vpr, mt>chanical and chpmical methods are mure commonly employed for weeding and moulding, using tractor-drawn attachments on intt'r-row cultivation. Crop protection and contrul is also done using motorised sprayers ur rractor-drawn boom sprayers. lIilrvlsting. H.1rvesting techniques vary v;th crup, as well as with tlw It>vel of technology on tlw holding. On small acreages, harvesting i.-; almost always done manually (i.e., forks to rpap ya ms and potatoes etc., coffee beans pickpd by hand; sugar cane by cutlass). But pvpn on the larger estates, wage labour is t:'mployed at harvest time. Cane, for example, is cut a.ld loaded manually, although some estates use mechanical harveEters. Crop Rotat"ion and Fallow. On small farms, w hert> there arp generally spveral plots and mUlti-cropping is l'm ployed, a grass fallow may be used pvery four to five years, depe'1ding on pressure to use the land. In shifting cultivation f'm ploying "slash and burn" practices, the five yt'<.Ir fa 110 w period is shortened to two years, as in the Constitution Hill area of St. Andrew. Animal manure is also used to maintdin soil fertility. On the larger estates, fertility is maintained by using artificial fertilizers, and there may be a grass fallow every ten years. Agricultural Yields Overall productivity per acre is higher on the sm all subsistence farms where the crops are intensively farmed. On the large-scale farms there tends to bE> more extensive cropping, with up to 10 % of the cultivable area kept out of production (Blllstein, 1981). It is difficult to d;termine yields where mixed and m ulti-cropplng systems prevail, as in smail-scale agricul ture. On these farms, reaping takes place throughout the ypar and production to maintain the family may conf-ume a significant percentage of output. Table 86 provides some indication of production levels in short tons for selected crops over the period 1972-1980. Annual increases reflect the application of more advanced technology -fertilizer, pesticide and irrigation inputs; decreases reflect reduced plantings and/or poor conditions during gro wing seasons. Livestock Industry Overvie w. The livestock industry must be regar ded as one of the stabilizing forces within the Jamaican economy. The industry L., a steady contributor to the G.D.Po and also provides steady ail-year pmployment. The industry has benefitted from over seven decades of research in tropical livestock production and has the potential for contributing to the development of profitable industries in related areas. Livestock assets, particularly beef and dairy cattle, beside representing incrempntally increasing investment value, provide a steady source of Jamaica's requirements for animal protein. Livestock husbandry als0 em ploys a significant proportion of the rural population and has im portant agro-industry linkages. Beef and dairy cattle constitute a stable though not an expanding production base. Other livesto.:k and animal resources have received less 2ttention with respect to exploiting their economic potential. The country possesses the physical resources for rapid economic development of the livestock and animal husbandry sector if it were pursued in a consistent and systematir. manner. In planning to achieve higher levels of development in the agricultural sector, key areas and activities must be accorded priority attention. Livestock Production. Jamaica offers an excellen t environ rtl ent for tht:' pro fitable produc tion of livestock and products. The livestock component of Jamuica's agriculture is also a major source of domestically available animal protein. This contribution varies according to livestock category. The majority of farms, particularly small and farms, differ in the species of ltvestock they maintain, and like wise differ in the intensity of livestock production, 'depending upon whether they produce for market or home consum ption. While cattle are raised primarily on large farms, goats, swine, poultry and sheep are produced mainly on small farms. The major local source of animal protein is poultry. Census figures from 1968/69 suggest number of poultry to be about four million head. Statistics indicate that production has tripled ,since 1968. On the other hand, egg productlOn sho ws a steady decline. This re :rects the change in structure of the poultry mdustry, from small family flocks to broiler operations. 275

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Table 86: Domestic Food and Production (1981-1985) Unital Particulan Mealurement 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 P I. Uvellock Slau&hll:r lleada Cattle 60,582 60,940 68,237 70,661 65,636 Hop 135,284 118,430 112,720 121,314 127 Goats 36,434 39,789 45,789 56,726 Sheep n,M, 671 732 823 703 2, and Dairy Productim Beef and Veal '000 It., 25,917 26,923 30,991 32,024 28,(}4 3 Gaits Flelh .. .. 911 1,058 1,198 1,580 1,565 Pork .. 16,234 16,021 14,557 15,760 13,400 Mutton .. .. n.'. 24 35 3S 24 Poultry .. .. 65,235 58,651 72,007 65,460 50,178 FIsh milliD:l1ba. 32 18 18,2 18.5 1'J.! Eie milUon 95 82,2 99.5 105.6 7R.1 MIlk million qUI. n,., 41 42 42 n .iI.. 3, Domestic Food Crop, Short Toni 395,598 351,131 419,166 514,656 491,557 a) Lelumca 11,066 9,77b 10,564 H,445 11,973 Gunia Pc .. 2,803 2,435 2,319 2,370 2,35H Red Pcu 4,724 3,989 4,731 4,629 Punut 2,298 2,459 2,862 2,792 3,545 Other Legumca 1,241 1,162 1,394 1,552 1,441 b) 120,414 107,194 123,788 151,479 128,500 C ... bbage 17,358 17,960 18,907 19,791 17,773 13,449 11,446 11,253 12,981 12,2B Carrot 16,043 16,318 17,267 19,439 16,072 O1oCho 5,714 4,910 4,801 6,649 5,384 Cucumber 6,603 5,648 7,150 7,865 13,097 Lettuce 1,412 1,616 2,304 2,472 2,237 Olal 1.450 1.680 I ,697 42,997 1,467 Pumpkin 30,445 25,702 35,N5 32,561 33,459 Tomato 24,841 18,774 21,222 6,724 21,495 Other Vegetable. 3,099 3,240 3,492 5,293 c) Condiments 11,445 7,182 10,675 16,696 16,938 Elcallion 6,290 2,645 4,378 4,984 3,81 J Onion 1,733 1.572 2,035 4,223 4,443 Hot Pepper 1,335 1,099 2,180 3,205 2,415 S .... eet Pepper J,381 1,064 1,417 3,453 5,407 Oth.! Condiml:l1\J 706 802 665 831 860 Sub-Total 142,925 : 24,254 145,027 179,620 157,4l1 d) Fruits Short Ton. 12,867 14,065 12,642 17 ,151 13,192 Pa .... pa .... 2,130 1.832 1,821 2,345 2,293 Pineapple 5,368 9,031 6,973 8,823 8,170 5,369 3,202 3,838 6,083 2,729 e) Cereals Short Toni 7,056 5,104 7,761 9,969 Com 5,006 3,41 I 4,027 4,056 4,291 Rice 2,050 1,693 3,734 5,913 4.696 I) Ptantain Short Toni 26,613 31,315 27,669 JJ,698 B,5 I 4 Hone Ptantaln 18,208 22,049 19,448 24,562 25,434 Other Plantain 8,405 9,266 8,221 9,136 8,OHO g) Ylm. Short Toni 150,36" 128,947 143,999 164,JH 180,518 Lucel 15,767 13,304 13,3(}4 14,578 19.059 tlegro 26.309 20,538 20.903 22.063 26,677 Renta 25,958 23,370 25,221 27,274 29,460 SI. Vmc
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Goats and pi65 are rt.>art.>d throughout Jam&ica. Goats providt' a major source of meat, particu larly in rural areas. Although no accurate of goat production are available. they excped the num bpr Clnd im of pigs. The goat population was estimated at 300,000 ill 1980, while the island's pig popUlation was assessed at 218,000 LI1 1956 and 255,000 in 1980. Sheep production is not widely popular in Jamaica and its share of total meat production is almost: negligible. Based on a variety of sourct.>s, including the Agricultural Development Corporation (A 0 C), the sheep population was l'stimated to range 1Il SLze from 3,000-6,000 h",ad in 1981. As far ...is cattle is concerned, the national popUlation was estimated at 290,000 head in [980. According to various sources, most cattle u; USl>J fDr beef, which is second in im portancl' in terms of locally produ':ed animal protein. The number of differpnt bret.>ds is not known. Neither are thl're accuratt.> data on cattle cCltegories and l1t'nl It is helieved that rollghly 100,000 cattle are kt.>pt on com mercially operated farms .. while 190,000 11l'ad are distri bdted in differt-:1t numhers on small farm units .... ith vdrying of production intensity. For bt'l'f pruduction, thrl'e br!eds the Jamaican Brahman, the Jamaica Red Poll, and the J.:Jlilaica Black havt.> been created by cross bn'eding, upgrading and selection hile these pUl"l'hrt:'ds are usually kppt on largl', ,'om mercial hC'pf farm 5, the m ,1joriry of sm all and subsis tence farms use crossbreeds with European and North American breeds, such as Charolais, Brown Swiss, Santa Gertrudis, Simmental, Li mOUSln and Hereford. With regard tel milk production, research has been conducted on Europpan dairy cattle in Jamaica. The breeding work revealed, however, that well known breeds of dairy cattle, such ctively. With a high productivity and tolerance of strt's:3, the Jamail.'a Hope is believed to be thp optimal breed for local dairy farming. Given its success in Jamaica, tht' brt:>t'd has attracted atte>ntion from many other tropi cal countries. National consumption figures for 1975-1985 (sel' Table 87), indicate that se]f-sufficil'ncy in fish and mt'at is possibl-2, with appropriatp financial and political support. TIlt' poultry industL-y, I.hich has long bt'en vprtically intpgrdtt'd, con t r i hut p s 4 3 0 f t h In pat sup ply (5 [ [ 4 m Ib); bpl'f only 26% (29.85 m lb); fish (in 1977, only 4,81.0 Ib; in 1985,2 m lb); and pork [4 % (16.01 m Ib). An lInsatisfactorily organlzpd goat industry provide>d only 1.0 i. (I.47m lb) to the national diet in 1985. Rather than inporting pxpl'nsivp fppd gralns, dairy and bet,f cattlC', slwep, goats and rabbits could be pxtl'llsively and more> economically maintairwd on local pasturt'/forages, which abound and arp IlI11ierutilized. Rising markt't prices (which havl' doubled in tilt> ten-year period, 1975-1985) should provide furtht'r incentive to industry, as long as markets can ht> Assured. (Only prices have lagged, nSLng from 1..31c lb in 197) te a paltry 1.95t; Ip. in 1985.) Dpspite nSlng prices, larg'? amounts of livestock products are im ported, and attem pts to illcrease 1 Jcal production have been disappointing eVPll though conditions for such production are very favourahle. This results from several factors: high development costs, slow returns due to thl> long-term nature of the enterprise, and the time consum ing and high-rL.,k nature of livestock production. Dom estic Production of Fresh M ilk. Fur the pt'riod 1951-1978, milk production shows no appreciable change, with an annual output of 40-44 million quarts for 1971-78. This estimate is based on the Ministry of Agriculturt"s estimate of a population of 36,000 dairy cows, two-thirds of which arp in In ilk at anyone tilOl e, with a daily m ilk yield of 3.5 7.5 qts/cow. The> quantity of the> milk supplied to tht' processors does not excepd 16 million quarts per ye>ar, leaving a residual quantity of 26 million quarts per year, which is used on the farms and/or is sold on the local markets directly to consumers. Milk is produced on approximately 145 large> and 2,600 small dairy farms. 277

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Table 87: Total M'e&l and Fish Consumed MI::8t Production and Imports of All Types of Meat, 1975-!985 YAR MILLION (LBS.) TOTAL PRODUCTION IMPORTS 1975 232.7 120.0 112.7 1976 236.2 120.1 116.1 1977 223.1 128.9 94.2 1978 246.4 128.7 117.7 1979 216.0 132.2 83.8 1980 218.7 129.8 88.9 1981 233.6 125.5 108.1 1982 243.0 120.3 122.7 1983 223.4 136.8 86.6 1984 230.3 133.4 96.9 1985 210.1 117.7 92.4 Source: Livestock and Feed Statistics (Formerly "Meat Statistics") 1975-1985 by Data Bank and Evaluation Division, Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) Jamaica. Imports of Milk Products. The major imported dairy items are skim milk powder and butter oil, both accounting for J$31 million (threefourths of the total) for use in the reconstitution of milk either for cannpd products llr for liquid m]k and ice Other important dairy products such as butter, cheese and curd are imported mainly for direct consumption. Tahle 88 gives information on quantities and values of im ported dairy products for the period 1978-1981. and Both im ports and exports of agricultural products have fluctuated widely over the Yl'ars. This pattern has resulted from lack of a sustained, cohesive plan to increase local production and reduce im ports. (Sep Table'S 89 and 90.) (Thp following producls wheat, corn, and rice -although includpd in Tablp 89 and referred to as Agricultural Com modity 1m ports, an' the responsibility of the Ministry of Foreign A ffairs, Trade, and Industry and, hpnce, are not elaboratt>d upon under the Agricultural Secror.) 27R Yams planted Oil flats; 110 cOlltour

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Table 88: Imports of Main Milk Products 1979 1980 1981 Product CUmtity ValuE! OJantiry ValLE OJantity ValLE (long tons) (J$) 'OCIO (long tons) (J$) '000 (long tons) (J$) '000 Powders mainly skim (including whey)powder 11027 14960 11591 17308 11206 24385 ButtAr oil 2097 5545 2521 7625 1619 7994 BLltter, (fresh or salted) 822 2354 709 2937 814 3592 Cbeese 166 275 328 1147 --Cheese and curd 1909 6100 1057 3924 1658 6226 TOTAL 29234 32942 42197 Source: Serge Island Dairies Ltd. Table 89: Imports of Foodstuffs, 1981-1985 ('000 Kilos) 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 Cereu.: Rice "2.771 50.669 52.135 55.171 Maize 225.935 151.300 166.333 202.535 1 .. 7M2 Ba kin, Flour 13.860 13.784 1-2.895 10.159 ",580 Counter Flour 69.396 60.235 52.173 29.800 5.235 Vegetables: Bean Peat (dry or preserved) 7 .... 793 887 362 265 Onions (rre.h and preserved) 802 1.185 891 231 268 Vegetables (fresh. chilled or preserved) 203 511 289 238 283 Potatoes 1.100 2 1.288 r.felt. Fish Ind Crustaceans: Beef and Veal 1,5 16 1.589 1.093 96 .. 269 MUllan and Goat Meal 572 795 577 208 31 .. POlk 16 -18 71 Poultry Parll 2".822 29."25 22.02" 20.160r 25.107 Beer and Veal (Imoked or sailed and dried) 378 135 70 .. 6 26 Canned Corned Beef 2.192 2.861 2."17 2.820 2.325 Salted Pork 456 101 IIi I 71 30 Edible orrals of Animals 2,579 3,459 2.800 705 1 ..... 1 Fi.h (fresh. frozen or chilled) 5.278 5.003 1.765 1.055 1.919 Herring (ulled or dried) 225 122 51 2 .. 8 39 Herring (canned) 1.517 .. 8 .. 98 937 .. 64 Mackerel (ulled and dried) 28 580 226 21 .. Mackerel (canned) 3.945 3.596 3.335 5.936 3.1"7 Sardine. (canned) 2.129 2."61 1.71fJ 2.18" 2.400 Other prepared or preserved (smoked and dried) I .. 197 .. 9 2.170 20 Codli.h (dried. smoked. sal.ed) 3 ... 1 .. ".564 5.64" 3.711 9 .. 9 Shrimp 31 7 .. I .. 15 22 OIiry ProduclJ: Milk Ind Cream (dry) 11.396 10.685 8.192 11.155 10.529 Milk and Cream (.weelCned) -2 .. 9 --858 Mley -39 70 (JUller Ondllde Butterfat) 2.";01 2.776 3.548 10 ..... 6 ".079 Olcne Ind Curd 1.686 2.778 1.853 2.306 2.566 r -Revised Source: CompUed from dall provided by the Stltl.tical In.tltute cf -279

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Table 90: Selected T!-nditional Export Crops (1981-1985) I'lrtItulalJ Unit !981 1982 1983 1984 198j 1. Blnanu I'uldlalOl '000 TonnOi 27 27 25 11.9 12.81 Exports '000 Toono. 31 21 23 11 UJ..4 ExpOl'U (Net Salea)r JS Million 7.6 8.3 13.2 6.1 23.30 Averlp Green BC'ltl'rloo JSrronno 1.025 1.086 1.1901 2.299 3.732 2. Otnll I) Dellvcr\e. to PICU&in,C and Proceuinl Punt '000 Boxe. 883 933 676 S70 754 Sweet Onn&C '000 BOl:CI 329 384 319 281 458 Much/Duncan Gnpcfruit .. .. 487 468 301 230 220 OrtanlquCl .. .. 52 48 55 56 60 Sweol-auded Gnpeflult -" 14 31 5 0 14 Birltr Onnee. .. 1 2 5 3 3 b) Ex poll of OtrU.and Selocred Otru. Producr. JS'OOO 8,743 9,036 5,171 FlUb Fruil VolUme '000 Kilo 1.4-46 1,510 1,248 2,994 V.lue JS'OOO 1,746 1,671 1,592 4.236r .614 Frllit Juice: Volume '000 L1Uea 4,203 3.360 1,185 2,795r 2,794 value ]$'000 6,851 7,152 2,390 15.563' 19,589 Marmalade -Volume '000 KIlo 79 99 442 137 48 Value ]S'OOO 146 213 1,189 570 268 3. Corru I) Dellverielto rhe Coffee indwuy BOIldc '000 Boxea 288 300 359 325 222 Out'lum of Clean Toru 1,200 1,250 1,470 1. 1,0BO Salea of Green Coffee lb. 2,762 3.078 3,615 3,7&8 3.056 Local Procmonc .. 1.118 909 1,380 1,427 1,271 Exports C .. 1,644 2,169 2.235 2,361 1,785 b) Total Coffee Exports (lndullry"NIde) Unroued Volume 'OOOKDo 837 1,067 1,066 1,326 802 -Value JS'OOO 9,712 12,716 18.448 32,151 37.495 Free of Caffeine Volume '000 Kilo 2 n.l. 0.008 1.2 -Value JS'OOO 7 -n.a. 1,100 1.1 Routed (\ncludinl pound) -Volume '000 Kilo 23 21 29 45 64 -Value '000 Kilo 308 315 848 1,877 3.741 Coffeo EXlrlcts, Euencca, elC. Volume '000 Kilo 2 16 14 13 3 -Valuo JS'OOO 59 434 4-48 642 208 c) offee Prlccac JS/box r Price 10 Growen (Lowland) 20.82 1.02 22.00 '10.88 51.88 Averlp Exporl Prioe JS/lb. 4.71 4099 5.66 6.20 11.49 4. Cocoa a) Productlon c LOlli TOIII 1,814 1,426 2,138 2,710 2.604 b) Expoll Coool Bouu -Volume '000 KIlo 1,564 1,260 1,964 1,910 1,886 -Value JS'OOO 8,977 5,203 9,291 15,130 '4.754 5. Export of Pimento (Calcntlu YQl) Volume '000 2,306 2,257 3,185 1.612 2,784 Value JS'OOO 8,469 8,904 17,489 27,137 36,975, 6. Coconut I) (ProducrlOll oxpreued u COprl Equlvalenl ..... olahts) Total Short Ton. 17,000 18,000 17,350 19,168 20,221 Vied for COP'I 887 1,429 2,373 1,4S7 2,689 Used far plantlnl and proceuinl 121 188 :.!19 138 209 Used for dry and wirer coconuts 15.992 16,383 14,748 17,5013 17.323 b) Imporu of Coconut 011 Volume 'OOOUtm 2,910 2,550 2,817 1,635 3,l196 Value ]$'000 4,427 8,421 11.6 15.213 C Crop Yeu r ReviMld Sawoo: Ccmmoci!X OrE!!!ludon., SlId.dcallllltllllto of ]amalca

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AGENCIES AND INSTITUTIONS Ministry of Agricultl.,re The M inist.ry Gf A gdculture (M 0 A) has played a more dynamic role in national agricultural and program mes since Independence in 1962. The MOA carries out all the normal functions of such an organizatioo, exc "'pt where responsibilities have heell elelegated to statutory boards, sucn i1S th, 3anan<1 Company and thE Coffee Industry Lloard. A statutory board: the Agricultural Developmf'nL Corpora tioG, wpnt through a pl101SC of consolidation i:ltu the Ministry of Agriculture from 1981 thmugh 1986, and now fUll,:ti.ons within the Research <1 n d De vel 0 pm t' n t f1 i i.s io n. SOllie of the importal,t departments, agencies and providing technical services lIithin till' M 0 A dre: Science, Technology and i.{eSl'2rclt (inclusive of li'lestock r:,search and improvement, protecLion, and crop care), the Natural Resources Conservation Division, EconofT'ic Plallnlng and Policy, Dvta Bank and EvaluatlOn, Prociucti.)n and Ext<:>nsion, Trainir.g, Rural Physical Planning, Veterir.ary, Land, Title and Survey, ptc. The M 0 A, through the Data Bank and Evaluation Division, is mandated to p[l)vide relevant and retrievable informCltion, to indic2te as pady &s possible Ilhethel a project is "on course", so that where problems arise, corrective measures can be appropriately implemented. A functional monitoring system is in place. Thl' system is capable of ensuring maximum perfor mance that enables project management to respond in meeti0l6 prograln me objectives and l-'vels of perform anc t". Three principal 3gencies utuizi.lg these monitoring procl!du.:-e3 include the Project Monitoring and Analysis Company (PAMCf)), the Planning Institute of Jamaica (PIOJ), both of ... hLC11 are statur:ory arms of the M.i.nistry of Finance i,nu Planning; and, the Data Bank and Evaluation of the Ministry of ft.gric ulture. A G R 0 21 Corporation Limitp.d In 1983, the Agro 21 pmgramme waG launched, with three main areas targeted for improvement: -A gro-business f.nd processing; -Export marketing of winter fruits and vegetables to the U.S.; ;md Self"sufficienc y progra m m es in livestock (dairy Dnd beef primarily), aquaculture (fish and shrimp), and grabs alld cassava. The AGRO 21 Corporation l..imited (formerly AGRO 21 Secretariat) is cl statlltory hody, funded by the G OJ and thr U.S. Agency for International Development (AID), which to restruc.:ure Jamaica's agriculture. !.fter ten years of decline in tlw sector, AG R a 21 was given tht' pri me responsitlility to re-c:sliJ ]'lish contribution to the economy. l.le program me is focused on: putting 200,000 acres of idle land into use in its fiL;t four years or ope: at ion; t'ationalization of crop productio,l by i.'liminatLng inefficient agricultur'll production systelLs; illtroduction of new creps; and introduc-tlOn of new markpts i.n Nort'l America And Europe. A G R a 21 provides advice and e:pertise, 0'.1 a non-profit basis, ;0 investors in Jamaica's aglicultural sector. The Coq'lOra tion does nCJt holel equity in 3ny of the projects. Suppo::ting Agencies and Institutions Numerous growers organizations and cf.lmmodity boards play a supportillg role 1n Jamaican agricultLlrt>. The3 include: Jamai, a Agricultural Society. ThE' JAS, which was in 1895, consists of 1,015 branches islanciwl:Je a membership of 30,490. The Abriculcural Society represents the small farmers of Jamaica and has considerable intlupnce on small farming. The Society receives an annual subv'ention from Government to mobi lize farme":s to receive agricultutal from extension officers. The JAS Coffee Growers Cooperative Frdera tion of the J AS 15 made up of 19 local, registerec societies wich a memberstip of 75,000 coffee growers. The Coc?a Growers' Coopecative Federati.on of the J AS is made up of ten cocoa and four coffee cooperative societies, witr 356 distlict branches and 25,(J00 cocoa growers. The cooperative has also been greatly involved in educational activi..:i,'s for its members. The J A S Cattle Insuranc e Coo perative Society has a total of 2,520 shareholders. Commodity Boards and Associations. Numerous associations and boards have been established for development and expansion of specific crops/com modities. 281

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-The All-Island Jamaica. C.lne Farmers' Association is the largest com l!lodity association ill the island with a membC'rship of 23,568 I:?-.sistered farmers (AUCFA, 1984) arId a staff of 2"1. One of its major programmes is the replacement of sugar cane areas which have been out of production. The research and development aspects of sugat" cane cultivation and sugar production are addressed by the Sugar Indu"try Research Institute (SIRT). -The C OCOllut Industry Board is com prised of four per.;;ons a.ppointed by the Ministry of Agriculture, and five selected from registerc>d growers. Seedlings for island wide distribution are produced by the Board, and the Board maintains a Windstorm Insurance Fund. The Board has the responsibility to establish and malntain coconut Tlursl>ries for the distribution to farm ers throughout thl' year. It also maintains an advisory and <,>.:tellsion service which trclllsmits the results of researc', and developm ent to tllP farm e;:-s. The All-Isiand Banana Growers Association. There are approxirr,ately 12,000 banana growers, of which one-third are active mt'ITIDers of this association, f"l.ctioning within 86 active branches and operating 20,213 acres of banana producing lands. The Association is financed from both the Ministry of Agriculture, and membership subscriptions and donations. The main responsibility of the Association is to assist in the distribution of fertili zer's, pesticides and sleeves to farmers at subsidized races, and dissemination of information to [he farmers. -The Jamaican Livestock Association Limited is a limited liabilit:y com pany 7,286 shareholders and 112 employees in six branch'es island wide. The Association has i.nterests in beef and dairy cattle as well flS small livestock. (pigs, goats, sheep) and poultry. -Citrus Gt'Owers Associatiotl. "::he citrus industry, through the Citrus Growers Association, plays a major cl)le in the economy of Jamaica. The industry contr:'butes approxi.mately $. million in foreign exchange earnings. It is estimated that somp 30,O()O people an' employed in the' industry. It provides a fair quantity of the nutriC'nt neeos of the popUlation ar.d is a good source of farm income. Cocoa Industry Board. In 1951, the cocoa export trade \o/as completely controlled by the Governmpnt, resulting in the pstah'!ish-282 ment of a Cocoa Marketing Board to purchase only good Quality cocoa from produce -:lealers, and the es:ablishment of several c('ntr-al fer mentaries. The Cocoa Marketing Board was by the Cocoa Industry Board in 1957, and consists of mpmbers appointed by the Minister I;' Agriculture. Between 1957 and 1962, the Board established four fermentarifs serving all cocoa growing arp3S, subsi dized pxpansion projPcts and developed millionJ of hybrid potted which are distributed to the farmers, F/.'rthermore, the Board has carried out a massivt' rehabilitation Progra m m I' produc tion. aimpd at tncreaS1Il8 cocoa Coffee Industry Board. TIle Coffee Industry BOArd was organised in 194 and mandated i71 1950 to resuscitate the dpclining coffee industry. Tht: Board consists of a chairman a